P (Yamunanagar)
In the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of

Bachelor of Technology
(Mechanical engineering)

From Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra Submitted by: (RAMMEHAR) (1708594) AUGUST, 2010
I was required to undergo on six weeks training during the 19th july to 2nd September towards the partial fulfillment of my B.Tech. Being a student of mechanical Engineering. I choose to undertake this training at a Mechanical Engineering, since it is a highly progressive sector these days, and the demand for power is on a rise. Therefore, I landed up at DCRTPP, Yamuna Nagar, one of the largest power stations in Northern India and the main source of Electric power for the state of Haryana, whose demand is estimated at around 600 MW. The training was a great learning experience and I have tried to put what I learnt, through these pages. 2

Electricity is one of the most convenient and important source of energy electricity is used at home and in industry for various purposes such as lighting, heating operating machine and so on.

Therefore, generation of electricity holds important place in our society. The generation of electricity and its per capita consumption is an index to the prosperity of a nation. Man has found a no. of ways to generate electricity. he began by tapping the energy generated by chemical reaction for e.g., in a Daniel cell. However, this form was suitable only for very small application. In addition, large amount of electricity could not be generated using this method and the output voltage was not suitable. Therefore, man sought new ways of electric power generation. In this question he invented huge power plants. The early plants used wood to generate steam for water, which in term used to drive an electric generation. However, this quick depletion of forests led man to look for alternative source of power. The power of falling water was used to generate electricity. However, a need was felt for more power generation. In addition, the Hydelpower station was costlier and tougher to establish, even though the cost of operations was lower consequently, in the midtwenthieth century, coal was found to be a technologically and economically viable option for steam power generation. Today, most of the world's electric energy needs are met using coal Nevertheless, the progress can never stop. Even this cheap alternative has some limitation. The greatest problem is that of ash disposal. A huge amount of ash is generated in a coal-based station and it is highly harmful for man and his environment. According to some experts, for sustainable development because of its low long-term availability can only be a transition fuel. Indeed, hydrogen is stipulated to be the fuel of the future. As such the consistent growth of power is vital to meet our day-to-day- requirements and improve the living standards. 3

My training at Yamuna Nagar Thermal Power Station has been more than a learning experience. It has been a pleasure learning and working with people who shared their knowledge. I am immensely grateful to Er. J.P. Dhiman (XEN/BMD-I) for providing me an opportunity to undergo training in the plant. I am also thankful to Er. Jagdish Chander Hooda (AE/BMD-I) and

Emission in Thermal Power Plant 39 5 EVOLUTION OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN INDIA The history of thermal power plants in India detes back to 1988 when the first station was commissioned in Calcutta with an installed capacity of 1000 KW. Electricity Generation e. Evolution of Thermal Power Plants in India 5 2. 15000 KW capacity respectively were commissioned.all the staff members of division for their valuable guidance during my training.C. 9000 KW. If we see the history of thermal power plants in Haryana we find the first plant of 15 MW . Feeding Water f. (1708594) 4 Table Of Contents : Contents Page No.C.P. 7 4.R.T. Coal Handling b. 9 a. 1.P. During the first two decades of the twentieth century steam power station at Kanpur. Madras and Calcutta of 2170 KW. Combustion c. Different process undergoes at D.C. 6 3.P.R. By the end of 1920 the total installed capacity of thermal power plants was 50 MW. Introduction of D.T. I would also like to thank the training in charge of HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLGY AND MANAGEMENT. Steam Generation d.P. The installed capacity in 1951 was 1000 MW. With the launching of first five year plan in 1951 installed generating capacity increased by 200 MW. During this plan the total thermal power generating capacity raised up to 1520 MW. Submitted To: Submitted By: Arvind Kumar RAM MEHAR Asst.T. KAITHAL and all the faculty members of MECAHNICAL ENGINEERING department for their constant effort and co-operation which have been significant factor in accomplishment of my industrial training. in Mechanical Mechanical Dpet. Ash Disposal 5.P.R.P. Efforts for organizing the power supply in industry in a rational manner began only after the independence. Three Major Input of D. Prof.

P power generation is based on coal.e.R. Fifth unit of 210 MW capacity was also commissioned by PTPS in year 1990. there were 83 coal fired thermal power plants and 305 hydro plants existing in India on March 31. The DEEN BANDHU CHHOTU RAM THERMAL POWER PLANT is a project under HPGCL in Haryana. It is located in distt.P.P. Diesel and Gas) generation during 1997-98 was 338104 and hydro power generation was 74582 GWH. cooling water system and the service water system. 1998.R. Thermal power (Coal. The water treatment plant is . This water is lifted as raw water is stored in clear well where it is sent to the clarifier to remove turbidity in water. 1982. there were 1685 selected industrial units which had captive thermal power plants of >1MW in 1997-98. Water Water for the power station has been taken from nearby Yamuna canal.T. In D. Yamunanagar. 13% of the public utilities' generation) during the year 1997-98. the clear water is stored in the clear well form where it is sent to water treatment plant. It is the first plant in Haryana which produces the electricity at a very low cost of Rs.49 Crore per MW. 1981.It is stand cpacity 300MW in the total area 1107 acres since 2008.C.P.It was the third power plant in Haryana which is completed under the Reliance Energy Ltd. 1983 and 1985 respectively. 7 THREE MAJOR INPUTS TO POWER STATION 1.T. In addition to this. 3. Thermal Power Plants in India According to Central Electricity authority of India.capacity was installed at Faridabad in 1960. 6 INTRODUCTION OF D. After that five units of 60 MW each were installed in 1979.C. The ideal plant location in considered in term of aggregate cost advantages emerging from varing and conflicting sectors. The total installed capacity of captive plants was 13004 MW and these had gross generation of 44050 GWH (i. Two units of capacity 110 MW each were installed at Yamuna Nagar Thermal Power Station in 1979-1980 after the two more units of same capacity were installed in 1985-1986.

The atomizing medium for the light oil is compressed air and is supplied from the plant service air system.P. This causes the coarse particle in the air coal steam to finer coal dust along with the primary air leaves the classifier onto the coal transport piping from where it goes to nozzle. atomizing with steam id done. Heavy furnace oil is burnt in furnace after the atomizing with the steam. The coal is sent to the coal storage yard through the conveyor belts. Atomization of oil can be done in following two ways. The unloading of coal is done mechanically by tilting the wagons by tippler. High-speed diesel oil is stored in the storage tanks in oil storage yard and is conveyed to the boiler front through as set of pumps and strainers. Pulverized coal obtained from coal mill cannot be .R. In this method steam at the higher pressure than oil is admitted into the burner. the oil is heated in bulk storage coils. This is known as the atomization of oil. The heavy furnace oils comes in rail tankers. the oil and the air is to be mixed thoroughly so the oil has to be broken into the finer particles to readily combine with the air for combustion. a) LSHS (Lower Sulphate High Stock Oil) b) High Speed Diesel Oil c) Heavy Furnace Oil The high speed diesel oil reaches the power station through the lorry tankers. Coal The coal reaches the plant in the railway wagon. As the oils is thick.T.P. 2) Atomizing through external source. The crushed coal from store is sent to the mill bunkers through conveyor belts. where it mixes with oil and breaks into finer particles on emerging from the burner for combustion in the furnace. The air which takes away the coal dust passes upward into the classifier where the direction of flow is changed abruptly. Foe efficient burning of oil. The DM water is stored in storage tanks for the use in bioler and filtered water which is not demineralized is sent plant and colony for personal use with the help of portable pumps. 1) Mechanical pressure atomizing. 3. Fuel Oil In the power station two types of oils are used for the initial preheating of the boiler. 2. The whole length of piping from the boiler front is steam traced to maintain the temperature and hence its fluidity so that it can freely flow in the pipelines.filtered and demineralized. The oil is stored in large storage tanks for the future use in the boiler. Heavy oil is storage tanks in oil storage yards and is conveyed to the front through a set of pump and strainers.C. 8 At D.

They feed the hot air in the boiler. The air from the primary air fan passes through the primary air preheater before entering the coal mill is to remove moisture from coal particle and to provide required temp for proper burning of pulverized coal. Coal Transportation 3. The purpose of primary air fan is to provide air at desired pressure for carrying the coal from the coal mills to the furnaces. Coal Unloaded 4. Coal Conveyer Belt 6.P COAL HANDLING 1. FD Fan The FD Fan is called Forced Draft Fan.burnt directly.P. when the desired temperature for burning of coal is achieved the pulverized coal is used instead of the heavy furnace oil to provide the safety of igniter from the high temp of furnace coal air is supplied. The furnace is consist with coal nozzles.C.P. Coal Mill 10 COMBUSTION Furnace The furnace which is employed in the D. of working fan in this unit are tow.C. The FD Fan move the air/gas continuously against the moderate pressure. PA fan are used in this unit is also of axial type and it sucks the air from the . These are powered by electric motors. Coal to Crusher 7. To start up the furnace the heavy furnace oil is sprayed by oil guns and it is fired by the spark provided by igniter. FD fans are used in boiler for different 11 application. is tangential fired. removal of combustible products and air for coaling equipments working at hot zone etc.T.R. igniter provided in each corner of the furnace. oil guns. Preparation 5. 9 DIFFERENT PROCESS UNDERGOES AT D. The FD Fan used in this unit is of axial type multistage pump which is made in Germany. Raw Material 2. The six coal nozzles and three air guns are provided at each corner of the furnace.T.R.P. PA Fan PA Fan is called Primary Fan. such as supplying air for combustion. The no. it seeks the air from the atmosphere.

the hot air passes through the pipes and the water flows around the pipes and get heated. The no. The air rotary type b/w economiser and electrostatic precipitator. of PA fan used in this unit are two for proper supply of primary air. of the furnace. EF. The purpose of using air heaters is to heat air supplied to the furnace up to the required temperature for proper burning of full. The ignitor are used for start up coal flame stabilizing. a) Fire Tube Boiler b) Water Tube Boiler 13 In the fire rube boiler. The air from FD fans passes through the secondary air heaters. The design capacity of each fan is 1030 m3/hr and temp. The pulverized coal burner are arranged in such a way that six mill supply the coal to burners at 4 corners. These are mainly tow type of boiler. the water flow through the pipes and hot gases flow around the pipes and . A & B and air from PA fans passes through primary air preheater. STEAM GENERATION Boiler Boiler is a mechanical device used for producing steam under pressure. The ignitor are located at AB. there are two ignitor air fans are also provided in ignitor air system one working and other standby. In the water tube boiler. The flue gases come out from the furnace is used in air pre-heater to heat the air. Four ignitor at a time. Air Heater There are two types of air heater in used the first one is primary air preheater and other one is secondary air heater. All the nozzle of the burners are interlined and can be titled as a single unit from +300 to -300 12 Igniter There are twelve sides eddy plate oil igniter per boiler and capacity of each igniter is 50 kg/hr. and pressure 500C and 220 mmwc respectively. CD. Burner There are twenty four total pulverized coal burners arranged on the corner at the height of 18 to 26 m and twelve oil burners provided each in b/w two pulverized fuel buener.atmosphere.

the hot water vapours goes up and fresh water gets enter. The heat transfer take place through the tube walls. efficiency of cycle is increased. 15 Re-Generative System . Boiler used in this unit is water tube boiler. where the temperature and pressure of the steam is increased by heat of fuel gases. Pressure Gauge provide the information about the pressure in the boiler shell. the steam generated in the boiler is firstly fed to super heater where the steam is heated to super saturated state by the heat of flue gases. When the vapour pressure in the boiler shell exceed the desired pressure. In the boiler the heat energy transfer takes place through the tube walls. the steam goes to the reheater. Water level indicator indicates the exact water level in the boiler drum. pressure Gauge. which are come from super heater after being processed. Super heater desuperheater are provided in b/w the LTSH> Section & played super heater for controlling super heated temperature. 14 Super Heater Super heater are meant to raise the steam temperature above the saturation temperature by absorbing heat from the flue gases. Then pressure relief valve comes in play and maintain the required pressure relief valve may be spring operated or dead weighted type. This steam goes to the super heater. This is employed with calibrated dial Guage or may be digital type. In the reheater the temp and pressure of the steam is again increased. Thus the water in the tube get heated. By increasing the temp of steam. After that this steam is fed to the intermediate turbine. The temperature measuring devices are also used to measure the temperature inside the boiler. This super saturated steam fed to the HP turbine. The hot gases of the furnace comes in contact with water tubes of the boiler.water in the pipes gets heated. It is provided with water drum to maintain construction head of feeding water. Reheater Reheater is placed b/w the HP turbine and IM turbine after the expansion in HP turbine. It is placed just after the drum. After heating by the flue gases water converted into wet steam. The steam is heated in the reheater by the heat of flue gases. temperature measuring devices etc. water indicator. Boiler is provided with several mountings like Pressure Relief valve.

Then water goes to CSC (Chimaney Steam Condenser) where the water is heated by the steam which comes to the sealing of the turbine. 5400C and the pr. After use of steam in LP turbine. It is that system in which the electricity generate by the reuse of steam and water. It also take the steam from the gland sealing of turbine and heated the water at temp.It is the most important system in thermal power plant. (Low Pressure Heater) at temp 46. Then water goes to LPH1. to prevent wastage of demineralized water. goes to in the LPH2. 16 When steam is converted into water. The steam has the same temperature of HP and pressure 34lgc2. of water at 150. The steam comes to the IP turbine. which pumps the water to ejector at temp. then water goes to LPH3.139kg/cm2 that steam goes through the pipes in the high pressure turbine's impeller revolves at high speed then steam is goes to reheater for reheating. water goes to hot well and hot water in the pipe of condenser. 400C and pressure 0.60C and pressure 5. of water. From the hot well the water goes to CEP. It takes steam from the LP turbine for increase the temp. which comes to HP turbine. Here the temp. In this system when steam is generated by the boiler at temp.188 kg/cm2. IP. After that water goes to LPH4. The water of LPH1. then steam is goes to IP turbine (intermediate turbine). LP and generator are coupled by the rotor shaft at same centre and radius.1400C and pressure 0. hot water goes to cooling tower. the . after that water is goes to LPH5 where the steam is comes to the IP turbine which increase the temp. after using the steam in IP turbine.20 kg/cm2. The water is heated by the steam which come to the LP turbine. it gives the heat to water and converted to cold water and go back in hot well.200C and pressure 0. the steam goes to condenser to condensate the steam. Then water is heated by the steam. CEP is condensate extinction pump. is reach 121. The steam increases the temp.407 kg/cm2. 80. The turbine revolves the generator and generate the electricity of 250 MW. the steam is goes to LP turbine HP.133 kg/cm2. at 94.90C at this temp.s Then water goes to GSC (Gland Steam Condenser).952 kg/cm2.760C and pressure 2.

using steam at pressure of upto 40 Ata.water is goes to deareater where the steam comes to the IP and increase the temp. It takes the steam for heating the water from the HP turbine at pressure 32. Then the K. b) Multistage impulse & reaction turbine. According to the number of cylinders a) Single Cylinder b) Multi Cylinder 4. In steam turbine there is direct conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy & this energy is directly available at the rotating shaft. Here we use axial turbine. According to the direction of steam flow a) Axial turbine in which steam flows in a direction parallels the axis of the turbine.36 kg/cm2. According to the steam condition at inlet to turbine a) Low pressure turbine using steam at a pressure of 1.E.950C. of water and water goes to HPH2. 18 Classification Of Turbines : 1. There are most important classification. This water cycle is running continuous in the thermal power plant. HPH1 takes the steam for heating the water from IP. of the impacting jet is converted into force doing works on the rings of blades mounted on a rotating part is known as steam turbine. It increase the temp. 17 ELECTRICITY GENERATION Steam Turbine A prime mover in which firstly the energy of the steam is transformed in Kinetic energy by means of nozzle. According to the Number of Pressure Stages a) Single stage turbine with one or more velocity stages usually of small capacity. b) Medium pressure turbine. b) A turbine in which the steam pressure decreases gradually while expanding thought he moving blades as well as its passage through the fixed blades (nozzle) is known as reaction turbine. Impulse and Reaction Turbine a) A turbine in which the steam expands in nozzle and remains at constant pressure which passing over the blades is known as impulse turbine. 1.2 to 2 Ata. they are made in a wide range of power capacity varying from small to large Here we use multistage turbine. 19 . and pressure at 1580C and pressure 9. 3. After that the water goes to boiler at temp. 2. b) Radial turbine in which steam flows in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the turbine. From the deareator the BFP suck the water pump it to HPH1 (High Pressure Heater).12 kg/cm2. 230. one or more low pressure stages in such turbines are made axial.

The material taken out from this bore is used to determine the quality of rorging. HP shaft is monoblock forging. Blade M-------aterial (a) Low Temp. Zone Machined from bar material of chrome molybdenum vanadium steel *20 or mov 121. . of 550*C. Zone Machined from bar material or from forging of Ferro magnetic corrosion resistance chromium steel (*20 or 13). b) Stationary steam turbine with variable speed c) Non stationary turbine Here we uses stationary turbine. Other blades are mulled out of bar stock. Here we use high -pressure turbine. the Curtis and 8 other moving wheels. HP Rotor It is integrate type because of high temp. 5. the thrust collar and flange for the HP-MP coupling is forged internally with the main shaft.d) Turbine of very high pressure utilizing steams at pressure of 170 Ata & Temp. 20 Rotor System 1. 2. It has 12 moving wheels of which first 8 are forged integrally and the last 4 are separately machined and shrunk on to the shaft. This bore incidentelly helps in better warming up of the shaft during starting. Moving blades of the integrally forged wheels. MP/IP Rotor MP rotor is also a forging with a central hole for boroscopic tests.c) High pressure turbine utilizing at pressure above 40 Ata. The blades of the last stage are made from forged profiles. (b) High Temp. It has 8 moving wheels spart from the Curtis strage of two sheel. According to their usage in Industry a) Stationary turbine with constant speed. This is same for both shape. e) Turbine of supercritical pressure using steam at pressure of 225 Ata and above. The shell has a longitudinal axial bore to conduct boroscopic tests. This means. Blades Shapes of balde (a) Cylindrical (b) Twisted Two types of stress exit on baldes (a) Static Stress Static stress is used to denote tensile stress as a result of centrifugal force. (b) Dynamic Stress Alternating in nature & due to vibration of blades.

(3) Capable to withstand the strees developing during operation. Mov steels 36 CR NL MO4. LP rotor is of double flow type. Blades of the first two rows are made from rolled bars stock materials and those of third and the fourth wheels in each flow are twisted in profile and are flame hardened at the inlet edge. middle part cast from cast iron. Blade Material 22 (a) High Temp Zone Machined from bar material of chrome molybdenum vanadium steel * 20 Cr. 3. interceptor and governing valves. The material selected based on the above consideration should also satisfy the manufacturing requirements. Mov 511. (b) Low temp. Main steam stops. HP & MP inner casing Chrome 5. 15). (4) Material selected should no yield higher dimension changes during operation due to temp. Mov 511. 4. HP & MP outer casing Molybdenum vanadium steel Gs 17 Cr. 6. 7. Mov 511. The material chosen for various components are given below: - 1. Zone Machined from bar material or from forging of Ferro magnetic corrosion resistance chromium steel (*20 Cr. 21 Material Selection It is based on following consideration: (1) Capability of with standing the high temp. Casting of chrome vanadium molybdenum steel GS 17 Cr. They are dies forged. . (2) Material in the last zones of the turbine must withstand the corrosion and erosion effects of the wet steam in these zones. 3.All the moving wheel discs have press equalizing holes. or impress stress. and press of steam. HP & MP Rotor Forging or chrome vandium molydbenum 21 Cr. LP Casing Front and rear parts fabricated from mild steel plates. There are four shrunk on wheels in each flow the interference being such that releasing of wheels does not occurs at any of the expected operation condition All the blades are fixed to the wheels by means of rivets. LP Rotor This is of built up type. LP Rotor Forging of chrome nickel molybdenum 21 Cr. 2. Mov 121.

There are two coils mounted with equal air gaps on both sides of the .7 mm. of stages Axial Shift or rotor The axial displacement of the rotor from its position is measure by means of a suitable measuring device and the same is indicated and recorded continuously. it will heat up fast and therefore expands faster than the casing. the draining of oil. through a Monistat which gives a tripping impulses to the turbine. To have a foolproof tripping of the unit in cases of abnormal axial shifts of rotor. for measurement. reduces the press of oil. when the rotor and collar move. In this system the tube oil is supplied to a slide which moves along the rotor in case of its movement. the air gap in b/w the pole shoes and the collar vary which induces proportion v in the sec winding of the pickup. Before setting of the axial shift extreme limits are set with the rotor press the thrust shoe towards the governor (normal position taken as 0 mm). but since the rotor is of a lighter mass than the casing. This voltage is taken to the indicator ckt. When the 23 movement is 0. Axial clearance b/w stator and rotor is are provided to allow diff. a hydromechanical protection is also incorporated. Differential Expansion of Rotor and Cylinder When steam is admitted in turbine thermal expansion effects both the rotor and casing. the press drop in the oil is communicated. The pickup is of contact less differently transformer type. which are located on both sides of thrust collar. The pri winding of the pickup is supplied with a 240 v supply through an insulating transformer. The measurement of axial shifts makes use of an electromagnetic pickup. A small axial displacement is occurs when the electrical load on the m/c is changes or due to the wear of the thrust shoes. these will be no problem.Blading Design Balding design consists of determining the following steps (1) Selection of no. Making use of electromagnetic pick-ups carries out the measurement of different expansion of rotor and stator. The thrust collar a part of turbine rotor exerts a press against the thrust shoes. The above voltage signal is also fed to a relay which operates on a preset value to a trip the unit in case of excessive rotor movement. As the rotor movement is occurring. which is due to the movement of slide. expansion of the turbine.

failure of turbine component and called for extremely reliable monitoring system. Shaft Eccentricity When a unit is shut down. induced in the detector coil is proportional to the relative velocity of the coil and the magnet. Bearing Vibration Bearing vibration is one of the most imp parameter of to be monitored in the turbine during the running condition. Eccentricity monitoring system enables the operating personnel to keep a constant watch over the rotor deflection steady as well as changed condition of operation of turbine. This position of the rotor with reference collar in the middle is 0 position.m. allowing the rotor run true.f. allowing the rotor to run true. is directly proportional the assault value of vibration velocity of the unit caring the detector.f. Since the coil and stationery the induced e. Emergencies on the Turbine 1. The vibration detector consist of two permanent magnet rigidly fixed to the casing. When the unit is heated up and axial movement is occur the air gap on one side is increases. The two magnetic coil assemblies are arranged to sense vibration in to mutely perpendicular directions. By rotating the rotor slowly on turbine gear uniformly heating of the rotor results. This cause on tube in the circuitry and an electrical o/p signal proportional to the different expansion is fed to the indicator recorder for measurement. The e. Vibration picks up mounted on the bearing for the vibration measurement. Eccentricity monitoring 24 enablesthe operating personnel to keep a constant watch over the rotor deflection during study as well as changed condition of operation of turbine. The vibration of the bearing are measured with an indicator and recorded in the multi point record to.m. (b) Sudden fluctuation in load. The pri winding of pickup motor is fed with AC voltage.reference collar when the rotor is pressed towards the generator. SHAFT ECCENTRICITY: When a unit is shut down the turbine rotor will tends to low because of uneven cooling b/w upper and lower half of rotor. High Axial Shift of Turbine Rotor The possible causes for high axial shift of the rotor may be: (a) Sudden drop in superheated steam temp. By rotating the rotor slowly on turbine gear uniform heating of the rotor results. Excessive vibration may lead to mec. . the turbine rotor will tends to bow because of uneven cooling between upper and lower half of turbine rotor.

There dust and salts are removed . Fan is used to carry pulverized coal to the furnace.(c) Hydraulic shock. P. It has been possible to transmit bulk power to load centers from far off power houses and to various machineries and switchgears or the power plant. Main Parts of Power Transformers Primary Winding Secondary Winding Oil Tank Drain Coke Conservator Brether Tubes for Cooling Transformer Oil Earth Point Explosion Vent Temprature Guage Buchholz Relay Primary Terminals Secondary Terminals 26 FEEDING WATER Air & Gas Cycle Air is supplied to combustion chamber to the boiler drum through the F.D. The exhaust gases are passed through air pre heater and various economizers and then send to the electrostatic precipitator before being send to chimney with the help of I. Fan Water Flow Process The raw water taken from canal is send to the clarifier. check the followings.D. When there is a deviation of the axial shift from the normal value. (a) Temp at the outlet of the thrust bearing. (d) Fast rate of loading the machine. A. 25 TRANSFORMERS The transformer is the most convenient and economical device for transfer of power from one voltage to another voltage at the same frequency. (b) Steam temp. (e) Failure of lubrication of the thrust bearing. Fan. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction there is hardly any installation without a transformer due to this equipment.

Then the water is fed to the boiler for the formation of steam. Raw Water (From Canal) Water Dept Standing Suspended Impurities Settle Down (Alum+CL) Added to H2O (Suspended Impurities Removed) Churning of H2O (Dissolved impurities of Bacteria's Removed) Water to Treatment Plant Pressure Plant Activeted Carbon Filter 27 (Impurities not separated by Alum. Details of the process are shown in the following cycle. which is utilized for the formation of adding alum and CI. plant where the minerals from the water are removed.M. this water moves to D. Removed by Absoption) Cation (Filter) Exchanger (+Ve Ion Removed) De Gas (Gases Removed) Anion (Filter) Exchanger Mixed Filter Bed (Left Out+Ve & -Ve Ions Removed) Storage Tank Dozing of Sulphate Hydrazine (pH Maintained) Pure H2O Ecconomiser To The Boiler .

3. Water treatment plant used in thermal power plant are designed to process the raw water very low in dissolved solids known as demineralised water. organic matter and organic matter. The coarse components. The type of demineralization process chosen for power station depend on three main factors: 1. The turbidity may be taken as of two types of suspended solids in water. 29 Pretreatment Section Pretreatment plant remove the suspended solids such as clay. Finer particles however. WATER TREATMENT PLANT The objective of the water treatment is to produce a boiler feed water so that there shall be no scale formation causing resistance to passage of heat and burning of tube. The quality of raw water. This will ensure that steam generated shall be clean and the boiler plant will provide trouble free uninterrupted service. The water treatment process is generally made up of two sections: 1. no corrosion. no priming and foaming problems. treated water quality. "Coagulation" means to bring together suspended particles of turbidity removal. Selectivity of resins. Demineralization Section. slit.e.Steam 28 Cooling Water Cycle The quantity of water required for condensing the steam to water is quite large and is therefore taken directly from the water source. This water is continuously circulated through the condenser and sent to the cooling tower for the purpose of cooling. such as sand. Firstly the separable solids and secondly the nonseparable solids. plants and other microscopic organism. The process describes the effect produced by the addition of a chemical AL2 (SP4)3 to a colloidal dispersion resulting in particles destabilization by a reduction of force . The degree of deionisation i. The term "Coagulation" and "Flocculation" have been used indiscriminately to describe process of turbidity removal. can be removed from the water by sedimentation. 2. will not settle in any reasonable time and must be flocculated to produce the large particles settable. silt etc. 2. Pretreatment Section.

hold it temporarily in chemical combination and give it to strong electrolytic solution. Bicarbonate) form) Anion resin: ROH + H2SO4 RSO4 + H2O Hcl Cl Hno3 No3 (Mineral acids (resin in Obtained from exhausted form) cation exchanger) Recharging the exhausted form of resin i. which is either done by passing through activated carbon filter or injecting along flow of water.e. but enroute being first dechloronated. o Resins have the ability to exchange one ion for another. visible and suspended particles. Suitable treatment is also given to them inn such a way that a particular group of ions. an equipment among of sodium sulphate through some stroke pumps. Sulphate exhausted Nitrate.lending to keep particles apart. The residual chlorine which is maintain in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water is now detrimental to cation resin and must be eliminated before its entry to the bed. is called cation exchanger resin and when removing anionic portion is called anion exchanger resin. Cation resin: RH+Na Rna+H2SO4 (Removed by K K Hcl aeration in Ca Ca HNO3 degassing Mg Mg tower) (in the form of (resin in Chloride. Second stage of formation of settable particles from destabilized colloidal size particles is termed as' flocculation" Flocculation occurs by chemical bridging. Demineralization This filter water is now used for demineralising purpose and is fed to cation exchanger bed. Flocculation is obtained by gentle and prolonged mixing which converts the submicroscopic coagulated particles into discrete. when 30 absorbing and releasing cationic portion of dissolved salts. Resin. regeneration employing 5% of acid / alkali as below: Catioon Resin: Na Nacl K +Hcl RH + Kcl R Ca Cacl2 Mg Mgcl2 .

(a) Temp of air. condenser is of two type: (1) Jet conderiser: In it the exhaust steam and water come in direct contact with each other and temp of the condenser is same as that of cooling water leaving water the condensing. As a result of this some water is evaporated and is taken away with air. (2) Surface Condenser: The exhaust steam and water do not come in direct contact.P. Do not wait for the protective. 32 In evaporation the heat is taken away from the bulk of work. It serves the following purpose:. Steam Condenser A steam condenser is a device in which steam condenses and heat relased by steam is absorbed by water. which is thus cooled. which is discharged from the condenser and collected in a hot well. so that is can be reused in condenser for condensing of the steam.(exhausted (fresh (removedby resin resin) rinsing) Anion resin: RSO4 + NaOH ROH + NaSO4 Cl Nacl No3 NaNo3 (exhausted (fresh (removed by resin) resin) rinsing) d) Lub oil press. It supplies to the boiler pure and hot feed water as the condensed steam. In a cooling tower water is made to tickle down drop by drop so that it comes in contact with the air moving in the opposite direction. Classification of Condenser Mainly. turbine. temp before H. Cooling Tower In power plants. can be used as feed water for boiler. The steam passes over the outer surface of tubes through which a supply of cooling water is maintained. the hot water from the condenser is cooled in the cooling tower. (b) Humidity of air . Factor effecting cooling of water in cooling tower. e) Steam press 31 f) Press in the regulating stage If any of the above parameters abnormal then the load on the m/c is to be reduced to an extent where the rising tendency of the axial shift continuses to rise the unit in to the shut down bearing.

In this station we make use of concrete cooling tower. The economiser is located inthe boiler rear gas pas below the rear horizontal super heater at 30 m level. This cool air comes in contact with hot failling water and makes the hot water cool by evaporating some amount of hot water. The crushed ash from the clinker grinders falls into the ash sluice trench provided bellow the bottom ash hopper from where the ash slurry further transported to ash slurry sump added by ash sluice channel. Bottom Ash System In the bottom ash system. 5500m. fly ash system ash slurry system which are explained as follows. The ash slag discharge from the furnace bottom is collected into water impounded scraper troughs in stalled bellows water ash system. . Air naturally blows in upward direction. Working The construction of cooling tower is as shown in fig. Now vapors strikes with plates and get cooled and fall down in pond. ash water system. natural draught type cooling tower.(c) Temp of hot air (d) Size and height of tower (e) Velocity of air entering the tower (f) Arrangement of air in tower. The water with high pressure coming out from the tip of the nozzle push the ash slurry along it towards the sump. 33 ASH DISPOSAL ASH HANDLING SYSTEM The ASH produced in the boiler is transported to ASH dump area by means of sluicing type hydraulic ASH handling system. By creating the great vacuum by them. Which consists of bottom ash system. The economiser is continue loop type and water flow in the upwards direction and gas in the downward direction the heating surface of the economiser is approxi. 1. The ash is continuously transported by means of scrapper chain conveyor on the respective clinker grinders which reduce the lump sixes to the required fineness. From the sump this ash slurry disposed from the plant through the no of ash disposal pump. Economiser The purpose of economiser is to rehet the boiler feed water by absorbing heat from flue gases and add its as sensible heat to the feed water before it is introduced into the steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. In it hot water from condenser is make to fall from 6 m height.

It works on the principles that a charge particles is attracted towards opposite charge. economizer hopper's flushing nozzles is tapped from the high pressure water ring main provided in the plant area. Economizer hopper (4nos). Low. 4. reducer and butterfly valve and portion of slurry pump. its main function is to remove the combustible products flue gases to the atmosphere. to create turulence and proper 34 mixing of ash. Ash Sullary System Bottom Ash and Fly ash slurry of the steam is sluiced up to ash slurry sump along the channel with the aid of high .A.A. hoppers seal through flushing. For the maintenance of flushing apparatus and connection chute. anywhere between 150m to 220m. B.pressure water is applied through the nozzel directing tangentially to the section of pipe. cleaning nozzles. Ash Water System High pressure water required for B. It helps in the prevention of air pollution. 36 . clinker grinder sealing scrapper bars. When the dry ash come b/w the plates it gets charged and is attracted towards the plate and collected by discharging the particles.pressure water get located at suitable interval along the channel. pipe and fittings as also been provided. Slurry pump suction line consisting of reducing elbow with drain valve. Fly Ash System The flushing hoppers are provided under EP hoppers (40nos). The fly ash collected in these hoppers drop continuously to flushing apparatus where fly ash get mixed with flushing water and the resultant slurry drops into the ash sluice channel. The height of these chimney vary depending on the location consideration. These ID fans are placed at chimney base to draw out gases from the chimney to the atmosphere by creating a draft.2. delivery line consisting of butterfly valve. there are three different fans in every thermal plant. with water. 35 Chimney There are tall RCC structure with multiple flues. Two plates of opposite polarity are fixede and smoke is passed b/w them. Electrostatic Precipitator It is an electric device which remove the ash particle from the smoke through furnace of boiler. hoppers quenching nozzles. windows spraying. 3. ID Fan It is called induced draft fan. air pre heater (4nos) and stack hoppers (2nos).

Particulates and black carbon (soot) are of concern. nitrogen osides (NOx). increasing coal use or blending Indian coal with imported coal of higher colorific value (further increasing electricity production) needs to be carefully addressed through viable technological options. methane. However. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CO2. SO2. sulfur oxides (SOx).0069 Gg. Carbon dioxide. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 37 The sulfur content in Indian coal is low compared to United States coal. and chlorofluorocarbons are greenhouse gases. Technological improvements in efficient combustion of coal can lead to greater production of electricity per unit of coal that will effectively reduce CO2 emission per unit pf electricity. soot. and other trace gas species.Emissions from Thermal Power Plants ----------------------------------------------------------The main emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants are carbon dioxide (CO2). Although the current per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in India is only one quarter of the world average and about twenty times less than United State's averages. Total CO2 emissions for 1997 from all the power plants in India are estimated at 1. These emissions are considered to be responsible for heating up the atmosphere. Total SO2 emissions are estimated to be 7. Emissions from combustion of the supplementary fuels such as high-speed diesel (HSD) and furnace oil used in small quantities (>1%) are not counted in the present calculations. Oxides of initrogen and sulfur play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and are largely responsible for atmospheric acidity. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Utilities burn mostly coal with approximately 10-30% excess air. Acid rain due to sulfur dioxide emissions is presently not of great concern.04 Gigagrams (Gg). producing a harmful global environment. in addition to possible lung tissue irritation resulting from inhalation of soot particles and various organic chemicals that are known carcinogens. and air borne inorganic particles such as fly ash.33 Gg .1 Teragrams (Tg) per day or 397 Tg per year. and soot emissions from each of the power plants have been computed. NO. Average CO2 emission per unit of electricity is 1. Average SO2 emissions per unit of electricity are 0.

Enhancement of boundary layer. Nitrogen oxides are important chemical species in the atmosphere since they contribute to its acidity. Lower concentratioons of NOx lessen the formation of tropospheric ozone even when other precursor gases like carbon monoxide (CO) are present in higher concentrations.00056 Gg. Nitric oxide emission per unit of electricity is estimated as approximately 0. Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas responsible or global warming and is also known to have an adverse affect on plants. Total NO emissions are estimated to be 0.185 Tg per year.per day or 2. 38 . Carbonaceous Material and Blank Carbon (SOOT) Incomplete and/or inefficient combustion processes of fossil fuel generate soot. NOx emissions should be kept at a minimum possible level. they also act as precursor gases for the formation of tropospheric ozone.5 Gg per day and 0. Emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) discharged in combustion in products forms nitrogen dioxide (NOx) in the atmosphere. These oxides of nitrogen are responsible for the formation of photochemical smog.7 Tg per year. A recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) suggests that the presence of soot carbon in the atmosphere over the Nothern Indian Ocean hinders its natural heating processes by about 15%.

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