You are on page 1of 488

www.GetPedia.

com
* The Ebook starts from the next page : Enjoy !

Micro Machine Shop, Mods, etc...

Micro Machine Shop, Mods, etc....


9x20 Lathe Mods...
Compound Mounting Bracket Quick Change Tool Post Tool Bits Knurlers Tool Bit Height Gage Carriage Feed Gears MT-3 Collets & Accessories 4 & 3-Jaw Chucks Boring Bars Centers Tramming the 9x20 Tailstock Tailstock Lock Tailstock Chucks Travel Dial Threading Ball Turner Woodworking Machine Mounts

Taig Micro-Lathe Mods...

Lathe & Exploded View Spindle Motor & its Mount Split-Nut Milled Carriage Split-Nut Mounted on Carriage Bearings & Lead Screw Lead Screw & Split-Nut Assemblies Lathe X-Axis Motor & Clutch Tramming the Taig Tailstock X-axis & Y-axis Dial Readouts Steel-Jawed Scroll Chuck Rocker Tool Post Boring Bar Holders Lathe & Mill Accessories

Taig Mill mods...


Motor Upgrade

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:53:26

Micro Machine Shop, Mods, etc...

Mill X-Axis Motor & Clutch Z-Axis DRO Tramming the Mill & Vise Precision Screwless Vises & Sine Bars Miniature Screwless Vise Rotary Table Dividing Head & Gears

Rong Fu RF-25 Mill...

Specifications & Views Mill DRO & X Y Z Axes Scales Mill Accessories Fixtures

Other...

Band saw Bench Grinders Measurement Tools Drill Press Chucks Pens, etc. Related Links

Misc Links...

finelinehair.com Atlas Astronomy Pic of the Day Asteroids Bandwidth Test Calendars Darwin Dimension 4 Google Ham Radio Heralds How Stuff Works Infamous Exploding Whale Internet Traffic Report J-tracking Lanterns
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:53:26

Micro Machine Shop, Mods, etc...

Leica Papers Miami U Moscow Neutron Monitor Motherboards No. Exposure Old Clocks Refdesk Scanner Basics Scrub the Web Sky & Telescope Solar System Live Spy Numbers The Secret of Life The Universe Time Today's Space Weather Trebuchets US Nighttime Satellite War Machines Weather
DISCLAIMER Opinions expressed are those of the author or the quoted source. The author is not an employee of or agent for any of the vendors referenced in the text and does not sell or represent any of the products discussed. The author is not a professional machinist or engineer. No information provided herein should be construed to represent professional advice or best practice. All information is provided to help hobbyists and other non-professionals gain a better understanding of the tools and techniques described. Care has been exercised to provide accurate information. However, the author cannot be held responsible for information which is incorrect or out of date. Power tools and shop practices can be dangerous. Read, understand & follow all directions & precautions provided by the equipment manufacturer. Always take all proper safety precautions such as wearing protective eyewear and appropriate clothing. Contact the manufacturer if you have any questions. All practices described herein are to be used at the discretion and risk of the reader.

Thanks for stopping by ! alan Wednesday, March 23, 2005 05:50:01 AM

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:53:26

9x20_lathe

Home

9x20 Lathe

Original 8x17 (195mm x 450mm) Emco-Maier Compact 8 from Austria, father of the current breed of 9x20 machines.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_lathe.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:53:39

9x20_lathe

Jet 9x20 belt drive metal lathe Model BD-920N

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_lathe.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:53:39

9x20_lathe

Other similar lathes have additional gears that seem to be interchangeable with the Jet 920. These are Jet BD-920N charts. Some employed gear ratios differ among the machines (e.g., Jet vs. Grizzly) Jet change gears: 28t, 30t, 36t, 42t, 45t, 60t & 80t.
SPECIFICATIONS: Spindle is supported by precision tapered roller bearings Hardened and ground bed ways Power longitudinal feed allows threading Standard 1 " x 8 T.P.I. spindle nose allows for many after-market accessories A reversing switch is included for added versatility Backlash adjustments are provided throughout the carriage The tailstock can be adjusted for taper cuts Quick-change gear box provides a wide range of inch and metric threads Swing Over Bed (in): 9 Swing Over Cross Slide (in): 5 5/16 Distance Between Centers (in): 20 Hole Through Spindle (in): 25/32 (.78125) Spindle Mount (in): 1 x 8 T.P.I. Spindle Taper With Sleeve: MT-3 Number of Spindle Speeds: 6 Range of Spindle Speeds (RPM): 130 - 2,000 Number of Longitudinal Feeds: 27

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_lathe.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:53:39

9x20_lathe

Range of Longitudinal Feeds (in/rev): 0.005 - 0.011 Number of Inch Threads: 27 Range of Inch Threads: 8 - 56 T.P.I. Number of Metric Threads: 11 Range of Metric Threads (mm): 0.05 - 3 Max Tool Size (in): x Max Compound Slide Travel (in): 1 7/8 Max Cross Slide Travel (in): 5 Max Carriage Travel (in): 16 Tailstock Spindle Travel (in): 1 9/16 Taper in Tailstock Spindle: MT-2 Steady Rest Capacity: x 1 7/8 Follow Rest Capacity: x 1 1/8 Width of Bed: 4 Overall Dimensions with Stand: 37 L x 20 W x 45 H Main Motor: HP, 1 Ph 115V only Net Weight (approx. lbs.): 235 Stock Number: 321373 STANDARD EQUIPMENT: 7" 4-jaw & 4" 3-jaw chuck with threaded back plate Faceplate 4-way tool post Single tool post Steady and follow rest Metric change gears MT-2 & MT-3 dead centers Threading dial Tool box and tools OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES: Cabinet stand (321374) Live center (465302)

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_lathe.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:53:39

tool_post_bracket

Home 9x20 Compound Bracket

A piece of annealed, free-machining, 303 stainless steel was selected for plate material. The surface was covered with red layout dye to make the marks & cuts easier to see. The locations of the four, 6mm mounting bolt holes & the center were laid out using a surface plate & height gage. Mount piece onto the faceplate that has been accurately faced using carbide tool bit. Lock the carriage when facing. There is a scrap plate under the part to avoid cutting the faceplate. Use the tailstock to quickly find the center the piece before tightening the bolts. Also made a bracket using a 6 inch, 4-jaw chuck.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (1 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

tool_post_bracket

Drill out a large hole, 1" in this example.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (2 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

tool_post_bracket

Boring operation shown using a right-hand, " carbide tool bit.

Bottom of the bracket shown. Before removing the part from the faceplate, chamfer the inner edge so the protractor corner fits well. The corners are rounded to allow the compound clearance when pivoting. The protractor is too inaccurate to use so I chose to not expose it & thereby not weaken the plate.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (3 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

tool_post_bracket

Part mounted onto a rotary table using a miniature hold-down clamp set. Machined the round corners & bolt/nut recess using a 5/16" carbide endmill.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (4 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

tool_post_bracket

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (5 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

tool_post_bracket

Compound bracket bolted into place. I used 10mm length hex bolts (6mm thread) to keep all the wrenches metric. The mounting bolts screw into steel nuts that I made; they are about 0.2" x 0.4" x 1" with a 5mm hole tapped to 6mm threads.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (6 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

tool_post_bracket

New, thicker plate with no bolt recesses; minimal flex. A lathe must have a pivoting compound for such operations as threading, chamfering & short tapers.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_post_bracket.htm (7 de 7)24/03/2005 12:53:55

quick_change_tool_post

Home Quick-Change Tool Post (QCTP)

Adapted a Phase2+ wedge-type QCTP. Wedge-types tool posts are purportedly more accurate than the piston type. Remove turret, detent & spring from the base. Machined the new 14mm post to fit original tool post hole. The bottom of the post is not quite flush with the counter bore. Milled two flats on opposite sides of the post's bottom end. Drilled & tapped the post's bottom for a -20 (use 50% threads for steel). A -20 SS button-head bolt (blue Loctite) with a washer the size of the counter bore hole holds the bolt post in the hole. The retaining bolt head was very slightly milled to allow compound slide clearance. Drilled & tapped holes in the compound base for front & back 10-24 set screws. The metal is cast iron, so I suggest not using a finer thread. " long SS set screws (blue Loctite) bear against the two milled flats which keep the post from rotating. Retaining the original hole allows use of the original 4-way tool post. Also, I replaced all the gib 4x10mm set screws with higher quality parts from the hardware store. They accept an Allen wrench much better. The lock nuts are now stainless steel. Replaced the compound bearing plate screws with the stronger cap-head type.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (1 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

I have since used a rotary table to mill the four corners of the compound's raised, square tool post platform. I removed metal almost down to the next surface. Rounding the corners allows the dovetail tool holder to be adjusted lower than the surface of the platform, thereby allowing easy placement of large tools (scissors knurling, cut-off tool, " bits) at or below centerline of the work piece. The tool post can be rotated to any position relative to the compound's position without any interference.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (2 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (3 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (4 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

A 22mm box wrench loosens/tightens tool post for positioning. Quick-change tool post allows fast tool changes & exact tool bit height adjustment.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (5 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

Maximum tool bit size, " " bits work quite well.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (6 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (7 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

Tool post mounted & the bottom is shown with a tool holder in place.

QCTP accessories left to right: a conventional knurling tool (also holds a bit), an MT-2 holder, " & 5/8" (with a split insert) boring bar holder, a cut-off blade holder & 3, tool bit holders. Two of the tool-bit holders have a Vgroove to hold a round shank like those found on a 3/8" boring bar. The cut-off tool holder was ground along the inner top corner to relieve the wider top of the cutting blade, The blade's side now sits flush against the holder. The blade is perfectly vertical relative to the part & chatter eliminated.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (8 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

quick_change_tool_post

Carbide insert tool bits in " & " shanks. More tool bits

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/quick_change_tool_post.htm (9 de 9)24/03/2005 12:54:08

tool_bits

Home

Tool Bits

Lathe tool standard shapes

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (1 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

Single point lathe tool angles

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (2 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

Left-hand (HSS & carbide), straight (carbide), threading (carbide), right-hand (carbide & HSS), blank (HSS). The straight tool bit works well with the fly cutter on the mill as do the round nose & left-hand bits.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (3 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

Small cut-off, 45 chamfer, round-nose & two views of an small boring bar. The chamfer tool can chatter. Better to use the compound. More tool bits

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (4 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

Left-hand, thread & right-hand " tool bits with carbide inserts. Inserts (top & bottom), 2.2mm retention screw & metric star wrench

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (5 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

Cutting speeds

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (6 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

Converting cutting speeds to RPM

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (7 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

tool_bits

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bits.htm (8 de 8)24/03/2005 12:54:24

knurlers

Home

Knurlers

Scissors-type knurler. This type works very well. All the pressure is in-between the cutters & it floats on the pivot. Side & bottom views shown; mounted in a tool holder (also see tool post).

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/knurlers.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:32

knurlers

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/knurlers.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:32

knurlers

Standard knurler with interchangeable cutters. Also holds a tool bit for facing cuts.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/knurlers.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:32

tool_bit_height_gage

Home

Tool Bit Height Gage


Aluminum height gage used to quickly set tool bit height using a QCTP. Left side for standard setting & right side for upside-down bits. Facing cuts were made on a collet-held piece until no center nub remained. That height then operationally defined the tool bit height for the gage.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bit_height_gage.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:37

tool_bit_height_gage

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bit_height_gage.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:37

tool_bit_height_gage

Tool bit should be at or slightly below center for turning & at or slightly above center for boring. The gage rests on the cross slide.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tool_bit_height_gage.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:37

cross_slide_handwheel

Home Carriage

Make a ring for the outside of the cross slide hand wheel. Moves the handle out for more leverage. Used three, M5 x 0.8 set screws (same thread as the handle bolt). I milled the screw ends flat to remove the sharp ridges so they would not gouge the original knob. Don't make it too big or it will interfere with your hand on the carriage & compound handles. I machined different sized washers from virgin Teflon rod (Enco). I placed these washers at all the friction points; behind each knob, at the thrustbearing area of the lead screw & the pivoting handle. Now I can remove almost all of the backlash & still have smooth rotation.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/cross_slide_handwheel.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:59

cross_slide_handwheel

Replaced the socket head bolt with a higher quality part. I ground down a metric Allen wrench & now just let it sit in the socket head bolt for quick locking & unlocking of the carriage. It is not in the way & it keeps the swarf out, too.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/cross_slide_handwheel.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:59

cross_slide_handwheel

Made new, front & back carriage apron tension bars out of thick brass (the original was thin steel, peened to fit). The cross slide must be removed to access the middle mounting bolt. The front bar is metric tapped for the retaining bolts and the rear bar is held on by 6x1x17 mm bolts to the carriage underside. The rear holes, tapped into the carriage, required cleaning out with a metric tap. Milled a 0.002" step along the bolting surface to take-up the carriage play at the bearing surface. Required step size, using trial & error, probably varies among machines. Used a 45 end mill to heavily chamfer the edges. Lubricated it with white lithium grease. Greatly reduced carriage play.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/cross_slide_handwheel.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:54:59

Feed_gears

Home

Feed Gears
At position A of the gear train, use the 28t gear At position C of the gear train, stack the 30t gear on the outside and the 127t gear on the inside At position B use the 120t gear lined up with the 30t gear of the banjo
Note: Shown below is a Jet BD-920N on its stand which raises the lathe high enough for the big gear to clear mounting surfaces. A lathe mounted directly onto a flat surface would require spacers.

QC # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Inches Feed/Chuck Rev 0.00100 0.00089 0.00084 0.00080 0.00073 0.00070 0.00067 0.00062 0.00057

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/feed_gears.htm (1 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:10

Feed_gears

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/feed_gears.htm (2 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:10

Feed_gears

These gear combinations allow very slow feed rates. The nine quick-change gears provide a useful range of different speeds.
Reduce belt idler tension & belt breakage by installing an S-link.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/feed_gears.htm (3 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:10

Feed_gears

Notch cut to allow the big gear to clear when the cover is closed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/feed_gears.htm (4 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:10

Feed_gears

Gear protruding through the notch. Making a safety cover.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/feed_gears.htm (5 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:10

9x20_collets

Home

MT-3 Collet Systems


A collet is safer to use than a chuck & typically has a lower TIR. The ER-40 double-angle collet is an industry standard affording high precision & ready availability. An MT-3 collet holder is available (R-8 taper shown in photo). Each ER-40 collet has a wide (0.04") clamping range so a 23 collet set provides continuous size coverage from 0.12" (1/8") through 1.02" (1") or 3.05mm ~ 25.9mm. The 15 sizes that come in the set (fitted case included) are shown in the table in bold numbers; the other eight collets (all n/32nds sizes) were purchased separately. Specifications: wide holding range, accuracy 0.0001", self-releasing design, high precision collet chuck with different tapers available (MT-3, 4, 5, R-8) & spanner wrench. The MT-3 collet chuck I received had a " x 12 TPI tapped hole for the drawbar (not a common thread). I made a drawbar from steel rod threaded " x 12 TPI on one end & " x 13 TPI on the other end. There are milled flats for a wrench.

ER-40 collet set (above) shown with a R-8 shank.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (1 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

Collet table showing continuous size coverage. The sizes that came in a set are in bold. Decimal Equivalent 0.12500 0.18750 0.21875 0.25000 0.31250 0.34375 0.37500 0.40625 0.43750 0.50000 Working Range 0.12 - 0.16" 0.16 - 0.20" 0.20 - 0.236" 0.236 - 0.275" 0.275 - 0.316" 0.316 - 0.354" 0.354 - 0.393" 0.393 - 0.433" 0.433 - 0.472" 0.472 - 0.511"

Collet Size 1/8 3/16 7/32 1/4 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 1/2
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (2 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

17/32 9/16 5/8 21/32 11/16 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 15/16 31/32 1"

0.53125 0.56250 0.62500 0.65625 0.68750 0.75000 0.78125 0.81250 0.84375 0.87500 0.93750 0.96875 1.00000

0.511 - 0.551" 0.551 - 0.590" 0.590 - 0.629" 0.629 - 0.669" 0.669 - 0.708" 0.708 - 0.748" 0.748 - 0.787" 0.787 - 0.826" 0.826 - 0.866" 0.866 - 0.905" 0.905 - 0.944" 0.944 - 0.984" 0.984 - 1.020"

MT-3 collet set from Phase2+. Drawbar made from -16 threaded stock. Steel end plug machined to fit the spindle hole. Flare nut with a washer used. Collet sizes range from " to " by 1/16ths (no continuous size coverage). To remove a part, make the nut flush to the end, hold the part & collet while gently knocking out the bar using a large, hard plastic-faced mallet or brass hammer.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (3 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

MT-3 collet set with "-16 drawbar.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (4 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

These MT-3 end mill holders from Phase2+ have set screws that engage the end mill flats.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (5 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

MT-3 holders for both " & " shank end mills, shown. For use with the Jet-920N lathe.

MT-3 to -16 TPI taper (from Littlemachineshop), allows using Taig or Sherline chucks & many other accessories on the Jet 920N or other MT-3 machines. Allows accurate fabrication of large-shank end mill holders for use on the Taig mill & lathe. I've made end mill holders by both reaming & boring. Boring is very accurate (0.0005" TIR) but a slower process. It is
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (6 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

better to indicate (mount) the blank arbor by its threads before boring than to grip it on the outside surface.

A finished end mill holder for the Taig mill. Blank arbors (steel) #1132, from Taig. " shank end mill shown (Enco). Caution: large end mills easily exceed a Taig's capacity thus requiring small cuts.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (7 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

Taig collet on Jet 9x20. Also see small chucks mounted on the Jet using the MT-3 to -16 TPI taper.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (8 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

9x20_collets

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_collets.htm (9 de 9)24/03/2005 12:55:26

4_jaw_chuck

Home

4 & 3-Jaw Chucks

4 & 6 inch, 4-jaw chucks on standard 1 x 8 Jet mount.

Center the work piece using a dial indicator gage.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_and_4_jaw_chuck.htm (1 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:44

4_jaw_chuck

A 6 inch, 4-jaw chuck from Enco with a 1 x 8 threaded adapter plate. Screws right onto spindle of the Jet BD-920N. Weighs about 26.4 lbs. (12 kgs). Clamps part more tightly than a 3-jaw & allows perfect centering. It can easily hold a 4 in x 4 in part. Far more accurate, easier to use, modern design when compared to the supplied 7 inch, 4-jaw chuck. (Sears sells the same old design chuck in a 6 inch size for wood-working lathes.) Note, even the empty chuck is quite heavy. Its momentum makes for extra nice cuts. Make sure to slip the belt idler, especially when starting fast &/or heavy loads. Reduce belt idler tension by installing an s-link. This chuck is at the upper limit of the machine in terms of both weight & size. Center the work piece using a dial indicator gage and the same technique as you would to tram a tailstock or mill vise. Verify everything clears before starting a cut. As an aside, this photo shows an earlier version of a compound slide bracket. It flexed too much under clamping to suit me, so I made another.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_and_4_jaw_chuck.htm (2 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:44

4_jaw_chuck

Making a thicker compound slide mounting bracket. Faceplate can also be used to mount material.

Bison 5", 3-jaw chuck from Poland; smooth & accurate (Enco). The jaws are reversible. The counter bore of the threaded back plate was undersized & had to be bored to fit spindle shoulder. The chuck weighs about 10 lbs. Faced the adaper plate to achieve best total indicated runout (TIR). Verify your lathe is in alignment before facing a chuck adapter plate or a faceplate.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_and_4_jaw_chuck.htm (3 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:44

4_jaw_chuck

To measure TIR, clamp a dowel pin in the chuck or collet & put a dial gage on it. Slowly rotate the spindle to measure TIR. This style magnetic base (Noga from Enco) is very easy & quick to use. Loosening the large knob makes all the joints movable. Just position indicator & tighten; the whole arm's position then is fixed. It can hold instruments with either a 3/8" stem or a dovetail. It has a fine adjustment feature, too.

Mounted: Sherline 3-jaw & a Taig 3 inch, 4-jaw chucks using MT3 to x16 TPI adapter.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_and_4_jaw_chuck.htm (4 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:44

4_jaw_chuck

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_and_4_jaw_chuck.htm (5 de 5)24/03/2005 12:55:44

boring_bars

Home
Boring Bars

Carbide boring tool bits with " shanks.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/boring_bars.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:55:49

boring_bars

A boring operation; tip at or above center.

Boring bar set: ", ", ", " & 1" sizes. " holds 3/16" round tool bits; others hold various sized square bits. Each bar holds bits either perpendicular or at a 45 angle. Good for inside boring & inside threading. More boring bars.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/boring_bars.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:55:49

boring_bars

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/boring_bars.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:55:49

centers

Home

Centers

Top Left: live center with interchangeable tips. Top Right: bull-nose live center for pipe. Lower Row: Standard live & two dead centers. The larger MT-3 dead center is for the spindle & the rest are MT-2 tapers for the tailstock. Also see taper calculations.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_centers.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:55:54

centers

Accessories in a red oak holder. Wood keeps moisture away from the metal.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_centers.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:55:54

9x20_tailstock_tramming

Home Tramming the Tailstock The best method to center the tailstock is to mount a dial run-out gauge in the spindle & an MT-2 dead center in the tailstock. I use a " diameter, " long adapter that attaches to the dove-tail of the dial indicator gauge. It is mounted in a collet for highest accuracy. Rotate the spindle front & back while adjusting the tailstock off-set, making half-the-difference changes between them until there are no differences. Use the basic principles of this technique to tram: a micro lathe, a mill, a mill vice or a rotary table.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_tramming.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:56:08

9x20_tailstock_tramming

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_tramming.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:56:08

tailstock_lock

Home Tailstock Lock

Milled the nut seating area on the base flat & the locking nut height was reduced because this style wrench has a lip that does not allow the nut to pass all the way through. The 12mm ratcheting box wrench rests on the nut. Ratcheting direction is quickly changed by flipping the small lever on the wrench. Below another method is shown. This type of wrench allows the nut to pass all the way through so the nut's height does not need to be reduced. The second method works better. When the nut is loose it will not work the ratchet. I installed a short strong spring, with washers on both sides, in between the bottom of the tailstock base and the locking plate. The ratchet now works when it is loose. The wrench was bought as a separate tool at Sears. Fast & strong method to lock tailstock securely.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tailstock_lock.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:22

tailstock_lock

I replaced the 5mm set screw. Under heavy drilling, using a 1 inch bit, the original set screw threads would cut the inside of the groove it sat in. Used an 8mm set screw with the end turned to 5mm. Remove all the burs on the groove edges. I used aluminum anti-seize on the lock & pin. A second set screw keeps the tailstock from rotating if it is over extended.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tailstock_lock.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:22

tailstock_lock

Taper calculations

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tailstock_lock.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:22

tailstock_lock

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tailstock_lock.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:22

9x20 tailstock_chucks

Home

Tailstock Chucks

Obtained high gripping power by using a Jacob's ball bearing Super Chuck (0 ~ " or 0 ~ 13mm shown). A keyless chuck is acceptable for small drills in non-critical applications.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_chucks.htm (1 de 6)24/03/2005 12:56:36

9x20 tailstock_chucks

A small 0 ~ " (0 ~ 6.5mm) Jacobs industrial chuck on a threaded MT-2 arbor is good for small drills. The tang has to be ground off the arbor in order to obtain the entire tailstock travel range.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_chucks.htm (2 de 6)24/03/2005 12:56:36

9x20 tailstock_chucks

A -24 threaded arbor can also be used to adapt the Taig die holder to the 9x20 tailstock.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_chucks.htm (3 de 6)24/03/2005 12:56:36

9x20 tailstock_chucks

MT-3 arbors can also be used to mount drill chucks in the spindle. Enco is a good, low-cost, source for Phase2+ arbors. Also see taper calculations.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_chucks.htm (4 de 6)24/03/2005 12:56:36

9x20 tailstock_chucks

A tailstock turret can speed production, though in these machines, it may add some instability.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_chucks.htm (5 de 6)24/03/2005 12:56:36

9x20 tailstock_chucks

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/9x20_tailstock_chucks.htm (6 de 6)24/03/2005 12:56:36

travel_dial

Home Travel Dial

I sometimes use a dial indicator with 2" travel range mounted to the back rail by a Mighty Mag magnet. Use joe blocks (e.g., 1-2-3) to get longer distances. DRO is best solution.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/travel_dial.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:56:41

travel_dial

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/travel_dial.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:56:41

Threading

Home Threading

Basic thread shapes

Parts of a thread

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/threading.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:55

Threading

Reading thread designations

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/threading.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:55

Threading

Three-wire method of measuring threads based on pitch diameters

When cutting U.S. Standard Threads, set the compound at exactly 29, adjust the chasing tool on center and to conform to position with the 60 center gage. Move the tool in to just touch the work. Re-check setup. Feed the tool in by moving only the compound. By using the compound, there is less stress on the tool bit and the cut is cleaner. Threads/inch 2 Depth @ 29 .3713 Threads/inch 18 Depth @ 29 .0412

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/threading.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:55

Threading

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16

.1856 .1485 .1237 .1060 .0928 .0825 .0742 .0675 .0620 .0570 .0530 .0464

20 24 27 28 30 32 36 40 48 50 64 72

.0371 .0310 .0275 .0265 .0247 .0232 .0206 .0186 .0155 .0148 .0116 .0103

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/threading.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:56:55

ball_turner_adapetd

Home

Ball Turner

For more info go to Steve Bedair's site.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ball_turner_adapetd.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:25

ball_turner_adapetd

Aluminum base, SS cylinder, steel tool bit holder. Pivots on a bolt with a shoulder (Teflon washer), held in place with a set screw entering from the top (inside the " x " groove). High viscous grease increases control during turning.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ball_turner_adapetd.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:25

ball_turner_adapetd

Ball turner with HSS tool bit holder for aluminum & brass.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ball_turner_adapetd.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:25

ball_turner_adapetd

Taig ball turner adapted for use on the 9x20 lathe.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/ball_turner_adapetd.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:25

woodworking

Home

Woodworking

A wood driving spur in the headstock & a live-center cup in the tailstock. Tool rest & mounting bracket. Bracket cutback to allow maximum diameter work piece.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/woodworking.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:57:38

woodworking

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/woodworking.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:57:38

machine_mounts

Home Lathe Machine Mounts

The OEM lathe stands are low to accommodate the installation of machine mounts which can easily add 1 to 2 inches to the lathe's overall height. Each mount has a steel cup with a rubber vibration absorber & an adjustment screw. The six holes in the stand are threaded ( x 16 for a Jet) but I drilled them out to 9.5 mm for a tight fit to the Enco machine mount M10-1.5 adjustment screws. There are four mounts under the spindle & motor since that is where most of the weight is located; six mounts total. They allow easy leveling of the machine. Check the front-to-back leveling on both the left & right sides of the bed to insure that it is not twisted. Addition of the feet increased lathe height, afforded adjustment, reduced noise, reduced vibration & eliminated walking. I used similar pads on the mill/drill & the band saw.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/machine_mounts.htm24/03/2005 12:57:44

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

TAIG Tools
Made in the U.S A.
Manufacturing desktop milling machines and lathes for over 30 years.

Home of the Micro Lathe, Micro Mill, and CNC Mill plus a complete line of parts and accessories.

We provide personal attention to your questions. Please contact us at: Fax - 480.895.9648 sales@TaigTools.com PHONE - 480.895.6978

MICRO LATHE II
The MicroLathe II is a machine you don't have to baby. It is a rugged and precision machine. The MicroLathe II has a machined, ground and stabilized steel bed. It has two sealed ball bearings in its spindle, coupled with a six speed positive vee belt drive. The spindle speeds are set in a geometric progression from 525 to 5200 RPM. A precision machine with the capabilities to 'HOG' 1/8 inch cuts in mild steel yet 'Dust' a few tenths, make the MicroLathe II a very versatile machine. Some big lathe features include large 0.001 inch graduations on the cross slide dial, adjustable tool post and carriage depth stop. With adjustable brass gibs providing full compensation for carriage and cross slide wear, it all adds up to the BEST VALUE in small lathes!

MicroLathe II basic unit shown with optional 3-Jaw Chuck (1050), Boring bar (1097E), Tailstock (1150), Drill Chuck (1091), 1/4 HP 1725 RPM Motor (1021w), Motor Mount Bracket (1022), Mounting Board (1023), and Pulleys (1162 with 3M 500 belt). Price as shown $399.90

SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL
http://www.taigtools.com/mlathe.html (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:48

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

q q q q q q q

Overall working accuracy 0.0005 in. Max. headstock normality to bed 0.0004 in. Max. taper bed dovetails over pins 0.0001 in. Cross slide screw 1/4 - 20 Max. spindle speed recommended 7000 RPM Length of headstock on ways 2.625 in. Width of cross slide on carriage 2.000 in.

q q q q

q q

Maximum bearing runout 0.0004 in. Max.cross slide normality to bed 0.0004 in. Cross slide dial graduation 0.001 in. Carriage travel 0.600 in. per 1 rev. of handwheel. Pulley type std. 5/8 in. bore multi-stop vee belt. Length of carriage on ways 3.000 in. Bed dovetails 45 deg.

CAPACITY
q q q q q

Max. turning dia. 4.5 in. (extendable to 6.5 in.) Swing over cross slide 2.375 in. Overall length of bed 15.5 in. Overall length of lathe 16.5 in. Tool bit size standard 1/4 in.

q q

q q

Drill chuck capacity 1/4 in. Distance between centers 9.75 in. (with tailstock). Carriage travel 9.0 in. Cross slide travel 1.75 in.

SPINDLE
q q q q

Sealed precision ball bearing Bearing OD 1.5748 in., ID 0.6692 in. Spindle nose 3/4 in. - 16 (3/4 in. SAE) Spindle hole 0.343 in.

q q q

Spindle ID taper 15 deg (30 deg included) Max. collect diameter 9/32 in. Pulley size 5/8 inch bore.

LATHE PRICES
L1017 Micro Lathe II basic unit, factory assembled with tool post and carriage depth stop (Pulleys and tailstock not included) 15" bed. Unassembled Micro Lathe II kit, headstock pre-assembled, no machining necessary (Pulleys and tailstock not included) 15" bed. WW complete headstock with WW spindle, pulley and drawbar (uses WW Jewelers collets) $173.20 $144.50 $91.70

K1019 W1020

LATHE OPTIONS
W1020A WW Type Spindle cartridge and drawbar in lieu of standard (use only W.W. Jewelers collets) $65.90

Check Out Our Complete Line of


http://www.taigtools.com/mlathe.html (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:48

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

Accessories ! Micro Lathe Parts Diagram

Micro Lathe Parts Pricelist


Part # 100-00 100-01 100-02 100-03A 100-03 100-04 SRP 60.25 23.50 62.25 36.95 15.50 6.50 Description Complete Headstock Headstock Housing Ground Lathe Bed Spindle Assembly Spindle Bearing (2 required) Part # 100-16 100-17 100-18 100-19 100-20 100-20a SRP .70 5.25 .10 .10 .2.65 .20 Description Dial Brass Handle Crosslide Screw 10-32 Hex Nut 10-32 Set Screw Dial Bearing Block Bearing Block Spacer

http://www.taigtools.com/mlathe.html (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:48

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

100-05 100-06 100-07 100-08 100-09 100-10 100-11 100-12 100-12A 100-13A 100-13B 100-14 100-15

8.75 .25 .25 .50 6.00 .10 29.25 2.75 .10 3.75 1.35 .20 2.65

Bearing Spacer Tru Arc Clip Thumb Screw Carriage Stop Carriage Rack Rack 4-40 Screw Carriage Carriage Gib Carriage Gib 4-40 Screw Pinion Gear Eccentric for Pinion Gear Retainer Clip Carriage Hand Wheel

100-22 100-23 100-24 100-25 100-26 100-27 100-27A 100-29 100-30 100-32 100-33 100-34

3.65 .70 .70 2.50 18.25 2.75 .10 .20 3.90 .10 ..10 .20

Crosslide Dial 6-32 Acorn Nut Carriage Brass Handle Crosslide Screw Nut Crosslide Crosslide Gib Crosslide Gib 4-40 Screw 10-32 x 1 3/4 Screw Tool Post Block 10-32 Square Nut 10-32 Screw Thumb Screw

[Home] [Micro Mill] [Micro Lathe] [CNC Mill] [Accessories] [Dealers] [Applications] [Starter Suggestions] [Metal Working Links] TAIG Tools, 12419 E. Nightingale Lane, Chandler AZ 85249. email - sales@TaigTools.com or Phone - 480.895.6978 Copyright 1999 TAIG Tools. All rights reserved. No part of this web site, including text, photos or illustrations may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial use without written permission from TAIG Tools.

http://www.taigtools.com/mlathe.html (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:57:48

motor_mount

Spindle Motor & its Mount

Caution: only use a motor that is either non-thermally protected or has a thermal overload circuit that requires a manual reset. If the motor automatically shuts down due to excessive heat, it then has the potential (upon cooling) to unexpectedly start-up again while you are touching/changing sharp end mills, saw blades or other rotating parts. Sealed, GE H120, hp, continuous duty, 1725 RPM, split-phase, ball bearing motor, mounted onto a plate, in-turn held by a large, galvanized door hinge. Generally, these hinges are loose so it was drilled out and a close-fitting bolt with nut was installed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (1 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

The motor is externally cooled by a fan. It is shown, pivoted forward for pulley selection, exposing the heightadjustable rubber stop. This stop allows belt tension to be set for optimal performance i.e., good traction, minimized vibration & compensation for any minor belt stretching. It uses a -20 bolt passing through the work surface & then screws into a flush nut on a small block of pressure-treated wood. The hard rubber stop has washers on both sides to increase rigidity & a star lock washer is used under the nut. I enlarged the clearance hole & installed shims on the wooden block. The adjustment screw is set at an angle perpendicular to the motor mounting plate bottom. The entire rubber stop face is in contact with the motor mounting plate. Note the spacer plate under the hinge. The power cord is protected from abrasion that could occur from repeatedly pivoting the motor over time.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (2 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (3 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

Note the motor mount reinforcement plate.

The sealed motor is impervious to metal debris. hp is considered by Taig to be the maximum. As examples, a hp motor is 50% stronger than a 1/6 hp motor & 250% stronger than a 1/10 hp motor. Mounted to the left (CCW rotation) provides additional work space.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (4 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

The relatively high motor weight (~13 lbs.) & low belt angle give good tension for turning small parts. The motor is solid mounted, not in a rubber bushing which causes too much wobble under high torque. This set up also works well when using the spindle riser block. The ON/OFF switch is a standard, 20A, wall switch mounted in an outdoor metal switchbox with a stainless steel cover plate. I have the switchbox mounted high on the bench leg making it difficult to bump it ON (switch down) but if I do accidentally bump it with my knee, it turns the motor OFF (switch up). Make sure to properly ground the circuit.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (5 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

Power switch arrangement. Note the (blue) lathe mount reinforcement plate.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (6 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

For low belt tension, the motor plate rests on its stop. Higher belt tension places the plate about one or two mm's above the stop. Due to excessive motor pulley run-out, vibration against the stop can occur. When I upgraded the mill motor, I noted the high V-belt traction due to its locking mounting plate arrangement. This suggested the addition of the hold down action clamp. In order to eliminate vibration & increase belt tension, install a vertical hold down action clamp from Enco. Mount it at the same angle as the motor mounting plate. It quickly opens & closes using the lever. When closed, the motor mounting plate is then captured between the upper & lower adjustable rubber-ended stops. Belt tension can now be increased when turning larger pieces. Runs very smoothly & with high V-belt traction. Caution: do not over tension the belt. May cause belt distortion & premature belt wear.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (7 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

motor_mount

Lathe motor reversing switch (view available using Internet Explorer, only) for GE H120 motor, only. Other motor circuits may differ, requiring analogous wiring. Switch is down for normal, CCW rotation & up for reverse, CW rotation. Caution: spindle accessories must be wrench tightened before using in foward or reverse operations to prevent them from spinning off.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/motor_mount.htm (8 de 8)24/03/2005 12:58:10

split_nut_subassembly

Home

Split-Nut

The aluminum base plate is 1.55" long x 1.15" wide x 0.1375" thick, the brass pieces are 1.50" long x 0.3150" wide x 0.3115" thick & the steel rods are 0.1915" diameter. The original rack & pinion carriage feed is nice & fast but often you need the finer, smoother feed of a lead screw. It is desirable to retain both features. Using a split-nut mechanism is one method. An exploded view of my split-nut subassembly is shown. It is modeled after a full-sized lathe where the split-nut opened & closed (by complex means) onto the lead screw simultaneously from both sides. The two brass split-nut jaws are opened & closed using a single, 10-32 brass screw. The left half of the screw has a right-hand thread while the right half has a left-hand thread. Thus, when the screw is turned 3.5 times CW, the jaws close & vice versa. The brass jaws were clamped, drilled & threaded for the lead screw using a left-handed -20 tap (Small Parts, Y-HSLT-1420). Be careful when drilling brass, it is very soft. Sharp, standard drills can grab the piece & pull it upward. Clamp the drill vise or use drills with re-ground (flatter) angles. The split-nut halves slide on two steel rods that are held by the end brackets. The end brackets have clearance holes for the split-nut adjustment screw & are held to the plate by 4, 4-40 screws, which also capture the rod ends. This arrangement allows the split-nut to float perpendicularly relative to the force of the lead screw (toward & away from the lathe bed) to eliminate any potential binding due to minor misalignment or thread rod bends. The split-nut
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/split_nut_subassembly.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:58:17

split_nut_subassembly

jaws must be able to slide freely against the plate. The two left corners were milled to allow the subassembly to be located very close to the lathe bed. The notch towards the back allows clearance for the rack chip shield. When the nut screw is tightened halfway (CW), the weak spring puts mild tension onto the lead screw (just the nut's left jaw) which allows the threads to engage without cross-threading when either the lead screw or pinion are slightly rotated. Then further tightening fully engages the lead screw & tension can be adjusted to the desired level. The two countersink holes are for mounting to the carriage & the large, 9/32" hole is for the lead screw.

The split-nut subassembly opened & closed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/split_nut_subassembly.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:58:17

milled_carriage

Home

Milled Carriage

The sides of the carriage are slightly slanted so during production, the piece can be popped out of the mold. The left side of the carriage required milling so the mounted split-nut would be perpendicular to the lead screw. There is a small ledge that the split-nut subassembly mounting plate's top edge rests against. All milling & drilling was performed using the lathe to assure alignment, especially of the two, lead screw holes (make sure to clear the eccentric for the pinion gear). To perform the milling operation, I used a solid carbide, two-flute (for soft materials, use a 4-flute for hard materials) 5/16" finishing endmill. De-burr the dovetail edge where it was milled. Check the entire carriage dovetail for burrs leftover from manufacturing. A dab of kerosene allows a smooth cut on aluminum. Removed all calibrated dials, glass bead blasted them (sandblasting too aggressive/coarse), then using the lowest lathe rpm, smoothed the scale with 220, 320 then finally 400 grit sandpaper. Do not be too aggressive or you can remove the markings. This method only works for dials that have deep marks to begin with. Indicia will be finer & the knob looks nice when the rough machine marks are removed. Careful, the dials are factory loctited on & screw off (not pull). I put two small flat sides on the non-threaded area of the lead screws for a very small, open-ended wrench to facilitate disassembly/assembly. Grease (not white lithium) makes these knobs work very smoothly. The two ends of the movable dial scale zero (the circumference spring clip in the dial bearing block grove) may be rough; remove & grind the ends flat. Go to OEM vise for a close-up photo Replaced all of the OEM dial brass spinner pegs with a pivoting-type (Wm. Berg; CN8-1) as per MIL-STD-1472. This

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/milled_carriage.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:58:27

milled_carriage

one change alone greatly enhances the smoothness of operation & is the least expensive modification for the largest increase in machine performance. Remember, that when tapping the steel knob, the tap hole is (larger) for 50% threads not 75% like for softer materials. Always drill the exact recommended tap hole for maximum thread strength. Grease on the stainless steel pivot screw makes it smooth. A small nylon washer, just the size of the pivot screw body, 3/16", (not the thread itself) removes the last of the in-out play of the aluminum spinner knob. I also filed two small flats on the eccentric for the pinion gear, just behind the knob, to accept a miniature 5/16" open-end wrench. This greatly facilitates rack & pinion engagement adjustment.

Lead-screw hole, right side.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/milled_carriage.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:58:27

milled_carriage

Small notches in the pinion help retain the clip.

To elliminate lead-screw flexing, a bronze oil-lite bearing was press fitted & then reamed to 0.25". One corner of the set screw nut was milled so it would not interfere with the lead-screw. The rack & pinion eccentric bearing set screw area was milled to allow the locking nut to evenly seat. The set screw end was faced smooth to elliminate the locking ridge which gouged the eccentric housing. Also, note the milled flat area to the right on the y-axis dial readout mounting block. This is the area where the x-axis dial readout plunger makes contact.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/milled_carriage.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:58:27

split_nut_mounted

Home

Split-Nut Mounted on Carriage

Split-nut subassembly mounted onto carriage. Nut open.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/split_nut_mounted.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:58:35

split_nut_mounted

Nut closed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/split_nut_mounted.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:58:35

split_nut_mounted

Detail of subassembly attachment. Used 2, 4-40 flat-head screws. All screws had loctite applied.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/split_nut_mounted.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:58:35

bearings

Home

Bearings & Lead Screw

Right bearing block subassembly. Lead screw was cut from 24" of 303 stainless steel -20, left-hand threaded stock (Small Parts; Y-TRLX-1420). Right-hand threads work but right-handed operators (may) find that there is a natural tendency to turn the handle CW, making the carriage move to the right instead of the left. Motion from a lefthanded thread seems natural & easiest to coordinate when your left hand is working the cross slide (also a left-hand thread). The ends were turned down to 3/16" while being held by a collet. Need a close fit but allow easy, non-press fit, assembly/disassembly with the ball bearings. Each end has a milled flat for set screws. From Wm. Berg; the two thrust bearings that have red nylon ball retainers (B5-2-SS), with supplied matching washers, bear the lateral forces. Two, 0.3125" (nominal) OD ball bearings (B1-40-S-Q3) hold the shaft. Set screw collars (CS-29) keep things together. The four-screw type holds best. The hand crank (CN12-4) came with the pivoting-type spinner (CN8-1). The right bracket is held down by two, 10-32 cap-head screws. The entire right bearing block with the lead screw can be quickly removed to allow the carriage to slide off for removal. These use the most common-sized hex wrench (5/32") on my machine. I changed the toolbit holding screws to this size, too. Don't over tighten them. The brackets are milled (all surfaces) from " aluminum plate. The base is 1" wide & 1" deep. The top piece is 1" long (2" total bracket height). The corners were cut to 45 to reduce bump hazards. They were assembled on a surface plate using a machinist's square (2, 6-32 screws; Loctite). They were glass bead blasted for the satin finish. Before reaming the bearing holes, the brackets were set at right-angles to the lathe bed & then bolted to the working surface. The working surface (" aluminum plate on " plywood) was tapped for the hold-down bolts. Then, with a

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bearing_blocks.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:47

bearings

transfer punch placed in the 9/32" lead screw holes, the carriage was moved to the far right & the bracket marked. The punch was reversed & the carriage was then moved to the far left & the bracket marked. This assured perfect alignment of the lead screw (bearings) relative to the carriage. A hole, slightly smaller than the 0.3115" reamer was first drilled. The reamer is then lubricated with cutting fluid & at a low speed, slowly fed into the hole until its cutters pass all the way through the plate. Then stop & remove the reamer, do not pull it back through the hole while it is rotating. The de-burred holes were then lubricated with mutton tallow & then the bearings press-fit into the brackets using an arbor press . They are flush to the outsides but that should not make any difference. The thrust bearings & the ball bearings were lubricated with molybdenum disulfide. Since the pinion remains engaged to the rack during leadscrew operation, the pinion must be able to turn smoothly & without binding. The pinion must be properly engaged to the rack & it must not be pushed in too far so as to rub the lathe bed bracket. I lubricated the pinion in the eccentric bearing with molybdenum disulfide. The carriage gib should be snug. I replaced the two adjustment screws with 5/8" long 10-32 cap heads, retaining the locking nuts. This allows delicate finger adjustments of the gib.

Left bearing block has only one ball bearing so the lead screw subassembly can be easily pulled out towards the right. This bracket remains in place.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bearing_blocks.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:47

bearings

The carriage stop lock screw was moved to the top by drilling through from the bottom & tapping (10-32). The threewinged knob is from a hardware store. It was held by a collet & the wings were turned down a small amount for a little more clearance.

Top-view
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bearing_blocks.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:47

bearings

Oblique view.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bearing_blocks.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:47

lead_screw

Home

Lead Screw & Split-Nut Assemblies

Entire lead screw.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/lead_screw_engaged.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:58

lead_screw

Split-nut engaged.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/lead_screw_engaged.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:58

lead_screw

Detail of split-nut, engaged. The spilt-nut assembly is low enough so as to not interfere with the carriage stop bar function & also clear the spindle housing allowing full carriage travel.

Detail of split-nut, disengaged.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/lead_screw_engaged.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:58

lead_screw

Split-nut under spindle housing. New split-nut knob.

Reamed " ID bronze bushing to eliminate lead-screw flexing.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/lead_screw_engaged.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 12:58:58

lathe x axis motor

Home

Lathe X-Axis Motor & Clutch

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/lathe_xaxis_motor.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:59:06

lathe x axis motor

The same design used to couple & drive the x-axis of the mill.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/lathe_xaxis_motor.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:59:06

traming_the_tailstock

Home

Tramming the Tailstock

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tramming_the_tailstock.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:12

traming_the_tailstock

The best method to center the tailstock is to mount a dial run-out gauge in the spindle & a dowel pin in the tailstockmounted drill chuck. After the above picture, I have obtained a " diameter, " long adapter that attaches to the dove-tail of the dial run-out gauge. Shown below, it is now mounted in a collet resulting in increased accuracy. Rotate the spindle front & back while adjusting the tailstock off-set, making half-the-difference changes between them until there are no differences. Use the basic principles of this technique to tram the mill, vise & rotary table, too.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tramming_the_tailstock.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:12

traming_the_tailstock

Also see tramming the 9x20 lathe.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tramming_the_tailstock.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:12

x-axis & y-axis dial readouts

Home

X-axis & Y-axis Dial Distance Readouts

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/xaxis__yaxis_dial_readouts.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:20

x-axis & y-axis dial readouts

Two inch range dial indicators are used to provide distance measurement. Provides direct readouts & no need to compensate for lead screw backlash. The x-axis dial is mounted onto the base plate of a Lee Valley wood working tool rest. This allows quick & easy range adjustments. The top of the y-axis bracket has to be low enough to allow the cross slide to clear when making taper cuts.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/xaxis__yaxis_dial_readouts.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:20

x-axis & y-axis dial readouts

When using the tailstock, mount the dial readout on a carriage stop rod. Moved the original carriage screw lock & stop to the back of the spindle housing.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/xaxis__yaxis_dial_readouts.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:20

3_jaw_chuck

Home

Steel-Jawed Scroll Chuck

Taig's standard scroll chuck with aluminum jaws has many advantages (quick to use, self-centering, good concentricity after turning the inside of the jaws, low material damage, customizing) but sometimes, a scroll chuck with hardened steel jaws is preferred. Sherline makes an excellent scroll chuck having three, heat-treated jaws, dual Tommy bars & -16 thread mount. However, the threaded hole is not as deep as the Taig standard chuck & it does not have a recess for the spindle shoulder causing it to seat crookedly. Thus, a spacer is required that goes onto the spindle first. I made this one from a blank arbor. It has the required recess & a few -16 threads to screw it onto the spindle. If possible, precision grind the adapter to assure ultra-parallel ends. Mill two flats for a " wrench.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_jaw_chuck.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:29

3_jaw_chuck

Chuck with threaded spacer.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_jaw_chuck.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:29

3_jaw_chuck

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/3_jaw_chuck.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 12:59:29

Rocker Toolpost

Home

Rocker Tool Post

Exploded view of a rocker-style tool post made from a standard tool post.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rocker_tool_post.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 12:59:53

Rocker Toolpost

Rocker allows adjustment of the tool bit height. Uses a machined, steel rocker. It has a 1" diameter. Three rockers were cut from one turning. Milled curve using a rotary table. Adjust tool height to 1" or just below. Tool bit with carbide insert, shown.

Make a brass tool bit height gauge to help set the tip at or just below 1". Can be used for setting boring bar height, too.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rocker_tool_post.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 12:59:53

Boring Bar Holder

Home " Boring Bar Holders

A simple " boring bar holder for the lathe.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/boring_bar_holder.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:00:06

Boring Bar Holder

A set of " boring bars & holder. This type of boring bar holder uses a " reamed, split, brass eccentric that allows adjustment of both the boring bar height & angle. The set screw on top fits into a groove to retain the eccentric. When performing a slitting operation, use a low 550 RPM & cutting fluid. More boring bars.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/boring_bar_holder.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:00:06

accessories

Home

Lathe & Mill Accessories

Arbors, radius turner, dead & live centers, chuck adapter, depth stop, faceplate, chucks,

collets, compound slide, die holder, drill chucks, milling attachment,

riser blocks, soft jaws, steady rest, extended tailstock handle,

tool bits, tool posts, tool rest, wood-turning accessories,

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/accessories.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:00:26

accessories

boring bars & holder, screwless vise with variable V-block, parallels, x-axis & y-axis 2" distance readouts, rotary table,

screwless vise, grinding wheel set with arbor, steel post cut-off tool, custom T-nut set

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/accessories.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:00:26

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

TAIG TOOLS
Made in the U.S A.
Manufacturing desktop milling machines and lathes for over 30 years.

Home of the Micro Lathe, Micro Mill, and CNC Mill plus a complete line of parts and accessories.

We provide personal attention to your questions. Please contact us at: Fax - 480.895.9648 sales@TaigTools.com PHONE - 480.895.6978

Home Micro Mill Micro Lathe CNC Mill Accessories

MICRO MILL
X-Axis Table with tapered Gib and Y-axis with square Steel ways Z-Axis Slide with tapered Gib and Steel Box Ways Ball bearings in lead screw bearing block assembly

The Micro Mill is a very rigid and precise machine that uses some of the most advanced techniques compared to its competitors. The Y-axis and Z-axis are supported on 2 1/2 inch square steel tubing to provide a very solid feel. The leadscrews are all 1/2-20 unlike a lot of machines of similar size that use 1/4 inch leadscrews. TAIG prefers to provide added mechanical features to allow the mill to be more useful without raising the price. Being an aerospace manufacturer for over 18 years our Dealers machinists know the importance of table back-lash compensation and full gib adjustments for wear as employed in the manufacture of the Micro Mill. Basically, the Micro Mill was designed by Applications machinists and built by machinists. Overall working accuracy should exceed .0005 in. All machines are sold with a 14 day refund and a full 2 year factory warranty on all Mill components and accessories. Starter Suggestions The Micro Mill has effortless, chatterless, table and millhead movement due to the unique design of oversized gibs, ground steel ways, and a massive carriage assembly.The steel bed/vertical mill Metal head support provides a very rigid Z-axis and makes the Micro Mill ready for CNC upgrade if you Working desire. Our small Mill is really a scaled down version of a big Mill with manual operation. Links This is the machine you don't have to baby. The Micro Mill is a rugged precision instrument that has plenty of rigidity. Its machined, ground and stabilized steel bed has a life-time ball bearing spindle, coupled with a six speed positive vee belt drive. Spindle speeds in geometric progression from 525-5200 RPM provide the power to "HOG" 1/8 inch cuts in mild steel or the speed and precision to "dust" a few tenths (compare that to other mills of similar size on the market, you can't!). Other big Mill features include large .001 inch graduations on friction adjustable micrometer dials for the X,Y,& Z axis. Adjustable gibs provide full compensation for X,Y & Z axis wear. The spindle head column can rotate from 0 to 180 degrees to provide for special machining tasks. All this adds up to a BEST VALUE in small Mills. Should there be any questions regarding specific uses of the Micro Mill please feel free to call, write, email, or visit our facility.

http://www.taigtools.com/mmill.html (1 de 6)24/03/2005 13:00:35

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

Micro Mill shown with optional Vise (waycovers included but not shown)

Micro Mill shown with optional Vise (way-covers included but not shown)

SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL
q q q q q q q q q q q q

Height 21-3/8 in (manual) 26-3/8 in (CNC) Width 17 in (manual) 22 in (CNC) Depth 16-3/4 in (manual) 21 in (CNC) Weight 65 lbs (manual) 85 lbs (CNC) Maximum bearing runout 0.0004 in. X axis dovetails 45 deg. Y axis dovetails 90 deg. Z axis steel box ways 1/2"-20 leadscrews on X,Y,& Z All lead screw drives have friction adjustable micrometer dials in .001 inch increments Pulley type std. 5/8 in. bore multi-step vee belt. Construction - Steel, hard anodized aluminum on all moving components, adjustable brass gibs, and precision ground steel ways hand lapped for long life and accuracy.

CAPACITY

http://www.taigtools.com/mmill.html (2 de 6)24/03/2005 13:00:35

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.


q q q q q q q q q q q q

Travel in X axis 9.5 in (#2018) Travel in X axis 12.0 in (#2019) Travel in Y axis 5.5 in Travel in Z axis 6.0 in Table dimensions 3 1/2 x 15 1/2 inches (#2018) Table dimensions 3 1/2 x 18 1/2 inches (#2019) Maximum Z-distance to table 9.0 in Z-Axis swivel 90 degrees 6 spindle speeds 525-5200 RPM Spindle Motor 1/5 hp Z axis column rotation up to 180 degrees Spindle head rotation 90 degrees

SPINDLE
q q q q

Sealed precision ball bearing Bearing OD 1.5748 in., ID 0.6692 in. Spindle nose 3/4 in. - 16 (3/4 in. SAE) Spindle hole 0.343 in.

q q q

Spindle ID taper 15 deg (30 deg included) Max. collet diameter 9/32 in. Pulley size 5/8 in. bore.

MILL PRICES ( Does not include shipping, see below)


2018 2018S Micro Mill factory assembled (Wired up and ready to go, way covers not shown). 2018 with Vise,2 collets (3/16,1/4) and collet closer) $659.00 $684.00 $714.00 $760.00 $785.00 $815.00

2018UPG 2018 with upgraded 1/4hp Continuous Duty spindle motor (speeds 1000 to 10000rpm). 2019 2019S Micro Mill factory assembled (3 1/2 x 18 1/2 inch table and 12 inches of travel in 'X') 2019 with Vise, 2 collets (3/16,1/4) and collet closer

2019UPG 2019 with upgraded 1/4hp Continuous Duty spindle motor (speeds 1000 to 10000rpm).

Manual Mill Upgrades


2018CR 2018 converted to CNC ready with 1/4hp Continuous Duty spindle motor (speeds 1000 to 10000rpm), adjustable bronze leadscrew nuts in X & Y and Nema 23 motor mounts. Does not include stepper motors or control system. (Vise and 2 collets (3/16,1/4) $25.00 more) $869.00

2018CRHC 2018CR with hand cranks installed

$890.00

http://www.taigtools.com/mmill.html (3 de 6)24/03/2005 13:00:35

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

2019CR

2019 converted to CNC ready with 1/4hp Continuous Duty spindle motor (speeds 1000 to 10000rpm), adjustable bronze leadscrew nuts in X & Y and Nema 23 motor mounts. Does not include stepper motors or control system. (Vise and 2 collets (3/16,1/4) $25.00 more)

$970.00

2019CRHC 2019CR with hand cranks installed

$991.00

Shipping and Insurance costs


East Coast -------- $65.00 Midwest ----------- $45.00 Northwest --------- $40.00 West Coast -------- $35.00

Check Out Our Complete Line of Accessories ! Micro Mill Parts Diagram

http://www.taigtools.com/mmill.html (4 de 6)24/03/2005 13:00:35

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

Micro Mill Parts Pricelist


Part # 200-10 200-15 200-16 200-20 200-22 200-22A 200-23 200-23A 200-25 200-25A 200-26 200-26A 200-27 200-28 200-30 200-31 200-32 Price 40.00 50.00 10.00 130.00 10.00 17.50 10.00 17.50 23.00 24.00 26.00 26.00 4.50 2.00 6.00 .75 .25 Description Square Tubing Base Y-Axis Extrusion Square Steel Ways (2req) Y-Axis Saddle Casting Y-Axis Leadscrew Nut (LH) Y-Axis CNC Leadscrew Nut (LH) X-Axis Leadscrew Nut (RH) X-Axis CNC Leadscrew Nut (RH) Y-Axis Leadscrew (LH) Z-Axis Leadscrew (LH) X-Axis Leadscrew (RH) for 2018 X-Axis Leadscrew (RH) for 2019 Dial (3 req) Dial Sleeve Dial Handcrank Dial Handle Dial Keyway Part # 200-35 200-35L 200-36 200-40 200-41 200-42 200-43 200-44 200-48 200-50 200-51 200-55 200-55cr 200-57 200-60 200-61 200-76 Price 70.00 135.00 3.00 65.00 14.00 14.00 15.00 80.00 6.00 12.00 7.00 25.00 110.00 7.00 60.25 22.25 11.00 Description X-Axis Table (2018) X-Axis Table (2019) X,Y End Plate (2 req) Z-Axis Steel Tubing Column Z-Axis End Plate Z-Axis 3" Steel Box Way Z-Axis 1 1/4" Steel Box Way Z-Axis Main Body Headstock Mounting Plate Spindle Motor Mounting Plate Spindle Motor Mounting Post Spindle Motor (1/5 hp, 1750 rpm) Spindle Motor (Franklin 1/4 hp,3400 rpm,Cont.Duty Motor) Threaded Rod Draw Bar Spindle Headstock Pulley Set (3/8 , 5/8 & belt) Bearing Block with bearings

http://www.taigtools.com/mmill.html (5 de 6)24/03/2005 13:00:35

Taig Tools - Desktop Milling Machines and Lathes.

[Home] [Micro Mill] [Micro Lathe] [CNC Mill] [Accessories] [Dealers] [Applications] [Starter Suggestions] [Metal Working Links] TAIG Tools, 12419 E. Nightingale Lane, Chandler AZ 85249. email - sales@TaigTools.com or Phone - 480.895.6978 Copyright 1999 TAIG Tools. All rights reserved. No part of this web site, including text, photos or illustrations may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial use without written permission from TAIG Tools.

http://www.taigtools.com/mmill.html (6 de 6)24/03/2005 13:00:35

Mill Motor Upgrade

Home

Mill Motor Upgrade


Original mill motor photo

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_motor_upgrade.htm (1 de 5)24/03/2005 13:00:46

Mill Motor Upgrade

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_motor_upgrade.htm (2 de 5)24/03/2005 13:00:46

Mill Motor Upgrade

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_motor_upgrade.htm (3 de 5)24/03/2005 13:00:46

Mill Motor Upgrade

Mill motor upgraded to 1/3 hp. " TiN coated end mill shown lower right. Used an MT-3 to -16 taper on the Jet lathe 920N to make 3/8" & " shank endmill holders from blank arbors. Caution: only use a motor that is either non-thermally protected or has a thermal overload circuit that requires a manual reset. If the motor automatically shuts down due to excessive heat, it then has the potential to unexpectedly start-up again while you are touching/changing sharp end mills, saw blades or other rotating parts. The motor that the mill came with was only 1/5 hp, it was used surplus, had dual-shafts, capacitor start & had automatic thermal protection. The new motor is a GE H164: 1/3 hp, split-phase, continuous duty, ball bearing, 1725 RPM, non-thermally protected & has an open case with extended clamp bolts. It has a service factor of 1.35 which means that it can deliver a 35% reserve hp capacity without damage from overheating.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_motor_upgrade.htm (4 de 5)24/03/2005 13:00:46

Mill Motor Upgrade

The new motor has 167% (225% in reserve capacity) more horsepower than the original. A new, larger motor mounting plate was made based on the original design. The motor's 1.75" diameter lower bearing housing passes through & is flush with a very close-tolerance hole in the mounting plate. This keeps metal debris from being pulled into the cooling intake vents. The plate corners were cut at 45 for safety. The two imported 10-32 cap head screws that held the motor plate were replaced with high-grade US manufactured screws. The motor weight increased by only two pounds & the moment-arm increased less than two inches. The cradle mount was removed since the motor is mounted to the plate using its four extended clamp bolts. The mounting holes were counter-bored for the nuts. The original 3/8" motor pulley hole was bored to a 0.5001" diameter for the new motor shaft. Use the original belt or a new, longer Gates belt can be installed; 3M 355 (13.98"). Gates belts can be purchased in a wide range of flat-belt lengths (or outside circumference) from any of their local distributors. The first number (3M) is the belt's (ribbed) back width, 3 mm. The last number (355) is the flat-belt length, also in mm's. To measure the needed belt length, set the motor/pulley assembly to the desired location & lock it. Then place a single, insulated wire from lamp cord (split it in half) around the center pulleys, pull it taught, cut & measure. The cord fills the groves enough to give an accurate indication of the required flat-belt length. The original wiring connection was duplicated using a computer power cord extension. A nylon wire tie was used as the power cord strain relief under the connection box cover. This wiring setup allows the entire motor to be removed without having to open the switch box. On the top right side of the z-axis slide is a 10-32 hex head that protrudes & contacts the lead screw bearing block. Counter bore where it contacts the bearing block. This recess for the hex head then allows an additional 0.2" vertical travel. The more powerful motor does not bog down thereby making more uniform cuts, especially fly cutting, & is inherently safer since it does not have automatic thermal protection. The ball bearing motor, coupled with a low run-out pulley, runs very smoothly.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_motor_upgrade.htm (5 de 5)24/03/2005 13:00:46

Mill_x_axis_motor

Home

Mill X-Axis Motor Drive & Clutch

Clutch - exploded view This is a 12 Volt DC surplus motor (95 RPM max) with a geared transmission (on the motor's right side) which reduces RPM & increases torque but then can not be freely rotated. A clutch is needed to allow quick engagement to & disengagement from the mill's lead screw. The depicted arrangement allows for both manual & automatic feeds. Most full-sized mills have this arrangement. The motor speed is varied by a simple DC motor controller that utilizes pulse-width modulation. The controller allows high torque at low RPMs. (Employing an in-series variable resistor to reduce speed causes too much torque loss resulting in stalls, especially when making relatively heavy cuts.) The direction of shaft rotation is changed by simply reversing the motor power polarity via a double-pole, double-throw switch. One of the splines from the rubber-coupled universal joint is attached (via its only set screw) to the motor output shaft but is located only halfway onto the shaft leaving a hole in the spline. The left end of the brass drive shaft fits into this motor spline hole & is thus allowed to rotate freely while maintaining axial alignment. The other spline goes onto the brass shaft. Its (blue Loctite) set screw rides against the shown milled flat but it is not completely tightened. This 'play' allows the spline to be manually slid left or right while remaining engaged to the shaft during rotation. If positioned very closely, the right spline can be completely locked to the brass shaft & only the rubber coupler slides to the middle to engage both splines. However, sliding then requires more force & the splines are not fully engaged (therefore a somewhat weaker connection). A small ring on the left spline can be installed to act as a coupler stop, so you can just slide it over until it touches. The right end of the brass shaft is attached to a small, zero-backlash universal joint which, in turn, attaches to the mill's x-axis lead screw. Set screws engage milled flats to prevent slippage.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (1 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Motor & clutch bracket Motor mount (exploded view). Left plate holds motor; center plate is a bracket; right plate attaches to the (left) end of the mill Y-translation table, opposite the hand crank. The channel milled in the right plate allows Allen wrench (bottom) access to the zero-backlash coupler set screws.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (2 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Disengaged clutch This is the assembled unit with the rubber coupler & spline slid over to the right. The motor & lead screw are disengaged. They are allowed to move freely & independently while the motor & brass shafts remain axially aligned. The mill's hand crank can be manually turned. The two larger cap-head screws to the right hang the entire assembly on the mill's x-axis bed. The bed's end had to be drilled & tapped (10-32) & the lead screw's end was turned down to accept the zero-backlash coupler. A small coupler (from Berg), about the diameter of the " lead screw, was required to clear the confines of the bed ways.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (3 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Engaged clutch

Side view showing bracket construction Coupler & spline slide to the left to engage the motor splines for transfer of power. The rubber coupler is the only means by which power can be transferred across the two shafts. To allow easier engagement/disengagement, the squared spline corners were first cut on a lathe to a 45 bevel. The spline was then mounted onto a rotary table set at a 45 angle & then each rib end was milled on each side. The resulting 'chiseled' spline ends allow faster, smoother engagements into the rubber coupler. If you look closely, the points can be seen. The same design was used to couple & drive the x-axis of the micro-lathe.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (4 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Universal joint - exploded view (left to right) milled spline, original spline & rubber coupler

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (5 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (6 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

DC motor controller

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (7 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Note the white universal joint at shaft/controller union. Brass speed control knob shaft turns in a ball bearing.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (8 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Dedicated controls; speed (left) & x-axis direction (right). Center is OFF & left/right positions moves bed left/right.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (9 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Black plastic motor housing. Strain relieved, plastic clad power cable.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (10 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Rotary table used to cut chisel points on spline ends.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (11 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

Fly cutting using motor feed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (12 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

Mill_x_axis_motor

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/mill_x_axis_motor.htm (13 de 13)24/03/2005 13:01:27

taig z-axis DRO

Home

Low-Cost Z-Axis DRO for Taig Mill

Simple, low-cost DRO, from Shars, for depth control having 0.0005" resolution. Display format: NN.NNNn where n is either zero or 0.0005" The unit has SPC output, if needed. Now using it for the RF-25 Y-axis scale.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/Taig%20z-axis%20DRO.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:01:33

taig z-axis DRO

This mill now has the scale orientated to the way I lean around to the left take a reading. I did not like its receptacle for use on the RF-25 Y-axis DRO scale.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/Taig%20z-axis%20DRO.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:01:33

traming_the_mill

Home

Tramming the Mill

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tramming_the_mill.htm (1 de 3)24/03/2005 13:01:39

traming_the_mill

Tramming the mill bed is similar to tramming the tailstock. Mount a run out gauge in the mill spindle. If needed, you can use the drill chuck draw bar. Its end is 3/8"; same as most run out gauge attachment accessories. Or, use a " diameter (" long) adapter that attaches to the dove-tail of the dial run-out gauge. It can then be mounted in a collet resulting in higher accuracy. Iterate between rotating 180 & adjusting (changing by half the difference) the angle of the mill's upright support until there are no left-to-right differences. Then tram the solid jaw of the mill vise using the same basic method. A rubber wedge keeps the spindle from rotating. Run the the jaw face (x-axis) left & right, making half the distance adjustments of the vise, until there are no differences. This vise is 0.0002" & the runout gauge scale is in 0.0005" gradations.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tramming_the_mill.htm (2 de 3)24/03/2005 13:01:39

traming_the_mill

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/tramming_the_mill.htm (3 de 3)24/03/2005 13:01:39

screwless_vise

Home

Precision Screwless Vises & Sine Bars

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (1 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

screwless_vise

The original milling vise is not good enough for precision work. A good vise to use on the mill is the precision screwless type. This type of vise has very flat ( 0.0002") & parallel critical surfaces. It is also hardened. The movable jaw pulls down as clamping pressure increases so the part does not rise. The precision surfaces eliminate/minimize part marring. Typically, a drill press vise does not have the precision or features required for milling. Photos show milling flats for a 7/8" wrench onto -16 threaded arbors. A variable angle V-block used to make 45 beveled edges. Can be used in conjunction with a miniature screwless vise. Tram the vise before using.

A set of precision ground parallels is essential. This is a set of ten pairs, ranging from " to 1 5/8" in 1/8" steps.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (2 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

screwless_vise

A set of 3 inch wide, precision ground parallels.

Making T-nuts for the mill table slots.

Wavy parallel set. Spring steel can compress in the vise for very thin pieces. The sine vise shown below allows quick & very accurate angle setting using spacer blocks. The distance between the roll centers is very accurate as are the
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (3 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

screwless_vise

other dimensions. REQUIRED SPACER SIZE = SINE (DESIRED ANGLE) x DISTANCE BETWEEN ROLLERS RESULTANT ANGLE = ARCSINE (SPACER SIZE / DISTANCE BETWEEN ROLLERS) For example, if you want to set a 30 angle & the distance between the rolls is 5.000", calculate the sine of 30 & multiply by 5.0". The size of the spacer is exactly 2.500" (note the calculator must be in degrees). Sine bars are used in the same manner. For a given length sine bar & spacer block size you can also calculate the resultant angle.

Sine vise

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (4 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

screwless_vise

Gage block set accuracy 50 millionths of an inch.

Spacer gage set & 3 inch sine bar. Sine bar at 7.662 or 7 39' 44"

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (5 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

screwless_vise

Sine bars

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (6 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

screwless_vise

Sine plate

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/screwless_vise.htm (7 de 7)24/03/2005 13:02:04

Miniature_Screwless_Vise

Home

Miniature Screwless Vise

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/miniature_screwless_vise.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:02:10

Miniature_Screwless_Vise

Very small pieces can be held in the miniature vise, then held in other vises or set-ups. The small vise can be transferred from machine to machine while still retaining a part's orientation. Parallels (steps) are built into its jaws. The movable jaw is not as wide as the solid jaw allowing it to be adjusted while still clamped in a larger vise. Tolerances are 0.0002"

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/miniature_screwless_vise.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:02:10

rotary_table

Home

Rotary Table
Combining a mill and a rotary table provides an order of magnitude increase in machining capability. Shown here is a Sherline 4" rotary table which is perfectly sized for a micro-mill. The rotary table can also be combined with a tilting angle table to further increase its flexibility. Tram the mill first, then the rotary table. With a dial indicator mounted in the mill spindle, indicate the inside surface of the rotary table's center hole. Mounting a chuck or vise on the rotary table allows holding many differently sized pieces. The 4-jawed chuck is especially versatile since it moves the part in two directions. Exchanging the same sized parts is easy accomplished by loosening & tightening only two jaws at a time. A miniature, hold-down clamp (see the rotary table photo) set is good when milling irregular pieces. Parts held in a chuck can be moved back & forth between the lathe and mill without loosing center. The Sherline mill has two slots that are 1" on center while the Taig mill has three slots that are 1" on center. Add two more #9 holes (for 10-32) to allow proper mounting. A milling operation to make a rocker tool post is shown. The rotary table can also be mounted onto a tilting angle table for even more versatility. A Phase II+ 6" rotary table is a good size for mill/drills.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rotary_table.htm (1 de 5)24/03/2005 13:02:21

rotary_table

Tramming the rotary table. A metal plug can be machined that is held by a (") collet & which also fits closely into the table's center hole, allowing quick initial alignment. Miniature vise shown held by a mounting plate.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rotary_table.htm (2 de 5)24/03/2005 13:02:21

rotary_table

Use a precision point to locate pivot point of the circular cut. Off-set end mill in one axis. Procedures & formulas described in Sherline
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rotary_table.htm (3 de 5)24/03/2005 13:02:21

rotary_table

instructions.

" solid carbide finishing end mill cutting 1" diameter curve.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rotary_table.htm (4 de 5)24/03/2005 13:02:21

rotary_table

Milling steps into the Taig aluminum jaws.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/rotary_table.htm (5 de 5)24/03/2005 13:02:21

dividing_head

Home

Dividing Head & Gears


See Sherline on gear-cutting techniques & spur gear geometry.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/dividing_head_and_gears.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:02:26

dividing_head

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/dividing_head_and_gears.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:02:26

Rong Fu Industrial Co., Ltd.

http://www.rongfu.com/En_default.asp24/03/2005 13:02:44

Rong Fu RF-25

Home

Rong Fu RF-25 Mill Drill Tap Specs & Views

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (1 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Original configuration. See DRO & X Y Z axes scales.


http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (2 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Drilling Capacity Face Mill Capacity End Mill Capacity Swing Spindle Nose to Table Max. Distance Spindle Taper Spindle Stroke - z Spindle Sleeve Diameter Head Swivel Column Diameter Overall Height (w/o Stand) Machine Stand Height Length Width Motor, 110v single phase Spindle Speeds @ 60 Hz Spindle Speeds @ 50 Hz Forward & Reverse Switch Standard Accessories Forward / Backward Table Travel - y Left / Right Table Travel - x Working Area of Table Measurement Noise
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (3 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

1" (25.4mm) 2" (63mm) " (13mm) 15.875" (404mm) 15" (380mm) R-8 4" (100mm) 2.44" (62mm) 360 3.625" (92mm) 35" (900mm) 30" (760mm) 36" (930mm) 37" (950mm) 1 HP 110~ 2580 rpm 90 ~ 2150 rpm Standard 2" Cutter; " Chuck 2" Angle Vise; R-8/J33 Arbor; 7/16"-20tpi Drawbar 6" (152mm) 14" (370mm) 23"x7" (585x190mm) 18.3 cubic ft 80 dB Max

Rong Fu RF-25

Gross Weight Net Weight

440 lbs. (200 kgs) 374 lbs. (170 kgs)

Specifications of machines may vary among sellers. Values are approximates.

24 mm = 0.945" 14 mm = 0.551" 10 mm = 0.394"

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (4 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Runs very smoothly & quietly. Drawbar nut is 17mm.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (5 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Depth stop & column lock.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (6 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Forward (up), Stop & Reversing (down) switch.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (7 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

12 speeds. Easy to change; note & set two numbered positions.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (8 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

To add some backlash adjustment to the fine down feed, I removed the housing, opened the two 9mm holes up to 9.5mm & turned the cap head screws down a few thousandths. There was also some paint over spray on the worm gear that needed to be removed. Re-greased the worm gear. These mods allowed me to remove a lot of backlash. All three axes scales (1 division = 0.001") were verified as accurate.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (9 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

1 hp, 110 VAC, 60 Hz, single-phase, enclosed, externally cooled, motor. Note motor locking leaf bolt & the two, 19mm column locking nuts.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (10 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Kurt-style 4" milling vise (37 lbs) fits perfectly. Now using hardened bolts & washers with standard T-nuts.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (11 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Mill vise swivel base. Removed to increase Z distance & overall rigidity. Used only as needed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (12 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Power feed works very well; clamps onto table end.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (13 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Left/Right direction lever, variable-speed dial & momentary high-speed (yellow) button. Gear attached where original handle would go (black plastic gear cover removed). WARNING: Do not change directions suddenly, especially at high speeds. Wait until motor stops.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (14 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Table travel-limit switch. This has been modified for the DRO x-axis scale mount.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (15 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

Vibration-absorbing machine feet (from Enco) supporting (optional) Rong Fu cabinet. Similar pads used on the lathe & band saw.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (16 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

Rong Fu RF-25

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF25.htm (17 de 17)24/03/2005 13:03:11

DRO_Mill

Home

Mill DRO
X Y Z Axes Scales ShumaTech DRO ShumaTech discussion group Shars scales

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_Mill.htm (1 de 5)24/03/2005 13:03:21

DRO_Mill

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_Mill.htm (2 de 5)24/03/2005 13:03:21

DRO_Mill

RF-25 with completed DRO.

Setup shown for milling the lathe DRO case; zeroing at the left, front corner.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_Mill.htm (3 de 5)24/03/2005 13:03:21

DRO_Mill

The DRO bracket is placed closer to the keys where pressure is applied. I protected all cables with spiral wrap. The 80/20 arm is mounted off a triangular, " plate that is held under two of the motor-mounting bolts. The -20 T-knobs are from Woodcraft. I like to tuck the DRO into the central quill lever area. X Y Z Axes Scales

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_Mill.htm (4 de 5)24/03/2005 13:03:21

DRO_Mill

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_Mill.htm (5 de 5)24/03/2005 13:03:21

DRO mill x-axis

Home

Mill X-Axis Scale


Mill DRO & Y Z Axes Scales ShumaTech discussion group Shars scales

18" scale, hardened SS. This style scale has a good SPC plug receptacle. This scale is larger in all dimensions.

Trimmed scale scrap with plastic cover removed. Cut with a band saw & finished with a carbide end mill.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (1 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

2" x 2" aluminum L-channel cover mounted using front dove-tail slot. Five, -20, flat-head screws hold the L-channel for a very rigid configuration. Oilier hole access retained.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (2 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

Original over-travel switch & bracket configuration.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (3 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

Scale transducer mounted on back of power-feed over-travel switch bracket. I used transfer screws (M3-.5 threads) for accurate alignment.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (4 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

New spacer bracket replaces original. Right/back area has since been relieved for the SPC cable connection.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (5 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

This mount protects scale's front (which is not needed) & places the SPC output on the bottom, back, right. Only hardened SS scale surfaces are exposed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (6 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

Power feed end-of-travel mechanical stops mounted on top/inside bracket surface. These are the original stops with the stepped end (fly) cut flat. The -20 mounting bolt is flush with the top of the L-channel bracket. The electrical stop turns the power feed motor off about four full crank turns (for this machine) before reaching the lead screw mechanical end-of-travel; just enough distance to allow a safe stop from full speed. This is a machine-dependent distance that needs to be empirically determined.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (7 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

This area was relieved (both sides) to allow the scale's lower bracket edge to clear the table locks. A lock nut will be used in the final installation.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (8 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

I drilled & tapped the front right carriage corner to mount a cable strain relief. It is the cradle/nylon tie type of fastener.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (9 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill x-axis

I mounted a cable strain relief on the front left corner of the y-axis bracket to hold the over-travel switch cable. Mill DRO & Y Z Axes Scales

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_x-axis.htm (10 de 10)24/03/2005 13:03:38

DRO mill y-axis

Home

Mill Y-Axis Scale


Mill DRO & X Z Axes Scales ShumaTech discussion group Shars scales

-20 tapped mounting holes at end of table.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (1 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill y-axis

" thick upper bracket must clear lead-screw bearing bracket housing. Semi-circular relief stronger than a rectangular alternative.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (2 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill y-axis

L-channel bracket with scale mounting bolts. L-channel bracket must clear power-feed motor.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (3 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill y-axis

Six inch vertical-style scale mounted. All sharp corners have since been rounded.

This is the first scale I ordered for the Y-axis. The catalog picture & description did not match what I received. This 6" horizontal-style was smaller & does not have as good of a receptacle (for me) as the vertical style. If you have space limitations and/or are tacking-on wires, you may want this style. Instead, I put this style on the Taig Z-axis DRO. The better receptacle (for my needs) is shown on the Z-axis scale page.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (4 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill y-axis

Lower bracket mounted using -20 bolts. The mill base side is 5. Tapped holes are perpendicular to the mill base surface.

Lower bracket detail. Bolt clearance holes perpendicular to both front & back 5 surfaces. The rear holes are horizontally centered on the bracket.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (5 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill y-axis

" thick connecting bracket uses M3-.5 upper bolts & 8-32 lower bolts. This mount protects scale's front (which is not needed) & places the SPC output on the bottom, back, left. Only hardened SS scale surfaces are exposed. This style scale has a good SPC plug receptacle.

Cable is protected with spiral wrap & has nylon ties for strain relief. X-axis & Y-axis cables are (directly) routed under the mill inside the stand
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (6 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill y-axis

allowing me to use the standard 6 ft. SPC cables from LMS. Mill DRO & X Z Axes Scales

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_y-axis.htm (7 de 7)24/03/2005 13:03:54

DRO mill z-axis

Home

Mill Z-Axis Scale


Mill DRO & X Y Axes Scales ShumaTech discussion group Shars scales

Six inch hardened SS scale with SPC output. M3-.5 threads. I had to trim some scale off the top using a band saw followed by a carbide end mill & then diamond wheel grinding. Radius the two top corners as they are close to the on/off switch.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (1 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

This vertical-style scale has a good SPC plug receptacle. I used this type for the Y-axis scale, too. Not as easy to tack-on wires, though, if that is the route you are taking.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (2 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

Z-axis, " thick, scale-mounting plate. The four mounting hole locations were accurately determined using -20 transfer screws. This bracket configuration allowed me to retain use of the speed-settings plate. An earlier version used a 1/16" plate, but was too thin.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (3 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

The depth-stop function is retained.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (4 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

Detail - lower brackets.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (5 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (6 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

Radius the top scale corners by grinding with a diamond wheel. The scale top end is free floating. Also, the zero of the printed in/mm scale is even with the bottom edge of the transducer when the quill is fully retracted.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (7 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

Cable runs up into the belt housing. Button-head bolts look nice.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (8 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

The cable is tied down every 3" along inside right side corner of the belt housing, then exits behind the arm's mount. The flat side of each cable tie-down is set against the housing inside corner so it does not turn under extended vibration. The arm's mount is a triangular bracket that is mounted using two motor hold down bolts. The arm is made out of 1010 (1" x 1") 80/20 extruded aluminum. I ran the Z-axis cable inside the arm's back-side channel & then snapped in black plastic inserts. 1515 (1" x 1") extrusions would have been a little stiffer. I like to use a Unibit to make nice clean holes in thin materials. Mill DRO & X Y Axes Scales

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (9 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

DRO mill z-axis

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/DRO_mill_z-axis.htm (10 de 10)24/03/2005 13:04:13

RF_mill_accessories

Home

RF Mill/Drill Accessories

24 mm = 0.945" 14 mm = 0.551" 10 mm = 0.394"

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (1 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

The RF-25 slots require " T-Nuts using " studs.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (2 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Hold-down clamp set.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (3 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

R-8 & other tooling are readily available. This is an extra 5C collet holder modified to hold R-8 shank tooling.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (4 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

One inch arbor on R-8 shank with various spacers & left-hand nut.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (5 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Two inch boring head with interchangeable MT-2, R-8, & " straight type shanks. Uses " boring bars.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (6 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Boring-bar adapter " to " (steel). Use a reamer for the " hole.

2" boring head with integral R-8 shank uses " boring bars. Direct-read dial.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (7 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

2" carbide fly cutter (supplied).

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (8 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Fly cutter (Sierra American Brand, US made) with " straight shank & " US Carboloy grade, left-hand tool bit. This combination has superior cutting performance when compared to some imports. Plus, the set screws are hardened & don't strip.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (9 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Lyndex (Japan) collet set; very accurate, high gripping power.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (10 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

R-8 end mill holders. Sizes: 3/16", ", ", " & ". Indexed end mills will not slip.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (11 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Left to right: 2-flute end mills for aluminum, ball-nose end mills, 45 & 60 dove-tail & bevel cutters, 4-flute end mills for steel.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (12 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (13 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Radius cutter set

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (14 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Jacobs ball bearing Super Chuck, " ~ " (3mm ~ 16mm) capacity with R-8 to JT-3 ETM Precision arbor.

Keyless " capacity drill chuck on R-8 shank.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (15 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Six inch Phase II+ rotary table. Perfect size for the RF-25 table (40 lbs). Worm gear can cam out of mesh to allow free/rapid rotation of the table. Before use, remove table scale index retention knob (front & above table locking lever) to to fill oil reservoir through hole.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (16 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

Analog readout (ARO) for the mill/drill. Two inch travel range. Use with the extended quill by loosening black thumb screw, sliding down & relocking. A very low-cost option that gives excellent depth control to 0.0005" See DRO & X Y Z Axes Scales

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (17 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

RF_mill_accessories

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/RF_mill_accessories.htm (18 de 18)24/03/2005 13:04:45

spin_index

Home Fixtures

5C collet

Phase2+ spin index that uses 5C collets. Hardened & precision ground spindle.
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/spin_index.htm (1 de 5)24/03/2005 13:04:58

spin_index

Spindle accuracy 0.0004" TIR. Cylindrical center base (per inch) .0012" concentricity. Spindle centerline parallelism to base 0.0008". Precision ground 36 position index plate. Direct indexing in ten steps, graduated in 5 degree increments. Excellent price to performance ratio.

Milled base for flatness & clearance for mounting bolt nuts with coupled washers.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/spin_index.htm (2 de 5)24/03/2005 13:04:58

spin_index

Spin index mounted onto Taig mill which has 1 inch on-center T-slots. Bolts are 2 inches (slots) apart. Fit the RF-25, much better.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/spin_index.htm (3 de 5)24/03/2005 13:04:58

spin_index

Six and four-side 5C collet fixtures with clamping nuts.

Quick release 5C collet fixure.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/spin_index.htm (4 de 5)24/03/2005 13:04:58

spin_index

Adjustable depth stop for a 5C collet.

5C collet set

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/spin_index.htm (5 de 5)24/03/2005 13:04:58

bandsaw

Home

Band Saw

A band saw allows you to remove large amounts of metal before mill or lathe work. I chose this Jet model (HVBS-463) because of its low cost, the large hp UL motor, the quality of the design (heat-treated steel worm & bronze drive gears; ball bearings on the shafts & guides) plus the availability of any replacement parts that may be needed in the future. The unit performs very well. Bi-metal blades, though more costly, last much longer than carbon steel types. Apply a general purpose, dry lubricant (e.g., DoAll Toolsaver) to the " x 0.025" x 64" (5' 4") blade.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (1 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (2 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

Though Jet does not make a miter-type guide for this unit, one from Sears fits the saws' table groove, perfectly. Replaced the OEM stamped band saw table with a 12" x 12" x " aluminum table held to the saw through counter-bored holes, using 2, -20, cap-head screws. Used an F drill & 3/8" end mill to achieve close-tolerance, counter-bored holes.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (3 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The 1/8" slot was milled to accept a " wide by " thick cover plate. It is held in the T-slot by 2, 10-32 thumb screws with thick brass washers. The cover's nose was marked with a 3/8" radius gage & then ground by hand until it fit. The cover was then clamped into the plate & milled flush when the entire edge was squared. The corners have since been rounded for safety.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (4 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The slot cover plate was pushed into the running blade to create a zero-clearance mask.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (5 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The miter grove was moved much closer to the blade than the original design.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (6 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The miter is painted cast aluminum. I milled the raised lettering making it much easier to read. Also milled the face making it smoother, flatter & perfectly perpendicular to the table's surface. The miter originally pivoted on an aluminum peg that broke. Replaced it with a -20, flat-head screw & large brass spacers. Used a lock nut to maintain proper tension.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (7 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

Milled miter surfaces, shown.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (8 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The fence uses a toe-clamp on each end to hold it to the table. A roll pin (in the body) keeps the clamp (with a clearance hole) from turning. 10-32 knobs with brass washers are used. The new table changes the entire character of the saw.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (9 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The handle that is used to move the unit around, passed through thin metal. The metal around the handle distorted. Additionally, even when the unit was lifted relatively high, the metal feet still rubbed against the floor because the original wheel bracket flexed too much & was too far from the floor. To improve the handle mount, both sides of the area were reinforced with 1/8" thick aluminum, trapezoid-shaped plates.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (10 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

The original wheels were poorly designed; had to lift too high & too much flex. The latest model has updated the stand to now sit on two hard-plastic wheels (pneumatic tires would flex too much) & two adjustable machine pads. I copied that design using a few parts (steel axle & axle guides) from an old hand truck. The hard rubber tires are from
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (11 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

Harbor Freight. It now has a very sturdy handle & a small lift allows safe, easy movement of the 125# unit.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (12 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

Also shown below is an earlier wheel mod where the original wheels were replaced with heavy-duty, non-swiveling, 2" wheels. The wheels needed to be as close to the floor
http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (13 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bandsaw

as possible so a small lift would allow it to start rolling. To accomplish this, one side of the mounting bracket was cut-off even with the wheel & another mounting hole drilled. Three, -20 bolts attached each wheel. Either mod works better than the original though the larger, wheel/axle/pad mod is best since it rolls over debris easier.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bandsaw.htm (14 de 14)24/03/2005 13:05:25

bench_grinder

Home Bench Grinder


WARNING - Grinders are Dangerous. Grinding wheels can break apart while turning at high speeds. Always use appropriate eye, breathing & clothing protection. Read, understand & follow all of the manufacturer's instructions. Dust from grinding tool bits is dangerous if inhaled.

Stock bench grinders can be modified to make them more useful for tool bit grinding & general shop use. Often, a grinding wheel has a 1" hole but is used on a " shaft and is usually adapted using concentric plastic spacer rings. These are adequate but they can place the wheel off-center, necessitating redressing of the wheel every time it is removed/replaced. Also, the wheel can wobble a little due to the spacers & the uneven clamping pressure of the large, stamped clamping washers. I took a 1.000" aluminum dowel, centered it in the Jet 4-jaw, faced it, centered drilled, then drilled a 31/64" hole. Chamfer the opening & then use a well-lubricated 0.500" reamer. I use " wide wheels so I cut-off the spacer length slightly bigger but not interfering with clamping action of the washers & left-hand nut. I found some nicely machined clamping washers from another arbor I had in my grinding accessories. I had to run the grinder & lightly touch-up the shaft with 400 grit emery to remove some burs. The spacer is a tight fit to both the wheel & the grinder shaft. The wheel is now held very precisely in the grinder. Instead of using a star dresser, use a carborundum dressing stick which makes the surface smooth & flat. Found one at Woodcraft.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bench_grinder.htm (1 de 6)24/03/2005 13:05:41

bench_grinder

Aluminum shaft spacer for grinding wheel (1.000" OD, 0.500" ID & about 0.75" long)

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bench_grinder.htm (2 de 6)24/03/2005 13:05:41

bench_grinder

Veritas tool rest & a jig. Note the " x " channel to guide jigs. The rest's center hole is for pivoting jigs. The locking handles can be pulled & rotated to any detent position.

I found this picture on the web. They removed the grinding wheel protective shroud & show the backside of the motor to make a nice picture. Included is a plastic, multi-angle gage.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bench_grinder.htm (3 de 6)24/03/2005 13:05:41

bench_grinder

DO NOT remove the shroud that covers a wheel. The next mod was to the tool rest. Most grinders have inadequate rests & mine was no different. I replaced it with the Veritas tool rest (Woodcraft has them). It is a great improvement over the OEM rest. It has a wide range of adjustment. Its best feature is the " x " channel on the tool rest platform that is used to guide jigs. There are several jigs available but custom jigs may be fabricated to suit any need. Shown is a jig that allows me to precisely grind tool bits at 60 for threading. The rest mounts onto the bench. They recommend using " x 20 carriage bolts but I tapped holes into the grinder mounting plate & used " x 20 socket head cap screws & nylon washers.

Top & bottom view of a jig used to grind tool bits for threading. It is rotated 180 to grind both angles. The guide bar is " x " x 2"

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bench_grinder.htm (4 de 6)24/03/2005 13:05:41

bench_grinder

Measuring total indicated run out (TIR) of the chuck using a 3/8" dowel. One of the most useful mods I have ever made was to mount a drill chuck onto the (right side) shaft of the grinder. The arbor adapters are available at motor supply/repair shops in a variety of shaft/chuck thread sizes & I have recently seen them in Woodcraft. A taper-mounted chuck is not recommended since sideways force could make it come loose. The arbors usually have only two " x 28 set screws. I drilled & tapped three more set screws (as referenced from the center, pre-existing set screw); one every 90. I use US made set screws. This set screw arrangement allows adjusting the run out in the same manner as a 4-jaw chuck. Any chuck can be used. Pictured is a Jacob's medium-duty 5/64" ~ " chuck. This example is mounted onto a " x 20 threaded arbor. One could use a keyless chuck (not recommended) but keyed chucks grip so much tighter. I hack sawed the shaft threads off to place more motor shaft into the arbor. Use the drill chuck on the right side of the grinder since most accessories (arbors, sanding drums, etc.) are made for that turning direction. I use a full-face visor for eye protection.

hp, 3400 RPM, 100 lb. grinder for carbide with 220 grit Norton diamond wheel (right side). Motor can rotate in either CCW or CW direction. An adjustable miter is included. Quickly & accurately grinds carbide tool bits.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bench_grinder.htm (5 de 6)24/03/2005 13:05:41

bench_grinder

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/bench_grinder.htm (6 de 6)24/03/2005 13:05:41

Measurement Instruments

Home

Measurement Tools

A carbide-tipped (Mitutoyo) height gauge on a granite surface plate ( 0.0001") make a good combination for laying out precisely scribed lines. Use red layout die to make the scribe marks easier to see.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/measurement_instruments.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 13:05:53

Measurement Instruments

Micrometer depth gage

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/measurement_instruments.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 13:05:53

Measurement Instruments

Inside micrometer gages

Using 1st Word (Sparro) to tram mill/drill. Very rigid holder.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/measurement_instruments.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 13:05:53

Measurement Instruments

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/measurement_instruments.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 13:05:53

Drill press chuck

Home

Drill Press Chucks


The chucks supplied with most tradesman drill presses can have a relatively high total indicated readout (TIR) & marginal gripping power. Replace it with a Made in the USA, Jacobs chuck. The first photo shows a Jacobs taper (JT-33), heavy duty, 0" ~ " (0mm ~ 13mm), keyed chuck on a bench drill press. The extra large jaws & key, coupled with high quality, totally eliminates any drill bit slippage. Shown with a " stublength drill bit.

Also shown is the replacement chuck for a floor-standing, 16 speed, 16.5" swing, Jet drill press. The low, 200 RPM speed is good for drilling large holes. Its uses an MT-2 (Morse taper) to JT-3 chuck arbor. This type of arbor arrangement allows the mounting of a Jacobs ball bearing Super Chuck, " ~ " (3mm ~ 16mm). The low-cost chuck arbors come in a large number of size combinations allowing one to adapt almost any chuck to a given spindle. For example, I obtained an MT-2 to JT-33 arbor (shown below, from Enco) to allow mounting the

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (1 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Drill press chuck

smaller Jacobs chuck since it can hold smaller drill bits in the range of 0" ~ " (0mm ~ 3mm). Use the proper cutting fluid.

MT-2 to JT-33 drill chuck arbor. Caution: always clamp the piece to the table before drilling. Do not hold by hand.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (2 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Drill press chuck

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (3 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Drill press chuck

The Jacobs Super Chuck is of superior quality having low a TIR & the ball bearing design allows very high gripping power.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (4 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Drill press chuck

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (5 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Drill press chuck

The left picture shows a Visegrip drill press hold down clamp. The right picture shows a Royal micro-sensitive feed attachment with a Jacobs JT0 keyed chuck (0" ~ 5/32") for small hole drilling (from Enco). Its straight shank is " in diameter; overall drill travel is ". Use the highest RPM. Hold the aluminum ring between your fingers (it is mounted in a ball bearing to decouple it from the rotating shaft) & apply downward pressure. Far less drilling pressure than the drill press rack & pinion. It has an internal spring that retracts the chuck.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (6 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Drill press chuck

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/drill_press_chuck.htm (7 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:06

Pens

Home

Pens
Caution: always use a breathing filter (especially when cutting & sanding Cocobolo). Wood dust can be highly irritating and/or cause an adverse reaction.

Cocobolo pen bodies being turned using round-nose tool bit & power feed.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (1 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

Pens

Pen bodies after final sanding (600 grit).

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (2 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

Pens

-ton arbor press used to assemble pens & other things.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (3 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

Pens

Aluminum, Corian & Cocobolo pens made using Woodcraft American Classic ballpoint pen kits. These kits are made for use with wood accents but other materials can be substituted. The aluminum type looks art deco. The Corian type matches my kitchen tops. When I make the wooden pens, I forego using my traditional wood lathe tools (Lee Valley has all the wood working tools for the Taig) & use metal techniques. If a handheld tool catches the wood, it can rip it apart which is called a blowout. Metal tool bits can cut woods & plastics very precisely. My favorite woods are Cocobolo & Osage Orange. Cocobolo is waxy & turns beautifully. Before sanding, place a cloth over the lathe bed to protect it from the abrasive residue. When sanding, start with a coarse grit, 150, then use increasingly finer grits, 240, 320 & 400 (or higher). Careful, the dark sandpaper grit can get into the pores of the lighter woods. Use the yellow/red colored sandpaper, instead. A light touch of 0000 steel wool helps. After final sanding, grab a handful of the wood chips & burnish the wood as it turns in the lathe at low speed. You can use a pen wax (applied while turning, slowly) but I find the finish is temporary. I have since found that the gold is too thin & wears off so I have changed to the European model that has satin nickel, better clip (does not gouge the wood) & a nice shape, too.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (4 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

Pens

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (5 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

Pens

Wine bottle stoppers

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (6 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

Pens

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/pens.htm (7 de 7)24/03/2005 13:06:21

tool_links

Home

Related Links
9x20Lathe Group 80/20 ~ industrial erector set Archaeology of Hand Tools Bench Mill/Drills Group Cal Aero Supply Co ~ tools, DROs eFunda Engineering Fundamentals ~ engineering reference eMachineshop Enco ~ tools & supplies (excellent) Graham Industries Grizzly (cheaply made products; lousy return policies, restocking fee) H&H Industrial Products ~ tools (excellent) Jameco ~ electronics Jet Equipment ~ machines Lee Valley ~ wood working tools (excellent) LittleMachineShop.com ~ mini lathe & mill (excellent) Live Steam Metal Working Web Sites Mitutoyo ~ measurement MSC Industrial ~ tools (excellent) Nick Carter's Taig pages (excellent) Phase2+ ~ tools (excellent) Penn Tool ~ tools (excellent) PM Research (excellent) Reid Tool ~ parts Shars ~ tools (very good; restocking fee) ShumaTech ~ DRO kits (excellent) Sparro Machine Products ~ setup tools (excellent) Steppercontrol Steve Bedair ~ 9x20 mods

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/related_links.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:06:22

tool_links

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/related_links.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:06:22

Fine Line Hair Design and Day Spa in Bellbrook Oh ~ Aveda

Fine Line Hair Design and Day Spa


AVEDA Concept Salon
135 West Franklin St Bellbrook Oh 45305

937.848.4251
Hair | Skin | Nails | Aveda Products | Intelligent Nutrients | Spa Services | Days of Beauty | Prices Photo Gallery | What's New | Location & Hours | Employment | Discounts | Specials

aveda.cut.style.color.face
Serving the Bellbrook Area for Over 20 Years
Hair styling, nails, manicures & pedicures, therapeutic massage, facials, cosmetics, vitamins, Pierre et Fleur, aromatherapy & Days of Beauty. We maintain our expertise with intensive educational seminars from & Vidal Sassoon, where we receive the latest information on techniques utilizing today's most advanced methods & newest products. Concept Salon, we carry the Full Line of Aveda Products. As an All haircuts by designers include our complementary stress-relieving treatment & finishing touch.
Trained at FREDRIC'S in CINCINNATI, MARTIN PARSONS in TORONTO, The AVEDA INSTITUTE in NEW YORK CITY, VIDAL SASSOON & AVEDA COLOR INSTITUTE in LONDON Exciting New Hair Styles & Techniques await you ...

fine line offers a complete range of beauty treatments.

AVEDA ...
http://finelinehair.com/ (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:11:36

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PURE FLOWER AND PLANT ESSENCES TM

Fine Line Hair Design and Day Spa in Bellbrook Oh ~ Aveda

The Complete AVEDA Line Gift Certificates & Customized Gift Packages Available

We Are Growing ... Employment Opportunities for Stylists Nail Technicians, Facial Specialists / Estheticians
Hair | Skin | Nails | Aveda Products | Intelligent Nutrients | Spa Services | Days of Beauty | Prices Photo Gallery | What's New | Location & Hours | Employment | Discounts | Specials

Fine Line's Longevity Award

Trademarks of Aveda Corp

Thank you for visiting Fine Line ! | Updated 01/12/05 NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ERRORS

~ NO SOLICITORS ~

http://finelinehair.com/ (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:11:36

National Atlas home page

Type search words for nationalatlas.gov


About

| Contact Us | Partners | Products | Site Map | FAQ | Help

Home
Welcome to the National Atlas of the United States of America You've seen other atlases. They're typically big books of paper maps. The pages in this atlas are here on the Internet whenever you need them. This is a new portrayal of America in maps. We use new technologies, but we honor traditions of accuracy, reliability, and innovation. You've found the single best Federal source for national maps and geographic information on the Web. The people and places of the United States are here. - See Below for new maps What you can do in the National Atlas of the United States
Customize your own map for printing or viewing. Investigate the layers that you can mix and match when making your own map. Print pre-formatted maps on a variety of topics. Order larger maps suitable for the wall of your office, home, or classroom. Play with interactive maps. Learn about topics that interest you.

Map Maker

Map Layers

Printable Maps

Wall Maps

Dynamic Maps Articles

Download documented, accurate, reliable, and integrated data to use in your GIS application.

Mapping Professionals

Something New We are pleased to reintroduce the online National Atlas of the United States. The changes we've made are all designed to make it easier for you to find, get, and use geographic information about our Nation. The improvements result from suggestions received from American citizens and from our ongoing efforts to make our products and services better. We hope you like the changes. And we invite you to share your opinions, complaints, or suggestions with us. Our email address is at the bottom of every page on nationalatlas.gov. We intend to take the first six months of 2005 to compile the next edition of the National Atlas. After its release, nationalatlas.gov will move to a quarterly publication schedule. January 2005 North American Atlas Natural phenomena, such as water quality
http://nationalatlas.gov/ (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:12:02

New Printable Maps

Nationalatlas.gov offers many useful page-size maps you can print at home, in the classroom, or at the office. We've recently added printable maps of each State that include general reference information, showing boundaries, cities, capitals, major highways, rivers, and lakes. County maps for each State are now available too. Other popular maps show State outlines with states labeled or

National Atlas home page

and avian migration, and human activities, such as energy use and the generation of greenhouse gas emissions, recognize no political boundaries. We share resources and challenges for sustainable development with our neighboring nations. The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica - INEGI) and the Atlas of Canada have entered into partnerships with the National Atlas of the United States. Our three countries will collaboratively compile maps that characterize and illustrate the North American environments, places, and people. We will start by integrating and harmonizing the basic building blocks of maps, features like boundaries, surface waters, transportation networks, and populated places. Early efforts will lay the groundwork for future cooperative ventures by our programs and by other mapping organizations as well. New wall maps, raw data, trilingual documentation, and Web mapping services are all planned for introduction this year. January 2005

unlabeled, States and capitals labeled or unlabeled, America's rivers and lakes labeled or unlabeled, and time zones.

January 2005
This edition is dedicated to the men and women who compiled the National Atlas of 1970 and to the memory of our colleague, Donna Dixon, whose work is evident throughout these pages.

National Atlas of the United States and The National Atlas of the United States of America are registered trademarks of the United States Department of the Interior

Privacy Statement, Disclaimer, Accessibility, FOIA http://nationalatlas.gov/index.html Last modified: March 18, 2005 16:57

http://nationalatlas.gov/ (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:12:02

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive


| Index | Search | Today's Picture | 2005 March 24: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant 2005 March 23: A Dust Devil Swirling on Mars 2005 March 22: To Fly Free in Space 2005 March 21: Orion's Horsehead Nebula 2005 March 20: The Equal Night 2005 March 19: NGC 2266: Old Cluster in the New General Catalog 2005 March 18: Moon, Mercury, Monaco 2005 March 17: Enceladus Close Up 2005 March 16: Markarian's Chain of Galaxies 2005 March 15: Steep Cliffs on Mars 2005 March 14: The Fox Fur Nebula 2005 March 13: A Message From Earth 2005 March 12: Accretion Disk Simulation 2005 March 11: Infrared Ring Nebula 2005 March 10: NGC 1499: California Nebula 2005 March 09: A Sun Halo Over Tennessee 2005 March 08: Crater on Mimas 2005 March 07: Mercury Over Leeds 2005 March 06: The View from Everest 2005 March 05: Tycho and Copernicus: Lunar Ray Craters 2005 March 04: NGC 1427A: Galaxy in Motion 2005 March 03: Still Life with NGC 2170 2005 March 02: The Powerful Sumatra Andaman Islands Earthquake 2005 March 01: NGC 1531/2: Interacting Galaxies 2005 February 28: Unusual Plates on Mars 2005 February 27: The Solar Spectrum 2005 February 26: Frizion Illume 2005 February 25: Saturn's Dragon Storm 2005 February 24: Ski Enceladus 2005 February 23: Voyage of an Antarctic Iceberg 2005 February 22: Persistent Saturnian Auroras 2005 February 21: Galactic Magnetar Throws Giant Flare 2005 February 20: Oklo: Ancient African Nuclear Reactors 2005 February 19: Saturnian Aurora 2005 February 18: Big Dipper Castle
http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (1 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2005 February 17: Melas, Candor, and Ophir: Valleys of Mariner 2005 February 16: Sunspot Metamorphosis: From Bottom to Top 2005 February 15: Saturn's Moon Rhea from Cassini 2005 February 14: The Rosette Nebula 2005 February 13: In the Center of the Virgo Cluster 2005 February 12: NEAR at Eros: Before Touchdown 2005 February 11: Blue Saturn 2005 February 10: Red Saturn 2005 February 09: Heat Shield Impact Crater on Mars 2005 February 08: A Mysterious Streak Above Hawaii 2005 February 07: A Telescope Laser Creates an Artificial Star 2005 February 06: NGC 3132: The Eight Burst Nebula 2005 February 05: The Radio Sky: Tuned to 408MHz 2005 February 04: V838 Mon: Light Echo Update 2005 February 03: SMART-1: Pythagoras Crater 2005 February 02: A Twisted Meteor Train 2005 February 01: Saturn's Iapetus: Moon with a Strange Surface 2005 January 31: NGC 2467: From Gas to Stars 2005 January 30: The Holographic Principle 2005 January 29: Southern Cross in Mauna Loa Skies 2005 January 28: The Swarm 2005 January 27: Shadow Set 2005 January 26: First Launch of the Delta IV Heavy 2005 January 25: NGC 6946: The Fireworks Galaxy 2005 January 24: Riverbeds and Lakebeds Discovered on Saturn's Titan 2005 January 23: NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf 2005 January 22: The Mysterious Voynich Manuscript 2005 January 21: Metal on the Plains of Mars 2005 January 20: A Waterspout off the Florida Keys 2005 January 19: Eight Kilometers Above Titan 2005 January 18: NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud 2005 January 17: Titan Landscape 2005 January 16: Nebula Nova Cygni Turns On 2005 January 15: Huygens Images Titan's Surface 2005 January 14: Descent to Titan 2005 January 13: Infrared Trifid 2005 January 12: Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300 2005 January 11: Machholz Meets the Pleiades 2005 January 10: Dust Sculptures in the Rosette Nebula 2005 January 09: Jupiter's Rings Revealed 2005 January 08: X-Ray Mystery in RCW 38

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (2 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2005 January 07: S is for Venus 2005 January 06: UKIRT: Aloha Orion 2005 January 05: Comet Machholz in View 2005 January 04: Milky Way Illustrated 2005 January 03: The Pleiades Star Cluster 2005 January 02: Welcome to Planet Earth 2005 January 01: Manicouagan Impact Crater 2004 December 31: A Year of Mars Roving 2004 December 30: M81 and M82: GALEX Full Field 2004 December 29: The Helix Nebula from Blanco and Hubble 2004 December 28: Tentacles of the Tarantula Nebula 2004 December 27: Andromeda's Core 2004 December 26: GRO J165540: Evidence for a Spinning Black Hole 2004 December 25: Big Beautiful Saturn 2004 December 24: Swift RocketCam 2004 December 23: 3C58: Pulsar Power 2004 December 22: Comet, Meteor, Nebula, Star 2004 December 21: Titan Disguised 2004 December 20: Titan Surmised 2004 December 19: Molecular Cloud Barnard 68 2004 December 18: Europa: Ice Line 2004 December 17: Prometheus and the Rings of Saturn 2004 December 16: The Arms of NGC 7424 2004 December 15: Looking Back Over Mars 2004 December 14: Nearby Spiral M33 2004 December 13: Announcing Comet Machholz 2004 December 12: Atlantis to Orbit 2004 December 11: M87's Energetic Jet 2004 December 10: Debris Disks Surround Distant Suns 2004 December 09: Jupiter and the Moon's Shadowed Horizon 2004 December 08: In the Center of the Heart Nebula 2004 December 07: A Strange Streak Imaged in Australia 2004 December 06: Filaments Across the Sun 2004 December 05: Kembles Cascade 2004 December 04: Reflecting Merope 2004 December 03: I Zwicky 18: Young Galaxy 2004 December 02: Mimas, Rings, and Shadows 2004 December 01: Saturn's Moon Dione from Cassini 2004 November 30: Lake Effect Snow on Earth 2004 November 29: Saturn's Moon Tethys from Cassini 2004 November 28: Doomed Star Eta Carinae

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (3 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 November 27: NGC 2683: Spiral Edge On 2004 November 26: Magnetars In The Sky 2004 November 25: What the Hubble Saw 2004 November 24: A Radar View of Titan 2004 November 23: Leonid Meteors Streak 2004 November 22: Swift Launches 2004 November 21: Spiral Galaxies in Collision 2004 November 20: Stereo Phobos 2004 November 19: Phobos: Doomed Moon of Mars 2004 November 18: A Sharper View of a Tilted Planet 2004 November 17: Aurora Over Wisconsin 2004 November 16: Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy 2004 November 15: Burns Cliff on Mars 2004 November 14: Leonids Above Torre de la Guaita 2004 November 13: Moon Over Shiraz 2004 November 12: Missouri's Green Ribbon Sky 2004 November 11: Pastel Planet, Triple Eclipse 2004 November 10: Leo A: Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy 2004 November 09: A Full Sky Multi Colored Auroral Corona 2004 November 08: Jupiter and Venus at Sunrise 2004 November 07: The Galactic Center in Infrared 2004 November 06: X-Rays from the Galactic Core 2004 November 05: Supernova Remnant Imaged in Gamma Rays 2004 November 04: NGC 7023: The Iris Nebula 2004 November 03: A Time Lapse Lunar Eclipse 2004 November 02: Storm Alley on Saturn 2004 November 01: Spooky Star Forming Region DR 6 2004 October 31: Halloween and the Ghost Head Nebula 2004 October 30: Pumpkin Moon 2004 October 29: Red Moon Triple 2004 October 28: Tantalizing Titan 2004 October 27: Total Lunar Eclipse Tonight 2004 October 26: Titan Through the Haze 2004 October 25: The Perseus Cluster of Galaxies 2004 October 24: Inside the Eagle Nebula 2004 October 23: Surveyor Slides 2004 October 22: SOFIA's Mirror 2004 October 21: Apogee Moon, Perigee Moon 2004 October 20: NGC 281: Cluster, Clouds, and Globules 2004 October 19: Old Planetary Dust Disks Found by SST 2004 October 18: Southern Saturn from Cassini

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (4 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 October 17: IC 418: The Spirograph Nebula 2004 October 16: The Bubbling Cauldron of NGC 3079 2004 October 15: Night MAGIC 2004 October 14: Glimpse of a Globular Star Cluster 2004 October 13: Contrail Clutter over Georgia 2004 October 12: M3: Inconstant Star Cluster 2004 October 11: Mosaic of Endurance Crater on Mars 2004 October 10: Sunspot Loops in Ultraviolet 2004 October 09: The Averted Side Of The Moon 2004 October 08: Kepler's SNR from Chandra, Hubble, Spitzer 2004 October 07: Moon Lightning 2004 October 06: N11: A Giant Ring of Emission Nebulas 2004 October 05: SpaceShipOne Wins the X Prize 2004 October 04: NGC 6823: Cloud Sculpting Star Cluster 2004 October 03: Comet Hale Bopp and the North America Nebula 2004 October 02: Toutatis Nears Planet Earth 2004 October 01: Earth Nears Asteroid Toutatis 2004 September 30: Crater Wall on Solis Planum 2004 September 29: HUDF: Dawn of the Galaxies 2004 September 28: Aurora Over a Communications Tower 2004 September 27: The Great Nebula in Orion 2004 September 26: Looking Back on an Eclipsed Earth 2004 September 25: The Iron Sun 2004 September 24: Fornax Cluster in Motion 2004 September 23: La Silla's Starry Night 2004 September 22: Spirit Rover at Engineering Flats on Mars 2004 September 21: M24: A Sagittarius Starscape 2004 September 20: Seeing Through Saturn's C Ring 2004 September 19: Earth's North Magnetic Pole 2004 September 18: M55: Globular Star Cluster 2004 September 17: IC 1805: Light from the Heart 2004 September 16: Microquasar in Motion 2004 September 15: Above the Eye of Hurricane Ivan 2004 September 14: Genesis Missions Hard Impact 2004 September 13: Identify this Phenomenon 2004 September 12: Mercury: A Cratered Inferno 2004 September 11: The Star Trails of Kilimanjaro 2004 September 10: Cat's Eye 2004 September 09: Sagittarius Triplet 2004 September 08: Molecular Torus Surrounds Black Hole 2004 September 07: A Supernova in Nearby Galaxy NGC 2403

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (5 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 September 06: C153 Takes the Plunge 2004 September 05: M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy in Dust and Stars 2004 September 04: Neutron Mars 2004 September 03: Hurricane Frances Approaches Florida 2004 September 02: The Large Cloud of Magellan 2004 September 01: An Inner Neptune for 55 Cancri 2004 August 31: The Dotted Dunes of Mars 2004 August 30: Announcing Comet C 2003 K4 LINEAR 2004 August 29: Lunation 2004 August 28: M17: A Hubble Close-Up 2004 August 27: The Sedna Scenario 2004 August 26: Cassiopeia A in a Million 2004 August 25: Zodiacal Light and the False Dawn 2004 August 24: Supply Ship Approaches the Space Station 2004 August 23: Looking Out Over Mars 2004 August 22: Earth at Night 2004 August 21: Solar Sail 2004 August 20: Raining Perseids 2004 August 19: Windblown N44F 2004 August 18: Lightning on Earth 2004 August 17: The Unusual Blueberries at Bylot Rock 2004 August 16: Close Up of the Lagoon Nebula 2004 August 15: Hoags Object: A Strange Ring Galaxy 2004 August 14: Messenger Launch 2004 August 13: Perseid Fireball Over Japan 2004 August 12: The Spectrum of A Meteor 2004 August 11: A Perseid Meteor 2004 August 10: The Double Haze above Titan 2004 August 09: The Dark River to Antares 2004 August 08: Contemplating the Sky 2004 August 07: Giant Cluster Bends, Breaks Images 2004 August 06: The Giant and the Glory 2004 August 05: Emission Nebula IC 1396 2004 August 04: Solar Arcs and Halos 2004 August 03: Shadow of a Martian Robot 2004 August 02: Spicules: Jets on the Sun 2004 August 01: A Force from Empty Space: The Casimir Effect 2004 July 31: Tonight: A Blue Moon 2004 July 30: Northern Lights 2004 July 29: Melas Chasma 2004 July 28: A Cygnus Star Field

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (6 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 July 27: Razorbacks in Endurance Crater 2004 July 26: A Large Active Region Crosses the Sun 2004 July 25: A Solar Filament Lifts Off 2004 July 24: A String Of Pearls 2004 July 23: Saturns Rings in Natural Color 2004 July 22: Aura Launch 2004 July 21: A Shadow on the Rings of Saturn 2004 July 20: Space Station, Venus, Sun 2004 July 19: Attacking Mars 2004 July 18: M31: The Andromeda Galaxy 2004 July 17: Transit of Venus Stereogram 2004 July 16: The Bubble 2004 July 15: Stars and Dust in Corona Australis 2004 July 14: Polar Polygons on Mars 2004 July 13: Orion Nebula in Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Sulfur 2004 July 12: Cassini Images Saturns A Ring 2004 July 11: WMAP Resolves the Universe 2004 July 10: Phoebe Craters in Stereo 2004 July 09: Ringed Nebulae 2004 July 08: Southern Cross Star Colors 2004 July 07: N11B: Star Cloud of the LMC 2004 July 06: Titan from Cassini in Infrared 2004 July 05: Cassini Images Density Waves in Saturns Rings 2004 July 04: M57: The Ring Nebula 2004 July 03: Cassini to Venus 2004 July 02: The Encke Gap: A Moon Goes Here 2004 July 01: NGC 7331: A Galaxy So Inclined 2004 June 30: Phoebe: Comet Moon of Saturn 2004 June 29: In the Center of NGC 6559 2004 June 28: Spirit Rover Reaches the Columbia Hills on Mars 2004 June 27: Galaxy Cluster Abell 1689 Warps Space 2004 June 26: Neptune: Still Springtime After All These Years 2004 June 25: Planet Earth from SpaceShipOne 2004 June 24: The Galaxy Within Centaurus A 2004 June 23: A Picturesque Venus Transit 2004 June 22: Unusual Spires Found on Comet Wild 2 2004 June 21: Analemma Over Ancient Nemea 2004 June 20: Solstice Celebration 2004 June 19: Ida and Dactyl: Asteroid and Moon 2004 June 18: The Trifid Nebula from Hubble 2004 June 17: Comet NEAT and the Beehive Cluster

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (7 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 June 16: Elliptical Galaxy M87 2004 June 15: A Rare Annular Venusian Solar Eclipse 2004 June 14: Unusual Layers on Saturn's Moon Phoebe 2004 June 13: Volcano and Aurora in Iceland 2004 June 12: NGC 4676: When Mice Collide 2004 June 11: Venus and the Chromosphere 2004 June 10: Venus at the Edge 2004 June 09: Venus Transit at Sunrise 2004 June 08: A Planet Transits the Sun 2004 June 07: Mammatus Clouds Over Mexico 2004 June 06: Mercury Spotting 2004 June 05: Apollo 17's Lunar Rover 2004 June 04: Sedna at Noon 2004 June 03: Cosmic Construction Zone RCW 49 2004 June 02: The Colorful Clouds of Rho Ophiuchi 2004 June 01: The Supergalactic Wind from Starburst Galaxy M82 2004 May 31: 24 Million Kilometers to Saturn 2004 May 30: Astronaut at Work 2004 May 29: Cone Nebula Close Up 2004 May 28: A Manhattan Sunset 2004 May 27: Two Comets in Southern Skies 2004 May 26: At the Summit of Olympus Mons 2004 May 25: Moon Between the Stones 2004 May 24: Planets Over Easter Island 2004 May 23: Working in Space 2004 May 22: X-Rays From Tycho's Supernova Remnant 2004 May 21: Phases of Venus 2004 May 20: Sharpless 140 2004 May 19: Brain Crater on Mars 2004 May 18: Comet NEAT (Q4) Over Indian Cove 2004 May 17: NGC 3372: The Great Nebula in Carina 2004 May 16: Venus: Earth's Cloudy Twin 2004 May 15: Arp 188 and the Tadpole's Tidal Tail 2004 May 14: Zubenelgenubi and Friends 2004 May 13: Rungs of the Red Rectangle 2004 May 12: The Tails of Comet NEAT Q4 2004 May 11: M13: The Great Globular Cluster in Hercules 2004 May 10: Endurance Crater on Mars 2004 May 09: Antares and Rho Ophiuchi 2004 May 08: Good Morning Sydney 2004 May 07: Look West for a NEAT Comet

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (8 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 May 06: A Lunar Eclipse Mosaic 2004 May 05: NGC 6302: Big Bright Bug Nebula 2004 May 04: Missoula Crater on Mars 2004 May 03: Comets Bradfield and LINEAR Rising 2004 May 02: Io in True Color 2004 May 01: A Western Sky at Twilight 2004 April 30: Eyeful of Saturn 2004 April 29: Titan's X-Ray 2004 April 28: The Smooth Spheres of Gravity Probe B 2004 April 27: Comet Bradfield Rising 2004 April 26: Ring Galaxy AM 0644 741 from Hubble 2004 April 25: D rad Bacteria: Candidate Astronauts 2004 April 24: M27: Not A Comet 2004 April 23: Comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) 2004 April 22: Comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) 2004 April 21: Nebulas Surrounding Wolf Rayet Binary 2004 April 20: Comet Hale Bopp Over Indian Cove 2004 April 19: Comet Bradfield Passes the Sun 2004 April 18: Stellar Spectral Types: OBAFGKM 2004 April 17: Lunar Dust and Duct Tape 2004 April 16: The Stars of NGC 300 2004 April 15: Venus and the Pleiades 2004 April 14: Massive Star Forming Region DR21 in Infrared 2004 April 13: An Iridescent Cloud Over France 2004 April 12: Apollo 17 Panorama: Astronaut Running 2004 April 11: Journey to the Center of the Galaxy 2004 April 10: Facing NGC 6946 2004 April 09: NGC 4565: Galaxy on the Edge 2004 April 08: Elusive Jellyfish Nebula 2004 April 07: Unusual Spiral Galaxy M66 2004 April 06: Unusually Strong Cyclone Off the Brazilian Coast 2004 April 05: A Berry Bowl of Martian Spherules 2004 April 04: The Lost World of Lake Vida 2004 April 03: A Mystery in Gamma Rays 2004 April 02: Mercury and Venus in the West 2004 April 01: April Fools Day More Intense On Mars 2004 March 31: M39: Open Cluster in Cygnus 2004 March 30: A Prominent Solar Prominence from SOHO 2004 March 29: NASA's X 43A Scramjet Sets Air Speed Record 2004 March 28: Stars and the Bubble Nebula 2004 March 27: Mir Dreams

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (9 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 March 26: Moon and Planets Sky 2004 March 25: An Orion of a Different Color 2004 March 24: Intriguing Dimples Near Eagle Crater on Mars 2004 March 23: Lava Flows on Venus 2004 March 22: Asteroid 2004 FH Whizzes By 2004 March 21: A Green Flash from the Sun 2004 March 20: Equinox + 1 2004 March 19: Going Wild 2004 March 18: Spirit Pan from Bonneville Crater's Edge 2004 March 17: Redshift 10: Evidence for a New Farthest Galaxy 2004 March 16: Sedna of the Outer Solar System 2004 March 15: The Orion Nebula from CFHT 2004 March 14: Comet Hale Bopp Over Val Parola Pass 2004 March 13: A Cerro Tololo Sky 2004 March 12: X-Ray Saturn 2004 March 11: Henize 206: Cosmic Generations 2004 March 10: Humphrey Rock Indicates Ancient Martian Water 2004 March 09: The Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2004 March 08: Moon and Venus over Corona Del Mar Beach 2004 March 07: An Anomalous SETI Signal 2004 March 06: N49's Cosmic Blast 2004 March 05: V838 Mon: Echoes from the Edge 2004 March 04: Cold Mountain Sky 2004 March 03: Opportunity Rover Indicates Ancient Mars Was Wet 2004 March 02: NGC 6960: The Witch's Broom Nebula 2004 March 01: Cassini Closes in on Saturn 2004 February 29: Julius Caesar and Leap Days 2004 February 28: POX 186: Not So Long Ago 2004 February 27: Rumors of a Strange Universe 2004 February 26: Galaxy Cluster in the Early Universe 2004 February 25: White Boat Rock on Mars 2004 February 24: X-Rays Indicate Star Ripped Up by Black Hole 2004 February 23: Heaven on Earth 2004 February 22: The M7 Open Star Cluster in Scorpius 2004 February 21: The Spiral Arms of NGC 4622 2004 February 20: SN1987A's Cosmic Pearls 2004 February 19: McNeil's Nebula 2004 February 18: Anvil Cloud Over Sicily 2004 February 17: Galaxy Cluster Lenses Farthest Known Galaxy 2004 February 16: A Patch of Spherules on Mars 2004 February 15: A Spherule from the Earth's Moon

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (10 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 February 14: Solar System Portrait 2004 February 13: NGC 613: Spiral of Dust and Stars 2004 February 12: Supernova Survivor 2004 February 11: M64: The Sleeping Beauty Galaxy 2004 February 10: Unusual Spherules on Mars 2004 February 09: Announcing Comet C 2002 T7 LINEAR 2004 February 08: In the Center of the Omega Nebula 2004 February 07: NGC 6369: The Little Ghost Nebula 2004 February 06: Magnified Mars 2004 February 05: NGC 1569: Starburst in a Small Galaxy 2004 February 04: Opportunity's Horizon 2004 February 03: X-Rays From Antennae Galaxies 2004 February 02: The Tarantula Nebula from Spitzer 2004 February 01: M2-9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula 2004 January 31: A Galaxy is not a Comet 2004 January 30: X-Ray Rings Expand from a Gamma Ray Burst 2004 January 29: Valles Marineris Perspective from Mars Express 2004 January 28: The Crab Nebula from CFHT 2004 January 27: Opportunity on Mars 2004 January 26: A Landing at Meridiani Planum 2004 January 25: Spiral Galaxy NGC 1232 2004 January 24: Valles Marineris from Mars Express 2004 January 23: NGC 4631: The Whale Galaxy 2004 January 22: Columbia Memorial Station 2004 January 21: Adirondack Rock on Mars 2004 January 20: Unexpected Galaxy String in the Early Universe 2004 January 19: STARDUST Flyby of Comet Wild 2 2004 January 18: A Close-Up of Martian Soil 2004 January 17: Saturn: Lord of the Rings 2004 January 16: Martian Surface in Perspective 2004 January 15: An Orion Deep Field 2004 January 14: A Mars Panorama from the Spirit Rover 2004 January 13: An Apollo 15 Panorama 2004 January 12: A Hole Punch Cloud Over Alabama 2004 January 11: NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf 2004 January 10: Two Worlds, One Sun 2004 January 09: Sol 5 Postcard from Mars 2004 January 08: The Hills of Mars 2004 January 07: Red Mars from Spirit 2004 January 06: Spirit's 3D View Toward Sleepy Hollow 2004 January 05: Spirit Pan from Gusev Crater

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (11 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2004 January 04: Spirit Rover Bounces Down on Mars 2004 January 03: Comet Wild 2's Nucleus from Stardust 2004 January 02: An Apollo 12 Panorama 2004 January 01: Structure in N63A 2003 December 31: A Year of Resolving Cosmology 2003 December 30: A Dust Devil Crater on Mars 2003 December 29: The Witch Head Nebula 2003 December 28: Trifid Pillars and Jets 2003 December 27: The Pleiades Star Cluster 2003 December 26: Young Star, Dark Cloud 2003 December 25: Venus and the 37 Hour Moon 2003 December 24: Layered Hills on Mars 2003 December 23: Comet Encke Returns 2003 December 22: The Andromeda Galaxy from GALEX 2003 December 21: N159 and the Papillon Nebula 2003 December 20: The Flight of Helios 2003 December 19: Inside The Elephant's Trunk 2003 December 18: Express to Mars 2003 December 17: A Proton Aurora 2003 December 16: Retrograde Mars 2003 December 15: Open Star Clusters M35 and NGC 2158 2003 December 14: Close up of the Face on Mars 2003 December 13: A Flock of Stars 2003 December 12: Full Moondark 2003 December 11: Arp 81: 100 Million Years Later 2003 December 10: Cassini Approaches Saturn 2003 December 09: NGC 604: Giant Stellar Nursery 2003 December 08: An Antarctic Total Solar Eclipse 2003 December 07: The Eskimo Nebula from Hubble 2003 December 06: Jaipur Observatory Sundial 2003 December 05: Startling Star V838 Mon 2003 December 04: New Horizons at Jupiter 2003 December 03: Moonrise Through Mauna Kea's Shadow 2003 December 02: NGC 869 and NGC 884: A Double Open Cluster 2003 December 01: A Lenticular Cloud Over Hawaii 2003 November 30: A Venus Landing 2003 November 29: Phobos Over Mars 2003 November 28: The Most Distant X Ray Jet 2003 November 27: The Long Shadow of the Moon 2003 November 26: The Turbulent Neighborhood of Eta Carina 2003 November 25: A Late Leonid from a Sparse Shower

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (12 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 November 24: IC 405: The Flaming Star Nebula 2003 November 23: A Superwind from the Cigar Galaxy 2003 November 22: Moon AND Sun 2003 November 21: Sunset Moonlight 2003 November 20: Voyager at 90 AU 2003 November 19: Light Can Twist as Well as Spin 2003 November 18: Leonids Over Indian Cove 2003 November 17: Canis Major Dwarf: A New Closest Galaxy 2003 November 16: Leonids from Leo 2003 November 15: LL Orionis: When Cosmic Winds Collide 2003 November 14: Jupiter Portrait 2003 November 13: Aurora Oklahoma 2003 November 12: Mars Then and Now 2003 November 11: Eclipsed Moonlight from Connelly's Springs 2003 November 10: An Intermediate Polar Binary System 2003 November 09: Apollo 17 Lunarscape: A Magnificent Desolation 2003 November 08: Eclipsed Moon in Infrared 2003 November 07: November's Lunar Eclipse 2003 November 06: Flare Well AR 10486 2003 November 05: The Lynx Arc 2003 November 04: Aurora Over Edmonton 2003 November 03: Spiral Galaxy NGC 3982 Before Supernova 2003 November 02: A Giant Starspot on HD 12545 2003 November 01: Halo of the Cat's Eye 2003 October 31: A Dark and Stormy Night 2003 October 30: Aurora in Colorado Skies 2003 October 29: A Powerful Solar Flare 2003 October 28: The SDSS 3D Universe Map 2003 October 27: Large Sunspot Groups 10484 and 10486 2003 October 26: M16: Stars from Eagles EGGs 2003 October 25: Islands in the Photosphere 2003 October 24: Mars Moons 2003 October 23: Cygnus Nebulosities 2003 October 22: The Heart and Soul Nebulas 2003 October 21: The Belt of Venus over the Valley of the Moon 2003 October 20: Neptune and Triton from Palomar 2003 October 19: An Unusual Globule in IC 1396 2003 October 18: The Last Moon Shot 2003 October 17: Astronomy Quilt of the Week 2003 October 16: NGC 6888: X-Rays in the Wind 2003 October 15: Space Rock SQ222 Noticed After Pass

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (13 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 October 14: Iridescent Clouds Over Aiguille de la Tsa 2003 October 13: Pelican Nebula Ionization Front 2003 October 12: The Coma Cluster of Galaxies 2003 October 11: Moonrise Over Seattle 2003 October 10: Peculiar Arp 295 2003 October 09: Radio Jupiter 2003 October 08: The Sombrero Galaxy from HST 2003 October 07: The Colorful Horsehead Nebula 2003 October 06: A Near Record Ozone Hole in 2003 2003 October 05: Apollo 12 Visits Surveyor 3 2003 October 04: X-Ray Moon 2003 October 03: Cold Comet Halley 2003 October 02: Reflections on the 1970s 2003 October 01: An Unusual Event Over South Wales 2003 September 30: The Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream 2003 September 29: Aurora Over the Chugach Mountains 2003 September 28: Our Galaxy in Stars, Gas, and Dust 2003 September 27: Surveyor Slides 2003 September 26: IC1340 in the Eastern Veil 2003 September 25: Logarithmic Spirals Isabel and M51 2003 September 24: M33: Spiral Galaxy in Triangulum 2003 September 23: Egging On the Autumnal Equinox 2003 September 22: Opportunity Rockets Toward Mars 2003 September 21: Inside the Eagle Nebula 2003 September 20: Apollo 11: Catching Some Sun 2003 September 19: Galileo's Europa 2003 September 18: Saturn by Three 2003 September 17: The 2MASS Galaxy Sky 2003 September 16: Hurricane Isabel Approaches 2003 September 15: Globular Cluster M3 2003 September 14: The Crab Nebula from VLT 2003 September 13: NGC 3132: The Eight Burst Nebula 2003 September 12: A Note on the Perseus Cluster 2003 September 11: NGC 3370: A Sharper View 2003 September 10: Aurora Over Clouds 2003 September 09: A Gemini Sky 2003 September 08: Stars and Dust of the Lagoon Nebula 2003 September 07: The Galactic Center in Infrared 2003 September 06: Jupiter Unpeeled 2003 September 05: SIRTF Streak 2003 September 04: Composite Crab

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (14 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 September 03: Galactic Supernova Remnant IC 443 2003 September 02: Contemplating Mars 2003 September 01: A Beautiful Trifid 2003 August 31: The View from Everest 2003 August 30: Recycling Cassiopeia A 2003 August 29: The Mineral Moon 2003 August 28: Mars Rising Behind Elephant Rock 2003 August 27: Big Mars from Hubble 2003 August 26: Earth Webcam Catches Mars Rotation 2003 August 25: The Northern Milky Way 2003 August 24: Valles Marineris: The Grand Canyon of Mars 2003 August 23: The Tarantula Zone 2003 August 22: Shadow Rise 2003 August 21: X-Rays from M17 2003 August 20: The E Nebula in Aquila 2003 August 19: Mars Through a Small Telescope 2003 August 18: Bright Lights, Dark City 2003 August 17: Natural Saturn On The Cassini Cruise 2003 August 16: Thackeray's Globules 2003 August 15: Sedimentary Mars 2003 August 14: Dark Matter Map 2003 August 13: Mars Rising Behind Poodle Rock 2003 August 12: X-rays from Stephan s Quintet 2003 August 11: Elements of the Swan Nebula 2003 August 10: Lunation 2003 August 09: A Perseid Aurora 2003 August 08: Blue Stragglers in NGC 6397 2003 August 07: Palomar at Night 2003 August 06: Dusty Galaxy Centaurus A 2003 August 05: Shuttle Ferry 2003 August 04: In the Center of the Virgo Cluster 2003 August 03: Ice Fishing for Cosmic Neutrinos 2003 August 02: Island Universe, Cosmic Sand 2003 August 01: Moons and Bright Mars 2003 July 31: Galaxy Group HCG 87 2003 July 30: Frosty Mountains on Mars 2003 July 29: Orange Sun Simmering 2003 July 28: Launch of the Spirit Rover Toward Mars 2003 July 27: The Aquarius Dwarf 2003 July 26: Spiral Galaxy NGC 7742 2003 July 25: Dumbbell Nebula Halo

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (15 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 July 24: Mars at the Moon's Edge 2003 July 23: GRACE Maps the Gravity of Earth 2003 July 22: A Tornado on Planet Earth 2003 July 21: IC 4603: Reflection Nebula in Ophiuchius 2003 July 20: An Ion Drive for Deep Space 1 2003 July 19: NGC 3621: Far Beyond the Local Group 2003 July 18: The Planet, the White Dwarf, and the Neutron Star 2003 July 17: The Cat's Paw Nebula 2003 July 16: Mars' Simulated View 2003 July 15: Mars Rising Through Arch Rock 2003 July 14: The Satellites that Surround Earth 2003 July 13: The Horsehead Nebula 2003 July 12: X-Ray Milky Way 2003 July 11: NGC 1068 and the X-Ray Flashlight 2003 July 10: Dust Storm Over Northern Mars 2003 July 09: HD70642: A Star with Similar Planets 2003 July 08: Mt Anatahan Erupts 2003 July 07: At the Edge of the Sun 2003 July 06: Fractal Interstellar Dust Up Close 2003 July 05: X-Rays from an Active Galaxy 2003 July 04: N49's Cosmic Blast 2003 July 03: The Vela Pulsar's Dynamic Jet 2003 July 02: Aurora Over Cape Cod 2003 July 01: Martian Moon Phobos from MGS 2003 June 30: Disappearing Clouds in Carina 2003 June 29: The Solar Spectrum 2003 June 28: Messiers and Mars 2003 June 27: SpaceShipOne 2003 June 26: Martian Analemma 2003 June 25: Galaxies in the GOODS 2003 June 24: The Sun's Surface in 3D 2003 June 23: KamLAND Verifies the Sun 2003 June 22: Massive Stars of 30 Doradus 2003 June 21: A Crescent Earth at Midnight 2003 June 20: Snake in the Dark 2003 June 19: The Moon Maiden 2003 June 18: Clouds and the Moon Move to Block the Sun 2003 June 17: The Bubble Nebula from NOAO 2003 June 16: APOD Turns Eight 2003 June 15: Noctilucent Clouds 2003 June 14: The Planetary Nebula Show

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (16 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 June 13: Neptune: Still Springtime After All These Years 2003 June 12: Cyg X-1: Can Black Holes Form in the Dark? 2003 June 11: Two Million Galaxies 2003 June 10: Zooming in on the First Stars 2003 June 09: The Pencil Nebula Supernova Shockwave 2003 June 08: Rhea: Saturn's Second Largest Moon 2003 June 07: Warped Spiral Galaxy ESO 510-13 2003 June 06: Sun, Moon, Hot Air Balloon 2003 June 05: Ring of Fire from Cape Wrath 2003 June 04: Eclipse in the Mist 2003 June 03: The Milky Way Behind an Eclipsed Moon 2003 June 02: The Fogs of Mars 2003 June 01: GRO J1655 40: Evidence for a Spinning Black Hole 2003 May 31: NGC 1818: Pick A Star 2003 May 30: Ring of Fire Revisited 2003 May 29: Frizion Illume 2003 May 28: SNR 0103-72.6: Oxygen Supply 2003 May 27: A Mercury Transit Sequence 2003 May 26: The Earth and Moon from Mars 2003 May 25: Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 Almost Sideways 2003 May 24: M74: The Perfect Spiral 2003 May 23: Eclipsed Moon and Stars 2003 May 22: Eclipsed Moon Montage 2003 May 21: Copper Moon, Golden Gate 2003 May 20: A Primordial Quasar 2003 May 19: The Andromeda Deep Field 2003 May 18: The Holographic Principle 2003 May 17: Dark Sky, Bright Sun 2003 May 16: A Tale of Two Nebulae 2003 May 15: Moon Slide Slim 2003 May 14: The North Pole of Venus 2003 May 13: Mercury Transits the Sun 2003 May 12: In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula 2003 May 11: M83: The Southern Pinwheel Galaxy from VLT 2003 May 10: NGC 7293: The Helix Nebula 2003 May 09: International Space Station in Transit 2003 May 08: Mercury Spotting 2003 May 07: The Southern Sky from the International Space Station 2003 May 06: A Chicago Meteorite Fall 2003 May 05: NGC 1275: A Galactic Collision 2003 May 04: A Sonic Boom

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (17 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 May 03: Denizen of the Tarantula Nebula 2003 May 02: Five to Mars 2003 May 01: The Energetic Jet from Centaurus A 2003 April 30: A Lenticular Cloud Over New Hampshire 2003 April 29: In the Center of the Rosette Nebula 2003 April 28: Rollout of a Soyuz TMA 2 Rocket 2003 April 27: Venus' Once Molten Surface 2003 April 26: Big Blue Marble Earth 2003 April 25: M17: A Hubble Close-Up 2003 April 24: Earth at Twilight 2003 April 23: The Stars of NGC 1705 2003 April 22: Springtime on Mars 2003 April 21: A Halo Around the Moon 2003 April 20: The Gum Nebula Supernova Remnant 2003 April 19: Spiral Galaxy In Centaurus 2003 April 18: Double Eruptive Prominences 2003 April 17: M106 in Canes Venatici 2003 April 16: Magma Bubbles from Mt Etna 2003 April 15: A Crescent Nebula Star Field 2003 April 14: A Gamma Ray Burst Supernova Connection 2003 April 13: NGC 1365: A Nearby Barred Spiral Galaxy 2003 April 12: Mercury on the Horizon 2003 April 11: London at Night 2003 April 10: Energized Nebula in the LMC 2003 April 09: The Egg Nebula in Polarized Light 2003 April 08: Aurora from Space 2003 April 07: NGC 281: Cluster, Clouds, and Globules 2003 April 06: Phobos: Doomed Moon of Mars 2003 April 05: The Seasons of Saturn 2003 April 04: Clusters and Nebulae of the Hexagon 2003 April 03: Jupiter in the Hive 2003 April 02: V838 Light Echo: The Movie 2003 April 01: A New Constellation Takes Hold 2003 March 31: Mt Etna Lava Plumes 2003 March 30: Beijing Ancient Observatory 2003 March 29: The Shadow of Phobos 2003 March 28: 1006 AD: Supernova in the Sky 2003 March 27: Light Echoes from V838 Mon 2003 March 26: A Lenticular Cloud Over Wyoming 2003 March 25: A Slow Explosion 2003 March 24: A Digital Sunset Over Europe and Africa

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (18 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 March 23: Alpha Centauri: The Closest Star System 2003 March 22: M57: The Ring Nebula 2003 March 21: Stars and Planets in the Halo of the Moon 2003 March 20: Sunrise Analemma 2003 March 19: Jupiter's Great Dark Spot 2003 March 18: Coronal Holes on the Sun 2003 March 17: SN 1006: History's Brightest Supernova 2003 March 16: NGC 253: The Sculptor Galaxy 2003 March 15: Apollo 12: Self-Portrait 2003 March 14: DEM L71: When Small Stars Explode 2003 March 13: WIRO at Jupiter 2003 March 12: Lunar Farside from Apollo 11 2003 March 11: Iridescent clouds 2003 March 10: M101: The Pinwheel Galaxy 2003 March 09: Farewell Jupiter 2003 March 08: Solar Sail 2003 March 07: The Star Trails of Kilimanjaro 2003 March 06: Comet NEAT in Southern Skies 2003 March 05: Where People Live on Planet Earth 2003 March 04: In the Center of the Lagoon Nebula 2003 March 03: Will the Universe End in a Big Rip? 2003 March 02: In the Center of the Trapezium 2003 March 01: Stereo Eros 2003 February 28: Fox Fur, the Unicorn, and a Christmas Tree 2003 February 27: When Moons and Shadows Dance 2003 February 26: Anticrepuscular Rays Over Horseshoe Canyon 2003 February 25: M42: Wisps of the Orion Nebula 2003 February 24: Comet NEAT Passes an Erupting Sun 2003 February 23: A Twisted Solar Eruptive Prominence 2003 February 22: Infrared Saturn 2003 February 21: Melting Snow and the Gullies of Mars 2003 February 20: Cold Wind from the Boomerang Nebula 2003 February 19: Pauli Exclusion Principle: Why You Don't Implode 2003 February 18: Candor and Ophir Chasmata 2003 February 17: Universe Age from the Microwave Background 2003 February 16: Southwest Mercury 2003 February 15: Happy Birthday Jules Verne 2003 February 14: The Heart in NGC 346 2003 February 13: The Eagle Nebula from CFHT 2003 February 12: WMAP Resolves the Universe 2003 February 11: Dumbbell Nebula Close Up from Hubble

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (19 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2003 February 10: Comet NEAT Approaches the Sun 2003 February 09: COBE Dipole: Speeding Through the Universe 2003 February 08: AB Aurigae: How To Make Planets 2003 February 07: Orion on Film 2003 February 06: X-Rays from M83 2003 February 05: Unusual Gullies and Channels on Mars 2003 February 04: Wisps of the Veil Nebula 2003 February 03: Space Shuttle and Crew Lost During Re-Entry 2003 February 02: Molecular Cloud Barnard 68 2003 February 01: The Nebula And The Neutron Star 2003 January 31: Auroral Rocket Launch 2003 January 30: Comet Kudo-Fujikawa: Days in the Sun 2003 January 29: Orion's Horsehead Nebula 2003 January 28: The Lost World of Lake Vida 2003 January 27: BHR 71: Stars, Clouds, and Jets 2003 January 26: The Lyman Alpha Forest 2003 January 25: Palomar 13's Last Stand 2003 January 24: Seyfert's Sextet 2003 January 23: Launch of the Sun Pillar 2003 January 22: M11: The Wild Duck Cluster 2003 January 21: The Reflecting Dust Clouds of Orion 2003 January 20: Io at Sunset 2003 January 19: Fullerenes as Miniature Cosmic Time Capsules 2003 January 18: Filaments in the Cygnus Loop 2003 January 17: Stars and the Bubble Nebula 2003 January 16: NGC 1700: Elliptical Galaxy and Rotating Disk 2003 January 15: Ringed Planet Uranus 2003 January 14: 0313-192: The Wrong Galaxy 2003 January 13: The Dumbbell Nebula in Hydrogen and Oxygen 2003 January 12: A Spherule from Outer Space 2003 January 11: Apollo 17: Boulder in Stereo 2003 January 10: The Crab that Played with the Planet 2003 January 09: Abell 1689 Warps Space 2003 January 08: X-Rays from the Galactic Core 2003 January 07: Open Star Cluster M38 2003 January 06: Shadow Cone of a Total Solar Eclipse 2003 January 05: Atlantis to Orbit 2003 January 04: A Magellanic Starfield 2003 January 03: POX 186: Not So Long Ago 2003 January 02: Mt. Etna Eruption Plume 2003 January 01: NGC 6960: The Witch's Broom Nebula

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (20 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 December 31: A Year of Assessing Astronomical Hazards 2002 December 30: A Sun Pillar 2002 December 29: NGC 1818: A Young Globular Cluster 2002 December 28: Mir Dreams 2002 December 27: X-Ray Mystery in RCW 38 2002 December 26: Searching for Meteorites in Antarctica 2002 December 25: Orion Rising 2002 December 24: Spring Dust Storms at the North Pole of Mars 2002 December 23: Stars and Dust Through Baade's Window 2002 December 22: Summer at the South Pole 2002 December 21: Solstice Celebration 2002 December 20: Colorful Clouds of Orion 2002 December 19: RAPTOR Images GRB 021211 2002 December 18: Io Volcano Culann Patera 2002 December 17: Beefing Up the International Space Station 2002 December 16: Night and Day in Melas Chasma on Mars 2002 December 15: A Network of Microlensing Caustics 2002 December 14: IC 418: The Spirograph Nebula 2002 December 13: The Crown of the Sun 2002 December 12: Apollo 17: Last on the Moon 2002 December 11: Meteors Between Stars and Clouds 2002 December 10: M17: Omega Nebula Star Factory 2002 December 09: Moon Shadow Moves Over Africa 2002 December 08: The International Space Station Expands Yet Again 2002 December 07: Jupiter, Io, and Shadow 2002 December 06: Zimbabwe Solar Eclipse 2002 December 05: NGC 2359: Thor's Helmet 2002 December 04: Moon, Mars, Venus, and Spica 2002 December 03: Eclipse Over Acacia 2002 December 02: Nearby Spiral M33 2002 December 01: The Pleiades Star Cluster 2002 November 30: Surveyor Hops 2002 November 29: Open Star Clusters M35 and NGC 2158 2002 November 28: The Supermassive Black Holes of NGC 6240 2002 November 27: Leonids and Leica 2002 November 26: Name This Martian Robot 2002 November 25: The Earth's Magnetic Field 2002 November 24: Hubble Floats Free 2002 November 23: Mare Orientale 2002 November 22: Full Moon, Lake, and Leonids Indeed 2002 November 21: Starburst Galaxy M94

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (21 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 November 20: Leonids vs The Moon 2002 November 19: Leonid Meteors in 2002 2002 November 18: The Car, the Hole, and the Peekskill Meteorite 2002 November 17: Leonids from Leo 2002 November 16: Tempel-Tuttle: The Leonid Comet 2002 November 15: Night Trails of Africa 2002 November 14: The Sharpest View of the Sun 2002 November 13: Asteroid Annefrank 2002 November 12: Terkezi Oasis in the Sahara Desert 2002 November 11: The Outer Shells of Centaurus A 2002 November 10: A Green Flash from the Sun 2002 November 09: A Cerro Tololo Sky 2002 November 08: NGC 6369: The Little Ghost Nebula 2002 November 07: 2001 Leonids: Meteors in Perspective 2002 November 06: The Winter Hexagon 2002 November 05: Leonids Over Joshua Tree National Park 2002 November 04: Cassini Approaches Saturn 2002 November 03: The International Space Station Expands Again 2002 November 02: NGC 604: Giant Stellar Nursery 2002 November 01: Europa's Freckles 2002 October 31: Aurora in the Night 2002 October 30: Leonids Over Uluru 2002 October 29: A Lunar Rille 2002 October 28: Earth's Richat Structure 2002 October 27: Asteroid Gaspra s Best Face 2002 October 26: Dark Matter, X-rays, and NGC 720 2002 October 25: Journey to the Center of the Galaxy 2002 October 24: Gullies on Mars 2002 October 23: Liftoff With the Space Shuttle 2002 October 22: A Small Double Ozone Hole in 2002 2002 October 21: M31: The Andromeda Galaxy 2002 October 20: The Space Shuttle Docked with Mir 2002 October 19: Io's Surface: Under Construction 2002 October 18: At the Center of the Milk Way 2002 October 17: Centaurus A: Young Blue Star Stream 2002 October 16: Oklo: Ancient African Nuclear Reactors 2002 October 15: Aurora's Ring 2002 October 14: IC 5146: The Cocoon Nebula 2002 October 13: CG4: A Ruptured Cometary Globule 2002 October 12: Chandra Deep Field 2002 October 11: Fomalhaut Dust Disk Indicates Planets

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (22 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:19

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 October 10: Dusty Environs of Eta Carinae 2002 October 09: Quaoar: Large Asteroid in the Outer Solar System 2002 October 08: The X-Ray Jets of XTE J1550 2002 October 07: The Galaxy and the Quasar 2002 October 06: The Lagoon Nebula in Three Colors 2002 October 05: X-Ray Cygnus A 2002 October 04: Facing NGC 6946 2002 October 03: V838 Mon: Mystery Star 2002 October 02: Star Clouds Toward the Southern Crown 2002 October 01: Rectangular Ridges on Mars 2002 September 30: D rad Bacteria: Candidate Astronauts 2002 September 29: Venus: Just Passing By 2002 September 28: X-Ray Rainbows 2002 September 27: Accretion Disk Simulation 2002 September 26: Rocket Trail at Sunset 2002 September 25: Jupiter, Moons, and Bees 2002 September 24: To Fly Free in Space 2002 September 23: The Milky Way Over the French Alps 2002 September 22: Two Hours Before Neptune 2002 September 21: Moonset, Planet Earth 2002 September 20: The Crab Nebula Pulsar Shrugs 2002 September 19: Asteroid 1998 KY26 2002 September 18: A Sagittarius Starscape 2002 September 17: A Force from Empty Space: The Casimir Effect 2002 September 16: An Atlas V Rocket Prepares to Launch 2002 September 15: Zodiacal Light and the False Dawn 2002 September 14: X-Ray Moon 2002 September 13: Aristarchus Plateau 2002 September 12: X-Rays From Tycho's Supernova Remnant 2002 September 11: Pluto and Charon Eclipse a Triple Star 2002 September 10: Venus Beyond the Storm 2002 September 09: Hoags Object: A Strange Ring Galaxy 2002 September 08: Too Close to a Black Hole 2002 September 07: Stereo Saturn 2002 September 06: HESS Gamma Ray Telescope 2002 September 05: Voyager Views Titan's Haze 2002 September 04: Halo of the Cat's Eye 2002 September 03: A Dust Devil on Mars 2002 September 02: Colorful Light Pillars 2002 September 01: The Hubble Deep Field 2002 August 31: The Voyagers' Message in a Bottle

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (23 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 August 30: Simeis 147: Supernova Remnant 2002 August 29: The Pelican in the Swan 2002 August 28: 3D Mars: Northern Terra Meridiani 2002 August 27: Valles Marineris: The Grand Canyon of Mars 2002 August 26: The Mysterious Voynich Manuscript 2002 August 25: Nebula Nova Cygni Turns On 2002 August 24: Cas A Supernova Remnant in X Rays 2002 August 23: Island Universe, Cosmic Sand 2002 August 22: Shell Game in NGC 300 2002 August 21: Spiral Galaxy NGC 300 2002 August 20: The Universe in Hot Gas 2002 August 19: Roque de los Muchachos Observatory 2002 August 18: Earth's North Magnetic Pole 2002 August 17: Asteroid 2002 NY40 2002 August 16: Rainbow Perseid 2002 August 15: Meteors and Northern Lights 2002 August 14: Giant Emission Nebula NGC 3603 in Infrared 2002 August 13: Contemplating the Sky 2002 August 12: The Colors and Mysteries of Centaurus A 2002 August 11: A Perseid Meteor 2002 August 10: Earth at Night 2002 August 09: Fireworks and Shooting Stars 2002 August 08: Ancient Volcanos of Mars 2002 August 07: Gomez's Hamburger: A Proto Planetary Nebula 2002 August 06: Muon Wobble Possible Door to Supersymmetric Universe 2002 August 05: Rays from an Unexpected Aurora 2002 August 04: Spiral Galaxy NGC 2997 from VLT 2002 August 03: The Galactic Center A Radio Mystery 2002 August 02: Comet 57P Falls to Pieces 2002 August 01: Sunspots and Solar Active Regions 2002 July 31: Henize 3-401: An Elongated Planetary Nebula 2002 July 30: A Star Cluster in Motion 2002 July 29: A Setting Sun Trail 2002 July 28: An Anomalous SETI Signal 2002 July 27: Apollo 11: Catching Some Sun 2002 July 26: Clearing Skies 2002 July 25: NGC 1569: Heavy Elements from a Small Galaxy 2002 July 24: Our Busy Solar System 2002 July 23: The View from Everest 2002 July 22: Open Cluster NGC 6520 from CFHT 2002 July 21: Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 4945

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (24 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 July 20: Footprints on Another World 2002 July 19: Counting Stars in the Infrared Sky 2002 July 18: Sunspot Region 30 2002 July 17: Star-Forming Region RCW38 from 2MASS 2002 July 16: Outbound from Mercury 2002 July 15: Proxima Centauri: The Closest Star 2002 July 14: The Crab Nebula from VLT 2002 July 13: Apollo 12: Stereo View Near Surveyor Crater 2002 July 12: Recycling Cassiopeia A 2002 July 11: M51: X-Rays from the Whirlpool 2002 July 10: M51: Cosmic Whirlpool 2002 July 09: Analemma 2002 July 08: Weighing Empty Space 2002 July 07: The Galactic Center Across the Infrared 2002 July 06: Io: Moon Over Jupiter 2002 July 05: Many Moons 2002 July 04: Young Star Clusters in an Old Galaxy 2002 July 03: Interstellar Dust Bunnies of NGC 891 2002 July 02: The Average Color of the Universe 2002 July 01: The Fox Fur Nebula 2002 June 30: Ida and Dactyl: Asteroid and Moon 2002 June 29: A Deep Field In The Southern Sky 2002 June 28: Lunar Module at Taurus-Littrow 2002 June 27: Carving Ma'adim Vallis 2002 June 26: In the Center of the Trifid Nebula 2002 June 25: Venus and Jupiter Over Belfast 2002 June 24: The Sun's Heliosphere and Heliopause 2002 June 23: Asteroids in the Distance 2002 June 22: Io: The Prometheus Plume 2002 June 21: Zimbabwe Sunset 2002 June 20: Bright Galaxy M81 2002 June 19: The Moon and Venus Over Geneva 2002 June 18: IC 4406: A Seemingly Square Nebula 2002 June 17: NGC 4697: X-Rays from an Elliptical Galaxy 2002 June 16: Jupiter's Rings Revealed 2002 June 15: MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula 2002 June 14: 55 Cancri: Familiar Planet Discovered 2002 June 13: The Tarantula Zone 2002 June 12: A Partial Eclipse Over the Golden Gate Bridge 2002 June 11: Inside the Eagle Nebula 2002 June 10: Annular Eclipse: The Ring of Fire

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (25 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 June 09: A Chamaeleon Sky 2002 June 08: A Fleeting Eclipse 2002 June 07: Portrait of an Infant Solar System 2002 June 06: Cone Nebula Infrared Close-Up 2002 June 05: NGC 3621: Far Beyond the Local Group 2002 June 04: A Martian Metamorphosis 2002 June 03: Galaxy NGC 4388 Expels Huge Gas Cloud 2002 June 02: Cracks and Ridges on Europa 2002 June 01: NGC 2266: Old Cluster in the New General Catalog 2002 May 31: In Chandor Chasma on Mars 2002 May 30: Orion Nebulosities 2002 May 29: Cosmic Ripples Implicate Dark Universe 2002 May 28: The Very Large Array of Radio Telescopes 2002 May 27: Antarctic Ice Shelf Vista 2002 May 26: The Pipe Dark Nebula 2002 May 25: A String Of Pearls 2002 May 24: Love and War by Moonlight 2002 May 23: N132D and the Color of X-Rays 2002 May 22: Moon and Planets by the Eiffel Tower 2002 May 21: The Galactic Center Radio Arc 2002 May 20: East of the Lagoon Nebula 2002 May 19: Saturn's Moon Tethys 2002 May 18: Andromeda Island Universe 2002 May 17: Gamma Ray Burst, Supernova Bump 2002 May 16: Double Trouble Solar Bubbles 2002 May 15: Tail Wags of Comet Ikeya Zhang 2002 May 14: N44C: A Nebular Mystery 2002 May 13: White Rock Fingers on Mars 2002 May 12: At the Edge of the Helix Nebula 2002 May 11: Natural Saturn On The Cassini Cruise 2002 May 10: Trailing Planets 2002 May 09: Planets Over Stonehenge 2002 May 08: Sunspot Loops in Ultraviolet 2002 May 07: Smog Over New York 2002 May 06: NGC 4676: When Mice Collide 2002 May 05: The M7 Open Star Cluster in Scorpius 2002 May 04: The Moons of Earth 2002 May 03: Cone Nebula Close Up 2002 May 02: Arp 188 and the Tadpole's Tidal Tail 2002 May 01: In the Center of the Omega Nebula 2002 April 30: The Holographic Principle

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (26 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 April 29: Dusk of the Planets 2002 April 28: Doomed Star Eta Carinae 2002 April 27: Hawaii 2002 April 26: Comet Ikeya-Zhang Meets The ISS 2002 April 25: Southern Cross in Mauna Loa Skies 2002 April 24: The Trifid Nebula from AAO 2002 April 23: The Newly Expanded International Space Station 2002 April 22: Comet and Aurora Over Alaska 2002 April 21: The Center of Centaurus A 2002 April 20: Orion Nebula: The 2MASS View 2002 April 19: The Old Moon in the New Moon's Arms 2002 April 18: Planets in the West 2002 April 17: The Glory 2002 April 16: Millions of Stars in Omega Centauri 2002 April 15: A New Truss for the International Space Station 2002 April 14: RX J185635-375: Candidate Quark Star 2002 April 13: Pwyll: Icy Crater of Europa 2002 April 12: A Galaxy is not a Comet 2002 April 11: Antennae Galaxies in Near Infrared 2002 April 10: Unusual Rocks in Death Valley 2002 April 09: The Snake Nebula from CFHT 2002 April 08: NGC 2787: A Barred Lenticular Galaxy 2002 April 07: The Eskimo Nebula from Hubble 2002 April 06: Vintage Gamma Rays 2002 April 05: Gamma Ray Burst Afterglow: Supernova Connection 2002 April 04: Ikeya-Zhang: Comet Over Colorado 2002 April 03: NGC 4414: A Flocculent Spiral Galaxy 2002 April 02: Mysterious Black Water in Florida Bay 2002 April 01: Hubble Resolves Expiration Date For Green Cheese Moon 2002 March 31: The Mysterious Rings of Supernova 1987A 2002 March 30: Venus Unveiled 2002 March 29: NGC 4631: The Whale Galaxy 2002 March 28: Centaurus Galaxy Cluster in X-Rays 2002 March 27: Looking Into an Io Volcano 2002 March 26: Comet Ikeya-Zhang over Tenerife 2002 March 25: An Unusual Globule in IC 1396 2002 March 24: The Cat's Eye Nebula 2002 March 23: The Water Vapor Channel 2002 March 22: Odyssey Over Mars 2002 March 21: S is for Sun 2002 March 20: Aurora Over Antarctica

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (27 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 March 19: Breaking Distant Light 2002 March 18: Comet Ikeya-Zhang's Busy Tail 2002 March 17: NGC 2244: A Star Cluster in the Rosette Nebula 2002 March 16: The Colorful Moon 2002 March 15: Neutron Mars 2002 March 14: SM3B: Mission to Hubble 2002 March 13: LL Orionis: When Cosmic Winds Collide 2002 March 12: Atete Corona on Venus 2002 March 11: The 100 Meter Green Bank Radio Telescope 2002 March 10: A Southern Sky View 2002 March 09: A Quasar Portrait Gallery 2002 March 08: Columbia Dawn 2002 March 07: Comet Ikeya-Zhang Brightens 2002 March 06: Simulated Galaxy Cluster View 2002 March 05: Earth in True Color 2002 March 04: The Shuttle Crawler Transporter 2002 March 03: The Regolith of Asteroid Eros 2002 March 02: M27: Not A Comet 2002 March 01: Jupiter's Great X-Ray Spot 2002 February 28: ESO 184-G82: Supernova - Gamma Ray Burst Connection 2002 February 27: A Cloud Shadow Sunrise 2002 February 26: Jets from Radio Galaxy 3C296 2002 February 25: Crescent Europa 2002 February 24: Isaac Newton Explains the Solar System 2002 February 23: Shocked by Supernova 1987A 2002 February 22: Saturn at the Lunar Limb 2002 February 21: Comet Ikeya-Zhang 2002 February 20: Oddities of Star Cluster NGC 6397 2002 February 19: Water Ice Imaged in Martian Polar Cap 2002 February 18: A Radio Vista of Cygnus 2002 February 17: The Local Bubble and the Galactic Neighborhood 2002 February 16: Miranda, Chevron, and Alonso 2002 February 15: Saturn: Lord of the Rings 2002 February 14: Solar System Portrait 2002 February 13: The Great Nebula in Orion 2002 February 12: Methane Earth 2002 February 11: Reflection Nebula M78 2002 February 10: The Local Interstellar Cloud 2002 February 09: Moon Over Mongolia 2002 February 08: PKS 1127-145: Quasar View 2002 February 07: Coronal Hole

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (28 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2002 February 06: The Cosmic Infrared Background 2002 February 05: Giant Storm Systems Battle on Jupiter 2002 February 04: Comet LINEAR WM1 Shines in the South 2002 February 03: The Coma Cluster of Galaxies 2002 February 02: Centaurus A: The Galaxy Deep Inside 2002 February 01: Balloon TIGER 2002 January 31: EUVE Sky Map 2002 January 30: Moonrise Over Seattle 2002 January 29: The Southern Sky in Warm Hydrogen 2002 January 28: An Apollo 17 Panorama 2002 January 27: Earth Rise 2002 January 26: Shuttle Engine Blast 2002 January 25: The Spiral Arms of NGC 4622 2002 January 24: Ski Enceladus 2002 January 23: Local Group Galaxy NGC 6822 2002 January 22: Neutron Bounce Quantized in Earth Gravity 2002 January 21: Volcano and Aurora in Iceland 2002 January 20: Callisto Full Face 2002 January 19: Stars Without Galaxies 2002 January 18: Saturn and Vesta in Taurus 2002 January 17: Pick a Galaxy, Any Galaxy 2002 January 16: Abell 2597's Cosmic Cavities 2002 January 15: Red Auroral Corona 2002 January 14: Sun Halo at Winter Solstice 2002 January 13: Hypatia of Alexandria 2002 January 12: The Gamma Ray Sky 2002 January 11: Sunbather 2002 January 10: X-Ray Milky Way 2002 January 09: Blue Flash 2002 January 08: Thackeray's Globules 2002 January 07: The Mysterious Cone Nebula 2002 January 06: M2-9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula 2002 January 05: Apollo 17's Moonship 2002 January 04: M16: Infrared Star Hunt 2002 January 03: M16: Stars, Pillars and the Eagle's EGGs 2002 January 02: International Space Station Over Earth 2002 January 01: The Secret of the Black Aurora 2001 December 31: A Year of Dark Cosmology 2001 December 30: Trifid Pillars and Jets 2001 December 29: The Annotated Galactic Center 2001 December 28: Starlight Reflections

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (29 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 December 27: The Incredible Expanding Crab 2001 December 26: Himalayan Horizon From Space 2001 December 25: Star Forming Region Hubble V 2001 December 24: Asteroid 1998 WT24 Passes Near Earth 2001 December 23: Saturnian Aurora 2001 December 22: Hot Stars in the Southern Milky Way 2001 December 21: Partial Eclipse, Cloudy Day 2001 December 20: Jupiter and Saturn Pas de Deux 2001 December 19: Finding Dark Matter 2001 December 18: Sharpless 212 in Hydrogen and Sulfur 2001 December 17: Leaving the International Space Station 2001 December 16: The Horsehead Nebula 2001 December 15: Ganymede: Torn Comet Crater Chain 2001 December 14: NGC 7023: The Iris Nebula 2001 December 13: The South Pole of Mars 2001 December 12: Leonids Over Korean Observatory 2001 December 11: Venusian Half Shell 2001 December 10: Globular Cluster M15 2001 December 09: The Belt of Venus 2001 December 08: Moon Struck 2001 December 07: Mediterranean Leonid 2001 2001 December 06: Comet Linear (WM1) Brightens 2001 December 05: A Sky Filled with Leonids 2001 December 04: AE Aurigae: The Flaming Star 2001 December 03: Dueling Auroras 2001 December 02: Rumors of a Strange Universe 2001 December 01: Neptune's Great Dark Spot: Gone But Not Forgotten 2001 November 30: Meteor Storm Sights and Sounds 2001 November 29: Coronal Inflow 2001 November 28: Extra Solar Planetary Atmosphere Detected 2001 November 27: Ancient Layered Rocks on Mars 2001 November 26: Leonids from the Road 2001 November 25: M16: Stars from Eagle's EGGs 2001 November 24: Mariner's Mercury 2001 November 23: Counting Falling Stardust 2001 November 22: Fireball, Smoke Trail, Meteor Storm 2001 November 21: The Galactic Ring of NGC 6782 2001 November 20: A Leonids Star Field 2001 November 19: A 2001 Leonids Meteor Shower Fireball 2001 November 18: A Leonid Meteor Explodes 2001 November 17: Catching Falling Stardust

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (30 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 November 16: Leonid Watching 2001 November 15: Recycling Columbia 2001 November 14: Auroras Over Both Earth Poles 2001 November 13: A Gravity Map of Earth 2001 November 12: Is Mystery Object an Orphan Afterglow? 2001 November 11: An Annotated Leonid 2001 November 10: Lunar Dust and Duct Tape 2001 November 09: SOHO Comet 367: Sungrazer 2001 November 08: Under A Sunspot 2001 November 07: A Sun Pillar in Red and Violet 2001 November 06: In the Center of Spiral Galaxy M83 2001 November 05: Aurora Over Winnipeg 2001 November 04: Leonids from Leo 2001 November 03: Bright Stars, Dim Galaxy 2001 November 02: THEMIS of Mars 2001 November 01: M87's Energetic Jet 2001 October 31: Halloween and the Ghost Head Nebula 2001 October 30: Anticrepuscular Rays Over Colorado 2001 October 29: Spinning Black Holes and MCG-6-30-15 2001 October 28: NGC 2346: A Butterfly-Shaped Planetary Nebula 2001 October 27: Sher 25: A Pending Supernova 2001 October 26: Elements in the Aftermath 2001 October 25: Odyssey at Mars 2001 October 24: The Matter of Galaxy Clusters 2001 October 23: Emission and Reflection in NGC 6559 2001 October 22: The First Rocket Launch from Cape Canaveral 2001 October 21: The Sombrero Galaxy from VLT 2001 October 20: The Radio Sky: Tuned to 408MHz 2001 October 19: X-Ray Stars and Winds in the Rosette Nebula 2001 October 18: Pluto: New Horizons 2001 October 17: Mars Engulfed 2001 October 16: A Newly Active Volcano On Jupiters Io 2001 October 15: The Earth and Moon Planetary System 2001 October 14: Galileo Demonstrates the Telescope 2001 October 13: A Portrait of Saturn from Titan 2001 October 12: Space Station and Space Shuttle: Backyard View 2001 October 11: VDB 142 in Cepheus 2001 October 10: The Center of Globular Cluster Omega Centauri 2001 October 09: The Past of Asteroid Eros 2001 October 08: A Yukon Aurora 2001 October 07: Abell 2218: A Galaxy Cluster Lens

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (31 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 October 06: Hen 1357: New Born Nebula 2001 October 05: A Flock of Stars 2001 October 04: M74: The Perfect Spiral 2001 October 03: The Planetary Nebula Show 2001 October 02: A Flying Astronaut Over Earth 2001 October 01: A Global Dust Storm on Mars 2001 September 30: IC 418: The Spirograph Nebula 2001 September 29: The Iron Sun 2001 September 28: NGC 6992: A Glimpse of the Veil 2001 September 27: Elements of Nearby Spiral M33 2001 September 26: Comet Borrelly's Nucleus 2001 September 25: The Highs and Lows of Earth 2001 September 24: A Solar Prominence Erupts 2001 September 23: Molecular Cloud Barnard 68 2001 September 22: Full Throttle For Deep Space 1 2001 September 21: Where a Black Hole Roams 2001 September 20: X-Ray Stars in M15 2001 September 19: SIRTF: Name This Satellite 2001 September 18: Surrounded by Mars 2001 September 17: Southwest Andromeda 2001 September 16: Venus Once Molten Surface 2001 September 15: Eclipsed Moon in Infrared 2001 September 14: Cold Dust in the Eagle Nebula 2001 September 13: X-Rays and the Circinus Pulsar 2001 September 12: Zodiacal Light and the False Dawn 2001 September 11: Spiral Galaxy NGC 3310 Across the Visible 2001 September 10: Galactic Center Flicker Indicates Black Hole 2001 September 09: NGC 3293: A Bright Young Open Cluster 2001 September 08: Moon Occults Saturn 2001 September 07: Moon AND Sun 2001 September 06: Moon AND Stars 2001 September 05: 3C175: Quasar Cannon 2001 September 04: 2dF Sees Waves of Galaxies 2001 September 03: The Making of the Rotten Egg Nebula 2001 September 02: Deimos: A Small Martian Moon 2001 September 01: Magnetars In The Sky 2001 August 31: The Flight of Helios 2001 August 30: How Big Is 2001 KX76? 2001 August 29: AFGL 2591: A Massive Star Acts Up 2001 August 28: Jagged Hills on Jupiters Callisto 2001 August 27: Artificial Night Sky Brightness

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (32 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 August 26: Uranus: The Tilted Planet 2001 August 25: Pioneer 10: The First 7 Billion Miles 2001 August 24: NEAR at Eros: Before Touchdown 2001 August 23: Distortion from a Distant Cluster 2001 August 22: The Bubbling Cauldron of NGC 3079 2001 August 21: Dark Spots on Neptune 2001 August 20: The Lagoon Nebula in Three Colors 2001 August 19: Mercury: A Cratered Inferno 2001 August 18: Phobos: Doomed Moon of Mars 2001 August 17: The 47 Ursae Majoris System 2001 August 16: Centaurus A: X Rays from an Active Galaxy 2001 August 15: Mars: 3-D Dunes 2001 August 14: X-Rays from the Galactic Plane 2001 August 13: A Piece of Interplanetary Dust 2001 August 12: Eagle EGGs in M16 2001 August 11: A Mystery in Gamma Rays 2001 August 10: Perseids of Summer 2001 August 09: Tycho and Copernicus: Lunar Ray Craters 2001 August 08: Farewell Jupiter 2001 August 07: A July Dawn 2001 August 06: The Orbiting Hubble Space Telescope 2001 August 05: NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf 2001 August 04: Neighboring Galaxy: The Large Magellanic Cloud 2001 August 03: Warped Spiral Galaxy ESO 510 13 2001 August 02: Burning Tree Sprite 2001 August 01: Young Martian Terrain 2001 July 31: Oceans Under Jupiter's Callisto 2001 July 30: Star Cluster R136 Bursts Out 2001 July 29: M57: The Ring Nebula 2001 July 28: A Daytime Fireball in 1944 2001 July 27: Martian Dust Storm 2001 July 26: Madagascar Totality 2001 July 25: Hot Gas Halo Detected Around Galaxy NGC 4631 2001 July 24: The Red Spider Planetary Nebula 2001 July 23: Atlantis to Orbit 2001 July 22: NGC 1977: Blue Reflection Nebula in Orion 2001 July 21: 25 Years Ago: Vikings on Mars 2001 July 20: The Elephant's Trunk in IC 1396 2001 July 19: Pulsar Wind in the Vela Nebula 2001 July 18: Mars from Earth 2001 July 17: The Carina Nebula in Three Colors

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (33 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 July 16: Water Found Around Nearby Star CW Leonis 2001 July 15: Io in True Color 2001 July 14: Solar System Web Cam 2001 July 13: Welcome to the Moon Hotel 2001 July 12: NGC 1850: Not Found in the Milky Way 2001 July 11: A Total Eclipse Over Africa 2001 July 10: Sudbury Indicates Nonstandard Particle Model 2001 July 09: Air Pollution Earth 2001 July 08: The Galactic Center in Infrared 2001 July 07: A Close Encounter Of The Stellar Kind 2001 July 06: Bakasa Eclipse Sequence 2001 July 05: C/2001 A2 (LINEAR): Comet ! 2001 July 04: Moonbow with Sailboats 2001 July 03: Unusual Flashes Toward Globular Cluster M22 2001 July 02: The Seasons of Saturn 2001 July 01: Spiral Galaxy NGC 7742 2001 June 30: Hydrogen, Helium, and the Stars of M10 2001 June 29: Ice Volcanoes on Mars 2001 June 28: The Topography of Mars 2001 June 27: Moonlight, Mars and Milky Way 2001 June 26: All of Mars 2001 June 25: A Brighter Comet LINEAR 2001 June 24: NGC 3132: The Eight Burst Nebula 2001 June 23: The Cygnus Loop 2001 June 22: Eclipse in African Skies 2001 June 21: Diamond Ring in the Sun 2001 June 20: Total Eclipse of the Active Sun 2001 June 19: Crescent Neptune and Triton 2001 June 18: NGC 4755: A Jewel Box of Stars 2001 June 17: Colorful Clouds Of Carina 2001 June 16: APOD is Six Years Old Today 2001 June 15: Messiers and Mars 2001 June 14: Around The Arches Cluster 2001 June 13: M94: Beyond the Blue 2001 June 12: The Cartwheel Galaxy 2001 June 11: Globular Cluster M2 2001 June 10: Giant Cluster Bends, Breaks Images 2001 June 09: Apollo 17's Lunar Rover 2001 June 08: Three Galaxies in Draco 2001 June 07: NGC 253: X-Ray Zoom 2001 June 06: NGC 1512: A Panchromatic View

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (34 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 June 05: Asteroid Eros Reconstructed 2001 June 04: The T Tauri Star Forming System 2001 June 03: A GRB 000301C Symphony 2001 June 02: The Pulsar Powered Crab 2001 June 01: Venus' Evening Loop 2001 May 31: LINEAR's Tail and Two Nuclei 2001 May 30: Stellar Spectral Types: OBAFGKM 2001 May 29: Working in Space 2001 May 28: Close up of the Face on Mars 2001 May 27: Comet Hale-Bopp Over Val Parola Pass 2001 May 26: NGC 6826: The Blinking Eye 2001 May 25: Saturn The Giant 2001 May 24: X-Ray Stars of 47 Tucanae 2001 May 23: Strange Orange Soil on the Moon 2001 May 22: Spiral Galaxy NGC 1232 2001 May 21: Another Comet LINEAR Breaks Up 2001 May 20: Sagittarius Star Cloud 2001 May 19: Damage to Apollo 13 2001 May 18: HD 82943: Planet Swallower 2001 May 17: Solar Neutrino Astronomy 2001 May 16: The Center of the Circinus Galaxy in X-Rays 2001 May 15: A Radar Image of Venus 2001 May 14: A Cerro Tololo Sky 2001 May 13: Crater Copernicus 2001 May 12: Shuttle Moon 2001 May 11: X-Ray Rainbows 2001 May 10: Spirals On Edge 2001 May 09: Space Station Shows Off New Robot Arm 2001 May 08: GRO J1655 40: Evidence for a Spinning Black Hole 2001 May 07: One Hundred Kilometer Terrain on Venus 2001 May 06: The Pleiades Star Cluster 2001 May 05: Shepard Flies Freedom 7 2001 May 04: Protoplanetary Survivors in Orion 2001 May 03: Far Side of the Sun 2001 May 02: Planet Building in HD 100546 2001 May 01: Antarctica Hears Little Normal Matter in the Big Bang 2001 April 30: Approaching the International Space Station 2001 April 29: Ice Fishing for Cosmic Neutrinos 2001 April 28: The Moon and All the Crashes 2001 April 27: Visitors' Galaxy Gallery 2001 April 26: Horsehead Rides Again

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (35 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 April 25: Space Laser Creates Artificial Star 2001 April 24: NGC 2264: Stars, Dust, and Gas 2001 April 23: Space Shuttle Lifts Off for Space Station 2001 April 22: Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae 2001 April 21: Apollo 12: Stereo View Near Surveyor Crater 2001 April 20: Io: Moon Over Jupiter 2001 April 19: Sunspot Stack 2001 April 18: A Higher Dimensional Universe 2001 April 17: Colorful Water Clouds Over Mars 2001 April 16: The Hydra Cluster of Galaxies 2001 April 15: Diffraction Spikes: When Stars Look Like Crosses 2001 April 14: Man Enters Space 2001 April 13: GRB010222: Gamma Ray Burst, X Ray Afterglow 2001 April 12: STS-1: First Shuttle Launch 2001 April 11: Large Sunspot Group AR 9393 2001 April 10: M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy in Dust and Stars 2001 April 09: Mars Odyssey Lifts Off for Mars 2001 April 08: The Big Corona 2001 April 07: Stereo Sun 2001 April 06: Aurora Over New Zealand 2001 April 05: On the Origin of Gold 2001 April 04: Distant Supernova, Dark Energy 2001 April 03: New Stars Destroying NGC 1748 2001 April 02: Aurora Over Clouds 2001 April 01: Americans Defeat Russians in First Space Quidditch Match 2001 March 31: Barsoom 2001 March 30: Equinox + 1 2001 March 29: Aurora Alaskan Style 2001 March 28: Chandra Deep Field 2001 March 27: Swiss Cheese Like Landscape on Mars 2001 March 26: Comet Hale Bopp in the Outer Solar System 2001 March 25: The Crab Nebula from VLT 2001 March 24: The UV SMC from UIT 2001 March 23: Mir Flares Farewell 2001 March 22: Jupiter, Saturn and Messier 45 2001 March 21: Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 2903 2001 March 20: Discovery Spring 2001 March 19: Pluto in True Color 2001 March 18: The Nearest Stars 2001 March 17: Astro-2 In Orbit 2001 March 16: Rockets and Robert Goddard

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (36 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 March 15: Islands in the Photosphere 2001 March 14: Comet McNaught-Hartley 2001 March 13: A Sun Pillar 2001 March 12: M82 After the Crash 2001 March 11: NGC 1818: A Young Globular Cluster 2001 March 10: Apollo / Suveyor Stereo View 2001 March 09: X-rays From HCG 62 2001 March 08: Bright Venus 2001 March 07: Saturn At Night 2001 March 06: M27: The Dumbbell Nebula 2001 March 05: Survivor: NEAR Shoemaker On Asteroid Eros 2001 March 04: TT Cygni: Carbon Star 2001 March 03: Apollo 12 Visits Surveyor 3 2001 March 02: LkHa101: The Hole in the Doughnut 2001 March 01: Maximum Sun 2001 February 28: A Space Station Meets its Destiny 2001 February 27: The Witch Head Nebula 2001 February 26: Sand Dunes on Mars 2001 February 25: The Sudbury Neutrino Detector 2001 February 24: Infrared Horsehead 2001 February 23: M55 Color Magnitude Diagram 2001 February 22: 3C294: Distant X-Ray Galaxy Cluster 2001 February 21: A Sonic Boom 2001 February 20: Star Forming Region S106 2001 February 19: Shuttle Plume Shadow Points to Moon 2001 February 18: Lunation 2001 February 17: Happy Birthday Jules Verne 2001 February 16: Star Forming Region Hubble-X 2001 February 15: Jupiter Unpeeled 2001 February 14: The Rosette Nebula 2001 February 13: NEAR Spacecraft Survives Landing on Asteroid Eros 2001 February 12: Approaching Asteroid Eros 2001 February 11: NEAR Shoemaker Views Eros 2001 February 10: Aurora Astern 2001 February 09: Nashville Four Planet Skyline 2001 February 08: Distant Galaxies in Radio Vision 2001 February 07: Distant Open Cluster M103 2001 February 06: Touchdown Site on Asteroid Eros 2001 February 05: Planetary Nebula Mz3: The Ant Nebula 2001 February 04: Welcome to Planet Earth 2001 February 03: M100: A Grand Design

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (37 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2001 February 02: All-Sky Panorama 2001 February 01: Jupiter's Brain 2001 January 31: Earth's Plasmasphere 2001 January 30: The Orion Nebula from VLT 2001 January 29: An Airplane in Front of the Sun 2001 January 28: CMB Dipole: Speeding Through the Universe 2001 January 27: The Moons Of Earth 2001 January 26: Galaxies Of The Virgo Cluster 2001 January 25: Sail On, Stardust 2001 January 24: NGC 3603: X-Rays From A Starburst Cluster 2001 January 23: Spherical Planetary Nebula Abell 39 2001 January 22: A Two Toned Crater on Asteroid Eros 2001 January 21: Resolving Mira 2001 January 20: Helios Helium 2001 January 19: Black Holes Are Black 2001 January 18: 2001: A Total Lunar Eclipse 2001 January 17: Spiral Galaxy NGC 3310 in Ultraviolet 2001 January 16: Europa Rotating 2001 January 15: Billows of Smog in the Outer Galaxy 2001 January 14: Kepler Discovers How Planets Move 2001 January 13: A Sky Full Of Hydrogen 2001 January 12: NGC 1410/1409: Intergalactic Pipeline 2001 January 11: X-rays From The Cat's Eye 2001 January 10: Watch the Sky Rotate 2001 January 09: A Cosmic Call to Nearby Stars 2001 January 08: Help NASA Classify Martian Craters 2001 January 07: Tycho Brahe Measures the Sky 2001 January 06: Apollo 17's Moonship 2001 January 05: Second Millennium, Last Eclipse 2001 January 04: Third Millennium, First Eclipse 2001 January 03: M8: In the Center of the Lagoon Nebula 2001 January 02: Jupiter, Europa, and Callisto 2001 January 01: The Millennium that Defines Universe 2000 December 31: The Millennium that Defined Earth 2000 December 30: A Year of Resolving Backgrounds 2000 December 29: The Dark Horsehead Nebula 2000 December 28: Moon Mare and Montes 2000 December 27: The Dust and Ion Tails of Comet Hale Bopp 2000 December 26: Jupiter, Io, and Shadow 2000 December 25: The Eclipse Tree 2000 December 24: NGC 1850: Gas Clouds and Star Clusters

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (38 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 December 23: Summer at the South Pole 2000 December 22: Simulated Supergiant Star 2000 December 21: Solstice And Season's Eclipse 2000 December 20: Sgr A: Fast Stars Near the Galactic Center 2000 December 19: A Close Up of Aurora on Jupiter 2000 December 18: Oceans Under Jupiter's Ganymede 2000 December 17: M2 9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula 2000 December 16: Degas Ray Crater on Mercury 2000 December 15: IC443's Neutron Star 2000 December 14: International Space Station Trail 2000 December 13: Manicouagan Impact Crater on Earth 2000 December 12: Jupiter Eyes Ganymede 2000 December 11: Composing the Omega Nebula 2000 December 10: Too Close to a Black Hole 2000 December 09: Apollo 17 Lunarscape: A Magnificent Desolation 2000 December 08: Abell 1795: A Galaxy Cluster's Cooling Flow 2000 December 07: Earth's San Andreas Fault 2000 December 06: Reflecting Merope 2000 December 05: Layered Mars: An Ancient Water World? 2000 December 04: The Circinus Galaxy 2000 December 03: Earth's North Magnetic Pole 2000 December 02: SN 1006: Pieces of the Cosmic Ray Puzzle 2000 December 01: A Frosty Crater On Mars 2000 November 30: Palomar 13's Last Stand 2000 November 29: Leonids from Orbit 2000 November 28: BZ Cam Bow Shock 2000 November 27: Earth at Night 2000 November 26: Leonids Above Torre de la Guaita 2000 November 25: A High Energy Fleet 2000 November 24: Long Leonid 2000 November 23: Cassini At Jupiter: Red Spot Movie 2000 November 22: The Orion Nebula in Hydrogen 2000 November 21: Fire on Earth 2000 November 20: A 2000 Leonid Through Orion 2000 November 19: Our Dusty Universe 2000 November 18: Jupiter And Family 2000 November 17: Leonid Sunrise 2000 November 16: A Daytime Fireball in 1944 2000 November 15: Coronal Rain, Solar Storm 2000 November 14: The Yardangs Of Mars 2000 November 13: Disorder in Stephan's Quintet

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (39 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 November 12: The Lyman Alpha Forest 2000 November 11: The First Lunar Observatory 2000 November 10: X-Ray Cygnus A 2000 November 09: The Cosmic X-Ray Background 2000 November 08: October Skylights 2000 November 07: The Gum Nebula Supernova Remnant 2000 November 06: Heaven on Earth 2000 November 05: Jupiter Swallows Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 2000 November 04: Apollo 12: Self-Portrait 2000 November 03: New Moons For Saturn 2000 November 02: A Galaxy Collision in NGC 6745 2000 November 01: Double Asteroid 90 Antiope 2000 October 31: The Perseus Cluster's X-Ray Skull 2000 October 30: A Step Toward Gravitational Wave Detection 2000 October 29: Microwave Hotspots: The Oldest Structures Known 2000 October 28: Moonset, Planet Earth 2000 October 27: Close To Eros 2000 October 26: The Map Of Eros 2000 October 25: The Nebula And The Neutron Star 2000 October 24: Io Rotating 2000 October 23: Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 205 in the Local Group 2000 October 22: Wild Duck Open Cluster M11 2000 October 21: The Averted Side Of The Moon 2000 October 20: North Pole Below 2000 October 19: The Farthest Explosion Yet Measured 2000 October 18: The Space Shuttle Docking Ring 2000 October 17: Gemini North Images Bow Shock Near Galactic Center 2000 October 16: Dust and Gas Surrounding Star R Coronae Australis 2000 October 15: Globular Cluster Omega Centauri 2000 October 14: The Ecliptic Plane 2000 October 13: Eclipse Moon Trail 2000 October 12: HETE-2 Rides Pegasus 2000 October 11: Cassini Spacecraft Approaches Jupiter 2000 October 10: The Einstein Cross Gravitational Lens 2000 October 09: A Polar Martian Dust Storm 2000 October 08: Earth's Richat Structure 2000 October 07: Sputnik: Traveling Companion 2000 October 06: X-Rays From Sirius B 2000 October 05: N81: Star Cradle in the SMC 2000 October 04: Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300 2000 October 03: Saturn Rotates

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (40 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 October 02: Pangea Ultima: Earth in 250 Million Years 2000 October 01: The Center of Centaurus A 2000 September 30: Titania's Trenches 2000 September 29: September Sky 2000 September 28: Heating Coronal Loops 2000 September 27: Yepun 2000 September 26: Approaching Jupiter 2000 September 25: AR 9169: A Large Sunspot 2000 September 24: M16: Stars from Eagle's Eggs 2000 September 23: The Equal Night 2000 September 22: M55: Globular Star Cluster 2000 September 21: XZ Tauri System Ejects Gas Bubble 2000 September 20: Gangly Spiral Galaxy NGC 3184 2000 September 19: M17: Omega Nebula Star Factory 2000 September 18: Approaching the International Space Station 2000 September 17: Saturnian Aurora 2000 September 16: X-Ray Earth 2000 September 15: Aurora In West Texas Skies 2000 September 14: M82's Middle Mass Black Hole 2000 September 13: Comet LINEAR: Fade To Black 2000 September 12: Slightly Above Mars Pathfinder 2000 September 11: Antarctic Ozone Hole Widens 2000 September 10: White Dwarf Stars Cool 2000 September 09: X-Ray Moon and X-Ray Star 2000 September 08: Andromeda Island Universe 2000 September 07: IC 418: The Spirograph Nebula 2000 September 06: Emerging Planetary Nebula CRL 618 2000 September 05: CFHT Star Trails 2000 September 04: Aurora Persei 2000 September 03: Henrietta Leavitt Calibrates the Stars 2000 September 02: X-Ray Moon 2000 September 01: SOHO Sungrazer 2000 August 31: Full Throttle For Deep Space 1 2000 August 30: The Brown Dwarfs of Orion's Trapezium 2000 August 29: The Regolith of Asteroid Eros 2000 August 28: The Helix Nebula from CFHT 2000 August 27: Orion's Horsehead Nebula 2000 August 26: Mir Dreams 2000 August 25: Folding Europa 2000 August 24: Eros At Sunset 2000 August 23: NGC 6960: The Witch's Broom Nebula

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (41 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 August 22: NGC 2244: A Star Cluster in the Rosette Nebula 2000 August 21: A Perseid Aurora 2000 August 20: The Surface of Titan 2000 August 19: ROSAT Explores The X-Ray Sky 2000 August 18: X-Rays From Antennae Galaxies 2000 August 17: Mount Megantic Magnetic Storm 2000 August 16: Unusual Giant Galaxy NGC 1316 2000 August 15: The Solar Spectrum 2000 August 14: Kemble's Cascade 2000 August 13: Doomed Star Eta Carinae 2000 August 12: A Perseid Meteor 2000 August 11: Fragments of Comet LINEAR 2000 August 10: Other Worlds and HD 38529 2000 August 09: A Solar Filament Lifts Off 2000 August 08: Comet LINEAR Disperses 2000 August 07: Nearby Star Epsilon Eridani Has a Planet 2000 August 06: The Coma Cluster of Galaxies 2000 August 05: Halley's Nucleus: An Orbiting Iceberg 2000 August 04: M15: Dense Globular Star Cluster 2000 August 03: 22 Miles From Eros 2000 August 02: At the Edge of the Crescent Nebula 2000 August 01: X-Rays from Comet LINEAR 2000 July 31: Comet LINEAR Breaks Up 2000 July 30: NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf 2000 July 29: NGC1850: Star Cluster in the LMC 2000 July 28: Moon And Venus Share The Sky 2000 July 27: Tails Of Comet LINEAR 2000 July 26: Lingering Lunar Eclipse 2000 July 25: Why Stars Twinkle 2000 July 24: M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy 2000 July 23: Isaac Newton Explains the Solar System 2000 July 22: GLAST Gamma Ray Sky Simulation 2000 July 21: Eros Craters And Boulders 2000 July 20: AR9077: Solar Magnetic Arcade 2000 July 19: Globular Cluster M19 2000 July 18: A Russian Proton Rocket Launches Zvezda 2000 July 17: Lightning on Earth 2000 July 16: M57: The Ring Nebula 2000 July 15: Star Trails in Southern Skies 2000 July 14: Crater On Ice 2000 July 13: LP 944-20: A Failed Star Flares

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (42 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 July 12: A Giant Starspot on HD 12545 2000 July 11: The Crab Nebula in Blue and White 2000 July 10: Comet LINEAR Extends 2000 July 09: The Hubble Deep Field 2000 July 08: The United States At Night 2000 July 07: Sirius, Sun, Moon, and Southern Cross 2000 July 06: A Jet from Galaxy M87 2000 July 05: The Galactic Center Across the Infrared 2000 July 04: Comet LINEAR Approaches 2000 July 03: Pelican Nebula Ionization Front 2000 July 02: Gamma Ray Burst: A Milestone Explosion 2000 July 01: Ultraviolet Earth from the Moon 2000 June 30: Vintage Gamma Rays 2000 June 29: Galactic Centre Starscape 2000 June 28: BATSE GRB Final Sky Map 2000 June 27: M63: The Sunflower Galaxy 2000 June 26: Newton Crater: Evidence for Recent Water on Mars 2000 June 25: Shapley 1: An Annular Planetary Nebula 2000 June 24: Sunlight Through Saturn's Rings 2000 June 23: The Gullies Of Mars 2000 June 22: Blue Stragglers In NGC 6397 2000 June 21: Solstice Celebration 2000 June 20: Ganymede: The Largest Moon in the Solar System 2000 June 19: The Long Jet of Pictor A 2000 June 18: The Milky Way Near the Southern Cross 2000 June 17: The Last Moon Shot 2000 June 16: APOD is Five Years Old Today 2000 June 15: X-Rays From The Perseus Cluster Core 2000 June 14: A Slice of the Universe with 2dF 2000 June 13: The Keyhole Nebula in Infrared 2000 June 12: A Bubbling Galaxy Center 2000 June 11: Sirius: The Brightest Star in the Night 2000 June 10: M101: An Ultraviolet View 2000 June 09: Vela Pulsar: Neutron Star-Ring-Jet 2000 June 08: Active Regions, CMEs, and X-Class Flares 2000 June 07: Up Close to Jupiter's Moon Io 2000 June 06: A Continuous Eruption on Jupiter's Moon Io 2000 June 05: In the Heart of the Crab 2000 June 04: MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula 2000 June 03: Compton Reentry 2000 June 02: The Secret Spiral Of IC3328

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (43 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 June 01: X-Ray Wind From NGC 3783 2000 May 31: Astronaut at Work 2000 May 30: The Very Large Array Turns Twenty 2000 May 29: Olympus Mons Volcano on Mars 2000 May 28: Skylab Over Earth 2000 May 27: M51: The Center Of The Whirlpool 2000 May 26: Solar Sail 2000 May 25: Eros Horizon View 2000 May 24: Pleiades, Planets, And Hot Plasma 2000 May 23: M4: The Closest Known Globular Cluster 2000 May 22: Light Bridges on the Sun 2000 May 21: Antares and Rho Ophiuchi 2000 May 20: Sungrazer 2000 May 19: An Aurora Before the Storm 2000 May 18: The Near Infrared Sky 2000 May 17: The Far Infrared Sky 2000 May 16: QSO H1821 643 Indicates a Universe Filled with Hydrogen 2000 May 15: A Halo Around the Moon 2000 May 14: A Presidential Panorama of Mars 2000 May 13: Surveyor Slides 2000 May 12: X-Ray Ring Around SN1987A 2000 May 11: NGC 3314: When Galaxies Overlap 2000 May 10: Dog-Bone Shaped Asteroid 216 Kleopatra 2000 May 09: The Race to Reveal Our Universe 2000 May 08: Jupiter's Moons Thebe, Amalthea, and Metis 2000 May 07: A Green Flash from the Sun 2000 May 06: The Heart Of Orion 2000 May 05: Planets In The Sun 2000 May 04: Planets Above The Clouds 2000 May 03: BOOMERANG Images The Early Universe 2000 May 02: An Iridium Flash Sunset 2000 May 01: The North America Nebula 2000 April 30: The Small Cloud of Magellan (SMC) 2000 April 29: 3D View Of Jupiter's Clouds 2000 April 28: Leonid Glowworm 2000 April 27: Calderas And Cliffs Near Io's South Pole 2000 April 26: Filaments In The Cygnus Loop 2000 April 25: Layers of the Martian South Polar Cap 2000 April 24: Reflection Nebula M78 2000 April 23: Giant Cluster Bends, Breaks Images 2000 April 22: Journey to the Center of the Galaxy

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (44 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 April 21: M82: Starburst in X-rays 2000 April 20: Blue Marble 2000 2000 April 19: Redshift 5.8: A New Farthest Quasar 2000 April 18: Europa: Ice Line 2000 April 17: Flying Over Asteroid Eros West End 2000 April 16: IC 4406: A Seemingly Square Nebula 2000 April 15: Surveyor Hops 2000 April 14: Supernova Remnant E0102 72 from Radio to X-Ray 2000 April 13: Exploring Comet Tails 2000 April 12: The Local Bubble and the Galactic Neighborhood 2000 April 11: The Local Interstellar Cloud 2000 April 10: Aurora in Red and Yellow 2000 April 09: Mysterious Pluto and Charon 2000 April 08: Compton Observatory In Orbit 2000 April 07: Celebrating Hubble With NGC 6751 2000 April 06: Venus, Moon, and Neighbors 2000 April 05: The M7 Open Star Cluster in Scorpius 2000 April 04: A Superwind from the Cigar Galaxy 2000 April 03: A Twisted Solar Eruptive Prominence 2000 April 02: Eagle EGGs in M16 2000 April 01: Planet Earth From TIROS 1: First TV Image 2000 March 31: Free-Floating Planets In Orion 2000 March 30: Saturn-Sized Worlds Discovered 2000 March 29: Fullerenes as Miniature Cosmic Time Capsules 2000 March 28: M20: The Trifid Nebula 2000 March 27: Flying Over Asteroid Eros 2000 March 26: Venus' Once Molten Surface 2000 March 25: The Earth Also Rises 2000 March 24: A Mystery in Gamma Rays 2000 March 23: Inside Mars 2000 March 22: A Spherule from Outer Space 2000 March 21: HH111's 12 Light-Year Star Jet 2000 March 20: Mercury on the Horizon 2000 March 19: Apollo 16: Exploring Plum Crater 2000 March 18: A Wind From The Sun 2000 March 17: Martian Dust Devil Trails 2000 March 16: NEAR Shoemaker Views Eros 2000 March 15: Weak Lensing Distorts the Universe 2000 March 14: A GRB 000301C Symphony 2000 March 13: A Panorama of Oddities in Orion A 2000 March 12: Supernova 1994D and the Unexpected Universe

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (45 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 March 11: Messier Marathon 2000 March 10: Sky and Planets 2000 March 09: Sun Storm: A Coronal Mass Ejection 2000 March 08: Nearer To Asteroid Eros 2000 March 07: Zal Patera on Jupiter's Moon Io 2000 March 06: Abell 2142: Clash of the Galaxy Clusters 2000 March 05: The Pipe Dark Nebula 2000 March 04: Saturn At Night 2000 March 03: Dust Storm on Planet Earth 2000 March 02: NGC 1999: Reflection Nebula In Orion 2000 March 01: M13: The Great Globular Cluster in Hercules 2000 February 29: Julius Caesar and Leap Days 2000 February 28: The Sombrero Galaxy from VLT 2000 February 27: The Pleiades Star Cluster 2000 February 26: Impact: 65 Million Years Ago 2000 February 25: The Comets Of SOHO 2000 February 24: Stereo Eros 2000 February 23: Sunspot Seething 2000 February 22: Neighboring Galaxy: The Large Magellanic Cloud 2000 February 21: A Giant Gouge on Asteroid Eros 2000 February 20: The Virgo Cluster of Galaxies 2000 February 19: Young Suns 2000 February 18: Neptune through Adaptive Optics 2000 February 17: New Shocks For Supernova 1987A 2000 February 16: Eros From Orbit 2000 February 15: M106: A Spiral Galaxy with a Strange Core 2000 February 14: An Unexpected Asteroid Valentine 2000 February 13: Southwest Mercury 2000 February 12: Stereo Saturn 2000 February 11: XMM-Newton First Light: X-Rays From The LMC 2000 February 10: Eros Encounter Nears 2000 February 09: Galaxy Wars: M81 Versus M82 2000 February 08: Rings Around Beta Pictoris 2000 February 07: The W4 Chimney 2000 February 06: The Mysterious Rings of Supernova 1987A 2000 February 05: NEAR to Asteroid Eros 2000 February 04: X-Ray Stars Of Orion 2000 February 03: Colorful Clouds Of Carina 2000 February 02: Aeolian Mars 2000 February 01: Abell 2218: A Galaxy Cluster Lens 2000 January 31: Snowstorm on Planet Earth

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (46 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

2000 January 30: The Milky Way in Infrared 2000 January 29: Natural Saturn On The Cassini Cruise 2000 January 28: Astronomy From An F-18 2000 January 27: Spiral Galaxy In Centaurus 2000 January 26: A Lunar Eclipse Over Time 2000 January 25: A Lunar Eclipse in Three Exposures 2000 January 24: The Eskimo Nebula from the Newly Fixed Hubble 2000 January 23: A Message From Earth 2000 January 22: Magnetar In The Sky 2000 January 21: X For Andromeda 2000 January 20: X-Rays From The Galactic Center 2000 January 19: A Big Black Hole Floats By 2000 January 18: NGC 7635: The Bubble Nebula 2000 January 17: V4641 Sgr: The Closest Black Hole Candidate 2000 January 16: The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory 2000 January 15: The Sun Also Rises 2000 January 14: Chandra Resolves the Hard X-Ray Background 2000 January 13: A Skygazers Full Moon 2000 January 12: NGC 6791: An Old, Large Open Cluster 2000 January 11: The Rosette Nebula in Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur 2000 January 10: Brown Sun Bubbling 2000 January 09: Galaxy Dwingeloo 1 Emerges 2000 January 08: Albert Einstein Describes Space and Time 2000 January 07: NGC 4214: Star Forming Galaxy 2000 January 06: Mars in the New Year 2000 January 05: Earth, Moon, Hubble 2000 January 04: Galaxies Cluster Toward the Great Attractor 2000 January 03: Cas A Supernova Remnant in X-Rays 2000 January 02: The Largest Rock Known 2000 January 01: The Millennium that Defines Universe December 31 1999: The Millennium that Defined Earth December 30 1999: The Century that Defined Galaxy December 29 1999: The Decade that Defined Star System December 28 1999: A Year of New Perspectives December 27 1999: Solar Moss December 26 1999: West Of The Great Red Spot December 25 1999: An Earth Ornament December 24 1999: Hubble Holiday December 23 1999: Unusual Aurora During Solar Wind Dropout December 22 1999: Perigee Moon, Apogee Moon December 21 1999: XMM Launched

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (47 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

December 20 1999: Lava Fountain on Jupiter's Io December 19 1999: Accretion Disk Binary System December 18 1999: Irregular Galaxy Sextans A December 17 1999: Hot Gas In Hydra A December 16 1999: Supernova Remnant In M82 December 15 1999: A Nova In Aquila December 14 1999: High Velocity Clouds and the Milky Way December 13 1999: A Magellanic Starfield December 12 1999: NGC 4314: A Nuclear Starburst Ring December 11 1999: A Close Encounter Of The Stellar Kind December 10 1999: Spot The Planet December 09 1999: X-ray Hot Supernova Remnant in the SMC December 08 1999: Moon Struck December 07 1999: The Cat's Paw Nebula December 06 1999: M83: The Southern Pinwheel Galaxy from VLT December 05 1999: Rhea: Saturns Second Largest Moon December 04 1999: Mars Polar Lander Target Ellipse December 03 1999: Southern Mars December 02 1999: 1999 Leonid Fireball December 01 1999: Landing At The Martian South Pole November 30 1999: Henize 70: A Superbubble in the LMC November 29 1999: Arcs and Jets in Herbig Haro 34 November 28 1999: Beneath Venus Clouds November 27 1999: Runaway Star November 26 1999: Io Volcano: Pele's Hot Lava November 25 1999: 3C 295: X-rays From A Giant Galaxy November 24 1999: A Leonids Meteor Storm in 1999 November 23 1999: Leonids Above Torre de la Guaita November 22 1999: The Crab Nebula from VLT November 21 1999: Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4881 in Coma November 20 1999: Small Star November 19 1999: Mercury And The Sun November 18 1999: A Sirius Leonid Meteor November 17 1999: A Leonid Meteor Explodes November 16 1999: A RADARSAT Map of Antarctica November 15 1999: In the Shade of a Historic Planet November 14 1999: M31: The Andromeda Galaxy November 13 1999: Tempel Tuttle: The Leonid Comet November 12 1999: 1998 Leonid Fireball November 11 1999: Mercury And The Moon November 10 1999: The Belt of Venus

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (48 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

November 09 1999: Spiral Galaxies in Collision November 08 1999: Lunation November 07 1999: The Heart Of NGC 4261 November 06 1999: X-ray Transit of Mercury November 05 1999: Shadow Of Phobos November 04 1999: Gamma-Ray Bursting November 03 1999: M32: Blue Stars in an Elliptical Galaxy November 02 1999: Aurora Through a Moonlit Sky November 01 1999: The Rotten Egg Planetary Nebula October 31 1999: The Cat's Eye Nebula October 30 1999: Mars Rocks, Sojourner Rolls October 29 1999: The USNO Millennium Time Ball October 28 1999: X-Ray Jet From Centaurus A October 27 1999: In the Heart of the Tarantula Nebula October 26 1999: 30 Doradus: The Tarantula Nebula October 25 1999: Neptune in Infrared October 24 1999: The Magnetic Carpet Of The Sun October 23 1999: M27: Not A Comet October 22 1999: Iridium 52: Not A Meteor October 21 1999: Follow The Spots October 20 1999: NGC 2261: Hubbles Variable Nebula October 19 1999: Earth's North Magnetic Pole October 18 1999: NGC 3603: An Active Star Cluster October 17 1999: Black Holes in Galactic Centers October 16 1999: Maria Mitchell Inspires a Generation October 15 1999: Moon Crashers October 14 1999: Moon Over Eugenia October 13 1999: Ozone Hole Reduced October 12 1999: NGC 2346: A Butterfly Shaped Planetary Nebula October 11 1999: Eta Carina in X-Rays October 10 1999: Triton: Neptune's Largest Moon October 09 1999: The Frothy Milky Way October 08 1999: NGC 1365: Barred Spiral Galaxy October 07 1999: The Averted Side Of The Moon October 06 1999: Polaris: The North Star October 05 1999: Two Hours Before Neptune October 04 1999: The 220 Mirrors of CRTF October 03 1999: Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Leo I October 02 1999: Phi Persei: Double Star October 01 1999: New Stars In 30 Doradus September 30 1999: Massive Stars Of 30 Doradus

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (49 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

September 29 1999: The Crab Nebula in X-Rays September 28 1999: Mystery Object Explained September 27 1999: Our Galaxy in Stars, Gas, and Dust September 26 1999: M83: A Barred Spiral Galaxy September 25 1999: Twistin' By The Lagoon September 24 1999: Cometary Globules In Orion September 23 1999: Equinox and Eruptive Prominence September 22 1999: Halos Around the Ring Nebula September 21 1999: The Quintuplet Star Cluster September 20 1999: Io in True Color September 19 1999: Interstellar Dust-Bunnies of NGC 891 September 18 1999: Mercury Astronauts and a Redstone September 17 1999: M3: Half A Million Stars September 16 1999: The Incredible Expanding Cat's Eye September 15 1999: The Big Corona September 14 1999: The Colorful Orion Nebula September 13 1999: Supernova Remnant N132D in X-Rays September 12 1999: Stonehenge: Ancient Monument to the Sun September 11 1999: The Annotated Galactic Center September 10 1999: Cassini Images The Moon September 09 1999: Comet Hale Bopp Over the Superstition Mountains September 08 1999: A Superior Conjunction Of Mercury September 07 1999: Water Found in Space Rock September 06 1999: HCG 87: A Small Group of Galaxies September 05 1999: The Universe Evolves September 04 1999: The Water Vapor Channel September 03 1999: Venus Falls Out of the Evening Sky September 02 1999: Eclipse Over The Mountain September 01 1999: 1999 JM8: A Rock Too Close August 31 1999: Symbiotic Star Bubbles August 30 1999: Looking Back on an Eclipsed Earth August 29 1999: The Witch Head Nebula August 28 1999: X-Ray Pleiades August 27 1999: Chandra's First Light: Cassiopeia A August 26 1999: Cassini Flyby August 25 1999: Reflections on NGC 6188 August 24 1999: A Network of Microlensing Caustics August 23 1999: Sundogs over the VLA August 22 1999: The Center of Centaurus A August 21 1999: Galaxies Away August 20 1999: At The Sun's Edge

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (50 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

August 19 1999: Light From The Dark Sun August 18 1999: Sun Block August 17 1999: A Crescent Sunrise August 16 1999: Mars Weather Watch August 15 1999: M104: The Sombrero Galaxy August 14 1999: A String Of Pearls August 13 1999: Eclipse In The Shade August 12 1999: Deploying Spartan August 11 1999: A Meteor Over the Anza Borrego Desert August 10 1999: A Total Eclipse for Europe August 09 1999: A Martian Dust Storm Approaches August 08 1999: Comet Hale-Bopp Over Val Parola Pass August 07 1999: Ida and Dactyl: Asteroid and Moon August 06 1999: Hubble Tracks Jupiters Great Red Spot August 05 1999: Asteroid 9969 Braille August 04 1999: The Surface of Titan August 03 1999: The Vela Supernova Remnant Expands August 02 1999: Regulus Occulted August 01 1999: Walking in Space July 31 1999: X-Ray Triple Jet July 30 1999: The Sea of Tranquillity: 5 Seconds To Impact July 29 1999: Hydrogen Blob N88A in the Small Magellanic Cloud July 28 1999: Asia at Night July 27 1999: Chandra X-Ray Telescope July 26 1999: Noctilucent Clouds July 25 1999: The Cygnus Loop July 24 1999: Infrared Saturn July 23 1999: A Martian Valley July 22 1999: Cosmic Collisions in a Galaxy Cluster July 21 1999: Galactic Supernova Remnant IC 443 July 20 1999: Moon Rocket July 19 1999: NGC 3372: The Great Nebula in Carina July 18 1999: Jupiter from Voyager July 17 1999: Rockets and Robert Goddard July 16 1999: Solar Surfin' July 15 1999: Charles P. Conrad Jr. 1930-1999 July 14 1999: Moon, Planets, and Rocket Trails July 13 1999: The Flame Nebula in Infrared July 12 1999: A Delta Rocket Launches July 11 1999: Barringer Crater on Earth July 10 1999: Southern Neptune

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (51 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

July 09 1999: NGC 7789: Galactic Star Cluster July 08 1999: Eruptive Prominence July 07 1999: M80: A Dense Globular Cluster July 06 1999: A Sun Pillar July 05 1999: Four Faces of Mars July 04 1999: A Landing On Mars July 03 1999: NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf July 02 1999: Shadow Of A Comet July 01 1999: Apollo 17's Lunar Rover June 30 1999: NGC 6934 from Gemini North June 29 1999: Gemini North Telescope Inaugurated June 28 1999: From Mars with Love June 27 1999: COBE Dipole: Speeding Through the Universe June 26 1999: Shells in the Egg Nebula June 25 1999: The Gegenschein June 24 1999: NGC 1365: A Nearby Barred Spiral Galaxy June 23 1999: The Sudbury Neutrino Detector June 22 1999: PKS285-02: A Young Planetary Nebula June 21 1999: The Galactic Center in Infrared June 20 1999: A Very Large Array of Radio Telescopes June 19 1999: Venus on the Horizon June 18 1999: Tharsis Volcanos June 17 1999: NGC 4565: Needle Galaxy June 16 1999: Sprite Fireworks June 15 1999: The Sun Oscillates June 14 1999: N159 and The Papillon Nebula June 13 1999: Zodiacal Light June 12 1999: Venus: Just Passing By June 11 1999: AB Aurigae: How To Make Planets June 10 1999: Mjlnir: Impact Crater June 09 1999: NGC 4414: A Telling Spiral June 08 1999: Trifid Pillars and Jets June 07 1999: Starbirth in the Trifid Nebula June 06 1999: Kepler Discovers How Planets Move June 05 1999: Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse June 04 1999: NGC 3603: From Beginning To End June 03 1999: Methane Dwarf June 02 1999: Thermal Mars June 01 1999: A Gallery of Gravitational Mirages May 31 1999: Uranus Moon 18 May 30 1999: Tycho Brahe Measures the Sky

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (52 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

May 29 1999: The Ecliptic Plane May 28 1999: Topographical Mars May 27 1999: NGC 4603 and the Expanding Universe May 26 1999: GRB 990510: Another Unusual Gamma Ray Burst May 25 1999: NGC 6872: A Stretched Spiral May 24 1999: Introducing Nova Velorum 1999 May 23 1999: The Keyhole Nebula May 22 1999: M42: A Mosaic of Orion's Great Nebula May 21 1999: Star Party Trails May 20 1999: Cyclone on Mars May 19 1999: The Horsehead Nebula May 18 1999: A Laguna Triangle May 17 1999: How to Search for Aliens May 16 1999: Europe at Night May 15 1999: Star Wars in NGC 664 May 14 1999: Landsat 7 Views Planet Earth May 13 1999: Mars Volcano Apollinaris Patera May 12 1999: Warped Spiral Galaxy ESO510 13 May 11 1999: Molecular Cloud Barnard 68 May 10 1999: Polar Ring Galaxy NGC 4650A May 09 1999: Fractal Interstellar Dust Up Close May 08 1999: Moon Occults Saturn May 07 1999: Hot Stars in the Southern Milky Way May 06 1999: Liberty Bell 7 May 05 1999: A Solar System Portrait May 04 1999: Magnetic Mars May 03 1999: Loop I in the Northern Sky May 02 1999: Stars from Eagle's Eggs May 01 1999: Lunar Dust and Duct Tape April 30 1999: Solar Shock Wave April 29 1999: NGC 2266: Old Cluster in the New General Catalog April 28 1999: A Sundial for Mars April 27 1999: Introducing Comet Lee April 26 1999: USNO A2.0 Catalog: A Digital Sky April 25 1999: Mimas: Small Moon with a Big Crater April 24 1999: Barsoom April 23 1999: Io Shadow April 22 1999: Where is Upsilon Andromedae? April 21 1999: The Nearest Stars April 20 1999: Candidates for a Hypernova April 19 1999: The Full Moon

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (53 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

April 18 1999: Moon Over California April 17 1999: Gamma Ray Moon April 16 1999: Upsilon Andromedae: An Extra-Solar System April 15 1999: Apollo 17's Moonship April 14 1999: The Backyard Universe April 13 1999: The Case of the Missing Supernova April 12 1999: Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 4945 April 11 1999: Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia April 10 1999: Canaries Sky April 09 1999: WR 104: Pinwheel Star April 08 1999: Apollo 12: Surveyor 3 and Intrepid April 07 1999: Denizen of the Tarantula Nebula April 06 1999: NGC 6334: The Bear Claw Nebula April 05 1999: The Launch of STARDUST April 04 1999: Hot Gas and Dark Matter April 03 1999: The Radio Sky: Tuned to 408MHz April 02 1999: Stars of NGC 206 April 01 1999: Ski Mars! March 31 1999: PG 1115+080: A Gravitational Cloverleaf March 30 1999: An Anomalous SETI Signal March 29 1999: NGC 1850: Gas Clouds and Star Clusters March 28 1999: The Coma Cluster of Galaxies March 27 1999: Stars Without Galaxies March 26 1999: Impact Moon March 25 1999: March of the Planets March 24 1999: Brown Dwarf Gliese 229B March 23 1999: A Chamaeleon Sky March 22 1999: An Infrared Galaxy Gallery March 21 1999: M2-9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula March 20 1999: Aurora and Orion March 19 1999: Mapping Mars March 18 1999: Messier Marathon March 17 1999: Ice Fishing for Cosmic Neutrinos March 16 1999: Sigmoids Predict Solar Eruptions March 15 1999: Happy Face Crater on Mars March 14 1999: The Comet and the Galaxy March 13 1999: Phobos Over Mars March 12 1999: Hydrogen, Helium, and the Stars of M10 March 11 1999: 5 Million Miles From Io March 10 1999: NGC 2997 from VLT Kueyen March 09 1999: The VLT Interferometric Array

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (54 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

March 08 1999: A Jupiter-Venus Conjunction March 07 1999: Tycho's Supernova Remnant in X-ray March 06 1999: Miranda, Chevron, and Alonso March 05 1999: M46 And NGC 2438: Young And Old March 04 1999: Ganymede Mosaic March 03 1999: Infrared Mars March 02 1999: The Kleinmann Low Nebula March 01 1999: Reflection Nebula NGC 1435 February 28 1999: Trapezium: Teardrops in My Skies February 27 1999: Hamlet of Oberon February 26 1999: Dark Cloud February 25 1999: NGC 6712: Galactic Globular Cluster February 24 1999: A Milky Way Band February 23 1999: Construction of International Space Station Begins February 22 1999: NGC 1316: After Galaxies Collide February 21 1999: In the Center of 30 Doradus February 20 1999: Astro-1 In Orbit February 19 1999: On The Trail Of A Fireball February 18 1999: Aerogel For Stardust February 17 1999: Hickson Compact Group 40 February 16 1999: The Large and Small of M87 February 15 1999: La Nina Earth February 14 1999: Dark Sky, Bright Sun February 13 1999: Pluto: The Frozen Planet February 12 1999: Lunar Close Up February 11 1999: A Disk and Jet in Haro 6-5B February 10 1999: GRB 990123 Host Galaxy Imaged February 09 1999: A Supernova Starfield February 08 1999: The Solar Wind Emerges February 07 1999: Titan: Saturn's Smog Moon February 06 1999: The First Explorer February 05 1999: HR 4796A: Not Saturn February 04 1999: Spiral Sunspot February 03 1999: A Galactic Mushroom Cloud February 02 1999: The Orion Nebula from Subaru February 01 1999: The Subaru Telescope January 31 1999: Welcome to Planet Earth January 30 1999: Stereo Saturn January 29 1999: The Moon In January January 28 1999: The Galactic Center - A Radio Mystery January 27 1999: Hypatia of Alexandria

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (55 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

January 26 1999: M17: The Omega Nebula January 25 1999: Galaxy And Gamma Ray Burst January 24 1999: A Venus Landing January 23 1999: Saturnian Aurora January 22 1999: Pegasus dSph: Little Galaxy of the Local Group January 21 1999: Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 January 20 1999: Possible Planets And Infrared Dust January 19 1999: Telescope with Lightning January 18 1999: Kitt Peak National Observatory January 17 1999: NGC 1818: A Young Globular Cluster January 16 1999: Spiral Eddies On Planet Earth January 15 1999: Reflections Of Orion January 14 1999: Crosby Ramsey Memorial Observatory Refractor January 13 1999: Sagittarius Star Cloud January 12 1999: The Wind on Mars January 11 1999: Perihelion Sun January 10 1999: Venus' Once Molten Surface January 09 1999: Lunokhod: Moon Robot January 08 1999: Invader From Earth January 07 1999: The Ring January 06 1999: M6: The Butterfly Cluster January 05 1999: A New Jupiter Oval Rotates January 04 1999: Ring Around the Cluster January 03 1999: Orion's Horsehead Nebula January 02 1999: Mercury: A Cratered Inferno January 01 1999: G23: Merging Galaxies December 31 1998: The Year of Distant Supernovae December 30 1998: Supernova 1994D and the Unexpected Universe December 29 1998: A Geminid from Gemini December 28 1998: NEAR to Asteroid Eros December 27 1998: M2-9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula December 26 1998: Gamma Ray Quasar December 25 1998: Nebulae For Christmas December 24 1998: Mars Climate Orbiter Launches December 23 1998: Ring Around the Galaxy December 22 1998: Dawn of the Leonids December 21 1998: Solstice Sun In Soft X-rays December 20 1998: Edge On Spiral Galaxy NGC 891 December 19 1998: Cartwheel Of Fortune December 18 1998: TT Cygni: Carbon Star December 17 1998: The Night Shift

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (56 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

December 16 1998: 3-D Mars North Pole December 15 1998: Plains and Ridges on Europa December 14 1998: The Hubble Deep Field South December 13 1998: Blasting Off from the Moon December 12 1998: Driving To The Sun December 11 1998: High Redshift Quasars December 10 1998: Assembling The International Space Station December 09 1998: NGC 253: The Sculptor Galaxy December 08 1998: Leonids from Leo December 07 1998: Star Forming Region RCW38 December 06 1998: CG4: A Ruptured Cometary Globule December 05 1998: Surveyor Hops December 04 1998: Centaurus A: The Galaxy Deep Inside December 03 1998: Deep Space 1 December 02 1998: A Deep Field In The Southern Sky December 01 1998: Cepheus 1: Nearby Galaxy Hiding November 30 1998: An Annotated Leonid November 29 1998: Arecibo: The Largest Telescope November 28 1998: A Lonely Neutron Star November 27 1998: Twisting Meteor Train November 26 1998: Meteor Milky Way November 25 1998: A Leonid Bolide Over Kansas November 24 1998: Seven Leonids Over Wise Observatory November 23 1998: A Leonid Meteor Explodes November 22 1998: The High Energy Crab Nebula November 21 1998: Catching Falling Stardust November 20 1998: Green Fireball November 19 1998: Bright Leonids November 18 1998: Close Up of the Bubble Nebula November 17 1998: NGC 7635: The Bubble Nebula November 16 1998: Leonids 1998: A Safe Meteor Storm November 15 1998: Deimos: A Small Martian Moon November 14 1998: Surveyor Slides November 13 1998: A Leonid Fireball From 1966 November 12 1998: GLAST Gamma Ray Sky Simulation November 11 1998: Aurora Above November 10 1998: NGC 3132: The Eight Burst Nebula November 09 1998: WR124: Stellar Fireball November 08 1998: Leonid Meteor Shower Next Week November 07 1998: Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae November 06 1998: Cutaway Callisto: Ice, Rock, And Ocean

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (57 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

November 05 1998: Natural Saturn On The Cassini Cruise November 04 1998: Cosmology Solved? November 03 1998: Sextans A: A Seemingly Square Galaxy November 02 1998: PG 1115: A Ghost of Lensing Past November 01 1998: The Cat's Eye Nebula October 31 1998: Bats And The Barren Moon October 30 1998: John Glenn: Discovery Launch October 29 1998: John Glenn: Friendship 7 To Discovery October 28 1998: NGC 6210: The Turtle in Space Planetary Nebula October 27 1998: Henrietta Leavitt Calibrates the Stars October 26 1998: An Ion Drive for Deep Space 1 October 25 1998: The Pleiades Star Cluster October 24 1998: The Sun Also Rises October 23 1998: Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7742 October 22 1998: Jupiter: When Storms Collide October 21 1998: The Case of the Missing Aurora October 20 1998: Infrared Uranus October 19 1998: Olympus Mons From Orbit October 18 1998: Saturns Rings Seen Sideways October 17 1998: A Giant Globular Cluster in M31 October 16 1998: Io Aurora October 15 1998: A Great Day For SOHO October 14 1998: The World's Largest Ozone Hole October 13 1998: In the Center of the Dumbbell Nebula October 12 1998: The Hubble Deep Field in Infrared October 11 1998: Resolving Mira October 10 1998: Maria Mitchell Inspires a Generation October 09 1998: M27: Not A Comet October 08 1998: Far Side of the Moon October 07 1998: Ocean Planet Pole To Pole October 06 1998: Comet Williams in 1998 October 05 1998: A Sunspot Up Close October 04 1998: One Small Step October 03 1998: Sputnik: Traveling Companion October 02 1998: Magnetar In The Sky October 01 1998: Happy 40th Birthday, NASA! September 30 1998: Spiral Galaxy NGC 1232 September 29 1998: A Peculiar Cluster of Galaxies September 28 1998: A Hurricane in the Gulf September 27 1998: Albert Einstein Describes Space and Time September 26 1998: Space Walz

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (58 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

September 25 1998: Twin Proto-Planetary Disks September 24 1998: The North Pole Of Mars September 23 1998: Autumn and the Active Sun September 22 1998: M61: Virgo Spiral Galaxy September 21 1998: NGC 281: Cluster, Clouds, and Globules September 20 1998: Isaac Newton Explains the Solar System September 19 1998: 18 Miles From Deimos September 18 1998: Lunar Prospects September 17 1998: Radio, The Big Ear, And The Wow! Signal September 16 1998: Jupiters Rings Revealed September 15 1998: The NTT SUSI Deep Field September 14 1998: Dust Hip Deep on Phobos September 13 1998: Galileo Demonstrates the Telescope September 12 1998: Star Trails in Northern Skies September 11 1998: Help Map The Moon September 10 1998: Europa: Ridges and Rafts on a Frozen Moon September 09 1998: Crater Copernicus September 08 1998: A Cluster Too Far September 07 1998: The Sky Towards Sagittarius September 06 1998: Mariner's Mercury September 05 1998: The Pulsar Powered Crab September 04 1998: Nozomi: Earth and Moon September 03 1998: SGR 1900+14 : Magnetar September 02 1998: Saturn from Earth September 01 1998: A Colorful Aurora August 31 1998: A3827: Cluster Cannibal August 30 1998: The Sun Erupts August 29 1998: Orion Star Colours August 28 1998: Hydrogen Trifid August 27 1998: Hercules Galaxies August 26 1998: The Magellanic Stream August 25 1998: Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Phoenix August 24 1998: An Annular Eclipse of the Sun August 23 1998: Vega August 22 1998: Twistin' by the Lagoon August 21 1998: A Massive Cluster In A Young Universe August 20 1998: SOHO Composite: Coronal Mass Ejection August 19 1998: M13: The Great Globular Cluster in Hercules August 18 1998: APM 08279+5255: The Brightest Object Yet Known August 17 1998: Comet Hyakutake and the Milky Way August 16 1998: Doomed Star Eta Carinae

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (59 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

August 15 1998: The Perseus Cluster of Galaxies August 14 1998: The Dunes Of Mars August 13 1998: The Moons Of Earth August 12 1998: ERAST Pathfinder Plus: Daedalus Defied August 11 1998: Sun Dance August 10 1998: Meteors Now and Again August 09 1998: Shapley 1: An Annular Planetary Nebula August 08 1998: The Cygnus Loop August 07 1998: M65 Without Moth August 06 1998: Infrared Horsehead August 05 1998: Ganymede: Torn Comet - Crater Chain August 04 1998: Jupiter Swallows Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 August 03 1998: M44: A Beehive of Stars August 02 1998: Galaxy Dwingeloo 1 Emerges August 01 1998: A String Of Pearls July 31 1998: IRAS Orion July 30 1998: Volcanos on Mars: Elysium Region July 29 1998: The High Energy Heart Of The Milky Way July 28 1998: Impact on Jupiter July 27 1998: N81: Starbirth in the SMC July 26 1998: Antares July 25 1998: Hawaii July 24 1998: Alan B. Shepard Jr. 1923-1998 July 23 1998: X-Ray Pulsar July 22 1998: Dark Craters on Ganymede July 21 1998: Nearby Spiral M33 July 20 1998: La Nina Watch July 19 1998: Globular Cluster M3 July 18 1998: Rockets and Robert Goddard July 17 1998: Hyakutake: Stars Through A Comet's Tail July 16 1998: X-Ray Triple Jet July 15 1998: Ghost Galaxy NGC 2915 July 14 1998: At Work on Mars July 13 1998: GRB 980703: A Reassuring Redshift July 12 1998: Asteroid Gaspra's Best Face July 11 1998: M64: The Sleeping Beauty Galaxy July 10 1998: NGC 1531/2: Interacting Galaxies July 09 1998: Hale-Bopp: The Crowd Pleaser Comet July 08 1998: Mysterious Pluto and Charon July 07 1998: M8: The Lagoon Nebula July 06 1998: Sizzling Io

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (60 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

July 05 1998: Apollo 15's Home on the Moon July 04 1998: The Firework Nebula July 03 1998: Mir Above July 02 1998: X-ray Transit of Mercury July 01 1998: NGC 1808: A Nearby Starburst Galaxy June 30 1998: The Universe Evolves June 29 1998: Solar Magnetic Bananas June 28 1998: Comet Hale Bopp Over Val Parola Pass June 27 1998: Southern Neptune June 26 1998: A Planet For Gliese 876 June 25 1998: NGC 4650A: Strange Galaxy and Dark Matter June 24 1998: Sparkling Star May Indicate Galactic Composition June 23 1998: A Slice Through an Artificial Universe June 22 1998: The Doomed Dust Disk of NGC 7052 June 21 1998: Edwin Hubble Discovers the Universe June 20 1998: Pioneer 10: The First 6 Billion Miles June 19 1998: Good Morning Mars June 18 1998: Cosmic Rays and Supernova Dust June 17 1998: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Telescope June 16 1998: An Active Region of the Sun June 15 1998: NGC 4314: A Nuclear Starburst Ring June 14 1998: Giant Cluster Bends, Breaks Images June 13 1998: Henize 70: A SuperBubble In The LMC June 12 1998: Orion Nebula: The 2MASS View June 11 1998: SOHO's Twin Sungrazers June 10 1998: NGC 6070: First Light for Sloan June 09 1998: Ice Cusps on Europa June 08 1998: A Mars Glint June 07 1998: The Hubble Deep Field June 06 1998: M100: A Grand Design June 05 1998: Neutrinos in the Sun June 04 1998: Comet SOHO and Nebulae in Orion June 03 1998: Martian Crater Shows Evidence of Dried Pond June 02 1998: NGC 6302: The Butterfly Nebula June 01 1998: Solar Flares Cause Sun Quakes May 31 1998: Phobos: Doomed Moon of Mars May 30 1998: Water World May 29 1998: An Extrasolar Planet? May 28 1998: Afterglow May 27 1998: Magnetar May 26 1998: A Seemingly Square Sun

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (61 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

May 25 1998: M83: A Barred Spiral Galaxy May 24 1998: A High Energy Fleet May 23 1998: 7,000 Stars And The Milky Way May 22 1998: The Center of Centaurus A May 21 1998: Bright Comet SOHO May 20 1998: Discovery Image: Comet SOHO (1998 J1) May 19 1998: Apollo 11: Onto a New World May 18 1998: NGC 6369: A Donut Shaped Nebula May 17 1998: Our Solar System from Voyager May 16 1998: Helios Helium May 15 1998: TRACE and the Active Sun May 14 1998: Comet Stonehouse May 13 1998: Occultations and Rising Moons May 12 1998: Callisto Enhanced May 11 1998: Callisto in True Color May 10 1998: Skylab Over Earth May 09 1998: The Water Vapor Channel May 08 1998: A Gamma Ray Burst Supernova? May 07 1998: A Powerful Gamma Ray Burst May 06 1998: Beijing Ancient Observatory May 05 1998: Aurora at Midnight May 04 1998: M57: The Ring Nebula May 03 1998: Standing on the Moon May 02 1998: The Frothy Milky Way May 01 1998: Venus: Just Passing By April 30 1998: Mars: Big Crater in Stereo April 29 1998: Tornadoes on the Sun April 28 1998: A Rare Double Conjunction Eclipse April 27 1998: IC 4406: A Seemingly Square Nebula April 26 1998: NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf April 25 1998: Supernova Remnant and Neutron Star April 24 1998: Infrared Saturn April 23 1998: Three Dusty Stars April 22 1998: HR 4796A: A Recipe for Planets April 21 1998: Water From Orion April 20 1998: Name This Satellite April 19 1998: Betelgeuse April 18 1998: Star Wars in NGC 664 April 17 1998: Mars: Looking For Viking April 16 1998: Mars: Cydonia Close Up April 15 1998: NGC 1818: Pick A Star

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (62 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

April 14 1998: Starlight Reflections April 13 1998: The Sun Changes April 12 1998: Stars from Eagle's EGGs April 11 1998: NGC 604: Giant Stellar Nursery April 10 1998: Hyakutake: Comet Atmosphere April 09 1998: Quasar in an Elliptical Galaxy April 08 1998: Nabta: Older than Stonehenge April 07 1998: Return To Cydonia April 06 1998: A Face On Mars April 05 1998: X-Ray Pleiades April 04 1998: Mercury Astronauts and a Redstone April 03 1998: Hen 1357: New Born Nebula April 02 1998: Iridium Flare April 01 1998: Astronaut Kicks Lunar Field Goal March 31 1998: M20: The Trifid Nebula March 30 1998: A Bulls Eye Einstein Ring March 29 1998: NGC 3293: A Bright Young Open Cluster March 28 1998: Von Braun's Wheel March 27 1998: Lunar Dust and Duct Tape March 26 1998: Galaxies Away March 25 1998: Planetary Nebula NGC 7027 in Infrared March 24 1998: A Baby Galaxy March 23 1998: Starbirth in NGC 1808 March 22 1998: Sunspots: Magnetic Depressions March 21 1998: The Gamma Ray Sky March 20 1998: Mars: Ridges Near the South Pole March 19 1998: Mars: A Canyon's Edge March 18 1998: Interstellar Dust Bunnies of NGC 891 March 17 1998: Clouds Over Tharsis on Mars March 16 1998: Asteroids in the Distance March 15 1998: Unusual M82: The Cigar Galaxy March 14 1998: A Spiral Galaxy Gallery March 13 1998: Asteroids March 12 1998: Moon Shadow March 11 1998: A Total Eclipse of the Sun March 10 1998: Cracks and Ridges on Europa March 09 1998: Yogi Rock on Mars March 08 1998: Shuttle Engine Blast March 07 1998: NGC 1818: A Young Globular Cluster March 06 1998: Water Ice At The Lunar Poles March 05 1998: Canaries Sky

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (63 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

March 04 1998: Aurora Over Alaska March 03 1998: 560 Kilometers Above Europa March 02 1998: Rumors of a Strange Universe March 01 1998: A Sky Full Of Hydrogen February 28 1998: Eagle Eggs in M16 February 27 1998: Solar Eclipse: A Composite View February 26 1998: A Southern Sky View February 25 1998: The Solar Neighborhood February 24 1998: The Lyman Alpha Forest February 23 1998: M104: The Sombrero Galaxy February 22 1998: Southern Lights and Shuttle Glow February 21 1998: Neptune: Big Blue Giant February 20 1998: Hale-Bopp: A Continuing Tail February 19 1998: Miranda February 18 1998: M27: The Dumbbell Nebula February 17 1998: Shocked by Supernova 1987a February 16 1998: Sagittarius Dwarf to Collide with Milky Way February 15 1998: Stars Without Galaxies February 14 1998: The Rosette Nebula February 13 1998: Explorer I February 12 1998: In A Grand Canyon On Mars February 11 1998: Ultra-Fast Pulsar February 10 1998: All of Mars February 09 1998: The Witch Head Nebula February 08 1998: M1: Filaments of the Crab Nebula February 07 1998: COBE Hotspots: The Oldest Structures Known February 06 1998: Happy Birthday Jules Verne February 05 1998: A Martian River Bed? February 04 1998: A Passing Spaceship Views Earth February 03 1998: A Magellanic Mural February 02 1998: A Triple Eclipse on Jupiter February 01 1998: NGC 1977: Blue Reflection Nebula in Orion January 31 1998: Hamlet of Oberon January 30 1998: Tempel-Tuttle: The Leonid Comet January 29 1998: The Earth-Moon System January 28 1998: The Infrared Sky January 27 1998: The Great Nebula in Orion January 26 1998: Interplanetary Spaceship Passes Earth January 25 1998: The Small Cloud of Magellan (SMC) January 24 1998: The Large Cloud Of Magellan (LMC) January 23 1998: Jovian Aurora

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (64 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

January 22 1998: Closer To Beta Pic January 21 1998: Our Dusty Universe January 20 1998: Arachnoids on Venus January 19 1998: The Hubble 5 Planetary Nebula January 18 1998: Saturn, Rings, and Two Moons January 17 1998: At The Core Of M15 January 16 1998: Dusting Spiral Galaxies January 15 1998: Eugene Shoemaker: 1928-1997 January 14 1998: A Distant Destiny January 13 1998: El Nino Water Rhythm January 12 1998: The Keyhole Nebula January 11 1998: Abell 2218: A Galaxy Cluster Lens January 10 1998: Disorder in Stephan's Quintet January 09 1998: Saturnian Aurora January 08 1998: Destination: Moon January 07 1998: The Colorful Moon January 06 1998: The Red Spider Planetary Nebula January 05 1998: Earth's Richat Structure January 04 1998: Fractal Interstellar Dust Up Close January 03 1998: The Barren Moon January 02 1998: Europa's Disconnected Surface January 01 1998: The Largest Rock Known December 31 1997: NGC 5307: A Symmetric Planetary Nebula December 30 1997: NGC 7009: The Saturn Nebula December 29 1997: The Milky Way in Infrared December 28 1997: Pluto: The Frozen Planet December 27 1997: Keck: The Largest Optical Telescopes December 26 1997: West Of The Great Red Spot December 25 1997: A Hale-Bopp Holiday December 24 1997: 30 Doradus Across the Spectrum December 23 1997: M2-9: Wings of a Planetary Nebula December 22 1997: David N. Schramm, 1945-1997 December 21 1997: A Winter Solstice December 20 1997: Apollo 16: Exploring Plum Crater December 19 1997: NGC 6826: The Blinking Eye December 18 1997: Gamma-Ray Burster December 17 1997: Stonehenge: Ancient Monument to the Sun December 16 1997: Night Lightning on Jupiter December 15 1997: A Farewell to Tails December 14 1997: The Radio Sky: Tuned to 408MHz December 13 1997: The Coma Cluster of Galaxies

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (65 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

December 12 1997: Phi Persei: Double Star December 11 1997: A Martian Lake Bed? December 10 1997: Sprint the Flying Space Camera December 09 1997: Mysterious Features on Ganymede December 08 1997: The Trifid Nebula in Red, White and Blue December 07 1997: A Distant Cluster of Galaxies December 06 1997: A Quasar Portrait Gallery December 05 1997: Seeing Through Galaxies December 04 1997: A Sky Full Of Planets December 03 1997: Runaway Star December 02 1997: Micro-Quasar GRS1915 Puffs December 01 1997: Orion: The Big Picture November 30 1997: Mercury: A Cratered Inferno November 29 1997: Lasers in Eta Carinae November 28 1997: Beta Pictoris Revisited November 27 1997: Jupiter's Inner Moons November 26 1997: Uranian Moons, Rings, And Clouds November 25 1997: The Comet and the Galaxy November 24 1997: Jet Near Light Speed November 23 1997: Triton: Neptune's Largest Moon November 22 1997: Surveyor Hops November 21 1997: Jupiter: Moon, Ring, and Clouds November 20 1997: Escape From The Sun November 19 1997: Diffraction Spikes: When Stars Look Like Crosses November 18 1997: In the Center of the Trapezium November 17 1997: Barringer Crater on Earth November 16 1997: The Leonid Meteor Shower November 15 1997: Uranus: The Tilted Planet November 14 1997: Irregular Galaxy Sextans A November 13 1997: Mars: A Sheer Close Up November 12 1997: El Nino Earth November 11 1997: The Annotated Galactic Center November 10 1997: Dark Volcano Active on Io November 09 1997: Surveyor Slides November 08 1997: Aristarchus' Unbelievable Discoveries November 07 1997: Evidence for Frame Dragging Black Holes November 06 1997: The Magnetic Carpet Of The Sun November 05 1997: The Milky Way's Gamma-Ray Halo November 04 1997: Blue Stagglers in Globular Clusters November 03 1997: Irregular Moons Discovered Around Uranus November 02 1997: White Dwarf Stars Cool

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (66 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

November 01 1997: M31: The Andromeda Galaxy October 31 1997: Haunting Mars October 30 1997: 3D View Of Jupiter's Clouds October 29 1997: Stereo Saturn October 28 1997: Rafting for Solar Neutrinos October 27 1997: Closeup of Antennae Galaxy Collision October 26 1997: Welcome to Planet Earth October 25 1997: Orion's Horsehead Nebula October 24 1997: Moving Echoes Around SN 1987A October 23 1997: Echoes of Supernova 1987A October 22 1997: The Antennae Galaxies October 21 1997: The Butterfly Planetary Nebula October 20 1997: Spiral Eddies On Planet Earth October 19 1997: The Heart Of NGC 4261 October 18 1997: The Pleiades Star Cluster October 17 1997: Mars: A Mist In Mariner Valley October 16 1997: Cassini To Venus October 15 1997: Cold Wind From The Boomerang Nebula October 14 1997: Venus On The Horizon October 13 1997: Ice Clouds over Mars October 12 1997: Impact! 65 Million Years Ago October 11 1997: Floating Free in Space October 10 1997: Mars Pathfinder Super Pan October 09 1997: Hale Bopp and the North American Nebula October 08 1997: The Brightest Star Yet Known October 07 1997: Europe at Night October 06 1997: Surveyor At Mars October 05 1997: Worlds of a Distant Sun: 47 Ursae Majoris b October 04 1997: In the Center of 30 Doradus October 03 1997: Comet Halley and the Milky Way October 02 1997: Colliding Supernova Remnants October 01 1997: Maria Mitchell Inspires a Generation September 30 1997: Half Dome Rock on Mars September 29 1997: Jupiter And Family September 28 1997: A Wolf Rayet Star Bubble September 27 1997: The Ecliptic Plane September 26 1997: A Lonely Neutron Star September 25 1997: T Pyxidis: Recurrent Nova September 24 1997: Moon Occults Saturn September 23 1997: A Martian Autumn Begins September 22 1997: Antares and Rho Ophiuchi

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (67 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

September 21 1997: Looking Down on Saturn September 20 1997: The Clouds of Jupiter September 19 1997: Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae September 18 1997: Erupting Sun September 17 1997: GRB Fireball Persists September 16 1997: Moon Over Mongolia September 15 1997: Olympus Mons on Mars: The Largest Volcano September 14 1997: MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula September 13 1997: Kepler Discovers How Planets Move September 12 1997: The Center of NGC 6251 is Glowing September 11 1997: Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking September 10 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp Outbound September 09 1997: A Green Flash from the Sun September 08 1997: A Map of Asteroid Vesta September 07 1997: Luna 9: First Soft Lander September 06 1997: Isaac Newton Explains the Solar System September 05 1997: Apollo 17: Boulder on the Moon September 04 1997: Rivers in the Sun September 03 1997: A Partial Eclipse in Southern Skies September 02 1997: Dark Sky, Bright Sun September 01 1997: Infrared Helix August 31 1997: Arp 230: Two Spirals in One? August 30 1997: The United States at Night August 29 1997: Cassini To Saturn August 28 1997: Infrared Trifid August 27 1997: A Fleeting Eclipse August 26 1997: Zodiacal Light August 25 1997: A Fisheye View of Comet Hale-Bopp August 24 1997: The Snake Nebula in Ophiuchus August 23 1997: A Star Forming Region in the LMC August 22 1997: IP Pegasi: Spiral Star August 21 1997: A Universe in a Box August 20 1997: Bright Meteor, Dark Sky August 19 1997: Super Typhoon Winnie August 18 1997: Io: The Prometheus Plume August 17 1997: Astro-1 In Orbit August 16 1997: Pictured: An Ancient Martian? August 15 1997: Impact on Europa August 14 1997: Mars Rocks, Sojourner Rolls August 13 1997: Resolving Mira August 12 1997: Sher 25: A Pending Supernova?

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (68 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

August 11 1997: A Perseid Meteor August 10 1997: Nebulosity in Sagittarius August 09 1997: The Hydra Cluster of Galaxies August 08 1997: White Oval Clouds on Jupiter August 07 1997: Jupiter's Ring Halo August 06 1997: Hale-Bopp from Indian Cove August 05 1997: M101: The Pinwheel Galaxy August 04 1997: A Rusty Sunset on Mars August 03 1997: The Cygnus Loop August 02 1997: The Cat's Eye Nebula August 01 1997: A Martian Sunset July 31 1997: Behind CL1358+62: A New Farthest Object July 30 1997: Eagle Castle July 29 1997: Strange Rocks on Mars July 28 1997: Help Aldebaran Map the Moon July 27 1997: A Very Large Array of Radio Telescopes July 26 1997: M81 in True Color July 25 1997: Stellar Laboratories in the LMC July 24 1997: Mars Pathfinder's Landing Site July 23 1997: Hale-Bopp Triple Crown July 22 1997: A Presidential Panorama of Mars July 21 1997: In the Center of the Keyhole Nebula July 20 1997: At the Edge of the Helix July 19 1997: The Small Cloud of Magellan July 18 1997: Blue Stars and Red Pillars July 17 1997: A Message from Earth July 16 1997: Mars: Yogi And Friends in 3D July 15 1997: Vega July 14 1997: Mars: Twin Peaks In Stereo July 13 1997: Vela Supernova Remnant in Optical July 12 1997: Doomed Star Eta Carinae July 11 1997: Yogi Rock July 10 1997: Sojourner's View: The Sagan Memorial Station July 09 1997: Sol 4: Mars Color Panorama July 08 1997: Barnacle Bill And Sojourner July 07 1997: Sojourner On Mars July 06 1997: A Martian Day's End July 05 1997: Pathfinder On Mars July 04 1997: A Landing On Mars July 03 1997: Mars: A Journey's End July 02 1997: Gamma-Ray Burst: A Milestone Explosion

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (69 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

July 01 1997: Asteroid 253 Mathilde's Large Craters June 30 1997: NEAR Mathilde June 29 1997: Ida and Dactyl: Asteroid and Moon June 28 1997: Barsoom June 27 1997: Mars: Just The Facts June 26 1997: A Close Encounter of the Stellar Kind June 25 1997: A GRB Host? June 24 1997: Antares June 23 1997: Eruption on Io June 22 1997: Distant Galaxies June 21 1997: The Pipe Dark Nebula June 20 1997: NGC1850: Star Cluster in the LMC June 19 1997: HH1/HH2: Star Jets June 18 1997: Asteroid 3753: Earth's Curious Companion June 17 1997: Arp 220: Spirals in Collision June 16 1997: APOD is Two Years Old Today June 15 1997: Rockets and Robert Goddard June 14 1997: The Early Universe June 13 1997: Streaming From A Black Hole June 12 1997: Jupiter's Dry Spots June 11 1997: Young Suns June 10 1997: Hale-Bopp Above the Cinqui Torri Mountains June 09 1997: An Auroral Ring on Jupiter June 08 1997: M101: An Ultraviolet View June 07 1997: Apollo 15: Driving on the Moon June 06 1997: Boosting Compton June 05 1997: Small Star June 04 1997: Tarantula June 03 1997: Venus' Once Molten Surface June 02 1997: Bright Star Knots in NGC 4038 June 01 1997: M100: A Grand Design May 31 1997: Saturn with Moons Tethys and Dione May 30 1997: A Cosmic Snowball May 29 1997: Southern Neptune May 28 1997: Mars: Just The Fiction May 27 1997: Moonrise, Planet Earth May 26 1997: Old Faithful Meets Hale-Bopp May 25 1997: A High Energy Fleet May 24 1997: Saturn's Rings Seen Sideways May 23 1997: The Heart Of Orion May 22 1997: Bound For Mars

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (70 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

May 21 1997: GRB970508 Delivers Predicted Radio Emission May 20 1997: Shells in the Egg Nebula May 19 1997: Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1365 May 18 1997: The First Explorer May 17 1997: 7,000 Stars and the Milky Way May 16 1997: Signed, "A Black Hole" May 15 1997: Hale-Bopp: Climbing Into Southern Skies May 14 1997: Hale-Bopp's Fickle Ion Tail May 13 1997: Optical Transient Near GRB970508 Shows Distant Redshift May 12 1997: Lightning on Jupiter May 11 1997: M42: A Mosaic of Orion's Great Nebula May 10 1997: Apollo 15's Home on the Moon May 09 1997: Apollo 12: Self-Portrait May 08 1997: Detailing Hale-Bopp May 07 1997: Ultraviolet Venus May 06 1997: NGC4039: Starbirth and Galaxy Death May 05 1997: Sunset with Hale-Bopp at Keck May 04 1997: The Last Moon Shot May 03 1997: Giant Cluster Bends, Breaks Galaxy Images May 02 1997: X-Rays From IC 443 May 01 1997: A Galactic Cloud of Antimatter April 30 1997: Milky Way Molecule Map April 29 1997: Hale-Bopp and Orion April 28 1997: Io's Sodium Cloud April 27 1997: Sputnik: Traveling Companion April 26 1997: The Perseus Cluster of Galaxies April 25 1997: Hale-Bopp Polarized April 24 1997: The Frothy Milky Way April 23 1997: Antila: A New Galactic Neighbor April 22 1997: Historic Optical Flash Fades April 21 1997: Big Sky Comet April 20 1997: Moon Robot: Lunokhod 1 April 19 1997: Spiral Galaxy M83 April 18 1997: Solar Storm Causes X-Ray Aurora April 17 1997: Pwyll: Icy Crater of Europa April 16 1997: Hale-Bopp's Tail April 15 1997: Hale-Bopp and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer April 14 1997: Hale-Bopp's Hoods April 13 1997: Jets from SS433 April 12 1997: Arecibo: The Largest Telescope April 11 1997: The Sun Puffs

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (71 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

April 10 1997: Europa's Ice Rafts April 09 1997: Oceans Under Jupiter's Europa April 08 1997: Hale-Bopp Over New York City April 07 1997: GRB970228: What's There? April 06 1997: Mercury Astronauts and a Redstone April 05 1997: A Black Hole in M87? April 04 1997: Hale-Bopp in Stereo April 03 1997: Earth, Clouds, Sky, Comet April 02 1997: A Complete Aurora April 01 1997: Hale-Bopp and Andromeda March 31 1997: NGC 3242: The 'Ghost of Jupiter' Planetary Nebula March 30 1997: Dusty Galaxy Centaurus A March 29 1997: The Closest Galaxy: The Sagittarius Dwarf March 28 1997: A Comet In The Sky March 27 1997: Comet Country March 26 1997: The City Comet March 25 1997: Hale-Bopp Brightest Comet This Century March 24 1997: The Weather on Mars March 23 1997: A String Of Pearls March 22 1997: M64: The Sleeping Beauty Galaxy March 21 1997: Io's Surface: Under Construction March 20 1997: Springtime Comet Fever March 19 1997: Gamma Ray Burster March 18 1997: X-Ray Pleiades March 17 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp Over Val Parola Pass March 16 1997: Water World March 15 1997: The Milky Way's Center March 14 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp's Developing Tails March 13 1997: Hale-Bopp Brightest Comet This Decade March 12 1997: Saturn in Color March 11 1997: Jupiter: The Great Yellow Spot March 10 1997: Jupiter: At The Belt-Zone Boundary March 09 1997: COBE Hotspots:The Oldest Structures Known March 08 1997: COBE Dipole: Speeding Through the Universe March 07 1997: Hale-Bopp Enters the Evening Sky March 06 1997: Hubble Floats Free March 05 1997: In the Center of NGC 604 March 04 1997: Solar Wind And Milky Way March 03 1997: Pioneer 10: The First 6 Billion Miles March 02 1997: Hawaii March 01 1997: Galaxy Dwingeloo 1 Emerges

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (72 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

February 28 1997: Edge-On Spiral Galaxy NGC 891 February 27 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp is That Bright February 26 1997: Sungrazer February 25 1997: Star Wars in NGC 664 February 24 1997: The Trail of the Intruder February 23 1997: Cartwheel of Fortune February 22 1997: The Gamma Ray Sky February 21 1997: New Eyes for the Hubble Space Telescope February 20 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp and the Dumbbell Nebula February 19 1997: Mizar Binary Star February 18 1997: A Big Cliff On Jupiter's Callisto February 17 1997: A Wind From The Sun February 16 1997: Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse February 15 1997: Shapley 1: An Annular Planetary Nebula February 14 1997: NGC 1818: A Young Globular Cluster February 13 1997: More Jets From Comet Hale-Bopp February 12 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp Develops a Tail February 11 1997: Space Walz February 10 1997: The Gamma Ray Moon February 09 1997: The Deep Field February 08 1997: M104: The Sombrero Galaxy February 07 1997: M1: Filaments of the Crab Nebula February 06 1997: Comet Hale-Bopp Returns February 05 1997: Running Red Rings Around Jupiter February 04 1997: Clyde W. Tombaugh: 1906-1997 February 03 1997: Stars Without Galaxies February 02 1997: Standing on the Moon February 01 1997: Catching Falling Stardust January 31 1997: Hamlet of Oberon January 30 1997: Earth's Temperature January 29 1997: NGC 869 & NGC 884: A Double Open Cluster January 28 1997: Open Cluster M50 January 27 1997: A Prominent Solar Prominence January 26 1997: Aurora and Orion January 25 1997: M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy January 24 1997: Supernova 1987a Fireball Resolved January 23 1997: Twistin' by the Lagoon January 22 1997: Galaxy Cluster A2199 January 21 1997: Journey to the Center of the Galaxy January 20 1997: Earth Nears Asteroid Toutatis January 19 1997: From Eagle's EGGs A Star Is Born

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (73 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

January 18 1997: M16: Nebula With Star Cluster January 17 1997: Europa: The Latest From Galileo January 16 1997: Trapezium: Teardrops in My Skies January 15 1997: Black Hole Signature From Advective Disks January 14 1997: Black Holes and Galactic Centers January 13 1997: Sunspots: Magnetic Depressions January 12 1997: Mercury in Stereo: Craters Within Craters January 11 1997: Titania's Trenches January 10 1997: Eclipsed Moon in Infrared January 09 1997: Hazing Jupiter January 08 1997: Grey Sun Seething January 07 1997: Red Sun Streaming January 06 1997: Blue Sun Glaring January 05 1997: Too Close to a Black Hole January 04 1997: A Star Where Photons Orbit January 03 1997: A Wolf-Rayet Star Blows Bubbles January 02 1997: Bubbles and Arcs in NGC 2359 January 01 1997: Aurora Over Circle, Alaska December 31 1996: Io Rotating December 30 1996: X-Ray Earth December 29 1996: Dark Bok Globules in IC 2944 December 28 1996: CG4: A Ruptured Cometary Globule December 27 1996: HET: The New Largest Optical Telescope December 26 1996: Carl Sagan 1934-1996 December 25 1996: An Earth Ornament December 24 1996: A Mirry Christmas December 23 1996: The Hills of Ganymede December 22 1996: 18 Miles From Deimos December 21 1996: Sun and Winter Solstice 1996 December 20 1996: The UV SMC from UIT December 19 1996: Comet Hale-Bopp Inbound December 18 1996: A Sky Full Of Hydrogen December 17 1996: Mariner's Mercury December 16 1996: Nebula Nova Cygni Turns On December 15 1996: Microlensing of the Einstein Cross December 14 1996: Our Solar System from Voyager December 13 1996: Disorder in Stephan's Quintet December 12 1996: The Milky Way Through the Summer Triangle December 11 1996: Starburst Ring in Galaxy NGC 1317 December 10 1996: Comet Halley's Nucleus December 09 1996: Callisto Full Face

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (74 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

December 08 1996: Degas Ray Crater on Mercury December 07 1996: Planetary Systems Now Forming in Orion December 06 1996: Globular Cluster M3 December 05 1996: Io's Giant Volcano Pele December 04 1996: Ice at the Lunar South Pole December 03 1996: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf December 02 1996: Orion's Star Colors December 01 1996: Star Trails in Northern Skies November 30 1996: Aurora Astern November 29 1996: Io: The Fissure King? November 28 1996: Comet-like Clouds in the Cartwheel Galaxy November 27 1996: Storm Clouds Over Jupiter November 26 1996: The Radio Sky: Tuned to 408MHz November 25 1996: A Quasar Portrait Gallery November 24 1996: Apollo 12 Visits Surveyor 3 November 23 1996: Gamma Ray Bursts from the Unknown November 22 1996: Fliers Around the Blue Snowball Nebula November 21 1996: The Blue Snowball Planetary Nebula November 20 1996: Europa Full Face November 19 1996: Fractal Interstellar Dust Up-Close November 18 1996: Unusual M82: The Cigar Galaxy November 17 1996: A Quasar in the Gamma Ray Sky November 16 1996: The Leonid Meteor Shower (Tonight) November 15 1996: Searching For Solar Systems November 14 1996: Supernova Remnant and Neutron Star November 13 1996: Seven Jets from Comet Hale-Bopp November 12 1996: Comet Hale-Bopp Passes M14 November 11 1996: NGC 4755: A Jewel Box of Stars November 10 1996: Columbia Launches November 09 1996: Surveyor Hops November 08 1996: A Solar Corona Ejection November 07 1996: Fields of Minerals on Ganymede November 06 1996: Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4881 in Coma November 05 1996: The Coma Cluster of Galaxies November 04 1996: The Martian Spring November 03 1996: Surveyor Night Launch November 02 1996: Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 Almost Sideways November 01 1996: Spiral Galaxy NGC 3628 Edge On October 31 1996: The Barren Moon October 30 1996: Grand Design Spiral Galaxy NGC 2997 October 29 1996: Io Full Face

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (75 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

October 28 1996: The Weather on Neptune October 27 1996: Io's Active Volcanoes October 26 1996: Mir Over New Zealand October 25 1996: A Flyby View of Ganymede October 24 1996: Starbirth in the Lagoon Nebula October 23 1996: The Large Cloud of Magellan (LMC) October 22 1996: The Cracked Ice Plains of Europa October 21 1996: Orionids Meteor Shower to Peak Tonight October 20 1996: Surveyor Slides October 19 1996: Lalande 21185: The Nearest Planetary System? October 18 1996: Jupiter's Auroras October 17 1996: Proplyds: Infant Solar Systems? October 16 1996: SN 1006: Pieces of the Cosmic Ray Puzzle October 15 1996: Phobos Over Mars October 14 1996: Bright Stars, Dim Galaxy October 13 1996: The Earth Also Rises October 12 1996: The Water Vapor Channel October 11 1996: The Double Nucleus of M31 October 10 1996: Triton: Neptune's Largest Moon October 09 1996: M31: The Andromeda Galaxy October 08 1996: ROSAT Explores the X-Ray Sky October 07 1996: Io's Shadow October 06 1996: A Crescent Earth At Midnight October 05 1996: A Close-Up of the Horsehead Nebula October 04 1996: Globular Cluster Omega Centauri October 03 1996: Three Views of Jupiter's Io October 02 1996: Orion's Horsehead Nebula October 01 1996: BATSE's Biggest Gamma Ray Burst (Yet) September 30 1996: Exploring The Universe With IUE 1978-1996 September 29 1996: The X-Ray Moon September 28 1996: A Soyuz at Mir September 27 1996: Welcome Home Shannon Lucid September 26 1996: Tonight: A Total Lunar Eclipse September 25 1996: Bright Stars and Dark Clouds September 24 1996: Beneath Venus' Clouds September 23 1996: Venus: Earth's Cloudy Twin September 22 1996: The Equal Night September 21 1996: The Ecliptic Plane September 20 1996: Hurricane Fran's Approach September 19 1996: The Moon and All the Crashes September 18 1996: Stars in the Infrared Sky

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (76 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

September 17 1996: Comet Hale-Bopp Fades September 16 1996: The Sun Erupts September 15 1996: Tycho Brahe Measures the Sky September 14 1996: Aristarchus' Unbelievable Discoveries September 13 1996: Southwest Mercury September 12 1996: Mercury: A Cratered Inferno September 11 1996: In the Center of Spiral M77 September 10 1996: M77: Spiral with a Strange Glow September 09 1996: The High Energy Crab Nebula September 08 1996: Volcano Euboea Fluctus On Io September 07 1996: Two Billion Years After the Big Bang September 06 1996: The Largest Impact Crater September 05 1996: Watch Galaxies Form September 04 1996: IRTF: Scanning the Infrared Skies September 03 1996: The Pleiades Star Cluster September 02 1996: Sirius: The Brightest Star in the Night September 01 1996: VLT: A New Largest Optical Telescope August 31 1996: Kepler Discovers How Planets Move August 30 1996: Galileo Demonstrates the Telescope August 29 1996: M17: The Majestic Swan Nebula August 28 1996: NGC 5882: A Small Planetary Nebula August 27 1996: Galileo Zooms in on Jupiter's Red Spot August 26 1996: A Wolf-Rayet Star Bubble August 25 1996: Luna 9: First Soft Lander August 24 1996: Why Is QSO 1229+204 So Bright? August 23 1996: NGC 3293: A Bright Young Open Cluster August 22 1996: Arp 230: Two Spirals in One? August 21 1996: A Close-Up of the Lagoon's Hourglass August 20 1996: A Close-Up of the Lagoon Nebula August 19 1996: Welcome to Planet Earth August 18 1996: A Milestone Quasar August 17 1996: A Meteorite From Mars August 16 1996: NGC 604: Giant Stellar Nursery in M33 August 15 1996: Galileo Views Io Eruption August 14 1996: Galileo Explores Europa August 13 1996: Europa's Surface August 12 1996: Leo Triplet Spiral Galaxy M65 August 11 1996: The Snake Nebula in Ophiuchus August 10 1996: Unusual Spiral Galaxy M66 August 09 1996: The Perseid Meteor Shower August 08 1996: Pictured: An Ancient Martian?

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (77 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

August 07 1996: Early Microscopic Life on Mars? August 06 1996: Europa: Oceans of Life? August 05 1996: Erupting Volcanoes on Io August 04 1996: NGC 3393: A Super Spiral? August 03 1996: Jupiter's Colorful Clouds August 02 1996: Galileo, Cassini, and the Great Red Spot August 01 1996: The Hydra Cluster of Galaxies July 31 1996: A Violet Moon July 30 1996: Tonight: A Blue Moon July 29 1996: A Dust Jet From Hale-Bopp July 28 1996: Huck Finn's New Sky View July 27 1996: Driving to the Sun July 26 1996: The Cygnus Loop July 25 1996: Hale-Bopp on Schedule July 24 1996: COMPTEL Explores The Radioactive Sky July 23 1996: Hale-Bopp, Jupiter, and the Milky Way July 22 1996: Utopia on Mars July 21 1996: The Eagle Soars July 20 1996: 20 Years Ago: Vikings on Mars July 19 1996: Galileo's First Color Image of Io July 18 1996: Nebulosity in Sagittarius July 17 1996: Looking Down on Saturn July 16 1996: A Portrait of Saturn from Titan July 15 1996: Keck: The Largest Optical Telescope July 14 1996: M81 in True Color July 13 1996: M81: A Bulging Spiral Galaxy July 12 1996: Ancient Cratered Plains on Ganymede July 11 1996: Ganymede: A Really Groovy Moon July 10 1996: Galileo Photographs Ganymede July 09 1996: M74: A Grand Design Spiral Galaxy July 08 1996: M33: The Triangulum Galaxy July 07 1996: Isaac Newton Explains the Solar System July 06 1996: Edmund Halley's Greatest Discoveries July 05 1996: The Mysterious Rings of Supernova 1987a July 04 1996: The Cat's Eye Nebula (Revisited) July 03 1996: Superbubbles in the LMC July 02 1996: NASA's Latest Rockets: X-33 July 01 1996: Worlds of a Distant Sun: 47 Ursae Majoris b June 30 1996: Greetings from the Pioneers June 29 1996: The Voyagers' Message in a Bottle June 28 1996: A Distant Galaxy in the Deep Field

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (78 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

June 27 1996: Voyager's Preview of Galileo at Ganymede June 26 1996: Happy Birthday Charles Messier: M1 June 25 1996: A Star Forming Region in the LMC June 24 1996: A View from Venus: Rift Valley June 23 1996: Tycho's Supernova Remnant in X-ray June 22 1996: North to the Moon's Pole June 21 1996: A Very Large Array of Radio Telescopes June 20 1996: Apollo Sunrise June 19 1996: Aurora: Curtains in the Sky June 18 1996: Seven Sisters Versus California June 17 1996: The United States at Night June 16 1996: APOD is One Year Old Today June 15 1996: Walking in Space June 14 1996: Floating Free in Space June 13 1996: Vela Supernova Remnant in Optical June 12 1996: Vela Supernova Remnant in X-ray June 11 1996: Doomed Star Eta Carinae June 10 1996: Ultraviolet Earth June 09 1996: Blasting Off From the Moon June 08 1996: The First Lunar Observatory June 07 1996: Apollo 16: Exploring Plum Crater June 06 1996: The North America Nebula June 05 1996: Sagittarius and the Central Milky Way June 04 1996: Impact! 65 Million Years Ago June 03 1996: Mir Dreams June 02 1996: 6 Up 5 Down June 01 1996: The Iron Moon May 31 1996: The Pulsar Powered Crab May 30 1996: Sunshine, Earthshine at the Lunar Limb May 29 1996: The COMPTEL Gamma-Ray Sky May 28 1996: The Pipe Dark Nebula May 27 1996: Aurora Crown the Earth May 26 1996: Alpha Centauri: The Closest Star System May 25 1996: The Shuttle Launches an Inflatable Antenna May 24 1996: In the Center of 30 Doradus May 23 1996: Stellar Violence in 30 Doradus May 22 1996: Star Cluster in the Rosette Nebula May 21 1996: The Iron Sun May 20 1996: Helios Helium May 19 1996: Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Leo I May 18 1996: The Sun Today

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (79 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

May 17 1996: Comet Hyakutake and a Solar Flare May 16 1996: Comet Hyakutake Passes the Sun May 15 1996: The Milky Way Near the Northern Cross May 14 1996: Hubble's Constant And The Expanding Universe (II) May 13 1996: Hubble's Constant And The Expanding Universe (I) May 12 1996: Tracking Saturn's Moons May 11 1996: Sunlight Through Saturn's Rings May 10 1996: Henize 70: A SuperBubble In The LMC May 09 1996: Supernova Remnant: Cooking Elements In The LMC May 08 1996: Neptune's Great Dark Spot: Gone But Not Forgotten May 07 1996: The Clouds of Neptune May 06 1996: Southern Lights and Shuttle Glow May 05 1996: Planet Near a Galaxy Core May 04 1996: Astro-1 In Orbit May 03 1996: The Milky Way Near the Southern Cross May 02 1996: The Tails of Comet Hyakutake May 01 1996: Comet Hyakutake and a Cactus April 30 1996: Uranus' Ring System April 29 1996: Saturn's Rings Seen Sideways April 28 1996: The Sun Sets on Comet Hyakutake April 27 1996: Apollo 14: Rickshaw Tracks Across the Moon April 26 1996: A Giant Globular Cluster in M31 April 25 1996: In the Center of the Whirlpool April 24 1996: Giant Cluster Bends, Breaks Galaxy Images April 23 1996: Comet Hyakutake on a Starry Night April 22 1996: At the Edge of the Helix April 21 1996: A Supernova in the Whirpool April 20 1996: Apollo 17 Lunarscape: A Magnificent Desolation April 19 1996: The Virgo Cluster: Hot Plasma and Dark Matter April 18 1996: Hyakutake, Venus, Orion, and Pond April 17 1996: NGC 7293: The Helix Nebula April 16 1996: Cometary Knots in the Helix Nebula April 15 1996: NASA Mission to MAP the Universe April 14 1996: The Rotating Jets of Comet Hyakutake April 13 1996: The Compton Observatory Turns Five April 12 1996: Man Enters Space April 11 1996: Unexpected X-rays from Comet Hyakutake April 10 1996: Comet Hyakutake and a Tree April 09 1996: A Spiral Galaxy Gallery April 08 1996: Uranus's Moon Oberon: Impact World April 07 1996: Uranus's Moon Umbriel: A Mysterious Dark World

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (80 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

April 06 1996: Andromeda Nebula: Var! April 05 1996: The Perseus Cluster of Galaxies April 04 1996: The Keyhole Nebula Near Eta Carinae April 03 1996: A Lucky Lunar Eclipse April 02 1996: Atlantis Approaches Mir April 01 1996: Hyakutake, Big Dipper, and Observatory Dome March 31 1996: Comet Hyakutake Finder Chart for Early April March 30 1996: An Extreme UltraViolet View of the Comet March 29 1996: The Colors of Comet Hyakutake March 28 1996: Near the Nucleus of Hyakutake March 27 1996: How Much is That Comet in the Window? March 26 1996: What are Comet Tails Made Of? March 25 1996: Comet Hyakutake Passes the Earth March 24 1996: Comet Hyakutake's Closest Approach March 23 1996: Comet Hyakutake's Past and Future March 22 1996: Where to See Comet Hyakutake March 21 1996: Near Comet Hyakutake's Nucleus March 20 1996: NGC 1977: Blue Reflection Nebula in Orion March 19 1996: The Ion Tail of Comet Hyakutake March 18 1996: Saturn with Moons Tethys and Dione March 17 1996: Saturn's Cloud Tops March 16 1996: Spiral Galaxy M90 March 15 1996: The McMath-Pierce Solar Observatory March 14 1996: Comet Hyakutake's Orbit March 13 1996: Here Comes Comet Hyakutake March 12 1996: The Colorful Clouds of Rho Ophiuchi March 11 1996: Hubble Telescope Maps Pluto March 10 1996: Mir is 10 March 09 1996: Arecibo: The Largest Telescope March 08 1996: The 76 Meter Lovell Radio Telescope March 07 1996: Rampaging Fronts of the Veil Nebula March 06 1996: Jets From SS433 March 05 1996: A Black Hole in M87's Center? March 04 1996: Uranus' Largest Moon: Titania March 03 1996: Uranus' Moon Ariel: Valley World March 02 1996: Von Braun's Wheel March 01 1996: A Mysterious Cone Nebula February 29 1996: Julius Caesar and Leap Days February 28 1996: Explosions Discovered Near Galactic Center February 27 1996: X-ray Moon and X-ray Star February 26 1996: Fireball!

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (81 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

February 25 1996: A High Energy Fleet February 24 1996: Tanks for the Lift February 23 1996: Apollo 15: Driving on the Moon February 22 1996: Apollo 15's Home on the Moon February 21 1996: Millions of Stars in Omega Centauri February 20 1996: ASCA X-Ray Observatory February 19 1996: Periodic Comet Swift-Tuttle February 18 1996: Abell 3627 in the Great Attractor February 17 1996: Edwin Hubble Discovers the Universe February 16 1996: The Early Universe February 15 1996: NEAR to an Asteroid February 14 1996: NGC 2237: The Rosette Nebula February 13 1996: 7,000 Stars And The Milky Way February 12 1996: Pluto Not Yet Explored February 11 1996: Sputnik: The Traveling Companion February 10 1996: The First Explorer February 09 1996: The Eye of an Hourglass Nebula February 08 1996: Hyakutake: The Great Comet of 1996? February 07 1996: If You Could Stand on Mars February 06 1996: COBE Hotspots: The Oldest Structures Known February 05 1996: COBE Dipole: Speeding Through the Universe February 04 1996: The Closest Galaxy: The Sagittarius Dwarf February 03 1996: A Huge Impact Crater on Mars February 02 1996: A MACHO View of Galactic Dark Matter February 01 1996: Lensing through Baade's Window January 31 1996: Planets Around Sun-Like Stars January 30 1996: 70 Virginis b: A New Water Planet? January 29 1996: Searchlight Beams from the Egg Nebula January 28 1996: Orbiting Repairmen January 27 1996: Open Cluster M8 in the Lagoon January 26 1996: Quadrantids: Meteors in Perspective January 25 1996: Catching Falling Stardust January 24 1996: The Deep Field January 23 1996: Beneath Jupiter's Clouds January 22 1996: Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse, Betelgeuse January 21 1996: Mercury's Faults January 20 1996: Mercury's Caloris Basin January 19 1996: The Dusty Disk of Beta Pic January 18 1996: MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula January 17 1996: NGC 7027: A Dying Star's Nebula January 16 1996: Wild Duck Open Cluster M11

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (82 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

January 15 1996: The Dawn of the Clusters January 14 1996: A Distant Cluster of Galaxies January 13 1996: Lunokhod 1: Moon Robot January 12 1996: Mare Orientale January 11 1996: Lasers in Eta Carinae January 10 1996: The Cepheids of M100 January 09 1996: M100 and the Expanding Universe January 08 1996: Local Group Galaxy NGC 205 January 07 1996: Mercury Astronauts and a Redstone January 06 1996: Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy M32 January 05 1996: The Toby Jug Nebula January 04 1996: Symbiotic Star System R Aquarii January 03 1996: The X-ray Timing Explorer January 02 1996: The X-Ray Sky January 01 1996: Shuttle Engine Blast December 31 1995: The X-ray Sources of M31 December 30 1995: LMC X-1: A Black Hole Candidate December 29 1995: NGC 4361: Galaxy Shaped Planetary Nebula December 28 1995: NGC 6240: When Galaxies Collide December 27 1995: Nova Cygni 1992 December 26 1995: Accretion Disk Binary System December 25 1995: Earth Rise December 24 1995: Uranus' Moon Miranda December 23 1995: Prometheus, Pandora and Saturn's F Ring December 22 1995: Summer at the South Pole December 21 1995: Hot Stars in the Trifid Nebula December 20 1995: A Galaxy Gravitational Lens December 19 1995: Albert Einstein: 1879 - 1955 December 18 1995: M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy December 17 1995: The Space Shuttle Docks with Mir December 16 1995: Hawaii December 15 1995: M64: The Sleeping Beauty Galaxy December 14 1995: An Atlas Centaur Rocket Launches December 13 1995: A Delta Rocket Launches December 12 1995: Shapley 1: An Annular Planetary Nebula December 11 1995: NGC 5189: A Strange Planetary Nebula December 10 1995: Apollo 14 Deploys ALSEP December 09 1995: Apollo 14 on the Moon December 08 1995: Descent To Jupiter December 07 1995: Galileo's Jupiter Probe December 06 1995: 24 Hours from Jupiter

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (83 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

December 05 1995: The Swirling Center of NGC 4261 December 04 1995: GL 229B: An Elusive Brown Dwarf? December 03 1995: An X-ray Hot Supernova in M81 December 02 1995: Lightning Below December 01 1995: 51 Pegasi: A New Planet Discovered November 30 1995: NGC 2440 Nucleus: The Hottest Star? November 29 1995: Releasing Compton November 28 1995: Shadow at the Lunar South Pole November 27 1995: Too Close to a Black Hole November 26 1995: A Star Where Photons Orbit November 25 1995: Saturn's Cleanest Moon: Enceladus November 24 1995: Saturn's Moon Tethys November 23 1995: M1: Polarization of the Crab November 22 1995: M1: The Exploding Crab Nebula November 21 1995: M42: Orion Nebula Mosaic November 20 1995: At the Core of M15 November 19 1995: New York at Night November 18 1995: Water World November 17 1995: The Sun Also Rises November 16 1995: Repairing Hubble November 15 1995: A Quintet of Galaxies November 14 1995: Aurora and Orion November 13 1995: Virgo Cluster Galaxies November 12 1995: Blue Jet Lightning November 11 1995: Red Sprite Lightning November 10 1995: Lightning and the Space Shuttle November 09 1995: M104: The Sombrero Galaxy November 08 1995: Simulating the Universe November 07 1995: Eagle EGGs in M16 November 06 1995: M16: Stars Upon Pillars November 05 1995: Vela Satellites: The Watchers November 04 1995: Neptune's Moon Proteus November 03 1995: Jupiter's Moon Amalthea November 02 1995: The Red Rectangle November 01 1995: M16: Dust and an Open Cluster October 31 1995: A Halloween Invasion from Mars October 30 1995: Comet Hale-Bopp Update October 29 1995: Radioactive Clouds in the Milky Way October 28 1995: The Delta Clipper October 27 1995: The Tarantula and the Supernova October 26 1995: Aurora Astern

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (84 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

October 25 1995: Painting with Solar Neutrons October 24 1995: A Total Solar Eclipse October 23 1995: Gamma-Ray Quasars October 22 1995: A Quasar-Galaxy Collision? October 21 1995: A Glimpse of Titan's Surface October 20 1995: Asteroid Gaspra's Best Face October 19 1995: Globular Cluster M5 October 18 1995: A Storm on Saturn October 17 1995: Galaxy Dwingeloo 1 Emerges October 16 1995: Starburst Galaxy M94 October 15 1995: Iapetus: Saturn's Disappearing Moon October 14 1995: Rhea: Saturn's Second Largest Moon October 13 1995: Jupiter, Io, and Ganymede's Shadow October 12 1995: HH-47 Star Jet October 11 1995: LMC Star Clouds October 10 1995: Dione's Lagrange Moon Helene October 09 1995: Saturn's Moon Dione October 08 1995: Apollo 12 Visits Surveyor 3 October 07 1995: Apollo 12's Lunar Module Descends October 06 1995: Dark Bok Globules in IC 2944 October 05 1995: CG4: A Ruptured Cometary Globule October 04 1995: The Sun Spews X-rays October 03 1995: Deimos: Small Martian Moon October 02 1995: Phobos: Doomed Moon of Mars October 01 1995: Central Galactic Star Bursts September 30 1995: An Energetic Radio Galaxy September 29 1995: The International Ultraviolet Explorer September 28 1995: A Venusian Landscape September 27 1995: A Venus Landing September 26 1995: Star Trails in Southern Skies September 25 1995: Orion's Horsehead Nebula September 24 1995: Mimas: Small Moon with A Big Crater September 23 1995: Titan: Saturn's Smog Moon September 22 1995: Standing on the Moon September 21 1995: One Small Step September 20 1995: GL 105C: The Coolest Star? September 19 1995: The Small Cloud of Magellan September 18 1995: The Large Cloud of Magellan September 17 1995: Thousands of Coma Cluster Galaxies September 16 1995: Rockets and Robert Goddard September 15 1995: Space Station Mir Over Earth

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (85 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

September 14 1995: The Far Side September 13 1995: Elliptical Galaxy M87 September 12 1995: Spiral Galaxy M83 September 11 1995: Proplyds: Infant Solar Systems September 10 1995: White Dwarfs Cool September 09 1995: The Last Moon Shot September 08 1995: The Milky Way's Center September 07 1995: Distant Galaxies September 06 1995: Callisto: Dark Smashed Iceball September 05 1995: Europa: Ancient Water World September 04 1995: Ganymede: Moonquake World September 03 1995: Earth's Moon, A Familiar Face September 02 1995: Hot Gas and Dark Matter September 01 1995: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 1910-1995 August 31 1995: X-Raying the Moon August 30 1995: Skylab Over Earth August 29 1995: Saturn V: NASA's Largest Rocket August 28 1995: Dusty Galaxy Centaurus A August 27 1995: Gamma Ray Bursts from the Unknown August 26 1995: Two Tails of Comet West August 25 1995: A World Explorer August 24 1995: A Radar Image of Planet Earth August 23 1995: A Venusian Tick August 22 1995: Venus UnVeiled August 21 1995: An Orbiting Iceberg August 20 1995: Announcing Comet Hale-Bopp August 19 1995: Our Solar System from Voyager August 18 1995: Pluto: The Frozen Planet August 17 1995: Neptune: Big Blue Giant August 16 1995: Uranus: The Tilted Planet August 15 1995: Venus: Earth's Sister Planet August 14 1995: Mercury: Closest Planet to the Sun August 13 1995: The Sun Erupts August 12 1995: Atlantis Landing August 11 1995: The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory August 10 1995: The Orbiting Hubble Space Telescope August 09 1995: Challenger Launches Spacelab 2 August 08 1995: Columbia Waits, Discovery Launches August 07 1995: Night Launch of Endeavour August 06 1995: Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia August 05 1995: Geysers on Triton

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (86 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

August 04 1995: Closeup of an Io Volcano August 03 1995: Io: A Volcanic Moon August 02 1995: Jupiter's Rings August 01 1995: Crossing The Ring Plane July 31 1995: Exploring Saturn's Rings July 30 1995: The Rings of Saturn July 29 1995: M27: The Dumbbell Nebula July 28 1995: M82: An Irregular Galaxy July 27 1995: M57: The Ring Nebula July 26 1995: M15: A Great Globular Cluster July 25 1995: M1: The Crab Nebula July 24 1995: M31: The Andromeda Galaxy July 23 1995: M20: The Trifid Nebula July 22 1995: The Face on Mars July 21 1995: The Search for Life on Mars July 20 1995: The Grand Canyon of Mars July 19 1995: The Mountains of Mars July 18 1995: Cygnus Loop Supernova Shockwave July 17 1995: Barsoom July 16 1995: The Exploration of Mars July 15 1995: The Crater Chain July 14 1995: Comet Impacts on Jupiter July 13 1995: A String Of Pearls July 12 1995: Eta Carinae Before Explosion July 11 1995: Microlensing of the Einstein Cross July 10 1995: Abell 2218: A Galaxy Cluster Lens July 09 1995: A Meteoric View of Apollo 13 July 08 1995: Damage to Apollo 13 July 07 1995: Lunar Farside from Apollo 13 July 06 1995: Saturn, Rings, and Two Moons July 05 1995: The Night Side of Saturn July 04 1995: The Firework Nebula July 03 1995: The Great Nebula in Orion July 02 1995: The Cartwheel Galaxy July 01 1995: The Hooker Telescope on Mt. Wilson June 30 1995: Ida and Dactyl: Asteroid and Moon June 29 1995: The Earth - Moon System June 28 1995: The Cat's Eye Nebula June 27 1995: An Ultraviolet Image of M101 June 26 1995: Spiral Galaxy M100 June 25 1995: Jupiter from Voyager

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (87 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

June 24 1995: Gamma Ray Crab, Geminga June 23 1995: Gamma Ray Sky Map June 22 1995: Earth from Apollo 17 June 21 1995: Supernova 1987a Aftermath June 20 1995: Pleiades Star Cluster June 16 1995: Neutron Star Earth Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (USRA) NASA Technical Rep.: Jay Norris. Specific rights apply. A service of: LHEA at NASA/ GSFC &: Michigan Tech. U.

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html (88 de 88)24/03/2005 13:12:20

About.com: http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html

Back to Topic SiteTurn off this Top Frame

Asteroids

On the first day of January 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered an object which he first thought was a new comet. But after its orbit was better determined it was clear that it was not a comet but more like a small planet. Piazzi named it Ceres, after the Sicilian goddess of grain. Three other small bodies were discovered in the next few years (Pallas, Vesta, and Juno). By the end of the 19th century there were several hundred. Several hundred thousand asteroids have been discovered and given provisional designations so far. Thousands more are discovered each year. There are undoubtedly hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from the Earth. There are 26 known asteroids larger than 200 km in diameter.
http://space.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?once=true&si...eds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html (1 de 5)24/03/2005 13:12:50

About.com: http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html

Our census of the largest ones is now fairly complete: we probably know 99% of the asteroids larger than 100 km in diameter. Of those in the 10 to 100 km range we have cataloged about half. But we know very few of the smaller ones; there are probably considerably more than a million asteroids in the 1 km range. The total mass of all the asteroids is less than that of the Moon. 11 comets and asteroids have been explored by spacecraft so far, as follows: ICE flyby of Comet Giacobini-Zinner. Multiple flyby missions to Comet Halley. Giotto (retarget) to Comet GriggSkellerup. Galileo flybys of asteroids Gaspra and Ida (and Ida satellite Dactyl). NEAR-Shoemaker flyby of asteroid Mathilde on the way to orbit and land on Eros. DS-1 flybys of asteroid Braille and Comet Borrelly. Stardust flyby of asteroid Annefrank and recent sample collection from Comet Wild 2. For future we can expect: Hayabusa (MUSES-C) to asteroid Itokawa, Rosetta to Comet Churyumov-Gerasmenko, Deep Impact to Comet Tempel 1, and Dawn to orbit asteroids Vesta and Ceres. 243 Ida and 951 Gaspra were photographed by the Galileo spacecraft on its way to Jupiter. The NEAR mission flew by 253 Mathilde (left) on 1997 June 27 returning many images. NEAR (now renamed "NEARShoemaker") entered orbit around 433 Eros (right) in January 1999 and returned a wealth of images and data. At the end of its mission it actually landed on Eros. The largest asteroid by far is 1 Ceres. It is 933 km in diameter and contains about 25% of the mass of all the asteroids combined. The next largest are 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta and 10 Hygiea which are between 400 and 525 km in diameter. All other known asteroids are less than 340 km across. There is some debate as to the classification of asteroids, comets and moons. There are many planetary satellites that are probably better thought of as captured asteroids. Mars's tiny moons Deimos and Phobos, Jupiter's outer eight moons, Saturn's outermost moon, Phoebe, and perhaps some of the newly discovered moons of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all more similar to asteroids than to the larger moons. (The composite image at the top of this page shows Ida, Gaspra, Deimos and Phobos approximately to scale.) Asteroids are classified into a number of types according to their spectra (and hence their chemical composition) and albedo:

http://space.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?once=true&si...eds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html (2 de 5)24/03/2005 13:12:50

About.com: http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html

q q

C-type, includes more than 75% of known asteroids: extremely dark (albedo 0.03); similar to carbonaceous chondrite meteorites; approximately the same chemical composition as the Sun minus hydrogen, helium and other volatiles; S-type, 17%: relatively bright (albedo .10-.22); metallic nickeliron mixed with iron- and magnesium-silicates; M-type, most of the rest: bright (albedo .10-.18); pure nickel-iron. There are also a dozen or so other rare types.

Because of biases involved in the observations (e.g. the dark C-types are harder to see), the percentages above may not be representative of the true distribution of asteroids. (There are actually several classification schemes in use today.) There is little data about the densities of asteroids. But by sensing the Doppler effect on radio waves returning to Earth from NEAR owing to the (very slight) gravitational tug between asteroid and spacecraft, Mathilde's mass could be estimated. Surprisingly, its density turns out to be not much greater than that of water, suggesting that it is not a solid object but rather a compacted pile of debris. Asteroids are also categorized by their position in the solar system:
q

Main Belt: located between Mars and Jupiter roughly 2 - 4 AU from the Sun; further divided into subgroups: Hungarias, Floras, Phocaea, Koronis, Eos, Themis, Cybeles and Hildas (which are named after the main asteroid in the group). Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs): ones that closely approach the Earth r Atens: semimajor axes less than 1.0 AU and aphelion distances greater than 0.983 AU; r Apollos: semimajor axes greater than 1.0 AU and perihelion distances less than 1.017 AU r Amors: perihelion distances between 1.017 and 1.3 AU; Trojans: located near Jupiter's Lagrange points (60 degrees ahead and behind Jupiter in its orbit). Several hundred such asteroids are now known; it is estimated that there may be a thousand or more altogether. Curiously, there are many more in the leading Lagrange point (L4) than in the trailing one (L5). (There may also be a few small asteroids in the Lagrange points of Venus and Earth (see Earth's Second Moon) that are also sometimes known as Trojans; 5261 Eureka is a "Mars Trojan".)

Between the main concentrations of asteroids in the Main Belt are relatively empty regions known as the Kirkwood gaps. These are regions where an object's orbital period would be a simple fraction of that of Jupiter. An object in such an orbit is very likely to be accelerated by Jupiter into a different orbit.

http://space.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?once=true&si...eds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html (3 de 5)24/03/2005 13:12:50

About.com: http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html

There also a few "asteroids" (designated as "Centaurs") in the outer solar system: 2060 Chiron (aka 95 P/Chiron) orbits between Saturn and Uranus; the orbit of 5335 Damocles ranges from near Mars to beyond Uranus; 5145 Pholus orbits from Saturn to past Neptune. There are probably many more, but such planet-crossing orbits are unstable and they are likely to be perturbed in the future. The composition of these objects is probably more like that of comets or the Kuiper Belt objects than that of ordinary asteroids. In particular, Chiron is now classified as a comet. 4 Vesta has been studied recently with HST (left). It is a particularly interesting asteroid in that it seems to have been differentiated into layers like the terrestrial planets. This implies some internal heat source in addition to the heat released by long-lived radio-isotopes which alone would be insufficient to melt such a small object. There is also a gigantic impact basin so deep that it exposes the mantle beneath Vesta's outer crust. Though they are never visible with the unaided eye, many asteroids are visible with binoculars or a small telescope.

Asteroid table
A few asteroids and comets are listed below for comparison. (distance is the mean distance to the Sun in thousands of kilometers; masses in kilograms). No. ---2062 3554 1566 433 1862 2212 951 4 3 15 1 2 243 52 10 511 911 2060 Name Distance Radius Mass Discoverer Date --------- -------- ------ ------- ---------- ----Aten 144514 0.5 ? Helin 1976 Amun 145710 ? ? Shoemaker 1986 Icarus 161269 0.7 ? Baade 1949 Eros 172800 33x13x13 Witt 1989 Apollo 220061 0.7 ? Reinmuth 1932 Hephaistos 323884 4.4 ? Chernykh 1978 Gaspra 330000 8 ? Neujmin 1916 Vesta 353400 265 3.0e20 Olbers 1807 Juno 399400 123 ? Harding 1804 Eunomia 395500 136 8.3e18 De Gasparis 1851 Ceres 413900 466 8.7e20 Piazzi 1801 Pallas 414500 261 3.18e20 Olbers 1802 Ida 428000 35 ? ? 1880? Europa 463300 156 ? Goldschmidt 1858 Hygiea 470300 215 9.3e19 De Gasparis 1849 Davida 475400 168 ? Dugan 1903 Agamemnon 778100 88 ? Reinmuth 1919 Chiron 2051900 85 ? Kowal 1977

More about asteroids


http://space.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?once=true&si...eds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html (4 de 5)24/03/2005 13:12:50

About.com: http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html

q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q

22338 Janemojo, a very special asteroid! more images (see also the Ida and Gaspra pages) fact sheet from NSSDC images from NSSDC lots more info from Zeljko Lipanovic the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Mission more about the discovery of Eros, the first known near-Earth asteroid Eros images from NEAR more NEAR images of Mathilde Keck II images of Vesta NEAT, Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking Home Page two pages about 4179 Toutatis On-Line Asteroid Data Vesta from LANL; a diagram of Vesta's history from B. Zellner (136k postscript) More on the observations of Vesta and its significance from STScI Geographos from LANL 1997 XF11, which will pass close to Earth in the year 2028 (from JPL) Minor Planet Designations, search for asteroid names and numbers various Minor Planet information from the MPC Asteroid Nomenclature Table Orbital elements from Dr E. Bowell of Lowell Observatory Earth's strange companion, Asteroid 3753 Cruithne (1986 TO)

Open Issues
q q

q q q

Why are there all those asteroids instead of a planet between Mars and Jupiter? What mechanism(s) are responsible for the differentiation of the asteroids into metallic and rocky types? Why are there more Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's L4 point than its L5 point? Is 4 Vesta really differentiated? What is its geologic history? How do asteroids get pushed from their 'normal' orbits into Earth-crossing ones? What is the probability that a large comet or asteroid will hit the Earth in any given year?

Home ... Sun ... Small Bodies ... Sedna ... Asteroids ... Gaspra ... Data Bill Arnett; last updated: 2004 Mar 15

http://space.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?once=true&si...eds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/asteroids.html (5 de 5)24/03/2005 13:12:50

Internet Download Bandwidth Test

Test My PC Home Page Full Tests AntiVirus Internet Speed Gator Info Spyware Info Disk Health Check ActiveX XP Readiness Tech Help! Free Online Help Frequent Questions I Can't Test! TechExpress Forums Forums Home User to User Help Discuss Your Score Internet Tests Viruses & Spyware Site Feedback About PC Pitstop Statistics Pitstop Store Advertise with Us Support Us Link to Us Our Technology

Internet Center
Download Test Upload Test Ping Test Trace Route About Bandwidth About Connection Speeds Internet Glossary Internet Home

Download Bandwidth Test


This test measures the time it takes to download a block of data. The JavaScript in the page reads the clock time just before and just after the block of data has been downloaded. Also see: Upload Bandwidth Test and About Bandwidth. IF YOU ARE USING ZONEALARM, NORTON INTERNET SECURITY, OR AD BLOCKERS, you may need to disable them before you can complete the tests. The bandwidth test page is very large and some software cannot process it. If you are having problems testing, please try our troubleshooting page. You can also get help on our forums.
STOP! If this message does not disappear within a few seconds, you do not have JavaScript enabled, or software such as an ad blocker is interfering with the script on this page. PC Pitstop's bandwidth tests require JavaScript. See our troubleshooting page for more help.

Run Bandwidth Test


Our automatic test, will determine the best test size and duration to use, based on the speed of your Internet connection. Satellite broadband connections have extreme packet latency that can interfere with the timing, so you may need to use the link below for an accurate reading. Click here for satellite connections.

Home | Our Legal Stuff | Privacy Policy | Press | Link to Us Behind the Wheel | Testimonials | Support PC Pitstop | Printable Page

http://www.pcpitstop.com/internet/bandwidth.asp24/03/2005 13:13:00

References: Calenders

References: Calenders
Almanacs Aztec Elections Personal Roman

q q q

q q

q q

Calendar Conversions - convert dates into corresponding days in different calendar systems. Calendar - displays calendars by year or month/year. Calendar Studies - covers the Mayan, Goddess Lunar, Gregorian, Julian and other lunar calendars. Includes DOS software to convert dates. Calendars and their History - reprinted from the Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Earth Calendar - marks holidays, celebrations, and observances from around the world. Ecclesiastical Calendar - enter a year, get the days and dates for several Ecclesiastical celebrations during that year, including Easter and the movable celebrations related to it. English Calendar - handbook of dates for students of English history and literature. Converts between old and new style dates, calculates British regnal years, and calculates the date of moveable religious holidays. Literary Calendar - almanac of literary information in a this-day-in-history format. Browse specific days, search the entries, or join the mailing list for daily e-mails of historical tidbits. Virtual Perpetual Calendar - a whole year at a glance. Web Indonesian Time and Calendar - see online greetings at current local time and the calendar including Masehi, Javanese (with Neptu), Hijriah, and the public holidays of this year. World Wide Holidays and Festivals

http://www.usaa-academy.com/nerc/res/rescal.html24/03/2005 13:13:08

Darwin Awards

"What would Darwin do?" 29 January 2005

[ Read More Mottos ]

Finally! 7 New Stories!


HOME Darwin Awards Honorable Mentions Urban Legends Personal Accounts Slush Pile New Stories DA: Killer Shades DA: "Hazard Befell Him" DA: Hurricane Blumpkin DA: A Honey of a Buzz HM: Off We Go... HM: Picture Perfect Cop HM: Blowtorch and Gunpowder DARWIN AWARDS --Killer Shades A Honey of a Buzz Hurricane Blumpkin "Hazard Befell Him" HONORABLE MENTIONS --Picture Perfect Cop Blowtorch and Gunpowder Off We Go...

The Darwin Awards salute the improvement of the human genome by honoring those who accidentally kill themselves in really stupid ways. Of necessity, this honor is generally bestowed posthumously.
Salon Book Review Teen Ink Book Review

Death by Lava Lamp


The Untitled Movie
28 November 2004, Washington | We have a

~ Randomizer ~
Newsletter Book T-Shirt Etc. Philosophy Forum Rules Search Contact Darwin SiteMap Home

I was invited to the set of Finn Taylor's untitled movie production, filming in Oakland. It's a romance set amid numerous classic Darwin Awards legends. Although his adaptations don't necessarily follow the rules, nevertheless, the script and actors are brilliantly amusing, and the cast and crew are operating in harmony. So good luck to all, and break a leg... but only a leg!

new Darwin winner, with the recent demise of a man at the hands of his lava lamp. "Why on Earth he heated a lava lamp on the stove, we don't know," said baffled police. No drug or alcohol evidence was found; Philip Quinn, 24, in his right mind, placed a lava lamp on his kitchen burner and turned up the flame. In due course, he rediscovered this favorite explosive generator of deadly shrapnel. He was found dead in his Kent trailer home, a shard of glass through his heart.
References: KiroTV, CNN, etc. Submitted by: Chris Kelly, Lightbringer, Grant Stalder, Donna Johnsen, Fukumi, Ryan Odom, Gloria, Aaron, Julie Derakis, Wayne Watkins, Cole Wybo, Lynn Shulak, Grant Stewart, & Adam.

"Class Action Graft"


With so much opportunistic theft of large sums of public money, I'm especially annoyed by cases involving wide-scale moral dereliction. Just now I'm hearing US Graft: farmers made a killing, Obtaining receiving aid through this little money or loophole: When crop prices advantage drop over the course of the through season, farmers who sell early dishonest get a high price, while also use of benefitting later from federal political subsidies that award influence all farmers when prices fall too low, not just those who could not sell crops at a profit. SHAME! When our aid helps a farm through a lean year, I support it. But please, farmers, don't take advantage of our generosity and our tax money! Choose Not to Double Dip!

Slush Pile Seven Make a difference! Vote on the new Slush Pile submissions, and influence the Top Stories below.

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (1 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

Speaking of misappropriation, Texas teachers normally take retirement benefits from a state pension fund, not social security. But if they work one day at a job covered by social security, they're suddenly eligible for state pension money AND federal social security based on a spouse's earnings. That's why 3,521 retired employees were janitor-for-a-day in 2002, and are now receiving hundreds to thousands of dollars extra each month. The loophole closes June 30th, and the stampede ends. Class-Action Graft: any stories from your locale?

Favorite DA Winners
Darwin Award: Living on Zionist Time. What happens when idiots mix terrorism with a divisive religious grudge? In 1999 this story scored 8.3 out of 10, making it the year's most popular Darwin Award and an all-time second only to JATO--still the most popular Darwin Award in history. Darwin Award: Wrong Time, Wrong Place. The hold-up of a lifetime! Making quick amends for a mistake... Illustrated by Zeebarf. A guilty pleasure because it's an Urban Legend and schoolboy humor to boot, but Urban Legend: the Last Supper is fun for all ages! Read at the table after a big Thanksgiving dinner. Bungee Jumper. 'Nuff said. and...Fatal Footsie. that classic neighborhood pub story, set in Cambodia for a twist. "Another drinking game from Evolution Strategy Games". More Darwin Awards...

FAQs
(J assures me it's simply 'FAQ') Who can use the Darwin Awards stories? Answer: You can, on your personal website, or for personal emails to friends. Please link back to www.DarwinAwards.com No commercial use is allowed without authorization, and I favor non-profit or safetyoriented uses.

BOGUS Darwin Awards Sighting


I'm creative and have a great Darwin Awards idea! Many people have shared their projects with the Darwin Awards community, and oft times profited thereby. Artists such as Zeebarf, Banwell, Mcgookin, foreign translations, animations, student projects & others. So send word and share your talents with us!

More FAQs

Literary Reference
"We are all born ignorant, but one must work hard to remain stupid." -Benjamin Franklin

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (2 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

The Inside Scoop on Graft...


This sounds like it could be an awsome movie, I cant wait to see it.
Julia - Sunday, December 12 at 19:44:06 PST

God it's about time the Dariwn Awards came to life, that's exciting! I can't come to opening night because of leg-in-cast, but I'll see the show as soon as I can make it to the theater!
Renee - Monday, December 13 at 02:24:49 PST

A movie about stupid people?!?! I'm there!


Kristina - Monday, December 13 at 08:59:49 PST

I am the (self appointed) #1 Darwin Awards fan in Argentina. I will buy the DVD, spread the word around and, if you send the ticket, attend the opening night . . . Seriously, I think the internet would be worthwhile just for Darwin. But listen, crew: come up with a bland, bigstudio, G rated bloodless movie and you will hear from me. Keep it up!
Diego - Monday, December 13 at 09:10:04 PST

Just don't "embellish" anything. The truth is funny enough!


passingthrough - Monday, December 13 at 11:45:29 PST

El Dorado County in California, has large tracts of wilderness and national forest lands. The Sherrifs Office has a group of volunteers which is used for searches. At one of the monthly Search and Rescue meetings, the following story was told by a deputy sherrif. Several years ago, a search was started for two missing snow mobilers. As near as can be reconstructed, the pair became disoriented during a snowstorm. One of the snow mobiles broke down, so the men climbed on the the functioning one and continued on into the night. Rather than stay put and build a fire for warmth, the two decided to have fun. So they went riding at night, in the snow, in their T-shirts. I don't recall if both reportedly died, or if methamphetemine use was suspected. You might be able to get better details from someone at the Sherrif's Office. It has been several years since I heard the story and I was not a member when it happened.
Michael - Sunday, December 19 at 00:33:05 PST

it's a romantic comedy :(


D - Monday, December 20 at 15:15:29 PST

Hi! I have just written an article about your site. It is in the magazine http://www. acontecendoaqui.com.br/co_cabral.php Best regards, regis
Regis Cabral - Tuesday, December 21 at 16:18:51 PST

Shout Out
SETH Traer - Tuesday, December 21 at 19:08:15 PST

You probably have this one, but just in case... Idaho man charged with fatally shooting friend through protective vest on dare Wed Dec 15, 3:46 PM ET OROFINO, Idaho (AP) - A man has been charged with involuntary manslaughter for fatally shooting his friend through a protective vest on an apparent dare, police said. Alexander Joseph Swandic, 20, died of a gunshot wound to the heart Monday after donning a protective vest and asking David John Hueth, 30, to shoot him, police said. Hueth initially told police that Swandic's wound was selfinflicted, but later admitted to the shooting. The two had apparently tested the vest by propping it against a dirt bank and shooting it twice, police said. Police said the vest was designed to protect against grenade fragments, not bullets. Swandic was pronounced dead at a local hospital following the shooting. Hueth faces a preliminary hearing on Dec. 27. If convicted, he faces up to 10 years in prison.
Will - Wednesday, December 22 at 10:58:28 PST

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (3 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

Georgia Man Killed in Fiery Tree-Cutting Accident Associated Press ALBANY, Ga. (AP) -A Dougherty County man was killed in a tree-cutting accident Tuesday (12/21/2004) when he was crushed by the tree, then burned when a fire ignited the grass around him. Reggie Barnnett, 47, was trying to cut down the tree behind his girlfriend's house Tuesday afternoon by tying it to his father's pickup truck and driving to pull it down. The tree apparently fell in the wrong direction and landed on top of the vehicle, crushing the cab and trapping him inside. The truck's engine then overheated, igniting the grass and then the truck itself. Police said Barnnett's body was found burned beyond recognition. But they said he probably was dead before the truck caught fire. Barnnett was an associate pastor at Hines Memorial Church and worked with the youth group.
Capt Don - Wednesday, December 22 at 12:13:48 PST

I just saw this on the news last night in San Antonio Tx. Apparntly a man commited suicide by proping a running chainsaw up on a shelf and running into it. I did not catch what town this event happend in. But i just thought maybe it might be worth checking into. I do believe its worth an honoable mention if anything......
Edward Pannell - Thursday, December 23 at 09:02:00 PST

like the idea, but winnona? please!!! please make it good


jay jay on the way - Thursday, December 23 at 14:08:32 PST

That sounds really good, I definatley want to see it.


Julie - Friday, December 24 at 13:17:09 PST

i can't wait for this movie. winona, it's about time. i've been waiting for a new movie starring you.
rupert - Saturday, December 25 at 19:11:30 PST

In Japan, every government official is promoted just before he or she retires. The trick is retirement benefits are calculated by the last earnings.
primal-scream - Monday, December 27 at 02:48:02 PST

http://watchdog.ohio.gov/investigations/2004192.pdf
Jerry - Tuesday, December 28 at 10:16:20 PST

oh yes those money-grubbing farmers and teachers! well known for milking the public dry. for crying out loud! farming and teaching are two of the most under-paid professions. i really dont fault them for trying to get a little bit ahead.
Cheryl Tobias - Wednesday, December 29 at 01:58:43 PST

Not exactly my locale, but... The federal pension scheme is called the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS). It provides retirement income in three parts: Social Security, a 401K like component called the Thrift Savings Plan, and a retirement annuity. The retirement annuity is calculated as 1% times years of service times high three average. However for employees in high risk job categories like uncover CIA ops officer, uncover drug agents, firefighters and such the multiplier is increased to 1.5%. It is also increased for that most high risk categories of federal employees, Congressmen, Senators and their staffs.
Greg Mitz - Wednesday, December 29 at 11:27:50 PST

Queria deixar so uma proposta: que se adpte um programa de traduao a esta pagina. para que os povos de outras linguas possam conhecer esta.
hevertoh - Friday, December 31 at 13:35:50 PST

Gee, after all the argument on this site about what was and was not a darwin award, it's kinda annoying that you should be all concerned about people misappropriating federal funds for their own retirements. Christ, let them graft a little -- if they've been teachers all their lives, how can I blame them for taking advantage of one little loophole? It's not like they invaded an entire country on false pretexts. Or maybe that was okay. Hard to tell what's right and wrong in this perverted day. All I'm saying is, if it's a Darwin award it belongs on this page -- um, if it's corruption, maybe you should come up with a different web site for that. Yours, ike
Mike Di Leo - Saturday, January 01 at 23:45:52 PST

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (4 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

otto: Sense is not common.


Bert - Sunday, January 02 at 11:17:51 PST

To whom It may concern, Usually I would agree with you. However, My spouse is a teacher in SC. He pays into a SC retirement fund for teachers AND social security is deducted from his pay check. If he , as a teacher should only rely on the retirement fund then he should NOT have Social security deducted as well. How are we to recoup those funds... we can't. I understand the concerns with cost to taxpayers, however we also are taxpayers and one of those taxes is social security. I also don't mind paying Social Security for the benefit of others, afterall, that is what living in a society is all about, "safety in numbers" and "love thy neighbor".Social Security tax should not be taken from teachers if it is expected that the teachers should only take from retirement funds. I have a question also,What does that have to do with Spouses income? If you could clarify I would appreciate that. I realize that I don't have all the facts there. By the way, my husband also works part time jobs in the summmerso he will get SS from those jobs. Sincerely, Rachel S. South Carolina
Rachel S. - Sunday, January 02 at 18:37:25 PST

There are many problems with the Teacher Retirement system in Texas. How about this senario a person works at a job for 20 yrs pays into social security for all those years. He decides to change careers and teach. Shouldn't he be able to draw his social security? Or if a husband dies and his wife is entitled to his social Security but since she is a teacher in Texas she gets a far reduced ammount. Those are the main issues about the TRS and SC.
kenny - Monday, January 03 at 07:02:59 PST

At first, upon reading about the "misappropriation" regarding Texas teachers, I couldn't believe how easily and readily teachers fleeced the government of thousands in both state pension money and social security. Upon further examination, however, the problem lies with the government, not the teachers. A close friend of mine, a special-ed teachers aide in Illinois, informed me that she, too, is eligible for a similar state-funded pension plan for teachers. Like the teachers in Texas, because she's eligible for this pension, she's ineligible for social security benefits. The problem: SHE STILL PAYS SOCIAL SECURITY!! What I'd like to know is why teachers, who proudly work in one of the lowest-paid professions in the nation, have to resort to trickery simply to get what they've earned. If you've been paying into social security all your life, shouldn't you be entitled to at least get that money back? The solution should be to either allow teachers to receive social security--even though it would be considered by some to be "double-dipping"--or exempt teachers from paying social security. That way, instead of being a "janitor-for-a-day", they can spend that day with loved ones, or among the youth whose futures each and every teacher is helping to shape on a daily basis.
Matt - Monday, January 03 at 20:37:26 PST

I understand that the lava lamp guy had a daughter. Wouldnt this make him ineligible for a darwin award?
eric - Monday, January 03 at 23:25:30 PST

Texas Teachers: y mother is a school teacher and she told me about "teacher loopholing." The truth is that the teachers are loosing out. They used to qualify for retirement benefits from teaching for 30 years in addition to getting money from the SS that has been coming out of their checks. Well when our wonderful SS program began to take a turn for the worse they only started allowing the teacher to get retirement, so all the money that they have paid into SS they will not get back. But get this: SS is still being taken from their checks! Therefore the teachers worked another job temporarily so that they could re-qualify for their SS. What if your job that promised you retirement benefits all of a sudden told you that you are not eligible for SS anymore despite the fact that you have been paying SS and have put thousands of dollars into the program? I would want my money back, wouldn't you?
Jacqueline - Wednesday, January 05 at 03:40:36 PST

Four out of five county commissenors in McDowell County, NC are also county employees. They get paid for being commissioners, plus the pay of their county jobs. But it gets better. They even get to set their salaries for BOTH jobs-commissioner & county positions! Worst of all is that the county manager & state officals are right in the amen pew & will not even consider it a conflict of interest.
concerned - Thursday, January 06 at 14:05:02 PST

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (5 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

I'm not a farmer and I'm not in favor of farmers being able to "double dip", but the individual that wrote "The class action graft" should do some research. The following statement is far from true, "Farm income fluctuates while costs remain fixed", and would typically be made by someone that has never stepped foot on a farm. How could you assume that a farmers costs are fixed? When the price of fuel jumps or the price of the seed and fertilizer rise, it has a large effect on the farmers bottom line. It's not like they're out in the field with an ox and a single bottom plow working the land to feed you and me.
Lindsey Brown - Thursday, January 06 at 14:48:53 PST

whats with the politics on your front page ? has nobody recently died in a really stupid way anymore ? I hope you don't make the site turn into a campaigning tool - there are other sites deal with politics/sleaze etc etc etc - jeez gizzabreak.....
Porky Pig - Thursday, January 06 at 15:26:21 PST

Paraphrased motto from pb on the German site: The crime of stupidity carries the unappealable and non-paroleable sentence of death!
sentinel - Saturday, January 08 at 02:31:43 PST

The Class Action Graft about Texas teachers is NOT true as on your website. The teachers are not eligible for their spouses' social secutiry benefits, even upon the spouses' death, unless they work at least one day under social secutiry. It is a survivorship problem, and the Texas legislature again has their heads in the sand about it.
tony - Wednesday, January 12 at 08:09:48 PST

Farmers are welfare cheats. It's that simple. Theft is theft, welfare is welfare, free money from the government for doing NOTHING is not right IS WELFARE. It doesn't matter what the reason is. I am so tired of the same old crap being spouted by farmers and their supporters that they need help to deal with the vageries of climate. Hey how about growing crops more appropriate for the climate. This would go a long way to minimizing water and weather issues. But why stop growing cotton in a desert. If the water is near free, and if you lose any money making a bad business farming decision. Your mistakes are paid for by the American tax payer. The idea of the "poor struggling farmer" is laughable. The average family farm income passed $100,000 long ago, and that does NOT include the free welfare money. They get legally from the government, and the money they get from manipulating the system to maximize that free welfare cash. That is three times the average family income of a typical American family. Who gets to generously support these welfare farmer queens not only by paying higher prices at the market via price supports and market restrictions, BUT also to have a bit of their taxes funnelled to these welfare farmers. Yet farm advocates love to say. We should be greatful and say nothing about these selfish greedy redstate pigs feeding at the public tax trough.First off, they grow food to sell it. They do NOT grow food and give it away. They are businessmen first and foremost doing a trade to make a living. This is A-OK by me, but they do not do it out of the goodness of their heart or a desire to help. The do it for money. To make my point. If farmers really just grew food out of the goodness of their heart. Then why do so many farmers destroy or let rot a whole crop, rather than give it away. Since they can't make money. Let it rot seems to be their standard practice. If he can't make what he thinks. It's worhth. So out goes the window the idea of the selfless farmer doing what's in his blood to help the world. It doesn't have a damn thing to do with helping feed anyone. It has to do solely with making money. Someone needs to tell farmers to give this whole "in my blood - it's a family tradition" schtick a rest. What's in their blood is the desire to make money. If they can't make it farming. Then by getting the American worker to support them via subsidies, price supports or out and out grants and tax breaks. Finally by providing all this support. We have created a class of dependent, incompentent businessmen. Who are protected from their terrible business skills. Farming more than anything big or small is a business. All business have factors to deal with. Farmers have to deal with weather. If properly planned LIKE A GOOD BUSINESS. Weather problems can be minimized, and the cost of dealing with weather can be stretched out over the long term to be paid for by the good years, and overall a well-run farm will be overall profitable. But why do that. Uncle Sam is there to dole out welfare to these crappy business farmers in bucketfuls. So the cycle goes on. Free farmer welfare cash for sitting on your welfare cheating butt has created the laziest, and most ENTITLED class of any business in the country today. The billionaire sugar farmers in Florida come to mind. Of course the #1 thing I'll hear is how dare you be so ungreatful to farmers who grow food for your table. What Bull**** I buy the food. They grow the food to MAKE MONEY> Which is A-OK with me. They do NOT grow it from desire to help, or because they care about people. It's all about money. Since it is, farmers should be treated
http://www.darwinawards.com/ (6 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

like any other businessmen. Who suffer from repeatedly making supid mistakes by going out of business. Keeping all these welfare cheating, incompentent business farms in business is costing the whole country billions.
John Morales - Saturday, January 15 at 09:29:57 PST

y wife's former employer fired her after 15 years as the Credit Manager. Other veterans also were fired. The owner has made himself the beneficiary of all the 401k plans, and for the past year, has refused to return the money to the ex-employees. He's earning interest on it, and never matched one cent for anyone. There are about 15 employees involved and I consider this class action graft.
Jim - Monday, January 17 at 09:57:57 PST

Growing up in Africa (Kenya and Zambia), I have experienced the atmosphere of societies that are trying hard to develop through agricultural expansion. After the 1970s oil crisis, many African nations were left with crippling debt loads. By the mid-1980s, nations like Zambia couldn't even pay the interest on debt that had compounded at the sky-high rates of earlier years. In mid-1980s Zambia, the IMF intervened and dictated that all government programs [i. e., spending] must be curbed significantly. This meant no more free health and free university education. Also, the IMF decreed, the economy should be completely open. In a nation of 10 million people, this was significant. The result? Agriculture sub-industries (e.g., the little there was of food processing) and garment manufacturing died because they couldnt compete with cheap and better-quality Taiwanese imports. Tens of thousands of workers were jobless almost overnight. The kicker in this whole scenario was that Zambia could export, without duty, raw copper (its primary foreign-exchange earner) to developed countries but it could NOT export processed copper such as rolled sheets. The same was the case with agri-goods such maize [corn] and canned maize. Alls fair in competition, right? Sure, as long as it doesn't affect you. The U.S. farm lobby is an impediment to free trade in agriculture. It fears that tariff removals for developing-nation agricultural products would decimate the industry its protecting. The result is that the U.S. has a whacked system of subsidising farmers who really shouldnt be in the farming business. Like all other industries, production should belong to the lowest-cost producer. Thats the free-market way; that is what the free world is all about. The U.S. is directly preventing the development of agriculture-based economies in sub-Saharan Africa. When you hear stories of U.S. farmers enriching themselves, you have to realise that they are actually exacerbating the poverty in developing countries. Really, its an outrage that the very free-market system promoted and championed by the U.S. is severely undermined in the most basic industry.
Bhatt - Monday, January 17 at 11:25:41 PST

Driver in grisly suicide A suicidal New Jersey man set a new standard for self-inflicted brutality when he decapitated himself by driving away from a light post with a rope tied around his neck. Wolfgang Persieck, 50, of Union Beach, died when the rope, which he had attached to the post, jerked his head off as he stepped on the gas Saturday night. His body was found inside the car, along with several suicide notes, behind the Hazlet Multiplex movie theater, Monmouth County Prosecutor John Kaye said. Two teenagers found the car as they walked through an isolated area behind the theater on Route 35. The pair stopped a passing police officer, who discovered Persieck's body. Interviews with relatives and the notes pointed to a suicide, Kaye said. http://www.nydailynews.com/front/story/272481p-233202c. html
Jim Light - Tuesday, January 18 at 07:58:34 PST

http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/01/18/balcony.death.ap/index.html
Dave Wulkan - Tuesday, January 18 at 08:17:50 PST

Woman falls to death after balcony handstand. Tuesday, January 18, 2005 Posted: 10:54 AM EST (1554 GMT) NORTH FORT MYERS, Florida (AP) -- A woman fell to her death while trying to do a handstand on the railing of a second-floor hotel balcony, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday. While attempting a handstand, she toppled over and dropped to the hotel patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Just before she fell, she had called out to a friend, "Watch to see what I can still do," a police report said. Foul play is not believed to be involved, officials said.
Larry Trost - Tuesday, January 18 at 08:44:31 PST

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (7 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

Woman falls to death attempting balcony handstand Tuesday, January 18, 2005 Posted: 11:45 AM EST (1645 GMT) NORTH FORT MYERS, Florida (AP) -- A woman fell to her death while trying to do a handstand on the railing of a second-floor hotel balcony, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday. While attempting a handstand, she toppled over and dropped to the hotel patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Just before she fell, she had called out to a friend, "Watch to see what I can still do," a police report said. Foul play is not believed to be involved, officials said. http://www.cnn.com/2005/ US/01/18/balcony.death.ap/index.html
Christine Shek - Tuesday, January 18 at 09:05:02 PST

Woman falls to death attempting balcony handstand Tuesday, January 18, 2005 Posted: 11:45 AM EST (1645 GMT) MyCashNow - $100 - $1,000 Overnight Payday Loan Cash goes in your account overnight. Very low fees. Fast decisions.... www.mycashnow.com ortgage Rates Hit Record Lows Get $150,000 loan for $690 per month. Refinance while rates are low. www.lowermybills.com Compare Mortgage Offers Get up to four free mortgage/refinance/ home equity loan offers - one easy... www.nextag.com LendingTree.com - Official Site Lendingtree - Find a mortgage, refinance, home equity or auto loan now. Receive... www. lendingtree.com NORTH FORT MYERS, Florida (AP) -- A woman fell to her death while trying to do a handstand on the railing of a second-floor hotel balcony, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday. While attempting a handstand, she toppled over and dropped to the hotel patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Just before she fell, she had called out to a friend, "Watch to see what I can still do," a police report said. Foul play is not believed to be involved, officials said. Taken from CNN.com
sherry jenkins - Tuesday, January 18 at 09:11:38 PST

http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/01/18/balcony.death.ap/index.html
- Tuesday, January 18 at 09:22:26 PST

NORTH FORT MYERS, Florida (AP) -- A woman fell to her death while trying to do a handstand on the railing of a second-floor hotel balcony, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday. While attempting a handstand, she toppled over and dropped to the hotel patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Just before she fell, she had called out to a friend, "Watch to see what I can still do," a police report said. Foul play is not believed to be involved, officials said
Tom Trott - Tuesday, January 18 at 09:26:33 PST

Story can be found here: http://www.10news.com/news/4103537/detail.html Woman Dies Attempting Balcony Handstand POSTED: 11:41 am EST January 18, 2005 NORTH FORT MYERS, Fla. -- Authorities say a Florida woman is dead after trying a gymnastics stunt from her hotel balcony. Officials said Molly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral, was trying to do a handstand on the second-floor railing when she fell to the patio below. The police report said she first told a friend to watch "what I can still do." Authorities said they don't think foul play was involved.
Saul M. Solano - Tuesday, January 18 at 09:42:20 PST

Don't insult farmers with your mouths full. 'nuff said.


Ann M. - Tuesday, January 18 at 10:26:55 PST

Woman falls to death attempting balcony handstand NORTH FORT MYERS, Florida (AP) -- A woman fell to her death while trying to do a handstand on the railing of a second-floor hotel balcony, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday. While attempting a handstand, she toppled over and dropped to the hotel patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Just before she fell, she had called out to a friend, "Watch to see what I can still do," a police report said. Foul play is not believed to be involved, officials said. http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/01/18/balcony.death.ap/index.html
Jeff Maiura - Tuesday, January 18 at 10:31:36 PST

Teachers in Texas often work 2 jobs(pay here is notoriously low) however, under a new law they are not eligible to recieve SS income from that second job nor are they able to claim spousal benefits.THAT is the reason many of us work that one day job. We are loosing teachers in the hundreds because of this law. Teachers are too often poorly payed and little respected for the work we do. Don't judge us for trying to claim money we have paid in.
Barbara Davis - Tuesday, January 18 at 11:42:39 PST

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (8 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

Woman falls to death attempting balcony handstand Tuesday, January 18, 2005 Posted: 11:45 AM EST (1645 GMT) NORTH FORT MYERS, Florida (AP) -- A woman fell to her death while trying to do a handstand on the railing of a second-floor hotel balcony, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday. While attempting a handstand, she toppled over and dropped to the hotel patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Just before she fell, she had called out to a friend, "Watch to see what I can still do," a police report said. Foul play is not believed to be involved, officials said. http://www.cnn.com/2005/ US/01/18/balcony.death.ap/index.html
Jeff - Tuesday, January 18 at 12:25:58 PST

Not graft, but amusing: http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/01/18/balcony.death.ap/index.html


mfrap - Tuesday, January 18 at 13:50:35 PST

You your books have had me cracking up all the time thank you for bringing so much joy into my life
Ben Milden - Thursday, January 20 at 12:16:17 PST

Posted on Tue, Jan. 18, 2005 Cape Coral woman dies after fall from hotel balcony Associated Press NORTH FORT MYERS, Fla. - A woman who attempted a gymnastics maneuver on a second-floor hotel balcony slipped and fell to her death, sheriff's officials said. olly Jerman, 23, of Cape Coral died Sunday after attempting a handstand on the balcony's railing. She toppled over and dropped to the hotel's patio, according to the Lee County sheriff's department. Foul play is not believed to be involved, sheriff's officials said
Kelly Bourne - Thursday, January 20 at 16:59:11 PST

A woman who admitted drinking three glasses of Listerine mouthwash had a blood-alcohol content more than three times the legal limit when she was arrested for drunken driving, police said Friday. The woman, identified by police Sgt. Mike Shadbolt as 50-year-old Carol A. Ries, was arrested Sunday night and released on personal bond the next day. She was to be arraigned late next week on a misdemeanor charge of operating under the influence of liquor, Shadbolt said. Police also found an open bottle of Listerine in Ries' car, and asked Lenawee County prosecutors Friday to authorize a warrant charging her with having an open intoxicant in a motor vehicle, Shadbolt said. Calls to the prosecutor's office were not answered after business hours. Ries showed signs of intoxication after her car rear-ended another vehicle Sunday, Shadbolt said. She told police she had not consumed any alcohol and also passed a Breathalyzer test, but "there was something not quite right about her," Shadbolt said. She failed a second test using different equipment and, under further questioning, admitted to drinking three glasses of Listerine earlier in the day, Shadbolt said. According to Listerine manufacturer Pfizer Inc.'s Web site, original formula Listerine contains 26.9 percent alcohol, more than four times that of many malt liquors. Other varieties contain 21.6 percent alcohol. No telephone listings for a Carol Ries could be found.
Glenn R. Bryant Sr. - Thursday, January 20 at 18:30:48 PST

yo peeps you no chris hes gay thats right gay


g dogg - Friday, January 21 at 02:00:55 PST

Yo gaz is a poof. Careful guys he wants to shag you


fran - Friday, January 21 at 02:04:11 PST

im a hippy i am felling gay vibes from chris


g dogg - Friday, January 21 at 02:04:25 PST

Add this website to the list of Darwin Award nominees. Political graft, corruption and social ills are NOT qualifications for "removing ones self from the gene pool". They may be irritating and a source of frustration for all those "honest" hypocrites who are complaining about them but they do not represent the stupidity the award was meant to recognise. Quite the opposite, in fact. The individuals involved showed great creativity in bettering their odds of long-term survival. If the website continues going in this direction I can see it becoming extinct in very short order.
Plain Ol' Joe - Friday, January 21 at 05:29:16 PST

Wat hebben boeren in Texas in vredesnaam met Darwin Awards te maken? Darwin Awards zijn er voor hele domme mensen, niet voor oplichters.
Kuijk - Friday, January 21 at 07:17:51 PST
http://www.darwinawards.com/ (9 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Darwin Awards

05 janvier 2005 Two men riding on snowmobile on a half frozen lake with a seven year old child died when their snowmobile broke the ice and sinked under the ice. I think that by now with all the information we get people should know that it is dangerous to go on the ice of a lake too early in the season. The child survived, maybe he will know better. Here is the French arcticle from which the story is from: Deux motoneigistes prissent sous la glace Presse Canadienne Saint-Georges-de-Clarenceville Deux motoneigistes et un garon qui les accompagnait ont sombr ce matin sous la glace du lac Champlain Saint-Georges-deClarenceville, prs de Venise-en-Qubec. Le garon, g de sept ans, a russi s'en sortir, souffrant d'hypothermie. Il a t conduit l'hpital. Un des deux motoneigistes est le pre du garon tandis que l'autre est un ami. Tous deux, gs respectivement de 50 et 46 ans, ont disparu sous l'eau avec leur motoneige qui tirait un traneau. Des plongeurs de la Sret du Qubec ont t dpchs sur les lieux. L'accident est survenu vers 8 h 30. http://www. cyberpresse.ca/actualites/article/article_complet.php?path=/actualites/ article/05/1,63,0,012005,882242.php
F - Friday, January 21 at 12:57:38 PST

Now THIS one qualifies for consideration........................ PRAGUE (Reuters) - A Czech man is being taken to court after he hid in a restaurant washroom until the employees had left and then hooked up beer kegs directly to his mouth. Cleaning staff found him drunk and lying on the floor of the bar at the restaurant in the city of Brno, about 200km (120 miles) east of Prague, the CTK news agency reported on Thursday. "He had broken the door of the cooling mechanism ... and detached the hoses leading from the keg, squashed them in his mouth and literally filled himself up with beer," CTK quoted a police official as saying. The man will be charged with damaging property because he caused 8,000 crown ($340) damage to the beer cooling box. ........A real-life Barney from The Simpsons ?
Plain Ol' Joe - Saturday, January 22 at 02:27:10 PST

OTTO: The total amount of human intelligence on Planet Earth is finite. (see: Population Growth)
Plain Ol' Joe - Saturday, January 22 at 03:12:52 PST

Remember, by definition 1/2 of the people on this planet are of below average intelligence.
Plain Ol' Joe - Saturday, January 22 at 03:34:19 PST

Recent Issues: December | November | Back... | October | June | March | February

Interviews: SV Mag > CNN > Salon.com

Search

Advanced Search Home Rules FAQs Awards Slush Site Map DarwinAward | HonorableMention | PersonalAccount | UrbanLegend

>> The Darwin Awards, by Wendy Northcutt << Link to Fight Evil.

http://www.darwinawards.com/ (10 de 10)24/03/2005 13:13:32

Thinking Man Software

Thinking Man Software


Welcome to Thinking Man Software. When Thinking Man Software started out, we only made software for our friends and co-workers. Most of that software is still in use today. But why stop there, when the Internet beckons? Dimension 4 was the first program that we unleashed on the Internet, in 1996. It's been downloaded over 3 million times from various sites around the world. It's recently been updated (now at v5.0) with many new features and the latest operating system support. Check out Dimension 4 ... and the people behind it ... And most importantly -- have fun!! Copyright 1992-2004, Thinking Man Software, webmaster@thinkman.com

http://www.thinkman.com/24/03/2005 13:13:36

Google

Espaa

La Web

Imgenes

Grupos

Directorio

Noticias
Bsqueda Avanzada Preferencias Herramientas del idioma

Bsqueda en Google

Voy a Tener Suerte

Bsqueda:

la Web

pginas en espaol

pginas de Espaa

Google.es ofrecido en: Catal galego euskara

Publicidad - Todo acerca de Google - Estamos contratando - Google.com in English


2005 Google - Buscando 8.058.044.651 pginas web

http://www.google.es/24/03/2005 13:13:44

QRZ.COM

Get Callsign

24 Mar 2005 @ 11:11:57 UTC From our Image Gallery...

QRZ News | Q&A | Talk | Rag Chew


| All Forums

Thieves tap WiFi. Is BPL Next?


Mar. 19 2005,23:22 by w6em

Today's NY Times has an excellent article on how thieves are using open-access WiFi systems to steal everything from credit card numbers to bank routing info, pitch fraudulent deals, and even are ....
Read More... (52 Comments)

n3ljb SPECIALS
New QRZ CDROM!
Winter 2004-2005

FCC license numbers 3/15/05


Mar. 15 2005,14:44 by K3UD

Total number of USA Licensed Amateurs by Class As of May 14, 2000: Novice - 49,329 Tech/+ - 334254 General - 112,677 A....
Read More... (254 Comments)

Serial Number Fun with the Drake SW-4


Mar. 14 2005,21:53 by W8DRZ

Online Swapmeet
For Sale | WANTED | NON-HAM HEATHKIT QF-1 Q Multi... HALLICRAFTERS TRANSWO... YAESU FT-757GX-II CAT... Drake T-4XB Xmtr &... Yaesu FT-847 HF... Yaesu FT-107M 2 Nice ... Ten Tec Omni IV 6 Opt... Uniden BC-780 XLT Sca... Trade 10m mobile and ... 2 Meter Amp and more 1-5/8" Celwave C... AEA AT-300 Antenna Tu... Kenwood MC-90 Desk Mic Kenwood MC-60A desk m... CLEANING SHACK! I... commerical grade clim... FT-900-CAT Force 12 C-3SS *NEW* ... ham radio equipment i... Kenwood TS-830S HF fu...

Once again I'm chasing serial numbers in an attempt to track the true production numbers of a Drake Radio and I need your help. If you are an owner of a Drake SW-4 or Drake SW-4A
Read More... (2 Comments)

Nokia files patent for Morse Codegenerating cell


Mar. 14 2005,14:52 by n9bc

Database QRZ Forum Swapmeet Practice Tests Downloads Radio Mods Register

Nokia has filed a patent for an optical messaging system that can generate symbols and Morse Code, as well as decipher the....
Read More... (89 Comments)

http://www.qrz.com/ (1 de 3)24/03/2005 13:13:58

QRZ.COM

Premium Services Log In


Becoming a Ham

ISS live on Echolink 1024 GMT Thursday 17th March


Mar. 14 2005,07:17 by g3zhi

Ham Radio Trivia True or False: Noise temperature can be converted directly to noise figure. True False
Check Answer

Get Help Write Article All Databases Name Search New Hams FCC Reports Ham Census Old Callsigns Expired Callsigns License Renewals License Updates DX Cluster QSL Corner Ham Speak Ham Clubs Industry Links Solar Report Aircraft Callsigns Ham Trivia Hot Link to QRZ QRZ Online Store QRZ CDROMS Ham Radio Books Premium Services Advertising Info Our Advertisers Privacy Policy About Cookies About QRZ Contact Us Donations QRZ Home

ISS live on Echolink 1024 GMT Thursday 17th March 2005 The next International Space Station's Expedition 10 ARISS school contact will be with students at St. Martins Luthern College....
Read More... (6 Comments)

FCC Opens specturm 36503700MHz


Mar. 12 2005,05:21 by KG4JYD

Older News
Thomas and Jackie Hawks update q INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION LIVE ON ECHOLINK MARC q Reno Goetsch, W9NA, now a silent key. q Who Does The ARRL Represent Adequately? q Echolink ISS Live Feed 16:47 UTC Monday Feb 28 q ARRL HOPES CONSENT DECREE WILL REDUCE INTERFERENCE q AMATEUR RADIO SPECTRUM PROTECTION ACT OF 2005 q BPL Busting Technology Needed for Hams q Radio Clubs to 'Ham it Up' for the troops q Kenwood Updates TS-480HX/ SAT Firmware q AM QSO Party Feb. 26-27, 2005 q QRZ's Top 25 Posts of All Time q ARRL TELLS FCC TO "RECONSIDER, q Spam from QRZ? q Antennas? Show Me! q Radio Shack makes agreement to return website q A Father's Lesson q BPL Newspaper Article q New Radio Club Forming in Tampa FL q The I68 Incident q CANADA REPORTS AGREEMENT TO DROP MORSE q ARRL VOLUNTEERS, PRB-1 ASSIST WITH TOWER PERMITS q BPL and Disaster Relief q ARRL REBUTS DENIAL OF
q

Today the FCC announced that they will be opening up new spectrum for use in wireless broadband applications. The new spectrum will run from 3650-3700 Mhz, and requires that licensees register all sys....
Read More... (29 Comments)

No Amateur Radios in Rochester


Mar. 10 2005,15:26 by KC2NRU

In these times of heightened awareness about terrorism it seems appropriate to begin our specific coverage of monitoring laws in America with New York. Certainly the events of September 11th hav....
Read More... (55 Comments)

N4CRP Robert "Bob" Forman SK


Mar. 08 2005,16:17 by N4INA

FORMAN, ROBERT, 54, N4CRP of Miami, passed away Feb. 20, 2005. His 54th Birthday. In lieu of flowers, family suggests donations to the Greater Miami Jewish Federation 305-576-4000. . Bob wa....
Read More... (5 Comments)

FCC fines broadcasters


Mar. 07 2005,19:31 by ka5s

FCC FINES THREE LICENSEES FOR JOINTLY VIOLATING RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION LIMITS Washington, D.C.: The Federal Communications Commission today released a Forfeiture Order imposing forfeiture pe....
Read More... (44 Comments)

http://www.qrz.com/ (2 de 3)24/03/2005 13:13:58

QRZ.COM

Radio Operators needed for Bicycle Tour in NC


Mar. 07 2005,02:06 by WA9OTP

The Second Annual Sacred Summits Bicycle Tour ( http://www.sacredsummits.org/ ) will be held Sept 9-11, 2005 on the Blue Ridge Parkway....
Read More... (0 Comments)

INTERFERENCE FROM BPL TRIAL q New World Record, 13 Million Miles per Watt q Swiss Hams Now on Extended 40m Band q PRESS RELEASE HamTestOnline.COM q Amateurs offer Aid to Tsunami-Devastation q ECHOLINK Tsunami Relief Net q BPL Research Continues More Articles...

Out of the thin Ether...


The human mind treats a new idea the way the body treats a strange protein -- it rejects it. -- P. Medawar

Updated: Thu Mar 24 04:05:00 2005 AZ/ USA

http://www.qrz.com/ (3 de 3)24/03/2005 13:13:58

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

John Neitz
Origins and development of Armory and the Office of Herald
Armory: the art and science of the hereditary system of symbols centered around the shield. Heraldry: all that which pertains to the office of herald, including the recording, granting, and regulation of armory as well as precedence, state ceremonial, tournaments, diplomacy, genealogy and pedigree, etc. The early histories of heralds and armory are roughly contemporary but separate stories. Heralds were originally free-lancers who specialized in the running and scoring of tournaments. Early (12th and 13th century) payment records lump them in with minstrels (i.e. they were considered a specialist "subclass" of minstrels). Heralds were migratory, going from tournament to tournament and had an unsavory reputation in this period (medieval "carnies"). Period romances refer to them as lazy (i.e. "get a real job!"). Armory originated in the 12th century in the Anglo-Norman lands and quickly spread to much of Europe. At that time the full face helm came into vogue making it difficult to identify armored men in battle and in tournaments (which were free-for-all melees in this period, far different from the formalized jousts
http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (1 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

of Elizabethan times). Great lords (and soon thereafter all knights) decorated their shields and surcoats ("coats of arms") with distinctive designs--their "arms". Heralds became experts at identifying knights by their arms since that was part of the heralds job as a tourney officiant. The next step was for heralds to start recording arms; they developed armorials-a reference book or roll picturing or describing (blazoning) arms. Since heralds were familiar with arms they were consulted by knights wishing to assume arms. The herald could tell the knight if their desired design conflicted with an established one ("Certes, sir, a red shield with three gold lions passant would look smashing but those arms are already taken by the king of England"). By the fourteenth century, lords began hiring their own private heralds, who added to the lords prestige by announcing his name, titles, and boasts as he entered the tournament field. The herald would be given a title derived from his employers titles, badges, or mottoes. It became fashionable for the lords to have their heralds wear the lords coat of arms (perhaps originally the lords own discarded surcoat). By the fifteenth century tabards replaced surcoats as the fashionable garment to wear over armor and correspondingly became the heralds official wear. By the sixteenth century tabards were now out of style for knights (it is said that Henry VII was the last monarch to wear one) but the heralds have retained that garment as the distinctive uniform of their office to this day. By the fourteenth century there were three levels of herald: king of arms, herald of arms, and pursuivant of arms. A king of arms was the ranking herald for a kingdom or province and are the only people besides royalty and peers who actually get to wear a coronet (only at the sovereigns coronation, of course). They were originally called kings of heralds, after the medieval custom of naming a "king" for any group, even a "king of beggars" for the senior beggar of a town. A pursuivant was a junior or apprentice grade of herald. They had (until the late seventeenth century) to wear their tabards "colley-westonward" (i.e. sideways with the sleeves in back and front and the large part draped over the sleeves). There is at least one case during Elizabeths reign of a pursuivant being
http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (2 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

censured for wearing his tabard above his station (i.e. not sideways).

Heralds and The College of Arms


In 1484 Richard III gave the royal heralds a charter incorporating them as the College of Arms and granted them Coldharbour House in London as their headquarters. There was, of course, something of a change of administration a few months later and Henry VII gave Coldharbour to someone else, so the College was without an official home until they were granted Derby House in 1555 (the College is still located on this site). There was some shuffling of positions making up the College for several decades after 1485 but by the Elizabethan period there were 13 officers in ordinary: Garter Principal King of Arms and two provincial kings: Clarenceaux and Norroy (in charge of the south and north halves of England respectively); six heralds: Chester, Lancaster, Richmond, Somerset, Windsor, and York; and four pursuivants: Bluemantle, Portcullis, Rouge Croix, and Rouge Dragon. In addition, there were at various times "officers extraordinary" (i.e. appointed for a special occasion and not on the college roster) such as Rose Pursuivant. There was also Ulster King of Arms for Ireland, but he was not considered part of the College. By the end of Henry VIIIs reign there were no longer any noblemens (i.e. non-royal) heralds.

What did heralds do? Trumpet playing was not, and never has been, part of their duties (an inaccurate notion which seems to have originated with Alice in Wonderland illustrations and perpetuated in the movie Anne of a Thousand Days among other sources). When Shakespeare has a line in one his plays such as "Herald, take a trumpet to the top of yon hill..." he intends "trumpet" to mean trumpeter. Heralds have been messengers since the early days of their existence. When a lord planned to host a tournament, he would send his herald(s) throughout the kingdom (or even throughout Christendom) to put forth a challenge (i.e. invitation). Princes would have their heralds accompany them in battle to help them identify men of both sides by their arms and banners, as well as to parley with the enemy as seen in Henry V.

http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (3 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

In heraldry the shield of arms is personal to its owner so he would not have his servants wear it. That is the purpose of badges (a famous example being the crowned tudor rose worn by the Yeomen of the Guard). Heralds are the exception to this rule. They took on the sovereigns identity by wearing the royal coat of arms (it was treason to harm a herald in his tabard) and were considered the voice of the crown. Royal proclamations were proclaimed by the heralds. Henry VIII often employed heralds to parley with rebels or foreign princes but by Elizabeths reign this duty was rarely assigned to heralds. The primary ambassadorial duty during this period was a ceremonial one: that of conferring the Order of the Garter on foreign rulers.

Heralds in the Age of Elizabeth


When an officer died his replacement was usually chosen from the rank below him. So, for instance, if Garter died (being the most senior herald in dignity he was often, but not always, the oldest) his successor would probably be one of the two provincial kings, who in turn would be replaced in his former office by one of the heralds, who would be replaced by a pursuivant (note that the six herald titles were equal in dignity; precedence between their holders was based on their seniority in office. The same holds true between the four pursuivants). The vacant pursuivant office would be an entry level position into the College, which was under the leadership of the Earl Marshal, so officers were usually recommended by him and if acceptable to the crown, appointed by letters patent under the great seal. There were, of course, exceptions to the typical career path of pursuivant, herald, king of arms. Most officers never became kings of arms because there were only three positions at that level. When Sir Gilbert Dethick died in 1584 there seems to have been some dispute as to who should succeed him as Garter. Robert Cooke, Clarenceaux, was acting Garter for 18 months but Sir Gilberts son William (who had been York Herald) was promoted over the provincial kings heads to succeed his father (heraldic offices have never been hereditary but there are some cases of heraldic dynasties, probably due to nepotism; a notable example being the Wriothesleys, ancestors of the earls of Southampton). William Camden was in such high esteem as an antiquary that he entered the College in 1597 as Clarenceaux King of Arms (he was made Richmond Herald for one day for the sake of formality before his appointment as Clarenceaux).
http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (4 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

This caused some resentment among some of the other officers. Biographies of the period heralds show some backgrounds they had before being appointed: many had been retainers of either Leicester or Burleigh, which seems to reflect the influence these two had in procuring royal positions for their men. Others had been royal clerks or messengers. Some had been members of the painter-stainers company. Several heralds were members of the Society of Antiquaries, which often met in Garters chambers at the College of Arms. Their genealogical work and collection of old manuscripts went well with the work of the society. Some heralds were able scholars and industrious writers on diverse subjects and had works published in the period, among them John Hart (Chester Herald) who had two books on orthography (spelling) published, William Segar (Norroy, later Garter, and also credited as the painter of some famous portraits of the Queen) whose Booke of Honor and Armes was published in 1590 and Honor, Ciuil and Militarie in 1602, and William Camden, who was highly regarded for his Britannia (although he wrote that before he was made a herald).

Heraldry and the Age of Elizabeth


Tournament officiating, as we have seen, was the primary job of heralds in the early period of heraldry but by Elizabeths reign jousting was in its twilight. There were few tournaments outside the annual ones celebrating the Queens accession day (jousting checks--the scorecards kept by heralds--are very simplified compared to those from the previous century, which supports the thinking that Elizabethan jousters were not as practiced as their pre-gunpowder ancestors since jousting was no longer a practical skill for war). The heralds, however, zealously kept records of the fees and perquisites due to them on these occasions, such as clouage: ("nailing fee") money due from each jouster for putting his arms up on his lodgings, or gifts and money which a first time jouster had to give them upon his entry to the field. Among the more interesting customs was that any armor dropped on the field belonged to the heralds present, who usually sold it back to the knight who had dropped it (for more on tournaments I highly recommend the book Tudor and Jacobean Tournaments by Paul Young).

http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (5 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

During the Elizabethan age, there was an increased emphasis on genealogy in the heralds work as the gentry class rose in importance. Wealthy "new men" were eager to prove their gentility and be granted arms. Only persons of gentry class or higher could bear arms so anyone with arms was by definition gentle (the period Latin word for gentleman was "armigero" i. e. one who bears arms) so the heralds were effectively the gatekeepers to the gentry class. This was of course a great moneymaking opportunity. Many spurious pedigrees were produced for a fee and heralds were on occasion censured or even imprisoned for granting arms to " base-born" individuals. William Dethick was criticized for making grants to persons who were thought to be too inferior, including Stratford glover John Shakespeare (whose son William had worked with Dethick to obtain the grant for his father and thus become born of gentry). One of the primary means through which heralds accomplished their task of recording, granting, and correction of arms in the sixteenth century was through "visitations." Starting in 1530, the provincial kings were authorized and commissioned to make visitations of counties in their provinces. They would typically travel to a county in summer (an "heraldic progress" if you will) and it took many years to cover England and Wales (the "home counties" near London were visited more often than the far north or west). The king of arms (or his deputized herald) would set up in an inn or a gentlemans home and all those in the area who claimed arms were summoned to present proof of gentle status. The herald would record the pedigree and arms for a fee or, if the claimant was found to be not up to standards he was disclaimed: required to sign a statement that he was "no gentleman" and forbidden to bear arms. This was proclaimed throughout the shire-- a harsh fate in this class conscious era.

The importance of maintaining a style appropriate to ones station continued even unto death. It was de rigeur for the funeral ceremonial of nobles and greater gentry to be arranged by a herald (sort of like a modern wedding consultant). This of course was a great opportunity for income for the heralds, who had to take turns. There was often dispute and even violence between them
http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (6 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

over funeral turns. Under the direction of the earl marshal, the heralds arranged (and still arrange) state ceremonial such as coronations and state funerals (Sir Phillip Sydney was given one--a rare honor). Pictures of processions from these events usually portray the heralds taking part (easy to identify by their tabards) bearing the achievements of the deceased: banner, standard, sword, spurs, target (a little shield painted with the arms), gauntlets, helm with crest, etc. Throughout the Sixteenth century, there was an increasing trend on the part of the gentry to copy these great occasions on a smaller scale which led to the hiring of heralds for funerals as described earlier.

Badges and Livery


Badges such as the Dudleys bear and/or ragged staff, the Percys crescent, the Stanleys eagle or eagles foot, or the Stafford knot (pictured) were also favorite decorative elements. Remember that arms are personal to the bearer ("this is me") while badges can identify anything or anyone belonging to the bearer ("this is mine"). Badges might decorate any possession and, most importantly, the liveries of the badge owners retainers. Note that some large magnates might have many different badges, perhaps used in association with their different manors or maybe arbitrarily. Badges could be a charge from the arms or crest or can be completely different. Royal badges in the period include the rose, the double (now called Tudor) rose, the fleur de lys of France, the harp of Ireland, the "ER" cypher, and the portcullis, any of which might be "ensigned" (topped) with the crown, as well as the crown itself, and several of the beasts which had served as supporters to the royal arms such as the crowned lion, the dragon, or the greyhound (see the masthead illustration). The crowned falcon on a woodstock (stump) had belonged to Ann Boleyn and was used by Elizabeth to decorate many of her personal possessions. The phoenix and pelican were also symbolically associated with Elizabeth. Although the unicorn might have had some symbolic association with Elizabeth (the Virgin thing), it was the supporter of the Scottish royal arms and so brought to the royal arms of England with the Stuarts, not before.

http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (7 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

THE ROYAL ARMS C. 1572 WITH DRAGON SUPPORTER

A word on livery colors: just as badges are not necessarily from the shield, livery colors do not have to match the colors on someones shield or even be heraldic colors at all (heraldic colors being, with very few exceptions limited to yellow/gold, white/silver, black, blue, red, green, and, rarely, purple). There was a trend toward turning badges into crests during this period. Most gentlemen had adopted badges since they were useful identifying marks, but relatively few had crests (a crest is what sits on top of the helmet displayed above the shield on a coat of arms; a crest is not a coat of arms although the word has been mistakenly used in this way in recent years) because their forbearers had never participated in tournaments (crests originally were actually worn on helms at these events). During visitations heralds commonly granted crests to gentlemen who already had shields and usually adapted the gentlemans existing badge.

Use of Arms in Recreation


Every armigerous character should be familiar with their arms and be able to recite their blazon (description in heraldic language). (See Blazons of the Ancient Paternal Arms of the Peers of England.) During the Elizabethan period armigers were eager to display their arms which were a visible sign of their gentle status whether those arms were centuries old or had just been granted. The shield (being the central, most important element of the arms) might be pictured alone or with the other elements of the complete armorial achievement: helmet, crest, mantling, motto (and, for peers, supporters). Armorial decoration would be used in as many places as possible and in every conceivable medium. Arms were displayed on or inside houses in stone, carved wood, or stained glass. Burial monuments often displayed the arms of the deceased. They were placed in the upper corner of their portraits (often the means by which we are able to identify the portraits subjects centuries later).
http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (8 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

The shape of shield on which arms were displayed varied widely from the classic medieval shape to ornate renaissance cartouches. The shape of shield usually has no heraldic significance (i.e. Lord Scropes blue field with a gold bend is the same coat no matter what shape its painted on). It is a convention, however, for unmarried ladies to display their arms on lozenge (diamond shape) since they did not bear shields in battle (not that men did anymore, either). The Queen was an exception to this as her arms (the arms of England) were never displayed on a lozenge. A woman did not have arms in her own right (with very few exceptions) but used her father's arms until she was married, at which point she could display her husbands arms on the dexter half of a shield "impaled" with her paternal arms on the sinister half, as shown in the portrait of Mary Hill, Mistress Mackwilliam, above. (Note that dexter is the left as you look at it; in heraldic terms the dexter is the right side of the knight holding the shield.) This combining of arms is called marshaling. Another use for marshaling arms by impalement was to show official arms impaled with the office-holders personal arms, such as the arms of the See of Canterbury (dexter) impaled with Matthew Parkers arms in sinister. A womans paternal arms would not be passed down to her descendants unless she had no brothers. In this case she and all her sisters are heraldic co-heiresses and their children would quarter their mothers arms with their fathers. The most famous quartered arms have a different story. The royal arms quarter France and England because Edward III wanted to illustrate his dynastic claim to the French throne. The French arms occupy the 1st and 4th quarters (i.e. where the fathers arms would be quartered) because France was considered the more ancient kingdom. Over many generations some coats could collect many quarterings through marriages to heiresses (each individual coat is still called a quartering even if there are more than four). Even if one is entitled to display a shield with enough quarterings to make it look like an intricate patchwork quilt it is not always advantageous to show them all. Arms are for identification, and patchwork arms are difficult to distinguish from others, especially at a distance. So, the first quartering (the original arms passed down in direct male descent) would

http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (9 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

Elizabethan Heraldry: Heralds

often be displayed alone on banners or painted shields used as decorations.

TOP | HERALDRY HOME | HERALDS | OFFICERS | EARL MARSHAL | GARTER| ARMORIAL | PRIMER | REFERENCES | RENAISSANCE

Edited by John Neitz <neitz@dm.net> Designed by Paula Kate Marmor <pkm@dm.net> Site Credits 9 January 2000

http://renaissance.dm.net/heraldry/heralds.html (10 de 10)24/03/2005 13:14:12

HowStuffWorks - Learn how Everything Works!

Search HowStuffWorks and the Web


Computer Stuff Auto Stuff Electronics Stuff Science Stuff Home Stuff Stuffo Health Stuff Money Stuff Travel Stuff

Enviar consult

People Stuff

Today @ HowStuffWorks Aerial Dominance How F/A-22 Raptors Work


As the newest fighter in the U.S. Air Force's aerial arsenal, the F/A-22 Raptor incorporates the latest stealth technology along with a mind-boggling array of weapons and computer systems. Learn about this dual-purpose fighter jet and attack aircraft and see what sets it apart from the F-15.

The Nintendo Revolution Nintendos next console features wireless connectivity, dual processors and controllers that you rub. Thats right - we said "rub." How the BMW H2R Works It's sleek. It's aerodynamic. It's powered entirely by hydrogen. And the BMW H2R has already set nine speed records in its class. The Halo 3 Wish List Boats, flamethrowers, proximity mines -- Stuffo spent some long nights compiling the perfect list of things we'd like to see in Halo 3. How Lock Picking Works The basic process of picking a lock is simple, but it takes a lot of practice to get it right. Explore the everyday technology of locks and keys. How Cell Phones Work No cords, no dial tone, no copper wires: Cell phones hardly resemble telephones at all. Learn all about these modern miracles.

Coming Tomorrow: Sirius vs. XM

http://www.howstuffworks.com/ (1 de 6)24/03/2005 13:14:45

HowStuffWorks - Learn how Everything Works!

Today's Question
Enviar consulta

How does the anti-siphon valve in built-in lawn sprinkling systems work?

Smart Shopper Thinking of getting an iPod? Click below to compare prices and learn more about these industry-leading MP3 players. HowStuffWorks Tip - Click on retailer logos to get detailed product descriptions.

Looking for great content for your radio station?


Click here to get free HowStuffWorks radio spots!

Fact of the Day: It can take up to a month for a three-toed sloths food to pass from its stomach to its intestine. Quote of the Day: "The more the universe seems comprehensible, the more it also seems pointless." - Steven Weinberg

Have You Seen This?


Scientists have managed to create a tiny black hole on earth! Maybe. See also How Black Holes Work. New wonder batteries last twice as long as Duracell but cost about the same! (w/pic) See also How Batteries Work. If you want to bulk up your muscle mass, there are two things that you've got to know! See also How Muscles Work. New super-quiet motorcycle may be too quiet for its own good! (with photo) See also How Harley-Davidson Works. Here's just what the world needs -- machine-gun pistols. Watch the video. See also How Machine Guns Work.

40GB Apple iPod (fourth generation)

40GB Apple iPod Photo

4GB Apple iPod Mini

1GB Apple iPod Shuffle

Popular Searches

Looking for something? Try the HowStuffWorks Table of Contents.

http://www.howstuffworks.com/ (2 de 6)24/03/2005 13:14:45

HowStuffWorks - Learn how Everything Works!

>> Check the HYST Archive!


refinancing
ComputerStuff

web hosting

Instant Access - How RAM Works


computers digital camera
Hot Stuff The Top Ten The few, the proud: Our ten most popular articles Nice Rides The Maybach The Aquada The Bugatti ...and more! War Tech Apaches M1 tanks Machine guns ...and more! Crime Lock-picking Safecracking Stun guns ...and more! ScienceStuff AutoStuff Random access memory (RAM) is as important to your computer's operation as the microprocessor. Find out how RAM works, how much you need and which type of RAM is best for you. more >

Quintessential Concept - How the Toyota MTRC Works


The MTRC, Toyota's latest concept car, is about as futuristic as automotive technology gets. Take a look at its ultra-modern design and learn how it pushes the limits of current technology. more > ElectronicsStuff

Science of Sound - How Speakers Work


The best amplifier, receiver and CD player won't do you much good, if you don't have good speakers. Speakers are the final step in the stereo process -- the key component that turns electronic data into sound. more >

Head Trip - How Dreams Work


Should we bother to interpret our dreams? Are these nighttime stories random brain impulses, or do they offer insight into our waking lives? Learn what's happening in your brain while you dream. more >

http://www.howstuffworks.com/ (3 de 6)24/03/2005 13:14:45

HowStuffWorks - Learn how Everything Works!

Engines Gas engines Diesel engines Hemi engines ...and more! Gadgets Cell phones GPS receivers Cameras ...and more! Home Theater HDTV Speakers DVDs ...and more!

HomeStuff

Doggies With Borders - How Underground Pet Fences Work


Want to keep Fido from fertilizing the neighbors Flax? You might consider an underground or wireless pet fence. Learn how these fascinating systems work and why this specialized fencing industry is booming. more > Stuffo

Dear Stuffo: Readers Write About The A-Team Movie


The Stuffo faithful have spoken. Readers took up the challenge of casting the new A-Team movie within strange constraints. Read all about the Seinfeld ATeam, the Friends A-Team, and more. more > HealthStuff

HowStuffWorks Stuff

Waiting for Eternity - How Cryonics Works


Dozens of people are frozen in cryogenic storage facilities, waiting to be revived when science is able to cure whatever killed them. But if they're dead, is revival from a frozen state even possible? Find out. more > MoneyStuff

You're Pre-Approved! - How Credit Scores Work


Instead of evaluating your entire credit report, companies can access a score that combines different variables to determine if youre a good or bad risk. Find out all about credit scores more >

Explore Stuff

http://www.howstuffworks.com/ (4 de 6)24/03/2005 13:14:45

HowStuffWorks - Learn how Everything Works!

> HowStuffWorks Express Magazine > Get the Newsletter > Speedy: Ad-free Site > Big List of Articles

TravelStuff

Protective Specs - How Sunglasses Work


Whether you're hitting the surf or the slopes or just spending a day on the lake, sunglasses are a must-have accessory. Find out if the $10 sunglasses are as good as the high-cost ones. more >

Survey PeopleStuff Have you ever seen a film in an IMAX theater? Yes No What's IMAX? Find More Stuff! The previous question was: Have you ever had problems with asthma? See the Results! See the Complete Archive!

Pink Eggs, Giant Bunnies and the Church - How Easter Works
Easter's around the corner -- might be time to brush up on your holiday knowledge. Learn all about this springtime celebration, from its origins to the (often wacky) worldwide variations on its observance. more >

Search HowStuffWorks and the Web

How Did You Find Us? Would you mind telling us how you found out about HowStuffWorks?

Comment

http://www.howstuffworks.com/ (5 de 6)24/03/2005 13:14:45

HowStuffWorks - Learn how Everything Works!

Home Store Newsletter Search Advertising Privacy Contact About Help 1998 - 2005 HowStuffWorks, Inc.

http://www.howstuffworks.com/ (6 de 6)24/03/2005 13:14:45

The Infamous Exploding Whale - Video

The Infamous Exploding Whale

Video

If there are no images on the page, try allowing port 8090 through your firewall, or click here.

Here, for your free downloading pleasure, is the newscast that caught the whale as it fell. Exploded. Happened. Whatever. Oh, yeah... don't ask for a copy of this on video tape. I don't have a copy on tape, and I don't really have time to make dubs for the entire Internet anyway. Thanks for asking, better luck next time, have someone tell you about your lovely parting gifts.

High Bandwidth Quicktime Movie (11.1 meg)


No, there isn't a zipped or some other compressed version. Quicktime is pretty tight; running Zip on it saves you less than 1% of space!

Medium Bandwidth Quicktime Movie (3.3 meg) Low Bandwidth Quicktime Movie (0.7 meg)
These are faster to download than the full version, but there's a lot of compression artifacts in the video: loss of detail, skipped frames, etc.

http://www.perp.com/whale/video.html (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:03

The Infamous Exploding Whale - Video

Main Paul Linnman Contact

Letters

Video Dave Barry Credits

http://www.perp.com/whale/video.html (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:03

Network Overview /// Internet Traffic Report

The Internet Traffic Report monitors the flow of data around the world. It then displays a value between zero and 100. Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections.

Home

FAQ

Events

Contact

Links

AnalogX

The Internet Traffic Report (ITR) wants to continue to provide useful information about networks from around the world. We want to make this information as accurate as possible! More Information. The free ITR Client for Windows is now available for download, and allows you to monitor ITR in realtime, test your connection when problems occur and more! Click here to download. Want to add a live statistics display to your website? Click here to select your graphic. Got questions? We've got answers! Check out the ITR FAQ

View Graphs or Click a Continent to view more detailed information.


Continent Current Index Avg. Response Time (ms) Avg. Packet Loss (%)

Asia Australia Europe North America South America

56 59 78 88 82

393 409 206 105 171

18 % 25 % 1% 3% 0%

This graph shows the Global Traffic Index for the past 24 hours.
View 24-hour graph View 7-day graph View 30-day graph

http://www.internettrafficreport.com/main.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:14

Network Overview /// Internet Traffic Report

This graph shows the Global Response Time for the past 24 hours.
View 24-hour graph View 7-day graph View 30-day graph

This graph shows the Global Packet Loss for the past 24 hours.
View 24-hour graph View 7-day graph View 30-day graph

View the most recent raw data Frequently Asked Questions about the Internet Traffic Report

http://www.internettrafficreport.com/main.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:14

J-Track Satellite Tracking

We created J-Track so you could quickly and easily keep track of your favorite orbiting objects. J-Track lets you choose from a fairly large list of satellites, so we get you started by selecting a few for you. Select the category of satellites you are interested in below or if you are really adventurous, try J-Track 3D. J-Track is now at version 2.5.
Do your satellite viewing with J-Pass!

J-Track is Active

This is the "popular" J-Track page used to track Mir and Shuttle. Hubble, UARS, and COBE are here as well. How do they figure out tomorrow's weather? These NOAA Satellites are used to follow the weather patterns from high above the Earth. Search satellites help save thousands of lives by watching for emergency beacons for airplanes, boats and ground personnel in distress. Amateur Radio Enthusiast have satellites too. We have selected just a few you may find fun to follow.

http://science.nasa.gov/Realtime/jtrack/ (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:24

J-Track Satellite Tracking

Warning: This program is computationally intensive. The faster your computer, the more usable. Run preferably on PC's faster than 166 MHz with Java JIT (Just-in-time) compiling enabled.

>>> J-TRACK 3D <<<

Updated January 21, 2000. Contacts

http://science.nasa.gov/Realtime/jtrack/ (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:24

BriteLyt.com

BriteLyt Multi-Fuel Lanterns, Stoves, & Petromax Lanterns Home Of the World Famous Multi-Fuel Lantern

Products

BriteLyt, Inc. 9516 Lake Dr. New Port Richey, FL. 34654 USA Ph: 813-882-4966 Fax: 813-888-5305

See Our Television Commercial Don't be fooled by cheap imitations!! The BriteLyt(829/500cp & 830/150cp) lantern is the fifth (5th) generation of the "Original", Petromax products. Our PATENTED Lantern System (Patent 6,439,223),(6,688,877) and (6,863,526), is designed as originally intended, for MULTI-FUEL use, and with your safety in mind. Expertise is the key, as we offer generations of knowledge in the proper use and care of these fine products (500CP Lantern output in BTU's approx: 5,500 per hour). Owned and operated by the founder of the original distributor, to such companies as Cabela's and Lehman's. Most lanterns sold by such companies, are for "kerosene use" only. The "generations" are: Petromax, Aida, Hipolito, Geniol, and BriteLyt-Petromax. This is in sequence of progression of models. All these lanterns are of the same build, and quality,. Plus,..... the parts are interchangeable!!!!! The BriteLyt-Petromax lanterns are built to last from generation to generation!! All of our lanterns are of solid brass construction,and used by the US Military!!!. Please do not confuse our products with the cheaper, imported versions. BriteLyt has designed parts (patented), with the ability of interchange w/lanterns,going back to the 1900's.(Aida, Hipolito, Geniol, & Petromax) Our lanterns are manufactured, as those, of the older generations;however, there are no costly engravings, which can cause later damage to the tank, and we do not use the blue knobs, with writing (which can fade).

http://www.petromax.com/ (1 de 3)24/03/2005 13:15:53

BriteLyt.com

We want your lantern to last, and stay beautiful!! Rest Assured ........OUR TECHNICIANS HAVE OVER 30--plus YEARS OF EXPERIENCE with Petromax Products!! No matter WHERE you purchased your Petromax,Hipolito,Aida,Geniol,or BriteLyt product(s), our experienced technicians will be happy to assist you Just E-Mail or Call us for Help! . To order or see lanterns and parts go to our online store at the top of our page!! !! Use the button's below to find more info !!!

Government Orders THE ONLY TRUE MULTI-FUEL LANTERN IN THE WORLD BRITELYT SUPERB TECHNICAL SUPPORT & REPAIR SERVICE BriteLyt Dealer's Page info@BriteLyt.com

Phone 813-882-4966 fax 813-888-5305

National Safety Information Exchange, Inc. (NSIE)

This site and all associated web pages 1996-2005 BriteLyt. All rights reserved. No images may be used without written permission. Britelyt, EZ-Cook , EZ-Pump,O-Ring pump system and stove are the registered trademarks and Patent's # 6,439,223, # 6,688,877,# 6,863,526 of Diana Draper. All other trademarks are properties of their respective owners. Web Site by Preferred Partners, LLC

http://www.petromax.com/ (2 de 3)24/03/2005 13:15:53

BriteLyt.com

http://www.petromax.com/ (3 de 3)24/03/2005 13:15:53

Leica Papers

Leica Pages M-System Comments on Leica photography R-System Optics My recent Pictures Engineering History Digital Home Respect for the image (march 12, 2005 EPSON R-D1 Full test: can the 6 Mp Sensor capture the leica lens quality? (march 9, 2005) the year 2004: watershed (december 30, 2004) Paradigm shift? (september 8, 2004) Leica's biggest gamble? (april 4, 2004) Leica FAQ Polyphoto:best Leica Magazine Photokina reflections on the current rangefinder scene, October 1,2004 Technical FAQ: the truth behind the digital sensor Erwins Site Technical issues

Updates: Kodachrome article, BW film choices, the year of the truth for Leica

Leica Photography: visual craftmanship


march 12, 2005
The Leica cameras dominated the first half of the 20th century and were in retreat in the second half of that century. Now the company is struggling to find a place in the start of the 21st century. The digital age sets its own agenda and Leica is not yet ready to re-invent itself and to marry solid traditional mechanical-optical merits with fluid electronic networks and software algorithms. We have to wait and see. I regard the Leica camera as a productive tool for taking high quality images that are firmly planred in the great photographic tradition of the documentary and straight photography. The Leica was invented and designed to be a tool for the creative reproduction of scenes of wonder and passion. The Leica was never designed to become an object of wealthy collectors and obsessive instrumentalists. It is a tool for taking and making pictures and to be used daily with passionate intensity. While the art and craft of Leica photography is being discussed in innumerable books, articles and websites, really trustworthy information is scarce. It is my intention to provide the Leica user with all the information that is needed to understand the characteristics of the camera, the design and performance of the lenses and the background knowledge to be able to get the best possible quality of the tiny 35mm format, filled with hundreds of millions of silver grain clumps to capture the subtle shades of gray of reality. In addition there is always the fun factor. Filmbased photography has many of the characteristics of good travelling: the end of the journey is less interesting than the travel to the goal and the pleasure of being on the

http://www.imx.nl/photosite/leica/leicahome.html (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:58

Leica Papers

magnification Choose film and developer wisely

move. Leica however, seems to assume that Leica buyers are more interested in pride of ownership and status than in making photographs. The current approach to offer the buyer the possibility to create the Mcamera they want from a longer list of options, the la carteformula, has its virtues. There are always buyers who want specific features from the MP in an M7 and the other way around. This flexibility may entice some persons to buy the camera. In my view however, Leica should improve the engineering and functionality of the camera to manufacture the ultimate mechanical camera of the 21st century. Such a tool would support photographers to create better Leica imagery as the instrument would be a true extension of the eye and brain in the fine tradition of the great photographic artists of the 20th century. The recent introduction of the Oskar Barnack edition is in the tradition of the 0-series camera and a reference to the great tradition of the Leica camera. The announcement that Leica is working on an M-digital camera to be introduced in 2006 is a reference to the future of the Leica M camera in the world of digital imaging, a strategy I will discuss at a later time. With the three approaches listed here: a-la-carte, the reference to the past and the reference to the future, the MP and M7 no longer occupy the centre stage. Is this an ominous sign of the times to come? Leica as a company is struggling to survive: there has been a recent major shift in shareholders, the shares themselves are at a very low level, the workforce has been substantially reduced, and the concept for the future is a bit vague. Leica wants to profile itself as the only manufacturer that will offer a bridge for the analogue-digital watershed by offering hybrid cameras (the R9 Digital), but the whole idea of a bridge is itself a question mark. This said, I also have to admit that taking photographs with a Leica camera is a joy and an inspiration. The optics are second to none and offer some very special optical characteristics that can be effectively exploited with film to create brilliant photographs. The engineering, the handling and the feeling of quality are quite inspiring for the user to create pictures that are a match for the camera and its lenses.

http://www.imx.nl/photosite/leica/leicahome.html (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:15:58

Miami University

text only SEARCH: Info for: Alumni & Contributors Faculty, Staff & Students ( Graduate Studies Libraries ) High School Students FIND A PERSON: Parents RedHawk Fans President's Message

Publications and Policies

Employment at Miami

PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE. The Urban Internship Program helps students find work in urban settings like Chicago, where this student tutored refugee children.

"Traditional Arts of Central and West Africa"


through June 29 Miami Art Museum >> Safire to speak at May 7 commencement William Safire, the political columnist who was the conservative voice on The New York Times op-ed page for 30 years, will be featured speaker at Miami University's commencement at 3 p.m. Saturday, May 7, at Yager Stadium. >> 99 major scholarships established at Miami Ninety-nine Ohio high-school seniors, one from each state legislative district, will receive a pleasant surprise in the coming weeks--notice that they have been awarded scholarships worth $80,000 each at Miami University over the next four years. >> Pi Sigma Epsilon business fraternity chapter still best in nation The Miami University chapter of Pi Sigma Epsilon (PSE) has been named the top chapter in the nation four years in a row. It marks the seventh time in eight years the chapter has won the Lewis F. Gordon Top Chapter Award. >> More News >> MARCH 24 Assessing Critical Thinking >> Feminist Film Festival >> "The S.U.V. Model of Citizenship" >> "Out of the Darkroom" >> More Events >>

An Inside Look
Hear why our students consider Miami the perfect college choice. >>

Schedule a Visit
Come and see one of the most beautiful campuses in America. >>

2005 | Miami University | 501 East High Street | Oxford, Ohio 45056 | 513.529.1809 | Webmaster@muohio.edu | text only Equal opportunity in education and employment

http://www.miami.muohio.edu/24/03/2005 13:16:11

Moscow Neutron Monitor

Hourly and 24-hour averaged indices of cosmic ray activity for last 27 days. Updated every hour. Preliminary and experimental.

[top] [months] [days] [hours] [minutes] [last GLEs] [events] [our station] [links] [pressure] [feedback]

Back to main page

http://helios.izmiran.troitsk.ru/cosray/indices.htm24/03/2005 13:17:44

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

Latest Reviews and Articles


DDR2 The Second Round
Author: John Chen Date: 03-18-2005 Category: Hardware

In this round of DDR2 competition we take a look at some of the contenders who did not make the last roundup like, Crucial, Corsair and OCZ. I think you will be very surprised at the results. Kingston KHX4300 Memory Review
Author: D'Arcy Lemay Date: 03-16-2005 Category: Hardware

The new Kinston HyperX KHX-4300 DDR memory came across as a product with two sides to its performance. On the AMD platform it showed only adequate performance, where on the P4 platform it showed real strength. A mixed bag of results is what we have here. Gigabyte GA-K8NXP-SLI Motherboard Review
Author: Doc Overclock Date: 03-14-2005 Category: Motherboards

The NF4 chipset has a lot to offer in itself and that combined with all the features of this board equate to a very strong motherboard package that has what it takes to please almost any hardcore user. ATI AIW Radeon X800XT AGP Video Card Review
Author: Benjamin Sun Date: 03-10-2005 Category: Hardware

As far as features go, the A-I-W X800XT is the most feature-rich multimedia video card on the market today. You get an excellent television tuner, the speed and features of one of the highest performing video cards on the market, a bundle of software that allows you to use the card, and a remote control.

http://www.motherboards.org/ (1 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

Thermaltake Armor VA8000 Case Review


Author: Doc Overclock Date: 03-08-2005 Category: Hardware

Few cases actually make me take a second look, and it is even more rare for me to really like one. Thermaltake's Armor is one seriously solid case that boasts ergonomic installations, a sleek modern design and form factor, and flexibility that rivals many of the current products on the market. Gigabyte GA-K8NF-9 Motherboard Review
Author: Benjamin Sun Date: 02-26-2005 Category: Motherboards

Late last year, NVIDIA introduced their nForce4 chipsets for the AMD platform. There are three chipsets in this platform, nForce4 , nForce4 Ultra and the nForce4 SLI. nForce4 is the mainstream version of the new chipset with features like SATA, support for PCI Express, 8 USB port support. This review is on the GA-K8NF-9, based upon the nForce4 chipset. Intel 3.6GHz 660 and 3.73GHz EE CPU Review
Author: Doc Overclock Date: 02-25-2005 Category: Hardware

Well it has finally happened folks, Intel has jumped onto the 64-Bit train and has released a new series of 6XXX CPUs that have the new EMT 64 bit extensions. These CPUs are more oriented on features than actual core speed increases and are Intel's foot in the door to the 64-Bit environment. Thermaltake Big Typhoon Cooling Solution Review
Author: John Chen Date: 02-22-2005 Category: Hardware

All I have to say is wow. I thought the Zalman CNPS7700-AlCu performed great, but this Big Typhoon just proved me wrong. The superiority of the heatpipes makes its mark and triumphs with the Big Typhoon. The new Thermaltake flagship cooler kept my CPU running nice and cool. How To Make A Slipstreamed Win XP SP2 Disc
Author: D'arcy Lemay Date: 02-21-2005 Category: Guides

Slipstreaming is the process of taking that old, non SP2 copy of Windows XP and upgrading it to a fully patched version that can be installed in one-step. ASUS eXtreme N6600GT Video Card Review
Author: Benjamin Sun Date: 02-16-2005 Category: Hardware

What can I say about the ASUS eXtreme N6600GT? The card is an excellent performer for the cost. An additional bonus is that these cards can SLI later, if you have a SLI motherboard and AMD Athlon 64 system.

Latest News
News: ACON5 North American Finals to be held at E3 Expo
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Wed Mar 23 2005 22:56 pm EST Comments (0)

ACON5 is a global gaming event held in 20 countries and territories worldwide. Sponsored by the industry leaders, ACON5 promises to be one of the most exciting gaming spectacles of 2005, with the ACON5 grand finals location soon to be announced. News: Powercolor Theatre 550 Pro TV tuner
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Wed Mar 23 2005 15:15 pm EST Comments (0)

"In this review, PCstats will be testing out the Powercolor Theatre 550 Pro TV tuner, which is based on ATI's Theatre 550 Pro digital

http://www.motherboards.org/ (2 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

audio/video processing chipset. As you might or might not know, this particular chipset is currently the hottest thing in TV-tunerland, due to its support for a number of uncommon features, including 2D and 3D comb filtering. As you might expect, the ATI Theatre 550 chip is also found in ATI's latest Multimedia products too." News: 64-bit computing
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Wed Mar 23 2005 13:25 pm EST Comments (3)

LISTEN TO THE HYPE ABOUT 64-bit computing, and you could get the idea that the move to 64 bits will make all of your games run twice as fast, replace blocky 3D models with smooth, photorealistic replicas of the human form, and transform the average PC into a wonder-box that can resequence your dog's genome in its spare cycles so he won't pee on the rug anymore. On the other hand, listen to the anti-hype about 64-bit computing, and you could be forgiven for wondering why anyone even bothered--probably just a conspiracy to get us to buy new stuff we don't need. News: Sapphire Radeon X800 PCI-E Video Card
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Wed Mar 23 2005 13:22 pm EST Comments (2)

The buyer wants performance at an affordable price. Sapphire Tech used the ATI R420 core to produce the Sapphire Radeon X800 video card for PCI-Express. This performance/price mid-ground is where Sapphire have positioned themselves with the Radeon X800. News: Abit Fatal1ty AN8
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Wed Mar 23 2005 13:21 pm EST Comments (0)

Abit's name has been synonymous with overclocking since the days of the KT7. It's no surprise that they would release a motherboard dedicated to overclocking. Teaming up with professional gamer Johnathan Wendel, Abit dedicated themselves to creating the best gaming motherboard available. The goal was to eliminate all the unnecessary BIOS options and extras that gamers do not use and create the best overclocking board to provide the cutting edge performance. Read It All Here News: Thermaltake Silent Purepower 680W PSU
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Wed Mar 23 2005 13:18 pm EST Comments (0)

With consumers needing bigger power supplies to power their new high end systems we are starting to see massive PSU's hit the market. Today Legit Reviews takes a look at the Thermaltake Silent Purepower 680W PSU and checks out how it performs. News: Athlon64 3800+
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Tue Mar 22 2005 19:01 pm EST Comments (0)

The Athlon64 3800+ uses an organic FCPGA packaging as opposed to the ceramic found on Athlon64 FX chips. From the top, the Athlon64 3800+ looks identical to the Athlon64 3200+. On the bottom of the processor, it is simply filled with pins, although this shouldn't be a surprise considering the amount of pins in the new socket 939 package. Along with the introduction of the Socket 939 Athlon64 3800+, AMD also released the Socket 939 Athlon64 3500+ (2.2 GHz) and moved its high end Athlon64 FX-53 (2.4 GHz) over to the Socket 939 platform. Subsequent processors have since been released for both the Athlon64 and Athlon64 FX, but the 3800+ was the first to make the transition News: ASUS CT-479 CPU Upgrade Kit

http://www.motherboards.org/ (3 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

Posted by: Doc Overclock on Mon Mar 21 2005 13:59 pm EST Comments (0)

The ASUS CT-479 CPU Upgrade Kit is a newly launched solution that brings the quiet and cool performance of the Intel Pentium M Socket 479 notebook processor onto ASUS' Socket 478 desktop motherboards. Read on and take a look and see what the future holds for Pentium M lovers. News: Corsair Xpert TwinXP1024-3200XL 1GB DC Kit
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Mon Mar 21 2005 03:20 am EST Comments (0)

Who was the first to make low latency memory? Corsair. Who was the first to use heatspreaders for memory? Corsair. Who was the first to have pretty LED's for memory? Corsair. If I was wrong about any of the information, please correct me. But if I'm right, then Corsair is the first to provide enthusiasts with flashy looks. Corsair is always on the lookout for the newest thing. They discovered the great potential in the Samsung TCCD chips and allowed enthusiasts the joy of running extremely low latencies. Corsair Xpert TwinXP1024-3200XL 1GB DC Kit News: Radeon X800 and X800 XL cards distribution problems
Posted by: Doc Overclock on Fri Mar 18 2005 14:08 pm EST Comments (0)

We have been following the story of pricing and availability of the latest ATI cards for some time now. We have recently learned that the cost to resellers of Radeon X800 and X800 XL cards via distribution is higher than ATI's suggested retail price. In some cases, this information changes the math on which video card we'd recommend, the ATI or the NVIDIA.

Copyright 1997-2004 Motherboards.org. All rights reserved. All trademarks, logos, and copyrights are property of their respective owners. This site is currently being converted to Valid XHTML 1.0 strict and Valid CSS. Join our Newsletter

motherboards.org Price Finder Compare Prices: Motherboards Abit ASUS Gigabyte Intel MSI Shuttle Soyo Super Micro Tyan More... Processors AMD

http://www.motherboards.org/ (4 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

Intel More... Memory SDRAM RDRAM DDRAM More... Video Cards ATI Visiontek PNY 3Dfx More... More Products

Search Prices for

Motherboards

JNCS.com has sponsored this site since 1997. Asus M6N


Wireless Notebook On Sale

Asus M5N
Wireless Notebook On Sale

JNCS Custom Systems - built to order! Max Gamer!

Thermaltake Tsunami Asus A8V Deluxe AMD FX55 CPU

http://www.motherboards.org/ (5 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

ASUS AX800XT AGP 1gb PC3200 Sony DW-u22a DVD Seagate SATA 200gb Sony Floppy

$2,225

New, complete systems from $299! JNCS Motherboard Bundles


We have focused on motherboards and motherboard bundles since 1994. Our bundles are assembled with memory and CPU, then burned in and tested. We warranty the bundles for three years. Our web site has details for each motherboard, pictures, and direct links to the manufacturers. We are required to collect tax only in New York.

Installation Guide
for installing a motherboard bundle in a case

Athlon64 939-pin
Athlon64 CPUs are now available 3000+ to FX53

Asus A8V Deluxe Abit AV8 Gigabyte K8NSN-XP MSI K8N Neo2 Plat MSI K8T Neo2-F

Socket 775
We have many 775 Boards!

Abit AA8 Deluxe Abit AG8 Asus P5AD2 Deluxe Asus P5AD2-E Premium Asus P5GD1 Asus P5GD2 Deluxe Asus P5GD2 Premium Asus P5GDC-V Deluxe Gigabyte 8ANXP-D Intel D915GAVL Intel D915GEVL Intel D915GEVLK Intel D915GUXLK Intel D915PBLL Intel D915PCYL Intel D915XCVL MSI 915G-Combo-FR

http://www.motherboards.org/ (6 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

Motherboard Reviews, News, Guides, and Tools.

MSI 915GM-FR MSI 915P-Combo-FR MSI 915P-Neo2-Plat MSI 925x-Neo Supermicro P8SGA Tyan S5120AGNF Tyan S5120AGNNRF

Shuttle XPC

SS51G (Celeron) SB75G2 (P4-478) SN85G4 (A64-754) SB83G5 (p4-775) SN95G5 (A64-939)
Support our Sponsors

motherboards.org menu Home Articles Folding Forums MOBOT Rankings Reviews Search Tools About Advertise Contact Gear Store Industry News Links Privacy March 24, 2005

http://www.motherboards.org/ (7 de 7)24/03/2005 13:18:09

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm

THE TREBUCHET
As built for the television series

NORTHERN EXPOSURE
Websters Dictionary: Trebuchet, a medieval catapultlike device for throwing heavy missiles.
Click within picture to view full size

The trebuchet standing erect in the uncocked position..

Side view of the trebuchet.

Re-erected lakeside ready to fling the coffins.

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm (1 de 4)24/03/2005 13:18:17

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm

My mini treb built from parts of an old Erector Set.

In the uncocked position.

Artists drawing of the operation of the trebuchet, from an old reference. This link belongs to a class of 10 year old kids from Atlanta, Ga.. They are building small trebs and catapults and will be updating this link with pics and stories. A treb page and pics of their treb from the Western U of New Mexico. Here is Ron Toms' page with his stories and pics of his successful people flinging trebuchet. This web site belongs to my friend from down under (Austrailia) that is a member of "the Gray Company", a group that studies and practices the art of the medieval days. They have built an
http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm (2 de 4)24/03/2005 13:18:17

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm

operational treb and you may see their efforts here at the following web site. This site has the best collection of links dealing with the art of the "catapulteer" Here is (page under construction) an Oregon Boy Scout Troops' efforts on constructing a pumpkin flinging treb from available onsite materials.

This trebuchet has been sold.


The city of Corvallis Or. and sponsors of the "da Vinci Days" 5th annual celebration have purchased this trebuchet to be re- erected and made operational. The Flinger Thinger shall Fling again. This year the fair will be held 18 July thru 20 July, 1997. Here is the link to their web site. Treb builder and fellow catapulteer John Wayne Cyra's homepage .Click here Send mail to: verne@eskimo.com Built for the TV show "Northern Exposure" and seen worldwide in two different episodes. In one episode we flung a 450 pound upright piano 100 yards. In the other episode we flung coffins into the middle of a lake. To get all the camera angles and shots for the piano episode, we flung 9 full size upright pianos. All nine pianos consistently landed in the same spot. We put a crash camera in the impact crater of one piano to get a shot of the piano coming straight down from about 250 feet in th e air. I have video tape of every phase of construction , from cuttin down the dozen trees it took to make the base, to the actual filming of the piano episode. Portions of the video seen on "Bill Nye The Science Guy". After filming, the trebuchet was disassembled and put in storage in a barn, until about a year later when we re-erected it on the side of Rattlesnalke Lake, outside North Bend, Washington. For the coffin episode we flung 4 wood coffins and 4 steel coffins into the middle of the lake. The coffins were filled with sand, and banded to keep them from blowing apart during lift off. The trebuchet worked perfectly every time we fired it. The power of this device is awesome and comes from the ten thou sand pounds of lead weight in a steel box on one end of the arm. It takes a bulldozer to cock the arm, and a bulldozer to trip the hook that releases the arm to launch. In the uncocked position the arm points straight up and stands about 50 feet tall. Concrete could be used in the weight box to hold the arm upright. The arm is an 8 inch by 32 inch gluelam beam, encased and reinforced with steel. It pivots on a 4 inch by 10 foot chromium steel shaft. I envision the trebuchet as a great business sign, or flagpole, or just an awesome conversation piece. It could be made operational again, but it is not a carnival ride, and there's more to firing

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm (3 de 4)24/03/2005 13:18:17

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm

this thing than meets the eye. The base is made f rom 1 foot diameter fir logs, that are bolted and steel strapped together. The trebuchet is now disassembled and in storage on my property outside Monroe, Washington. I am the owner/builder and can deliver and set it up anywhere. The original cost to build was $50,000. If you are interested in owning a most unique piece of of history and a little bit of Northern Exposure, please give me your

" Best Offer."


Contact John Wayne (Cyra) at: 800.576.3958 (my pager) or Verne at 425.788.2505 Email to verne@eskimo.com. Verne's homepage link Last revision 10/08/97

Verne DeWitt 1996.

http://www.eskimo.com/~verne/treb.htm (4 de 4)24/03/2005 13:18:17

Old Clock-Watch Private Homepage

Watch-Collector's Paradise
This page is for those, who are interested in the historical and technical aspects of old clocks and watches.

Explanation of technical terms from: Adjusted to Worm-Wheel

A BA BE-BZ CA-CLI CLO-CON COQ-CUV CYL DA-DR DUDZ E F G H I J K LA-LE LI-LZ M N O P Q R S TA-TO TRTZ U V W-Z

Famous clock- and watchmakers:


ENGLAND
THOMAS TOMPION GEORG GRAHAM JOHN HARRISON THOMAS MUDGE JOSIAH EMERY JOHN ELLICOT JOHN ARNOLD THOMAS EARNSHAW 1639-1713 1673-1751 1693-1776 1715-1794 1725-1797 1706-1772 1736-1799 1749-1829

FRANCE
JULIEN LE ROY PIERRE LE ROY FERDINAND BERTHOUD JEAN-ANTOINE LEPINE ABRAHAM LOUIS BREQUET JEAN ANDRE LEPAUTE PIERRE A. CARON LOUIS MOINET

SWITZERLAND
1686-1759 1717-1785 1729-1807 1720-1814 1747-1823 1720-1789 1732-1799 1758-1853 FERDINAND BERTHOUD ABRAHAM LOUIS BREQUET JOSIAH EMERY JEAN ROMILLY ANTOINE TAVAN PIERRE JAQUET-DROZ HENRY LOUIS JAQUET-DROZ ABRAHAM LOUIS PERRELET 1729-1807 1747-1823 1725-1797 1714-1794 1749-1836 1721-1790 1752-1791 1729-1826

http://www.datacomm.ch/rbu/ (1 de 3)24/03/2005 13:18:21

Old Clock-Watch Private Homepage

WILLIAM FRODSHAM EDWARD JOHN DENT JAMES FERGUSON COLE CHARLES FRODSHAM DANIEL QUARE

1778-1850 1790-1853 1799-1880 1810-1871 1649-1724

JOSEPH WINNERL

1799-1886

JEAN FREDERIC LESCHOT GEORG AUGUSTE LESCHOT JEAN MOISE POUZAIT URBAN JRGENSEN LOUIS BENJAMIN AUDEMARS PIERRE FREDERIC INGOLD JAQUES FREDERIC HOURIET HENRY GRANDJEAN SYLVAIN (JEAN)MAIRET ANTOINE LCHAUD GEORG FRDRIC ROSKOPF ULYSSE NARDIN

1746-1824 1800-1884 1743-1793 1776-1830 1782-1833 1787-1878 1743-1830 1774-1845 1805-1890 1812-1875 1813-1889 1823-1876

LINKS: Horology - The Index British Horological Institute Hand made and engraved Fusee Engine

Swiss Bracket Clock's and more

Click here: Watch for sale


Click here, if you want to sell a swiss verge fusee watch!

rbu@datacomm.ch Thank you for giving me your feedback! Roland Buser

Last update: July, 2004

Welcome to the Horology WebRing!


Join the Horology WebRing

http://www.datacomm.ch/rbu/ (2 de 3)24/03/2005 13:18:21

Old Clock-Watch Private Homepage

[ Previous 5 Sites | Skip Previous | Previous | Next | Skip Next | Next 5 Sites ] [ Random Site | List Sites ]

http://www.datacomm.ch/rbu/ (3 de 3)24/03/2005 13:18:21

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

> Save on long distance

> Boost your career

> Earn your degree

Advertise on Refdesk | Disclaimer 1995 - 2005 CELEBRATING TEN YEARS ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB Send Feedback | Read Feedback Make Refdesk Your Home Page | FAQs About Refdesk | Site Map | Contact/ Suggestions Best viewed at 1024 X 768 screen resolution Visits since March 1, 2005: SEARCH RESOURCES SEARCH: GOOGLE: News - Tips
Go

CHECK E-MAIL: Select one: QUICK LINKS/ NET TOOLS:


Select one:

REFERENCE DESK:
Select one:

OUR FUTURE DEPENDS ON YOUR SUPPORT 2005 Donations To Date = 10% of Goal - Details "Information is the currency of democracy." - Jefferson FREE REFDESK DAILY MAILINGS: SUBSCRIBE HERE SITE OF THE DAY:

On the Internet since 1995, Refdesk is a free and family-friendly web site that indexes and reviews quality, credible, and current web-based resources. | Introduction and Tour Thurs, March 24, 2005 12:19pm Atomic Clock | Time Zone | World Clock Calendar: '03 | '04 | '05 | '06 CURRENT GAS PRICES: AAA / GasBuddy / GasPriceWatch

MSN:

News - Tips
Go

YAHOO!:

News - Tips
Go

Secret History of the Credit Card The average American family today carries eight credit cards. Credit card debt and personal bankruptcies are now at an all time high. With no legal limit on the amount of interest or fees that can be charged, credit cards have become the most profitable sector of the American banking industry: more than $30 billion in profits last year alone. Frontline and The New York Times examine how the credit card industry became so pervasive, so lucrative,

------------IN THE NEWS: Gas Prices Terrorism Medicare Terri Schivao Social Security

ANSWERS.COM:

Help
Go

REFDESK:

Help
Go

ONELOOK DICTIONARY (Enter word or phrase:)


Go

------------ 14 Feared Dead in Texas Refinery Blast - AP Schiavo's Parents Suffer More Setbacks - AP Social Security Said to Go Broke in 2041 - AP Treatments for Menopause May Be Overused - AP Review: Programs That

http://www.refdesk.com/ (1 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

M-W DICTIONARY:

Help
Go

and so politically powerful. Pop-up/Spam/ SOTD Archive Spyware Resources


BREAKING NEWS: (Key: G = Google, M = MSN, T = Topix, Y = Yahoo)

M-W THESAURUS:

Help
Go

Manage Passwords - AP More: Google / MSNBC / NewsAlerts / Topix / Yahoo / USA Today Snapshots ------------TODAY IN HISTORY:

Sponsored By:

Your ebay purchase helps Support Refdesk - Thank You! Search for Books and Music:

AP / BBC / Encarta / HC Top Stories: G - M - T - Y / Business: InfoPlease / LOC / NYT G - M - T - Y / Economy: G - M - T Y / Environment: G - M - T - Y / Iraq: G - M - T - Y / Oil Prices: G WEATHER RESOURCES: M - T - Y / Sports: G - M - T - Y / Current Weather: (Enter City, State or Zip Code Terrorism: G - M - T - Y / Weather: or Airport Code or Country) G - M - T - Y / TOP NEWS PHOTOS
Go

THOUGHT OF THE DAY:

Your Amazon purchase helps support Refdesk - Thank you! WORD SEARCH:
Select Choice: Go

"The problem is not that there are problems. The problem is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem." - Theodore Rubin | TOTD Archive Word Game of the Day Word of the Week from Dictionary. Daily Buzzword / com Word Game Merriam Analogy of the Webster Day / PSAT Test New York Prep Times Daily Word Quiz / OneLook LSAT Test Prep Oxford PRACTICE SAT / English Dict. SAT NYT / SAT Wordsmith
TEST PREP SAT QOTD / GRE QOTD / GRE TEST PREP

Lightning Explorer U.S. Radar Loop National Doppler Radar NOAA's Warnings Weather Alerts more >>
Sponsored By:

Help

Word of the Day: copacetic

PEOPLE SEARCH: First Name

Help

Last Name

City or Zip

State
All States

Search

WhitePages.com

Support Refdesk By Visiting Sponsors Thank You!

Business Search International Directories Reverse Address Look Up Reverse Phone Look Up
SITE INFORMATION:

LOCAL NEWS: (Enter ZIP Code)


Go

About Refdesk Contact Refdesk Disclaimer Make Refdesk Your Home

Test Prep Review Spelling Bees: One | Two


CURRENT EVENTS TOPIC:

SEARCH GOOGLE NEWS: (e.g., Terror)


Go

"Primitive structures deep within

http://www.refdesk.com/ (2 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

Page Privacy Policy Site Map | FAQs Testimonials | Awards Advertise on Refdesk

QUICK FIND:

America's Job Bank Ancestors Annual Free Credit Report Birthdays Citizen Gateway Gov't Srvs E-mail Addresses Economy at a Glance Elected Officials Federal Toll-Free Numbers Health Information Home Town Locator Internal Revenue Service Legal Information Lowest Prescription Cost Maps/Driving Directions: 1 / 2/3 Medical Symptom Checker Medicare.gov Nat. Do Not Call Registry Obituaries Request Military Records Our Documents Social Security Online Think Tanks U.S. Gov't Blue Pages U.S. Representatives U.S. Senators USA Statistics in Brief Vital Public Records White/Yellow Pages

the brain may have a far greater role in our high-level everyday thinking processes than previously believed, report researchers at the MIT Picower Center for Learning and Memory in the Feb. 24 issue of Nature. The results of this study led by Earl K. Miller, associate director of the Picower Center at MIT, have implications about how we learn. The new knowledge also may lead to better understanding and treatment for autism and schizophrenia, which could result from an imbalance between primitive and more advanced brain systems. Our brains have evolved a fast, reliable way to learn rules such as 'stop at red' and 'go at green.' Dogma has it that the 'big boss' lobes of the cerebral cortex, responsible for daily and long-term decision-making, learn the rules first and then transfer the knowledge to the more primitive, large forebrain region known as the basal ganglia, buried under the cortex." - Source / CET Archive
DAILY DIVERSIONS:

SEARCH YAHOO NEWS: (e.g., Unemployment)


G0

NEWS SOURCES:

ABC / AP / BBC / Bloomberg / CBC CBS / CNN / Excite / FOX / IHT Google / MSNBC / MyWay / NPR NYT / NewsHub / Reuters RocketNews / Topix / UPI USA Today / WNN / Wash. Post Wash. Times / Yahoo --------- USA/World Newspapers Top 10 U.S. Newspapers Today's Papers: Summary Today's Front Pages Political Cartoons Industry Watch More Headlines News Photos
FEATURES:

Refdesk Site Map

A Game A Day / Arts & Letters Daily / Book Review / Comics / Crosswords / Current Sky Information / Daily Almanac / Daily Download / Daily Humor / Daily Word Jumble / Events, Births, History / Family Site of the Day / Headline of the Day / Horoscope / Human Nature Daily / Latest Gallup Polls / Late Night Jokes / Letterman Top Ten / Lottery Results / Moon Phases / Most Borrowed Books / Movies / Old Farmer's Almanac / Poetry Daily / Positive Quote / Prayer of the Day / Quote of the Day / Random Cool Site of the Day / Science Daily / SciTech Daily

Current Dow Jones Avg. Crude Oil / Energy Prices Commodities Futures Daily Fuel Gauge Report Market Charts / Overview Drudge Report / Weather Comics 1 / 2 / Sports Health / Tech / Science Business / Politics / Op/Ed Entertainment / Odd
MISC. RESOURCES:

9/11 Commission Full Report America Responds CBS News Disaster Links DoD News Releases FBI News Releases

http://www.refdesk.com/ (3 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

Review / Search Engine News / This Day In Jazz History / Today In Literature / Tonight's Sky / TV / Writer's Almanac / Yahoo What's New / Your Sky / Just For Fun >>
TODAY'S PICTURES:

Federal News Service UN News Service War in Iraq

GET STOCK QUOTES: (Enter Stock Symbol)


Go

Astronomy Picture of the Day / Earth's Current Temps/Clouds / Earth Images / Earth Observatory / Earth Science / Kodak / Latest Mars Images / Latest Saturn Images / Nat. Geographic / NOAA Image of the Day / Space Imaging Gallery / Time Pictures of the Week / Top News Photos / VolcanoCam / Wash. Post Day in Photos / Weather / More Weather Pics
TODAY'S POTPOURRI:

Symbol Lookup

Trivia of the Day: Trivia Collection Computer Virus Threats: CNET / McAfee / Symantec / Trend Micro / VirusList / Yahoo Health: ABC / AP / BBC / CNN / Harvard / HealthScout / Reuters / SARS Science: ABC / AP / BBC / CNN / MSNBC / NASA / NewScientist. com / Reuters / Scientific American / Space.com Technology: AP / CNET / MacCentral / PC Magazine / PC World / Reuters / TechWeb / USA Today / Wash. Post / ZDNet News Quiz: Daily / Facts Behind the News Misc: Ask Yahoo Questions / Birthdays / Crossword / Daily Motivator / EPIC / Garden Tip / Good News / Google Answers / Harper's Index / Health Tip / Music History / Pun / SciTech Review / Search Engine News / Trivia / TV
http://www.refdesk.com/ (4 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

Nielsen Ratings / Internet Health Report / Internet Traffic Report / Free Online Security Scan
REFERENCE RESOURCES:

Top 15 Refdesk Pages Ask the Experts Essential Beginner's Reference Tools Guides Basic Sources, Editor's Picks 14 Topics Facts Facts Subject Encyclopedia Index 7,500+ Sites 2,000+ Sites 73 Topics 24 Topics Fast Facts Homework Helper First Things First Quick Research Indispensable 300+ Research Sites Sites Journalist's Tools Ref. Shelves on the Net Net Usage USA & World Snapshot Search Engines Newspapers Op-Ed | Journalists: 1 - 2
Sponsored By:

Facts-at-a-Glance 10-10 Phone Rates: Comps U.S. Statistics College Rankings Hospital Rankings 50States.com A Bell Tolls:LD Rate Comps Acronym Finder Airborne Express Airline Flight Tracker: 1/2 Airline Toll-Free

Facts Search Desk Content Resources:


Reuters/AP Headlines
Go

Fact Monster
Go

Computer Glossary
Go

Medical Dictionary
Go

Help and Advice Browser Updates: Internet Explorer Mozilla Netscape Opera Ask the Experts Consumer Search Do-it-Yourself.com Do-it-Yourself Resources Free Legal Advice Homework Helper How Stuff Works

Law Dictionary
Go

Bartleby.com
Select Search

Go

Translation Dictionaries ( one word only, e.g. fact )

http://www.refdesk.com/ (5 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

Numbers America's Job Bank American Fact Finder Annual Reports Area Code Finder Area Code Listing AT&T Toll-Free Bible, King James Version Biography.com Calculator : Day of the Week Calculators Calendar: Customized Calendar: Earth Calendar: Perpetual Canada Postal Lookup Canadian Statistics Chemical Elements.com Chiefs of State CIA World Fact Book Consumer Info Consumer Price Index Contacting Congress Convert Anything
DICTIONARIES:

English to Spanish
Go

English to German
Go

English to Italian
Go

English to French
Go

Translate Text / Website: AltaVista - Google Yahoo Search Engines: AllTheWeb - AltaVista AskJeeves - Google - HotBot - ixquick - Kartoo LookSmart - MetaCrawler - MSN - Netscape Teoma - Vivisimo - Yahoo! - more >> Current News / Weather / Business / Sports Headlines: 1st Headlines - AP Wire - Business Entertainment - Health - Photos/AP - Reuters Science - Sports - Technology - UPI Headlines USA Today - Weather - Odd - more >> Weather: AccuWeather Service - CNN Weather - FEMA Storm Watch - Intellicast - National Hurricane Center - National Storm Warnings Tropical Storms Worldwide - USA Today Weather - Weather Channel - Yahoo! Weather - more >> News: ABC - AP - BBC - Bloomberg - CBC CBS - CNN - FOX - Google - MSNBC MediaNews - NPR - PBS - Reuters - TV News Archive - UPI - more >> Newspapers: Atlanta Journal-Constitution Arizona Republic - Baltimore Sun - Boston Globe Christian Science Monitor - Chicago Sun-Times Chicago Tribune - Cleveland Plain Dealer - Dallas Morning News - Denver Rocky Mountain News Detroit Free Press - East Valley Tribune - Houston Chronicle - Los AngelesTimes - Miami Herald Minneapolis Star Tribune - Newark Star-Ledger New York Daily News - New York Post - New York Times - Newsday - Philadelphia Inquirer Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - San Diego UnionTribune - San Francisco Chronicle - St. Louis PostDispatch - Seattle Times - USA Today Washington Post - Washington Times - Archives -

How To Clean Anything Information Please Internet Public Library Microsoft Knowledge Base SoYouWanna WannaLearn.com The Why Files Top Reference Tools Almanacs Refdesk's Daily Almanac The Old Farmer's Almanac Biographies Columbia Encyclopedia Biography.com Calculators & Conversion Calculators Online Center Currency Converter Unit Converter Census & Demographics American Factfinder PopNet Worldwide Census Info Date and Time Perpetual Calendar Timeanddate.com Dictionary & Thesaurus Merriam-Webster Online Thesaurus.com YourDictionary Encyclopedias Britannica Concise Columbia Encarta Genealogy/Obituaries Ellis Island Records Cyndi's Genealogy Sites

American Heritage Biographical Computing Crossword Encarta World English Financial High-Tech Legal Medical Spanish-English Units Weather Doctor Board Verification Drug Information

http://www.refdesk.com/ (6 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

ENCYCLOPEDIAS:

more >> International News: Afghanistan News - Al Jazeera - Ananova - Asahi Shimbun - Canada Online - China Daily - Ha'aretz Daily - Gazeta.ru Globe and Mail - Guardian - Inter. Herald Tribune - Irish Times - Islamic Republic News Agency Itar-Tass - Japan Times - Jerusalem Post - Korean News Service - Kyodo News - Le Monde - London Times - London Telegraph - Pakistan News Service - People's Daily - Pravda - Sydney Morn. Herald - Seoul Times - Sky News - Taipei Times WorldNews.com - World Press Review - Xinhua more >> Business News: Barrons - Bloomberg - Business Daily Review - MarketWatch - CNBC - CNN/ Money - Financial Times - Economist - Forbes Fortune - Investor's Bus. Daily - Kiplinger Morningstar - Motley Fool - Red Herring SmartMoney - TheStreet.com - WSJ - more >> Sports: CBS Sportsline - ESPN - GolfWeb Inside Hoops - NASCAR.com - NBA.com - NFL. com - Sports HotSheet - Sports Illustrated - more>> Magazines: Atlantic - Bus. Week - CFOnet Economist - Harper's - Nat. Review - Newsweek New Yorker - People - Reader's Digest - Salon Slate - Sci. Amer. - Time - TV Guide - US News more >> Columns/Commentary: Dave Barry - David Broder - Dear Abby - William F. Buckley Jr. Maureen Dowd - Matt Drudge - Ellen Goodman Carl Hiaasen - Paul Harvey - Molly Ivins - Rush Limbaugh - George Will - WSJ - Yahoo Op/Ed more >> #1 - #2 Net/Tech News: c|net - CNN Technology ClickZ - Net News - NewsLinx Web News Slashdot - Wired - ZDNet - more >> Miscellaneous: Arts Journal - Editorials - First Chapter: NYT - WP - Movie Research - Movie

Britannica Concise Canadian Columbia Sixth Edition Encarta Home Improvement Legal Medical Technology Weather Wikipedia EURO Conversion Rates Exchange Rates FedEx
FIND:

Ancestors Birthdays College Doctor Elected Officials House Job Lawyer E-mail Addresses Government Stats Health Information Legal Information Lowest Prescription Cost Medical Information Military Information People U.S. Cities Guide U.S. Gov't Sites U.S. Representatives U.S. Senators Vital Records Flags of the World Foreign Words and Phrases

Family Search Genealogy Learning Center Nat. Obituary Archive Obits 101 Researching Your Roots Geography & Maps Aerial/Satellite Images Google Maps ImageAtlas MapQuest National Geographic Perry-Castaneda Maps Yahoo! Maps Health CancerNet Mayo Clinic MEDLINE Plus Nat. Inst. of Health Symptom Checker WebMD People Finder Langenberg WhitePages.com World Telephone Directories Quotations Bartlett's Quoteland.com Style & Writing Guides APA Style Citation Styles Common Errors in English Commonly Confused Words Elements of Style Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling Guide to Grammar/ Writing Just For Fun 2003: Year in Review

http://www.refdesk.com/ (7 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

Grant Writing Guides Gray's Anatomy How Far Is It? Kelley Blue Book Language Translator Legal Resources List of Lists Library of Congress Maps: USA & World Maps/Driving Directions: 1 / 2 / 3 Merck Manual Home Edition Merck Manual of Geriatrics Occupational Handbook Physician's Desk Reference Postage Rates Worldwide Pop. Clocks: US/World Public Records Database Robert's Rules of Order Rulers of the World Soc. Security Death Index Strunk's Elements of Style State & Local Gov't Sites UPS U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Postal Service Veterinary Manual White Pages Who's Alive/Who's Dead World Atlas/Geo. Facts World Time Server World Time Zone Map Yellow Pages ZIP 4 Code Look-up

Reviews - Opinion-Pages - Writ - more >> Refdesk Subject Categories


REFDESK SITE MAP

Facts/Internet Agents/Robots Beginner's Guides Cool Site of the Day Computer Graphics Computer Hardware Computer Software Devices/ Gadgets Download Page Free Stuff Fun Stuff Libraries Linux Resources Magazines Phone Book Net Resources Reference Shelves Time and Date Weights/ Measures Windows Resources Philosophy Philosophy Religion World Religions

Social Sciences Business/Career Crime/Law Enforce. Education Environment Family Matters Food/Recipes Health Homework Helper Kids Stuff Legal Resources Personal Finances Seniors Online Sports Women's Issues

Applied Sciences Automotive Aviation Career Mental Health Military Pets/Animals Art/ Entertainment Arts & Culture Movies Music Photography Literature Books/ Literature Electronic Texts

Language Dictionaries Encyclopedias Geography/ History Grammar/Style Biography Quotations Genealogy Geography Natural History Sciences Maps Science Population Space/ Travel Astronomy Weather

Top Web Sites: PC Magazine Top 500 Search Keywords --------------A Game A Day AirportMonitor: Real Time Anagram Server Analogy of the Day Aphorisms Galore! Classical Music Archives Coffee Break Arcade Cool Signatures CopyKat Recipes Crazy Fads Crosswords Daily Comics Daily Fuel Gauge Report Diary of Samuel Pepys Download Sites Earthcam Features Page Free Stuff Gardening Guide Grand Illusions Greatest Films Guinness World Records Horoscopes Late Night Jokes Letterman Top Ten MSN Gaming Zone Online Quizzes Oxymoron List Poetry Daily Ponder This PublicRadioFan.com Radio-Locator Random Movie Review Shakespearean Insulter TerraServer Satellite

http://www.refdesk.com/ (8 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Reference, Facts, News ... Free and Family-friendly Resources

ZIP Codes: International more >>

Images Text-To-Speech Time Capsule TruthOrFiction.com Urban Legends & Myths View Earth from Space Visible Earth What 's a Dollar Worth? Yahoo! Games Your Sky
1995 - 2005 Refdesk.com

http://www.refdesk.com/ (9 de 9)24/03/2005 13:19:16

Scanning Basics 101 - All about digital images

A few scanning tips


by Wayne Fulton
The purpose is to offer some scanning tips and to explain the basics for photos and documents. It is about the fundamentals of digital images, about the basics to help you get the most from your scanner. How it works, for those that want to know. Included here are the general questions that we've all asked about digital images, but unfortunately, that other sources don't answer. The material is about the basics, and is appropriate for the beginner. The content is certainly not superficial, but it is not at all difficult either, it is just simply about how it works. It describes in plain language the things we need to know to be efficient and get the most from our images, in the various ways that we can use them. The material was written about scanning, but most of it is a basic primer on digital images in general, applicable to images from digital cameras too. This material is intended for home and hobby users, and is not concerned with commercial prepress. Many newbies want to scan a photo at the greatest possible resolution. We'll explain why that's the wrong answer, with tips about how to choose a more appropriate answer. That and many other scanning basics are covered here, and it's intended to be a fast jump start to aid newcomers to graphics and
http://www.scantips.com/ (1 de 3)24/03/2005 13:19:32

I hope you can enjoy these web pages without assuming that this is a Scanner Technical Support Service. It is not, it is instead about scanning. Please do NOT send SCANNER SUPPORT questions to me because I cannot help. Comments and questions about the content of my material are welcome, but those questions should not be about "My scanner doesn't work" or "What scanner should I buy?" That email load is overwhelming for me and I must decline subjects not related to my material. See the FAQ section for all I can offer. FAQ about How to send images by Email

A SPECIAL DEAL FOR YOU

Incredible Price Offer

Would you believe OmniPage Pro 14 for only $99.99 OmniPage X for Mac for only $99.99 PaperPort Professional 10 for only $129.99 PaperPort 10 for only $69.99 TextBridge Pro 11 for only $59.99 OmniForm 5.0 for only $79.99 It's true, NOT a misprint, NO rebates. You won't find this low price

Scanning Basics 101 - All about digital images

scanning. Scanners are easy and fun and very useful, and there's lots of artistic creativity possible too. There will be a little scanning technique to learn, but when you've seen it once, then it's rather simple.

anywhere else. ScanSoft has made this very special offer available to guests of Scantips.com. CLICK HERE for all details

If you like the web site, then you would really like the book. For only $23.95 (US dollars, plus postage), the book is much better than consuming a few ink cartridges here. Even better, you will get all of it then - the book is more complete and more current than the web site. Check it out.

The Printed Book Version is Available

Click here for

Can't bookmark this site because you're trapped in somebody's frame? Break free here

Contents

Scanning 101 - The Basics

My Mission Statement Never used a scanner before? Evaluating Scanner Features Some Popular Software HP PrecisionScan LT HP PrecisionScan HP PrecisionScan Pro Microtek ScanWizard 5 Microtek ScanWizard Pro 6 Minolta Scan Dual II Umax VistaScan Umax MagicScan VueScan Scanning 201

* START - The First Fundamental Concept


Video Resolution - How much to scan? Say No to 72 dpi - It's a false notion Printing Resolution - Scaling and Resampling Finding the Scaling and Resampling Menus Printer Resolution - How much to scan? Line art and Threshold - Copy and OCR, Printed Text Line art and Grayscale Scanning for Fax Descreen to remove Moir Interference Images in magazines/books/newspapers Interpolated Resolution - 9600 dpi?

http://www.scantips.com/ (2 de 3)24/03/2005 13:19:32

Scanning Basics 101 - All about digital images

A Simple Way to Get Better Scans Histogram UnSharp Mask sharpening Curve Tool Clone Tool Restoration of Genealogical Photos Correction of Faded Slides

Photo Resolution - How much can we scan? Image File Formats - Which format? Video Boards Transparent Media Adapter - 35 mm slides? What about Film Scanners? A few Film Scanners Dynamic Range - 24 bit or 36 bits? The Search for System Calibration Search Scantips.com

Scanning / Printing Calculator A few Frequently Asked Questions A few Other Books about Scanning A few Links to Other scanning sites Read/Sign the Scantips GuestBook

Search for:
Match All Words

Search

American spelling is used: color, center, gray

Video Screen Resolution Poll - Which settings do we use? Vote in a one-click popularity survey of video screen resolution settings
Copyright 1997-2005 by Wayne Fulton - All rights are reserved. Vote

Email:

http://www.scantips.com/ (3 de 3)24/03/2005 13:19:32

Scrub The Web Search Engine

Enter your keywords for fast, relevant, results...

Search:

[ HELP ]

ARE YOUR WEB PAGES SEARCH ENGINE FRIENDLY? CHECK HERE FOR FREE! Enter in your URL: http://

Check URL

- Sponsor Free Search Results Explore Scrub The Web ... Member Benefits - Member Log On - Meta Tag Builder - Meta Tag Analyzer Affiliate Program - Submit Your URL - Submit to the Top Search Engines Free! - Help

Affiliate Program - Add/Update URL - Advertise - About Us - Get Scrubbed - Help - Contact Us Copyright 1996 - 2005 by Scrub The Web. All Rights Reserved - Privacy Policy

http://www.scrubtheweb.com/24/03/2005 13:19:40

Sky and Telescope - Home

My location

Greenwich, UK Mar. 24, 2005, 11:19 am (UT)

rise: 5:54 am set: 6:20 pm

rise: 4:49 pm set: 5:47 am

Evening planets

Entire Site
Home

NEWS
Enceladus's Atmosphere Mar. 18 Rovers that Never Die Mar. 17 Resurrecting Genesis Mar. 15 Gusev's True Nature Mar. 15 New NASA Chief Mar. 14 The Most Massive Stars Mar. 10

The Heat Is On
Two teams have made astronomical history by detecting infrared light from extrasolar planets.

Subscribe or Renew Change Address Back Issues Index & Archive

OBSERVING
The April 8th Partial Solar Eclipse
If you live in the southern U.S. or points south, get ready to watch the Moon bite the edge of the Sun.

An Observing Guide to Saturn


Saturn is putting on a fine show high overhead these evenings. Here's what to look for.

Accessories & Games Atlases, Maps & Globes Books Calendars & Almanacs Posters, Classic Covers, Slides & Videos Sky & Telescope Logo Items Sky & Telescope Magazine Software Spotlight Series: Art & Prints

Get a customized sky chart for any location on Earth, on any date, at any time.

HOW TO
Astronomy Basics Visual Observing Telescopes & Binoculars Astrophotography & CCD Imaging

RESOURCES
Event Calendar Clubs & Organizations Sky & Telescope Test Reports Astro Software Stay warm with our cozy fleece!

Lagoon Nebula Print on Sale $14.95

http://skyandtelescope.com/ (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:20:23

Sky and Telescope - Home

Terms & Conditions | Privacy Statement | About Sky | Contact Us | Help | Press Center
Copyright 2005 Sky Publishing Corp.

http://skyandtelescope.com/ (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:20:23

SpyNumbers.com

Home Purchase Get Our CD-ROM News Mac OS X Software Mac OS 9 Software Windows Software Linux Software Documentation Message Board Support/FAQ Radiation Detectors General Interest Programs Atomic Mac Audiocorder Audio Toolbox Black Cat Timer Diet Sleuth iUnit Health Tracker MacPAG Sound Byte Amateur Radio Programs Audiocorder Black Cat CW Keyer DX Toolbox Elmer iDXCluster Morse Mania MultiMode Mac Prop Mac Grayliner RF Toolbox About Black Cat Systems Site Map Our software for Mac OSX Privacy Policy Update Policy Press/Media Consulting Macintosh Links Shortwave Radio Pirate Radio Spy Numbers Stations Science and Electronics

SpyNumbers.com
Front Page | Stations | Numbers Racket | Books | Database | Resources | About | Press
"59372 98324 19043 78903 95320...". The mechanized female voice drones on and on... What have you stumbled on to? Instructions to spies? Messages exchanged between drug dealers? Deliberate attempts at deception and mis-information? Chances are, all of the above! What you've tuned in to is called a "Spy Numbers Station". They've been on the air for several decades, and only recently have the mysteries started to unfold. But there's still much we don't know about these mysterious stations. With the information on these pages, you'll discover the little that we do know about these stations, what we're still trying to learn, and how you too can tune in to the spies. Be sure to visit our listing of books related to spy numbers stations. Click here!

NEW!
q

Yosemite Sam Mystery Station Daily V2 Cuban Atencion Spy Numbers Station Schedule Mystery CW Beacons in the South West USA MOSSAD E10 Schedules

Hot! We have a new numbers station, even if it is a parody. Read all about the Rodent Revolution numbers station!

Numbers Stations Mailing List If you'd like to keep up to date with what others have been hearing, you'll want to subscribe to the Spooks Spy Numbers Station Mailing List. It's easy: Visit http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/spooks

and sign up there! Also, I'd very much appreciate any bits of information you'd like to share. Such as interesting numbers station intercepts (even if they're very old), cases where you've heard a major blunder (such as R Havana Cuba audio mixing in with the numbers), or anything else. I'd also appreciate any comments from those "in the know" about these kinds of things, whatever little bits of information you can share would be greatly appreciated.

http://www.spynumbers.com/24/03/2005 13:20:37

How should I know

Home

How should I know ?

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/how_should_i_know.htm24/03/2005 13:20:38

Windows to the Universe

Text-only version

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/24/03/2005 13:21:15

The official U.S. time

http://www.time.gov/24/03/2005 13:21:27

Today's Space Weather

Presented by the Space Environment Center

Updated 2005 March 24 11:20 UTC


Today's Space Weather with black background plots Space Weather Now -- more real-time displays Education and Outreach -- information about Space Weather

Mar 24 1117 UTC (Large size image 576x512 pixel PNG file, 90-140 kbytes). See SXI web pages for more wavelengths, movies, and documentation. See

3-day Solar-Geophysical Forecast issued Mar 23 at 22:00 UTC


Solar Activity Forecast: Solar activity is expected to be very low to low. A region that produced a backside CME on LASCO imagery at 21/1448Z is expected to rotate on the East limb sometime over the next few days. Geophysical Activity Forecast: The geomagnetic field is expected to be quiet to unsettled with a slight chance for isolated active periods on 24 and 25 March. Activity is expected to increase slightly on 26 March as a recurrent coronal hole high speed stream moves into geoeffective position. Expect unsettled to active conditions on 26 March.

Solar X-ray Flux

http://www.sec.noaa.gov/today.html (1 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:33

Today's Space Weather

This plot shows 3-days of 5-minute solar x-ray flux values measured on the GOES 10 and 12 satellites. One low value may appear prior to eclipse periods. Click on the plot to open an updating secondary window. Black background version. An updating 6-hour 1-min Solar X-ray Flux plot is also available. See D-region Absorption page for effects of solar x-rays.

Satellite Environment Plot

http://www.sec.noaa.gov/today.html (2 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:33

Today's Space Weather

The Satellite Environment Plot combines satellite and ground-based data to provide an overview of the current geosynchronous satellite environment. Click on a data panel to open an updating secondary window. An updating Satellite Environment Plot window is also available. Although these data are of interest to the satellite community, they do not include all parameters and energy ranges known to be associated with satellite anomalies. See related information from the NOAA POES satellite -Auroral Activity Estimates, Relative Intensities of Energetic Particles, and Solar Protons.

Most recent Space Weather data 1-min X-ray Flux plot 1-min Boulder-NOAA Magnetometer plot Solar Region Summary reports Solar Event reports Latest Solar-Geophysical Data reports and summaries Space Weather data on SEC's FTP server Older Space Weather data
http://www.sec.noaa.gov/today.html (3 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:33

Today's Space Weather

Plots of Solar-Geophysical Data Lists of Solar-Geophysical Data Solar Images Space Weather data on SEC's FTP server Solar-Terrestrial Physics Archives at the National Geophysical Data Center All online data at SEC Comments and suggetions welcome: SEC.Webmaster@noaa.gov

SEC Home Page

http://www.sec.noaa.gov/today.html (4 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:33

Grey Company Trebuchet

How Do Trebuchets Work?


(..and what on earth are those people doing in that picture??)

Some very simple counter-weight trebuchet theory.


This is definitely not intended to be an in-depth study of the counter-weight trebuchet (you can find people on the web who can give you the heavy-duty mathematics.. see the Virtual Hurling page for some links). Instead, it is a simple look at a few points that would-be trebuchet builders are likely to encounter first. Much of this info is derived from models. Many people will tell you that trebuchets don't scale up from models very well. This is certainly true about some proportions (like the size of the weight bucket), the material strengths and the ranges you can expect to achieve - but the basic mechanics remain the same.

Let's get started and look at what happens after you've put on your helmet, moved well off to the side of the trebuchet and pulled the rope tied to the trigger mechanism...

Figure 1.
This diagram shows a trebuchet shortly after the trigger has been released. The shot is in the sling and is beginning to slide backwards along a launch trough. The trough is put there to guide the sling and prevent it from getting caught up in the trebuchet's framework. In the early part of the launch all the shot's motion is horizontal and this speed will contribute to the rate at which the sling is going to be whipped around the end of the treb's beam later. The trebuchet is designed so that the beam is pulled down as nearly vertical as is practical. This gives

http://members.iinet.net.au/~rmine/howtreb.html (1 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:47

Grey Company Trebuchet

two benefits: 1. the weight has the longest distance to fall this way and 2. the first movement of the beam gives the most horizontal pull to the sling. The sling has to be picked up by the beam, so it can't be too long. (You wouldn't want the treb to be standing with its beam in the air and the shot still in the trough) Generally, this means a sling length something less than the beam's throwing arm length, although some medieval illustrations show longer slings.

Figure 2
Here the trebuchet beam has rotated and of course the end holding the sling has risen. The shot has been pulled down the trough and is now speeding backwards, but it has also been lifted up and clear. Now, any weight which is tied by a length of rope to the end of a rotating beam is going to swing out - the socalled centrifugal force (okay, it's actually just inertia in action, but you get the picture). Our shot's motion has this effect plus the speed it has already acquired. The result is that the sling will rotate around the end of the beam.

Figure 3.
If your trebuchet's release mechanism is the usual ring over a prong or hook, it is going to release the sling as

http://members.iinet.net.au/~rmine/howtreb.html (2 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:47

Grey Company Trebuchet

soon as the angle between the sling ropes and the arm is straight enough for the ring to slip off the prong. You can adjust when the sling releases in a number of ways: By setting the angle of the prong - a more hooked prong will hold the sling loop longer than a straighter one. ie a prong less hooked or in line with beam = earlier release = higher trajectory ... a prong more hooked or forward-pointing = later release = flatter trajectory By changing the length of the cords that hold the sling pouch.. If the sling is rotating around the end of the beam slowly, the beam will have time to swing through a bigger arc before the sling catches up to it. If the sling is rotating quickly, the release angle will happen earlier. A shorter sling will rotate faster than a long sling. ie short sling cords = fast sling rotation = earlier release = higher trajectory ... long sling cords = slow sling rotation = later release = flatter trajectory By choosing the size of your shot.. Another thing that influences when a sling releases is the force on it - a heavier projectile tends to pull the loop off the prong earlier than a lighter projectile does. ie heavy projectile = earlier release = higher trajectory .. light projectile = later release = flatter trajectory

Figure 4.
Finally, the follow-through ... A bit disappointing, really. It's not as much as you might imagine. If you had the weight fixed rigidly to the end of your treb's beam (like Huw Kennedy's huge piano and car throwing beast in Britain) you would have a simple pendulum and it might well oscillate majestically until it eventually came to a stop. The design shown in figures 1 to 4 uses a free-swinging weight and the interfering motions pull up the beam in a series of jerks and starts. (Note that this is more noticible in a small model than a large machine.)

http://members.iinet.net.au/~rmine/howtreb.html (3 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:47

Grey Company Trebuchet

A Note about Weight-Bucket size:


Why doesn't making a trebuchet half as big make it half as heavy and powerful? Why can't a toy-sized trebuchet have a weight bucket in the same proportion to the machine as a big one? It's simply mathematics... if you make a box twice as big in size - twice as long, twice as wide and twice as deep - you actually make its volume eight times larger. (volume = length x breadth x depth for a box with right-angled corners). That means it can hold eight times as much heavy earth and stones... Going in the opposite direction, if you make a model trebuchet half the size, then its box will only hold 1/8th the weight unless you either make it much bigger than it looked on the large machine or fill it with something heavier than soil and rock. This is why model trebuchets often have over-sized buckets or are filled with lead (or both).

More info to come..... please visit again

Last Edited: March 2000

Russell Miners 2000.

Return to The Grey Co. Trebuchet Page


There have been Visitors to this page.

http://members.iinet.net.au/~rmine/howtreb.html (4 de 4)24/03/2005 13:21:47

Eastern US at night

Home Eastern United States at Night from Space

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/eastern_us_at_night.htm (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:21:53

Eastern US at night

A nighttime, time-exposed satellite picture of the Eastern US.

http://www.finelinehair.com/home/eastern_us_at_night.htm (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:21:53

engins de guerre

War machines

There was a great quantity of machines of attack. Some were drove by counterweights like the assay balances, the mangonel. Others by the tension of ropes, nerves, branches, springs of wood or steel, like the caables, maleveisines, pierrieres. Some others, by their own weight and the impulse of arms, like the rams.

baliste

the assay balance

mangonel

the crossbow (with turn)

ram (covered ram)

The baliste (caable, pierrire)

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (1 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

engins de guerre

The stones are launched by the force of the rod (A) which lower end passes through a bundle of ropes, twisted by keys (B), cog wheels (C), and stopped by pawls. To increase the speed of movements, springs made out of wood and nerves surrounded by ropes in the shape of arc (D), forced the rod to come to strike violently the cross piece (E). The rod was brought back to horizontal thanks to the winch (F) and a man pulled out the rope (H) to shoot. One would regulate the force of the shooting adding more or less furs inside of the cross piece (E) and on the rod. Hooks (G) were used to fix the carriage in place, by Popes related to stakes inserted in the ground. Four men could lower the rod white operating the winch. This machine could send large stones up to 250 meters! Weighing more than 4 tons; it was entirely transported dismounted on the spot of fight.

top of page

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (2 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

engins de guerre

The assay balance = trbuchet

The principle of operation is simple to understand. Let's study the above diagram. It was a very heavy machine to transport and of great dimension (the rod could reach 12 meters length). The projectile was placed in a leather pouch at the end of the rod (like a sling). These counter weigh machines were of use until the moment when the fire artillery replaced all the machines of jet of the Middle Ages. This machine could sent canon balls of 100 Kg up to 200 meters. Its handling required 60 people. Weighing more than 7 tons, it was entirely transported dismounted on the spot of fight. One finds traces of these machines at the time of the siege of Montsgur in 1243.

top of page

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (3 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

engins de guerre

The mangonel = mangonneau

The shooting of the mangonel could be regulated much more easier than the one of the assay balance, because first it covered a larger arc but also because it was possible to accelerate its movement (less important inertia). Here is, to better understand its operations, how the sling was to be attached so that one of its branches could leave at the right time the machine, so that the projectile could escape from the pouch :

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (4 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

engins de guerre

top of page

The crossbow (with turn) = arbalte tour

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (5 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

engins de guerre

The armies of the Middle Ages had a terrible machine with which were launched darts of big length, iron bars reddened with fire, arrows furnished with oakum and Greek fire in the shape of rockets : the crossbow (with turn). The advantage, compared to the machine already seen, is the adjustable aiming without moving the machine in its totality. The shooting could be regulated from top to bottom. The lateral adjustment was done, easily, by moving the machine very easily thanks to its wheels. Some of these machines could launch darts of more then 5 meters length, at a distance from at least 50 meters, with the aim of breaking machines, pales ... These machines were those which spread the most unrest in the army and more particularly in the cavalry.

top of page

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (6 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

engins de guerre

The ram (covered ram) = blier couvert

The ram consisted of a long beam armed with an iron head at its front part. It was suspended, horizontally balanced, by cables or chains, and was driven by ropes fixed at the rear of it. Through a coming and going movement of this piece of wood, we could struck the facings of the walls, which could be finally dislocated until they collapsed. Men were sheltered under a roof. The machine was posed on wheels. Be sieged people tried to beak the ram with beams, which were dropped on its head, at the moment when it struck the wall. They could also seize this head using a double iron jaw, which was called : wolf or she-wolf. haut de page

http://perso.wanadoo.fr/bbcp/english/engins/engins.html (7 de 7)24/03/2005 13:22:03

weather.com

Welcome. Home

Customize weather.com

Sign In World | Maps | Mobile | Weather Tools | Store

My Page | Health | Travel | Driving | Events | Recreation | Home & Garden

Enter city or US zip

Get 1-click access to your local weather Or put weather on your desktop

Weather Center
Top Story

March 24, 2005


Severe storms across the Carolinas
7:00 p.m. ET 3/23/05

Daily Weather Pic


View more in our Photo Gallery Submit your photo for a chance to be featured Download The Weather Channel Screensaver Mt. Edith Cavell in the Canadian Rockies by: Jim Griggs Jasper, Canada

More Video q Expert: Spring snowstorm targets NE


q

Tornado blasts Miss. neighborhood Rain topples massive awning in Calif. How many tornadoes so far in 2005? Winter Recap: Warmer and wetter?

Map Room

Click to Enlarge
q

Current Temps

Doppler Radar

Thunderstorm Forecast

What's on The Weather Channel

Expert Outlook National Forecast | video Storm Watch | video

Find Out About Your Favorite Weathercaster Find Out Where The Road Crew Will Be Next. Learn More About Forecast Earth

Get Your Weather Your Way!


q

Mark your location on radar maps NOTIFY! storm alerts by phone Weather & maps on mobile phones Include weather on your Web site Free weather photo screensaver

NEW & Improved: Local Weather & Alerts Always on Your Desktop for FREE! Click Here

Tell Us What You Think | Add This Page To Your Favorites | E-mail This Page To A Friend | Make This Page Your Home Page
http://www.weather.com/ (1 de 2)24/03/2005 13:22:39

weather.com

Search the Web


How Weather Affects Your Life
Health Travel Driving Events Recreation Home & Garden World News Weather Tools Interact Education Multimedia Shopping TV - What's On Mobile

Powered by

Health Forecast, Allergies, Skin Protection, Air Quality, Aches & Pains, Cold & Flu, Fitness Travel Forecast, Business Travel, Vacation Planner, Aviation Driving Forecast, Interstate Forecast, Scenic Drives, Auto Advisor, Green Vehicles, Vehicle Safety Events Forecast, Sporting Events, Special Events Recreation Forecast, Golf, Boat & Beach, Outdoors, Ski Home & Garden Forecast, Home Planner, Lawn & Garden, Scotts Lawn & Garden Center, Schoolday World Weather Forecasts & International Sites News Center, Storm Watch, Tropical Update, Storm Stories, Road Crew My Page, Desktop, Email, Phone, PDA, Pager, My Site Photo Gallery, Boards & Forums, Contact Us Weather Classroom, Dave's Dictionary, Weather Encyclopedia, Glossary, SafeSide, Rays Awareness Video Forecasts The Weather Channel Store, Hot Offers and Cool Deals Storm Stories, Schedule, Road Crew, Personalities, Music, Forecast Earth Downloads, Messaging, PDAs

International
Brazil | France | Germany | Latin America | United Kingdom Home | Site Map | About Us | Press Room | Contact Us | Support | Jobs | Advertise | Weather On Your Site

Copyright 1995-2005, The Weather Channel Interactive, Inc. Your use of this site constitutes your acceptance of the LEGAL RESTRICTIONS AND TERMS OF USE UPDATED weather.com Privacy Statement - Licensed by TRUSTe

Partner

http://www.weather.com/ (2 de 2)24/03/2005 13:22:39