Spanish I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Subject Pronouns 6. To Be and to Have 7.

Question Words 8. Numbers / Ordinals 9. Days of the Week 10. Months of the Year 11. Seasons 12. Directions 13. Color 14. Time 15. Weather 16. Prepositions 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Countries and Nationalities 24. To / In and From places 25. To Come and to Go 26. Misc. Words 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs 28. Reflexive Verbs 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 30. Impersonal "a" 31. Preterite Tense 32. Irregular Preterite Tense 33. Imperfect Tense 34. Food and Meals 35. Gustar 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Mexican National Anthem

Spanish II 41. Useful Expressions 42. Present Progressive 43. Haber 44. Present Perfect 45. Places

46. Transportation 47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to 48. House 49. Furniture 50. Comparative and Superlative 51. Irregular Forms 52. Clothing 53. To Wear 54. Future Tenses 55. Preceding Adjectives 56. More Adjectives 57. Sports and Hobbies 58. Nature 59. To Say and to Go Out 60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. To Give and To Bring 65. Relative Pronouns 66. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. To Hear and to Smell 68. Animals 69. Past Perfect 70. Suffixes

Spanish III (Not finished yet!)

71. Adverbs 72. Passive Voice 73. Uses of the Infinitive 74. Shopping 75. Post Office and Bank 76. Conditional Tenses 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 78. Office / School Supplies 79. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 80. Subjunctive Mood 81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood 82. Uses of the Subjunctive 83. Travelling / Airport 84. Cosmetics / Toiletries 85. Other Perfect Tenses

1. Some Basic Phrases

¡Buenos días!
buayn-ohs dee-ahs

¡Buenas tardes!
buayn-ahs tard-ays

Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas noches!
buayn-ahs nohch-ays

Good afternoon! ¡Hola!
oh-lah

Good evening / Good night ¿Cómo se llama usted?

Hi! ¿Cómo te llamas?

Igualmente. grah-see-ahs I am _____ years old. ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah Nice to meet you. ... ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you later.. Hasta luego. tay ah-moh And you? (informal) I love you. Hasta mañana. ¿Cuántos años tiene usted? ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays How old are you? (formal) Yo tengo _____ años. ¿Y tú? ee too And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal) Te amo. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs How old are you? (informal) Gracias. ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day air-ays Where are you from? (formal) Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de.. Yo también. ¿Y usted? ee oo-sted Please.. Por favor. moo-choh goo-stoh Mister / Mrs. yoh tahm-bee-ain Same here.. yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs I'm from. Hasta la vista.. ee-guahl-main-tay Delighted to meet you. chow Good bye. mee nohm-bray ays I am called.coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted coh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (formal) Me llamo. / Miss Encantado/a. ah-stah loo-ay-go Until we meet again. ¿Cómo está usted? coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted My name is... ¿Cómo estás? coh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (formal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl How are you? (informal) Yo estoy. may yah-moh What is your name? (informal) Mi nombre es. ah-dee-ohs Bad / Very bad / OK Chao. yoh soy day Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. (when talking about your mood) Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Good / Very good Adiós.. ah-stah lah vee-stah Bye... ¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ays oo-sted Me too.. por fah-bor Thank you. Mucho gusto.. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah See you tomorrow. quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oosted I'm from the United States. yoh ay-stoy What's up? Bien / Muy bien bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn I am...

Pronunciation Spanish Letter a e i o u ll v ñ r rr d j g qu ai / all / ay z z.Note: For Encantado/a. Alphabet a b c ch d e f g h i ah bay say chay day ay ay-fay hey ah-chay ee j k l ll m n ñ o p q hoh-tah kah ay-lay ay-yay ay-may ay-nay ayn-yay oh pay koo r rr s t u v w x y z air-ay airr-ay ay-say tay oo oo-bay doh-blay-bay ah-kees ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah . You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll change the meaning of a word. So. Also. and if you're a woman. 3. ce. ci English Sound ah ay ee oh oo y b at beginning of word. you would say Encantada. if you're a man. The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word. if you're a man. you need to roll your tounge when you say the r's. you would say Encantado. real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) almost like a d when in between 2 vowels r w/ a roll of the tongue almost like a th when in between 2 vowels hard h g. if you're a woman. 2. o. Most adjectives work this way. You would use the feminine ending. you would use the masculine ending. sometimes a h k eye s th (in most parts of Spain) Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word. accents (´ ) are very important in the Spanish language. a.

ll or rr to be separate letters of the alphabet. Usted can be abreviated to Ud. 5. Singular la (lah) una (oonah) esta esa aquella the some Masc.Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch. Singular the a. Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives Masc. 6. Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.to be estoy estamos estás estáis está están tener . Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females. To Be and to Have ser . Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs. as well as ellas. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries.to be soy somos eres sois es son estar . Ustedes can also be abreviated to Uds. an this that that el (ail) un (oon) este ese aquel Fem. Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. They can be used in general and abstract ways. 4. Plural los (lohs) unos (oonohs) Fem. Subject Pronouns yo tú él / ella / usted yoh too ail / ay-yah / oo-sted I you (informal) he / she / you (formal) nosotros(as) vosotros(as) ellos / ellas / ustedes noh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trohs ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays we you all they / they / you (plural) Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Use the ese froms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. Plural las (lahs) unas (oonahs) estas esas aquellas these estos those esos those aquellos Note: El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.to have tengo tenemos tienes tenéis tiene tienen .

Common Expressions with "to be" to be afraid .ser curioso (a) to be happy .estar contento (a) to be hot .tener la culpa to be careful . Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels. The building is a temple. Son las tres. It tells what something is.tener éxito to be thirsty . El telefono fue inventado por Bell.tener prisa.tener sed to be tired .tener suerte to be patient .tener paciencia to be successful . The books are John's. The window is open. The telephone was invented by Bell. Los libros son de Juan. Question Words what who how when qué quién(es) cómo cuándo which cuál(es) how much cuánto (-a) how many cuántos (-as) whom whose a quién(es) de quién(es) where dónde why por qué . John is sick. He is a carpenter.tener miedo to be against . Charles is poor. La ventana está abierta. The book is on the table. La casa es grande. estar de prisa to be jealous . Miguel está estudiando. The house is large. Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo.tener celos to be lucky . Es necesario. Juan está enfermo.tener calor to be hungry . It is necessary. or its origin.estar cansado (a) 7. its basic characteristics. Carlos es pobre. It's three o'clock.tener frío to be curious .tener hambre to be in a hurry . Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. Michael is studying.tener cuidado to be cold . Es carpintero.Note: Ser is used to indentify or describe.estar en contra to be at fault .

Also you can also use dieciséis. 9. respectively. Days of the Week lunes loo-nays Monday . dieciocho. 18. you use just cien. If it's over 100. So 101 is ciento uno. you use ciento. 17. and diecinueve for 16. and 19. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. diecisiete.8. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince diez y seis diez y siete cay-roh oo-noh dohs trays kuah-troh seen-koh says see-ay-tay oh-choh new-ay-vay dee-ays ohn-say doh-say tray-say kah-tor-say keen-say dee-ays ee says dee-ays ee see-ay-tay first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth primero segundo tercero cuarto quinto sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero trigésimo cuadragésimo quincuagésimo sexagésimo septuagésimo octogésimo nonagésimo centésimo milésimo diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay veinte bayn-tay veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta setenta ochenta noventa trayn-tah kuar-ain-tah seen-kuain-tah say-sain-tah say-tain-tah oh-chain-tah noh-bain-tah see-ain-(toh) meel twenty-second vigésimo segundo 100 cien(to) 1000 mil Note: If you are just saying 100.

use en and the season. etc. Months of the Year enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre el mes ay-nair-oh fay-bray-roh mar-soh ah-breel mi-oh hoo-nee-oh hoo-lee-oh ah-gohs-toh sayp-tee-aim-bray ohk-too-bray noh-bee-aim-bray dee-see-aim-bray ail mais January February March April May June July August September October November December the month el primero de [month] ail pree-mair-oh day _____ the first of [a month] el año ail ahn-yoh the year 11. En verano means in the summer. spring. .martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo el día la semana mar-tays mee-air-coh-lays hway-bays bee-air-nays sah-bah-doh doh-ming-oh Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday the day the week ail dee-ah lah say-mahn-ah el fin de semana ail feen day say-mahn-ah the weekend hoy mañana mi cumpleaños oy mahn-yahn-ah today tomorrow mee coom-play-ahn-yohs my birthday 10. Seasons spring la primavera winter el invierno summer el verano autumn el otoño Note: To say in the summer.

Son las dos/tres/cuatro. Time Qué hora es? Es la una.. It's two/three/four. Son cuarto para las diez Son las nueve menos diez. Son las diez menos cuarto. Hace frío. It's cold. Es mediodía. Son las cinco y cinco.. Hace mal tiempo. It's hot. It's midnight.. Hace calor. What time is it? It's one.. It's noon. It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) It's 8:50 It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) It's 3:30 15. Colors red pink orange yellow green blue rojo rosado anaranjado amarillo verde azul violet brown violeta marrón dark brown café black gray white gold silver negro gris blanco dorado plateado light blue celeste purple morado 14.12. What's the weather like? The weather's nice. Es medianoche. The weather's bad. Son diez para las nueve Son las tres y media. Directions north el norte south el sur east el este west el oeste 13. . Son las ocho y cuarto. Weather Qué tiempo hace? Hace buen tiempo.

via en frente de opposite detrás de encima de hasta desde behind above till. until from. Family and Animals family parents wife father mother son la familia los padres la esposa el padre la madre el hijo grandfather grandmother grandson uncle aunt nephew niece cousin (m) cousin (f) relatives el abuelo la abuela el nieto el tío la tía el sobrino la sobrina el primo la prima los parientes dog cat bird fish goat pig cow turtle el perro el gato el pájaro el pez la cabra el cerdo la vaca la tortuga husband el esposo granddaughter la nieta horse el caballo daughter la hija children los hijos sister brother la hermana el hermano rabbit el conejo mouse el ratón 18. It's sunny. To Know People and Facts . among towards. along. over sin without Note: There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. It's raining. since sobre on. 16. and de and el combine to form del. It's cloudy. Prepositions a con at with al lado de beside alrededor de around cerca de lejos de delante de debajo de near far from in front of below.Hace sol. about for. through. on between. A and el combine to form al. It's snowing. Nieva. Llueve. Está nublado. by for. It's windy. in order. 17. Hace viento. under contra against de en entre hacia para por of. from in.

and must be preceded by the definite article." etc. you must make the articles plural also. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them. you will use the feminine articles (la señora). And if you're talking about a male. add an -s (libro = libros). Also. Days of the week are also masculine. or -tud. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun. de Uds. except in direct address. de ellos and de ellas. Possessive Adjectives Terminal Forms Singular my your your/his/her/its our your your/their mi tu su tus sus Plural mis Singular mío (a) tuyo (a) suyo (a) Plural míos (as) tuyos (as) suyos (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) vuestro (a) vuestros (as) su sus vuestro (a) vuestros (as) suyo (a) suyos (as) Because su and sus can have so many meanings.. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word ends in an -ción. if you are talking about a female.to do or make hago hacemos . -tad. -dad. the definite article may be used with the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms: de Ud. To Do or Make hacer . de él. change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces). After making the word plural. There are very few exceptions to making words plural.conocer . it'll be feminine. 20. el libro mío my book Qué haces. Add an -es to make words ending in a constinant (papel = papeles).to know people conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen saber . use the masculine articles.. it corresponds to the English "of mine. To make words ending in a vowel plural.to know facts sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben 19. de ella. Words ending in an -o are masculine. If a word ends in a -z. of yours. my son? un amigo mío a friend of mine 21. When used with the indefinite article. hijo mío? What are you doing.

(Fem) Nationality alemán (alemana) argentino(a) australiano(a) boliviano(a) canadiense colombiano(a) costarricense cubano(a) chileno(a) chino(a) ecuatoriano(a) egipcio(a) español(a) . Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician painter pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary typist nurse el médico el dentista el abogado el profesor el maestro el ingeniero el arquitecto el escritor el periodista el músico el pintor el farmacéutico el banquero el carpintero el barbero el mecánico el vendedor el electricista el cartero el agente de policia el soldado el piloto la secretaria la mecanógrafo la enfermera history math algebra geometry science physics chemistry zoology botany geography music art drawing painting linguistics languages la historia las matemáticas el álgebra la geometría la ciencia la fisica la química la zoología la botánica la geografía la música el arte el dibujo la pintura la lingüística las lenguas / idiomas 23.haces hace hacéis hacen 22. Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Argentina Australia Bolivia Canada Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egypt Spain Alemania Argentina Australia Bolivia Canadá Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egipto España Masc.

Words a lot mucho always everyday now usually there siempre todos los días ahora usualmente ahí very much muchísimo a little very little poco muy poco sometimes a veces well after poorly bien después mal over there allí too bad qué malo . 25.India England Italy Japan Mexico Russia South Africa India Inglaterra Italia Japón México Rusia Suráfrica indio(a) inglés (inglesa) italiano(a) japonés (japonesa) mexicano(a) ruso(a) surafricano(a) United States los Estados Unidos (norte)americano(a) France Portugal Poland Francia Portugal Polonia francés (francesa) portugués (portuguesa) polaco(a) 24.to come vengo venimos vienes venís viene vienen ir .to go voy vamos vas vais va van 26. Misc. To Come and to Go venir . To / In and From to a from de in en Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition.

" Reflexive Pronouns me te se Some common reflexive verbs: nos os se . Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English. These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs. 28. Before a verb is conjugated. Reflexive Verbs The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs .the subject acts upon itself. Conjugating Regular Verbs Verbs in Spanish end in -ar.27. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive. It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms.) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense. while the reciprocal verbs use "each other. add these endings to the stems: -ar o amos o -er emos o -ir imos as áis a an es éis e en es ís e en Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns. Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another. so just canto means I sing. cant. Here are some more regular verbs: -ar verbs bailar desear to dance to want -er verbs aprender comer correr leer vender beber to learn to eat to run to read to sell to drink vivir escribir -ir verbs to live to write escuchar to listen estudiar hablar to study to speak compartir to share recibir to receive practicar to practice tomar viajar to take to travel comprender to understand To make sentences negative.is the stem. simply put no in front of the verb. it is called the infinitive. except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form. -er or -ir. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing.

to prefer sentar .to serve vestir . Irregularities in Regular Verbs Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural.to wake up irse .to complain 29.to dress oneself atreverse . Describe a Chile. I see John.to go away levantarse .to lose preferir . it is preceded by a.to begin entender . feel pensar o to ue contar .to sleep encontrar .to count poder . The pronouns alguien (somebody).to be able costar . Describe Chile.to show volar .to understand perder .to fly volver . Preterite Tense The preterite tense expresses an action in the past.to bathe oneself casarse .to get married despertarse . and ninguno (no one) require a as well.to die mostrar . the e of the last syllable changes to ie. and o in the last syllable changes to ue.to ask (for) repetir . It isn't used if a number precedes the object though.to think querer . -er. when used as the direct object.to sit down vestirse .to play morir .to seat sentir .to cost dormir .to return contar e to i pedir . After dropping the endings (-ar. Some -ir verbs change the e to i.to begin despertar .to find. . It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an article. meet jugar .to regret. I see somebody. e to ie pensar . Impersonal "a" When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite person.to repeat seguir . 31. Veo a Juan.to awaken empezar . alguno (someone).to dress pedir pienso pensamos cuento contamos pido pedimos piensas pensáis cuentas contáis pides pédis piensa piensan cuenta cuentan pide piden 30. It is used to describe events that are finished or complete. nadie (nobody).to close comenzar .to follow servir .to want.to go to bed bañarse .to rise sentarse . love cerrar .acostarse .to dare quejarse . like. Veo a alguien. or -ir). It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.

to be poner .to put. except with these verbs: querer. Louise was sad. Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense: ser . pueder. The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though. esperar.to give di diste dió hice hiciste hizo tuve tuviste tuvo dimos disteis dieron hicimos hicisteis hicieron tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron decir . Imperfect Tense The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past. and saber. I used to live in Spain.to say.to be ir .to go / ser. tell dije dijiste dijo fui fuiste fue traje trajiste trajo dijimos dijisteis dijeron fuimos fuisteis fueron trajimos trajisteis trajeron estar . -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -íamos -íais -ían -aba -ábamos -ía -abas -abais -ías -aba -aban -ía Yo vivía en España.-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -imos -iste -eron -é -amos -í -aste -asteis -iste -ó -aron -ió Viví en España dos años. as repeated or habitual. Irregular Preterite Tense A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense. El vendía radios. The following are the most common: dar . I lived in Spain for two years.to be estuve estuvimos estuviste estuvisteis estuvo estuvieron puse pusiste puso vine viniste vino pusimos pusisteis pusieron vinimos vinisteis vinieron hacer . place tener . Ellos hablaron con los niños. tener. Quién comió la fruta? Who ate the fruit? 32.to see era éramos iba íbamos veía veíamos .to come 33.to have traer . He was selling radios. They spoke with the children. creer. It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.to bring venir . It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions.to do.to go ver . make ir . Luisa estaba triste.

Me gustan las flores. I like the flowers. while gustan is used with plural nouns. (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me. Literally. She likes them. We like the house. a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear. dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shaker sugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray el mantel la servilleta el tenedor el cuchillo la cuchara el plato el vaso la taza la sal el salero la pimienta el pimientero el azúcar el azucarero el vinagre la cafetera la tetera la bandeja 35. you can add a Ud.? Do you like it? Le gustan a ella. With le and les.. 36.eras erais era eran ibas ibais iba iban veías veíais veía veían 34. a él. No me gusta. so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper dinner meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetables fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream el desayuno el almuerzo la cena la comida la comida el alimento el pan el panecillo la mantequilla la carne el pescado las legumbres la fruta el queso la galleta los dulces el sándwich el helado tablecloth napkin fork knife spoon plate. it means to please and takes an indirect object. Fruits. Me gusta(n) I like Te gusta(n) you like Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes Nos gusta(n) we like Os gusta(n) you like Les gusta(n) you/they like Gusta is used with singular nouns.) Nos gusta la casa. Le gusta a Ud. I don't like it. Gustar Gustar plus a noun means to like something.. a ella. a Uds. Vegetables and Meats apple orange banana la manzana la naranja la banana la lechuga lettuce la col cabbage cauliflower la coliflor broccoli corn on the cob el brócoli el elote / la mazorca el rábano .

as beber is almost never used. Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form. and -er and -ir verbs end in -e for the tú form. it usually refers to alcohol. such as tomar una copa. Commands To form familiar commands. while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -áis for the tú and vosotros forms. Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms.to have a drink and tomar un café . tomar can be intransitive.grapefruit lemon lime peach apricot fig grapes pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry la toronja el limón la lima el melocotón el albaricoque el higo unas uvas la pera la ciruela la cereza la piña el melón la sandía la fresa la frambuesa la zarzamora green peas asparagus green been spinach tomato carrot turnip beet celery onion cucumber parsley squash artichoke eggplant rhubarb los guisantes los espárragos la habichuela la espinaca el tomate la zanahoria el nabo la remolacha el apio la cebolla el pepino el perejil la calabaza la alcachofa la berenjena el ruibarbo radish pepper garlic potato sweet potato beans beef lamb pork sausage ham bacon goose duck chicken turkey lobster el pimiento el ajo la patata la batata los frijoles / las judías la carne de vaca el cordero el cerdo la salchicha el jamón el tocino el ganso el pato el pollo el pavo la langosta 37. 38. Affirmative -ar -er or -ir tú -a -e Negative -ar -er or -ir -es -as -éis -áis vosotros -ad -ed Habla! = Speak! (tú form) Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form) No comáis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form) Irregular Familiar Commands tú vosotros . In Spain. regular -ar verbs end in -a. so -ar verbs end in -es and -éis. tomar is always transitive.to take or drink tomo tomas toma tomamos tomáis toman When tomar means to drink. To Take or Drink tomar . In Mexico.to have a coffee.

drop the -o ending of the yo form. To make a command negative. 40. ever Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative. and z becomes c. Verbs that end in -car. (not) anybody no. they must follow a negative verb (a double negative). jamás nothing. just add no before it. 39. -ar -er or -ir Usted -e -a Ustedes -en -an Beba! = Drink! (Usted form) Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form) No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form) Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands: vaya and vayan for ir and sea and sean for ser. Holiday Phrases . but if they follow..decir hacer ir irse poner salir ser tener venir di haz ve vete pon sal sé ten ven decid haced id idos poned salid sed tened venid To form formal commands of verbs.ni ni siquiera nunca. (not) anything nobody. nor not even never. This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Ustedes form.. either nor neither. while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes. you place no before the verb. and add the opposite vowel ending. nada nadie ninguno (a) tampoco ni ni. The word order is no + verb + negative. jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb.. g becomes gu.. -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well: c becomes qu. Other negatives may precede or follow the verb. none neither. More Negatives To make sentences negative.

y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo. guerra! En el monte. May your countryside be watered with blood. Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo Un soldado en cada hijo te dio. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. patria. war! The patriotic banners saturate in waves of blood. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo Profanar con su planta tu suelo. War. guerra sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra. Si el clarín con su bélico acento Los convoca a lidiar con valor. For in heaven your eternal destiny has been written by the hand of God. On blood their feet trample. guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen. palaces and towers crumble in horrid crash. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. war! On the mount. before your children become unarmed Beneath the yoke their necks in sway. Fatherland. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. If the bugle in its belligerent tone should call upon them to struggle with bravery. al Grito de Guerra by Francisco González Bocanegra Mexicanos. and let the earth tremble at its center . Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Mexicanos. Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. war without truce against who would attempt to blemish the honor of the fatherland! War. Think. ¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento. Que en el cielo tu eterno destino Por el dedo de Dios se escribió. en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad! Antes. that heaven gave you a soldier in each son. oh fatherland. in the vale The terrifying cannon thunder and the echoes nobly resound to the cries of union! liberty! Fatherland. Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue. And may your temples. ¡Guerra. ¡Guerra. Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva De la Paz el arcángel divino. fatherland.Feliz Navidad Feliz Año Nuevo Merry Christmas Happy New Year Feliz Cumpleaños Happy Birthday Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos. and their ruins exist saying: The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. War. with olive garlands by the divine archangel of peace. But should a foreign enemy Profane your land with his sole. For you the olive garlands! For them a memory of glory! For you a laurel of victory! For them a tomb of honor! Mexicans. Mexicans. Your forehead shall be girded. your children swear to exhale their breath in your cause. Y tus templos. and let the earth tremble at its center upon the roar of the cannon. beloved fatherland.

it's all instrumental. it's because the anthem has no words.y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. upon the roar of the cannon. . If you're wondering why I didn't include the Spanish national anthem.

41. They were singing. and adding the following endings to the stem: Present Participles -ar -er -ir -ando -iendo -iendo Juan está hablando. (Haber is only used as a helping verb. To have to + inf. it is never used to show possession. To have just + past participle time + ago 42. Estaban cantando. Ir a + inf. I was writing a letter. Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb. Josh is talking.to have he has ha hemos habéis han 44. Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than this tense when expressing the past. Progressive Tenses The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing. Useful Expressions Hay Había Hay que + infinitive Tener que + inf. Present Perfect The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle. . 43. It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle. Acabar de + inf. Hace + time There is/are There was/were It is necessary to + inf. Estuve escribiendo una carta. Haber Haber . To go to + inf.) This tense can be translated as have or has done something.

decir (to say) .puesto (put). and adding these endings: Past Participles -ar -er -ir -ado -ido -ido The following verbs have irregular past participles: abrir (to open) . They have not sold the house.dicho (said). ver (to see) visto (seen). Transportation by bus by bicycle by car by subway by taxi by plane by train by boat on foot en autobús en bicicleta en coche en metro en taxi en avión en tren en barco a pie by motorcycle en motocicleta .abierto (opened). We have spent a lot of money.hecho (done).muerto (died). No han vendido la casa. poner (to put) . Places movies restaurant mountain cafe house concert library theater country supermarket bread shop el cine el restaurante la montaña el café la casa el concierto la biblioteca el teatro el campo la panadería office bank pastry shop meat shop fruit shop fish shop pharmacy candy store bookstore flower shop la oficina el banco la pastelería la carnicería la frutería la pescadería la farmacia la dulcería la librería la papelería la floristería swimming pool la piscina ice cream shop le heladería el supermercado paper store 46.Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending. escribir (to write) . volver (to return) . la llave? Where have you put the key? Hemos gastado mucho dinero. Qué ha dicho Ud. Dónde ha puesto Ud.vuelto (returned).escrito (written). morir (to die) . hacer (to do) .? What did you say? 45.

can puedo puedes puede podemos podéis pueden deber-to have to. House house living room den dining room kitchen bedroom room closet bathroom fireplace stairway wall floor ceiling roof hall window ground floor second floor la casa la sala de recibo el gabinete el comedor la cocina la recámara el cuarto el armario el cuarto de baño la chimenea la escalera la pared el suelo el techo el tejado el pasillo la ventana el piso bajo el primer piso 49. Furniture furniture table couch sofa desk chair armchair bookcase carpet rug curtain. To Want. to Have to querer-to want quiero queremos quieres queréis quiere quieren poder-to be able to. drape lamp picture wardrobe bed dresser chest of drawers stove refrigerator el mueble le mesa el diván el sofá el escritorio la silla la butaca el estante para libros la alfombra el tapete la cortina la lámpara el cuadro el guardarropa la cama el tocador la cómoda la estufa el refrigerador .47. must debo debes debe debemos debéis deben 48. to Be Able to.

. Comparative and Superlative Comparisons are expressed as follows: màs... place the definite article before the comparative.que menos.que tan.... To form comparatives. Irregular Forms Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb.. No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes. más alta taller la más alta the tallest Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase. Note that de is used to express in after a superlative.. The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun. My cousin has more records than anyone. than less.como tanto(a. Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie.50. as). as as much/many... Clothing clothing clothes dress la ropa los vestidos el vestido . os.. The cat is less intelligent than the dog... To form the superlative.como more. 51.. The most common are: Adjective/Adverb Comparative good bad great small well badly much little bueno malo grande pequeño bien mal mucho poco better worse greater less better worse more less mejor peor mayor menor mejor peor más menos Superlative the best the worst the greatest the least best worst most least el mejor el peor el mayor el menor el mejor el peor el más el menos Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeño change according to gender... 52. than as. Rosa is the tallest girl in the class. as El gato es menos inteligente que el perro. I don't have as much money as you.

but they still use the regular endings from above: decir (to say. To Wear llevar .suit blouse skirt jacket wrap. tell) dir- . but you do use the definite article.to put on llevo llevamos me pongo nos ponemos llevas lleváis te pones os ponéis lleva llevan se pone so ponen Note: You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing.to wear ponerse . Future Tense The future of regular verbs is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive: -é -emos -ás -éis -á -án Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense. coat hat beret shoes slippers robe underwear gloves purse raincoat umbrella pants vest coat shirt collar tie belt sock cap overcoat wallet shorts pajamas el traje la blusa la falda la chaqueta el abrigo el sombrero la boina los zapatos las zapatillas la bata la ropa interior los guantes la bolsa el impermeable el paraguas los pantalones el chaleco el saco la camisa el cuello la corbata el cinturón el calcetín la gorra el sobretodo la cartera los calzoncillos el pijama 53. 54.

some. alguno . tall low. short pretty beautiful ugly wide narrow heavy light hard soft sweet sour bitter alto bajo lindo. place) saber (to know) salir (to leave.no. bueno . it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singular noun of either gender. More Adjectives large small long short good bad rich poor strong weak easy difficult fat thin grande pequeño largo corto bueno malo rico pobre fuerte débil fácil difícil gordo delgado high. make) poder (to be able) poner (to put. Preceding Adjectives Most adjectives follow the noun they describe.or To-.good. ninguno . then the adjective becomes a noun. any. 56. the latter becomes an abstract noun.the poor man If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective.hacer (to do.bad.the good (everything that is good) 57.first. malo . tercero third When grande means great. Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns.one.poor. Sports . bonito hermoso feo ancho estrecho pesado ligero duro blando dulce agrio amargo When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective. lo bueno . pobre . but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno . primero . uno . el pobre . except those beginning with Do.good. go out) tener (to have) venir (to come) harpodrpondrsabrsaldrtendrvendr- 55.

To Say and to Go Out decir .to say salir .to go out digo decimos salgo salimos dices decís sales salís dice dicen sale salen . Nature continent island peninsula gulf bay ocean coast beach sea river lake mountain valley plain desert jungle forest garden flower rose tree el continente la isla la península el golfo la bahía el océano la costa la playa el mar el río el lago la montaña el valle la llanura el desierto la selva el bosque el jardín la flor la rosa el árbol 59.ball game match team player soccer football la pelota el juego el partido el equipo el jugador el fútbol el fútbol americano pool la piscina basketball el baloncesto tennis el tenis swimming la natación boxing wrestling hockey el boxeo la lucha el hockey baseball el béisbol raquet ball (small) bat glove ball una raqueta una pelota un bate un guante un balón net volleyball el volibol una red unos zapatos de futból unos esquís cleats skis ski poles unos bastones boots helmet unas botas el casco basketball hoop una canasta 58.

but milk. Estoy por escribirla. motive. lo she/it la you le. Voté por Juanita. por el pueblo through the town por la mañana in the morning Pagó un peso por el libro. or if another verb follows. way or means (by). He drinks milk. It's sold by the pound. No bebe café sino leche. Sino Para is used to express: use or destination (for). but he does not drink coffee. reason. Fue escrito por Cervantes. los. purpose (in order to). I am in favor of writing it. John is about to leave. on account of.) La carta es para Concha. La carta está por escribir. The letter is for Concha. but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated. He does not drink coffee. Por and Pero vs. I'm going by train. The letter is yet to be written.60. Juan está para salir. on behalf of. because of. for the sake of. las you they los them les to them ellos (as) . to go for. Para vs. Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated. unit of measure (by. for. Por is used to express: a place through or along which. during. la nos os him/it le her/it le you us you le os to him/it él to her/it ella to you to you Usted nosotros (as) we vosotros (as) you Ustedes ellos (as) you nos to us les to you nosotros (as) us vosotros (as) you Ustedes you them les. Voy por Alicia. It was written by Cervantes. Object Pronouns Subject yo tú él ella Usted I you Direct me te me you Indirect me to me te to you Object of Prepositions mí ti me you him/it her/it you he/it le. It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or to be in favor of. point of future time (for. He studies in order to learn. 61. I voted for Juanita. I will have it by Tuesday. price (for). by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive. Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression. Lo tendré para el martes. at). Voy por tren. Se vendre por libras. to send for. He paid a dollar for the book. Estudia para aprender. exchange. per). Bebe lecho pero no bebe café. I'm going for Alice. expressions of time (in.

An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb. el libro. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form. 4. His feet hurt. Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement. He sent us to you. the prepositional form of a plus an object of a preposition may be used. When you have more than one pronoun. with an infinitive or gerund. These translate to many phrases in English. 1. Déme Ud. Asking Questions Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence. then the first one is changed to se. Me duele la cabeza. Parts of the Body hand foot ear eye tongue face hair nose tooth lip la mano el pie la oreja el ojo la lengua la cara el cabello la nariz el diente el labio mouth finger la boca el dedo fingernail la uña elbow arm knee leg head neck el codo el brazo la rodilla la pierna la cabeza el cuello shoulder el hombro la garganta stomach el estómago throat To express pain. such as Isn't it? Aren't you? Don't you? Didn't he? Isn't she? etc. If both pronouns begin with the letter l. except if is used in an affirmative command. 3. Nos envió a Ud. . use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part. an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word. Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence. Then it is attached to the verb as one word. Le duelen los pies. For clearness or emphasis. 2. 63. My head hurts. 62. the indirect comes before the direct. Give me the book.

-os. -as) is a possessive adjective and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed. las cuales) may replace que or quien.la cual. Sí can mean yourself. Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns. contigo and consigo. El que (and its forms . etc. Quien (-es) is often used in place of el que and its forms as well. when it refers to things only. when it means one who.) This pronoun may serve as the subject or object of a verb. -as) can be added to these pronouns. Disjunctive Pronouns Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb. Que (who. it means whom. When con combines with mí. or the object of a preposition. The house in which I live is small. To Give and to Bring dar . Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent. that. He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive. except after a preposition.64. or show emphasis. These pronouns are used for clearness when there are two antecedents. himself. and with prepositions. For clearness. Cuyo (-a. I visited the city near which he lives. which is always the word that follows it. herself. whom. Lo que and lo cual (which) refer to the whole sentence. They are the pronouns which follow prepositions. -os. the forms of mismo (-a. Quien (-es) (who) is used in a supplementary clause. las que) and el cual (and its forms . los que.to bring doy damos das dais da dan traigo traemos traes traéis trae traen 65. When used with a preposition.la que. La casa en que vivo es pequeña. 66. ti or sí. those who. the words become conmigo.to give traer . mí ti él ella Usted nosostros (-as) vosotros (-as) ellos ellas Ustedes Ello is also used as a neuter pronoun meaning it. which) refers to persons or things. los cuales. . yourselves or themselves.

Animals giraffe elephant bear lion eagle parrot rhinoceros whale snake alligator la jirafa el elefante el oso el león el águila el loro el rinoceronte la ballena la serpiente el caimán hippopotamus el hipopótamo tiger bull fox monkey wolf turtle el tigre el toro la zorra el mono el lobo la tortuga 69. It consists of the imperfect of haber and a past participle.67.to smell ver . To Hear. but the imperfect is more common. Sometimes the preterite of haber is used." It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past. to Smell and to See oír .to see oigo oímos oyes oís oye oyen huelo olemos veo vemos hueles oleís ves veís huele huelen ve ven 68. .to hear oler . Past Perfect The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle.

appreciation or pity. . We had learned Spanish. When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives. Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes. The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something. They express size. The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a). 70. Carlos had lived in Mexico. admiration. they express abstract nouns. it indicates the performer of the action. affection.Carlos había vivido en México. add -ería. When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter). Suffixes Suffixes may be attached to nouns. To indicate where something is made or sold. Habíamos aprendido el español. adjectives or adverbs.

When I saw it. In active sentences.. 73. Rose is loved by everyone. La casa fue destruida por el viento. as . Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.71. Passive Voice In passive sentences. two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much). The boy was punished by his father. while lo mas + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated: as .. the meaning of both sentences is the same. Cuando la vi.. However. lo bien que how well lo mas pronto posible as soon as possible 72. the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence. the house was destroyed. Adjective correcto facil claro absoluto rapido Adverb correctamente facilmente claramente absolutamente rapidamente correctly easily clearly absolutely rapidly Lo + adverb + que expresses how. The wind destroys the house. The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle. and by de if mental. However. the subject does the action. El nino fue castigado por su padre. Active Passive El viento destrue la casa. Rosa es amada de todos. Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. The house was destroyed by the wind. The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical. If you use estar instead of ser. la casa estaba Predicate Adjective destruida.. the subject receives the action of the verb. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject. Uses of the Infinitive .

Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense. ver or oír. a preposition. He left without speaking. 74. also use that stem for the conditional tense. I hear Maria singing. Post Office and Bank post office envelope mailbox mail carrier stamps package el correo el sobre el buzón el cartero las estampillas el paquete bank (traveler's) check to cash (a check) to save (money) to deposit account el banco el cheque (de viajero) cobrar ahorrar depositar la cuenta 76. -ía -íamos . Partío sin hablar. El correr es buen ejercicio. To form the present conditional. Oigo cantar a Maria. add these endings to the infintive for all three types of verbs. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability. al. Conditional Tense The conditional tense expresses an idea dependent on a condition that is either expressed or understood. Running is good exercise. Shopping department store shopping mall belt glasses gloves sunglasses el almacén el centro comercial el cintúron las gafas los guantes los lentes de sol shop/store (open-air) market (fixed) price sale to bargain to spend money la tienda el mercado (al aire libre) el precio (fijo) la rebaja regatear gastar 75.The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el.

Infinitives followed by Prepositions The following verbs require a. Office / School Supplies pencil eraser pen el lápiz la goma la pluma dictionary tape (audio) map el diccionario la cinta el mapa . Verb + a + another infinitive acostumbrarse aprender atreverse ayudar comenzar convidar decidirse dedicarse empezar enseñar invitar ir negarse persuadir principiar rehusar resignarse resistirse resolverse venir volver to become used to to learn to to dare to to help to begin to to invite to to decide to to devote oneself to to begin to to teach to to invite to go to to refuse to to persuade to to begin to to refuse to to resign oneself to to resist to resolve to to come to to return to to consent to to consist to amuse oneself to insist on to endeavor to to insist on to busy oneself to think of to persist in to delay in Verb + de + another infinitive acabar acordarse alegrarse aprovecharse arrepentirse cansarse cesar dejar encargarse gozar jactarse olvidarse tratar to have just to remember to be glad to to profit by to repent to tire of to cease to cease to take charge of to take pleasure in to boast of to forget to to try to Verb + en + another infinitive consentir consistir divertirse empeñarse esforzarse insistir ocuparse pensar persistir tardar Verb + con + another infinitive contar contentarse soñar to count on to content oneself with to dream of 78. de. en or con when followed by another infinitive. although the preposition is not always translated into English.-ías -íais -ía -ían 77.

Remove the -on ending.ink paper letter book la tinta el papel la carta el libro newspaper novel backpack stapler scissors el periódico la novela la mochila la grapadora unas tijeras notebook el cuaderno 79. Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive is not used very often in English. and add these new endings: Past Subjunctive all verbs . Present Subjunctive -ar verbs -e -es -e -er and -ir -amos -áis -an -emos -a -éis -as -en -a The past subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. adelante la estación de servicio 80. Parts of a Car / Gas Station car garage tank gasoline oil air grease tire spare tire wheel steering wheel brake speed slow danger stop go service station el coche el garage el tanque la gasolina el aceite el aire la grasa la llanta llanta picada la rueda el volante el freno la velocidad despacio peligro alto siga. but is is very common and important in Spanish. Some command forms are actually the subjunctive. so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult.

Irregular Subjunctive Mood Many verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive mood: dar .to be esté estemos estés estéis esté estén ir . The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.-a amos -as -ais -a -an An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form. the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.to have haya hayamos hayas hayáis haya hayan poder .to go out salga salgas salga estar . it is comiéramos.to do/make haga hagamos hagas hagáis haga hagan poner .to have tenga tengamos tengas tengáis tenga tengan decir .to bring venir . it is habláramos.to be estuviera estuviéramos estuvieras estuvierais estuviera estuvieran .to give diera diéramos dieras dierais diera dieran decir .to give dé demos des deis dé den haber .to put/place ponga pongamos pongas pongáis ponga pongan salir . Present perfect subjunctive haya hayamos + past hayas hayáis participle haya hayan Past perfect subjunctive hubiera hubiéramos + past hubieras hubierais participle hubiera hubieran 81.to say/tell diga digamos digas digáis diga digan hacer . Note that there is another way to form the past subjunctive (a different set of endings).to want quiera queramos quieras queráis quiera quieran ser . but the endings given are used more often.to be able to pueda podamos puedas podáis pueda puedan saber .to know sepa sepamos sepas sepáis sepa sepan tener .to be seamos seáis sean salgamos sea salgáis seas salgan sea traer . Similarly. instead of comieramos. Instead of hablaramos.to go vaya vayamos vayas vayáis vaya vayan querer . etc.to come traigo traigamos venga vengamos traigas traigáis vengas vengáis traiga traigan venga vengan Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well: dar .to say/tell dijera dijéramos dijeras dijerais dijera dijeran estar .

to come viniera viniéramos vinieras vinierais viniera vinieran ir . such as cuando (when).to put/place pusiera pusiéramos pusieras pusierais pusiera pusieran ser . After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty. the past subjunctive must be used in the if-clause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense) 83. After the verb querer when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject) 2. when there is a change of subject. sentir (to be sorry). such as esperar (to hope). such as para que (in order that). es importante (it's important). In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite 7. 6. After time conjunctions. alegarse (to be glad).to be able to pudiera pudiéramos pudieras pudierais pudiera pudieran saber .to want quisiera quisiéramos quisieras quisierais quisiera quisieran tener . 5. es necesario (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb. sin que (without). hasta que (until). In contrary-to-fact conditions. After most impersonal expressions. and antes que (before) 8.to have hubiera hubiéramos hubieras hubierais hubiera hubieran poder . such as es posible (it's possible).to know supiera supiéramos supieras supierais supiera supieran traer .to bring trajera trajéramos trajeras trajerais trajera trajeran hacer . en cuanto (as soon as). After certain conjunctions. when futurity is implied. Travelling / Airport .to do/make hiciera hiciéramos fuera hicieras hicierais fueras hiciera hicieran fuera poner . When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something.to go fuéramos fuerais fueran querer . Uses of the Subjunctive The main uses of the subjunctive include: 1. After expressions of emotion. 4. 3. 9.haber .to have tuviera tuviéramos tuvieras tuvierais tuviera tuvieran 82.to be fuera fuéramos fueras fuerais fuera fueran venir . temer (to fear).

después (de) que (after). The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. . and it has the same meaning as the past perfect. cuando (when). and hasta que (until). referring to the past. But this tense is normally only used after conjunctions of time. referring to the present. The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. future and conditional perfect tenses. All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle. The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle. Cosmetics / Toiletries shampoo soap makeup el champú el jabón el maquillaje brush comb toothpaste toothbrush towel electric razor el cepillo el peine la pasta de dientes el cepillo de dientes la toalla la maquinilla de afeitar shaving cream la crema de afeitar la loción lotion el esmalte para las nail polish uñas 85. such as así que. there are also the preterite. tan pronto como (as soon as). Other Perfect Tenses Beside the present and past perfect tenses.passport customs arrival departure (round-trip) ticket luggage el pasaporte la aduana la llegada la salida el pasaje (de ida y to go on vacation vuelta) to pack (one's el equipaje suitcases) la habitación individual/doble la estación de tren (de train (bus) station autobuses) la estación de metro subway hacer un viaje to take a trip single/double room ir de vacaciones hacer las maletas 84. luego que.

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