Spanish I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Subject Pronouns 6. To Be and to Have 7.

Question Words 8. Numbers / Ordinals 9. Days of the Week 10. Months of the Year 11. Seasons 12. Directions 13. Color 14. Time 15. Weather 16. Prepositions 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Countries and Nationalities 24. To / In and From places 25. To Come and to Go 26. Misc. Words 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs 28. Reflexive Verbs 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 30. Impersonal "a" 31. Preterite Tense 32. Irregular Preterite Tense 33. Imperfect Tense 34. Food and Meals 35. Gustar 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Mexican National Anthem

Spanish II 41. Useful Expressions 42. Present Progressive 43. Haber 44. Present Perfect 45. Places

46. Transportation 47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to 48. House 49. Furniture 50. Comparative and Superlative 51. Irregular Forms 52. Clothing 53. To Wear 54. Future Tenses 55. Preceding Adjectives 56. More Adjectives 57. Sports and Hobbies 58. Nature 59. To Say and to Go Out 60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. To Give and To Bring 65. Relative Pronouns 66. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. To Hear and to Smell 68. Animals 69. Past Perfect 70. Suffixes

Spanish III (Not finished yet!)

71. Adverbs 72. Passive Voice 73. Uses of the Infinitive 74. Shopping 75. Post Office and Bank 76. Conditional Tenses 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 78. Office / School Supplies 79. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 80. Subjunctive Mood 81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood 82. Uses of the Subjunctive 83. Travelling / Airport 84. Cosmetics / Toiletries 85. Other Perfect Tenses

1. Some Basic Phrases

¡Buenos días!
buayn-ohs dee-ahs

¡Buenas tardes!
buayn-ahs tard-ays

Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas noches!
buayn-ahs nohch-ays

Good afternoon! ¡Hola!

Good evening / Good night ¿Cómo se llama usted?

Hi! ¿Cómo te llamas?

chow Good bye.. Hasta luego. mee nohm-bray ays I am called. yoh soy day Yo soy de los Estados Unidos.... moo-choh goo-stoh Mister / Mrs. ¿Cuántos años tiene usted? ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays How old are you? (formal) Yo tengo _____ años. Hasta la vista. ah-stah lah vee-stah Bye. ¿Y tú? ee too And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal) Te amo. Mucho gusto. (when talking about your mood) Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Good / Very good Adiós. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah See you tomorrow. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs How old are you? (informal) Gracias. . Hasta mañana. / Miss Encantado/a.. ¿Y usted? ee oo-sted Please. ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah Nice to meet you. ¿Cómo estás? coh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (formal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl How are you? (informal) Yo estoy. yoh tahm-bee-ain Same here. Yo también.. ¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ays oo-sted Me too. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you later.. yoh ay-stoy What's up? Bien / Muy bien bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn I am. may yah-moh What is your name? (informal) Mi nombre es... ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day air-ays Where are you from? (formal) Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de. ah-dee-ohs Bad / Very bad / OK Chao. quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oosted I'm from the United States.coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted coh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (formal) Me llamo.. Igualmente. yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs I'm from. Por favor. ¿Cómo está usted? coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted My name is.. ah-stah loo-ay-go Until we meet again. grah-see-ahs I am _____ years old.. ee-guahl-main-tay Delighted to meet you..... tay ah-moh And you? (informal) I love you. por fah-bor Thank you.

if you're a man. if you're a man. ci English Sound ah ay ee oh oo y b at beginning of word.Note: For Encantado/a. Pronunciation Spanish Letter a e i o u ll v ñ r rr d j g qu ai / all / ay z z. a. The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word. if you're a woman. 2. Also. real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) almost like a d when in between 2 vowels r w/ a roll of the tongue almost like a th when in between 2 vowels hard h g. accents (´ ) are very important in the Spanish language. Alphabet a b c ch d e f g h i ah bay say chay day ay ay-fay hey ah-chay ee j k l ll m n ñ o p q hoh-tah kah ay-lay ay-yay ay-may ay-nay ayn-yay oh pay koo r rr s t u v w x y z air-ay airr-ay ay-say tay oo oo-bay doh-blay-bay ah-kees ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah . and if you're a woman. Most adjectives work this way. you would use the masculine ending. you need to roll your tounge when you say the r's. you would say Encantado. You would use the feminine ending. o. You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll change the meaning of a word. you would say Encantada. ce. sometimes a h k eye s th (in most parts of Spain) Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word. So. 3.

Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that. 4. Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives Masc. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Singular the a. Subject Pronouns yo tú él / ella / usted yoh too ail / ay-yah / oo-sted I you (informal) he / she / you (formal) nosotros(as) vosotros(as) ellos / ellas / ustedes noh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trohs ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays we you all they / they / you (plural) Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know be soy somos eres sois es son estar . Singular la (lah) una (oonah) esta esa aquella the some have tengo tenemos tienes tenéis tiene tienen . Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing.Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch. Plural los (lohs) unos (oonohs) Fem. Usted can be abreviated to Ud. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females. ll or rr to be separate letters of the alphabet. Use the ese froms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. an this that that el (ail) un (oon) este ese aquel Fem. They can be used in general and abstract be estoy estamos estás estáis está están tener . Ustedes can also be abreviated to Uds. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs. Plural las (lahs) unas (oonahs) estas esas aquellas these estos those esos those aquellos Note: El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable. as well as ellas. To Be and to Have ser . 6. 5.

Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo.estar cansado (a) 7. John is sick.estar contento (a) to be hot . Los libros son de Juan.tener calor to be hungry .tener prisa. Es carpintero. its basic characteristics. It is necessary. The telephone was invented by Bell.tener la culpa to be careful . Common Expressions with "to be" to be afraid .tener éxito to be thirsty .tener frío to be curious .tener sed to be tired . Son las tres. or its origin.estar en contra to be at fault . It's three o'clock.tener paciencia to be successful . Carlos es pobre. The building is a temple. El telefono fue inventado por Bell. Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. The books are John's. Es necesario. The window is open.Note: Ser is used to indentify or describe. La casa es grande. He is a carpenter. Miguel está estudiando.tener hambre to be in a hurry .tener cuidado to be cold . Question Words what who how when qué quién(es) cómo cuándo which cuál(es) how much cuánto (-a) how many cuántos (-as) whom whose a quién(es) de quién(es) where dónde why por qué .tener celos to be lucky .tener suerte to be patient . estar de prisa to be jealous .tener miedo to be against . Juan está enfermo. Charles is poor. Michael is studying. It tells what something is.ser curioso (a) to be happy . Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels. The book is on the table. La ventana está abierta. The house is large.

So 101 is ciento uno. dieciocho. And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. If it's over 100. diecisiete. Also you can also use dieciséis. and diecinueve for 16. 18. respectively. 9. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. you use ciento.8. and 19. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince diez y seis diez y siete cay-roh oo-noh dohs trays kuah-troh seen-koh says see-ay-tay oh-choh new-ay-vay dee-ays ohn-say doh-say tray-say kah-tor-say keen-say dee-ays ee says dee-ays ee see-ay-tay first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth primero segundo tercero cuarto quinto sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero trigésimo cuadragésimo quincuagésimo sexagésimo septuagésimo octogésimo nonagésimo centésimo milésimo diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay veinte bayn-tay veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta setenta ochenta noventa trayn-tah kuar-ain-tah seen-kuain-tah say-sain-tah say-tain-tah oh-chain-tah noh-bain-tah see-ain-(toh) meel twenty-second vigésimo segundo 100 cien(to) 1000 mil Note: If you are just saying 100. 17. Days of the Week lunes loo-nays Monday . you use just cien.

spring. En verano means in the summer. . Seasons spring la primavera winter el invierno summer el verano autumn el otoño Note: To say in the summer.martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo el día la semana mar-tays mee-air-coh-lays hway-bays bee-air-nays sah-bah-doh doh-ming-oh Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday the day the week ail dee-ah lah say-mahn-ah el fin de semana ail feen day say-mahn-ah the weekend hoy mañana mi cumpleaños oy mahn-yahn-ah today tomorrow mee coom-play-ahn-yohs my birthday 10. Months of the Year enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre el mes ay-nair-oh fay-bray-roh mar-soh ah-breel mi-oh hoo-nee-oh hoo-lee-oh ah-gohs-toh sayp-tee-aim-bray ohk-too-bray noh-bee-aim-bray dee-see-aim-bray ail mais January February March April May June July August September October November December the month el primero de [month] ail pree-mair-oh day _____ the first of [a month] el año ail ahn-yoh the year 11. etc. use en and the season.

The weather's bad. Hace calor. Son las dos/tres/cuatro. What time is it? It's one. Son las diez menos cuarto. Directions north el norte south el sur east el este west el oeste 13. Son las ocho y cuarto. Es mediodía. Son las cinco y cinco. It's midnight... Weather Qué tiempo hace? Hace buen tiempo.12. Hace frío. Son diez para las nueve Son las tres y media. It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) It's 8:50 It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) It's 3:30 15.. Es medianoche. It's noon.. Time Qué hora es? Es la una. Hace mal tiempo. Son cuarto para las diez Son las nueve menos diez. . It's cold. What's the weather like? The weather's nice. It's two/three/four. It's hot. Colors red pink orange yellow green blue rojo rosado anaranjado amarillo verde azul violet brown violeta marrón dark brown café black gray white gold silver negro gris blanco dorado plateado light blue celeste purple morado 14.

on between. Prepositions a con at with al lado de beside alrededor de around cerca de lejos de delante de debajo de near far from in front of below. through. It's cloudy. about for. It's sunny. Family and Animals family parents wife father mother son la familia los padres la esposa el padre la madre el hijo grandfather grandmother grandson uncle aunt nephew niece cousin (m) cousin (f) relatives el abuelo la abuela el nieto el tío la tía el sobrino la sobrina el primo la prima los parientes dog cat bird fish goat pig cow turtle el perro el gato el pájaro el pez la cabra el cerdo la vaca la tortuga husband el esposo granddaughter la nieta horse el caballo daughter la hija children los hijos sister brother la hermana el hermano rabbit el conejo mouse el ratón 18. under contra against de en entre hacia para por of. 17. Está nublado. and de and el combine to form del. among towards. Nieva. Hace viento. via en frente de opposite detrás de encima de hasta desde behind above till.Hace sol. It's snowing. over sin without Note: There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. 16. from in. To Know People and Facts . since sobre on. in order. along. A and el combine to form al. by for. until from. It's windy. Llueve. It's raining.

if you are talking about a female. or -tud. To make words ending in a vowel plural. it corresponds to the English "of mine. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun. the definite article may be used with the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms: de Ud. use the masculine articles. el libro mío my book Qué haces. de ellos and de ellas. Days of the week are also masculine." etc. of yours. When used with the indefinite article. de ella. de él. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them..conocer . Possessive Adjectives Terminal Forms Singular my your your/his/her/its our your your/their mi tu su tus sus Plural mis Singular mío (a) tuyo (a) suyo (a) Plural míos (as) tuyos (as) suyos (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) vuestro (a) vuestros (as) su sus vuestro (a) vuestros (as) suyo (a) suyos (as) Because su and sus can have so many meanings. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word ends in an -ción. -tad. 20. except in direct address. you will use the feminine articles (la señora). After making the word plural. Add an -es to make words ending in a constinant (papel = papeles).. -dad. change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces). To Do or Make hacer . hijo mío? What are you doing. If a word ends in a know facts sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben 19. There are very few exceptions to making words know people conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen saber . Also. you must make the articles plural also. And if you're talking about a male. de Uds. and must be preceded by the definite article. Words ending in an -o are masculine. add an -s (libro = libros). it'll be feminine. my son? un amigo mío a friend of mine do or make hago hacemos .

Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician painter pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary typist nurse el médico el dentista el abogado el profesor el maestro el ingeniero el arquitecto el escritor el periodista el músico el pintor el farmacéutico el banquero el carpintero el barbero el mecánico el vendedor el electricista el cartero el agente de policia el soldado el piloto la secretaria la mecanógrafo la enfermera history math algebra geometry science physics chemistry zoology botany geography music art drawing painting linguistics languages la historia las matemáticas el álgebra la geometría la ciencia la fisica la química la zoología la botánica la geografía la música el arte el dibujo la pintura la lingüística las lenguas / idiomas 23.haces hace hacéis hacen 22. Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Argentina Australia Bolivia Canada Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egypt Spain Alemania Argentina Australia Bolivia Canadá Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egipto España Masc. (Fem) Nationality alemán (alemana) argentino(a) australiano(a) boliviano(a) canadiense colombiano(a) costarricense cubano(a) chileno(a) chino(a) ecuatoriano(a) egipcio(a) español(a) .

Words a lot mucho always everyday now usually there siempre todos los días ahora usualmente ahí very much muchísimo a little very little poco muy poco sometimes a veces well after poorly bien después mal over there allí too bad qué malo . 25. Misc.India England Italy Japan Mexico Russia South Africa India Inglaterra Italia Japón México Rusia Suráfrica indio(a) inglés (inglesa) italiano(a) japonés (japonesa) mexicano(a) ruso(a) surafricano(a) United States los Estados Unidos (norte)americano(a) France Portugal Poland Francia Portugal Polonia francés (francesa) portugués (portuguesa) polaco(a) 24. To Come and to Go venir .to go voy vamos vas vais va van 26. To / In and From to a from de in en Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the come vengo venimos vienes venís viene vienen ir .

so just canto means I sing.the subject acts upon itself. Here are some more regular verbs: -ar verbs bailar desear to dance to want -er verbs aprender comer correr leer vender beber to learn to eat to run to read to sell to drink vivir escribir -ir verbs to live to write escuchar to listen estudiar hablar to study to speak compartir to share recibir to receive practicar to practice tomar viajar to take to travel comprender to understand To make sentences negative. it is called the infinitive.) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense. simply put no in front of the verb. -er or -ir. These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs. 28. It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms. while the reciprocal verbs use "each other. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive. Before a verb is conjugated. add these endings to the stems: -ar o amos o -er emos o -ir imos as áis a an es éis e en es ís e en Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns. cant. except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form. Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing. Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another." Reflexive Pronouns me te se Some common reflexive verbs: nos os se . Reflexive Verbs The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs . Conjugating Regular Verbs Verbs in Spanish end in the stem.27. awaken empezar .to fly volver . e to ie pensar . return contar e to i pedir . or -ir). it is preceded by cost dormir . The pronouns alguien (somebody). and o in the last syllable changes to ue. I see John. Impersonal "a" When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite dress oneself atreverse . I see ask (for) repetir .to die mostrar .to complain sleep encontrar . the e of the last syllable changes to ie. Describe a be able costar .to serve vestir .to begin despertar . Veo a Juan. alguno (someone). It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem. Irregularities in Regular Verbs Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural. After dropping the endings ( play morir . It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an seat sentir .to dress pedir pienso pensamos cuento contamos pido pedimos piensas pensáis cuentas contáis pides pédis piensa piensan cuenta cuentan pide piden repeat seguir .to dare quejarse .to show volar .acostarse .to go away levantarse .to lose preferir . Describe go to bed bañarse .to think querer . love cerrar . Preterite Tense The preterite tense expresses an action in the close comenzar . and ninguno (no one) require a as well. Some -ir verbs change the e to i. nadie (nobody). It is used to describe events that are finished or complete. It isn't used if a number precedes the object rise sentarse .to bathe oneself casarse . meet jugar . when used as the direct object. feel pensar o to ue contar .to wake up irse .to prefer sentar . .to count poder . Veo a begin entender .to follow servir .to understand perder .to get married despertarse . sit down vestirse .

to go ver . Imperfect Tense The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the have traer . Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense: ser . tell dije dijiste dijo fui fuiste fue traje trajiste trajo dijimos dijisteis dijeron fuimos fuisteis fueron trajimos trajisteis trajeron estar . The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though. and saber. be ir . It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions. They spoke with the children. esperar. Irregular Preterite Tense A few verbs are irregular in the preterite see era éramos iba íbamos veía veíamos . I used to live in Spain. pueder. Luisa estaba put. Louise was give di diste dió hice hiciste hizo tuve tuviste tuvo dimos disteis dieron hicimos hicisteis hicieron tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron decir .to bring venir .to be estuve estuvimos estuviste estuvisteis estuvo estuvieron puse pusiste puso vine viniste vino pusimos pusisteis pusieron vinimos vinisteis vinieron hacer . Quién comió la fruta? Who ate the fruit? come 33. Ellos hablaron con los niños. make ir . It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive go / ser. creer. -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -íamos -íais -ían -aba -ábamos -ía -abas -abais -ías -aba -aban -ía Yo vivía en España. I lived in Spain for two years. He was selling radios. The following are the most common: dar . place tener . as repeated or habitual.-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -imos -iste -eron -é -amos -í -aste -asteis -iste -ó -aron -ió Viví en España dos añ be poner . El vendía radios. except with these verbs: querer.

With le and les. a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear. Vegetables and Meats apple orange banana la manzana la naranja la banana la lechuga lettuce la col cabbage cauliflower la coliflor broccoli corn on the cob el brócoli el elote / la mazorca el rábano . (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me.. you can add a Ud. Le gusta a Ud. a Uds.eras erais era eran ibas ibais iba iban veías veíais veía veían 34. She likes them. 36. No me gusta. We like the house. Me gustan las flores. so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper dinner meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetables fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream el desayuno el almuerzo la cena la comida la comida el alimento el pan el panecillo la mantequilla la carne el pescado las legumbres la fruta el queso la galleta los dulces el sándwich el helado tablecloth napkin fork knife spoon plate.? Do you like it? Le gustan a ella. it means to please and takes an indirect object.) Nos gusta la casa. Me gusta(n) I like Te gusta(n) you like Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes Nos gusta(n) we like Os gusta(n) you like Les gusta(n) you/they like Gusta is used with singular nouns.. Literally. a él. Gustar Gustar plus a noun means to like something. while gustan is used with plural nouns. I don't like it. dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shaker sugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray el mantel la servilleta el tenedor el cuchillo la cuchara el plato el vaso la taza la sal el salero la pimienta el pimientero el azúcar el azucarero el vinagre la cafetera la tetera la bandeja 35. I like the flowers. a ella. Fruits.

In Spain. it usually refers to have a coffee. Affirmative -ar -er or -ir tú -a -e Negative -ar -er or -ir -es -as -éis -áis vosotros -ad -ed Habla! = Speak! (tú form) Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form) No comáis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form) Irregular Familiar Commands tú vosotros . as beber is almost never used. while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -áis for the tú and vosotros forms. In Mexico. tomar can be take or drink tomo tomas toma tomamos tomáis toman When tomar means to drink. Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form. To Take or Drink tomar .grapefruit lemon lime peach apricot fig grapes pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry la toronja el limón la lima el melocotón el albaricoque el higo unas uvas la pera la ciruela la cereza la piña el melón la sandía la fresa la frambuesa la zarzamora green peas asparagus green been spinach tomato carrot turnip beet celery onion cucumber parsley squash artichoke eggplant rhubarb los guisantes los espárragos la habichuela la espinaca el tomate la zanahoria el nabo la remolacha el apio la cebolla el pepino el perejil la calabaza la alcachofa la berenjena el ruibarbo radish pepper garlic potato sweet potato beans beef lamb pork sausage ham bacon goose duck chicken turkey lobster el pimiento el ajo la patata la batata los frijoles / las judías la carne de vaca el cordero el cerdo la salchicha el jamón el tocino el ganso el pato el pollo el pavo la langosta 37. 38. so -ar verbs end in -es and -éis. and -er and -ir verbs end in -e for the tú form. tomar is always transitive. such as tomar una copa. Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms. Commands To form familiar have a drink and tomar un café . regular -ar verbs end in -a.

g becomes gu. 39. jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb... either nor neither. while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes. To make a command negative. nor not even never. Holiday Phrases . jamás nothing.. just add no before it. but if they follow. and z becomes c. drop the -o ending of the yo form. The word order is no + verb + negative. More Negatives To make sentences negative.decir hacer ir irse poner salir ser tener venir di haz ve vete pon sal sé ten ven decid haced id idos poned salid sed tened venid To form formal commands of verbs. -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well: c becomes qu. Other negatives may precede or follow the verb. they must follow a negative verb (a double negative). (not) anything nobody. 40. ever Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative.. This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Ustedes ni siquiera nunca. nada nadie ninguno (a) tampoco ni ni. and add the opposite vowel ending. -ar -er or -ir Usted -e -a Ustedes -en -an Beba! = Drink! (Usted form) Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form) No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form) Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands: vaya and vayan for ir and sea and sean for ser. (not) anybody no. you place no before the verb. Verbs that end in -car. none neither.

guerra sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra.Feliz Navidad Feliz Año Nuevo Merry Christmas Happy New Year Feliz Cumpleaños Happy Birthday Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos. Your forehead shall be girded. Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo Un soldado en cada hijo te dio. fatherland. Que en el cielo tu eterno destino Por el dedo de Dios se escribió. But should a foreign enemy Profane your land with his sole. with olive garlands by the divine archangel of peace. Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Mexicanos. y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. war! The patriotic banners saturate in waves of blood. war without truce against who would attempt to blemish the honor of the fatherland! War. Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. palaces and towers crumble in horrid crash. ¡Guerra. On blood their feet trample. guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. For you the olive garlands! For them a memory of glory! For you a laurel of victory! For them a tomb of honor! Mexicans. oh fatherland. in the vale The terrifying cannon thunder and the echoes nobly resound to the cries of union! liberty! Fatherland. and let the earth tremble at its center . your children swear to exhale their breath in your cause. War. ¡Guerra. Y tus templos. And may your temples. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. ¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento. that heaven gave you a soldier in each son. patria. Think. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo Profanar con su planta tu suelo. guerra! En el monte. Mexicans. que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen. war! On the mount. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. and their ruins exist saying: The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. before your children become unarmed Beneath the yoke their necks in sway. Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva De la Paz el arcángel divino. en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad! Antes. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo. Si el clarín con su bélico acento Los convoca a lidiar con valor. For in heaven your eternal destiny has been written by the hand of God. May your countryside be watered with blood. Fatherland. and let the earth tremble at its center upon the roar of the cannon. War. beloved fatherland. If the bugle in its belligerent tone should call upon them to struggle with bravery. al Grito de Guerra by Francisco González Bocanegra Mexicanos.

upon the roar of the cannon. If you're wondering why I didn't include the Spanish national anthem. . it's all instrumental. it's because the anthem has no words.y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón.

and adding the following endings to the stem: Present Participles -ar -er -ir -ando -iendo -iendo Juan está hablando. 43. (Haber is only used as a helping verb. They were singing.41. Progressive Tenses The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing. Present Perfect The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past have he has ha hemos habéis han 44. Haber Haber . Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than this tense when expressing the past.) This tense can be translated as have or has done something. Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb. I was writing a letter. To go to + inf. Estuve escribiendo una carta. Acabar de + inf. Ir a + inf. To have to + inf. Useful Expressions Hay Había Hay que + infinitive Tener que + inf. Josh is talking. Estaban cantando. It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle. To have just + past participle time + ago 42. it is never used to show possession. Hace + time There is/are There was/were It is necessary to + inf. .

muerto (died).Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending. and adding these endings: Past Participles -ar -er -ir -ado -ido -ido The following verbs have irregular past participles: abrir (to open) . They have not sold the house.puesto (put). Dónde ha puesto Ud.? What did you say? 45. No han vendido la casa. la llave? Where have you put the key? Hemos gastado mucho dinero. poner (to put) . hacer (to do) .escrito (written). We have spent a lot of money. Places movies restaurant mountain cafe house concert library theater country supermarket bread shop el cine el restaurante la montaña el café la casa el concierto la biblioteca el teatro el campo la panadería office bank pastry shop meat shop fruit shop fish shop pharmacy candy store bookstore flower shop la oficina el banco la pastelería la carnicería la frutería la pescadería la farmacia la dulcería la librería la papelería la floristería swimming pool la piscina ice cream shop le heladería el supermercado paper store 46. Transportation by bus by bicycle by car by subway by taxi by plane by train by boat on foot en autobús en bicicleta en coche en metro en taxi en avión en tren en barco a pie by motorcycle en motocicleta . morir (to die) . escribir (to write) . Qué ha dicho Ud.abierto (opened). ver (to see) visto (seen).dicho (said).hecho (done). volver (to return) . decir (to say) .vuelto (returned).

drape lamp picture wardrobe bed dresser chest of drawers stove refrigerator el mueble le mesa el diván el sofá el escritorio la silla la butaca el estante para libros la alfombra el tapete la cortina la lámpara el cuadro el guardarropa la cama el tocador la cómoda la estufa el refrigerador . To Want. House house living room den dining room kitchen bedroom room closet bathroom fireplace stairway wall floor ceiling roof hall window ground floor second floor la casa la sala de recibo el gabinete el comedor la cocina la recámara el cuarto el armario el cuarto de baño la chimenea la escalera la pared el suelo el techo el tejado el pasillo la ventana el piso bajo el primer piso 49. to Have to querer-to want quiero queremos quieres queréis quiere quieren poder-to be able to. to Be Able to. Furniture furniture table couch sofa desk chair armchair bookcase carpet rug curtain. must debo debes debe debemos debéis deben 48. can puedo puedes puede podemos podéis pueden deber-to have to.47.

The cat is less intelligent than the dog. Note that de is used to express in after a superlative.. To form the superlative.. I don't have as much money as you. más alta taller la más alta the tallest Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase. than as. 52.. than less.. My cousin has more records than anyone..que menos.. Clothing clothing clothes dress la ropa los vestidos el vestido . 51.50. To form comparatives.. Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie.. Rosa is the tallest girl in the class. Irregular Forms Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. as as much/many. as)... as El gato es menos inteligente que el perro.como tanto(a... No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes. The most common are: Adjective/Adverb Comparative good bad great small well badly much little bueno malo grande pequeño bien mal mucho poco better worse greater less better worse more less mejor peor mayor menor mejor peor más menos Superlative the best the worst the greatest the least best worst most least el mejor el peor el mayor el menor el mejor el peor el más el menos Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeño change according to gender. os. Comparative and Superlative Comparisons are expressed as follows: màs... place the definite article before the comparative. The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun.como more... just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb.que tan.

but you do use the definite article. but they still use the regular endings from above: decir (to wear ponerse .to put on llevo llevamos me pongo nos ponemos llevas lleváis te pones os ponéis lleva llevan se pone so ponen Note: You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing. 54. coat hat beret shoes slippers robe underwear gloves purse raincoat umbrella pants vest coat shirt collar tie belt sock cap overcoat wallet shorts pajamas el traje la blusa la falda la chaqueta el abrigo el sombrero la boina los zapatos las zapatillas la bata la ropa interior los guantes la bolsa el impermeable el paraguas los pantalones el chaleco el saco la camisa el cuello la corbata el cinturón el calcetín la gorra el sobretodo la cartera los calzoncillos el pijama 53.suit blouse skirt jacket wrap. tell) dir- . Future Tense The future of regular verbs is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive: -é -emos -ás -éis -á -án Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense. To Wear llevar .

the latter becomes an abstract noun. place) saber (to know) salir (to leave. pobre . uno . Sports .hacer (to do. any. except those beginning with go out) tener (to have) venir (to come) harpodrpondrsabrsaldrtendrvendr- but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno . More Adjectives large small long short good bad rich poor strong weak easy difficult fat thin grande pequeño largo corto bueno malo rico pobre fuerte débil fácil difícil gordo delgado high. malo . tall low. tercero third When grande means great. it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singular noun of either gender. make) poder (to be able) poner (to put. lo bueno . primero .poor. short pretty beautiful ugly wide narrow heavy light hard soft sweet sour bitter alto bajo lindo.bad. 56. Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns.or To-.the poor man If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective. bueno .the good (everything that is good) 57.good. then the adjective becomes a noun.some.good. Preceding Adjectives Most adjectives follow the noun they describe. el pobre . ninguno . bonito hermoso feo ancho estrecho pesado ligero duro blando dulce agrio amargo When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective. alguno .

ball game match team player soccer football la pelota el juego el partido el equipo el jugador el fútbol el fútbol americano pool la piscina basketball el baloncesto tennis el tenis swimming la natación boxing wrestling hockey el boxeo la lucha el hockey baseball el béisbol raquet ball (small) bat glove ball una raqueta una pelota un bate un guante un balón net volleyball el volibol una red unos zapatos de futból unos esquís cleats skis ski poles unos bastones boots helmet unas botas el casco basketball hoop una canasta 58. Nature continent island peninsula gulf bay ocean coast beach sea river lake mountain valley plain desert jungle forest garden flower rose tree el continente la isla la península el golfo la bahía el océano la costa la playa el mar el río el lago la montaña el valle la llanura el desierto la selva el bosque el jardín la flor la rosa el árbol 59. To Say and to Go Out decir .to say salir .to go out digo decimos salgo salimos dices decís sales salís dice dicen sale salen .

to send for. way or means (by). It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or to be in favor of. Voy por Alicia. Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression. per). for. Por and Pero vs. for the sake of. but milk. I voted for Juanita. John is about to leave. I will have it by Tuesday. las you they los them les to them ellos (as) . por el pueblo through the town por la mañana in the morning Pagó un peso por el libro. during. The letter is yet to be written. expressions of time (in. Voté por Juanita. motive. los. I'm going by train. Sino Para is used to express: use or destination (for). at). reason. No bebe café sino leche. but he does not drink coffee. Estudia para aprender. by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive. to go for. Voy por tren. He studies in order to learn. Por is used to express: a place through or along which. I am in favor of writing it. The letter is for Concha. Para vs. Fue escrito por Cervantes.) La carta es para Concha. on behalf of. La carta está por escribir. exchange. It's sold by the pound. lo she/it la you le. but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated. Lo tendré para el martes. It was written by Cervantes. la nos os him/it le her/it le you us you le os to him/it él to her/it ella to you to you Usted nosotros (as) we vosotros (as) you Ustedes ellos (as) you nos to us les to you nosotros (as) us vosotros (as) you Ustedes you them les. Estoy por escribirla. Se vendre por libras. Bebe lecho pero no bebe café. Juan está para salir. because of. 61. He paid a dollar for the book.60. or if another verb follows. purpose (in order to). point of future time (for. He drinks milk. I'm going for Alice. on account of. Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated. He does not drink coffee. Object Pronouns Subject yo tú él ella Usted I you Direct me te me you Indirect me to me te to you Object of Prepositions mí ti me you him/it her/it you he/it le. unit of measure (by. price (for).

4. 3. Me duele la cabeza. 62. 1. His feet hurt. If both pronouns begin with the letter l. Déme Ud. 2.An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb. Then it is attached to the verb as one word. Le duelen los pies. Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence. My head hurts. then the first one is changed to se. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form. . the prepositional form of a plus an object of a preposition may be used. Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement. Give me the book. Parts of the Body hand foot ear eye tongue face hair nose tooth lip la mano el pie la oreja el ojo la lengua la cara el cabello la nariz el diente el labio mouth finger la boca el dedo fingernail la uña elbow arm knee leg head neck el codo el brazo la rodilla la pierna la cabeza el cuello shoulder el hombro la garganta stomach el estómago throat To express pain. el libro. These translate to many phrases in English. Asking Questions Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence. with an infinitive or gerund. an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word. the indirect comes before the direct. such as Isn't it? Aren't you? Don't you? Didn't he? Isn't she? etc. except if is used in an affirmative command. 63. use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part. For clearness or emphasis. He sent us to you. Nos envió a Ud. When you have more than one pronoun.

ti or sí. whom. except after a preposition. the words become conmigo. Quien (-es) (who) is used in a supplementary clause. etc.64. which) refers to persons or things. . mí ti él ella Usted nosostros (-as) vosotros (-as) ellos ellas Ustedes Ello is also used as a neuter pronoun meaning it. los cuales. They are the pronouns which follow give traer .la cual. -as) can be added to these pronouns. Quien (-es) is often used in place of el que and its forms as well. Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns. las cuales) may replace que or quien. Lo que and lo cual (which) refer to the whole sentence. Que (who. himself. La casa en que vivo es pequeña. He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive. The house in which I live is small. Disjunctive Pronouns Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb. Sí can mean yourself. 66. and with prepositions. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent. -os. For clearness. When con combines with mí.la bring doy damos das dais da dan traigo traemos traes traéis trae traen 65. it means whom. Cuyo (-a. or the object of a preposition. the forms of mismo (-a. which is always the word that follows it. El que (and its forms . -os. When used with a preposition. las que) and el cual (and its forms . when it refers to things only. that. when it means one who. herself. These pronouns are used for clearness when there are two antecedents. those who. To Give and to Bring dar . contigo and consigo.) This pronoun may serve as the subject or object of a verb. -as) is a possessive adjective and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed. yourselves or themselves. or show emphasis. I visited the city near which he lives. los que.

but the imperfect is more common. to Smell and to See oír . It consists of the imperfect of haber and a past see oigo oímos oyes oís oye oyen huelo olemos veo vemos hueles oleís ves veís huele huelen ve ven 68. Sometimes the preterite of haber is used.67. Animals giraffe elephant bear lion eagle parrot rhinoceros whale snake alligator la jirafa el elefante el oso el león el águila el loro el rinoceronte la ballena la serpiente el caimán hippopotamus el hipopótamo tiger bull fox monkey wolf turtle el tigre el toro la zorra el mono el lobo la tortuga 69. . To hear oler . Past Perfect The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle." It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the smell ver .

they express abstract nouns. . To indicate where something is made or sold. appreciation or pity. affection. The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something. The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a). add -ería. it indicates the performer of the action. admiration. adjectives or adverbs. When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter). Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes.Carlos había vivido en México. They express size. We had learned Spanish. 70. Habíamos aprendido el español. Suffixes Suffixes may be attached to nouns. Carlos had lived in Mexico. When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives.

73. Rosa es amada de todos. Passive Voice In passive sentences.71. The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical.. Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. However. Adjective correcto facil claro absoluto rapido Adverb correctamente facilmente claramente absolutamente rapidamente correctly easily clearly absolutely rapidly Lo + adverb + que expresses how. two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much). The house was destroyed by the wind. the house was destroyed. The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle. The wind destroys the house. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject. and by de if mental. the subject does the action.... lo bien que how well lo mas pronto posible as soon as possible 72. However. while lo mas + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated: as . as . la casa estaba Predicate Adjective destruida. Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. Rose is loved by everyone. the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence. the subject receives the action of the verb. El nino fue castigado por su padre. Cuando la vi. If you use estar instead of ser. Uses of the Infinitive . When I saw it. In active sentences. Active Passive El viento destrue la casa. La casa fue destruida por el viento. The boy was punished by his father. the meaning of both sentences is the same.

Oigo cantar a Maria. El correr es buen ejercicio. To form the present conditional. 74. Post Office and Bank post office envelope mailbox mail carrier stamps package el correo el sobre el buzón el cartero las estampillas el paquete bank (traveler's) check to cash (a check) to save (money) to deposit account el banco el cheque (de viajero) cobrar ahorrar depositar la cuenta 76. Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense. ver or oír. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability. Running is good exercise. Shopping department store shopping mall belt glasses gloves sunglasses el almacén el centro comercial el cintúron las gafas los guantes los lentes de sol shop/store (open-air) market (fixed) price sale to bargain to spend money la tienda el mercado (al aire libre) el precio (fijo) la rebaja regatear gastar 75. also use that stem for the conditional tense. al. Partío sin hablar. -ía -íamos . add these endings to the infintive for all three types of verbs.The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el. I hear Maria singing. a preposition. Conditional Tense The conditional tense expresses an idea dependent on a condition that is either expressed or understood. He left without speaking.

Infinitives followed by Prepositions The following verbs require a. de. Office / School Supplies pencil eraser pen el lápiz la goma la pluma dictionary tape (audio) map el diccionario la cinta el mapa . en or con when followed by another infinitive. Verb + a + another infinitive acostumbrarse aprender atreverse ayudar comenzar convidar decidirse dedicarse empezar enseñar invitar ir negarse persuadir principiar rehusar resignarse resistirse resolverse venir volver to become used to to learn to to dare to to help to begin to to invite to to decide to to devote oneself to to begin to to teach to to invite to go to to refuse to to persuade to to begin to to refuse to to resign oneself to to resist to resolve to to come to to return to to consent to to consist to amuse oneself to insist on to endeavor to to insist on to busy oneself to think of to persist in to delay in Verb + de + another infinitive acabar acordarse alegrarse aprovecharse arrepentirse cansarse cesar dejar encargarse gozar jactarse olvidarse tratar to have just to remember to be glad to to profit by to repent to tire of to cease to cease to take charge of to take pleasure in to boast of to forget to to try to Verb + en + another infinitive consentir consistir divertirse empeñarse esforzarse insistir ocuparse pensar persistir tardar Verb + con + another infinitive contar contentarse soñar to count on to content oneself with to dream of 78. although the preposition is not always translated into English.-ías -íais -ía -ían 77.

Some command forms are actually the subjunctive. adelante la estación de servicio paper letter book la tinta el papel la carta el libro newspaper novel backpack stapler scissors el periódico la novela la mochila la grapadora unas tijeras notebook el cuaderno 79. Present Subjunctive -ar verbs -e -es -e -er and -ir -amos -áis -an -emos -a -éis -as -en -a The past subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult. Parts of a Car / Gas Station car garage tank gasoline oil air grease tire spare tire wheel steering wheel brake speed slow danger stop go service station el coche el garage el tanque la gasolina el aceite el aire la grasa la llanta llanta picada la rueda el volante el freno la velocidad despacio peligro alto siga. Remove the -on ending. but is is very common and important in Spanish. and add these new endings: Past Subjunctive all verbs . Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive is not used very often in English.

Instead of be able to pueda podamos puedas podáis pueda puedan saber .to do/make haga hagamos hagas hagáis haga hagan poner .to be estuviera estuviéramos estuvieras estuvierais estuviera estuvieran . Note that there is another way to form the past subjunctive (a different set of endings). instead of say/tell diga digamos digas digáis diga digan hacer . but the endings given are used more often. Irregular Subjunctive Mood Many verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive mood: dar .to want quiera queramos quieras queráis quiera quieran ser .to have haya hayamos hayas hayáis haya hayan poder . the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main put/place ponga pongamos pongas pongáis ponga pongan salir . Present perfect subjunctive haya hayamos + past hayas hayáis participle haya hayan Past perfect subjunctive hubiera hubiéramos + past hubieras hubierais participle hubiera hubieran bring venir .-a amos -as -ais -a -an An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural have tenga tengamos tengas tengáis tenga tengan decir .to go out salga salgas salga estar .to come traigo traigamos venga vengamos traigas traigáis vengas vengáis traiga traigan venga vengan Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well: dar . it is comié say/tell dijera dijéramos dijeras dijerais dijera dijeran estar .to give dé demos des deis dé den haber .to be seamos seáis sean salgamos sea salgáis seas salgan sea traer .to go vaya vayamos vayas vayáis vaya vayan querer . it is hablá know sepa sepamos sepas sepáis sepa sepan tener . Similarly. The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. be esté estemos estés estéis esté estén ir .to give diera diéramos dieras dierais diera dieran decir .

Travelling / Airport .to do/make hiciera hiciéramos fuera hicieras hicierais fueras hiciera hicieran fuera poner . es necesario (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb. After most impersonal expressions. After expressions of emotion. es importante (it's important). such as cuando (when). such as esperar (to hope). After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty. After the verb querer when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject) be fuera fuéramos fueras fuerais fuera fueran venir .to bring trajera trajéramos trajeras trajerais trajera trajeran hacer .to have hubiera hubiéramos hubieras hubierais hubiera hubieran poder .haber . when futurity is want quisiera quisiéramos quisieras quisierais quisiera quisieran tener . hasta que (until). the past subjunctive must be used in the if-clause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense) 83. 4. such as es posible (it's possible). sin que (without).to know supiera supiéramos supieras supierais supiera supieran traer . sentir (to be sorry). 5. In contrary-to-fact be able to pudiera pudiéramos pudieras pudierais pudiera pudieran saber .to have tuviera tuviéramos tuvieras tuvierais tuviera tuvieran go fuéramos fuerais fueran querer . After time come viniera viniéramos vinieras vinierais viniera vinieran ir . when there is a change of subject. Uses of the Subjunctive The main uses of the subjunctive include: 1. such as para que (in order that). en cuanto (as soon as). After certain conjunctions. In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite 7. and antes que (before) 8. When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something. 9. 3. 6. temer (to fear). alegarse (to be glad).to put/place pusiera pusiéramos pusieras pusierais pusiera pusieran ser .

The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. cuando (when). and it has the same meaning as the past perfect. future and conditional perfect tenses. Cosmetics / Toiletries shampoo soap makeup el champú el jabón el maquillaje brush comb toothpaste toothbrush towel electric razor el cepillo el peine la pasta de dientes el cepillo de dientes la toalla la maquinilla de afeitar shaving cream la crema de afeitar la loción lotion el esmalte para las nail polish uñas 85. Other Perfect Tenses Beside the present and past perfect tenses. The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle. and hasta que (until). tan pronto como (as soon as). But this tense is normally only used after conjunctions of time. such as así que. . All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle. referring to the present. luego que. there are also the preterite.passport customs arrival departure (round-trip) ticket luggage el pasaporte la aduana la llegada la salida el pasaje (de ida y to go on vacation vuelta) to pack (one's el equipaje suitcases) la habitación individual/doble la estación de tren (de train (bus) station autobuses) la estación de metro subway hacer un viaje to take a trip single/double room ir de vacaciones hacer las maletas 84. referring to the past. después (de) que (after).