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Hybrid Evolution in the Ox-Eye Daisey

Hybrid Evolution in the Ox-Eye Daisey

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Published by james farr
The author is attempting to prove thay hybrid evolution is a viable form of natural selection in wild populations of Ox-eye daisey. Currently,the evidence points towards hybridization occurring only when an organism is approaching extinction.
References
Kormondy,Edward.J.Concepts of Ecology,Prentice-Hall,1984
Farr,James,W.How to Grow your Own Native Garden earthworms.Library of Congress (unpubl.)1983
Klinkenborg,V."A Perfect Madness of Plants."The New York Times Magazine.June,20,1999
Johnson,Dan.Supersize Sunfish.North American Fisherman.Vol.21.No.3,April,2008
Results
There is probably an unknown form of sexual selection occurring within Ox-eye Daisey plots. Current literature explains that huge numbers of pollen grains are released from one field of daisies to another. In the past fields would be connected;nowadays development has kept the pollen from being disseminated to females with Brachts. Like the Black-eyed Suzan which has grown quite rare on Long Island, the Ox-eye Daisey is obviously stressed. Yet the attempts by the daisey to adapt are quite strenuous. Large patches of thick yellow rooters are seen along stretches of the Montauk Highway near Patchogue. Only since 2005 was the plot in Patchogue solidly white males. since then,it has declined to unfertilized females. One giant male rooter remains alone in Patchogue even in late September 2008. The only reproductively successful fertilization ended up with one small yellow rooter in the middle of the last patch of white var. males in Port Jefferson Station. The daisey must reproduce asexually by the thousands with only one or two successful males resulting in years of pollination.
This huge drive to root would undoubtedly encourage widespread erosion around farm fields. In fact, the Town had immediately mowed down both plots immediately after pollination occurred. The flower obviously is considered to be a pest,yet the role of Honey Bee pollination is still interesting.
Possibly this is a good lesson given to us by nature. Non-native plants may not all be as destructive as people say. Still the role it has in the overall Primary production of the Long Island forest probably is quite detrimental.
One possible occurrence with this plant is epigenetics. I refer the reader to an article in Science.Vol.31 ,August 22,2003 byJasper Q. Sverjstrup. The article entitled:"Histones Face the Fact" describes a mechanism whereby Histones which help form the tertiary structure of chromosomes may by coupling with an Octomer during recombination undergo acetylization forming a tetramer during transcription. The teramere is different than a normal dimer code in the RNa which might suppress transcription from cryptic information within the transcription RNA coding sites. Thus an acquired trait of male pollination by a white var. of the Ox-Eye Daisey might be hidden and only become active for many years.
Epigenetics of course is quite controversial. The fact I suggest it would effect sex ratios of a non-native wildflower is even more so. So far,epigenetic effects have only been linked to phenotypical differences (ie coloration alone ) or very small hormonal differences within a deme.
There is mention in the literature of the flower having a very faint distastefull chemical which diuscourages grazing by cows and other pasture animals. Pasture animals don't apparently graze near Ox-Eye Daisey plots. Epigenetics has been linked to arthritic like conditions (as seen in the cloned Sheep dolly). Arthritis is as much an environmental condition as genetic. If epigenetics has subtle chemical effects on the plant's defenses ,it would explain the unusual sensitivity of the plant to temperature changes and even its ability to form variable populations within microgeopgraphical environments.
A solid new hypothesis to follow in the proof of hybrid evolution of the Ox-eye Daisey is to prove .
Recently, October 11,2008,a giant, sexual
The author is attempting to prove thay hybrid evolution is a viable form of natural selection in wild populations of Ox-eye daisey. Currently,the evidence points towards hybridization occurring only when an organism is approaching extinction.
References
Kormondy,Edward.J.Concepts of Ecology,Prentice-Hall,1984
Farr,James,W.How to Grow your Own Native Garden earthworms.Library of Congress (unpubl.)1983
Klinkenborg,V."A Perfect Madness of Plants."The New York Times Magazine.June,20,1999
Johnson,Dan.Supersize Sunfish.North American Fisherman.Vol.21.No.3,April,2008
Results
There is probably an unknown form of sexual selection occurring within Ox-eye Daisey plots. Current literature explains that huge numbers of pollen grains are released from one field of daisies to another. In the past fields would be connected;nowadays development has kept the pollen from being disseminated to females with Brachts. Like the Black-eyed Suzan which has grown quite rare on Long Island, the Ox-eye Daisey is obviously stressed. Yet the attempts by the daisey to adapt are quite strenuous. Large patches of thick yellow rooters are seen along stretches of the Montauk Highway near Patchogue. Only since 2005 was the plot in Patchogue solidly white males. since then,it has declined to unfertilized females. One giant male rooter remains alone in Patchogue even in late September 2008. The only reproductively successful fertilization ended up with one small yellow rooter in the middle of the last patch of white var. males in Port Jefferson Station. The daisey must reproduce asexually by the thousands with only one or two successful males resulting in years of pollination.
This huge drive to root would undoubtedly encourage widespread erosion around farm fields. In fact, the Town had immediately mowed down both plots immediately after pollination occurred. The flower obviously is considered to be a pest,yet the role of Honey Bee pollination is still interesting.
Possibly this is a good lesson given to us by nature. Non-native plants may not all be as destructive as people say. Still the role it has in the overall Primary production of the Long Island forest probably is quite detrimental.
One possible occurrence with this plant is epigenetics. I refer the reader to an article in Science.Vol.31 ,August 22,2003 byJasper Q. Sverjstrup. The article entitled:"Histones Face the Fact" describes a mechanism whereby Histones which help form the tertiary structure of chromosomes may by coupling with an Octomer during recombination undergo acetylization forming a tetramer during transcription. The teramere is different than a normal dimer code in the RNa which might suppress transcription from cryptic information within the transcription RNA coding sites. Thus an acquired trait of male pollination by a white var. of the Ox-Eye Daisey might be hidden and only become active for many years.
Epigenetics of course is quite controversial. The fact I suggest it would effect sex ratios of a non-native wildflower is even more so. So far,epigenetic effects have only been linked to phenotypical differences (ie coloration alone ) or very small hormonal differences within a deme.
There is mention in the literature of the flower having a very faint distastefull chemical which diuscourages grazing by cows and other pasture animals. Pasture animals don't apparently graze near Ox-Eye Daisey plots. Epigenetics has been linked to arthritic like conditions (as seen in the cloned Sheep dolly). Arthritis is as much an environmental condition as genetic. If epigenetics has subtle chemical effects on the plant's defenses ,it would explain the unusual sensitivity of the plant to temperature changes and even its ability to form variable populations within microgeopgraphical environments.
A solid new hypothesis to follow in the proof of hybrid evolution of the Ox-eye Daisey is to prove .
Recently, October 11,2008,a giant, sexual

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Published by: james farr on Sep 27, 2008
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The Indian summer of 2007 led to a particularly wartm temperature on Long I sland,N.Y.

rare wild flowers were sited at Patchogue La e. Not only that,I obs erved a TV News report by a local station concerning pine barrens and their acqu isition in our state. In the show, a white petalled,wild (one individual) flowe r was photographed. It was an Ox-eye Daisey. It was thriving at Calverton,.N.Y . Also it was noticed that honey bees were actively swarming around its petals. If the white (wild variety) is especially attractive to honey bees;the ability of this flower to withstand drought would allow the flowers hybrid vigor and to genetically stabilize within its own deme or gene pool. In other words,the sto ry of the Ox-Eye daisey is not over. Although reprted as a good example of a pl ant that survives soley as a hybrid;its genetic propensity to overcome its super ficial ability to morph is still in question. The Ox-eye daisey is currently re ported to be extinct in most western states. Study of Hybrid Evolution Ox-Eye Daisey Summer,2008-Patchogue,N.Y. Materials and Methods-Two experimental plots were pic ed. One plot by the Pat chogue La e area and one at port Jefferson Station-where a glacial moraine exist s. Does microgeographical variation occur?If so. The hypothesis that hybrid ev olution occurs within this species is false. In fact,extinction is the closest honest appraisal for the flower;however aestivation,rooting or overwintering of bulbs is possible. Table 1 Flower Type No.of Flowers Color Dwarfed w/o pollen 20 white 6/6/2008 __________________________________________________________ Female w/bracht 400 Yellow 6/7/2008 ____________________________________________________________ Dwarfed 100 White Port Jefferson 6/8/2008 _____________________________________________________________ Dwarfed 20 White 6/8/2008 Patchogue ____________________________________________________________ Dwarfed 10 White Port Jefferson 6/11/2008 ______________________________________________________________Dwarfed 20 White \6/12/2008 Port Jefferson Results A v ery close blooming time coincided with the fruiting of Brome grass and F ox Tail which occurred the day before. A very close tie to the environment;yet the frost seen on Memorial Day wee end seems to start the flowers' blooming. Th e opposite effect opccurs with invertebrates where the first warming of spring b rings on numbers.

   

 

 

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