State of Qatar -Public Works Authority

Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page i
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
CONTENTS
1 Sewerage Systems Design ....................................................................................... 1
1.1 Standards ..................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Sources of Information .................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Estimation of Flows ....................................................................................................... 3
1.3.1 Domestic ....................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2 Industrial ........................................................................................................................ 8
1.3.3 Commercial ................................................................................................................... 8
1.3.4 Institutions such as Schools, Health Centres, Hospitals and Mosques ........................ 9
1.3.5 Infiltration ....................................................................................................................... 9
1.4 Peaking Factors .......................................................................................................... 10
1.5 Hydraulic Design ......................................................................................................... 13
1.5.1 Formulae ..................................................................................................................... 13
1.5.2 Minimum Pipe Sizes and Gradients ............................................................................ 16
1.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Velocities .............................................................................. 16
1.6 Septicity in Sewage, Odour Control and Ventilation ................................................... 17
1.6.1 Explosion and Combustion Risk ................................................................................. 18
1.6.2 Corrosion ..................................................................................................................... 18
1.6.3 Impact on Subsequent Treatment Processes ............................................................. 18
1.6.4 Odours ......................................................................................................................... 18
1.6.5 General Design Guidelines for Odour Control in Sewerage Systems ........................ 19
1.7 Pipeline Materials and Jointing ................................................................................... 24
1.8 Pipe Bedding Calculations for Narrow and Wide Trench Conditions .......................... 24
1.8.1 Bedding Design for Rigid Pipes .................................................................................. 25
1.8.2 Bedding Factors .......................................................................................................... 26
1.8.3 Design Strength........................................................................................................... 26
1.9 Manhole Positioning.................................................................................................... 27
1.10 House Connections..................................................................................................... 28
1.11 Construction Depths ................................................................................................... 28
1.12 Manholes, Chambers, Access Covers, and Ladders .................................................. 30
1.12.1 Inspection Chambers .................................................................................................. 30
1.12.2 Sewer System Manholes ............................................................................................ 30
1.12.3 Elements of Design ..................................................................................................... 30
1.13 Industrial Wastes ........................................................................................................ 31
1.14 Septic and Sewage Holding Tanks ............................................................................. 31
1.14.1 Design of Septic Tanks and Soakaways ..................................................................... 32
1.14.2 Sewage Holding Tanks ............................................................................................... 32
1.15 Oil and Grease Interceptors ........................................................................................ 32
1.16 Flow Attenuation Methods .......................................................................................... 32
1.16.1 Flow Controls .............................................................................................................. 33
1.16.2 Attenuation Storage Tanks and Sewers...................................................................... 33
1.17 Abandonment of Sewers............................................................................................. 39


State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs
Page ii Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
2 Pumping Stations .................................................................................................... 39
2.1 Standards ................................................................................................................... 39
2.2 Hydraulic Design ......................................................................................................... 39
2.2.1 Hydraulic Principles .................................................................................................... 40
2.2.2 Pump Arrangements ................................................................................................... 41
2.3 Rising Main Design ..................................................................................................... 42
2.3.1 Rising Main Diameters ................................................................................................ 42
2.3.2 Twin Rising Mains ....................................................................................................... 42
2.3.3 Economic Analysis ...................................................................................................... 42
2.3.4 Rising Main Alignment ................................................................................................ 43
2.4 Maximum and Minimum Velocities ............................................................................. 43
2.5 Pipe Materials ............................................................................................................. 43
2.6 Thrust Blocks .............................................................................................................. 43
2.7 Air Valves and Washout Facilities .............................................................................. 44
2.7.1 Air Valves .................................................................................................................... 44
2.7.2 Vented Non-return Valves .......................................................................................... 44
2.7.3 Wash – Outs ............................................................................................................... 44
2.7.4 Isolating Valves ........................................................................................................... 45
2.8 Flow Meters ................................................................................................................ 45
2.8.1 Application and Selection ........................................................................................... 45
2.8.2 Magnetic Flowmeters .................................................................................................. 45
2.8.3 Ultrasonic Flowmeters ................................................................................................ 46
2.9 Surge Protection Measures ........................................................................................ 46
2.10 Screens ....................................................................................................................... 48
2.11 Pumping Station Selection .......................................................................................... 49
2.12 Pumps and Motors ...................................................................................................... 52
2.13 Sump Design .............................................................................................................. 53
2.14 Suction/Delivery Pipework, and Valves ...................................................................... 55
2.15 Pumping System Characteristics ................................................................................ 56
2.16 Sump Pumps and Over-Pumping Facilities ................................................................ 59
2.17 Power Calculations including Standby Generation ..................................................... 59
2.17.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 59
2.17.2 Load Type ................................................................................................................... 59
2.17.3 Site condition .............................................................................................................. 60
2.17.4 Generator set operation and control .......................................................................... 60
2.17.5 Type of installation ...................................................................................................... 60
2.17.6 Type of Control Panel ................................................................................................. 60
2.17.7 Ventilation system ....................................................................................................... 60
2.17.8 Fuel system ................................................................................................................ 60
2.17.9 Starting method .......................................................................................................... 61
2.17.10 Service facility ............................................................................................................. 61
2.17.11 Generator set sizing .................................................................................................... 61
2.18 Switch Gear and Control Panels ................................................................................. 65
2.18.1 Type–tested and partially type tested assemblies (TTA and PTTA) .......................... 65

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Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page iii
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2.18.2 Total connected load ................................................................................................... 65
2.18.3 Short circuit level ......................................................................................................... 65
2.18.4 Type of co-ordination .................................................................................................. 66
2.18.5 Form of internal separation ......................................................................................... 66
2.18.6 Bus Bar rating.............................................................................................................. 67
2.18.7 Type of starter ............................................................................................................. 67
2.18.8 Protection device ......................................................................................................... 68
2.18.9 Interlocking facility ....................................................................................................... 70
2.18.10 Accessibility ................................................................................................................. 70
2.18.11 Cable entry .................................................................................................................. 70
2.19 PLC’s SCADA/Telemetry ............................................................................................ 70
2.19.1 PLC ............................................................................................................................. 70
2.19.2 RTU ............................................................................................................................. 71
2.19.3 SCADA and Telemetry Systems ................................................................................. 72
2.20 Lighting ....................................................................................................................... 73
2.20.1 Light Fitting Selection Criteria ..................................................................................... 73
2.21 Maintenance Access ................................................................................................... 77
2.22 Gantry Cranes and Lifting Facilities ............................................................................ 77
2.23 Ventilation, Odour Control and Air Conditioning ......................................................... 78
2.23.1 Ventilation .................................................................................................................... 78
2.23.2 Odour Control .............................................................................................................. 79
2.23.3 Air Conditioning ........................................................................................................... 80
2.24 Structural Design ........................................................................................................ 81
2.24.1 Substructures .............................................................................................................. 81
2.24.2 Superstructures ........................................................................................................... 90
2.25 Site Boundary Wall/Fence .......................................................................................... 97
2.26 Site Facilities ............................................................................................................... 97
3 Documentation ........................................................................................................ 98
3.1 Reference Standards .................................................................................................. 98
3.2 House Connection Survey .......................................................................................... 98
3.3 Building Permit ............................................................................................................ 98
4 Health and Safety .................................................................................................... 99
5 Trenchless Technologies ..................................................................................... 100
5.1 Alternative Techniques ............................................................................................. 100
5.1.1 Pipe jacking (Open/Close Face) ............................................................................... 100
5.1.2 Microtunnelling (Closed Face) .................................................................................. 102
5.1.3 Directional drilling ...................................................................................................... 104
5.2 Planning and Selection of Techniques...................................................................... 104
5.2.1 Initial Planning ........................................................................................................... 105
5.2.2 Selection Criteria ....................................................................................................... 110
5.2.3 Factors Affecting Choice Of Method ......................................................................... 110
5.3 Geotechnical Investigations ...................................................................................... 110


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Drainage Affairs
Page iv Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
5.3.1 Geological Strata Overview ...................................................................................... 110
5.3.2 Groundwater Regime ................................................................................................ 110
5.3.3 Soil/Rock properties .................................................................................................. 111
5.3.4 Indicative Scope of Interpretative Reporting ............................................................. 113
5.4 Design ....................................................................................................................... 113
5.4.1 Feasibility Study ........................................................................................................ 113
5.4.2 Pipe Design .............................................................................................................. 113
5.4.3 Shaft Design ............................................................................................................. 114
5.4.4 Ground Movements .................................................................................................. 115
5.5 Environmental Assessment ...................................................................................... 117
5.5.1 Vibration .................................................................................................................... 117
5.5.2 Noise ......................................................................................................................... 117
5.5.3 Dust ........................................................................................................................... 118
5.6 Approvals – Procedures and Formats ...................................................................... 118
5.6.1 Guidance for Design Check ...................................................................................... 118
5.7 Risk Assessment ...................................................................................................... 118
5.8 Trenchless Construction References ........................................................................ 122
5.9 Trenchless Construction Glossary ............................................................................ 123
6 References ............................................................................................................. 125

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 1
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal

1 Sewerage Systems
Design
This volume of the Manual covers the design of new
and existing sewerage systems, detailing the design
standards, parameters and approaches to be
adopted. However, this information should not be
regarded as prescriptive in all situations, as each
design needs to be prepared, reviewed and
approved by appropriately skilled and experienced
staff, both within the designers’ and the Drainage
Afairs (DA) organisations.
The sewerage systems in Qatar are separate in that
foul sewage, comprising domestic, commercial and
industrial effluent is collected in a separate system
to that which collects stormwater runoff and ground
waters.
The sewerage system for Qatar collects foul flow
discharges from premises, located within the
developed areas of its towns and cities, and directs
the collected flows to the Sewage Treatment Works
(STW).
Sewage flows discharge, generally by gravity, into
the sewerage system through house connections to
the sewer pipelines and manholes outside the
property boundary. This network of branch and trunk
sewers directs flows by gravity to pumping stations,
which pump flows to the STW.
The flat topography of Qatar discourages long
lengths of gravity sewer due to the resulting great
depths of construction that would be required. The
sewerage systems therefore include many pumping
stations, with the result that sewage flows will often
be pumped several times before arriving at the
STW.
The major sewerage systems and STWs are located
in Doha, with similar systems in the smaller towns
such as Al Khor.
The Doha Catchments
The Doha sewerage system is contained within
three catchments, being the Doha West Catchment
Area, the Doha South Catchment Area and the
Industrial Area. The system in each catchment is
similar, in that it comprises networks of sewers and
manholes, directing flows to numerous pumping
stations. The flow from each catchment is then
pumped to either the Doha South or Doha West
STW.
The Doha South Catchment can be broadly
defined as that part of Doha being southeast of the
Salwa Road and east of the Industrial Area, along
with the central business district within the B Ring
Road. The Catchment extends southwards to
include Abu Hamour, the Airport area and onwards
as far as Wakrah, as well as including Wukair and
areas to the north and east of the Abu Hamour area.
The extent of the system and the considerable
distances over which sewage is transferred across
flat terrain, necessitate some 52 sewage pumping
stations. The layout of the network results in foul
sewage from certain locations being pumped
through as many as six or seven pumping stations
before reaching Doha South STW.
Development in the catchment is of predominantly
low to medium density, with higher densities in the
central business district. In total, some 415km
2
of
land falls within the catchment that it is predicted will
be sewered to Doha South STW. In broad terms,
only one quarter of this area is presently developed.
The Doha West Catchment comprises some
250km
2
of western and northern Doha. The area
also includes North Doha, Rural and Urban Rayyan
and the Umm Slal Planning Areas of Qatar. The
Catchment lands rise from sea level in the east, to
some 35m above sea level in the west. The ground
level at Doha West STW is about 45m above sea
level.
The sewerage network in the Doha West Catchment
is served by a terminal pumping station (PS 32) at
the south-west edge of the built-up area, from which
sewage is delivered in two parallel rising mains to
Doha West STW.
Development in the Catchment is of low to medium
density, with some areas completely undeveloped.
The major future development area is located at the
northern end of Doha Bay, where high-density
residential and commercial development is planned.
In order to minimise construction, operation and
maintenance costs for pumping stations, new
designs should use gravity for the movement of


State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs
Page 2 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
sewage flows. However there are the following
practical considerations:
• Depth of trench excavation should generally
not exceed 5.0m, or 7.5m maximum in extreme
cases, dictated by excavator access and
pipeline strength, where possible. It is
acknowledged that greater depths are often
necessary in Doha, but these should be
avoided because of the danger of deep
excavations and the difficulty of achieving good
compaction in the backfill;
• Gradients should not be flatter than the
minimum stated herein, to minimise siltation
and septicity.
In theory a separate sewerage system should
exhibit no increases in flows from rainfall. However,
all systems suffer from infiltration to some extent
due to faults and openings in the fabric of the
system and illegal connections of stormwater
collection systems. Many sewerage authorities deal
with such flow increases by incorporating overflows
which divert foul flows to watercourses at times of
rainfall. However such arrangements are impractical
for Qatar due to the lack of watercourses operating
all year round, and the resulting unacceptable
pollution which would result from discharge of foul
flows to wadis with little or no flow.
The extent of infiltration is not fully understood in
Qatar, but knowledge will improve with ongoing
studies and Drainage Area Plans. In the meantime
the sewerage system should avoid the need for
overflows, with any increased flows being contained
within the sewerage system.
The only overflows permitted are for emergency
use only, and only to be located at pumping stations.
These emergency overflows are only to operate on
failure of pumps, through mechanical or electrical
breakdown. Pumps are to be rated to pump all flows
expected to be received at the station.
All elements of the sewerage system, including
pipelines, manholes, chambers, are to be located on
publicly owned lands. Pumping stations and
associated facilities shall be on DA owned land.
Ideally, access for operation and maintenance of the
sewerage system should also be located on publicly
owned lands. If not, wayleave agreements should be
in place to facilitate such access.
1.1 Standards
The following standards are of interest to designers
in surface water and foul sewerage systems. This
list is by no means exhaustive, but is intended as an
easy initial reference. (References are also included
at the end of this volume). Volume 1, Section 1.5
also contains the complete list of references for all
manuals.
• BS EN 752 – Drain and sewer systems outside
buildings
i
. This supersedes BS 8005
ii
, which is
withdrawn, and part of BS 8301
iii
.
Part 1: 1996 Generalities and Definitions
Part 2: 1997 Performance Requirements
Part 3: 1997 Planning
Part 4: 1998 Hydraulic Design and
Environmental
Considerations
Part 5: 1998 Rehabilitation
Part 6: 1998 Pumping Installations
Part 7: 1998 Maintenance and Operations
• BS EN 598: 1995 – Ductile iron pipes, fittings,
accessories and their joints for sewerage
applications – Requirements and test
methods
iv
.
• BS EN 1610: 1998 – Construction and testing
of drains and sewers
v
.
• Sewers for Adoption – 5th Edition (WRC)
vi
.
• BS EN124: 1994 Gully tops and manhole tops
for vehicular and pedestrian areas – Design
requirements, type testing, marking, quality
control
vii
.
1.2 Sources of Information
The following publications are of interest to
designers in surface water and foul sewerage
systems. This list is by no means exhaustive, but is
intended as an easy initial reference. (References
are also included at the end of this volume). Volume
1 Section 1.5 also contains the complete list of
references for all manuals.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 3
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
• Department of the Environment National Water
Council Standing Technical Committee
Reports, 1981,
• Design and analysis of urban storm drainage -
The Wallingford Procedure, National Water
Council UK.
• State of Kuwait Ministry of Planning & Hyder
Consulting, 2001, Kuwait Stormwater
Masterplan Hydrological Aspects - Final
Report. Cardiff, (AU00109/D1/015), Hyder
Consulting.
• Highways Agency, 2002, DMRB Volume 4
Section 2 Part 5 (HA 104/02) – Geotechnics
and Drainage. Chamber pots and gully tops for
road drainage and services: Installation and
maintenance, London, Highways Agency.
• Water Research Council, 1997, Sewerage
Detention Tanks – A Design Guide, UK, WRC.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 1996, Report R159:
Sea Outfalls – construction, inspection and
repair, London, CIRIA.
• Building Research Establishment, 1991,
Soakaway Design, BRE Digest 365, BRE
Watford UK.
• HR Wallingford DC Watkins, 1991, Report
SR271 -The hydraulic design and performance
of soakaways, Wallingford UK.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 1996, Infiltration
Drainage – Manual of Good Practice, London
UK, CIRIA.
• Chartered Institution of Water and
Environmental Management, 1996, Research
and Development in Methods of Soakaway
design, UK, CIWEM.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 2000, C522
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems – Design
Manual for England and Wales, London UK,
CIRIA.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 2001, C523
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems – Best
Practice Manual for England, Scotland, Wales,
and Northern Ireland, London UK, CIRIA.
• Velocity equations for the hydraulic design of
pipes – Wallingford Research.
• HR Wallingford and DIH Barr, 2000, Tables for
the Hydraulic Design of Pipes, Sewers and
Channels, 7
th
Edition, Trowbridge, Wiltshire,
UK Redwood Books.
• Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture,
1997, Qatar Highway Design Manual, January
1997, Qatar, MMAA.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 1996, Design of
sewers to control sediment problems, Report
141, London CIRIA.
• Clay Pipe Development Association Limited,
1998, Design and construction of drainage and
sewerage systems using vitrified clay pipes,
Bucks, UK, CPDA.
• Report for the hydraulic design of pipes –
Wallingford Research.
• Construction Industry Research and
Information Association, 1998, Report 177, Dry
Weather Flows in Sewers, London, CIRIA.
• Water Research Council, 1994, Velocity
equations, UK, WRC.
• Bazaraa, A.S., Ahmed, S., 1991. Rainfall
Characterization in an Arid Area, Engineering
Journal of Qatar University, Vol. 4, pp35-50.
1.3 Estimation of Flows
The flows in a foul sewerage system are made up of
contributions from a number of different sources,
including: domestic properties; commercial areas;
industrial facilities; institutional contributions from
hospitals, schools, etc.; groundwater infiltration; and
surface run-off. The contributions to the system from
each of these sources must be determined before
the required hydraulic capacity of the sewerage can
be established. Each of these contributions will
follow a different diurnal pattern, with flows varying
over a 24-hour period. The design of the system
must take these fluctuations into account and be


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Drainage Affairs
Page 4 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
capable of catering for the peak flows likely to be
encountered in any 24- hour period. Diurnal flow
patterns will be different on working days, from the
patterns on rest days.
The starting point for the design of foul sewerage
should be the estimation of the average flow rate or
the Dry Weather Flow (DWF). This is calculated
from the following formula:
DWF = PG + I + E Equation 1.3.1
DWF = dry weather flow (litres/day)
P = population served
G = average per capita domestic water consumption
(l/hd/day)
I = Infiltration (l/day)
E = average industrial effluent discharged in 24
hours
(l/day)

The process for establishing flow rates should follow
the sequence set out below:
1. Define catchment and sub-catchment
boundaries for the area under consideration. This
should include all the properties and establishments
that contribute to the system and may include future
developments as well as existing. The catchment
represents the entire upstream area contributing to a
point or node in the sewerage system. Generally,
catchments are taken to contribute to trunk sewers,
while sub-catchments contribute to branches. Thus
a catchment may comprise a number of sub-
catchments.
2. Determine the numbers and types of dwellings
within the catchment and from this, determine the
existing and future contributing domestic population
and hence the flows from that population to the
network. Section 1.3.1 gives detailed guidance on
this process. Establish the diurnal flow pattern for
the domestic contribution.
3. Identify any existing and proposed industrial
establishments in the catchment, together with their
daily contributing flow and diurnal flow pattern.
Section 1.3.2 gives guidance on this.
4. Identify any existing and proposed commercial
establishments within the catchment, together with
their working populations and diurnal variations.
Section 1.3.3 provides detailed guidance on this.
5. Identify any existing and proposed institutional
establishments such as schools, health centres,
hospitals and mosques that are within the catchment
boundary. Determine the usage of these institutions
and derive a diurnal flow pattern for them. Section
1.3.4 provides details of this process.
6. Determine infiltration rates into the sewerage
system using the methods described in section
1.3.5. These may increase with time or it may be
proposed to rehabilitate the system to reduce
infiltration.
7. The flows that are likely to occur in the
sewerage system can now be estimated. This is
done by adding together the total daily contributing
flows from each upstream source to any given point
in the network. This is usually done sub-catchment
by sub-catchment working down the trunk sewer. It
can be done graphically and will establish the
maximum likely flow that has to be catered for at the
given location. The total daily flow from each
contributing source is calculated and summed to
give a total daily flow through a given point. This
flow is then averaged for a 24-hour day to give an
average Dry Weather Flow or DWF. The peak flow
for design purposes in upper catchment areas can
be taken as 6xDWF
viii
. From the peak flows the
required pipe sizes can be determined. However, it
should be noted that the peaking factor would
decrease in downstream catchment areas (see
section 1.4 for information on peaking factors).
Hydraulic design is described in section 1.5.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 5
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
Figure 1.3.1 -Typical chart showing diurnal
variations in domestic sewage
flows
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
00:00 04:00 08:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 00:00
Hours
F
l
o
w
,

l
/
s

Where sewerage systems are very long and the
time of flow from top to bottom is significant, peak
flows will be heavily attenuated. This is because, for
example, locally generated domestic flows in the
lower parts of the catchment will have passed
downstream by the time the flows arrives from the
upper areas. This has the effect of smoothing out
the peaks in flows.
1.3.1 Domestic
Domestic flows form the largest proportion of flows
in foul sewers. They derive from normal domestic
appliances such as sinks, basins, toilets, showers,
washing machines, baths, etc., and are dependent
on the number of persons in a dwelling. In order to
determine suitable domestic contributions to the
sewerage system, it is necessary to make certain
assumptions. For example, each property is
assumed to house a certain number of persons, and
this will vary from one type of property to another.
The assumption is made that all properties of a
given type will contain a given number of persons.
Butler and Davies
ix
suggest that between 75% and
85% of water used in a dwelling in the Middle East is
returned to the sewerage system. Thus, if a property
is metered, a good assessment of return to sewer
flows can be obtained.

Table 1.3.1 below gives the discharge rates that
should be used for the design of foul sewerage
systems. Discharges in the table below are
averaged over 24 hours in the determination of DWF
because the application of peaking factors allows for
the diurnal profile.
Table 1.3.1 – Typical Daily Discharges in the ME
Development
type
Discharge
l/day
Unit
Domestic 170 Litres/head/day
Domestic low
density high value
properties
250 Litres/head/day
Average Infiltration 100 Litres/jhead/day
Infiltration range 0- 250 Litres/head/day


The figures in this table provide general guidance for
the design of foul sewerage systems.
The figure to be used for design purposes in Qatar
where there is no better information is 270l/h/d,
comprising 160 l/hd/day or sewage and 110 l/hd/day
infiltration.
Where the area to be served is low density palaces
and villas consideration should be given to the use
of 200 l/head/day. If the catchment is inland and the
ground water table level is low then the infiltration
allowance can be reduced or even eliminated.
Design populations of the existing and proposed
properties are based on the plots indicated on the
Action Plans that can be obtained from the Land
Information Centre and the occupancy levels given
in Table 1.3.2. The number of discharge units per
property is then allotted based on BS 8301, as
shown in Table 1.3.2.







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Drainage Affairs
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Table 1.3.2 – Indicative Occupancy Levels (from
BS 8301)
Plot Description
Occupancy
Levels
Discharge
Units
For plots less than 1225m
2
6 people 14
For plots equal to and
between 1225 and 2500m
2

9 people 21
For plots
greater than
2500m
2

Small
Palaces
15 people 35
Larger
Palaces
25 people 58

The dry weather flow is then obtained from Figure
1.3.2, which has been reproduced from BS 8310,
Figure 2. Where no Action Plan plot or housing
information is available, the future area can be
assumed as developed at an average of the existing
planned plot density.

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Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 7
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
1
10
100
1 10 100 1000 10000
Discharge Units
F
l
o
w

(
l
/
s
)

Figure 1.3.2 – Conversion of Discharge Units to Flow Rates



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Drainage Affairs
Page 8 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
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1.3.2 Industrial
Estimation of daily discharges from Industrial areas
will be dependent on the type of industry occupying
the area. The majority of industries in Qatar are “dry”
industries such as warehousing and workshops.
These will have lower consumption rates than “wet”
industries such as concrete or paper manufacture. If
possible, metered water consumption rates should
be used in design but where these are not available
or are impractical to use, the values in Table 1.3.3
can be applied.
Table 1.3.3 – Design Allowance for Industrial
Wastewater Generation
Category Volume (l/s/ha)
Conventional Water - Saving
Light
x
2 .5
Medium
x
4 1.5
Heavy 8 2
Category Volume
Slaughterhouse
xi
6600 l Per tonne of
produce
Drink
Production
xi

8400 l Per cubic metre
of produce
Laundry
xiv
1500 – 2100 l/d Per machine
Tannery
xii
30 – 35 m3 Per tonne of
produce
Tannery
xi
7600 l Per tonne of
produce

In the above table, light industry may be taken as
“dry industries which generally handle materials and
goods which do not include washdown facilities.
Heavy industries will include factories with
washdown facilities and using water in the unit
processes. These figures are to be used only in
initial land usage planning, and developers must
obtain confirmation from end users before final
design.
1.3.3 Commercial
Most significant developments include a degree of
commercial activity and this should be included in
the assessment of discharges to the foul system.
This activity can range from a single small office or
shop, up to major shopping, hotel or office
complexes. Each development type needs to be
assessed.
Commercial activities include all those listed above
and each may have its own characteristic discharge
profile, which will inevitably be different from the
standard domestic profile.
Table 1.3.4 gives an indication of the likely
discharges from various types of commercial
activity.
Table 1.3.4 – Typical flows from commercial
premises
Development type Discharge
l/day
Per
Commercial
Centres
xiii

50 Customer
per 12 hour
day
Airport
xiv
11 - 19 Passenger
Hotels
xv
150-300 Bed
Restaurants
xvi
30-40 Customer
Social Clubs
xvii
10 – 20 Customer
Cinema
xviii
10 Seat
Offices
xix
750 100m
2

Shopping Centres
xx
400 100m
2

Department Store
xxi
2000 Per toilet
Recreational
xxii

Centres
80 Customer
per 6 hour
day
Commercial
premises
xxiii

300 100m
2


Where possible, the above discharge rates should
be checked using installed water supply meters for
existing developments. Proposed developments

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should be assessed using the figurers given in the
table above.
Diurnal profiles should be derived for each type of
commercial development and applied to the daily
discharge rate from the table.
1.3.4 Institutions such as
Schools, Health Centres,
Hospitals and Mosques
Table 1.3.5 contains typical values of discharges
from various types of institutional premises.
Table 1.3.5 – Typical Institutional Discharges
Development
type
Discharge
l/day
Per
Educational
Centres
xiii

70 Pupil per 8 hour
day
Day schools
xxiii
50 - 100 Pupil per 8 hour
day
Residential
schools
xxiv

150-200 Pupil
Mosque
xiii
100 Worshiper per
12 hour day
Sports Centre
xxiii
10 – 30 visitor
Retirement
Home
xxiii

250 Bed
Nursing Homes
xxiii
300 - 400 Bed
Assembly Hall 11 - 19 Guest
Prison 300 - 570 Inmate
Hospitals
xxiii
500-750 Bed

Each category of premises will have a different
diurnal discharge profile, with day schools only
contributing during the school day, and hospitals
likely to contribute flows for much of the waking day.
As with other types of development, metered water
supply records should be consulted wherever
possible to provide an indication of actual
consumption figures. A suitable return to sewer
factor should then be applied to the results.
Sometimes, it may be possible to determine diurnal
profiles by reading water meters at say, hourly
intervals throughout the day. The resulting profile is
then applied to the daily consumption.
1.3.5 Infiltration
Infiltration describes flows in the foul system, which
are not legitimate discharges. Infiltration comprises
two components:
• inflows from faulty manhole covers, cross-
connections from storm and groundwater
control systems, and tidal sources. Inflows can
also come from the illegitimate practice of lifting
manhole covers to drain surface water during
and after storms;
• infiltration of groundwater through displaced
and open pipe joints, cracks, fractures and
breaks in the fabric of the main sewers and
lateral connections, manholes and chambers.
Infiltration causes reduced capacity for legitimate
sewage flows, increased requirements for pumping
and sewage treatment, and possible structural
damage.
Infiltration into foul sewerage systems can be
problematic. It generally derives from groundwater
entering the pipe network through: poor joints in the
pipes; cracks or fractures; defects in manholes; or
through private drainage connections. Infiltration
generally occurs in areas with a high water table. In
coastal areas, infiltration can be saline which can
have a detrimental effect on sewage treatment
processes and can cause corrosion of metalwork in
manholes and pumping stations.
It is normal to allow a figure of 10% of DWF for
infiltration. Infiltration should be excluded from the
calculation of flows using peaking factors. Thus for a
peaking factor, Pf, peak design flow would be given
by the equation:
Q = Pf (PG + E) + I
Equation 1.3.2
Where:
Q = Peak Design Flow (l/d)
Pf = Peaking Factor
P = Population


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G = Daily per capita flow (l)
E = Daily Industrial Flow (l)
I = Daily infiltration flow (l)
A sample calculation sheet for sewers using the
above formula is included in Volume 1 Appendix 1
Where local conditions indicate that the figure of
10% DWF for infiltration is too low, then a higher
figure may be adopted. However, this must be
justified by supporting information, such as the
analysis of flow survey results. At the time of
drafting this manual, DA suggest that for G in the
above formula, an overall figure of 270l/hd/day be
used for all domestic flows. This will be revised
when flow survey results become available .
Conversely, where the water table is known to be
well below the level of the sewerage system, the
allowance for infiltration will be less significant
locally.
Infiltration is often associated with exfiltration, which
is the leakage of foul flows due to faults and
openings in the pipework, manholes and chambers.
Exfiltration of foul flows results in contamination of
the surrounding soils and possible pollution of
groundwater.
Since both infiltration and exfiltration involve flows
passing through physical defects in the sewerage
system fabric, they often occur together in
conjunction with fluctuating groundwater levels. This
continuing flow mechanism can result in erosion of
the surrounds and foundations to pipes and
manholes. In serious cases, failure of the asset or
ground subsidence has resulted.
The Sewer Rehabilitation Manual provides a
detailed explanation of the factors involved in
infiltration.
Two CIRIA reports
xxv,xxvi
describe various methods
for estimating base-flow infiltration. Inflow of
stormwater runoff is estimated from the area of
development contributing to the flow monitor.
Estimation of both components relies on detailed
flow and rainfall monitoring, combined with hydraulic
modelling to understand the relative contributions of
the components in wet and dry weather.
The Infiltration Reduction Procedure contained in
the Sewerage Rehabilitation Manual should be
followed, where infiltration is to be reduced. This is
an iterative approach to successively focus on
sources of excessive infiltration, and to ensure that
reduction measures are cost-effective.
It is very evident that removal, or more realistically,
significant reduction of infiltration, is a time-
consuming and expensive process. It is far more
cost-effective to avoid its occurrence in the first
place. This can be done by strictly controlling the
quality of new and renovated sewerage installations,
and by ensuring that best quality materials and
construction techniques are used, to provide a long-
lasting leak-free system. Such standards should be
applied to both private and public sewerage.
Property connections should also be correctly made,
and abandoned sewers and septic tanks properly
sealed.
1.4 Peaking Factors
As described in section 1.3, the rate of discharge of
sewage from a given property to the sewerage
system will vary during the day. The sewerage
system must be able to cope with the highest flows
likely to occur in the day. Different contributors to the
system will have different discharge profiles. For
example, shopping areas will generally only
contribute flows during the periods when the shops
are open, and then the flows will be in proportion to
how busy the shops are through the day.
Domestic properties generally show marked
morning and evening peaks, which coincide with
peak domestic activity. This suggests that foul
sewers should be designed to cope with higher than
the average, or dry weather flow (DWF), and a
common way of designing systems is to cope with a
flow of up to six times DWF
viii
. While this approach
may be satisfactory for the smaller sewers at the
head of the system, it will tend to over design the
larger sewers and ignores the attenuation effects as
the flows move downstream.
At the head of a sewerage system, discharges tend
to be pulsed, with individual pulses of flow being the
discharge from individual appliances. As the pulses
flow along the pipe system, the peaks tend to
become attenuated and as the flows progress down
the system, these pulses combine to form a more
consistent flow. The peaking factor will depend on
the upstream population and the distance the

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sewage has travelled. A number of different ways of
determining the peak factor have been proposed
which take account of the attenuation downstream
with increasing population. There are several
formulae for calculation of peaking factor
ix
, for which
the Babbit formula is most representative in Qatar
The Babbit Formual (1952) is;
5
5
P
PF = ,
Where PF represents the peaking factor, and P is
the population in thousands.
However, the formula is not representative at low
populations.

Therefore, the upper limit for peaking factors shall
be taken as six for populations up to and including
500.. For populations over 500 the Babbit formula
shall be used. The minimum value of peaking factor
shall be 3.
It is considered that values in excess of six, and
below three, are unrealistic for conditions in Doha,
but these figures may be revised after a detailed
flow survey is carried out (see section 1.3 above).
The variation of peaking factors with population is
shown graphically in Figure 1.4.1, which follows




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Peaking Factors
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000 Population
F
a
c
t
o
r
Babbit BSEN 752
Minimum value 3
Maximum value 6


Figure 1.4.1 Plot of Peaking Factors v Population

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1.5 Hydraulic Design
The hydraulic design of sewerage systems involves
achieving a balance between pipe size, pipe
gradient and pipe depth, such that self-cleansing
velocities are achieved without surcharge, but with
the most economical combination of size and depth.
Wherever possible, pipe depths should be used that
avoid the need for concrete bed and surround.
General Principles
The general principles of foul sewer design are as
follows:
• Pipe size should not generally decrease
downstream;
• Sewers should be designed to convey peak
flows without surcharge;
• Sewers should achieve self-cleansing velocity
at least once per day. Note that half-pipe
velocity is numerically the same as full-pipe
velocity.
• To allow for ventilation of the system, maximum
design depth of flow should not exceed 0.75 x
pipe diameter or d/D ≤ 0.75.
• Where there is a chance of heavy construction
plant tracking over new sewers laid during
construction of a site, the minimum depth of
cover should be measured from the formation
level of the site above the sewers;
• Self-cleansing velocities increase with pipe size
(see sections 1.5.1 and 1.5.2 below);
• At manholes, all pipes should be laid such that
their soffits are at the same level. Pipes in
manholes should not be laid with the inverts
level, as this can promote the deposit of solids
in minor branches leading to odour problems
and blockages;
• Junctions should not enter a sewer at right
angles but should enter at an angle of 45° to
the direction of flow of the main sewer;
• Sewers should commence at minimum depth
upstream and follow ground profiles if possible
to minimise excavation. However, it is
recognised that in Qatar, due to flat
topography, depths will gradually increase
downstream in order to maintain minimum
gradients (see section 1.5.1 below). Trunk
sewer sections serving larger catchments are
likely to become very deep (but see also
section 1.11);
• Backdrop manholes should be used where
there is a difference >600mm in level between
a branch/rider sewer and the main sewer.
Backdrops (see also section 1.12.2 below)
should not be used to reduce gradients on
main sewer lines.
Design Tools
Hydraulic computer models are invaluable tools for
understanding the performance of sewerage
systems. Hydraulic models are of particular value
for:
• Understanding the performance of the
complete system, in particular attenuation of
flows;
• Understanding the flow regime of complex and
interdependent systems, such as those with
bifurcations and loops;
• Understanding the flow characteristics of
multiple pumping systems, as found in Doha;
• Readily understanding the effects of changes in
development on existing systems;
• Simulating modifications to the construction
and/or operation of the system.
Hydraulic computer models should use InfoWorks
CS software, and be verified against flow and depth
measurements carried out on the actual system.
1.5.1 Formulae
1.5.1.1 The Colebrook-White
Equation
The Colebrook-White equation allows calculation of
velocity of flow in a gravity drain flowing full for any
given gradient, diameter, and roughness coefficient,
as follows;





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Drainage Affairs
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( )
( )

+ − =
gDS D
D
k
gDS v
s
2
51 . 2
7 . 3
log 2 2
υ


Equation 1.5.1

Where g = acceleration due to gravity, m
2
/s
D = diameter, m
S = slope or headloss per unit length

s
k = roughness coefficient, mm
υ = kinematic viscosity of water
(m
2
/s).
Thus, for a 400 mm diameter pipe with
s
k = 1.5 ,
and slope 1 in 157, flow temperature 15
o
C, the
velocity will be 1.33 m/s
Using the relationship:
Q=AV
Equation 1.5.2
Where:
Q = flow in the pipe (m
3
/s)
A = Cross-sectional area of flow
V = velocity of flow
This allows the pipe full discharge to be calculated
where:
A=πD
2
/4
Equation1.5.3
Thus, for the above pipe at full flow, the capacity will
be 167 l/s
A sample calculation sheet for sewers using the
above formulae is included in Volume 1 Appendix 1
Tables are available from hydraulic research giving
values for a wide range of pipe sizes at a range of
gradients for various values of ks.
Tables 1.5.1 and 1.5.2 below give recommended
values of ks and υ . Both are taken for the Slimed
sewers category from Wallingford design tables
xxvii
.
Table 1.5.1 - Pipe Roughness ks Values
Material ks Value (mm)
Normal Poor
Concrete (Precast + O Rings) 3.0 6.0
Concrete (Steel Forms) 3.0 6.0
DI (PE Lined) 0.6 1.5
GRP 0.6 1.5
VCP 1.5 3.0

Further values can be obtained by direct reference
to Appendix 1 of the Wallingford design tables.
Caution should be exercised in the use of the
Wallingford tables. It should be noted that the quality
of pipes can vary considerably from one
manufacturer to the next, and that condition of pipes
can vary with time. Designers should avoid using the
optimistic values quoted by some plastic pipe
manufacturers, as these invariably refer to new
pipes under laboratory conditions. The figure to be
used for design purposes shall be 1.5 in all cases

Table 1.5.2 - Kinematic Viscosity υ Values
Temperature,
0
C Viscosity, m
2
/s x 10
-6

15 1.141
25 0.897
35 0.727

For detailed sewage modelling applications, the
viscosity should be varied for a range of
temperatures, but for routine applications, a
conservative approach will be to use the lower
temperature of 15
0
C.
A graph for proportional velocity and discharge in
part-full circular sections is reproduced in Figure
1.5.1. This illustrates the relationship between depth
of flow, and velocity. It can be used for estimating
the velocity of flow in partially full pipes, and should
be used to check velocities for self cleansing
velocities at low flow (see table 1.5.4)

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Figure 1.5.1 - Proportional Velocity and Discharge in Part-Full Circular Sections


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1.5.1.2 Manning’s Equation
Manning’s equation is an empirical formula for
uniform flow in open channels. Manning’s equation
is:
v=(1/n)R
2/3
S0
½

Equation 1.5.4
Where:
n is Manning’s roughness coefficient
S0 is bed slope
R is the hydraulic radius of the flow
The equation may be useful in pumping station
approach hannels and elements of sewage works.
However, all pipe calculations must use Colebrook
White
Typical values of Manning’s n are given below.
Table 1.5.3 - Typical values of Manning’s n
Channel Material n range
Cement 0.010-0.015
Concrete 0.010-0.020
Brickwork 0.011-0.018

Manning’s equation is only valid for rough turbulent
flow conditions.
1.5.2 Minimum Pipe Sizes and
Gradients
CIRIA Report R141
xxviii
defines self-cleansing
sewers as follows:
“An efficient self-cleansing sewer is one having a
sediment-transporting capacity that is sufficient to
maintain a balance between the amounts of
deposition and erosion, with a time-averaged depth
of sediment deposit that minimises the combined
costs of construction, operation and maintenance”.
Foul sewers should be at least 200mm diameter and
laid to a gradient of 1 in 60 or 1.67%. This gradient
can be relaxed to 1 in 150 (0.67%) where several
dwellings are connected to the head of the sewer,
and the standard of workmanship during
construction is high. Peak flow velocities of
0.75m/sec can be assumed to be self-cleansing in
pipes of 150mm diameter.
As sewer sizes increase, so too do self-cleansing
velocities, with the result that very large foul sewers
require velocities to exceed 1.5m/sec to be self-
cleansing. Such velocities in large diameter pipes
pose a safety hazard and facilities must be provided
to prevent operatives being washed downstream in
these sewers.
1.5.3 Minimum and Maximum
Velocities
CIRIA
xxvi
recommends that sewers should be
designed to:
1. transport a minimum concentration of fine
particles in suspension.
2. transport coarser granular material as bed load.
3. erode cohesive particles from a deposited bed.
In order to minimise the maintenance requirements
of any given length of sewer, it is normal to design
the sewer to be “self-cleansing”. This means that the
sewer is designed to achieve a velocity at least once
per day that will carry all solid deposited material
along the pipe and not leave any materials
deposited in the invert of the sewer.
Table 1.5.4 is based on the simplified CIRIA method
of assessing self-cleansing velocities in foul sewers.
Surface water sewers require generally higher self-
cleansing velocities because of the higher particle
densities.
Table 1.5.4 – Approximate Self-Cleansing
Velocities for Foul Sewers
Pipe size
(mm)
Approximate self- cleansing
velocity (m/sec)
200–300 0.75
400 0.77
500 0.82
600 0.86
700* 0.87

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Pipe size
(mm)
Approximate self- cleansing
velocity (m/sec)
800 0.88
900* 0.88
1000 0.92
1200 1.03
*700 and 900 are non preferred sizes
Where large diameter sewers (over 1.0m diameter)
are laid to steep gradients, very high flow velocities
occur. For example,; a 1000mm pipe laid to 1:100
gradient with a depth of flow of 750mm will have a
discharge velocity approaching 3.4m/sec, which is
unacceptable in foul sewers. The designer should
implement energy dissipation measures in such
cases. It should be emphasised that scour in pipes
at these velocities is not a significant problem with
modern materials, but if velocities become very high,
odour emissions can be increased and noise can
become a problem.
As a general rule, it is preferable to aim to achieve
self-cleansing velocity at least once per day. The
designer should aim to achieve a velocity at the
design flow (i.e. peak flow) of between self-
cleansing and 2.0m/s, with 2.5m/s as an upper limit.
In small sewers, less than 600mm diameter, it is not
necessary to include measures to limit flow velocity.
The use of backdrop manholes for this purpose is
discouraged. However, backdrop manholes may be
justified where there is a significant difference in
level between a branch sewer and trunk sewer. In
this case, the economics may justify the construction
of a backdrop to minimise excavation for the branch
sewer trench. The discharge from a backdrop into a
manhole requires careful design to prevent flows
from washing over the benching.
Backdrops for large diameter sewers are complex
structures that may involve the creation of vortices
to dissipate energy, for which specialist design is
required. These are often purpose-made in stainless
steel. A typical example is included in the standard
drawings, Volume 8.
1.6 Septicity in Sewage,
Odour Control and
Ventilation
In rising mains and shallow gravity sewers,
respiration of bacteria in wastewater and slimes
present on submerged sewer walls rapidly depletes
any dissolved oxygen or nitrates causing
anaerobicity (septicity)
xxix
. One of the main impacts
of septicity is the formation of sulphide by the
bacterial reduction of inorganic sulphate present in
the wastewater. Some of the sulphide will combine
with metals in the sewage. The remainder will be
present in ionised and unionised form, as below.
S
2-
⇔ HS
-
⇔ H2S
Only the un-ionised form is released to the
atmosphere. The proportion of sulphide present in
the un-ionised form is dependent upon the pH value
of the sewage and is about 50% at a pH value of 7.
For example, a liquid concentration of 2mg/l of
sulphide at pH 7.0 would be in equilibrium with a
gaseous H2S concentration of 300ppm (ml/m
3
). At a
pH value of 8.0 this would decrease to about
60ppm.
Septicity can have an impact on health and safety,
corrosion, subsequent treatment processes and
odours. Hydrogen sulphide is a toxic gas. WHO
guidelines for dose-effect relationships for H2S are
given in Table 1.6.1
xxx
.
Table 1.6.1 - Health Impacts of Hydrogen
Sulphide
H2S Level
(ppm)
Health Impact
1000-2000 Immediate collapse with paralysis
of respiration
530-1000 Strong central nervous system
stimulation, followed by respiratory
arrest
320-530 Risk of death
150-250 Loss of olfactory sense
50-100 Serious eye damage
10-20 Threshold for eye irritation



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UK Occupational exposure limit (OEL)
concentrations
xxxi

of hydrogen sulphide and other
gases associated with septic conditions are given in
Table 1.6.2.
Table 1.6.2 - Exposure Limits for H2S and Other
Gases
Gas Long term
OEL (8-hour)
(parts per
million)
Short term
OEL (15
minute) (parts
per million)
Hydrogen sulphide 5 10
Methyl Mercaptan
(methanethiol)
0.5 -
Ethylmercaptan
(ethanethiol)
0.5 2
Ammonia 25 35
Methylamine 10 -
Ethylamine 10 -
Dimethylamine 10 -
1.6.1 Explosion and
Combustion Risk
The WRC report ‘Enclosed Wastewater Treatment
Plants’
xxxii
considers the potential risk of the
development of flammable concentrations of gases
arising in a STW. The possible gases considered
are given below in Table 1.6.3.
The lower explosive limit for hydrogen sulphide is
40000ppm. This concentration is unlikely to be
achieved under normal operation, and risk is
therefore minimal.
Table 1.6.3 - Flammable Gases in Sewers
Gas Lower explosive
limit % v/v in air
Upper
explosive limit
% v/v in air
Carbon
Monoxide
12.5 -
Hydrogen
sulphide
4.0 (40000 ppm) 46
Petroleum 100 ppm
Methane 5.3 15
Spontaneous combustion of sulphur around the
edge of lifted manhole covers has been reported in
Doha. In this instance, the reaction of hydrogen
sulphide with iron oxide at the manhole cover has
led to its catalytic oxidation to sulphur, which is
spontaneously combustible. Operational procedures
may be required to reduce this risk. Although these
are beyond the scope of normal design functions, it
is important that the designer is aware of such
issues and to include mention of them in the design
HARA’s.
1.6.2 Corrosion
Hydrogen sulphide is associated with the corrosion
of concrete and mortar as the result of its bacterial
conversion to sulphuric acid. High levels of
hydrogen sulphide may develop below covers, with
consequent impact on the structure of the tank or
manhole as has been found at a number of sites.
Metal work and electrical equipment is also
vulnerable to H2S corrosion.
Selection of construction materials for tanks,
manholes, covers, and fittings should take into
account the potential for corrosion.
1.6.3 Impact on Subsequent
Treatment Processes
The discharge of septic sewage can increase the
rate of development of sulphide in the primary
sedimentation stage sewage and sludges.
High levels of septicity have been associated with
poor settleability of activated sludges.
High levels of septicity or sulphates have been
associated with poor gas yields from mesophilic
anaerobic digestion processes.
1.6.4 Odours
The discharge of septic sewage can be a significant
source of odours at the discharge point, whether to
an intermediate pumping station or to the inlet of a
STW. Threshold levels for various odours are listed
in Table 1.6.4.
The odour threshold level of hydrogen sulphide
measured in a laboratory is about 0.5 parts per
billion (ppb). The level above which odour problems

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can occur is typically ten times this value.
Background H2S levels are often in the range 2-
5ppb.
Table 1.6.4 – Odour Threshold Levels
Gas Odour threshold (parts per
billion)
Hydrogen sulphide 0.5
Methyl Mercaptan
(methanethiol)
0.0014-18
Ethylmercaptan
(ethanethiol)
0.02
Ammonia 130-15300
Methylamine 0.9-53
Ethylamine 2400
Dimethylamine 23-80

1.6.5 General Design
Guidelines for Odour
Control in Sewerage
Systems
The design of sewerage systems to reduce the
development of septicity is the subject of a number
of guides
xxxiii
. Guidelines include:
Rising mains
• Minimise lengths of pumping mains, and use lift
pumps rather than long rising mains to
minimise retention under anaerobic conditions(
there is no satisfactory minimum length of
rising main which can be quoted for design
purposes. Even a retention time of 30 minutes
is sufficient to develop anaerobic conditions. );
• Minimise turbulence at the discharge point;
• Discharge into the gravity sewerage system at
low level to avoid turbulence and consequent
release of odours;
• Location of discharge point should NOT be
immediately prior to hydraulic drops or sharp
bends;
• Manhole covers at discharge points may need
to be sealed.
Pumping stations
• Minimise turbulence at inlet to sump. Use
submerged, rather than overflow weirs;
• Use level detectors to minimise the volume of
sump used under normal flow conditions;
• Use frequent pumping regimes to minimise
retention time in sump, and also spread odour
load more thinly over the day;
• Maximise benching to give self-cleansing
conditions and ensure no accumulation of grit.
Guidelines are given in BS 8301
xxxiv
;
• Ensure any screenings or grit can be removed,
or are washed back into main flow of sewage;
• Active/passive odour control unit may be
required depending on the sensitivity of the
site, size of installation, and other factors such


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as degree of septicity of sewage under normal
flow conditions.
Gravity sewers
• Maintain self-cleansing velocities;
• Avoid turbulent flow (including sharp bends and
drops);
• Minimise length of siphons (which will act as
rising mains);
• Ensure there is ventilation of the sewer (by
provision of vents);
• Design to ensure no accumulation of grit or
debris.
Storage Tanks and Shafts
• Minimise turbulence of discharges to tanks and
shafts (discharge at low level);
• In sensitive areas (i.e. next to houses) odour
control may be needed to treat displaced
odours when levels rise.
Refer also to section 2.23 of this volume, and
section 1.5 of volume 5
The formation of sulphide in rising mains and gravity
sewers has been the subject of extensive studies
xxxv, xxxiii
.
The concentration can be estimated from the
following equation
xxxvi
:
Cs=K tCOD[(1+0.004D)/D]1.07
(T-20)

Equation 1.6.1
Where:
Cs = concentration of sulphide (mg S/l)
Kc = constant, usually taken to be 0.00152
t = anaerobic retention time (mins)
D = diameter of rising main (cm)
T = temperature of sewage (°C)
COD = COD of sewage (mg/l)
In gravity sewers, there is a balance between
sulphide formation when flow is stagnant, and
sulphide release and oxidation during turbulent flow.
In practice, little sulphide should be formed in a well-
ventilated, self-cleansing, partially-filled gravity
sewer used for domestic sewage. Where problems
do occur, they are typically associated with sewers
of shallow gradients where accumulation of grit, silt
and slimes causes localised septicity at points
where turbulence is insufficient to remove such
debris.
An indicator of the likelihood of septicity in a gravity
sewer is the ‘Z formula’ with the effect of different
values of Z as indicated in Table 1.6.5.

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Z as calculated below is a dimensionless parameter
that indicates the potential for sulphide generation.
Z = 3(EBOD) x P
S
0.5
Q
0.33
b
Equation 1.6.2
Where:
EBOD = 5 day BOD (mg/l) multiplied by a
temperature factor 1.07
(T-20)

T = sewage temperature (co)
S = slope of sewer (m/100m)
Q = wastewater flow (l/s)
P = wetted pipe wall perimeter (m)
b = surface width of the stream (m)

Table 1.6.5 - Values of Z, Indicating Sulphide
Generation Potential
Value of
Z
Likely condition
<5000 Sulphide rarely present
7500 Low concentrations of sulphide may be
produced
10000 Sulphide may develop sufficiently to
cause odour and corrosion problems
15000 Frequent problems with odours and
significant corrosion problems

More detailed equations have been developed by
Pomeroy, Jensen and others for gravity sewers,
linking re-aeration rates with sulphide formation
release and oxidation. These are incorporated in a
computer model (SPACA) developed by Hyder
Consulting. Modelling can enable the areas where
septicity develops to be identified allowing effective
targeted remedial measures to be taken.
The model divides the sewerage network into a
series of nodes (for example junctions or manholes)
and pipes (gravity or pumped). Details of the sewers
are required (length, slope and diameter) and the
wastewater (including flow rate, COD and pH value).
The model calculates the amount of sulphide
produced or lost along each section and carries out
a mass balance across the system. The model also
calculates the amount of chemicals required to
prevent septicity.
Sewerage Septicity Investigations
Where a sewerage system is already in use, site
sampling can be carried out at the pumping station
and at the discharge point. Measurements that
should be made are:
• COD;
• BOD;
• Temperature;
• Flow rate of wastewater;
• pH value;
• Respiration rate of sewage;
• Sulphide (liquid and gas phase);
• Redox potential;
• Dissolved oxygen concentration;
• Chloride concentration (or conductivity).
In addition, modelling would require information on:
• Length, material and diameter of rising mains;
• Length, material, diameter and slope of gravity
sewer;
• Pumping regime/flow profile;
• Details of receiving sewer;
• Location and odour control arrangements for
manholes and chambers;
• Ventilation of house connections;
• Design horizon.
Septicity Control Using Chemicals
DA policy is to introduce septicity control facilities at
all new pumping stations as required.
It should be stressed that septicity control using
chemicals is only acceptable in Qatar if no other
methods are suitable.
Addition of chemicals is used to prevent odour
problems in the sewerage system, at the STW inlet
works and in sludge systems. The annual cost of
chemicals can be significant, and optimisation of
dose rate should be carried out, e.g. dosing may not
be necessary during cooler weather. In addition to
the cost, the chemical should be selected with
consideration given to the subsequent treatment of
the sewage, e.g. disinfection by UV irradiation may
be affected by residual iron in the effluent. Iron salts
are also reported to increase combustibility of dried
sludge.
Many of the chemicals used, such as iron salts, high
purity oxygen, alkali and oxidising agents such as
permanganates and hydrogen peroxide are
potentially hazardous. Appropriate precautions are
required in their handling and storage, such as
bunded tanks, eyewashes or safety showers.


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Measures are also required to ensure that chemicals
do not deteriorate during storage, e.g. due to
exposure to sunlight, moisture, or heat.
The chemicals most commonly used for septicity
control in the sewerage system or receiving
wastewater treatment works are:
Calcium Nitrate is used widely to prevent septicity
in sewerage systems. Micro-organisms present in
the sewage and in the slimes on the sewer wall will
use nitrate as an alternative oxygen source under
anoxic conditions. Sodium nitrate can also be used.
High doses of nitrate can be added at the start of
the sewerage system, and there will be no loss
along the sewerage system. Excess nitrate may
lead to rising sludge due to denitrification in the
primary sludge.
Some oxidation of sulphide in sewage and sludges
may also be achieved by nitrate addition. A
required ratio of between 10:1 to 30:1 of nitrate to
sulphide has been reported. Addition of nitrate with
anthroquinone has recently been proposed to
oxidise sulphide in sludges.
Nitrate salts are supplied and stored as a liquid and
dosed as a liquid to the pump sump at the start of a
rising main. Average daily dose rates are calculated
from the aerobic respiration of the sewage, but
assume that the rate of nitrate uptake is 40% of that
under fully aerobic conditions. The amount of
nitrate required for rising mains of different
diameters is given in Table 1.6.6. These values are
derived assuming that the demand for nitrate
nitrogen is 40% of that derived previously; that 2.85
grams of oxygen are available for every gram of
nitrate nitrogen, and that calcium nitrate is supplied
at a concentration of 110.6g/l N.
The uptake of nitrate results in a slight reduction in
BOD. If sufficient nitrate is provided, the sewage
will remain fresh.
Table 1.6.6 - Nitrate Dosing Requirements for
Different Pipe Diameters
Diameter
(mm)
Nitrate required per 1000 m length
(kg/d as N) l/d assuming
110.6gN/l
350 11.0 99.9
500 18.2 164.2
1000 52.2 471.9

Iron nitrate acts in the same way as calcium nitrate
when dosed at the start of a rising main. The iron
component also combines with sulphides as they
form, and hence dosage rates in practice may be
approximately half that calculated for calcium
nitrate.
Iron nitrate is, as with other iron salts, an acidic
chemical requiring appropriate storage and
handling.
Iron salts (sulphate, chloride and nitrate) have
been used very effectively to control odours. Iron
salts combine with sulphide in the sewage to form a
number of insoluble iron sulphides (FeS, Fe2S3,
Fe3S4 and FeS2). Ferric salts are more effective
than ferrous salts. However a mixture of ferric and
ferrous salts in the presence of dissolved oxygen
may be the most effective
xxxv
:
Fe
2_
+ 2Fe
3+
+ 4HS
-
→ Fe3S4 + 4H
+

The required dose rate decreases with increasing
pH value and increases at acidic pH values, with
little effect expected at pH values much below 6. At
pH 7.0, the dose rate is 2.4mgFe / mgS.
Iron salts are added as a liquid at the discharge
point of a rising main or to a septic flow, such as
sludge liquor prior to return to the sewage flow.
Dosage rates for rising mains containing sewage at
pH 7.0, temperature 30
o
C, with a COD of 600mg/l
are given in Table 1.6.7.
Table 1.6.7 – Dosing Rates for Iron Salts
Diameter
(mm)
Iron required per 1000m length,
assuming 2.4mg/l as Fe
(kg/d as Fe)
350 19.4
500 29.2
1000 68.2


Iron salts are acidic and corrosive and require care
with storage and handling. Iron salts attack metals,

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and appropriate materials are required for bunded
tanks, dosing pumps and pipework, together with
appropriate safety equipment such as safety
showers and eyewashes.
Although effective at precipitating sulphide, iron
salts have no impact on the concentration of other
odorous chemicals such as volatile fatty acids or on
the degree of septicity of the sewage. They
therefore may be less effective than septicity
prevention systems for reducing odour.
Addition of iron salts to sewage may:
• Increase the mass, volume and thickness of
primary sludge;
• Reduce concentration of phosphate below the
required concentration for secondary
treatment;
• High doses may adversely affect the
settleability of the primary sludge;
• Give some solids deposition within the sewer;
• Affect subsequent ultraviolet disinfection
processes;
• Increase the combustibility in subsequent
thermal drying processes.
Oxygen supplied and stored as a liquid and then
dosed into a side stream of sewage as a high purity
gas has been used in rising mains and sewers
elsewhere in the Middle East to prevent septicity.
However, the amount that can be dosed is limited
by the saturation concentration of dissolved
oxygen, being about 34mg/l at 30
o
C. The injection
of excess oxygen or air into rising main sewers can
give rise to gas pockets, which may adversely
affect pump regimes. Excess oxygen also
exacerbates microbiologically induced corrosion.
Under aerobic conditions, sulphide will be oxidised
(predominantly by microbial action) to thiosulphate
and sulphuric acid, with some chemical oxidation to
sulphur. The rate of oxidation in the sewage stream
depends on the numbers of oxidising bacteria
present in the sewage and can be in the range of 1
(fresh sewage) to 15mgS/l.h. Some reduction of
BOD and COD is seen. Oxidation can occur within
the sewage stream, where it will reduce the risk of
subsequent odour problems. Where the oxidation
to sulphuric acid occurs in the slimes on exposed
sewer walls or sumps, corrosion of the sewer fabric
can occur.
The uptake of oxygen results in a corresponding
reduction in BOD. If sufficient oxygen is provided,
the sewage will remain fresh.
Dose rate is calculated to match the respiration rate
of micro-organisms in sewage (typically 12mg/l.h)
and wall slimes (assumed to be 1.9g/m
2
.h at 30
o
C).
This can be calculated for a length of rising main of
radius r metres and length, L metres:
gO2/h = ((2prLx 1.9)+ (pr
2
Lx12))1.07(
T-30
)
Equation 1.6.3

Overall respiration rate (mg/l) of sewage and slimes
in rising mains of different diameters is given in
Table 1.6.8.



Table 1.6.8 - Respiration Rates of Sewage and
Slimes
Pipe
diameter
(mm)
Respiration rates (mg/l.h
at 30
o
C)
Total DO
demand rate
mgO2/l.h
Slimes Wastewater
350 22.1 12 34.1
500 15.5 12 37.5
1000 13.7 12 15.7

The amount of oxygen required per 1000m for
mains of different diameters using the above
respiration rates is given in Table 1.6.9.
Table 1.6.9 - Oxygen requirements
Diameter
(mm)
Oxygen required per 1000m length
(kg/d)
350 78.7
500 129.4
1000 371.9



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The concentration of oxygen at the injection point is
determined by dividing the daily oxygen
requirement by the daily flow rate of sewage. The
maximum amount of oxygen that can be injected is
limited by its saturation concentration (about 34mg/l
at 30
o
C and atmospheric pressure).
Alkali addition, such as lime or caustic soda, can
be used to increase the pH value of sewage or
sludge. At raised pH values, the release of H2S,
other acidic sulphurous compounds and volatile
fatty acids will be suppressed. Addition is generally
to pH 8.0 or 8.5, as higher values can lead to a
significant release of ammonia. Use of alkali will
become less effective if dosed sewage is diluted
with neutral sewage downstream.
Chlorine/hypochlorite acts as an oxidant and also
as a bactericide, reducing oxygen demand, and
slime growth, but is not widely used because of the
high chlorine demand of the sewage, and the
reluctance to add chlorine to the sewage flow.
Hypochlorite is used as an oxidant in wet-scrubbing
of odorous air:
HS
-
+ 4Cl2 + 4H20 → SO4
2-
+ 9H
+
+ 8Cl
-

HS
-
+ Cl2 → S + H
+
+ 2Cl
-

Hydrogen peroxide oxidises previously formed
sulphide to sulphur and water, and provides
dissolved oxygen.
Peroxide dosed at the inlet to the rising main
provides dissolved oxygen to satisfy the oxygen
demand of the sewage and slimes. Dosage rates
can be calculated as for oxygen, with available
oxygen calculated as 0.48gO2 per gH2O2.
Peroxide can be dosed at the top of the rising main
to oxidise sulphide present in the sewage. Dose rate
is assumed to be 1 gram of H2O2 per gram of S
oxidised at a pH value of less than 8.5.
Chlorine dioxide has been used as an oxidising
agent, mainly with sludges and sludge liquors.
Potassium permanganate has been used
successfully as an oxidising agent to reduce
sulphide levels in sludge liquors and sludges.
Enzyme based chemicals have been promoted for
septicity control. These appear to act by reducing fat
levels or by inhibiting the activity of sulphate
reducing bacteria. Their effectiveness is very site
specific, and long-term effectiveness is not known.
1.7 Pipeline Materials and
Jointing
The preferred material for use in gravity foul sewers
(in Qatar) is vitrified clay pipe (VC), up to 1000mm
diameter.
VC pipes are manufactured to 1200 dia in the
Middle East. However, Glass Reinforced Plastic
(GRP) is preferred for diameters in excess of
1000mm.
uPVC is not acceptable on DA projects.
HDPE is not preferred, but may be used as a
sliplining where trenchless methods (see section 5)
are necessary for installation, using concrete jacking
pipes. Such instances may occur because the high
strength concrete pipes necessary for withstanding
jacking forces do not have adequate chemical
resistance to withstand the aggressive nature of the
sewage. The concrete pipe thus provides the
required strength, and the lining is chemically
resistant.
All materials and jointing should be specified in
accordance with QNBS. See also Volume 1 section
4.3.
1.8 Pipe Bedding
Calculations for
Narrow and Wide
Trench Conditions
Pipes can be categorised as rigid, flexible and
intermediate:
(a) Rigid pipes support loads in the ground by
virtue of resistance of the pipe wall as a ring in
bending;
(b) Flexible pipes rely on the horizontal thrust from
the surrounding soil to enable them to resist vertical
loads without excessive deformation;
(c) Intermediate or semi-rigid pipes are those
pipes that exhibit behaviour between those in (a)
and (b).
Vitrified clay pipes are examples of rigid pipes while
steel, ductile iron, UPVC, MDPE and HDPE pipes
may be classified as flexible or intermediate pipes,

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depending on their wall thickness and stiffness of
pipe material.
The load on rigid pipes is concentrated at the top
and bottom of the pipe, thus creating bending
moments. Flexible pipes may change shape by
deflection and transfer part of the vertical load into
horizontal or radial thrusts, which are resisted by
passive pressure of the surrounding soil. The load
on flexible pipes is mainly compressive force, which
is resisted by arch action rather than ring bending.
The loads on buried gravity pipelines are as follows:
(a) The first type comprises loading due to the fill
in which the pipeline is buried, static and moving
traffic loads superimposed on the surface of the fill,
and water load in the pipeline;
(b) The second type of load includes those loads
due to relative movements of pipes and soil caused
by seasonal groundwater variations, ground
subsidence, temperature change and differential
settlement along the pipeline.
Loads of the first type should be considered in the
design of both the longitudinal section and cross
section of the pipeline. Provided the longitudinal
support is continuous, has uniform quality, and the
pipes are properly laid and jointed, it is sufficient to
design for the cross section of the pipeline.
In general, loads of the second type are not readily
calculable and they only affect the longitudinal
integrity of the pipeline. Differential settlement is of
primary concern especially for pipelines to be laid in
newly reclaimed areas. The effect of differential
settlement can be catered for by using either flexible
joints or piled foundations. If the pipeline is partly or
wholly submerged, there is also a need to check the
effect of flotation of the empty pipeline.
The design criteria for the structural design of rigid
pipes is the maximum load at which failure occurs
while those for flexible pipes are the maximum
acceptable deformation and/or the buckling load.
The approach for rigid pipes is not applicable to
flexible pipes. For all DA projects, the designer must
refer in the first instance to the manufacturer’s
literature, to ensure that the design is in compliance
with recommendations.
Please refer to Volume 1 Appendix1
1.8.1 Bedding Design for Rigid
Pipes
The design procedures for rigid pipes are outlined
as:
(a) Determine the total design load due to:
• the fill load, which is influenced by the
conditions under which the pipe is installed,
i.e. narrow or wide trench conditions;
• the superimposed load which can be uniformly
distributed or concentrated traffic loads; and
• the water load in the pipe.
(b) Choose the type of bedding (whether granular,
plain or reinforced concrete) on which the pipe will
rest. Apply the appropriate bedding factor and
determine the minimum ultimate strength of the pipe
to take the total design load;
(c) Select a pipe of appropriate grade or strength.
Details of design calculations, tables, etc, are
contained in Appendix 1, Volume 1 - General.
1.8.1.1 Narrow Trench Conditions
When a pipe is laid in a relatively narrow trench in
undisturbed ground and the backfill is properly
compacted, the backfill will settle relative to the
undisturbed ground and the weight of fill is jointly
supported by the pipe and the shearing friction
forces acting upwards along the trench walls. The
load on the pipe would be less than the weight of the
backfill on it and will be determined as in ‘narrow
trench’ conditions.
1.8.1.2 Wide Trench Conditions
When the pipe is laid on a firm surface and then
covered with fill, the fill directly above the pipe yields
less than the fill on the sides. Shearing friction
forces acting downwards are set up, resulting in the
vertical load transmitted to the pipe being in excess
of that due to the weight of the fill directly above the
pipe. The load on the pipe will then be determined
as in ‘wide trench’ condition.


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1.8.2 Bedding Factors
The strength of a precast concrete or vitrified clay
pipe is given by the standard crushing test. When
the pipe is installed under fill and supported on
bedding, the distribution of loads is different from
that of the standard crushing test. The load required
to produce failure of a pipe in the ground is higher
than the load required to produce failure in the
standard crushing test. The ratio of the maximum
effective uniformly distributed load to the test load is
known as the '‘bedding factor'’ which varies with the
types of bedding materials under the pipe and
depends to a considerable extent on the efficiency
of their construction, and on the degree of
compaction of the side fill. Typical bedding factors
are given in Table 1.8.1 below
Table 1.8.1 – Bedding Factors
Condition BF
Class D (Pipe laid on trench bottom) 1.1
Class F (Pipe laid on Granular Bedding) 1.5
Class B (180
0
Granular Bedding) 1.9
Class S (360
0
Granular Bedding) 2.2
Class A (Pipe on Concrete Cradle) 2.6

1.8.3 Design Strength
For design, it is required that the total external load
on the pipe will not exceed the ultimate strength of
the pipe multiplied by an appropriate bedding factor
and divided by a factor of safety.
The design formula is as follows:
s
m t
e
F
F W
W ≤
where We = total external load on pipe,
Wt = ultimate strength of pipe,
Fm = bedding factor,
Fs = design safety factor of 1.25 for ultimate
strength of pipe

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1.9 Manhole Positioning
The sewerage system should be designed to
facilitate flows by gravity in a branched arrangement
of small local sewers connected to larger district
sewers, connected to the major trunk sewers.
All public sewers should be located in Government
owned lands, to permit access for construction and
maintenance and to facilitate connection from
private premises.
Manholes and sewers should be sited with due
regard to public utility services. Sewers in roads and
highways should be located in accordance with the
Standard Services Reservations Drawings as
published by the Road Affairs. These are included
as drawings SR1 and SR2 in Volume 8 of this
Manual.
The location of manholes in the sewerage system is
dictated by a number of factors:
For non man-entry sewers maximum spacing
between manholes is governed by jetting
lengths. Jetting hoses are 100m and
allowance has to be made for the vertical drop
to invert level. In sewers over 600mm dia.
jetting can be carried out from each end.
Greater spacing may only be provided in
special cases, where due consideration is
given to maintenance, and subject to DA
approval. Required spacing is summarised in
table 1.9.1 below.
Table 1.9.1 – Maximum Manhole Spacings
Diameter
(mm)
Distance (m)
To 600 80
Above 600 120
• Manholes should, where possible, not be
constructed close to kerb lines;
• Manholes should be constructed at the head
of each system, and at every change of
diameter, direction and/or gradient;
• A manhole should be constructed at every
significant sewer junction (a significant sewer
junction is one where the connecting sewer
serves more than five properties), including all
rider sewers;
• Manholes should not be constructed in
locations on bends in the highway, which may
cause vehicles to skid;
• Manholes should be accessible at all times;
Manholes and chambers will form the main points
for access to the sewerage system for operation and
maintenance. They should therefore be located with
adequate access for maintenance vehicles.
Where new manholes are to be constructed in
existing highways, close liaison is required with the
Roads Department. Although the Standard Services
Reservation Drawings should be followed where
possible, care must be taken to ensure that the
locations of all existing utilities in the vicinity are
known, and that the proposed manhole location will
not interfere with such utilities. Manholes should not
be located such that they would prevent access to
utility equipment or in an emergency situation.
Building over or near to a sewer, and associated
manholes and chambers will not be permitted.
Building over sewers, or directly adjacent to them,
causes major problems with access for maintenance
and renewal of sewerage assets. In extreme cases,
demolition of premises could be required.
The land along the line of the sewer for construction
and access for maintenance and replacement is
called the easement. No other developments should
be permitted within the confines of the easement.
Where access to a sewer is restricted on both sides,
the easement width required is a minimum of 6m,
being normally 3m either side of the centre line of
the pipeline. This distance is considered to be the
minimum practical working width to allow access of
construction plant, and storage of excavated
material and pipe sections during maintenance
operations. Where the depth from finished ground
level to invert exceeds 3m, or the sewer diameter
exceeds 600mm, the easement widths required are
the greater of two times the depth to the invert of the
sewer, plus the pipe diameter, or ten times the
diameter of the sewer. Thus the easement for a 1m
pipe at 5m depth will be 11m. For this reason, it is
essential that excavation depths be kept to a
minimum.


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Foundations and basements of buildings adjacent to
easements shall be designed to ensure that no
building load is transferred to the sewer. Trenches
or pipelines shall not be constructed within a
notional 45-degree line of influence spreading below
the footing, or 1.5m from the face of the building,
whichever is greater.
These requirements refer to permanent easements
required in connection with pipe-laying and
subsequent maintenance. They exclude temporary
storage areas, and the like, used during
construction.
1.10 House Connections
A house connection is defined as the connection
from a premise (domestic, commercial, industrial,
institutional, etc.) to transfer foul flows to the public
sewerage system.
For every house connection, a terminal manhole
(Manhole number 1), in accordance with the
Standard Drawings, should be provided and should
be positioned within the boundary of the premises at
a distance not exceeding 2.0m from the boundary
line. The required depth of MH1 is 1.2m The
terminal manhole is intended to form a demarcation
of maintenance responsibility, and to protect the
public sewerage system from damage or blockage
due to indiscriminate discharge of sewage by the
occupants of the connected premises. The terminal
manhole also acts as a seal to prevent the emission
of gases from the public sewer, potentially causing
nuisance to the occupants of the premises.
Before a connection is made, the capacity of the
existing sewerage system should be checked to
confirm that it has sufficient capacity to
accommodate the flow from the premises.
All house connections should comply with the
following general principles:
• They should be designed and constructed to
enable foul flows to pass to the public sewer
without flooding or surcharge;
• They should be of 150mm minimum internal
diameter for a typical 6-person villa
development. For a large palace, office
complex, multi-storey apartment block, hotel,
etc, the minimum diameter shall be 200mm;
• They should laid at minimum gradients,
sufficient to avoid deposition under all flow
regimes. It is desirable that a gradient of 1:60
for 150mm diameter pipework be used for
design purposes, although this may not always
be possible in flat areas. In such cases, the
gradient may be reduced to 1:180;
• They should be constructed to watertight
standards in accordance with the standard
drawings and specifications.
The private sewerage system between the premises
and the terminal manhole shall be designed and
constructed in accordance with the general
requirements of the Manual. The private sewerage
system shall be designed and constructed as a
separate system, capable of accepting foul flows
only. Illegal connections allowing the entry of storm
water runoff shall not be made to the foul sewerage
system.
House connection to existing pipelines should be
made either to the nearest manhole or to a Y-
junction incorporated into the pipeline. It should be
noted that Y–branches will not generally be
accepted by the DA and should only be used as a
last resort, where access for manhole construction is
impractical. Y-branches and saddles are not to be
added to existing pipelines to avoid the permanent
damage resulting from such modifications to the
sewer.
Where several premises are being connected or the
sewer is deep, then consideration should be given to
the provision of a rider sewer. The rider sewer would
be constructed parallel to the public sewer, at
shallower depth and discharge into a manhole.
Typical details of house connections, rider sewers,
etc are shown on the Standard Drawings, Volume 8.
1.11 Construction Depths
The topography of Qatar is virtually flat, thus
affording little or no opportunity to use natural land
slopes to promote gravity movement of sewage. All
gradients in pipelines must therefore be provided by
the slope of the pipeline within the trench. The
geology is also predominantly rock, requiring

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excavation by rock breaker, which is slow, noisy and
expensive.
Faced with these natural constraints, designers
have no choice other than to employ pumping
stations to lift the sewage into the downstream
gravity system, once the trench depth begins to
approach around 5m. Open cut excavations in
excess of 5 m should generally be avoided where
possible, on safety grounds. However, It is
recognised that this is generally costly to achieve,
and so the policy in Qatar is to allow open cut up to
7.5m depth, but not more.
Whilst this is a general rule, the economics and
practicalities should also be considered when
determining excavation depths. The use of
shallower trenches will result in the need for more
pumping stations. The cost of providing shallow
trenches and more pumping stations versus the cost
of deeper trenches and less pumping stations
should be subject to a lifetime cost (NPV)
comparison at feasibility stage before embarking
upon final design.
Trenchless options should be considered for deep
sewers
The economics of deep excavations are governed
by the following factors:
• Depth of trench for safety, although rock
geology encourages stability of trench sides;
• Depth of trench for reach of machines for
breaking out and removing excavated
materials;
• Availability of suitable trench supports;
• Width of trenches allowing for battering back
for stability;
• Strength of pipelines to withstand imposed
loads from backfill.
The costs and timescales for excavation then need
to be balanced against the construction and O&M
costs for pumping stations. Comparison should be
carried out for all options on a NPV basis within a
15-year timeframe. Options may include several
combinations of sewer depth and numbers of
pumping stations, with perhaps deep tunnelled
interceptor sewers, which may or may not require a
terminal pumping station. Both gravity sewers and
pumping stations will have operational costs, and
should be subjected to the NPV process alike in
order to provide a true cost comparison.
Other aspects such as noise from pumping stations,
and the consequences of flooding due to station
failure also need to be considered.
The minimum cover depth from Finished Ground
Level (FGL) to top of pipe or surround should be as
per Table 1.11.1. However, designers should note
that these values will often need to be exceeded in
upstream sewers to allow adequate falls for house
connections from larger developments, and to avoid
other utilities in congested areas.


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Table 1.11.1 - Minimum Sewer Cover Depths
Location Minimum Cover
Urban areas (paved) 1200mm to FGL
Rural Areas (unpaved) 900mm to FGL
Other Pipeline Services 500mm clearance
preferred
300mm for twin rising
mains in common trench
200mm absolute
minimum clearance
1.12 Manholes, Chambers,
Access Covers, and
Ladders
These installations are required to access sewers
for testing, inspection, maintenance, repair and
removal of debris. Every sewer length on the public
system should be accessible without the need to
enter premises or cross property boundaries.
Manholes and chambers generally fall into two
categories, being:
• Inspection Chambers; and
• Sewer System Manholes.
1.12.1 Inspection Chambers
These structures are of shallow depth (generally
1.2m) and are intended for use on sewerage
systems within property boundaries, and for the
terminal manhole (MH 1) of the house connection.
Please refer to standard details Volume 8
These chambers are generally used for inspection of
sewer pipelines and clearance of blockages.
1.12.2 Sewer System Manholes
These structures are of a depth to suit the levels of
the sewer pipelines, and are the means of access
into the public sewerage system.
The arrangement and dimensions of manholes
depend on the diameter of the connecting sewers
and their depth to invert below finished ground level.


Backdrop Manholes
Backdrop manholes will be required where there is a
sudden drop in sewer level. In most cases this will
arise when a shallow branch or rider sewer enters a
deeper trunk sewer. Although the general
philosophy of sewer design dictates that pipes
should enter manholes with level soffits where
possible, this will not be economical where shallow
sewers meet deeper sewers (the branch sewers
should be constructed at minimum depth to avoid
excessive cost of excavation).
Standard drawings of backdrop manholes are
included in Volume 8. For smaller backdrops of less
than 1m fall, an inclined backdrop may be used, but
vertical drops are required for greater falls, to avoid
excessive excavation.
Designers should refer also to the discussion in
sections 1.5 general principles, and 1.11 regarding
sewer depths.
1.12.3 Elements of Design
Manholes and chambers shall generally be
constructed in accordance with the standard
drawings contained in Volume 8.
Minimum cover size should provide sufficient access
to admit persons with normal hand tools and
cleaning equipment, and to admit persons wearing
breathing apparatus in emergencies. Maximum
cover size should be limited by the weight which
persons can safely lift.
Access shafts should be sufficiently large for
persons to go down to the sewer in comfort (with
breathing apparatus in emergencies) and yet be
small enough for the nearness of the walls to give a
sense of security.
Where the invert of the manhole or chamber is more
than 6 m from the cover level, intermediate
platforms shall be provided at regular intervals.
Headroom between platforms should not be less
than 2.1m and not greater than 6m. The platform
should be fitted with handrailing and safety chains
around the access opening to protect persons from

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falling. The location of openings in successive
platform shall be offset to prevent dangers of free
falling. (In certain circumstances, separate access
may be required to allow equipment and materials to
be lowered directly to the pipe invert).
Inverts and benching should be neatly formed. The
ends of pipes should finish flush with internal faces
of the manholes. The channel inverts should be
curved to that of the connecting pipes and carried up
the full diameter of the pipes in flat vertical surfaces,
matching the cross-sections, levels, and gradients of
their respective sewers.
The benching should be formed from plane
surfaces, sloping gently towards the sewers.
Benching slopes should not be too steep to cause
persons to slip into the sewer, nor too flat to
accumulate sediment. A suitable gradient for
benching is 1 in 12.
1.13 Industrial Wastes
Foul flows from industrial and commercial premises
have the potential to contribute major flows and
polluting loads to the main sewerage system. Such
flows need to be managed as part of the overall
sewerage and treatment management process. This
is best done by initial licensing of the industrial and
commercial premises, followed by ongoing
monitoring of their effluents to ensure that they are
complying with their licenses.
The license application should include the following
information:
• Name, address, type of business and number
of employees;
• Main business process, water usage process
and pollution process;
• Water usage (daily and peak flows) effluent
flows (daily and peak flows), discharge pattern
(regular, intermittent, weekend to weekday
patterns);
• Pollutants in effluent (BOD, COD, SS,
chemicals, temperature, etc) and concentration
of each pollutant.
Each application should be checked by a site visit to
confirm the supplied information and make
arrangements for further checks, such as flow
measurement and effluent sampling. In many cases,
some form of pre-treatment will be needed at the
premises to ensure that discharges comply with the
license standards. Large industrial premises may
require their own complete flow balancing and
treatment facilities to meet license requirements for
discharge flows and effluent quality.
The waste discharge license should include the
following stipulations:
• Average and peak flow rates;
• Maximum concentrations for a specified range
of pollutants;
• Flow measurement and sampling facilities;
• Reporting requirements.
The licensing process should ensure that all
significant industrial and commercial discharges are
defined and understood, in terms of their location,
volume and polluting effects.
Please refer to Volume 1 Appendix 5 for example of
industrial waste discharge permit application
1.14 Septic and Sewage
Holding Tanks
Septic and sewage holding tanks are used to store
and treat foul flows from premises, prior to
connection to the main sewerage system (ie if the
premises are complete before the sewerage
system), or where no sewage system is available.
They comprise an underground tank for anaerobic
treatment followed by a soakaway tank or pipe
system to encourage effluent flows to disseminate to
the surrounding ground.
Since they only provide partial treatment, these
tanks are a major source of groundwater pollution
and therefore should not be constructed where main
sewerage is available. For existing developments,
house connections from manhole number 1 to the
main sewerage system should be made at the
earliest opportunity, and usage of the septic and
sewage holding tank stopped.


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Septic tanks should preferably be designed for a
minimum hydraulic retention time of one month to
allow anaerobic treatment of the organic content.
1.14.1 Design of Septic Tanks
and Soakaways
The following information will be required for
designing the septic tank to serve the development:
• Maximum and minimum population to be
served;
• Water consumption and discharge rates;
• Any special conditions affecting the
composition of the sewage, such as grease, oil
and detergents, which would adversely affect
the treatment process;
• The need for additional oil and grease traps;
• Ground soil condition and depth of water table,
as these will affect the percolation of effluent
through the soakaway.
For larger developments, multiple tanks and
soakaways may be necessary.
Further information on the design of septic tanks
and soakaways is contained in Volume 6 -
Developers Guide.
1.14.2 Sewage Holding Tanks
Where the groundwater level is high, soakaways will
not be permitted, as they will be considered as
ineffective in percolating the effluent into the
surrounding ground. At such sites, it will be
necessary to provide sewage holding tanks. The
tank shall be watertight to prevent the ingress of
water, and shall be suitably constructed and
protected against corrosion. The tank shall be
designed against the effects of uplift from
groundwater pressures.
The tank shall have a minimum of two days storage
of sewage discharged from the development, based
on the population and per capita flow.
However, it is preferable to have up to 30 days if
possible, depending upon the size of the catchment,
to enable less frequent emptying and associated
tanker traffic.
Further information regarding sewage holding tanks
is contained in Volume 6 - Developers Guide.
1.15 Oil and Grease
Interceptors
Oil and grease interceptors are usually located
underground and are used to reduce, or remove
light liquids such as oil, petrol, grease, and other
floating solid pollutants. Regular and planned
maintenance, by removal of floating matter, is
required if they are to function efficiently.
Oil and grease interceptors are required to treat all
foul and surface water flows from such
establishments as:
• Hotels, Restaurants and catering premises;
• Petrol stations and fuel storage facilities;
• Garages and workshops;
• Paint and chemical manufacture and storage.
Further information on the design of oil and grease
interceptors is contained in Volume 6 - Developers
Guide.
In addition to underground interceptors, all above-
ground storage of polluting liquids should have
retention bunds installed around all storage tanks.
The retention volume of the bund should exceed
that of the tanks by 10%. The bund should be of
durable construction, for example reinforced
concrete, suitably protected against natural
elements and the retained liquid. The bund should
be fitted with valved drainage for removal of
rainwater. No drainage connection is to be made to
main sewerage or drainage systems.
1.16 Flow Attenuation
Methods
The role of flow attenuation is to reduce peak flows
by the temporary storage of wastewater within the
system. Flow attenuation is often used to reduce
flooding and overload of pumping stations, and to
reduce discharge and pollution from overflows.

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Flow attenuation is most usually achieved by
providing additional storage, the most common
being the on-line or off-line tank. Storage tanks are
normally sited underground.
On-line storage systems attenuate flows by utilising
existing capacity within the system or by
constructing oversize sewers. The off-line storage
systems involve storage tanks adjacent to the sewer
with connections to and from the sewer.
Excessive use of storage can lead to problems in
the downstream sewerage system and at the STW,
due to deterioration of the sewage during storage.
Prolonged in-sewer storage can potentially lead to
higher STW effluent loads (particularly total
suspended solids and ammonia) and/or poor
biomass performance. Pumped storage systems
may increase the risk of septic conditions, with
resulting odour, corrosion and health hazard
problems. Combined with high ambient
temperatures, such conditions exist in Qatar, and
therefore considerable care will be needed to avoid
prolonged storage of sewage.
1.16.1 Flow Controls
Flow controls are used to limit the flow passing
forward to the downstream system, by backing up
flows into the upstream storage tank. The most
common controls are described below.
Orifice Plates and Pipes
These are the simplest controls, being usually
circular or square apertures sized to produce a
restriction in flow. Orifice plates may be fixed in
location or mounted in guides for easy removal.
Because of the solids content of the flow, it is widely
accepted that they are not suitable where the
minimum dimension is less than 200mm. Smaller
sizes are prone to blockage. Their use is therefore
limited to higher flow ranges.
The formula used for sizing a circular or square
submerged orifice is:
Qs = Cd A√ √√ √(2gH)
Equation 1.16.1
Where:
Cd is the coefficient of discharge, commonly around
0.7
A is the orifice area
H is the hydrostatic headloss across the orifice
plate, or difference between upstream and
downstream water levels.
For short lengths of pipe, the friction losses can be
neglected and the above formula used.
Penstocks
Penstock settings can be sized as for orifices, but
should be used with caution, as the setting may be
altered after installation. Use of orifices is therefore
preferred. Penstocks also have the disadvantage of
requiring periodic maintenance, which involves
confined space entry.
Other Devices
Head discharge relationships for the various market
products (such as Hydrobrakes) should be obtained
from the manufacturers. It is preferable for the rating
curve to have a steep gradient in order for the pass-
forward flow to remain near constant from onset of
spillage through to maximum weir flow.
Operational Issues
A common problem with all controls is the tendency
to block from time to time. Access for rodding or
other means of clearance must be provided at the
design stage. It should be remembered that the
chamber may become flooded and therefore the
clearance facility must be operable from outside the
chamber. Measures such as flap gates, vent tubes
and fixed pressure hose connections have been
used with some success. Some of the proprietary
flow controls are also fitted with bypass pipes, to
allow draining down of the chamber in the event of a
blockage.
1.16.2 Attenuation Storage
Tanks and Sewers
Attenuation facilities usually comprise underground
storage tanks, equipped with flow control devices on
their outlet to limit peak flows from the tank.
Layouts


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Tank arrangements fall into two main categories,
namely on-line and off-line, of which there are many
further sub-classes. Figure 1.16.1 shows several
alternative layouts
On-line tanks are storages constructed along the
route of the pipe in question, and share the same
hydraulic gradient. On-line tanks (with perhaps the
exception of emergency storage) always drain flows
to the downstream sewer by gravity. On-line tanks
would normally be preferred to off-line from an
operational point of view, but require certain
hydraulic conditions to be satisfied in order to
present a viable option.
Off-line tanks are constructed along a route
separated from the main sewer, and may return
flows to the main sewer by gravity or pumping, again
depending upon the hydraulic conditions.

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1. On-line Storage
2. On-line Storage + Flow Control
Storage Tank
Storage Tank
3. Off-line Storage + Gravity Return
Storage Tank
4. Off-line Storage
+ Screened Overflow
+ Gravity Return
5. Off-line Storage
+ Screened overflow
+ Gravity Return
6. Off-line Storage
+ Gravity Return
+ variable flow control
7. Off-line Storage
+ Pumped Return
+ screened overflow
Storage Tank
Flow Control
Storage Tank
Flow Control
Non-return
Valve
Overflow
& Screen
Overflow
& Screen
Flow Control
Storage Tank
Outfall
Outfall
Outfall
Outfall
Overflow
& Screen
Overflow
& Screen
Storage Tank
Flume
Flow Control
Flume
Pump
Figure 1.13.1 Alternative Tank Layouts

Figure 1.16.1 – Alternative Storage Tank Layouts


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Materials and Construction
Materials for tank construction may be concrete,
GRP, plastic or coated steel. In-situ reinforced
concrete is the most obvious choice for construction
of specific designs, but certain applications will lend
themselves to the use of proprietary products, e.g.
large diameter pipes, precast concrete box culverts
and modular, thin-walled plastic or GRP tanks with
mass concrete surrounds. Designs using plastics
should ensure adequate resistance to jetting
pressures. All underground structures should have
adequate resistance against uplift due to
groundwater pressures.
On-line Storage
On-line storage is shown in cases 1 and 2 in Figure
1.16.1. This is the simplest type of arrangement, and
should be used wherever possible. Hydraulic
conditions will determine the viability. The tank will
need to operate within the hydraulic regime of the
existing system. On-line tanks of any size will not be
practical in very flat sewers, due to the large surface
area requirement. Thus although they are the
preferred arrangement, their use is limited in Qatar
due to the flat topography. It is unlikely that they
would be situated in upstream areas, but they could
be of use adjacent to pumping stations where a
significant headloss is available between the sewer
invert and the Pump Station Top Water Level (TWL).
On-line tanks become more practical with increased
gradient, but at greater depths, due consideration
will need to be given to the greater pressures
developed at the downstream ends, e.g. at pipe
joints. In such cases, consideration may be given to
the use of backdrops and cascades of tanks.
An on-line tank will operate by surcharging as the
flow approaches the predetermined pass-forward
flow. This flow may be the capacity of the
downstream sewer, whereby a flow control is
required to limit the pass-forward flow. In both of the
above cases, care should be taken to ensure a self-
cleansing velocity to prevent sediment build up. In
large diameter tanks with low base flows, this may
be difficult. In such cases, a dry weather flow
channel should be provided. It is recommended in
Sewerage Detention Tanks – A Design Guide,
WRC, 1997
xxxvii
that the longitudinal slope of the
tank is kept to a minimum of 1:100 in on-line tanks
and that sidewall slopes into the centre channel are
a minimum of 1:4. Care should be taken with
benching in on-line and off-line tanks - this should
be steel trowel finished with granolithic topping to
prevent accumulation of solids.
Off-line Storage
Off-line storage with gravity return is shown in
Cases 3 to 6 in Figure 1.16.1. This would typically
be preferred where construction could proceed
without the need for over-pumping, or if insufficient
length is available for on-line storage. The storage
may be provided in a single tank, an over-sized
pipe/box-culvert or groups of pipes. Care should be
given to flow distribution at the upstream end, and
the order of preference in filling. As the tank may not
be 100% filled on a regular basis, selection of a
preferential flow channel will reduce the need for
desilting operations.
Where screens are installed, as in Cases 4 to 6, it is
preferable to retain the screenings in the main flow
where possible, to prevent accumulation in the tank.
However, flow control measures should be devised
to prevent screenings entering the tank from the
downstream end. A further refinement of this is
shown in Case 6, where a variable flow control is
provided, linked to a gauge of the downstream
sewer reserve capacity.
Operational Issues
Operation and maintenance of such underground
structures present particular health and safety
issues for access and maintenance. These aspects
include:
• Blockage of flow control devices - access
needs to be provided to safely enter the
structure and for clearance tools and removal
of debris. Where a blockage has resulted in
sewage being retained for some time, clearing
the blockage suddenly may have an
unacceptable impact on downstream facilities,
such as pumping stations and STW. Designs
therefore need to consider facilities for gradual
emptying or removal of effluents;
• Removal of sediment - access needs to be
provided to safely enter the structure, and for
clearance tools and removal of debris;
• Design to optimise removal of sediment to:
minimise time and effort needed inside

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underground structures; modifications to the
structure of the tank to allow sediment to be
removed from ground level; use of low friction
coatings to discourage accumulation of
sediment; modification of inlet design to
increase scour; steepening of benching
gradients and installation of dry weather flow
channels to encourage self-cleansing; use of
mechanical plant and flushing mechanisms to
periodically remove sediments A useful design
check is provided in Table 1.16.1.


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Table 1.16.1 - Storage Tank Design Checklist
Consider maintenance & cleaning operations
Consider the erection/removal of falsework in confined spaces during construction (use
false soffits or pre-cast slabs for roof sections)

Design benching to be self-cleansing
Ensure sufficient access of adequate size are incorporated (NB can plant be removed
Consider the type of screen required
Design out any possible maintenance hazards
Ensure adequate ventilation is achieved
Is odour control required?
Consider retention times of the tank
How long does it take to empty the tank? Consider follow on storm events
Provide a facility for overpumping of the tank
Are overflows required?
Provide penstocks on the tank inlets/outlets to enable flows to be diverted or isolated
Provide a penstock protected bypass pipe
Is a flow control required on the tank outlet/bypass pipe?
Reinstatement of area, consider future access requirements
Does the site need to be purchased?
HARAS complete?
EIA complete ?


Consider type of covers (think about manual handling, and security of access)
Incorporate a sufficient number of davit sockets
What telemetry is required?
On-line or Off-line tank?
Are welfare facilities required?
Is a gravity discharge achievable? Otherwise pumps will be required.
Is a power supply needed?
Is a water supply needed for washing down?
Planning permission is required for all control kiosks and permanent accesses to the
Is a standby generator required?
DA and RD Discharge consents for emergency overflow
What is required in the way of control kiosks/buildings
Ensure that access for a tanker is possible
Place screens on inlet to tanks on off-line tanks

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1.17 Abandonment of
Sewers
Disused sewers and drains have the great potential
to allow unwanted flows, such as groundwater to
enter the system through deteriorating faults in the
system fabric. They therefore need to be removed
from the system to prevent structural deterioration,
unauthorised use, and ingress of groundwater and
infestation by rodents.
Disused sewers shall be removed or, where this is
impracticable, they shall be filled in accordance with
the materials and details contained on the Standard
Drawings in Volume 8.
2 Pumping Stations
2.1 Standards
The standards and sources of information to be
used are listed in sections 1.1 and 1.2.
2.2 Hydraulic Design
The overall design philosophy of the pumping
system needs to be a balanced design with due
consideration of functional, environmental and
economic aspects. For pumping systems in the
vicinity of sensitive receivers, reliability of the system
is of key concern. Bypass or overflow of raw
sewage, even in emergency situations, should be
avoided where possible.
Particular attention should be paid to the following
issues:
• Design flow;
• Standby power supply or temporary storage;
• Standby pumps;
• Overflows and emergency bypass;
• Twin rising mains;
• Availability of QGWEC power supply;
• Land area available and proximity to housing or
public areas;
• Access to the proposed site.
Since the pumping station will probably be serving
an area of new development, it is likely that the
initial flows to the station will be much smaller than
those expected for the full design. Flows will
increase in the following years to reach the design
capacity of the station. If the inflows are greatly
below the pump output, the result will be excessive
periods of inactivity of the station, with the potential
for premature failure of equipment. Such infrequent
operation of pumps will also result in retention of
sewage in the rising main, raising problems with
septicity, corrosion and effects on the receiving
STW.


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Consideration should therefore be given to the
sizing and numbers of pumps to match the likely
build-up of incoming flows. Where possible, similar
pumps should be installed, on duty and assist basis,
with similar standby pump(s). The use of similar
pumps will avoid any changes in pumping regime
due to the rotation of duty pumps for operational
reasons.
Consideration should also be given to installing twin
rising mains. One main would be used in the early
years of the scheme to achieve satisfactory
maximum flow velocities and hence minimise
siltation. When flows increase, then the second main
would be brought into use.
Although not strictly required for the early years of a
scheme, it would not be economic to construct one
rising main and then construct the second within a
short period, say five years. The additional costs
and disruption of digging a second trench, together
with operational and safety requirements of working
adjacent to a “live” rising main, would be avoided.
2.2.1 Hydraulic Principles
A pumping system may consist of inlet piping,
pumps, valves, outlet piping, fittings, open channels
and/or rising mains. When a particular system is
being analysed for the purpose of selecting a pump
or pumps, the head losses through these various
components must be calculated. The station loss
(i.e. the loss on the suction and delivery pipework
from the sump to the common header) should also
be considered. The frictional and minor head losses
of these components are approximately proportional
to the square of the velocity of flow through the
system and are called the variable head.
Friction losses should be determined using the
Colebrook–White Formula.
Losses in fittings at the station, and outside of it
should be determined using the formula:
δH = kv
2
/2g
Equation 2.2.1

Where δH denotes the fitting headloss (m), k is the
loss coefficient, v the velocity (m/s) and g is the
gravitational constant, 9.81m/s
2
.
Indicative values of k are given in Table 2.2.1below.

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Table 2.2.1 – Indicative Minor Loss Coefficients,
k, for Various Fittings
Fitting Coefficient k
Standard 90
0
bend 0.75
Long Radius 90
0
bend 0.4
Standard 45
0
bend 0.3
Tee - line to branch 1.2
Tee – flow in line 0.35
Taper up 0.5
Sharp Entry 0.5
Bellmouth Entry 0.1
Sudden Exit 1.0
Non-return valve* 1.0
Gate Valve, fully open* 0.12
*Note that for valves it is advisable to obtain
manufacturers data on headlosses. System head
calculations would normally be carried out using valve
open figures.
It is also necessary to determine the static head
required to raise the liquid from suction level to a
higher discharge level. The pressure at the
discharge liquid surface may be higher than that at
the suction liquid surface, a condition that requires
more pumping head. These two heads are fixed
system heads, as they do not vary with rate of flow.
Fixed system heads can be negative, if the
discharge level or the pressure above that level is
lower than suction level or pressure. Fixed system
heads are called static heads.
The Total Dynamic Head (TDH) for a system is the
sum of the major and minor friction losses plus the
static head. The duty point for a pump selection will
be the required flow at the TDH.
A system head curve is a plot of total system head,
variable plus fixed, for various flow rates. It may
express the system head in metres and the flow rate
in cubic metres per second. Procedures to plot a
system-head curve are:
1. Define the pumping system and its length;
2. Calculate the fixed system head;
3. Calculate the variable system head losses for
several flow rates;
4. Combine the fixed head and variable heads for
several flow rates to obtain a curve of total
system head versus flow rate.
The flow delivered by a centrifugal pump varies with
system head. Pump manufacturers provide
information on the performance of their pumps in the
form of characteristic curves of head versus
capacity, commonly known as pump curves. By
superimposing the characteristic curve of a
centrifugal pump on a system-head curve, the duty
point of a pump can be determined.
The curves will intersect at the flow rate of the
pump, as this is the point at which the pump head is
equal to the required system head for the same flow.
The recommended values for coefficient of
Colebrook–White Roughness Factor (Section 1.5.1
above) ks for use in rising mains are contained in
Table 2.2.2 below. Note also the values indicated in
Table 1.5.1, which refer to gravity sewers.
Table 2.2.2 – Recommended Values of
Colebrook-White Roughness Factors
(ks) for use in Rising Mains
Mean Velocity in m/s ks (mm)
Up to 1.1m/s 0.3mm
Between 1.1m/s and 1.8m/s 0.15mm

The discharge capacity for multiple pumps will not
be simply the sum of the discharge capacity of
individual pumps because the system-head curve
for multiple pumps will be different from that of a
single pump.
2.2.2 Pump Arrangements
The number of pumps to be installed depends on
the station capacity and the range of flows. The
maximum discharge rate from a pumping station,
when all duty pumps and rising mains are in use
should be slightly greater than or equal to the
maximum incoming flow to the station. Pumps
should be selected with head-capacity
characteristics that correspond as closely as
possible to the overall station requirements.


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Standby capacity is required so that should any of
the pumps in the station be inoperable due to
routine maintenance or mechanical failure, the
operation of the station can still be maintained. For
instance, in a station where a single duty pump
provides the duty output, a second pump of equal
capacity is mounted. Where three duty pumps of
equal capacity are required to meet the maximum
design flow conditions, a fourth pump of similar
capacity is provided as standby.
It is not desirable to have pumps of different sizes
for operation and maintenance reasons, unless the
flow ranges vary widely throughout the day. To
cater for slow build-up of flow in the early years of
operation, phased installation of pumps, or the use
of a smaller diameter impeller should be considered.
2.3 Rising Main Design
2.3.1 Rising Main Diameters
The minimum diameter of pumping mains is
controlled by the need to avoid blockage, and
therefore should not be less than 100mm. Where
sewage is screened or macerated before pumping
the minimum diameter should not be less than
80mm.
The maximum and minimum diameters are sized to
maintain flow velocities for all stages of pumping
within the ranges specified in Section 2.4.
2.3.2 Twin Rising Mains
The use of twin rising mains should be considered
on a case by case basis. The main factors for
consideration include the design elements, risk
assessment and cost benefit analysis.
Considerations for the design elements comprise
the rate of build up of flow, the range of flow
conditions, the range of velocity in the mains, the
availability of land for the twin mains and associated
valve chambers as well as the complications in
pump operation.
A thorough risk assessment should be carried out
which should include the likelihood of mains
bursting, the consequence of failure, area affected,
sensitive receivers affected (such as beaches), and
the feasibility of temporary diversion or tankering
away.
A cost benefit analysis should include all tangible
factors (such as cost of pipework, land cost, energy
cost, etc) and intangible factors (such as nuisance,
closure of beaches, etc).
Twin rising mains should be considered in the
following circumstances:
• To accommodate a wide range of flow
conditions, such that the velocity in the mains
can be kept within acceptable limits. For
instance, a pumping system serving a new
development may have very low initial flows
with a slow build up of flow;
• To provide continued operation for a major
pumping system when one of the mains is
damaged and where the failure of the system
would have serious consequence;
• To minimise adverse environmental impacts to
sensitive areas;
• To facilitate future inspection and maintenance
of major pumping systems, while the normal
sewage flow can be maintained.
When twin mains are found to be preferred, it is
advisable to use both mains as duty rather than one
as duty and the other as standby, from an
economical and operational point of view. Should
one of the duty mains be taken out of operation, the
remaining one would still be able to deliver a higher
quantity of flow at a higher velocity. The occurrence
of overflow or bypass can be minimised or even
eliminated. Septicity in the standby mains would
also pose an operational and maintenance problem.
2.3.3 Economic Analysis
As the size of the rising main increases, the velocity
and the system head will decrease, with savings in
the cost of pumping. The increase in the capital
cost of rising mains will be offset by the power cost
of pumping. However, it is also important that the
velocity in the mains should be within a suitable
range to minimise the deposition of solids.
Excessive hydraulic head losses are to be avoided.

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The selection of a suitable size for the rising mains
should be based on economic analysis of capital
cost and recurrent cost of the pumping system
including the power cost. A trial and error approach
should be adopted in order to arrive at an optimal
solution while maintaining the velocity within
acceptable limits.
Therefore, combinations of different sizes of rising
mains and the system head should be evaluated,
taking into account both the capital cost and the
energy cost of pumping.
2.3.4 Rising Main Alignment
The alignment of the rising main should discourage
surge in its flow conditions. Where possible the
rising main should be laid with continuous uphill
gradient of not less than 1:500, and with gentle
curves in both horizontal and vertical planes. Long
flat lengths of rising main should be avoided
therefore pipes should be laid with rise and falls of
1:500, rather than flat. Air release valves should be
provided at high points and as the profile of the main
dictates. Washouts should be installed at low points.
The arrangement and locations of valves should be
planned together with the alignment of the rising
mains.
2.4 Maximum and
Minimum Velocities
The maximum velocity in rising mains should not
exceed 2.0 m/s, The desirable range of velocity
should be 1m/s to 2m/s with due consideration given
to the various combinations of number of duty
pumps in operation. (This is because lower
velocities cause siltation, and higher velocities
increase surge problems and power usage).
2.5 Pipe Materials
Pipe materials for use in pumping stations should
always be Ductile Iron (DI).
Rising mains outside pumping stations may be
ductile iron or Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) with
concrete protection, however DI is preferred.
2.6 Thrust Blocks
Thrust blocks are concrete blocks designed to
prevent pipes from being moved by forces exerted
within the pipe by the flow of water hitting bends,
tapers, and closed, or partially closed valves. In the
design of pressurised pipelines, thrust blocks are
essential on flexibly jointed pipelines where any pipe
movement would open up the joints in the line and
cause water leakage. Restraint straps may also be
required for above-ground pipework.
Thrust blocks are also necessary near valves where
a flexible joint is located to facilitate removal of the
valve for maintenance purposes. The size of block
is dependent upon the angular deflection, flow, size
of pipe and the pressure of water inside the pipe.
The designer should also refer to the pipe
manufacturers’ literature.
The following design assumptions are to be
adopted:
• Thrusts developed due to changes in direction
of pipeline, dead end or change in diameter
should be considered. Force due to change in
velocity head can normally be assumed as
negligible unless there is a drastic change in
pipe diameter;
• Thrust blocks should be designed for the
condition of no support being available from the
backfill, i.e. to be cast against undisturbed
ground;

• For most cases, thrust blocks will be designed
to transfer forces directly onto undisturbed
ground using direct bearing, the acceptable
bearing pressure being confirmed by
geotechnical investigation. If the adjacent
ground has insufficient bearing capacity, the
block may need to be designed using ground
friction or piling to transfer thrusts to a more
competent soil layer. Consideration should also
be given to the presence of adjacent services
and the possibility of future disturbance during
maintenance operations. Complex thrust blocks
may be required to avoid transfer of forces and
consequential damage to adjacent services;


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• For pipes with flexible joints such as DI pipes
with socket and spigot joints, all the thrust is
assumed to be taken up by the blocks.
Static thrusts may be calculated using the formulae
as follows:
For blank ends:
Fs = 100 A P
Equation 2.6.1
Where:
Fs = the static thrust (KN)
A = the cross sectional area (m2)
P = the Pressure (bar)
For Bends:
Fs = 100 A P(2 sin θ/2)
Equation 2.6.2
Where θ is the angle of deviation at the bend.
Dynamic thrusts for water or sewage may be
calculated using following:
Fd = 2A V 2 sin θ/2
Equation 2.6.3
Where
Fd = the dynamic thrust (KN)
V = the velocity (m/s)
As stated above, this force is negligible in normal
cases, but if significant, then the total thrust should
be taken as the sum of static and dynamic thrusts.
The above procedures will be satisfactory for most
routine applications. For further guidance, please
see CIRIA Report R128
xxxviii
. It is recommended that
this reference is used for more complex
applications, such as where thrust forces are in
excess of 1000KN or loose material is encountered.
2.7 Air Valves and
Washout Facilities
These facilities are required to minimise the adverse
effects of surge and to facilitate the operation and
maintenance of the rising main.
2.7.1 Air Valves
Air-relief valves are installed at locations of minimum
pressure. Air is sucked into the air-relief valve when
pipeline internal pressure is below atmospheric.
Upon subsequent pressure rise, the admitted air is
then expelled. Air valves should be installed at all
high points., Additional air valves should also be
placed at 800m spacings on long sections of straight
grade.
Each air valve will operate independently and
therefore several valves may be required along the
pipeline if there are numerous rises and falls in the
vertical profile of the rising main.
2.7.2 Vented Non-return Valves
An air valve combined with a vented non-return
valve allows air enter the pipeline freely on
separation of the water column, but controls the
expulsion of air as the column rejoins. This has the
effect of creating an air buffer between the column
interfaces, thus reducing the impact velocity of the
rejoining column and the surge potential of the
system.
2.7.3 Wash – Outs
The purpose of the washout system is to drain the
rising main for maintenance works. The washout
should be installed at low points of the pipeline
profile, and needs to be located carefully, taking into
account that sewage will be discharged. For long
rising mains with few low points, wash-outs should
be strategically located at suitable intervals,
generally 800m, to reduce the time required for
emptying the main in an emergency. Location
should be adjacent to a suitably sized gravity sewer
for draindown where possible If a direct connection
to a suitably sized sewer is not available, the
washout chamber should be provided with a sump

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so that the drained contents of the rising main may
be tankered away.
2.7.4 Isolating Valves
For long rising mains, isolating valves should be
included to allow sections of the rising main to be
isolated and emptied within a reasonable time. In-
line sluice or gate valves are often used as isolating
valves. The isolating valve installation may
incorporate washout facilities.
2.8 Flow Meters
2.8.1 Application and Selection
The variety of choices facing the designer
confronted with a flow measurement application is
vast. For example, types of flow meter using the
positive displacement principle include rotary piston,
oval gear, sliding vane, and reciprocating piston.
Each type has advantages and limitations and no
single type combines all the features and all the
advantages.
Differential pressure meters have the advantage that
they are the most familiar of any meter type. They
are suitable for gas and liquid, viscous and corrosive
fluids. However their usable flow range is limited and
they require a separate transmitter in addition to the
sensor.
Some of the most important parameters for
flowmeters are accuracy, flow range, and whether
the medium is sewage or water. Meter selection
should be made in two steps. First by identifying the
meters that are technically capable of performing the
required measurement and are available in
acceptable materials of construction; and second, by
selecting the best choice from those available to
cover special measurement features such as
reverse flow, pulsating flow, response time and so
on.
2.8.2 Magnetic Flowmeters
Magnetic-type flowmeters use Faraday’s law of
electromagnetic induction for measurement. When a
conductor moves through a magnetic field of given
field strength, a voltage level is produced in the
conductor that is dependent on the relative velocity
between the conductor and the field. Faraday
foresaw the practical application of the principle to
flow measurement, because many liquids are
adequate electrical conductors. So these meters
measure the velocity of an electrically conductive
liquid as it cuts the magnetic field produced across
the metering tube. The principal advantages include
no moving components, no pressure loss, and no
wear and tear in components.
Magnetic flowmeters offer the designer the best
solution for pumped sewage flow. With nothing
protruding into the flow of sewage, the chances of a
blockage, if installed correctly, are non-existent.
Magnetic flowmeters should always be installed with
full-pipe conditions.
Care should be taken during design to provide
sufficient straight lengths of pipeline up-stream and
down-stream of the flowmeter, in accordance with
the manufacturers installation instructions. As a
general guideline, 12 pipe diameters of straight pipe
on the inlet, and 6 pipe diameters on the outlet will
ensure that the flowmeter is able to achieve the
specified accuracy. If the amount of space available
is restricted then the minimum length usually
accepted by manufactures is inlet run of 5 pipe
diameters and outlet run of 3 pipe diameters.
The following International and British Standards are
a good source of information on flow meter selection
and installation, and can be quoted in specifications:
• BS EN ISO 6817
xxxix
, 1997: Measurement of
Conductive Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits;
• BS 7405
xl
, 1991: Guide to Selection and
Application of Flowmeters for the Measurement
of Fluid Flow in Closed Conduits.
Flow meters should be pressure tested and
calibrated by the manufacturer, and certified to a
traceable international standard. As a minimum, the
overall accuracy should be better than ±0.5% of the
flow range. The repeatability of the result should be
within ±0.2%.
In addition to the calibration certificate, the flow
meter manufacturers should provide the following:
i. Isolated 4-20mA dc and pulse outputs;


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ii. Programmable in-built alarm relays for
empty pipe, low and reverse flows;
iii. In-built digital display for flow rate, totals
and alarms;
iv. Transmitter enclosure shall be protected
to IP67;
v. Calibration and programming kit.
The earthing rings should be included according to
the individual manufacturer’s instructions. The
sensor lining should be neoprene or an equivalent
material of similar or improved properties, suitable
for the application of pumped sewage flow. In below-
ground flow meter chamber installations, the
installed equipment should be submersible to the
maximum chamber depth.
2.8.3 Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Ultrasonic meters are available in two forms:
Doppler and transit-time. With Doppler meters, an
ultrasonic pulse is beamed into the pipe and
reflected by inclusions, such as air or dirt. The
Doppler meter is frequently used as a “clamp on”
device which can be fitted to existing pipelines. It
detects the velocity only in a small region of the pipe
cross section and as such its accuracy is not good.
The single or multi-beam transit-time flow meters
project an ultrasonic beam right across the pipe at
an acute angle, first with the flow, and then opposite
to the flow direction. The difference in transit time is
proportional to flow rate. This type of ultrasonic
meter is considerably more expensive but offers
better accuracy. Unlike the Doppler meter, it
requires a relatively clean fluid.
The main use of this type of flow meter in pumped
sewage flows is in retrospective installation where
the pumping main cannot be broken into for
operational reasons. A clamp-on ultrasonic flow
meter can be used to give reasonably accurate flow
measurement.
For new installations, the lower cost of in-pipe
ultrasonic flow meters could make them a viable
alternative to magnetic flow meters for large
diameter pipe installations.
2.9 Surge Protection
Measures
Surge (or water hammer) is an oscillating pressure
wave generated in a pipeline during changes in the
flow conditions.
There are four common causes of surge in a
pipeline:
• pump starting;
• pump stopping/power failure;
• valve action;
• improper operation of surge control devices.
The most likely one of these is the sudden stopping
of pumps caused by a power failure.
A surge analysis should usually be carried out
unless the system is simple. This is best carried out
using approved software such as “Flowmaster”.

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An approximate calculation for a simple pipeline is:
∆ ∆∆ ∆P = a x ∆V
g

Equation 2.9.1
Where:
∆P = Pressure change (m)
a = pressure wave velocity (m/s)
∆V = flow velocity change in 1 cycle (m/s)
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81m/s2)
The above equation can be used for calculation of
both negative and positive pressures
The simple cycle time can be calculated with the
formula:
Cycle time = 2 x pipeline length
Wave velocity

Equation 2.9.2
Table 2.9.1 – Indicative Surge Wave Velocity
Values for Selected Pipe Materials
Pipe Material Velocity (m/s)
Ductile Iron 1000–1400
Reinforced Concrete 1000–1200
Plastic 300–500

If the surge pressure approaches zero or the
pipeline maximum pressure, a full surge analysis
should be carried out. When surge analysis is
complete, suitable surge suppression devices
should be selected by consultation with the
manufacturer.
Surge Suppression Methods
Surge suppression could be achieved using one of
the following devices. The most appropriate device
will depend on the individual circumstances of the
installation:
• Flywheel;
• Pressure vessel with bladder;
• Dip-tube surge vessel;
• Surge tower.
Air valves should not be depended upon as a sole
method of surge control, but their operation under
surge conditions should be carefully considered.
Flywheels
Flywheels absorb energy on start-up, slowing the
rate of velocity change in the pipeline. In reverse,
when the pump is stopping, the flywheel releases
energy again, slowing the rate of velocity change.
Together these two actions reduce the peak surge
pressure.
As the flywheel must be located on the drive shaft it
is not suitable for submersible pumps or close-
coupled pumps. However, they are simple devices
for wet well/dry well pumps and are preferred where
possible.
If submersible pumps have been chosen, a larger
pump running at a slower speed may have the effect
of a flywheel.
Because the flow continues through the pump after
the stop signal, the effect on the stop and start
levels should be carefully considered.
Pressure Vessels
Pressure vessels for surge suppression are tanks
partially filled with a gas (air or nitrogen). Usually the
liquid is contained in a bladder with gas on the
outside to prevent the liquid absorbing the gas or
coming into contact with the inside of the pressure
vessel, and this is the preferred type. The bladder
material should be carefully selected for use in the
conditions experienced in Qatar.
Refilling is usually from a high-pressure cylinder and
care should be taken to avoid over pressurisation of
the bladder. Bladders should not lose pressure in
normal operation, but they can fail, leading to
absorption of the gas into the liquid, and a drop in
pressure.
Vessels without a bladder are charged with air
pressure from an air compressor, either manually or
automatically. There is therefore additional
machinery and an additional maintenance
requirement. This type of surge vessel is not
recommended.


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On pump start-up, liquid enters the vessel,
compressing the gas until it equals the liquid
pressure. When the pump stops, the gas pressure
forces liquid back out into the pipe system, both
actions slow the rate of pressure change, which
reduces the peak surge pressure.
To dampen oscillations, a non-return valve may be
fitted to the surge vessel outlet pipe, to allow
unrestricted flow into the pipeline, and a bypass
around the NRV fitted with an orifice plate to restrict
the flow back into the vessel.
Dip Tube Surge Vessels
A dip tube surge vessel is pressure vessel, the top
portion forming a compression chamber limited by a
dipping tube with a shut off float valve.
This type of vessel is particularly appropriate for use
on rising mains with flat profiles.
Surge Towers
A surge tower is a vertical tank or pipe fitted into the
pipeline, open to atmosphere and the energy
storage is by the static head of the liquid in the
tower.
Surge towers are only practical for systems with
relatively low heads and surge pressures, but can
pose an odour risk.
Due to the design of a surge tower, there is no
routine maintenance required to ensure the surge
tower keeps operating correctly.
It is unlikely that surge towers would be appropriate
for use in Qatar.
Air Valves
Air valves are required on the pumping mains to
release air, but they should not be used as a surge
protection measure.
However, air valves, particularly if fitted with a
vented non-return valve or in-flow check valve, may
assist in surge control, and their operation must be
carefully considered.
Air valves require regular maintenance because if
the air valve does not function correctly, large or
negative surge pressures could result, with
consequent damage to equipment or personnel.
If air is allowed into the rising main on pump stop/trip
through an air valve, the pump control system
should be designed to prevent a restart until the
transient pressures have stabilised.
Control of the pumps is usually by start/stop level
signals, but where surge on start-up may have a
significant effect, the use of ‘soft’ starters should be
considered.
2.10 Screens
Screen Selection
Screens should generally be provided for pump
protection, unless they are small (<20l/s)
submersible stations with small inlet sewers.
Screens should incorporate the following features:
• Screen chambers should be separate from the
wet wells;
• Coarse screens should be fitted in the screen
chambers at the inlet to pumping stations to
protect the pumping equipment. They should
remove coarse screenings, but allow
screenings less than 75mm to pass forward to
the STW;
• L-shaped or coarse basket screens should be
provided;
• The screens should be set in guides with lifting
facilities at ground level so they can be
manually removed and cleaned;
• Minimum of one duty and one standby screen
should be provided;
• Mechanically raked screens should be
considered for large pumping stations, typically
>1000l/s;
• Fine screening is not required at the pumping
station, but is required at the treatment works
to remove debris that may affect the sewage
treatment process.
Screen Installation
The manual duty and standby screen should be
installed in the incoming channel, so that the
standby screen can be lowered into position to

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protect the pumps while the duty screen is removed
and cleaned.
Mechanically raked screens should be installed in a
channel or similar flow-line, which can be completely
isolated from the rest of the system and drained for
maintenance. A manually raked bypass screen
shall be provided.
Mechanical screens shall be housed in ventilated
and odour controlled enclosures.
Screens should be provided with actuated
penstocks (or valves) before and after each screen
for operational and maintenance isolation.
All mechanically raked screens should have an
automatic cleaning mechanism, which will clean the
screen of accumulated debris and screenings,
depositing them in a collection trough or channel
above the highest possible water level.
Screenings Handling
Manually removed screenings should be placed in a
covered container until removed from site to avoid
odour problems.
Mechanically removed screenings should be
washed, compacted and deposited into a covered
container to avoid odour problems.
2.11 Pumping Station
Selection
Sewage pumping station type selection should be
carefully considered for each scheme. In general,
submersible pumping stations are generally selected
for flows up to 100l/s, and wet well/dry well stations
for larger flows. However, each station should be
treated on its own merits and the following
considerations assessed:
• Initial and final design flow;
• Total head on the pumps;
• Rising main profile and the requirements for
surge protection (dry well pumps usually have
a greater moment of inertia than submersibles);
• Requirement for Variable Speed Drive (VSD):
(submersible motors are not always adequately
rated for use with VSD);
• Space available for pumping station
(submersible stations usually require less
space);
• Proximity of housing or public areas (opening
submersible pump wells may create odour
nuisance).
An alternative to wet well submersible pumps and
dry well pumps is the dry well submersible. These
should normally be considered only where an
existing dry well installation is being uprated and
there is insufficient space to install a conventional
dry well pump and motor.
Particular attention should be paid to motor cooling
and cabling if dry well submersibles are to be
considered.
The designer should present three alternative pump
suppliers for tender purposes.
Submersible pumping stations
Submersible pumping stations should incorporate
the following features:
• Minimum of one duty and one standby pump;
• Non-return valve and gate valves for isolation
of each pump;
• Valves to be in a separate, easily accessible
chamber adjacent to the pump sump;
• Air reaction operation level controls as follows:
- High level alarm (also float);
- Pump start;
- Pump stop;
- Low level pump protection (also
float).
• Ultrasonic level controls should not be used for
sewage;
• Air reaction level equipment should include
stainless steel dip pipe and duty/standby
compressors.
Where the available pumps have unsuitable duties
for the full range of flows, the use of variable speed
drives should be considered. However, due to the


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additional heat generated in the motor, the approval
of the pump manufacturer should be obtained before
variable speed drives are used.
Submersible Pump Sump Design
The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump
sumps and intakes’ by M. J. Prosser
xli
should be
referred to when designing pump sumps. Some
pump manufacturers also provide guidance on the
design of sumps for their pumps. Sump design
should be in accordance with the following criteria:
• Sumps should be designed so that the
dimensions satisfy the requirements for the
minimum sump volume to ensure the maximum
rated pump starts per hour for the motor and
switchgear are not exceeded;
• Sumps should be designed to provide a
uniform steady flow of water into any pump
without creating swirl or entraining air.
Unsteady flow can lead to fluctuating loads,
vibration, noise and premature failure. Swirl
can affect the flow capacity, power and
efficiency. It can also result in local vortices that
introduce air into the pump, also leading to
fluctuating loads, vibration, noise and
premature failure;
• Sumps should be designed to prevent the
accumulation of sediment, scum and surface
flotsam;
• Sump corners should be benched to 45°.
Minimising the sump floor area and residual
volume will increase the velocity into the pumps
and improve scouring;
• The use of flushing devices to improve scour in
pump sumps should be considered;
• The velocity in the pump riser pipe at the
design duty should be as high as practicable to
reduce the risk of solids deposition. However,
the velocity should not normally exceed 2.5m/s
to avoid significant headloss and risk of pipe
erosion;
• The water surface in the sump should be as
free from waves and turbulence as possible to
provide a strong and reliable echo for ultrasonic
level controls;
• At the designed stop level there should still be
sufficient water surface area without
obstructions to provide a good echo return.
Submersible Pump Installation
When submersible pumps are installed, the
following should be considered:
• There should be sufficient space between them
to prevent interaction between the pump
suctions. This will depend upon the type of
pump being used and the manufacturer should
be consulted on configurations at draft design
stage; A rule of thumb is to use an initial
spacing between pump centres of twice the
pump diameter. Further guidance is given in
table 2.11.1 below.
Table 2.11.1 Approximate Minimum
PumpSpacings
xlii

Flow (l/s) Spacing (mm)
100 700
200 1000
300 1200
400 1350
500 1500
600 1700
700 1800
800 1900
900 2050
1000 2175

• There should also be sufficient space for
someone to stand beside each pump, should
work be required in the sump;
• Pump mounting stools and duckfoot bends
should be securely bolted to the structural
concrete of the sump and not the benching;
• Discharge non-return and isolating valves
should be located outside the sump in a valve
chamber;

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• Pump guide rails should rise close to the
underside of the sump covers above the
pumps;
• The covers should have a clear opening large
enough to allow the removal of the pump while
on the guide rails;
• Support points for the pump power cables and
lifting chain should be provided under the pump
covers, which should be easily accessible from
the surface.
Wet/Dry Well Pumping Stations
Wet well/dry well pumping stations should
incorporate the following features:
• Normally, two sumps with 2 duty and 1 standby
pump for each sump, for the ultimate flow;
• Non-return and two gate valves for each pump
isolation;
• Where possible, the discharge manifold should
be below ground level to minimise additional
pipework and friction losses;
• Where wet well/dry well pumping stations are
being uprated, dry well submersible pumps
could be considered;
• Operation level controls (air reaction) as
follows:
- High level alarm (plus float);
- Pump start;
- Pump stop;
- Low level pump protection (plus
float).
• Air reaction level equipment should include
stainless steel dip pipe and duty/standby
compressors.
Where the available pumps have unsuitable duties
for the full range of flows the use of variable speed
drives should be considered. However due to the
additional heat generated in the motor, the approval
of the pump manufacturer should be obtained before
variable speed drives are used.
Wet Well Design
The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump
sumps and intakes’ by M. J. Prosser should be
referred to when designing wet wells, which should
incorporate the following features:
• Wet wells should be designed to provide a
uniform steady flow of water into any pump
without creating swirl or entraining air.
Unsteady flow can lead to fluctuating loads,
vibration, noise and premature failure. Swirl
can affect the flow capacity, power and
efficiency, it can also result in local vortices that
introduce air into the pump also leading to
fluctuating loads, vibration, noise and
premature failure;
• Wet wells should be designed to prevent the
accumulation of sediment, scum and surface
flotsam;
• Wet well corners should be benched to 45°.
Minimising the sump floor area and residual
volume will increase the velocity into the pumps
and improve scouring;
• The use of flushing devices to improve scour in
wet wells should be considered;
• The water surface in the wet well should be as
free from waves and turbulence as possible to
provide a strong and reliable echo for ultrasonic
level controls;
• At the designed stop level there should still be
sufficient water surface area without
obstructions to provide a good echo return;
• Wet wells should be designed so that the
dimensions satisfy the requirements for the
minimum sump volume to avoid excessive
pump starts;
• The pump suction pipes should be installed
through the wet/dry well dividing wall with a
downward bend and bellmouth to position the
pump suction as close to the sump floor as
possible to assist in sediment removal;
• There should be sufficient space between the
bellmouths to prevent interaction between the
pump suctions.


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Dry Well Design
Dry well design should incorporate the following
features:
• The pumps should be installed along the
wet/dry well dividing wall with sufficient space
between them to allow access for maintenance
and repair;
• The pump distance from the dividing wall will
be set by the length of the protruding stub pipe,
suction valve and pump inlet pipe;
• Drive shafts should be supported from concrete
beams spanning the dry well;
• Consideration should also be given to access
around the pumps and valves. Platforms and
walkways should be installed to provide access
to all equipment at a suitable level for safe
operation, maintenance and repair;
• The general floor level should be higher than
the sump level to reduce the size of pump
plinths and the need for access platforms;
• Careful thought should also be given to the
shipping route for removing equipment;
• Access to the dry well and machinery should
be by staircase so that tools and equipment
can be carried in and out safely;
• Lifting arrangements for the pumps and valves
shall be provided (see also section 2.21 and
2.22);
• The dry well floor should slope gently towards
the dividing wall and then to one side where a
sump pump should be installed to keep the
floor as dry as possible;
• The sump pump should be installed in a small
well, large enough to accommodate the pump
and should discharge back through the wall
into the wet well. Consideration should be
given to the sump pump discharge to avoid
backflow from the wet well to the dry well;
• A high level alarm should be installed in the dry
well to give a warning of flooding before
damage to machinery occurs.
Pump Installation
For the most compact arrangement, a close-coupled
pump can be mounted horizontally with the
discharge upward, however this results in the motor
being low in the dry well and at risk from flooding.
The most common arrangement is for a vertical
pump shaft with the motor above. This will require a
bend between the suction valve and the pump
suction. The bend should be fitted with a handhole
and valve to enable the pump to be drained prior to
maintenance. Further bends may be required to
direct the pump or manifold discharge upwards.
Where space allows, installation of the discharge
manifold at the pump level, with the discharge
directly through the side wall should be considered.
Pipes should be sized to achieve sensible velocities,
and the risk of cavitation through insufficient NPSH
should be considered when designing suction
pipework. Pumps must be selected to ensure
satisfactory operation when only one pump is
operation in a new rising main.
2.12 Pumps and Motors
Centrifugal Pumps
These are the most common type pumps for foul
sewage and are available in a variety of forms. The
pump operates by passing the liquid through a
spinning impeller where energy is added to increase
the pressure and velocity of the liquid. Submersible
pumps are centrifugal pumps.
Sewage pumps should have an open type impeller
with a minimum passage of 100mm. Impellers with
smaller passages are likely to suffer from frequent
blockage due to the nature of sewage debris.
Dry well centrifugal pumps should normally have a
maximum running speed of 980rpm. Submersible
pumps may run at 1450rpm (4 pole motor), but
pumps operating at 2900rpm (2 pole motor) will
suffer excessive wear and premature failure, and
should not be used.
Pump Motors
Motors on submersible pumps should be certified for
use in Zone 1 explosive atmospheres unless
operating continuously submerged. Pumps
operating in dry conditions should have a casing
designed to provide adequate cooling in the
operating conditions.

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Pump motors should normally be fed from 415 volts,
50 hertz, 3-phase power supply. For larger motors
690V or 3.3KV motors can be used.
Because additional heat is generated in the motor
when used with a variable speed drive, the approval
of the pump manufacturer should be obtained before
VSDs are used.
For dry well and screw pumps where the motors are
installed vertically or at a steep angle, they should
be specifically designed for that purpose, with
adequately rated end thrust bearings.
Where flywheels are installed, the motor rating shall
be suitably uprated.
2.13 Sump Design
The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump
sumps and intakes’ by M.J. Prosser
xli
should be
referred to when designing sumps or wet wells.
Sumps should be designed to provide a uniform
steady flow of water into any pump without creating
swirl or entraining air. Unsteady flow can lead to
fluctuating loads, vibration, noise and premature
failure. Swirl can affect the flow capacity, power and
efficiency. It can also result in local vortices that
introduce air into the pump also leading to
fluctuating loads, vibration, noise and premature
failure.
Sumps should also be designed to prevent the
accumulation of sediment and surface scum.
Most sumps and wet wells at standard pumping
stations will probably be uniform in section and can
be designed to avoid turbulent flows.
Modelling
For non-standard pumping stations, which may have
high flows, multiple pumps or complex shapes, or
where turbulent flows, vortices, swirl or air
entrainment are more likely to occur, modelling
should be considered.
For pumping stations, a physical model built to scale
can be very effective in identifying flow problems
and in some cases modelling by computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) methodology may have benefits.
Modelling is the process of replicating the hydraulic
performance of drainage, pumping and treatment
systems by constructing models of the intended
installations. These models need to be verified
before use to provide confidence that they
adequately represent the actual performance of the
system.
The verified model is then used to test system
performance under its proposed use. The model
must be capable of modification to test various
physical configurations and operating regimes for
the installation, to produce the optimum solution for
actual construction.
Traditionally, physical models were favoured,
especially for coastal/estuary/river systems and
complex pumping installations. In recent years
mathematical models have superseded physical
models. Mathematical models are exploiting
increased computer hardware and software
capability, and are more efficient than physical
models in time and effort.
Physical Models
Physical modelling consists of constructing a
reduced scale, geometrically similar model of a
proposed system, and operating the model to
simulate full-scale flow conditions. Model tests can
provide the designer with the assurance that the
proposed scheme operates satisfactorily, or allows
him to improve the flow conditions and achieve a
better design.
Changes in the model can be made by trial and
error, and are usually based on the experience and
intuitive understanding of the engineer conducting
the tests. The amount of modification which can be
undertaken on a physical model is limited, and
therefore the initial model should be as accurate as
possible.
Factors to be considered in deciding on the need for
physical models include:
• The similarity of the proposed scheme to
existing satisfactory designs. As well as the
designer’s own experience, much information is
available from manufacturers’ published reports
and design guides. However, it should be
recognised that most large scale and/or
complex designs will be unique, and hence
modelling will be needed;


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• The size and cost of the proposed scheme.
Bearing in mind that physical modelling can
take many months with corresponding high
costs, then designers of small schemes should
seek to adopt standard and well-proven
designs for small schemes. Large schemes,
such as terminal pumping stations with multiple
pumps and complex inlet arrangements would
merit modelling;
• The time available for modelling. In some
cases the scheme can be well under way to
completion before the possible need for
modelling is realised. Even at such late stages,
modelling can save much time and cost in
modifying construction works.
For pumping stations, all of the intake should be
modelled, including the approach works, the inlets
and the sump itself. Upstream pipelines may need to
be included.
All hydraulically significant details such as screens,
penstocks, support channels and benching, should
be included in the model. No components above
maximum water level need be modelled.
Model construction should be in durable and
waterproof materials, with clear perspex being the
best for viewing purposes. Model size should be as
large as costs allow. Scales can vary from perhaps
1:4 for very small sumps, up to 1:50 for large intakes
to reservoirs or tanks. For sump models, 1:25 would
be the smallest desirable scale.
Physical testing could typically take between one
and six months for construction, testing and
reporting.
Sump Volume
Pump sumps should have a minimum sump volume
calculated to ensure that in the worst flow conditions
any pump installed does not exceed the maximum
allowable starts per hour. The CIRIA guide ‘The
hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes’ by
M.J. Prosser
xli
should be referred to when designing
sumps or wet wells.
The minimum sump volume is the volume between
the start and stop levels of the duty pump and for a
single pump the worst case occurs when the inflow
is exactly half of the pumping rate.
To calculate the minimum sump volume for a
specific pump the formula contained in the above
CIRIA guide is:
T = 4V/Qp
Equation 2.13.1
Where:
T is the cycle time for the pump, e.g. if the
recommended maximum starts per hour for
a pump is 10, then the cycle time will be 6
minutes (60/10 = 6)
V is the volume of sump between the start and
stop levels in m
3

Qp is the pumping rate in m
3
/minute
Therefore if Qp is 1.2m
3
/min (20l/s) and the
maximum number of starts is 10/hour, the volume
required will be:
V (m
3
) = 6(min) x 1.2(m
3
/min) / 4
V = 1.8m
3

For 10 starts per hour this could also be expressed
as:
V = 1.5 x Qp
The sump volume when multiple pumps are installed
is calculated as for a single pump, where the
minimum sump volume is the capacity between the
start and stop level for each pump. However,
additional capacity is required to allow a vertical
distance of 150mm between the start or stop levels
of consecutive pumps.
With sewage there is a possibility of septicity,
therefore there are restraints on the maximum
volume of the sump related to the retention time of
the liquid in that sump.
Maximum and minimum start / stop
levels
The minimum stop level should be the level at which
the pump can be stopped and restarted without
losing suction or as specified by the pump
manufacturer.
To avoid turbulence and odour release at foul
sewage pumping stations, the lowest pump stop

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level is usually set at the invert of the incoming
sewer, the last section of which is laid to a steep fall
to avoid the sewer being used as the sump.
The minimum start level should be the required
distance above the stop level to provide the
minimum sump volume.
Allowable pump starts per hour
The maximum allowable starts per hour should be
as specified by the pump or motor manufacturer. In
the absence of any specified figure the following are
suitable guidance figures:
Less than 100kW - 15 starts/hour
100kW < 200kw - 10 starts/hour
>200kW - 8 starts/hour
Stop / start levels for single and
multiple pump operation
The start and stop levels for single pump operation
should be set within the maximum and minimum
start / stop levels defined in the previous section,
provided that the minimum sump volume is
attainable.
The start level for each additional pump should be
set a suitable height above the previous pump to
prevent accidental pump starts caused by surface
waves or level sensor errors.
The stop level for each additional pump should be
set at the required distance below the start level to
provide the minimum sump volume for that particular
pump. The stop level will normally be just above the
previous duty pump stop level.
The effect of flywheels should be considered in
determining stop/start levels because the flywheel
increases the pump start-up and stop times.
Pump duty level
The pump duty level for a single pump should be the
midpoint between the pump start and stop levels.
For multiple pump installations it should be the
midpoint between the top water level (last duty
pump start level) and the bottom water level (first
duty pump stop level).
Pumps should also operate within their performance
curve at both top and bottom water levels under
single or multiple pump operation.
2.14 Suction/Delivery
Pipework, and Valves
Pipework
Only superior materials are acceptable for use in
pumping station pipework. The pipework installation
should incorporate the following features:
• Sufficient bends and flange adapters to allow
easy dismantling and removal of pumps, non-
return valves or other major items of
equipment;
• Each dry well pump should be installed with
suction and discharge isolation valves to permit
isolation of the pump from the wet sump and
discharge pipework for maintenance;
• Each submersible pump should be installed
with a discharge isolation valve to permit
isolation of the pump from the discharge
pipework for maintenance;
• Each pump should also be fitted with a non-
return valve to prevent reverse flow back
through the pump when stopped;
• Valves should be positioned to permit the
removal of each pump and non return valve
without draining either the wet well or discharge
manifold, and allow the other pumps to
continue operating normally;
• Suction isolating valves for dry well pumps
should be bolted directly to a flanged pipe
securely fixed through the sump wall;
• Discharge isolation valves should be bolted
directly to a flange on the discharge pipe or
manifold;
• Discharge non-return valves should be bolted
directly to the discharge isolation valve. They
should be installed in horizontal pipework with
a short length of pipe and a flange adapter on
the pump side to allow dismantling;


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• Where the pump delivery pipework joins the
pumping station discharge manifold, the entry
should be horizontal;
• At the opposite end of the pumping station
discharge manifold, a valved connection back
to the sump should be provided for draining the
discharge pipework, or flushing the sump;
• Consideration should be given to providing an
isolating valve on the pumping main before it
leaves the pumping station/chamber and
before any over pumping connection, to allow
the pumping station to be fully isolated and the
fixed pipework drained for repair;
• All flexible couplings should be restrained on
both sides by securely fixed equipment, thrust
blocks or tie straps across the coupling to
prevent displacement of the coupling under
pressure.
Valves
Valves should incorporate the following features:
• Isolation valves for sewage should be of the
double-flanged wedge-gate type with a bolt-on
bonnet. When fully open, the gate should be
withdrawn completely from the flow. The valve
should have an outside screw rising stem and
the handwheel direction of operation should be
clockwise to close. Station valves should have
metal seats;
• Valves greater than 350mm diameter should be
fitted with actuators. Where installed in
chambers they could be fitted with non-rising
stems to limit the headroom required;
• Reflux valves for sewage should be of the
double flanged, quick action single door type,
designed to minimise slam on closure by
means of heavy doors, weighted as necessary.
The door hinge pin/shaft should extend through
the side of the body and be fitted with an
external lever to permit back flushing;
• Reflux valves should be provided with covers
for cleaning and maintenance without the need
to remove the valve from the pipeline. The
covers should be large enough so that the flap
can be removed and the valve can be cleaned;
• The non-return valves should have proximity
switches to prevent dry running and allow a
change of duty (standby on high level will then
start);
• All reflux valves should be installed in the
horizontal plane;
• Butterfly valves should not be used with
sewage.
2.15 Pumping System
Characteristics
NPSH, Vibration, Cavitation and Noise
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is used to check
the pumping installation for the risk of cavitation.
Cavitation is the formation and collapse of vapour
bubbles in a liquid. Vapour bubbles are formed
when the static pressure at a point within a liquid
falls below the pressure at which the liquid will
vaporise. When the bubbles are subjected to a
higher pressure they collapse causing local shock
waves, if this happens near a surface, erosion can
occur.
Cavitation will typically occur in the impeller of a
centrifugal pump, where it can cause noise and
vibration as well as affecting the pump efficiency. If
allowed to persist it can lead to damage to the pump
or even breaking away of foundations.
NPSH is the minimum total pressure head required
in a pump at a particular flow/head duty. It is
normally shown as a curve on the pump
performance sheet.
NPSH = Pa – Vp + Hs – Fs
Equation 2.15.1
Where:
Pa = atmospheric pressure at liquid free surface
Vp = vapour pressure of liquid
Hs = height of supply liquid free surface, above eye
of pump impeller
Fs = suction entry and friction losses

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In order to avoid cavitation, the NPSH available
should be at least 1m greater than the NPSH
required by the selected pump at all operating
conditions.
When calculating NPSH, absolute values for
atmospheric and liquid vapour pressures are used.
Pump Duty Point
Each pump has a performance curve where the flow
is plotted against head.
Each pipework system has a friction curve where
the friction head is plotted against flow.
The system curve is obtained by adding the static
head to the friction losses and plotting the total head
against the flow.
The pump duty point is where the pump
performance curve and the system curve cross. It
shows the flow that a particular pump will deliver
through the pipework system at a particular total
head at the pump duty level.
In multiple pump installations, it is essential that the
operating conditions of a single pump running are
carefully checked to ensure that the pump will
operate at maximum and minimum static heads
satisfactorily, and without risk of cavitation.
The duty point should be used when considering the
suitability of alternative pumps for a particular duty
by comparing the efficiency and power requirements
for each pump at the duty point.


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Figure 2.15.1 – Characteristic Curve for Multiple Pumps

Characteristic curve for
new pipe

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2.16 Sump Pumps and
Over-Pumping
Facilities
Sump pumps should be provided for all dry wells
and wet wells at pumping stations. For dry wells
they should be used to remove any water that may
collect at low level. For wet wells, they should be
used to empty the wet well prior to man entry.
Over-pumping facilities should be provided where
there is a single sump and access may be required
for repair of pumps/screens/etc. A suction chamber
should be provided before the pumping station, with
a penstock to isolate all flows into the pump sump. A
connection into the pumping main should be
provided for the over-pumping discharge.
Consideration should be given to providing an
isolating valve on the pumping main before the over-
pumping connection to allow the pumping station to
be fully isolated and the fixed pipework drained for
repair.
Sump Pump Installations
Sump pumps should incorporate the following
feature:
• Sump pumps should discharge to the wet well
above the water level to prevent gas release;
• Discharge pipes should be fitted with a non-
return valve and isolating valve, in an easily
accessible position;
• The sump pump should be fitted with a
discharge connection and guide rail to allow
the pump to be easily removed from the sump
for cleaning or unblocking;
• Where a temporary sump pump is to be used,
a power supply point and discharge connection
should be provided. Both should be located at
a high level in the dry well, and be easily
accessible from the access walkways.
Sump pumps should be installed in a sump of
sufficient dimensions for the proposed pump and
allow a suitable level controller to operate within the
sump, the minimum depth should be 300mm.
The sump pumps should be sized for the possible
leakage of glands and seals. A guide should be
0.5l/s for each leakage point, with a minimum of 5l/s.
An assessment should also be made of any possible
inflow from outside the dry well (i.e. rain and
flooding).
2.17 Power Calculations
including Standby
Generation
2.17.1 Introduction
A standby power generator set is essential in
applications where the loss of the power supply can
not be accepted due to critical loads. The generator
set configuration and sizing will vary from one
application to another dependent on the load type,
operation characteristics, site condition, and
application requirements.
The sizing and selection of the generator set should
take into consideration the aspects raised in the
following sub-sections.
2.17.2 Load Type
In some applications, the total connected load in the
pumping station will need to be powered from the
generator set in case of power failure, while in other
locations only the essential load will need to be kept
running (partial loads). The designer should
consider the requirements according to the site
characteristics and the proposed application, to size
the required generator set. The following points are
to be investigated at the initial stage to select the
type of generator that is required:
• Voltage level according to load voltage level
(415v, 3.3kv, 6.6kv, 11kv);
• Total generator connected load;
• Individual load characteristics such as kilowatt
rating, maximum allowable voltage dip by the
motor manufacturer, starting method, sequence
of operation;
• Load type - inductive or capacative;
• Load profile.


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2.17.3 Site condition
The site condition should also be examined and the
following data collected and submitted to the
generator set manufacturer to be considered in the
sizing process:
• ambient temperature;
• elevation above sea level;
• humidity;
• wind direction and dust contamination in air;
• nearby residential areas for sound level
consideration.
2.17.4 Generator set operation
and control
The generator set operation and control varies from
application to application depending on the following
points:
• Number of units to be controlled;
• Manual or automatic synchronisation;
• Manual or automatic start-up;
• Manual or automatic changeover switch
between main local authority incomer and main
generator set incomer (control panel outgoing
feeder).
2.17.5 Type of installation
Standby generator sets can be installed by different
means according to the site requirement and unit
size. The type of installation can be categorised in
the following ways:
• Building installation: The unit will be installed
inside a building suitable to accommodate all
the units and their ancillaries. This type of
installation is recommended in large or major
pumping stations, or treatment plants;
• Weatherproof enclosure: The unit is mounted
inside a weatherproof enclosure on a trailer
suitable for transportation between different
sites;
• Soundproof enclosure: The unit is installed
inside a soundproof enclosure, mounted on a
trailer suitable for transportation and operation
in residential areas;
• Skid mounted unit: For temporary site work
(e.g. construction site).
2.17.6 Type of Control Panel
The control panel can be unit mounted (on the
generator set unit) or remotely mounted (inside the
control room).
The control panel is used to operate and monitor the
unit in case of power failure. Panels have many
options depending on the type of operation required,
and the mode of operation (one unit, two units,
automatic start, manual start, etc).
2.17.7 Ventilation system
Unit ventilation and the cooling system are critical
parts of the overall system performance and
capability. The ventilation system is required to keep
the surrounding atmosphere temperature as per the
specified ambient temperature, to avoid any
temperature rise due to heat generation from the
engine. The ventilation system should be by the
means of forcing air out of the room using a fan
installed at a level above the highest point in the
generator (e.g. roof mounted or wall mounted). The
air will be delivered through air louvers mounted at
the lowest permissible level to avoid sand ingress
from the surrounded area and at the same time to
guarantee airflow across the generator set body.
In addition to the room ventilation, the generator
should have an engine driven fan. This will draw air
through sand trap louvers in the wall, and over the
alternator and engine, discharging the air through a
set mounted radiator and wall mounted outlet
louvers.
2.17.8 Fuel system
The fuel system usually consists of a main storage
tank, daily fuel tank, fuel transfer system, and fuel
line between tanks and the generator set:

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• Main storage tank. This will be required in
applications where the fuel consumption at site
is very high due to a large number of units
installed, or due to the difficulty in providing
daily supply of fuel to the site. In that case, the
storage facility of the main storage tank should
be sufficient for three days consumption. The
bulk tanks should normally be mounted partially
below ground level within bunds to enable the
day tank to empty under gravity back to the
bulk tank in the event of a fire;
• Daily fuel tank. The daily fuel tank should be
suitable for eight hours full load operation, and
normally mounted on a stand beside the
generator set to enable gravity feed to the
engine;
• The fuel transfer system. A fuel transfer system
is required between the main tank and daily
tank to keep the daily tank full and ready for
operation. The tank level should never fall
below a minimum level. The system consists of
transfer pumps, level sensor, control panel,
valves (solenoid valves, actuated valves, hand
operated valves) and flow meter to monitor the
units consumption, as well as the delivery
supply to the main tanks.
• A thermal ‘cut-off’ link must be mounted above
the engine, arranged to close both a valve on
the fuel line between the day tank and the
engine, and also a dump valve to drain the day
tank back to the bulk tank in the event of a fire.
2.17.9 Starting method
The generator starter method is usually one of the
following methods:
• Air starting method. This type of starting is
suitable for large generator sets requiring a
high starting torque, especially medium and low
speed engines (750RPM, 600RPM). This
usually consists of:
a) Air operated starter unit (sized by the
generator set manufacturer);
b) Air tank vessel (suitable for six starts
before refill);
c) Electrically operated air compressor unit
(capable of refilling the tank within 15
minutes);
d) Diesel operated air compressor with the
same capacity working as backup for
the electrical air compressor;
e) Air piping between air vessel and starter
unit.
• Electrical starting method. This type of starter is
suitable for small loads, transportable and
enclosed units, which work at high speeds
(1500RPM). The starting method consists of an
electrically operated starter, battery, and
charging alternator. A battery charger is
required to keep the battery fully charged and
ready for operation in cases where the unit is
rarely operated. The battery type should be
maintenance free for high reliability starting;
• Starting aid. Some applications require
immediate starting and load handling without
any delay due to critical load type. To get the
generator set ready for such an application the
unit should be equipped with a jacket water
heater to keep the engine warm and ready for
load immediately after starting without any
delay for warming the engine before applying
the load.
2.17.10 Service facility
The generator set building should be equipped with
an overhead crane capable of lifting the heaviest
part likely to be encountered during maintenance of
the generator set. The main inlet and outlet louvers
and building shall be designed such that the
complete generator set can be installed and
removed through the louver openings. For container
or enclosure units, a lifting facility should be
provided for offloading and transporting the unit. The
enclosure should be capable of having the side and
roof dismantled and removed for ease of
maintenance and parts replacement.
2.17.11 Generator set sizing
The following procedure can be used to size the
generator set according to the available data from
pump motors and other loads (e.g. lighting/other


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non-motor load) as well as the sequence of
operation, and starting of the motor:
1) Starting KVA (SKVA) calculation
- Calculate lock rotor current (LRA) = for DOL x
Full load current
- Calculate the SKVA = (LRA V * 1.732)/1000
2) Effective SKVA
Use Table 2.17.1 as a guideline for calculating the
effective SKVA.
Suppose that we have three motors, which will start
and run in sequence (motor-1, motor-2 and motor-
3).
Using the highest effective SKVA calculated and the
required voltage DIP (10%, 20%, and 30%) as
specified by the motor manufacturer, the generator
set can be selected from the data sheet provided by
the generator set manufacturer.

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Table 2.17.1 – Guide to Generator Set Sizing – Effective SKVA
Step Motor 1 Motor 2 Motor 3 Comments
1 Motor load (KW) A B C KW motor/ motor
efficiency
2 Starting KVA (SKVA) X Y Z LRA*V*
1.732 /1000

3 Total motor load connected
before the required motor start
in sequence
0 A


A+B

4 Total motor load connected
after motors have been
started in sequence
A A+B A+B+C

5 (Step3/Step4)*100 0 (A/(A+B))*100 ((A+B)/(A+B+C))*100

6 Using step-5 result, obtain
compensation for motor
already started from fig.2.17.1
D E F From Fig. 2.17.1
7 Multiply
(step-2xstep-6)
X*D

Y*E Z*F
8 Obtain the reduce voltage
factor from fig.2.17.2
Q R S From Table 2.17.2
9 Effective SKVA
( Step-7 x Step-8)


0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
40 50 60 70 80 90 100
multiplier

Figure 2.17.1 - Reduced voltage starting factor

Table 2.17.2 - Reduce voltage starting factor
Type Multiply SKVA BY
Star/Delta 0.33
Auto transformer
80% , 65%, 50%
0.68, 0.46 , 0.29
DOL 1.0
Solid state Estimate 300% of full load KVA



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Worked example:
The following motors required a standby generator
i. 90 kw 3-phase motor, soft starter , voltage dip 30%
ii. 70 kw 3-phase motor, star/delta ,voltage dip 30%
iii. 45 kw 3-phase motor , direct online (DOL), voltage dip 30%
1- Calculated Locked rotor current
90 kw motor = 6 x 90,000 = 939 amp
√3 x 415x0.8
75 kw motor = 6 x 75,000 = 730 amp
√3 x 415x0.8
45 kw motor = 6 x 45,000 = 469amp
√3 x 415x0.8
2- Calculated SKVA
90 kw motor = 939 x 415 X 1.732 = 674.9
1000
75 kw motor = 730 x 415 X 1.732 = 524.7
1000
90 kw motor = 469 x 415 X 1.732 = 337.1
1000
Table 2.17.3 – Generator Set Sizing – Worked Example
Ste
p
Motor1 Motor 2 Motor 3 Comments

1

Motor load KW

90

70

45

KW motor/ motor efficiency
2 Starting KVA (SKVA) 674.9 524.7 337.1
LRA*V*1.732/1000

3 Total motor load connected before the
required motors start in sequence
0 90 160
4 Total motor load connected after motors
have been started in sequence
90 160 205

5
(Step-3/step-4)*100 0 56.3 78
6 Using step-5 result obtain
compensation for already start motor
1 1.15 1.25 from Fig. 2.17.1
7 Multiply
(step-2xstep-6)
674.9 603.4 421.4
8 Obtain the reduce voltage factor 3 0.33 1 from Table 2.17.2
9 Effective SKVA ( Step-7 xstep-8) 337.5 199.1 421.4 NB Motor 1 is a solid state starter

The selected generator will be sized for the highest effective SKVA @30% Voltage dip = 421.4KVA.

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2.18 Switch Gear and
Control Panels
Low voltage switchgear and control panels form the
link between the electrical load, such as; motors,
lighting, actuator valves, air conditioning equipment
and the power generation source (main authority
supply, generator set).
The design of the switchboard should take into
consideration the points discussed in the following
sub-sections.
2.18.1 Type–tested and partially
type tested assemblies
(TTA and PTTA)
According to BS EN60439-1
xliii
the low voltage
switchgear (assembly) and its component parts shall
be made in a way that it can be safely assembled
and connected. Assure that this configuration of
assembly and its components are safely operated
without any risk to the operator or equipment. Some
of the risks that can affect the operation to be
considered include:
1. Direct and indirect contact with live parts;
2. Temperature rise;
3. Electrical Arc;
4. Overload;
5. Insulation failure;
6. Mechanical failure.
To achieve a type-tested assembly (TTA) the
following performance requirements should be
verified:
• Temperature – rise limits;
• Dielectric properties;
• Short circuit withstand strength (main circuit);
• Effectiveness of protective circuit;
• Short circuit withstand strength of the protective
circuit;
• Clearance and creepage distance;
• Mechanical operation test;
• IP degree of protection.
The partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) are
assemblies that contain both type-tested and non
type-tested arrangements (derived by calculation
from the type-tested arrangements compliant with
tests required for TTA).
2.18.2 Total connected load
The control panel sizing and design to cover the
demand of the total load connected, including the
standby load.
2.18.3 Short circuit level
The short circuit level calculation carried out
according to the total connected load and power
source from the local authority electricity network.
The short circuit level is one of the most important
criteria in switchboard design. Its importance arises
from the need to protect the equipment with the
correct protection device, suitable for the specific
level of short circuit, so that no damage or harm can
affect the equipment or human safety. Care must be
taken in the design stage to control the fault level. If
the total connected load is too high, the total
connected load to the switchgear can be split into
two or more assemblies to reduce the fault level.
The short circuit level can be calculated according to
the following steps.
Step-1 Determine the transformer full load amperes:
I(fl) = KVAx100
0
E (l-l) x
1.732
Equation
2.18.1
Where:
I(fl) = transformer full load
KVA = transformer capacity volt ampere
E (l-l) = line to line voltage
Step-2 Find the transformer multiplier


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Equation 2.18.2

Where:
Z (T) = transformer impedance
Step-3 Determine the transformer let through short
circuit current
I s.c = I (fl) x Multiplier
Equation 2.18.3
Where:
I s.c = transformer let through short circuit current
Table 2.18.1 shows some examples of expected
and standard fault level.
Table 2.18.1 – Example of Expected and
Standard Fault Level
Short circuit level Type of application
16KA/1sec Distribution board
(≤250 Amp)
35KA/1sec Motor Control Centre
(≤400 Amp)
50KA/1sec OR 50
KA/3sec
Motor Control Centre
(≤2000 Amp)
80KA/1sec OR
80KA/3sec
Motor Control Centre
(≤3000 Amp)
120KA/1sec OR
120KA/3sec
Motor Control Centre
(≤5000 Amp)
2.18.4 Type of co-ordination
Electrical component co-ordination according to IEC
97-4-1
xliv
, provides two types of protection.
Manufacturers test components such as contactors
and circuit breakers in unison to confirm what will
happen under short circuit conditions.
According to IEC 947-4-1, the co-ordination between
the electrical components can be categorised into
the following two types:
Type – 1: co-ordination (personal safety only);
Type – 2: co-ordination (personal/components
safety).
The designer, where possible, should select type-2
co-ordination to assure full protection of personal
safety as
well as the electrical components. In the event of a
short circuit, this type of co-ordination will ensure
that the components are reusable after fault
clearance. Type-1 co-ordination only guarantees
personal and electrical installation safety, and the
equipment may not be able to resume operation
without repair or replacement of the affected part.
2.18.5 Form of internal
separation
The form of separation should be according to BS
EN60439-1
xliii
or suitable equivalent. The designer
should consider Form-4 (see Figure 2.18.1) in all
designs for high personal safety and equipment
protection.
In the case of multiple incomers and/or feeders,
Form-4 should be considered for ease of
maintenance without the need for interruption to
other equipment as would be the case with Form-2
In case of multi-incomer and outgoing
starters/feeders, Form-4 should be considered for
ease of carrying out maintenance without
interruption to other equipment, in case of isolation
of certain feeders.
The Type to be used can vary between Type-3 and
Type-7 as shown in Figure 2.18.1, diagram (1& 2).
According to the project requirements or budget
limitations, Form-2, Type-2 (diagram-3, Figure
2.18.1) should be considered in some applications,
such as unit mounted control panels (e.g. scrubber
units, sludge drying beds) where the shutdown of
the unit is mandatory to carry out maintenance on
the unit.
I s.c = I (fl) x Multiplier
Multiplier = 100
%Z (T)


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Figure 2.18.1 – Form and Type of Internal
Separation

Form-4 type-3: Diagram-1
Cable gland
Internal
Separation
Enclosure
Terminal for
external
conductor
Bus bar
Function
unit

Form-4-Type-7: Diagram-2
Internal
Separation
Enclosure
Terminal for
external
conductor
Bus bar
Function
unit

Form –2 – Type-2: Diagram-3
Internal
Separation
Enclosure
Terminal for
external
conductor
Bus bar
Function
unit
Cable gland


2.18.6 Bus Bar rating
The bus bar rating should be suitable to carry the
total connected load. As mentioned previously,
consider any future loads by increasing the size of
the bus bars and also consider the suitability of
extension at both ends.




2.18.7 Type of starter
The designer should consider the following points
when choosing the starter type to be used.
Motor size
The motor size (kW) will determine if a standard
starter can be used (direct on line DOL or start delta
starter Y/D), or if a more advanced type of starter
such as a soft starter is required. The main issue to
consider is the starting current. The greater the (kW)
rating, the greater the starting current required. A
high starting current has an overall effect on the
system stability and other equipment installed. The
following ratings can be considered as general
guidelines only. The designer should apply
knowledge and experience to justify the starter
method to be used.
Table 2.18.2 – Guideline Starter Methods for
Motor Ratings (kW)
Motor rating KW Starting method
≤ 5kw Direct online (DOL)
5 ≥ kW ≤25 Star delta (Y/D)
>25kw Soft starter ( solid
state drive) (S/S)

Motor duty and application
The motor duty will vary according to its application.
The following table gives examples of such duties.
Table 2.18.3 – Example Motor Duties and
Applications
Duty type Application example
Continuous run at
constant load and
speed
Potable water
Short run at
constant load and
Sewage pumping station


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speed
Continuous run at
variable load and
speed
Irrigation network
Intermittent
periodic duty
Injection system

Motor Application
The type of motor starter can also be selected
according to the motor application as mentioned in
Table 2.18.3, as a high number of starts per hour
will cause even a small motor to overheat. An
example of a suitable starter for each application is
presented in Table 2.18.4.
Table 2.18.4 - Example Starter Methods for Duty
Types
Duty type Starter
Continuous run at
constant load and
speed
DOL, Y/D, S/S
Short run at
constant load and
speed
DOL, Y/D
S/S if sufficient cooling
time between operations
Continuous run at
variable load and
speed
VSD
Intermittent
periodic duty
D.C starter, DOL
Notes: DOL: direct online, Y/D: star/delta , s/S:
soft starter, VSD: variable speed drive
Voltage level
Starter type can be varied according to the voltage
level. In the medium voltage range (e.g. 3.3kv) the
starting current will be very low when compared with
a lower voltage (e.g. 415v). In this case, the use of a
direct contact starter would be acceptable.
Cost considerations
The cost of the starter should also be considered
when compared to the motor size and application.
As an example, a soft starter could be used to
reduce the starting current for a 10kW motor. Taking
into account the cost of the soft starter and
comparing it to the cost of the motor, the starter
could cost more than the motor however.
Star delta starters can for most applications be
considered more economically viable than a soft
starter, therefore balance the motor cost against soft
starter cost.
2.18.8 Protection device
The designer should categorise all loads connected
to the switchgear according to critical status in the
process and effect on operator safety. Table 2.18.5
provides examples.


Table 2.18.5 – Examples of Protection Required
for Load Types
Load type
Type of
protection
Protective device
Main
incomer
feeder
(local
authority/
generator
set)
Overload, short
circuit,
restricted earth
fault, phase
losses, phase
reveres.
- main MCCB or
ACB

Pump,
grinder
Overload, short
circuit, earth
leakage, phase
losses, phase
reveres, under
voltage, motor
stall, winding
temperature.
1- conventional
protection device
(OLR), MCCB
2- Electronic
protection devices
3- motor manager
protection unit
Valve
actuator
Overload, short
circuit, earth
leakage.
Conventional
protection device
(OLR), ELCB
Instrument
(level/ flow/
pressure)
Overload, short
circuit, earth
leakage
Conventional
protection device
(OLR), ELCB
Building
services
(lighting/
sockets)
Overload, short
circuit, earth
leakage, phase
losses , phase
reverses.
Conventional
protection device
MCB, ELCB, Fuses

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Note: ELCB = Earth leakage circuit breaker
OLR = Over load relay
MCCB = Moulded case circuit breaker
ACB = Air circuit breaker
Type of protection
1. Short circuit protection:
This type of protection is required to protect the
equipment against short circuit (with three
phase, two phase or single phase), which can
occur due to: insulation failure or damage, or by
an incorrect switching operation. Short circuits
are associated with electrical arcs and can
therefore pose a fire risk.
2. Overload protection:
This type of protection is required to protect the
equipment against overload current which is
due to operational over current present for an
excessive period of time. This over current will
raise the motor winding or cable temperature
above the permissible level and shorten the
service life of the insulation. The task of
overload protection is to allow normal
operational overload current to flow, but to
interrupt these currents before the permissible
loading period is exceeded.
3. Under/over voltage protection:
This type of protection is required to protect the
equipment against over/under voltage which is
present due to main power supply instability
(e.g. transformer tap changing/load fluctuating)
or unstable supply from a standby generator
(due to large load connected, faulty governor or
voltage regulator). Operation with an under-
voltage condition will draw more current from
the supply, this over current will raise the motor
winding or cable temperatures above the
permissible level and shorten the service life of
the insulation. The same will be the case with
over-voltage which will effect the insulation of
the motor or cable leading to insulation failure.
This type of protection can be applied at the
main incomers of the switchgear by a special
relay to sense the voltage supply and trip the
main incomers if the set limits are exceeded.
4. Phase losses/phase reversal protection:
This type of protection is required to protect the
equipment against phase loss from the main
supply, or phase reversal which can happen in
the event of main supply reconnection or
reconnection of the motor after maintenance.
Operation with phase loss will raise the motor
winding temperature due to an unbalanced
current in the motor winding. In the case of
phase reversal, the motor direction will be
reversed, which will result in equipment
damage or faulty operation (pump vibration,
high sound levels etc). This type of protection
can be applied at the main incomers of the
switchgear or motor feeder by a special relay to
sense the phase status (direction/availability)
and trip the main incomers/feeder when a fault
occurs.
5. Earth leakage protection:
This type of protection is required to: protect
the equipment and personnel in the event of
indirect contact; give additional protection in the
event of single phase direct contact; earth fault
protection; and protection against fires resulting
from earth fault leakage current.
This type of protection can be applied at the
switchgear outgoing feeders (motor /
distribution board) by a special relay which
senses the earth leakage current through a
summation current transformer, the unbalanced
current from the transformer will release a
mechanism that will trip the breaker when a
fault occurs.
6. Motor protection relay (electronic relay):
This type of protection is used to protect the
motor against many faults that can affect the
motor operation and safety. The actual
protection type can be varied according to the
motor application (critical/normal) and size
(cost). The following types of protection can be
achieved by a motor protection relay:
• Over / under current;
• Phase loss/ unbalance/reversal;
• Ground fault;
• Locked rotor;


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• Motor stall.
This type of protection can be applied at the
motor terminals. The fault signal from the relay
will release a mechanism that will trip the
breaker when a fault occurs. Fault indication
will usually be displayed on a LCD screen or by
indication LED’s.
2.18.9 Interlocking facility
An interlocking facility is required where more than
one incomer is used in the switchgear required.
Some examples are as follows:
• Supply from two transformers/local authority
supply;
• Supply from two incomers - one from
transformer/local authority supply, and one
from standby generator(s) panel;
• Supply from three incomers - two from
transformers/local authority supply, and one
from standby generator(s) panel.
The interlock facility should guarantee the safety of
operation by not allowing under any condition the
connection of two different incomers to the same
bus bar section (transformer/transformer) or
(transformer /generator) or main bus bars with the
bus coupler closed.
2.18.10 Accessibility
The panel access for cable termination and
maintenance can be arranged in the following
format:
• Front access (suitable for installation area with
limited space at the back of the MCC);
• Back access (suitable for installation area with
available space at the back of the MCC,
minimum one metre);
• Front/back access.
2.18.11 Cable entry
Cable entry to the MCC can be arranged in the
following format:
• Bottom entry (suitable for MCC fixed at the top
of cable/MCC trench);
• Top entry (suitable for MCC with cables such
as feeders and incomers installed at ground
level or above the MCC top level). Top entry
panels are not preferred and should only be
used in special circumstances.
Cables should be sized and installed in accordance
with the IEE (Electrical Wiring) Regulations and
QGEWC Regulations, and de-rated in accordance
with the Electrical Research Association Report No.
69-30
xlv
.
Instrument, alarm, and control cables should be
segregated from power cables.
The designer should consider the following when
selecting cable routes:
• Number, size and function of cables;
• Access for installation and maintenance;
• Interface with other equipment, e.g. cable
routes should not prevent other equipment
being removed for maintenance;
• Risk of mechanical damage ;
• Means of support;
• Effect of installation method on de-rating
factors;
• Hazardous area classification.
2.19 PLC’s
SCADA/Telemetry
2.19.1 PLC
PLC stands for Programmable Logic Controller. The
PLC is a microprocessor-based device which is
programmed to perform certain controlling tasks.
The PLC is the brain of the overall process. It can
receive analogue and digital signals from the
process devices, analyse them and send digital and
analogue signals to control these devices or activate
certain alarms.

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PLCs were originally used for controlling purposes.
Almost all PLCs are now equipped with signal
transmitters (i.e. include some RTU features) that
are capable of transmitting data to the network
operation centre.
A redundant PLC system with hot standby
configuration is highly recommended for critical
applications where uninterrupted control is required.
The power supply for the PLC system is usually
24Vdc or 110Vac. In case of power failure, the
equipment should be backed up by a UPS system,
which can supply the PLC with up to eight hours of
power depending on the importance of the process.
The modular type CPU (Central Processing Unit) in
the PLC is capable of: solving application logic;
storing the application program; storing numerical
values related to the application processes and
logic; and interfacing to the I/O systems.
The PLC carries out PID control, which is a
significant task. PID (Proportional-Integral-
Derivative) control action allows the process control
to accurately maintain a setpoint by adjusting the
control outputs. For example, pump flowrate setpoint
is maintained by the following:
• Proportioning Band: is the area around the
setpoint where the controller is actually
controlling the process. The output is at some
level other than 100% or 0%. The band is
generally centred around the setpoint (on single
output controls), causing the output to be at
50% when the setpoint and the flow rate are
equal;
• Automatic Reset (Integral): corrects for any
offset (between setpoint and process variable)
automatically over time by shifting the
proportioning band. Reset redefines the output
requirements at the setpoint until the process
variable (flowrate) and the setpoint are equal;
• Rate (Derivative): shifts the proportioning band
on a slope change of the process variable.
Rate, in effect applies the ‘brakes’ in an attempt
to prevent overshoot (or undershoot) on
process upsets or start-up. Unlike Reset, Rate
operates anywhere within the range of the
instrument. Rate usually has an adjustable time
constant and should be set much shorter than
reset. The larger the time constant, the more
effect Rate will have;
• Modulated Simplex I/O system: is the preferred
solution for safe process since the duplex
(redundant) I/O system is usually expensive,
and the modulated simplex I/O configuration
guarantees that any failure of a single I/O card
will not cause the relevant I/O rack to fail. For
instance, if a rack contains three I/O cards,
which controls three pumps (two duty, one
standby), the failure of one card will cause the
whole pumping process to fail. In Modulated
Simplex I/O systems however, it will cause the
failure of one pump, which will be classed as
the standby pump, and the other two pumps
will continue run normally.
2.19.2 RTU
RTU stands for Remote Telemetry Unit. This unit
delivers remote information back to network
operation centres. Operations staff can access
remote sites that have RTUs, via a web browser,
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
Manager, and XML (Extensible Markup Language).
If an ethernet connection is not available, then the
RTU's may be accessed via PSTN (Public Switched
Telephone Network), normal dialup and even SMS
(Short Message Service) messaging.
Earlier generation RTUs were hardwired and
supported limited functionality’s such as data
transfer and alarming. The new generation RTUs
are equipped with powerful processors that allow the
RTU to control certain instruments and devices, and
to receive/transmit analogue and digital I/O
(input/output) signals.
The microprocessor based RTU have a proven track
record within the water and wastewater industry, a
robust modular construction, and are constructed for
ease of maintenance and repair. These are
intelligent devices, capable of handling data
collection, logging, report by exception, data
retrieval and pump sequence control programs.
RTU’s equipped with RS232/485 links are
recommended for interconnection to standalone
control systems, standard equipment packages and
PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller). A dedicated


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serial port should be provided for connecting a
hand-held programming unit or PC.
The RTU software enables the RTU to process local
input equipment information, before transmitting it to
the master station to reduce transmission
overheads. A report by exception operation is
necessary for cost effective communication. The
report is triggered by change of state of digital
values, analogues reaching threshold values or
varying by specified amounts. The RTU also reports
when polled, and when the memory buffer is full.
2.19.3 SCADA and Telemetry
Systems
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
is an industrial measurement and control system
consisting of a central host or master (usually called
a master station, master terminal unit or MTU); one
or more field data gathering and control units or
remotes (RTU’s); and a collection of standard and/or
custom software used to monitor and control
remotely located field data elements. Contemporary
SCADA systems exhibit predominantly open-loop
control characteristics and utilise predominantly long
distance communications, although some elements
of closed-loop control and/or short distance
communications may also be present.
Systems similar to SCADA systems are routinely
seen in factories and treatment plants. These are
often referred to as Distributed Control Systems
(DCS). They have similar functions to SCADA
systems, but the field data gathering or control units
are usually located within a more confined area.
Communications may be via a local area network
(LAN), and will normally be reliable and high speed.
A DCS system usually employs significant amounts
of closed loop control.
SCADA systems on the other hand generally cover
larger geographic areas, and rely on a variety of
communication systems that are normally less
reliable than a LAN. Closed loop control in this
situation is less desirable.
The main use of SCADA is to monitor and control
plant or equipment. The control may be automatic,
or initiated by operator commands. The data
acquisition is accomplished by the RTU's scanning
the field inputs connected to the RTU (it may be also
called a PLC - programmable logic controller). This
is usually at a fast rate. The central host will scan
the RTU's (usually at a slower rate). The data is
processed to detect alarm conditions, and if an
alarm is present, it will be displayed on special alarm
lists.
Data can be of three main types:
• Analogue data (i.e. real numbers) will be
trended (i.e. placed in graphs);
• Digital data (on/off) may have alarms attached
to one state or the other;
• Pulse data (e.g. counting revolutions of a
meter) is normally accumulated or counted.
The trending function can be a powerful diagnostic
tool for use by the operators or maintenance
personnel. The data stored and archived can be
viewed over any period of historic time, which allows
fault patterns, which would otherwise go unnoticed
to be detected. For stormwater stations the data can
be analysed to determine how the station coped with
storms. Based on this data, modifications can be
made to the operation of the station to improve its
response during such incidents.
The primary interface to the operator is a graphical
display (mimic) which shows a representation of the
plant or equipment in graphical form. Live data is
shown as graphical shapes (foreground) over a
static background. As the data changes in the field,
the foreground is updated, e.g. a valve may be
shown as open or closed. Analogue data can be
shown either as a number, or graphically. The
system may have many such displays, and the
operator can select from the relevant ones at any
time.
A further function of the SCADA system is the
production of maintenance data and management
reports. For example, SCADA systems can be easily
configured to produce maintenance requests for
equipment that has run a set number of hours, or if
its’ performance has been declining over time. If a
standalone maintenance system is already in place,
SCADA systems can feed information directly to the
maintenance software.
For managers, SCADA systems can produce
detailed reports on subjects such as power or
chemical usage. Combined with the trending facility

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that is also inherent within SCADA, and by inputting
cost data, it can produce cost forecasts for a wide
range of process consumables.
2.20 Lighting
The designer should follow the guidelines and
information given below to design a proper lighting
system. The British standards specified within and
the CIBSE lighting guide
xlvi
should be considered
during the design.
2.20.1 Light Fitting Selection
Criteria
Light fittings are selected according to the following
criteria and application.
2.20.1.1 Installation Location
The location of the light fittings to be designed has a
large affect on the type of luminaire to be specified.
Generally, the following categories can be
considered:
1. Internal Lighting
Internal lighting fittings are required in places such
as:
a. Motor control centre rooms (MCC);
b. Control and SCADA monitoring rooms;
c. Substation (11kv & transformer);
d. Pump rooms;
e. Off-loading bay & walk ways;
f. Kitchen and toilets;
g. Administration offices;
h. Machinery rooms (compressor, generator,
chemical storage, and chemical dosing
system room).
2. External lighting
a. Building (external wall mounted fittings);
b. Internal road lighting (inside station
boundary);
c. Water storage tank lighting;
d. External installed machinery (settlement
tanks, inlet works aeration tanks);
e. Pump wet wells and screen chambers.
2.20.1.2 Environmental Conditions
In many industrial applications the environmental
condition is hostile or hazardous as explained
below.
1) Hostile conditions - damage to light fittings can
occur due to:
a. High ambient temperatures;
b. Windy and vibrating environments;
c. Corrosive atmosphere (hydrogen sulphide
gases, high humidity);
d. Wet atmosphere (water ingress);
e. Dusty atmosphere.
2) Hazardous conditions - The operation of light
fittings in certain environments can cause fire
or explosion due to gas generation or fumes
(methane, etc).
A risk assessment on the source of ignition and type
of explosive atmospheres should be carried out
using the methodology suggested in BS EN 1127-
1
xlvii
for all potentially hazardous areas such as
screen chambers and wet wells.
2.20.1.3 Luminance Level Required
(Lux)
The luminance level required varies from one area
or application to another. The luminance level
should generally be in accordance with the CIBSE
lighting guide
xlvi
. The relevant levels are replicated
below for convenience in Table 2.20.1.


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Table 2.20.1 – Luminescence Levels for Various
Service Areas
Service area Luminance
level (lux)
Internal area (inside building)
Motor control centre room 300
Control / SCADA room 500
11kv switchgear room 300
Transformer bay 150-200
Kitchen 150
Toilets 150
Store 200
Offloading bay / walkway 100-150
Pump house 150-200
Cable gallery 150-200
Administration offices 300
Machinery room 150-200
External area (Inside station boundary)
Internal Road lighting 50- 100
Tank area 50
Building (external wall and door
entrance)
70
External installed machinery 100

2.20.1.4 Type of Light Fitting
Light fitting types that can be used in different
locations can be categorised as follows.
1. Fluorescent fitting
The fluorescent fitting is a combination of lamps and
luminaries. The fittings are available with different
lamp sizes (18w, 36w, 58w), arrangements (3x18w,
4x18w, 2x36w, 2x58w) and installation type (surface
mounted, recessed mounted). This type of fitting is
ideally suited to internal installation use. It can be
used in most locations with some changes in the
body material, IP rating and lamp wattages.
2. Flood lights
Flood lights are used mainly for external building
area lighting such as tank areas, and machinery
areas (grit removal, settling tank, aeration tanks etc).
The lighting installation can be wall mounted on
external buildings or post mounted in working
machinery areas, or ground level mounted and
directed to the tank walls in case of tank area
lighting. The fittings should be a minimum of IP65;
and the body should be suitable for the environment
of the application (corrosion resistant, UV
protected).
3. High bay lights
High bay lighting should be used in pump rooms
when the bay heights are above six meters. The
high bay lamps can provide lighting for maintenance
purposes, in the case of regular inspections and
access to the pump house. Side mounted (4-meter
height) fluorescent fittings can be used due to the
extended start-up time of high bay lamps.
4. Emergency lights
Emergency lights are used in case normal lighting
fails or the power supply fails. They give light in
emergency situations such as a fire, to provide
escape-route sign lighting and emergency-exit sign
lighting as per BS 5266
xlviii
. The type and installation
of emergency lighting should consider the following
points:
• Escape route signs shall be mounted above
building exit doors at 2 - 2.5m above floor level;
• Escape route lighting such as Corridors,
gangway and stairs shall have a horizontal
luminance on the floor (centreline of escape
route) of not less than 0.2lux;
• Emergency lighting in large open areas such as
open plan offices should have an average
horizontal luminance for escape purposes of
not less than 1.0lux;
• Emergency lighting in Motor control centre
rooms and operator control rooms (SCADA)
should have an average horizontal luminance
not less than 2.0lux.

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Emergency light system
There are two types of emergency light system:
a. Self-contained;
b. Centrally powered.
Luminaire mode of operation
There are two modes of operation as follows:
• Maintained: lamp used as normal when
the building is occupied. The power supply
is from the normal source directly or
indirectly;
• Non-maintained: lamp off as long as the
normal power supply is available. The
lamp will energise from the emergency
power supply automatically in the event of
normal power failure.
Types of emergency lighting
The following types of emergency lighting
luminaire are commonly used:
• Self-contained separate luminaire
(maintained/non-maintained);
• Normal luminaires modified to contain a
battery pack and conversion unit
(maintained);
• Normal luminaires fed from a central
battery system with conversion unit
(maintained);
• Normal luminaires with a separate lamp
for use with a battery pack, inverters,
rechargeable unit (non-maintained);
• Normal luminaires with a separate lamp
for emergency use, fed from a central
battery system (non-
maintained)/(sustained luminaire);
• Normal luminaires fed from a central
power source (maintained/ non-
maintained).
5. Roadway lighting
The design of roadway lighting should be according
to BS 5489-3
xlix
. For lighting required for pumping
station roads, the selection of the suitable light
fittings, post heights and post spacing will be
according to the level of lux required. The light
fitting body and canopy material should be suitable
for the installation location and environmental
conditions. Usually, three types of lamp are
commonly used. These are; high-pressure sodium,
metal halide, and high-pressure mercury. The
installation of the fitting on the column can be on the
post top, bracket or side entry.
6. Bulk head
Bulk head light fittings are used at the entrance of
the pumping station building (located on top of the
door or at the side) as well as in substation entrance
doors and gates. The fitting can be suitable for
indoor or outdoor installation and should be IP65
with either a high pressure sodium or incandescent
lamp type).

7. Lighting design calculation:
The following formula is used to check the level of
lux provided and adjust the number of fittings to be
used. Professional software can be used for
increased accuracy and speed of design. The
following guide is given as an aid for the
experienced lighting engineer and not as a learning
guide for the novice engineer. The information
required to populate the formulae can be found in
manufacturer’s literature.
Internal Lighting (Lumen Method) Formula

Es = F x n x N x UF x MF
A
Equation 2.20.1
Es = Average illuminance (lux) of the plane
F = Initial bare lamp lumens flux (lumens)
n = Number of lamps per luminaire
N = Number of luminairies
UF = Utilisation factor
MF = Maintenance factor
A = Area (m2)
Calculation procedure
Calculate the room index (K), floor cavity index (CIf)
and ceiling cavity index (CFc).


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(K) = (LxW)/(L+W)hm
Equation 2.20.2

(CIf) OR (CFc) = L x W/(L+W)h
Equation 2.20.3
Where:
L = room length
W = room width
Hm = height of the luminaire plane above the
horizontal reference plane
H = depth of the cavity
Calculate the effective reflectance (REx) of the
ceiling, wall and floor cavity (from tables using
above calculated (CIx).
Determine the utilisation factor value (UF) using
luminaire manufacturer data sheets; room index and
effective reflectance (apply any correction factors).
Determine the maintenance factor (MF)
MF = LLMF x LSF x LMF x RSMF
Equation 2.20.4
Where:
LLMF = lamp lumen maintenance factor
LSF = lamp survival factor
LMF = luminaire maintenance factor
RSMF = room surface maintenance factor
Thus, the lighting design is determined as follows:
• Using the lumen method formula, calculate the
number of luminairies required (N);
• Determine the suitable layout;
• Check if the (spacing / height) ratio of the
layout is within the range according to UF;
• Check that if the proposed layout is does not
exceeding the maximum ratio limit;
• Calculate the luminance that will be achieved
by the final layout.
External and Roadway Lighting Calculation
The calculation for roadways can be carried
according to BS 5489-3
xlix
. Caution must be taken in
lamp post foundation design to ensure that the wind
effect on the post is fully considered.
The flood light calculation can be carried out using
the same formula applied for internal lighting
calculation with slight modification.
E = N x L x BF x WLFxMF
A
Equation 2.20.4
Where:
E = Illuminance required (lux)
L = Lamp output per lumens (lm)
BF = Beam factor number of lamps per
luminaire
N = Number of luminaries
WLF = waste light factor (usually considered
as
0.9)
MF = maintenance factor
A = area to be lighted (m2)

Light control: The control of the lighting system can
be provided by the following means to control the
operation of different lighting systems within the
pumping station:
• One-way light switches can be used for
controlling a lighting system in an area with a
single access, for example at the main access
door to the station;
• Two-way light switches can be used for
controlling a lighting system in an area with
multiple access and egress points;
• The automatic control of external lighting
systems can be achieved by two main
methods:

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a) Photocell controller for automatic dusk till
dawn control;
b) Time clock operation for full control of
when external lights are in operation.

2.21 Maintenance Access
Safe access should be provided to all equipment
and local control panels at all times.
Access walkways, platforms and stairs should be
designed so that no dismantling is required for
normal routine maintenance. Vertical access should
be by staircase so that tools and equipment can be
carried in and out safely. Ladder access should be
restricted to infrequent visual inspection points.
Access around equipment for operation should be
installed at a level where all the controls can be
reached and operated easily without excessive
stretching or bending and where all indicators can
be seen.
Access around equipment for maintenance and
repair should be installed at a level where all the
maintenance points can be reached, dismantled and
removed without excessive stretching or bending.
Particular attention should be paid to lifting gear
access and operation where heavy equipment is
involved.
Access below ground to dry wells should be by
staircase so that tools and equipment can be carried
in and out safely.
Permanent access to wet wells and screen
chambers should be provided, using stainless steel
or GRP to just above TWL to allow for cleaning. The
access arrangements should be designed such that
an operator could be rescued from the sump with a
safety harness and man-winch.
When designing access to equipment, careful
thought should be given to shipping routes for
removing equipment to a suitable position for further
work, or for removing from the pumping station
completely. Exit routes for equipment should not be
the same as for personnel access unless there is an
alternative escape route.
When the lifting gear has taken the weight of
equipment and the equipment is released from its
position, the clearance in the shipping route should
be large enough for the equipment to pass through
without rearrangement.
2.22 Gantry Cranes and
Lifting Facilities
Permanent or temporary lifting facilities should be
provided for equipment that can not be easily lifted.
Consideration should be given to the weight, shape
and position of the item to be lifted. As a guide lifting
facilities should be provided for anything over 25kg.
For long or heavy lifts, gantry cranes should be
powered in all motions. Trolley cranes should
generally be power lift with manual motion, but small
units should be manual on all motions.
Access must be provided to permanent lifting
equipment, particularly gantry cranes, for
maintenance as generally described in section 2.21.
The following types of lifting equipment are
available:
• Lifting Eye and Chain Block. Suitable for
single straight lifts only inside a building or dry
well. Not suitable for side forces, but may be
used in conjunction with other suitable lifting
eyes to swing a load sideways;
• Davit, Socket and Chain Block. Suitable for
most small single lifts i.e. submersible pumps
up to 250kg. Above this, the davit becomes too
heavy to be manhandled;
• Runway Beam, Trolley and Chain Block.
Suitable when there are a number of loads in a
straight line, or where a single load must
moved sideways. For heavy loads or long lifts,
the chain block and trolley should be electrically
powered;
• Overhead Gantry Crane. Suitable for
installations where there are dispersed or
heavy loads that must be moved in all
directions;
• Mobile Crane. Suitable for single heavy loads
outdoors which must be moved in all directions
i.e. large submersible pumps.


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Submersible pumps should be fitted with stainless
steel chains, with change-over rings every 1.0m,
and the lifting equipment should be fitted with a
change-over sling.
Location of lifting equipment
• Lifting equipment should be provided adjacent
to all heavy items that require lifting;
• Lifting equipment should be positioned to
provide a straight lift of the load and also be
able to lower the load directly to a suitable
setting down position;
• Where lifting through openings in floors, the
lifting gear should be positioned to allow a
direct single lift up through all floors without
moving the lifting point or rearranging the load.
Controls for Lifting Equipment
• Overhead electric cranes and chain blocks
should be provided with a low voltage pendant
control suspended from a glide track,
independent of the lifting block. The pendant
control should extend to within 500mm of the
operating floor, but not touch the floor;
• Electric chain blocks should be provided with a
low voltage pendant control suspended from
the block. The pendant control should extend to
within 500mm of the operating floor but not
touch the floor;
• Hand operating chains should extend to within
500mm of the operating floor but not touch the
floor;
• Long travel drive chains should be located to
avoid snagging, and allow the operator safe
passage;
• With the load hook in its highest position, if a
load chain touches the operating floor or any
item of plant, a chain collection box should be
fitted.
2.23 Ventilation, Odour
Control and Air
Conditioning
2.23.1 Ventilation
Ventilation of pumping stations is required to prevent
the accumulation of high levels of potentially
hazardous chemicals, and ensure that working
conditions meet health and safety requirements. UK
occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentrations
l

for hydrogen sulphide and other gases associated
with septic conditions are given in section 1.6 of this
manual.
Typical ventilation rates for odour containment in
pumping stations used in current operational
practice in Doha are given in Table 2.23.1.
Table 2.23.1 – Typical Ventilation Rates for
Odour Control in Pumping
Stations
Air changes per hour
Pumping station
(no man access)
One for local covers
12 for pumping
stations extracted
from close to the
sump and process
units
Pumping station
working area
(current
practice)
20 during man
access (initiated by
light switch)
Dry wells
(current
practice)
12
Separate screen
chamber
Passive ventilation
through carbon filter
(where there is no
other route for odour
escape)
Ventilation systems should be designed so that in
the event of a fire being detected in any area, all the
air conditioning equipment and ventilation systems
are shut down. All supply and exhaust ventilation
louvers should shut automatically to

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compartmentalise the buildings and below ground
chambers. This restricts the spread of the fire and
smoke, and ensures effective use of automatic fire
extinguishing systems.
Other points to consider include:
The air conditioning systems, ventilation fans and
odour control equipment should be run
simultaneously and ventilation fan louvers should
shut, when the fan stops;
Louvers should be sized to keep the air velocity
through them below 0.5m/s;
Air ducts should be designed to ensure the velocity
through them does exceed 10m/s in occupied areas;
Materials should be selected to limit the corrosion
effects of hydrogen sulphide (H2S).
Ventilation of Pump Rooms and Dry
Wells
Air supply should be provided by either two or three
duty fans and one standby fan, depending on the
size of the pump room.
Exhaust air should be removed by either two or
three duty fans and one standby fan, depending on
the size of the pump room.
The exhaust fans should have approximately 5%
less flow capacity than the air supply fans to keep
the building at a slight positive air pressure. This is
to avoid drawing unfiltered dust laden air into the
pump room which can drastically shorten the
equipment life.
Pump rooms and dry wells should typically have 12
air changes an hour for normal operation, increasing
to 16 air changes an hour during man entry. The
cable basement should be ventilated as part of the
pump room ventilation system.
Ventilation of Wet Areas - Pump Sumps &
Screen Chambers
Wet areas should normally be ventilated by air
extraction only, with a natural air supply to keep the
wet area under slightly negative pressure and avoid
releasing odours to the atmosphere.
Exhaust air should be removed by duty/standby
fans, the number and configuration depending on
the size of the wet areas. Each fan should have a
two-speed motor.
During man entry, the additional air supply should
be provided by the fans running at high speed.
The fans should be sized so that with all fans
running at high speed, the required air changes per
hour for man entry are achieved.
Ventilation rates should be designed to ensure a
maximum of 3ppm of H2S in the wet areas. The
system should be designed to achieve this with only
one fan operating.
Wet areas should typically have 12 air changes an
hour for normal operation, increasing to 20 air
changes an hour during man entry.
2.23.2 Odour Control
Air vented from pumping stations will in most cases
require odour treatment. In most cases, a two bed
(duty/standby) system using carbon regenerated
using alkali (caustic soda or potash) is preferred. At
larger pumping stations consideration may be given
to pre-treatment of strong sources using catalytic iron
filters.
Further details of requirements are given in Volume 5
Section 1.5. Reference should also be made to
Section 1.6 of this Volume
Typical conditions to be considered in the design of
the odour control unit are given in the table below.
Table 2.23.2 – Conditions to be Considered in
Odour Control Unit Design
Sewage temperature 25 – 35
o
C
Ambient temperature 0–50
o
C
Relative humidity Up to 100%
Temperature of air
vented from the
sewerage system to an
Odour Control Unit
Up to 30
o
C
Radiating surfaces
temperature
85
o
C maximum
Hydrogen sulphide from
below covers
250ppm


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Hydrogen sulphide with
workplace air
10ppm

2.23.3 Air Conditioning
The required air conditioning systems and
ventilation capacities are shown in the tables below.
Table 2.23.3 - Air Conditioning (AC) Systems
Location Air Condition system
Electric Switch Gear Dual Split AC unit system
Control Room Split AC unit system





Table 2.23.4 - Ventilation Capacities
Location Ventilation
(l/s)
per person
Ventilation
(l/s) per
sq.m.
Approximate
air changes
per hour. *
Electric
Switchgear
Room
- 0.8 1
Control
Room
10 1.3 2
Kitchen
and Toilet
- 10 8
Note: Figures extracted from BS 5720, Table 1.
*Depending on the dimensions of the rooms.
The designer shall assess the potential for corrosion
of A/C units, particularly from H2S, and ensure that
they are appropriately designed and located.
Air Conditioning of Electrical Switch Gear
Rooms
Electrical switchgear rooms should be completely
isolated from the remainder of the building for the
following reasons:
• The thermal loads are higher than elsewhere in
the building;
• In the event of a fire being detected the air
conditioning should be switched off to allow the
fire suppression equipment to operate
effectively.
Two split AC units working independently
(mechanically and electrically) of each other should
be used to air condition the room, with air diffusers
discharging horizontally towards the panels. Return
air should be sucked back by the split unit, via
receiving air diffusers located at evenly placed
points between the supply air diffusers, and fixed to
the ceiling.
Each split AC units should be rated at 50% above
the required capacity (i.e. 150% total), so that
should one unit fail, the other unit will provide 75%
of the required air conditioning capacity.
The required thermal load should be calculated on
the basis of peak conditions.
The required quantity of exhaust air should be
removed from electrical switchgear rooms to
atmosphere by a fan with an actuated louver.
Air inlet should be by natural supply through a
filtered and actuated louver.
In the event of a fire, the electrically actuated
louvers should be closed to seal electrical
switchgear rooms during the use of any fire
extinguishing system.

Air Conditioning of Control Rooms, Kitchens
and Toilets
A single split AC unit should be provided for air
conditioning the control room. No air conditioning
should be provided for the kitchen or toilet.
The kitchen and toilet areas should be air
conditioned by exhausting part of the control room
air through them.
Exhaust air in the kitchen and toilet areas should be
discharged outside the building. The fans should be
run continuously for the following reasons:
• To provide the required air changes for the
control room and kitchen;
• To keep the toilet and kitchen area ventilated.

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Air louvers should be fitted in the bottom of kitchen
and toilet doors.
2.24 Structural Design
General Design Requirements
Unless local design standards dictate otherwise, in
general, he design of concrete structures shall be in
accordance with BS 8110-1 “Structural Use of
Concrete”
li
and BS8007 “Design of Concrete
Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids”
lii
.
Likewise, the design of steel structures shall be in
accordance with BS5950-1 “Structural Use of
Steelwork in Buildings”. Local standards shall
govern if any conflict arises. All structures shall be
designed based on a ‘limit-states’ philosophy.
Unless required otherwise, all structures shall be
designed for a minimum service life of 60 years.
The designer shall prepare calculations for each
design package, including as a minimum the
following information:
• Description of the structure and design
methodology adopted;
• All assumptions made for design (i.e.
geotechnical parameters, loadings, etc);
• Standards, guidelines and specifications used
for design;
• Input and output from software where
appropriate.
2.24.1 Substructures
2.24.1.1 Thermal Crack Control
Requirements
Calculation of the reinforcement requirements for
control of early-age thermal cracking shall be in
accordance with BS 8007
lii
.
For the calculation of the likely maximum crack
spacing and the reinforcement ratio the following
formula shall be used:
( )
2 1
max
max
T T R
S
+
=
α
ϖ

Equation 2.24.1

Equation 2.24.2
Were:
ωmax = allowable crack width (0.2mm maximum)
Smax = likely crack spacing (mm)
R = restraint factor (0<R<0.5; to be taken as
0.5 for most structures)
α = co-efficient of thermal expansion (varies
between 10x10
-6
/
o
C – 12x10
-6
/
o
C)
T1 = fall in temperature between the
hydration peak and the ambient (
o
C)
T2 = ambient placing temperature (
o
C)
ρbar = reinforcement ratio (ρmin = 0.0035)
φbar = reinforcement diameter (mm)

Where the section thickness exceeds 500m, only
the outermost 250m of each face shall be used in
calculating reinforcement areas; however, the
design temperature T1 shall still be based on the
entire element thickness.
h<500mm
h/2

For h < 500mm assume each reinforcement face
controls h/2 depth of concrete
h ≥ 500mm
250mm
250mm

For h ≥ 500mm assume each reinforcement face
controls the outer 250mm depth of concrete. Ignore
any central core beyond these surface zones.
Given that thermal crack control requirements
determine the minimum limit of reinforcement,
particular care should be given to the adopted
values of T1 and T2. Factors including local site
conditions, concrete mix design, formwork type,
seasonal variations in ambient temperature,
distance from plant to site, etc shall all be taken into
account.
Considering the relatively high ambient
temperatures that may be encountered in the Qatar
region, consideration shall be given to limiting the
concrete placing temperature T2 to a value ranging
between 15
o
C and 30
o
C. Designers are referred to
max
2
67 . 0
S
bar
bar
φ
ρ =


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CIRIA Report No’s 91
liii
and 135
liv
for further
information on this subject.
Ground Investigation & Flotation
The designer shall have, at a minimum, an
understanding of the basic ground conditions likely
to be encountered on site, either from historical data
or a desk-top study. Preferably, the designer shall
obtain a Ground Investigative Report (GIR) from
suitably competent geotechnical engineers giving
more precise values and ground conditions. Data to
be considered includes ground level (GL), ground
water level (GWL), soil types, classification and
properties, allowable bearing capacities and a soil
chemical analysis.
Depending on the GWL and GL conditions,
buoyancy (or flotation) of the structure may govern
the section thickness. Flotation of all structures shall
be checked in accordance with BS 8007
lii
against
the anticipated GWL. In considering the flotation
calculations, the following methodology is
recommended:
• Calculate the volume of water displaced based
on external dimensions of the structure and the
GWL;
• Calculate the mass of the structure taking into
account construction assumptions (e.g. does
the site need to be de-watered until after the
roof has been placed? does the site need to be
de-watered until any mass concrete benching
has been placed?);
• Calculate the factor of safety to obtain 1.10 as
a minimum;
• Re-size any element thicknesses as required
(ensuring that structural requirements are still
maintained).
A factor of safety of 1.10 shall be achieved for both
temporary and permanent conditions. For the
flotation calculations the following concrete unit
weights are recommended:
Minimum Maximum
In-situ RC 22.5kN/m
3
23.5kN/m
3

Unreinforced 21.6kN/m
3
22.5kN/m
3


2.24.1.2 Structural Analysis
Loading
All liquid retaining structures are to be designed for
both the full and empty conditions, with the load
combinations arranged to give the most severe
combination likely to happen.
Both serviceability (SLS) and ultimate (ULS) load
conditions shall be considered. The following load
factors shall be adopted (unless local design codes
specify more onerous load factors) as per Table
2.24.1.
Table 2.24.1 – Serviceability (SL) and Ultimate
(ULS) Load Factors
Load SLS Factor ULS
Self Weight 1.0 1.4
Dead Loading 1.0 1.4
Retained Liquids 1.0 1.4
Retained Soils 1.0 1.4
Live Loads (incl.
surcharges)
1.0 1.6

In general the walls and base shall be checked
against the following load combination (where
appropriate):
• Internal hydrostatic pressure only (water-
tightness test before backfilling);
• External soil pressure only (backfilled soil but
no water);
• Hydrostatic uplift on base;
• Base ‘soft-spot’ capacity;
• Hydrostatic + soil pressure + uplift (normal
working conditions);
• Roof loading.
Where required, the structure shall be designed for
an appropriate wheel/vehicle live load. Vehicle live
loads shall be in accordance with local standards
and engineering judgement (where local standards
do not cater to vehicle loads then loading shall be in
accordance with BS 5400-2
lv
and BS6399-1
lvi
). A
minimum live load of 5kN/m
2
shall be adopted
regardless of code requirements.

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Elements shall be analysed in accordance with BS
8007
lii
, BS 8110-1
li
and established engineering
principles. Depending on the slab arrangement (i.e.
degree of restraint, span ratio’s, etc), bases and
walls may be considered as either one-way or two-
way spanning.
Where appropriate seismic loading shall be
considered in accordance with local design codes.
Base Slabs
Base slabs designed as one-way spanning shall be
designed for flexure in accordance with engineering
principles and the following formulae:
156 . 0
2
≤ =
cu
ULS
f bd
M
K
Equation 2.24.3
d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 ≤
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
¹
|

\
|
− + =
Equation 2.24.4
and
z f
M
A
sy
ULS
st
95 . 0
=
Equation 2.24.5
where:
MULS = design ultimate moment (kNm)
b = width of section (mm - typically taken as 1
m)
d = effective depth (mm)
fcu = concrete strength (N/mm
2
)
z = lever arm (mm)
Ast = area of required tension reinforcement
(mm
2
)
fsy = reinforcement strength (N/mm
2
)

With K ≤ 0.156, compression reinforcement is not
required. Designers are referred to BS8110-1
li
for
cases where compression reinforcement is required.
Base slabs designed as one-way spanning shall be
designed for shear in accordance with engineering
principles and the following formula:
( )
cu
v
f
d b
V
8 . 0 , N/mm 5
2
≤ = υ
Equation 2.24.6
where:
υ = design ultimate shear stress (N/mm
2
)
V = design ultimate shear force (kN)
bv = width of section (mm - typically taken as
1m)
d = effective depth (mm)
fcu = concrete strength (N/mm
2
)

Table 2.24.2 – Shear Stress and Rebar to be
provided
Shear Stress υ υυ υ
Form of shear
rebar to be
provided
Area of shear
rebar to be
provided
υ<0.5υc None Required -
0.5υc < υ<(υc +
0.4)
Minimum links in
areas where υ<υc
Asv ≥ 0.4bsv/0.95fsyv
(υc + 0.4) < υ<5
or 0.8√fcu
Links in any
combination
Asv ≥ bsv(υ-
υc)/0.95fsyv

Shear reinforcement shall be provided based on the
following:
• The critical shear stress uc shall be determined
in accordance with BS 8110-1
li
;
• Base slabs designed as two-way spanning
shall be designed for flexure in accordance with
engineering principles and the following
formula:
2
x sx sx
nl m β = &
2
x sy sy
nl m β =
Equation 2.24.7
Values of βsx and βsy shall be obtained from
Table 2.24.3.
• Base slabs designed as two-way spanning
shall be designed for shear in accordance with
engineering principles and the following
formulae:
x vx vx
nl β υ = &
x vy vy
nl β υ =
Equation 2.24.7


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Values of βvx and βvy shall be obtained from
Table 2.24.4.
A nominal ‘soft spot’ diameter shall be
assumed in the subgrade (unless local
conditions preclude this from occurring) and
the base checked accordingly.

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Table 2.24.3 – Base Slab Flexure Coefficients
Edge Condition
Short Span Co-efficient (β ββ βsx)
Long Span Co-
efficient (β ββ βsy) for
all values of Ly/Lx
Values of Ly/Lx
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 ≥2.0
1. Four edges continuous 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.035 0.037 0.040 0.044 0.048 0.024
2. 1 short edge discontinuous 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.038 0.041 0.043 0.047 0.050 0.028
3. 1 long edge discontinuous 0.028 0.035 0.041 0.046 0.050 0.054 0.061 0.066 0.028
4. 2 short edges
discontinuous
0.034 0.038 0.040 0.043 0.045 0.047 0.050 0.053 0.034
5. 2 long edges discontinuous 0.034 0.046 0.056 0.065 0.072 0.078 0.091 0.100 0.034
6. 2 adjacent edges
discontinuous
0.035 0.041 0.046 0.051 0.055 0.058 0.065 0.070 0.035
7. 3 edges discontinuous
(1 long edge continuous)
0.043 0.049 0.053 0.057 0.061 0.064 0.069 0.074 0.043
8. 3 edges discontinuous
(1 short edge continuous)
0.043 0.054 0.064 0.072 0.078 0.084 0.096 0.105 0.043
9. 4 edges discontinuous 0.056 0.066 0.074 0.081 0.087 0.093 0.103 0.111 0.056

Table 2.24.4 – Base Slab Shear Coefficients
Edge Condition
Short Span Co-efficient (β ββ βvx)
Long Span Co-
efficient (β ββ βvy) for
all values of Ly/Lx
Values of Ly/Lx
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 ≥2.0
1. Four edges continuous 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33
2. 1 short edge discontinuous 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.36
3. 1 long edge discontinuous 0.36 0.40 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.36
4. 2 short edges
discontinuous
0.40 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.52 0.54 0.26
5. 2 long edges discontinuous 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.47 0.40
6. 2 adjacent edges
discontinuous
0.40 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.57 0.60 0.40
7. 3 edges discontinuous
(1 long edge continuous)
0.45 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.29
8. 3 edges discontinuous
(1 short edge continuous)
0.29 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.48 0.45
9. 4 edges discontinuous 0.33 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.33


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Walls
Walls may adopt vertical, horizontal or two-way
spanning action. Walls may be analysed by first
principles, design charts or software. Earth
pressures shall be calculated using Rankine’s
theory. At-rest earth pressures shall be used for
structural design. The value of ko will vary according
to site conditions but a minimum value of ko = 0.5
shall be adopted. Surface surcharging shall be
allowed for (typical values range between 5-
10kN/m
2
), as shall construction and permanent live
loads.
φ
φ
sin 1
sin 1
+

=
a
k Active

Equation 2.24.9
φ
φ
sin 1
sin 1

+
=
p
k Passive

Equation 2.24.10
) 5 . 0 ( sin 1 design for k rest At
o
= − = − φ

Equation 2.24.11

S
u
r
c
h
a
r
g
e
C
o
m
p
a
c
t
i
o
n
H
y
d
r
o
s
t
a
t
i
c
S
o
i
l
kqsurch kqcomp γwHw kγsH
s
¦------------------ where required -----------------¦

Where the structural arrangement calls for internal
walls, these walls shall be checked for a full
hydrostatic head against one side only (representing
a full chamber on one side, an empty chamber on
the other).
Where designed as vertical cantilevers, walls shall
be checked for deflection in accordance with
BS8110-1
li
span-depth criteria.
Roof Slabs
Roof slabs shall generally be designed in a similar
fashion to base slabs, however, they should be
considered as simply supported with limited fixity
(and hence moment transfer) at the supports.
Particular care shall be given to roofs subject to
vehicle loading.
Design Software
Slab and wall elements may also be designed using
appropriate commercial software (e.g. ROBOT
Millennium, STRAND 7, STAADPro, Microstran V8,
etc), either as 2D, or preferably 3D, models.
Appropriate spring elements shall be used to
represent the soil stiffness. Designers should refer
to the program user manuals for assistance with
design software.
Foundations and Settlement
Where an interface between a structure (be it above
ground, partially buried or completely buried) and
the underlying ground exists, there is said to be soil-
structure interaction. The actual behaviour of
structures and soil-structure interaction is complex
and leads to some simplification of assumptions in
order to obtain a design.
A fundamental design concept is the selection of
either a rigid structure or a flexible structure. A
flexible structure will be able to tolerate a degree of
differential settlement by the basic arrangement of
the structure, the nature of its materials and by the
inclusions of movement joints. Conversely, a rigid
structure is designed to neglect any differential
settlement by having sufficient strength to span
across any loss of ground support. Factors to
consider include the relative settlements likely to
occur (i.e. immediate and long-term), any history of
previous soil loading (i.e. over- consolidation) and
the non-homogenous content of most soils.
The support given by the subgrade is often modelled
as springs of varying stiffness (with the stiffness
based on geotechnical parameters), and base slabs
may occasionally be designed as beams on elastic
foundations. This is a time-consuming and
complicated procedure, and many design software
programs are ideally suited to this task (although it
should be remembered that any software output is
only as good as its input).

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As stated, the analysis and consideration of any soil-
structure interaction is a complex affair, and in part
depends on a degree of experience. Designers are
strongly recommended to consult geotechnical
engineers and to refer to specialist literature such as
“Soil-structure interaction – The real behaviour of
structures”
lvii
for further information on this subject.
Ground movement leading to differential settlement
can cause severe cracking and leakage from liquid
retaining structures, and as a general rule they
should be designed as rigid structures. Where
appropriate the design bearing pressure shall be
calculated and checked against the allowable
bearing capacity. If required, measures shall be
taken to provide suitable foundations such as piling
or other ground improvement techniques -
consultation with suitably competent geotechnical
engineers is strongly recommended. A maximum
differential settlement value of 20–25mm should be
adopted.
Where piled foundations are required, the design
ultimate resistance of a single end-bearing pile shall
be determined from the following formula:
b b s s
A f A f P
*
_
* *
+ =
Equation 2.24.12
where:
P* = design ultimate resistance (kN)
f*s = average ultimate skin resistance of
pile shaft
(kN/m
2
)
As = surface area of pile shaft (m
2
)
f*b = net ultimate bearing resistance (kN/m
2
)
Ab = bearing area of base (m
2
)

For elevated structures more traditional foundations
may be required. Examples include:
• Pad (isolated) footings;
• Combined footings;
• Strip footings.

Simple, concentrically loaded pad (isolated) footings
shall be designed in accordance with engineering
principles and the following methodology:
• Determine required size of footing based on
allowable bearing capacity (SLS) and adopt a
suitable thickness;
• Design for flexure (ULS) taking a critical section
at the face of the column, designed as a
cantilever;
• Design for shear (ULS) taking a critical face
located distance ‘d’ from the column face;
• Design for punching shear (ULS), adopting a
shear perimeter of 4(column width + 3d);
• Adjust footing thickness as required.

For eccentric column loading and other foundation
types designers are referred to appropriate
literature.
Structures shall be founded on a layer of suitably
compacted subgrade material, a 50–100mm blinding
layer, and a suitable slip membrane.
Concrete Slab
Blinding Layer & Slip Membrane
Subgrade

Movement Joints
Where effective means of avoiding differential
settlement or excessive cracking can not be
avoided, then consideration shall be given to the
provision of movement joints at suitable locations.
The location of construction joints shall be specified
by the designer and marked on drawings. Full
structural continuity is assumed at construction
joints, with reinforcement fully continuous across the
joint. Conventional construction techniques should
be followed for all construction joints (i.e. scabble
concrete surface to an acceptable depth, remove all
loose debris, etc).
Movement joints may consist of the following:
• Expansion Joint - No restraint to movement,
can freely accommodate either contraction or
expansion;
• Complete Contraction Joint - No restraint to
movement, freely accommodates contraction;
• Partial Contraction Joint - Partial restraint of
movement, partial contraction allowance;


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• Sliding Joint - Allows two structural members to
slide against each other with minimal restraint.
The use of water-stops and sealing compounds is
essential for movement joints. Due care and
consideration shall be given to the most appropriate
product utilised.

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Table 2.24.5 -Typical Allowable Bearing Pressures
Type of Ground
Bearing Pressure
Type of Ground
Bearing Pressure
kN/m
2
tons/ft
2
kN/m
2
tons/ft
2

Clay – Soft < 75 < 0.75 Chalk - Hard Sound 600 6
- Firm 75-150 0.75-1.5 Limestone – Soft 600 6
- Stiff 150-300 1.5 – 3 Shale & Mudstone
- Very Stiff 300-600 3 – 6 - Soft 600-1000 6 - 10
Sand – Loose < 100 < 1 - Hard 2000 20
- Medium Dense 100-300 1 – 3 Sandstone – Soft 2000 20
- Compact 300+ 3+ Schist, Slate 3000 30
Gravel & Sandy Gravel Sandstone, Limestone
- Loose < 200 < 2 - Hard 4000 40
- Medium Dense 200-600 2 – 6 Igneous Rock - Sound 10000 100
- Compact 600+ 6+

Construction Material 28-day Cube Strength Max. Bearing Pressure under uniform loading
Plain Concrete N/mm
2
lb/in
2
MN/m
2
Lb/in
2

Max. Bearing Pressure under Eccentric Load
= 1.25 x Uniform Pressure
- 1:4:8 8.6 1250 1.7 250
- 1:3:6 11.5 1650 2.4 350
- 1:2:4 21.0 3000 5.3 760
Max. Bearing Pressure , Concentrated Load
= 1.50 x Uniform Pressure
- 1:1.5:3 25.5 3750 6.5 950
- 1:1:2 30.0 4500 7.6 1140


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Retaining Walls
Where required, retaining walls shall be designed in
a similar fashion to the walls of liquid retaining
structures. Earth pressures shall be calculated using
Rankine’s theory. At-rest earth pressures shall be
used for structural design. The value of ko will vary
according to site conditions but a minimum value of
ko = 0.5 shall be adopted. Surface surcharging shall
be allowed for (typical values range between 5-
10kN/m
2
), as shall construction and permanent live
loads.
Global stability of the retaining walls shall also be
considered (i.e. sliding failure, overturning failure,
bearing capacity failure, etc).
Concrete
Concrete mix design shall be in accordance with BS
8500
lviii
or local standards, with an appropriate
exposure class selected to meet the chemical
environment conditions of the ground. Concrete
shall have as a minimum a 28-day characteristic
cube strength of 35N/mm
2
. A minimum cement
content of 325kg/m
3
and a maximum, water-cement
ratio of 0.55 shall also be maintained.
Given that control of cracking from thermal effects
often governs the reinforcement requirements for
water retaining structures, consideration should be
given to the availability and use of blended cement
mixes. The inclusion of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) or
ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) can
significantly reduce the effects of hydration
temperature rise and hence reinforcement
requirements. Designers are referred to CIRIA
Report No 91
liii
(particularly Tables 5 and 6) for the
use of blended concrete mixes.
It should be noted that natural conditions in the
Middle East, both above and below ground, are
often of an aggressive nature. The climate can
significantly affect above and below ground concrete
due to the high ambient temperatures accelerating
chemical attack and physical degradation. The
existence of soluble salts (mainly sulphate or
chlorites) can be very detrimental to concrete, and
the designer shall take all appropriate measures
should these chemicals be detected in the soil.
Factors to be considered shall include:

• Aggressive ground water;
• Contaminated aggregates;
• Brackish water;
• Rapid drying of concrete.

In these situations the designer shall follow the
recommendations made in BS 8500-1
lviii
and BRE
Special Digest 1
lix
.
Reinforcement
Reinforcement shall comply with BS 4449 or local
standards. The provisions of section 7 of BS 8110-1
shall apply. High-yield reinforcement of between
400–500N/mm
2
characteristic strength shall be
adopted throughout.
Cover to Reinforcement
The nominal cover of concrete for all steel shall be a
minimum of 40mm in accordance with BS 8007
lii
.
This may need to be increased depending on local
soil conditions.
2.24.2 Superstructures
Portal Frame Structures
Portal frame type structures are used extensively for
framing of single-story buildings. They offer cost
advantages over other framing systems for short to
medium span structures in addition to a low
structural depth, clean appearance and relatively
easy maintenance of structural elements. A further
benefit is the relative ease with which overhead
gantry and monorail cranes can be fitted.
Portal frames are readily designed and constructed
from either steel or concrete. External cladding
ranges from masonry to steel sheeting to
transparent plastics, and can be either structural or
non-structural.
Regardless of the material adopted for construction,
the same basic design methodology shall be
adopted.
Load Combinations
Both serviceability (deflection and vibration) and
ultimate (strength, stability and fatigue) limit state
load conditions shall be considered, with the various
load combinations arranged to give the most severe
combination likely to happen.

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Where appropriate, seismic loading shall be
considered in accordance with local design codes.
The load factors shown in Table 2.24.6 shall be
adopted (unless local design codes specify more
onerous load factors).


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Wind Loads
The calculation of wind loads will predominantly
depend on local site conditions and a localised
design standard. The majority of design codes used
world-wide will include a simplified procedure for
determining the wind forces on relatively small
buildings, with limitations placed on the height, roof
area and slope, and terrain factor. These simplified
methods will give a quick, if somewhat conservative
pressure; hence most codes also make provisions
for a more detailed analysis. These detailed
procedures are often tedious to perform, and lend
themselves readily to spreadsheets or other
software.
As the wind forces and pressures depend on local
conditions the designer shall adopt any and all
recommendations made in local design standards
and codes. The strict use of BS 6399-2
lx
is not
recommended, as it is tailored to British
requirements, however, the design procedure as
described in BS 6399-2 could be used provided
local wind speeds and conditions were adopted.
Dead Loads
Dead loads comprise the self-weight of the structure
and any permanently fixed loads from non-structural
elements. Some common unit weights of materials
are given in Table 2.24.7.
Imposed (Live) Loads
Imposed (or live) loads will be determined from the
intended function of the building. For the type of
buildings that could reasonably be expected to be
found at water or sewerage treatment plants, the live
loads will most likely be either human occupation
(e.g. office facilities), various plant loadings (e.g.
pump, control units, etc) or overhead gantry or
monorail cranes for lifting facilities. Designers are
referred to local standards or specific manufacturer
data for plant loading. BS 6399-1
lvi
provides some
recommendations for imposed loads, as listed in
Table 2.24.8.
Crane Loads
The design of steel crane gantry beams for
overhead cranes presents some specific problems
that need to be carefully considered. The design of
crane beams differs from the design of floor beams
in the following ways:
• The loads are moving;
• Lateral loading is usually involved;
• The magnitude of loading depends on the type
of crane (i.e. either electric or hand operated);
• Localised stresses occur in the web at the top
flange junction;
• Lateral buckling (twisting) needs to be
considered
• Fatigue assessment may be required.

As the crane operation is not a steady-state
operation, there are also significant dynamic effects
to be considered. This is usually done by applying
dynamic load multipliers to the calculated static
loads.
Designers are recommended to follow the rules set
out in BS 2573-1
lxi
and to consult local design
guides and specialist literature for the design of
crane beams.
Structural Design
Structural design of simple framed buildings shall
generally follow the methodology below:
• Calculate all the various loads and arrange into
required combinations (paying particular
attention to the wind loading combinations);
• Design the rafter elements;
• Design the column elements;
• Design the connections (including column base
connections);
• Design the cladding;
• Design the longitudinal bracing as required.

In general, structures should be considered as
having pinned feet (i.e. column base plates
incapable of transferring moments).
Generic Design Formulae
Simple portal frame structures also lend themselves
readily to be designed using generic formula, which
depend on the relative structural stiffness of the
column and rafter elements. Some generic formulas
are shown in Figure 2.24.1, based on pinned feet.
For further generic formula (including fixed feet
design) designers are referred to Reynolds
“Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 10th
Ed.”
lxii


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Table 2.24.6 – Load Factors for Load Combinations
Load Combination Ultimate Limit State (ULS) Serviceability Limit State (SLS)
Dead Live Wind Dead Live Wind
Load Combination 1 1.4 1.6 - 1.0 1.0 -
Load Combination 2 1.4 - 1.4 1.0 - 1.0
Load Combination 3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

Dead Live Crane Dead Live Crane
Vert. Horiz Vert. Horiz
Crane Combination 1 1.2 1.4 1.4 - 1.0 1.0 1.0 -
Crane Combination 2 1.2 1.4 - 1.4 1.0 1.0 - 1.0
Crane Combination 3 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0


Table 2.24.7 – Common Unit Weights of Materials
Material Unit Weight Material Unit Weight
kN/m
2
kN/m
3
kN/m
2
kN/m
3

Concrete Gypsum plasterboard 0.115
- Unreinforced 22.0 (12mm thick)
- Reinforced 24.0 Plaster render
Concrete Masonry 24.0 - Lime, 20mm tk 0.380
Bricks – Structural 22.6 - Cement, 20mm tk 0.450
- Clay 18.9 - Gypsum, 12mm tk 0.220
- Hollow clay 11.5 Polyester corrugated 0.020
Metal Cladding Sheets
- Aluminium 0.038 Thermal insulation 0.010
- Galv. Steel 0.050 (fibreglass bats)


Table 2.24.8 – Recommendations for Imposed (Live) Loads
Type of Activity Examples of Specific use UDL (kN/m
2
) Concentrated Load (kN)
Office and Work areas
Offices for general use 2.5 2.7
Factories, workshops and similar 5.0 4.5
Catwalks - 1.0 at 1m ctrs
Balconies 4.0 1.5/m run
Warehousing and Storage areas
General areas for static equipment 2.0 1.8
Plant rooms, boiler rooms, etc 7.5 4.5
(including weight of equipment)


Parking for cars, vans, etc (<2500 kg gross) 2.5 9.0




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L
b
b =
1

h
f
f =
1

s I
h I
k
1
2
1
=
h
L
k =
2

3 3
1 1
2
3
1
+ + + = k f f k


( )
3
1
2
4
65 . 0 1
hk
f wL
H H
E A
+
= − =
V
A
= V
E
= 0.5wL M
B
= M
D
= -H
A
h


( )
3
2
1 1 1 1
2
8
2 4 3 6
hk
b f b f wb
H H
E A
− − +
= − =
L
wb
V
A
2
2
= M
B
= M
D
= -H
A
h


( )
3
1 1 1 1
4
3 4 6 6
k
f b f b Pb
H H
E A
− + −
= − =
L
Pb
V
A
= M
B
= M
D
= -H
A
h


( )
3
1 1
6
12 6 5
k
f k wh
H
A
+ +
= H
E
= H
A
- wh
L
wh
V V
E A
2
2
= − =
2
2
wh
h H M
E D
− =
M
B
= H
A
h

( )
3
2
1 1 1
2
625 . 0 5 . 2 3
k
f f k wf
H
A
+ + +
=
( )
L
f h wf
V V
E A
2
2 +
= − =
M
B
= -H
A
h M
D
= H
E
h H
E
= H
A
- wf
Figure 2.24.1 – Generic Formula for Portal Frames based on Pinned Feet

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Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 95
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal









F = Total Load
I
AB
= I
CD
L I
h I
K
AB
BC
= k
1
=K+2
k
2
=6K+1 k
3
=2K+3 k
4
=3K+1






3
4hk
FL
H H
D A
= =
2
F
R R
D A
= =
0 = =
D A
M M
3
4k
FL
h H M M
A C B
= = =






3
8
3
hk
FL
H H
D A
= =
2
F
R R
D A
= =
0 = =
D A
M M
3
8
3
k
FL
h H M M
A C B
= = =








|
|
¹
|

\
| −
=
3
3
6
8 k
K k F
H
A

A D
H F H − =

L
Fh
R R
A D
2
= − =
3
1
8
3
2 k
Fhk
H
F
h M
D B
=
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
0 = =
D A
M M
|
|
¹
|

\
| +
= =
3
3
2
8 k
K k Fh
h H M
D C





2
F
H H
D A
= =
L
Fh
R R
A D
= − =
0 = =
D A
M M
2
Fh
M M
C B
= =
Figure 2.24.1 – Generic Formula for Portal Frames based on Pinned Feet
L
h
A
B C
D
F
F
F
F


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Foundations and Floor Slabs
The designer shall have, at a minimum, an
understanding of the basic ground conditions likely
to be encountered on site, either from historical data
or a desk-top study. Preferably, the designer shall
obtain a Ground Investigative Report (GIR) from
suitably competent geotechnical engineers giving
more precise values and ground conditions. Data to
be considered includes ground level (GL), ground
water level (GWL), soil types, classification and
properties, allowable bearing capacities and a soil
chemical analysis.
The analysis and consideration of any soil-structure
interaction (i.e. any interface between a structure
(be it above ground, partially buried or completely
buried) and the underlying ground) is a complex
affair, and in part depends on a degree of
experience. Factors to consider include the relative
settlements likely to occur (i.e. immediate and long-
term), any history of previous soil loading (i.e. over-
consolidation) and the non-homogenous content of
most soils.
Designers are strongly recommended to consult
geotechnical engineers and to refer to specialist
literature such as “Soil-structure interaction – The
real behaviour of structures”
lvii
for further information
on this subject.
By their inherent nature steel portal frames with
profiled sheet cladding may be classified as
somewhat flexible structures, able to tolerate
relatively large differential settlements between
adjacent frames.
Concrete frames though, with masonry panels, are
not so flexible and ground movement leading to
differential settlement could cause severe cracking
in the façade. There is also the strong possibility
that shrinkage will occur between the frames and
masonry panels, although joints at these positions
can alleviate this problem.
The design bearing pressure shall be calculated and
checked against the allowable bearing capacity, and
if required measures shall be taken to provide
suitable foundations such as piling or other ground
improvement techniques - consultation with suitably
competent geotechnical engineers is strongly
recommended. A maximum differential settlement
value of 20–25mm should be adopted.
For a lightly loaded industrial building that might
reasonably be expected to be used for sewerage
and water treatment plants Table 2.24.9 is a good
guide to the nominal slab thickness required.
Table 2.24.9 – Nominal Slab Thickness Required
for Lightly Loaded Industrial
Buildings
Typical Application
Classification
of Subgrade
Floor Slab
(mm)
Light industrial
premises with live
loading up to 5kN/m
2

Poor 150
Medium / Good 125
Medium industrial
premises with live
loading between 5 and
20kN/m
2

Poor 200
Medium / Good 175

Where dynamic loading (i.e. from forklifts, trucks,
etc) is applicable, thicknesses will be determined
from calculating flexural tensile stresses in the slab.
Designers are referred to specialist literature for the
design of floor slabs with dynamic loads.
Reinforcement in industrial floor slabs is located
near the top surface to control crack width
development. It does not increase the flexural
strength of the slab. For a jointed reinforced
industrial floor, reinforcement ratios of between
0.1% to 0.3% of the cross-sectional area shall
normally be sufficient. This reinforcement most often
takes the form of steel mesh.
Joints are required to control cracking that occurs
within a slab. Three main types of joints are used for
industrial floor slabs:
• Contraction Joints - Allow horizontal movement
of the slab. They are provided transversely to
the direction of placing, and should be spaced
at maximum centres of 15m. Contraction joints
may be either plain (unreinforced) or reinforced
with steel dowels or shear keys, dowels being
the more common method;
• Construction Joints - Transverse construction
joints generally occur at unplanned locations
(such as may be caused by adverse weather or
equipment failure), or planned locations (such
as the last concrete pour at the end of the day’s
work). Longitudinal construction joints are used
to form the edges of each pour;

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• Isolation Joints - Isolation joints permit
horizontal and vertical movement between
adjacent elements (e.g. between the floor slab
and column pad foundations, etc).
2.25 Site Boundary
Wall/Fence
The demarcation of site boundaries is generally only
required for the compound for above ground
installations, such as pumping stations, storage
tanks and treatment plants.
The boundary structure must provide adequate
security to prevent, or at least discourage
unauthorised access to the site. For this reason a
boundary wall is preferable to a fence, which should
only be used to provide temporary security, for
example during construction or maintenance. The
wall should be of solid block or concrete
construction, without decorative openings.
Sewerage and drainage installations can be subject
to public concern, and it is therefore important that
they are compatible with their surroundings as far as
possible.
Since the boundary wall is the most visible part of
the installation, its general appearance needs to
blend in “naturally” with the neighbourhood. The wall
height, architectural features, colour and finishes
should therefore match those of the surroundings,
consistent with the need to provide security to the
site.
The boundary wall and gate details will be subject to
planning approval, along with the buildings and
structures within the compound. The access gates
shall be located and sized to avoid obstruction from
the public.
Typical boundary wall, fence and gate details are
contained in the Standard Drawings in Volume 8.
2.26 Site Facilities
The extent and layout of site facilities are to a great
extent controlled by the available land, and the
purpose and location of the site. Site facilities should
be agreed before design is undertaken, but typical
requirements for urban sites would be:
• Stand-by generator plinth (or room for major
installations), water tank and hydrants for
washdown of vehicles and equipment, surge
suppression installation, guardhouse, car ports;
• For remote locations, canteen, living
accommodation and facilities for worship
should be considered.
Site layouts should provide adequate space for
access by operation and maintenance vehicles; with
suitable paved turning areas to allow vehicles to turn
and to pass each other within the compound.
Access roads and paved areas are to be provided
for tankers, cranes, lorries and mobile generators.
Space shall be provided for doors to buildings to
open fully, and for vehicles to enter buildings for
handling of equipment.
Road design and construction should be in
accordance with the Qatar Highway Design Manual,
with all access roads and hardstandings paved and
drained. Open areas should have gravel finish to
discourage weed growth.
The site layout shall accommodate the access
requirements for all utilities, including the electricity
supplier.
Any potential source of odour nuisance is to be
located a distance of at least 15m for any habitable
building.
The site drainage system shall discharge to the
public system where possible, or to a SW pumping
station on the site.
Typical details for site facilities are contained in
Volume 8 - Standard Drawings.


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3 Documentation
3.1 Reference Standards
A full list of standards used in all of the manuals for
design purposes is included in Volume 1 - Foreword.
References used in this Volume are included at the
end of the text.
3.2 House Connection
Survey
When designing new sewerage systems to serve
existing developments, it is necessary to establish
the location of connection points from the existing
buildings.
The first stage is to establish the number and
locations of properties to be served by the sewerage
system. This can be done by reference to mapping
and aerial photographs where these are available.
Using this information, the numbers of properties
can be established, including those within
compounds.
An external survey of the buildings within the
property boundary must then be undertaken to
establish the location of the discharge points from
each building. Where large and complex buildings
are involved, it may be necessary to undertake an
internal survey to determine the facilities within the
building that contribute to the sewerage system.
Individual buildings should be drained, either in
parallel or in sequence, to a terminal manhole that is
then connected to the main sewer. Please also
refer to Vol 1 Section 3.3.1. An example house
survey proforma is appended in Vol 1, Appendix 1.
3.3 Building Permit
Please refer to Volume 1, Section 4.6 for a
description of the procedures to be followed in this
respect.

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4 Health and Safety
Please refer to Volume 1 sections 4.9 and 4.10 for
more detailed coverage relating to this subject.
Health and Safety (H&S) design considerations for
foul sewerage are not exclusive or prescriptive. In
keeping with the DA policy, H&S is paramount in all
aspects of infrastructure design and operation. The
designer must be aware of the implications of design
decisions on not only the finished product, but also
on its buildability, construction stage safety,
operating life and decommissioning at the end of its
working life.
For this reason, it is essential that the procedures for
production of a Hazard and Risk analysis are carried
out, and incorporated into the pre-tender H&S plan.
No design projects will be accepted as completed by
DA without such steps having been taken, and
provision of paperwork to demonstrate this.
Considerations in design to mitigate risks will include
but not be limited to:
• The designer must design out the need for
entry into all confined spaces wherever
possible;
• Safe access should be provided to all plant
requiring maintenance;
• All above ground installations must be fenced
off and made inaccessible to the general
public. Security arrangements must be
designed in consultation with the Operation &
Maintenance (O&M) section of the DA;
• Craneage or mobile lifting facilities must be
provided for all heavy equipment;
• Stairways should be equipped with handrailing
and toe plates in accordance with the relevant
BS;
• Tripping hazards should be avoided, likewise
overhead obstructions;
• Barriers should be provided to prevent falling
from height;
• All hazards should be signposted;
• Gas monitoring equipment and alarms to be
designed as hard wired for all confined spaces
requiring access;
• Adequate lighting to be provided wherever
access is required;
• Welfare facilities should be provided to allow
operatives to clean up after maintenance work;
• Manholes must be equipped with covers which
are secure yet can be easily removed for
maintenance purposes;
• Covers should be a minimum size to allow
operatives wearing breathing apparatus. A
minimum of 675mm square should be
appropriate in most cases, but will depend
upon the apparatus used by the O&M section
of the DA;
• Flow isolation facilities shall be provided;
• Access to long tunnels to allow desilting
equipment as necessary;
• Zoning classification should be established for
all work carried out on existing and proposed
installations.


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5 Trenchless
Technologies
The following is an overview of trenchless
excavation techniques generally suitable for ground
conditions in Doha. A brief summary of the typical
purpose and diameter range appropriate for each
technique is presented at the beginning of each
overview. The techniques reviewed all relate to
installation of new pipes. There is also extensive
information available relating to sewer rehabilitation
and renovation, but this relates more to the
maintenance of older sewerage infrastructure. As
the majority of work in Qatar relates to new build,
the following section contains new build information
only. Reference documents relating to this subject
include the WRC Sewer Rehabilitation Manual
lxiii

and the Trenchless Techniques Review
lxiv
. This area
of the market is under continual review and new
techniques are regularly introduced.
Trenchless methods considered cover pipes ranging
up to 1000mm in diameter.
The most suitable methods (microtunnelling and
pipejacking) for ground conditions in Doha are
presented in greater detail.
A general guide to designing structural elements is
also given in the latter part of this section.
All tables and figures are presented in the end of the
section.
5.1 Alternative Techniques
5.1.1 Pipe jacking (Open/Close
Face)
Purpose: New Installation, Tunnelling
Diameter Range: 900mm and above
Pipe jacking involves the jacking of a tunnelling
shield and/or a complete length of tunnel lining into
the ground from a drive shaft. High pressure
hydraulic jacks are used to push the pipes through
the ground behind a shield, while excavation takes
place within the shield. Further lengths of pipe are
added at the drive shaft and the process continues
by pushing or jacking the complete string forward. It
is important to keep the string of pipes moving
forward and to maintain lubrication, to ensure that
the pipes stay buoyant during jacking.
A drive shaft is required, the dimensions of which
vary according to the specific requirements of each
situation. A thrust wall is constructed to provide a
reaction to the jacking forces. The initial alignment
of the pipe jack is obtained by positioning guide rails
within the thrust pit on which the pipes are laid. To
maintain alignment accuracy a steerable shield is
used which must be frequently checked for line and
level from a fixed reference. Upon completion of the
drive length, the shield is recovered at the reception
shaft, leaving a complete installed product pipeline.
For long lengths of pipeline, intermediate jacking
stations may be necessary to allow sequential
thrusting of sections of the pipeline. Drives of
several hundred metres are attainable using this
technique.
Spoil from the excavated face may be removed by a
variety of means including auger flight, slurry
pumping and on larger man-entry constructions, by
skips, trucks and conveyers.
Normally the size of tunnel is of man-entry and
above, i.e. greater than 1000mm. If the internal
diameter is less than 1000mm and is conducted and
steered by remote control, the process is generally
classified as Microtunnelling.
Guidance on land requirements for shaft
construction for this technique is given in Table
5.1.1.
This technique, when operating in the closed mode
is generally suitable for ground conditions in Doha.
Advantages:
• Minimal surface disruption;
• Noise level and traffic disruption are minimised
compared to conventional trenching;
• Compact size operation.
Limitations:
• Thorough site investigations are essential;
• The impact of varying soil properties can be
significant;

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• Difficult to deal with boulders occupying a
significant percentage of the face area;
• Operators must be experienced and familiar
with the machine and its expected performance
in the expected ground conditions.


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5.1.2 Microtunnelling (Closed
Face)
Purpose: New Installation, Tunnelling
Diameter Range: 300–2400mm
Microtunnelling is a method of installing pipes of up
to 2400mm diameter. This is done using a
steerable, remote controlled tunnelling machine,
which is pushed horizontally into the ground from
the drive shaft by a set of hydraulic jacks, in a
jacking frame. When the tunnelling machine has
entered the ground, a pipe is placed in the jacking
frame behind the tunnelling machine and this is
jacked forward, pushing the tunnelling machine
ahead of it. This process continues until the
tunnelling machine arrives at the reception shaft,
leaving behind a length of installed pipe.
Microtunnelling systems fall into two main categories
corresponding to the spoil transport method. One
system uses a flight of augers running through the
newly installed pipeline to transport spoil from the
cutting head to the drive shaft. The spoil is then
collected in a skip.
Alternatively, water or bentonite may be used to
convert the soil into slurry at the cutting face. The
slurry, which is water based, is then pumped to the
surface along pipes within the product pipeline being
jacked, where it enters a slurry processing plant.
The spoil is removed and the slurry is recycled back
to the cutting face. The slurry system can be used
to control external groundwater by balancing the
slurry pressure so that it offsets the groundwater
pressure. The slurry system is generally more
expensive than the auger system, and utilises more
space on site.
The choice of system depends upon the soil type
that is being excavated, and the distance to be
tunnelled. The auger system is preferred for short
drives since the removal rate is considerably faster.
No slurry pumps or slurry processing plant are
needed. For longer distances, especially in granular
soil, weathered rocks, and where there is
groundwater, the slurry system is usually more
suitable.
The launch and retrieval pits will be sized according
to such factors as drive diameter, access restrictions
and the presence of other services.
Both systems provide face support by maintaining a
positive pressure on the face through the cutting
head and the soil in the collection system using an
adjustable control at the head. It is imperative to
know the type of ground conditions present as this
will determine the type of machine to be used, the
cutting head, the soil removal system and the
jacking forces required.
A range of cutting heads is available according to
the type of soil conditions present. The boring
heads may be fitted with blades for soft soil, picks
for hard soil, and soft rock and disc cutters for hard
rock.
Microtunnelling machines are operated from a
control cabin at the surface. Machines can drive
100m or more in soft ground for sizes of 100mm
diameter upwards, from drive shafts of less than 3m
diameter. These shafts can be located so that they
become manholes in the finished scheme. The use
of laser guidance control systems ensures a high
degree of accuracy. Automatic computer monitoring
is available on some systems.
Guidance on land requirements for shaft
construction for this technique is given in Table
5.1.1.
Microtunnelling using slurry is generally more
suitable for ground conditions in Doha than auger
transported spoil.
Advantages:
• Can be less expensive than conventional
trenching, especially for deep installations;
• Settlement is minimised, especially with the
use of slurry machines;
• Noise level and traffic disruption are minimised
compared to conventional trenching;
• Print out of line and level available, with high
control and monitoring during driving.
Limitations:
• Boulders and obstructions such as timber can
halt installation;
• The capital cost of equipment is high;
• Requires skilled and experienced operators.

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Tables 5.1.1 - Guidance on Land Requirements, for Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking Techniques
Nominal Pipe
Diameter
(mm)
Minimum Diameter
of Drive Shaft (m)
Minimum Diameter
of Reception Shaft
(m)
Minimum Site Area Required
Open ground (m x m) Minimum width of site
in roads (m)
250 to 500 3 3 15 x 10 5
600 to 700 3 3 20 x 10 5
800 to 1000 5 4 30 x 10 6.5
1100 to 1500 6 5.5 40 x 10 7.5

















































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5.1.3 Directional drilling
Purpose: New Installation, Drilling
Diameter Range: 300–1500mm
Directional drilling was originally developed to
install pipelines under obstacles such as roads
and river crossings, whereby the pipeline follows
a shallow arc to avoid the obstacle. In general,
the system involves large diameter steel or
polyethylene pipelines being installed over long
distances.
A rotating and steerable hollow drill of around 80
to 140mm diameter is launched from the surface
at an angle of between 8
o
and 15° and is used to
drill a pilot bore under the obstacle. Either a fluid
jet cutter or a mud driven motor head is used,
depending on ground conditions. The mud
driven motor is principally used in sands, clays or
soft rock with the slurry discharging from the bit
lubricating the hole and removing soil cuttings.
The fluid jet cutter is principally used in silts, silty
clay or sands, and operates by forcing the slurry
through small holes with the motive energy of the
fluid jet cutting the soil.
A washover pipe of around 140mm diameter is
drilled over the pilot string and follows behind the
drill head. Alternate drilling then continues on the
pilot string and the washover pipe until the exit
point on the far side of the obstacle is reached.
The pilot string is retracted and a rotating barrel
reamer, attached to and pulled back by the
washover pipe, enlarges the bore. Subsequent
reaming continues until the required diameter is
achieved. The product pipe is pre-assembled in
the area of the drill exit point and usually the full
pipeline length is jointed and pressure tested
prior to installation. The product pipe is then
attached to the reaming head via a swivel joint
and pulled through the newly formed bore using
the pullback capacity of the drilling rig. This can
be carried out at the same time as the final back
reaming operation.
A high level of accuracy is not usually required
for this type of operation. A survey package fitted
behind the drill head ensures that an accurate
path is maintained. If necessary, the drill string
can be drawn back as it approaches the target
area and the bore re-drilled to improve accuracy.
This technique is also employed when a
boulder or small obstacle is encountered.
The directional drilling process is a surface-
launched method, therefore, it usually does not
require access pits or exit pits. The rig working
area should be reasonably level, firm, and
suitable for movement of the rig. For maxi- and
midi-HDD, an area of 100m by 60m is
considered adequate. The equipment used in
mini-HDD is portable, self-contained, and
designed to work in congested areas.
Ground investigation is essential to ensure that
the ground conditions are favourable.
Directional drilling is unsuitable for use in
granular soils and gravels due to the increased
possibility of sidewall collapse.
Advantages:
• Installation is rapid;
• Long distances with relatively large
diameter pipelines can be achieved;
• Printout of line and level available.
Limitations:
• A large area is required for the drilling rig,
ancillary equipment and assembled
product pipeline;
• Not suitable for gravity pipelines, with the
exception of outfalls;
• The equipment has difficulty operating in
granular soils;
• Accuracy of line and level cannot be
maintained.
5.2 Planning and
Selection of
Techniques
The selection procedures presented in this
manual are a general methodology that can be
used to identify suitable trenchless techniques
for new pipelines. However, they do not cover
the cost or availability of each technique, which
are controlled by local considerations that will
change from time to time.

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It must be stressed that the planning, feasibility
and outline design stages are very closely
related, and iterative in nature. Feasibility is
covered under section 5.4.1, but is very much an
extension of the planning process. A choice
between open cut and trenchless methods will
depend on environmental (vibration, noise,
settlements, traffic disruption etc.), buildability
(complexity of temporary works, settlement
monitoring programme, advanced works etc.),
commercial factors (cost vs benefit analysis), and
health and safety requirements.
5.2.1 Initial Planning
Planning for the installation of pipes requires:
• Establishing system/network performance
requirements;
• Establishing system design criteria;
• Topographical survey data;
• Route optimisation;
• Determination of the location of existing
utilities;
• Site investigation, establishing site specific
geology;
• Consideration of construction methods.
Early consideration needs to be given to the
information required to procure and construct the
work. This includes the following:
• Contract terms;
• Risk assessment;
• Ground Investigation;
• Statutory requirements;
• Settlement restrictions (ground, affected
services and buildings);
• Noise restrictions;
• Access requirements;
• Traffic management requirements;
• Land use restriction;
• Checking the feasibility of method by
consulting specialist contractor;
• Environmental constraints.
The procedure for establishing various aspects
of the planning and investigation for Trenchless
Techniques is set out in the flow diagrams in
Figure 5.2.1.


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Figure 5.2.1 – Flow Diagram for Planning and Selecting Installation Techniques for New Pipe Installation






















































1) SEWER DESIGN (Hydraulic)
• Establish required system performance and design
criteria
• Determine type, size, depth and length of pipes to
be installed
• Initial inquiries to statutory authorities
• Collect details of restrictions and requirements which
will apply throughout the project

For Planning Issues Refer to Volume 1, Section
2
2) OPTIONS ASSESSMENT
• Feasibility Study
• Collate existing geotechnical data
• Availability of equipment
• Requirement for site working areas
• Availability of resources (power / water / drainage)
• Design and procure initial Ground Investigation
• Risk Assessment
• Prepare cost estimates
3) TRENCHLESS DESIGN
• Identify advantages of trenchless techniques over
open cut methods (depth of service, crossing
highway or other structures, site restrictions such as
utility services, working hours, traffic restrictions etc.)
• Consider and select suitable trenchless techniques
based on Site Investigation results (refer to Tables
5.1.1,and 5.2.1 for suitability of various trenchless
techniques in recent ground conditions in Doha)
• Consider drive lengths available for selected pipe
material to select suitable trenchless technique
(refer Figure 5.2.2), and suitability of slurry TBM and
EPB for ground condition (refer Figure 5.2.3)
• Design and procure site-specific survey, including
ground Investigation to suit chosen trenchless
technique as in Volume 1, Section 3
• Identify existing structures and utility services along
the route of the pipe and carry out preliminary
assessment of ground settlements as a result of
trenchless techniques and their effects on the
identified structures
• Prepare site monitoring plan (settlement monitoring
points, other instrumentation such as piezometer,
extensometer)
Design Process as per Volume 1, Section 4
4) CONSTRUCTION
• Decide on form of contract
• Prepare contract documents to tender
• Firm up cost estimates

Refer Volume 1, Appendix 4 - Tender Procedure
Flow Charts

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Table 5.2.1 - Suitability of Trenchless Techniques for Various Ground Conditions in Doha

Ground Condition Microtunnelling and Pipe
Jacking
Directional Drilling Rock TBM

Soft to very soft clays, silts and organic deposits

GS

DMO

NS
Medium to very stiff clays and silts
GS

GS

NS
Hard clays and highly weathered shales
GS

GS

NS
Very loose to loose sands above and below the
water table
(Local geology: Reclaimed land)

GS



DMO

NS
Medium to dense sands above the water table
(Doha geology: Reclaimed land)

GS

DMO

NS
Medium to dense sands below the water table
(Doha geology: Reclaimed land)

GS

DMO

NS
Gravel and cobbles <50–100mm dia
(Doha geology: Reclaimed land)

GS

DMO

NS
Soils with significant cobbles and boulders. 100–
150mm dia

DMO

DMO

NS
Weathered rocks and firmly cemented soils
(Doha geology: Soft weathered limestone / caprock)

GS

DMO

DMO
Slightly weathered to unweathered rocks
(Doha geology: Slightly weathered to Unweathered
limestone)

DMO

NS

GS

NOTE:
GS: Generally Suitable Caution is needed in the presence of identifiable groups / nests of
boulders. If they represent a significant percentage of the face area
it may preclude small diameter bores

DMO: Difficulty May Occur Modifications to the machine and very detailed ground investigation
needed to establish ground conditions and machine performance

NS: Not Suitable Unsuitable in given ground conditions





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Figure 5.2.2 - Drive Lengths for Different Trenchless Techniques and Suitable Pipe Material
DIRECTIONAL
DRILLING
PIPE JACKING
MICROTUNNELLING
HPPE, MDPE, STEEL
1500 m
DI, GRP, PC, PSC, RC
300 m
DI, GRP, PC, PSC, RC, VC
180 m

Product Pipe Material Key:
Abbreviation Definition
CM Cement mortar
COMP Polyester resin conforming to WIS 4-34-04
DI Ductile Iron
ER Epoxy resin
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic
HPPE High Performance Polyethylene
MDPE Medium Density Polyethylene
PC Plain concrete
PP Polypropylene
PRC Plastic Reinforced Concrete
PSC Pre-stressed Concrete
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
RC Reinforced concrete
STEEL Steel
VC Vitrified Clay




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Figure 5.2.3 - Suitability of Slurry TBM and EPB, based on Various Grain Size Distribution Curve in Various
Loose Ground
Note: COPYRIGHT BY HERRENKNECHT AG. PRINTED WITH PERMISSION FROM HERRENKNECHT, 2003







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5.2.2 Selection Criteria
Planners should consider a number of factors when
deciding the most appropriate method for installation
of pipes. The factors include:
• Diameter of pipeline;
• Length;
• Depth;
• Location;
• Topography;
• Ground and site conditions;
• Cost;
• Presence of other services;
• Physical obstacles (e.g. buildings);
• Traffic disruption;
• Disruption to third parties;
• Installation techniques;
• Experience of techniques;
• Safety and Risk assessment;
• Availability of services (power, water,
drainage);
• Reinstatement requirements;
• Environmental considerations;
• Settlement predictions and ground monitoring,
including action plan preparation.
5.2.3 Factors Affecting Choice
Of Method
Trenchless techniques should be considered instead
of traditional open-cut techniques in the following
circumstances:
• Installation of pipelines greater than 7m depth;
• Installation of pipeline in poor ground
conditions and high water table;
• Installation in congested urban areas where
damage to utility services and disruption to
traffic would make open-cut methods
unacceptable;
• Crossing of busy highways and other
infrastructures;
• Minimising the length of the pipeline route.
5.3 Geotechnical
Investigations
5.3.1 Geological Strata
Overview
The geology of the Doha region is described in
Volume 1, Section 4.2. Generally, trenchless
techniques in Doha are likely to encounter the
following ground conditions:
• Superficial deposits of silty fine to coarse
carbonate sand and fine to coarse crystalline
limestone gravel, with occasional cobbles;
• Weathered bedrock, fractured to varying
degrees comprising crystalline limestone,
carbonate siltstone and carbonate mudstone;
• Reclaimed land (mainly the West Bay area) – A
mixture of sand, silt and gravel overlying
coastal silts and sands. Some areas using
various natural and man-made rubble.
5.3.2 Groundwater Regime
Hydrogeology and groundwater levels in Doha are
described in Section 4.2 of Volume 1.
The rising ground water levels in Doha should be
considered at the design stage of the project. This
can have long term effects on installed pipelines
such as loading due to water pressure, joint sealing
between pipe sections, flotation, and long-term
durability.
Groundwater should also be tested for salinity in
order to determine durability requirements of the
pipe material. Generally, chemical analyses of the
soil and water samples in Doha indicate high
sulphate and water-soluble chloride contents. It is

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important that dense fully compacted concrete, is
used to manufacture pipes. Also, pipes should have
corrosion resistant finishes. These finishes are cast
into the pipes during manufacture and form an
integral part of the pipe. BRE digest 250
lxv

recommends protection measures necessary for
concrete against sulphate attack.
All pipes delivered on site should come with up-to-
date Quality Certification.
Evaluation of groundwater presence and pressures
during site investigation is of utmost importance in
the design of, and construction of, pipes using
trenchless techniques. Unforeseen groundwater can
cause major problems during construction, resulting
in significant delays and increased costs.
5.3.3 Soil/Rock properties
When designing and planning installations to be
carried out by trenchless techniques, the planners
should consult geotechnical engineers on the
characteristic of the soils and/or rock likely to be
encountered, together with details of the water table,
ground permeability, and seasonal changes.
Site investigations, field tests, laboratory tests,
reports and interpretation are described in Volume
1, Section 3. In addition to these, the following
information is required for planning trenchless
techniques:
• Abrasivity of rock samples;
• Historical information of reclaimed land where
applicable (material used, compaction method,
completion date).
A list of soil parameters required for design and
construction of trenchless techniques is given in
Table 5.3.1.


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Table 5.3.1 - Geotechnical Parameters Required for Design
Geotechnical Parameter Symbol Application for planning
Soil and / or rock description Define types of ground
Grade of rock Q, RMR Extent of ground support
Percentage core recovery and core condition TCR , SCR, RQD State of weak rock or hard ground
Unit total and effective weights ע ע ,

Overburden pressure
Relative Density of coarse grained soils Dr State of natural compaction of cohesionless
soft ground
Moisture content W Profiling of property changes with depth
Specific Gravity Gs Type of Ground
Plasticity and Liquidity Indices LL, LP, PI, LI Type and strength of cohesive soft ground
Particle size distribution ν Composition of soft ground
Unconfined Compressive Strength qu Intact strength of hard ground
Point Load Index Strength of lump lp Intact strength of hard ground lump
Axial and Diametrical Point Load Index Strengths la , ld Axial and diametral intact strengths
Undrained Shear Strength CU , SU Shear strength of soft ground
Effective Stress Shear Strength C

Long term cohesion of soft ground
Angle of Shearing Resistance
Φ, Φ’
Long term shear strength of cohesive soft
ground, short and long term Shear Strength
of cohesionless soft ground
Drained Deformation Modulus E

Long term stiffness
Poisson’s Ratio Influences stiffness values
Coefficient of Effective Earth Pressure Ko, Ka, Kp Ratio between horizontal and vertical
Effective stresses at rest, Active and
Passive
In situ Stresses in Rock σ Magnitude of principal stresses in rock in
three directions
Permeability K Characteristic ground permeability’s and
variations.
PH, Sulphate and Chloride contents Ph, SO3 , CI Concrete and steel durability
Chemical contamination Extent of ground contamination
Abrasion Rate of cutter tool wear


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5.3.4 Indicative Scope of
Interpretative Reporting
The Geotechnical Factual Report (GFR) should
contain all the findings of the field and laboratory
work. BS 5930:1999 sets out, in general terms, the
contents of a GFR. Based on the GFR, a
Geotechnical Interpretative Report (GIR) is
prepared.
The GIR provides an overview of the ground
conditions and the likely construction methods,
together with the suitability of various techniques
and risk assessment. Typically, the GIR would
contain the following sections:
• Outline of the proposed scheme;
• Definition of route corridor;
• Desk study and site reconnaissance findings;
• Identification of route and alignment options;
• Summary of the ground investigation work;
• Description of ground and groundwater
condition;
• Interpretation of ground conditions in relation to
the design and construction of the proposed
scheme;
• Recommendations for design of temporary and
permanent works, and further ground
investigation if necessary;
• Risk assessment for various
schemes/trenchless techniques.
5.4 Design
5.4.1 Feasibility Study
The information useful when planning and designing
new installations includes:
• Land ownership;
• Historical maps of the area that may reveal
obstacles (e.g. wells, mine shafts etc.);
• Geological map of the area;
• Aerial photography;
• Topographical survey;
• Site investigation to determine the location of
existing services and potential buried
obstructions;
• Contamination.
5.4.2 Pipe Design
In this section guidelines for structural design of
pipes and shafts are provided with regards to
construction and permanent loadings.
Frictional Resistance
During installation of pipes using trenchless
techniques, frictional forces build up around the
pipeline as the line of pipes is advanced behind the
shield. The frictional forces arise from soil cover
and surcharge loads and are affected by the quality
of lubrication. The frictional forces depend on the
type of soil, depth of overburden, length and
diameter of the pipe(s) being jacked, the speed of
excavation and most importantly, the lubrication
agent injected between pipes, the quality of
workmanship, and the ground properties during
jacking. Empirical values for friction coefficients
may vary between 0.5 and 2.5 tonnes per square
meter of external circumferential area, depending on
site conditions and the type of excavation.
Alternatively, frictional force can be estimated from
the procedure outlined in Milligan et. al
lxvi
.
Using lubricating agents such as bentonite under
pressure generally reduces frictional forces on the
pipeline. If high frictional forces are expected due to
factors such as ground roughness, together with
high fracturing/permeability conditions, and there is
a high likelihood of pressure loss. It is recommended
that intermediate jacking stations be placed at
regular intervals in the pipeline and/or pre-treating,
undertaken in the areas of potential pressure loss.
Jacking Loads
Jacks push the pipes forwards against the ground
frictional resistance (depending on the effect of
lubrication), the face support pressure detailed in
Milligan et. al
lxvi
, and the force on the cutting edge of
the leading pipe. A factor of safety is also used to
allow for unforeseen obstacles, varying ground
conditions and poor workmanship. The jacking force
required is as follows:


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Jacking Force = Frictional resistance + Weight of
Pipe + Face Pressure (Closed mode)
Equation 5.4.1
Pipe Design
The pipes are designed to withstand axial forces
applied to the pipe during the jacking operation. As
well as jacking forces, the pipes must be designed
for external forces due to soil and groundwater
pressures and live loads such as traffic.
Pipe Joint
Jacking force causes the maximum loading on a
pipeline. The joints are designed to ensure jacking
forces are transmitted over the maximum area of the
pipe. The design information required is: maximum
allowable concrete strength; the stiffness of packing
material; and maximum allowed misalignment angle.
Where the jacking force is well distributed over the
pipe end area, it would be appropriate to use a
concrete strength of 0.4fcu, where fcu is the
characteristic cube strength of concrete. For the
highly localised stresses at the joints in the extreme
conditions, a joint face stress of 0.8fcu can be used.
Milligan et. al
lxvi
, contains example calculations for
determining permissible jacking force based on
linear stress theories.
Pipe Lining
Pipe lining can be designed using simple
compression theory. Hoop reinforcement will
generally be needed in larger diameter pipes to
resist bending due to ground pressures and stresses
near the pipe ends due to jacking loads, or as
nominal reinforcement for crack control. Structural
design of the lining can be carried out using
appropriate codes for the materials in question.
5.4.3 Shaft Design
Construction Method
Jacking and receiving shafts are generally vertical
excavations with shoring and bracing systems.
Several shoring systems are commonly used, such
as sheet-pile systems with internal bracing, or
precast concrete shafts.
An important factor in the design of jacking and
receiving pits is groundwater control. Dewatering
systems using deep wells or well points are
frequently employed. However, in urban areas this
could lead to consolidation settlements resulting in
damage to structures and utility services in the zone
of influence. Groundwater cut-off arrangements can
be used if relatively impermeable soils are present
below water bearing soils. Sheet piles could be
driven into the impervious soils to cut off
groundwater inflows or water seals could be used
between caisson shaft units.
Grouting or similar methods of groundwater control
are normally required when launching the pipe and
advancing out of the jacking pit, or advancing into
the receiving pit.
Wet caisson sinking methods are frequently used to
construct shafts where dewatering or grouting
methods would be difficult or uneconomical. This
approach involves constructing the shaft by stacking
up circular precast concrete sections while
excavating inside the caisson below the
groundwater level with a cutting edge. The units are
bolted together vertically, complete with seals to
stop water entering the shaft. After the caisson is
sunk to the design elevation, a concrete slab is
poured to form the base of the shaft.
Structural Design of Shaft
The base of the shaft is designed to transfer uplift
and hydrostatic forces to the shaft walls. The weight
of the slab and the shaft walls counteract the up-
thrust forces. To some extent, the shaft also resists
uplift through ground adhesion, depending on the
effectiveness of the bonds at shaft external
face/grout/ground. This adhesion or bond has to be
assessed carefully with suitable factors of safety
allowing for the quality and long-term durability of
void grouting.
Shaft Base
The base can be constructed using mass, or
reinforced concrete.
Mass concrete is used for small circular shafts and
acts in compression by arching. The design is
based on the principle of dome action to radial
loading (refer to Reynolds et. al
lxii
.

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Reinforced base slabs are used in large diameter
shafts. Slab design is two-directional, simply
supported along the edges and of sufficient
thickness to ensure that shear reinforcement is not
required (refer to Reynolds et. al).
Shaft Lining
Circular caisson units are designed to withstand
ground and water pressures. The circular caisson
lining can be designed based on the method
described for pipe lining.
5.4.4 Ground Movements
Tunnelling-induced soil settlement is estimated
based on the methods proposed by Peck (1969)
(refer to Peck
lxvii
) and Mair et al. (1993) (refer to
Taylor et.al.
lxviii
). According to their methods, the
shape of settlement profiles at the ground surface
and subsurface can be characterised as a Gaussian
distribution.
Existing Structure Responses
The assessment of risk to buildings and utilities
should be carried out during planning stage.
Potential building damage and categorisation
commonly used for new installations using
trenchless techniques in urban areas is shown in
Table 5.4.1. It should be noted that the assessment
of soil structure interaction is a highly complex and
variable issue, which cannot be covered in the
scope of this manual.


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Table 5.4.1 - Damage to Buildings and Suggested Actions
Risk
Category
Maximum
slope
Maximum
settlement
Description of risk Action required
1 Less than
1/500
Less than
10mm
Negligible: superficial damage
unlikely
No action except for particularly
sensitive buildings where
individual assessment should be
made
2 1/500 to
1/200
10 mm to
50mm
Slight: possible non-structural
superficial damage
Crack survey and schedule of
defects. Assess particularly
vulnerable buildings and pipelines
individually
3 1/200 to 1/50 50mm to
75mm
Moderate: possible structural
damage to buildings and rigid
pipelines
Crack survey, schedule of defects
and structural assessment.
Predict extent of possible damage
to buildings and decide whether
to repair damage, control
movements or demolish.

Identify vulnerable services,
decide whether to repair, divert or
replace with more tolerant
services.
4 >1/50 > 75mm High: expected structural damage
to buildings, rigid pipelines and
possible damage to flexible
pipelines



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Instrumentation and Monitoring
When tunnelling in urban areas and taking into
account the complexity and environmental factors,
carefully planned and executed instrumentation and
monitoring is essential.
It is imperative that lines of communication are open
in order to feed back the data obtained to the
machine operatives. This will allow them to adjust
and improve machine performance, as well as to
compare the data with the predicted levels of
settlement and strains obtained before the tunnelling
works commence.
Typical instrumentation normally used is as follows:
• Surface markers (settlements and lateral
displacements);
• Extensometers (vertical displacement profile);
• Inclinometers (horizontal displacement profile);
• Piezometers (pore water pressure profile);
• Measuring relative rotation and angular strain
of buildings using electro-levels, biaxial tilt-
meters, and precise levelling studs;
• Automated Total Stations can be set up and
programmed to monitor targets fixed at key
points, at regular intervals, and the data down
loaded remotely through the use of radio relay
transmission;
• Monitoring existing defects (cracks) using tell-
tale indicators.
The Instrumentation & Monitoring Plan must be site
specific and should include the following as a
minimum:
• Location and type of instrumentation;
• Alarm, Alert and Action levels;
• Lines of responsibility and communication;
• Rapid response and emergency plan, including
contact names and telephone numbers with
relevant authorities.
5.5 Environmental
Assessment
The use of trenchless technologies requires that
several specific environmental impact issues be
evaluated in detail, along with appropriate
consultation with SCENR.
5.5.1 Vibration
Vibration from trenchless techniques very rarely give
rise to building damage, disturbance to people
through perceptible vibration, or by the generation of
ground-borne noise.
The nature, duration, and number of events that
occur in a specified period, and the location in which
the vibration is received, all influence the public’s
tolerance. The vibration dose value (VDV),
described in BS 6472: 1992
lxix
is used to combine
the effects of all perceptible vibration events that
occur to establish probability that complaints will
arise.
Most activities related to trenchless techniques do
not give rise to vibration levels of a magnitude that
would be damaging. BS 7385: Part 2: 1993 gives
guidance on vibration levels that can cause
damage
lxx
.
When required, monitoring devices can be installed
to determine levels of vibration.
As a guide, key typical guidance criteria for vibration
are 5mm/s peak particle velocity for construction
works, and 3mm/s near schools and hospitals.
5.5.2 Noise
Noise levels from trenchless construction depend on
the technique adopted. The level should be
assessed in order to determine whether noise
exposure is likely to reach the action levels stated
below.
BS 5228-1 gives guidance on how noise arising
from worksites affects site personnel and others
living and working in the neighbourhood. BS 5228-2
gives guidance on legislation covering the control of
noise and vibration
lxxi
.
Action Levels


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Where noise levels are likely to be at or above levels
defined below, then action is required to reduce
noise or provide noise protection.
Action levels 1 and 2 are values of “daily personal
exposure to noise”, defined as LEP, d. These depend
on the noise level in the working areas, and how
long people spend in them during the day.
Action level 1: is a LEP, d of 85dB (A). At this level
the employer has a general duty to provide ear
protection.
Action level 2: is a LEP, d 90dB (A). At this level in
addition to the action required above, the employer
has a duty to ensure all personnel wear ear
protectors at all times and mark ear protection zones
with notices.
Action level 3: This is a peak action level,
corresponding to of 140dB. The peak action level is
most likely to be important for loud impulsive
sources, such as blasting. At this level, the
employer must again ensure all personnel wear ear
protectors at all times and mark ear protection zones
with notices.
In Qatar, SCENR has published guidance on noise
‘15 minute weighted average dB (A) at property line’
standards as follows:
Residential and Institutional – 55dB (A) (day) and
45dB (A) (night);
Commercial – 65dB (A) (day) and 55dB (A) (night);
Industrial – 75dB (A) (day) and 75dB (A) (night).
5.5.3 Dust
Generally, trenchless techniques for installation of
pipes produce far less dust than traditional open
excavation. Also, dust is limited to the working site
and during removal of excavated materials.
Sprinkling water on excavated material and covering
spoil in the removal trucks can control dust on site.
Also, the spoil haul route within and outside the site
should be maintained in a clean condition, if
necessary by spraying water.
Deposited dust limits are generally regarded to be
an increase of 200mg/m
2
over the baseline level.
General airborne dust above 10mg/m
3
is an
approximate trigger level (although not an
occupational health level). Further guidance detail
is provided in BS 1747
lxxii
.
In Qatar, SCENR has issued guidance on ambient
air quality particulate matter. Over a 24-hour
averaging period 99.7% of data levels should meet
the standard of 150mg/m
3
.
5.6 Approvals –
Procedures and
Formats
Trenchless design will be by specialist contractor
according to techniques, machinery and materials
being considered.
Design will require approval by the consultant in line
with the following guidance.
5.6.1 Guidance for Design
Check
The consultant who is approving design and
construction methods proposed by the specialist
contractor shall ensure design and construction
processes, safety and environmental requirements
are in line with relevant sections of Volume 1. In
addition, the consultant shall check the following:
• Adequate working area, and the size of drive
and reception shafts are proposed as per Table
5.1.1;
• Shaft and pipes are designed in-line with
section 5.4;
• The shaft lining is watertight;
• Settlement analysis and effects on utility
services, highway and other structures in the
zone of influence are assessed;
• Monitoring regime and settlement limits are
established for above structures.
5.7 Risk Assessment
Risks associated with trenchless technologies
should be assessed before work starts so that the
necessary preventative measures can be identified
and action taken. The process of risk assessment

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starts at the design stage of a project and continues
during the construction phase.
Risks can be categorised as contractual,
construction, operational, financial, environmental,
health and safety. Contractual risks can arise from
inadequate contract preparation and management.
Generally, the risk increases with decreasing clarity
of contract and can be dealt with through improving
contract clarity and management practices.
Construction risks are associated with site
conditions and construction methods. These risks
can be minimised by careful planning but are
seldom eliminated.
The risk associated with trenchless techniques can
be summarised as follows:
• Mechanical failure of machinery;
• Material failure – pipes or linings;
• Ground loss leading to high settlement or
ground collapse;
• Risk of damage to utilities, road and
surrounding structures;
• Unforeseen ground conditions;
• Loss of directional control.
These risks can be mitigated by the following
measures:
• Choosing suitable techniques/equipment and
construction material;
• Appropriate level of site investigation and
interpretation of results;
• Trained operatives and choosing experienced
Designers and Contractors;
• Monitoring ground, services and buildings in
the settlement influence zone;
• Adequate level of supervision;
• Preparation of emergency procedures.
A typical Risk Assessment Matrix is presented in
Table 5.7.1 and Risk Classification is indicated in
Table 5.7.2.


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Table 5.7.1 - RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX – A typical risk assessment for trenchless techniques
Project Title: Prepared by: Date
L=Likelihood, S=Severity, RR=Risk Checked by: Page
Ref Activity / Hazard Risk Rating Design and/or Construction
input to eliminate / reduce
hazard
Residual Risk Rating
L x S= RR L x S= RR Risk level
Damage to utilities, roads,
surrounding structures /
Substantial cost for
Damage, Delay
3 3 9 Establish location of utilities
before construction/ obtain
Utilities Drawings/carry out Trial
trenches/ Geophysical survey/
Monitoring
2 3 6 Medium
Failure of materials (e.g. pipes or
lining) / Substantial cost for
Damage, delay
2 3 6 Experience designers/
Comprehensive quality control/
reputable supplier
1 3 3 Low
Failure of machinery 2 3 6 Select most suitable technique/
experience contractor/reputable
manufacturer of machinery
1 3 3 Low
Mix ground conditions / Ground
failure, Delay, Cost
2 3 6 Select most suitable technique
including trenching / experience
contractor / reputable
manufacturer of machinery
1 3 3 Low
Buried structures, e.g.
basements, piles, Historical
Mining –voids, ‘cavities’ /
Impedes pipe drive, delay, cost
2 3 6 Comprehensive Desk Study to
identify historical structures
Testing equipment
1 3 3 Low
Encounter major inflow of water /
Ground failure, slow progress
3 3 9 Ground treatment / Dewatering /
Close mode technique
2 3 6 Low
Noise, dust, pollution, vibrations /
Adverse Public relations
Restricted working hours
Compensation claims
Health and Safety Claims
4 3 12 Establish necessary restrictions
beforehand
Reduce by choosing
appropriate method
2 2 4 Low
Contaminated
Ground/Groundwater / Adverse
working conditions for Workforce,
Specialist requirements for waste
and Groundwater disposal
2 3 6 Comprehensive Desk Study &
Intrusive Ground Investigation
to identify problem areas
PPE / testing equipment
2 1 2 Low
Guidance on HARAs is given in CIRIA Report 166 (CDM Regulations – Work Sector Guidance For Designers)
lxxiii


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Table 5.7.2 - Risk Classification to enable each risk to be assessed in terms of probability and severity
SEVERITY / CONSEQUENCE (Hazard)
LIKELIHOOD Minor
1
Slight
2
Moderate
3
High
4
Very High
5
Extremely
Unlikely
1
1 2 3 4 5
Unlikely
2

2 4 6 8 10
Likely
3

3 6 9 12 15
Very Likely
4

4 8 12 16 20
Certain
5

5 10 15 20 25
PRIORITY OF ACTION

Score

1-5


6-10

Above 10
Rating Low Risk Medium Risk High Risk
Action PPE, Best Working Practice,
Signs
Isolate, control Eliminate, Reduce by
substitution



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5.8 Trenchless
Construction
References
The following documents are helpful in design and
use of Trenchless Technologies.

• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 5930:
1981- Code of practice for site investigation,
London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS1377:
1990 - Methods of test for soils for civil
engineering purposes. London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 2001, BS 6164:
2001 - Code of practice for safety in tunnelling
in the construction industry, London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1981, BS 5911-
1:1981 Precast concrete pipes and fittings for
drainage and sewerage. Specification for pipes
and fittings with flexible joints and manholes
(No longer current but cited in the Building
Regulations), London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1997, BS 5228-
2:1997 - Noise and vibration control on
construction and open sites — Part 2: Guide to
noise and vibration control legislation for
construction and demolition including road
construction and maintenance. London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 7385 -
1:1990, Evaluation and measurement for
vibration in buildings. Guide for measurement
of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on
buildings, London, BSI.
• British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 7385 -
1:1990, Evaluation and measurement for
vibration in buildings. Guide for measurement
of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on
buildings, London, BSI.
• 8 British Standards Institution, 1992, BS
6472:1992: Evaluation of human exposure to
vibration in buildings (1Hz to 80Hz), London,
BSI.
• Building Research Establishment, Digest 250:
Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and ground
water. UK, BRE.
• Reynolds, C.E. and Steedman, J.C, 1988,
Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook. 10
th

ed. London, Spon Press.
• British Tunnelling Society and Association of
British Insurers, 2003, Joint Code of Practice
for the Risk Management of Tunnelling Projects
in the UK, UK.

SETTLEMENT AND DAMAGE TO BUILDINGS
• Burland J.B., and Wroth C.P, 1975, Settlement
of Buildings and Associated Damage, Building
Research Establishment Current Paper,
Watford, Building Research Establishment.
• Burland J.B., 1997, Assessment of risk of
damage to buildings due to tunnelling and
excavation, Earthquake Geotechnical
Engineering, Ishihara (ed.), Balkema,
Rotterdam, pp. 1189-1201.
• Boone S.J., 1996, Ground Movement Related
Building Damage, Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, ASCE, 122(11), pp. 886-896.
• E.J. Cording, T.D. O’Rourke, and
M.D.Boscardin, 1978, Ground Movements and
Damage to Structures, Proc., Int. Conf. On
Evaluation and Prediction of Subsidence,
Florida, pp 516-537.
• Peck, R. B., 1969, Deep excavations and
tunnelling in soft ground. Proc. of 7th Int. Conf.
Soil Mech., Mexico, State of the Art 3, pp. 225-
290.
• Taylor, R. N., and Bracegirdle, A., 1993,
Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels in
clay, Geotechnique, 43(2), pp.315-320.

DESIGN
• Milligan G., Norris, P. Pipe jacking: Research
results and recommendations, Pipe Jacking
Association.

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Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 123
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
• B Maidl, M. Herrenknecht, L. Anheuser,
Mechanised Shield Tunnelling, Ernst & Sohn
Publications.

TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES
• Pipe Jacking Association, 1987, A guide to pipe
jacking and Microtunnelling design, Pipe
Jacking Association.
• International Society for Trenchless
Technology, 1992, Introduction to trenchless
technology, 2nd edition, ISTT.
5.9 Trenchless
Construction Glossary
The following terms used in Section 5 - Trenchless
Technology, are defined below.
AUGUR BORING
A technique for forming a bore from a drive shaft to
a reception shaft, by means of a rotating cutting
head. Spoil is removed back to the drive shaft by
helically wound auger flights rotating in a steel
casing. The equipment may have limited steering
capability.
AUGUR TBM
A type of tunnel boring machine in which the
excavated soil is removed to the drive shaft by
auger flights passing through the product pipeline
pushed in behind the TBM.
CUTTER HEAD
Any tool or system of tools on a common support
which excavates at the face of a bore. Usually
applies to mechanical methods of excavation.
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
A steerable system for the installation of pipes and
cables in a shallow arc using a surface launched
drilling rig.
DRILLING FLUID / MUD
A mixture of water and bentonite or polymer
continuously pumped to the cutting head to facilitate
the removal of cuttings, stabilise the borehole, cool
the head and lubricate the installation of the product
pipe. In suitable ground conditions water alone may
be used.
DRIVE/ENTRY SHAFT OR PIT
Excavation from which trenchless technology
equipment is launched for the installation or
renovation of a pipeline, conduit or cable. May
incorporate a thrust wall to spread reaction loads to
the ground.
EARTH PRESSURE BALANCE (EPB) MACHINE
Type of Microtunnelling or tunnelling machine in
which mechanical pressure is applied to the material
at the face and controlled to provide the correct
counter-balance to earth pressures in order to
prevent heave or subsidence.
ENTRY/EXIT ANGLE
In a horizontal directional drilling/guided boring
system, the angle to the ground surface at which
the drill string enters and exits in forming the pilot
bore.
FLUID-ASSISTED BORING/DRILLING
A type of guided boring technique using a
combination of mechanical drilling and pressurised
fluid jets to provide the soil cutting action.
GROUTING
Filling of the annular space between the carrier
pipe and the new product pipe. Grouting is also
used to fill the space around laterals and between
the new pipe and manholes. Other uses of
grouting are for localised repairs of defective pipes,
ground improvements prior to excavation during
new installations and the filling of voids around
existing carrier pipe.
INTERJACK PIPES
Pipes specially designed for use with an
intermediate jacking station.
INTERMEDIATE JACKING STATION (IJS)
A fabricated steel shield incorporating hydraulic
jacks designed to operate between interjack pipes to
provide incremental thrust on long drives.



State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs
Page 124 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
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JACKING PIPES
Pipes designed to be installed using pipe jacking
techniques.
JACKING SHIELD
A fabricated steel cylinder from within which the
excavation is carried out either by hand or machine.
Incorporated within the shield are facilities to allow it
to be adjusted to control line and level.
JET CUTTING
A type of guided boring technique using pressurised
fluid jets to provide the soil cutting action.
LAUNCH PIT
As for drive shaft but more usually associated with
“launching” an impact moling tool.
LEAD PIPE
The leading pipe manufactured to fit the rear of the
jacking shield and over which the trailing end of the
shield is fitted.
MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING (MWD)
Borehole survey instrumentation that provides
continuous information simultaneously with drilling
operations, usually transmitting to a display at or
near the drilling rig.
MICROTUNNELLING
Steerable remote control pipe jacking to install pipes
of internal diameter less than that permissible for
man-entry (i.e. <1000mm).
MIDI-RIG
Steerable surface-launched drilling equipment for
the installation of pipes, conduits and cables.
Applied to intermediate sized drilling rigs used as
either a small directional drilling machine, or a large
guided boring machine. Tracking of the drill string
may be achieved by either a downhole survey tool
or a locator.
MAN-ENTRY
Description of any tunnelling technology process,
which requires an operative to enter a pipe, duct or
bore. The minimum size for which this is
permissible is generally defined by national health
and safety legislation (e.g. larger than 1000mm
diameter in the UK).
NEW INSTALLATION
Methods by which a new pipeline is constructed.
PIPE JACKING
A technique by which the pipes are pushed through
the ground behind a tunnelling shield using hydraulic
jacks reacting against a thrust wall in a
jacking/launch pit.
RECEPTION/EXIT/TARGET SHAFT OR PIT
Excavation into which trenchless technology
equipment is driven and recovered following the
installation or renovation of the product pipe, conduit
or cable.
SLEEVE PIPE
A pipe installed as external protection to a product
pipe.
SLURRY TBM
A type of Microtunnelling machine in which soil is
turned to slurry and is used to counterbalance
ground water pressure to stabilise the face, before
being pumped to the surface.
SURVEY TOOLS
Downhole equipment and instruments used to
determine the position of a bore in directional drilling
or site investigation.
TUNNEL BORING MACHINE
A full-face circular mechanical shield machine,
usually of man-entry diameter, steerable, and with a
rotary cutting head. For pipe installation, it leads a
string of jacked pipes. It may be controlled from
within the shield or remotely.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
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Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 125
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal
6 References

i
British Standards Institution, various years of
publication, BS EN 752 - Drain and sewer systems
outside buildings, BSI UK.
ii
BS 8005 – superseded by BS EN 752 - Drain and
sewer systems outside buildings.
iii
British Standards Institution, 1997, BS 8301: Code
of practice for building drainage, London, BSI. ISBN
0-89116-067-1.
iv
British Standards Institution, 1995, BS EN 598:
1995 – Ductile iron pipes, fittings, accessories and
their joints for sewerage applications –
Requirements and test methods. London, BSI.
v
British Standards Institution, 1998, BS EN 1610:
1998 – Construction and testing of drains and
sewers, London, BSI.
vi
Water UK/WRc plc, 2001, Sewers for Adoption 5
th

Edition, a design and construction guide for
developers, 5
th
edition, UK, Water UK/WRc.
vii
British Standards Institution, 1994, BS EN
124:1994 – Gully tops and manhole tops for
vehicular and pedestrian areas – design
requirements, type testing, marking, quality control
(AMD 8587), London, BSI.
viii
British Standards Institution, 1998, BS EN 752-
4:1988 - Drain and Sewer Systems Outside
Buildings. Hydraulic Design and Environmental
Considerations, London, BSI. Appendix B, Table B2.
ix
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 4.2.
x
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.3.
xi
Eckenfelder W.W. Industrial Water
Pollution Control, 2
nd
Edition 1989
xii
Technical Digest, “Tannery Wastes”,
Central Public Health Engineering Institute,
Nagpur, India, No 28, April 1972

xiii
Figures from Original DD Developers
Guide, provided by Sheik Abdul Azeez of
DA
xiv
Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater
Treatment , Reuse and Disposal, 4
th

Edition
xv
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xvi
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xvii
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xviii
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xix
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xx
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xxi
Hyder Consulting project data for Welsh
Water
xxii
Figures from Original DD Developers
Guide, provided by Sheik Abdul Azeez of
DA
xxiii
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xxiv
David Butler and John W Davies, 2000, Urban
Drainage, ISBN 0-419-22340-1, Suffolk, UK, E&FN
Spon, Table 10.2.
xxv
Construction Industry Research and Information
Association, 1997, Report 175, Control of Infiltration
to Sewers, London, CIRIA.


State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs
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xxvi
Construction Industry Research and Information
Association, 1998, Report 177, Dry Weather Flows
in Sewers, London, CIRIA.
xxvii
HR Wallingford and DIH Barr, 2000, Tables for
the Hydraulic Design of Pipes, Sewers and
Channels, 7
th
Edition, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, UK
Redwood Books.
xxviii
Construction Industry Research and Information
Association, 1996, Design of sewers to control
sediment problems, Report 141, London CIRIA.
xxix
Vincent A.J., 2001, Sources of odours in
wastewater treatment, ed Stuetz R. and Frechen
F.B., Odours in Wastewater Treatment, IWA
Publishing.
xxx
World Health Organisation, 1987, Air Quality
guidelines for Europe, WHO Regional Publications
Series No. 23, Regional Office for Europe
Copenhagen, World Health Organisation.
xxxi
UK Health and Safety Executive, 2002,
Occupational Exposure Limits, EH40/2002, UK,
Health and Safety Executive.
xxxii
Foundation for Water Research, 1993, Enclosed
wastewater treatment plants - health and safety
considerations, FR/W 0001, UK, FRW.
xxxiii
Bowker D. G., Smith J. M., and Webster N. A.,
1989, Odour and Corrosion Control in Sanitary
Sewerage Systems and Treatment Plants, United
States, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
xxxiv
British Standards Institution, 1997, BS 8301:
Code of practice for building drainage, London, BSI.
ISBN 0-89116-067-1.
xxxv
US Environmental Protection Agency, 1974, US
EPA Report 625/1-74-005 - Process Design Manual
for Sulphide Control in Sanitary Sewerage Systems,
USA, EPA.
xxxvi
Boon, A.G., 1992, Septicity in sewers: Causes,
Consequences and Containment. JIWEM, Vol 6
No.1, February 1992, pp.79-90.
xxxvii
Water Research Council, 1997, Sewerage
Detention Tanks – A Design Guide, UK, WRC.

xxxviii
Construction Industry Research and Information
Association, 1994, Guide to the Design of thrust
blocks for buried pressure pipelines, Report 128,
London CIRIA, page 18.
xxxix
British Standards Institution, 1991, BS EN ISO
6817: 1997: Measurement of conductive liquid flow
in closed conduits. London, BSI.
xl
British Standards Institution, 2001, BS 6164: 2001
- Code of practice for safety in tunnelling in the
construction industry, London, BSI.
xli
CIRIA & BHRA (Construction Industry Research
and Information Association, British
Hydromechanics Research Association). 1977. The
hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes. CIRIA
& BHRA. ISBN: 0-86017-027-6.
xlii
ITT Flygt The Design of Pumping
Stations with Large Submersible
Centrifugal Pumps
xliii
British Standards Institution, 1999, BS EN 60439-
1: Low Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear
Assemblies. Type-tested and PartiallyType-Tested
Assemblies, London, BSI.
xliv
IEC, 1999, IEC 6-947-1, ed.3.2; Low Voltage
Switchgear and Controlgear General Rules, IEC.
xlv
Electrical Research Association Report No. 69-30.
xlvi
Chartered Institution of Building Services
Engineers, 1989-2001, CIBSE Lighting Guides (1-7),
London, CIBSE.
xlvii
British Standards Institution, 1998, BS EN 1127-
1: 1998 – Explosive Atmospheres – Explosion
Prevention and Protection. Basic Concepts and
Methodology, London, BSI.
xlviii
British Standards Institution, 1981-1999, BS
5266- (1-7):1981-1999 – Emergency Lighting,
London, BSI.
xlix
British Standards Institution, 2003, BS 5489-1:
2003 – Code of Practice for The Design of Road
Lighting. Lighting of Roads and Public Amenity
Areas, London, BSI.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority
Drainage Affairs

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 127
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal

l
UK Health and Safety Executive, 2002,
Occupational Exposure Limits, EH40/2002, UK,
Health and Safety Executive.
li
BSI. 1997. BS8110-1: 1997. Structural Use of
Concrete – Part 1: Code of practice for design and
construction. London. British Standards Institution.
lii
BSI. 1987. BS8007: 1987. Design of concrete
structures for retaining aqueous liquids. London.
British Standards Institution
liii
CIRIA. 1992. Report N
o
. 91 – Early-age thermal
crack control in concrete. London. Construction
Industry Research and Information Association.
liv
CIRIA. 1995. Report N
o
. 135 – Concreting deep
lifts and large volume pours. London. Construction
Industry Research and Information Association.
lv
BSI. 1978. BS5400-2: 1978. Steel, concrete and
composite bridges – Part 2: Specification for loads.
London. British Standards Institution.
lvi
BSI. 1996. BS6399-1: 1996. Loading for buildings
– Part 1: Code of practice for dead and imposed
loads. London. British Standards Institution.
lvii
Institution of Structural Engineers. 1989. Soil-
structure interaction. The real behaviour of
structures. London. The Institution of Structural
Engineers.
lviii
BSI. 2002. BS8500-1: 2002. Concrete –
Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1 –
Part 1: Method of specifying and guidance for the
specifier. London. British Standards Institution.
lix
BRE. 2001. Concrete in aggressive ground – Part
1, 2, 3 & 4. London. BRE Bookshop.
lx
BSI. 1997. BS6399-2: 1997. Loading for buildings
– Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads. London.
British Standards Institution.
lxi
BSI. 1983. BS2573-1: 1983. Rules for the design
of cranes – Part 1: Specification for classification,
stress calculations and design criteria for structures.
London. British Standards Institution.
lxii
Reynolds, C.E. and Steedman, J.C, 1988,
Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook. 10
th
ed.
London, Spon Press.

lxiii
Water Research Council, 1997, Sewerage
Rehabilitation Manual, 4
th
Edition, Swindon, UK
Water Research Council.
lxiv
Water Research Council, 1999, Review of
Trenchless Techniques, Swindon UK Water
Research Council.
lxv
Building Research Establishment, Digest 250:
Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and ground
water. UK, BRE.
lxvi
Milligan G., Norris, P., Pipe jacking: Research
results and recommendations, Pipe Jacking
Association.
lxvii
Peck, R. B., 1969, Deep excavations and
tunnelling in soft ground. Proc. of 7th Int. Conf. Soil
Mech., Mexico, State of the Art 3, pp. 225-290.
lxviii
Taylor, R. N., and Bracegirdle, A., 1993,
Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels in
clay, Geotechnique, 43(2), pp.315-320.
lxix
British Standards Institution, 1992, BS
6472:1992: Evaluation of human exposure to
vibration in buildings (1Hz to 80Hz), London, BSI.
lxx
British Standards Institution, 1990, BS 7385 -
1:1990, Evaluation and measurement for vibration in
buildings. Guide for measurement of vibrations and
evaluation of their effects on buildings, London, BSI.
lxxi
British Standards Institution, 1997, BS 5228-
2:1997 - Noise and vibration control on construction
and open sites — Part 2: Guide to noise and
vibration control legislation for construction and
demolition including road construction and
maintenance. London, BSI.
lxxii
BS 1747.
lxxiii
CIRIA Report 166 (CDM Regulations – Work
Sector Guidance For Designers).

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

2

Pumping Stations ....................................................................................................39
2.1 2.2 Standards ................................................................................................................... 39 Hydraulic Design......................................................................................................... 39
2.2.1 2.2.2 Hydraulic Principles .................................................................................................... 40 Pump Arrangements ................................................................................................... 41 Rising Main Diameters................................................................................................ 42 Twin Rising Mains....................................................................................................... 42 Economic Analysis...................................................................................................... 42 Rising Main Alignment ................................................................................................ 43

2.3

Rising Main Design ..................................................................................................... 42
2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Maximum and Minimum Velocities ............................................................................. 43 Pipe Materials ............................................................................................................. 43 Thrust Blocks .............................................................................................................. 43 Air Valves and Washout Facilities .............................................................................. 44
2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 Air Valves .................................................................................................................... 44 Vented Non-return Valves .......................................................................................... 44 Wash – Outs ............................................................................................................... 44 Isolating Valves........................................................................................................... 45 Application and Selection ........................................................................................... 45 Magnetic Flowmeters.................................................................................................. 45 Ultrasonic Flowmeters ................................................................................................ 46

2.8

Flow Meters ................................................................................................................ 45
2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3

2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17

Surge Protection Measures ........................................................................................ 46 Screens....................................................................................................................... 48 Pumping Station Selection.......................................................................................... 49 Pumps and Motors...................................................................................................... 52 Sump Design .............................................................................................................. 53 Suction/Delivery Pipework, and Valves ...................................................................... 55 Pumping System Characteristics ................................................................................ 56 Sump Pumps and Over-Pumping Facilities ................................................................ 59 Power Calculations including Standby Generation ..................................................... 59
2.17.1 2.17.2 2.17.3 2.17.4 2.17.5 2.17.6 2.17.7 2.17.8 2.17.9 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 59 Load Type ................................................................................................................... 59 Site condition .............................................................................................................. 60 Generator set operation and control .......................................................................... 60 Type of installation ...................................................................................................... 60 Type of Control Panel ................................................................................................. 60 Ventilation system....................................................................................................... 60 Fuel system ................................................................................................................ 60 Starting method .......................................................................................................... 61

2.17.10 Service facility ............................................................................................................. 61 2.17.11 Generator set sizing.................................................................................................... 61

2.18

Switch Gear and Control Panels ................................................................................. 65
2.18.1 Type–tested and partially type tested assemblies (TTA and PTTA) .......................... 65

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State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

2.18.2 2.18.3 2.18.4 2.18.5 2.18.6 2.18.7 2.18.8 2.18.9

Total connected load ................................................................................................... 65 Short circuit level ......................................................................................................... 65 Type of co-ordination .................................................................................................. 66 Form of internal separation ......................................................................................... 66 Bus Bar rating.............................................................................................................. 67 Type of starter ............................................................................................................. 67 Protection device ......................................................................................................... 68 Interlocking facility ....................................................................................................... 70

2.18.10 Accessibility ................................................................................................................. 70 2.18.11 Cable entry .................................................................................................................. 70

2.19

PLC’s SCADA/Telemetry ............................................................................................ 70
2.19.1 2.19.2 2.19.3 PLC ............................................................................................................................. 70 RTU ............................................................................................................................. 71 SCADA and Telemetry Systems ................................................................................. 72 Light Fitting Selection Criteria ..................................................................................... 73

2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23

Lighting ....................................................................................................................... 73
2.20.1

Maintenance Access ................................................................................................... 77 Gantry Cranes and Lifting Facilities ............................................................................ 77 Ventilation, Odour Control and Air Conditioning ......................................................... 78
2.23.1 2.23.2 2.23.3 Ventilation.................................................................................................................... 78 Odour Control .............................................................................................................. 79 Air Conditioning ........................................................................................................... 80 Substructures .............................................................................................................. 81 Superstructures ........................................................................................................... 90

2.24

Structural Design ........................................................................................................ 81
2.24.1 2.24.2

2.25 2.26

Site Boundary Wall/Fence .......................................................................................... 97 Site Facilities ............................................................................................................... 97

3

Documentation ........................................................................................................ 98
3.1 3.2 3.3 Reference Standards .................................................................................................. 98 House Connection Survey .......................................................................................... 98 Building Permit ............................................................................................................ 98

4 5

Health and Safety .................................................................................................... 99 Trenchless Technologies ..................................................................................... 100
5.1 Alternative Techniques ............................................................................................. 100
5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 Pipe jacking (Open/Close Face) ............................................................................... 100 Microtunnelling (Closed Face) .................................................................................. 102 Directional drilling ...................................................................................................... 104 Initial Planning ........................................................................................................... 105 Selection Criteria ....................................................................................................... 110 Factors Affecting Choice Of Method ......................................................................... 110

5.2

Planning and Selection of Techniques...................................................................... 104
5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3

5.3

Geotechnical Investigations ...................................................................................... 110

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1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal

..........................3..................................................................5...........................................................................................................................4.......................................................................................... 110 Soil/Rock properties............ 113 5...........................1 5.............7 5......................................... 123 6 References ...........................4..........................4...................3........3.....3 5.................................................... 114 Ground Movements .......... 118 5.............3.................................5........© Copyright Ashghal .......................................................................1 5.. 113 Feasibility Study.................................................................................................................6.........................................4 Geological Strata Overview ......... 110 Groundwater Regime..................... 118 5..............9 Approvals – Procedures and Formats ........... 122 Trenchless Construction Glossary ..........................................................4 Design......................................................................................... 117 Dust......5 Environmental Assessment ...............3 5......1 Risk Assessment ....... 118 Guidance for Design Check .2 5.......................... 118 Trenchless Construction References................................................3 5.........................................................................5......................4 5.................................................................................2 5...................................................... 111 Indicative Scope of Interpretative Reporting.................125 Page iv Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 ......................................... 117 5............................................................................8 5................4... 113 Pipe Design ..................................... 117 Noise .................................State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5...........2 5..........................................................................................................6 5............................................................... 113 Shaft Design .........................................................................1 5.... 115 Vibration ...........................

as well as including Wukair and areas to the north and east of the Abu Hamour area. necessitate some 52 sewage pumping stations. and directs the collected flows to the Sewage Treatment Works (STW). some 415km2 of land falls within the catchment that it is predicted will be sewered to Doha South STW. The major sewerage systems and STWs are located in Doha. which pump flows to the STW. with the result that sewage flows will often be pumped several times before arriving at the STW. In total. The Doha South Catchment can be broadly defined as that part of Doha being southeast of the Salwa Road and east of the Industrial Area. Sewage flows discharge. being the Doha West Catchment Area. the Doha South Catchment Area and the Industrial Area. with similar systems in the smaller towns such as Al Khor. Rural and Urban Rayyan and the Umm Slal Planning Areas of Qatar.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1 Sewerage Systems Design manholes. The sewerage systems in Qatar are separate in that foul sewage. The major future development area is located at the northern end of Doha Bay. The system in each catchment is similar. generally by gravity. as each design needs to be prepared. this information should not be regarded as prescriptive in all situations. The flow from each catchment is then pumped to either the Doha South or Doha West STW. The sewerage system for Qatar collects foul flow discharges from premises.© Copyright Ashghal . located within the developed areas of its towns and cities. The layout of the network results in foul sewage from certain locations being pumped through as many as six or seven pumping stations before reaching Doha South STW. new designs should use gravity for the movement of This volume of the Manual covers the design of new and existing sewerage systems. However. The sewerage systems therefore include many pumping stations. The Doha West Catchment comprises some 250km2 of western and northern Doha. The flat topography of Qatar discourages long lengths of gravity sewer due to the resulting great depths of construction that would be required. This network of branch and trunk sewers directs flows by gravity to pumping stations. The Catchment extends southwards to include Abu Hamour. from which sewage is delivered in two parallel rising mains to Doha West STW. Development in the Catchment is of low to medium density. commercial and industrial effluent is collected in a separate system to that which collects stormwater runoff and ground waters. detailing the design standards. only one quarter of this area is presently developed. in that it comprises networks of sewers and Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 1 1st Edition June 2005 . along with the central business district within the B Ring Road. In order to minimise construction. with some areas completely undeveloped. to some 35m above sea level in the west. The sewerage network in the Doha West Catchment is served by a terminal pumping station (PS 32) at the south-west edge of the built-up area. where high-density residential and commercial development is planned. Development in the catchment is of predominantly low to medium density. directing flows to numerous pumping stations. The ground level at Doha West STW is about 45m above sea level. into the sewerage system through house connections to the sewer pipelines and manholes outside the property boundary. parameters and approaches to be adopted. The extent of the system and the considerable distances over which sewage is transferred across flat terrain. The Catchment lands rise from sea level in the east. with higher densities in the central business district. reviewed and approved by appropriately skilled and experienced staff. operation and maintenance costs for pumping stations. The Doha Catchments The Doha sewerage system is contained within three catchments. the Airport area and onwards as far as Wakrah. In broad terms. both within the designers’ and the Drainage Afairs (DA) organisations. The area also includes North Doha. comprising domestic.

BS EN 1610: 1998 – Construction and testing of drains and sewersv. • • • 1. but is intended as an easy initial reference. which is withdrawn. dictated by excavator access and pipeline strength. or 7. However there are the following practical considerations: • Depth of trench excavation should generally not exceed 5. This list is by no means exhaustive. BS EN 598: 1995 – Ductile iron pipes. all systems suffer from infiltration to some extent due to faults and openings in the fabric of the system and illegal connections of stormwater collection systems. but is intended as an easy initial reference. Volume 1 Section 1. wayleave agreements should be in place to facilitate such access.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs sewage flows. 1. accessories and their joints for sewerage applications – Requirements and test methodsiv. (References are also included at the end of this volume). The only overflows permitted are for emergency use only. manholes. BS EN124: 1994 Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian areas – Design requirements. Ideally.2 Sources of Information The following publications are of interest to designers in surface water and foul sewerage systems. with any increased flows being contained within the sewerage system. The extent of infiltration is not fully understood in Qatar. However such arrangements are impractical for Qatar due to the lack of watercourses operating all year round. but these should be avoided because of the danger of deep excavations and the difficulty of achieving good compaction in the backfill. type testing. It is acknowledged that greater depths are often necessary in Doha. Pumping stations and associated facilities shall be on DA owned land. chambers. to minimise siltation and septicity. (References are also included at the end of this volume). are to be located on publicly owned lands. Gradients should not be flatter than the minimum stated herein. This supersedes BS 8005ii. Pumps are to be rated to pump all flows expected to be received at the station. Section 1. Page 2 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .5m maximum in extreme cases. fittings. through mechanical or electrical breakdown. This list is by no means exhaustive. and part of BS 8301iii.5 also contains the complete list of references for all manuals. where possible. and the resulting unacceptable pollution which would result from discharge of foul flows to wadis with little or no flow. Many sewerage authorities deal with such flow increases by incorporating overflows which divert foul flows to watercourses at times of rainfall. access for operation and maintenance of the sewerage system should also be located on publicly owned lands. • BS EN 752 – Drain and sewer systems outside buildingsi. These emergency overflows are only to operate on failure of pumps. and only to be located at pumping stations. marking.© Copyright Ashghal . Volume 1. If not. In the meantime the sewerage system should avoid the need for overflows. Part 1: 1996 Part 2: 1997 Part 3: 1997 Part 4: 1998 Generalities and Definitions Performance Requirements Planning Hydraulic Design and Environmental Considerations Part 5: 1998 Part 6: 1998 Part 7: 1998 • Rehabilitation Pumping Installations Maintenance and Operations • In theory a separate sewerage system should exhibit no increases in flows from rainfall.1 Standards The following standards are of interest to designers in surface water and foul sewerage systems. but knowledge will improve with ongoing studies and Drainage Area Plans. including pipelines. Sewers for Adoption – 5th Edition (WRC)vi.0m. However. All elements of the sewerage system. quality controlvii.5 also contains the complete list of references for all manuals.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Department of the Environment National Water Council Standing Technical Committee Reports. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. schools. institutional contributions from hospitals. MMAA. UK Redwood Books. 1994. UK.© Copyright Ashghal . Wales. 1998. 1997. and Northern Ireland. Water Research Council. 1991. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Vol. HR Wallingford DC Watkins. C523 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems – Best Practice Manual for England. Sewers and Channels. London. Tables for the Hydraulic Design of Pipes. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Hyder Consulting. Design and analysis of urban storm drainage The Wallingford Procedure... Each of these contributions will follow a different diurnal pattern. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. C522 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems – Design Manual for England and Wales. Report R159: Sea Outfalls – construction. WRC. (AU00109/D1/015). Research and Development in Methods of Soakaway design. commercial areas.. groundwater infiltration. Water Research Council. BRE Watford UK. State of Kuwait Ministry of Planning & Hyder Consulting. CIRIA. 1996. 2002. Cardiff. DMRB Volume 4 Section 2 Part 5 (HA 104/02) – Geotechnics and Drainage. Ahmed. UK. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture. Velocity equations. CIRIA. UK. 2001. Infiltration Drainage – Manual of Good Practice. January 1997. WRC. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. 1996. CIWEM. pp35-50. 7th Edition. A. S. 1991. The contributions to the system from each of these sources must be determined before the required hydraulic capacity of the sewerage can be established. 1981. London. Bazaraa. Chamber pots and gully tops for road drainage and services: Installation and maintenance. The design of the system must take these fluctuations into account and be Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 3 1st Edition June 2005 . Report 141. Rainfall Characterization in an Arid Area. and surface run-off. 1998. London UK. Design and construction of drainage and sewerage systems using vitrified clay pipes. Wiltshire. CIRIA. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Clay Pipe Development Association Limited. Report SR271 -The hydraulic design and performance of soakaways. London. CIRIA. including: domestic properties. • • Velocity equations for the hydraulic design of pipes – Wallingford Research. UK. Report 177.Final Report. Qatar. London CIRIA. Qatar Highway Design Manual. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. 1991. CPDA. Building Research Establishment. 4. with flows varying over a 24-hour period. Kuwait Stormwater Masterplan Hydrological Aspects . HR Wallingford and DIH Barr.S. CIRIA. Dry Weather Flows in Sewers. 2000. London UK. Report for the hydraulic design of pipes – Wallingford Research. etc. Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management. Design of sewers to control sediment problems. Scotland. 2001. Bucks. BRE Digest 365. 2000. Trowbridge. industrial facilities. Highways Agency. 1996. Engineering Journal of Qatar University. London UK. Soakaway Design. 1996. inspection and repair. 1997. National Water Council UK. Sewerage Detention Tanks – A Design Guide.3 Estimation of Flows • • • The flows in a foul sewerage system are made up of contributions from a number of different sources. Wallingford UK. Highways Agency.

This is calculated from the following formula: DWF = PG + I + E Equation 1. determine the existing and future contributing domestic population and hence the flows from that population to the network. 5. Determine infiltration rates into the sewerage system using the methods described in section 1. This is usually done sub-catchment by sub-catchment working down the trunk sewer. Page 4 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . DWF = dry weather flow (litres/day) P = population served G = average per capita domestic water consumption (l/hd/day) I = Infiltration (l/day) E = average industrial effluent discharged in 24 hours (l/day) The process for establishing flow rates should follow the sequence set out below: 1. Section 1.3. However. The total daily flow from each contributing source is calculated and summed to give a total daily flow through a given point.1 4. Determine the usage of these institutions and derive a diurnal flow pattern for them. Generally. while sub-catchments contribute to branches.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs capable of catering for the peak flows likely to be encountered in any 24. Section 1. health centres. The starting point for the design of foul sewerage should be the estimation of the average flow rate or the Dry Weather Flow (DWF).hour period. 6. From the peak flows the required pipe sizes can be determined. Determine the numbers and types of dwellings within the catchment and from this.5. 2.3.1 gives detailed guidance on this process. together with their working populations and diurnal variations. Establish the diurnal flow pattern for the domestic contribution. Thus a catchment may comprise a number of subcatchments. from the patterns on rest days. Hydraulic design is described in section 1.3. Section 1. The peak flow for design purposes in upper catchment areas can be taken as 6xDWFviii. It can be done graphically and will establish the maximum likely flow that has to be catered for at the given location.5. Define catchment and sub-catchment boundaries for the area under consideration. This should include all the properties and establishments that contribute to the system and may include future developments as well as existing. Identify any existing and proposed commercial establishments within the catchment.4 provides details of this process. The catchment represents the entire upstream area contributing to a point or node in the sewerage system.3.3. This is done by adding together the total daily contributing flows from each upstream source to any given point in the network. Identify any existing and proposed industrial establishments in the catchment.2 gives guidance on this. catchments are taken to contribute to trunk sewers. 3.3 provides detailed guidance on this.3. These may increase with time or it may be proposed to rehabilitate the system to reduce infiltration. The flows that are likely to occur in the sewerage system can now be estimated. This flow is then averaged for a 24-hour day to give an average Dry Weather Flow or DWF. Section 1. Identify any existing and proposed institutional establishments such as schools. 7.© Copyright Ashghal . it should be noted that the peaking factor would decrease in downstream catchment areas (see section 1. together with their daily contributing flow and diurnal flow pattern.4 for information on peaking factors). hospitals and mosques that are within the catchment boundary. Diurnal flow patterns will be different on working days.

1 -Typical chart showing diurnal variations in domestic sewage flows 2. The assumption is made that all properties of a given type will contain a given number of persons. In order to determine suitable domestic contributions to the sewerage system. Discharges in the table below are averaged over 24 hours in the determination of DWF because the application of peaking factors allows for the diurnal profile. locally generated domestic flows in the lower parts of the catchment will have passed downstream by the time the flows arrives from the upper areas. The figures in this table provide general guidance for the design of foul sewerage systems.00 00:00 04:00 08:00 12:00 Hours 16:00 20:00 00:00 Average Infiltration Infiltration range 100 0.1 Domestic Domestic flows form the largest proportion of flows in foul sewers. and are dependent on the number of persons in a dwelling. a good assessment of return to sewer flows can be obtained. The number of discharge units per property is then allotted based on BS 8301.50 Table 1.3.2.00 1. Thus. The figure to be used for design purposes in Qatar where there is no better information is 270l/h/d.50 Flow. For example.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 1. 1. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 5 1st Edition June 2005 . This is because.00 0. as shown in Table 1. l/s 1. Design populations of the existing and proposed properties are based on the plots indicated on the Action Plans that can be obtained from the Land Information Centre and the occupancy levels given in Table 1. basins. This has the effect of smoothing out the peaks in flows. for example. Table 1..1 below gives the discharge rates that should be used for the design of foul sewerage systems. showers.3. each property is assumed to house a certain number of persons.3.3. etc. it is necessary to make certain assumptions.250 Litres/jhead/day Litres/head/day Where sewerage systems are very long and the time of flow from top to bottom is significant. washing machines. They derive from normal domestic appliances such as sinks.3.50 0. Where the area to be served is low density palaces and villas consideration should be given to the use of 200 l/head/day. comprising 160 l/hd/day or sewage and 110 l/hd/day infiltration. If the catchment is inland and the ground water table level is low then the infiltration allowance can be reduced or even eliminated.© Copyright Ashghal .2. baths.1 – Typical Daily Discharges in the ME Development Discharge Unit type l/day Domestic Domestic low density high value properties 170 250 Litres/head/day Litres/head/day 2. and this will vary from one type of property to another. toilets. if a property is metered.3. Butler and Daviesix suggest that between 75% and 85% of water used in a dwelling in the Middle East is returned to the sewerage system. peak flows will be heavily attenuated.

Figure 2. Where no Action Plan plot or housing information is available.© Copyright Ashghal .2 – Indicative Occupancy Levels (from BS 8301) Plot Description For plots less than 1225m2 For plots equal to and between 1225 and 2500m2 For plots greater than 2500m2 Small Palaces Larger Palaces Occupancy Levels 6 people 9 people 15 people 25 people Discharge Units 14 21 35 58 The dry weather flow is then obtained from Figure 1.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 1. the future area can be assumed as developed at an average of the existing planned plot density.3.3.2. Page 6 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . which has been reproduced from BS 8310.

2 – Conversion of Discharge Units to Flow Rates Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 7 1st Edition June 2005 .3.© Copyright Ashghal .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 100 Flow (l/s) 10 1 1 10 100 Discharge Units 1000 10000 Figure 1.

Saving . Table 1.5 1. The majority of industries in Qatar are “dry” industries such as warehousing and workshops.2 Industrial 1.3. Proposed developments Page 8 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . Table 1.3. the above discharge rates should be checked using installed water supply meters for existing developments. Commercial activities include all those listed above and each may have its own characteristic discharge profile. Department Storexxi Recreationalxxii Centres Commercial premisesxxiii 300 Where possible.3.4 gives an indication of the likely discharges from various types of commercial activity.5 2 Volume Per tonne of produce Per cubic metre of produce Per machine Per tonne of produce Per tonne of produce Most significant developments include a degree of commercial activity and this should be included in the assessment of discharges to the foul system. light industry may be taken as “dry industries which generally handle materials and goods which do not include washdown facilities. These figures are to be used only in initial land usage planning. Table 1. metered water consumption rates should be used in design but where these are not available or are impractical to use. Heavy industries will include factories with washdown facilities and using water in the unit processes. If possible.3. and developers must obtain confirmation from end users before final design.3.3 – Design Allowance for Industrial Wastewater Generation Category Volume (l/s/ha) Conventional Lightx Mediumx Heavy Category Slaughterhousexi Drink Productionxi Laundryxiv Tanneryxii Tanneryxi 6600 l 8400 l 1500 – 2100 l/d 30 – 35 m3 7600 l 2 4 8 Water .3 Commercial Estimation of daily discharges from Industrial areas will be dependent on the type of industry occupying the area.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1. Each development type needs to be assessed. which will inevitably be different from the standard domestic profile.© Copyright Ashghal . up to major shopping. hotel or office complexes.4 – Typical flows from commercial premises Development type Commercial Centresxiii Airportxiv Hotelsxv Restaurantsxvi Social Clubsxvii Cinemaxviii Officesxix Shopping Centresxx Discharge l/day 50 Per Customer per 12 hour day Passenger Bed Customer Customer Seat 100m2 100m2 Per toilet Customer per 6 hour day 100m2 11 . These will have lower consumption rates than “wet” industries such as concrete or paper manufacture.3 can be applied. the values in Table 1. This activity can range from a single small office or shop.19 150-300 30-40 10 – 20 10 750 400 2000 80 In the above table.3.

3. In coastal areas. infiltration can be saline which can have a detrimental effect on sewage treatment processes and can cause corrosion of metalwork in manholes and pumping stations.3. It generally derives from groundwater entering the pipe network through: poor joints in the pipes. Infiltration comprises two components: • inflows from faulty manhole covers. A suitable return to sewer factor should then be applied to the results. Pf. Infiltration generally occurs in areas with a high water table.3.5 contains typical values of discharges from various types of institutional premises.100 150-200 100 10 – 30 250 300 . increased requirements for pumping and sewage treatment. Table 1.5 – Typical Institutional Discharges Development Discharge Per type l/day Educational Centresxiii Day schoolsxxiii Residential schoolsxxiv Mosquexiii Sports Centrexxiii Retirement Homexxiii Nursing Homesxxiii Assembly Hall Prison Hospitalsxxiii 70 50 . It is normal to allow a figure of 10% of DWF for infiltration.400 11 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs should be assessed using the figurers given in the table above. infiltration of groundwater through displaced and open pipe joints. As with other types of development. and tidal sources. or through private drainage connections. Diurnal profiles should be derived for each type of commercial development and applied to the daily discharge rate from the table. hourly intervals throughout the day.3. and hospitals likely to contribute flows for much of the waking day.19 300 . Thus for a peaking factor.5 Infiltration 1.2 Where: Q = Peak Design Flow (l/d) Pf = Peaking Factor P = Population Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 9 1st Edition June 2005 . 1. defects in manholes. Inflows can also come from the illegitimate practice of lifting manhole covers to drain surface water during and after storms. peak design flow would be given by the equation: Each category of premises will have a different diurnal discharge profile. profiles by reading water meters at say. fractures and breaks in the fabric of the main sewers and lateral connections. it may be possible to determine diurnal Q = Pf (PG + E) + I Equation 1.3.570 500-750 Pupil per 8 hour day Pupil per 8 hour day Pupil Worshiper per 12 hour day visitor Bed Bed Guest Inmate Bed • Infiltration causes reduced capacity for legitimate sewage flows. cracks or fractures. Hospitals and Mosques Infiltration describes flows in the foul system.© Copyright Ashghal . Health Centres. The resulting profile is then applied to the daily consumption.4 Institutions such as Schools. Sometimes. and possible structural damage. Table 1. cracks. which are not legitimate discharges. manholes and chambers. metered water supply records should be consulted wherever possible to provide an indication of actual consumption figures. crossconnections from storm and groundwater control systems. Infiltration should be excluded from the calculation of flows using peaking factors. with day schools only contributing during the school day. Infiltration into foul sewerage systems can be problematic.

The peaking factor will depend on the upstream population and the distance the Page 10 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . they often occur together in conjunction with fluctuating groundwater levels. As the pulses flow along the pipe system. DA suggest that for G in the above formula. manholes and chambers. However. Infiltration is often associated with exfiltration. discharges tend to be pulsed. For example. At the time of drafting this manual. It is far more cost-effective to avoid its occurrence in the first place. or more realistically. these pulses combine to form a more consistent flow. which coincide with peak domestic activity. then a higher figure may be adopted. to provide a longlasting leak-free system. At the head of a sewerage system. The Infiltration Reduction Procedure contained in the Sewerage Rehabilitation Manual should be followed.© Copyright Ashghal . In serious cases. is a timeconsuming and expensive process. This is an iterative approach to successively focus on sources of excessive infiltration.3. shopping areas will generally only contribute flows during the periods when the shops are open. The sewerage system must be able to cope with the highest flows likely to occur in the day. where the water table is known to be well below the level of the sewerage system. This suggests that foul sewers should be designed to cope with higher than the average. and then the flows will be in proportion to how busy the shops are through the day. such as the analysis of flow survey results.xxvi describe various methods for estimating base-flow infiltration. failure of the asset or ground subsidence has resulted. an overall figure of 270l/hd/day be used for all domestic flows. significant reduction of infiltration. this must be justified by supporting information. Two CIRIA reportsxxv. which is the leakage of foul flows due to faults and openings in the pipework. While this approach may be satisfactory for the smaller sewers at the head of the system.4 Peaking Factors As described in section 1. It is very evident that removal. and a common way of designing systems is to cope with a flow of up to six times DWFviii. combined with hydraulic modelling to understand the relative contributions of the components in wet and dry weather. The Sewer Rehabilitation Manual provides a detailed explanation of the factors involved in infiltration.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs G = Daily per capita flow (l) E = Daily Industrial Flow (l) I = Daily infiltration flow (l) A sample calculation sheet for sewers using the above formula is included in Volume 1 Appendix 1 Where local conditions indicate that the figure of 10% DWF for infiltration is too low. Estimation of both components relies on detailed flow and rainfall monitoring. Inflow of stormwater runoff is estimated from the area of development contributing to the flow monitor. Conversely. where infiltration is to be reduced. Exfiltration of foul flows results in contamination of the surrounding soils and possible pollution of groundwater. Such standards should be applied to both private and public sewerage. This can be done by strictly controlling the quality of new and renovated sewerage installations. Different contributors to the system will have different discharge profiles. 1. with individual pulses of flow being the discharge from individual appliances. it will tend to over design the larger sewers and ignores the attenuation effects as the flows move downstream. Property connections should also be correctly made. the allowance for infiltration will be less significant locally. the rate of discharge of sewage from a given property to the sewerage system will vary during the day. Domestic properties generally show marked morning and evening peaks. or dry weather flow (DWF). Since both infiltration and exfiltration involve flows passing through physical defects in the sewerage system fabric. This will be revised when flow survey results become available . and by ensuring that best quality materials and construction techniques are used. and to ensure that reduction measures are cost-effective. This continuing flow mechanism can result in erosion of the surrounds and foundations to pipes and manholes. the peaks tend to become attenuated and as the flows progress down the system. and abandoned sewers and septic tanks properly sealed.

Therefore. and below three. However. P Where PF represents the peaking factor. A number of different ways of determining the peak factor have been proposed which take account of the attenuation downstream with increasing population.4. There are several formulae for calculation of peaking factorix.1. for which the Babbit formula is most representative in Qatar The Babbit Formual (1952) is. the formula is not representative at low populations.. The minimum value of peaking factor shall be 3. the upper limit for peaking factors shall be taken as six for populations up to and including 500. For populations over 500 the Babbit formula shall be used. and P is the population in thousands.© Copyright Ashghal .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs sewage has travelled. It is considered that values in excess of six. but these figures may be revised after a detailed flow survey is carried out (see section 1.3 above). The variation of peaking factors with population is shown graphically in Figure 1. PF = 5 5 . are unrealistic for conditions in Doha. which follows Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 11 1st Edition June 2005 .

00 6.00 Population 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000 Minimum value 3 Maximum value 6 Figure 1.00 2.00 0.© Copyright Ashghal .00 3.00 F a c to r 5.00 4.1 Plot of Peaking Factors v Population Page 12 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Peaking Factors Babbit BSEN 752 7.00 1.4.

depths will gradually increase Hydraulic computer models should use InfoWorks CS software.1 The Colebrook-White Equation The Colebrook-White equation allows calculation of velocity of flow in a gravity drain flowing full for any given gradient.5 Hydraulic Design The hydraulic design of sewerage systems involves achieving a balance between pipe size. Wherever possible. in particular attenuation of flows. as this can promote the deposit of solids in minor branches leading to odour problems and blockages. diameter. Simulating modifications to the construction and/or operation of the system. Junctions should not enter a sewer at right angles but should enter at an angle of 45° to the direction of flow of the main sewer.5. Pipes in manholes should not be laid with the inverts level. Trunk sewer sections serving larger catchments are likely to become very deep (but see also section 1. it is recognised that in Qatar. Design Tools Hydraulic computer models are invaluable tools for understanding the performance of sewerage systems. all pipes should be laid such that their soffits are at the same level.5.1 below). • Backdrop manholes should be used where there is a difference >600mm in level between a branch/rider sewer and the main sewer.75. Understanding the flow regime of complex and interdependent systems. To allow for ventilation of the system. Backdrops (see also section 1. pipe depths should be used that avoid the need for concrete bed and surround.1 and 1. as found in Doha. Sewers should be designed to convey peak flows without surcharge. the minimum depth of cover should be measured from the formation level of the site above the sewers.75 x pipe diameter or d/D ≤ 0. due to flat topography. • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 13 1st Edition June 2005 . downstream in order to maintain minimum gradients (see section 1.5.2 below). maximum design depth of flow should not exceed 0. • • • • • • • Self-cleansing velocities increase with pipe size (see sections 1. Readily understanding the effects of changes in development on existing systems.12.2 below) should not be used to reduce gradients on main sewer lines. Sewers should commence at minimum depth upstream and follow ground profiles if possible to minimise excavation. as follows.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1. • At manholes. and be verified against flow and depth measurements carried out on the actual system. such that self-cleansing velocities are achieved without surcharge. Sewers should achieve self-cleansing velocity at least once per day.5. Understanding the flow characteristics of multiple pumping systems. pipe gradient and pipe depth. Note that half-pipe velocity is numerically the same as full-pipe velocity. but with the most economical combination of size and depth. However. General Principles The general principles of foul sewer design are as follows: • • • Pipe size should not generally decrease downstream. Hydraulic models are of particular value for: • Understanding the performance of the complete system.1 Formulae • 1.© Copyright Ashghal . 1.5. Where there is a chance of heavy construction plant tracking over new sewers laid during construction of a site. and roughness coefficient.11).1. such as those with bifurcations and loops.

2 Where: Q = flow in the pipe (m3/s) A = Cross-sectional area of flow V = velocity of flow This allows the pipe full discharge to be calculated where: A=πD2/4 Equation1. flow temperature 15oC. Designers should avoid using the optimistic values quoted by some plastic pipe manufacturers.5.Pipe Roughness ks Values Material ks Value (mm) Normal Poor 6.5 1.0 3.897 0.2 below give recommended values of ks and υ . Table 1.5 in all cases k s = roughness coefficient. m S = slope or headloss per unit length Further values can be obtained by direct reference to Appendix 1 of the Wallingford design tables.5.5. A graph for proportional velocity and discharge in part-full circular sections is reproduced in Figure 1.33 m/s Using the relationship: Q=AV Equation 1.0 0. and slope 1 in 157. Tables 1.1.5 3. m2/s D = diameter. m2/s x 10-6 15 25 35 1. and should be used to check velocities for self cleansing velocities at low flow (see table 1.5 . Caution should be exercised in the use of the Wallingford tables. = kinematic viscosity of water Thus.3 Thus.6 1. for a 400 mm diameter pipe with k s = 1. The figure to be used for design purposes shall be 1. the velocity will be 1.5.6 0. Both are taken for the Slimed sewers category from Wallingford design tablesxxvii.5.51υ  v = −2 (2 gDS ) log  s +   3.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 1.2 .1 . the viscosity should be varied for a range of temperatures.7 D D (2 gDS )    Concrete (Precast + O Rings) Concrete (Steel Forms) DI (PE Lined) GRP VCP 3.0 1.5. for the above pipe at full flow.5.1 Where g = acceleration due to gravity.5 Equation 1. the capacity will be 167 l/s A sample calculation sheet for sewers using the above formulae is included in Volume 1 Appendix 1 Tables are available from hydraulic research giving values for a wide range of pipe sizes at a range of gradients for various values of ks. It can be used for estimating the velocity of flow in partially full pipes.4) Page 14 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . This illustrates the relationship between depth of flow. It should be noted that the quality of pipes can vary considerably from one manufacturer to the next. but for routine applications.Kinematic Viscosity υ Values Temperature.5.0  k 2. 0C Viscosity. mm υ (m2/s).727 For detailed sewage modelling applications.5.141 0. and that condition of pipes can vary with time.1 and 1. and velocity.0 6.© Copyright Ashghal . a conservative approach will be to use the lower temperature of 150C. as these invariably refer to new pipes under laboratory conditions.

1 .Proportional Velocity and Discharge in Part-Full Circular Sections Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 15 1st Edition June 2005 .5.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 1.© Copyright Ashghal .

However.Typical values of Manning’s n Channel Material n range Cement Concrete Brickwork 0. Table 1.86 0.2 Manning’s Equation Manning’s equation is an empirical formula for uniform flow in open channels. transport a minimum concentration of fine particles in suspension.018 3.5. and the standard of workmanship during construction is high. Table 1. operation and maintenance”. so too do self-cleansing velocities. 0. Peak flow velocities of Page 16 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .010-0. Foul sewers should be at least 200mm diameter and laid to a gradient of 1 in 60 or 1.010-0.82 0. 2. it is normal to design the sewer to be “self-cleansing”.© Copyright Ashghal . Surface water sewers require generally higher selfcleansing velocities because of the higher particle densities.4 is based on the simplified CIRIA method of assessing self-cleansing velocities in foul sewers.cleansing (mm) velocity (m/sec) 200–300 400 500 600 700* 0. Table 1.87 1. This gradient can be relaxed to 1 in 150 (0.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1. with the result that very large foul sewers require velocities to exceed 1.2 Minimum Pipe Sizes and Gradients CIRIA Report R141xxviii defines self-cleansing sewers as follows: “An efficient self-cleansing sewer is one having a sediment-transporting capacity that is sufficient to maintain a balance between the amounts of deposition and erosion. In order to minimise the maintenance requirements of any given length of sewer. erode cohesive particles from a deposited bed. transport coarser granular material as bed load.75 0.5.4 – Approximate Self-Cleansing Velocities for Foul Sewers Pipe size Approximate self.77 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Velocities CIRIAxxvi recommends that sewers should be designed to: 1.75m/sec can be assumed to be self-cleansing in pipes of 150mm diameter.5.015 0.1.67%. Manning’s equation is only valid for rough turbulent flow conditions.5. As sewer sizes increase.5. Such velocities in large diameter pipes pose a safety hazard and facilities must be provided to prevent operatives being washed downstream in these sewers.5.67%) where several dwellings are connected to the head of the sewer. Manning’s equation is: v=(1/n)R2/3S0½ Equation 1.011-0.5.5m/sec to be selfcleansing.3 .020 0. with a time-averaged depth of sediment deposit that minimises the combined costs of construction. all pipe calculations must use Colebrook White Typical values of Manning’s n are given below. 1.4 Where: n is Manning’s roughness coefficient S0 is bed slope R is the hydraulic radius of the flow The equation may be useful in pumping station approach hannels and elements of sewage works. This means that the sewer is designed to achieve a velocity at least once per day that will carry all solid deposited material along the pipe and not leave any materials deposited in the invert of the sewer.

Volume 8. As a general rule. as below. backdrop manholes may be justified where there is a significant difference in level between a branch sewer and trunk sewer. For example. One of the main impacts of septicity is the formation of sulphide by the bacterial reduction of inorganic sulphate present in the wastewater.0m diameter) are laid to steep gradients. In small sewers. The proportion of sulphide present in the un-ionised form is dependent upon the pH value of the sewage and is about 50% at a pH value of 7. for which specialist design is required. which is unacceptable in foul sewers.6 Septicity in Sewage.⇔ H2S Only the un-ionised form is released to the atmosphere.⇔ HS.6. Some of the sulphide will combine with metals in the sewage. respiration of bacteria in wastewater and slimes present on submerged sewer walls rapidly depletes any dissolved oxygen or nitrates causing anaerobicity (septicity)xxix. The remainder will be present in ionised and unionised form.1xxx. a 1000mm pipe laid to 1:100 gradient with a depth of flow of 750mm will have a discharge velocity approaching 3.0 would be in equilibrium with a gaseous H2S concentration of 300ppm (ml/m3).cleansing velocity (m/sec) 0. Septicity can have an impact on health and safety.e. In rising mains and shallow gravity sewers. The discharge from a backdrop into a manhole requires careful design to prevent flows from washing over the benching.88 0. These are often purpose-made in stainless steel. Table 1.Health Impacts of Hydrogen Sulphide H2S Level Health Impact (ppm) 1000-2000 530-1000 Immediate collapse with paralysis of respiration Strong central nervous system stimulation.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Pipe size (mm) 800 900* 1000 1200 Approximate self.© Copyright Ashghal . it is not necessary to include measures to limit flow velocity. The use of backdrop manholes for this purpose is discouraged. Odour Control and Ventilation *700 and 900 are non preferred sizes Where large diameter sewers (over 1. Hydrogen sulphide is a toxic gas. The designer should aim to achieve a velocity at the design flow (i. S2. In this case. with 2.. but if velocities become very high. corrosion. WHO guidelines for dose-effect relationships for H2S are given in Table 1. followed by respiratory arrest Risk of death Loss of olfactory sense Serious eye damage Threshold for eye irritation 320-530 150-250 50-100 10-20 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 17 1st Edition June 2005 .1 . it is preferable to aim to achieve self-cleansing velocity at least once per day. subsequent treatment processes and odours. However. odour emissions can be increased and noise can become a problem. peak flow) of between selfcleansing and 2.6. a liquid concentration of 2mg/l of sulphide at pH 7.03 1.4m/sec. At a pH value of 8. For example.92 1. very high flow velocities occur. The designer should implement energy dissipation measures in such cases.88 0.0 this would decrease to about 60ppm. the economics may justify the construction of a backdrop to minimise excavation for the branch sewer trench.0m/s. It should be emphasised that scour in pipes at these velocities is not a significant problem with modern materials. Backdrops for large diameter sewers are complex structures that may involve the creation of vortices to dissipate energy. A typical example is included in the standard drawings.5m/s as an upper limit. less than 600mm diameter.

Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen sulphide Petroleum Methane 1. Selection of construction materials for tanks.6. with consequent impact on the structure of the tank or manhole as has been found at a number of sites. Hydrogen sulphide Methyl Mercaptan (methanethiol) Ethylmercaptan (ethanethiol) Ammonia Methylamine Ethylamine Dimethylamine 1. Threshold levels for various odours are listed in Table 1.2 .Exposure Limits for H2S and Other Gases Gas Long term OEL (8-hour) (parts per million) 5 0. In this instance.6. Table 1.6.6.5 25 10 10 10 Short term OEL (15 minute) (parts per million) 10 2 35 - Spontaneous combustion of sulphur around the edge of lifted manhole covers has been reported in Doha.3.2. and fittings should take into account the potential for corrosion.6. The possible gases considered are given below in Table 1. whether to an intermediate pumping station or to the inlet of a STW. the reaction of hydrogen sulphide with iron oxide at the manhole cover has led to its catalytic oxidation to sulphur. Table 1.5 4. High levels of hydrogen sulphide may develop below covers.6. Metal work and electrical equipment is also vulnerable to H2S corrosion.4.2 Corrosion Hydrogen sulphide is associated with the corrosion of concrete and mortar as the result of its bacterial conversion to sulphuric acid. 1. and risk is therefore minimal.© Copyright Ashghal . High levels of septicity have been associated with poor settleability of activated sludges. This concentration is unlikely to be achieved under normal operation. manholes. which is spontaneously combustible.6.3 15 Upper explosive limit % v/v in air 46 1. it is important that the designer is aware of such issues and to include mention of them in the design HARA’s.Flammable Gases in Sewers Gas Lower explosive limit % v/v in air 12.6. Although these are beyond the scope of normal design functions.0 (40000 ppm) 100 ppm 5. The lower explosive limit for hydrogen sulphide is 40000ppm. The level above which odour problems Page 18 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .5 parts per billion (ppb).1 Explosion and Combustion Risk The WRC report ‘Enclosed Wastewater Treatment Plants’xxxii considers the potential risk of the development of flammable concentrations of gases arising in a STW. The odour threshold level of hydrogen sulphide measured in a laboratory is about 0. High levels of septicity or sulphates have been associated with poor gas yields from mesophilic anaerobic digestion processes. covers.3 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs UK Occupational exposure limit (OEL) xxxi concentrations of hydrogen sulphide and other gases associated with septic conditions are given in Table 1.5 0.4 Odours The discharge of septic sewage can be a significant source of odours at the discharge point.3 Impact on Subsequent Treatment Processes The discharge of septic sewage can increase the rate of development of sulphide in the primary sedimentation stage sewage and sludges.6. Operational procedures may be required to reduce this risk.

Use submerged.4 – Odour Threshold Levels Gas Hydrogen sulphide Methyl Mercaptan (methanethiol) Ethylmercaptan (ethanethiol) Ammonia Methylamine Ethylamine Dimethylamine Odour threshold (parts per billion) 0.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs can occur is typically ten times this value. Discharge into the gravity sewerage system at low level to avoid turbulence and consequent release of odours. • • • • Pumping stations • • • Minimise turbulence at inlet to sump. and use lift pumps rather than long rising mains to minimise retention under anaerobic conditions( there is no satisfactory minimum length of rising main which can be quoted for design purposes. Active/passive odour control unit may be required depending on the sensitivity of the site. Table 1. Minimise turbulence at the discharge point. Even a retention time of 30 minutes is sufficient to develop anaerobic conditions. and also spread odour load more thinly over the day. rather than overflow weirs.© Copyright Ashghal . Manhole covers at discharge points may need to be sealed. and other factors such • • • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 19 1st Edition June 2005 .9-53 2400 23-80 1. Location of discharge point should NOT be immediately prior to hydraulic drops or sharp bends. Maximise benching to give self-cleansing conditions and ensure no accumulation of grit. ).6. Use level detectors to minimise the volume of sump used under normal flow conditions.5 General Design Guidelines for Odour Control in Sewerage Systems The design of sewerage systems to reduce the development of septicity is the subject of a number of guidesxxxiii. Guidelines are given in BS 8301xxxiv. Ensure any screenings or grit can be removed.02 130-15300 0.6. Guidelines include: Rising mains • Minimise lengths of pumping mains. or are washed back into main flow of sewage. size of installation. Background H2S levels are often in the range 25ppb. Use frequent pumping regimes to minimise retention time in sump.5 0.0014-18 0.

Gravity sewers • • • • • Maintain self-cleansing velocities.5.00152 t = anaerobic retention time (mins) D = diameter of rising main (cm) T = temperature of sewage (°C) COD = COD of sewage (mg/l) In gravity sewers. The concentration can be estimated from the following equationxxxvi: Cs=K tCOD[(1+0. and slimes causes localised septicity at points where turbulence is insufficient to remove such debris. next to houses) odour control may be needed to treat displaced odours when levels rise.07(T-20) Equation 1. Design to ensure no accumulation of grit or debris.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs as degree of septicity of sewage under normal flow conditions. An indicator of the likelihood of septicity in a gravity sewer is the ‘Z formula’ with the effect of different values of Z as indicated in Table 1.6. Storage Tanks and Shafts • • Minimise turbulence of discharges to tanks and shafts (discharge at low level). Where problems do occur. silt Page 20 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . and section 1. Avoid turbulent flow (including sharp bends and drops). little sulphide should be formed in a wellventilated.23 of this volume. xxxiii. Ensure there is ventilation of the sewer (by provision of vents). partially-filled gravity sewer used for domestic sewage. self-cleansing. Minimise length of siphons (which will act as rising mains).© Copyright Ashghal . usually taken to be 0. there is a balance between sulphide formation when flow is stagnant.5 of volume 5 The formation of sulphide in rising mains and gravity sewers has been the subject of extensive studies xxxv. Refer also to section 2. In practice.004D)/D]1. and sulphide release and oxidation during turbulent flow. In sensitive areas (i. they are typically associated with sewers of shallow gradients where accumulation of grit.6.e.1 Where: Cs = concentration of sulphide (mg S/l) Kc = constant.

5 . Modelling can enable the areas where septicity develops to be identified allowing effective targeted remedial measures to be taken. pH value. Sewerage Septicity Investigations Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 21 1st Edition June 2005 . More detailed equations have been developed by Pomeroy. The model calculates the amount of sulphide produced or lost along each section and carries out a mass balance across the system. Z= 3(EBOD) x P S0. Addition of chemicals is used to prevent odour problems in the sewerage system. The model divides the sewerage network into a series of nodes (for example junctions or manholes) and pipes (gravity or pumped). COD and pH value). In addition to the cost.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Z as calculated below is a dimensionless parameter that indicates the potential for sulphide generation. Location and odour control arrangements for manholes and chambers. The model also calculates the amount of chemicals required to prevent septicity. disinfection by UV irradiation may be affected by residual iron in the effluent. These are incorporated in a computer model (SPACA) developed by Hyder Consulting. Details of receiving sewer.g. Flow rate of wastewater. Chloride concentration (or conductivity). such as iron salts. Temperature.Values of Z. Measurements that should be made are: • • • • • • • • • • COD. Iron salts are also reported to increase combustibility of dried sludge. high purity oxygen.2 Where: EBOD = 5 day BOD (mg/l) multiplied by a temperature factor 1.6. Indicating Sulphide Generation Potential Value of Likely condition Z <5000 7500 10000 15000 Sulphide rarely present Low concentrations of sulphide may be produced Sulphide may develop sufficiently to cause odour and corrosion problems Frequent problems with odours and significant corrosion problems In addition.33 b Equation 1. e. Sulphide (liquid and gas phase). Respiration rate of sewage. such as bunded tanks. Length. Septicity Control Using Chemicals DA policy is to introduce septicity control facilities at all new pumping stations as required. dosing may not be necessary during cooler weather.6.07 (T-20) T = sewage temperature (co) S = slope of sewer (m/100m) Q = wastewater flow (l/s) P = wetted pipe wall perimeter (m) b = surface width of the stream (m) Table 1. Many of the chemicals used. modelling would require information on: • • • • • • • Length. Ventilation of house connections.g. Appropriate precautions are required in their handling and storage. diameter and slope of gravity sewer. e. Pumping regime/flow profile. the chemical should be selected with consideration given to the subsequent treatment of the sewage. Details of the sewers are required (length. Where a sewerage system is already in use. BOD. linking re-aeration rates with sulphide formation release and oxidation. and optimisation of dose rate should be carried out. material. It should be stressed that septicity control using chemicals is only acceptable in Qatar if no other methods are suitable. at the STW inlet works and in sludge systems. material and diameter of rising mains. Jensen and others for gravity sewers. site sampling can be carried out at the pumping station and at the discharge point. Redox potential. Design horizon. slope and diameter) and the wastewater (including flow rate.5Q0. eyewashes or safety showers. alkali and oxidising agents such as permanganates and hydrogen peroxide are potentially hazardous.© Copyright Ashghal . Dissolved oxygen concentration. The annual cost of chemicals can be significant.

Page 22 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .6. Sodium nitrate can also be used. Iron salts are added as a liquid at the discharge point of a rising main or to a septic flow. At pH 7.© Copyright Ashghal . If sufficient nitrate is provided. the sewage will remain fresh.0 99.0.2 Iron salts are acidic and corrosive and require care with storage and handling. The chemicals most commonly used for septicity control in the sewerage system or receiving wastewater treatment works are: Calcium Nitrate is used widely to prevent septicity in sewerage systems. and there will be no loss along the sewerage system. Fe2S3.4 29. an acidic chemical requiring appropriate storage and handling.6g/l N. Average daily dose rates are calculated from the aerobic respiration of the sewage.6.0. as with other iron salts.7.2 164. temperature 30oC. Table 1. with little effect expected at pH values much below 6. and that calcium nitrate is supplied at a concentration of 110.85 grams of oxygen are available for every gram of nitrate nitrogen. (mm) assuming 2. Nitrate salts are supplied and stored as a liquid and dosed as a liquid to the pump sump at the start of a rising main.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Measures are also required to ensure that chemicals do not deteriorate during storage. Iron salts attack metals.→ Fe3S4 + 4H+ The required dose rate decreases with increasing pH value and increases at acidic pH values.2 52. These values are derived assuming that the demand for nitrate nitrogen is 40% of that derived previously.g.6. or heat.6. However a mixture of ferric and ferrous salts in the presence of dissolved oxygen may be the most effectivexxxv: Fe2_ + 2Fe3+ + 4HS. the dose rate is 2. High doses of nitrate can be added at the start of the sewerage system. due to exposure to sunlight. Fe3S4 and FeS2). The uptake of nitrate results in a slight reduction in BOD. moisture. with a COD of 600mg/l are given in Table 1. and hence dosage rates in practice may be approximately half that calculated for calcium nitrate.Nitrate Dosing Requirements for Different Pipe Diameters Diameter Nitrate required per 1000 m length (mm) (kg/d as N) l/d assuming 110.2 471.4mg/l as Fe (kg/d as Fe) 350 500 1000 19. such as sludge liquor prior to return to the sewage flow.6 .9 500 1000 18.6gN/l 350 11. Iron salts combine with sulphide in the sewage to form a number of insoluble iron sulphides (FeS. that 2.9 Iron nitrate acts in the same way as calcium nitrate when dosed at the start of a rising main. Dosage rates for rising mains containing sewage at pH 7. A required ratio of between 10:1 to 30:1 of nitrate to sulphide has been reported. Addition of nitrate with anthroquinone has recently been proposed to oxidise sulphide in sludges. The amount of nitrate required for rising mains of different diameters is given in Table 1. Excess nitrate may lead to rising sludge due to denitrification in the primary sludge. Iron salts (sulphate. The iron component also combines with sulphides as they form. e.7 – Dosing Rates for Iron Salts Diameter Iron required per 1000m length. Iron nitrate is. Micro-organisms present in the sewage and in the slimes on the sewer wall will use nitrate as an alternative oxygen source under anoxic conditions. Some oxidation of sulphide in sewage and sludges may also be achieved by nitrate addition. but assume that the rate of nitrate uptake is 40% of that under fully aerobic conditions.4mgFe / mgS. chloride and nitrate) have been used very effectively to control odours. Table 1.2 68.6. Ferric salts are more effective than ferrous salts.

Oxygen requirements Diameter Oxygen required per 1000m length (mm) (kg/d) 350 500 1000 78. Addition of iron salts to sewage may: • • Increase the mass. The rate of oxidation in the sewage stream depends on the numbers of oxidising bacteria present in the sewage and can be in the range of 1 (fresh sewage) to 15mgS/l.9. dosing pumps and pipework. corrosion of the sewer fabric can occur. Under aerobic conditions.7 The amount of oxygen required per 1000m for mains of different diameters using the above respiration rates is given in Table 1. The uptake of oxygen results in a corresponding reduction in BOD.© Copyright Ashghal . ultraviolet disinfection to sulphuric acid occurs in the slimes on exposed sewer walls or sumps.h Oxygen supplied and stored as a liquid and then dosed into a side stream of sewage as a high purity gas has been used in rising mains and sewers elsewhere in the Middle East to prevent septicity.1 37. the sewage will remain fresh. the amount that can be dosed is limited by the saturation concentration of dissolved oxygen. with some chemical oxidation to sulphur. Table 1.8.3 Overall respiration rate (mg/l) of sewage and slimes in rising mains of different diameters is given in Table 1. Where the oxidation 350 500 1000 22. Give some solids deposition within the sewer. However. sulphide will be oxidised (predominantly by microbial action) to thiosulphate and sulphuric acid.6.h at 30oC) Slimes Wastewater Total DO demand rate mgO2/l.7 129. Affect subsequent processes. They therefore may be less effective than septicity prevention systems for reducing odour.5 15.6. High doses may adversely affect the settleability of the primary sludge.h) and wall slimes (assumed to be 1. Table 1. together with appropriate safety equipment such as safety showers and eyewashes. Dose rate is calculated to match the respiration rate of micro-organisms in sewage (typically 12mg/l.1 15.8 .4 371. iron salts have no impact on the concentration of other odorous chemicals such as volatile fatty acids or on the degree of septicity of the sewage. This can be calculated for a length of rising main of radius r metres and length.h at 30oC).State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs and appropriate materials are required for bunded tanks. volume and thickness of primary sludge. Some reduction of BOD and COD is seen. • • • • Increase the combustibility in subsequent thermal drying processes. Excess oxygen also exacerbates microbiologically induced corrosion.7 12 12 12 34.Respiration Rates of Sewage and Slimes Pipe diameter (mm) Respiration rates (mg/l. being about 34mg/l at 30oC.h.6. If sufficient oxygen is provided. Reduce concentration of phosphate below the required concentration for secondary treatment.9 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 23 1st Edition June 2005 .07(T-30) Equation 1. Oxidation can occur within the sewage stream.9g/m2.9)+ (pr2Lx12))1. which may adversely affect pump regimes. where it will reduce the risk of subsequent odour problems. L metres: gO2/h = ((2prLx 1. Although effective at precipitating sulphide.6.5 13.6. The injection of excess oxygen or air into rising main sewers can give rise to gas pockets.9 .

5. VC pipes are manufactured to 1200 dia in the Middle East. HDPE is not preferred. UPVC. However. MDPE and HDPE pipes may be classified as flexible or intermediate pipes. Dosage rates can be calculated as for oxygen. Vitrified clay pipes are examples of rigid pipes while steel. as higher values can lead to a significant release of ammonia. These appear to act by reducing fat levels or by inhibiting the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria.8 Pipe Bedding Calculations for Narrow and Wide Trench Conditions Pipes can be categorised as rigid. and the reluctance to add chlorine to the sewage flow. Dose rate is assumed to be 1 gram of H2O2 per gram of S oxidised at a pH value of less than 8. Such instances may occur because the high strength concrete pipes necessary for withstanding jacking forces do not have adequate chemical resistance to withstand the aggressive nature of the sewage. 1.3. Addition is generally to pH 8.48gO2 per gH2O2. (c) Intermediate or semi-rigid pipes are those pipes that exhibit behaviour between those in (a) and (b). other acidic sulphurous compounds and volatile fatty acids will be suppressed. ductile iron. (b) Flexible pipes rely on the horizontal thrust from the surrounding soil to enable them to resist vertical loads without excessive deformation. Hypochlorite is used as an oxidant in wet-scrubbing of odorous air: HS. Their effectiveness is very site specific.© Copyright Ashghal . such as lime or caustic soda.5. Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) is preferred for diameters in excess of 1000mm. flexible and intermediate: (a) Rigid pipes support loads in the ground by virtue of resistance of the pipe wall as a ring in bending. and slime growth. Chlorine dioxide has been used as an oxidising agent. The maximum amount of oxygen that can be injected is limited by its saturation concentration (about 34mg/l at 30oC and atmospheric pressure). Alkali addition. mainly with sludges and sludge liquors. All materials and jointing should be specified in accordance with QNBS. At raised pH values. with available oxygen calculated as 0. Peroxide can be dosed at the top of the rising main to oxidise sulphide present in the sewage. Peroxide dosed at the inlet to the rising main provides dissolved oxygen to satisfy the oxygen demand of the sewage and slimes.+ 9H+ + 8ClHS.0 or 8.+ Cl2 → S + H+ + 2Cl- 1. reducing oxygen demand. and long-term effectiveness is not known. See also Volume 1 section 4. Potassium permanganate has been used successfully as an oxidising agent to reduce sulphide levels in sludge liquors and sludges. up to 1000mm diameter.7 Pipeline Materials and Jointing The preferred material for use in gravity foul sewers (in Qatar) is vitrified clay pipe (VC). Chlorine/hypochlorite acts as an oxidant and also as a bactericide. The concrete pipe thus provides the required strength. can be used to increase the pH value of sewage or sludge. Enzyme based chemicals have been promoted for septicity control. but is not widely used because of the high chlorine demand of the sewage. the release of H2S. Use of alkali will become less effective if dosed sewage is diluted with neutral sewage downstream. uPVC is not acceptable on DA projects. Page 24 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . and provides dissolved oxygen.+ 4Cl2 + 4H20 → SO42.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs The concentration of oxygen at the injection point is determined by dividing the daily oxygen requirement by the daily flow rate of sewage. Hydrogen peroxide oxidises previously formed sulphide to sulphur and water. but may be used as a sliplining where trenchless methods (see section 5) are necessary for installation. and the lining is chemically resistant. using concrete jacking pipes.

Details of design calculations. resulting in the vertical load transmitted to the pipe being in excess of that due to the weight of the fill directly above the pipe. it is sufficient to design for the cross section of the pipeline. the backfill will settle relative to the undisturbed ground and the weight of fill is jointly supported by the pipe and the shearing friction forces acting upwards along the trench walls. static and moving traffic loads superimposed on the surface of the fill.8. ground subsidence. loads of the second type are not readily calculable and they only affect the longitudinal integrity of the pipeline. narrow or wide trench conditions. tables. has uniform quality. In general. 1. The effect of differential settlement can be catered for by using either flexible joints or piled foundations. • • (b) Choose the type of bedding (whether granular. The load on the pipe would be less than the weight of the backfill on it and will be determined as in ‘narrow trench’ conditions. Differential settlement is of primary concern especially for pipelines to be laid in newly reclaimed areas. are contained in Appendix 1. Provided the longitudinal support is continuous.8. The design criteria for the structural design of rigid pipes is the maximum load at which failure occurs while those for flexible pipes are the maximum acceptable deformation and/or the buckling load. Volume 1 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs depending on their wall thickness and stiffness of pipe material.1 Narrow Trench Conditions When a pipe is laid in a relatively narrow trench in undisturbed ground and the backfill is properly compacted. temperature change and differential settlement along the pipeline. the fill directly above the pipe yields less than the fill on the sides. which is influenced by the conditions under which the pipe is installed. the designer must refer in the first instance to the manufacturer’s literature. The load on flexible pipes is mainly compressive force. to ensure that the design is in compliance with recommendations.1. etc. For all DA projects. The load on the pipe will then be determined as in ‘wide trench’ condition. and the pipes are properly laid and jointed. which are resisted by passive pressure of the surrounding soil. and water load in the pipeline. Flexible pipes may change shape by deflection and transfer part of the vertical load into horizontal or radial thrusts. 1. The loads on buried gravity pipelines are as follows: (a) The first type comprises loading due to the fill in which the pipeline is buried. the superimposed load which can be uniformly distributed or concentrated traffic loads. If the pipeline is partly or wholly submerged.1. (b) The second type of load includes those loads due to relative movements of pipes and soil caused by seasonal groundwater variations.2 Wide Trench Conditions When the pipe is laid on a firm surface and then covered with fill. plain or reinforced concrete) on which the pipe will rest. (c) Select a pipe of appropriate grade or strength. The load on rigid pipes is concentrated at the top and bottom of the pipe. Apply the appropriate bedding factor and determine the minimum ultimate strength of the pipe to take the total design load.© Copyright Ashghal . i. and the water load in the pipe. Shearing friction forces acting downwards are set up. Please refer to Volume 1 Appendix1 1. thus creating bending moments.General. The approach for rigid pipes is not applicable to flexible pipes.e. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 25 1st Edition June 2005 . Loads of the first type should be considered in the design of both the longitudinal section and cross section of the pipeline. which is resisted by arch action rather than ring bending. there is also a need to check the effect of flotation of the empty pipeline.8.1 Bedding Design for Rigid Pipes The design procedures for rigid pipes are outlined as: (a) Determine the total design load due to: • the fill load.

2 Bedding Factors The strength of a precast concrete or vitrified clay pipe is given by the standard crushing test.© Copyright Ashghal .9 2. Fm = bedding factor.1 1.8.8. Fs = design safety factor of 1. Typical bedding factors are given in Table 1.1 below Table 1. Wt = ultimate strength of pipe.25 for ultimate strength of pipe BF 1.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1. the distribution of loads is different from that of the standard crushing test. When the pipe is installed under fill and supported on bedding.1 – Bedding Factors Condition Class D (Pipe laid on trench bottom) Class F (Pipe laid on Granular Bedding) Class B (1800 Granular Bedding) Class S (3600 Granular Bedding) Class A (Pipe on Concrete Cradle) 1. The ratio of the maximum effective uniformly distributed load to the test load is known as the '‘bedding factor'’ which varies with the types of bedding materials under the pipe and depends to a considerable extent on the efficiency of their construction. The design formula is as follows: We ≤ Wt Fm Fs where We = total external load on pipe.5 1.8. and on the degree of compaction of the side fill. The load required to produce failure of a pipe in the ground is higher than the load required to produce failure in the standard crushing test.2 2.3 Design Strength For design.8. it is required that the total external load on the pipe will not exceed the ultimate strength of the pipe multiplied by an appropriate bedding factor and divided by a factor of safety.6 Page 26 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .

Building over or near to a sewer. and subject to DA approval. All public sewers should be located in Government owned lands. or ten times the diameter of the sewer. Table 1. Where new manholes are to be constructed in existing highways. A manhole should be constructed at every significant sewer junction (a significant sewer junction is one where the connecting sewer • • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 27 1st Edition June 2005 . Where access to a sewer is restricted on both sides. Required spacing is summarised in table 1. causes major problems with access for maintenance and renewal of sewerage assets. plus the pipe diameter. Greater spacing may only be provided in special cases.9. being normally 3m either side of the centre line of the pipeline. or directly adjacent to them. connected to the major trunk sewers. close liaison is required with the Roads Department. Manholes and sewers should be sited with due regard to public utility services. including all rider sewers. which may cause vehicles to skid. Building over sewers.9. Manholes should be accessible at all times. jetting can be carried out from each end. care must be taken to ensure that the locations of all existing utilities in the vicinity are known. Thus the easement for a 1m pipe at 5m depth will be 11m. In sewers over 600mm dia.© Copyright Ashghal . In extreme cases. and at every change of diameter. Although the Standard Services Reservation Drawings should be followed where possible. These are included as drawings SR1 and SR2 in Volume 8 of this Manual. Manholes should. where due consideration is given to maintenance. The land along the line of the sewer for construction and access for maintenance and replacement is called the easement. where possible. For this reason. They should therefore be located with adequate access for maintenance vehicles. The location of manholes in the sewerage system is dictated by a number of factors: For non man-entry sewers maximum spacing between manholes is governed by jetting lengths. or the sewer diameter exceeds 600mm. Where the depth from finished ground level to invert exceeds 3m. Manholes should be constructed at the head of each system. the easement width required is a minimum of 6m. Manholes should not be located such that they would prevent access to utility equipment or in an emergency situation. and storage of excavated material and pipe sections during maintenance operations.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1. and that the proposed manhole location will not interfere with such utilities.1 – Maximum Manhole Spacings Diameter Distance (m) (mm) To 600 Above 600 • 80 120 • Manholes and chambers will form the main points for access to the sewerage system for operation and maintenance. it is essential that excavation depths be kept to a minimum. Jetting hoses are 100m and allowance has to be made for the vertical drop to invert level. This distance is considered to be the minimum practical working width to allow access of construction plant. No other developments should be permitted within the confines of the easement. direction and/or gradient. and associated manholes and chambers will not be permitted.9 Manhole Positioning • serves more than five properties). Manholes should not be constructed in locations on bends in the highway. demolition of premises could be required. Sewers in roads and highways should be located in accordance with the Standard Services Reservations Drawings as published by the Road Affairs. to permit access for construction and maintenance and to facilitate connection from private premises. the easement widths required are the greater of two times the depth to the invert of the sewer.1 below. The sewerage system should be designed to facilitate flows by gravity in a branched arrangement of small local sewers connected to larger district sewers. not be constructed close to kerb lines.

The required depth of MH1 is 1. It should be noted that Y–branches will not generally be accepted by the DA and should only be used as a last resort. whichever is greater. All gradients in pipelines must therefore be provided by the slope of the pipeline within the trench.11 Construction Depths • The topography of Qatar is virtually flat. etc are shown on the Standard Drawings. They exclude temporary storage areas. the capacity of the existing sewerage system should be checked to confirm that it has sufficient capacity to accommodate the flow from the premises. Trenches or pipelines shall not be constructed within a notional 45-degree line of influence spreading below the footing. and the like. the gradient may be reduced to 1:180. then consideration should be given to the provision of a rider sewer. Y-branches and saddles are not to be added to existing pipelines to avoid the permanent damage resulting from such modifications to the sewer. rider sewers. All house connections should comply with the following general principles: • They should be designed and constructed to enable foul flows to pass to the public sewer without flooding or surcharge. For every house connection. In such cases. capable of accepting foul flows only.2m The terminal manhole is intended to form a demarcation of maintenance responsibility. Illegal connections allowing the entry of storm water runoff shall not be made to the foul sewerage system. These requirements refer to permanent easements required in connection with pipe-laying and subsequent maintenance. Where several premises are being connected or the sewer is deep. 1. and to protect the public sewerage system from damage or blockage due to indiscriminate discharge of sewage by the occupants of the connected premises. a terminal manhole (Manhole number 1). hotel. complex. where access for manhole construction is impractical.5m from the face of the building. etc. The terminal manhole also acts as a seal to prevent the emission of gases from the public sewer. at shallower depth and discharge into a manhole. requiring Page 28 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .10 House Connections A house connection is defined as the connection from a premise (domestic. For a large palace. should be provided and should be positioned within the boundary of the premises at a distance not exceeding 2. Before a connection is made. commercial. or 1. in accordance with the Standard Drawings.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Foundations and basements of buildings adjacent to easements shall be designed to ensure that no building load is transferred to the sewer. The private sewerage system shall be designed and constructed as a separate system. House connection to existing pipelines should be made either to the nearest manhole or to a Yjunction incorporated into the pipeline. although this may not always be possible in flat areas. They should be of 150mm minimum internal diameter for a typical 6-person villa development.© Copyright Ashghal . • They should laid at minimum gradients. multi-storey apartment block. It is desirable that a gradient of 1:60 for 150mm diameter pipework be used for design purposes. sufficient to avoid deposition under all flow regimes. etc.0m from the boundary line. The rider sewer would be constructed parallel to the public sewer. industrial. office The private sewerage system between the premises and the terminal manhole shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the general requirements of the Manual. They should be constructed to watertight standards in accordance with the standard drawings and specifications. institutional. thus affording little or no opportunity to use natural land slopes to promote gravity movement of sewage.) to transfer foul flows to the public sewerage system. Volume 8. Typical details of house connections. the minimum diameter shall be 200mm. • 1. potentially causing nuisance to the occupants of the premises. The geology is also predominantly rock. used during construction.

It is recognised that this is generally costly to achieve. although rock geology encourages stability of trench sides. Faced with these natural constraints. However. Depth of trench for reach of machines for breaking out and removing excavated materials. The minimum cover depth from Finished Ground Level (FGL) to top of pipe or surround should be as per Table 1. terminal pumping station. designers have no choice other than to employ pumping stations to lift the sewage into the downstream gravity system. Whilst this is a general rule. which is slow. once the trench depth begins to approach around 5m. and so the policy in Qatar is to allow open cut up to 7. Options may include several combinations of sewer depth and numbers of pumping stations. Width of trenches allowing for battering back for stability.© Copyright Ashghal . designers should note that these values will often need to be exceeded in upstream sewers to allow adequate falls for house connections from larger developments. Strength of pipelines to withstand imposed loads from backfill.11. Trenchless options should be considered for deep sewers The economics of deep excavations are governed by the following factors: • • Depth of trench for safety. and should be subjected to the NPV process alike in order to provide a true cost comparison. • • • The costs and timescales for excavation then need to be balanced against the construction and O&M costs for pumping stations. Open cut excavations in excess of 5 m should generally be avoided where possible. the economics and practicalities should also be considered when determining excavation depths. and to avoid other utilities in congested areas. Other aspects such as noise from pumping stations. Both gravity sewers and pumping stations will have operational costs. Availability of suitable trench supports. The cost of providing shallow trenches and more pumping stations versus the cost of deeper trenches and less pumping stations should be subject to a lifetime cost (NPV) comparison at feasibility stage before embarking upon final design.5m depth. on safety grounds. and the consequences of flooding due to station failure also need to be considered. but not more. which may or may not require a Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 29 1st Edition June 2005 . Comparison should be carried out for all options on a NPV basis within a 15-year timeframe. with perhaps deep tunnelled interceptor sewers. However. The use of shallower trenches will result in the need for more pumping stations. noisy and expensive.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs excavation by rock breaker.1.

Access shafts should be sufficiently large for persons to go down to the sewer in comfort (with breathing apparatus in emergencies) and yet be small enough for the nearness of the walls to give a sense of security. and Ladders These installations are required to access sewers for testing. and are the means of access into the public sewerage system. and 1.12.3 Elements of Design Manholes and chambers shall generally be constructed in accordance with the standard drawings contained in Volume 8. Access Covers. Every sewer length on the public system should be accessible without the need to enter premises or cross property boundaries. 1.2m) and are intended for use on sewerage systems within property boundaries. and Sewer System Manholes. The arrangement and dimensions of manholes depend on the diameter of the connecting sewers and their depth to invert below finished ground level.1 . inspection. Maximum cover size should be limited by the weight which persons can safely lift. Where the invert of the manhole or chamber is more than 6 m from the cover level.1m and not greater than 6m.12. repair and removal of debris. and to admit persons wearing breathing apparatus in emergencies. Headroom between platforms should not be less than 2.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 1. Minimum cover size should provide sufficient access to admit persons with normal hand tools and cleaning equipment. Page 30 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . Standard drawings of backdrop manholes are included in Volume 8. to avoid excessive excavation. maintenance. intermediate platforms shall be provided at regular intervals.11 regarding sewer depths. and for the terminal manhole (MH 1) of the house connection.12. The platform should be fitted with handrailing and safety chains around the access opening to protect persons from 1. Designers should refer also to the discussion in sections 1.© Copyright Ashghal . Please refer to standard details Volume 8 These chambers are generally used for inspection of sewer pipelines and clearance of blockages. 1.1 Inspection Chambers These structures are of shallow depth (generally 1. Chambers.12 Manholes.Minimum Sewer Cover Depths Location Minimum Cover Urban areas (paved) Rural Areas (unpaved) Other Pipeline Services 1200mm to FGL 900mm to FGL 500mm preferred clearance Backdrop Manholes Backdrop manholes will be required where there is a sudden drop in sewer level.11. Although the general philosophy of sewer design dictates that pipes should enter manholes with level soffits where possible. being: • • Inspection Chambers. an inclined backdrop may be used.5 general principles. For smaller backdrops of less than 1m fall. In most cases this will arise when a shallow branch or rider sewer enters a deeper trunk sewer. Manholes and chambers generally fall into two categories. 300mm for twin rising mains in common trench 200mm absolute minimum clearance 1.2 Sewer System Manholes These structures are of a depth to suit the levels of the sewer pipelines. but vertical drops are required for greater falls. this will not be economical where shallow sewers meet deeper sewers (the branch sewers should be constructed at minimum depth to avoid excessive cost of excavation).

Pollutants in effluent (BOD. The location of openings in successive platform shall be offset to prevent dangers of free falling. arrangements for further checks. Such flows need to be managed as part of the overall sewerage and treatment management process. They comprise an underground tank for anaerobic treatment followed by a soakaway tank or pipe system to encourage effluent flows to disseminate to the surrounding ground. house connections from manhole number 1 to the main sewerage system should be made at the earliest opportunity. levels. etc) and concentration of each pollutant. Main business process. matching the cross-sections. For existing developments. The ends of pipes should finish flush with internal faces of the manholes. these tanks are a major source of groundwater pollution and therefore should not be constructed where main sewerage is available. discharge pattern (regular. This is best done by initial licensing of the industrial and commercial premises. Reporting requirements. such as flow measurement and effluent sampling. The license application should include the following information: • • • Name. sloping gently towards the sewers. Flow measurement and sampling facilities. some form of pre-treatment will be needed at the premises to ensure that discharges comply with the license standards. type of business and number of employees. nor too flat to accumulate sediment. In many cases. chemicals. intermittent. and usage of the septic and sewage holding tank stopped. water usage process and pollution process. weekend to weekday patterns). temperature. in terms of their location. and gradients of their respective sewers. Since they only provide partial treatment. prior to connection to the main sewerage system (ie if the premises are complete before the sewerage system). A suitable gradient for benching is 1 in 12. The licensing process should ensure that all significant industrial and commercial discharges are defined and understood.14 Septic and Sewage Holding Tanks Septic and sewage holding tanks are used to store and treat foul flows from premises.13 Industrial Wastes Foul flows from industrial and commercial premises have the potential to contribute major flows and polluting loads to the main sewerage system. Large industrial premises may require their own complete flow balancing and treatment facilities to meet license requirements for discharge flows and effluent quality. or where no sewage system is available. Water usage (daily and peak flows) effluent flows (daily and peak flows). The waste discharge license should include the following stipulations: • • • • Average and peak flow rates. separate access may be required to allow equipment and materials to be lowered directly to the pipe invert). followed by ongoing monitoring of their effluents to ensure that they are complying with their licenses. COD. Please refer to Volume 1 Appendix 5 for example of industrial waste discharge permit application 1. Benching slopes should not be too steep to cause persons to slip into the sewer. The benching should be formed from plane surfaces. 1. Inverts and benching should be neatly formed. (In certain circumstances. SS. Maximum concentrations for a specified range of pollutants.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs falling. The channel inverts should be curved to that of the connecting pipes and carried up the full diameter of the pipes in flat vertical surfaces.© Copyright Ashghal . volume and polluting effects. address. • Each application should be checked by a site visit to confirm the supplied information and make Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 31 1st Edition June 2005 .

The tank shall be designed against the effects of uplift from groundwater pressures. Further information on the design of oil and grease interceptors is contained in Volume 6 . • • For larger developments. The bund should be fitted with valved drainage for removal of rainwater. Any special conditions affecting the composition of the sewage. such as grease.© Copyright Ashghal . 1. soakaways will not be permitted. Ground soil condition and depth of water table. Paint and chemical manufacture and storage. Water consumption and discharge rates.15 Oil and Grease Interceptors Oil and grease interceptors are usually located underground and are used to reduce. and other floating solid pollutants. Garages and workshops. to enable less frequent emptying and associated tanker traffic. The tank shall be watertight to prevent the ingress of water. by removal of floating matter.14.1 Design of Septic Tanks and Soakaways The following information will be required for designing the septic tank to serve the development: • • • Maximum and minimum population to be served. it will be necessary to provide sewage holding tanks. multiple tanks and soakaways may be necessary. The tank shall have a minimum of two days storage of sewage discharged from the development. Page 32 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . all aboveground storage of polluting liquids should have retention bunds installed around all storage tanks.Developers Guide. Restaurants and catering premises. and shall be suitably constructed and protected against corrosion. suitably protected against natural elements and the retained liquid. 1. Regular and planned maintenance.16 Flow Attenuation Methods The role of flow attenuation is to reduce peak flows by the temporary storage of wastewater within the system.Developers Guide. The retention volume of the bund should exceed that of the tanks by 10%. Oil and grease interceptors are required to treat all foul and surface water flows from such establishments as: • • • • Hotels. as they will be considered as ineffective in percolating the effluent into the surrounding ground. which would adversely affect the treatment process.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Septic tanks should preferably be designed for a minimum hydraulic retention time of one month to allow anaerobic treatment of the organic content. it is preferable to have up to 30 days if possible. depending upon the size of the catchment.14. and to reduce discharge and pollution from overflows. 1. No drainage connection is to be made to main sewerage or drainage systems. However. Further information on the design of septic tanks and soakaways is contained in Volume 6 Developers Guide. petrol. for example reinforced concrete.2 Sewage Holding Tanks Where the groundwater level is high. Petrol stations and fuel storage facilities. or remove light liquids such as oil. The need for additional oil and grease traps. is required if they are to function efficiently. based on the population and per capita flow. At such sites. as these will affect the percolation of effluent through the soakaway. Flow attenuation is often used to reduce flooding and overload of pumping stations. oil and detergents. Further information regarding sewage holding tanks is contained in Volume 6 . grease. 1. In addition to underground interceptors. The bund should be of durable construction.

Excessive use of storage can lead to problems in the downstream sewerage system and at the STW. On-line storage systems attenuate flows by utilising existing capacity within the system or by constructing oversize sewers. Cd is the coefficient of discharge. due to deterioration of the sewage during storage. The most common controls are described below. Pumped storage systems may increase the risk of septic conditions. Access for rodding or other means of clearance must be provided at the design stage. Use of orifices is therefore preferred.16. Storage tanks are normally sited underground.16. and therefore considerable care will be needed to avoid prolonged storage of sewage. with resulting odour.2 Attenuation Storage Tanks and Sewers Qs = Cd A√(2gH) Equation 1. It is preferable for the rating curve to have a steep gradient in order for the passforward flow to remain near constant from onset of spillage through to maximum weir flow. it is widely accepted that they are not suitable where the minimum dimension is less than 200mm. Smaller sizes are prone to blockage. being usually circular or square apertures sized to produce a restriction in flow. the friction losses can be neglected and the above formula used. by backing up flows into the upstream storage tank. Layouts Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 33 1st Edition June 2005 . Other Devices Head discharge relationships for the various market products (such as Hydrobrakes) should be obtained from the manufacturers. to allow draining down of the chamber in the event of a blockage. The formula used for sizing a circular or square submerged orifice is: 1. Because of the solids content of the flow.1 Where: Attenuation facilities usually comprise underground storage tanks. Operational Issues A common problem with all controls is the tendency to block from time to time. which involves confined space entry.7 A is the orifice area H is the hydrostatic headloss across the orifice plate.16. Combined with high ambient temperatures. commonly around 0. Penstocks Penstock settings can be sized as for orifices. as the setting may be altered after installation. such conditions exist in Qatar. Orifice plates may be fixed in location or mounted in guides for easy removal. Measures such as flap gates. Some of the proprietary flow controls are also fitted with bypass pipes. the most common being the on-line or off-line tank. Penstocks also have the disadvantage of requiring periodic maintenance. Their use is therefore limited to higher flow ranges. It should be remembered that the chamber may become flooded and therefore the clearance facility must be operable from outside the chamber. Orifice Plates and Pipes These are the simplest controls. Prolonged in-sewer storage can potentially lead to higher STW effluent loads (particularly total suspended solids and ammonia) and/or poor biomass performance. or difference between upstream and downstream water levels. The off-line storage systems involve storage tanks adjacent to the sewer with connections to and from the sewer. equipped with flow control devices on their outlet to limit peak flows from the tank. For short lengths of pipe.© Copyright Ashghal .1 Flow Controls Flow controls are used to limit the flow passing forward to the downstream system. corrosion and health hazard problems. but should be used with caution. 1. vent tubes and fixed pressure hose connections have been used with some success.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Flow attenuation is most usually achieved by providing additional storage.

but require certain hydraulic conditions to be satisfied in order to present a viable option. of which there are many further sub-classes. and share the same hydraulic gradient. On-line tanks would normally be preferred to off-line from an operational point of view. Figure 1.1 shows several alternative layouts On-line tanks are storages constructed along the route of the pipe in question. again depending upon the hydraulic conditions. On-line tanks (with perhaps the exception of emergency storage) always drain flows to the downstream sewer by gravity. Page 34 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .16. Off-line tanks are constructed along a route separated from the main sewer.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Tank arrangements fall into two main categories. and may return flows to the main sewer by gravity or pumping. namely on-line and off-line.© Copyright Ashghal .

Off-line Storage + Screened overflow + Gravity Return Flow Control Overflow & Screen Storage Tank Outfall Flume 6. Off-line Storage + Gravity Return + variable flow control Flow Control Overflow & Screen Storage Tank Outfall Flume 7. Off-line Storage + Gravity Return Storage Tank Flow Control 4. Off-line Storage + Screened Overflow + Gravity Return Overflow & Screen Storage Tank Outfall Non-return Valve 5. Off-line Storage + Pumped Return + screened overflow Overflow & Screen Storage Tank Outfall Pump Figure 1.13.© Copyright Ashghal .1 – Alternative Storage Tank Layouts Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 35 1st Edition June 2005 .16.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 1. On-line Storage Storage Tank 2.1 Alternative Tank Layouts 1. On-line Storage + Flow Control Storage Tank Flow Control 3.

clearing the blockage suddenly may have an unacceptable impact on downstream facilities.16. due to the large surface area requirement. On-line tanks become more practical with increased gradient. at pipe joints. or if insufficient length is available for on-line storage. thin-walled plastic or GRP tanks with mass concrete surrounds. selection of a preferential flow channel will reduce the need for desilting operations. linked to a gauge of the downstream sewer reserve capacity.access needs to be provided to safely enter the structure and for clearance tools and removal of debris. It is unlikely that they would be situated in upstream areas. This flow may be the capacity of the downstream sewer. a dry weather flow channel should be provided. The tank will need to operate within the hydraulic regime of the existing system. Thus although they are the preferred arrangement. Hydraulic conditions will determine the viability.g.16. large diameter pipes. but at greater depths. In such cases. and the order of preference in filling. but certain applications will lend themselves to the use of proprietary products. as in Cases 4 to 6. As the tank may not be 100% filled on a regular basis. such as pumping stations and STW. where a variable flow control is provided. Care should be taken with benching in on-line and off-line tanks . 1997xxxvii that the longitudinal slope of the tank is kept to a minimum of 1:100 in on-line tanks and that sidewall slopes into the centre channel are Operational Issues Operation and maintenance of such underground structures present particular health and safety issues for access and maintenance. precast concrete box culverts and modular. e. Removal of sediment .access needs to be provided to safely enter the structure. GRP. In both of the above cases. Designs using plastics should ensure adequate resistance to jetting pressures. Care should be given to flow distribution at the upstream end. plastic or coated steel. to prevent accumulation in the tank. due consideration will need to be given to the greater pressures developed at the downstream ends. Where a blockage has resulted in sewage being retained for some time. and for clearance tools and removal of debris. Off-line Storage Off-line storage with gravity return is shown in Cases 3 to 6 in Figure 1. an over-sized pipe/box-culvert or groups of pipes. These aspects include: • Blockage of flow control devices .1. flow control measures should be devised to prevent screenings entering the tank from the downstream end. e. It is recommended in Sewerage Detention Tanks – A Design Guide. Designs therefore need to consider facilities for gradual emptying or removal of effluents. However. On-line Storage On-line storage is shown in cases 1 and 2 in Figure 1. This is the simplest type of arrangement. this may be difficult. and should be used wherever possible. but they could be of use adjacent to pumping stations where a significant headloss is available between the sewer invert and the Pump Station Top Water Level (TWL). WRC. All underground structures should have adequate resistance against uplift due to groundwater pressures. Design to optimise removal of sediment to: minimise time and effort needed inside • • Page 36 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . whereby a flow control is required to limit the pass-forward flow. An on-line tank will operate by surcharging as the flow approaches the predetermined pass-forward flow.g. A further refinement of this is shown in Case 6.© Copyright Ashghal . consideration may be given to the use of backdrops and cascades of tanks. a minimum of 1:4.1. it is preferable to retain the screenings in the main flow where possible. On-line tanks of any size will not be practical in very flat sewers. This would typically be preferred where construction could proceed without the need for over-pumping. In large diameter tanks with low base flows. In such cases.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Materials and Construction Materials for tank construction may be concrete.this should be steel trowel finished with granolithic topping to prevent accumulation of solids. Where screens are installed. In-situ reinforced concrete is the most obvious choice for construction of specific designs. their use is limited in Qatar due to the flat topography. care should be taken to ensure a selfcleansing velocity to prevent sediment build up. The storage may be provided in a single tank.

use of mechanical plant and flushing mechanisms to periodically remove sediments A useful design check is provided in Table 1.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs underground structures.© Copyright Ashghal . modification of inlet design to increase scour. modifications to the structure of the tank to allow sediment to be removed from ground level. steepening of benching gradients and installation of dry weather flow channels to encourage self-cleansing.16.1. use of low friction coatings to discourage accumulation of sediment. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 37 1st Edition June 2005 .

1 .16.© Copyright Ashghal . Is a power supply needed? Is a water supply needed for washing down? Planning permission is required for all control kiosks and permanent accesses to the Is a standby generator required? DA and RD Discharge consents for emergency overflow What is required in the way of control kiosks/buildings Ensure that access for a tanker is possible Place screens on inlet to tanks on off-line tanks Ensure sufficient access of adequate size are incorporated (NB can plant be removed Consider the type of screen required Design out any possible maintenance hazards Ensure adequate ventilation is achieved Is odour control required? Consider retention times of the tank How long does it take to empty the tank? Consider follow on storm events Provide a facility for overpumping of the tank Are overflows required? Provide penstocks on the tank inlets/outlets to enable flows to be diverted or isolated Provide a penstock protected bypass pipe Is a flow control required on the tank outlet/bypass pipe? Reinstatement of area. consider future access requirements Does the site need to be purchased? HARAS complete? EIA complete ? Page 38 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . and security of access) Incorporate a sufficient number of davit sockets What telemetry is required? On-line or Off-line tank? Are welfare facilities required? Is a gravity discharge achievable? Otherwise pumps will be required.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 1.Storage Tank Design Checklist Consider maintenance & cleaning operations Consider the erection/removal of falsework in confined spaces during construction (use false soffits or pre-cast slabs for roof sections) Design benching to be self-cleansing Consider type of covers (think about manual handling.

Land area available and proximity to housing or public areas. If the inflows are greatly below the pump output.17 Abandonment of Sewers 2 2.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 1. reliability of the system is of key concern. The standards and sources of information to be used are listed in sections 1. Overflows and emergency bypass. 2. where this is impracticable. they shall be filled in accordance with the materials and details contained on the Standard Drawings in Volume 8.© Copyright Ashghal . Access to the proposed site. Flows will increase in the following years to reach the design capacity of the station. raising problems with septicity. with the potential for premature failure of equipment. Bypass or overflow of raw sewage. Disused sewers shall be removed or.1 Pumping Stations Standards Disused sewers and drains have the great potential to allow unwanted flows. such as groundwater to enter the system through deteriorating faults in the system fabric. environmental and economic aspects. and ingress of groundwater and infestation by rodents.2 Hydraulic Design The overall design philosophy of the pumping system needs to be a balanced design with due consideration of functional. Standby power supply or temporary storage. They therefore need to be removed from the system to prevent structural deterioration. Twin rising mains.2. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 39 1st Edition June 2005 . Since the pumping station will probably be serving an area of new development. should be avoided where possible. unauthorised use. corrosion and effects on the receiving STW.1 and 1. Such infrequent operation of pumps will also result in retention of sewage in the rising main. Particular attention should be paid to the following issues: • • • • • • • • Design flow. Availability of QGWEC power supply. even in emergency situations. Standby pumps. For pumping systems in the vicinity of sensitive receivers. the result will be excessive periods of inactivity of the station. it is likely that the initial flows to the station will be much smaller than those expected for the full design.

The additional costs and disruption of digging a second trench.2.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Consideration should therefore be given to the sizing and numbers of pumps to match the likely build-up of incoming flows. then the second main would be brought into use. Although not strictly required for the early years of a scheme.2.1 Where δH denotes the fitting headloss (m). would be avoided.1below. The frictional and minor head losses of these components are approximately proportional to the square of the velocity of flow through the system and are called the variable head. Friction losses should be determined using the Colebrook–White Formula. 9.2. The use of similar pumps will avoid any changes in pumping regime due to the rotation of duty pumps for operational reasons.e. on duty and assist basis. the loss on the suction and delivery pipework from the sump to the common header) should also be considered. with similar standby pump(s). pumps. open channels and/or rising mains. Indicative values of k are given in Table 2. and outside of it should be determined using the formula: δH = kv2/2g Equation 2. together with operational and safety requirements of working adjacent to a “live” rising main. v the velocity (m/s) and g is the gravitational constant.1 Hydraulic Principles A pumping system may consist of inlet piping. valves. Losses in fittings at the station. the head losses through these various components must be calculated. The station loss (i. say five years.81m/s2. it would not be economic to construct one rising main and then construct the second within a short period.© Copyright Ashghal . When a particular system is being analysed for the purpose of selecting a pump or pumps. One main would be used in the early years of the scheme to achieve satisfactory maximum flow velocities and hence minimise siltation. Where possible. k is the loss coefficient. outlet piping. When flows increase. fittings. similar pumps should be installed. 2. Consideration should also be given to installing twin rising mains. Page 40 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .

Combine the fixed head and variable heads for several flow rates to obtain a curve of total system head versus flow rate. 4. The maximum discharge rate from a pumping station. The curves will intersect at the flow rate of the pump.2.2 Pump Arrangements 1. By superimposing the characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump on a system-head curve. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 41 1st Edition June 2005 . for various flow rates.1.1 1. the duty point of a pump can be determined. Table 2.0 0. The Total Dynamic Head (TDH) for a system is the sum of the major and minor friction losses plus the static head.2 0. These two heads are fixed system heads. It may express the system head in metres and the flow rate in cubic metres per second.8m/s ks (mm) 0.35 0. Note also the values indicated in Table 1.3mm 0.75 0.4 0. A system head curve is a plot of total system head.1m/s and 1. variable plus fixed. if the discharge level or the pressure above that level is lower than suction level or pressure. 2.2. as this is the point at which the pump head is equal to the required system head for the same flow.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 2.5. for Various Fittings 3.5 0.5 0. Fixed system heads can be negative. which refer to gravity sewers. The number of pumps to be installed depends on the station capacity and the range of flows. It is also necessary to determine the static head required to raise the liquid from suction level to a higher discharge level. Define the pumping system and its length.2 below.1 above) ks for use in rising mains are contained in Table 2.5.2. Fitting Standard 900 bend Long Radius 900 bend Standard 450 bend Tee .2. a condition that requires more pumping head. The recommended values for coefficient of Colebrook–White Roughness Factor (Section 1.0 1. The duty point for a pump selection will be the required flow at the TDH. commonly known as pump curves.line to branch Tee – flow in line Taper up Sharp Entry Bellmouth Entry Sudden Exit Non-return valve* Gate Valve. 2. Procedures to plot a system-head curve are: The discharge capacity for multiple pumps will not be simply the sum of the discharge capacity of individual pumps because the system-head curve for multiple pumps will be different from that of a single pump. System head calculations would normally be carried out using valve open figures. as they do not vary with rate of flow. Fixed system heads are called static heads.© Copyright Ashghal .15mm *Note that for valves it is advisable to obtain manufacturers data on headlosses. Calculate the fixed system head. The pressure at the discharge liquid surface may be higher than that at the suction liquid surface.12 The flow delivered by a centrifugal pump varies with system head. fully open* Coefficient k 0.1m/s Between 1. Pump manufacturers provide information on the performance of their pumps in the form of characteristic curves of head versus capacity.2 – Recommended Values of Colebrook-White Roughness Factors (ks) for use in Rising Mains Mean Velocity in m/s Up to 1.3 1.1 – Indicative Minor Loss Coefficients. when all duty pumps and rising mains are in use should be slightly greater than or equal to the maximum incoming flow to the station. Calculate the variable system head losses for several flow rates. Pumps should be selected with head-capacity characteristics that correspond as closely as possible to the overall station requirements. k.

2 Twin Rising Mains The use of twin rising mains should be considered on a case by case basis.© Copyright Ashghal . For instance. sensitive receivers affected (such as beaches). 2.1 Rising Main Design Rising Main Diameters • • The minimum diameter of pumping mains is controlled by the need to avoid blockage. Septicity in the standby mains would also pose an operational and maintenance problem. To facilitate future inspection and maintenance of major pumping systems. the velocity and the system head will decrease.3. Considerations for the design elements comprise the rate of build up of flow. the availability of land for the twin mains and associated valve chambers as well as the complications in pump operation. A thorough risk assessment should be carried out which should include the likelihood of mains bursting. Page 42 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .3. the feasibility of temporary diversion or tankering away. the operation of the station can still be maintained. For instance. it is also important that the velocity in the mains should be within a suitable range to minimise the deposition of solids. The occurrence of overflow or bypass can be minimised or even eliminated. with savings in the cost of pumping. etc) and intangible factors (such as nuisance. a second pump of equal capacity is mounted. Where three duty pumps of equal capacity are required to meet the maximum design flow conditions. The main factors for consideration include the design elements. Should one of the duty mains be taken out of operation. To provide continued operation for a major pumping system when one of the mains is damaged and where the failure of the system would have serious consequence. However. the remaining one would still be able to deliver a higher quantity of flow at a higher velocity. the consequence of failure. The maximum and minimum diameters are sized to maintain flow velocities for all stages of pumping within the ranges specified in Section 2. energy cost. 2. the range of velocity in the mains. and therefore should not be less than 100mm. while the normal sewage flow can be maintained.3 2. risk assessment and cost benefit analysis. land cost. or the use of a smaller diameter impeller should be considered. phased installation of pumps. it is advisable to use both mains as duty rather than one as duty and the other as standby.3. unless the flow ranges vary widely throughout the day. area affected. To cater for slow build-up of flow in the early years of operation. etc). and When twin mains are found to be preferred. Excessive hydraulic head losses are to be avoided.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Standby capacity is required so that should any of the pumps in the station be inoperable due to routine maintenance or mechanical failure. a fourth pump of similar capacity is provided as standby. Twin rising mains should be considered in the following circumstances: • To accommodate a wide range of flow conditions. Where sewage is screened or macerated before pumping the minimum diameter should not be less than 80mm. • 2. closure of beaches. To minimise adverse environmental impacts to sensitive areas.4. such that the velocity in the mains can be kept within acceptable limits.3 Economic Analysis As the size of the rising main increases. the range of flow conditions. in a station where a single duty pump provides the duty output. A cost benefit analysis should include all tangible factors (such as cost of pipework. from an economical and operational point of view. a pumping system serving a new development may have very low initial flows with a slow build up of flow. The increase in the capital cost of rising mains will be offset by the power cost of pumping. It is not desirable to have pumps of different sizes for operation and maintenance reasons.

and higher velocities increase surge problems and power usage). Thrust blocks are also necessary near valves where a flexible joint is located to facilitate removal of the valve for maintenance purposes. The desirable range of velocity should be 1m/s to 2m/s with due consideration given to the various combinations of number of duty pumps in operation. 2. Therefore. Air release valves should be provided at high points and as the profile of the main dictates. to be cast against undisturbed ground. For most cases. or partially closed valves.4 Rising Main Alignment The alignment of the rising main should discourage surge in its flow conditions. combinations of different sizes of rising mains and the system head should be evaluated. i.3. size of pipe and the pressure of water inside the pipe. The arrangement and locations of valves should be planned together with the alignment of the rising mains. The designer should also refer to the pipe manufacturers’ literature. Where possible the rising main should be laid with continuous uphill gradient of not less than 1:500. Restraint straps may also be required for above-ground pipework. however DI is preferred. thrust blocks are essential on flexibly jointed pipelines where any pipe movement would open up the joints in the line and cause water leakage.4 Maximum and Minimum Velocities • The maximum velocity in rising mains should not exceed 2. Washouts should be installed at low points. taking into account both the capital cost and the energy cost of pumping. If the adjacent ground has insufficient bearing capacity. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 43 1st Edition June 2005 .6 Thrust Blocks Thrust blocks are concrete blocks designed to prevent pipes from being moved by forces exerted within the pipe by the flow of water hitting bends. • 2. thrust blocks will be designed to transfer forces directly onto undisturbed ground using direct bearing. Consideration should also be given to the presence of adjacent services and the possibility of future disturbance during maintenance operations. the acceptable bearing pressure being confirmed by geotechnical investigation. Force due to change in velocity head can normally be assumed as negligible unless there is a drastic change in pipe diameter. and with gentle curves in both horizontal and vertical planes.e.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs The selection of a suitable size for the rising mains should be based on economic analysis of capital cost and recurrent cost of the pumping system including the power cost. (This is because lower velocities cause siltation. Thrust blocks should be designed for the condition of no support being available from the backfill. and closed. 2. Rising mains outside pumping stations may be ductile iron or Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) with concrete protection. Complex thrust blocks may be required to avoid transfer of forces and consequential damage to adjacent services. Long flat lengths of rising main should be avoided therefore pipes should be laid with rise and falls of 1:500. A trial and error approach should be adopted in order to arrive at an optimal solution while maintaining the velocity within acceptable limits.0 m/s. dead end or change in diameter should be considered.© Copyright Ashghal . the block may need to be designed using ground friction or piling to transfer thrusts to a more competent soil layer. rather than flat. The size of block is dependent upon the angular deflection. The following design assumptions are to be adopted: • Thrusts developed due to changes in direction of pipeline. In the design of pressurised pipelines. flow. tapers.5 Pipe Materials Pipe materials for use in pumping stations should always be Ductile Iron (DI). 2.

taking into account that sewage will be discharged. this force is negligible in normal cases. 2. the washout chamber should be provided with a sump Page 44 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .1 Where: Fs = the static thrust (KN) A = the cross sectional area (m2) P = the Pressure (bar) For Bends: 2.2 Vented Non-return Valves Fd = 2A V 2 sin θ/2 Equation 2. such as where thrust forces are in excess of 1000KN or loose material is encountered. Upon subsequent pressure rise. Fs = 100 A P(2 sin θ/2) Equation 2.7.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • For pipes with flexible joints such as DI pipes with socket and spigot joints. please see CIRIA Report R128xxxviii.2 Where θ is the angle of deviation at the bend.6.3 Where Fd = the dynamic thrust (KN) V = the velocity (m/s) As stated above. thus reducing the impact velocity of the rejoining column and the surge potential of the system. Air is sucked into the air-relief valve when pipeline internal pressure is below atmospheric. An air valve combined with a vented non-return valve allows air enter the pipeline freely on separation of the water column. wash-outs should be strategically located at suitable intervals. This has the effect of creating an air buffer between the column interfaces.7. Each air valve will operate independently and therefore several valves may be required along the pipeline if there are numerous rises and falls in the vertical profile of the rising main. to reduce the time required for emptying the main in an emergency. Dynamic thrusts for water or sewage may be calculated using following: 2. Fs = 100 A P Equation 2.7 Air Valves and Washout Facilities Static thrusts may be calculated using the formulae as follows: For blank ends: These facilities are required to minimise the adverse effects of surge and to facilitate the operation and maintenance of the rising main. and needs to be located carefully. For long rising mains with few low points. The above procedures will be satisfactory for most routine applications. 2. but controls the expulsion of air as the column rejoins.3 Wash – Outs The purpose of the washout system is to drain the rising main for maintenance works. but if significant.6. all the thrust is assumed to be taken up by the blocks. The washout should be installed at low points of the pipeline profile. then the total thrust should be taken as the sum of static and dynamic thrusts. generally 800m.© Copyright Ashghal .7. Location should be adjacent to a suitably sized gravity sewer for draindown where possible If a direct connection to a suitably sized sewer is not available. Air valves should be installed at all high points. Additional air valves should also be placed at 800m spacings on long sections of straight grade. It is recommended that this reference is used for more complex applications.1 Air Valves Air-relief valves are installed at locations of minimum pressure.. For further guidance. the admitted air is then expelled.6.

8 2. types of flow meter using the positive displacement principle include rotary piston. by selecting the best choice from those available to cover special measurement features such as reverse flow. conductor that is dependent on the relative velocity between the conductor and the field. For example. and can be quoted in specifications: • • BS EN ISO 6817xxxix. 1997: Measurement of Conductive Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits. 2. oval gear. Inline sluice or gate valves are often used as isolating valves. and certified to a traceable international standard. the flow meter manufacturers should provide the following: i. As a general guideline. BS 7405xl. Care should be taken during design to provide sufficient straight lengths of pipeline up-stream and down-stream of the flowmeter. and reciprocating piston.2%. 2. When a conductor moves through a magnetic field of given field strength. As a minimum. sliding vane. pulsating flow.5% of the flow range. are non-existent. Each type has advantages and limitations and no single type combines all the features and all the advantages. a voltage level is produced in the Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 45 1st Edition June 2005 . The isolating valve installation may incorporate washout facilities. the chances of a blockage. Magnetic flowmeters should always be installed with full-pipe conditions.1 Flow Meters Application and Selection The variety of choices facing the designer confronted with a flow measurement application is vast. response time and so on. Isolated 4-20mA dc and pulse outputs. Flow meters should be pressure tested and calibrated by the manufacturer. In addition to the calibration certificate. in accordance with the manufacturers installation instructions. viscous and corrosive fluids.2 Magnetic Flowmeters Magnetic-type flowmeters use Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction for measurement. Some of the most important parameters for flowmeters are accuracy.8.8. With nothing protruding into the flow of sewage. the overall accuracy should be better than ±0. Differential pressure meters have the advantage that they are the most familiar of any meter type. However their usable flow range is limited and they require a separate transmitter in addition to the sensor. Faraday foresaw the practical application of the principle to flow measurement. The following International and British Standards are a good source of information on flow meter selection and installation. So these meters measure the velocity of an electrically conductive liquid as it cuts the magnetic field produced across the metering tube. 1991: Guide to Selection and Application of Flowmeters for the Measurement of Fluid Flow in Closed Conduits. They are suitable for gas and liquid. if installed correctly. and whether the medium is sewage or water. and second. isolating valves should be included to allow sections of the rising main to be isolated and emptied within a reasonable time.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs so that the drained contents of the rising main may be tankered away.© Copyright Ashghal . no pressure loss. The repeatability of the result should be within ±0. flow range. Meter selection should be made in two steps. The principal advantages include no moving components. If the amount of space available is restricted then the minimum length usually accepted by manufactures is inlet run of 5 pipe diameters and outlet run of 3 pipe diameters.7. and no wear and tear in components. and 6 pipe diameters on the outlet will ensure that the flowmeter is able to achieve the specified accuracy.4 Isolating Valves For long rising mains. 12 pipe diameters of straight pipe on the inlet. 2. Magnetic flowmeters offer the designer the best solution for pumped sewage flow. First by identifying the meters that are technically capable of performing the required measurement and are available in acceptable materials of construction. because many liquids are adequate electrical conductors.

The Doppler meter is frequently used as a “clamp on” device which can be fitted to existing pipelines. A surge analysis should usually be carried out unless the system is simple. 2. pump stopping/power failure. the lower cost of in-pipe ultrasonic flow meters could make them a viable alternative to magnetic flow meters for large diameter pipe installations. iv. Transmitter enclosure shall be protected to IP67. For new installations. This type of ultrasonic meter is considerably more expensive but offers better accuracy. first with the flow.© Copyright Ashghal . With Doppler meters.3 Ultrasonic Flowmeters Ultrasonic meters are available in two forms: Doppler and transit-time. improper operation of surge control devices. The earthing rings should be included according to the individual manufacturer’s instructions. The most likely one of these is the sudden stopping of pumps caused by a power failure. suitable for the application of pumped sewage flow. The single or multi-beam transit-time flow meters project an ultrasonic beam right across the pipe at an acute angle. it requires a relatively clean fluid. Page 46 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . the installed equipment should be submersible to the maximum chamber depth. Surge (or water hammer) is an oscillating pressure wave generated in a pipeline during changes in the flow conditions. Calibration and programming kit.8. A clamp-on ultrasonic flow meter can be used to give reasonably accurate flow measurement. It detects the velocity only in a small region of the pipe cross section and as such its accuracy is not good. Unlike the Doppler meter. totals and alarms. This is best carried out using approved software such as “Flowmaster”. low and reverse flows. The difference in transit time is proportional to flow rate. an ultrasonic pulse is beamed into the pipe and reflected by inclusions. The main use of this type of flow meter in pumped sewage flows is in retrospective installation where the pumping main cannot be broken into for operational reasons. such as air or dirt. and then opposite to the flow direction. Programmable in-built alarm relays for empty pipe. v. In belowground flow meter chamber installations.9 Surge Protection Measures iii. valve action. 2. In-built digital display for flow rate.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs ii. There are four common causes of surge in a pipeline: • • • • pump starting. The sensor lining should be neoprene or an equivalent material of similar or improved properties.

either manually or automatically. Because the flow continues through the pump after the stop signal. Together these two actions reduce the peak surge pressure. If the surge pressure approaches zero or the pipeline maximum pressure.1 – Indicative Surge Wave Velocity Values for Selected Pipe Materials Pipe Material Velocity (m/s) Ductile Iron Reinforced Concrete Plastic 1000–1400 1000–1200 300–500 • Surge tower. In reverse. This type of surge vessel is not recommended. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 47 1st Edition June 2005 . The bladder material should be carefully selected for use in the conditions experienced in Qatar. Dip-tube surge vessel. Flywheels Flywheels absorb energy on start-up. slowing the rate of velocity change. they are simple devices for wet well/dry well pumps and are preferred where possible. suitable surge suppression devices should be selected by consultation with the manufacturer. the flywheel releases energy again. Pressure Vessels Pressure vessels for surge suppression are tanks partially filled with a gas (air or nitrogen).81m/s2) The above equation can be used for calculation of both negative and positive pressures The simple cycle time can be calculated with the formula: Cycle time = 2 x pipeline length Wave velocity Equation 2. As the flywheel must be located on the drive shaft it is not suitable for submersible pumps or closecoupled pumps. and a drop in pressure. Surge Suppression Methods Surge suppression could be achieved using one of the following devices. The most appropriate device will depend on the individual circumstances of the installation: • • • Flywheel. Air valves should not be depended upon as a sole method of surge control.9. when the pump is stopping. slowing the rate of velocity change in the pipeline.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs An approximate calculation for a simple pipeline is: P=ax V g Equation 2. When surge analysis is complete. but they can fail. Usually the liquid is contained in a bladder with gas on the outside to prevent the liquid absorbing the gas or coming into contact with the inside of the pressure vessel.© Copyright Ashghal . If submersible pumps have been chosen. Pressure vessel with bladder. a larger pump running at a slower speed may have the effect of a flywheel. leading to absorption of the gas into the liquid.2 Table 2.9. a full surge analysis should be carried out. There is therefore additional machinery and an additional maintenance requirement. Bladders should not lose pressure in normal operation. the effect on the stop and start levels should be carefully considered. Refilling is usually from a high-pressure cylinder and care should be taken to avoid over pressurisation of the bladder. However. and this is the preferred type. but their operation under surge conditions should be carefully considered.1 Where: P = Pressure change (m) a = pressure wave velocity (m/s) V = flow velocity change in 1 cycle (m/s) g = acceleration of gravity (9. Vessels without a bladder are charged with air pressure from an air compressor.9.

to allow unrestricted flow into the pipeline.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs On pump start-up. Fine screening is not required at the pumping station. This type of vessel is particularly appropriate for use on rising mains with flat profiles. Screen Selection Screens should generally be provided for pump protection.© Copyright Ashghal .10 Screens Dip Tube Surge Vessels A dip tube surge vessel is pressure vessel. Coarse screens should be fitted in the screen chambers at the inlet to pumping stations to protect the pumping equipment. there is no routine maintenance required to ensure the surge tower keeps operating correctly. Screens should incorporate the following features: • • Screen chambers should be separate from the wet wells. It is unlikely that surge towers would be appropriate for use in Qatar. L-shaped or coarse basket screens should be provided. Mechanically raked screens should be considered for large pumping stations. but allow screenings less than 75mm to pass forward to the STW. air valves. but is required at the treatment works to remove debris that may affect the sewage treatment process. When the pump stops. To dampen oscillations. They should remove coarse screenings. but they should not be used as a surge protection measure. compressing the gas until it equals the liquid pressure. Control of the pumps is usually by start/stop level signals. Minimum of one duty and one standby screen should be provided. However. the pump control system should be designed to prevent a restart until the transient pressures have stabilised. typically >1000l/s. Surge towers are only practical for systems with relatively low heads and surge pressures. and their operation must be carefully considered. • • • • Air Valves Air valves are required on the pumping mains to release air. a non-return valve may be fitted to the surge vessel outlet pipe. which reduces the peak surge pressure. If air is allowed into the rising main on pump stop/trip through an air valve. large or negative surge pressures could result. may assist in surge control. the use of ‘soft’ starters should be considered. the gas pressure forces liquid back out into the pipe system. but can pose an odour risk. Air valves require regular maintenance because if the air valve does not function correctly. and a bypass around the NRV fitted with an orifice plate to restrict the flow back into the vessel. The screens should be set in guides with lifting facilities at ground level so they can be manually removed and cleaned. unless they are small (<20l/s) submersible stations with small inlet sewers. liquid enters the vessel. • Screen Installation The manual duty and standby screen should be installed in the incoming channel. with consequent damage to equipment or personnel. particularly if fitted with a vented non-return valve or in-flow check valve. the top portion forming a compression chamber limited by a dipping tube with a shut off float valve. 2. so that the standby screen can be lowered into position to Page 48 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . both actions slow the rate of pressure change. open to atmosphere and the energy storage is by the static head of the liquid in the tower. Due to the design of a surge tower. but where surge on start-up may have a significant effect. Surge Towers A surge tower is a vertical tank or pipe fitted into the pipeline.

the use of variable speed drives should be considered. depositing them in a collection trough or channel above the highest possible water level. Mechanically removed screenings should be washed. which will clean the screen of accumulated debris and screenings.© Copyright Ashghal . • Space available for pumping station (submersible stations usually require less space). Screenings Handling Manually removed screenings should be placed in a covered container until removed from site to avoid odour problems. each station should be treated on its own merits and the following considerations assessed: • • • Initial and final design flow. compacted and deposited into a covered container to avoid odour problems. However. and wet well/dry well stations for larger flows. easily accessible chamber adjacent to the pump sump. Requirement for Variable Speed Drive (VSD): (submersible motors are not always adequately rated for use with VSD). All mechanically raked screens should have an automatic cleaning mechanism. Particular attention should be paid to motor cooling and cabling if dry well submersibles are to be considered. Pump start. In general. Air reaction level equipment should include stainless steel dip pipe and duty/standby compressors. A manually raked bypass screen shall be provided. The designer should present three alternative pump suppliers for tender purposes. • An alternative to wet well submersible pumps and dry well pumps is the dry well submersible. These should normally be considered only where an existing dry well installation is being uprated and there is insufficient space to install a conventional dry well pump and motor. Rising main profile and the requirements for surge protection (dry well pumps usually have a greater moment of inertia than submersibles). • Where the available pumps have unsuitable duties for the full range of flows. Air reaction operation level controls as follows: • • High level alarm (also float). Screens should be provided with actuated penstocks (or valves) before and after each screen for operational and maintenance isolation. Proximity of housing or public areas (opening submersible pump wells may create odour nuisance). Valves to be in a separate. due to the Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 49 1st Edition June 2005 . Submersible pumping stations Submersible pumping stations should incorporate the following features: • • • Minimum of one duty and one standby pump. Pump stop. Non-return valve and gate valves for isolation of each pump. Low level pump protection (also float). 2. submersible pumping stations are generally selected for flows up to 100l/s. Ultrasonic level controls should not be used for sewage.11 Pumping Station Selection • Sewage pumping station type selection should be carefully considered for each scheme. However. which can be completely isolated from the rest of the system and drained for maintenance.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs protect the pumps while the duty screen is removed and cleaned. Mechanical screens shall be housed in ventilated and odour controlled enclosures. Mechanically raked screens should be installed in a channel or similar flow-line. Total head on the pumps.

Unsteady flow can lead to fluctuating loads. Sump design should be in accordance with the following criteria: • Sumps should be designed so that the dimensions satisfy the requirements for the minimum sump volume to ensure the maximum rated pump starts per hour for the motor and switchgear are not exceeded. J.© Copyright Ashghal . Further guidance is given in table 2. noise and premature failure. vibration.11. Sumps should be designed to provide a uniform steady flow of water into any pump without creating swirl or entraining air. vibration.11. noise and premature failure. The velocity in the pump riser pipe at the design duty should be as high as practicable to reduce the risk of solids deposition. Sump corners should be benched to 45°.1 Approximate Minimum PumpSpacingsxlii Flow (l/s) Spacing (mm) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 700 1000 1200 1350 1500 1700 1800 1900 2050 2175 • • • • • There should also be sufficient space for someone to stand beside each pump. Minimising the sump floor area and residual volume will increase the velocity into the pumps and improve scouring. power and efficiency. Submersible Pump Installation When submersible pumps are installed. Prosserxli should be referred to when designing pump sumps. This will depend upon the type of pump being used and the manufacturer should be consulted on configurations at draft design stage. also leading to fluctuating loads. • Table 2. It can also result in local vortices that introduce air into the pump. The use of flushing devices to improve scour in pump sumps should be considered. The water surface in the sump should be as free from waves and turbulence as possible to provide a strong and reliable echo for ultrasonic level controls. • At the designed stop level there should still be sufficient water surface area without obstructions to provide a good echo return. should work be required in the sump.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs additional heat generated in the motor. the following should be considered: • There should be sufficient space between them to prevent interaction between the pump suctions.1 below. the velocity should not normally exceed 2. Swirl can affect the flow capacity. Discharge non-return and isolating valves should be located outside the sump in a valve chamber. • • • Page 50 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . A rule of thumb is to use an initial spacing between pump centres of twice the pump diameter. Submersible Pump Sump Design The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes’ by M.5m/s to avoid significant headloss and risk of pipe erosion. the approval of the pump manufacturer should be obtained before variable speed drives are used. scum and surface flotsam. Some pump manufacturers also provide guidance on the design of sumps for their pumps. However. Pump mounting stools and duckfoot bends should be securely bolted to the structural concrete of the sump and not the benching. Sumps should be designed to prevent the accumulation of sediment.

The water surface in the wet well should be as free from waves and turbulence as possible to provide a strong and reliable echo for ultrasonic level controls.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Pump guide rails should rise close to the underside of the sump covers above the pumps. vibration. Wet well corners should be benched to 45°. Where wet well/dry well pumping stations are being uprated. Minimising the sump floor area and residual volume will increase the velocity into the pumps and improve scouring. Low level pump protection (plus float). which should incorporate the following features: • Wet wells should be designed to provide a uniform steady flow of water into any pump without creating swirl or entraining air. • • • • • • • • • Air reaction level equipment should include stainless steel dip pipe and duty/standby compressors. The covers should have a clear opening large enough to allow the removal of the pump while on the guide rails. Non-return and two gate valves for each pump isolation. noise and premature failure. Support points for the pump power cables and lifting chain should be provided under the pump covers. Wet wells should be designed so that the dimensions satisfy the requirements for the minimum sump volume to avoid excessive pump starts. noise and premature failure. two sumps with 2 duty and 1 standby pump for each sump. Swirl can affect the flow capacity. power and efficiency. dry well submersible pumps could be considered. for the ultimate flow. • • Wet/Dry Well Pumping Stations Wet well/dry well pumping stations incorporate the following features: • • • should Normally. However due to the additional heat generated in the motor. which should be easily accessible from the surface. the discharge manifold should be below ground level to minimise additional pipework and friction losses. Pump start. Wet Well Design The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes’ by M. Prosser should be referred to when designing wet wells. the approval of the pump manufacturer should be obtained before variable speed drives are used. vibration. There should be sufficient space between the bellmouths to prevent interaction between the pump suctions. scum and surface flotsam. it can also result in local vortices that introduce air into the pump also leading to fluctuating loads. The pump suction pipes should be installed through the wet/dry well dividing wall with a downward bend and bellmouth to position the pump suction as close to the sump floor as possible to assist in sediment removal. J. Where possible. At the designed stop level there should still be sufficient water surface area without obstructions to provide a good echo return. • Where the available pumps have unsuitable duties for the full range of flows the use of variable speed drives should be considered. Wet wells should be designed to prevent the accumulation of sediment. The use of flushing devices to improve scour in wet wells should be considered. Pump stop.© Copyright Ashghal . • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 51 1st Edition June 2005 . Unsteady flow can lead to fluctuating loads. Operation level controls (air reaction) as follows: High level alarm (plus float).

Pipes should be sized to achieve sensible velocities. Platforms and walkways should be installed to provide access to all equipment at a suitable level for safe operation. Access to the dry well and machinery should be by staircase so that tools and equipment can be carried in and out safely. The dry well floor should slope gently towards the dividing wall and then to one side where a sump pump should be installed to keep the floor as dry as possible. with the discharge directly through the side wall should be considered. The pump distance from the dividing wall will be set by the length of the protruding stub pipe. The general floor level should be higher than the sump level to reduce the size of pump plinths and the need for access platforms.© Copyright Ashghal . Where space allows. • • • Pump Motors Motors on submersible pumps should be certified for use in Zone 1 explosive atmospheres unless operating continuously submerged. maintenance and repair.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Dry Well Design Dry well design should incorporate the following features: • The pumps should be installed along the wet/dry well dividing wall with sufficient space between them to allow access for maintenance and repair. Drive shafts should be supported from concrete beams spanning the dry well. This will require a bend between the suction valve and the pump suction. The bend should be fitted with a handhole and valve to enable the pump to be drained prior to maintenance. however this results in the motor being low in the dry well and at risk from flooding. The pump operates by passing the liquid through a spinning impeller where energy is added to increase the pressure and velocity of the liquid. • 2.21 and 2.22). suction valve and pump inlet pipe. Careful thought should also be given to the shipping route for removing equipment. and the risk of cavitation through insufficient NPSH should be considered when designing suction pipework.12 Pumps and Motors • • Centrifugal Pumps These are the most common type pumps for foul sewage and are available in a variety of forms. Dry well centrifugal pumps should normally have a maximum running speed of 980rpm. Lifting arrangements for the pumps and valves shall be provided (see also section 2. Submersible pumps are centrifugal pumps. A high level alarm should be installed in the dry well to give a warning of flooding before damage to machinery occurs. Impellers with smaller passages are likely to suffer from frequent blockage due to the nature of sewage debris. installation of the discharge manifold at the pump level. Further bends may be required to direct the pump or manifold discharge upwards. but pumps operating at 2900rpm (2 pole motor) will suffer excessive wear and premature failure. The sump pump should be installed in a small well. Consideration should also be given to access around the pumps and valves. • Pump Installation Page 52 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . The most common arrangement is for a vertical pump shaft with the motor above. Consideration should be given to the sump pump discharge to avoid backflow from the wet well to the dry well. Sewage pumps should have an open type impeller with a minimum passage of 100mm. Pumps must be selected to ensure satisfactory operation when only one pump is operation in a new rising main. Pumps operating in dry conditions should have a casing designed to provide adequate cooling in the operating conditions. • • • For the most compact arrangement. and should not be used. a close-coupled pump can be mounted horizontally with the discharge upward. Submersible pumps may run at 1450rpm (4 pole motor). large enough to accommodate the pump and should discharge back through the wall into the wet well.

It can also result in local vortices that introduce air into the pump also leading to fluctuating loads. These models need to be verified before use to provide confidence that they adequately represent the actual performance of the system. which may have high flows. vibration. 50 hertz. and hence modelling will be needed. swirl or air entrainment are more likely to occur. Swirl can affect the flow capacity. For dry well and screw pumps where the motors are installed vertically or at a steep angle.3KV motors can be used. The verified model is then used to test system performance under its proposed use. modelling should be considered. physical models were favoured. multiple pumps or complex shapes.© Copyright Ashghal . and operating the model to simulate full-scale flow conditions. power and efficiency. a physical model built to scale can be very effective in identifying flow problems and in some cases modelling by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology may have benefits. performance of drainage. especially for coastal/estuary/river systems and complex pumping installations. Where flywheels are installed. or where turbulent flows. Modelling is the process of replicating the hydraulic Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 53 1st Edition June 2005 . geometrically similar model of a proposed system. and are usually based on the experience and intuitive understanding of the engineer conducting the tests. with adequately rated end thrust bearings. and are more efficient than physical models in time and effort. it should be recognised that most large scale and/or complex designs will be unique. Sumps should be designed to provide a uniform steady flow of water into any pump without creating swirl or entraining air. Because additional heat is generated in the motor when used with a variable speed drive. 3-phase power supply. and therefore the initial model should be as accurate as possible. Mathematical models are exploiting increased computer hardware and software capability. the motor rating shall be suitably uprated. Factors to be considered in deciding on the need for physical models include: • The similarity of the proposed scheme to existing satisfactory designs. 2. For larger motors 690V or 3. Physical Models Physical modelling consists of constructing a reduced scale. Modelling For non-standard pumping stations.J. The model must be capable of modification to test various physical configurations and operating regimes for the installation. Changes in the model can be made by trial and error. Traditionally. In recent years mathematical models have superseded physical models. the approval of the pump manufacturer should be obtained before VSDs are used. to produce the optimum solution for actual construction. The amount of modification which can be undertaken on a physical model is limited. they should be specifically designed for that purpose. or allows him to improve the flow conditions and achieve a better design. pumping and treatment systems by constructing models of the intended installations. vibration.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Pump motors should normally be fed from 415 volts. noise and premature failure. As well as the designer’s own experience. Model tests can provide the designer with the assurance that the proposed scheme operates satisfactorily. much information is available from manufacturers’ published reports and design guides. Sumps should also be designed to prevent the accumulation of sediment and surface scum. However. For pumping stations. Unsteady flow can lead to fluctuating loads. noise and premature failure. Prosserxli should be referred to when designing sumps or wet wells. vortices.13 Sump Design The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes’ by M. Most sumps and wet wells at standard pumping stations will probably be uniform in section and can be designed to avoid turbulent flows.

5 x Qp The sump volume when multiple pumps are installed is calculated as for a single pump. Upstream pipelines may need to be included. To avoid turbulence and odour release at foul sewage pumping stations. then the cycle time will be 6 minutes (60/10 = 6) is the volume of sump between the start and stop levels in m3 is the pumping rate in m3/minute • V Qp For pumping stations. such as terminal pumping stations with multiple pumps and complex inlet arrangements would merit modelling. Large schemes. with clear perspex being the best for viewing purposes. No components above maximum water level need be modelled. e. then designers of small schemes should seek to adopt standard and well-proven designs for small schemes. penstocks.2m3/min (20l/s) and the maximum number of starts is 10/hour. testing and reporting. Even at such late stages. To calculate the minimum sump volume for a specific pump the formula contained in the above CIRIA guide is: T = 4V/Qp Equation 2.8m3 For 10 starts per hour this could also be expressed as: V = 1. 1:25 would be the smallest desirable scale. Scales can vary from perhaps 1:4 for very small sumps. Prosserxli should be referred to when designing sumps or wet wells. should be included in the model. All hydraulically significant details such as screens. the lowest pump stop Page 54 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . support channels and benching. The CIRIA guide ‘The hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes’ by M.g. For sump models. modelling can save much time and cost in modifying construction works.2(m3/min) / 4 V = 1. Physical testing could typically take between one and six months for construction. Model construction should be in durable and waterproof materials.© Copyright Ashghal . where the minimum sump volume is the capacity between the start and stop level for each pump.13. However. all of the intake should be modelled. The minimum sump volume is the volume between the start and stop levels of the duty pump and for a single pump the worst case occurs when the inflow is exactly half of the pumping rate. Maximum and minimum start / stop levels The minimum stop level should be the level at which the pump can be stopped and restarted without losing suction or as specified by the pump manufacturer. The time available for modelling. if the recommended maximum starts per hour for a pump is 10. including the approach works. Model size should be as large as costs allow. Bearing in mind that physical modelling can take many months with corresponding high costs.1 Where: T is the cycle time for the pump.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • The size and cost of the proposed scheme. therefore there are restraints on the maximum volume of the sump related to the retention time of the liquid in that sump. Sump Volume Pump sumps should have a minimum sump volume calculated to ensure that in the worst flow conditions any pump installed does not exceed the maximum allowable starts per hour. the inlets and the sump itself.J. additional capacity is required to allow a vertical distance of 150mm between the start or stop levels of consecutive pumps. In some cases the scheme can be well under way to completion before the possible need for modelling is realised. the volume required will be: V (m3) = 6(min) x 1. Therefore if Qp is 1. up to 1:50 for large intakes to reservoirs or tanks. With sewage there is a possibility of septicity.

Each dry well pump should be installed with suction and discharge isolation valves to permit isolation of the pump from the wet sump and discharge pipework for maintenance.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs level is usually set at the invert of the incoming sewer. In the absence of any specified figure the following are suitable guidance figures: Less than 100kW 100kW < 200kw >200kW . and Valves Allowable pump starts per hour The maximum allowable starts per hour should be as specified by the pump or motor manufacturer.© Copyright Ashghal . • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 55 1st Edition June 2005 . Each submersible pump should be installed with a discharge isolation valve to permit isolation of the pump from the discharge pipework for maintenance. The pipework installation should incorporate the following features: • Sufficient bends and flange adapters to allow easy dismantling and removal of pumps. Each pump should also be fitted with a nonreturn valve to prevent reverse flow back through the pump when stopped. The minimum start level should be the required distance above the stop level to provide the minimum sump volume. nonreturn valves or other major items of equipment. For multiple pump installations it should be the midpoint between the top water level (last duty pump start level) and the bottom water level (first duty pump stop level).10 starts/hour . provided that the minimum sump volume is attainable. 2. The stop level for each additional pump should be set at the required distance below the start level to provide the minimum sump volume for that particular pump. • • • • • Pump duty level The pump duty level for a single pump should be the midpoint between the pump start and stop levels.14 Pipework Suction/Delivery Pipework. The stop level will normally be just above the previous duty pump stop level. and allow the other pumps to continue operating normally. Discharge non-return valves should be bolted directly to the discharge isolation valve.15 starts/hour . The effect of flywheels should be considered in determining stop/start levels because the flywheel increases the pump start-up and stop times. Pumps should also operate within their performance curve at both top and bottom water levels under single or multiple pump operation. the last section of which is laid to a steep fall to avoid the sewer being used as the sump. Valves should be positioned to permit the removal of each pump and non return valve without draining either the wet well or discharge manifold. • Stop / start levels for single and multiple pump operation The start and stop levels for single pump operation should be set within the maximum and minimum start / stop levels defined in the previous section.8 starts/hour Only superior materials are acceptable for use in pumping station pipework. They should be installed in horizontal pipework with a short length of pipe and a flange adapter on the pump side to allow dismantling. Suction isolating valves for dry well pumps should be bolted directly to a flanged pipe securely fixed through the sump wall. The start level for each additional pump should be set a suitable height above the previous pump to prevent accidental pump starts caused by surface waves or level sensor errors. Discharge isolation valves should be bolted directly to a flange on the discharge pipe or manifold.

The valve should have an outside screw rising stem and the handwheel direction of operation should be clockwise to close. The covers should be large enough so that the flap can be removed and the valve can be cleaned. Valves Valves should incorporate the following features: • Isolation valves for sewage should be of the double-flanged wedge-gate type with a bolt-on bonnet. the gate should be withdrawn completely from the flow. designed to minimise slam on closure by means of heavy doors. or flushing the sump. Consideration should be given to providing an isolating valve on the pumping main before it leaves the pumping station/chamber and before any over pumping connection. to allow the pumping station to be fully isolated and the fixed pipework drained for repair. Station valves should have metal seats. if this happens near a surface.15. • • The non-return valves should have proximity switches to prevent dry running and allow a change of duty (standby on high level will then start). Reflux valves should be provided with covers for cleaning and maintenance without the need to remove the valve from the pipeline. Reflux valves for sewage should be of the double flanged. Vibration. At the opposite end of the pumping station discharge manifold. Vapour bubbles are formed when the static pressure at a point within a liquid falls below the pressure at which the liquid will vaporise. Where installed in chambers they could be fitted with non-rising stems to limit the headroom required. All flexible couplings should be restrained on both sides by securely fixed equipment. where it can cause noise and vibration as well as affecting the pump efficiency.1 Where: Pa = atmospheric pressure at liquid free surface Vp = vapour pressure of liquid Hs = height of supply liquid free surface. the entry should be horizontal. Cavitation is the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles in a liquid. NPSH is the minimum total pressure head required in a pump at a particular flow/head duty. When the bubbles are subjected to a higher pressure they collapse causing local shock waves. • • • 2.15 Pumping System Characteristics • NPSH. Valves greater than 350mm diameter should be fitted with actuators. It is normally shown as a curve on the pump performance sheet. If allowed to persist it can lead to damage to the pump or even breaking away of foundations. above eye of pump impeller Fs = suction entry and friction losses • Page 56 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Where the pump delivery pipework joins the pumping station discharge manifold. The door hinge pin/shaft should extend through the side of the body and be fitted with an external lever to permit back flushing. thrust blocks or tie straps across the coupling to prevent displacement of the coupling under pressure. All reflux valves should be installed in the horizontal plane. Cavitation and Noise Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is used to check the pumping installation for the risk of cavitation. erosion can occur. weighted as necessary.© Copyright Ashghal . • • NPSH = Pa – Vp + Hs – Fs Equation 2. Cavitation will typically occur in the impeller of a centrifugal pump. quick action single door type. Butterfly valves should not be used with sewage. a valved connection back to the sump should be provided for draining the discharge pipework. When fully open.

absolute values for atmospheric and liquid vapour pressures are used. and without risk of cavitation. In multiple pump installations. When calculating NPSH. Each pipework system has a friction curve where the friction head is plotted against flow. The pump duty point is where the pump performance curve and the system curve cross.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs In order to avoid cavitation. it is essential that the operating conditions of a single pump running are carefully checked to ensure that the pump will operate at maximum and minimum static heads satisfactorily.© Copyright Ashghal . The system curve is obtained by adding the static head to the friction losses and plotting the total head against the flow. It shows the flow that a particular pump will deliver through the pipework system at a particular total head at the pump duty level. the NPSH available should be at least 1m greater than the NPSH required by the selected pump at all operating conditions. Pump Duty Point Each pump has a performance curve where the flow is plotted against head. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 57 1st Edition June 2005 . The duty point should be used when considering the suitability of alternative pumps for a particular duty by comparing the efficiency and power requirements for each pump at the duty point.

1 – Characteristic Curve for Multiple Pumps Page 58 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .© Copyright Ashghal .15.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Characteristic curve for new pipe Figure 2.

A suction chamber should be provided before the pumping station. and application requirements. Over-pumping facilities should be provided where there is a single sump and access may be required for repair of pumps/screens/etc. with a penstock to isolate all flows into the pump sump.2 Load Type • In some applications. Sump Pump Installations Sump pumps should incorporate the following feature: • • Sump pumps should discharge to the wet well above the water level to prevent gas release. site condition. A guide should be 0. The designer should consider the requirements according to the site characteristics and the proposed application. starting method.5l/s for each leakage point. 2. Load profile. rain and flooding). An assessment should also be made of any possible inflow from outside the dry well (i. they should be used to empty the wet well prior to man entry. and be easily accessible from the access walkways.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 2.17 Power Calculations including Standby Generation Introduction 2. • Sump pumps should be installed in a sump of sufficient dimensions for the proposed pump and allow a suitable level controller to operate within the sump. maximum allowable voltage dip by the motor manufacturer. Where a temporary sump pump is to be used. The sizing and selection of the generator set should take into consideration the aspects raised in the following sub-sections.e. with a minimum of 5l/s. operation characteristics. while in other locations only the essential load will need to be kept running (partial loads).3kv. a power supply point and discharge connection should be provided.1 A standby power generator set is essential in applications where the loss of the power supply can not be accepted due to critical loads. 11kv).16 Sump Pumps and Over-Pumping Facilities The sump pumps should be sized for the possible leakage of glands and seals. Discharge pipes should be fitted with a nonreturn valve and isolating valve. The sump pump should be fitted with a discharge connection and guide rail to allow the pump to be easily removed from the sump for cleaning or unblocking. to size the required generator set. Load type .17. sequence of operation. 2. Both should be located at a high level in the dry well. the total connected load in the pumping station will need to be powered from the generator set in case of power failure. Total generator connected load. The generator set configuration and sizing will vary from one application to another dependent on the load type.17. 6. A connection into the pumping main should be provided for the over-pumping discharge. 3.inductive or capacative.6kv. For dry wells they should be used to remove any water that may collect at low level. Consideration should be given to providing an isolating valve on the pumping main before the overpumping connection to allow the pumping station to be fully isolated and the fixed pipework drained for repair. The following points are to be investigated at the initial stage to select the type of generator that is required: • • • Voltage level according to load voltage level (415v.© Copyright Ashghal . For wet wells. Individual load characteristics such as kilowatt rating. • • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 59 1st Edition June 2005 . Sump pumps should be provided for all dry wells and wet wells at pumping stations. in an easily accessible position. the minimum depth should be 300mm.

Skid mounted unit: For temporary site work (e. 2. The ventilation system should be by the means of forcing air out of the room using a fan installed at a level above the highest point in the generator (e.17.17. wind direction and dust contamination in air.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 2. and over the alternator and engine.© Copyright Ashghal . manual start. roof mounted or wall mounted). 2. and the mode of operation (one unit. Manual or automatic start-up.g. 2. This will draw air through sand trap louvers in the wall. construction site). nearby residential areas for sound level consideration.7 Ventilation system 2.8 Fuel system • The fuel system usually consists of a main storage tank. the generator should have an engine driven fan.17.3 Site condition • The site condition should also be examined and the following data collected and submitted to the generator set manufacturer to be considered in the sizing process: • • • • • ambient temperature. Panels have many options depending on the type of operation required. Manual or automatic changeover switch between main local authority incomer and main generator set incomer (control panel outgoing feeder). to avoid any temperature rise due to heat generation from the engine.6 Type of Control Panel The control panel can be unit mounted (on the generator set unit) or remotely mounted (inside the control room). or treatment plants. Weatherproof enclosure: The unit is mounted inside a weatherproof enclosure on a trailer suitable for transportation between different sites.17. Unit ventilation and the cooling system are critical parts of the overall system performance and capability. discharging the air through a set mounted radiator and wall mounted outlet louvers. The ventilation system is required to keep the surrounding atmosphere temperature as per the specified ambient temperature. and fuel line between tanks and the generator set: Page 60 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .g. Soundproof enclosure: The unit is installed inside a soundproof enclosure.17. Manual or automatic synchronisation.4 Generator set operation and control The generator set operation and control varies from application to application depending on the following points: • • • • Number of units to be controlled. mounted on a trailer suitable for transportation and operation in residential areas. • 2. This type of installation is recommended in large or major pumping stations. elevation above sea level. In addition to the room ventilation. The air will be delivered through air louvers mounted at the lowest permissible level to avoid sand ingress from the surrounded area and at the same time to guarantee airflow across the generator set body. automatic start. The type of installation can be categorised in the following ways: • Building installation: The unit will be installed inside a building suitable to accommodate all the units and their ancillaries. two units. etc). The control panel is used to operate and monitor the unit in case of power failure. daily fuel tank.5 Type of installation Standby generator sets can be installed by different means according to the site requirement and unit size. fuel transfer system.17. humidity.

The bulk tanks should normally be mounted partially below ground level within bunds to enable the day tank to empty under gravity back to the bulk tank in the event of a fire. Starting aid. 2. The system consists of transfer pumps. Air tank vessel (suitable for six starts before refill). valves (solenoid valves. 600RPM).11 Generator set sizing The following procedure can be used to size the generator set according to the available data from pump motors and other loads (e. A battery charger is required to keep the battery fully charged and ready for operation in cases where the unit is rarely operated.9 Starting method The generator starter method is usually one of the following methods: • Air starting method. The starting method consists of an electrically operated starter. the storage facility of the main storage tank should be sufficient for three days consumption.17. • • 2. The generator set building should be equipped with an overhead crane capable of lifting the heaviest part likely to be encountered during maintenance of the generator set. which work at high speeds (1500RPM). control panel. and normally mounted on a stand beside the generator set to enable gravity feed to the engine.17. In that case. a lifting facility should be provided for offloading and transporting the unit. This usually consists of: a) b) Air operated starter unit (sized by the generator set manufacturer). hand operated valves) and flow meter to monitor the units consumption. The tank level should never fall below a minimum level. and charging alternator.© Copyright Ashghal . For container or enclosure units. The battery type should be maintenance free for high reliability starting. level sensor. actuated valves. Some applications require immediate starting and load handling without any delay due to critical load type. A fuel transfer system is required between the main tank and daily tank to keep the daily tank full and ready for operation. The enclosure should be capable of having the side and roof dismantled and removed for ease of maintenance and parts replacement. battery. as well as the delivery supply to the main tanks. A thermal ‘cut-off’ link must be mounted above the engine. and also a dump valve to drain the day tank back to the bulk tank in the event of a fire.g. Diesel operated air compressor with the same capacity working as backup for the electrical air compressor. This will be required in applications where the fuel consumption at site is very high due to a large number of units installed. To get the generator set ready for such an application the unit should be equipped with a jacket water heater to keep the engine warm and ready for load immediately after starting without any delay for warming the engine before applying the load. The daily fuel tank should be suitable for eight hours full load operation. Air piping between air vessel and starter unit. This type of starter is suitable for small loads. or due to the difficulty in providing daily supply of fuel to the site. especially medium and low speed engines (750RPM. d) e) • • • Electrical starting method. This type of starting is suitable for large generator sets requiring a high starting torque.10 Service facility 2. c) Electrically operated air compressor unit (capable of refilling the tank within 15 minutes). arranged to close both a valve on the fuel line between the day tank and the engine.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Main storage tank.17. lighting/other Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 61 1st Edition June 2005 . The fuel transfer system. The main inlet and outlet louvers and building shall be designed such that the complete generator set can be installed and removed through the louver openings. transportable and enclosed units. Daily fuel tank.

Page 62 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . and 30%) as specified by the motor manufacturer. 20%.1 as a guideline for calculating the effective SKVA. which will start and run in sequence (motor-1. Using the highest effective SKVA calculated and the required voltage DIP (10%. motor-2 and motor3).17.732)/1000 Effective SKVA 2) Use Table 2. and starting of the motor: 1) Starting KVA (SKVA) calculation Calculate lock rotor current (LRA) = for DOL x Full load current Calculate the SKVA = (LRA V * 1.© Copyright Ashghal . Suppose that we have three motors. the generator set can be selected from the data sheet provided by the generator set manufacturer.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs non-motor load) as well as the sequence of operation.

17.4 1.9 multiplier 0. 2.17.2 1.© Copyright Ashghal .7 0. obtain compensation for motor already started from fig.2 .1 .8 0.0 Estimate 300% of full load KVA Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 63 1st Edition June 2005 .1 1 0.1 Multiply (step-2xstep-6) Obtain the reduce voltage factor from fig. 65%.2. 50% DOL Solid state Multiply SKVA BY 0.732 /1000 3 4 Total motor load connected before the required motor start in sequence Total motor load connected after motors have been started in sequence (Step3/Step4)*100 Using step-5 result.Reduce voltage starting factor Type Star/Delta Auto transformer 80% .1 7 8 9 X*D Q Y*E R Z*F S From Table 2.2 1.17.6 0.46 .33 0. 0.17.17. 0.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 2.68.2.3 1.17.1 – Guide to Generator Set Sizing – Effective SKVA Step 1 2 Motor load (KW) Starting KVA (SKVA) Motor 1 A X Motor 2 B Y Motor 3 C Z Comments KW motor/ motor efficiency LRA*V* 1.29 1.5 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 2.2 Effective SKVA ( Step-7 x Step-8) 0 A A+B A A+B A+B+C 5 6 0 D (A/(A+B))*100 E ((A+B)/(A+B+C))*100 F From Fig.Reduced voltage starting factor Table 2.17.

732 1000 75 kw motor = 730 x 415 X 1.3 – Generator Set Sizing – Worked Example Ste p 1 2 Motor load KW Starting KVA (SKVA) Motor1 Motor 2 Motor 3 Comments 90 674. 90 kw 3-phase motor.2 NB Motor 1 is a solid state starter from Fig.voltage dip 30% 45 kw 3-phase motor .732 1000 = 674.Calculated SKVA 90 kw motor = 939 x 415 X 1.17.1 160 205 78 1. voltage dip 30% 1.4 0.3 1.4KVA. soft starter .4 from Table 2.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Worked example: The following motors required a standby generator i.1 5 6 7 8 9 Using step-5 result obtain compensation for already start motor Multiply (step-2xstep-6) Obtain the reduce voltage factor Effective SKVA ( Step-7 xstep-8) The selected generator will be sized for the highest effective SKVA @30% Voltage dip = 421. direct online (DOL).8 = 939 amp = 730 amp = 469amp 2.000 √3 x 415x0. 2.33 199.8 45.25 421.7 45 337.Calculated Locked rotor current 90 kw motor = 6 x 75 kw motor = 6 x 45 kw motor = 6 x 90. voltage dip 30% ii.17.9 70 524.9 = 524.7 = 337.8 75. star/delta .5 90 160 56.732/1000 3 4 Total motor load connected before the required motors start in sequence Total motor load connected after motors have been started in sequence (Step-3/step-4)*100 0 90 0 1 674.© Copyright Ashghal .1 Table 2. iii.4 1 421. 70 kw 3-phase motor.000 √3 x 415x0.732 1000 90 kw motor = 469 x 415 X 1.1 KW motor/ motor efficiency LRA*V*1.9 3 337.000 √3 x 415x0.15 603.17. Page 64 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .

Dielectric properties. Electrical Arc. Low voltage switchgear and control panels form the link between the electrical load. Care must be taken in the design stage to control the fault level.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 2. suitable for the specific level of short circuit. Mechanical failure. such as. Its importance arises from the need to protect the equipment with the correct protection device.732 Equation = transformer full load = transformer capacity volt ampere = line to line voltage Step-2 Find the transformer multiplier Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 65 1st Edition June 2005 . 4. Effectiveness of protective circuit. Short circuit withstand strength (main circuit). generator set). 3. Assure that this configuration of assembly and its components are safely operated without any risk to the operator or equipment.18. air conditioning equipment and the power generation source (main authority supply.3 Short circuit level The short circuit level calculation carried out according to the total connected load and power source from the local authority electricity network. The partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) are assemblies that contain both type-tested and non type-tested arrangements (derived by calculation from the type-tested arrangements compliant with tests required for TTA). motors. 6.1 Where: I(fl) KVA E (l-l) = KVAx100 E 0 (l-l) x 1. The short circuit level is one of the most important criteria in switchboard design. Step-1 Determine the transformer full load amperes: To achieve a type-tested assembly (TTA) the following performance requirements should be verified: • • • • • Temperature – rise limits. 2. 2. According to BS EN60439-1xliii the low voltage switchgear (assembly) and its component parts shall be made in a way that it can be safely assembled and connected.1 Type–tested and partially type tested assemblies (TTA and PTTA) The control panel sizing and design to cover the demand of the total load connected. Some of the risks that can affect the operation to be considered include: 1. If the total connected load is too high.18 Switch Gear and Control Panels • • • Clearance and creepage distance.18. IP degree of protection. The design of the switchboard should take into consideration the points discussed in the following sub-sections. Short circuit withstand strength of the protective circuit. the total connected load to the switchgear can be split into two or more assemblies to reduce the fault level. The short circuit level can be calculated according to the following steps. including the standby load. 5.© Copyright Ashghal . I(fl) 2. Temperature rise. Mechanical operation test. Overload. so that no damage or harm can affect the equipment or human safety. lighting.18.2 Total connected load 2.18. 2. Direct and indirect contact with live parts. actuator valves. Insulation failure.

Page 66 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . According to the project requirements or budget limitations. this type of co-ordination will ensure that the components are reusable after fault clearance. Table 2. In the case of multiple incomers and/or feeders. Type-1 co-ordination only guarantees personal and electrical installation safety. diagram (1& 2).1 – Example of Expected and Standard Fault Level Short circuit level 16KA/1sec 35KA/1sec 50KA/1sec OR 50 KA/3sec 80KA/1sec OR 80KA/3sec 120KA/1sec OR 120KA/3sec Type of application Distribution board (≤250 Amp) Motor Control Centre (≤400 Amp) Motor Control Centre (≤2000 Amp) Motor Control Centre (≤3000 Amp) Motor Control Centre (≤5000 Amp) The form of separation should be according to BS EN60439-1xliii or suitable equivalent. Equation 2.18. the co-ordination between the electrical components can be categorised into the following two types: Type – 1: co-ordination (personal safety only).4 Type of co-ordination Electrical component co-ordination according to IEC 97-4-1xliv. such as unit mounted control panels (e. The designer should consider Form-4 (see Figure 2.g.1 shows some examples of expected and standard fault level.1) should be considered in some applications. scrubber units. The designer. Manufacturers test components such as contactors and circuit breakers in unison to confirm what will happen under short circuit conditions.c = I (fl) x Multiplier State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Multiplier = 100 %Z (T) Type – 2: co-ordination (personal/components safety).1. Form-2. Figure 2.18. provides two types of protection.18.18.18.© Copyright Ashghal . should select type-2 co-ordination to assure full protection of personal safety as well as the electrical components. In the event of a short circuit.18. Form-4 should be considered for ease of carrying out maintenance without interruption to other equipment. sludge drying beds) where the shutdown of the unit is mandatory to carry out maintenance on the unit.I s.18. where possible.c = transformer let through short circuit current 2. Form-4 should be considered for ease of maintenance without the need for interruption to other equipment as would be the case with Form-2 In case of multi-incomer and outgoing starters/feeders.18. The Type to be used can vary between Type-3 and Type-7 as shown in Figure 2.18.3 Where: I s. and the equipment may not be able to resume operation without repair or replacement of the affected part. in case of isolation of certain feeders. 2.1) in all designs for high personal safety and equipment protection. According to IEC 947-4-1. Type-2 (diagram-3.2 Where: Z (T) = transformer impedance Step-3 Determine the transformer let through short circuit current I s.c = I (fl) x Multiplier Equation 2.5 Form of internal separation Table 2.

The following table gives examples of such duties. Motor size Internal Separation Terminal for external conductor Cable gland Form-4-Type-7: Diagram-2 Bus bar Enclosure Function unit Internal Separation The motor size (kW) will determine if a standard starter can be used (direct on line DOL or start delta starter Y/D).18. Sewage pumping station Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 67 1st Edition June 2005 . The designer should apply knowledge and experience to justify the starter method to be used. The main issue to consider is the starting current.© Copyright Ashghal .2 – Guideline Starter Methods for Motor Ratings (kW) Motor rating KW Starting method ≤ 5kw 5 ≥ kW ≤25 Direct online (DOL) Star delta (Y/D) Soft starter ( solid state drive) (S/S) Terminal for external conductor Form –2 – Type-2: Diagram-3 Bus bar >25kw Enclosure Function unit Internal Separation Terminal for external conductor Motor duty and application The motor duty will vary according to its application. As mentioned previously. or if a more advanced type of starter such as a soft starter is required. Table 2.7 Enclosure Function unit Type of starter The designer should consider the following points when choosing the starter type to be used.18.1 – Form and Type of Internal Separation Form-4 type-3: Diagram-1 Bus bar 2.6 Bus Bar rating Duty type Continuous run at constant load and speed Short run at constant load and Application example Potable water The bus bar rating should be suitable to carry the total connected load.18. The following ratings can be considered as general guidelines only. Table 2.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 2.3 – Example Motor Duties and Applications Cable gland 2.18. the greater the starting current required. consider any future loads by increasing the size of the bus bars and also consider the suitability of extension at both ends.18. A high starting current has an overall effect on the system stability and other equipment installed. The greater the (kW) rating.

g. Overload. 415v).4 . motor stall.18. phase reveres. Fuses Notes: DOL: direct online. the use of a direct contact starter would be acceptable. under voltage. short circuit. Protective device DOL.4. As an example.conventional protection device (OLR). a soft starter could be used to reduce the starting current for a 10kW motor.3.8 Protection device The designer should categorise all loads connected to the switchgear according to critical status in the process and effect on operator safety. ELCB Conventional protection device MCB.Example Starter Methods for Duty Types Duty type Continuous run at constant load and speed Short run at constant load and speed Continuous run at variable load and speed Intermittent periodic duty Starter DOL.g. MCCB 2.© Copyright Ashghal . Y/D S/S if sufficient cooling time between operations VSD . earth leakage Overload. 3. phase losses. as a high number of starts per hour will cause even a small motor to overheat. ELCB Conventional protection device (OLR).main MCCB or ACB D.5 provides examples. therefore balance the motor cost against soft starter cost.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs speed Continuous run at variable load and speed Intermittent periodic duty Irrigation network comparing it to the cost of the motor. Table 2.18. Injection system Motor Application The type of motor starter can also be selected according to the motor application as mentioned in Table 2. Y/D.18. grinder 1. DOL Pump. short circuit. S/S 2.motor manager protection unit Conventional protection device (OLR). short circuit. s/S: soft starter. Table 2. Overload.18. Taking into account the cost of the soft starter and Valve actuator Instrument (level/ flow/ pressure) Building services (lighting/ sockets) Page 68 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . Y/D: star/delta . earth leakage.18. VSD: variable speed drive Voltage level Starter type can be varied according to the voltage level. Cost considerations The cost of the starter should also be considered when compared to the motor size and application. phase reverses. the starter could cost more than the motor however.C starter. Table 2.3kv) the starting current will be very low when compared with a lower voltage (e.Electronic protection devices 3. short circuit. ELCB. earth leakage. An example of a suitable starter for each application is presented in Table 2. phase losses . In this case. In the medium voltage range (e. phase reveres. phase losses. Star delta starters can for most applications be considered more economically viable than a soft starter.5 – Examples of Protection Required for Load Types Load type Main incomer feeder (local authority/ generator set) Type of protection Overload. winding temperature. short circuit. Overload. restricted earth fault.18. earth leakage.

the motor direction will be reversed. Locked rotor. 3. Overload protection: This type of protection is required to protect the equipment against overload current which is due to operational over current present for an excessive period of time. Earth leakage protection: This type of protection is required to: protect the equipment and personnel in the event of indirect contact. high sound levels etc). Ground fault. which will result in equipment damage or faulty operation (pump vibration. or by an incorrect switching operation. 4. This type of protection can be applied at the main incomers of the switchgear by a special relay to sense the voltage supply and trip the main incomers if the set limits are exceeded. but to interrupt these currents before the permissible loading period is exceeded. 6. In the case of phase reversal. the unbalanced current from the transformer will release a mechanism that will trip the breaker when a fault occurs.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Note: ELCB = Earth leakage circuit breaker OLR = Over load relay MCCB = Moulded case circuit breaker ACB = Air circuit breaker Type of protection 1. faulty governor or voltage regulator). This type of protection can be applied at the switchgear outgoing feeders (motor / distribution board) by a special relay which senses the earth leakage current through a summation current transformer. and protection against fires resulting from earth fault leakage current. earth fault protection. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 69 1st Edition June 2005 . The task of overload protection is to allow normal operational overload current to flow. The following types of protection can be achieved by a motor protection relay: • • • • Over / under current. This type of protection can be applied at the main incomers of the switchgear or motor feeder by a special relay to sense the phase status (direction/availability) and trip the main incomers/feeder when a fault occurs. Short circuit protection: This type of protection is required to protect the equipment against short circuit (with three phase. Phase loss/ unbalance/reversal. The same will be the case with over-voltage which will effect the insulation of the motor or cable leading to insulation failure. The actual protection type can be varied according to the motor application (critical/normal) and size (cost). Operation with an undervoltage condition will draw more current from the supply. this over current will raise the motor winding or cable temperatures above the permissible level and shorten the service life of the insulation. 2. or phase reversal which can happen in the event of main supply reconnection or reconnection of the motor after maintenance. This over current will raise the motor winding or cable temperature above the permissible level and shorten the service life of the insulation. two phase or single phase). Operation with phase loss will raise the motor winding temperature due to an unbalanced current in the motor winding. This type of protection is required to protect the equipment against phase loss from the main supply. Short circuits are associated with electrical arcs and can therefore pose a fire risk. Under/over voltage protection: This type of protection is required to protect the equipment against over/under voltage which is present due to main power supply instability (e.g.© Copyright Ashghal . Phase losses/phase reversal protection: 5. transformer tap changing/load fluctuating) or unstable supply from a standby generator (due to large load connected. which can occur due to: insulation failure or damage. Motor protection relay (electronic relay): This type of protection is used to protect the motor against many faults that can affect the motor operation and safety. give additional protection in the event of single phase direct contact.

Access for installation and maintenance. Cables should be sized and installed in accordance with the IEE (Electrical Wiring) Regulations and QGEWC Regulations. minimum one metre). analyse them and send digital and analogue signals to control these devices or activate certain alarms. Top entry (suitable for MCC with cables such as feeders and incomers installed at ground level or above the MCC top level). Front/back access. • The interlock facility should guarantee the safety of operation by not allowing under any condition the connection of two different incomers to the same bus bar section (transformer/transformer) or (transformer /generator) or main bus bars with the bus coupler closed. e. • • This type of protection can be applied at the motor terminals. 69-30xlv. Means of support. The fault signal from the relay will release a mechanism that will trip the breaker when a fault occurs.9 Interlocking facility An interlocking facility is required where more than one incomer is used in the switchgear required.18. and one from standby generator(s) panel. The PLC is the brain of the overall process.19 2. • • • • 2. size and function of cables. alarm. The designer should consider the following when selecting cable routes: • • • Number. cable routes should not prevent other equipment being removed for maintenance.one from transformer/local authority supply. and de-rated in accordance with the Electrical Research Association Report No. Back access (suitable for installation area with available space at the back of the MCC. Supply from three incomers . The PLC is a microprocessor-based device which is programmed to perform certain controlling tasks. Instrument. 2.18.18. Hazardous area classification. Bottom entry (suitable for MCC fixed at the top of cable/MCC trench). Some examples are as follows: • • Supply from two transformers/local authority supply. It can receive analogue and digital signals from the process devices. Supply from two incomers .10 Accessibility The panel access for cable termination and maintenance can be arranged in the following format: • • Front access (suitable for installation area with limited space at the back of the MCC).1 PLC’s SCADA/Telemetry PLC • 2.© Copyright Ashghal . and one from standby generator(s) panel. Fault indication will usually be displayed on a LCD screen or by indication LED’s. Page 70 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . Effect of installation method on de-rating factors. Interface with other equipment.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Motor stall.g.11 Cable entry Cable entry to the MCC can be arranged in the following format: PLC stands for Programmable Logic Controller. Risk of mechanical damage . Top entry panels are not preferred and should only be used in special circumstances. 2.19. and control cables should be segregated from power cables.two from transformers/local authority supply.

and are constructed for ease of maintenance and repair. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Manager. 2. If an ethernet connection is not available. which is a significant task. storing numerical values related to the application processes and logic. This unit delivers remote information back to network operation centres. For example. include some RTU features) that are capable of transmitting data to the network operation centre. standard equipment packages and PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller). Automatic Reset (Integral): corrects for any offset (between setpoint and process variable) automatically over time by shifting the proportioning band. via a web browser. and XML (Extensible Markup Language). The power supply for the PLC system is usually 24Vdc or 110Vac. Rate (Derivative): shifts the proportioning band on a slope change of the process variable. a robust modular construction. report by exception. and the other two pumps will continue run normally. In Modulated Simplex I/O systems however. capable of handling data collection. which can supply the PLC with up to eight hours of power depending on the importance of the process. A redundant PLC system with hot standby configuration is highly recommended for critical applications where uninterrupted control is required. The modular type CPU (Central Processing Unit) in the PLC is capable of: solving application logic. if a rack contains three I/O cards. which will be classed as the standby pump. Earlier generation RTUs were hardwired and supported limited functionality’s such as data transfer and alarming. Operations staff can access remote sites that have RTUs. and the modulated simplex I/O configuration guarantees that any failure of a single I/O card will not cause the relevant I/O rack to fail. Unlike Reset. Rate operates anywhere within the range of the instrument. RTU’s equipped with RS232/485 links are recommended for interconnection to standalone control systems. Rate. The output is at some level other than 100% or 0%. in effect applies the ‘brakes’ in an attempt to prevent overshoot (or undershoot) on process upsets or start-up. Almost all PLCs are now equipped with signal transmitters (i. PID (Proportional-IntegralDerivative) control action allows the process control to accurately maintain a setpoint by adjusting the control outputs.e. Rate usually has an adjustable time constant and should be set much shorter than reset.© Copyright Ashghal . the equipment should be backed up by a UPS system. In case of power failure.2 RTU RTU stands for Remote Telemetry Unit. normal dialup and even SMS (Short Message Service) messaging. These are intelligent devices. storing the application program. The microprocessor based RTU have a proven track record within the water and wastewater industry. and to receive/transmit analogue and digital I/O (input/output) signals. pump flowrate setpoint is maintained by the following: • Proportioning Band: is the area around the setpoint where the controller is actually controlling the process. the more effect Rate will have. The new generation RTUs are equipped with powerful processors that allow the RTU to control certain instruments and devices. data retrieval and pump sequence control programs.19. • Modulated Simplex I/O system: is the preferred solution for safe process since the duplex (redundant) I/O system is usually expensive.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs PLCs were originally used for controlling purposes. The PLC carries out PID control. A dedicated • • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 71 1st Edition June 2005 . then the RTU's may be accessed via PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). it will cause the failure of one pump. The band is generally centred around the setpoint (on single output controls). For instance. which controls three pumps (two duty. one standby). The larger the time constant. the failure of one card will cause the whole pumping process to fail. logging. causing the output to be at 50% when the setpoint and the flow rate are equal. Reset redefines the output requirements at the setpoint until the process variable (flowrate) and the setpoint are equal. and interfacing to the I/O systems.

Communications may be via a local area network (LAN). and when the memory buffer is full. For stormwater stations the data can be analysed to determine how the station coped with storms. A report by exception operation is necessary for cost effective communication. and a collection of standard and/or custom software used to monitor and control remotely located field data elements. real numbers) will be trended (i. modifications can be made to the operation of the station to improve its response during such incidents. SCADA systems can feed information directly to the maintenance software. A further function of the SCADA system is the production of maintenance data and management reports.e. The main use of SCADA is to monitor and control plant or equipment. Based on this data. it will be displayed on special alarm lists. analogues reaching threshold values or varying by specified amounts. SCADA systems can be easily configured to produce maintenance requests for equipment that has run a set number of hours. Data can be of three main types: • • • Analogue data (i. and the operator can select from the relevant ones at any time. As the data changes in the field.3 SCADA and Telemetry Systems Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is an industrial measurement and control system consisting of a central host or master (usually called a master station. The report is triggered by change of state of digital values. For example. The data acquisition is accomplished by the RTU's scanning the field inputs connected to the RTU (it may be also The trending function can be a powerful diagnostic tool for use by the operators or maintenance personnel.e. or initiated by operator commands.© Copyright Ashghal . The primary interface to the operator is a graphical display (mimic) which shows a representation of the plant or equipment in graphical form. Systems similar to SCADA systems are routinely seen in factories and treatment plants. These are often referred to as Distributed Control Systems (DCS). a valve may be shown as open or closed. For managers. Combined with the trending facility Page 72 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . The central host will scan the RTU's (usually at a slower rate). and if an alarm is present. The data stored and archived can be viewed over any period of historic time. They have similar functions to SCADA systems. counting revolutions of a meter) is normally accumulated or counted. e. master terminal unit or MTU). If a standalone maintenance system is already in place. The RTU software enables the RTU to process local input equipment information. Contemporary SCADA systems exhibit predominantly open-loop control characteristics and utilise predominantly long distance communications. Pulse data (e. 2. one or more field data gathering and control units or remotes (RTU’s). which would otherwise go unnoticed to be detected. The system may have many such displays. placed in graphs). and will normally be reliable and high speed. or graphically. but the field data gathering or control units are usually located within a more confined area. which allows fault patterns. called a PLC . SCADA systems can produce detailed reports on subjects such as power or chemical usage.19. although some elements of closed-loop control and/or short distance communications may also be present. A DCS system usually employs significant amounts of closed loop control.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs serial port should be provided for connecting a hand-held programming unit or PC.g.programmable logic controller). or if its’ performance has been declining over time. The RTU also reports when polled. This is usually at a fast rate. Digital data (on/off) may have alarms attached to one state or the other. Live data is shown as graphical shapes (foreground) over a static background. The control may be automatic. The data is processed to detect alarm conditions. Closed loop control in this situation is less desirable.g. Analogue data can be shown either as a number. SCADA systems on the other hand generally cover larger geographic areas. and rely on a variety of communication systems that are normally less reliable than a LAN. before transmitting it to the master station to reduce transmission overheads. the foreground is updated.

e. b.20. Administration offices. Kitchen and toilets. Off-loading bay & walk ways. Control and SCADA monitoring rooms. 2.1 Light Fitting Selection Criteria Light fittings are selected according to the following criteria and application. 2) 1. c.1. Internal Lighting Internal lighting fittings are required in places such as: a. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 73 1st Edition June 2005 . Water storage tank lighting. c. Pump rooms. chemical storage. Generally. f.1 Installation Location The location of the light fittings to be designed has a large affect on the type of luminaire to be specified. External lighting a. 2.20 Lighting The designer should follow the guidelines and information given below to design a proper lighting system. the following categories can be considered: d. g. A risk assessment on the source of ignition and type of explosive atmospheres should be carried out using the methodology suggested in BS EN 11271xlvii for all potentially hazardous areas such as screen chambers and wet wells. 2. c. and chemical dosing system room). External installed machinery (settlement tanks. 2. Internal road lighting (inside station boundary).damage to light fittings can occur due to: a.20. 2. Substation (11kv & transformer). e.The operation of light fittings in certain environments can cause fire or explosion due to gas generation or fumes (methane. Machinery rooms (compressor.3 Luminance Level Required (Lux) The luminance level required varies from one area or application to another. inlet works aeration tanks). Corrosive atmosphere (hydrogen sulphide gases. h. 1) Hostile conditions . generator.20.2 Environmental Conditions In many industrial applications the environmental condition is hostile or hazardous as explained below. Motor control centre rooms (MCC).© Copyright Ashghal . Pump wet wells and screen chambers. b. and by inputting cost data. high humidity). Building (external wall mounted fittings). Windy and vibrating environments. it can produce cost forecasts for a wide range of process consumables. The luminance level should generally be in accordance with the CIBSE lighting guidexlvi.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs that is also inherent within SCADA. d. d.20. Hazardous conditions . b. Wet atmosphere (water ingress). The British standards specified within and the CIBSE lighting guidexlvi should be considered during the design.1. The relevant levels are replicated below for convenience in Table 2. e.1. High ambient temperatures. Dusty atmosphere. etc).1. 2.20.

High bay lights 200 100-150 150-200 150-200 300 150-200 High bay lighting should be used in pump rooms when the bay heights are above six meters. It can be • Page 74 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . 1. The high bay lamps can provide lighting for maintenance purposes. 58w).20. Emergency lighting in large open areas such as open plan offices should have an average horizontal luminance for escape purposes of not less than 1. The lighting installation can be wall mounted on external buildings or post mounted in working machinery areas. Emergency lights External area (Inside station boundary) Internal Road lighting Tank area Building (external wall and door entrance) External installed machinery 100 50. arrangements (3x18w. 2.0lux.1 – Luminescence Levels for Various Service Areas used in most locations with some changes in the body material. The fittings are available with different lamp sizes (18w. gangway and stairs shall have a horizontal luminance on the floor (centreline of escape route) of not less than 0. IP rating and lamp wattages. 3.100 50 70 Emergency lights are used in case normal lighting fails or the power supply fails. 2x36w.5m above floor level. The type and installation of emergency lighting should consider the following points: • • Escape route signs shall be mounted above building exit doors at 2 . Side mounted (4-meter height) fluorescent fittings can be used due to the extended start-up time of high bay lamps. UV protected). 36w.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 2. aeration tanks etc).1. Fluorescent fitting • The fluorescent fitting is a combination of lamps and luminaries. They give light in emergency situations such as a fire.4 Type of Light Fitting Light fitting types that can be used in different locations can be categorised as follows. Escape route lighting such as Corridors.2lux.2. 2x58w) and installation type (surface mounted.0lux. and machinery areas (grit removal. 2. or ground level mounted and directed to the tank walls in case of tank area lighting. Flood lights Service area Luminance level (lux) Internal area (inside building) Motor control centre room Control / SCADA room 11kv switchgear room Transformer bay Kitchen Toilets Store Offloading bay / walkway Pump house Cable gallery Administration offices Machinery room 300 500 300 150-200 150 150 Flood lights are used mainly for external building area lighting such as tank areas.20. The fittings should be a minimum of IP65. 4. and the body should be suitable for the environment of the application (corrosion resistant. recessed mounted). Emergency lighting in Motor control centre rooms and operator control rooms (SCADA) should have an average horizontal luminance not less than 2. 4x18w. in the case of regular inspections and access to the pump house.© Copyright Ashghal . to provide escape-route sign lighting and emergency-exit sign lighting as per BS 5266xlviii. settling tank. This type of fitting is ideally suited to internal installation use.

These are. inverters. bracket or side entry. The fitting can be suitable for indoor or outdoor installation and should be IP65 with either a high pressure sodium or incandescent lamp type). luminaire Normal luminaires modified to contain a battery pack and conversion unit (maintained). Normal luminaires with a separate lamp for use with a battery pack. Luminaire mode of operation There are two modes of operation as follows: • Maintained: lamp used as normal when the building is occupied. high-pressure sodium. rechargeable unit (non-maintained). For lighting required for pumping station roads. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 75 1st Edition June 2005 . conditions. Usually. 6. Roadway lighting The following formula is used to check the level of lux provided and adjust the number of fittings to be used. Normal luminaires fed from a central power source (maintained/ nonmaintained). Non-maintained: lamp off as long as the normal power supply is available.20.1 = Average illuminance (lux) of the plane = Initial bare lamp lumens flux (lumens) = Number of lamps per luminaire = Number of luminairies = Utilisation factor = Maintenance factor = Area (m2) • Es F n N UF MF A • 5. Bulk head • Bulk head light fittings are used at the entrance of the pumping station building (located on top of the door or at the side) as well as in substation entrance doors and gates.© Copyright Ashghal . The light fitting body and canopy material should be suitable for the installation location and environmental Calculation procedure Calculate the room index (K). floor cavity index (CIf) and ceiling cavity index (CFc). Professional software can be used for increased accuracy and speed of design. post heights and post spacing will be according to the level of lux required. Normal luminaires with a separate lamp for emergency use. Normal luminaires fed from a central battery system with conversion unit (maintained). The lamp will energise from the emergency power supply automatically in the event of normal power failure. Lighting design calculation: Types of emergency lighting The following types of emergency lighting luminaire are commonly used: • • Self-contained separate (maintained/non-maintained). The design of roadway lighting should be according to BS 5489-3xlix. 7. The following guide is given as an aid for the experienced lighting engineer and not as a learning guide for the novice engineer. Centrally powered. the selection of the suitable light fittings. Self-contained. metal halide. three types of lamp are commonly used. fed from a central battery system (nonmaintained)/(sustained luminaire).State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Emergency light system There are two types of emergency light system: a. The power supply is from the normal source directly or indirectly. The information required to populate the formulae can be found in manufacturer’s literature. and high-pressure mercury. b. Internal Lighting (Lumen Method) Formula • • Es = F x n x N x UF x MF A Equation 2. The installation of the fitting on the column can be on the post top.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

(K) = (LxW)/(L+W)hm Equation 2.20.2

Calculate the luminance that will be achieved by the final layout.

External and Roadway Lighting Calculation The calculation for roadways can be carried according to BS 5489-3xlix. Caution must be taken in lamp post foundation design to ensure that the wind effect on the post is fully considered. The flood light calculation can be carried out using the same formula applied for internal lighting calculation with slight modification. E = N x L x BF x WLFxMF A Equation 2.20.4

(CIf) OR (CFc) = L x W/(L+W)h Equation 2.20.3 Where: L W Hm = = = room length room width height of the luminaire plane above the horizontal reference plane H = depth of the cavity

Where: E L = = Illuminance required (lux) Lamp output per lumens (lm) Beam factor number of lamps per Number of luminaries waste light factor (usually considered 0.9) MF = = maintenance factor area to be lighted (m2)

Calculate the effective reflectance (REx) of the ceiling, wall and floor cavity (from tables using above calculated (CIx). Determine the utilisation factor value (UF) using luminaire manufacturer data sheets; room index and effective reflectance (apply any correction factors). Determine the maintenance factor (MF) MF = LLMF x LSF x LMF x RSMF Equation 2.20.4 Where: LLMF LSF LMF = lamp lumen maintenance factor = lamp survival factor = luminaire maintenance factor

BF = luminaire N WLF as = =

A

RSMF = room surface maintenance factor Thus, the lighting design is determined as follows: • • • • Using the lumen method formula, calculate the number of luminairies required (N); Determine the suitable layout; Check if the (spacing / height) ratio of the layout is within the range according to UF; Check that if the proposed layout is does not exceeding the maximum ratio limit;

Light control: The control of the lighting system can be provided by the following means to control the operation of different lighting systems within the pumping station: • One-way light switches can be used for controlling a lighting system in an area with a single access, for example at the main access door to the station; Two-way light switches can be used for controlling a lighting system in an area with multiple access and egress points; The automatic control of external lighting systems can be achieved by two main methods:

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a) b)

Photocell controller for automatic dusk till dawn control; Time clock operation for full control of when external lights are in operation.

When the lifting gear has taken the weight of equipment and the equipment is released from its position, the clearance in the shipping route should be large enough for the equipment to pass through without rearrangement.

2.22 2.21 Maintenance Access
Safe access should be provided to all equipment and local control panels at all times. Access walkways, platforms and stairs should be designed so that no dismantling is required for normal routine maintenance. Vertical access should be by staircase so that tools and equipment can be carried in and out safely. Ladder access should be restricted to infrequent visual inspection points. Access around equipment for operation should be installed at a level where all the controls can be reached and operated easily without excessive stretching or bending and where all indicators can be seen. Access around equipment for maintenance and repair should be installed at a level where all the maintenance points can be reached, dismantled and removed without excessive stretching or bending. Particular attention should be paid to lifting gear access and operation where heavy equipment is involved. Access below ground to dry wells should be by staircase so that tools and equipment can be carried in and out safely. Permanent access to wet wells and screen chambers should be provided, using stainless steel or GRP to just above TWL to allow for cleaning. The access arrangements should be designed such that an operator could be rescued from the sump with a safety harness and man-winch. When designing access to equipment, careful thought should be given to shipping routes for removing equipment to a suitable position for further work, or for removing from the pumping station completely. Exit routes for equipment should not be the same as for personnel access unless there is an alternative escape route.

Gantry Cranes and Lifting Facilities

Permanent or temporary lifting facilities should be provided for equipment that can not be easily lifted. Consideration should be given to the weight, shape and position of the item to be lifted. As a guide lifting facilities should be provided for anything over 25kg. For long or heavy lifts, gantry cranes should be powered in all motions. Trolley cranes should generally be power lift with manual motion, but small units should be manual on all motions. Access must be provided to permanent lifting equipment, particularly gantry cranes, for maintenance as generally described in section 2.21. The following types of lifting equipment are available: • Lifting Eye and Chain Block. Suitable for single straight lifts only inside a building or dry well. Not suitable for side forces, but may be used in conjunction with other suitable lifting eyes to swing a load sideways; Davit, Socket and Chain Block. Suitable for most small single lifts i.e. submersible pumps up to 250kg. Above this, the davit becomes too heavy to be manhandled; Runway Beam, Trolley and Chain Block. Suitable when there are a number of loads in a straight line, or where a single load must moved sideways. For heavy loads or long lifts, the chain block and trolley should be electrically powered; Overhead Gantry Crane. Suitable for installations where there are dispersed or heavy loads that must be moved in all directions; Mobile Crane. Suitable for single heavy loads outdoors which must be moved in all directions i.e. large submersible pumps.

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Submersible pumps should be fitted with stainless steel chains, with change-over rings every 1.0m, and the lifting equipment should be fitted with a change-over sling. Location of lifting equipment • • Lifting equipment should be provided adjacent to all heavy items that require lifting; Lifting equipment should be positioned to provide a straight lift of the load and also be able to lower the load directly to a suitable setting down position; Where lifting through openings in floors, the lifting gear should be positioned to allow a direct single lift up through all floors without moving the lifting point or rearranging the load.

2.23

Ventilation, Odour Control and Air Conditioning
Ventilation

2.23.1

Ventilation of pumping stations is required to prevent the accumulation of high levels of potentially hazardous chemicals, and ensure that working conditions meet health and safety requirements. UK occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentrationsl for hydrogen sulphide and other gases associated with septic conditions are given in section 1.6 of this manual. Typical ventilation rates for odour containment in pumping stations used in current operational practice in Doha are given in Table 2.23.1. Table 2.23.1 – Typical Ventilation Rates for Odour Control in Pumping Stations Air changes per hour

Controls for Lifting Equipment • Overhead electric cranes and chain blocks should be provided with a low voltage pendant control suspended from a glide track, independent of the lifting block. The pendant control should extend to within 500mm of the operating floor, but not touch the floor; Electric chain blocks should be provided with a low voltage pendant control suspended from the block. The pendant control should extend to within 500mm of the operating floor but not touch the floor; Hand operating chains should extend to within 500mm of the operating floor but not touch the floor; Long travel drive chains should be located to avoid snagging, and allow the operator safe passage; With the load hook in its highest position, if a load chain touches the operating floor or any item of plant, a chain collection box should be fitted.

Pumping station One for local covers (no man access) 12 for pumping stations extracted from close to the sump and process units Pumping station working area (current practice) Dry wells (current practice) Separate screen chamber 20 during man access (initiated by light switch) 12

Passive ventilation through carbon filter (where there is no other route for odour escape)

Ventilation systems should be designed so that in the event of a fire being detected in any area, all the air conditioning equipment and ventilation systems are shut down. All supply and exhaust ventilation louvers should shut automatically to

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2 Odour Control Ventilation of Pump Rooms and Dry Wells Air supply should be provided by either two or three duty fans and one standby fan. Exhaust air should be removed by either two or three duty fans and one standby fan. a two bed (duty/standby) system using carbon regenerated using alkali (caustic soda or potash) is preferred. The system should be designed to achieve this with only one fan operating. The exhaust fans should have approximately 5% less flow capacity than the air supply fans to keep the building at a slight positive air pressure. and ensures effective use of automatic fire extinguishing systems.5. At larger pumping stations consideration may be given to pre-treatment of strong sources using catalytic iron filters. Materials should be selected to limit the corrosion effects of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). the additional air supply should be provided by the fans running at high speed. Pump rooms and dry wells should typically have 12 air changes an hour for normal operation.2 – Conditions to be Considered in Odour Control Unit Design Sewage temperature 25 – 35oC Ambient temperature Relative humidity Temperature of air vented from the sewerage system to an Odour Control Unit Radiating temperature surfaces 0–50oC Up to 100% Up to 30oC 85oC maximum 250ppm Hydrogen sulphide from below covers Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 79 1st Edition June 2005 . This is to avoid drawing unfiltered dust laden air into the pump room which can drastically shorten the equipment life. the number and configuration depending on Air vented from pumping stations will in most cases require odour treatment. 2. the required air changes per hour for man entry are achieved.23. the size of the wet areas. Table 2. Louvers should be sized to keep the air velocity through them below 0. This restricts the spread of the fire and smoke. when the fan stops. ventilation fans and odour control equipment should be run simultaneously and ventilation fan louvers should shut.Pump Sumps & Screen Chambers Wet areas should normally be ventilated by air extraction only. depending on the size of the pump room. Reference should also be made to Section 1.23. Ventilation rates should be designed to ensure a maximum of 3ppm of H2S in the wet areas. depending on the size of the pump room. The cable basement should be ventilated as part of the pump room ventilation system. with a natural air supply to keep the wet area under slightly negative pressure and avoid releasing odours to the atmosphere. Air ducts should be designed to ensure the velocity through them does exceed 10m/s in occupied areas.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs compartmentalise the buildings and below ground chambers. Further details of requirements are given in Volume 5 Section 1. Exhaust air should be removed by duty/standby fans.6 of this Volume Typical conditions to be considered in the design of the odour control unit are given in the table below. During man entry. increasing to 16 air changes an hour during man entry.© Copyright Ashghal . Wet areas should typically have 12 air changes an hour for normal operation. Other points to consider include: The air conditioning systems. Ventilation of Wet Areas .5m/s. increasing to 20 air changes an hour during man entry. Each fan should have a two-speed motor. The fans should be sized so that with all fans running at high speed. In most cases.

Air Conditioning of Electrical Switch Gear Rooms Electrical switchgear rooms should be completely isolated from the remainder of the building for the following reasons: • The thermal loads are higher than elsewhere in the building. The required quantity of exhaust air should be removed from electrical switchgear rooms to atmosphere by a fan with an actuated louver. Table 2. Exhaust air in the kitchen and toilet areas should be discharged outside the building. To keep the toilet and kitchen area ventilated. The required thermal load should be calculated on the basis of peak conditions. the other unit will provide 75% of the required air conditioning capacity. the electrically actuated louvers should be closed to seal electrical switchgear rooms during the use of any fire extinguishing system.3 Air Conditioning The required air conditioning systems and ventilation capacities are shown in the tables below. In the event of a fire. Table 2.m. The designer shall assess the potential for corrosion of A/C units.3 10 2 8 Note: Figures extracted from BS 5720.8 Approximate air changes per hour.23. Kitchens and Toilets A single split AC unit should be provided for air conditioning the control room. Page 80 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . with air diffusers discharging horizontally towards the panels. 2.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Hydrogen sulphide with workplace air 10ppm • In the event of a fire being detected the air conditioning should be switched off to allow the fire suppression equipment to operate effectively. so that should one unit fail. The kitchen and toilet areas should be air conditioned by exhausting part of the control room air through them. * 1 Air inlet should be by natural supply through a filtered and actuated louver.23. Return air should be sucked back by the split unit.4 . Electric Switchgear Room Control Room Kitchen and Toilet 10 - 1. via receiving air diffusers located at evenly placed points between the supply air diffusers. *Depending on the dimensions of the rooms.Air Conditioning (AC) Systems Location Electric Switch Gear Control Room Air Condition system Dual Split AC unit system Split AC unit system Two split AC units working independently (mechanically and electrically) of each other should be used to air condition the room. particularly from H2S. and fixed to the ceiling.3 . Table 1. 0.© Copyright Ashghal . 150% total). Air Conditioning of Control Rooms.e. The fans should be run continuously for the following reasons: • • To provide the required air changes for the control room and kitchen.23.Ventilation Capacities Location Ventilation (l/s) per person Ventilation (l/s) per sq. Each split AC units should be rated at 50% above the required capacity (i. and ensure that they are appropriately designed and located. No air conditioning should be provided for the kitchen or toilet.

24.24 Structural Design General Design Requirements Unless local design standards dictate otherwise. Ignore any central core beyond these surface zones. Were: ωmax = allowable crack width (0. For h < 500mm assume each reinforcement face controls h/2 depth of concrete 250mm h ≥ 500mm 250mm 2. loadings. Designers are referred to S max = ϖ max Rα (T1 + T2 ) Equation 2.24. including as a minimum the following information: • • • • Description of the structure and design methodology adopted. concrete mix design. guidelines and specifications used for design. distance from plant to site. Local standards shall govern if any conflict arises. in general. Given that thermal crack control requirements determine the minimum limit of reinforcement. etc shall all be taken into account. The designer shall prepare calculations for each design package. only the outermost 250m of each face shall be used in calculating reinforcement areas. All structures shall be designed based on a ‘limit-states’ philosophy. seasonal variations in ambient temperature.1 Thermal Crack Control Requirements Calculation of the reinforcement requirements for control of early-age thermal cracking shall be in accordance with BS 8007lii. Unless required otherwise. For the calculation of the likely maximum crack spacing and the reinforcement ratio the following formula shall be used: For h ≥ 500mm assume each reinforcement face controls the outer 250mm depth of concrete.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Air louvers should be fitted in the bottom of kitchen and toilet doors. All assumptions made for design geotechnical parameters.5 for most structures) α = co-efficient of thermal expansion (varies between 10x10-6/oC – 12x10-6/oC) T1 = fall in temperature between the hydration peak and the ambient (oC) T2 = ambient placing temperature (oC) ρbar = reinforcement ratio (ρmin = 0.e. however.1 Substructures 2. Likewise. the design temperature T1 shall still be based on the entire element thickness.© Copyright Ashghal .0035) φbar = reinforcement diameter (mm) Where the section thickness exceeds 500m.67φ bar 2S max Equation 2.24. Input and output from software where appropriate. he design of concrete structures shall be in accordance with BS 8110-1 “Structural Use of Concrete”li and BS8007 “Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids”lii. particular care should be given to the adopted values of T1 and T2.2mm maximum) Smax = likely crack spacing (mm) R = restraint factor (0<R<0. consideration shall be given to limiting the concrete placing temperature T2 to a value ranging between 15oC and 30oC.5. Considering the relatively high ambient temperatures that may be encountered in the Qatar region.1 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 81 1st Edition June 2005 .24. the design of steel structures shall be in accordance with BS5950-1 “Structural Use of Steelwork in Buildings”. (i. formwork type. Factors including local site conditions.1. all structures shall be designed for a minimum service life of 60 years. to be taken as 0.2 2. h<500mm h/2 Standards. ρ bar = 0. etc).

Re-size any element thicknesses as required (ensuring that structural requirements are still maintained). Vehicle live loads shall be in accordance with local standards and engineering judgement (where local standards do not cater to vehicle loads then loading shall be in accordance with BS 5400-2lv and BS6399-1lvi).6kN/m3 Maximum 23. Data to be considered includes ground level (GL).5kN/m3 22. with the load combinations arranged to give the most severe combination likely to happen.24. Flotation of all structures shall be checked in accordance with BS 8007lii against the anticipated GWL.0 1. Page 82 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . the following methodology is recommended: • Calculate the volume of water displaced based on external dimensions of the structure and the GWL. Hydrostatic uplift on base. A minimum live load of 5kN/m2 shall be adopted regardless of code requirements.10 shall be achieved for both temporary and permanent conditions.24.0 1.0 1.1 – Serviceability (SL) and Ultimate (ULS) Load Factors Load SLS Factor ULS Self Weight 1.2 Structural Analysis Loading All liquid retaining structures are to be designed for both the full and empty conditions. classification and properties. Preferably.4 Retained Soils 1. does the site need to be de-watered until after the roof has been placed? does the site need to be de-watered until any mass concrete benching has been placed?).10 as a minimum. The following load factors shall be adopted (unless local design codes specify more onerous load factors) as per Table 2.1. In considering the flotation calculations.0 1.5kN/m3 Unreinforced 21. Depending on the GWL and GL conditions. Calculate the mass of the structure taking into account construction assumptions (e. Both serviceability (SLS) and ultimate (ULS) load conditions shall be considered. • • A factor of safety of 1.© Copyright Ashghal . the structure shall be designed for an appropriate wheel/vehicle live load.24. Ground Investigation & Flotation The designer shall have.5kN/m3 Where required. buoyancy (or flotation) of the structure may govern the section thickness. External soil pressure only (backfilled soil but no water). Hydrostatic + soil pressure + uplift (normal working conditions). allowable bearing capacities and a soil chemical analysis. For the flotation calculations the following concrete unit weights are recommended: Minimum In-situ RC 22.4 Live Loads (incl. ground water level (GWL).0 1. an understanding of the basic ground conditions likely to be encountered on site. the designer shall obtain a Ground Investigative Report (GIR) from suitably competent geotechnical engineers giving more precise values and ground conditions. at a minimum. soil types. Base ‘soft-spot’ capacity.1.6 surcharges) • In general the walls and base shall be checked against the following load combination (where appropriate): • • • • • • Internal hydrostatic pressure only (watertightness test before backfilling).g. Roof loading.4 Retained Liquids 1. 2. either from historical data or a desk-top study.4 Dead Loading 1. Calculate the factor of safety to obtain 1.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs CIRIA Report No’s 91liii and 135liv for further information on this subject. Table 2. 1.

5υc < υ<(υc + 0. Base slabs designed as one-way spanning shall be designed for shear in accordance with engineering principles and the following formula: Shear reinforcement shall be provided based on the following: • • The critical shear stress uc shall be determined in accordance with BS 8110-1li.5 +  0. 0.2 – Shear Stress and Rebar to be provided Shear Stress υ υ<0.24. degree of restraint.4 and M ULS Ast = 0.© Copyright Ashghal .8 f cu bv d ( ) Equation 2.8√fcu Form of shear rebar to be provided None Required Minimum links in areas where υ<υc Links in any combination Area of shear rebar to be provided Asv ≥ 0.24.24.5 where: MULS = design ultimate moment (kNm) b = width of section (mm .24.4) < υ<5 or 0.3  K     z = d 0.156 bd 2 f cu Equation 2.95fsyv K= M ULS ≤ 0. Depending on the slab arrangement (i.24. span ratio’s. Designers are referred to BS8110-1li for cases where compression reinforcement is required. • Base slabs designed as two-way spanning shall be designed for shear in accordance with engineering principles and the following formulae: υ vx = β vx nl x & υ vy = β vy nl x Equation 2.95d 0 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Elements shall be analysed in accordance with BS 8007lii.9       Equation 2.4bsv/0. Where appropriate seismic loading shall be considered in accordance with local design codes.24.24. Base Slabs Base slabs designed as one-way spanning shall be designed for flexure in accordance with engineering principles and the following formulae: υ= V ≤ 5 N/mm 2 .95fsyv Asv ≥ bsv(υυc)/0.3.e. bases and walls may be considered as either one-way or twoway spanning. BS 8110-1li and established engineering principles.24. etc).5υc 0.6 where: υ = design ultimate shear stress (N/mm2) V = design ultimate shear force (kN) bv = width of section (mm .25 −   ≤ 0.95 f sy z Equation 2.typically taken as 1m) d = effective depth (mm) fcu = concrete strength (N/mm2) Table 2.7 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 83 1st Edition June 2005 .4) (υc + 0.7 Values of βsx and βsy shall be obtained from Table 2. Base slabs designed as two-way spanning shall be designed for flexure in accordance with engineering principles and the following formula: msx = β sx nl x & msy = β sy nl x 2 2 Equation 2.156.typically taken as 1 m) d = effective depth (mm) fcu = concrete strength (N/mm2) z = lever arm (mm) Ast = area of required tension reinforcement (mm2) fsy = reinforcement strength (N/mm2) With K ≤ 0. compression reinforcement is not required.

A nominal ‘soft spot’ diameter shall be assumed in the subgrade (unless local conditions preclude this from occurring) and the base checked accordingly.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Values of βvx and βvy shall be obtained from Table 2. Page 84 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .© Copyright Ashghal .4.24.

47 0.028 0.053 0.60 0.046 0.54 0.034 0.028 0.0 1.041 0.061 0.51 0.3 – Base Slab Flexure Coefficients Short Span Co-efficient (βsx) β Edge Condition 1.52 0.065 0.051 0.032 0.40 0.100 0.43 0.39 0.043 0.0 1.084 0.053 0.42 0.056 0.39 0.093 1.035 0.40 0.47 0.044 0.038 0.36 0.30 0.5 0.36 0.47 0.048 0.24.45 (1 long edge continuous) 8.043 0.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 2.75 0.057 0.064 0.043 0.056 Table 2.049 0.44 0.49 0.2 0.028 0.33 0.034 0.40 1.24.1 0.57 0. 2 short edges discontinuous 5.096 0. Four edges continuous 2.040 0.074 Values of Ly/Lx 1.47 0.035 0.066 0.078 0.0 0.36 0.2 0.42 0.050 0. 4 edges discontinuous 0.50 0. 3 edges discontinuous (1 long edge continuous) 8. 3 edges discontinuous 0. 3 edges discontinuous 0.50 1.054 0.29 (1 short edge continuous) 9.51 0.33 0.41 0. 2 long edges discontinuous 6.111 Long Span Coefficient (βsy) for β all values of Ly/Lx 0.070 0.41 0.36 0.4 0.4 – Base Slab Shear Coefficients Short Span Co-efficient (βvx) β Edge Condition 1.072 0.091 0.43 0.57 ≥2.75 0. 2 long edges discontinuous 6.45 0.058 0.55 0.48 0.26 0.50 0.032 0.4 0.55 0. 1 short edge discontinuous 3.035 0.072 0.36 0.037 0. Four edges continuous 2.024 0.043 0.33 0.054 0.40 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 85 1st Edition June 2005 .60 Long Span Coefficient (βvy) for β all values of Ly/Lx 0.0 0.36 0.48 0.024 0.047 0.36 0.065 0.034 0.38 0.36 0.050 0.028 0.44 0.53 0.47 Values of Ly/Lx 1.52 1.040 0.045 0.45 0.046 0.38 0.© Copyright Ashghal . 4 edges discontinuous 0.48 0.035 0.33 0.59 0.33 0.038 0.26 0.63 0.046 0.40 0.49 0. 2 adjacent edges discontinuous 7.047 0.45 0.44 1. 3 edges discontinuous (1 short edge continuous) 9.050 0.48 0.028 0.081 1.061 0.055 0.33 0.078 0.44 0.066 1.29 0.087 1. 1 long edge discontinuous 4.43 0.48 0.45 0.041 0.3 0.54 1.39 0.103 ≥2.043 0. 2 short edges discontinuous 5.40 0.45 0.056 1.069 0. 1 long edge discontinuous 4.034 0.5 0.45 0.40 0.041 0.043 0.064 0.074 0.3 0.036 0. 1 short edge discontinuous 3. 2 adjacent edges discontinuous 7.1 0.50 0.105 0.52 0.

Microstran V8. STRAND 7. there is said to be soilstructure interaction. Roof slabs shall generally be designed in a similar fashion to base slabs. these walls shall be checked for a full hydrostatic head against one side only (representing a full chamber on one side. horizontal or two-way spanning action. a rigid structure is designed to neglect any differential settlement by having sufficient strength to span across any loss of ground support. any history of previous soil loading (i.10 At − rest k o = 1 − sin φ ( = 0.e.11 Compaction Hydrostatic Surcharge kqsurch kqcomp γwHw kγsH s ¦-----------------.24. Active k a = 1 − sin φ 1 + sin φ Equation 2. ROBOT Millennium.5 shall be adopted.consolidation) and the non-homogenous content of most soils. Surface surcharging shall be allowed for (typical values range between 510kN/m2). Foundations and Settlement Where an interface between a structure (be it above ground. models. This is a time-consuming and complicated procedure. Design Software Slab and wall elements may also be designed using appropriate commercial software (e. A flexible structure will be able to tolerate a degree of differential settlement by the basic arrangement of the structure. STAADPro.© Copyright Ashghal . Particular care shall be given to roofs subject to vehicle loading. Conversely. Earth pressures shall be calculated using Rankine’s theory. and many design software programs are ideally suited to this task (although it should be remembered that any software output is only as good as its input). however. At-rest earth pressures shall be used for structural design. Walls may be analysed by first principles.9 1 + sin φ Passive k p = 1 − sin φ Equation 2. The support given by the subgrade is often modelled as springs of varying stiffness (with the stiffness based on geotechnical parameters). and base slabs may occasionally be designed as beams on elastic foundations.24. The value of ko will vary according to site conditions but a minimum value of ko = 0. they should be considered as simply supported with limited fixity (and hence moment transfer) at the supports. as shall construction and permanent live loads. the nature of its materials and by the inclusions of movement joints.24. immediate and long-term). The actual behaviour of structures and soil-structure interaction is complex and leads to some simplification of assumptions in order to obtain a design. Factors to consider include the relative settlements likely to occur (i. over.where required -----------------¦ Where the structural arrangement calls for internal walls. etc). walls shall be checked for deflection in accordance with BS8110-1li span-depth criteria. Appropriate spring elements shall be used to represent the soil stiffness. Where designed as vertical cantilevers.g.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Walls Walls may adopt vertical.e. Designers should refer to the program user manuals for assistance with design software. an empty chamber on the other). or preferably 3D.5 for design) Equation 2. design charts or software. A fundamental design concept is the selection of either a rigid structure or a flexible structure. Roof Slabs Page 86 Soil Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . either as 2D. partially buried or completely buried) and the underlying ground exists.

the analysis and consideration of any soilstructure interaction is a complex affair. Conventional construction techniques should be followed for all construction joints (i. Complete Contraction Joint . Partial Contraction Joint . and a suitable slip membrane.Partial restraint of movement. Ground movement leading to differential settlement can cause severe cracking and leakage from liquid retaining structures. Where appropriate the design bearing pressure shall be calculated and checked against the allowable bearing capacity. etc). Combined footings. partial contraction allowance.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs As stated. Adjust footing thickness as required. Design for punching shear (ULS). Examples include: • • • Pad (isolated) footings.e.12 where: P* f*s = design ultimate resistance (kN) = average ultimate skin resistance of pile shaft (kN/m2) = surface area of pile shaft (m2) = net ultimate bearing resistance (kN/m2) = bearing area of base (m2) Where effective means of avoiding differential settlement or excessive cracking can not be avoided. For eccentric column loading and other foundation types designers are referred to appropriate literature. scabble concrete surface to an acceptable depth. the design ultimate resistance of a single end-bearing pile shall be determined from the following formula: _ • • • • • Determine required size of footing based on allowable bearing capacity (SLS) and adopt a suitable thickness. adopting a shear perimeter of 4(column width + 3d). * * As f*b Ab For elevated structures more traditional foundations may be required. Concrete Slab Blinding Layer & Slip Membrane Subgrade P* = f s As + f b Ab Movement Joints Equation 2. and in part depends on a degree of experience. measures shall be taken to provide suitable foundations such as piling or other ground improvement techniques consultation with suitably competent geotechnical engineers is strongly recommended. Full structural continuity is assumed at construction joints. can freely accommodate either contraction or expansion. Design for shear (ULS) taking a critical face located distance ‘d’ from the column face. Where piled foundations are required. If required. then consideration shall be given to the provision of movement joints at suitable locations. Movement joints may consist of the following: • Expansion Joint . Designers are strongly recommended to consult geotechnical engineers and to refer to specialist literature such as “Soil-structure interaction – The real behaviour of structures”lvii for further information on this subject.24. The location of construction joints shall be specified by the designer and marked on drawings. Simple. A maximum differential settlement value of 20–25mm should be adopted.© Copyright Ashghal . and as a general rule they should be designed as rigid structures. designed as a cantilever. a 50–100mm blinding layer. Structures shall be founded on a layer of suitably compacted subgrade material. Design for flexure (ULS) taking a critical section at the face of the column. with reinforcement fully continuous across the joint. concentrically loaded pad (isolated) footings shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles and the following methodology: • • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 87 1st Edition June 2005 . freely accommodates contraction. Strip footings.No restraint to movement.No restraint to movement. remove all loose debris.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Sliding Joint .© Copyright Ashghal . Due care and consideration shall be given to the most appropriate product utilised. Page 88 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . The use of water-stops and sealing compounds is essential for movement joints.Allows two structural members to slide against each other with minimal restraint.

5 30.5:3 . Bearing Pressure under Eccentric Load = 1.Sound Bearing Pressure kN/m 600 600 600-1000 2000 2000 3000 4000 10000 2 tons/ft 6 6 6 .Compact Gravel & Sandy Gravel .75-1.5 1.Soft .Stiff .75 .© Copyright Ashghal .10 20 20 30 40 100 2 28-day Cube Strength N/mm 8.6 11.1:4:8 . Bearing Pressure under uniform loading lb/in 1250 1650 3000 3750 4500 2 MN/m 1.Medium Dense .1:1:2 75-150 150-300 300-600 < 100 100-300 300+ < 200 200-600 600+ 0.1:3:6 . Limestone .Compact Construction Material Plain Concrete .6 2 Lb/in 250 350 760 950 2 Max.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 2.24.50 x Uniform Pressure 1140 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 89 1st Edition June 2005 .Hard Igneous Rock .Loose .4 5.7 2.0 2 Max. Concentrated Load = 1.25 x Uniform Pressure Max.3 6.1:2:4 .1:1.5 21.Very Stiff Sand – Loose .Firm .Hard Sandstone – Soft Schist.5 -Typical Allowable Bearing Pressures Bearing Pressure Type of Ground 2 2 kN/m tons/ft Clay – Soft < 75 < 0. Slate Sandstone. Bearing Pressure .Medium Dense .5 7.5 – 3 3–6 <1 1–3 3+ <2 2–6 6+ Type of Ground Chalk .0 25.Hard Sound Limestone – Soft Shale & Mudstone .

The inclusion of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) can significantly reduce the effects of hydration temperature rise and hence reinforcement requirements. They offer cost advantages over other framing systems for short to medium span structures in addition to a low structural depth. The climate can significantly affect above and below ground concrete due to the high ambient temperatures accelerating chemical attack and physical degradation. with an appropriate exposure class selected to meet the chemical environment conditions of the ground. Page 90 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .© Copyright Ashghal . A minimum cement content of 325kg/m3 and a maximum. This may need to be increased depending on local soil conditions. sliding failure. overturning failure.24. etc). Global stability of the retaining walls shall also be considered (i.5 shall be adopted. water-cement ratio of 0. stability and fatigue) limit state load conditions shall be considered. Earth pressures shall be calculated using Rankine’s theory. clean appearance and relatively easy maintenance of structural elements. The provisions of section 7 of BS 8110-1 shall apply. External cladding ranges from masonry to steel sheeting to transparent plastics. Brackish water. both above and below ground. as shall construction and permanent live loads. The value of ko will vary according to site conditions but a minimum value of ko = 0. Regardless of the material adopted for construction. retaining walls shall be designed in a similar fashion to the walls of liquid retaining structures. A further benefit is the relative ease with which overhead gantry and monorail cranes can be fitted. and can be either structural or non-structural. Reinforcement Reinforcement shall comply with BS 4449 or local standards. Portal frames are readily designed and constructed from either steel or concrete.2 Superstructures Portal Frame Structures Portal frame type structures are used extensively for framing of single-story buildings. Factors to be considered shall include: • Aggressive ground water. High-yield reinforcement of between 400–500N/mm2 characteristic strength shall be adopted throughout. consideration should be given to the availability and use of blended cement mixes. bearing capacity failure. and the designer shall take all appropriate measures should these chemicals be detected in the soil. Cover to Reinforcement The nominal cover of concrete for all steel shall be a minimum of 40mm in accordance with BS 8007lii. 2. Concrete Concrete mix design shall be in accordance with BS 8500lviii or local standards.55 shall also be maintained.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Retaining Walls Where required. • • • Contaminated aggregates. Rapid drying of concrete. Given that control of cracking from thermal effects often governs the reinforcement requirements for water retaining structures. The existence of soluble salts (mainly sulphate or chlorites) can be very detrimental to concrete. with the various load combinations arranged to give the most severe combination likely to happen. In these situations the designer shall follow the recommendations made in BS 8500-1lviii and BRE Special Digest 1lix. Designers are referred to CIRIA Report No 91liii (particularly Tables 5 and 6) for the use of blended concrete mixes. It should be noted that natural conditions in the Middle East. At-rest earth pressures shall be used for structural design. the same basic design methodology shall be adopted. Surface surcharging shall be allowed for (typical values range between 510kN/m2). Load Combinations Both serviceability (deflection and vibration) and ultimate (strength.e. are often of an aggressive nature. Concrete shall have as a minimum a 28-day characteristic cube strength of 35N/mm2.

6 shall be adopted (unless local design codes specify more onerous load factors).State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Where appropriate. The load factors shown in Table 2.© Copyright Ashghal .24. seismic loading shall be considered in accordance with local design codes. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 91 1st Edition June 2005 .

Some generic formulas are shown in Figure 2. various plant loadings (e.e. either electric or hand operated). as listed in Table 2. Lateral buckling (twisting) needs to be considered Fatigue assessment may be required. The design of crane beams differs from the design of floor beams in the following ways: • • • • • • The loads are moving. if somewhat conservative pressure. Design the column elements. however. the design procedure as described in BS 6399-2 could be used provided local wind speeds and conditions were adopted.g. with limitations placed on the height.© Copyright Ashghal .24. Lateral loading is usually involved. Design the connections (including column base connections). Some common unit weights of materials are given in Table 2. Designers are referred to local standards or specific manufacturer data for plant loading. Dead Loads Dead loads comprise the self-weight of the structure and any permanently fixed loads from non-structural elements. office facilities). and lend themselves readily to spreadsheets or other software. Design the cladding. and terrain factor.”lxii Page 92 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . These simplified methods will give a quick. control units. Imposed (Live) Loads Imposed (or live) loads will be determined from the intended function of the building. Structural Design Structural design of simple framed buildings shall generally follow the methodology below: • Calculate all the various loads and arrange into required combinations (paying particular attention to the wind loading combinations). based on pinned feet.8.g. hence most codes also make provisions for a more detailed analysis.e. The majority of design codes used world-wide will include a simplified procedure for determining the wind forces on relatively small buildings. Design the longitudinal bracing as required.7. • • • • • In general. roof area and slope. The strict use of BS 6399-2lx is not recommended. Localised stresses occur in the web at the top flange junction. These detailed procedures are often tedious to perform. column base plates incapable of transferring moments).1. As the crane operation is not a steady-state operation. structures should be considered as having pinned feet (i. The magnitude of loading depends on the type of crane (i. there are also significant dynamic effects to be considered.24. Generic Design Formulae Simple portal frame structures also lend themselves readily to be designed using generic formula. For the type of buildings that could reasonably be expected to be found at water or sewerage treatment plants.24. which depend on the relative structural stiffness of the column and rafter elements.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Wind Loads The calculation of wind loads will predominantly depend on local site conditions and a localised design standard. BS 6399-1lvi provides some recommendations for imposed loads. etc) or overhead gantry or monorail cranes for lifting facilities. Designers are recommended to follow the rules set out in BS 2573-1lxi and to consult local design guides and specialist literature for the design of crane beams. This is usually done by applying dynamic load multipliers to the calculated static loads. Crane Loads The design of steel crane gantry beams for overhead cranes presents some specific problems that need to be carefully considered. as it is tailored to British requirements. the live loads will most likely be either human occupation (e. pump. For further generic formula (including fixed feet design) designers are referred to Reynolds “Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook 10th Ed. As the wind forces and pressures depend on local conditions the designer shall adopt any and all recommendations made in local design standards and codes. Design the rafter elements.

0 0.2 Ultimate Limit State (ULS) Live Wind 1.4 1.8 Dead 1.8 4.0 22.0 2.5 5.2 1.0 UDL (kN/m2) 2.0 1.0 at 1m ctrs 1.4 Crane Vert.450 0.4 1.Hollow clay Metal Cladding .5 1.6 – Load Factors for Load Combinations Load Combination Load Combination 1 Load Combination 2 Load Combination 3 Dead 1.Clay .Lime.4 1.4 1. etc (including weight of equipment) Parking for cars.4 1.010 0.Aluminium .4 1.Gypsum.6 18.0 Table 2.050 22.0 1.038 0.0 1.2 1. Horiz 1.2 Live 1.0 24.0 1.5 Concentrated Load (kN) 2.Galv. workshops and similar Catwalks Balconies Warehousing and Storage areas General areas for static equipment Plant rooms.Reinforced Concrete Masonry Bricks – Structural . 20mm tk .5 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 93 1st Edition June 2005 .0 1.7 – Common Unit Weights of Materials Material Unit Weight kN/m2 Concrete .0 1.© Copyright Ashghal .0 1.5 9.220 0.7 4. boiler rooms. vans.5 kN/m3 Gypsum plasterboard (12mm thick) Plaster render .020 Material Unit Weight kN/m2 0.0 1.5/m run 1.0 1.Cement.0 4.0 24.8 – Recommendations for Imposed (Live) Loads Type of Activity Office and Work areas Examples of Specific use Offices for general use Factories.Unreinforced .24. Steel 0.9 11. Horiz 1. etc (<2500 kg gross) 2. 12mm tk Polyester corrugated Sheets Thermal insulation (fibreglass bats) 0.2 1.115 kN/m3 Table 2.8 0.2 Dead Crane Combination 1 Crane Combination 2 Crane Combination 3 1.0 Crane Vert.6 1.380 0.4 Serviceability Limit State (SLS) Dead Live Wind 1.4 1.0 Live 1.0 7.24.0 1.4 1. 20mm tk .24.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 2.0 1.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

b1 =

b L
2

f1 =

f h

k1 =

I 2h I1 s

k2 =

L h

k3 = f 1 + 3 f1 + k1 + 3

H A = −H E =

wL2 (1 + 0.65 f1 ) 4hk3
MB = MD = -HAh

VA = VE = 0.5wL

H A = −H E =

wb 2 6 + 3 f1 − 4b1 − 2 f 1b1 8hk 3
MB = MD = -HAh

(

2

)

VA =

wb 2 2L

H A = −H E = VA = Pb L

Pb(6 − 6b1 + 4 f1b1 − 3 f1 ) 4k 3
MB = MD = -HAh

HA =

wh(5k1 + 6 f1 + 12 ) 6k3

HE = HA - wh

VA = −VE =
MB = HAh

wh 2 2L

M D = HEh −

wh 2 2

HA =

wf 3 + k1 + 2.5 f1 + 0.625 f1 2k 3 wf (2h + f ) 2L
MD = HEh

(

2

)

VA = −VE =
MB = -HAh

HE = HA - wf

Figure 2.24.1 – Generic Formula for Portal Frames based on Pinned Feet

Page 94

Volume 2 Foul Sewerage
1st Edition June 2005 - © Copyright Ashghal

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

B

C

F = Total Load
h

IAB = ICD k2=6K+1

K=

I BC h I AB L

k1=K+2 k4=3K+1

A L

D

k3=2K+3

F

H A = HD =

FL 4hk3

RA = RD =

F 2 FL 4 k3

MA = MD = 0

M B = M C = H Ah =

F

H A = HD =

3FL 8hk3

RA = RD =

F 2
3FL 8k 3

M A = M D = 0 M B = M C = H Ah =

HA =
F

F  6 k3 − K    8  k3   
Fh 2L

HD = F − H A

RD = − RA =

F  3Fhk 1 M B = h − H D  = 8k3 2 
M C = H Dh =
RD = − RA = M B = MC = Fh L Fh 2

MA = MD = 0
F

Fh  2k3 + K    8  k3   

H A = HD =

F 2

MA = MD = 0

Figure 2.24.1 – Generic Formula for Portal Frames based on Pinned Feet

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State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Foundations and Floor Slabs The designer shall have, at a minimum, an understanding of the basic ground conditions likely to be encountered on site, either from historical data or a desk-top study. Preferably, the designer shall obtain a Ground Investigative Report (GIR) from suitably competent geotechnical engineers giving more precise values and ground conditions. Data to be considered includes ground level (GL), ground water level (GWL), soil types, classification and properties, allowable bearing capacities and a soil chemical analysis. The analysis and consideration of any soil-structure interaction (i.e. any interface between a structure (be it above ground, partially buried or completely buried) and the underlying ground) is a complex affair, and in part depends on a degree of experience. Factors to consider include the relative settlements likely to occur (i.e. immediate and longterm), any history of previous soil loading (i.e. overconsolidation) and the non-homogenous content of most soils. Designers are strongly recommended to consult geotechnical engineers and to refer to specialist literature such as “Soil-structure interaction – The real behaviour of structures”lvii for further information on this subject. By their inherent nature steel portal frames with profiled sheet cladding may be classified as somewhat flexible structures, able to tolerate relatively large differential settlements between adjacent frames. Concrete frames though, with masonry panels, are not so flexible and ground movement leading to differential settlement could cause severe cracking in the façade. There is also the strong possibility that shrinkage will occur between the frames and masonry panels, although joints at these positions can alleviate this problem. The design bearing pressure shall be calculated and checked against the allowable bearing capacity, and if required measures shall be taken to provide suitable foundations such as piling or other ground improvement techniques - consultation with suitably competent geotechnical engineers is strongly recommended. A maximum differential settlement value of 20–25mm should be adopted.

For a lightly loaded industrial building that might reasonably be expected to be used for sewerage and water treatment plants Table 2.24.9 is a good guide to the nominal slab thickness required. Table 2.24.9 – Nominal Slab Thickness Required for Lightly Loaded Industrial Buildings
Typical Application Light industrial premises with live loading up to 5kN/m2 Medium industrial premises with live loading between 5 and 20kN/m2 Classification of Subgrade Poor Medium / Good Poor Medium / Good Floor Slab (mm) 150 125 200 175

Where dynamic loading (i.e. from forklifts, trucks, etc) is applicable, thicknesses will be determined from calculating flexural tensile stresses in the slab. Designers are referred to specialist literature for the design of floor slabs with dynamic loads. Reinforcement in industrial floor slabs is located near the top surface to control crack width development. It does not increase the flexural strength of the slab. For a jointed reinforced industrial floor, reinforcement ratios of between 0.1% to 0.3% of the cross-sectional area shall normally be sufficient. This reinforcement most often takes the form of steel mesh. Joints are required to control cracking that occurs within a slab. Three main types of joints are used for industrial floor slabs: • Contraction Joints - Allow horizontal movement of the slab. They are provided transversely to the direction of placing, and should be spaced at maximum centres of 15m. Contraction joints may be either plain (unreinforced) or reinforced with steel dowels or shear keys, dowels being the more common method; Construction Joints - Transverse construction joints generally occur at unplanned locations (such as may be caused by adverse weather or equipment failure), or planned locations (such as the last concrete pour at the end of the day’s work). Longitudinal construction joints are used to form the edges of each pour;

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For remote locations. such as pumping stations.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • Isolation Joints . for example during construction or maintenance. Road design and construction should be in accordance with the Qatar Highway Design Manual. Sewerage and drainage installations can be subject to public concern. without decorative openings. consistent with the need to provide security to the site. cranes. with suitable paved turning areas to allow vehicles to turn and to pass each other within the compound. with all access roads and hardstandings paved and drained. along with the buildings and structures within the compound. etc). The boundary structure must provide adequate security to prevent. Typical boundary wall. The site layout shall accommodate the access requirements for all utilities. Open areas should have gravel finish to discourage weed growth.26 Site Facilities The extent and layout of site facilities are to a great extent controlled by the available land. The boundary wall and gate details will be subject to planning approval. storage tanks and treatment plants. canteen. which should only be used to provide temporary security. Space shall be provided for doors to buildings to open fully.25 Site Boundary Wall/Fence • The demarcation of site boundaries is generally only required for the compound for above ground installations. 2. but typical requirements for urban sites would be: Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 97 1st Edition June 2005 . car ports.Isolation joints permit horizontal and vertical movement between adjacent elements (e.g. colour and finishes should therefore match those of the surroundings. surge suppression installation. The access gates shall be located and sized to avoid obstruction from the public. Site facilities should be agreed before design is undertaken. water tank and hydrants for washdown of vehicles and equipment. and for vehicles to enter buildings for handling of equipment.Standard Drawings.© Copyright Ashghal . living accommodation and facilities for worship should be considered. Access roads and paved areas are to be provided for tankers. The wall height. or to a SW pumping station on the site. • Stand-by generator plinth (or room for major installations). The wall should be of solid block or concrete construction. between the floor slab and column pad foundations. lorries and mobile generators. or at least discourage unauthorised access to the site. For this reason a boundary wall is preferable to a fence. guardhouse. its general appearance needs to blend in “naturally” with the neighbourhood. architectural features. Site layouts should provide adequate space for access by operation and maintenance vehicles. Any potential source of odour nuisance is to be located a distance of at least 15m for any habitable building. including the electricity supplier. Typical details for site facilities are contained in Volume 8 . fence and gate details are contained in the Standard Drawings in Volume 8. 2. Since the boundary wall is the most visible part of the installation. and the purpose and location of the site. and it is therefore important that they are compatible with their surroundings as far as possible. The site drainage system shall discharge to the public system where possible.

Please also refer to Vol 1 Section 3. Page 98 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . An external survey of the buildings within the property boundary must then be undertaken to establish the location of the discharge points from each building. the numbers of properties can be established. either in parallel or in sequence. The first stage is to establish the number and locations of properties to be served by the sewerage system. including those within compounds. Individual buildings should be drained.1.© Copyright Ashghal . An example house survey proforma is appended in Vol 1. This can be done by reference to mapping and aerial photographs where these are available. Using this information.2 House Connection Survey When designing new sewerage systems to serve existing developments.1 Documentation Reference Standards A full list of standards used in all of the manuals for design purposes is included in Volume 1 . Section 4. 3. it is necessary to establish the location of connection points from the existing buildings.Foreword.3 Building Permit Please refer to Volume 1. Appendix 1. 3.3. Where large and complex buildings are involved. it may be necessary to undertake an internal survey to determine the facilities within the building that contribute to the sewerage system.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 3 3. References used in this Volume are included at the end of the text.6 for a description of the procedures to be followed in this respect. to a terminal manhole that is then connected to the main sewer.

Please refer to Volume 1 sections 4. In keeping with the DA policy. Zoning classification should be established for all work carried out on existing and proposed installations. construction stage safety. but also on its buildability. No design projects will be accepted as completed by DA without such steps having been taken. Security arrangements must be designed in consultation with the Operation & Maintenance (O&M) section of the DA. • • • • • • • • • • • • Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 99 1st Edition June 2005 . All hazards should be signposted. Covers should be a minimum size to allow operatives wearing breathing apparatus. Safe access should be provided to all plant requiring maintenance. Stairways should be equipped with handrailing and toe plates in accordance with the relevant BS.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 4 Health and Safety • • • Adequate lighting to be provided wherever access is required. and provision of paperwork to demonstrate this. Craneage or mobile lifting facilities must be provided for all heavy equipment.© Copyright Ashghal . Manholes must be equipped with covers which are secure yet can be easily removed for maintenance purposes. Welfare facilities should be provided to allow operatives to clean up after maintenance work. For this reason. Tripping hazards should be avoided. All above ground installations must be fenced off and made inaccessible to the general public. but will depend upon the apparatus used by the O&M section of the DA. it is essential that the procedures for production of a Hazard and Risk analysis are carried out. The designer must be aware of the implications of design decisions on not only the finished product. likewise overhead obstructions. Flow isolation facilities shall be provided. Barriers should be provided to prevent falling from height. and incorporated into the pre-tender H&S plan. Considerations in design to mitigate risks will include but not be limited to: • The designer must design out the need for entry into all confined spaces wherever possible.9 and 4. Access to long tunnels to allow desilting equipment as necessary. Gas monitoring equipment and alarms to be designed as hard wired for all confined spaces requiring access. H&S is paramount in all aspects of infrastructure design and operation. A minimum of 675mm square should be appropriate in most cases.10 for more detailed coverage relating to this subject. Health and Safety (H&S) design considerations for foul sewerage are not exclusive or prescriptive. operating life and decommissioning at the end of its working life.

© Copyright Ashghal . Further lengths of pipe are added at the drive shaft and the process continues by pushing or jacking the complete string forward. while excavation takes place within the shield.e. when operating in the closed mode is generally suitable for ground conditions in Doha. 5. This area of the market is under continual review and new techniques are regularly introduced. A thrust wall is constructed to provide a reaction to the jacking forces. Compact size operation. greater than 1000mm. All tables and figures are presented in the end of the section. Advantages: • • • Minimal surface disruption. It Limitations: • • Thorough site investigations are essential. the shield is recovered at the reception shaft.1. leaving a complete installed product pipeline. A general guide to designing structural elements is also given in the latter part of this section. This technique. The following is an overview of trenchless excavation techniques generally suitable for ground conditions in Doha.1. If the internal diameter is less than 1000mm and is conducted and steered by remote control. trucks and conveyers. High pressure hydraulic jacks are used to push the pipes through the ground behind a shield. Drives of several hundred metres are attainable using this technique. To maintain alignment accuracy a steerable shield is used which must be frequently checked for line and level from a fixed reference. i. the dimensions of which vary according to the specific requirements of each situation. The initial alignment of the pipe jack is obtained by positioning guide rails within the thrust pit on which the pipes are laid. There is also extensive information available relating to sewer rehabilitation and renovation. The impact of varying soil properties can be significant. but this relates more to the maintenance of older sewerage infrastructure. slurry pumping and on larger man-entry constructions. by skips. For long lengths of pipeline. intermediate jacking stations may be necessary to allow sequential thrusting of sections of the pipeline. Upon completion of the drive length. the process is generally classified as Microtunnelling. A brief summary of the typical purpose and diameter range appropriate for each technique is presented at the beginning of each overview.1. the following section contains new build information only. Trenchless methods considered cover pipes ranging up to 1000mm in diameter. Normally the size of tunnel is of man-entry and above.1 5. As the majority of work in Qatar relates to new build.1 Alternative Techniques Pipe jacking (Open/Close Face) Tunnelling Purpose: New Installation. to ensure that the pipes stay buoyant during jacking. Spoil from the excavated face may be removed by a variety of means including auger flight. The techniques reviewed all relate to installation of new pipes. Reference documents relating to this subject include the WRC Sewer Rehabilitation Manuallxiii and the Trenchless Techniques Reviewlxiv. Guidance on land requirements for shaft construction for this technique is given in Table 5. The most suitable methods (microtunnelling and pipejacking) for ground conditions in Doha are presented in greater detail. Diameter Range: 900mm and above Pipe jacking involves the jacking of a tunnelling shield and/or a complete length of tunnel lining into the ground from a drive shaft.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5 Trenchless Technologies is important to keep the string of pipes moving forward and to maintain lubrication. Noise level and traffic disruption are minimised compared to conventional trenching. Page 100 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . A drive shaft is required.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • • Difficult to deal with boulders occupying a significant percentage of the face area. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 101 1st Edition June 2005 . Operators must be experienced and familiar with the machine and its expected performance in the expected ground conditions.© Copyright Ashghal .

especially with the use of slurry machines. This is done using a steerable. Microtunnelling systems fall into two main categories corresponding to the spoil transport method.1. The launch and retrieval pits will be sized according to such factors as drive diameter. a pipe is placed in the jacking frame behind the tunnelling machine and this is jacked forward. which is pushed horizontally into the ground from the drive shaft by a set of hydraulic jacks. Print out of line and level available. One system uses a flight of augers running through the newly installed pipeline to transport spoil from the cutting head to the drive shaft. Automatic computer monitoring is available on some systems. access restrictions and the presence of other services. and where there is groundwater.1. The capital cost of equipment is high.2 Microtunnelling (Closed Face) Tunnelling Purpose: New Installation. When the tunnelling machine has entered the ground. The use of laser guidance control systems ensures a high degree of accuracy. Microtunnelling machines are operated from a control cabin at the surface. in a jacking frame. Machines can drive 100m or more in soft ground for sizes of 100mm diameter upwards. This process continues until the tunnelling machine arrives at the reception shaft. the slurry system is usually more suitable. especially in granular soil. weathered rocks. and the distance to be tunnelled. The boring heads may be fitted with blades for soft soil. picks for hard soil. Limitations: • • • Boulders and obstructions such as timber can halt installation. Diameter Range: 300–2400mm Microtunnelling is a method of installing pipes of up to 2400mm diameter. the cutting head. The slurry system is generally more expensive than the auger system. and utilises more space on site.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5. The choice of system depends upon the soil type that is being excavated. Advantages: • • • • Can be less expensive than conventional trenching. The auger system is preferred for short drives since the removal rate is considerably faster. water or bentonite may be used to convert the soil into slurry at the cutting face. Noise level and traffic disruption are minimised compared to conventional trenching. remote controlled tunnelling machine. the soil removal system and the jacking forces required. where it enters a slurry processing plant.© Copyright Ashghal . Both systems provide face support by maintaining a positive pressure on the face through the cutting head and the soil in the collection system using an adjustable control at the head. Alternatively.1. from drive shafts of less than 3m diameter. It is imperative to know the type of ground conditions present as this will determine the type of machine to be used. The slurry system can be used to control external groundwater by balancing the slurry pressure so that it offsets the groundwater pressure. which is water based. especially for deep installations. For longer distances. The spoil is removed and the slurry is recycled back to the cutting face. leaving behind a length of installed pipe. Guidance on land requirements for shaft construction for this technique is given in Table 5. pushing the tunnelling machine ahead of it. is then pumped to the surface along pipes within the product pipeline being jacked. A range of cutting heads is available according to the type of soil conditions present. These shafts can be located so that they become manholes in the finished scheme. No slurry pumps or slurry processing plant are needed. Microtunnelling using slurry is generally more suitable for ground conditions in Doha than auger transported spoil. Settlement is minimised. Requires skilled and experienced operators. The spoil is then collected in a skip. with high control and monitoring during driving. and soft rock and disc cutters for hard rock. The slurry. Page 102 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Tables 5.1.1 . for Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking Techniques Nominal Pipe Minimum Diameter Minimum Diameter Minimum Site Area Required Diameter of Drive Shaft (m) of Reception Shaft Open ground (m x m) Minimum width of site (m) (mm) in roads (m) 250 to 500 600 to 700 800 to 1000 1100 to 1500 3 3 5 6 3 3 4 5.5 15 x 10 20 x 10 30 x 10 40 x 10 5 5 6.© Copyright Ashghal .5 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 103 1st Edition June 2005 .Guidance on Land Requirements.5 7.

2 Planning and Selection of Techniques The selection procedures presented in this manual are a general methodology that can be used to identify suitable trenchless techniques for new pipelines. The mud driven motor is principally used in sands. Advantages: • • • Installation is rapid. Accuracy of line and level cannot be maintained. and operates by forcing the slurry through small holes with the motive energy of the fluid jet cutting the soil. which are controlled by local considerations that will change from time to time. enlarges the bore. silty clay or sands.1. The equipment has difficulty operating in granular soils. Directional drilling is unsuitable for use in granular soils and gravels due to the increased possibility of sidewall collapse. with the exception of outfalls. ancillary equipment and assembled product pipeline. Page 104 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . attached to and pulled back by the washover pipe. firm. and suitable for movement of the rig.and midi-HDD.3 Directional drilling Drilling Purpose: New Installation. Long distances with relatively large diameter pipelines can be achieved. Printout of line and level available. and designed to work in congested areas. A high level of accuracy is not usually required for this type of operation. Alternate drilling then continues on the pilot string and the washover pipe until the exit point on the far side of the obstacle is reached. The product pipe is then attached to the reaming head via a swivel joint and pulled through the newly formed bore using the pullback capacity of the drilling rig. Not suitable for gravity pipelines. If necessary. In general. A survey package fitted behind the drill head ensures that an accurate path is maintained. • • • 5. the system involves large diameter steel or polyethylene pipelines being installed over long distances. Subsequent reaming continues until the required diameter is achieved. an area of 100m by 60m is considered adequate. Ground investigation is essential to ensure that the ground conditions are favourable. whereby the pipeline follows a shallow arc to avoid the obstacle. However. Diameter Range: 300–1500mm This technique is also employed when a boulder or small obstacle is encountered. A washover pipe of around 140mm diameter is drilled over the pilot string and follows behind the drill head. Limitations: • A large area is required for the drilling rig. Directional drilling was originally developed to install pipelines under obstacles such as roads and river crossings. The directional drilling process is a surfacelaunched method. A rotating and steerable hollow drill of around 80 to 140mm diameter is launched from the surface at an angle of between 8o and 15° and is used to drill a pilot bore under the obstacle. The pilot string is retracted and a rotating barrel reamer. The equipment used in mini-HDD is portable. Either a fluid jet cutter or a mud driven motor head is used. The fluid jet cutter is principally used in silts. For maxi. The product pipe is pre-assembled in the area of the drill exit point and usually the full pipeline length is jointed and pressure tested prior to installation.© Copyright Ashghal . This can be carried out at the same time as the final back reaming operation. clays or soft rock with the slurry discharging from the bit lubricating the hole and removing soil cuttings. it usually does not require access pits or exit pits.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5. they do not cover the cost or availability of each technique. therefore. self-contained. The rig working area should be reasonably level. the drill string can be drawn back as it approaches the target area and the bore re-drilled to improve accuracy. depending on ground conditions.

The procedure for establishing various aspects of the planning and investigation for Trenchless Techniques is set out in the flow diagrams in Figure 5.4.2. Traffic management requirements. This includes the following: • • • • • • • • • Contract terms. and health and safety requirements. Route optimisation. Noise restrictions. advanced works etc.1 • • • • • • • Initial Planning Planning for the installation of pipes requires: Establishing system/network performance requirements. and iterative in nature. Establishing system design criteria. Statutory requirements. Settlement restrictions (ground. Topographical survey data. feasibility and outline design stages are very closely related. Access requirements.1. A choice between open cut and trenchless methods will depend on environmental (vibration. Ground Investigation. Determination of the location of existing utilities.). Site investigation. Land use restriction. settlement monitoring programme. commercial factors (cost vs benefit analysis).State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs It must be stressed that the planning. establishing site specific geology. • • Checking the feasibility of method by consulting specialist contractor. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 105 1st Edition June 2005 . 5. Feasibility is covered under section 5.1. Early consideration needs to be given to the information required to procure and construct the work. but is very much an extension of the planning process. Environmental constraints. affected services and buildings). buildability (complexity of temporary works.). Risk assessment. Consideration of construction methods. settlements. noise.© Copyright Ashghal . traffic disruption etc.2.

2.Tender Procedure Flow Charts • • Design Process as per Volume 1.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 5. site restrictions such as utility services.) Consider and select suitable trenchless techniques based on Site Investigation results (refer to Tables 5. other instrumentation such as piezometer. Section 3 Identify existing structures and utility services along the route of the pipe and carry out preliminary assessment of ground settlements as a result of trenchless techniques and their effects on the identified structures Prepare site monitoring plan (settlement monitoring points.2. crossing highway or other structures. Section 4 Page 106 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . working hours.1. including ground Investigation to suit chosen trenchless technique as in Volume 1. Appendix 4 .1.1 for suitability of various trenchless techniques in recent ground conditions in Doha) Consider drive lengths available for selected pipe material to select suitable trenchless technique (refer Figure 5.2. extensometer) • 4) CONSTRUCTION • • • Decide on form of contract Prepare contract documents to tender Firm up cost estimates • • Refer Volume 1. and suitability of slurry TBM and EPB for ground condition (refer Figure 5.2. depth and length of pipes to be installed Initial inquiries to statutory authorities Collect details of restrictions and requirements which will apply throughout the project • • • • • • • 2) OPTIONS ASSESSMENT Feasibility Study Collate existing geotechnical data Availability of equipment Requirement for site working areas Availability of resources (power / water / drainage) Design and procure initial Ground Investigation Risk Assessment Prepare cost estimates For Planning Issues Refer to Volume 1.© Copyright Ashghal .3) Design and procure site-specific survey. traffic restrictions etc.1 – Flow Diagram for Planning and Selecting Installation Techniques for New Pipe Installation 1) SEWER DESIGN (Hydraulic) • • • • Establish required system performance and design criteria Determine type. Section 2 • 3) TRENCHLESS DESIGN • Identify advantages of trenchless techniques over open cut methods (depth of service. size.2).and 5.

Suitability of Trenchless Techniques for Various Ground Conditions in Doha Ground Condition Microtunnelling and Pipe Jacking Directional Drilling Rock TBM Soft to very soft clays.1 . If they represent a significant percentage of the face area it may preclude small diameter bores Modifications to the machine and very detailed ground investigation needed to establish ground conditions and machine performance Unsuitable in given ground conditions DMO: Difficulty May Occur NS: Not Suitable Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 107 1st Edition June 2005 . 100– 150mm dia Weathered rocks and firmly cemented soils (Doha geology: Soft weathered limestone / caprock) Slightly weathered to unweathered rocks (Doha geology: Slightly weathered to Unweathered limestone) NOTE: GS: Generally Suitable GS NS GS NS GS DMO NS GS DMO NS GS DMO NS GS DMO NS DMO DMO NS GS DMO DMO DMO NS GS Caution is needed in the presence of identifiable groups / nests of boulders.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 5.2.© Copyright Ashghal . silts and organic deposits Medium to very stiff clays and silts GS DMO NS GS Hard clays and highly weathered shales GS Very loose to loose sands above and below the water table (Local geology: Reclaimed land) Medium to dense sands above the water table (Doha geology: Reclaimed land) Medium to dense sands below the water table (Doha geology: Reclaimed land) Gravel and cobbles <50–100mm dia (Doha geology: Reclaimed land) Soils with significant cobbles and boulders.

RC 300 m DI. PC. STEEL 1500 m DI.Drive Lengths for Different Trenchless Techniques and Suitable Pipe Material DIRECTIONAL DRILLING PIPE JACKING MICROTUNNELLING HPPE. MDPE.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 5. RC. VC 180 m Product Pipe Material Key: Abbreviation CM COMP DI ER GRP HPPE MDPE PC PP PRC PSC PVC RC STEEL VC Definition Cement mortar Polyester resin conforming to WIS 4-34-04 Ductile Iron Epoxy resin Glass Reinforced Plastic High Performance Polyethylene Medium Density Polyethylene Plain concrete Polypropylene Plastic Reinforced Concrete Pre-stressed Concrete Polyvinyl Chloride Reinforced concrete Steel Vitrified Clay Page 108 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .© Copyright Ashghal . GRP.2. GRP. PSC. PC. PSC.2 .

Suitability of Slurry TBM and EPB.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Figure 5. based on Various Grain Size Distribution Curve in Various Loose Ground Note: COPYRIGHT BY HERRENKNECHT AG. 2003 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 109 1st Edition June 2005 . PRINTED WITH PERMISSION FROM HERRENKNECHT.2.3 .© Copyright Ashghal .

flotation. joint sealing between pipe sections. and other • • Minimising the length of the pipeline route. Generally. chemical analyses of the soil and water samples in Doha indicate high sulphate and water-soluble chloride contents. fractured to varying degrees comprising crystalline limestone. The rising ground water levels in Doha should be considered at the design stage of the project. This can have long term effects on installed pipelines such as loading due to water pressure. Traffic disruption. Settlement predictions and ground monitoring. Length.3 5. of services (power. Some areas using various natural and man-made rubble. buildings). Presence of other services. Topography.3 Factors Affecting Choice Of Method Trenchless techniques should be considered instead of traditional open-cut techniques in the following circumstances: • • Installation of pipelines greater than 7m depth. and long-term durability. Availability drainage). The factors include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Diameter of pipeline.2 Selection Criteria • Planners should consider a number of factors when deciding the most appropriate method for installation of pipes.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5. trenchless techniques in Doha are likely to encounter the following ground conditions: • Superficial deposits of silty fine to coarse carbonate sand and fine to coarse crystalline limestone gravel. Environmental considerations. water.1 Geotechnical Investigations Geological Strata Overview The geology of the Doha region is described in Volume 1.2 Groundwater Regime Hydrogeology and groundwater levels in Doha are described in Section 4. Physical obstacles (e. Safety and Risk assessment. 5. including action plan preparation. Section 4. with occasional cobbles.g. ground Page 110 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .3. Generally. Location. Installation of pipeline in poor conditions and high water table. Weathered bedrock.2. 5. Disruption to third parties. Crossing of busy highways infrastructures. • • Reinstatement requirements.2. Reclaimed land (mainly the West Bay area) – A mixture of sand. Installation techniques. Groundwater should also be tested for salinity in order to determine durability requirements of the pipe material.© Copyright Ashghal . Ground and site conditions. It is 5. Installation in congested urban areas where damage to utility services and disruption to traffic would make open-cut methods unacceptable.2 of Volume 1. carbonate siltstone and carbonate mudstone. Depth.3.2. Experience of techniques. silt and gravel overlying coastal silts and sands. Cost.

3 Soil/Rock properties When designing and planning installations to be carried out by trenchless techniques. resulting in significant delays and increased costs. Evaluation of groundwater presence and pressures during site investigation is of utmost importance in the design of. the planners should consult geotechnical engineers on the characteristic of the soils and/or rock likely to be encountered. A list of soil parameters required for design and construction of trenchless techniques is given in Table 5. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 111 1st Edition June 2005 .3. 5. ground permeability. pipes should have corrosion resistant finishes. completion date). field tests. and seasonal changes. Site investigations.© Copyright Ashghal . BRE digest 250lxv recommends protection measures necessary for concrete against sulphate attack.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs important that dense fully compacted concrete. reports and interpretation are described in Volume 1. All pipes delivered on site should come with up-todate Quality Certification. pipes using trenchless techniques. These finishes are cast into the pipes during manufacture and form an integral part of the pipe. is used to manufacture pipes.3. together with details of the water table. Also. compaction method. Unforeseen groundwater can cause major problems during construction. and construction of. laboratory tests. Section 3. Historical information of reclaimed land where applicable (material used. the following information is required for planning trenchless techniques: • • Abrasivity of rock samples. In addition to these.1.

short and long term Shear Strength of cohesionless soft ground Long term stiffness Influences stiffness values Ratio between horizontal and vertical Effective stresses at rest. Sulphate and Chloride contents Chemical contamination Abrasion Symbol Q. Active and Passive Magnitude of principal stresses in rock in three directions Characteristic ground permeability’s and variations. CI Application for planning Define types of ground Extent of ground support State of weak rock or hard ground Overburden pressure State of natural compaction of cohesionless soft ground Profiling of property changes with depth Type of Ground Type and strength of cohesive soft ground Composition of soft ground Intact strength of hard ground Intact strength of hard ground lump Axial and diametral intact strengths Shear strength of soft ground Long term cohesion of soft ground Long term shear strength of cohesive soft ground. Concrete and steel durability Extent of ground contamination Rate of cutter tool wear Page 112 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . SCR. Ka. ld CU .Geotechnical Parameters Required for Design Geotechnical Parameter Soil and / or rock description Grade of rock Percentage core recovery and core condition Unit total and effective weights Relative Density of coarse grained soils Moisture content Specific Gravity Plasticity and Liquidity Indices Particle size distribution Unconfined Compressive Strength Point Load Index Strength of lump Axial and Diametrical Point Load Index Strengths Undrained Shear Strength Effective Stress Shear Strength Angle of Shearing Resistance Drained Deformation Modulus Poisson’s Ratio Coefficient of Effective Earth Pressure In situ Stresses in Rock Permeability PH. LI ν qu lp la . PI. RQD . RMR TCR . LP.3. Φ’ E’ Ko.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 5. Kp σ K Ph. SO3 . SU C’ Φ.© Copyright Ashghal .1 .’ Dr W Gs LL.

allxvi.). Interpretation of ground conditions in relation to the design and construction of the proposed scheme.2 Pipe Design In this section guidelines for structural design of pipes and shafts are provided with regards to construction and permanent loadings. Frictional Resistance During installation of pipes using trenchless techniques. and there is a high likelihood of pressure loss. Summary of the ground investigation work. A factor of safety is also used to allow for unforeseen obstacles. mine shafts etc. length and diameter of the pipe(s) being jacked. frictional force can be estimated from the procedure outlined in Milligan et. depth of overburden.5 tonnes per square meter of external circumferential area. the face support pressure detailed in Milligan et.g. If high frictional forces are expected due to factors such as ground roughness. the GIR would contain the following sections: • • • • • • • Outline of the proposed scheme. together with high fracturing/permeability conditions. the lubrication agent injected between pipes. Jacking Loads Jacks push the pipes forwards against the ground frictional resistance (depending on the effect of lubrication). The frictional forces arise from soil cover and surcharge loads and are affected by the quality of lubrication. BS 5930:1999 sets out. in general terms. Desk study and site reconnaissance findings. various • • 5. of ground and groundwater • 5.5 and 2. Alternatively. Description condition.3. and further ground investigation if necessary. Historical maps of the area that may reveal obstacles (e. allxvi. Recommendations for design of temporary and permanent works. and the force on the cutting edge of the leading pipe. Contamination. and the ground properties during jacking.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5. The Geotechnical Factual Report (GFR) should contain all the findings of the field and laboratory work. the contents of a GFR. Definition of route corridor. wells. The jacking force required is as follows: Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 113 1st Edition June 2005 . Identification of route and alignment options.4.© Copyright Ashghal . varying ground conditions and poor workmanship. The GIR provides an overview of the ground conditions and the likely construction methods. undertaken in the areas of potential pressure loss. the speed of excavation and most importantly. frictional forces build up around the pipeline as the line of pipes is advanced behind the shield.1 Design Feasibility Study The information useful when planning and designing new installations includes: • • • • • Land ownership. a Geotechnical Interpretative Report (GIR) is prepared. Based on the GFR. Aerial photography. together with the suitability of various techniques and risk assessment. the quality of workmanship. Risk assessment for schemes/trenchless techniques. depending on site conditions and the type of excavation. Typically. It is recommended that intermediate jacking stations be placed at regular intervals in the pipeline and/or pre-treating.4 Indicative Scope of Interpretative Reporting • Site investigation to determine the location of existing services and potential buried obstructions. The frictional forces depend on the type of soil. Empirical values for friction coefficients may vary between 0. Geological map of the area.4. Topographical survey.4 5. Using lubricating agents such as bentonite under pressure generally reduces frictional forces on the pipeline.

Sheet piles could be driven into the impervious soils to cut off groundwater inflows or water seals could be used between caisson shaft units. This adhesion or bond has to be assessed carefully with suitable factors of safety allowing for the quality and long-term durability of void grouting. such as sheet-pile systems with internal bracing. contains example calculations for determining permissible jacking force based on linear stress theories. This approach involves constructing the shaft by stacking up circular precast concrete sections while excavating inside the caisson below the groundwater level with a cutting edge. allxvi. The units are bolted together vertically. The joints are designed to ensure jacking forces are transmitted over the maximum area of the pipe. the stiffness of packing material.4fcu.8fcu can be used. in urban areas this could lead to consolidation settlements resulting in damage to structures and utility services in the zone of influence. However. or reinforced concrete. As well as jacking forces.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Jacking Force = Frictional resistance + Weight of Pipe + Face Pressure (Closed mode) Equation 5. Pipe Lining Pipe lining can be designed using simple compression theory. or as nominal reinforcement for crack control. the pipes must be designed for external forces due to soil and groundwater pressures and live loads such as traffic.© Copyright Ashghal . complete with seals to stop water entering the shaft. The design is based on the principle of dome action to radial loading (refer to Reynolds et. where fcu is the characteristic cube strength of concrete. Wet caisson sinking methods are frequently used to construct shafts where dewatering or grouting methods would be difficult or uneconomical. Page 114 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . a concrete slab is poured to form the base of the shaft. a joint face stress of 0. An important factor in the design of jacking and receiving pits is groundwater control. Structural Design of Shaft The base of the shaft is designed to transfer uplift and hydrostatic forces to the shaft walls. Mass concrete is used for small circular shafts and acts in compression by arching. depending on the effectiveness of the bonds at shaft external face/grout/ground. For the highly localised stresses at the joints in the extreme conditions. Several shoring systems are commonly used. Pipe Joint Jacking force causes the maximum loading on a pipeline. the shaft also resists uplift through ground adhesion.1 Pipe Design The pipes are designed to withstand axial forces applied to the pipe during the jacking operation. it would be appropriate to use a concrete strength of 0. and maximum allowed misalignment angle. Grouting or similar methods of groundwater control are normally required when launching the pipe and advancing out of the jacking pit. Where the jacking force is well distributed over the pipe end area. Groundwater cut-off arrangements can be used if relatively impermeable soils are present below water bearing soils. 5. Structural design of the lining can be carried out using appropriate codes for the materials in question.3 Shaft Design Shaft Base The base can be constructed using mass. To some extent.4. Construction Method Jacking and receiving shafts are generally vertical excavations with shoring and bracing systems. After the caisson is sunk to the design elevation. allxii.4. Milligan et. Hoop reinforcement will generally be needed in larger diameter pipes to resist bending due to ground pressures and stresses near the pipe ends due to jacking loads. The design information required is: maximum allowable concrete strength. or advancing into the receiving pit. or precast concrete shafts. The weight of the slab and the shaft walls counteract the upthrust forces. Dewatering systems using deep wells or well points are frequently employed.

State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs

Reinforced base slabs are used in large diameter shafts. Slab design is two-directional, simply supported along the edges and of sufficient thickness to ensure that shear reinforcement is not required (refer to Reynolds et. al).

Shaft Lining
Circular caisson units are designed to withstand ground and water pressures. The circular caisson lining can be designed based on the method described for pipe lining.

5.4.4

Ground Movements

Tunnelling-induced soil settlement is estimated based on the methods proposed by Peck (1969) (refer to Pecklxvii) and Mair et al. (1993) (refer to Taylor et.al.lxviii). According to their methods, the shape of settlement profiles at the ground surface and subsurface can be characterised as a Gaussian distribution.

Existing Structure Responses
The assessment of risk to buildings and utilities should be carried out during planning stage. Potential building damage and categorisation commonly used for new installations using trenchless techniques in urban areas is shown in Table 5.4.1. It should be noted that the assessment of soil structure interaction is a highly complex and variable issue, which cannot be covered in the scope of this manual.

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Risk Category 1

Table 5.4.1 - Damage to Buildings and Suggested Actions Maximum Maximum Description of risk slope settlement Less than 1/500 Less than 10mm Negligible: unlikely superficial damage

Action required No action except for particularly sensitive buildings where individual assessment should be made Crack survey and schedule of defects. Assess particularly vulnerable buildings and pipelines individually Crack survey, schedule of defects and structural assessment. Predict extent of possible damage to buildings and decide whether to repair damage, control movements or demolish. Identify vulnerable services, decide whether to repair, divert or replace with more tolerant services.

2

1/500 to 1/200

10 mm to 50mm

Slight: possible superficial damage

non-structural

3

1/200 to 1/50

50mm to 75mm > 75mm

4

>1/50

Moderate: possible structural damage to buildings and rigid pipelines High: expected structural damage to buildings, rigid pipelines and possible damage to flexible pipelines

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Instrumentation and Monitoring
When tunnelling in urban areas and taking into account the complexity and environmental factors, carefully planned and executed instrumentation and monitoring is essential. It is imperative that lines of communication are open in order to feed back the data obtained to the machine operatives. This will allow them to adjust and improve machine performance, as well as to compare the data with the predicted levels of settlement and strains obtained before the tunnelling works commence. Typical instrumentation normally used is as follows: • • • • • Surface markers (settlements and lateral displacements); Extensometers (vertical displacement profile); Inclinometers (horizontal displacement profile); Piezometers (pore water pressure profile); Measuring relative rotation and angular strain of buildings using electro-levels, biaxial tiltmeters, and precise levelling studs; Automated Total Stations can be set up and programmed to monitor targets fixed at key points, at regular intervals, and the data down loaded remotely through the use of radio relay transmission; Monitoring existing defects (cracks) using telltale indicators.

5.5

Environmental Assessment

The use of trenchless technologies requires that several specific environmental impact issues be evaluated in detail, along with appropriate consultation with SCENR.

5.5.1

Vibration

Vibration from trenchless techniques very rarely give rise to building damage, disturbance to people through perceptible vibration, or by the generation of ground-borne noise. The nature, duration, and number of events that occur in a specified period, and the location in which the vibration is received, all influence the public’s tolerance. The vibration dose value (VDV), described in BS 6472: 1992lxix is used to combine the effects of all perceptible vibration events that occur to establish probability that complaints will arise. Most activities related to trenchless techniques do not give rise to vibration levels of a magnitude that would be damaging. BS 7385: Part 2: 1993 gives guidance on vibration levels that can cause damagelxx. When required, monitoring devices can be installed to determine levels of vibration. As a guide, key typical guidance criteria for vibration are 5mm/s peak particle velocity for construction works, and 3mm/s near schools and hospitals.

The Instrumentation & Monitoring Plan must be site specific and should include the following as a minimum: • • • • Location and type of instrumentation; Alarm, Alert and Action levels; Lines of responsibility and communication; Rapid response and emergency plan, including contact names and telephone numbers with relevant authorities.

5.5.2

Noise

Noise levels from trenchless construction depend on the technique adopted. The level should be assessed in order to determine whether noise exposure is likely to reach the action levels stated below. BS 5228-1 gives guidance on how noise arising from worksites affects site personnel and others living and working in the neighbourhood. BS 5228-2 gives guidance on legislation covering the control of noise and vibrationlxxi.

Action Levels

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occupational health level).1. d 90dB (A). Over a 24-hour averaging period 99.1 Guidance for Design Check The consultant who is approving design and construction methods proposed by the specialist contractor shall ensure design and construction processes. safety and environmental requirements are in line with relevant sections of Volume 1. These depend on the noise level in the working areas. corresponding to of 140dB. 5.© Copyright Ashghal . machinery and materials being considered. Industrial – 75dB (A) (day) and 75dB (A) (night). Also. highway and other structures in the zone of influence are assessed. Design will require approval by the consultant in line with the following guidance.4. Action level 3: This is a peak action level.5. dust is limited to the working site and during removal of excavated materials. The process of risk assessment Page 118 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . • • • 5.3 Dust Generally. such as blasting. then action is required to reduce noise or provide noise protection. trenchless techniques for installation of pipes produce far less dust than traditional open excavation.1. SCENR has published guidance on noise ‘15 minute weighted average dB (A) at property line’ standards as follows: Residential and Institutional – 55dB (A) (day) and 45dB (A) (night). the consultant shall check the following: • Adequate working area. if necessary by spraying water. Also. In Qatar. d.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Where noise levels are likely to be at or above levels defined below.7 Risk Assessment Risks associated with trenchless technologies should be assessed before work starts so that the necessary preventative measures can be identified and action taken. In Qatar. and how long people spend in them during the day. defined as LEP. the spoil haul route within and outside the site should be maintained in a clean condition.7% of data levels should meet the standard of 150mg/m3. The peak action level is most likely to be important for loud impulsive sources. The shaft lining is watertight. In addition. the employer has a duty to ensure all personnel wear ear protectors at all times and mark ear protection zones with notices. Settlement analysis and effects on utility services. At this level in addition to the action required above. Action levels 1 and 2 are values of “daily personal exposure to noise”. Action level 1: is a LEP. Deposited dust limits are generally regarded to be an increase of 200mg/m2 over the baseline level. Commercial – 65dB (A) (day) and 55dB (A) (night). the employer must again ensure all personnel wear ear protectors at all times and mark ear protection zones with notices. Action level 2: is a LEP. 5.6 Approvals – Procedures and Formats Trenchless design will be by specialist contractor according to techniques. d of 85dB (A). SCENR has issued guidance on ambient air quality particulate matter. Sprinkling water on excavated material and covering spoil in the removal trucks can control dust on site. General airborne dust above 10mg/m3 is an approximate trigger level (although not an • 5. and the size of drive and reception shafts are proposed as per Table 5. Monitoring regime and settlement limits are established for above structures. Further guidance detail is provided in BS 1747lxxii.6. At this level the employer has a general duty to provide ear protection. At this level. Shaft and pipes are designed in-line with section 5.

operational. These risks can be minimised by careful planning but are seldom eliminated. Adequate level of supervision. Generally. Appropriate level of site investigation and interpretation of results. financial. Trained operatives and choosing experienced Designers and Contractors. health and safety. services and buildings in the settlement influence zone. Material failure – pipes or linings.1 and Risk Classification is indicated in Table 5. Loss of directional control.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs starts at the design stage of a project and continues during the construction phase. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 119 1st Edition June 2005 . Ground loss leading to high settlement or ground collapse. Monitoring ground. the risk increases with decreasing clarity of contract and can be dealt with through improving contract clarity and management practices. Risks can be categorised as contractual. environmental.© Copyright Ashghal . Contractual risks can arise from inadequate contract preparation and management. A typical Risk Assessment Matrix is presented in Table 5. construction. Preparation of emergency procedures.2.7. Construction risks are associated with site conditions and construction methods. Risk of damage to utilities. The risk associated with trenchless techniques can be summarised as follows: • • • • • • Mechanical failure of machinery. road and surrounding structures. Unforeseen ground conditions.7. These risks can be mitigated by the following measures: • • • • • • Choosing suitable techniques/equipment and construction material.

g.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 5. Delay. basements. piles. Specialist requirements for waste and Groundwater disposal 2 3 6 1 3 3 Low 2 3 6 Comprehensive Desk Study & Intrusive Ground Investigation to identify problem areas PPE / testing equipment 2 1 2 Low Guidance on HARAs is given in CIRIA Report 166 (CDM Regulations – Work Sector Guidance For Designers)lxxiii Page 120 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 .7. pollution. S=Severity. e.1 . Historical Mining –voids. Cost 2 3 6 1 3 3 Low Buried structures. dust.© Copyright Ashghal . Delay Failure of materials (e. ‘cavities’ / Impedes pipe drive.RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX – A typical risk assessment for trenchless techniques Project Title: Prepared by: Date L=Likelihood. pipes or lining) / Substantial cost for Damage. surrounding structures / Substantial cost for Damage. cost Encounter major inflow of water / Ground failure. delay.g. roads. delay Failure of machinery 2 3 6 3 3 9 Checked by: Design and/or Construction input to eliminate / reduce hazard Establish location of utilities before construction/ obtain Utilities Drawings/carry out Trial trenches/ Geophysical survey/ Monitoring Experience designers/ Comprehensive quality control/ reputable supplier Select most suitable technique/ experience contractor/reputable manufacturer of machinery Select most suitable technique including trenching / experience contractor / reputable manufacturer of machinery Comprehensive Desk Study to identify historical structures Testing equipment 3 4 3 3 9 12 Ground treatment / Dewatering / Close mode technique Establish necessary restrictions beforehand Reduce by choosing appropriate method 2 2 3 2 6 4 Low Low Page Residual Risk Rating L x S= RR 2 3 6 Risk level Medium 1 3 3 Low 2 3 6 1 3 3 Low Mix ground conditions / Ground failure. RR=Risk Ref Activity / Hazard Risk Rating L x S= RR Damage to utilities. slow progress Noise. vibrations / Adverse Public relations Restricted working hours Compensation claims Health and Safety Claims Contaminated Ground/Groundwater / Adverse working conditions for Workforce.

Best Working Practice.7. Signs Medium Risk Isolate. control High Risk Eliminate.2 .State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs Table 5.© Copyright Ashghal .Risk Classification to enable each risk to be assessed in terms of probability and severity SEVERITY / CONSEQUENCE (Hazard) LIKELIHOOD Minor 1 Extremely Unlikely 1 Unlikely 2 2 4 6 8 10 Slight 2 Moderate 3 High 4 Very High 5 1 2 3 4 5 Likely 3 3 6 9 12 15 Very Likely 4 4 8 12 16 20 Certain 5 5 10 15 20 25 PRIORITY OF ACTION Score 1-5 6-10 Above 10 Rating Action Low Risk PPE. substitution Reduce by Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 121 1st Edition June 2005 .

BSI. Burland J. Proc.315-320. Building Research Establishment. Evaluation and measurement for vibration in buildings. B. 8 British Standards Institution. Pipe jacking: Research results and recommendations.. BS 7385 1:1990. 225290. Conf. Peck. Geotechnique. Taylor.P. • The following documents are helpful in design and use of Trenchless Technologies.Code of practice for site investigation. and Wroth C. 1992. 1189-1201. Building Research Establishment Current Paper. Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels in clay.. N.D. Evaluation and measurement for vibration in buildings. J. R. 2001. London. 43(2). and Steedman. A. Balkema. 1990. 1997. UK. BRE. pp 516-537. BSI. 1990. Conf.. Pipe Jacking Association. 1975. of 7th Int. • • British Standards Institution. 122(11). and Bracegirdle. Guide for measurement of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on buildings. BSI. 1997. BS 6164: 2001 . BS1377: 1990 . On Evaluation and Prediction of Subsidence.B.Boscardin. BSI. 1990.J. 10th ed. London. 2003. London. Spon Press. pp. P.. State of the Art 3. Rotterdam. ASCE. British Standards Institution.Noise and vibration control on construction and open sites — Part 2: Guide to noise and vibration control legislation for construction and demolition including road construction and maintenance. Boone S. Cording.C.E.D.8 Trenchless Construction References • Building Research Establishment. BSI. and M.. 886-896. Reynolds. BS 7385 1:1990.. E. pp. Digest 250: Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and ground water.Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. BSI. 1981. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. British Standards Institution.Code of practice for safety in tunnelling in the construction industry. London. British Standards Institution. British Standards Institution. 1988. Joint Code of Practice for the Risk Management of Tunnelling Projects in the UK. Ground Movements and Damage to Structures. BS 59111:1981 Precast concrete pipes and fittings for drainage and sewerage. T.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 5. British Tunnelling Society and Association of British Insurers. BS 52282:1997 . Ground Movement Related Building Damage.© Copyright Ashghal . British Standards Institution. 1993. Norris. 1996. Proc. BS 5930: 1981. BSI. Florida. Page 122 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . London. 1969. Int. 1990. Assessment of risk of damage to buildings due to tunnelling and excavation.. Guide for measurement of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on buildings. pp. • SETTLEMENT AND DAMAGE TO BUILDINGS • Burland J. London. Soil Mech. British Standards Institution. • • • • • • • • • • • DESIGN • Milligan G. O’Rourke. Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook.. Settlement of Buildings and Associated Damage. UK. Deep excavations and tunnelling in soft ground. London.. London. Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. 1978. Mexico. Ishihara (ed.).B. C. pp. Specification for pipes and fittings with flexible joints and manholes (No longer current but cited in the Building Regulations).J. R. Watford. BSI. London. BS 6472:1992: Evaluation of human exposure to vibration in buildings (1Hz to 80Hz).

Other uses of grouting are for localised repairs of defective pipes. In suitable ground conditions water alone may be used.© Copyright Ashghal . conduit or cable. L. by means of a rotating cutting head. M. ISTT. 5. pipe. cool the head and lubricate the installation of the product Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 123 1st Edition June 2005 . the angle to the ground surface at which the drill string enters and exits in forming the pilot bore. ground improvements prior to excavation during new installations and the filling of voids around existing carrier pipe. Herrenknecht.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs • B Maidl. May incorporate a thrust wall to spread reaction loads to the ground. 2nd edition. GROUTING Filling of the annular space between the carrier pipe and the new product pipe. Pipe Jacking Association. FLUID-ASSISTED BORING/DRILLING A type of guided boring technique using a combination of mechanical drilling and pressurised fluid jets to provide the soil cutting action. 1992.Trenchless Technology. Introduction to trenchless technology. ENTRY/EXIT ANGLE In a horizontal directional drilling/guided boring system. INTERJACK PIPES Pipes specially designed for use with an intermediate jacking station. CUTTER HEAD Any tool or system of tools on a common support which excavates at the face of a bore. Ernst & Sohn Publications. DIRECTIONAL DRILLING A steerable system for the installation of pipes and cables in a shallow arc using a surface launched drilling rig. EARTH PRESSURE BALANCE (EPB) MACHINE Type of Microtunnelling or tunnelling machine in which mechanical pressure is applied to the material at the face and controlled to provide the correct counter-balance to earth pressures in order to prevent heave or subsidence. Anheuser. Grouting is also used to fill the space around laterals and between the new pipe and manholes. DRIVE/ENTRY SHAFT OR PIT TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES • Pipe Jacking Association. AUGUR BORING A technique for forming a bore from a drive shaft to a reception shaft. INTERMEDIATE JACKING STATION (IJS) A fabricated steel shield incorporating hydraulic jacks designed to operate between interjack pipes to provide incremental thrust on long drives. Usually applies to mechanical methods of excavation.9 Trenchless Construction Glossary The following terms used in Section 5 . are defined below. Spoil is removed back to the drive shaft by helically wound auger flights rotating in a steel casing. DRILLING FLUID / MUD A mixture of water and bentonite or polymer continuously pumped to the cutting head to facilitate the removal of cuttings. 1987. stabilise the borehole. The equipment may have limited steering capability. Excavation from which trenchless technology equipment is launched for the installation or renovation of a pipeline. AUGUR TBM A type of tunnel boring machine in which the excavated soil is removed to the drive shaft by auger flights passing through the product pipeline pushed in behind the TBM. Mechanised Shield Tunnelling. • International Society for Trenchless Technology. A guide to pipe jacking and Microtunnelling design.

Page 124 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage 1st Edition June 2005 . usually of man-entry diameter. It may be controlled from within the shield or remotely. Tracking of the drill string may be achieved by either a downhole survey tool or a locator. MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING (MWD) Borehole survey instrumentation that provides continuous information simultaneously with drilling operations. MICROTUNNELLING Steerable remote control pipe jacking to install pipes of internal diameter less than that permissible for man-entry (i. JACKING SHIELD A fabricated steel cylinder from within which the excavation is carried out either by hand or machine. MIDI-RIG Steerable surface-launched drilling equipment for the installation of pipes. Incorporated within the shield are facilities to allow it to be adjusted to control line and level. it leads a string of jacked pipes. LAUNCH PIT As for drive shaft but more usually associated with “launching” an impact moling tool. MAN-ENTRY Description of any tunnelling technology process. or a large guided boring machine. steerable. usually transmitting to a display at or near the drilling rig. <1000mm).e. larger than 1000mm diameter in the UK). Applied to intermediate sized drilling rigs used as either a small directional drilling machine. SLEEVE PIPE A pipe installed as external protection to a product pipe. which requires an operative to enter a pipe. and with a rotary cutting head. TUNNEL BORING MACHINE A full-face circular mechanical shield machine. JET CUTTING A type of guided boring technique using pressurised fluid jets to provide the soil cutting action. RECEPTION/EXIT/TARGET SHAFT OR PIT Excavation into which trenchless technology equipment is driven and recovered following the installation or renovation of the product pipe. conduits and cables.g. conduit or cable. duct or bore. SURVEY TOOLS Downhole equipment and instruments used to determine the position of a bore in directional drilling or site investigation.© Copyright Ashghal . PIPE JACKING A technique by which the pipes are pushed through the ground behind a tunnelling shield using hydraulic jacks reacting against a thrust wall in a jacking/launch pit. SLURRY TBM A type of Microtunnelling machine in which soil is turned to slurry and is used to counterbalance ground water pressure to stabilise the face. The minimum size for which this is permissible is generally defined by national health and safety legislation (e. LEAD PIPE The leading pipe manufactured to fit the rear of the jacking shield and over which the trailing end of the shield is fitted.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs JACKING PIPES Pipes designed to be installed using pipe jacking techniques. before being pumped to the surface. NEW INSTALLATION Methods by which a new pipeline is constructed. For pipe installation.

BS EN 598: 1995 – Ductile iron pipes. Suffolk. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. E&FN Spon. Table 10. Suffolk. London. 1997. London. CIRIA. London. BSI. provided by Sheik Abdul Azeez of DA xxiiiDavid Butler and John W Davies. Suffolk. “Tannery Wastes”. Suffolk. Urban Drainage.2. Control of Infiltration to Sewers. marking. Urban Drainage.2. ix xDavid Hyder Consulting project data for Welsh Water xxii Figures from Original DD Developers Guide. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. 2000. 1998. BS 8301: Code of practice for building drainage. E&FN Spon. 2000. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. 1994. iv British Standards Institution. Appendix B. 1997.Drain and sewer systems outside buildings. Table B2. London. UK. xi Butler and John W Davies. 1998. BS EN 7524:1988 . ISBN 0-419-22340-1. xxDavid Butler and John W Davies. David Butler and John W Davies. Suffolk. provided by Sheik Abdul Azeez of DA xiv Metcalf and Eddy.2. Urban Drainage.© Copyright Ashghal . Urban Drainage. UK. E&FN Spon. Central Public Health Engineering Institute. Hydraulic Design and Environmental Considerations. Sewers for Adoption 5th Edition. Suffolk. xviiiDavid Water UK/WRc plc. E&FN Spon. fittings. Suffolk. E&FN Spon.Drain and Sewer Systems Outside Buildings. E&FN Spon. No 28. v Butler and John W Davies. 2000. UK. 1995. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. Suffolk.W. Table 10. UK.2. Table 10. Suffolk. Report 175. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. BSI. 2001. BS EN 1610: 1998 – Construction and testing of drains and sewers. Figures from Original DD Developers Guide. Urban Drainage. Reuse and Disposal. Table 10. April 1972 Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 125 1st Edition June 2005 . xixDavid British Standards Institution. xxivDavid Eckenfelder W. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. various years of publication. Urban Drainage. Nagpur. BSI. Table 10. BSI. a design and construction guide for developers. accessories and their joints for sewerage applications – Requirements and test methods. Urban Drainage. E&FN Spon. UK. Suffolk. 2 Edition 1989 xii Butler and John W Davies. Table 10. xxv Technical Digest. Table 10. UK. BSI. Table 4. 4 Edition xvDavid Butler and John W Davies. Table 10. India. 2000. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. xxi British Standards Institution. UK. 2000. Urban Drainage. Water UK/WRc. xviDavid Butler and John W Davies.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs 6 i References xiii British Standards Institution. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. Urban Drainage. Industrial Water nd Pollution Control.2. BS EN 752 .3.2. vii viii Butler and John W Davies. type testing. BS 8005 – superseded by BS EN 752 . 2000. 5th edition. E&FN Spon. E&FN Spon. 2000. ii iii British Standards Institution. Urban Drainage. Wastewater th Treatment . quality control (AMD 8587). Table 10.2. UK. xviiDavid British Standards Institution. BS EN 124:1994 – Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian areas – design requirements. 2000. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. ISBN 0-89116-067-1.Drain and sewer systems outside buildings. E&FN Spon. UK.2. vi Butler and John W Davies. London.2. ISBN 0-419-22340-1. UK. 2000. UK. 2000. BSI UK. London.

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BS5400-2: 1978.State of Qatar -Public Works Authority Drainage Affairs UK Health and Safety Executive. 1969. N. P. London. lxii BS 1747. lxvi CIRIA. Report No. Geotechnique. Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels in clay.. London. The Institution of Structural Engineers. 91 – Early-age thermal crack control in concrete. Occupational Exposure Limits. 135 – Concreting deep lifts and large volume pours. BRE Bookshop. Evaluation and measurement for vibration in buildings. concrete and composite bridges – Part 2: Specification for loads. Loading for buildings – Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads.C.. 10th ed.E. Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook. lxviii lxix BSI. EH40/2002. lxxiii CIRIA Report 166 (CDM Regulations – Work Sector Guidance For Designers). London. liv Peck. 1997. Rules for the design of cranes – Part 1: Specification for classification. 1992. London. Building Research Establishment. lxxi lxxii BSI.. R. BRE. R.315-320. and Steedman. lvi British Standards Institution. Guide for measurement of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on buildings. London. London. Mexico. lii Water Research Council.. 1992. 2001. 1988. London. London. Soil Mech.. Health and Safety Executive. pp. BSI. Swindon. 1996. lxx Institution of Structural Engineers. 225-290. 1997. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. 4th Edition. 1990. UK. 1995. lvii British Standards Institution. Pipe Jacking Association. l li Water Research Council. Norris. lx lxi BSI. 3 & 4. Soilstructure interaction. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. British Standards Institution. Proc. Volume 2 Foul Sewerage Page 127 1st Edition June 2005 . A.. 1997. BS 6472:1992: Evaluation of human exposure to vibration in buildings (1Hz to 80Hz). Loading for buildings – Part 1: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads. Report No. British Standards Institution CIRIA.Noise and vibration control on construction and open sites — Part 2: Guide to noise and vibration control legislation for construction and demolition including road construction and maintenance. of 7th Int. Swindon UK Water Research Council. 2. pp. British Standards Institution. Review of Trenchless Techniques. Reynolds. British Standards Institution. lxvii BSI. BS 52282:1997 . London. 43(2). 1987. BSI. 1997. Conf. B. stress calculations and design criteria for structures. lxiii lxiv BSI. 1978. Pipe jacking: Research results and recommendations. lv Taylor. C. London. BS 7385 1:1990. UK. lviii BRE. UK Water Research Council. 1983. Structural Use of Concrete – Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction. BS8500-1: 2002. The real behaviour of structures. London. and Bracegirdle. 1989. Deep excavations and tunnelling in soft ground. BS6399-2: 1997. London. Concrete – Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1 – Part 1: Method of specifying and guidance for the specifier. British Standards Institution. 1993. Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids. 1999. London. State of the Art 3. British Standards Institution. lxv BSI.© Copyright Ashghal . Digest 250: Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and ground water. BS8007: 1987. 2002. British Standards Institution. British Standards Institution. J. Steel. BS2573-1: 1983. BS8110-1: 1997. BS6399-1: 1996. 2002. lix BSI. Concrete in aggressive ground – Part 1. Sewerage Rehabilitation Manual. London. BSI. Spon Press. London. liii Milligan G.

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