Successfully Specify

Three-Phase
Separators
Here is a stepwise
procedure Jor
designing
Uquid/liquid/vapor
separators.
WI"" O. _ , ... , .... Willi ...
Y. s""'.1<,

I
\ is "ften necessary to "'parale Iwo
immi",iblt liquids. ,he light and
l>eavy phases. and a yapot. A typ;-
cal example in petroleum refining
is t he separruion of waler. and a hydro-
carbon liquid and vapor. Linle ha$
bun publisll<:d OIl thl'ee"pbas.e (liq-
uidlliquidlvapor) .epaTOlion. with
most in(,mna,ion "vail.ble only in
corporate de.ign fil ... Thi • .nick
allcmp!< to alleviate this . i'"aliOf] by
co""ring ,he basic. of !httt_ph= ""I""
"",tOT design, Tbe authors provide a
Step-by-Step procedure and worked
,,<II cxampleJ, Further. tile example.
"ffer guidance 00 making ..... mplions
for tile calculalions.
Selecting thre ..... haae separators
As with two-phase designs,
phase units can be either venical or bor-
irontal. a1tboogh they typically"", bori-
rom.! (see Figure. I and 2). lbe vtni-
cal orielltation. Figure 1, is Only used if
!here i. a Inge amoun, of vapor !O be
separa!<:d from • small lmOUnl of the:
ligh' and beavy liquid « 10-20'% by
weigllt). UnfortunalOly. !bere are no
'imple rule, for "parlltor .. I""tion.
Someti_s. boIh eoofigunuion, sboIIld
be ",11Iualed 10 <Iocide which is m<lI"t:
economioal. Funher. the 1,"';1.\>1. plot
.pace (footprint) may be . factOf.
The des.i8l1 of three·pM.", separators
is similar !O thtir ,,, ... ph.>,,, counter·
parts. except thai the liqu.id oection dif·
fen. fur the: vertical type. I baffle com·
monly the liquid "'paration
!18 Distillation a nd O\her Industrial Separations
sc.cti"" calm to p<"OnIOIe the ",,,anllion.
"There are different varia,ions of 1>00"_
izontal tllJtt..phase vapor_l iquid separa-
'ors. T1Ie liquid ",,,.ration .....,lion is
","ally a variation of a device 10 provide
interface 1.,·01 eontml. which may
include. boot Of • "..,ir. A boot typiCal_
ly is speCified when the vohune of heavy
liquid is IIOC substantial (<; 1S-2O% of
total liquid by ""'igllt). while. weir is
u..:d wben !be volume is substantial
1bese horizontal sepantor$ are iliuMrat·
ed in Figure 2. T1Ie buocke'·and_weir
type de,ip is us.ed when inlOrface 1.,..,1
control ""'Y be diffi<."Uit. such as ,,·ith
he","), oil. Of ,,-hen large amounts of ...
emul,i"" Of a paraffin are p"".n' (I)
Stok •• ' law applies
Separ.l.!ing a ''lIjlOf from alight liquid
(two-pt.ase "'pan,ion) ha. been covered
in a previouS artide (2) and will not be
di..:us.scd here. HO"i.ver. all necessary
infOrmation fOf performing this pan of
!be cakulation is provided here_ T1Ie fol-
lowing discussion cm"en the "par:1ti""
of light and heavy liquid.>.
T1Ie flow of ri.ing light droplets in
the !>ea,), liquid phase or ",uling buvy
droplets in the ligbtliqui<l ph.", i. coo-
,idered laminar and is governed by
Sulk.,· law:
'"
wbert 1.488 converts viscosity of the
,
.. m"", diffi·
cult (,"qu i re.
"""'" time) to .. t·
tic til<: drople(1
out of the contino
UOU$ ph.se with
the greater vis·
rolity. since U
T
is
lower, Practicall y
spcaking. U
r
is
typically limited
ill oaloulatioll'
to 10 i n./ mi n
maximum.
F..- horiWlltal separators ",jth a
give" lhe beigh1$ or the light
and heavy liquids are as.I-Urned "" that
the c"",·sectional are. can be calcu-
lated. WIth the ''''por disengagement
arc. set by guideli nes. the length'
required by holdup requi"'mcn(1 and
vaporlliquid separation are calculated.
Then. with lhe assumed height< of the
light and heavy liquid. and calculated
.... 1 ..... of ... uling .. elociti"", the ... t_
tling time. "'" calculated.
• Fizun I. . .. _ on..,.. ""etI .. ith hith
--"', ..
For 'cnic:al sep-
oratots. !be diame·
te, requin:d f",
vapor disengage-
ment is calcuLo"'"
H in oor previoos
""iele (2). [n si>. -
ing a separalOr. !be
beigh1$ of !be light
and beavy liquids
ore HSurned. and
!be .... ling , .. loci·
ties and .. "ling
time. a,e then
calculaled.
1l>e actu.1 re.idence times for th.
light and he • .,y liquid, are .uboe·
qucntly cakul.ted andcompared WIth
the required .. llling •. a, in ,he
von;"al cose. If the residence tinle.
are not greater than lhe requirnl set_
tling ti"",$, tben either the diameter
sI100ld be inrn:ascd or. for a giwn
diameter. ' he length should be
increased (liquid separati"" i. ron_
!rolling). In the subsequent design
procedure •. the lauer 'PP"'IICh is
used. along ",ith the pr<X;edure, di ...
oussed in OUr previous paper for
vapor/liquid separation /2/.
The followi ng deSign procedu",s
.nd heuristiCS are . resull of. review
of literature """",e. and """"pled
industrial design guidelines.
Horil.Onlal design pr<>CfflU"" are pre-
,,",cd for tho fow- separator types
.ho"," in Figure 2. 1l>e horirontal
design procedurOl incorpor"'e opti .
mi:cing ,he diameter and length by
minim;:cing tbe approximate weiglll
of the .hell and held •. To add a deJl;R<'
of conservatism ' 0 the des ign. the "01-
"me available in the heads i. ignored.
ph ... from IbI(ft)(.) to oP.
Simplifying Eq. I and <;("wening
the units of the terminal ,euling
"eloxity to in1min from fVs ,c$ull$ in:
U
_ H)6151 X !O· ' D.!<P,,- PJ
,- P
'"
whcu 0, il in rIIie.-on< (I mioron •
3,28084 x 10"' feet) and Ur- inimin.
Eq. 2 may be rewritten H:
U
_ k,.(p,,- p,)
T- II

k,=2.06151 X 10-' 0;.
Values of k, are given f", SOme sy.·
terns in Table I.
From Eq •. 1_3. it CIJI be 5Cen thaI
til<: .. tiling .'eioxity of a droplet i.
in"ersely pr<>p<>r!ional to the viscosi·
ty of !be continuous phase. Henc •. it
The residtncc ti"",. of !be ligb! and
beavy liquH;l. are determined ",,' I. F..-
!be liquid, to .. parale. !be residence
lime of the light liquid mu« be greal<T
than lbe time required for !be beavy
droplets to .. "k OOt of the light liquid
phase; and the residence ,ime of ,Il<:
heavy liquid "'u<l be great« than tbe
time required for , be ligllt liquid
droplets to ri .. oUl of the beavy liquid
phase. [f conditions"'" not <atis-
fied. then liquid
.. paration is COII-
trolling and the
ve.sel diameter
muSI be inc",8$ed.
Holdup 'ime for
liquids must be:
added to TeSidence
time. The height
of the "enieal
,hree-ph.se .. pa-
rator j, calculated
in lhe lame man·
oerasforthetwo-
phase case,
Table 1 Typical values of k. for
IlqUld-ltqUld separatlDnS
.... -
He .. , I'1ooM Mi._
.!'I' ...
--
S.oUtl'f d'.I5 W_ ... , ... ,", m
S," eD'f»0.I!i
W" ..... '1<J<Iie

w."



• _ 8111y1_
W _

MoIhyl 10.,...

II""", ,1<_

"

...
...
...
...
...
...
Distillation and Other Industrial Separations 219
O,i, in ft
Co-·,pI';
U
r
= 0. 313) _ 2.74 ftls
• t:I
Qv= 415,000 Ib'h 165.32 fI'/s
3.600 sill X 0.6973 Ibln'
. &jUllIi<m 1,.·1
'" = J 4XI65.32fV/s
v 1t 2.05 ftls
10.13 ft
• £qtuUUJ8 EJ
' , •• " " .... ,'" - Ull5h I&'''' , 2Il1 10· ...
Q
_ 16.5000 lbJh _ 5 10 n'l .
u - 60 minlh X 53.95 Ihlft' - . mm
E4
-.O •• ;,tt
_: I ..... ""' . 1..!Il(1SO x
bea.y liquid droplets 10 !hroogh
this di.<,,,,,,,,, (12 in conv.r<ion [""'0<
for ft to in.) :
12111.
IHI.= - U
"'
( II)
3. A.,u_ ,. I fI (minimum)
and calculate tbe senling lin'" for tbe
light liquid dropletS to rise through
thi. distance:
12HH
I UI = -U
"
( 12)
9. If lbere is a bam. plale. calcu·
late tbe area:
". Calcul.te (PI. . Pv)·
b. Assume fl. (usc 9 in " a mm!·
mum) and calculate fI, + H.,
c. Usc Figure) 10 oouin G.
d. Calculate .... '"
See Eq. (13) in lhe box.
e. Assume W
D
_ 4 in.
r. C.lwl .. e WDID.
Q
= 1,300 Iblb = 0.35 ft'lmin
HI. 60 minlhx62. 1l lbln J
• E<i.....w.. £5
g. Use Tobl. 3 to detennine .... DI .....
h. Calculato .... '" ("'4)1)'
i. Calculate .... i>
J. Se!e<:t!be larger value of .... I>"
k. Calculate !be ORa of !be bame
plate & sel1li"g ..... for the li",\ liq-
uid: .... I. ..... - .... D"
10. Calculat. the re,i<icnce time
of each ph .... based on the volume,
occupied by the light and heavy
pi\as.es:
8u; = 116:1- (1 4a)
8
He
= HQ"A H (l4b)
"'
If ell "" 1m or 8/tl < lUi" inc .....
the diam<:tcr lnd repeat the J>f'OC<'Iure
from Step 7 (liquid t;<panltion i. con·
trolling). NOI. that AH & A.
t t. Calcul.te tbe height of the
lighl liquid abo,·. the outi<t (boldup
height) based OIl the =luired holdup
"me:

Chock this .... ith that as ... med
in Step 9b to thai the a,sumed
""I"" is rusonable. If surge ,. "'"
'pccifiod. cakulatc the surge height
based OIl surge lime:
(J6)
T1>e minimum is 6 in.
12. Calcu!"e the h.ight
"'ing the guidch" .. :
H •• 6 in. minimum.
II ... '" Y, d
N
+ of (2 [t or H,
+ fl).
liD - or. minimum 0(:
36 in. + Y, d,. ( .... ithout mi"
.liminalOl). or
24 in. + !l..dN(with mist o!iminato."j:
IJjstiUation and Other Industrial Separations 221
l._ .... .,."".".witII_

-

TI
I 1..1
Min. 1l in.

Min. ' l ....
o
l'
\

LiI;t'O kJuid
""
-
....
-.
....
0.


!iJ..:r..
'"
'"
"'-
""
..
-
TI
o
l'

I 1..1
Min. 12in.
Min.Uin.
.. -
,
ljgN.kJuid
'"
-'
-
--
--
....
...........
.L .L
.. ---
_ ....
'= :=
- -
--
1, 11.11.IL.1
,
Vertic:al ""$ign procedure
Rdcrr !o Figu", I f".- dimensions:
-
I . C.lcul ate !be ""nkal IC1'1IIinal
""locily:
Calculate tilt K , ... 1...,. u';ng one of
the m," h/xls in Table 2 and set U."
for. conscrvati,'e design.
2. Calculate the vapor ,"Olumetric
How rate:
Q
W.
v = 3.6OOP.
<',
J. Cakulate tht ve...,1 intern.l
diameter. Dv&
'"
If tht", i •• mi<t eliminator. add 3-6
in. !O D'7> 10 accommodale a ... ppon
ring and 'Q<md up to tht """ 6-in.
increment to obtain D; if there is no
mi .. eliminato.-. D. D'7>
4. tht $Otting velocity of
the heavy liquid oo! of , .... ligh! liquid
using Stoi:e<·l.w (the maximum i. 10
inJmin):
U
_ k"(PH-pJ
H1 - ILL
where t. i. obcair>ed from Table loris
calculated (soe Eq. 3).
220 Distillation and Othef II1dustrial Separations
S. Similarly. calcula!e tht rising
"elocity of the liquid OU! of tilt
heavy liquid phue u';nl Stol:es' law:
u _ k"(p,,- pJ (8)
U/ - I1H
6. Calc"lale the light and heavy
liquid ""lumetric /krW raIeS. Qu. and
Qm.:
W

Q
- "1"
H1 - 6Op"
,OJ
(10)
7. Assume HL .. I fI (minimum)
and calc"J ... tilt settling tim< f<J< lh<
Tabl e 3 Cylindrical helghl
ond area conversions
a.a;.u' .. 'x' .......
,- 1.0 . 0 ... <& + {X'+ It.<'
WI) .. ,.",. ..

NJI)
• • ..... 1'''''30 Ie.>
.).9200\11
<.0,11411'

•• S,!,I>397}
[ ••. 01_
....... 9160111
•• _UOI"lOS

• • 0.OO"17S6

,. ).2WlO1

,.:U.Jj.l!lIS
'.-10.$+0.$2'
,. _]&._J16
•• numn
/_9"",*,1
·.Or......- .. ..-__ .. H,ID
" A,IA,
II, _ II
H
+ ilL + H. + II. + 11.,. +
H" (17)
If I mi .. elimi!l.1lOr pad i. uocd.
addi,ioI\alhei&ht ill addtd as _boIoo'R in
FiJl're I .
E.ample 1
veniell ... p .. ,,"or wim I baf-
fle pla'e and wi",·",,$h mi" elirn'M-
tor 10 sepanlle lhe lIi"cn in
'Iltble 4. The pre .. ure is 16'
p.ia. and il i. necessary 10 have a
hydrocarbon liquid holdup limo of 2j
min and. ""IKC of only S ""n.
I. Calculate !be Yef1ical ",rminll
,""ocily. U.inll Table 2. cakuLaie X
IIlin, !be Yon Derni ..... eqllolltiQnS.
...., Eq, EI in We box.
and V._ 0.7S)( 2.1lS fll,.
-- •. ------
"'"

".
n"
••
.... 'c---'!'---,.;-----"';-----.;-----l.,----'.,----'
Table 4 Dala for Examplo 1.
Iht Ii"", roo- lhe
ligltl Uquid 10
rise 001 "r the
heavy liquid
-,
'",-(12)(1.0)
1I.74z6.9 min
9. Coleul.te
2. Calculate Iht vapor "OIu""""",
I\ow .. te. see Eq. E':2 in the box.
J. Calculate ,he \'eIsel inner diam-
ete'. see Eq, ID in ,he box,
Use D 10,5 fl,
C.lcul'te ' "" seldina vel<><;ily of
the heavy liquid 001 oIlhe ligltlliquid
phil..,. Ugn! fible I. k • • 0,]63,
Th."
U
a
• O.16J(62. 11 - 53.9.1).'0.630
_ 2.11 in./min
5. Cakul.ue the 5<"l1lin, ''''ocily of
the ligltlliquid oul or IIIe 1Ie •• y liquid
ph ... ,
UUf 0. 16J(62. 11 - 53.95)10.764
.. 1.74 inJrnin
6. Cakulole ill<: li,hl .nd "".vy
liquid voIumeuie /I"", rIIlei. see Eq.
E4 and B in !lie
7. Assume H •• I fl and ClIkulate
!be lime fuo- the hca.y loquld 10 ",,,Ie
out of me li&hl liquId p/Ia5<";
' ...... (12) ( 1.0) n.11 .. 5.7 min
8. Assume HH • I 1'1 and eaknlale
the b.lffle orca,
p, - P .. " 53.95 - 0.6973 " 53.25
''''''' • As""rne If." 12 in .. H," H. _ 24
in, U, ini Haure 3. G .. 9.800 gphlfl'.
Ao • (7 ,48 minlh)
+ 0,3$)(1'1')19.800 JpMt'" 0.25 ft'
• ASSUmo 11' .. " 4 in.:
II'"ID .. 41( 12 " 10.5) .. 0.0317
Tablo 5 Inlel noulll siZing
",( 40. )"
"'''"
),. . 0"
Q, -0-0;:
a... . a.. a. ft¥I
22 and Other Industrial separations
. ,
. ,
, ,
U
'",,,II.d I. ';';"id 13 ,,""liW. ' III"Wi>t.
tim. f,lth. , 1, 2.
E. Comp'"'''' ... " ,o",',nl" ... g. ""bb.,
1 mo" boo!WOI" HI! [" 10 "' ''''I ooil 10",,1
10 min from 1>0""", t " gOO1 I.n. t" ' Q,id .ta""
F !'WI gH 1 ... , 1 "",."""
1II 1L ... g on .... i<><_ .... 1 Q"Iio>. _"" " II . ... , "" ...... _own
--
--.
"
, .•
"
51,oiI.rd In,01Moootod
"
, ..
Poorly 1." """"nltO
"
)( 53.95 + X 62. 11 - 54.55 Iblfe
d. >( 4X I65.41 )'" .. 1.73 f1
6OltfJO.730
• Usiag Table J ..... .",. .. 0.0095:
.... "' ("''')(10.5 tWa 86-'9 ft '
Ao .. (0,£1095) (86-'9 l'1'l .. 0.82 fI'
• U.., Ao '" 0.82 ft l.
A," 86.59 - 0.82 .. 8S. n fl l
10. C. lculate tho ""iikroce lime of
each phase:
au (1.0 fl) (8'-17 ft ')l5. 10
fI'/min .. 16.8 min
OHl " (1.0 1'1) (86.59 fI')IO.35
l'I'Imin .. 247.4 min
II . Cakul<i!e the hei,ru of tho hgllt
liquid aoo.'o: tho ou,lel. InsW on
boIdup:
H. (5. 10 ft'ImiQ) (25 nlln}'85.n
ft' .. UfI
Hs .. (S. IO .. OJ5)(fl'lmi. ) (5
minY86.s9 f,' .. 0.31 f,
U.., Hs'" O.S fl.
Il. Calcul.", occon:Iing 10
Table 5:
).,= QL1(Q" .. Q.) .. (5. 10 +
0.35:0'(5. 10 + 0.35 .. IM.J2 • 60)"
0._
Use Eq. E6 (!oCt 00.) 10 e.lcula!e
0,
P .. - P. A.+ _ ),) _ (54.55)
(0.0006) .. (0.6973) ( I _ 0.0006) "
0.730
Q .. _ 16,!'i.n .. (5.10 ..
16,!'i.4IIW.
llie Eq. E7 (_ 00.) 10 o:ak"IlIaIed,..
d" 21 in.; lOSe d" • 24 in.
H,;
H
D
• 0.5 (10.5). fl (If
HD 3 204 .. 2412 • 36 in .• 3.0 ft
(minimum)
Use HD _ 5.5 ft. From I, H,
_ 1 fl and,. fl. Calculate II".:
1/&," \'; (2.0 ft) + 2 ft . 3 ft
Set II, _ 0.5 ft . Fin.1 dimensions:
D . 10.5 ft. liN . 1.0 ft. 11,.1.0 ft.
1.5 ft. H • • 0.5 ft. II"" _ 3.0 ft,
and H
D
- 5.5 f •. Add 1.5 fl for the mi"
eUminalor.
H. _ 14.0ft
H/O"'14.0110.5 _ 1.3
Add 2 ft 10 IId Jl •• 2.0 ft. H
D
,.
7.0 ft) M> .hal IIID _ 1.52 (JI,tD
sbouId be in !be -ae 0( 1.5 10 6.0).
Horizontal dellgn procedure:
no boot or wair
I. Calculate the , .• pot"
flow "'t<, Q", uSina Sq. 5.
Distillation and OIlier Industrial Separations 223

,
2. Calculate tile light and hca"Y
iquid volumetric How "' .... QLI. alld
'1m. using Eq •. 9 and !O.
3. Cakul ... til< veni",,1 terminal
lClocity. Ufo Eq, 4. (select. K
ral"" from Table 2) and .. t U
v
'"

4. Sel«t h.oldup and ... rge times
rom Thble 6 ""d cakulate the h.oWup
ond .urge volumes. V
H
ar.d V .. (unless
,urge i. otherwi .. specified .... cn as a
.Iug volu"",);
( 18)
(19)
5 . . ',y,io "" UD from Table 1 and
nitio"l c.loul.,e the diameter
lOC<)I'di ng to:
(20)
:alcul .. c the tOlal crou·sec,i",,"1

Ar=1
""
6. Set til< vapo< Il<ight. H"
o the larger of O.W or 2 ft, I ft if
here i, "" miSl eliminator. Usi",
'1.;0 in Table 3, ob!ain .'1...'.'1., and cal·
:"Iat • .'IV'
, the tltign" of the heavy ""d
H"L and Hw
8. (A
HL
+ Au,YA .. using (HHL
> Hu,YD in Table 3. ond calcul ... A.H1
, A.LI.'
9. Calcul.te tile minirnurn lengtll to
occommodate the liquid J-.oIdupl..,rge:
L- V,,+V,
- AT -AV- (A"L +Au) (22)
I O. Calculate the liquid dropout
in .. :
(23)
I L Calculote til< actual v'po'
..
velocity:
U", " Q,/ilv 'M)
I Z. Cl kulate the minimum length
'""Iuired for '-aporlli'luid .. pa .. tioo:
""
13. If L e L""" then $d L '" L"",
(here. vaporlliquid .. paration con-
trol.). This ,imply re.ults in ''''''e
extra Itooldup and residence lime. If L
e< L"lN' then increase Hvand Ittal·
cul.te A ... and repeat. Slaning from
Step 9. If L > LUIIi" the design i.
acceptable for vaporlliquid .. para·
tioo, If L» L_ (liquid h.oldup """.
'roIs). L c ... ""Iy be rr<luced and L"",
increased if Hv is reduced. Hv may
only be reduced if it i, greater tit ... ttlt
minimum specified in Step 6. (With
re<luced If", recakulat. ilv and repeat
the procedure from Step 9,) Not., Fo<-
this and olher calculation •. "much
greater than"' (») and "muel, Ie ..
tIlan"' (ee) mean a variaocc of greater
tIlaii 2Q<I,.
14. Calculate !be 5e1t1;", velocities
of ,ho Il<.vy liquid OUt of the light hq.
uid pha .. and ,ho ligh' liquid out of lho
I>cavy liquid phase. VIII. and Vuo using
Eq.. 7 and 8 (filld k, fn;JIII Tabk I).
15. Calculate 'Il< "Uli", times of
the tIt.vy liquid out of the light ph ...
aDd tbe light liquid oot of Ill< heavy
-
(27)
16. Caleul.te the reside...., limeo
of tbe light and heavy liquid"
(28)
Distillation and Other Industrial separations
(AT- A v- A HL)L (29)
eu '" Q
u
11. If Ohl. < 'ut OT AU. e I .. then
increa .. the ves .. llength (Iiquid"i>"
aration contrOl.):
(30)
Ul Calculate UD. If UD « 1.5.
<ltcreO$e D (unless it i, already at it.<
minimum). and if UD » 6.0 lhen
in<:rr:a<e D, repoat from Step 5.
19. Calculate til< tIlicb\es$ of the
!hell and tltads "",,""'ing '0 Thble g.
20. Calcula'e surface an:a of the
!hell ""d bew acw<ding 10 Thble 8.
21. Cakulate tbe approxi,".te ' <Oli'
sel weight according to Table 8.
21. Increa<e Of decrease the VCMeI
diameter by 6-io. increments and
repeat the calculation, until ,ho UD
flI tio rang •• from 1.5-6.0.
23. Using the optimum vessel si""
(minimum weight). calculate the nor·
mal and high liquid levels:
IINu KD- H. (31)
-11<LL - {AHL+A,.)+V,/L (32)
Obtain IINLI. usi ng Table 3 witll the
''lillie of A .. dAr
Horizontal design procedure:
he.vy liquid boot
1. Calcul.te 'Il< v.por ,'Olumetric
flow flIte. Q", using Eq. 5.
Z. Calcula'e ttlt light and tltavy
liquid volumetric now rates. QLI. and
QIIt. per Eq., 9 and 10.
3. Calculate the venical tenninal
velocit)'. U" using Eq. 4 (til< K ,·al ...
come. from Table 2) and set U
v
'"
0.75 U
r
4. SeleC\ holdup alld surge time<
from Table 6 and cakul.to the h.oldup
and surge vol"mes. V
H
and V .. from
Eqs. 18 .nd 19 (unless "'rgci, 0!beT. •

wi.., specified. such as ,IU8 ,"Olumc).
5. ObIain UD from Table 7 and
initi.lly set the diameter according 10:
T1Ien calculate the IOlal emu·"",,·
tional area, tl
r
. u,ing F.q. 21.
6. Set the vapor 'I""<' height, II.".
10 the largcc <If O.W Of 1 ft (I ft if
there is 00 miSl clim;rulor). Using
II./D in Table 3, obI.ain A,IA, ond clIl_
"")aleA,,
7. Set {he light liquid lH:ighlS in the
".... Jd booI, IIlLO' and IIlJ-O.
8. Calculate (he
area of th< lig)" l;qui<! the bot·
10m of the '..:ss<1. A""" "sing HwiD
in T.bIe 3.
9. Calculate the minimum '.ngth to
a<comrnodo.le the liquid holdup/,urge:
L- VH+V,
- Ar- Av- Auv
'''J
10. Caku13lt ,he liq uid
using Eq. 23.
II . Calculale the actual v.p<:>'
velocity, U",. lUing Ilq. 24.
12. Cakulat. the minimum Itllglh
required for liquid/vapOr .. pam!k>n.
L"'I>' u.in, Eq. 25.
13. If L < L,w" u..n .." L. /.,,'"
(.,.aporlliquid separation conlrols).
Thi. ,ply ",""Its in $OrT'OO c:clra
holdup and residence lime. If L
<<L",.", then increase IIv and "",aleu-
l.teA ... t"'n from S .. ,,9. If L>
L .. ,,,, the desi", is acceptable for
vaporlliquid .ep"""i"". If L» I..,,,,,
liquid holdup conuol •. L can only bt
w;Juced and L,,,,, inc","scd if II" i,
reduced. IIv may only bt reduced if it
'S greater than tbe minimum .pecified
'n Step 6.
With rcduct:d II .. recalculat. A.
1!Id repeat from S .. p 9.
14. Cakulate the sculing ".Iocity
Jf the heavy liquid ""t of tbe ligilt liq.
'lid phase. U
Nt
• " ,illJl Eq. 7 (obtain k.
'rom Tabl. I).
15. Calcul"e the time of
the .... vy liquid oot (lf the light liquid
pha .. :
IHI." 12 (1I1n + D - H;)lU I<L (35)
Ui. Calculate the resi<ic"".,ime <If
the light liquid:
,,'J
Note: Thi. volurn. of light liquid
igoores the ligilt liquid ",Iume io the
""'"
17. If e
u
< 'Nt then increa .. the
•• sc:l length (liquid separation C()n.
trol.):
Ill. Calcula .. UD. If UD « 1.5
then dec"' .... D (unleM it is already at
• minimum) lnd if UD» 6.0 then
incre .... D; repeat from Step S.
19. Calculate til. thick"" .. of the
....11 and Mads acconling 10 Tabl. 8.
20. Calculate the .urfac ..... a of
the ,""II and ""ads ac.:ording 10 Tabl.

2 1. Calculate the .pproximate
",eight of the .hell .oo bead. accord·
ing 10 TIIble 8,
22. I""" ,.,.., or dec", ... the ..... 1
diameter by 6-in. increm.nts and
the <lieu lations until UD
rang., from I .H,Q.
2J. With the <>pIimum ' ...... 1 size
(minimum ",.igilt), cakula", the 001'.
mal and Iti&h liquid k .. ls:
(38)
(39)
De'erminellNIL using Tabl. 3 from
A".,(Ar
24. Design th. huvy liquid booI:
Set the heigilt of the heavy Uquid.
IIHV' e.kul.", the ri.ing "dori'y of
tl>< light liquid oot of tl>< I><.vy liquid
phase, UIH' USing Eq. 8 (find is from
and Other Irlduslrial Separations 225
1
,
Table I); set U, 0.75 UU/;
!he heavy liquid bQoo: diameter:
o.=J4X I 2
Q
NL
nU,
("')
1ben oakulate 1I,e settling time of the
light liqu;d QUt of the heavy liquid
pit"",;
(41)
Calcul.t. the reside"". tim< of the
h.cavy liquid:
(42)
If 8
H1
• < 'UI' then inoruse ,he bQoo:
di.ometer.
Horizontal design procedure:
_ir
I . Cakul"'" the vapor V{llu",etric
How Tal<:. Q", ",ing Eq. S.
2. Cakulate the light and heavy
liquid ,'Olume,ric flow rate •. Qu. and
QN/.." per Eq •. 9 and 10.
J. Cakulate the vemeal tenninal
vapor veloci.y. U,.. u.ing Eq. 4 (find K
from Table 2) and ""t U
y
_ 0.75U,..
4. Select boIdup and .urge times
fmm Table 6. and calculat. the holdup
and ,urge V{llumes. V
H
and V .. from
Sq •. 18 and 19 (unless surge i , od>er.
• 'pecified .• uch ... a slug ><>Inme).
5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and
initially o.kulate the diameter
accoJding to:
o.(If{v,,+Ysl)lIJ (43)
0.611\'40)
ll>cn caloulate the lOIal cross-=tioo-
aJ area.",.. u,ing Sq. 21.
6. Sct the vapor hei"'t. H"
to the latger of 0.2D or 2 f. (I ft if
there is no mi't ehminoto<). Using
II,ID in Table 3. obtain ".I". and oal·
culateA ..
7. Calculal<: the low Uqklid level in
"
"
"



the ligh' liquid CQflIpaIlment u,ing
Eq.44 or it from Table 9
(M)
where D i. in ftel and Hw. in i""b·
es (round up to ","""," in.). If D S 4.0
fl. then Hw. _ 9 in. Using IIw/D in
Table 3. Cakul"'" " w..
3. Caknl.,. the weir height:
H.,_ O _lI
v
(45)
If 11 .. < 2 Ii. incre"", D. and repeat
the calculations fron, Step 6.
9. Calcnlal<: the minimum length
of the light liquid compartment to
aocommodate holdup/.u,!!c. L,. in
2:
('"
L,,- VH+V,
- AT Av - AUL
Round to the ""ares. \', ft. The
minimum for L, _ d,,+ 12 in.
10. Set the interface at the height
H"n.. obtaining the height. of the
heavy and light liquid •. HHI. and II!./..
11. For the liquid "'Uling <XIm·
iW'rncnt. oakulate!he cross·5CCIioo·
aI ..... of the heavy liquid. using
HHelD in Tabk 3 and cakulate the
cto .... utiooal area of the light liquid
from:
n. Calculate the "'tding velocity
of the heavy liquid out of the light liq-
uid ph.asc. Uta. and the light liquid OUt
of the b..vy Uquid phase. UUI' u,ing
Eq, 7 and 8 (find *. from Tobk I)
IJ. Calculate the ""nling times of
the he.,·y liquid out of the light liquid
phase and the light liquid OUt of the
heavy liquid phase:
12lIu.1U.... (48)
26 Distillation and Other Industrial Separations



1211
HL
IU", (49)
14. Calculate minimum L, to facil·
iUlte liquid.l iquid "'!>""'tion as the
larger of:
Round to the \', ft.
IS. Find L;
(51)
16. Calcula", the liquid dropout
time .•. ",ing Eq. 23.
17. C.lcula'e the actual vapor
velocity. U",. using Eq. 24.
18. Caloulate the minimum length
required for vaporllliquid separation.
L.",. ",ing Eq. 25.
19. If L < Lit"'" then set L _ L ....
(vaporlliquid separation control.) .
This .imply result< in ",me .... ''''
holdup and residence time. If L «
L"". then i""" .... H" Ittaloulal<: A.
and the colculotion, from Step
6. If L > L""" the <Ie';gn i, aoceplllble
for vaporlliquid separatioo. If L »
L",,, (liquid separation and holdup
",,"trol). L can ooly be reduced aDd
Lit'" increased if Hv i. reduced. Hv
nu.y only be reduced if it i. greater
than the minimum specified in Step 9.
I,\'ith reduced H", recal<.'Ula!c Ay and
"'peat from Step 9.
20. Calculate UD. If UD « 1.5.
then dec..,...., 0 (unle .. it i, already It
a minimum) and """,at from Step 6.
If L/D » 6.0. then inere .... D .nd
"'peat from Step S.
2 1. Calculale the thid ..... of the
.hell and heads according to Table 8.
22. Calculate the surface lrU of the
ohell and heads according to Table 8.
23. Calculate lile approximale yes.
... 1 weiglll ,",conIing to T.ble 8.
U . Inc"' .... or .... !he diant_
e! .... by 6-in. inc"' .... nlS .nd "'peal the
calculations unlil UD ranges from

25. With the op.irnum "e"",1 'itt
(mi nimum weight). cakulate l>O/IfIal
and high liquid levels;
(52)
A.,''''' = AUJ." V,/L., (53)
Obuin HIIU USing T.ble 3 wilh

d.sign proc.dur.:
.... uek.' and w.ir
1. Calculale the v.por volumetric
flow rate. Q" u$ing Eq. 5
2. Calculate the lighl and heavy
liquid yolu .... uic fl<)W rates. Q .... and
QIIL. per Eq • . 9.nd 10.
3. Calculate lile ,·ertical lennina!
"apo< ,-doci,y. Uf' using Eq. 4 K
from Table 2) and SC1 U. _ 0.7S U
r
4. Sc:1«1 ,""sidcntt limes for ligln
and heavy liquids. 9 .... and 9
HL
• For
soor water ,uipper fce<l drum$, 9&_

60 min for refinery ... ",ice. or IO----l S
min for cl><mical · pl3nt .. ",ice. For
amine "'generalor feed drums. 0",- =
10----15 min .
S. Obtain UD from Table 7 and
initially ... ' the di ..... ler """'lfding ""
"1"1><11 caitula", the 10I.aI c",",·"""ion-
II usinJ Eq. 21.
Ii. Sel tht vapor spaa: If,.
to the laq:er of O,W or 2 ft (I ft if
-
=
lhe", i. 00 mist ehminalor). Using
H.,ID in Table 3. oixain AlAr and cal-
culale A"
7. Calenl"'" L,:
(55)
8. Calcul ... ,he liquid dropout
ti ....... using Eq. 23.
9. Caieulale !he ""' .... 1 V3(lor veloc·
i. y. U .... u,ing Eq, 24.
10. Calculat. the minimum lenglll
roo- v.porlliquid ... p.ralion.
L""",, u'ing &I. 25.
11. If L, < L"Ii'" then .. , L, _ L_
(vaporlliquid "'p;""ion conlrols).
nu. simply results in _ ."ra
holdup and "",idellCe lime. If L , «
L" .. , then incruse H,. <"".>lculale A"
and "'PC"" the C1lculalioo. from SI"1'
7. If L, > L"IN< lile des.ign i. ,",ce[JI'
able fOf vaporlliquid :lC1"'r.llion.
11. Calculate ,he lighl liquid t.yer
Ihlckness based 00 IlIe I><.vy Jiqui-d
"""ling 00(:
'" 343.57 fels
=2.55fIl5

Qu. '" 45,000 IIYh '" 18.52 felmin
60 mi D'h X 40.5 It}lre
4x277. 80 lit] - ll I5ft,useI I.Ofl
- 0.6n x 1.7 x 'I. - .



7,500 lhlh , .
QUL'" 60 minlh X 62.0 Iblft' = 2.02 ft Imln
L, = 277.80 = 14.54 ft
95.03 - 71.08 - 4.85

luI2.l '" 2.0 min x 2.02fl 'Imin = 045 ft
A,.L 8.93 ft' .

IHLQu '" 2.0 min x 18.52 ft ' /mi n = 2.47 ft
A u. 15.02 rt'


u. - Qv _ 343.57 re/s 4.83 fils
VA - A,. - 71.08ft'
Distillation and 0Ihef Irduslrial Separations 227
,
w, .. _ ..... ... ...,._ .....
.. ....
__ lit.
", .. _ ... ""''", ..... _." ...... .
Nomenclature
... ,_.""_ ......... ,-
_ ... ....... .
.. _I .........
... _ .. Cofto<y.
W, •. Irl(:l. " . ..... _ ..... __ ..
_ .. , .. _""-.-.... .....
.. C ..... _.,..I;''''
-_ ... ..--......
--...... ... -- .-.. __ eo. \Ipoo_
__ ." ,,","" '--""r"_
_ .. _.s. ...
... -.. ,, ..... ""' ........
...... [-
"OJ
wI><", 0 , i. in microns.
13. Calcul,,,. t he difference in
Iocigllt botw""n tile ligllt and heavy
liquid weirs:


Design the light liquid bucket
Set the lop of light liquid weir .. 0 _
H.,; assume the bOllom is at O. I25D;
.«ume a holdup/ourge (typically.
5-IS min.): 3SSume HU is 6 in.
below"'" weir height.nd ILL is 6 in.
abo". the bottom of the
Using Table 1 with IIHU,ID and
Hu.fD. caleulat. ),NU, and A
UL
·
lleulale 1.,:
(TH + T.)Qu.
L, =
(ANu,- A
UL
)
IS. A .. ume I" the l"'l1e' of 0112
or 12 in.
16. De<ign the hea>y liquid cOm·
parlm<nt: Set the top of the he.vy liq·
uid wc;, .. 0 _ /Iv _ &II; aosUm< a
holdup/surge (typically, min);
assume /Ill is about 6 in. below the
woir height and UL is about 6 in.
above the boito", of the vessel . U.ing
T" ble 1 with II
n
dO and lidO. cal·
culate ),HU, and Aw;.
Cakuhue L.-
,
• ....... <t<IOO....roo...I --. a'
' .
• ____ --.ft'
'-
.... oflip 6qvOI __ boo·
_.'
"

,,,,,, ......
'.
• ... _""",,
<. • nouI< dia.. ill, 0 .... '" "" ....
.. oprik<lJ
, _ ...... diam«<t. II or ill.
".
• booo dia., n
'-
• drnpIe' d",,, ft . '" ""'ro,"
" .
_ _ di,..PI"""'" d ....
,
• _ P'" _;...,y. dl""",_
-

_ .... , ... "-' _ 31.17 M'
,
• botI!Io I .... id Iood, "",,"'
"
• h<i"".
".
• 1"'fOOt ...., __ ;., '"
".
_ 1iq0i4 h<,.., from .... bof!\o '"
f...!""'-*.n
".
• d;............- hoi""-
".
• _"P h<;p..
".
_ h<;"" ""'" ,.,Wol '-fa«., U
_.
"-
• HU. .,,,,,, _""*"'"'" ""*"'- /I
"-
• liP< liqu" "',"" i. __ ft
"-
• I;"" ...... i'
"-
_ Ii"" liquid "'i"" i .........
"-
• ..... h....- '" lOp .... "...,.., ft
".
. .... "" _1Wot bqoid....., MlW'

",
. ..... "...,.., ft
",
-.,,'" _'" _>to< 0<;1"'-
".
• _ di"",&-,&,,""'" .... h<iFo<. ft
".
_ _ ......... 11

_ "","" din'.....,. _ liP< lAd
I><avy 10q0>;I ""'''- "'.
c, • Sdoo' Ito ... ..."."" ,.ko<iI)' """
...... (inJmio)(,P)I(h'I'!'l
,
_ ........, ""Iocity M

_
'-
_ ...,.,." .... id _"'" ........"
_.
',"
• ., "'fin«! l. l
,
• ""I 0< poi>
(TH + T.}Qm.
L,' ( )
-A,L!.

17. Calculate L L, 1.," L, + 1.,.
18. CakulOie UO. If UD« U.
28 Distillation and Othef Industrial Separations
,
_ """_ !\ow, n'''" '" a'lrnin
,
• .-................. »1 ... ""
M •
_ ..-;.,.,;tf.....,. beI_
I""" lAd I><avy 10qu0d.
,
• ,,,,,,,,,,," "''''''''''''''. l,.
'.
__ '_.i.,
'-
• xuli .... tim< kIr "" .. , I ....... ""'P<U
... of h"" I.'l-.'"
'.
• n.. ""'" kIr 1;111< liqWd ""'P«' "'"
or ""''l' I;q.od. mi,
"
• ""II thlcf.no ... Lo.
"
• '-'P,lm<."".
"
._" ........
"-
• "'_ hoo\..,..., flh
"-
• _li .... _, of .... 'l' I .... id
""'P«' "'" or liP< !;quid. ",1mi.
".
• ,;,; .... ",Iocity of li .... ';quid ""'P<U
... of _1 liquid. io./wO.o
".
• ...... "..,.i"..M
"-
• """'.nociI}',
",
• trmwo4I .. Iocity. /tI, '" i.hllin
". • "'I'" ... ko<it" M
".
• .... ""' __ r· M
'.
• -.., "" ..... /I'
'-
_Ui._ft'
"
A -.. ""oune. ft'
"
.. ,...., w.iJIK. Ib
".
• __ ,born ........ ill.
""'" 1<, • .".


tiqo .. """"",,,, bon<, ...
,

"", ..... liquid_
,

.i>oo<i ,y.oP
,

...."iI)'. Ib'tt'


kiqyid •
-....
H, HL
• h<"1Iiqok!
"U • [;qoid ,.,,1
'U • '1JhI';q.,Id
=

"'" tiqoid """
,

......
'U •
""""" ,iquid .... ,
,
• ,-
Ih<n decrease D and "'peat from S'ep
If UD» 6.0, then iTICTea.., 0 and
repe. 1 from
19. Calculate II>< thickness <>f!he
shell and beads aocooling to Table 8
20. Cakulate the surface area of
"
Table 10. Data for bampl1l2
,
. ' •
--,,"
, ..
.-
HylIro<"bo" "POf W,.235.IW p,.o.HIO
Hydro .. rooo liquid W" • • p,' 4C.!
D< ,\ P, '00 ",,'Y Elh".;.01
W ... , W .. • 7,!j1X1 p,_ &2.D • • 1).112
D> II 11. .... , oI", .. ,uro He"",,,.;.,.,",
_ "' P. do ... ,.. ..... and 0._'"
,hell and heads ;>CCOI'{\inil '0 Table S.
21. Calculate"'" approximate '"ell -
weighl """onIi"1l to Table g,
U. In<,,,ase or decrease .he dian>-
ctor by 6-in. increm<nt$ and rep'" the
calculation. un1;l UD ranges from
1.5-6.0.
Example 2
Design a three·pll3se OOriwnlal
-.antor with a 10 >q>a,,"e Iho
in Table 10. n.e opera,ill3
pttSSun: and 'cmpc"'tun: are 2'i psig
and 100, respecti, .. ly. and it i.
s.ary!O ha'" I liquid holdup and surge
lim< of 15 min
1. See Eq. ES. box. p. 38
2. See Eq •. E9 and EIO. box. p. 38
3. K 0.175 (II .. Gas J'roce»on
Suppliers' Association val ... in Table
2 was di,- idcd by 2 ,in<e there is no
miSl eliminator).
See F..lJ . Ell, 00'. p. 38
U
y
z 0.7S " 2.SS = 1.91 ftll
4. Holdup + .urge as 'pcciliW. IS
min.
V N + V, " (I S min) (1852 ft'lmin)
ft'
As"""", 10 min holdup. S min
surge.
Assume 1.7.
• ...,Eq.EI2.box,p.38
AT. 11/4 (11.0 ft)' '" 95,03 ft'
6. Si""" tilt maM ralt of vapor is
.bOn, 82% of ,I>< lo.oding. o.r< H.,o be
much Ihan Ihe mInimum.
A .... "'" H. E 0.700 '" (0,70)(1 LO f,)
= 7.70 ft. U.ing Table 3. AIAT _
0.748. A." 71.08
7. 1/= = (0.5)(11.0) + 7 '" 12.5 in ..
u'"' 13 in.
HdD = 13/(1 LO 12) = 0,098
Using Tobie 3. A,dAT- 0,051
AUL _ (0,051)(95.03 ft') E 4.85 ft'
8. H..- _ 1 LO - 7,70 .. 3.30 ft
9. See Eq, ED. bo •. p, 38
Use L,. l'i.O ft.
10_ H!II. .. Hu. E 3.3IY.! '" f'
II . I/!II.ID .. 1.65111.0 = 0, I 50
From Tobie 3.An/AT. 0,094
IINC - (0,094)(9'i .03 ft') _ 8.93 ft'
Au .. 15.02 ft '
12. From Table I. i . _ 0.333
U
IIL
- (0.333)(62.0 - 4O..'l)(l.24_
29,83 in)min
Use 10 in)min (maximum)
UU/ .. (0.333)(61.0 - .,
10.50 inJmin
Use 10 in)min (maximum)
13. INL = (12 in)ft)(1.65 ftjllO
ill)min .. 1,98 miD. use 2.0 mins
'", -2,0 min
14. See Eq •. EI 4 and 10 15. box.
p. 38
U ... L, = 3.0 ft .
15.La 3.0 + 15.0_ 18.0ft
Iii. • _ 7.70 fIII.91 fll. _ 4.03 •
17. Sec Eq. E16. box, p. 38
, _ 55xl32 IL -030'·
• - 2x 17.500xO.85 - 1.2x55 + "6 -. m.
• Ell
+'/16 '" 0.495 in.
• E, • £IS
W'" 490 lb X 0.5!X1 ill ·(673.87 f1 ' + 2 X 101.88 fI') '" !7 920 Ib
ft' 12 mJfl .
• t,'q._ £1 9
18. L,,11' .. (4.83 fII.)(4,03 • ) ..
19.5 ft
19. Since L < L,.... set L _ 195 f'
( ... t L, = 16.0 ft. L, " 3,5 1\)
20. UD .. 19.5111.0 _ 1,78
H . A .. ume disl>td I><ads per
nbk: II.
Assume E z 0.85
Use SA-5 16 70 "arbon stul,
<le<ign ICmpe,,"ore z 650"
S 2 17.sao psi; from Ref. (3).
Corro<;.,n allovo" """ _ V,. in.

See Eq, 1017, on thi.

Stt Eq, 10 18, 00> "" this page.
U ... 'n " \'; in,; 1_ ,., in.
2!. A,,, 1l(11.0 ft) ( 19.5 ft) ..
673.87 ft,
AN - (0. 841) (11.0 ft )' _ 101.88 ft'
23. See Eq, E 19. box on thi, page.
2J. In Ihi. e .. mple. cakulalions
'Oi"'" performed for only On<: diame·
Itr. Ho><'e>'",. neaTly lhe minimum
UD "orresponded to a dianlOleT of
11.0 f. ; 'I><",fore, ,I>< ne.t diameter
5bould be sman.,. resulting in •
I..-g"' UD. AI.o. caleul.,ion, .hould
be performed using a diameter of
11.5 f!
25. fur tilt lighIliqWd 0JCIIflI"UTlt!t:
HHU." H..- _ 3.3 ft - 3 fL 4 in.
AML '" 4.85 + 185.20'16.0 .. 16.43 It'
A.....!A
T
- 16,43195.03 0. 173
V.i", Tabk 3, HIiUID = 0,229
IIHI.J. (0.219) (11.0) = 2.S2 ft - 2
ft, 6 in.
H
UL
- 13 in .
Comment: Due 10 Ihe .mall
amount of heavy liquid and large
Imounl of vapor, a ben", design
would have uoed a boot. A vertica l
vessel s hould be compared . ••
welL mol
Distillation and O!he<" Industrial Separations 229
,

UT II Hold up 'ime for He. ore HSurned..(p.ith the pr<X."al cose. paM~k_ W_ _ 8111y1_ From Eq •..'eioxity of a d roplet i.. di .. paration is COIIEq ..:cing tbe approximate weiglll heavy liquid "'u<l be great« than tbe time required for .·sectional are.On lal design pr<>CfflU"" are pre. can be calcuout of the contino lated.. I'1ooM Mi..y liquid.. 1_3..hree-ph. .1 re..diameter. [n si>. _ H)6151 X !O· ' D... ' he length should be increased (liquid separati"" i. resull of.P minim.. [f ~ conditions"'" not <atis"me available in the heads i... light and he • .... since UTis vaporlliquid separation are calculated. set by guideli nes..c$ull$ in: than lbe time required for !be beavy .jth a cult (.horiWlltal separators ". ~U1k8 1Ih . W_ . Practicall y Then.se with arc. SOme sy. !be !rolling)..("wening beavy liquH.!'I'.he oratots.hell and held •... of literature """". "'" calculated.. F.~ in"ersely pr<>p<>r!ional to the viscosi· oerasforthetwophase case.=2. .... of !be ligb! and ron~noou. and !be . ph..idence times for th... calculated MoIhyl io~ 10.ted andcompared WIth For 'cnic:al septhe required . elociti"".I!i Values of k.. In the su bsequent design beigh1$ of !be light and beavy liquids procedure •. with lhe assumed height< of the spcaking. .. ~~ til<: .design guidelines. ron_ ing a separalOr. a.se . the lauer 'PP"'IICh is used.."."k OOt of the lig ht liquid design procedurOl incorpor"'e opti . and the residence .. to ..I5 m ~ time.ith hith time.. maximum. the length' the greater vis· required by holdup requi"'mcn(1 and rolity.uboe· qucntly cakul. I and <. then liquid . 3.I-Urned "" that """'" time) to .. lower. t_ .' I.· of the "enieal w. parale." in Figure 2. it CIJI be 5Cen thaI rator j.. . diffi· F.p...Il<: U.. .ime of .nd heuristiCS are ." . t· tic til<: drople(1 the c"".sel diameter _ k. The height W" . tiling .e then The followi ng deS ign procedu"." ~" terns in Table I.. lhe beigh1$ or the light and heavy liquids are as... review The residtncc ti""... to 10 i n.. 1l>e horirontal droplets to . are given f".. are determined "."qu i re.oUtl'f d'. !be residence Horil.. be ligllt liquid of the . von.R<' droplets to ri .separator types lime of the light liquid mu« be greal<T "eloxity to in1min from fVs .. tben either the diameter H in oor previoos sI100ld be inrn:ascd or. requin:d f".1<_ ~.. WIth the d isengagement UOU$ ph.s calculaled. in ..e. U r is light and heavy liquid. uling .. .28084 x 10"' feet) and Ur..he diameter and length by phase.PJ mi:cing ...1 of . are .".) muSI be inc". in lhe lame man· II""". '1<J<Iie eD'f»0../ mi n 1l>e actu. • • • • • • ..) to oP. ill oaloulatioll' tling time.. w. !be diame· te. S .. for trolling and the IlqUld-ltqUld separatlDnS ve.edure. ..-on< (I mioron • phase."Ms. fied. loci· oussed in OUr previous paper for vapor/liquid separation /2/.. give" di~r.06 151 X 10-'0.l. Henc •. oUl of the beavy liquid of conservatism ' 0 the des ign.. vapor disengageare not greater than lhe requirnl set_ ment is calcuLo"'" tling ti"". .inimin.. along "."ling • Fizun I._ .. for a giwn ""iele (2).. and calculated typically limited .8$ed. ""etI ... . and """"pled industrial Simplifying Eq. the units of the terminal .. " Distillation and Other Industrial Separations 219 ..ho".cd for tho fow. ~f"'! liquids mu st be: W~" added to TeSidence k. from IbI(ft)(. llling ti~ •. S.. If the residence tinle. the "01whcu 0.. ty of !be continuous phase.. To add a deJl..--"'.!<P. ties and .... '" -.. . ignored._ on.euling !be liquid. m""..$. the .. il in rIIie... it ''''por a. ling . 2 may be rewritten H: Table 1 Typical values of k.

the re.: H• • 6 in. If surge ....w. 1.. ..y liquid droplets 10 set~e !hroogh this di. the diam<:tcr lnd repeat the J>f'OC<'Iure from Step 7 (liquid t..60 minlh X 53. minimum.. c. Q _ u ...9g. ith that as. + Y.i<icnce time of each ph .. (12 in conv.. or 24 in... e. i> J.. that AH A.. ""' . distance: I UI = .. D" 10..6973 Ibln' 165.."w t:I Qv= 415.sumed ""I"" is rusonable.r<ion [""'0< for ft to in.pI'.5000 lbJh _ 5 10 n 'l .U "' Chock this ""I"~ . occupied by the light and heavy & bea.... II.O•• . '" ("'4)1)' i..300 Iblb =0.600 sill X 0. t t.69~J6973 _ 2. ( II) 3. " 8u.32 fI'/s ....Ur = 0.'" .35 ft'lmin 60 minlhx62. dN + great~.i.!Il(1SO x 1~1t 1.... "'" 'pccifiod. If lbere is a bam..... 16. ~ fl). Pv)· b..74 ftls • F~~"'. minimum 0(: 36 in. (13) in lhe box.95 Ihlft' .....= .ight "'ing the guidch"...te (PI.e WDID.O. + H. cakulatc the surge heigh t based OIl surge lime: (J6) pi\as.liminalOl).. '" Y...dN(with mist o!iminato... NOI.es: 12HH ( 12) 9. &jUllIi<m 1. plale...lwl .~1 h. = -. ' . the outi<t (boldup & T1>e minimum is 6 in..05 ftls O. Usc Figure) 10 oouin G.~D or...te tbe height of the lighl liquid abo.32fV/s v 1t 2.. con· trolling).) : height) based "me: OIl the =luired holdup (l~) IHI. . C. ( .tt _ : I .313) 53.. + O..U 12111. •• "'~ " " . Calcul. Se!e<:t!be larger value of . Assume WD _ 4 in. liD . '" See Eq.<.... mm .. r. 10. Calculat.. of (2 [t or H. for the li"... ithout mi" .. Calculate !be ORa of !be bame plate sel1li"g .. I..\ liquid: .. .... 12.13 ft • £qtuUUJ8 EJ ~ 2Il1 ~ 10·.."j: IJjstiUation and Other Industrial Separations 221 ... 3 to detennine . 1l lbln J • E<i. = 116:1"' (1 4a) 8 He = HQ"A H (l4b) If ell "" 1m or 8/tl < lUi" inc .... Assume fl. calcu· late tbe area: "... I fI (min imum) and calculate tbe senling lin'" for tbe ligh t liq uid d ropletS to rise through thi. Calculato . med in Step 9b to ~nSUre thai the a.Ull5h I&'''' . Use Tobl. Calcul.I>" k.<panltion i.. &jtuUUJ~ E4 Q HI. £5 g. d... in ft Co-·.. (usc 9 in " a mm!· mum) and calculate fI. A. Calcu!"e the ve...·1 '" = J 4XI65.. Calculate . based on the volume... DI. h..u_ fI~ . + !l. d.000 Ib'h 3... Calculate .·.

Min.-..~ l .kJuid ~ Min.. 1l in.. if there is no mi . --ljgN. eliminato.IL.. Assume HL .. Calculate the vapor . calcula!e tht rising "elocity of the ~ghl liquid OU! of tilt heavy liquid phue u'.ng one of Calculate tilt K . '" "" _ . and Qm. _... the m..1 o \ LiI.6OOP... '" . conscrvati. 2. ppon ring and 'Q<md up to tht """ 6-in.. 1. Dv& where t.l diameter..Uin. Min... 10 inJmin): '" S.. C~late tht $Otting velocity of the heavy liquid oo! of .witII_ -< N ~ ~Nf~ --." O.. C. 12in...pJ U/ - (8) 6. I f".OJ (10) Q v= 3.. obcair>ed from Table loris calculated (soe Eq.dimensions: I . - ~ . ... i •• mi<t eliminator.. Cakulate tht ve..=~ Q H1 - W ...11. Vertic:al ""$ign procedure -0..1 -I1H Rdcrr !o Figu".~ TI .. I fI (minimum) and calc"J .. 7. W. ~ !iJ..... .. ligh! liquid using Stoi:e<·l. add 3-6 in.: Q<J. !O D'7> 10 accommodale a . "" -.. U H1 _ k"(PH-pJ - ILL 6Op" "1" J... Qu.. increment to obtain D.f- l' I 1..... for. i. 3).. '= := 11 . -.L ~... l' -' o -<... "'- '" . Calc"lale the light and heavy liq uid ""lumetric /krW raIeS...:r.."."".... .. ..nl Stol:es' law: u _ k"(p. <'.. D.w (the maximum i. tilt settling tim< f<J< lh< 220 Distillation and Othef II1dustrial Separations ."Olumetric How rate: If tht".'e design. D'7> 4. .1 intern... ' l .7~UT 1..L ." h/xls in Table 2 and set U.lcul ate !be ""nkal IC1'1IIinal ~aJ"l< ""locily: u'.t'O kJuid ~ Min.. Similarly.1 TII 1 . .

._ Ua • O. U. " A. cakuLaie X IIlin. .:U.I>397} [ ••.. 7.-10.1.*. -----l.800 gphlfl'.. (12) ( 1.P.. The ~. 0...-2L92)9:J2 '.1 . Ugn! fible I.630 _ 2. + II.. . .5 fl.0) ·." H.0 . " 53.. Cakulole ill<: li. .95 . 1I..9200\11 <. H.... 11 .lhe ligltl Uquid 10 rise 001 "r the heavy liquid II. uocd. fle pla'e and wi". ID in ." 12 in . a. . Q. ""IKC 1~ of only S ""n.11 in.Or.-----"'.... C.. Calculate .( 40..lM03 •• S. ~. E':2 in the box.ample 1 Si~. G .ue the 5<"l1lin.. 16J(62..53.-. a. and il i..). Assume HH • I 1'1 and eaknlale Th....25 • As""rne If.~. ...". 7'7101 Table 4 Dala for Examplo 1. veniell .1'''''30 ~ Ie. + H" (17) If I mi .-.Ie out of me li&hl liquId p/Ia5<"...ioI\alhei&ht ill addtd as _boIoo'R in FiJl're I .•. 9. ' . E. p..!O • ASSUmo 11'.7~ ~ 2. eqllolltiQnS.y loquld 10 ". ini Haure 3. U...1lS fll.6973 " 53. Use D ~ 10... n" "'" NJI) • • ... Cakul..7S)( 2.rminll .a..1lOr pad i. ..0317 + 0..53. 1._J16 •• numn /_9""."or wim I baf.9 min 9. • • 0.> ~ •• .$h mi" elirn'M- tor 10 sepanlle lhe mixl~re lIi"cn in 'Iltble 4.. k• • 0..74 inJrnin 6. Assume H •• I fl and ClIkulate !be lime fuo..u' .IA.. Iht Ii"".hl . addi.te H. 'c---'!'---. and 0. )" "'''" 0" ).he box.. 01_ .$+0. roo. necessary 10 have a hydrocarbon liquid holdup limo of 2j min and. J. rIIlei. _ IIH + ilL + H.. ~.. ''''ocily of the ligltlliquid oul or IIIe 1Ie•• y liquid ph..7 min 8.<' WI) . see Eq.. te.lffle pla'~ '''' orca. I\ow .vy liquid voIumeuie /I"".1)..: ft¥I a..----' . Ao • (7 .Jj. + 11... see Eq.-(12)(1..-----. V..'0.. <& + {X'+ It... " 4 in.16J(62. elimi!l.... ).l!lIS '".he \'eIsel inner diamete'.800 JpMt'" 0.. ------ Table 3 Cylindrical helghl ond a rea conversions . Coleul.11 . . _]&. ".95)10. 0." 2. a. ure is 16' p. ~. EI in We box..inll Table 2. Calculate Iht vapor "OIu""""". UUf ~ 0 . see Eq . p ....11411' ~.$2' .. -0-0.OO"17S6 ~·W .25 ft' Tab lo 5 Inlel nou lll siZing ".: II'"ID .J..]63. 11 . the b....0.0) n..-__ . I. . .74z6. _24 in. Eq. ==~" ...aling pre . Calculate !be Yef1ical ".AJA.. . E4 and B in !lie bo~.3$)(1'1')19.5) ./min 5.. 'x' .9160111 •• _UOI"lOS 1-~1~3<I .nd "". 22 ~stilla\ioll and Other Industrial separations ..764 .the hca.9..!.lcul'te ' "" seldina vel<><..""ocily.. 41( 12 " 10..·".ily of the heavy liquid 001 oIlhe ligltlliquid phil.48 g~Vn')(60 minlh) (~.2WlO1 ~... 5.ID -. !be Yon Derni .ia..0 ...----'.

51.S fl.. lOSe d" • 24 in. 1..35 a u l'I'Imin . 2~ H.• 3. .) .oiI.0006) .. 10 + 0. 11. InsW on boIdup: U '"..55 Iblfe )( 53. IO .4 1 HD 3 204 . 3 ft Set II.ta"" P. 11 - d.35Y60~ 16. Ao '" 0.5 (10. 10 ft'ImiQ) (25 nlln}'85.82 . 0.4IIW.73 f1 4X I65.5 ft .. Q..5 f •. "' ("''')(10. >( 6OltfJO.. -ae Horizontal dellgn procedure: no boot or wair I... 2412 • 36 in..rd In.1Q"Iio>...n ft' .1.730 ---.59 . and H D.35:0'(5. OJ5)(fl'lmi..0 ft) M> . .""" 1II 1L . 5.0 ft) + 2 ft . UfI Hs . \I(II. .. 0 .• • Usiag Table J ..5 ft.n . .) 10 e.tD sbouId be in !be 0( 1.'. g on ..lcula!e E.59 fI')IO. IM. E7 (_ 00. 10.. "" ..5 10 6 . ... ' III"Wi>t.. llie Eq. ~ "Ou~ tim.. Q". ...0 ft. i<><_ . • 0... H• • 0..0.. Comp'"'''' . 1.0 ft.. C.. Calculate II".lel.0 ft.. Hs'" O. _ 14...~ fl..II.0095 : .ru of tho hgllt liquid aoo.nl" ..d I.. .. 1 "". 0. . From I~aur" I. liN . HD . ..0110. . . lculate tho ""iikroce lime of each phase: ~ (1.) _ (54.." \'." 86.5 ft.• pot" flow "'t<. U. H D• 0. (0.~ fl (If CU:u~!C " " .o".5 tW a 86-'9 ft' A o ..' .""liW.0 ft (minimum) Use HD _ 5.= QL1(Q" .. (2. H. 10 fI'/min ..1 dimensions: D ." """"nltO " 54.lth.3 Add 2 ft 10 IId Jl•• 2.0 fl) (8'-17 ft')l5. 0. H..0). 16. ~"od "' ''''I ooil ~. Q. ~ (5.. n fll 10. d" ~ 21 in. Distillation and OIlier Industrial Separations 223 .. _ 16..hal IIID _ 1. ) (5 minY86.~. Add 1. t" hj ~ h ' Q.5).. 1 10 min from 1>0""".10 . Fin. (0.".._ ""bb.. 8S. g.82 ftl. _ 0... _own .... 5 .82 fI' • U.s9 0. t " gOO1 I. _ 0." . E6 (!oCt 00... 10 + .5 _ 1.. uSina Sq.. '. _ 1 fl O.4 min II .31 f..ih 10".730 )'" .55) (0.'o: tho ou. d~ occon:Iing 10 f.1 ..) 10 o:ak"IlIaIed.: 1/&. . Il. 1.52 (JI.5 ft.6973) ( I _ 0 .01Moootod " Poorly 1...95 + /7~ X 62.0 1'1) (86..'..0006) " F !'WI gH 1.5. (S.£1 095) (86-'9 l'1'l ..0 ft. and... Table 5: ). 247 . H.5 ft.".. II"" _ 3.J2 • 60)" Use Eq .8 min OHl " (1.+ p~1 _ ).35 .n. f. 2. I/~ ~ 1. Cakul<i!e the hei. 7.0ft H/O"'14."id 13 .id mo" boo!WOI" HI! [" 10 I. (5.!'i.. A. _ " " " II . A. Calcul. Calculate the . (5 ... 0.!'i.~ . .5 fl for the mi" eUminalor...P.

·al .. SeleC\ holdup alld surge time< from Table 6 and cakul.). 0!beT.dAr Horizo ntal desig n procedure: he..""'ing '0 Thble g. limeo of tbe light and heavy liquid" (28) I L Calculote til< actual v'po' • Distillation and Other Industrial separations . 2. "" miSl eliminator.0. " Q.(A "L +A u) (22) I O.. paration control.. acceptable for vaporlliquid .oldup """.. This .. 4.'1. and . from Eqs. Fo<this and olher calculation •. Hv may only be reduced if it i. recakulat. ob!ain . otherwi .)+V.. K ral"" from Table 2) and .LI..nd 19 (unless "'rgci.~.. para· tioo. ilv and repeat the procedure from Step 9.. rge times ond .5-6.' 9. calculate the nor· mal and high liquid levels: IINu KD. repoat from Step 5. U" using Eq... Calculate tile light and hca"Y iquid volumetric How "'. (here.. I ft if here i.. Set til< vapo< . Cakulate tbe approxi. A. greater tit ..: (23) - 13... 21..A v. and cal· :"Iat • ...A HL)L (29) Q u If Ohl.{AHL+A. A.. 18 . cn as a . QLI. Il<ight. < 'ut OT AU.. Ufo ~sing Eq. vaporlliquid .. I ~nd (A HL + Au. and Vuo using Eq. c the tOlal crou·sec. then '" increa . uid pha .YD in Table 3. 9 and 10.. Calcula'e ttlt light and tltavy liquid volumetric now rates. (With re<luced If".to the h.urge i.. and if UD » 6. specified .te tile minirnurn lengtll to occommodate the liquid J-.e lOC<)I'ding to: the diameter (20) :alcul . and repeat. <ltcreO$e D (unless it i.5. (27) 16.rge: LV.'Olumetric flow flIte.0 lhen in<:rr:a<e D.. 5.AT -AV . velocities of .. L c .. If L» L_ (liquid h. Calcul.H1 .loul.. using Eq.ho ligh' liquid out of lho I>cavy liquid phase. Increa<e Of decrease the VCMeI diameter by 6-io.. usi ng Table 3 witll the ''lillie o f A. Calculate til< tIlicb\es$ of the !hell and tltads "". Cl kulate the minimum length '""Iuired for '-aporlli'luid .vy liquid out of the ligh t ph .).".'1. VIII. '.vy liquid boot 1..Iug volu"". already at it.te 'Il< v.. til< veni".por . Se l«t h. pa . Z.) Not... 7 and 8 (filld k. .."..i". e I .): velocity: rom Thble 6 ""d cakulate the h. . using Eq •. A r=1 6. ttlt minimum specified in Step 6..ults in ''''''e extra Itooldup and residence lime.oldup and surge vol"mes.te ' <Oli' sel weight according to Table 8. come. Calculate the venical tenninal velocit)'.ho UD flItio rang •• fro m 1. QLI. Calculate 'Il< "Uli".. 23. Ie . Calculate !be 5e1t1. Q".. (A T.oWup 4 .. t U v '" U~Ur eu 11.. tIlan"' (ee) mean a variaocc of greater tIlaii 2Q<I. 14. llength (Iiquid"i>" aration contrOl. Usi". If UD « 1. 21./ilv 'M) I Z. Calculate the liquid dropout in ... 3.. If L > LUIIi" the design i. increased if Hv is reduced. per Eq. 20. tioo: (30) 5.. '1. ( 18) (19) U".W or 2 ft. 4 (til< K . If L e< L"lN' then increase Hvand Ittal· cul. (select.. Cakul... H" "" o the larger of O. VH ar.d V.1 terminal lClocity.../L (32) Obtain IINLI.. VH and V.. ond calcul.+V.'. 3. 19.. the ves. (unless . If L e L""" then $d L '" L"".ho Il<... from Table 2) and set U v '" 0.. "much greater than"' (») and "muel.io "" UD from Table 1 and nitio"l c. until . Caleul. ~. Calcul.urge volumes.YA .0 in Table 3.vy liquid OUt of the light hq.75 U r 4.. ""Iy be rr<luced and L""..JIII Tabk I).H.. 9 and !O...y.. H"L and Hw 8.< minimum). aDd tbe light liquid oot of Ill< heavy "" Ul Calculate UD.imply re. 'roIs).oldup and . (31) -11<LL . Slaning from Step 9. the tltign" of the heavy ""d ight_~uids. increments and repeat the calculation.. Calcula'e surface an:a of the !hell ""d bew acw<ding 10 Thble 8.. alld '1m.te the reside. using (HHL >Hu.te A . fn. times of the tIt."1 ~.'IV' .oIdupl. 15. Using the optimum vessel si"" (minimum weight). and QIIt.

..illJl Eq .. De'erminellNIL using Tabl. L"'I>' u... u.)lUI<L (35) 19...A r. volurn. mal and Iti&h liquid k . then increase IIv and "". Calcul"e the sct~jnB time of Ill. Thi.. . such as ... IIHV' e..w" u.. 13.ing "dori'y of tl>< light liquid oot of tl>< I><. tl r. of the ..bIe 3. 6.. : IHI. cakula"..IU8 ..qui<! ~ the bot· 10m of the '. 'lid phase. UNt • " ."scd if II" i..."Olumc). Calculale the actual v.kul.. vy liquid oot (lf the light liquid pha.ing F.. 14. the minimum Itllglh required for liquid/vapOr .. 8..teA .igilt)..Iume io the I. UD..A v. 1!Id repeat from S..p<:>' velocity.oo bead.ls: (38) • 20.aleul.eight of the . 24. Calculate the .IA.. IIv may only bt reduced if it 'S greater than tbe minimum .~..1 size (minimum ".): (39) 'n Step 6.. If L» liquid holdup conuol •. 9. or dec".... repeat from Step S. ""'" 2 1.. 25. '''J dro~t using Eq..~a' the <lieu lations until UD rang. If UD « 1.. . If L < L.. the desi". 7 (obtain k.. Using II.. 5. Calculate the .. 8 (find is from . Set the vapor 'I""<' height.rulor). If e u < 'Nt then increa... huvy liquid booI: Set the heigilt of the heavy Uquid.. pam!k>n.ep"""i"".:ss<1. Cakulat.n .~' ional area of th< lig)" l. L can only bt w.ime <If the light liquid: (. A. 23 . Eq. accord· ing 10 TIIble 8. recalculat..W Of 1 ft (I ft if there is 00 miSl clim.. the ri.9. the ... inc".11 and Mads acconling 10 Tabl.in.lly set the diameter according 10: T1Ien calculate the IOlal emu·"".H.urge: LVH+V. II . the length (liquid separation C()n. Calculate til. Calcula ..Juced and L. D (unleM it is already at • minimum) lnd if UD» 6.H..:ording 10 Tabl. With rcduct:d II .. is acceptable for vaporlliquid .'J Note: Thi.. Jd booI. Calculate (he <ro".(A r 24. UIH' USing Eq.-- 1 wi. Calculate the resi<ic""./D in Table 3.""II and ""ads ac... . the .. If L <<L".he liq uid lime... ond clIl_ "")aleA. 3 from A". 2J.---"'==="'-~=~-. With the <>pIimum '. U". trol.. If L> L .0 then incre.pecified . increm...Iocity Jf the heavy liquid ""t of tbe ligilt liq... ~•• sc:l 17. 21." 12 (1I1n + D .. C aku13lt . obI...aporlliquid separation conlrols)..Q. Set {he light liquid lH:ighlS in the "... from I . I).. IIlLO' and IIlJ-O. reduced.. t"'n repe~t from S. 12. thick"".q . Design th..nts and ."..· tional area. D._. specified. I""" . 7.5 then dec"' .. 8. of light liquid igoores the ligilt liquid ". 'rom Tabl... lUing Ilq.... Cakulate the sculing ". 15. Calculate the minimum '.pproximate "." L. 1 diameter by 6-in..vy liquid phase.ngth to a<comrnodo. a of the .ply "..A uv 10.ain A.. ObIain UD from Table 7 and initi. 10 the largcc <If O.".. . /. II. A""" "sing HwiD in T.'" Ui. p 9. 22. 225 Dis~lIatiort and Other Irlduslrial Separations .hell . .".""Its in $OrT'OO c:clra holdup and residence lime. the 001'.le the liquid holdup/.urfac...

at from Step 6..ing Sq. 10.me . Cakulate the light and heavy liquid . incre"".ing Eq...e settling time of the light liqu.0 fl.. If L < Lit"'" then set L _ L . C. L". Cakulate the vemeal tenninal vapor veloci.) . and calculat. (vaporlliquid separation control. 4. it i.. the holdup and . oakulate!he cross·5CCIioo· aI .lcula'e the actual vapor velocity. 16. H" to the latger of 0.. Calcula".75 UU/. aoceplllble for vaporlliquid separatioo.kulat~ !he heavy liquid bQoo: diameter: o. Calculate U D. 9 and 10. Uta..• uch . 25.. of the heavy and light liquid •. U"._ O _lI v 14. (I ft if there is no mi't ehminoto<)..2D or 2 f.·y liquid out o f the light liquid phase and the light liquid OUt of the heavy liquid phase: 'H<~ 12lIu.. ~ 0. c..". (49) (41) Calcul.t.u. " " " Eq.=J4X I 2QNL nU. If UD « 1. This . then Hw.ing Eq.. obtaining the height.\'ith reduced H". 3.'Olume. set U. UUI' u. Hv nu.ID in Table 3.75U.he bQoo: di. Calculate the "'tding velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid ph. 2 1. 2. Calculal<: the low Uqklid level in area..AT A v . and II!.. 11... and the light liquid OUt of the b.1U.. L can ooly be reduced aDd Lit'" increased if H v i. Calcnlal<: the minimum length of the light liquid compartment to aocommodate holdup/. already It a minimum) and """.•. in ftel and Hw.. If D S 4 . _ d. VH and V. Cakul"'" the vapor V{llu". of the heavy liquid.kulate the diameter accoJding to: 2: L. Qu.. and QN/... 22...y. • 'pecified.ing Eq . ' ' ' ' holdup and residence time..ing Eq. 5.. Using IIw/D in Table 3. obtain and oal· culateA .. 4 (find K from Table 2) and ""t Uy _ 0. H" Ittaloulal<: A. 19.~e hei"'t. Calculate minimum L.ric flow rate •.. 21.etric If 11 .. If L » (liquid separation and holdup ". L. If L « L"". ".asc.l iquid "'!>""'tion as the larger of: (42 ) If 8H1• < 'UI' then inoruse ....y only be reduced if it i. 6. I. ".+ 12 in. Using II. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially o. o. For the liquid "'Uling <XIm· iW'rncnt. If L > L""" the <Ie'.. from Step 6. 18 and 19 (unless surge i. od>er. Cakul"'" " w. \'. 0 (unle . in i""b · es (round up to ".'Ula!c Ay and "'peat from Step 9.". 24. and ~peat the colculotion. reduced..ometer.. Find L.ing Eq. J..gn i.""". If L/D » 6.+Ysl)lIJ 0. Sct the vapor .. 7 and 8 (find from Tobk I) IJ.(If{v. in Figu~ How Tal<:.VH+V.. then inere . 9... 7. the reside"".0.611\'40) aJ (43) ll>cn caloulate the lOIal cross-=tioou..I"..!!c.. S.AUL ('" Round to the ft.. Select boIdup and ..urge V{llumes.. 17. the weir height: H .. < 2 Ii. Calculale the thid . Caloulate the minimum length required for vaporllliquid separation. .. greater than the minimum specified in Step 9. _ 9 in.vy Uquid phase.. tim< of the h..imply result< in ". Q".44 or • • • (M) • • • IUI~ the ligh' liquid CQflIpaIlment u. IS. and repeat the calculations fron.urge times fm m Table 6.. D.hell and heads according to Table 8.. 23. from Sq •. The minimum for L.Table I). Calculate the surface lrU of the ohell and heads according to Table 8. recal<. 18. then dec.." per Eq •. (51) Horizontal design procedure: _ir I ..." in. D . Set the interface at the height H"n.. ("') 1ben oakulate 1I.5... n.. ft. 20. Caknl.d QUt o f the heavy liquid pit""..). (48) *.ing ~ad it from Table 9 1211HLIU"."trol)./.. ".utiooal area of the light liquid from: ""ares. 26 Distillation and Other Industrial Separations ..nd "'peat from Step S. Step 6. the liquid dropout time . using Eq. a slug ><>Inme). u. U..cavy liquid: where D i.. HHI. then i""" . to facil· iUlte liquid. using HHelD in Ta bk 3 and cakulate the cto . (45) Round to the ~t \'. ". of the . L.. Calculate the ""nling times of the he.

""sidcntt limes for ligln and heavy liquids.03 .ble 3 wilh '~orizontal d.ID in Table 3.ice.Qv _ 343. (55) (52) A.. L.ce[JI' able fOf vaporlliquid :lC1"'r. 9 .aI c"..52 felmin 60 mi D'h X 40.. Calculat...47 ft 15...irnum "e""...02 ft Imln Ur.."...he liquid dropout ti . i. p. lit] 4x277.llion .54 ft 95.08ft' ..ble 8. Inc"'.93 ft' .Ofl • 277. Using H. > L"IN< lile des. uek... using Eq.... u.71.80 = 14. <"".1V3(lor veloc· i. Caieulale !he ""' .sign proc. Calculate lile approximale yes. Calculate the lighl and heavy liquid yolu ..57 re/s VA - A. .''''' = AUJ. For amine "'generalor feed drums." V.ice.nd "'peal the lhe". 2. then incruse H.-doci.6n x 1. ' the di ....l '" 2. 9. 11. 25..... C alculate lile .ing Eq. nlS .useI I.ir 1.idellCe lime. With the op..0 min x 18..: .1 'itt (mi nimum weight).08 .. L""". '" 343. QUL'" 60 minlh X 62. < L"Ii'" then .7S U r 4.yer Ihlckness based 00 IlIe I><..= 10----15 min .000 IIYh '" 18.23.. inc"' . 5 2.52 ft '/mi n = 2. 00 mist ehminalor).83 fils IHLQu '" A u. oixain AlAr and calculale A" 7.I~· 19 . S. Calculate .85 • • • luI2... per Eq • .uipper fce<l drum$. A~ufAT" (53) 60 min for refinery ."..>lculale A" and the C1lculalioo.O 25. and 9HL• For soor water .55fIl5 • • • O~ ( 0. Sel tht vapor spaa: I><igh~ to the laq:er of O. 9&_ "1"1><11 caitula".02fl 'Imin = 045 ft A.: calculations unlil UD ranges from 1. = . Calcul .nd 10. ler """'lfding "" Obuin H IIU USing T..porlliquid .. and QIIL.~.0175. the 10I. Calculale the v.. 21.. simply results in _ . '" • 45..' and w..... If L. !he diant_ e! ..por volumetric flow rate. or ~. uic fl<)W rates..""ion conlrols)... 11.0 min x 2. .ign i. 24 . If L ..conIing to T. U . 4 (~nd K from Table 2) and SC1 U. u. Q" u$ing Eq.. 3... u'ing &I.500 lhlh . ..4.. . 9.. from SI"1' 7. 0".0 Iblft' = 2. = ll I5ft.02 rt' 4.y."" . Ii. 10... =2.vy Jiqui-d """ling 00(: "'PC"" If.y. Calenl"'" L .1 weiglll . If L."ra holdup and ""....L 8. 23.dur. U ../L. or IO----l S min for cl><mical ·pl3nt .". Sc:1«1 .. _ L_ (vaporlliquid "'p.j4Q·b. nu.5 It}lre 7. - 71.·"""ionII ~At usinJ Eq.W or 2 ft (I ft if 8. _ 0.".L= D -H. the minimum lenglll ~uire<l roo..57 fels • Qu. Uf' using Eq.7 x 'I. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially . « L".v..80 L.·ertical lennina! "apo< . Distillation and 0Ihef Irduslrial Separations 227 . ". by 6-in.ralion. Q . H~I.he lighl liquid t. cakulate l>O/IfIal and high liquid levels...

... _""". mi.0.ko<iI)' """ . """"".. ~ • 1"'fOOt .-.. _""-.. 19. .. bof!\o '" f.. '."" '--""r"_ . assume /Ill is about 6 in. .HU... and Aw...." L.)Qu..... .. • = .."" i. "............. liquid_ . <. ... ".." .". • "'I'" . "......"" ~yot th. cal· culate ). -. w.. ... _ ..lm<..vy liq· uid wc. _. ".....ing T" ble 1 with IIn dO and lidO. /I' A -.Iocity of li.P)I(h'I'!'l _ .. -.n • d... -~1....... id ""'P«' "'" or liP< !. Irl(:l. ....... Ib'tt' kiqyid ~ ~m<.c. _~iquid .• HU.y.. in microns.oP .I. _ I .. "....hllin 6H=H~ 1-G. abo". 18.... ". 1 from Step~..M • """'.. diam«<t..."". 16. . ._ft' '""oune.no ...) ..1 • '1JhI'. '. Calcul. __... .. l.."" _1Wot ~. and A UL · lleulale 1.... ill.. /tI.. ~ 1.111< liqWd or ""''l' I...I ""'''.&-..q. "". the difference in Iocigllt botw""n tile ligllt and heavy liquid weirs: • ..... "..iquid ...'''' ..." . " .. II or ill.. 0 .."..... = (ANu.. hoi"". of _ 1 liquid. ... ~ "". ft ~ _ "".- holdup/surge (typically.. ). • _ _ _ _ --.""'" .. ....... .~.. . aosUm< a • I><avy 10q0>. A.. Cofto<y. • .. (~7) Design the light liquid bucket Set the lop of light liquid weir . .----...p._. ....... . '" __ di.. . 5-IS min. _ _ .. ""'P<U '.. -..... .. n'''" '" a'lrnin • .. HL • • • • • tiqo .."" ""'" _.._".. _ _ lit.... '.oM ..y.. .... of . id Iood.... " ... .. '..'l-. ""....... ft bqoid.... MlW' ".. C. "... i' _ Ii"" liquid "'i"" i..... '.. _ ..... "" • '-'P... '- " ... above the boito".. Cakulate the surface area of 17.'" lOp .. ". 5---1~ min). • nouI< dia.../wO.. . • _ __ .. "'fin«! ~1""" l 0< l. .....ID and Hu....... from ..."' • h<i"".... ..o~ .. . "....A UL ) (~8) . ..... ... 0 and repe...." """ /I • _"P h<. ...-.........nd ILL is 6 in......""_ .. ...I --.}Qm. c . If UD» 6. ft ~ • . _ liP< lAd (TH + T. .L!...."...: """. . • " ' _ hoo\...«ume a holdup/ourge (typically.•. ""..1mi...... I25D." ~ P'" _. • ""II thlcf.. . .- - ""'ro. .._ ... ..... •~ ""I _. ft' ...!""'-*.. 11 di"". Calculate L ~ L.NU..Wol '-fa«." "''''''''''''''..nociI}'. . Lo. L. ""''".. .... ko<it" M • ..~ 1CJIl2t...... a' ... Ib • _ _ ." .. U • liP< liqu" "'. •__ '_... . 'l' I.'" _'" _>to< 0<." .. _4."... ""'" Nomenclature • ~ .......- (TH T. "... + 1. of the vessel . ". "" .PI"""'" d . 'U • h<"1Iiqok! • "'~ [....... . _ ~ . "... ... • n.." • ... ".. Using Table 1 with IIHU. bon<. ""'" 1<.&. oflip 6qvOI _ _ boo· ~""""""" ~..q.. id _ " ' " .... • ....."" din'.. • H. • ..i. '" "" ..born .. __ ft • I.. 0 _ H.~ .. then iTICTea.qoid ...Id • "'" tiqoid """ • • """"" ....1"'h<iFo<... "...... _ . _~-" Cofto<y.< ~ ... •.tf... n • drnpIe' d".....o • .. 13. _~~ ". CoII~IMo. .. ". Cakuhue L."..roo..._ 31. + L."-' _ • botI!Io I. <t<IOO.s.... ) Ih<n decrease D and "'peat from S'ep (~9) ~. _ W.... [- . '....SM~ f.... " • ....."'.... io.... dl"""..-.. "" ~ beI_ M• I""" lAd I><avy 10qu0d. 0 . of h"" I....._...... di~. '" i.. • _ "OJ wI><"... _""*"'"'" ""*"'. U.. De<ign the hea>y liquid cOm· parlm<nt: Set the top of the he. \Ipoo_ ~ -"~ . tim< kIr "".' _ " " " _ !\ow...... _ _ . ..iJIK... ".. ume I" i~ the l"'l1e' of 0112 or 12 in.. ..... »1 ."iI)'.... • xuli . '" ~ _ 1iq0i4 h<."" ....' (A~u. '.i".. _. I....... .. ""'P«' "'" '.... .w. Iocity.. _. .. " ". _ _ eo.~ ~ . .... flh • _li ......fD. i.... -__....... ... -A.... below the woir height and UL is about 6 in.... below"'" weir height. Calculate II>< thickness <>f!he shell and beads aocooling to Table 8 20.... poi> .... .... ill.. ".. ft. ~ • trmwo4I .. oprik<lJ _ ..'" kIr 1... _..h. "U 'U . ""' _ _ r· M • ... the bottom of the bue~et..... assume the bOllom is at O.... IS. (inJmio)(.. • Sdoo' Ito .. ""Iocity ~ M _ .. 0 _ /Iv _ &II.): 3SSume HU is 6 in.. _ ...._ .... _ h<.. • booo dia......ft' ..17 M' " ... caleulat.. _Ui._~ .. _ .... CakulOie UO.... ... 28 Distillation and Othef Industrial Separations . ~ _.. ... • . If UD« U. ""'.~ft '- _ .quid ""'P<U .od.i>oo<i ..quid..

2J . box.20'16. UD . ume disl>td I><ads per Assume E z 0. 10 18.219) (11. . 15. oI". resulting in • I. U. 38 2.85 Ex ample 2 Design a th ree·pll3se OOriwnlal -.02 ft' 12.An/A T. HIiUID = 0 ..5 ft 19. 841) (11.rooo liquid .13 in .he dian>ctor by 6-in.. _ 55xl32 IL -030'· • . ES. Calculate"'" approximate '"ell~I weighl """onIi"1l to Table g. ne<~­ s.235.5-6.!A T . ~ (0.... AN .idcd by 2 .i".70)(1 LO f..229 IIHI. .) = 7.'q..03 • ) . E9 and EIO.....08_8..'Y D> II 11.85 .. mple.. L. p. IS min .. H.30 ft 9.87 ft.hell and heads . + '/16 '" 0. A vertica l vessel s hould be com pared .0 . U. box..0 ft. .2 ft." . bo •.16.333 29. and 0 ..0ft UIIL - (0..S2 ft . In<. box...24_ miSl eliminator).. (4 ..lJ U y z 0..333)(62.24 ~ • • 1). l'i... Gas J'roce»on Suppliers' Association val ..La 3. Tabk 3.098 Using Tobie 3. .85 ft' 8.70 fIII.0.. respecti.7 .t diameter 5bould be sman.O ft.0_ 18.. page. 'I><". "' ~in...7S " 2.43 It' A.0 + 15 . . 3. E 19. ~ge. set L _ 195 f' (. A..ill3 pttSSun: and 'cmpc"'tun: are 2'i psig and 100.495 in. ED. AIAT _ 0. Data for bampl1l2 ' • --.0 ft)' '" 95." .! '" 1 . AML '" 4.l UD ranges from 1. In Ihi. neaTly lhe minimum UD "orresponded to a dianlOleT of 11. 1. (3). p.5111. Si""" tilt maM ralt of vapor is ~. I/!II... A.~ £IS Stt Eq.. Comment: Due 10 Ihe .93 . 18.051 AUL _ (0.r< H.. o. H o><'e>'".SS = 1. _ "' P do.antor with a .333)(61. • _ 7.0) = 2.. m.~x(U'" in Table 10.0 = 0. H . See Eq •. increm<nt$ and rep'" the calculation. '00 ".65111.. Distillation and O!he<" Industrial Separations 229 ..o. L.1. • ..ion.. p. 38 U.. bo ~ on thi.(0. E16.. S min surge.2x 17. .' 4C._'" Ihan Ihe mInimum.. (0..4O.. <le<ign ICmpe.. I 50 From Tobie 3...uro ~I Elh". DOO W.0 ft)' _ 101. See Eq •. • E. u'"' 13 in.0 f. _ 0. • E~U4IioII Ell f-~".78 .. p.IW W" • • ~. A..43195.ID .. ly.7.n<! P.0 _ 1..500xO.... 1l(11. .0 min 14.. use 2.4O. 38 ... • 7. 19. Hu.0 . 11/4 (11.. See F . t L.)(4._ &2.o.. _ 4 .fore. in.. .03 ft') _ 8.." 71. Table 10. 'n " \'. - Assume UD~ 1. in Table 2 was d i..03 ~ 0. design would have uoed a boot.91 fll.hould be performed using a diameter of 11. 00'.38 AT. 00> "" this page. .urge as 'pcciliW..I>< ne. 1017.93 ft' Au a~. HylIro<"bo" "POf Hydro.. AI.5 in .65 ftjllO ill)min . 173 V._ 3.83 fII.! W .5 f! 25.3 fL 4 in. 15.91 ftll 4.".in<e there is no HdD = 13/(1 LO ~ 12) = 0.. cakulalions 'Oi"'" performed for only On<: diame· Itr.. e . E 0. 6 in..~)(l682 ..70 ft. Since L < L. II . Corro<.88 ft' 23.. 0 .83 in)min Use 10 in)min (maximum) UU/ . box on thi. " 3.5 ft) . in."e Iho .. 2. 2!.bOn...920 Ib • t. .. EI 4 and 10 15..094 IINC - V"".~i r 10 >q>a.5!X1 ill·(673..dAT. 16.11' ."'" H ....98 miD.112 D< .sao psi.5 1\) 20. See Eq .HIO p.2x55 + "6 ._ 1 LO .01 He"".mall amount of heavy liquid and large Imounl of vapor. ~m.. box. 19..ase or decrease . 38 3. 10 min holdup." H.6~ f' E E Use SA-5 16 70 "arbon stul.0) + 7 '" 12. A.87 f1 ' + 2 X 101. See Eq .. 3. K ~ 0. ..OJ_71.. 1..Eq. 38 Use L.0 . a ben". Sec Eq.n allovo" """ _ V..D ~" ~. •• welL mol W'" 490 lb X 0.....I>< lo.. p.. p. in.700 '" (0.p.0. Iii. 10_ H!II.'l)(l.EI2.!j1X1 p. • .03 ft' 6.5)(11.. From Table I. U....0 ft.. " (I S min) (18 52 ft'lmin) ft' As"""". = 3. n.03 ft') 4 . ~.80 '".. V N + V."ore z 650" S 2 17.88 ft' 12 mJfl fI') '" !7 . from Ref. p. INL = (12 in)ft)(1. 82% of . and it i.0 ft) ( 19. E ll. (0.03 • 17.748. fur tilt lighIliqWd 0JCIIflI"UTlt!t: H HU. L.ing Table 3.0 mins ~ 'Hl.\ ~.3 ft ... W. un1.85 + 185... H UL . See Eq. nbk: II. Holdup + .oding.70 .50 inJmin Use 10 in)min (maximum) 13.. = 16... ~se 1 _ .3IY..-g"' UD. caleul. 1/= = (0.094)(9'i .. A.. 10. i . 673 .051)(95..o be much great~r 21..J. 38 .box..175 (II.08 f'~ 7..ary!O ha'" I liquid holdup and surge lim< of 15 min 1._ £1 9 .>CCOI'{\inil '0 Table S. P~25+30 = 55psig See Eq.e opera.

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