EMC® AVAMAR®

5.0

OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES
P/N 300-008-815 REV A01

EMC CORPORATION CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS: HOPKINTON, MA 01748-9103 1-508-435-1000 WWW.EMC.COM

Copyright and Trademark Notices
This document contains information proprietary to EMC. Due to continuing product development, product specifications and capabilities are subject to change without notice. You may not disclose or use any proprietary information or reproduce or transmit any part of this document in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without written permission from EMC. EMC has made every effort to keep the information in this document current and accurate as of the date of publication or revision. However, EMC does not guarantee or imply that this document is error free or accurate with regard to any particular specification. In no event will EMC be liable for direct, indirect, incidental or consequential damages resulting from any defect in the documentation, even if advised of the possibility of such damages. No EMC agent or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension or addition to the above statements. EMC may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not provide any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property. The Avamar Agent for Microsoft Windows incorporates Open Transaction Manager (OTM), a product of Columbia Data Products, Inc. (CDP). CDP assumes no liability for any claim that may arise regarding this incorporation. In addition, EMC disclaims all warranties, both express and implied, arising from the use of Open Transaction Manager. Copyright 1999-2002 Columbia Data Products, Inc. Altamonte Springs. All rights reserved. Avamar, RAIN and AvaSphere are trademarks or registered trademarks of EMC in the US and/or other countries. All other product names and/or slogans mentioned herein may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. All information presented here is subject to change and intended for general information. Copyright 2002-2010 EMC. All rights reserved. Protected by US Patents No. 6,704,730, 6,810,398 and patents pending. Printed in the USA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Scope and Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typeface Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes, Tips and Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 6 6

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Guide Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Lifecycle Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Best Practices Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Assumptions and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Top 10 Operational Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Designing Avamar to Maximize System Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Avamar Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stripes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avamar Data Server Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID, RAIN, Replication, and Checkpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backing Up Clients in Remote Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 12 13 16

Managing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Impact of Storage Capacity on System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions of Avamar Server Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avamar Capacity Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact of Capacity on Various Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proactive Steps to Manage Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reactive Steps to Recovering from Capacity Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steady State System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 19 19 20 21 21 22

Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Avamar Client Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Restrictions and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Defining Domains, Groups, and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Defining Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Defining Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Daily Monitoring of Backup Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Changing the Maximum Cache Sizes . . 39 Client Caches . . . . . . 41 Hash Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Scheduling Backups to Complete within the Backup Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Impact of Caches on Memory Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Defining Datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Daily Monitoring of Backup Infrastructure . .0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Protecting Avamar Desktop/Laptop Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Monitoring the Avamar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 AVAMAR 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Enabling the Email Home Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Changing Passwords . . . . . . 63 Adjusting Runtime for Daily Maintenance Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Defining Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Cache Information in the avtar Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Tuning the File Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Running Backups More Frequently Than the Retention Policy . . . . . . . . . . 40 File Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Assigning Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Closely Monitor Daily Backup Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Understanding DPN Summary Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Tuning the Maximum Cache Sizes . . . . . . . . . 63 Managing Storage Capacity for Desktop/Laptop Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Deploying Additional Avamar Servers for Desktop/Laptop Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Rules for Tuning the Maximum Cache Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Overview of Cache Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Ensuring Adequate Initialization Time for Wake-on-Lan Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Using cacheprefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Defining Retention Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Creating a Dataset to Back Up Only User Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Determining the Backup Window . . . . . 37 Tuning Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Tuning the Hash Cache . . . . . . 35 Closely Monitor Nightly Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Customizing Maximum Hash Cache Settings for Exchange and SQL Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Tuning Replicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Running System Utilities During the Backup Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Other Avamar Administration Best Practices . . . . . . 65 Protecting Your Avamar Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Monitoring the Avamar System Backup Operations. . . 57 Keeping the Initial Client Backups to a Manageable Number . . . . . .

Your Comments Your suggestions will help us continue to improve the accuracy.EMC. as well as information about EMC products. Please send your opinion of this document to: SSGDocumentation@emc. go to the EMC Powerlink web site at http://Powerlink. part number and revision (for example. release notes. A01) • Page numbers • Other details that will help us address the documentation issue AVAMAR 5. Linux. licensing and service. and Windows system administrators who will deploy and operate Avamar servers.com Please include the following information: • Product name and version • Document name. Product Information For current documentation. Intended Audience. The intended audience of this document is experienced UNIX. software updates. This publication describes operational best practices for both single-node and multi-node servers in small and large heterogeneous client environments. organization and overall quality of the user publications.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 5 .com.FOREWORD Scope and Intended Audience Scope.

Notes never contain information that will cause a failure if ignored. Notes.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 6 . Notes contain ancillary information intended to clarify a topic or procedure.or Select File > Close. Type: cd /tmp --logfile=FILE Bold fixed-width text denotes shell commands that must be entered exactly as they appear in this publication. you are being instructed to select the Close command from the File menu. Tips and Warnings The following kinds of notes. AVAMAR 5. NOTE: This is a general note. In this example. Tips and Warnings FOREWORD Typeface Conventions The following table provides examples of standard typeface styles used in this publication to convey various kinds of information. tips and warnings appear in this publication: IMPORTANT: This is a warning. menus and options (any GUI element that initiates action). Tips never contain information that will cause a failure if ignored. . Installation Complete. In this example.Notes. All caps text often denotes a placeholder (token) for an actual value that must be supplied by the user. EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION Click OK. Regular (not bold) fixed-width text denotes command shell messages. FILE would be an actual filename. Tips present optional information intended to improve your productivity or otherwise enhance your experience with our product. Also note in the second example that sequential commands are separated by a greater-than (>) character. Warnings always contain information that if not heeded could result in unpredictable system behavior or loss of data. commands. TIP: This is a tip. Bold text denotes actual Graphical User Interface (GUI) buttons. It is also used to list code and file contents.

and Policies (page 29) Daily Monitoring of Backup Infrastructure (page 33) Daily Monitoring of Backup Operations (page 35) Tuning the Avamar system Avamar Desktop/ Laptop Clients Other Avamar administration functions Tuning Performance (page 38) Understanding DPN Summary Reports (page 49) Protecting Avamar Desktop/Laptop Clients (page 56) Other Avamar Administration Best Practices (page 65) AVAMAR 5. Groups.OVERVIEW This chapter provides an overview of the various operational best practices that apply to all EMC® Avamar® single-node and multi-node servers.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 7 . Guide Organization This best practices guide is organized as follows: SUBJECT MATTER CHAPTERS Core Avamar system functions Designing Avamar to Maximize System Availability (page 11) Managing Capacity (page 18) Scheduling (page 23) Defining Domains.

Best Practices Indicators Throughout the guide. risks and limitations and any other planning and design issues that must be considered prior to implementing the design.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 8 . Installation options and directions for testing Avamar components after installation is complete. Daily operations. Implementation. the following icons identify practices that are recommended. and daily monitoring of the Avamar infrastructure and operations. Topology and architecture options. Practice is recommended. performance optimization of backups and replication.Guide Organization OVERVIEW Lifecycle Indicators The introduction to each chapter indicates which of the following Avamar server lifecycle phases it covers: Planning and design. Regular management of Avamar server capacity. as well as those that are not. AVAMAR 5. Practice is not recommended.

Technology Concepts and Business Considerations • White Paper: Optimized Backup and Recovery for VMware Infrastructure with EMC Avamar The documentation is available from http://Powerlink.EMC.com. Refer to the following Avamar product documentation for additional information: • Avamar Release Notes • Avamar Release Notes Addendum • Avamar System Administration Guide • Avamar Event Codes Listing • Avamar Management Console Command Line Interface (MCCLI) Programmer Guide • Avamar Backup Clients User Guide • Avamar DB2 Client User Guide • Avamar Exchange Client User Guide • Avamar Lotus Domino Client User Guide • Avamar NDMP Accelerator User Guide • Avamar Oracle Client User Guide • Avamar SharePoint Client User Guide • Avamar SQL Server Client User Guide • Avamar Product Security Guide • Avamar Server Software Installation Guide • White Paper: Efficient Data Protection with EMC Avamar Global Deduplication Software .0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 9 . AVAMAR 5.Assumptions and References OVERVIEW Assumptions and References This guide does not attempt to provide introductory materials for basic Avamar technology or delivery methods.

Understand how to monitor and manage the storage capacity of the Avamar server on a daily basis. The chapters that follow provide more details on these best practices. and backuprestore software application users. Enable the email home capability. missing clients. and backups that completed with exceptions. Investigate all failed backups. Protect the Avamar server from the Internet by providing full firewall protection. Monitor the Avamar server on a daily basis.Top 10 Operational Best Practices OVERVIEW Top 10 Operational Best Practices Here are the most important best practices to understand and follow: Deploy the Avamar server with reliable. Minimize the number of groups used to back up clients. restoreonly. Protect the data on the Avamar server by replicating the data to another Avamar server.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 10 . Change all factory default passwords except the passwords for the backuponly. high-performance RAID arrays for back-end storage. Interpret all system warnings and errors. and also provide additional best practices. Ensure every administrator logs in to the Avamar server with a unique username. AVAMAR 5. Schedule backups during the server’s backup window so that they do not overlap with daily maintenance jobs.

• Avamar data server on all active data nodes. The Avamar data server stores. processes. considerations for design. and supportability of the Avamar server. AVAMAR 5. Several processes run on the Avamar server nodes. details on planning. and notes on data collection and documentation. you must design it carefully. Through the patented deduplication technology. Stripes are files of various sizes that are based on the kind of stripe. This chapter also describes the following main redundancy methods for maintaining data integrity: • RAID • RAIN • Checkpoints • Replication Avamar Architecture To ensure the long-term reliability. The Avamar data server is also known as GSAN (Global Storage Area Network). and manages the variable-sized chunks that the client sends during a backup. Stripes The term “stripe” refers to the container an Avamar data server uses to manage the data in the system. recommendations for approaches and practices. An average size chunk is about 10 KB depending on the customer data. availability. Key processes include: • Avamar Administrator server and the Avamar Enterprise Manager server on the utility node.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 11 .DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY This planning and design chapter includes a description of Avamar architecture. only unique data chunks are sent to the Avamar data server.

and storing the backup data that Avamar clients send to it.Avamar Architecture DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY Each stripe has a unique name. A protected stripe is called a “safe” stripe. Provides simple XOR parity that can be used to reconstruct data when a failure occurs. References are SHA-1 hashes. The Avamar server requires adequate CPU. memory. Precrunching. the Avamar server interacts with the client to ensure that only unique data chunks are sent from the client to the server. Validates one of these checkpoints every day through a process called Garbage collection. Restores the data stored on the Avamar server to the Avamar client. This is the essence of a “content addressed” store. Maps a hash to the stripe that contains corresponding data. During this process. The major operational functions are the following: Backup. Deletes the orphaned chunks of data that are no longer referenced within any backups stored on the system. Prepares stripes throughout the day to be reused during backup. and defragments them. If RAIN is used. Creates consistent point-in-time images (checkpoints) every day. Checkpoints are used as rollback points to recover from various issues. those that contain more empty space than the data partitions (by percentage). Restore. hfscheck. Supports the backup operation by receiving. and provides the means to build trees that can arbitrarily represent large amounts of data. and the Avamar server can identify and access a stripe by name only. The Avamar server performs several functions throughout each day. Checkpoint.This precrunching process leaves contiguous space for new data. the server selects the emptiest stripes. and I/O resources to perform these functions throughout the day. processing. During this process. Supports daily replication of the backups. Index Parity Avamar Data Server Functions The Avamar data server is a high-transaction-rate database-like application that is optimized to store and manage billions of variable-sized objects in parallel across all active data nodes. every stripe belongs to a parity group that protects it. such as sudden power loss. The following table describes four kinds of stripes: STRIPE DESCRIPTION Atomic data Composite Contains data that originates on the customer system and is read during a backup. Contains references to other composite or atomic stripes. Avamar performs extensive qualification testing of all approved platforms to ensure that the resources available are AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 12 . Replication. hfscheck.

0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 13 . and Checkpoints The Avamar system provides up to four levels of systematic fault tolerance: RAID.RAID. and Checkpoints DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY adequate to meet long-term reliability. Single-node servers do not use RAIN. RAIN. and checkpoints. RAIN provides the means for the Avamar server to continue to operate even when a node fails. RAID provides the capability to hot swap the hard disk drives that have been the highest failure rate hardware items in Avamar servers. Set up log scanning to monitor and report hardware issues. replication. Best practices: If the hardware is purchased separately by the customer. Except for two-node systems. and so will adversely impact the performance and reliability of the Avamar server. RAID rebuilds can significantly reduce the I/O performance. Further. and supportability requirements. RAID. and set up email home. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID). If a node fails. RAIN is used to reconstruct the data on a replacement node. RAIN is used when rebalancing the capacity across the nodes after you have expanded the Avamar server (added nodes). RAIN protection is enabled in multi-node Avamar servers. availability. Failed drives impact I/O performance and affect Avamar server performance and reliability. RAIN. the customer must regularly monitor and address hardware issues promptly. Replication. Replication. This is a critical element to being able to manage the capacity of the system as the amount of data added to the system continues to increase. If the hardware is purchased separately by the customer. If the customer purchases the hardware separately. All standard Avamar server node configurations use RAID to protect the system from disk failures. Redundant Array of Independent Nodes (RAIN). RAIN. In addition to providing failsafe redundancy. the customer must configure the disk arrays on each node by using RAID. AVAMAR 5. the customer must configure RAID rebuild as a low priority.

This ensures complete data recovery if the primary backup Avamar server is lost. Limit initial configurations to 12 to 14 active data nodes so that nodes can be added later if needed to recover from high-capacity utilization situations. whether due to hardware or software. multiple checks of the data occur during replication to ensure that only uncorrupted data is replicated to the replication target.RAID. if maximizing the availability of the backup server for backups and restores is important. Minimum RAIN configuration is a 1x3+1 (three active data nodes plus a utility node and spare node). the most reliable form of redundancy that the system can offer because it creates a logical copy of the data from the replication source to the destination. the only recourse is to reinitialize the entire system and replicate the data back from the replication target. and Checkpoints DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY Best practices: Always enable RAIN for any configuration other than single-node servers and 1x2’s (two active data nodes). It does not create a physical copy of the blocks of data. Non-RAIN servers have no data redundancy and any loss of data requires that the system be reinitialized. Replication moves data to another system that can be used for data recovery in the event of an unexpected incident. Replication. In addition. The Avamar system can efficiently replicate data from one Avamar server to another on a scheduled basis. you must replicate the data on them to ensure that the data is protected. AVAMAR 5. Replication is useful for more than recovering a single client. Without RAIN. Replication is.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 14 . by far. Double-disk failures on a node. Replication. Either of these failures can corrupt the data on a node. When deploying non-RAIN servers. or a complete RAID controller failure can occur. you should set up a replication system as quickly as possible. Any corruptions. RAIN. are far less likely to be propagated from one Avamar server to another. Therefore.

The replicator can use 60 to 80 percent of the total available bandwidth when WAN bandwidth is the performance bottleneck. you can browse the contents of the /REPLICATE domain on the replication destination and see all the backups that have been replicated for each account. Although checkpoints are an effective way to revert the system back to an earlier point in time. Specifying clients that must be replicated by listing them with the --include option is prone to error. Use the --exclude flag only if you decide that a high change-rate or lowpriority client can be selectively excluded from the nightly replication. Use default standard replication. and Checkpoints DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY Best practices: Protect the data on the Avamar server by replicating the data to another Avamar server. avoid using the --include option. to do the following: • Provide the flexibility to configure your replicated grids in a wide variety of ways • Have full visibility into all the backups that have been replicated from one grid to another Standard replication also supports the ability to replicate the contents of many replication source grids to a single large replication destination (many-to-one).cfg file to add a new --include option for that client. weekly. At any time. or to cross-replicate the contents of a couple of grids to each other. When defining daily replication. and yearly). The more checkpoints you retain. Checkpoints provide redundancy across time. For example. require disk space. the larger the checkpoint overhead. This option should be used to perform only selective replication under certain conditions.RAID. checkpoints are like all other forms of redundancy and therefore. The Avamar System Administration Guide contains more information about setting up replication to best use the system bandwidth. Checkpoints allow you to recover from operational issues. then hourly Avamar Administrator server backups or the Enterprise Manager backups are not replicated. In addition. the client data is not replicated unless you edit the repl_cron. daily. Ensure that available network bandwidth is adequate to replicate all of the daily changed data within a four-hour window so that the system can accommodate peaks of up to eight hours per day. When configuring replication. monthly. RAIN. Checkpoints. If you leave out retention type “none” from the replication. checkpoints enable you to recover from certain kinds of corruption by rolling back to the last validated checkpoint. AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 15 . always set the --retention-type option to replicate all retention types (none. These system backups are required to perform a full disaster recovery of the replication source grid. attempting to back up a client that is too large to fit in the available remaining capacity or accidentally deleting a client and all of the associated backups. Replication. also known as “root-to-REPLICATE” replication. Every time you add a new client to the active Avamar server.

and one spare) that functions as a centralized Avamar backup server. no deduplication is performed on the restored data.Backing Up Clients in Remote Offices DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY Best practice: Leave the checkpoint retention policy at the default values.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 16 . all data that must be restored is compressed and sent from the Avamar server to the Avamar client. 10 single-node servers deployed as remote Avamar backup servers require considerably more administration and support than a single 1x8+1 multinode configuration of 10 nodes (eight active data nodes. AVAMAR 5. This is important if a recovery time objective (RTO) requirement must be satisfied. Backing Up Clients in Remote Offices When you back up clients in a remote office. and replicate data to a large centralized Avamar server (centralized replication destination)? Option 2: Is it better to back up those clients directly to a large centralized Avamar server (centralized Avamar backup server). your Customer Support Representative might temporarily change the checkpoint retention policy to ensure that certain critical checkpoints are retained during the support action. consider the following options: Option 1: Is it better to back up remote office clients to a small Avamar server that is located in a remote office (remote Avamar backup server). Server administration The amount of administration and support required is roughly proportional to the number of Avamar servers deployed in an environment. The default is set to retain the last two checkpoints. For example. The primary advantage of backing up to a remote Avamar backup server (Option 1) is that the restore can be done directly from that server across the local area network to the client. Ensure the checkpoint retention policy is restored to the default setting when the support action is completed. However. and the last validated checkpoint. refer to the factors described in the following table: FACTOR DESCRIPTION Recovery time objective (RTO) When the Avamar system performs a restore. and replicate data to another large centralized Avamar server (centralized replication destination)? When making this decision. where it is uncompressed. NOTE: During certain support actions. one utility node. whenever created.

the time required to perform nightly replication in Option 1 is roughly the same as the time required to perform backups in Option 2.Backing Up Clients in Remote Offices DESIGNING AVAMAR TO MAXIMIZE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY FACTOR DESCRIPTION IT resources Even if a remote Avamar backup server is deployed at a remote office. Then replicate the data to another large centralized Avamar server. the only practical way to restore the large amount of data typically associated with this kind of server’s storage group or database might be Option 1. Option 2 might be appropriate. The trade-off then becomes RTO compared to the additional cost of deploying. adequate IT resources for performing disaster recovery restores might not be available at the remote office. If large multi-node servers are required to back up all data in a remote office. AVAMAR 5. there might not be a significant reduction in the number of Avamar servers that are deployed. design the system so that clients first back up directly to a large. In this case. even if Option 1 is selected. active. If a Microsoft Exchange Server is located in the remote office.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 17 . and centralized Avamar server. managing. regardless of whether these Avamar servers are deployed as remote Avamar backup servers or as centralized Avamar backup servers. Best practice: Unless you cannot meet your restore time objectives. and supporting the Avamar servers is roughly the same. and depending on the bandwidth. centralized IT staff can perform disaster recovery restores to replacement hardware at the central site and then ship the fully-configured replacement client to the remote site. managing. In this case. and supporting multiple Avamar server instances. the cost of deploying. Exchange Server Large multi-node servers If the deployment environment’s WAN throughput is a bottleneck. in which case.

The Avamar System Administration Guide contains details about daily data change rate. availability. After the initial backup. This is because. nearly every client that is backed up contains relatively large amounts of unique data. When your new Avamar system is initially deployed at your site. and manageability of the Avamar server if you do either of the following: • Minimize the average daily data change rate of the clients that are being protected. it is possible to consider and measure the ability of the system to store about as much new data each day as it frees during the maintenance windows. or the same clients have been backed up at least once.MANAGING CAPACITY This daily operations chapter focuses on the kinds of activities and behaviors one can reasonably expect during the first several weeks in your Avamar server lifecycle.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 18 . keep in mind that you can significantly improve the long-term reliability. Successfully achieving steady state capacity utilization is especially important for the single-node and non-RAIN server because these are fixed-capacity systems. The Avamar commonality feature is best leveraged when other similar clients have been backed up. This is referred to as achieving a steady state of capacity utilization. the Avamar system backs up significantly less unique data during subsequent backups. • Reduce the per-node capacity that is utilized within the Avamar server by doing one or more of the following: • Reducing backup retentions • Ensuring daily maintenance jobs run regularly • Adding more nodes to the Avamar server AVAMAR 5. When initial backups are complete and the maximum retention periods are exceeded. Impact of Storage Capacity on System Performance When managing an Avamar server. at least initially. the server typically fills rapidly for the first few weeks.

retention policies. A notification is sent in the form of a pop-up alert when you log into Avamar Administrator. as measured by the operating system. You need to understand the behavior of key thresholds as described in the following table: CAPACITY USED FOR COMPARISON THRESHOLD DEFAULT VALUE BEHAVIOR Capacity warning 80% of read-only threshold GSAN The Management Console Server issues a warning event when the GSAN capacity exceeds 80% of the read-only limit. When the GSAN capacity reaches this healthcheck limit. Healthcheck limit 95% of read-only threshold GSAN AVAMAR 5. or even the clients that are backed up to this server. Avamar Capacity Thresholds The GSAN changes behavior as the various capacities increase.Impact of Storage Capacity on System Performance MANAGING CAPACITY Many of the operational best practices described throughout this document are targeted at understanding the average daily change rate or managing the pernode capacity. Operating System Capacity.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 19 . This is the total amount of data in each data partition. This amount is measured and reported by the GSAN process. This amount is not particularly useful to an external observer because the server manages disk space itself. This is the total amount of commonality factored data and RAIN parity data (net after garbage collect) on each data partition of the server node. The administrator of the Avamar server can control this reported capacity: • First. by changing the dataset definitions. but all new backup activity is suspended. by ensuring that a garbage collect operation runs regularly to remove expired data. • Secondly. existing backups are allowed to complete. Definitions of Avamar Server Capacities Storage Subsystem (GSAN) Capacity. and the system event must be acknowledged before future backup activity can resume.

This value is reported as server utilization on the Server Management tab (Avamar Administrator > Server > Server Manangement). This prevents new data from being added to the server. Monitor all variations with maintenance jobs to prevent these jobs from failing. This is most notable in the garbage collection activity. The operation fails with the error message MSG_ERR_DISKFULL. Monitor all variations with incoming data to prevent the system from becoming read-only. a garbage collect operation does not run. Limit storage capacity usage to 80 percent of the available GSAN capacity. Best practices: Understand how to monitor and manage the storage capacity of the Avamar server on a daily basis. System too full to perform garbage collect 85% of available hard drive capacity Internal GSAN calculation Impact of Capacity on Various Operations Another key consideration when managing the Avamar server is that many of the maintenance operations take longer to complete as the amount of data stored in the Avamar server increases.Impact of Storage Capacity on System Performance MANAGING CAPACITY CAPACITY USED FOR COMPARISON THRESHOLD DEFAULT VALUE BEHAVIOR Server readonly limit 100% of read-only threshold. AVAMAR 5. the Avamar server transitions to read-only state. which is set to a prespecified percentage of available hard drive capacity GSAN If the GSAN capacity on any data partition on any node exceeds the read-only threshold. Any variations with incoming data or daily maintenance routines will lead to the system becoming read-only or to additional maintenance routines failing.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 20 . The reported value represents the average utilization relative to the read-only threshold. If the GSAN determines that the space available on any data partition on any node exceeds the disknogc configuration threshold.

all the backups associated with those clients) does not necessarily free space until garbage collect has run several times. Because replication creates a logical copy of the data. the following error message is written to the garbage collection log: MSG_ERR_BACKUPSINPROGRESS or garbage collection skipped because backups in progress. You will be expected to delete backups. 4. Follow the steps described previously for an Avamar server that starts to issue warnings. In an extreme case. 3. If this is the case. change retention policies. and suspend backups for at least two days while the system performs an aggressive garbage collect operation. and therefore. If this occurs. all new backup activity is suspended until you acknowledge this event. If the Avamar server transitions to a read-only state. Reassess retention policies to see if you can decrease the retention. You can use dumpmaintlogs --types=gc to view logs for the garbage collection operation.Impact of Storage Capacity on System Performance MANAGING CAPACITY Proactive Steps to Manage Capacity You will get a warning when the GSAN capacity exceeds 80 percent of the readonly threshold. If the Avamar server reaches the healthcheck limit. you must do one or more of the following: 1. IMPORTANT: Deleting backups or clients (and therefore. this compacts all the data onto fewer stripes. but you cannot decrease the amount of data in the /data?? partitions. Reactive Steps to Recovering from Capacity Issues Once the Avamar server capacity significantly exceeds the warning threshold and approaches the diskreadonly limit. reduce the capacity use. and then replicating the data back after reinitializing the server. consider replicating the data to another server temporarily. you must contact EMC Technical Support. AVAMAR 5. you must perform the following additional best practices: Stop adding new clients to the system. Garbage collect finds and deletes the unique data associated with these backups. IMPORTANT: You can decrease the GSAN capacity by deleting or expiring backups and running garbage collection.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 21 . Investigate the possibility that backups are preventing a garbage collect operation from starting. 2.

After the system has achieved steady state. Verify that Server utilization. as shown in the following figure. Ensure that activities are scheduled so that all backups and maintenance tasks run successfully. If the Avamar server is a multi-node server that utilizes RAIN. is at or below 80 percent: AVAMAR 5. Garbage collect finds orphaned chunks in the upper levels first before removing orphaned data in the lower levels of the file system. consider adding nodes and rebalancing the capacity. an Avamar system achieves steady state shortly after the longest retention period for the backups.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 22 . the system begins to operate in steady state about 3 1/2 to 4 months after the last client has been added to the system. rather than adding just one node. Steady State System Typically. 2. A slight delay occurs before achieving steady state because the garbage collect process requires several passes before it reaches the bottom of the file system tree. If the server has eight or more active data nodes. add two nodes at a time. if you retain all daily backups for 30 days and all monthly backups for three months.Impact of Storage Capacity on System Performance MANAGING CAPACITY 5. For example. to noticeably reduce the capacity per node. do the following: 1.

The avagent program runs the avtar program with the parameters specified in the work order. a backup). AVAMAR 5. The avtar program executes the backup based on the set of parameters related to the backup task. including: • Avamar server maintenance activities • Backups Avamar Client Details Avamar's client agents are applications that run natively on the client systems. This chapter discusses several of these activities. the Avamar Administrator Server cannot establish a connection with the client). then the client avagent retrieves the work order. A restore work order is created containing the parameters necessary to complete a restore of all or a subset of the files of a specific backup. If the client is nonpageable (that is. Restores are executed in a similar manner to backups. The avtar program performs a backup by making a connection with the Avamar server over the LAN. The Avamar client software comprises at least two executable programs: avagent and avtar.SCHEDULING This planning and design chapter focuses on scheduling activities. TCP/IP is the base protocol used to make the connection.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 23 . the client avagent polls the Avamar Administrator Server at a regular interval to check for a work order. or a remote connection over the WAN. and setting up a new Avamar system. the Avamar Administrator Server pages the client avagent. If the Avamar Administrator Server queues a work order for the client. important steps in designing. The avagent program runs as a service on the client and establishes and maintains communication with the Avamar Administrator Server. When the Avamar Administrator Server queues up a work order (for example.

RTO involves processes. clusters. verify that the specific details of the deployment. 500 GB to 2 TB of database data per Avamar client Backup scheduling could be impacted when an Avamar client has large databases that need to be backed up. AVAMAR 5. In particular. Recovery time objective (RTO) Ensure that clients and applications you want to protect with Avamar software are fully supported. communication service levels. The time to restore data is only one of several critical components needed to achieve a given RTO. but this might require additional configuration or tuning. and not the capability of the Avamar server to restore the data. such as revisions.Avamar Client Details SCHEDULING Restrictions and Limitations The following table lists known restrictions and limitations to consider during planning and design. RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS IMPACT Carefully review the client support matrix with the presales technical engineer. and people.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 24 . regular testing. The actual amount of time required to back up the Avamar client depends on the following: • Total number of files on that client • Hardware performance characteristics of the client The Avamar system can accommodate filesystem clients with significantly more than 10 million files. Also. but this might require additional configuration or tuning. the RTO for any individual client is typically limited by the performance capabilities of the client or network. third-party plugins and add-ons. Refer to the most recent release notes and documents listed in Assumptions and References (page 9) for updates to this information. are supported. 5 to 10 million files per Avamar client Backup scheduling could be impacted when an Avamar client has several million files. The actual amount of time required to back up the Avamar client depends on the following: • Total amount of database data on the client • Hardware performance characteristics of the client The Avamar system can accommodate database clients with significantly more than 2 TB of database data.

and replication. AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 25 . availability. During the planning and design stage. The actual amount of time required to back up the Avamar client depends on the following: • Total number of files on the client • Hardware performance characteristics of the client The Avamar system can accommodate clients with significantly more than 5 TB of file system data. blackout. backups. and maintenance windows: Backup Window. during which various system activities are performed. The following figure shows the default backup. Operational Impact No maintenance activities are performed during the backup window.Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day SCHEDULING RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS IMPACT 2 to 5 TB of file server data per Avamar client Backup scheduling could be impacted when an Avamar client is a file server that is protecting a large amount of data. Each 24-hour day is divided into three operational windows. proper scheduling of activities throughout the day is one of the most important factors that influences the system reliability. The portion of each day reserved for performing normal scheduled backups. but this might require additional configuration or tuning. Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day Typically. and supportability. the longest running activities throughout the day are hfscheck.

that evening. AVAMAR 5. Customization Blackout Window. local server time and continues uninterrupted for nine hours until 8 p. Both backup window start time and duration can be customized to meet your specific site requirements. local server time and continues uninterrupted for 12 hours until 8 a. Although hfscheck and backups can overlap. Customization Maintenance Window.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 26 . Default Settings The default maintenance window begins at 11 a. Although backups can be initiated during the maintenance window. that same morning. doing so might result in I/O resource contention. For example. changing the blackout window duration from three hours to two hours. Operational Impact There might be brief periods when backup or administrative activities will not be allowed. IMPORTANT: If the blackout window is too short. The backup window is not affected. the following morning.m. The portion of each day reserved for performing server maintenance activities (primarily checkpoint and garbage collection) that require unrestricted access to the server. Any changes to blackout window duration also affect maintenance window duration.m. If you shorten your blackout window. Blackout window duration can be customized to meet your specific site requirements. For this reason. garbage collection might not have enough time to run. you should minimize any backup or administrative activities during the maintenance window. Operational Impact Default Settings No backup or administrative activities are allowed during the blackout window.Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day SCHEDULING Default Settings The default backup window begins at 8 p. This can cause both activities to take longer to complete and possibly even to fail.m. will extend the maintenance window duration one hour because it begins one hour earlier. doing so will impact both the backup and maintenance activities.m. You can however perform restores.m. local server time and continues uninterrupted for three hours until 11 a. The default blackout window begins at 8 a. be sure to closely monitor server-capacity utilization and forecasting on a regular basis (at least weekly) to ensure that adequate garbage collection is taking place. The portion of each day reserved for performing routine server maintenance activities (primarily checkpoint validation).m. You can perform restores.

AVAMAR 5. and schedule backups during the server’s backup window so that they do not overlap with daily maintenance jobs. such as checkpoint and hfscheck. That is. • The backup window for these clients is long because the clients are large. Two reasons some clients take a long time to back up: • The backup throughput for the clients is limited by the WAN bandwidth. set up a separate Avamar server that backs up those clients. • Second server to back up the clients in Europe. • Third Avamar server to back up the clients in Asia Pacific and Japan (APJ). maintenance starts immediately after the blackout window and continues until the backup window start time. Replication — Operational Impact When replicating data from the local server to a replication target: • All other maintenance jobs can start. overlapping replication with backup activities is unlikely to affect the amount of time required to perform replication and will have only a slight impact on backup performance. Middle East and Africa (EMEA). If replication is bottlenecked by WAN throughput. When receiving replicated data from the replication source: • The garbage collect operation cannot start. All other maintenance jobs. it is acceptable to overlap replication with the end of the backup window. if a customer wants to back up clients from around the globe. its start time and duration is derived from backup and blackout window settings. Use the default maintenance window schedule and do not deviate from this schedule unless absolutely necessary. • All backup work orders will be queued immediately. can start.Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day SCHEDULING Customization Although the maintenance window is not directly customizable. The time required to perform the backup is directly proportional to the type and amount of data on the clients being backed up. • All backup work orders will be queued immediately. In this case. If there are a large number of clients that must be backed up outside of the server’s backup window. Best practices: Minimize the number of groups used to back up clients. For example. it might be best to set up Avamar servers as follows: • One server to back up the clients in the Americas. since the activity level on the Avamar server is relatively low.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 27 .

Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day SCHEDULING Limit the amount of time required to perform checkpoint. depending on the number of files or amount of data that needs to be backed up on these clients.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 28 . 80 to 90 percent of the clients will. Limit the amount of time required to perform backups by carefully observing the following limitations: • Maximum number of files per client. Ensure that the garbage collect operation runs every day. Reduce the retention policies. The most effective way to do this is to do the following: • • • • Limit the clients being backed up. complete backups within the first hour or two of the backup window. This is the reason to schedule replication to start two hours after the start of the backup window. hfscheck. The remaining 10 to 20 percent of the clients might take several hours to complete backups. on a daily basis. Typically. Back up clients with lower daily change rates. • Maximum amount of data per file server. and so forth by carefully managing the capacity on the node. AVAMAR 5. • Maximum amount of database data per client. The Avamar server is typically the bottleneck for backup operations only during the first one to two hours of the backup window.

This is known as hierarchical management.DEFINING DOMAINS. Segregating clients by department or work group might be a convenient way to bill them. Ideally. These decisions include: • What domains should be set up with designated domain administrators to take advantage of the hierarchical administration capability? • What groups (which include dataset. backup schedule. and retention policies) should be created to back up clients effectively and manage the backups? • How should retention policies be set up to retain the backup data for the required period? • When should backups be scheduled? • How long should client backups be allowed to run? Defining Domains Domains are distinct zones within the Avamar server accounting system that are used to organize and segregate clients. you will register all clients in the /clients domain. AND POLICIES This planning and design chapter describes initial backup management policy decisions that must be made after the overall daily schedule has been defined. GROUPS. Another possible reason for segregating clients by domain is for billing other internal organizations for backup services. then you should register all clients in the /clients domain. The real power of domains is that they provide the ability for a domain-level administrator to manage clients and policies within that domain. AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 29 . Best practice: Minimize the number of domains you create. If you are not going to use hierarchical management.

GROUPS. Each dataset policy can include separate dataset definitions for various client plugins. you can add the client to an enabled group and remove the client from the default group. AVAMAR 5. To back up any clients in the default group to the Avamar server. Linux. Refer to Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance (page 39) for additional information. Solaris and other clients. If you enable the default group. You do not need to define separate groups to back up various kinds of operating system clients. Leave the default group disabled. Defining Datasets Best practices for defining datasets: Minimize the number of datasets required. backup schedule (or backup window). By default. In general. In other words. and retention policy. do not attempt to back up a large client by defining multiple subsets of data that run every night. Best practices for defining groups: Minimize the number of groups you define. exclusions and inclusions). This is a good practice in only three instances: • When you want to define different retentions for different subsets of data on the client.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 30 . AND POLICIES Defining Groups A group defines the backup policy for the clients assigned to it. all new clients that have been activated with the Avamar server are automatically added to the default group. • When you do not have enough memory to accommodate an appropriate sized file cache or hash cache for the entire dataset.Defining Datasets DEFINING DOMAINS. To help manage the capacity on the Avamar server and to avoid being surprised by unexpected clients. leave the default group disabled. a single dataset policy can define independent datasets for Windows. • When you are breaking up the dataset so that different subsets of the data are backed up on different days of the week. then any clients that are activated with the Avamar server will automatically be backed up according to the default group policy. and includes the following three policy elements: dataset policy (including the source data.

The system can handle a small number of exceptions. you will want to overlap the backup of this handful of exception clients with the server’s maintenance window. For example. AND POLICIES Defining Schedules The default schedule runs nightly during the server’s backup window. Minimize the number of clients that need to be backed up outside of the server's backup window.Defining Retention Policies DEFINING DOMAINS. the total amount of data stored on the Avamar server for the clients is equivalent to the initial unique data plus 42 equivalent days of backups. This helps to reduce the total amount of back-end storage consumed on the Avamar server. AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 31 . Before extending the backup window. • Monthly backups are equivalent. and hfscheck to determine that extra time is available after completing these activities on a daily basis. and validate that the long-running client backups meet the expectations. The Avamar System Administration Guide contains more information about advanced retention policies. which is equivalent to the initial unique data plus 91 equivalent days of backups. and you might need to extend the server's backup window. GROUPS. Best practices for defining schedules: Set appropriate expectations for how long the longest client backups should run every night. to three daily backups. In this case. garbage collection. this might not be enough time. Depending on the amount of data in your largest clients. When setting up backup schedules. and by keeping three months of monthly backups. Typically. This requires less back-end capacity than storing three months of daily backups. to six daily backups. in the amount of unique data. if you retain three months of backups by keeping 30 days of daily backups. the following applies: • Weekly backups are equivalent. remember that mobile laptop clients might need to be scheduled to back up during the day when they are connected to the network. you must evaluate the time required for checkpoint. Defining Retention Policies Best practices for setting up retention policies: Use the advanced retention policy whenever possible. in the amount of unique data.

GROUPS. AVAMAR 5.Defining Retention Policies DEFINING DOMAINS. Remember that. AND POLICIES Set the minimum retention period to at least 14 days. Therefore. when selecting the maximum retention period. 7 days). If all backups for a client expire before you correct the issue that prevented the client from completing a backup. if the retention period is relatively short (for instance. you must monitor the backup operations closely enough to ensure that the last unexpired backup does not expire before the system completes another backup. the Avamar server does not retain the last unexpired backup. the next backup will be equivalent to an initial backup.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 32 .

Examples of Avamar events include offline server nodes. Refer to the Avamar System Administration Manual for instructions on enabling syslog or SNMP notification. Email notification system AVAMAR 5. Monitoring the Avamar System You should monitor the event notification system for warning and error events every day. • To send emails as the selected events occur. Best practice: Monitor the Avamar server on a daily basis and understand how to interpret all system warnings and errors. The system reports all Avamar system activity and operational status as events to the administrator server. failed or missing server maintenance jobs and hardware issues. The following table describes possible ways to monitor Avamar systems: METHOD DESCRIPTION syslog or SNMP event notification If your network management infrastructure supports syslog or SNMP event notification.DAILY MONITORING OF BACKUP INFRASTRUCTURE This daily operations chapter focuses on a number of Avamar features and functions that generate notifications when specific events occur.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 33 . You can set up email notification in either of the following ways: • To batch email notifications that are sent twice daily according to the default notification schedule. enable the syslog or SNMP event notification subsystem through Avamar Administrator.

Monitoring the Avamar System DAILY MONITORING OF BACKUP INFRASTRUCTURE METHOD DESCRIPTION Avamar Enterprise Manager dashboard To manually monitor the Avamar system. review the event monitor on the Avamar Administrator > Administration > Event Management tab > Event Monitor tab. check the overall health of the Avamar backup infrastructure through the Avamar Enterprise Manager dashboard. At least once a day. click Have Unacknowledged Events to be redirected to the Unacknowledged Events page. Avamar server issues are immediately obvious because they are flagged by a red “X” under Server Status. Unacknowledged events Avamar Administrator Event Monitor At least once a day. AVAMAR 5.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 34 . review and clear any Unacknowledged Events queued on the Avamar Administrator > Administration > Event Management tab > Unacknowledged Events tab. On any Avamar Administrator view.

The system reports all Avamar system activity and operational status as events to the administrator server. you must closely monitor daily backup activities. or canceling the backup. restore. Monitoring the Avamar System Backup Operations You should monitor the event notification system for warning and error events related to backup operations every day. • High client activity levels These levels can prevent all files from being backed up.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 35 . Best practice: Monitor the Avamar Activity Monitor on a daily basis and understand how to interpret all activity warnings and errors. • Client I/O errors These errors can prevent all files from being backed up (also known as Completed with Exceptions status). AVAMAR 5. • Operator intervention Such as rebooting the client during the backup. The following factors may interfere with backups: • Network issues These issues can cause backup failures. You can then use client logs to investigate backup or restore issues. or can prevent backups from completing within the backup window.DAILY MONITORING OF BACKUP OPERATIONS This daily operations chapter focuses on a number of Avamar features and functions that generate notifications when specific backup. Closely Monitor Daily Backup Activities To create consistent backups. or replication operation events occur.

PST files. The Administrator server will automatically queue a rework work order if the client backup fails due to a dropped session. This tool is described in the Avamar System Administration Guide.End The client did not complete the activity in the scheduled window. Refer to the associated client log. subsequent backups will continue to fail with the same status. resolve all exceptions and failures. Refer to the associated client log. either from the client or from the Avamar Administrator.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 36 . The status messages typically associated with these failures are the following: • Failed The client failed to perform the activity. AVAMAR 5. The most obvious issues are the ones where the clients did not create a restorable backup.Exceptions This report lists all activities in the specified period that completed with exceptions. The activity ended due to an error condition. but one that still requires attention. In this case. such as tuning the client caches. the backup completed but with errors. is a backup that reports the Completed with Exceptions status. • Canceled The activity was cancelled. This failure is most likely because the client is not on the network. Some missing files. can be significant.Start The client did not start the activity in the scheduled window. The primary tool for monitoring daily backups is the Activity monitor in Avamar Administrator. • Timed Out . • A network communication outage lasted longer than one hour. the activity was cancelled. such as . • Timed Out . You should examine all backups that completed successfully to ensure that the dataset definitions and retentions are appropriate. Do not ignore this status. Typically. if this is the case. The less obvious failure. because the Administrator server could not detect any progress. unless some change is made. • Dropped Session The activity was successfully initiated but. the errors are due to open files that could not be backed up. The following client reports are helpful: • Activities . Typically.Monitoring the Avamar System Backup Operations DAILY MONITORING OF BACKUP OPERATIONS • Incomplete or incorrect dataset definitions • Inadequate or incorrect retention periods When you examine the activities. Avamar Administrator can email reports that you can use to monitor clients that failed backup or completed backup with exceptions. This failure requires special attention because there is a lot of system activity with no restorable backup. The two most common causes are as follows: • Somebody rebooted the client in the middle of the backup.

This information is useful for addressing performance issues. AVAMAR 5. missing clients. and backups that completed with exceptions. such as: • Activities-Exceptions • Activities-Failed • Clients-No Activities Closely Monitor Nightly Replication Ensure that nightly replication successfully completes. Enable various activity report email messages. The Avamar Administrator Activity Monitor displays a list of all clients that completed replication activities.No Activities This report lists all clients that did not have any activities in the specified period.Monitoring the Avamar System Backup Operations DAILY MONITORING OF BACKUP OPERATIONS • Activities .Failed This report lists all activities in the specified period that failed due to errors. Enable the advanced statistics report during all backups. • Clients . Best practice: Monitor backups every day and investigate all failed backups. Refer to the Avamar System Administration Guide for descriptions of these and other reports that are available. Enable debugging messages when investigating backup or restore failures.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 37 .

Ensure that you do the math required to size client caches appropriately. you must carefully consider the trade-offs. Experience has shown that after sizing the client caches properly. such as: • Optimizing backup performance • Setting up and using replication • Tuning caches Refer to Managing Capacity (page 18) for additional information. you should investigate whether client caches are properly tuned.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 38 . As with many operational best practices. IMPORTANT: The difference in backup performance with properly-sized caches is dramatic. A typical backup should take about 1 hour for every million files in a file server or about 1 hour for every 100 GB of data in a database server. That could cause swapping and slow overall client performance.TUNING PERFORMANCE This implementation and daily operations chapter focuses on important Avamar system tuning activities. backups that regularly required over 20 hours to complete suddenly complete in 4 hours every night. AVAMAR 5. Arbitrarily increasing the size of client caches consumes more memory. If backups take more than 30 percent longer than these metrics.

and how you can tune the client caches appropriately to optimize backup performance. The first of the cache files is the file cache (f_cache.dat). The Avamar client process (avtar) loads two cache files into memory when performing a backup. • Reduce the load on the Avamar client. The var directory is found in the Avamar installation path. This section also describes best practices that should be considered when setting up and installing clients. • Reduce the load on the Avamar server. when backing up file servers. These client caches are used to: • Reduce the amount of time required to perform a backup. Client Caches At the beginning of a backup. The file cache is one of the main reasons subsequent Avamar backups that occur after the initial backup are generally very fast. The second cache is the hash cache (p_cache.dat). and is used to quickly identify which files have previously been backed up to the Avamar server. The file cache stores a 20-byte SHA-1 hash of the file attributes. The hash cache is used to quickly identify which chunks or composites have previously been backed up to the Avamar server. the file cache screens out approximately 98 percent of the files. The hash cache is very important when backing up databases. When backing up databases. the file cache is not effective since all the files in a database appear to be modified every day. the avtar process loads two cache files from the var directory into memory. Typically. however. AVAMAR 5. The hash cache stores the hashes of the chunks and composites that have been sent to the Avamar server.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 39 .Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance This section describes how the client caches work.

0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 40 . filecache. AVAMAR 5.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE Overview of Cache Operation The following flowchart shows the process that avtar uses to filter out previously backed-up files and chunks. This image shows the values that are incremented and reported in the avtar advanced statistics option (for instance. filebytes. and so forth).

For example. or is undersized. 352 MB. The current file cache sizes are in megabytes: 5. In file servers.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 41 .5 MB. or 512 MB maximum. In an example where a client has 4 GB of RAM. 176 MB. the file cache could consume up to one-eighth of the physical RAM on the Avamar client. 44 MB. the file cache will be limited to 4 GB/8. By default. chunked. which saves significant time and CPU. 88 MB. 11 MB. File Cache If the file cache is deleted. unused. AVAMAR 5. Since the avtar program is a 32-bit application. every file that is not a hit in the file cache must be read. 22 MB.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE The following figure shows the effectiveness of the file cache when backing up file servers in contrast to databases. if the client has 4 GB of RAM. The file cache doubles in size each time it needs to increase.408 MB. 704 MB and 1. the file cache is typically 98 percent effective in filtering previously backed-up files. compressed. and hashed before the avtar process finds that the hashes were previously sent to the Avamar server. If a file hits in the file cache. the maximum file cache size that can be used is limited to less than 2 GB. then the file is never read. the maximum size of the file cache will be 352 MB.

independent of the file attributes. the hash cache must be allowed to grow to at least 500 MB. The hash cache also doubles in size each time it needs to increase. it queries the Avamar server for the presence of the hash. The avtar binary itself requires memory when performing a backup. The file cache rule: If the client comprises N million files. 192 MB. or 256 MB maximum. 48 MB. In this example where a client has 4 GB of RAM. Impact of Caches on Memory Consumption Some customers might be concerned about the amount of memory that the avtar process uses during a backup. which is the hash of the contents of the chunk or composite. and so forth. 96 MB. filepath. The amount of memory consumed by the avtar process is generally in the range of 20 to 30 MB. The current hash cache sizes are in megabytes: 24 MB. where N is the number of millions of files in the backup. The file attributes include: filename. This amount depends on which operating system the client is running. By default. file size.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 42 . the file cache must be allowed to increase to 176 MB to accommodate all the files. The hash cache rule: If the client comprises Y GB of database data. • SHA-1 hash entry for the hash of the actual file content. This means that the file cache must be at least N x 44 MB. the hash cache must be allowed to grow to the next incremental size (768 MB) to accommodate the hashes for all the chunks in a database backup. the file cache must be at least N million files x 44 million bytes/million files. Example If a client has 4 million files. owner. Hash Cache If the avtar process finds that a hash of a chunk is not contained in the hash cache. The hash cache must be at least Y MB. 384 MB. modification time. Example If a database client has 500 GB of database data. the hash cache could consume up to one-sixteenth of the physical RAM on the Avamar client. In other words. the hash cache will be limited to 4 GB/16. group and permissions. the maximum size of the hash cache will be 192 MB. In other words. the file cache must be at least 176 MB (4 x 44 MB). and AVAMAR 5. 768 MB. the hash cache must be at least Y GB/average chunk size x 24 million bytes/million chunks. where Y is the number of gigabytes of database data in the backup. Each entry in a hash cache comprises a 4-byte header plus one SHA-1 hash per chunk or composite.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE Each entry in a file cache comprises a 4-byte header plus two 20-byte SHA-1 hashes (44 bytes total): • SHA-1 hash entry of the file attributes. Use 24 KB as the average chunk size for all backups. Using the same client with 4 GB of RAM described in File Cache (page 41).

Loaded cache file C:\Program Files\Avamar\var\p_cache.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE also fluctuates during the backup depending on the structure of the files that are being backed up by avtar. refer to the following output: avtar Info <5573>: . Also.Loaded cache file C:\Program Files\Avamar\var\f_cache.dat (5. by default.Cache update complete C:\Program Files\Avamar\var\f_cache.Writing cache file C:\Program Files\Avamar\var\f_cache.5MB of 63MB max) But the hash cache (shown in bold) is at its maximum allowable size: Files\Avamar\var\p_cache.5 MB and the hash cache is 24 MB. added/updated 1091.dat (25166368 bytes) The file cache is 5.Writing cache file C:\Program Files\Avamar\var\p_cache. the booted value is nonzero.Cache update complete C:\Program Files\Avamar\var\p_cache.dat (24. the file and hash caches contribute more to the overall memory use than the rest of the avtar process. This is very important because the size of the cache has a huge influence on the overall performance of the system. For a client that has more than one-half GB of RAM. respectively. and the log includes a warning that the cache is undersized. This is because both caches are read completely into memory at the start of the avtar backup.5 MB 25166368 bytes/1048576 bytes = 24 MB The end of the avtar log contains the following set of messages: avtar Info <5587>: Updating cache files in C:\Program Files\Avamar\var avtar Info <5069>: . booted 0 avtar Info <5069>: .dat (24. 1 MB = 1048576 bytes 5767712 bytes/1048576 bytes = 5.dat (5767712 bytes) avtar Info <5573>: . for example. For example.0MB of 31MB max) avtar Stats <6152>: Hash cache: 1048576 entries. the overall memory that client caches use is limited to approximately three-sixteenth of the physical RAM on the Avamar client. booted 0 You can see that the file cache (shown in bold) has room to grow: Files\Avamar\var\f_cache. The file cache and hash cache can increase to maximum sizes of one-eighth and one-sixteenth of the total RAM in the system. added/updated 140.dat avtar Info <5546>: . AVAMAR 5. Cache Information in the avtar Logs The sizes of the file and hash caches are printed near the beginning of the avtar logs.0MB of 31MB max) If the file cache is undersized.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 43 .dat avtar Info <5546>: .5MB of 63MB max) avtar Stats <6151>: File cache: 131072 entries.dat (5.

Because the file cache doubles in size every time it needs to grow. If you exclude the flag in the avtar. the file cache actually increases to a maximum of 88 MB if the following option is set: --filecachemax=100 If you decide to limit either of the two cache sizes to a limit lower than the default. AVAMAR 5. then you might need to increase the file cache from the default size. which means that the default value of one-eighth of RAM for the file cache is adequate. You must be particularly alert to this situation when configuring a Windows client to back up a large file server (for example. you need to delete the cache for the new limit to become effective. If the client has millions of small files.408 MB. 11 MB. The current file cache sizes are in megabytes: 5. Limits are applied every time the client performs a backup.cmd file. sometimes you need to increase the cache sizes from the default values. 704 MB. Another implementation consideration is that if you decide to limit the cache size on a set of clients. These conditions could exist in the following two opposed cases: millions of small files and large databases. Millions of Small Files. If a client has one million files. The file cache doubles in size each time it needs to increase. since one-eighth of the physical RAM of 512 MB is used.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE Changing the Maximum Cache Sizes You can override the default limits on the size of the file and hash caches by using the following two options with the avtar command: --filecachemax=VALUE --hashcachemax=VALUE where VALUE is an amount in megabytes or a fraction (a negative value is a fraction of RAM). 176 MB. the client requires 512 MB of physical RAM. more than 44 MB is required. a minimum of 44 MB (1 x 44 MB) is required just to store all the file hashes for a single backup. There is no way to shrink the cache files without deleting them and building them back to a new limit. Since the file hashes must be stored for several backups. the following option limits the file cache to 100 MB. then.5 MB. Default values: --filecachemax=-8 --hashcachemax=-16 As another example. by using the formula in File Cache (page 41). and 1. Cache sizes increase monotonically. 44 MB. Generally. you should add the appropriate parameters to each client's avtar. and if the cache size is already beyond your specified value. 88 MB. cache can increase to a limit of 64 MB. Tuning the Maximum Cache Sizes To optimize performance.cmd file. 22 MB. and an ondemand backup occurs without the appropriate option. the file cache or hash cache could increase to the default values. By default. even an on-demand backup.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 44 . a NAS filer) through a network mount. 352 MB. for every one million files on the Avamar client.

192 MB. This amount can only store the hashes for a single backup. For example.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 45 . the hash cache must increase to one-eighth of the RAM. since very few files are backed up. and set the other cache to be -32 (3 percent). The current hash cache sizes are in megabytes: 24 MB.536 MB. the hash cache will be limited to 192 MB. If the client has a few large files. so the net memory use is still about one-eighth to three-sixteenth of the RAM. Sometimes your only choice may be to increase the amount of physical RAM on the client. 96 MB. Limit the total cache sizes to approximately one-fourth of the physical RAM. include the customized maximum cache settings in the avtar. and 1. first allocate the required RAM to the file cache. If the default of onesixteenth of the RAM is used. 384 MB. In the case of databases. Rules for Tuning the Maximum Cache Sizes The most important rule is to ensure that the caches do not grow so large that the client ends up swapping (excessive movement of memory pages between RAM and disk) because it has insufficient physical RAM to handle all the processes. Tuning the File Cache The File Cache (page 41) section makes the following assertions: • The file cache must be a minimum of N x 44 MB. If you need to limit the sizes of the caches below the optimum values. and an undersized hash cache will result. For example. Best practice: Never allow the total combined cache sizes to exceed one-fourth of the total available physical RAM. a minimum of 240 MB is required when using the formula in Hash Cache (page 42). Set one of the caches to be -5 (20 percent). You might also be able to back up the client by using multiple smaller datasets. • For a typical database client. where N is the number of millions of files in the backup. Set the maximum file and hash cache sizes to a fraction of the total available physical RAM. AVAMAR 5. for a large database client use the following settings: --filecachemax=-32 --hashcachemax=-5 If you use something other than the default cache sizes.cmd file on the client.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE Large Databases. then usually the default of one-sixteenth for the hash cache is insufficient. Therefore. for a 240 GB database. 768 MB. then remember the following: • For a typical file server. the file cache will be considerably smaller. • The file cache doubles in size each time it grows. The next increment available is 384 MB. first allocate the required RAM to the hash cache. Specify the file and hash cache sizes by using negative integers. 48 MB. The hash cache also doubles in size each time it needs to grow. if this client has 4 GB of RAM.

set the --hashcachemax value as follows: --hashcachemax = 2 x Y where Y is the size of the database to be backed up in gigabytes. Set the --hashcachemax to a small value. One volume has 2.5 million files. Set the --filecachemax value as follows: --filecachemax = 2 x N x 44 where N is the number of millions of files in the backup.0 M files) filecachemax=88 hashcachemax=30 cacheprefix=driveE AVAMAR 5. a file cache of at least 110 MB (2.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE Therefore. To do so: • Break the client file system into multiple smaller datasets. Example Assume a client has 5.5 million files and three other volumes have 1 million files each. where Y is the size of the database being backed up in gigabytes. to adequately size the hash cache. 2. • For each dataset. such as: --hashcachemax=30 Tuning the Hash Cache The Hash Cache (page 42) section makes the following assertions: • The hash cache must be a minimum of Y MB.5 M files) filecachemax=220 hashcachemax=30 cacheprefix=driveC • E:\ drive (1. to adequately size the file cache: 1. The other datasets could be defined as follows: • C:\ drive (2. Using cacheprefix If the client does not have enough memory to accommodate the cache files of appropriate sizes. ensure that the maximum file and hash caches assign a unique cacheprefix attribute.5 million files but only 1. The next increment that accommodates this is 176 MB. you can back up the client and get the full benefit of appropriately-sized cache files. Therefore. For the volume with 2. You can break this client file system into four datasets.5 x 44 MB) is required.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 46 .5 GB of RAM. • The hash cache doubles in size each time it grows.

dat • driveE_f_cache. Customizing Maximum Hash Cache Settings for Exchange and SQL Servers For an Exchange Server database backup.0 M files) filecachemax=88 hashcachemax=30 cacheprefix=driveF • G:\ drive (1. configure the maximum hash cache in the dataset definition by setting the following: • Attribute = hashcachemax • Attribute Value = 200 For a SQL Server database backup. configure the maximum hash cache in the dataset definition by setting the following: • Attribute = [avtar]hashcachemax • Attribute Value = 200 AVAMAR 5. The following cache files are located in the Avamar /var directory on the client: • driveC_f_cache.dat • driveG_f_cache.0 M files) filecachemax=88 hashcachemax=30 cacheprefix=driveG Configure cacheprefix in the dataset by setting Attribute = cacheprefix.dat Ensure adequate disk space is available to accommodate the additional file and hash caches.Tuning Client Caches to Optimize Backup Performance TUNING PERFORMANCE • F:\ drive (1.dat • driveG_p_cache.dat • driveF_f_cache.dat • driveE_p_cache. The cache files are large and have extremely high change rates.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 47 . When specifying various cacheprefix values. ensure that new cache files are excluded from the backups. and Attribute Value = driveC.dat • driveC_p_cache.dat • driveF_p_cache.

Set up the appropriate replication parameters to optimize utilization of the available bandwidth. Verify that the expected bandwidth is available between the replicator source utility node and the replicator destination data nodes. 3. 4. 2.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 48 . 5. Test the replicator to verify its performance. Test the WAN link with the Avamar system components to verify that the Avamar system can utilize about 60 to 80 percent of the available bandwidth.Tuning Replicator TUNING PERFORMANCE Tuning Replicator Work with your EMC Practice Consultant to configure and tune the replicator. The Practice Consultant will perform the following tasks: 1. AVAMAR 5. Compute the bandwidth-delay-product (BDP) to determine whether the BDP is high enough to require customized tuning.

UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS
This chapter describes usage of the DPN Summary report. To access the DPN Summary report: 1. Run Avamar Administrator. 2. Select Tools > Manage Reports. 3. Select Activities - DPN Summary from the navigation tree and click Run. 4. Select a date range and click Retrieve. Use this report to determine how well an Avamar system performs once it has achieved steady state. The Avamar system can generate this report that can be used to determine: • Daily change rate for each individual client • Daily change rate across the overall system • High change rate clients that contribute the most to overall system change rate • Amount of data that is protected per client and across the system • Number of clients that are protected • Abnormal client behavior such as: • Days with unusually high change rates • Unusually long backups • Frequent backup failures • Amount of data that moved across the network with Avamar instead of incremental tape backups • Benefit associated with the combined effect of commonality factoring and compression, when compared with commonality factoring or just compression The purpose of this section is to help you understand the information in the DPN Summary report.

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UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS

Example DPN Summary Entry
This example uses the following excerpt from a DPN Summary report:

Definitions of each DPN Summary column follow. Refer to Background on Backups (page 52) for additional information. Host. The client hostname as defined in DNS. During backups, this is the client that backs up data to the Avamar server. During restores, this is the client that receives the restored data. This is not the client that sourced the data. StartValue. The Unix start time of this activity. The Unix start time is in the local time of the Avamar server. OS. The client operating system.

StartTime. The date and time this activity was initiated. The StartTime is in UTC (or GMT). Root. The name of the dataset that was used during the activity, if applicable. The duration (in seconds) of the activity.

Seconds.

NumFiles. The total number of files scanned during this activity (less those files that were excluded through exclusion rules). NumModFiles. ModReduced. The total number of modified files associated with this activity. Refer to Background on Backups (page 52).

ModNotSent. Refer to Background on Backups (page 52). ModSent. Refer to Background on Backups (page 52). Refer to Background on Backups (page 52). This is the commonality percentage during this activity.

TotalBytes.

PcntCommon.

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UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS Overhead. The number of bytes for COMPOSITEs and DIRELEMs used to store data. It is the amount of nonfile data sent by the client to the server, and includes such things as indexing information, requests from the client to the server for the presence of specific data chunks, ACLs, directory information and message headers. On any relatively active file system, this is generally a very small percentage of the file data that is sent to the server. WorkOrderID. The unique identifier for the following activities:

• For scheduled backups, the work order ID is formatted as: <Schedule name><Group name>-<Unix time in ms>. • For on-demand backups initiated from the Policy window Back Up Group Now command, the work order ID is formatted as: <Group name>-<Unix time in ms>. • For on-demand backups or restores initiated from the Backup and Restore window, the work order ID is formatted as: MOD-<Unix time in ms>. • For on-demand backups initiated from the systray icon of the Windows Avamar client, the work order ID is formatted as: COD-<Unix time in ms>. • For command-line backups or restores, the work order ID is formatted as: NAH-<Unix time in ms>. • For replication activities, the work order ID is formatted as: COD-NAH-<Unix time in ms>. ClientVer. The Avamar client software version, where the Avamar client is as defined previously under Host. Operation. Operation is one of the following kinds of activities:

• On-demand backup • Scheduled backup • Restore • Validate • Replication source • Replication destination Status. The FINAL status of the client activity is one of the following:

• Activity completed successfully • Activity completed with exceptions • Activity cancelled • Activity failed - timed out before starting • Activity failed - timed out before completion • Activity failed - client was given a workorder, but did not acknowledge its receipt • Activity failed - client error(s) • Activity failed - timed out before completion • Activity failed - client has no data specified by dataset • Dropped Session - No progress reported SessionID. The SessionID is a unique identifier for the client activity.

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965. When scanning through a file system. Begin with the dataset size (TotalBytes . Therefore. Any file whose metadata hash gets a miss in the file cache is considered a modified file (that is. ModReduced (column I). If it is present. Modified Files. AVAMAR 5.column L) equal to 451. This is the total bytes in the dataset.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 52 . the hash cache. this total includes those open files that could not be backed up. The following flowchart shows the roles of the file cache. files you must open and read so that all the data in the file can be chunked. a file that was modified since the last backup). and ModSent (column K) are really shorthand for bytes associated with modified files (that is. the opening and reading of the files is not necessary. obtain file metadata and compute the SHA-1 hash of the metadata. and hashed). Then look up SHA-1 hash in the file cache on the client. ModNotSent (column J).940. Therefore.UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS Background on Backups This section provides background information about how the Avamar client performs backups. However.688 bytes (421 GB). the Mod bytes in NumModFiles (column H). and the server is_present requests in determining which data to send to the server. Any files that are excluded due to exclusion rules are not counted in this total. perhaps because the file system was not frozen. including key statistics. a high percentage of hits in the file cache makes the overall backup proceed very quickly. Dataset Size. compressed.

and then hashed.382 (51 GB). the amount that the data was compressed is reported as ModReduced. the ModReduced = 55. AVAMAR 5. When the modified files are backed up.023.UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS ModReduced. In the example row.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 53 . compressed. the data is chunked. Since the compression takes place on the client.086.

ModSent = 393. ModNotSent = 4. ModNotSent is shorthand for bytes in modified files that do not have to be sent to the Avamar server because of subfile-level commonality factoring. If new bytes must be sent to the server. The Avamar commonality = 1 . Summary of Key DPN Summary Terms The following describes the relationships between terms: TotalBytes = (Total bytes in the dataset. In the example row.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 54 . AVAMAR 5. they would be reported as ModSent.498. ModSent. including open files that were not backed up) . then the data is not sent.(Subtotal bytes excluded by exclusion rules) TotalBytes = (Subtotal bytes for files not modified) + (Subtotal bytes for files modified since previous backup) (Subtotal bytes for files modified since previous backup) = ModReduced + ModNotSent + ModSent The relationship between these values is shown in following diagram.370 (3.8 GB).115.UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS ModNotSent.(change rate).205. which means that 3. Therefore. In this case.8 GB of compressed chunks were already on the Avamar server. Definition of Commonality Avamar change rate is equivalent to the ModSent / TotalBytes.37 GB). If subfile level commonality exists.485 (0.

AVAMAR 5. Typically. Definition of Terms During Restore Activities During restore and validate activities. The efficiency associated with the Avamar commonality factoring when compared to incremental tape backups is as follows: ModSent / (ModReduced + ModNotSent + ModSent) On this particular date. the total bytes associated with modified files is equal to the total bytes. in day-over-day backups of fileservers.8 GB + 0. During restore or validate.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 55 .37 GB = 55 GB. ModSent is the actual amount of data sent from the Avamar server to the Avamar client during the restore or validate operation. When backing up databases. the amount of data sent across the network (if the backup data was not already compressed on the client) is equal to the Subtotal bytes for files modified since previous backup. If this is divided by TotalBytes.UNDERSTANDING DPN SUMMARY REPORTS Data Moved During Avamar Backup Compared to Incremental Tape Backup During an incremental tape backup. ModReduced is the amount that the data expanded during the restore or validate operation. Therefore. this value is expected to be in the 2 percent range. TotalBytes = ModSent + ModReduced. the Subtotal bytes for files modified since previous backup = 51 GB + 3. the result is 55 / 421 = 13%. expect this value to be 100 percent because every file is touched every day.

0 server. in remote offices. Users can also initiate backups from the desktop user interface. • All code necessary to support Desktop/Laptop is automatically installed when you install the Avamar 5. Avamar Desktop/Laptop extends data backup and recovery to end users who are on the LAN. When end users log in during normal backup windows. Avamar Desktop/ Laptop is client/server software. • The Desktop/Laptop client is a feature that is installed as part of an Avamar Windows Client or Avamar Mac OS X Client installation. Avamar Desktop/ Laptop backs up data from desktop and laptop computers to the Avamar server by using existing network links.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 56 .PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS This chapter about implementation and daily operations focuses on best practices for Avamar environments with Avamar Desktop/Laptop clients. or connected to the corporate network through a VPN. This chapter includes the following best practices for environments in which Avamar Desktop/Laptop has been deployed: Deploying Additional Avamar Servers for Desktop/Laptop Clients (page 57) Creating a Dataset to Back Up Only User Data (page 57) Keeping the Initial Client Backups to a Manageable Number (page 60) Determining the Backup Window (page 61) Scheduling Backups to Complete within the Backup Window (page 62) Running System Utilities During the Backup Window (page 62) Running Backups More Frequently Than the Retention Policy (page 62) AVAMAR 5.

and Vista.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 57 . • Amount of data on each computer. and MAC: OS TAB FILES AND FOLDERS Windows XP Source Data Exclusions Inclusions C:\Documents and Settings C:\Documents and Settings\* C:\Documents and Settings\*\Desktop C:\Documents and Settings\*\My Documents C:\Documents and Settings\*\Favorites AVAMAR 5. and maintenance windows. back up only user files and folders. and exclude common data such as application and operating system files. Windows 7. Creating a Dataset to Back Up Only User Data The use of Avamar Desktop/Laptop to back up end-users’ desktop and laptop computers can significantly impact Avamar storage capacity depending on the following factors: • Number of desktop and laptop computers to back up. use an additional grid to support the desktop and laptop clients. Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day (page 25) contains more information about backup windows.Creating a Dataset to Back Up Only User Data PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS Ensuring Adequate Initialization Time for Wake-on-Lan Backups (page 63) Adjusting Runtime for Daily Maintenance Tasks (page 63) Deploying Additional Avamar Servers for Desktop/Laptop Clients When deploying Avamar Desktop/Laptop to a location with existing Avamar servers. Create a backup dataset that specifies the files and folders for the backup. Backups of Desktop/Laptop clients must be run when users are online (usually during the day). Scheduled backups for file servers and database clients normally run during the night. To best manage storage capacity. blackout windows. Refer to Adjusting Runtime for Daily Maintenance Tasks (page 63) for more information. The following table contains pathnames for Windows XP.

avi *.lnk • Google Desktop Search folder: *\Local Settings\Application Data\Google\Google Desktop Search • Windows Indexing and Search services: *\catalog. pictures.wma *.jpeg *.mpeg *. personal music. video.wci *\windows.wmv AVAMAR 5.mp3 *. Vista Source Data Exclusions Inclusions C:\Users C:\Users\* C:\Users\*\Desktop C:\Users\*\Documents C:\Users\*\Favorites Mac Source Data Exclusions Inclusions /Users /Users/* /Users/*/Desktop /Users/*/Documents /Users/*/Library/Favorites Additional Exclusions for Windows Computers In addition to the files and folders specified in the table. and so forth: *.Creating a Dataset to Back Up Only User Data PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS OS TAB FILES AND FOLDERS Windows 7.mp4 *.edb • Other nonbusiness files such as.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 58 . exclude the following files and folders from Windows desktop and laptop backups: • Link files in each user’s Recent folder: *\Recent\*.

7. The attribute/value pair (--x18=256) appears in the large text box as shown in the following figure: 9. The Manage All Datasets dialog box appears. A backup in such an environment displays a backup failure on the status bar and writes an error similar to the following to the log file: Path not found In an environment that contains both Windows XP and Vista or Windows 7 clients. 6. 3. 8. 2. 5. AVAMAR 5. add the --x18=256 flag to the dataset to prevent the Path not found error. perform the following: 1.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 59 . Click OK twice.Creating a Dataset to Back Up Only User Data PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS Dataset Caveat In an environment that contains Windows XP desktop or laptop computers along with Vista or Windows 7 desktop or laptop computers. Click Options and select the plug-in from the Select Plug-In Type list. Select Tools > Manage Datasets. Start Avamar Administrator. Type --x18 in the Enter Attribute text box. Click . Type 256 in the Enter Attribute Value text box. 4. backups can appear to fail if both Windows XP clients and Vista or Windows 7 clients use a single dataset that specifies the C:\Documents and Settings folder and the C:\Users folder. The Edit Dataset dialog box appears. Select the dataset from the list and click Edit. To add the --18=256 flag to the dataset. Click More.

Place clients with the smallest burden on your network infrastructure in the first backup groups that are brought online. These issues can prevent the completion of the backups within the backup window. start with activation and a first-time backup of clients equal to no more than 10 times the number of storage nodes deployed. back up 50 clients: 10 x 5 storage nodes = 50 backup clients If all backups for the first day complete within the scheduled backup window. An illustrative. Set up backup groups following these guidelines: (a) First backup groups should consist of computers that traverse the shortest logical distance to the Avamar server. Reduce the number of clients if any backups fail to complete within the backup window. All new Avamar client computers require a first-time backup of all the data specified by the dataset. double the amount of clients in the group on day two. As the amount of data archived in an Avamar system increases. This is because the savings realized through data deduplication is at its lowest when a system is first backed up and so the amount of data that must be transferred is at its greatest. This means that throughput problems will decrease exponentially as more clients are added and the number of common data objects in the system increases. from fastest to slowest: • Gigabit Ethernet • 802.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 60 . To minimize the impact of first-time backups. Use the first few groups to provide information about the capabilities of your network. increase the size of the next group. Continue adding more clients on subsequent days until all initial backups are complete. For example. nonexhaustive list. 2. the benefit of deduplication increases. Start with smaller groups of clients and. if you have 5 storage nodes. simultaneously running first-time backups for hundreds or thousands of clients can create network throughput issues. Logical distance is increased by the following factors: • Routers • Firewalls • VPN tunnels • Physical distance (b) First backup groups should consist of computers that utilize the fastest network transmission rates. However. after each group is successfully added.11n AVAMAR 5. Place clients with the greatest burden on the network in the last groups brought online. To achieve these results: 1.Keeping the Initial Client Backups to a Manageable Number PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS Keeping the Initial Client Backups to a Manageable Number Avamar Desktop/Laptop environments can support up to 5000 clients for each Avamar server. bring clients online in smaller groups. On the first day. Throughput issues caused by large amounts of data transfer are normally only an issue when running first-time backups. These first-time backups require significantly more time and storage space than subsequent backups that only back up changed data. 3.

you avoid the problems associated with overtaxing the throughput capabilities of your network.92 • V. Then. which is the total amount of time required to back up all desktop and laptop computers.Determining the Backup Window PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS • Fast Ethernet • 802. = 2) Formula: 10 nodes x 2 backups per node x 18 concurrent connections = 360 backups per hour Use the number of backups per hour to determine the backup window. using its dragand-drop capability. increases the potential number of concurrent backups. you can activate and initiate first-time backups of correctly sized and connected groups of clients. variables such as the following can affect the total backup time: • Total size of the backup dataset • Amount of daily changes to data AVAMAR 5.080 backups per hour Example 2 Backup criteria: • 10 storage nodes • Average backup time = 30 minutes • 2 backups per storage node per hour (60 min. In certain situations./30 min.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 61 . This way. you can use search terms to define a group with your target number and type of clients. consider the following two examples: Example 1 Backup criteria: • 10 storage nodes • Average backup time = 10 minutes • 6 backups per storage node per hour (60 min. You can select appropriately sized and situated organizational units by using the tree structure. Determining the Backup Window Avamar Desktop/Laptop environments typically include more clients than traditional Avamar systems. The use of lower capacity nodes increases the connection count. which in turn.34 The recommendation to bring clients online in sequentially targeted groups can best be achieved by using the directory information tree or search capability of Avamar Activation Manager. To determine how many backups can complete within an hour./10 min. Or. The Avamar Administrator server allows up to an average of 18 concurrent backup connections per active storage node (less one for the overall grid). = 6) Formula: 10 nodes x 6 backups per node x 18 concurrent connections = 1. the use of lower capacity nodes might be advisable.11g • Ethernet • V. In both examples.

For example.11G wireless connection. and so forth. Start with a backup window of 12 hours and increase or decrease it as necessary. Running System Utilities During the Backup Window Avoid running multiple system utilities on the end-user’s PC or Mac at the same time as backups. be sure to run backups more frequently than the amount of time specified by the retention policy. backing up data from a LAN-connected laptop usually takes less time to complete than a backing up the same computer when it is connected to the corporate network by an 802. Frequent backups ensure that data is always available from the backup set. Groups. If you fail to back up data within the retention period. therefore. is typically during the work day. Refer to the following resources for more information on retention policies: • Avamar System Administration Guide • Defining Domains. if the retention policy is 30 days. You must. and Policies (page 29) AVAMAR 5.Running Backups More Frequently Than the Retention Policy PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS • Network speed and amount of network traffic • Concurrent processes that run on the Avamar server For instance.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 62 . For instance. The data is still available on the hard drive unless it has been deleted. ensure that it is flexible enough for end users who are offline due to traveling. Scheduling Backups to Complete within the Backup Window The backup window for desktop and laptop clients is often the opposite of traditional server clients. The backup window. Running Backups More Frequently Than the Retention Policy Backup retention policies specify how long to keep a particular backup in the system. multiple Avamar servers might be required to back up all clients. Avamar Desktop/Laptop backups must run while the desktop and laptop computers are online. When determining the backup window. therefore. Backups are automatically marked for deletion after they expire. Depending on the location of remote clients. the data is no longer part of the backup set. meetings. ensure that you run backups before the 30-day retention period expires. do not schedule antivirus scans or disk defragmenter jobs during the backup window.

• Schedule WoL backups so that clients are powered on or awake before a connection is available. The timing for daily maintenance tasks for Avamar Desktop/Laptop is different from the timing of a standard servers-as-clients deployment of Avamar. As a multi-node server enters the range of 85% to 100% of storage capacity. A server will not achieve steady state and will exceed storage capacity if: • Clients backing up more than the initial backup size limit • Clients exceeding the daily data change rate limit • Garbage collection failures Extensive information about capacity management is provided in the Avamar System Administration Guide. performance degradation occurs.Adjusting Runtime for Daily Maintenance Tasks PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS Ensuring Adequate Initialization Time for Wake-on-Lan Backups Both Windows and Mac OS X offer power management features to reduce power consumption and save energy. Managing Storage Capacity for Desktop/Laptop Clients The most important consideration in successfully maintaining Avamar Desktop/ Laptop is capacity management. the Avamar server transitions to a read-only state. Refer to Avamar Capacity Thresholds (page 19) for more information. AVAMAR 5. Refer to Steady State System (page 22) for more information. This transition protects the integrity of the data already stored on the server. A properly managed Avamar server achieves steady state when storage capacity is well below the capacity warning threshold. which is 80 percent of storage capacity. Steady state operation is achieved when the average data sent to the Avamar server is less than or equal to the average data removed from the multi-node server. To ensure that system initialization completes before a scheduled backup starts: • Ensure that power management settings for client computers do not return the client to a powered-down or sleep state before the backup request is received. Adjusting Runtime for Daily Maintenance Tasks It is important that Avamar daily maintenance tasks complete successfully every day. In that document you will find detailed descriptions of the various features. If you use Wake-on-Lan (WoL) network technology to remotely power on or wake up a computer before a scheduled backup starts. Depending on the number of clients to be backed up. make sure client systems have adequate initialization time. Failures of these tasks will quickly result in capacity problems for the Avamar server. If storage capacity reaches 100%. clients may be queued while waiting for processing. functions. and tools available to assist you with properly monitoring and managing your server storage capacity.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 63 .

the Avamar daily maintenance tasks run during the day. The daily maintenance task of garbage collection requires a quiet system. AVAMAR 5. If any backups are running. The Avamar daily maintenance tasks often must be changed to run during the night to avoid conflicts with client backups and restores.Adjusting Runtime for Daily Maintenance Tasks PROTECTING AVAMAR DESKTOP/LAPTOP CLIENTS In a standard deployment.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 64 . Since garbage collection reclaims space on the Avamar server. For Avamar Desktop/Laptop. when the clients are most likely to be powered-up and connected. the failure to successfully complete this task can quickly create capacity problems. To accommodate this. Refer to Scheduling Activities During the Course of a Day (page 25) for more information. the client backups must run during the day. the servers are backed up at night when they are least active. the task will not start.

two SSH keys (admin_key and dpnid).OTHER AVAMAR ADMINISTRATION BEST PRACTICES This planning. You must change the passwords for all of these users. Just changing the passwords for the operating system users is not sufficient to prevent someone from logging in to the Avamar server nodes. and three root-level software application users (root. There are three operating system users (root. change them by running the change-passwords utility. the server should be protected by a firewall to prevent unauthorized access to the nodes that compose the server. MCUser. then someone could use the factory-default SSH keys to log in to your Avamar server. and implementation chapter contains information about the following various administrative best practices: • Passwords • Internet and firewalls • Email home Protecting Your Avamar Server Deploy an Avamar server in a protected network and not exposed to the Internet. Best practice: Protect the Avamar server from the Internet by providing full firewall protection. Even when an Avamar server is deployed in an internal network. Changing Passwords If your Avamar passwords have not changed from the factory default values. design. If you have not changed the two SSH keys.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 65 . AVAMAR 5. and repluser). Refer to your Avamar System Administration Guide for additional information. admin. and dpn).

Cases are not opened for issues associated with backup operations (for instance.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 66 . Enable this feature on your servers. and critical alerts in near-real time on an asneeded basis. Enabling the Email Home Feature When configured and enabled. This could be because the server is down. and so forth. 3. The customer must assume primary responsibility for monitoring the Avamar systems. it is offered with the following understanding: 1. the email home feature. including ConnectEMC. However.Enabling the Email Home Feature OTHER AVAMAR ADMINISTRATION BEST PRACTICES Best practice: Change all factory default passwords except the passwords for the backuponly. because the scheduler has been disabled. Only issues that affect the backup infrastructure (Avamar server) will have support cases automatically opened (for instance. restoreonly. and backuprestore software application users. and general system information to EMC Technical Support once daily. Best practice: Enable the email home capability. The email home capability is offered as part of the server maintenance plan. capacity. failed backups). AVAMAR 5. There is no guaranteed service level agreement for monitoring the email home messages. EMC Technical Support does not proactively alert customers of an issue that is causing the email home messages not to be sent. failed hfscheck). 2. If email home messages are not being sent home. automatically emails configuration. Refer to your Avamar System Administration Guide for additional information.

operator. follow these best practices: Assign each Avamar administrator. Ensure that all users log in to the Avamar system by using those unique login credentials rather than the default Avamar application root and MCUser users. The data in this log enables enterprises deploying Avamar to do the following: • Enforce security policies • Follow up on security breaches or deviations from policies • Hold appropriate users accountable for those actions To fully leverage the audit logging capability. LDAP.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 67 .Assigning Users OTHER AVAMAR ADMINISTRATION BEST PRACTICES Assigning Users The Avamar software includes access audit logging capability. and users can log in to the Avamar server with Active Directory. The broad intent of this feature is to maintain a log of every action taken on vital system components/ objects. Work with your EMC Corporation Practice Consultant or EMC Technical Support Engineer to set up External Authentication so that all Avamar administrators. or user a unique login credential. operators. or NIS login credentials. AVAMAR 5.

55 backup dropped session 36. 51 lost 14 policies 30 schedule 30 backup performance impacts 27 optimizing 38 backup status messages 36 backup time 61 backup window cache files 39. 27 B backing up databases 39. 64 client caches described 39 C AVAMAR 5. 26. 42. 21. 27. 31. 22 utilization 18 warning 63 checkpoints described 15 hfscheck 12 retention policy 16 client activation 60 client backups 29. 49. 43 program 23 avtar. 57. 45. 34 read-only state 63 required resource 12 avtar command 44 log file 43 process 39.INDEX A activating clients 60 activities failed 37 Activity monitor 36 Administrator Event Monitor 34 audit logging 67 avagent 23 Avamar Activation Manager 61 Avamar Enterprise Manager 34 Avamar events 33 Avamar server achieving steady state 22. 18. 44. 31 scheduling for desktop and laptop clients 62 See also schedules 27 time requirement 27 backups client 29. 28. 63 read-only threshold 20 rebalancing 13. 41.cmd 44.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 68 . 47 cacheprefix 46 capacity exceeding 63 exceeding thresholds 15 high utilization 14 limiting 20 management 10. 45 described 25 extending 31 for Desktop/Laptop clients 60 overlapping 10. 63 problems 21. 40. 31. 64 completed with exceptions 10 exceptions 35 maximum number of files 28 blackout window 26 bottlenecks 15. 46. 63 logical distance to 60 monitoring 33.

maximum 28 commonality 18. 46. 60 default group 30 default group policy 30 Desktop/Laptop backups 62 clients 56 daily maintenance tasks 63 maximum clients 60 disaster recovery 17 disk space 15. 60 email home 10. 54 compressed data. 52. 40. 35 exceptions 10. 35. 29. 44 undersized 43 file server backup time 38 with large amounts of data 25. 19. 50 dropped session 36 D H hash cache configuring for Exchange backups 47 configuring for SQL Server backup 47 described 39. 42. 30. 42. 36 E L LAN connections 23 log files 21. 54.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 69 . 65 first-time backup. 45. 66 email notification 33 event notification 33. 47 sizing 42. 42. 21 hfscheck checkpoints 12 schedule 31 I I/O errors 35 I/O performance 13 I/O resource contention 26 initial backups 18. 19 exceeding 80 percent 21 daily data change rate 19. 13. 44 firewall protection 10. 30. 60. 46. 45.INDEX memory usage 38 tuning 38. 21 impact on capacity 20 log 21 removing orphaned data 22 requirement 64 schedule 31 groups 29. 51 databases backing up 39. See compressed chunks 53 connections LAN 23 VPN 56 WAN 23 wireless 62 controller failure 14 file hits 41. 19. 39. 47 backup time 38 large 45 dataset caveat using Windows 59 definition 19. 61 GSAN (Global Storage Area Network) capacity described 11. 39 client files. 41. 46 tuning 46 undersized 45 healthcheck limit 19. 43 longest running activies 25 F fault tolerance 13 file attributes 42 file cache described 39. 47 diskreadonly limit 21 domains 29 DPN Summary report 49. 52 filecachemax 46 sizing 41. See initial backups 60 fixed-capacity systems 18 G garbage collection blackout window time requirement 26 fails to start 27 failures 20. 49. 47 for Desktop/Laptop client 57 inclusions 57 policy 30 size 45. 45 M maintenance jobs AVAMAR 5. 32. 39. 31. 55 compressed chunks 16. 53. 49 data chunks 12. 42 entries 42 hashcachemax option 44. 36. 61 total bytes 54 deduplication 16. 41.

21 suspended jobs 19. 20 redundancy methods 11 Redundant Array of Independent Disks. 57 Management Console Server 19 monitoring Avamar server 33. 45 70 RAID 10. 28. 26. 45 read-only state 20. See RAIN remote backups 16 remote clients 16. 35 daily backups 35. 63 read-only threshold 19. 30 server maintenance plan 66 SHA-1 hash entry 42 SNMP 33 status messages cancelled 36 failed 36 steady state 22. 27. 22 passwords 10. 66 performance addressing issues 37 bottlenecks 15 degradation 63 policies backup 30 dataset 30 default group 30 retention 16. 25 email notification 33 large backups 24 replication 28 security administration 67 server backup window 10. 62 remote offices. 13 RAIN 12. 24. 13. See groups stripes 12. See remote clients replication bottlenecks 27 central destination 16 described 14. 27 capacity 26. 34 backup operations 32. 62 power management 63 precrunching 12 protected network 65 P S schedules default 31 garbage collection 31 hfscheck 31 notification 33 scheduling activities 23.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES . 31. 62 rework work order 36 N network bandwidth 49. See capacity storage groups. 51 optimizing performance 38 orphaned data chunks 12. 65. See R AVAMAR 5.INDEX checkpoint 27 storage capacity impact 20 maintenance window 18. 27 domain 15 monitoring 37 nightly 37 options 15 overlapping with backups 27 scheduling 28 using temporary server 21 replicator bandwidth usage 15 testing 48 tuning 48 restore failures 37 restore time 17 restore work order 23 restoring data 12. 30. 16. 22 RAM allocations for cache files 45 file and hash cache usage 43 insufficient amount 44. See event notifications O on-demand backups 51 on-demand restores 26. 30. 18. 21. 21 swapping 38. 23. 21. 36 mount 44 traffic 62 transmission rates 60 notifications. 55 retention policies 19. 19. 31. 14. 49. 55 issues 35. 36 event notifications 33 hardware 13 replication 10. 63 storage capacity. 31. 37 server capacity 26 RAID Redundant Array of Independent Nodes.

31 V VPN 56 W Wake-on-Lan (WoL) 63 WAN bottlenecks 15 connection 23 throughput 17. 12.INDEX syslog 33 T thresholds. 27 warning threshold 21.0 • OPERATIONAL BEST PRACTICES 71 . 24 cache file sizes 44 client caches 36. 39 file cache 45 hash cache 46 performance 38 replicator 48 U unacknowledged events 34 uncompressed chunks 16 unique data 11. 63 wireless connection 62 work order 23 work order ID 51 AVAMAR 5. 21. 18. capacity 19 tuning Avamar system 7.

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