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used in any computer to make it fast and to enable it to access information stored in the computer. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory which is actually chips that hold data. This memory is referred to as Random Access Memory or RAM. RAM is a part of hardware that stores operating system s application programs and currently running processes that can be accessed randomly, i.e. in any order that the user desires. Data in RAM stays for only as long as the computer is running, and gets deleted as soon as computer is switched off. RAM usually comes in the form of microchips of different sizes such as 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, 2GB etc. Computers are so designed that this RAM can be increased up to a certain capacity. ROM, on the other hand refers to Read Only Memory. Every computer comes fitted with this memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. This is a memory that has data written permanently on it and is not reusable. However, there are certain kinds of read only memory that can be rewritten but they are called Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, or EPROM. These are generally in the form of CD-ROM or Floppy Disk that can load the OS to the RAM. RAM has a lot more flexibility then ROM due to its random structure. Data can be accessed from any part of the memory and also more than one piece of data can be accessed simultaneously. ROM does not allow this flexibility and is mainly used for firmware chip devices. Since it is read-only, ROM is a very safe means of storage due since it is protected from any alteration. Similarities between RAM and ROM end up with both being types of memories. There are glaring differences between the RAM and the ROM.
Difference between RAM and ROM RAM is Random Access Memory, while ROM stands for Read Only Memory. RAM is volatile and is erased when the computer is switched off. ROM is non-volatile and generally cannot be written to. RAM is used for both read and write while ROM is used only for reading. RAM needs electricity to flow to retain information while ROM is permanent. RAM is analogous to a blackboard on which information can be written with a chalk and erased any number of times, while ROM is permanent and can only be read. One example is BIOS (basic input output system) that runs when computer is switched on and it prepares disk drives and processor to load OS from disk.
32. one million bytes. The number of bytes can be expressed as kilobytes. . One megabyte abbreviated MB. y y y y Bit: Abbreviation of binary digits (0 or 1). or 11111111 Word = a sequence of N bits where N = 16. One byte can store one one character. With storage devices. 64 depending on the computer . as in "I earned 300$ last year"). A computer reads and processes all the bites of the word at a time.. Memory capacity may also be expressed in tern of megabytes (1024×1024 bytes). The bit is the basic unit for storing data in computer memory 0 means off. a bit in computer memory is always storing some kind of data. Byte: A group of combination of 8 bits is called a byte. letters. Since single bits by themselves cannot store all the number. Bytes. 32. manufacturers sometimes express memory amounts in terms of gigabytes (abbreviated GB) billions of bytes. the memory of a 640K computer can store 640×1024 bytes. A kilobyte is 1024 bytes. Notice that since a bit is always either on or off. Computer manufacturers express the capacity of memory and storage in terms of the number of bytes it can hold. Kilobyte is abbreviated KB or simply K.Bits.. (Sometimes K is used casually to mean 1000. The length of word varies from machine to machine but it predetermined for each machine. Word: A complete word is a combination of one or more bytes handled together as a single unit for processing and may thus be of 8. digit. Each byte usually represents one character of letter. One bit occupies one store location.1 Byte 1 Kilobyte 1 Megabyte 1 Gigabyte 1 Terabyte Definitions Bit = Binary digIT = 0 or 1 Byte = a sequence of 8 bits = 00000000.. the bits are put together in a group called a byte (pronounced "bite"). means roughly. 16. or special character. Thus. Kilo represents 2 to the tenth power. and special character (such as $ and %) that a computer must process. Storage Units: Bit 8 bits 1024 Bytes 1024 KB 1024 MB 1024 GB = = = = = = 0. There are usually 8 bits in a byte. 1 means on. and Words: Each 0 or 1 in the binary system is called a bit abbreviation of binary digit. or 64 bits. or 1024. the smallest unit of data storage. 00000001.
Here are four (somewhat overlapping) important reasons for using binary: 1. Basically. easy to build. but (with just a touch of Leibniz' mysticism) from this on-off. The computer's CPU need only recognise two states. on or off. If switches are then arranged along boolean guidelines. There are many advantages to binary. The reduction of decimal to binary does increase the length of the number. computers aren't always dealing with pure numbers or logic. Remember. yes-no state all things flow . Because there must always be at least two symbols for a processing system to be able to distinguish significance or purpose. these two simple digits can create circuits capable of performing both logical and mathematical operations. 4.Why Do Computers Use Binary? Computer systems exist in only one of two states: on or off and computer electronics use voltage levels to indicate their present state.Simple. Pictures and sound must first be reduced to numerical equivalents that. binary simplifies information processing. a binary digit must always be one or zero. have to be decoded again for the end result. 3. memory and utilisation. but this is more than made up for in the increase in speed.Unambiguous signals (hence noise immunity). a lot. These patterns of "on" and "off" stored inside the computer are used to encode numbers using the binary number system.in the same way as a switch must always be open or closed. in turn. 2. .Flawless copies can be made. Especially utilisation. a system is a method of storing ordinary numbers as patterns of 1's and 0's.Anything that can be represented with some sort of pattern can be represented with patterns of bits. or an electrical flow on or off. binary is the smallest numbering system that can be used.
it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data). the PowerPC 601 processor has a 32 kilobyte level-1 cache built into its chip. RAM can also contain a special area called a disk cache that contains the data most recently read in from the hard disk. one can think of RAM itself as a cache of memory for hard disk storage since all of RAM's contents come from the hard disk initially when you turn your computer on and load the operating system (you are loading it into RAM) and later as you start new applications and access new data. which is much faster than reading from or writing to main memory. (For example. In addition to cache memory. and a translation lookaside buffer (TLB) used to speed up virtual-to-physical address translation for both executable instructions and data. it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. L2. Most modern desktop and server CPUs have at least three independent caches: an instruction cache to speed up executable instruction fetch. etc). The main RAM is usually a dynamic RAM (DRAM) chip. Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM.) L2 is usually a separate static RAM (SRAM) chip. . Data cache is usually organized as a hierarchy of more cache levels (L1. If so. the average latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory. As long as most memory accesses are cached memory locations. Cache memory is sometimes described in levels of closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor. As the microprocessor processes data. When the processor needs to read from or write to a location in main memory. The cache is a smaller. An L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. it first checks whether a copy of that data is in the cache. a data cache to speed up data fetch and store. the processor immediately reads from or writes to the cache.CPU cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory.
A programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). with many more being created every year. For example. Machine Language refers to the "ones and zeroes" that digital processors use as instructions. Back when CPU speed was measured in kiloHertz and storage space was measured in kiloBytes. Assembly Language is as close as you can come to writing in machine language. Machine Language is painfully difficult to work with. such as Perl... and even tera's on the horizon. Instead programmers use the higher-level languages below.e. although some languages. The instruction sets within a CPU family are usually compatible. Thousands of different programming languages have been created. using a small vocabulary of words with one syllable. but has the advantage that it's also human-readable. Give it one pattern of bits (such as 11001001) and it will add two numbers. and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos. Each written instruction (such as MOV A.. which are either compiled or interpretted into machine language by the computer itself. have a dominant implementation that is used as a reference. while other languages. such as those that support functional programming or logic programming. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer. particularly a computer. as a sequence of commands. mainly in the computer field.B) typically corresponds to a single machine-language instruction (such as 11001001). i. use alternative forms of description. the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard).Programming language A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. Intel's x86/Pentium language and Motorola's PPC/Gx language are completely incompatible. Assembly is the solution. and almost never worth the effort anymore. but not between product lines. . Assembly was the most cost-efficient way to implement a program. It's used less often now (with all those kilo's replaced by mega's or giga's. Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example. Most programming languages describe computation in an imperative style. give it a different pattern (11001010) and it will instead subtract one from the other. An assembler makes the translation before the program is executed. but if you need speed and/or compactness above all else. In as little as a billionth of second. it seems no one cares anymore about efficiency).
Advance knowledge about the relationship between data items allows designing of efficient algorithms for the manipulation of data. rather than algorithms. Importance Data structure is important since it dictates the types of operations we can perform on the data and how efficiently they can be carried out. Data structures are used in almost every program or software system. for example if we'll require random access. but also their relationship to each other. or sequential access. Usually. Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications.Data structure In computer science. We determine which data structures to use to store our data only after we've carefully analyzed the problem and know at least what it is we hope to do with the data. for example it dictates if we can add additional data on the fly or if we need to know about all of the data up front. or the ability to move both forward and backward through the data. It also dictates how dynamic we can be in dealing with our data. such as large databases and internet indexing services. a data structure is a particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. as the key organizing factor in software design. A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the items stored. and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. B-trees are particularly well-suited for implementation of databases. Data structures provide a means to manage huge amounts of data efficiently. efficient data structures are a key to designing efficient algorithms. . while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers. For example. Some formal design methods and programming languages emphasize data structures.
x86 Desktops and laptops. workstations. and some servers) Mac OS X: x86 processors.pretty much anything.x86 processors (desktops. laptops.MS Windows . ARM (cell phones and portable media players) Solaris: x86 computers and Sparc computers AIX: x86 and IBM computers (POWER) . more IBM servers). Cell systems (IBM servers and PlayStation 3s). POWER (PowerPC Macs. Linux. Sparc (Sun/Oracle servers and workstations). Older versions support PowerPC processors as well.
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