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Lecture Notes
Dr. UD Dwivedi
Introduction
Threephase induction motors are the most common
and frequently encountered machines in industry
Simple design, Low cost and rugged, requires little or no
skilled maintenance
wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to
10 MW
Explosion free, due to the absence of a commutator or
sliprings and brushes with their associated sparking,
Run at nearly constant speed from zerotofull
– Its speed depends on the frequency of the power
source
• not easy to have variable speed control
• requires a variablefrequency powerelectronic drive for
optimal speed control
Construction: has two main parts
Stator – consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow,
cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal
circumference of the stator house the stator winding.
Rotor – also composed of punched laminations, with rotor
slots for the rotor winding.
Stator
Rotor
Induction Motor: Stator
Stator is made from laminated iron
3 phase windings, 120° spatially apart (star/delta)
Stator winding is carried in slots around the circumference of
a cylindrical bore.
There is a separate winding for each phase.
Induction Motor: Rotor
1. Squirrelcage induction motor:
2. Woundrotor induction motor
1. Squirrelcage induction motor
most common type of IM
has squirrelcage rotor windings
squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars,
bar ends are welded to copper end rings, so that all
the bars are short circuited.
2. Woundrotor induction motor
has a 3phase winding, similar to the stator winding.
The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings
which turn with the rotor.
The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be
connected in series with the winding.
The external resistors are mainly used during startup , under
normal running conditions the windings short circuited
externally.
Types
There are twotypes of rotor windings:
1. squirrelcage induction motor (most common)
has Squirrelcage windings
Squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars,
bar ends are welded to copper end rings, so that all the bars are
short circuited.
2. woundrotor induction motor
has a 3phase winding, similar to the stator winding.
The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings which
turn with the rotor.
The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be connected in
series with the winding.
The external resistors are mainly used during startup , under
normal running conditions the windings short circuited externally.
Rotating Magnetic Field
• Balanced three phase windings, i.e.
mechanically displaced 120 degrees
form each other, fed by balanced three
phase source
• A rotating magnetic field with constant
magnitude is produced, rotating with a
speed:
Where f is the supply frequency and
P is the no. of poles and N
s
is called the
synchronous speed in rpm(revolutions
per minute)
120
S
f
N rpm
P
=
Synchronous speed
No. of Poles
P
Syn. Speed, Ns
(rpm)
2 3000
4 1500
6 1000
8 750
10 600
12 500
f = 50 Hz
120
S
f
N rpm
P
=
Rotating Magnetic Field
Rotating Magnetic Field
Rotating Magnetic Field
Principle of operation
This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings and
produces an induced voltage in the rotor windings
Due to the fact that the rotor windings are short circuited, for
both squirrel cage and woundrotor, and induced current
flows in the rotor windings
The rotor current produces another magnetic field
A torque is produced as a result of the interaction of those
two magnetic fields
Where τ
ind
is the induced torque and B
R
and B
S
are the magnetic
flux densities of the rotor and the stator respectively
ind R s
kB B τ = ×
Induction motor speed
Can the IM run at the synchronous speed, why?
– If rotor runs at the synchronous speed, which is the same
speed of the rotating magnetic field, then the rotor will
appear stationary to the rotating magnetic field and the
rotating magnetic field will not cut the rotor.
So, no induced current will flow in the rotor and no rotor
magnetic flux will be produced so no torque is generated
and the rotor speed will fall below the synchronous speed.
Therefore, the IM will always run at a speed
lower than the synchronous speed
Induction motor speed
• The difference between the motor speed and
the synchronous speed is called the Slip speed
Where n
slip
= slip speed
n
s
= speed of the rotaing magnetic field
n
r
= mechanical shaft speed of the motor
slip s r
n n n = −
The Slip
Notice that : if the rotor runs at synchronous speed
s = 0
if the rotor is stationary
s = 1
Slip may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the above
eq. by 100, notice that the slip is a ratio and doesn’t have units
slip
s
s s
n
n n
s
n n
−
= =
slip s
s n n × =
OR
Frequency of the induced emf and current in the rotor:
• The frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor is given by
Where f
r
= the rotor frequency (Hz)
P = number of stator poles
nsl = slip speed (rpm)
120
sl
r
P n
f
×
=
( )
120
120
s
r
s
P n n
f
P sn
sf
× −
=
×
= =
Or
r
s ω ω =
And hence,
The rotor circuit:
AT the starting or when the rotor is blocked (s =1)
Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = E
2
‘The largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor’,
Why?
If the rotor rotates at synchronous speed (s =0)
and Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = 0
The induced voltage and frequency in the rotor will be equal to zero,
Why?
.
Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = s E
2
Therefore in General, If the rotor speed is n (slip =s)
Rotor Reactance at any slip s
We know that reactance,
So, as the frequency of the induced voltage in the rotor
changes, the reactance of the rotor circuit also changes
Rotor reactance at slip s can be obtained as
Where X
2
is the rotor reactance at the supply frequency
(stationary rotor)
.
.
2 X L f L ω π = =
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r
X L f L
sf L
sX
ω π
π
= =
=
=
Induction Motors and Transformers
• Both IM and transformer works on the principle of
induced voltage.
Transformer: voltage applied to the primary windings
produce an induced voltage in the secondary windings.
Induction motor: voltage applied to the stator windings
produce an induced voltage in the rotor windings.
– the primary of the transformer corresponds to the stator of the
induction motor, whereas the secondary corresponds to the
rotor on a per phase basis.
– The difference is that, in the case of the induction motor,
the secondary windings can move .
Induction Motors and Transformers
Therefore an IM is equivalent to a rotating transformer
with its secondary windings (i.e. rotor)short circuited.
Presence of airgap:
The other very important difference is that a large
magnetising current is required to set up working flux in an
induction motor due to presence of airgap between stator
and rotor.
so, induction motors have poor power factor.
– Also due to the rotation of the rotor (the secondary
winding of the IM), the induced voltage in it does not have
the same frequency of the stator (the primary) voltage
The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis
Divide both the numerator
and denominator by s
Stator of an IM is similar to primary of a transformer so equivalent circuit can
be represented as:
Rotor equivalent circuit
E
1
Stator equivalent circuit
Induction motor equivalent circuit:
The stator equivalent circuit: on per
phase basis
Actual rotor
resistance
Resistance
equivalent to
mechanical load
Performance of Induction Motor
Several performance parameters can be obtained
using Rotor Equivalent circuit
• Torque, Power, Power losses
• Speed verses Torque characteristics
• Slip verses Torque characteristics
I
The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis
The relation between rotor input, rotor copper loss
and rotor output:
From the equivalent circuit:
Total input power to the rotor (P2) which is also the power crossing the air
gap is:
Power lost in rotor winding or rotor copper loss is:
Total mechanical power output is:
2
2
2 2
3.( ) .
R
P I
s
 
=

\ .
2
2 2 2
3.( ) .
Cu
P I R =
2 Cu
P
2
2 2
1
3.( ) .
m
s
P I R
s
−
 
=

\ .
2
2
2 2
3.( ) .
R
P I
s
 
=

\ .
2
2 2 2
3.( ) .
Cu
P I R =
2 2 Cu m
P P P = +
2
2 2
1
3.( ) .
m
s
P I R
s
−
 
=

\ .
A Very Important relationship:
2 2
: : ( 1 1 ) : :
m Cu
P s s P P ⇒ −
2
2
2
and,
1
m
Cu
P
P
P
P
s s
= =
−
Power relations
2 2
1
:
:
:
: (1 )
C m u
P
s
P P
s −
2
P
2 Cu
P
m
P
1
s
1s
Rotor input or
air gap power
Mechanical
Power Developed
Rotor copper
Loss
Gross Torque Developed
• The gross (total) Torque developed is:
Where is rotor speed.
m
m
r
P
T
ω
=
2
1
= .
(1 ) (1 )
m m m
m
r s s s
P P P P
T
s s ω ω ω ω
= = =
− −
r
ω
2
=
m
m
r s
P P
T
ω ω
=
Total rotor input power (air gap power)
m
s
T
ω
=
Shaft Torque = Gross Torque – Friction loss
sh m loss
T T T = −
Shaft Torque Developed
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
3.( ) . 3. .
( )
R sE R
P I
s s
R sX
 
   
 = =
 

\ . \ .
+
\ .
2
/ .
m s
T P ω =
We know that rotor input power or air gap power is given as:
And Total mech. Torque, Therefore,
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX ω
 
=

+
\ .
Torque –Slip Characteristics:
We know that total torque developed is :
Now, Let us examine the torque verses speed characteristics for different
operating conditions:
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX ω
 
=

+
\ .
Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed (s very small)
Case 2: At Starting (s=1)
Ts curve: Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed
Slip s is very small, and hence, So torque
expression becomes:
Near synchronous speed:
Torque increases linearly with slip.
If rotor resistance is high rated torque is reduced
Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage.
2 2
2 2
( ) . R sX >>
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX ω
 
=

+
\ .
2
2
2
3
.
m
s
sE
T
R ω
 
=

\ .
2
2
2
α
m
sE
T
R
α denotes propotionality ←
General torque expression is:
Ts curve: Case 2: At Starting
For large value of slip and At starting (s=1), So
torque expression becomes:
During Starting:
Starting Torque increases linearly with rotor resistance (in wound rotor
motor, higher starting torque is obtained by inserting external in rotor
circuit).
If leakage reactance is high, starting torque is reduced
Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage.
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX ω
 
=

+
\ .
2
2 2
2
2
.
α
st
E R
T
X
α denotes propotionality ←
2 2
2 2
( ) . sX R >>
2
2
2
2
2
3
. .
st
s
E
T R
X ω
 
=

\ .
General torque expression is:
TorqueSlip (Speed) Characteristics
Starting Torque
Maximum Torque
Or Breakdown Torque
Full Load Torque
Linear Torque –slip Region
Speed
.
Torque
Rated Load
Slip
Comments (Torquespeed char.)
1. The induced torque is zero at synchronous speed.
Discussed earlier.
2. The curve is nearly linear between noload and full
load. In this range, the rotor resistance is much
greater than the reactance, so the rotor current, and
torque increase linearly with the slip.
3. There is a maximum possible torque that can’t be
exceeded. This torque is called breakdown torque
and is 2 to 3 times the rated fullload torque.
Comments(Torquespeed char.)
4. The starting torque of the motor is slightly higher
than its fullload torque, so the motor will start
carrying any load it can supply at full load.
5. The torque of the motor for a given slip varies as
the square of the applied voltage.
6. If the rotor is driven faster than synchronous speed
it will run as a generator, converting mechanical
power to electric power.
Maximum Torque and condition for Max. Torque:
• Maximum Torque (also called breakdown torque)occurs when,
Slip at Maximum Torque:
Maximum Torque Tmax:
The Value of Maximum Torque does not depend on Rotor resistance.
But slip at which it occurs depend on rotor resistance (proportional to it)
2 2
. sX R =
maxT 2 2
/ s R X =
2
2
max
2
3
.
2
s
E
T
X ω
 
=

\ .
Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip (speed) characteristic
Slip
s=1
Ns
(Rotor Resistances)
s=0
Speed
Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip (speed) characteristic
Rotor Resistances
Speed
0
0
Ns
Need for a starting method
A squirrel cage motor is at stationary before it is started, there
rotor induced emf is very high.
Therefore, if this motor is connected directly to the supply, will
take an initial starting current which is about 5 to 6 times of the
full load value.
Though this current decreases rapidly as the motor accelerates, it
will cause harm to the motor and will affect the voltage (cause
voltage dips inthe power supply) and hence the other loads.
Small motors up to the size of
5 hp are allowed to be started
with direct on line (DOL)
starter
St art ing Met hod of I nduct ion Mot ors
Motor Three
phase
supply
contactor
1. Direct on Line (DOL)
• When the rating of the motor exceed 5 hp Some starting means
must be used to start the motor. A star/delta starter is normally
used because it is the simpliest and cheapest type of starter.
• During starting, the stator winding is temporarily connected in
star. therefore only phase voltage (1/ sqrt (3) of line voltage ) is
applied to the stator. The starting current is reduced to 1/3 of the
Direct on line starting current. The starting torque, which is
proportional to the starting current, reduces also to 1/3 of the
value at direct on line starting.
• After a period of about 5 seconds, the motor have accelerated to
nearly full load speed. The stator winding is now reconnected as
delta, and full line voltage is applied in each phase of the stator.
2. St arDelt a St art er
Rotor
Stator
Running Starting
Delta
Star
Switch
Supply
Schemat ic Diagram of a St arDelt a St art er
• Some loads are very heavy and it will take a few minutes
before it can run to full speed, these motors have to be started
by means of transformer starter.
• The reduced voltage during starting is obtained from the
different tappings (40% , 60%, 75%) of an autotransformer.
• In the running condition, full voltage is applied to the stator
and the transformer is cut out of the circuit.
3. Aut ot ransformer St art er
Supply
Rotor
Stator
Winding
Autotransformer Starter
Starting
Running
• The wound rotor (slip ring) induction motor can be started by
inserting additional resistance in series with the rotor winding
through the slip rings.
• In this way, maximun torque is obtained during starting. The
additional resistance is cut off from the circuit as soon as the motor
is started to avoid excessive power loss in the resistance.
Three
Phase
Supply
Brush
Rotor Windings
Slip Rings
Stator Windings
Running Position
Starting Position External Resistors
4. St art ing of Wound Rot or I nduct ion Mot or
Extra slides
Rotating Magnetic Field
• The three phases of the stator winding carry balanced alternating
sinusoidal currents
• Three pulsating mmf waves are now set up in the airgap, which have a
time phase difference of 120 degree from each other. These mmf’s are
oriented in space along the magnetic axes of the phases, a,b & c,
Example
A 208V, 10hp, four pole, 60 Hz, Yconnected
induction motor has a fullload slip of 5
percent
1. What is the synchronous speed of this motor?
2. What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated
load?
3. What is the rotor frequency of this motor at
rated load?
4. What is the shaft torque of this motor at rated
load?
Solution
120 120(60)
1800
4
s
f
n rpm
P
= = =
(1 )
(1 0.05) 1800 1710
s
n s n
rpm
= −
= − × =
0.05 60 3
r
f sf Hz = = × =
2
60
10 746 /
41.7 .
1710 2 (1/ 60)
out out
sh
m
P P
T
n
hp watt hp
N m
ω
π
π
= =
×
= =
× ×
Threephase induction motors are the most common and frequently encountered machines in industry Simple design, Low cost and rugged, requires little or no skilled maintenance wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to 10 MW Explosion free, due to the absence of a commutator or sliprings and brushes with their associated sparking, Run at nearly constant speed from zerotofull – Its speed depends on the frequency of the power source
Introduction
• not easy to have variable speed control • requires a variablefrequency powerelectronic drive for optimal speed control
Construction: has two main parts
Stator – consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow,
cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal circumference of the stator house the stator winding. slots for the rotor winding.
Rotor – also composed of punched laminations, with rotor
Stator Rotor
Induction Motor: Stator
Stator is made from laminated iron 3 phase windings, 120° spatially apart (star/delta) Stator winding is carried in slots around the circumference of a cylindrical bore. There is a separate winding for each phase.
Induction Motor: Rotor
1. Squirrelcage induction motor:
2. Woundrotor induction motor
1. bar ends are welded to copper end rings. . Squirrelcage induction motor most common type of IM has squirrelcage rotor windings squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars. so that all the bars are short circuited.
2. The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be connected in series with the winding. similar to the stator winding. The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings which turn with the rotor. The external resistors are mainly used during startup . under normal running conditions the windings short circuited externally. . Woundrotor induction motor has a 3phase winding.
Types There are twotypes of rotor windings: 1. The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings which turn with the rotor. squirrelcage induction motor (most common) has Squirrelcage windings Squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars. so that all the bars are short circuited. The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be connected in series with the winding. The external resistors are mainly used during startup . similar to the stator winding. woundrotor induction motor has a 3phase winding. under normal running conditions the windings short circuited externally. bar ends are welded to copper end rings. 2. .
Rotating Magnetic Field • Balanced three phase windings.e. rotating with a speed: NS = 120 f P rpm Where f is the supply frequency and P is the no. mechanically displaced 120 degrees form each other. i. of poles and Ns is called the synchronous speed in rpm (revolutions per minute) . fed by balanced three phase source • A rotating magnetic field with constant magnitude is produced.
of Poles P NS = 120 f P rpm Syn. Ns (rpm) 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500 2 4 6 8 10 12 . Speed.Synchronous speed f = 50 Hz No.
Rotating Magnetic Field .
Rotating Magnetic Field .
Rotating Magnetic Field .
and induced current flows in the rotor windings The rotor current produces another magnetic field A torque is produced as a result of the interaction of those two magnetic fields τ= kBR × Bs ind Where τind is the induced torque and BR and BS are the magnetic flux densities of the rotor and the stator respectively . for both squirrel cage and woundrotor.Principle of operation This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings and produces an induced voltage in the rotor windings Due to the fact that the rotor windings are short circuited.
why? – If rotor runs at the synchronous speed. then the rotor will appear stationary to the rotating magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field will not cut the rotor.Induction motor speed Can the IM run at the synchronous speed. Therefore. no induced current will flow in the rotor and no rotor magnetic flux will be produced so no torque is generated and the rotor speed will fall below the synchronous speed. which is the same speed of the rotating magnetic field. So. the IM will always run at a speed lower than the synchronous speed .
Induction motor speed • The difference between the motor speed and the synchronous speed is called the Slip speed nslip ns − nr = Where nslip= slip speed ns= speed of the rotaing magnetic field nr = mechanical shaft speed of the motor .
by 100. notice that the slip is a ratio and doesn’t have units .The Slip ns − n nslip = = s ns ns OR nslip = s × ns Notice that : if the rotor runs at synchronous speed s=0 if the rotor is stationary s=1 Slip may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the above eq.
Frequency of the induced emf and current in the rotor: • The frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor is given by P × nsl fr = 120 Where fr = the rotor frequency (Hz) P = number of stator poles P × (ns − n) fr = 120 P × sns = = sf 120 And hence. Or nsl = slip speed (rpm) ωr = s ω .
Why? Therefore in General.The rotor circuit: AT the starting or when the rotor is blocked (s =1) Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = E2 ‘The largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor’. Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = s E2 . Why? If the rotor rotates at synchronous speed (s =0) and Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = 0 The induced voltage and frequency in the rotor will be equal to zero. If the rotor speed is n (slip =s) .
the reactance of the rotor circuit also changes Rotor reactance at slip s can be obtained as = ωr L2 2π f r Lr Xr = = 2π sf Lr = sX 2 Where X2 is the rotor reactance at the supply frequency (stationary rotor) . as the frequency of the induced voltage in the rotor changes. . . = ω L 2π f L So.Rotor Reactance at any slip s X = We know that reactance.
– The difference is that. whereas the secondary corresponds to the rotor on a per phase basis. Induction motor: voltage applied to the stator windings produce an induced voltage in the rotor windings.Induction Motors and Transformers • Both IM and transformer works on the principle of induced voltage. the secondary windings can move . Transformer: voltage applied to the primary windings produce an induced voltage in the secondary windings. . in the case of the induction motor. – the primary of the transformer corresponds to the stator of the induction motor.
e.Induction Motors and Transformers Therefore an IM is equivalent to a rotating transformer with its secondary windings (i. Presence of airgap: The other very important difference is that a large magnetising current is required to set up working flux in an induction motor due to presence of airgap between stator and rotor. rotor)short circuited. induction motors have poor power factor. so. – Also due to the rotation of the rotor (the secondary winding of the IM). the induced voltage in it does not have the same frequency of the stator (the primary) voltage .
The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis Divide both the numerator and denominator by s .
Induction motor equivalent circuit: Stator of an IM is similar to primary of a transformer so equivalent circuit can be represented as: E1 Stator equivalent circuit Rotor equivalent circuit .
The stator equivalent circuit: on per phase basis Actual rotor resistance Resistance equivalent to mechanical load .
Performance of Induction Motor Several performance parameters can be obtained using Rotor Equivalent circuit • Torque. Power losses • Speed verses Torque characteristics • Slip verses Torque characteristics I . Power.
The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis .
R2 Total mechanical power output is: 1− s Pm = 3. R2 s . rotor copper loss and rotor output: From the equivalent circuit: Total input power to the rotor (P2) which is also the power crossing the air gap is: 2 R2 P2 = 3.( I 2 ) .The relation between rotor input.( I 2 ) .( I 2 ) 2 . s 2 Power lost in rotor winding or rotor copper loss PCu 2 is: PCu 2 = 3.
2 s PCu 2 = 3.( I 2 ) 2 .( I 2 ) 2 .R2 1− s Pm = 3.R P2 = 3.( I 2 ) 2 . Pm = P2 = 1− s s . R2 s P2 = PCu 2 + Pm A Very Important relationship: P2 : PCu 2 : Pm ⇒ 1 : s : (1 − s ) PCu 2 P2 and.
Power relations Rotor input or air gap power Mechanical Power Developed P2 1 Pm 1s Rotor copper Loss PCu 2 s P2 : PCu 2 : Pm 1: s : (1 − s ) .
ωr Pm = Tm Pm 1 Pm P = = 2 = .Gross Torque Developed • The gross (total) Torque developed is: Tm = Where ωr is rotor speed. ωr (1 − s )ωs (1 − s ) ωs ωs Pm Tm = ωr Pm = ωs P2 Tm = Total rotor input power (air gap power) ωs .
Shaft Torque Developed We know that rotor input power or air gap power is given as: P2 2 R2 = 3. R2 2 + ( sX 2 ) 2 Shaft Torque = Gross Torque – Friction loss Tsh Tm − Tloss = . Therefore.( I 2 ) .R2 . 3. Torque. 2 s And Total mech. s sE2 2 2 R2 + ( sX 2 ) 2 R . Tm = P2 / ωs . 3 Tm = ωs sE2 2 .
R2 . Let us examine the torque verses speed characteristics for different operating conditions: Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed (s very small) Case 2: At Starting (s=1) .Torque –Slip Characteristics: We know that total torque developed is : 3 Tm = ωs sE2 2 . 2 2 R2 + ( sX 2 ) Now.
So torque Tm α sE2 2 R2 α ← denotes propotionality Near synchronous speed: Torque increases linearly with slip. . R2 R2 2 >> ( sX 2 ) 2 . expression becomes: 3 Tm = ωs sE2 2 .Ts curve: Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed General torque expression is: 3 Tm = ωs sE2 2 . 2 2 R2 + ( sX 2 ) Slip s is very small. If rotor resistance is high rated torque is reduced Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage. and hence.R2 .
R2 .R2 X 22 α ← denotes propotionality During Starting: Starting Torque increases linearly with rotor resistance (in wound rotor motor.R2 X2 2 Tst α E2 2 . At starting (s=1). higher starting torque is obtained by inserting external in rotor circuit). If leakage reactance is high. starting torque is reduced Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage. So torque expression becomes: 3 Tst = ωs E2 .Ts curve: Case 2: At Starting General torque expression is: 3 Tm = ωs sE2 2 . 2 . . 2 2 R2 + ( sX 2 ) For large value of slip and ( sX 2 ) 2 >> R2 2 .
TorqueSlip (Speed) Characteristics Torque . Starting Torque Maximum Torque Or Breakdown Torque Full Load Torque Rated Load Linear Torque –slip Region Speed Slip .
the rotor resistance is much greater than the reactance. The induced torque is zero at synchronous speed. There is a maximum possible torque that can’t be exceeded. This torque is called breakdown torque and is 2 to 3 times the rated fullload torque. In this range. Discussed earlier.) 1. . 2.Comments (Torquespeed char. so the rotor current. and torque increase linearly with the slip. The curve is nearly linear between noload and full load. 3.
) 4. 6. .Comments(Torquespeed char. The torque of the motor for a given slip varies as the square of the applied voltage. 5. so the motor will start carrying any load it can supply at full load. The starting torque of the motor is slightly higher than its fullload torque. If the rotor is driven faster than synchronous speed it will run as a generator. converting mechanical power to electric power.
sX 2 = R2 . But slip at which it occurs depend on rotor resistance (proportional to it) . Torque: • Maximum Torque (also called breakdown torque)occurs when. Slip at Maximum Torque: smaxT = R2 / X 2 Maximum Torque Tmax: Tmax 3 = ωs E2 2 . 2X2 The Value of Maximum Torque does not depend on Rotor resistance.Maximum Torque and condition for Max.
Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip (speed) characteristic (Rotor Resistances) s=1 Slip Ns Speed s=0 .
Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip (speed) characteristic Rotor Resistances 0 Ns Speed 0 .
there rotor induced emf is very high. . if this motor is connected directly to the supply. it will cause harm to the motor and will affect the voltage (cause voltage dips inthe power supply) and hence the other loads. Therefore. Though this current decreases rapidly as the motor accelerates.Need for a starting method A squirrel cage motor is at stationary before it is started. will take an initial starting current which is about 5 to 6 times of the full load value.
Starting Method of Induction Motors 1. Direct on Line (DOL) Small motors up to the size of 5 hp are allowed to be started with direct on line (DOL) starter Three phase supply Motor contactor .
2. reduces also to 1/3 of the value at direct on line starting. • • . The starting current is reduced to 1/3 of the Direct on line starting current. A star/delta starter is normally used because it is the simpliest and cheapest type of starter. and full line voltage is applied in each phase of the stator. The starting torque. During starting. the stator winding is temporarily connected in star. StarDelta Starter • When the rating of the motor exceed 5 hp Some starting means must be used to start the motor. The stator winding is now reconnected as delta. which is proportional to the starting current. therefore only phase voltage (1/ sqrt (3) of line voltage ) is applied to the stator. After a period of about 5 seconds. the motor have accelerated to nearly full load speed.
Schematic Diagram of a StarDelta Starter Stator Supply Rotor Delta Star Switch Running Starting .
In the running condition. 60% . full voltage is applied to the stator and the transformer is cut out of the circuit. Autotransformer Starter • • • Some loads are very heavy and it will take a few minutes before it can run to full speed.3. 75%) of an autotransformer. Autotransformer Starter Starting Rotor Supply Stator Winding Running . The reduced voltage during starting is obtained from the different tappings (40% . these motors have to be started by means of transformer starter.
In this way. The additional resistance is cut off from the circuit as soon as the motor is started to avoid excessive power loss in the resistance.4. Running Position Brush Three Phase Supply Stator Windings Rotor Windings Slip Rings External Resistors Starting Position . Starting of Wound Rotor Induction Motor • • The wound rotor (slip ring) induction motor can be started by inserting additional resistance in series with the rotor winding through the slip rings. maximun torque is obtained during starting.
Extra slides .
a. which have a time phase difference of 120 degree from each other. . These mmf’s are oriented in space along the magnetic axes of the phases.b & c.Rotating Magnetic Field • • The three phases of the stator winding carry balanced alternating sinusoidal currents Three pulsating mmf waves are now set up in the airgap.
Yconnected induction motor has a fullload slip of 5 percent 1.Example A 208V. What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated load? 3. What is the synchronous speed of this motor? 2. 10hp. What is the rotor frequency of this motor at rated load? 4. 60 Hz. four pole. What is the shaft torque of this motor at rated load? .
05 × 60 = 3Hz Pout ωm 2π n 60 10 hp × 746 watt / hp = = 41.05) ×1800 = rpm (1 1710 f r = sf = 0.7 N .Solution ns = 120 f 120(60) = = 1800 rpm P 4 n (1 − s )ns = =− 0.m 1710 × 2π × (1/ 60) = Tsh Pout = .
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