Spanish I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Subject Pronouns 6. To Be and to Have 7.

Question Words 8. Numbers / Ordinals 9. Days of the Week 10. Months of the Year 11. Seasons 12. Directions 13. Color 14. Time 15. Weather 16. Prepositions 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Countries and Nationalities 24. To / In and From places 25. To Come and to Go 26. Misc. Words 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs 28. Reflexive Verbs 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 30. Impersonal "a" 31. Preterite Tense 32. Irregular Preterite Tense 33. Imperfect Tense 34. Food and Meals 35. Gustar 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Mexican National Anthem

Spanish II 41. Useful Expressions 42. Present Progressive 43. Haber 44. Present Perfect 45. Places

46. Transportation 47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to 48. House 49. Furniture 50. Comparative and Superlative 51. Irregular Forms 52. Clothing 53. To Wear 54. Future Tenses 55. Preceding Adjectives 56. More Adjectives 57. Sports and Hobbies 58. Nature 59. To Say and to Go Out 60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. To Give and To Bring 65. Relative Pronouns 66. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. To Hear and to Smell 68. Animals 69. Past Perfect 70. Suffixes

Spanish III (Not finished yet!)

71. Adverbs 72. Passive Voice 73. Uses of the Infinitive 74. Shopping 75. Post Office and Bank 76. Conditional Tenses 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 78. Office / School Supplies 79. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 80. Subjunctive Mood 81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood 82. Uses of the Subjunctive 83. Travelling / Airport 84. Cosmetics / Toiletries 85. Other Perfect Tenses

1. Some Basic Phrases

¡Buenos días!
buayn-ohs dee-ahs

¡Buenas tardes!
buayn-ahs tard-ays

Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas noches!
buayn-ahs nohch-ays

Good afternoon! ¡Hola!
oh-lah

Good evening / Good night ¿Cómo se llama usted?

Hi! ¿Cómo te llamas?

coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted coh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (formal) Me llamo. ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day air-ays Where are you from? (formal) Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de.. ah-dee-ohs Bad / Very bad / OK Chao. ah-stah loo-ay-go Until we meet again. Hasta la vista. grah-see-ahs I am _____ years old.. ¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ays oo-sted Me too.. tay ah-moh And you? (informal) I love you. ¿Y usted? ee oo-sted Please. ee-guahl-main-tay Delighted to meet you. may yah-moh What is your name? (informal) Mi nombre es. ¿Y tú? ee too And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal) Te amo. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah See you tomorrow. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs How old are you? (informal) Gracias. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you later.. . mee nohm-bray ays I am called.... ¿Cuántos años tiene usted? ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays How old are you? (formal) Yo tengo _____ años. Igualmente. moo-choh goo-stoh Mister / Mrs... yoh ay-stoy What's up? Bien / Muy bien bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn I am. yoh soy day Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. Mucho gusto. yoh tahm-bee-ain Same here.... quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oosted I'm from the United States. Hasta mañana. Por favor. (when talking about your mood) Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Good / Very good Adiós. / Miss Encantado/a. ¿Cómo estás? coh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (formal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl How are you? (informal) Yo estoy. ah-stah lah vee-stah Bye. Yo también... Hasta luego.. ¿Cómo está usted? coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted My name is.. chow Good bye. ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah Nice to meet you. por fah-bor Thank you. yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs I'm from.

and if you're a woman. o. if you're a man. sometimes a h k eye s th (in most parts of Spain) Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word. 3. real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) almost like a d when in between 2 vowels r w/ a roll of the tongue almost like a th when in between 2 vowels hard h g. Most adjectives work this way. Alphabet a b c ch d e f g h i ah bay say chay day ay ay-fay hey ah-chay ee j k l ll m n ñ o p q hoh-tah kah ay-lay ay-yay ay-may ay-nay ayn-yay oh pay koo r rr s t u v w x y z air-ay airr-ay ay-say tay oo oo-bay doh-blay-bay ah-kees ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah . The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word. Pronunciation Spanish Letter a e i o u ll v ñ r rr d j g qu ai / all / ay z z. you would say Encantada.Note: For Encantado/a. You would use the feminine ending. You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll change the meaning of a word. you would use the masculine ending. a. ce. accents (´ ) are very important in the Spanish language. Also. ci English Sound ah ay ee oh oo y b at beginning of word. if you're a man. So. you would say Encantado. 2. if you're a woman. you need to roll your tounge when you say the r's.

Singular la (lah) una (oonah) esta esa aquella the some Masc. Ustedes can also be abreviated to Uds. 6. Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives Masc. Plural los (lohs) unos (oonohs) Fem.to have tengo tenemos tienes tenéis tiene tienen . ll or rr to be separate letters of the alphabet.to be estoy estamos estás estáis está están tener . Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females. as well as ellas. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Use the ese froms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. Subject Pronouns yo tú él / ella / usted yoh too ail / ay-yah / oo-sted I you (informal) he / she / you (formal) nosotros(as) vosotros(as) ellos / ellas / ustedes noh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trohs ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays we you all they / they / you (plural) Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Singular the a. Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. an this that that el (ail) un (oon) este ese aquel Fem.Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch. Plural las (lahs) unas (oonahs) estas esas aquellas these estos those esos those aquellos Note: El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable. They can be used in general and abstract ways. 4. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs. Usted can be abreviated to Ud.to be soy somos eres sois es son estar . 5. To Be and to Have ser . Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.

tener frío to be curious . The house is large. It's three o'clock. The books are John's.tener prisa.tener éxito to be thirsty . Carlos es pobre. It is necessary.tener sed to be tired .tener hambre to be in a hurry .tener paciencia to be successful . its basic characteristics. John is sick. Miguel está estudiando. Common Expressions with "to be" to be afraid . La ventana está abierta. El telefono fue inventado por Bell.tener cuidado to be cold . The window is open. Charles is poor. The book is on the table. Los libros son de Juan. estar de prisa to be jealous . Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.tener celos to be lucky .tener suerte to be patient . Son las tres.estar cansado (a) 7. Es carpintero.ser curioso (a) to be happy . Question Words what who how when qué quién(es) cómo cuándo which cuál(es) how much cuánto (-a) how many cuántos (-as) whom whose a quién(es) de quién(es) where dónde why por qué . La casa es grande.estar contento (a) to be hot . The telephone was invented by Bell. It tells what something is. Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa.tener calor to be hungry . He is a carpenter. The building is a temple. Juan está enfermo.tener la culpa to be careful . Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo.estar en contra to be at fault .tener miedo to be against . Michael is studying.Note: Ser is used to indentify or describe. Es necesario. or its origin.

And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. you use just cien. diecisiete.8. Days of the Week lunes loo-nays Monday . If it's over 100. and 19. and diecinueve for 16. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince diez y seis diez y siete cay-roh oo-noh dohs trays kuah-troh seen-koh says see-ay-tay oh-choh new-ay-vay dee-ays ohn-say doh-say tray-say kah-tor-say keen-say dee-ays ee says dee-ays ee see-ay-tay first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth primero segundo tercero cuarto quinto sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero trigésimo cuadragésimo quincuagésimo sexagésimo septuagésimo octogésimo nonagésimo centésimo milésimo diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay veinte bayn-tay veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta setenta ochenta noventa trayn-tah kuar-ain-tah seen-kuain-tah say-sain-tah say-tain-tah oh-chain-tah noh-bain-tah see-ain-(toh) meel twenty-second vigésimo segundo 100 cien(to) 1000 mil Note: If you are just saying 100. you use ciento. respectively. So 101 is ciento uno. dieciocho. 18. 17. 9. Also you can also use dieciséis.

spring.martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo el día la semana mar-tays mee-air-coh-lays hway-bays bee-air-nays sah-bah-doh doh-ming-oh Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday the day the week ail dee-ah lah say-mahn-ah el fin de semana ail feen day say-mahn-ah the weekend hoy mañana mi cumpleaños oy mahn-yahn-ah today tomorrow mee coom-play-ahn-yohs my birthday 10. etc. . En verano means in the summer. Seasons spring la primavera winter el invierno summer el verano autumn el otoño Note: To say in the summer. Months of the Year enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre el mes ay-nair-oh fay-bray-roh mar-soh ah-breel mi-oh hoo-nee-oh hoo-lee-oh ah-gohs-toh sayp-tee-aim-bray ohk-too-bray noh-bee-aim-bray dee-see-aim-bray ail mais January February March April May June July August September October November December the month el primero de [month] ail pree-mair-oh day _____ the first of [a month] el año ail ahn-yoh the year 11. use en and the season.

.. Son las diez menos cuarto. The weather's bad. Directions north el norte south el sur east el este west el oeste 13. Son diez para las nueve Son las tres y media. It's noon. It's cold... It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) It's 8:50 It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) It's 3:30 15. Hace calor. Time Qué hora es? Es la una. It's two/three/four. What's the weather like? The weather's nice. Es medianoche. Es mediodía. Son las ocho y cuarto. What time is it? It's one. Colors red pink orange yellow green blue rojo rosado anaranjado amarillo verde azul violet brown violeta marrón dark brown café black gray white gold silver negro gris blanco dorado plateado light blue celeste purple morado 14.12. Son las dos/tres/cuatro. Son cuarto para las diez Son las nueve menos diez. Hace frío. . Son las cinco y cinco. It's midnight. Weather Qué tiempo hace? Hace buen tiempo. It's hot. Hace mal tiempo.

It's raining. Nieva. A and el combine to form al. among towards.Hace sol. by for. Llueve. Prepositions a con at with al lado de beside alrededor de around cerca de lejos de delante de debajo de near far from in front of below. 16. through. and de and el combine to form del. It's cloudy. until from. over sin without Note: There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. about for. 17. It's snowing. Family and Animals family parents wife father mother son la familia los padres la esposa el padre la madre el hijo grandfather grandmother grandson uncle aunt nephew niece cousin (m) cousin (f) relatives el abuelo la abuela el nieto el tío la tía el sobrino la sobrina el primo la prima los parientes dog cat bird fish goat pig cow turtle el perro el gato el pájaro el pez la cabra el cerdo la vaca la tortuga husband el esposo granddaughter la nieta horse el caballo daughter la hija children los hijos sister brother la hermana el hermano rabbit el conejo mouse el ratón 18. under contra against de en entre hacia para por of. Está nublado. It's sunny. on between. from in. via en frente de opposite detrás de encima de hasta desde behind above till. in order. To Know People and Facts . It's windy. along. since sobre on. Hace viento.

-tad. it'll be feminine. When used with the indefinite article. Add an -es to make words ending in a constinant (papel = papeles). 20. After making the word plural. change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces). you must make the articles plural also. de él. To make words ending in a vowel plural. it corresponds to the English "of mine.. you will use the feminine articles (la señora).to know people conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen saber . Possessive Adjectives Terminal Forms Singular my your your/his/her/its our your your/their mi tu su tus sus Plural mis Singular mío (a) tuyo (a) suyo (a) Plural míos (as) tuyos (as) suyos (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) vuestro (a) vuestros (as) su sus vuestro (a) vuestros (as) suyo (a) suyos (as) Because su and sus can have so many meanings. or -tud. If a word ends in a -z. de ellos and de ellas." etc. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun. el libro mío my book Qué haces. except in direct address. and must be preceded by the definite article. add an -s (libro = libros). Days of the week are also masculine. de ella.to know facts sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben 19.. if you are talking about a female. And if you're talking about a male. use the masculine articles.conocer . de Uds. -dad. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word ends in an -ción.to do or make hago hacemos . hijo mío? What are you doing. Words ending in an -o are masculine. To Do or Make hacer . the definite article may be used with the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms: de Ud. Also. of yours. There are very few exceptions to making words plural. my son? un amigo mío a friend of mine 21.

Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Argentina Australia Bolivia Canada Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egypt Spain Alemania Argentina Australia Bolivia Canadá Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egipto España Masc. (Fem) Nationality alemán (alemana) argentino(a) australiano(a) boliviano(a) canadiense colombiano(a) costarricense cubano(a) chileno(a) chino(a) ecuatoriano(a) egipcio(a) español(a) . Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician painter pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary typist nurse el médico el dentista el abogado el profesor el maestro el ingeniero el arquitecto el escritor el periodista el músico el pintor el farmacéutico el banquero el carpintero el barbero el mecánico el vendedor el electricista el cartero el agente de policia el soldado el piloto la secretaria la mecanógrafo la enfermera history math algebra geometry science physics chemistry zoology botany geography music art drawing painting linguistics languages la historia las matemáticas el álgebra la geometría la ciencia la fisica la química la zoología la botánica la geografía la música el arte el dibujo la pintura la lingüística las lenguas / idiomas 23.haces hace hacéis hacen 22.

To / In and From to a from de in en Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition.to go voy vamos vas vais va van 26. To Come and to Go venir . Words a lot mucho always everyday now usually there siempre todos los días ahora usualmente ahí very much muchísimo a little very little poco muy poco sometimes a veces well after poorly bien después mal over there allí too bad qué malo .to come vengo venimos vienes venís viene vienen ir . Misc.India England Italy Japan Mexico Russia South Africa India Inglaterra Italia Japón México Rusia Suráfrica indio(a) inglés (inglesa) italiano(a) japonés (japonesa) mexicano(a) ruso(a) surafricano(a) United States los Estados Unidos (norte)americano(a) France Portugal Poland Francia Portugal Polonia francés (francesa) portugués (portuguesa) polaco(a) 24. 25.

" Reflexive Pronouns me te se Some common reflexive verbs: nos os se . Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English. while the reciprocal verbs use "each other. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing. it is called the infinitive. Before a verb is conjugated.) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense. -er or -ir.27. It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms. simply put no in front of the verb. Conjugating Regular Verbs Verbs in Spanish end in -ar. Here are some more regular verbs: -ar verbs bailar desear to dance to want -er verbs aprender comer correr leer vender beber to learn to eat to run to read to sell to drink vivir escribir -ir verbs to live to write escuchar to listen estudiar hablar to study to speak compartir to share recibir to receive practicar to practice tomar viajar to take to travel comprender to understand To make sentences negative. so just canto means I sing. Reflexive Verbs The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs . These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive.the subject acts upon itself.is the stem. add these endings to the stems: -ar o amos o -er emos o -ir imos as áis a an es éis e en es ís e en Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns. 28. except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form. cant. Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another.

to dress oneself atreverse . like.to play morir . -er.to sleep encontrar .to wake up irse . It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.to return contar e to i pedir . nadie (nobody). love cerrar . when used as the direct object.to show volar . It isn't used if a number precedes the object though.to go to bed bañarse . It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an article.to find.acostarse .to fly volver . Irregularities in Regular Verbs Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural. meet jugar . Impersonal "a" When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite person.to think querer . Veo a Juan.to awaken empezar . The pronouns alguien (somebody). It is used to describe events that are finished or complete.to rise sentarse .to follow servir .to sit down vestirse .to complain 29. and ninguno (no one) require a as well.to die mostrar .to understand perder . Preterite Tense The preterite tense expresses an action in the past. I see somebody.to lose preferir . feel pensar o to ue contar . 31.to begin despertar . Veo a alguien.to be able costar . I see John. the e of the last syllable changes to ie. Some -ir verbs change the e to i.to prefer sentar .to begin entender .to repeat seguir . After dropping the endings (-ar.to bathe oneself casarse .to get married despertarse . Describe Chile. .to ask (for) repetir . e to ie pensar . it is preceded by a. or -ir).to serve vestir .to seat sentir .to want.to dress pedir pienso pensamos cuento contamos pido pedimos piensas pensáis cuentas contáis pides pédis piensa piensan cuenta cuentan pide piden 30. Describe a Chile. alguno (someone).to go away levantarse .to count poder .to close comenzar .to regret. and o in the last syllable changes to ue.to cost dormir .to dare quejarse .

It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions. It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem. esperar. except with these verbs: querer. I used to live in Spain.to do.to have traer .to be estuve estuvimos estuviste estuvisteis estuvo estuvieron puse pusiste puso vine viniste vino pusimos pusisteis pusieron vinimos vinisteis vinieron hacer . make ir . Ellos hablaron con los niños.to be poner .to be ir . as repeated or habitual.to say.-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -imos -iste -eron -é -amos -í -aste -asteis -iste -ó -aron -ió Viví en España dos años. tener. tell dije dijiste dijo fui fuiste fue traje trajiste trajo dijimos dijisteis dijeron fuimos fuisteis fueron trajimos trajisteis trajeron estar .to see era éramos iba íbamos veía veíamos . They spoke with the children. I lived in Spain for two years. pueder. Quién comió la fruta? Who ate the fruit? 32. place tener .to go ver . Imperfect Tense The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past.to give di diste dió hice hiciste hizo tuve tuviste tuvo dimos disteis dieron hicimos hicisteis hicieron tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron decir .to put. -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -íamos -íais -ían -aba -ábamos -ía -abas -abais -ías -aba -aban -ía Yo vivía en España.to bring venir . Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense: ser . He was selling radios. The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though. Louise was sad. creer. El vendía radios.to go / ser. Luisa estaba triste. Irregular Preterite Tense A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense. The following are the most common: dar . and saber.to come 33.

Fruits. Le gusta a Ud. dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shaker sugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray el mantel la servilleta el tenedor el cuchillo la cuchara el plato el vaso la taza la sal el salero la pimienta el pimientero el azúcar el azucarero el vinagre la cafetera la tetera la bandeja 35. Me gustan las flores. 36. (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me. a él.eras erais era eran ibas ibais iba iban veías veíais veía veían 34.. Gustar Gustar plus a noun means to like something. Literally.. a Uds. We like the house.) Nos gusta la casa. a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear. No me gusta. you can add a Ud. a ella.? Do you like it? Le gustan a ella. while gustan is used with plural nouns. Me gusta(n) I like Te gusta(n) you like Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes Nos gusta(n) we like Os gusta(n) you like Les gusta(n) you/they like Gusta is used with singular nouns. She likes them. I like the flowers. so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. it means to please and takes an indirect object. With le and les. I don't like it. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper dinner meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetables fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream el desayuno el almuerzo la cena la comida la comida el alimento el pan el panecillo la mantequilla la carne el pescado las legumbres la fruta el queso la galleta los dulces el sándwich el helado tablecloth napkin fork knife spoon plate. Vegetables and Meats apple orange banana la manzana la naranja la banana la lechuga lettuce la col cabbage cauliflower la coliflor broccoli corn on the cob el brócoli el elote / la mazorca el rábano .

tomar can be intransitive. so -ar verbs end in -es and -éis.to have a coffee. Commands To form familiar commands. while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -áis for the tú and vosotros forms.to take or drink tomo tomas toma tomamos tomáis toman When tomar means to drink. tomar is always transitive.to have a drink and tomar un café .grapefruit lemon lime peach apricot fig grapes pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry la toronja el limón la lima el melocotón el albaricoque el higo unas uvas la pera la ciruela la cereza la piña el melón la sandía la fresa la frambuesa la zarzamora green peas asparagus green been spinach tomato carrot turnip beet celery onion cucumber parsley squash artichoke eggplant rhubarb los guisantes los espárragos la habichuela la espinaca el tomate la zanahoria el nabo la remolacha el apio la cebolla el pepino el perejil la calabaza la alcachofa la berenjena el ruibarbo radish pepper garlic potato sweet potato beans beef lamb pork sausage ham bacon goose duck chicken turkey lobster el pimiento el ajo la patata la batata los frijoles / las judías la carne de vaca el cordero el cerdo la salchicha el jamón el tocino el ganso el pato el pollo el pavo la langosta 37. In Mexico. as beber is almost never used. it usually refers to alcohol. regular -ar verbs end in -a. Affirmative -ar -er or -ir tú -a -e Negative -ar -er or -ir -es -as -éis -áis vosotros -ad -ed Habla! = Speak! (tú form) Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form) No comáis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form) Irregular Familiar Commands tú vosotros . To Take or Drink tomar . Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form. and -er and -ir verbs end in -e for the tú form. Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms. In Spain. such as tomar una copa. 38.

you place no before the verb.. (not) anybody no. 39. ever Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative. and z becomes c.ni ni siquiera nunca. jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb. nor not even never. g becomes gu. (not) anything nobody. while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes. Other negatives may precede or follow the verb.. -ar -er or -ir Usted -e -a Ustedes -en -an Beba! = Drink! (Usted form) Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form) No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form) Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands: vaya and vayan for ir and sea and sean for ser. and add the opposite vowel ending.. none neither. drop the -o ending of the yo form. either nor neither. -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well: c becomes qu. 40. This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Ustedes form. just add no before it. but if they follow. nada nadie ninguno (a) tampoco ni ni. To make a command negative.. The word order is no + verb + negative. Verbs that end in -car. jamás nothing. More Negatives To make sentences negative. they must follow a negative verb (a double negative).decir hacer ir irse poner salir ser tener venir di haz ve vete pon sal sé ten ven decid haced id idos poned salid sed tened venid To form formal commands of verbs. Holiday Phrases .

and let the earth tremble at its center upon the roar of the cannon. On blood their feet trample. that heaven gave you a soldier in each son. before your children become unarmed Beneath the yoke their necks in sway. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. with olive garlands by the divine archangel of peace.Feliz Navidad Feliz Año Nuevo Merry Christmas Happy New Year Feliz Cumpleaños Happy Birthday Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos. war! On the mount. And may your temples. and let the earth tremble at its center . que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen. your children swear to exhale their breath in your cause. patria. palaces and towers crumble in horrid crash. and their ruins exist saying: The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad! Antes. guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. Si el clarín con su bélico acento Los convoca a lidiar con valor. oh fatherland. War. May your countryside be watered with blood. Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue. Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. Fatherland. ¡Guerra. y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva De la Paz el arcángel divino. Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. guerra! En el monte. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. But should a foreign enemy Profane your land with his sole. beloved fatherland. If the bugle in its belligerent tone should call upon them to struggle with bravery. For in heaven your eternal destiny has been written by the hand of God. in the vale The terrifying cannon thunder and the echoes nobly resound to the cries of union! liberty! Fatherland. Mexicans. Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo Un soldado en cada hijo te dio. For you the olive garlands! For them a memory of glory! For you a laurel of victory! For them a tomb of honor! Mexicans. palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo. Your forehead shall be girded. Que en el cielo tu eterno destino Por el dedo de Dios se escribió. war! The patriotic banners saturate in waves of blood. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo Profanar con su planta tu suelo. guerra sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra. al Grito de Guerra by Francisco González Bocanegra Mexicanos. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Mexicanos. war without truce against who would attempt to blemish the honor of the fatherland! War. fatherland. Think. ¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento. ¡Guerra. Y tus templos. War. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle.

. it's because the anthem has no words. it's all instrumental. upon the roar of the cannon. If you're wondering why I didn't include the Spanish national anthem.y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón.

Josh is talking. Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than this tense when expressing the past. (Haber is only used as a helping verb. To go to + inf. Hace + time There is/are There was/were It is necessary to + inf. To have just + past participle time + ago 42. 43.) This tense can be translated as have or has done something. it is never used to show possession. Present Perfect The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle.to have he has ha hemos habéis han 44. To have to + inf. Estaban cantando. Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb. Acabar de + inf.41. I was writing a letter. and adding the following endings to the stem: Present Participles -ar -er -ir -ando -iendo -iendo Juan está hablando. . Useful Expressions Hay Había Hay que + infinitive Tener que + inf. They were singing. Haber Haber . Progressive Tenses The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing. Estuve escribiendo una carta. It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle. Ir a + inf.

No han vendido la casa. and adding these endings: Past Participles -ar -er -ir -ado -ido -ido The following verbs have irregular past participles: abrir (to open) . Qué ha dicho Ud.hecho (done). la llave? Where have you put the key? Hemos gastado mucho dinero. Places movies restaurant mountain cafe house concert library theater country supermarket bread shop el cine el restaurante la montaña el café la casa el concierto la biblioteca el teatro el campo la panadería office bank pastry shop meat shop fruit shop fish shop pharmacy candy store bookstore flower shop la oficina el banco la pastelería la carnicería la frutería la pescadería la farmacia la dulcería la librería la papelería la floristería swimming pool la piscina ice cream shop le heladería el supermercado paper store 46.vuelto (returned). escribir (to write) . Transportation by bus by bicycle by car by subway by taxi by plane by train by boat on foot en autobús en bicicleta en coche en metro en taxi en avión en tren en barco a pie by motorcycle en motocicleta .puesto (put). ver (to see) visto (seen).? What did you say? 45.Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending. volver (to return) . They have not sold the house. hacer (to do) . decir (to say) . Dónde ha puesto Ud.dicho (said). poner (to put) .muerto (died). We have spent a lot of money. morir (to die) .abierto (opened).escrito (written).

to Have to querer-to want quiero queremos quieres queréis quiere quieren poder-to be able to. House house living room den dining room kitchen bedroom room closet bathroom fireplace stairway wall floor ceiling roof hall window ground floor second floor la casa la sala de recibo el gabinete el comedor la cocina la recámara el cuarto el armario el cuarto de baño la chimenea la escalera la pared el suelo el techo el tejado el pasillo la ventana el piso bajo el primer piso 49. drape lamp picture wardrobe bed dresser chest of drawers stove refrigerator el mueble le mesa el diván el sofá el escritorio la silla la butaca el estante para libros la alfombra el tapete la cortina la lámpara el cuadro el guardarropa la cama el tocador la cómoda la estufa el refrigerador . can puedo puedes puede podemos podéis pueden deber-to have to. to Be Able to. To Want.47. must debo debes debe debemos debéis deben 48. Furniture furniture table couch sofa desk chair armchair bookcase carpet rug curtain.

52.que tan.que menos. Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie.como tanto(a. The most common are: Adjective/Adverb Comparative good bad great small well badly much little bueno malo grande pequeño bien mal mucho poco better worse greater less better worse more less mejor peor mayor menor mejor peor más menos Superlative the best the worst the greatest the least best worst most least el mejor el peor el mayor el menor el mejor el peor el más el menos Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeño change according to gender. To form the superlative.. Comparative and Superlative Comparisons are expressed as follows: màs. as as much/many. Note that de is used to express in after a superlative.. The cat is less intelligent than the dog.. as).... Clothing clothing clothes dress la ropa los vestidos el vestido . than less... as El gato es menos inteligente que el perro. Irregular Forms Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms... than as. just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb.50. My cousin has more records than anyone. Rosa is the tallest girl in the class.. más alta taller la más alta the tallest Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase. The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun.... To form comparatives. os..como more. 51.. I don't have as much money as you. place the definite article before the comparative. No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes.

but you do use the definite article.to wear ponerse . 54. but they still use the regular endings from above: decir (to say. tell) dir- .to put on llevo llevamos me pongo nos ponemos llevas lleváis te pones os ponéis lleva llevan se pone so ponen Note: You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing. Future Tense The future of regular verbs is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive: -é -emos -ás -éis -á -án Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense.suit blouse skirt jacket wrap. To Wear llevar . coat hat beret shoes slippers robe underwear gloves purse raincoat umbrella pants vest coat shirt collar tie belt sock cap overcoat wallet shorts pajamas el traje la blusa la falda la chaqueta el abrigo el sombrero la boina los zapatos las zapatillas la bata la ropa interior los guantes la bolsa el impermeable el paraguas los pantalones el chaleco el saco la camisa el cuello la corbata el cinturón el calcetín la gorra el sobretodo la cartera los calzoncillos el pijama 53.

malo . then the adjective becomes a noun. bueno . make) poder (to be able) poner (to put.the poor man If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective. Preceding Adjectives Most adjectives follow the noun they describe. Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns. short pretty beautiful ugly wide narrow heavy light hard soft sweet sour bitter alto bajo lindo. but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno . go out) tener (to have) venir (to come) harpodrpondrsabrsaldrtendrvendr- 55. el pobre . Sports . tercero third When grande means great.hacer (to do. ninguno .some.no. primero . except those beginning with Do.first. More Adjectives large small long short good bad rich poor strong weak easy difficult fat thin grande pequeño largo corto bueno malo rico pobre fuerte débil fácil difícil gordo delgado high.good.good. any.or To-. place) saber (to know) salir (to leave.one. bonito hermoso feo ancho estrecho pesado ligero duro blando dulce agrio amargo When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective. alguno .bad.the good (everything that is good) 57. 56. uno .poor. lo bueno . pobre . it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singular noun of either gender. the latter becomes an abstract noun. tall low.

To Say and to Go Out decir .to say salir .to go out digo decimos salgo salimos dices decís sales salís dice dicen sale salen . Nature continent island peninsula gulf bay ocean coast beach sea river lake mountain valley plain desert jungle forest garden flower rose tree el continente la isla la península el golfo la bahía el océano la costa la playa el mar el río el lago la montaña el valle la llanura el desierto la selva el bosque el jardín la flor la rosa el árbol 59.ball game match team player soccer football la pelota el juego el partido el equipo el jugador el fútbol el fútbol americano pool la piscina basketball el baloncesto tennis el tenis swimming la natación boxing wrestling hockey el boxeo la lucha el hockey baseball el béisbol raquet ball (small) bat glove ball una raqueta una pelota un bate un guante un balón net volleyball el volibol una red unos zapatos de futból unos esquís cleats skis ski poles unos bastones boots helmet unas botas el casco basketball hoop una canasta 58.

las you they los them les to them ellos (as) . on behalf of. purpose (in order to). 61. because of. Bebe lecho pero no bebe café. to go for. Por is used to express: a place through or along which. to send for. Se vendre por libras. He drinks milk.) La carta es para Concha. I'm going for Alice. Estudia para aprender. He studies in order to learn. point of future time (for. expressions of time (in. but he does not drink coffee. la nos os him/it le her/it le you us you le os to him/it él to her/it ella to you to you Usted nosotros (as) we vosotros (as) you Ustedes ellos (as) you nos to us les to you nosotros (as) us vosotros (as) you Ustedes you them les. No bebe café sino leche. motive. John is about to leave. Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression. for the sake of. lo she/it la you le. price (for). at). It was written by Cervantes. The letter is yet to be written. I will have it by Tuesday. by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive. It's sold by the pound. La carta está por escribir. during. I'm going by train. but milk. Fue escrito por Cervantes. He paid a dollar for the book. Voté por Juanita. on account of. Estoy por escribirla. I voted for Juanita.60. reason. per). por el pueblo through the town por la mañana in the morning Pagó un peso por el libro. Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. He does not drink coffee. los. Voy por tren. Lo tendré para el martes. The letter is for Concha. I am in favor of writing it. for. but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated. Sino Para is used to express: use or destination (for). or if another verb follows. Juan está para salir. way or means (by). It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or to be in favor of. exchange. Object Pronouns Subject yo tú él ella Usted I you Direct me te me you Indirect me to me te to you Object of Prepositions mí ti me you him/it her/it you he/it le. unit of measure (by. Voy por Alicia.

such as Isn't it? Aren't you? Don't you? Didn't he? Isn't she? etc. Then it is attached to the verb as one word. These translate to many phrases in English. with an infinitive or gerund. 1. Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence. For clearness or emphasis. use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part. Déme Ud. 63. 3. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form. Asking Questions Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence. Parts of the Body hand foot ear eye tongue face hair nose tooth lip la mano el pie la oreja el ojo la lengua la cara el cabello la nariz el diente el labio mouth finger la boca el dedo fingernail la uña elbow arm knee leg head neck el codo el brazo la rodilla la pierna la cabeza el cuello shoulder el hombro la garganta stomach el estómago throat To express pain. His feet hurt. el libro. except if is used in an affirmative command. Nos envió a Ud. Le duelen los pies. . Me duele la cabeza. 62. 2.An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb. the indirect comes before the direct. When you have more than one pronoun. My head hurts. the prepositional form of a plus an object of a preposition may be used. Give me the book. If both pronouns begin with the letter l. an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word. Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement. He sent us to you. 4. then the first one is changed to se.

to bring doy damos das dais da dan traigo traemos traes traéis trae traen 65. when it means one who. When used with a preposition. the forms of mismo (-a. the words become conmigo. The house in which I live is small. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent. it means whom. Disjunctive Pronouns Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb. -as) is a possessive adjective and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed. 66. los que. las cuales) may replace que or quien. or show emphasis. -as) can be added to these pronouns. ti or sí.la que. Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns. when it refers to things only. -os. which is always the word that follows it. or the object of a preposition. contigo and consigo. herself. He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive. Quien (-es) is often used in place of el que and its forms as well. When con combines with mí. which) refers to persons or things. For clearness. Que (who. -os. . They are the pronouns which follow prepositions. that. los cuales.64. These pronouns are used for clearness when there are two antecedents. Lo que and lo cual (which) refer to the whole sentence. Quien (-es) (who) is used in a supplementary clause. La casa en que vivo es pequeña.) This pronoun may serve as the subject or object of a verb. whom. El que (and its forms . those who. yourselves or themselves. I visited the city near which he lives. himself. Sí can mean yourself. mí ti él ella Usted nosostros (-as) vosotros (-as) ellos ellas Ustedes Ello is also used as a neuter pronoun meaning it.la cual.to give traer . except after a preposition. Cuyo (-a. To Give and to Bring dar . etc. and with prepositions. las que) and el cual (and its forms .

Sometimes the preterite of haber is used. It consists of the imperfect of haber and a past participle." It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past.to hear oler . to Smell and to See oír . Past Perfect The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle.to smell ver . Animals giraffe elephant bear lion eagle parrot rhinoceros whale snake alligator la jirafa el elefante el oso el león el águila el loro el rinoceronte la ballena la serpiente el caimán hippopotamus el hipopótamo tiger bull fox monkey wolf turtle el tigre el toro la zorra el mono el lobo la tortuga 69.to see oigo oímos oyes oís oye oyen huelo olemos veo vemos hueles oleís ves veís huele huelen ve ven 68. To Hear. but the imperfect is more common. .67.

To indicate where something is made or sold. They express size. We had learned Spanish. affection. they express abstract nouns. The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something. Suffixes Suffixes may be attached to nouns. The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a). .Carlos había vivido en México. 70. it indicates the performer of the action. When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives. appreciation or pity. Habíamos aprendido el español. Carlos had lived in Mexico. When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter). add -ería. admiration. adjectives or adverbs. Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes.

El nino fue castigado por su padre. When I saw it. two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much). Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject. Rose is loved by everyone. as . 73.. The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle. Active Passive El viento destrue la casa. la casa estaba Predicate Adjective destruida. La casa fue destruida por el viento. Uses of the Infinitive . while lo mas + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated: as . Rosa es amada de todos. the house was destroyed. Adjective correcto facil claro absoluto rapido Adverb correctamente facilmente claramente absolutamente rapidamente correctly easily clearly absolutely rapidly Lo + adverb + que expresses how. the subject receives the action of the verb.. lo bien que how well lo mas pronto posible as soon as possible 72. In active sentences. Cuando la vi. If you use estar instead of ser. Passive Voice In passive sentences. However. and by de if mental. However. The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical.71.. The boy was punished by his father. The wind destroys the house. The house was destroyed by the wind. the subject does the action.. the meaning of both sentences is the same. the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence.

He left without speaking. Oigo cantar a Maria. Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense.The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el. Running is good exercise. 74. a preposition. Partío sin hablar. To form the present conditional. add these endings to the infintive for all three types of verbs. Conditional Tense The conditional tense expresses an idea dependent on a condition that is either expressed or understood. also use that stem for the conditional tense. ver or oír. -ía -íamos . El correr es buen ejercicio. Shopping department store shopping mall belt glasses gloves sunglasses el almacén el centro comercial el cintúron las gafas los guantes los lentes de sol shop/store (open-air) market (fixed) price sale to bargain to spend money la tienda el mercado (al aire libre) el precio (fijo) la rebaja regatear gastar 75. al. Post Office and Bank post office envelope mailbox mail carrier stamps package el correo el sobre el buzón el cartero las estampillas el paquete bank (traveler's) check to cash (a check) to save (money) to deposit account el banco el cheque (de viajero) cobrar ahorrar depositar la cuenta 76. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability. I hear Maria singing.

Office / School Supplies pencil eraser pen el lápiz la goma la pluma dictionary tape (audio) map el diccionario la cinta el mapa . although the preposition is not always translated into English.-ías -íais -ía -ían 77. de. Verb + a + another infinitive acostumbrarse aprender atreverse ayudar comenzar convidar decidirse dedicarse empezar enseñar invitar ir negarse persuadir principiar rehusar resignarse resistirse resolverse venir volver to become used to to learn to to dare to to help to begin to to invite to to decide to to devote oneself to to begin to to teach to to invite to go to to refuse to to persuade to to begin to to refuse to to resign oneself to to resist to resolve to to come to to return to to consent to to consist to amuse oneself to insist on to endeavor to to insist on to busy oneself to think of to persist in to delay in Verb + de + another infinitive acabar acordarse alegrarse aprovecharse arrepentirse cansarse cesar dejar encargarse gozar jactarse olvidarse tratar to have just to remember to be glad to to profit by to repent to tire of to cease to cease to take charge of to take pleasure in to boast of to forget to to try to Verb + en + another infinitive consentir consistir divertirse empeñarse esforzarse insistir ocuparse pensar persistir tardar Verb + con + another infinitive contar contentarse soñar to count on to content oneself with to dream of 78. Infinitives followed by Prepositions The following verbs require a. en or con when followed by another infinitive.

adelante la estación de servicio 80. but is is very common and important in Spanish. Parts of a Car / Gas Station car garage tank gasoline oil air grease tire spare tire wheel steering wheel brake speed slow danger stop go service station el coche el garage el tanque la gasolina el aceite el aire la grasa la llanta llanta picada la rueda el volante el freno la velocidad despacio peligro alto siga. Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive is not used very often in English. Present Subjunctive -ar verbs -e -es -e -er and -ir -amos -áis -an -emos -a -éis -as -en -a The past subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite.ink paper letter book la tinta el papel la carta el libro newspaper novel backpack stapler scissors el periódico la novela la mochila la grapadora unas tijeras notebook el cuaderno 79. Some command forms are actually the subjunctive. Remove the -on ending. so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult. and add these new endings: Past Subjunctive all verbs .

to do/make haga hagamos hagas hagáis haga hagan poner .to be esté estemos estés estéis esté estén ir .to go vaya vayamos vayas vayáis vaya vayan querer . Irregular Subjunctive Mood Many verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive mood: dar . etc.to have tenga tengamos tengas tengáis tenga tengan decir . instead of comieramos.to bring venir . the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.to put/place ponga pongamos pongas pongáis ponga pongan salir . Similarly.to be seamos seáis sean salgamos sea salgáis seas salgan sea traer . it is habláramos.to come traigo traigamos venga vengamos traigas traigáis vengas vengáis traiga traigan venga vengan Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well: dar . it is comiéramos.to be estuviera estuviéramos estuvieras estuvierais estuviera estuvieran .to have haya hayamos hayas hayáis haya hayan poder .to know sepa sepamos sepas sepáis sepa sepan tener . The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.to be able to pueda podamos puedas podáis pueda puedan saber .to go out salga salgas salga estar .to give diera diéramos dieras dierais diera dieran decir . Note that there is another way to form the past subjunctive (a different set of endings). Present perfect subjunctive haya hayamos + past hayas hayáis participle haya hayan Past perfect subjunctive hubiera hubiéramos + past hubieras hubierais participle hubiera hubieran 81.to want quiera queramos quieras queráis quiera quieran ser .-a amos -as -ais -a -an An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form. Instead of hablaramos.to say/tell dijera dijéramos dijeras dijerais dijera dijeran estar .to give dé demos des deis dé den haber . but the endings given are used more often.to say/tell diga digamos digas digáis diga digan hacer .

sin que (without). 4. 6. After the verb querer when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject) 2. After most impersonal expressions. In contrary-to-fact conditions. 9. such as para que (in order that).haber . In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite 7.to know supiera supiéramos supieras supierais supiera supieran traer . temer (to fear). 5. After expressions of emotion.to do/make hiciera hiciéramos fuera hicieras hicierais fueras hiciera hicieran fuera poner . 3. such as esperar (to hope). When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something.to have hubiera hubiéramos hubieras hubierais hubiera hubieran poder .to be able to pudiera pudiéramos pudieras pudierais pudiera pudieran saber . such as es posible (it's possible).to want quisiera quisiéramos quisieras quisierais quisiera quisieran tener .to have tuviera tuviéramos tuvieras tuvierais tuviera tuvieran 82. es importante (it's important). es necesario (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb. and antes que (before) 8. hasta que (until). alegarse (to be glad). Travelling / Airport . After time conjunctions.to put/place pusiera pusiéramos pusieras pusierais pusiera pusieran ser .to come viniera viniéramos vinieras vinierais viniera vinieran ir .to be fuera fuéramos fueras fuerais fuera fueran venir . sentir (to be sorry). Uses of the Subjunctive The main uses of the subjunctive include: 1. After certain conjunctions. when futurity is implied. such as cuando (when).to go fuéramos fuerais fueran querer .to bring trajera trajéramos trajeras trajerais trajera trajeran hacer . when there is a change of subject. After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty. en cuanto (as soon as). the past subjunctive must be used in the if-clause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense) 83.

. después (de) que (after). such as así que. tan pronto como (as soon as). and it has the same meaning as the past perfect. and hasta que (until). referring to the past. there are also the preterite. referring to the present. Cosmetics / Toiletries shampoo soap makeup el champú el jabón el maquillaje brush comb toothpaste toothbrush towel electric razor el cepillo el peine la pasta de dientes el cepillo de dientes la toalla la maquinilla de afeitar shaving cream la crema de afeitar la loción lotion el esmalte para las nail polish uñas 85. luego que. The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle. The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. Other Perfect Tenses Beside the present and past perfect tenses. The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle. But this tense is normally only used after conjunctions of time. future and conditional perfect tenses. cuando (when).passport customs arrival departure (round-trip) ticket luggage el pasaporte la aduana la llegada la salida el pasaje (de ida y to go on vacation vuelta) to pack (one's el equipaje suitcases) la habitación individual/doble la estación de tren (de train (bus) station autobuses) la estación de metro subway hacer un viaje to take a trip single/double room ir de vacaciones hacer las maletas 84.

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