By Gerald L. You n g Na I,aya~~ Jaya ra man

Ts~ng AndH~W f. IN 01hr1g)he-ad

John J, Snoker K ha led Hans


Prl{e M.ark Morgan


GUidel1fle5 IOf Solid Fuel 1M in Cement Plants







I!~~ VI




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Source: Penta Engineering


Chapter 1 Introduction



··;9.".5.•. 5..e.d 3.t. ttl. e .e.ntr~nce.of all. (emen. t p.la ".t.5.are a pos. i.ti.~e.iin.diC. .ti.O. n.tha..t Safety Is the utmost co... .. p 0...t . ... a ncern. In the cement manufacturmg Industry. Plant personnel work with heavy machinery that consumes enormous amounts of electrical and thermal energy. Raw materials are processed at very high temperatures with thermal energy primarily obtained from pulverized solid fuels.


The Middle Ea.stoil embargo in the 19705 forced cement planls to use more fuel efficient processes, and to switch from buming natural gas or oi,1to pulverized coal. In 1'983, the PCA published the Recommended Guidelines for Coal System Safely. That publication provided cement plant operators with a convenient source for safety guidelines. Since that time, the cement industry has gained experience and improved coal ~em safety In addition, ihe industry has These Guidelines are organized into the following sections:


• Solid Fuels
• Fire and Explosion Hazards
• Fuel Handling and

Safety Issues

• Solid Fuel Pulverizing Systems and Safety Issues
• Engineering Design of Pulverized Solid Fuel Sy~ems ., Operation of Solid Fuel Grinding Systems


experienced many changes, such as waste material use,
more stringent environmental

the cement industry, and r r

regulations, globalization awareness of the importam:e



• Electrical. Equipment for Pulverized Solid fuel 5ystem5 • Instrumentation and Safety Interlock s
• Maintenance

Sustainable Development. These issues drrve cement plants to comply with add~ional safety requirements, meet
stringent emission standards, and seek more economical


fuels and efficient processes.
The Recommended Guideknes for Solid fuel Use in CefllEnt l¥anlr{"Guidelines ") are intended for use by cement plant personnel so that they may operate solid fuel pulverizing. systems more safely. The Guidefnes provide basic information on combustion and explosion processes to assist personnel in understanding the reasons behind the procedures to prevent or mitigate fires and explosions. The objective of these Guidelines is to provide information so that plant employees have a better understanding of solid fuel characteristics and risks, can attain stable and safer system operations, and can take proper action dunngemergencies.

• Training

• Safety Codes


1.1 Solid Fuels
Undmtanding the characteristics of the various solid fuels available to cement plants is essential. Solid fuel sources, classifications, physical and chemical properties, and the influence of these different fuels on safety, combustion characteristics, and on the cement manufacturing process are all discussed. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, a hiqh-volatile.subbituminous grade coal deposrted along the Powder River


These Guidelines present several of the critical codes and prOVide a bnef description of their application. Because electrical equipment is a potential ignition source. 1.10 Training No manual or training session can provide instructions for every situation that may occur. and the cause and nature of spontaneous ignition (self-igni1ion) and dust explosions are discussed so that employees may avoid or mitigate these hazards. 1.8 Instrumentation and Interlocks Instrumentation and safety interlOCk systems are very important to prevent fire or explosion hazards.11 Safety Codes Numerous safety codes apply to solid fuel preparation and f!rlng systems. evolution of methane. and s.3 Fuel Handling and Safety Issues Solid fuel handling and storage are simple physicaloperations. emissions.. existing equipment. the proper response to these conditions may prevent a fire or explosion or reduce Its severity.6 Operation Systems of Solid Fuel Grinding 1. . Fuel selscnon issues such as grindability.en The presence of solid fuels requires specialized procedures and training in this area. vola1iles content.4 Solid Fuel Pulverizing Systems and Safety Issues Solid fuel preparation. coal dust and high temperature gases containing oxygen. strict attention to operating parameters. storage. Today. 1. 1. and the proper response to upset conditions . coal spillage and transfer chuteplLlgging.afety are discussed. Training and fire fighting procedues are presented in this Section. 1. coal dust generation.7 Electrical Equipment for Pulverized Solid Fuel Systems The selection of electrical equipment for a pulverized fuel system follows stringent codes. and many direct fired systems have been be converted to indirect operation. The problems include spontaneous ignition of stored coal.Recommended Guidelines for Solid Fuel USC! In Cemenl Pla'lts Basin In Wyoming. when a series of dangerous events do occur. 1. 1. However. and should be carefully undertak. Explosion prevention and proteclion techniques are also presented The process gas handling system of the fuel grinding facility poses safety concerns because it handles.2 Fire and Explosion Hazards A basic understanding of the combustion process. Safe operation of a solid fuel system requires well thought out standard operating procedures. which can become an explosive mixture.9 Maintenance Proper maintenance of coal handling and pulverizer systems can help ensure safe operation.. yet they can be problematic from a safety point of view. and firing systems in cement plants can be classified as direct frred or indIrect fired depending on how the pulverized fuel is stored and/or conveyed 10 the burner.5 Engineering Design of Pulverized Solid Fuel Systems Indirect firing systems were nearly non-existent in the cement industry when the o~ginal peA Recommended GUidelines for Coal SystEm Safety were published in '1983. chemical compatibilily. fineness required. is reviewed along with the additional safety concerns for handling and grinding this fuel. 1. The design of indirect systems shOlJld address issues spedfic to these systems. nearly every new installation of a solid fuel firing system is an indirect system.. it must either be avoided or isolated from the explosive environment. The types of systems and the safety implications of grinding and drying fuels based on Inherent moisture and residual moisture are discussed. Proper measurement of operating conditions will provide for smooth operation and reduce the chance of dangerous situations developing. 1.

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• Volatile matter is the portion of the oven-dried sample which. The types of Issues encountered are related to the type of solid fuel being used. A proximate analysis also usually provides the heating value of the fuel. low ash coal has 3-8% ash. is liberated as gases and vapor.Chapter 2 Solid Fuels S ome of the major . volatile matter. when heated In a nitrogen atmosphere under specified conditions. • Ash is the inorganic residue that remains after the coal is burned under specified condi1ions. • Free moisture is the measure of weight lost after the ~as-received" sample is air dried under specified conditions (which are close to normal laboratory conditions). The most commonly used solid fuels in the cement industry are coal and pet coke. medium ash coal has 8-15% ash. and they also require more attention to prevent fires or explosions. 2. Kiln feed chemistry typically Will be adjusted to account for the Quantity and chemistry of the fuel ash.1. later in this manual). nitrogen.2 Ultimate analysis Ultimate analysis reports ash. Ash will affect the dinker chemistry since ~ becomes part of the dinker. U Total mostere is the meas. which IS the heat actually available to produce clinker. volatile matter. When latent heat of the water formed from combustion IS excluded.1 Proximate analysis Proximate analysis is the analysis of moisiure. and fixed carbon. carbon. This information IS required to calculate combustion gas quantity and compo-sition.ure of weight lost after the "asreceived" sample is oven dried at 105'( a20°F). chlorine. Inherent moisture or hygroscopic moisture is the difference between total mostore and free moisture. and ash of the proximate analySIS. and oxygen (b~ difference). High • High heating value (HHV) is the heat produced at constant volume by complete combustion of a unit coal sample m an oxygen bomb calonrneter.1 Analyses of Solid Fuels Solid fuels are usually analyzed in three different ways: volatile fuels are easier to ignite compared to lower volatile fuels.g. hydroqen. ash. 2. Asreceived" refers to the condition of the sample as it was obtained from a delivery to the plant and usually provides the basis for payment. This moisture content is an important factor for designing material handling and grinding systems. and storage. HHV includes the latent heat of the water vapor. sulfur. About half of the Inherent moisture should be kept in the pulverized coal to reduce the tendency for spontaneous ignitton (Refer to Figure 5-4.in. and high ash coal has over 1'5 % ash. The sulfur and chlorine contents should also be 5 .afety Issues In a cement plant are related to solid fuel preparation.1. 2. It is called the Low Healing Value (LHV). • Fi)(ed carbon is calculated by subtracting from 100 the percentage of moisture. handl.

Anthracne is not typically used for clinker burning because deposits are scarce and irs low volatile content makes it difficult to burn. MAf* basis Ash.S03· Table 2-2.55 3-6 <1 4600. and the fan impeller (direct-fired systems).98 2 .20 (aO MgO Other· 0. Bituminous 51% 5 . p~s ri02.. KA. MAF· basis Volatile matter.35 PRB ash. It is a black.1. % 20 -60 10 .1.30 3 -35 1 .8500 30 -40 6800 . hard rock and it is not triable. from lignite to anthradte. some cement plants in Asia have used anthradte since it is locally available (Czaplinski 2002 and Oka 2002). % Fixed carbon.10 15 .6300 40 . %. Typical ash consti- 2. Powder River Basin coal belongs to sub-bituminous deposits in Wyoming. sub-bituminous.15 Sub-bituminous 28% Ugnlte 20% Powder River Basin 800 billion tons reserve Moisture. the grinding media.14 69-86 14. 2. . PRBcoal tends to be less abrasive. % 21 .4 1--14 3-5 3 .2 -0.1 Anthracite Anthracite is the highest ranking coal.3 .50 5 0.18 5 .12 40.50 53 . Miller. shiny. bituminous.O.e.2.Recommende(j Guldelln~ for Soli:! fuellJSf In Cement Plants checked because they may contribute to pre heater build up problems. % Sulfur. * Other=Na. Compound SiOl AI203 Fe203 Bituminous.2 3500 .y 15 High silica content In the ash usually causes higher wear on components. therefore.34 13. and Kosmatka 2004). speoal burner tip design and high retention time in the c. This information tuents are: Table 2·/.cal Ash CIJemisI. Excessive chlorine may also cause kiln shell or preheater vessel corrosion. 'lYpical Anofystl of Different Grades afCoal (Bhatty.5300 50 -70 86 . the coal mill important because of the effects of fuel ash on kiln feed chemical mix design. and lignite) based on the content of volatile matter. Miller.5 7500 . % HHV. kcal/kg HGI "MAF Characteristics (percent by weight) 10 . special requirements including high coal fineness. %. However. Typical analyses of the different grades of coal are listed in Table 2-2 (Bhatty.31ash.6400 32-3S 16. The American Soc:iety for Testing and Materials publishes ASTM Standard 0 38B-OS 5tandard Oassification of Coals by Hank.31 8 .8 .7yp.7 4200 .3 Ash analysis Ash analysis provides the chemical elements of (0. and Kosmatka 2004) % World Anthracite 1% .15 2. In order to burn anthracite in a cement kiln.alciner are necessary to obtain complete combustion.2 Coal Coal is typically classified into four broad categories (i. This standard covers the classification of coal according to degree of metamorphism or progressive alteration. PRB coal ash has a higher CaO content and a lower SiOz content.20 0.7500 1.35 35 -50 40-50 15-30 S3-64 44. anthracite.60 = Moisture and ash free.

makes it less risky to handle when compared to coal. PRBcoal is not yet popular in the cement industry with only a few plants using it. synthetIC gr. 2.it has not gone through a calcination process. The production of pet coke depends on the demand for refined petroleum products. Pet coke is a low volatile fuel.SOhd fuel! 2. brittle.) Based upon its volatile content. 2. Pet coke is classified by ns production process. i.. such as gasoline. It is friable and easily weathered. DUring handling of (he coal. It typically contains high sulfur concentrations and traces of heavy metals. 2. production of pel coke is largely mdependent of its demand. relatively speaking. see Powder River Basin coal below. It disintegrates into a fine powder as it loses Its moisture.2. This coal seam represents the single largest coal deposit in the world. These include: ne&lle coke. The main issues preventing wider use are safety concerns for handling and grinding. Raw lignite weathers easi~ and has a high ash and moisture content that result in a low heating value. 11IS mainly composed of carbon. The United States is the world's largest producer of pet cake. it is relatively safe to handle.coke directly from a semi-continuous delayed coking plant without further processing.e. Petcoke's low volatile content. It is a black. (Weathenng is the tendency of coal to break and crumble as it dries.2. Shot coke and. causing afire or explOSion hazard. Its usage in cement plants is limited to areas where it is localfV available due to the high transport costs relative to its heating value. Fine coal dust may accumulate on Ilat surfaces or form dust douds. which is about 40% of the total US coal production . to some extent.4 Lignite coal Lignite coal is a soft. Compared to sub-bituminous coal. It is the most popular fuel used in cement plants. which. PRB coal dust is very reactive due to its high volatile content. sponge coke are used in cement plants. makes it difficult to Ignite. Due to limited demand it was an inexpensive fuel. as the cost advantage over coal became more significant. a substantial arrount of fines and dust are generated. ash fr€f basis <:: 22 % volatiles on a • medium volatile bituminous coal with volatiles between 22-31 %. For the same reason. Each process also produces different physical forms of pet coke.ChaplP( 1 . therefore. Calcined coke is mainly used for electrodes. and it is estimated to {ontain over 800 billion tons of coal. PRBcoal production reachsd 400 million tons. banded coal that weathers slightly. Green coke is preferred for use in the cement industry and in power plant boilers.2. However. For further descriplion. and the high cost of sys1emconversions for safe handling of PR8 coal.. and is susceptible to spontaneous ignition. There are two types of raw lignite: one s brown and amorphous and the other is black and pitch-like. however. PRBcoal is a very popular fuel for power plants. pet coke became a major fuel source for many cemen1 plants during the 19905. PRBcoal deposits start at the southern Montana border and continue 300 krn (200 miles) south into Wyoming. bituminous coal can be classified as: • low volatile bituminous coal with dry. brownish-black solid also known as brown coal. fluid coke. Cement plants typically use green delayed coke .3Sub-bituminous coal PRBcoal is very friable and eaSily weathered. The properties of these petcoke types are listed in Table 2·3. .3phite and aluminum anodes.5 Powder River Basin (PRB) coal PRBcoal is ranked as a sub-bituminous coal. In 2004. The ash content has a major impact on cement kiln teed mix design. Pet coke was not initially favored by either the power industry or the cement industry. because of its favorable price and low sulfur content. 2. Green coke refers to pet coke s1raight from a refinery . delayed coke.2. • high volatile bituminous coal with a volable content of >31%.3 Petroleum Coke (pet coke) Pet coke is a byproduct of tnt=' oil refining process. pet coke should be ground finer than bituminous coals to achieve complete combustion and good flame shape-less than S% Sub-bituminous coal is a solid with physical and chemical charaderisticslhat range between those of lignite and bituminous coal. A system suitable for handling and grinding bituminous coal may not be adequate to safely handle PRScoal. depending on the type of feed stock. and flexicoke.2 Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. shot coke and sponge coke.

94 Flexicoke Continuous fluidized bed with gasification 3-8 87 88 -90 10 0.g.8500 27 -35 6 54 93 % of total pet coke production retained on a 74 micron sieve. . % Volatile matter. Plant operators should be aware that when blending coal and pet coke. increased sulfurleyels (e.3 -6 Fluid coke Continuous fluidized-bed coking 4-8 87. uniform clinker quality. equipment. and operating costs. but when costs of transportation and preparation are included. quality 2.quantity and 2.4 .4 Overview of Solid Fuels Table 2·4 gives an overview of the major safety issues for the most common solid fuels used in cement plants in North America. the HGI of the pet coke should be higher (Le.5.4 8-9 0. % Ash. preheater buildup problems). in dollars per million kcal. or equivalent. the cost per million kcal at the burner tip may be substantially higher. Consistency is important to achieve stable kiln operation. easier to grind) than the coal since the pet coke fineness should be higher than the coal. Cement plant operations do not benefn from frequent changes of fuel source and fuel quality. and safe operations. shippmg and handling. the goal of 100% pet 2. the Hardgrove Index (HGI) of each fuel should be considered.4 7200 .quantity and quality • Compatibility of cI"Iemistry • Compatibility with an existmg facility and its equipment 2.6 3 5 2. The dollars per ton cost of a low grade fuel may appear to be attractive. Pet Coke C/assljictrtioll Delayed coke Production process Moisture.5 Fuel Selection The factors to be considered for fuel selection differ from plant to plant. burner design. % Sulfur.8500 7200 . kcal/kg HGI Semi-continuous delayed coking 0. and operational impacts. including fuel costs.3 . The major concerns with switching from bituminous coal to pet coke are. % Filced carbon. and mixing low sulfur coal with high sulfur pet coke is a very common practice.2 Consistency of supply .. and less than 1% retained on a 200 micron sieve for pure pet coke. • Cost • Consistency of supply . The most commonly considered factors are.0.Recommended GUidelines for Sdid Fuel Use In Cement Plants Tllble 2-3. coke usage may be achieved. Preferably.7800 55 1 5-7 7200 . coal mill capacity.5 2. Forcing operators to frequently adjUst to fuel changes is an Invitation to problems and accidents. % HHV..5. R . The high sulfur content In pet coke can llmlt its usage. Many cement plants start grinding pet coke at a low percentage in a coal I pet coke fuel blend They then gradually increase the proportion of pet coke depending on the flame shape in the kiln and preheater build up problems.1 Cost The governing cost to be considered is the cost at the burner tip. As plants learn from experience and make process adjustments and equipment modifications.

Power plants are the major consumers. and In pulverized coal settling in duel work or vessels. Power plants nave been using it for almost thirty years. Due to its high moisture and high volatile matter. BItuminous coal Most SUb-bituminous US coal is PRBcoal from Wyoming. Pet coke safety characterlsncs are similar to anthracite. it is not likely to undergo spontaneous ignition. Their experience can be a valuable source of information for cement plants. High sulfur content may limit its use. The usual precautions for handling pulverized coal should be applied. a high fineness (at least 95% passing 74 micron) is required in conjunction with a high momentum burner to achieve desired flame stability. however accidents still occasionally occur. it is not easy to ignite. . Solid Fuels Cement plant usage It is scarce and expensive. Cement plants have many decades of experience using it. . Anthracite Bituminous [oal is the most abundant coal and most commonly used in cement plants. and is not typically Safety issues used in US cement plants. It is very susceptible to spontaneous ignition and explosions. Many of the same precautions applied to PRBshould also be applied to lignite. it is uneconomical to transport long distances Due to its low volatile content. Production in the US is not significant.Chapter 1 . The usual precautions for handling pulverized coal should be applied. coal using it. Some cement plants in China and Vietnam are using it because it is locally available.SolId Fuel! Table 2-4. Ugnite Due to its low heating value. Spontaneous ignition in raw coal storage pile. it IS not easy to handle. Sub-bituminous Fire and explosion hazards preclude its widespread use with only a few cement plants Since it is very low in volatile matter and very hard. Good burning characterlstks. Pet coke is a by-product of the petroleum refining process Its supply is independent of Pet coke demand. PRBcoal weathers easily and is very reactive. bins. The small size and spherical shape of shot coke require good housekeeping to prevent personnel slipping and falling. Germany is the largest lignite producer in the world.

explosion mitigation. Chlorine. dust suppression. Sometimes kiln feed raw materials also contain sulfur.erent Solid Fue~.5. can increase the alkali chloride circu- lating load drastically. while coals below 50 HGI are generall~ difficult to grind. Items such as ventilation. Compatibility of chemistry (e.8 and 1. fire suppression. some plants operate with a higher oxygen level at 11 penalty of higher heat consumption. For more information on switching fuel types. Blending Diff. the top size ranges from 2S mm to 50 mm (1 in.2. grindabiltty. it is necessary to check the drying capability of the existing grinding syo. see Section 7.ty When a new type of fuel is considered. the challenge is to maintain good firing efficiency by grinding to the required fineness.).4 (omlpatibility with an existing fa.cili.. high mill inlet temperatures. it is important to verHy the total combined sulfur/alkali ratio in the material input to the kiln. if present. a harder to grind fuel). Therefore.5. 10 . or blending different fuels.2. • Volatile matter. When switching to a lower HGI (i.. gas ducts and cyclones.e. to 2 in. or build up problems may occur in the pre heater.015%. particle size. feed hood. content. loss of heat efficiency.) depending on the roller size. and build up problems in coal storage and transport systems. sulfur 3 contentiash content and chemistry. 2. and HHV should be reviewed. moisture content. Usually the total chlorine content in the kiln input materials should be limited to below 0.t@m_High~r moisture solid fuels can lead to: grinding capacity loss. • G. When changing from a high volatile fuel to a low volatile fuel. safe1y ssues are the most important concern. volatile matter. rhey may also need to Install more air blasters or cardox blasters along the kiln inlet chute. In some cases. For a roller mill.. There have been cases where kiln shell or preheater vessel corrosion is traced back to high chlorine content in the coal. When a fuel with moisture content higher than the existing solid fuel is considered. the feed size should be limited to 12 mm (1f2 in. • Moisture. and the cost to dispose of bypass dust may not juttify ths bypass instaUation unless other means are not effect~e. This is the primary challenge for plants considering the use of PRB coal. If th!>:gnnding system IS a ball mill. on a clinker bass. The glindability of coal is indicated in tile US by the Hardgrove Grindabillty Index (HGI). To combat high sulfur.6. • Particle size . w~en switching from a low volatile fuel to a high volatile ruel. and chlorine content) High sulfur coal and pet cokeere usually less expensive.rindabiUty.. the capacity of the coal mill should be checked to ensure that the required fineness can be maintained. should range between 0. the roller mill cannot handle dry and fine feed such as shot coke due to vibration problems. Usually the top size is S% of the grinding roll diameter. with a value of 55 representing average grinding' coal. The sulfur alkali ratio: condensation problems. operating conditions and procedures should be reviewed (these issues are explained in Chapters 3 and 7). Installing a sulfur bypass to remove excess sulfur can be effective but the extra equipment cost. Coals with a HGI above 60 are relatively easy tegrind.g.

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f the heat created by oxidation is not dissipated fast enough. sparks. Typically.e. In simple terms. high turbulence \I. Most of these ignition sources are visible and to some eKtentcontroliable.] Combustion Triangle Combustion i5 21 rapid chemical readion between oxygen and fuel. or by spontaneous ignition. I~ading 10 a runawi'ly Increase in temperature and ultimately. high temperatures. and finer fuel particles all Increas. by heal generated by friaion or sparks. about 10 kg of air is required to bum t kg of mal. resulting in the release of heat (exo1hermic reactions). in the so called combustion triangle. oxygen and ignition are the three necessary elements for combU5tion.xpected places and times.ing of combustion. Flom a practical standpoint. however.e the rate of combustion.. Fuel. These reactions are: • Conden. Condensation and adsorption are both reacnons that release heat.02 .. which is about 21 % oxygen and 78% nitrogen. the reactions are.Chapter 3 Fire and Explosion Hazards essential to ensure a safe operation.e. C + 02 2H2 t of C02 + Heat 2H20 + Heat Adsorption of water vapor by the coal. Spontaneous ignition however is usually the most difficult to detect and control and can occur at une. The process of spontaneous ignition develops slowly at first. Oxygen generally corras from air. Proper understand. and with an increase ill temperature. the fuel ignites. explosions and their prevention or mitigation is 3. spontaneous ignition. I FUOITYgeo Ignilioll To prevent a fire or explosion. 502 + Heat The intensity of these reactions increases with the rate of contact between fuel molecules and oxygen molecules \I.sation.2 Spontaneous Ignition If both oxygen and coal are present. S 01. rapid mixing) of the fuel and oxygen. Several reactions may cause healing that can lead to spontaneous ignition. OXldatlOn. is the primary means by which the coal ultimately reaches irs ignition ternperature. and Ch'" • Oxidation at the surface of a coaf partide. C ombustion of fuel prolJides one of tile most importallt energy sources for the production of cement clinker. . combustiOl1 can be initiated in many ways: by an open flame. at least aile of these el'ements must be eliminated. iFuel fire hazards are some of the most important safety issues cement plants face. heat accumulates and raises the material ternaersture. of water vapor onto the coal. the fate of airlfuel mixing). which In turn speeds up the oxidation reaction. high pressure. 3. this means that high concentrations of fuel and oxygen. a hot surface..

. Carbon monoxids liberation increases rapidly until 11 temperature of about 230eC (450°F) is reached. Extensive experimental work has been done on various dusts to determine these characteristics. an initial temperature increase of about lODe (l8°n can double the late of oxidation. Coal bunker or silo • Plugged hopper or stagnant fuel dust in equipment . 20L Laboratory app. G 3. Freshly pu. High fuel fineness of coal combu. The conditions thet favor spontaneous ignition are (leonard and Hardinge 1991): . Moisture • Pyrites Placeswhere these conditions are typically satisfied are: . With more fresh surface exposed.3 Co.. For some coals.. At these temperatures.3 lat~r in this chapter) • An o:<idizing atmosphere • A confined environment (although it is possible to have a destructive explosion in open air) • The presence of an ignition source In order to avoid the explosion penta. careful operation and monitoring of the system. Poor heat dissipation .~ecomn1f'Oded G uKlelitw.. The characteristics related to coal dust are covered in the next Sections.mbustible Dust Explosions The requirements for dust exploson are often called the "explOSion pentagon. • Freshly pulverized fuel • High temperature . when a fire may occur.1 Experimental set-up for combustible dusts The combustion and explosion properties of combustible dust are determined in the laboratory with special measurement set-ups. carbon monoxide and water are given off.' They include: • The presence of combustible dust • Dispersion or suspension of the dust ala concentration above the lower explosion limit and below the upper explosion lirnlt (see Sections 3. fine-ness and temperature. shown in Figure 3-1.3. Settled fuel dust In a V thermostat Quartz Outlet to duct or pipe - reservo. IOf Solid Fuel u~ In Cement Plants Coal oxidizes slowly at temperatures below 50"( (120 F) but oxidation increases at an increasing rate (aided by nigher temperatures) until the t@mpera. an understanding The critical temperature for bituminous coal is therefore between 50"( to 65"( (120"f to 150"F). Fres~ly ground coal will oxdize rapidlv.ture of the coal is about 100~C to 13S0( (21 O"F to 275°F) At about 13S"C (275°F).. such as the 20 llaboratory apparatus for determinetion of dust explOSIon characteristic. Fuel dust on surfaces due to 'Iedkage or poor housekeepinq Proper design 01 the equipment.. spontaneous heating wilillicrease rapidly unless preventivemeasures are taken (Leonard and Hardinge 1991). and good housekeeping are required to prevent spontaneous ignition 20 L laboratory apparatus for determination of dust eKplosio[l charactensncs Figurt 3-1... OKidizing atmosphere . .3.iI • Pulverized fuel bin . oxygen has a better chance of uniting with the coal and the total heat liberated can be substantially increased. The rate of oxidation of coal is extremely variable.3. 14 . Coal storage pile .lverlzed coal can undergo spontaneous ignition within 30 minu1es depending on the type of coal. The rate of o:<idation increases rapidly as the temperature increases.gon..stion and explosion characteri5tics is required.llro1lJs for determination of dust aplosion d!orac:lerisl jes (Harrll'ig arid Stt~'12004).

• The outlet valve of the test bomb IS opened and the coal-air mixture is Inlected to a pressure of 1 bar In the test bomb • The mixture is rapidly transferred to the bomb • The ignitor is energized.---1 Time[sl~ alld Stttlll004). 3.6. dpldt (the slope of the tangent to the curve).. and peak pressure (PeJ are recorded for each dust concentration.dP). Pigun 3-2. above. below. a series of explosion tests for coaVair mixtures are performed in a test vessel in a setup similar to the 20L apparatus shown in Figure 3-1.Chaple( 3 - fife anc! hplmion Hilzuds Some of the most important explosion charaderistics are explained below. Pmax.l:t:Drd oj pre>SlJtI in dust up/Olio" lest . The test procedure is as follows: The rate of pressure rise. and the lower portion shows the record of the pressure developed in the test bomb after ignition (during the explosion). under specified laboratory conditions. The rnanmum rate of pressure rise is the slope of the line on a graph of pressure increase versus time for the same test explosion. Jl.. is defined as the peak pressure that is produced when a dust is exploded inside a test vessel. dt tlP . and the explosion takes place • The procedure is repeated while varying the dust concentration in the coal-air mixture A pressure versus time graph for each coaValr mixture IS plotted as shown in Figure 3-2. At L 0."sel (Ha/twill . Todetermine these values for any given coal.2 Maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise The maximum explosion pressure. The upper portion of the graph shows the vessel being pressurized. The highest value of Pex is defined as PmilXr the maximum pressure peak. as shown in Figure 3·2. Figure 3-3 (Hattwig and Steen 2004) shows a plot of a series of pressure peaks. Pex at different coal dust concentrations. Both values are required to design explosion protection devIces for a coal grinding plant.3. • The 20 l test bomb is evacuated and the reservoir is pressurized to 20 bar Dust reservoir Begin of dust injection Ignition Explosion vessel Bar Rate of pressure rise: (.

s+.Recommended GUidelines for Sofid Fuel Use in Cement Plants Bar 10 Maximum explosion overpressure Prnax e <I'J (Il ::J (I) c. ' These values are listed along with the explosion classification and the lower explosion limit (LEL see Section 3. 1002 ed. dust concentration from a series of tests. w ~ 100~--~~-4--------~------~ a. which is lower than most coals • Ks1 <!: 200 bar. and Steen 2004). PRBcoal belongs to 1he St 2 dust explosion class.3 later) in Table 3-2. This is an important factor for designing explosion venting area. which is much higher than most coals a: ~ ~ !J) a. ] e> 0 c 0 -00 0 5 w a. Ph. It will therefore explode ill situations where bituminous coal would not. 1'S 1OOOglm3 1500 Dust concentration ami Just cottanlronan (Ihtrwig These characteristics demonstrate that the explosive characteristics of PR~ coal are very different from ordinary bituminous coal. x 500 1000 Table 3-1. The lower Explosion Limit (LEU and Kst for PRB coal reported by Kidman (Kidman 2005) are: • LEt = 20 g/m] (Michael Rodge~.). Kst is the maximum rate of pressure rise in a 1 m3 vessel and is expressed in units of barm. Prwllft (Ho/l'Wig Qlld explosion class St 1 St 2 ·Kst (bar m s-1) 0< Kst 5: 200 200 < Krt S 300 300 < Ks( S 800 Characteristics Weak to moderately pC1l1es III different coal dllst cOIlClmtrlllion$ Stun 2004). The Ks1 value is often used to classify explosive dusts into one of three classes. Rat« of pressure ris« (J/ld Sttell 2004). (I) This rate of pressure rlse is related to an important dustspecific explosibility characteristic: Kst. Dust Explosion CiassificatitJn glm3 1500 DList Dust concentration Figure 3·3. 16 . This result is shown in figure 3-4 (Hattwig. A coal dust with a higher Kst value develops higher explosion pressure.3. the (dpldt)maJC is determined by plotting (dpldt) vs. o 500 Figure H. as shown In Table 3-1.m/s. explosible Strongly exploslble Very strongly explosible Similarly. Guide for Venting of Deflagrations. BarIs St 3 200~--~------------------~ Maximum rate of pressure rise OJ 'C (Il t (dP) dt mlJJt Values of Pm~ and Kst have been published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) as "NFPA 68.D.

I High volatile bituminous coal Ul III a... pine <10 '21 151 67 1 32 - 10..3. . self-supporting flame propagation is no longer possible. The dust concentration for the explOSion pressure approaching zero is the lEL.0 9.0 L- L. Test results on bituminous coal dusts are shown in Figure 3-6.' ::l Q) L- I I I I /'.Dusl COIICt/llra/iou YS presrure (Cllslldollar 1996) ...4 Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOt) A plot of explosion pressure vs. '/ \. tile oxygen level should be kept below the LOC.t (bar-m/sec) 14 Dust hazard class 1 28 14 60 60 60 125 60 50 125 9. .2 7. 1 3.3 Lower Explosion The lower ezplosion limit of a dust-air mixture is the concentration of dust in a cloud below which. the dust could not be ignited.6 8. /\~CH4 7 6 a:l I I I I I I I I . activated Charcoal. wood COi'l1. air. 3. At even lower oxygen concentrations.Chapter 3 . the dust Ignites and burns at all coal concentrations above the lEl of about 80 glm3 . \ " »: \ - . 22 % H2O Soot. dust concentrations is shown in Figure 3-5: The lOC is the oxygen concentration at which a mixture of dust.: 5 0.9 < 10 Limit (LEL) - 25 . The data for coal dust In air are shown at the top of the figur~.0 7.7 K. _ To determine the limiting oxygen concentration for coal dust explosions in the ZO-l chamber (with the 2500-J ignjters). At 11 % O2.5.0 84. in spite of the presence of sufficiently strong ignition.I I II I I I I . In air. To inert a coal grmding circuit. coal dust only ignited in one out of eight tests. I I It! . It IS about 60 glm3 for bituminous coal.-_--- I Polyethylene .r 100 200 ill IIlr 0 0 300 400 500 Concentration.- . --_. and inert gas (with the readily ignitable dust concentration) an explosion is no longer possible.on Hazards Tobit 3-2 DefIagration Characteristics of Carbonaceolls DUst Mass medium diameter (IJm) Lower explosion (g/m3) limit Material Charcoal. Solid red dots denote explosions. the dusts are dispersed with various oxygennitrogen mixtures.3.4 10 129 47 1 1 1 24 15 lampblack lignite Peat.fire and Expl~. blue squares denote nonexplosions. g/m3 figure 3·. I .bituminous Coke petroleum Pma)C (bar) 7.

loud) Minimum Ignition ternperatcre is the lowest temperature of a hot surface at which the most easily ignitable mixture of the dust with air can be exploded. The followng results were carried out with bituminous coal dust in a 6.aL pressurized air Reservoir for 3. Section of fumace of the former U. which was especially designed and constructed for such investiga· trans.600 425 .S. Dfltrm ina ficin of Limifing Oryg"tn COllcen'ratiall (LOC) (Cashdllllar 1996). where the toel dust will thermally auto ignite.3.8 L leoSI fJlrnfJu (HfJUwig ilnd Sturl2004). SedIon 0{6.. for coal.Recommended Guklei II\I!S lor SClid Fuef use In Cemenl Plants • Explosion • No explosion Key InSUlation Dust --___. MIT .5 Minimum Ignition Temperature (MITc.Temp£Talure CorreftJ'10n (Suspended Celli) u.o. Clete Stephan reports the MIT for various grades of coal dusts as (Stephan undated): Table 3-3. a. Minimum Ignition 610 Coal Rank. Bureau of Mines Figure 3-7. Dr Type Pocahontas Seam bituminous Pittsburgh Seam bituminous Sub-bituminous blend (as received) Sub-bituminous blend (dried) TemperatureeC) The tests resulting in ignitions (solid red dots) and non- Ignitions (blue squares) are plotted on a graph (Figure 3-8) of initial furnace temperature versus dust cloud eoncentrstion (Hattwig and Steen 2004). as shown in Figure 3-7.555 lignite (as received) lignite (dried) 18 . G 525 . where the dust may be flammable but does not thermally auto igrlite_ The lowest point of the curve is defined as the Minimum Ignition Temperature. The solid curves the temperature boundary between the upper region of the graph.s.g/m3 FigMre J-6. MIT. and the lower region.r distribution nozzle Coal concenlraUon.560 475 455 450 .B L furnace of the Bureau of Mines. 530·( (990 F) (Cashdollar 2000).

W. at cloud. E Ql I- •• • •• •• • •• 550 •• • •• • •• • • • •• • •• • •• • •• • • • I 500 • •• •• • •• 450L_----~----~-----L----~------L-----~----~-----L----~ o 200 100 300 400 500 600 700 aoo 900 Concentration. For varying dust concentrations the ellergy. ThumalIg lIitability of Bituminous Coal. The energy of the spark is varied systematically. 7 bituminous 220 170 520 160 Note that for Pocahontas Seam bituminous coal.Temperature Correlation (Dust Layer) Minimum Ignition Temperature (DC) 33. liberated In the ignition Circuit is Coal Rank or Type Pocahontas Seam bituminous Pittsburgh Seam bituminous Rhode Island (Cramton) anthracite Illinois No. .Fire and Elploslon Hazards 700 Key • Ignition • Nonignltlon 650 o c ~ ~ 600 CII c. the MIT for a dust layer is 3900( (735°F) below that of a coal-air dust halved by variation of the charging voltage and the capacity until ignition no longer occurs in len subsequent @xperlrnsnts The MIE lies between the highest enprgy Wl. MIT . Stephan also provided the MIT for a coal dust layer (Stephan updated): Ta~le3-4.Chapter 3 . The dust to be investigated is suspended using air. The test IS performed in the modified Hartmann apparatus a) shown in Figure 3-9. The Ignition source is the spark discharge of a high voltage capacitor across a spark gap with a prolonged duration. glm3 Figuu J-8.6 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) (Hertzberg and Cashdollar 1987) The minimum ignition energy of a dust-air mixture is the lowest value of electncal energy stored in a capacitor sufficient to tgnite the easiest ignitable mixture of dust and aIr at atmospheric pressure and room temperature uSing a spark discharge between appropriate electrodes.

4 38.oal combustion and explosion characteristles Most explosion characteristics are defined at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. 91m3 (oa. For example. BllrI'manll Apparatus for the delerminalio. Minimum Ignition Energy.ll particle size Coal 2 particle size Coal 3 panicle size 19 urn 191. de·cr. after fewer than ten subsequent experiments. such as electrostatic charges.lm 6. TD. an ignition is observed: W1 < MIE< W2 temperature on the lower explosion limit presented in Table 3-5.tors affectingc. at which. The measurement is impor- tant when considering the elimination of ignition sources. • ta.8 30 30 26.s. The effects of increasing pressure and temperature ere summarized below.ble3-5.The result is expressed in Joule. decreases • LOC. and the lowest energy W2. 3.ln 19.eases MIE. Modifltd the MIBoJduJI·oi.9 73. an increase in temperature from 75°( (170°f) to 2000C (390~F) results in an order of magnitude reduction in the spartenergy required to initiate an explosion. A given mixture that is non-flammable at atmospheric pressure end temperature can become flammable at elevated pressure or temperature. It is Important 10 note that these characteristics will change with increased pressure or temperature. FiglJrt 3-9.auto-ignition point of a coaVdust mixture.87) H20 % matter % 53.8 Volatil.e carboll'*' 46. Although higher operating temperatures may not reach the thermal.3 50 125 60 50 40 200 20 . and are which in at least ten subsequent experiments no ignition occurs.3.7 Fac.l/ of mixtures (IfnHwig tllld Sleetl 2(114). decreases Modified Hartman Apparatus for th§! determination of the MIE of dust-air mixtures.7 100 150 SO 50 50 30 30 200 2.2 100 150 50 40 SO 200 0. at a coal dust concentration of 400 glm3. urnitedexperimentel data are available on the effect of initial for coal.lm 521.8 61. they greatly decrease the amount of energy required to irlitiate an explosion. Limiting Oxygen Concentration.2 f'txed Initial. Lower I Explosion limit. Temperature EJfet:R On Lower Ezp/tJ'sirm Limit (Weima. ~emperature"C Lower eJq)loslon limit.

. Some particle size influences have been investigated. However. However. panicle diammr vs MEC Cashdol'lar 1987).. Caution . It is known that as the furnace volume increases.::!: c5 0 ( T To ~ = any temperature in O( ..4 10.-. In addition to being the primary component of natural gas. Methane Carbon monoxide Hydrogen lower lim.r-r-r-rnr'-"'-""""""""TTT1. agricultural dusts.l!ar J996). vs dust grain size as shown in 3. It is known that these are more hazardous than a pure coal dusVair mixture (Barton 2002 and Tosunoglu and Schnsrre 2002).298 Where: (T (25 decrease.ume % 4. 500.3.it. The LEt is nearly constanttor dust particles below 100 IJm.5@s <Ire given below..should therelore be used when applymg laboratory data to industnal Sized furnaces. the LElin general does not have the same degree of significance in safety technology for dust doud5 as it does for gases. pm rlUSI 1000 The B·W equation is reasonably valid for a variety of coals. and chemical dusts (Hertzberg and Fjgur~3-10.--r-r1""""""T"""1"""""'" C 400 crt 273) '"' ~300 I = lean nammabiltty limit at any temperature T in (lie = = lean flammability limit at TO 2S 25°( = . Dust partides greater than 500 IJm are practically nonexplosible. Lower Explosion Limit. the concentration and temperatures required for ignition tures and lower explosion limits than ere noted below. have not been fully quantified. due to strong local and temporal fluctuations of the dust concentration and particle size dis· tribution.8 Flammable gases and hybrid mixtures When coal dust is mixed with CO or methane in the gas stream.ects of the psrtide size of the combustible dusts.9 Upper limit. O( 540 400 4. The explosion characteristics of hybrid dustlgas mixtures are not well known.00 . Explosion Limits For Common Flammable Gases In Air ExplOSion limits in air Ga. The effects of furnace volume. The release of methane can become iI hazard in an enclosed area where coal is handled or ground.fire and E~plosionl"iazilrd. Re!iE'archerscaution tnat two major uncertainties persist in the experimental data: th~ eff. volume % 17 76 77 Ignition temperature.w 2. such i35 reclaim tonnels or dump hoppers below grade. 6-7xlO-4"C-l 100 OL-~LLWW~~_w~~~~~uw o 10 100 Particle diameter. however. Pirrsburgh coal (Cllshdo.-. it becomes a hybrid explosive mixture. and the volume of the furnace used in the laboratory experiments. It is Importitnt to rote that combinations of coal and flammable gases 'Nil! have lower ignition tempera- Figure 3·10. or grinding.0 .)}x. rabl~ H. vol.Chapter 3 .l The modified Burge5S'-Wheeler (B-W) law is an empirical fO/mula that may be used to estimate the lower explosion limits (or lean flammilbilily limits) at elevated temperatures using Ihe nmit at room temperature (Hertzberg and Cashdollar 1987): Cr=C2sx{1-aX(T-To. Tne explo$ion lirnrs for some common flammable ga. handling. methane can be released from coal during unloading. for example the relationship of LEL.

530 20 .1 Dust concentraticns and fugitive dust ln 3.) While measures exist to protect against d@flagrations.6000 @ Noles 90 . these terms are defines as follows: " Defiagration: explosion which propagates with a velocity lower than the' speed of sound.it may be in the explosive range.. manholes.sentiaL • Pulverized coel storage should have mass flow design. Only in the case of a high efficiency cyclone discnarge. Researchers have determined the minimum ignition energy.Rro:JmfJJ!'Ilded Gudelillf'5 lor SoIld Fuel Use in Cement Plllnl5 A major hazard associated with coal handling facilities. In many cases I an initial explosion in a secti. conveyor skirts.ion. (This is to avoid spontaneous ignftion. there are no effective measures to prated against detonations.95% .efficilmcy 8aghouse inlet Coal pump discharge 22 . and peak pressures can reach about 20 bar (290 psi) (Foiles and Copelin 1995 and Zeeuwen 1!996). Be aware that. Therefore.55 35 . typically several vessels are connected with duct runs.230 8 .Loattion Coal mill vent duct Cyclone discharge Concentration graIn/ad 150 . • Any. a detonation occurs. it is difficult to assess the "Ioeal" dust concentration at any given point in the coal mill circuit . Detonation: eKplosion which propagates with a velodty higher than the speed oi sound.23 15 . Table 3·7. Many of the preventive actions lsted below are helpful to reduce fugitive dust and the ensuing chance of secondary explosions.230 2200. there is no guarantee that the baghouse collecting dust from the cyclone wiliexperience a higher dust concentration during a bag cleaning cycle when heavy dust loading is created on the dirty air side of the housing. Methane will often accumulate in spite of what appears to be adequate ventilation. Therefore. Suggested Preventati\le Actions: • Combustible material should not be allowed to arcurnulate in unintended areas. In addit. special safety precautions should be taken in areas Where the coal concentration is higher than the LEL. In indirect firing systems. tran sf er chutes. characterized by a shock wave." This occurs wnen a deflagra'tlon propagating through an interconnecting duct increases the pressure. Expl'osions that travel through a duct nol only spread a fire but can result in a phenomenon called "pressure piling. 1Ypical Coal Dus! Ccnrentnltjoll . so thtzy must be mmpletely avoided. is the possible formation of ane~plosiv@ atmosphere brought on by the accumulation of methane and coal dust.530 5000 .g. and peak pressures for douds of TNT dust and these values are similar to those of dust douds of natural organic materials.2600 Concentration g/m3 340 . it is still not a safe concentration for PRB coal.on of operating equipment dislodges fugitive coal dust in the area which creates an even larger and more devastating secondary explosion. e. Measurements of up to 2% methane have been recorded around chutes during unloading operations. coal miU circuits should always be considered explosive. is the dust concemraton below the LEL of bituminous coal. It is therefore extremely important to prevent an explosion because it is difficult to protect against the eftects of the initial and secondary explosion. especially in enclosed areas or tunnels such as rail unloading facilities. upper explosion limit5 fOf dust-air mixtures cannot be defined. Also of concern are secondary dust explosions.4.4 Explosion Prevention and Protection The term ~expJosion· refers to two separate types of eventsdeflagrationand detonation. Typical coal dust concentrations in a coal grinding plant are sl"Klwn in Table 3~7. the explasiveconQentration.leaks f rom access d oars. No stagnant pulverized coal mass should be allowed in any area. 3. In the European Standard EN 1127-'.oal mill systems Unlike gas-air mixtures. coal (Eckhoff 1995). Note. however. turbulence and temperature ahead of the flame front If the temperature increases to the auto-ignition point of the dU5Vair mixture. and connections should be sealed." (Hallwig and Steen 2004) c. Good housekeeping is es.

Inerting is very Important for the pulverized coal bin. the LOe for Coal Dust Suspensions is as listed in Table 3-8: area where pulverized rue I may A 3. 3.4. Inerying (or inert ga$ purging) refers to the use of gases such as N2 or C02 to displa.). Infrared detectors With alarms should be installed on and interlocked with the belt conveyors feeding the mill. Brown coal briquette dlJS1 Bituminous coal 17 Sub-bituminous 11 *' '5 *Caku/ated Further. so that the conveyor is stopped and the burning coal removed before it enters the mill. ANNEX C. etc. NFPA 69. • Routine process investigations conditions.2.2 Inert operation The use of an inert atmosphere is an effective primary measure to prevent an explosion. the system.4. • Thorough maintenance should be undsrtakan to maintain proper equipment condition and 10 locate and fix any leaks. 2002. ~ no continuous • Hot surf·aces - oxygen monitoring is provided. il Will . If leaks are not minimized. It is achieved by reduonq the o~gen content below the LOe (Limiting Oxygen Concentration) of the particular coal dust in the system. The o~gen level in the grinding circuit will increase because of false air-leakage through various points 01 the coal mill drcuil (e. 5. rotating parts.. mill under-table scrapers which bind and cause fncnon and hIgher than normal operating temperatures. • Dust suppression sprays should be used at dU5t genera. 2002. • Burning material.leaky doors.ce the oxygen in air.iving.• Transfer chutes should be designed for minimum dust not be possible to maintain an oxygen level below 11 %. Dry inert gas replaces the moisture and oxygen surrounding the coal particles and minimizes condensation and spontaneous IgnitIon. system. However. generation.e. These gases are injected mto storage areas. storing or grinding operations. aoo as the reet Preheater exhaust gas is normally used as both an inert gas heat source for drying in the coal mill in anindi· It is usually mixed wrth re.Limiling Oxidant Dust Brown coal Co.Burning or smoldering coal from a coal stockpile or raw coal day tank should not be allowed to gel into the coal mill.4 Control of igniltion source (Barton 2002) TtJble3~B. Elimination or control ot ignition sources is the most effective way to avoid explosions. The ~ffectlvenes) of the inerting qasesin decreasing order of effectiveness is CO. C02 is the most effective.llcent"rllticn N2/Air C01/AJr 15 12 1S 14 coal If there is no ignition.g. Other potential sources indude overheated bearings. • Compressed air should nor be used to blow off coal dust. • Effective ventilation and nuisance dust collection should be plOvided. toprevenl oxidation and spontaneous ignition.tlng points. The porennal iginition sources that must be considered are: • Open flames . controlling all potential sources of Ignition is very difficult. the oxygen level must be less than 60% of the performed. According 10 NFPA 69.4.5 states that oxygen concentrations at least 2% below the lOC should be maintained when oxygen is continuously monitored. cleaning air of the baghouse. The oxygen level should be continuously monitored in solid fuel grinding circUIts designed to operate In an "inert" atmosphere. or any coiled . should verify safe operating 3!. there should be no smoking whatsoever around any part of the coal rece.3 Inerting.g" inside a bag house after a crash stop.e for temperature control For a normal shutdown of a coal mill. airkxks. handling.cycled ga5 from the coal mill baghous. there can be no explosion. toe and periodic measurements must be The minimum ignition temperature (MIT) for coal dust occurring asa layer is about 1600( (3200F) A hot mill with coal dust setting on the grinding table can therefore start a fire. should be purged until there is no coal dust in thl:! gas before the system fan is shut down.This should be the masl controllable source. or C02 should be conSidered for pulverized coal bin aeration as opposed to compressed air [Cox 2005).7. For example. :> N2 :> noble ga)es. An inert gas such as N. or into components of the grinding system when they are not in operation.

pr~rl!$ . "iI'iIlng cflrlng QIlf'ri!'ln'l.De JIl]:lr~ ~!11'!i fI'IIN!i~.r.lfN:F5 f!Jf iii ~JemtQ'1 ~ljI:mu.nlti. gL.ll U~ ~ ~ oiJ1dfYlbalI ~ ~I~ 'tQnUIRed .n msy start IQ o.. qJtfl ·1 .HJc dli!ir~ ran brnfd UPon b. iP.!fi!i!l11'l< O!I c.md lRJil~ ba 'Ii .~rtd pr-~iQn Th~ $u[.'dfl dl rei (j11B'1A. 4. reQomrr'JIend 1.ttj ~ndmay rati nWbQantl.!il ~dld:Jiw1d bt: lPI-otf('f1. iM Pnm {i"I\!I.rrna~ Qf1 ~ \'eI1tJDg~~ 5«tioo :il.l~ el J W ~ '1J1e :5'~1t:fi~ ~lIJIJld be g.-"thm th~ ~I 1P~.I lQ iriWr~ '~t ttq .-dtl ~(p e~ru"i5.! ~.I!J ~t ~.ainmel1l ~Id liM! adoplPd ~ ~ 11'1I!! ~It! ~ ~ COOE'! tfotr th~ rnatii1lUTl f:_1i. DI Ijy 50 l'i4'in~1 D.KtJ .o rM coot. IIXIflI:9rilg I:.'tramlll me~ill 'the toM mil lM~ti( il£'Il'iir~~ ~ Int'tal ~tro~ ~ ~.~rr: ~ ~ fa 1.IM'Ij '!!I'oa~an iniIIrert tJirg 5'p[em be'de5Jgileil ~re o~CO. ~Ino~ ~!. ~ rr. bI!' oUllt fI"lle[(~ nment This me!hod ~ tto Cl.~0Ii lPi'M1!Jr~.i.fOfjTl oJ . so ~i1.lr<l~ pr~ Des~ p.In !.6. ~ @"i'OSICftn..i5 1 'I iI IlQI'Hfl('rt ~rill'dl ~i ~tt-m W1tn i/'I O"('I'~~ing ~ <1m ~n 2 ~ aU c:C!d'tJX!'flf'I'ts.1fiJi. ~ be ~ ftr ~r fll'lldJOnir'iIJ ~ cond.1m.I:aIl~~ionC!('p.rr.MliJN !Jf.lpfl1l!'l11.Ii :s. oOIYIta ~ ~propI!!~ li'Ii! ~ll.S ~n~ andft.1) 6.n~l!$i.etta:n pr~r. gas. III stiIN' ~ illPecpll~t 5hoo1d bI! 'ff~ ~~h ~tl'l" Ie ffi~ n tT~ tQm'b~ible Wt:fdir1G ilU'ienul'!ig be iR!ita! I!!d on 1b! (0'" the dDns ~n thf. 1rQt3lln~ p. a~ ~ IQ 'Ibio' 'iJln..o ~ jXM(Ier ~ P-OCE"S.R p~rty dn-grrd A I!~I mil.t.A6 &p~O$loii'i 'Wfl1lfi'LQ £)_pb!...4.\Wer .i."'(1~ ali"rIjX)rItllli ~id .YJd ~iU!ItIMil'iqt ~~ I:Je.ijI ~ ~ aL a pr!L'Ck:LefrMIed pr~e-.or so ¥e hk.!'1. thori:iU:. tl1!! i1H«r.~ Jli'~) IJ ~bwt 10 har ~ '4S ]:I5i ~wr(nal ~c~'A 85 mX.r.14~5 [!!t:5:i:91!l~(lf explCl5iolil prre55ure 0vrtalr-UIFiMI[ i 'iIJ.i!J1iOfI 0-1 u. IJIoII!r 'Wherr 'ih::' tiffl (~ 'XCUFolAti ~!fel'rt 61 PfQt~~ ~ ~ ~ 'ti... ~lf'IJing preswe ~oW11:M1 the -wfli!' r'i!l"~ of the presu~.llrii\lg.11'1il'l'j pr:M'd~' harM:IlinQ *trost.a& ~Iild~ . !li dMIg!'lO!llo rtel:!l[QllIgt!' ~iJ'~ 6l«t 1.p!il:n1:.. Ifo" J ~I :shi.MII'. tq!..[1'1 tbe ~ilton ~J ~ .ie. - 'hetoal9~ .t~ ~fStem Ian is 1htIl. cpl!f.Ii'i_ Th!'...w ~ 'rill: 'JfMt 'Cijlening:!l lhi!r\ IINl ~icrsion ~blh~ PlJrjXi$t lhl: ~ ~ bi: 15t~ ~It~. on I5i ~ !heM': moJt c:~ .Plirdom . !¥Ji j. 1~1I:C1n!i50~!th: diliwrgc' p.ay pro-'OCIJ:o ar !ui'U of w:'rt{~~ e~i'! to ignite an I!XP~ dIAL Cloud GrOlJliC.Ol ot !ipOri~ II!! ls (!flit ~ ~1Jl:i1.arbrln ~de dmKti'19 ti'l!.. ~J.]'IfirI.r::mpl~ r.If.of t~ 'ItIelB. MKI ".. from m.!~ o~.~ 01 ~n tKP~ 'I V(!ntir'1 i!"I:.oob~ ~ ~lurl!' rr:M' ~ R'1'1ting iii ~r 'I pU! "II ~ill lUres.":n!r.he· .ed!I!qUP'I'i¥I'it .he'l !ne ~ We(1~ sa'e<ty ~ of the ~ teI~~U( d~JQ~ wt ~ prmrn IlEgln5 Il:uld.!Iin'iliill~ ignition . bir) ior Wl~t Qr ~ble E'l~ prtml"t.t'lY 5..tng'i.lI!. 11 For cool du:U.t~ ~n f!!iJ)1osion 'IIII!' 111 OM mt.i'i~ ~l :rrN1iif 'f[ati\ il'tj1ip11l!!r'L .t.~~ ~ be F~ ~ OtctriGal ITi'!Iffl'd in lI]I}foC' delil'l in SOO_t(If1 B I~ ~ Th! Il!le(ilIk_j]~ I:I ~ i!' pLam ~ ~ ~.*~gp:o.!1 !Ii . the 5¥it~m iIi~er ~l.rtium ~J.and! fahric rh~r1l!1nd ~hPlabric fillW (few ~ iFifu."II ~ U-e dilrnage dooI!! to !he ~tfm dl.:rl i ~. . .Oft!!n caused 1rJ. Ii. IJhftI'l ifM~jJft 9lt!mdJl1gl~ern -shaJ1d OIl! dlEQed p"~II~ ~rnlfl9 dt99f1 'lechrdoiJ.~r!WI Iemwr.lll ~ ~osm n tN\~ C\'(m Liajg~ I""Iateri.:e-.mii 'or ~lecOOiJ pmonr'S and <l!C]!Jipmenl ~ j~ 1ff1~ ~~ oN 'MI~ Wt~. before. ilbrMl!YI ~Uiru.Itdt.~ vt'Ifilillg ~I~.DI1fMill.itil1helif!!!i ro t'lJot !lui! in lJ:w. perst.ion lFri'diW'!i Of' I{Nril:s e~~ !Xfi.d to 'oVI~ arr rntefnal <e"lplWoo J}Il'MJiUIe of ~ P51 (3 J. t~ ~ mill fm !:dt tar'l'!'t"j'Uli:!l '1111:' lo. rn&mtooify (iilrflt) Iroo.wi liftl ~r~i1.J eq\!!~t~.IA !oJ 1E'qlJpnei1l 'Nih r.1' OI't!.ng (ei!l1lilngJ -or pI-al1t Equ prnerriJ 15.t! W ~l1:r'11 ~1 Gl't~ in'.!Iil(!O~ tgl'iftiM IS ~pa ieG ". [dOM ng) . -ilnd objKu ne~l ~ cl~ d iN: acrutnulatodl ~ n 1M._ il'tJttdflg or ruttng.. !Il'!M!I. [ft.an ~. e_q)~ "iii! INiIll!1It mdk.'ti'II@n (orr!.!_ of iI dr!JIagJii!lIIII1_ II h 1"OOI'1! ~ID..li'l:Sljlfd 011.JI\ 't1J ~frfli!' i!I PI'i'J. eQlJ']:IrneTlt ~!.W::Ill~ R1JO mmlfl:e Of Itss. rQf ~br.krWrl ~ts permt il!le' saft ~ntir!g Ilf e1O~ pr~r5 m hfa. or l~ ~tiffl'l ~ be ~1JIPped \'.~ n::nn.

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cyclone. Explosion iisolation .n Cement Plants 1.Recommended GUldelm for Solid Fuel Use . 0 20~4). PlC detector Flame I Ir--- c:~ - AeINe isolation device - Equipment to be protected The most Widely used industrial explosion suppressant is monoammonium phosphate powder due to its wide range of effectiveness. Dust cloud / ~ Ignites Expl. Explosion detected . and conveyors.---'-_L__----'--J'-------o .4). Water is a cost effective suppressant for dusts with low KSI (less than 150 m barfs) values. Gull Pubtishil'lg. 3. sodium bicarbonate powder can be used.. HRD valve en DN 100 activated by pyrolLdlnU: initiator (Hartwig Ilnd Steen 2004). It IS Important to detect. Figure 3-1Z. piping.guT~ 3·ll. in the event that extensive clean up work must be avoided. Alternatively. reprinted with parmlsslcn.4. This can be done with explosion isolation devices.8 The major equipment in a coal grinding plant (mill. fam and storage bins) are connected as an integral system with ducts... Prjndpl4 of the ExplosiDn halatiDn (Hattwig and Stttn Z6 .. Dust Explosion Prevention and Proteclion. J.osion detector Nitrogen blanket Suppressor potecied volume Oust Ignites Inner wall of the 2.. equipment 4.Pri. chutes. obstruct. Suppressor activated inlo vessel Suppressor discharges to grow Fireball continues 3. Fireball extinguished Suppressant concentration sufficient 10eninguish elqllosion Fireball extinguished Pressure sensor Barton. or extinguish the flame front as near to the source as possible. FiRU'" 3·14.. An explosion initiated in one place can propagate along the connections to cause a larger. . bag house.Deteclor senses explosion Fireball grows cover Spreader nozzle F. isolate.--. 2002.ltiples of supprmion rBartDR 2002). secondary explosion in other (see "pressure piling" in Section 3. •.

arE!8Sin which explosive atmospheres may occasionally occur during normal operation.tures Pe. R = 1:. To minimize the risk of secondary explosion. = probability of an ignition source in the area of thE! explosion mixture S = extent • Zone 22: areas in whICh elCplosiveatmospheres seldom occur and if they do occur.3. be expressed as: Rex • Zone 20: areas in which ex:plosive atmospheres of flammable dusts in air can occur permanently for long periods or frequentlv. or S ." .9 Explosion risk assessment and management (Hattwig and Steen 2004) Risk is a probability statement defined by the frequency of certain expected damage and its extent. Tertiary Explosion ProtEction: Protection agamst the effects of an explosion should be considered to limit the hazard risK. can = (Pe) \Pi) (5) s whiCh should be less tha n Rg 21.4. Se~ondary Explosion Protection: Secondary explosion protection aims at minimiZing the risk of an ignition source occurring in an explosive mixture. Some of ths bask concepts are: • Good ventilation for removing explosive gases like methane and reducing the fuel concentration below the LEl • Reducing the degree of dust dispersion with dust suppression devices • Preventing dust accumulation through good housekeeping • Reducing tile amount of fugitive dust with good seal apparatus • Eliminating the areas for dust accumulation • Pneumaticallyoperated slide gates Examples of passive isolation devices: • Rotary airlocks • Screw conveyor with an internal baffle Choke screw conveyor Figure 3-15. The risk Rn is expressedas the product of the probability Pn of an event and the extent of its damage Sn zones as follows: The IotaI risk is the sum of all risks. aVOid the presence of ignition sources referred to in SectIOn 3.tertiary" explosion protections.Fire and ExplosIon Hazards Examplesof active isolation devices: • Extinguishing barriers "primary-." or . they are only for a short period. Protection against ignition hazards should therefore conSider the probabilities for the occurrence of explosive mix.usually called .secondary. Rn This corcept applied to the risk of dust explosion. Strew con~yor with inltrnal baffle (Hllttwig 1l1Id Stun • Good ventilation • Inert operation and Inerting (oxygen levels below 12%) • Use of gas analyzers to detect combustibles and oxygen level that automatically trigger protective measures. to within the acceptable risk Rg. Primary Explosion Protection: Primary Explosion protection aims at minimi2in~ the risk of explosion in the formative stage of an explosive mixture.Pe• Pi. For combustible dusts the probabilities are defined by 2OD4~ 3...Cnapler 3 . acceptable risk The purpose of explosion protection is to reduce one or more of these factors . PI! = local probability of the existence of an explosive mixture P. The damage effects of an explosion are mainly due to: • Shock waves of damage in case of ignition Rg ::.3. • ZOM Rex.

Recommendl!d Guidelines lor Sohd ~uel Use in CMlenl Planu • Debris ejection caused by explosion Impacts • Thermal flame radiation • Transmittance the plant of TobI13-W. The damage that can be caused by explosion pressure waves is quantified in the following tables: Table 3-9.17 0. the following be applied: • Design to contain explosion pressures measures can 5 25 • Explosion-pressure relief • ExploSion suppression • Exptmion de<oupling • Flame arrester The best protection for personnel is to restrict their presence within the explosion-hazard area. Effect of peak pressure Suen 2004) Maximum Oil df1mage level (Hattwig and peak presslJre (bar) Damage Gfass breakage 001 003 Light damage to buildings Severe damage to buildings 0.6 Damage to the ear drum Total destruction 10 a normal building 3 Damage to the lungs 28 .1 0. but by the resulting damage to the building and plants. Damage Ulused by the thermal radiatioll of an explosioll (&tlwig mill Steen 2004) Heat flow rate the explosion into other parts of Impad durations • Fire resulting from the explosion • Outflow of damage (kW/m2) 1 (seconds) Prolonged 30 90 Damage dangerous substances due to explosion dust Intense summer solar radiation Intense pain Irr~versibte damage to unprotected skin Skin blistering Ignition of wood 3 3 10 40 • Secondary dust explosions from dislodged To limit damaging affects. The majority of injuries are caused not by direct impacts.

Ai.Recommended Guidelrnes for Solid Fuel Use in Cement Plants MPS 250 BK mill in Calera. Pfeiffer AG . Photo provided courtesy of Gebr.

and the following preca.2 Conveying Elevators are not recommended for coal handling. pnxJudng more dust and the time required for spontaneous ignition to occur in a stockpile is typically 15 to 30 days as compared to 90 to 120 days for bituminous coal. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Even paper-ihln layers of coal dust represent an explosion hazard. and near pulverizers.Chapter 4 Fuel Handling and Safety Issues' F uel handling. is a significant problem that can occur a~ywhere along the coal handling system at a cement plant. Accumulation needs special attention because of dust generation and the re5ulting of fugitive coal dust.1 Unloading Somedesign highlights for a coal unloading station are: • The building for the unloading station should be designed to avoid dust accumulation on the framing members • Siding and structure should be painted a light color so that coal dust can be detected and removed • Provide water spnnders for deeming. 4. Some design highlights are: • Minimize the number of transfer points • Maintain 80-85% of the theoretical belt capacity and reduce belt speed • Use conveyor belts that will transport coal without the belts cracking or deteriorating • Use an effective belt cleaner or if necessary. 4. coal spillage. It is virtually impossible to avoid coal build ups in the bottom (boot) of an elevator. and chute plugging. dedusting and lighting systems in underground tunnels conveyor galleries • The conveyor system should be able to handle cool without breakage.utions should be strictly adhered to. (Sprinklers capture suspended coal particles and also sene remaining coal. A water wash down system can also be used for cleaning provided the wash water is captured and treated before discharge) • Provide a dust suppression system for the unloading hopper • Provide combustible gas (methane) detection with alarms • Ensure good ventilation. For earnple. Coal breakage can lead to dust generation. conveyor transfer houses.2. flecognition of this hazard and the importance of its continual mitigation cannot be over emphasized. MSHA has found coal dust accumulations in cement plant rail car unloading buildings. methane release and an increase in coal surface area . These problems are even more pronounced when handling PRB coal.1 Belt conveyor The belt conveyor system should be designed to provide a reliable and dust free operation. Handling PRB is therefore more hazardous. use multiple belt cleaners • Use fully enclosed conveyors • Provide wash-down facilities in the 4. risk of self Ignition. from receipt to coruumption. has an increased tendency to weather. The risks and safety precautions vary for different types of coal. Problems frequently encountered include: fugitive dust.

ign (Kidman2tHlS). An example of dustless transfer technology is theinstaliation .. Together with 3 properly designed skirt board seal..zine 2004). A tightly spaced impact idler assembly will form a flat belt surface. Prov. Computer simulation can determine the locatJionsand shape of the deflection plate or liners and the . 3. 4·1.er Maga.2 . I at Wyodak Power Plant in Wyoming (Pov.angle of the chute needed to achieve the best results Air Control Science Dustless Transfer Figure4-3.iellcedus/lesslrilns!tr (KUman 2005 and Wiedenhuu 2003). • Provide a reliable seal at the transfer point with suitable impact idlers and skirt board design. Colledion flOod loc'tltirmdts.zone Collection Hood Location Design Figu"..DrJSflw rrnusjerclrult (Wildenl. as shown in Figure 4-1 !Kidman 2005) • Use passive dust control techniques developed with Discrete Element Modeling (iDEM) to design transfer chutes that reduce dust generation and allow for ·efficient mass flow (Wiedenhues 2003).uu 2003).. Dust settling. dust leaks win be minlmeed I Install dry fog spray in thelransfer hood to suppress dust Figurr ~~2.ide personnel access on both sides of the conveyor that is adequate for inspection and dean up of coal spilla.ge • Provide effective dedusting for transfer points. The goal is to keep the dust in the hood with minimum suction.Air Omlro/ Sr.

ssive dust controls using a recirculation compartment Figurr U. Fogging System Design Diagram Fiprt 4-1. Fogging SJ'jftmduif11 dlnrram (Kidm(ln 2005) .S.. (A.ramf"rhur.ir C01llWr Seienu figwrt f. BJfettivt'skir' bDardsta' (Solid Syrtems EI/ginrering 2006).fuel Handling and RelatKi Salew ISlues Dust curtains Pa.Chapter 4 . . .lOaling sttthmrnrdmimllarion clwmb" 0/ Z006)..

------------1 . to 24 ln. the (ontrol panel will trip the conveyor belt and activate the water sprays. of irrfr(lrrd drtrctllrs and alingui1hing • If a fire is suspected inside a screw conveyor. storage time longer than that needed for spontaneous ignition) the coal pile should be compacted with rubber tired. it can be extinguished before the coal IS discharged into the transfer point In the figure below. do not remove any inspection covers until you are sure the fire is extinguished and equipment and material have cooled to near ambient temperature 4.1 Guidel'ines for coal stockpiles figure 4-9. Mell1l Jetttl(lr. Water sprays can also be ins-talled on the belt to extinguish embers that are detected... For example: • Coal stockpiles foster spontaneous ignition • Coal is subject to weathering. • For long-term storage (i. Once an ember is detected.2. . such runoff discharge esp~lally jf exposed to the as. This layering should 34 .----------12009 1 Spray Zone 2 Detect Zone 2 Spray 4.e. Control panel entering the system.. fugitive dust and water 4.Recanmendi!d GuQlines for Sorld Fuel Use in Cemenl Pldols Provide infrared monitors on reclaim belt conveyors to detect burning embers and to prevent dumping burning coal into a bunker or into a mill.aljon fysf~m (Acmsillm 2005).3 Storage Storage of raw coal has many inherent problems. If the ember can still be detected once jt reaches the Zone 2 detector. Typical jtutall.-----1 Zone I Detect .3. Zone 1 is instaUed dose to the tail pulley and Zone 2 is installed dose to the head pulley..2 Screw conveyor • A screw conveyor that handles pulverized coal should designed to withstand 50 psig and have no internal be hanger bearings • Bolted connections and inspection doors should have gaskets to prevent dust leal:s FigwrI! 4-8. • Install a magnetic separator and metal detector on the mill feed conveyor. elements • Environmen1al concerns. While the magnetic separator is effective for removing ferrous magnetic metals.. a metal detector is needed to prevent non-magnetic metals from Infrared monitors should be located upstream of a transfer point or discharge point.) layers. heavy vehicles in 300 mm to 600 rrm (12 in.

and Dantoin 2003). a vent dust collector. The injection points should be located at various levels so that the suppression agent can reach any location within the bin • install an inert gas blanket.Fue1Handling and Related Safely Ilsut'5 stop ail circulation w~hin the pite and minimize the chance for spontaneous ignition • The internal surface of the bin should be smooth and free ofimperfedions such as welds. Hossfield.3 Pulverized coal bin • The pulverized coal bin should be construded to withstand 50 psig as noted in NFPA 85 • The configuration should be designed for mass flow to ensure no stagnant coal remains in the vessel • Internal surfaces should be smooth and free of any obstructions • The vessel should be capable of being Inerted.2) • Install infrared cameras and TV cameras to monitor hot spots in tile pile • Provide an open-sided cover or storage dome • Conduct routine visual inspections at least daily PRBcoal is easily weathered and degraded when subject to wind and rain.Chapter 4.). etc • The coal bin should be supported on load cells or another device should be used for level indication or control • Install carbon monoxide monitors and alarm to acknowledge incipient spontaneous ignition • Install fire suppression sprays for application of fire fighting agents (see Chapter 11). High moisture can cause plugging and build up problems. stiffeners. the vessel should be insulated to prevent condensation or radiant heating • Motion detectors should be provided on all rotary valves to ensure the movement of coal occurs as designed 4. A fuel dosing system should meet the following requirements: Figure 4-11. PRBand other sub-bituminous coals should be stored under cover.s steel) on the cone to assist and ensure mass flow • Ease of calibration • Low maintenance • Robust and compact . • High accuracy • High repeatability • High reliability • The bin discharge opening should be large enough to be tree from bridging • Apply linings (such as polished stainles.term s10rage pile to minimize the penetratJon of water and air • StocKpile perimeters should be accessible from all sides so mobile equipment can extinguish hot spots. Preferably. Have fire piercing rods available to fight fires (see Section 11. wall friction coefficient.2 Coal mill feed bin. and impair grinding operations. should be determined by tests and used as the design basis (McAtee. The flow characteristics of the coat (angle of repose. Mtlss flqW bit] willi Jletp cone tingle.4 Dosing and Transport A pulverized (oal dosing system plays a very important role in pyroprocess control since kUn operators control kiln conditions by adjusting the fuel rate. 4. and temperature measurement devices • If environmental conditions warrant. 4.3.ing system in case the silo cannot be emptied during a prolonged shutdown • Air cannons and heat blankets are not recommended for clean out of blockages 01 coal buildup • Crusting material can be sprayed on the top surface of the long. bin aeration should be done with inert gases such as N2 or C02 • The bin should be provided with explosion vents. Preferably. etc. flanges. CO monitors.3. Coal mill feed bins should be designed for mass flow to avoid stagnant material within the bin..

d fuel metering and pneumatic conveying systems.!r mID' arra"gtmtnt (Pftsur G!n.isnot runnin9 • Limit the pu!verized coal transport prartkel dstanceas much as system stability and equipment .steadyairflow without pulsation • Prevent fire flashbacks when the blower .12. Keep the transport air to coal mass ratio less then 6 to 1 .1»pic/I/ Pfist. The coal dosing system WIll affect both productivIty and safety througn • Use a transport air blower that de-live-rsa. it is recommended to: • Use a transport pipeline with a smooth interior and long radius 'elbows._.reliability. from Blower o III o 00 3200 Figure 4-I2.r 1999). Ensure an air velocity in the transport pipe ranging between 2B-33 mls .Recommended Guldenne-sfor Solid fuel Use In Cement Plants A traditional impact flow meter in combination with a pneumatic pump seldom meets the requirements_ Recent cement plant installations use rotor type pulverized soli.bH2006nnd EllrtmUJb. and avoid areas whE!re coal can collect Two typical arrangements of a rotor typE! metering device are shown in FigU1e 4-1l.__. 36 .400 8 __Bu~ . For coal I transport systems. Keep the transport pipe routing either horizontal or ver1ical 11.

.cooss space lor horimntallOtary ..' 165 \ AequJrad malnlenancwa. . s~eallflg force lrom ptil'Chase~s pipe Fnu': BkN A-A others others figure 4-J3.fuel Ha ndJill9 .. ~ Lining wiI. 3500 ~~ :!I Let flange Max.7."~ . (Schenck Precess Gmb.Chaple( • . Fti 544&'GB '0 7 I .h stainless steel eec.H2006 IlIId Rupp alld Grunewald 1999). TYpicalMultitar·CoriolliIudtr ../I ~dRe Iii !ed Safety ISSUe! .

Photo provided courtesy of Gebr. TX.RPcomlTl@ndllri GuIOOiil1l1S Sdid FueillSI! In Cement Planl5 fa MPS 200 BK mill ill Midlothian. Pfeiffer AG .

5 to 3. Damage to equipment IS usually confined to the mill fan. The conveying air (primary air) is usually around 2. 5.e. thus redudng the overall heat effICiency of the pyroprocessing system. .• rage.. Since the coal conveying air IS also the primary air. Each percentage increase in primary air will increase the heat consumption by about 1. st. The hot air dust trap (cydone) should gel Into the mill. An explosion that occurs durrng operation Will usually initiate in the mill.1 Direct Firing This is the simplest system.Chapter 5 Solid Fuel Pulverizing Systems and Safety Issues S ~lj~. It is therefore very important to prevent any tramp metal lrom storage low level Mill system fan Emergency_? chute ---':':':. This is the primary drawback of the direct firing system. from entenng the mill or allowing coal to accumulate under function properly so that hot clinker cannot Fi:ur£ S-l. A suitable amount of hot gas or air is needed for the mill to dry RawcoaJ the coal and carry the pulverized coal from the mill. without riser fuel burning or burning in the celdner vessel). large quantities of primary air will limit the use of high temperature secondary air from the clinker cooler. The coal mill fan also serves as the primary air fan and dehvers t~e conveYing air and fuel mixture directly to the burner.5 kc:al/kg dinker In a system with 100% firing in the kiln (i. The coal is dried and pulverized in the mill. Systems can also be hybrid~ of direct and indirect 5ystem~..ment plants <an be classified a.. and firing .fuel preparation. The advantage of the direct tiring system is that it is the safest and most reliable of the three systems mentioned. Since the combustion air required is about 10 kg airll:g coal the primary air for a direct firing system is about 25 to 30% of total combustion air requirements.y~tem' in ~.. Raw coal is withdrawn from a feed bin with a weigh feeder and IS fed to the mill through an airlock. rystl!Jll.':':=---:Ifu2l='--+~ Bleed air damper Hot air ~- . the system cannot funaion with Inert gas. direct fired or indirect fired depending on how the pulverized fuel IS stored and conveyed to the burner.0 kg airlkg coal. TJpiul direc' find the grinding table.

culated 9'as limits drying capacity. as shown in Figure 5·2. the serni-cirect firing system was developed. the advantage of a s~m-direct system to limit primary air normally does not justify the added in)tallationex~ense or the additional risk of fires or explosions.~lm5·1.r find system.Rt'commeMed G udehnes lor Sobd liJel Use: In Cement Plants 5. The operation of a seml-drect system needs special attention in IhefoUowing areas: • Cyclone efficiency should be high enough to limit the dust loading of recycle gas below the lEL (lower ezploslon lim~) corcentrauon • Ihe extent of recirculation by the feed mOIS' ture since low temperature and the moisture in the redrIS governed Solid fuel from storage Mill system fan Solid fuel bin Solid fuel mill F. 1)piw/ stmi-dim. Feed moisture should not exceed design values or the required mill inlet hot gas temperature will be too high to permit any significant amount of recyde • Recycle gas quantity should be limited to mntral the dewpoint Given these limitations.2 Semi-direct Firing To reduce the amount of primary air. 40 . This system recycles pari of the mill vent air.

VENT I RAW CQ.---.OJ. TypiraJ indirec/ fir~d system. -.Chaplfr 5 . ---J I ROTARY I~~ QI ROTARY FEfOER I :---Figure 5-3. • Better flame control • Use of a single mill for multiple firing points • Low primary air ~OSION ___ u-e---"ll0STACK T-~o'" ~J .-------------.--------.3 Indirect Firing The majority of modern cement plants use indirect firing for thefollowing reasons: • More flexibility for changing fuels • The storage of pulverized fuel can provide greater kiln stability A typical indirect firing system is shown in Figure 5. Sometimes the system includes a cyclone before the baghouse.----.3 The figure shows that coal is directly taken to the baghouse.--10PT1CINAt ) .Solid Fuel PulveriZIng liy\teml and Safely Iss~es 5. )1>---- ~~--~ WATER SPRAY COO'AlNeR l~ruI) ~ ISOlAllON GATE ll~ DAMPER REJECT FlUIDIZATION .

when over-dried. the pulverized coal bin should be completely emptied. the first task should be to cut off the 5UPP~of oxygen. bplosion vents can be installed in the ductwork and other equipment to avoid pressure increases beyond the dflsign pressure The following considerations will help to reduce the inherent risks of operating Indirect fired systems: 5.slun and hyilrDscopic moiltun (Paul20D4). A typical residual moisture and coal mill discharge temperature relationship is shown figure 5·5. • It is important to perform regular checks on the bin to ensure there are no ambient air leaks which could lead to oxidation • Combustible gases in the prel1eater gas (when preheater gases are used for drying). whicn could increase the coal temperature to the point of ignition. Explosion isolation techniques can be applied to the mill. Relationship brtwttrl coal residual moi. 12 ~ 10 • The cyclone and baghouse hoppers should be designed to avoid build ups of coal dust • Gas ducts should be designed to prevent dust settlement during operation • Inert conditions should be maintained whenever there is coal dust In the system. It should be inerted with C02 or N2 after shutdown • If high CO levels occur. Drying can be accomplished in a separate dryer but is typically accomplished simultaneously in the grinding mill. If this is not possible. § = £ C III III 8 ·0 ii "iii ~ E III ::l "U c: 00 5 10 15 Hydroscopic mdshJre(%) 20 25 Figure 5-4.4 Solid Fuel Drying Solid fuel preparation normally Involves two operations. Pulverized coal dust. the operation needs a grinding mill and a hot gas source. It is important that this be established 42 . respectively. A relationsbip is given by Paul in Figure 5-4. Therefore. It is important to maintain residual moisture in pulverized coal.Recommended Gurdeh~ 1000SoIdFuel Use in Cement Planl5 The equipment downstream of the mill is vulnerable to fires andlor explosmns. lower grade coal with higher inherent moisture should have higher residual moisture. More information on design and operating considerations to redlJce the risk of explosions and fires in indirect fired systems are gIven in Chapters 6 and 7. and slrrultaneously introduce an inert gas (C02 or N2). relea5illg heat. cyclone and bag house so thaI if an explosion takes place in one piece of equipment it will not propagate to other adjacent pieces of equipment. will absorb moisture from the surrounding gas. such as aeration air. the amount of residual moisture depends on the type and grade of coal. should be monitored since coal dust can form a dangerous hybrid explcsive mixture when mixed with other combustible gases. the baghouse vent should have an oxygen monitor to make sure the oxygen level does not exceed 10% • The inening system should be connected to the required equipment in order to maintain an inert condition during shutdown while there is coal dust in the equipment • CO monitors and temperature sensors should be provided in the dust collector and pulverized coal bin for detection of spontaneous ignition • For scheduled shutdowns. drying and grinding. In systems designed to operate as inert systems. The residual moisture can be controlled by adjusting the vent temperature at the coal mill discharge. especially the baghouse.

_~r------------------------------' ~. a coal with inherent moisture of 15% should be dried to 8% residual mosturs. The vent temperature required will be about 63°( (145"F). .5.l 50 60 70 80 90 Drying temperature (DC) le. Cott! mill dileha'll 2004)."ptrtJhm~s 100 110 Figllrl5. residual moisfurt (Paul Forexample. "8 25 <.(hap 11"15 . 1l"1m d nd Sa r Ply I~ue~ with tests for each individual application as residual rnoismre is atso a functIon of the coal moisture before drying.SQlid FUE'lPuiverizi ~g Sr.

Inc. 44 . Photo provided courtesy of Loesche America.2D Loesch« conl mill in HumhoMt. KS.RtKOIT1Il'IEflded GOOe! nes for Solid ~1Je1LIle In Cement Plants 11lSta/Jation of an LM 19.

or 6. Grinding Figure of gr.losions are more likely to occur during these operations. a solid fuel prepara.y be better equipped to either operate and troubleshoot to improve and upgrade the process. 6.ftpresents or project p'lanning of new general' enginee!ring design principl'es so that plant engi.oll . However. If several alternate fuels are possible. Grinding capacity is determined bV t_he factors shown in Figure 6-1. and changing fuel costs.Chapter 6 Engineering Design of Pulverized Solid Fuel Systems T hiS section is addressed to engineers involved in prccesslmprovernents cement plants. it is safer to use the Fuel heating' value fuel with the lowest heating value relative to its grindability (HGt) for the design or a solid fuel system."dillg capacity. Mill operating time is an Important factor in an indired firing s~stem. Dl!lermilllll. Indirect firing systems. test and reported as the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HG1).neers ma.2 Coal Mill Size Coal mill size is determined by the gnnding power required.tlon and firing system. the grinding mill is sized capacrty 6-1.ign capacity. The heat consumption should be based on the guaranteed value plus an additional margin of 5-10%. The grindability for coal and petcoke is determined by using the Hardgrove grinding. therefore carefully consider the siZing reqtnraneats of the mill and pulverized fuel storage. and the gas flow rate through the mill body and air sepa· rator. have [ower equipment availability as compared to direct firing because of the increased amount of equipment. The mill size is determined by the equipmerlt supplier based on the grindability of the solid fuel sample and product specifications proVided by the customer. not just the des. Clinker prodocton I I Clinker production capacity should be considered based on the ultimate potential of the pyroproce5sing system. The design of the coal system should be able to accommodate all foreseeebe pos"Sibilities. their sources.] System Capacity A new solid fuel grinding system should take into account the vanous alternatives offersd by fuel types. It i) safer to run the mill as long as possible to avoid multiple start-ups and shutdowns since fires or exp.

46 . Cp 0.25 1 610 15000 1224 136 80 80 Hot gas Leakage Grinding TOTAL 1750 750 l35 2S 0.25 kPa 15% of vent System false air 20Ge Base temp: Based on: INPUT 1 ton coal OUTPUT Kg Dry coal Moisture 1000 Temp.25 0. dry Feed moisture Residual moisture Feed temperature Grindability Mill vent Mill vent temperature Mill outlet pressure Mill radiation loss Value 500 m ASL ZsoC 15 tIh 12% 6. 'I)picot/real & mass bGIIlIlct! calculation.25 1 Kcal Kg Dry coal Moisture Temp. The mill inlet hot gas temperature in this particular care is calculated at 235°(_ sOGe 66. Table 6-1. A sample calculation of a typical H&MB is given in Table 6-1.Rewnmended GUldehnes fOl SolId Fuel Use In (emenl Plants Grindabilily ~ Feed size and product fineness ~ Grinding power ~ ~ Mill size and motor size Grinding capacity ~ ~ Hoi gas source Gas now ~ Feed mol5lure Figllr' 1>-2. choose between direct and indirect systemss.3 Heat and Material Balance for a Coal Mill System A heat and material balance (H&MB) is necessary to design operating conditions.5 ktg airlkg coal determine the heat required for the system. Given the information in Table 6-1. the H&MB is used to 2% Same as ambient 13 kWhlt 2. D"'rmimll/(jll of tOrr/mill sizto oy its ability to produce suffident grinding power (In terms of kW or hpj needed for pulveming. Coal mill suppliers have developed their own test methods to determine the required power (kWh/t) relative to HGI in order to size mills based on required Fineness.24 5000 127957 127957 Figure 6-3. Input Jata for H & MB Item Plant elevation Ambient temperature Capacity. Cp Kcal 25 2S 1250 682 113946 1000 20 116 80 0. determine new equipment sizes. and also for trouble shooting.24 Evaporation Air Radiation TOTAL 70733 36000 900 11180 2500 0.

a hot air flow at 3.OS24) + 91. 10 Total moisture in the vent (1-15%) (25) 100~----~----~----~----~L---~ 20 15 Feed moisture.. with 45% recirculation. 25 YlIrl 30 Figure 6'0_ Dmrmilloni:m of dell/point from [ud mai~llIrr amI ~ 240 " ~231 220 210 ~L---~~---L----~----L---~----~ 10 15 00 25 5 The vent gas Quantity shown on the graph IS the gas vented to the atmosphere. higher inlet temperatures will be required.Okg alrhg coal lAiJllnlel Temp.5 kglkg coal 0.+ 0 02 = 00824 (1-2%) " 65 60 ~55 oJ kg Ikgail" Figurt6-4_ Dettrmirrotlrm Df mill inlEt lJ!mptrl1turl. For feed moisture of over 20%. as can be seen in the Figure 6-5.--'.353 Gas Dew POints vs. Under this condition. causing spontaneous ignition.ill inlet umperatur« with i. it is important to know the Inlel gas temperature required for a given feed mostors. with 3000( as lhe inlet lemperature design limit. the actual vent will be only 1 9 kglkg.5 kglkg.993'" Ln(O.. (%) Figure 6-5_ Illcrean i" ".aoo ~ 250 200 150 5 .(%1 glls qUflntity. The dew pomtis :: '6. Mllliriel Temp YS.5 kglkg coal is required to keep the temperature below the limit A direct firing system is very Inefficient handling solid fuel with high moisture.3..%) ( 25 30 -'. In an indirect system.•• . In order to keep the dewpoint below 50·(. Condensation may also cause corrosion of the baghouse and other system compo- nents (ducts. F9Dd Moisture Feed moisture: 15% 2% 2. 550 it ~ 45 (!l 8.3. less the amount of recycled air. 2111 270 200~------------~----------------.~.1 Mill inlet temperature Forsafety reasons. A high dewpoint may cause condensation and result in pulverized coal accumuation.. and the gas temperature at 30C( . the mill fan to draw in hot air. With 20% feed moisture. Feed Moisture = 49 D ( The operator should be aware that leaks in the mill will require raising the temperature at the coal mill inlet to maintain the required drying capacity. 11 stmul1aneously reduces the ability of. the dewpoint will be 58°(. It is the mill vent as FaJsealr. If the mill vent is 3. The calculations in Figure 6-4 were done using the model shown in Figure 6-3. 450 400 .. chutes etc) which can then pose 11 risk for false air and containment The dewpOint as related to the feed moisture at different vent air quantities can be calculated as folows: &ijr-------------------------------.Chapter 6 . It is recommended that the dewpoint be kept below 50·( above the dewpoinl. 0/$.2 Dewpoint of vent gas The dewpoint of the pulverizer eKhaust gas in an Indired system should be carefully monitored. As false air increases. False Level 1a 40 35 31l ~2m Ii ~ 250 0 5 10 15 20 Feed mcisture. 6. no recirculation is possible.02 kglkg g3S.reasiJlgfalse air.Engineering Design of Pu!'lenzed Solid Fuel SVSlems 6. illr Residue moisture: Vent air: Moisture content of saturated a ir at 25°C: Psso ci S! E.

grain loading of about 200 to 300 g/m3 • The static pressure for the tan should consider mill inlet pressure..4.. the recycle rate can be as high as 50%.2 Cyclone ~-I • Cvclone efficiency should be greater than 95% • Cydone housing should be designed for 50 psig • Explosion relief should be provided • Conical hopper should have a slope of at least 75 0 figurt 6-7 Dtttrmi"at. fan should have non-sparking rims 'c o c ~ 1f% 10% 8.. I. • Service isolation gate should be provided 48 .. and dry.3 Oxygen level of an inert system The common hot gas source for an indirect.Recommendl'd GuidelirleS for Sohd fuel Use m Cement Manis 6... _-. it Will be necessary to design for a 50 psig housing.. and partial fan blade liners are adequate • The milll. The oxygen content in the prehea1er exhaust usually ranges from 3% to 7%.t· If the fan is after a baghouse. 14% of!. Most vertical mills for fuel grtnding are operated at an exit to know the impact of recirculation on the system oxygen leveL If redrculation must be limited. Recirculation gas is normally used for tempering the mill exit temperature to an acceptable level.----------------. . It is preferable to extract the gas immediately after th~ pre heater so that the gas IS both hot The graph in Figure 6·7 shows that with system leakage below 20%.oll IIlIIoun'._--'-:---(l-R) . water can be sprayed onto the grinding table or at the gas inlet to the mill to control the mill temperature The oxygen level of the recirculation circuit can be calculated using an oK)'gen balance: O11'e/lf where: (1-R-F)xlI+Fx021 = .3. is therefore important 6..4..... a fan speed less than 1200 rpm._% Recycle 6. • If the fan IS after a cyclone. and heavy-duty replaceable liners may be [Kceptab!e 13% .. therefore minimum air requirements for the mill are about 2. The prehealer gas temperature ranges from 2800( to 400"( depending on the number of cyclone stages and the efficiency of the cyclones.1 m3lkg coal.. Oxygen Level vs.•.. ' .. a fan speed less than '800 rpm. and water vapor from evaporation under worst case conditions • The maximum design grain loading out of a vertical mill or coal grinding system is 475 gtm3.D. This provides optimum flexibility fm temperature control. inert system IS the preheater e)(haust gas. a fan speed less than 900 rpm. Recycle 15% .. and hea\IY-duty replaceable liners HoIGas~5% False AIr 3C% ' . . all of course depending on the location of the fan R = % of recycle of vent F = % of false air of vent a = % of oxygen in hot gas • It is recommended that the fan be sized for 10% in excess of design volumetric flow and 25% in excess of expected normal operating pressure • If the The oxygen levels versus recycle at different false air Infiltration rates Is shown in Figure 6-7. false air through the system. pressure drop through the ductwork plus explosion vent branches. and pressure drop of cyclones and baghouses. mill pressure drop. .4 Typical Design Considerations for a Solid Fuel Grinding System 6.1 Mill 10 fan • The mill or system fan should be able to handle the total mix1ure of hot air to the mill. ~ 9% B% 7% [_---~.. o[ oKygtllltvel[ro1llJalsf air and rtcycle • Hopper level detector should be provided • Heavy duty airlock should be amply sized and have a motion detector. depending on the type of kiln feed conveYing system and the mechanical condition of the preheater. . -oJ'12% c fan is located after the mill..

ccumulate on the lube sheet which may resultirl spontaneous ignition • Heavy duty airlock should be amply sized and have a motion detector • SelVice isolation gatl's should be provided • Membrane type filter bags With anti-static design are recommended • Thermal insulation should be applied to prevent condensation 6. where the vented gases will not causing bodily injUry or fire hazards • Th~ gas inlet plenum should be designed such that no dust build up occurs while ensunng even gas distribution to the bags • To prevent dust build up. but may also cause condensation and dust build up • Grounding of housinq and filter bags to eliminate static charges is rnardatory • The hopper scre\NSshould have no nanger bearings • The baghouse should be provided with iselatlon gates at the inlet and outlet • Broken bag detectors should be provided.0 mlmin (3. The use of Dresser type semi-flexible sleeve couplings is.5 Pulverized coal pipe and valves 4 • The conveying velOCity for pulvellZed coal pneumatic conveying! lines should be in excess of 30 mls (6000 fpm) • The design should follow NFPA 8S. A duct with downhill flow should be sloped to 45° minimum • If a long horizontal dud must be used. stiffeners that may cause dust build up are permitted • Hopper or housing access doors should not allow dust build up.Engineering Design 01 Pulverized Solid Fuel S)'Slems • Rotary airlocks should rotate at a rf>lativf> speed of less than I mls (also true for screw convayors) to reduce the avoid closing the damper too far and redUCing gas flow too much. Effective and reliable seals should be used and routinely maintained . smooth interior.3 fpm) • Housirlg deSigned for 50 psig per NFPA 85 or with explosion r~lief panels designed per NFPA 68 Chapter 7. • The in-leakage of ambient air including cleaning air should be limited as much as possible. The pressure relief should be directed to an area.4 Dutting • Gas ducts should be sized for a minimum gas velodly of 25 mIs (5000fpm). as a minimum • Solid fuel conveying lines should be either horizontal or vertical • Elbows should be wear-resistant and protected.3 Baghouse 4 • Air-to-doth ratio lessthan 1. Hopper I~el detectors should be provided • No internal.. No dust accumulation is allowed • All coal conveying lines should have a. a mechanical stop should be installed to . Ambient arr leaks not only increase the oxygen content in an inert system. a duct With an uphilillow should be sloped to 5S~ minimum..4.aulic type couplings. fisk of frictional heating 6. Dust leaks may cause coal dust to a. the dud should be sized for 30 mls (6000 fpml throughout • The ducting shall be properly insulated to prevent condensationand coal duS1buildup 6. Reduced gas flow could cause coal dusl to settle out. with smooth flanged joints or coupled with Vid.Chapter 6 . . the burner pipe tip velocity should be a minimum of 35 mfs (5800 fpm) • The hopper should have a slope of at least 70 degrees. If the system fan is equipped with a control damper.not recommended because they [an trap small pockets of "dead coal" that may tri9ger a fire or explosion • To prevent flame flashback. .

50 .2 LOBelle mill in CtJrtlT5l'iIle.Re<ommended GUldelme$ fOf So~d foellJse In Cement Plants Installation of an LM 24. Photo provided courtesy of Loesche America. GA.Inc.

g. • Inspect the area around the solid fuel5ystemand the pyroprocessing system to ensure that all personnel are safely away from the area and are out of the pyrer processing.1 Start-up and Shutdown of Solid • The beginning coal feed rate should be at least 25% of total mill ca.. 0 0 e ( D D ( . kilns.a series of safety conditions must be satisfied through an interlocking program... mill outlet temaeraturesare below 80 (1'75 F) for direct fired systems and 65 (150°F) for indirect fired systems. SIDwly increase the sold fuel feed rate to the desired rate. These instru.ing instrucf. Be sure all inspection doors and any other openings in process equement are properly dosed. • Start at the minimum feed rate and allow the system temperatures to stabilize.ct.Every syst'em is uniqu~' . and..Chapter 7 Operation of Solid Fuel Grinding Systems 'T-hiS section includes genera. Outlet temperature should not exceed 90°C (195°F) or drop below Gooe {140°F1. . shutdown and operat. NFPA 85. Be sure that the coal mill outlet temperature does not exceed the setpoint. Be sure the system temperature controls are operating in automatic and system temperatures have stabilized.1 StartUp To initiate a burner start-uo.ion~.2 Operation 1 Maintain the proper volume of air through the solid fuel drying and grinding system.{ tne coal mill to the minimum operating tsmperature by starting the fan and pulling hot air through the mill.l proceduresfor the start-up and shutdown of solid fuel systems . Boiler and Combustion Svstem~ Hazards Code provides guid· ancefor pulverized coal fired boilers. Fuel Systems 7. system.1. the draft through the kiln is sufficient to combust all of the fuel).ratures can cause a mill to plug. which could cause a fire In the pipe. • Sound start-up alarms and follow established procedures for starting equipment. • For direct fired systems.pacity.ate such a system. Always operate the coal mill controls on automatic. ImuHicient airflow will not move the coal out of a vertical mill. 7. ensure that the kiln system is prepared for the fuel late (e.and ~iII require its own 5pecialize~ start-up. It is recommended that the mill Inlet gas temperature should not exceed 260 (500°F). Ensure the sY5tem temper· atures are stable and that the pyroprocessmg system has sufficient oxygen for complete combustion of aUfuel. • Prehea. Not enough air may elso cause fuel dust to accumulate in the conveying pipes. Much of the advice regarding start·up would also apply to cement. Each operator should receive proper tramlng in solid fuel systems before being allowed to oper. 7.ions should be written down. resulting in large amounts of solid fuel spilling out of the rejects chute. Low tempe.and regularly revIewed and updated.

perature continuously exceeds the maximum (indicating very wet coal). Reduce the coal feed fait' if the mill outlet temperature is continuously tess than 60"( (140°f) when tile inlet temperature is at or near the maximum.s. • Manually dose the hot air supply damper and open the ambient or cold air damper to 100% (the objective is to have a minimum mill exit temperature). Be sure to follow all safety instructions and pmcedines. • After the system temperature approaches ambient (2 to 4 hours).2. carefully inspect the coal mill and remove any accumulations of solid'fuel. close the hot air damper and increase recirculation.2 EmergencyProcedures No manual will be able to provide instructions for every emergency situation that may occur.1: loss of coal feed 10 the coal min Set the cool mill outlet temperature controller to minimum . a water spray may be used to flood the mill with water if the procedures above do not stop the fire 7. The hot air supply damper should be completely closed and the ambient or cold air damper should be fully open..2. Each system is unique and specific procedures for individual systems snould be 'developed anu use'o. • Continue to operate the mill until the outlet temperature begins to drop.2 Coal mill motor failure (The solid fuel feeder should shut down automatically because it should be interlocked with the mill motor . • Allow the mill and Ian to run until the mill outlet temperature drops below 50"( "(120°F).3 Shutdown • Reduce the setpointfor the mill outlet temperature to minimum. Ii raw coal feed cannot be restarted quickly. carefully inspect the mill and remove any accumulations of solidfuel. the follOWing things may help: • Set tile coal mill exit temperature controller to minimum. • In extreme rnse.see Chapter 9) • Set the mill exit temperature controller to minimum. I 7. Be sure that the rejects chute remains clear and operates properly to avoid plugging the mill. • For indirect fired systems. reset the coal mill exit temperature controller to the proper setpoint after the coal feed has been reestablished and resume normal operation. • Use of a thermal imaging camera to check for hot spots before opening any system component is recommended. • When the outlet temperature reaches the' minimum temperature. Shut down the system in the proper order.2. Below are general procedures for some of the more common situations that could become emergencies if not given prompt attention. If the raw coal feed can be restarted within a fE'w minutes .re in the coal min Regardless of the location of a fire in the mill.1'.. • After the system temperature approaches ambient (2 to 4 hours). 7. • The solid fuel feed to the mill should NOT be stopped. Continue to operate theeshaust fan until the mill has been emptied of all coal mill fines. 7. be sure the hot air supply damper is completely closed and the ambient or cold air damper is fully open 7. Increase the solid 1uel feed to the coal mill if it Is possible 10 do so without overloading the mill.3 Power failure This can be one of Ihe most severe failure modes. then shut down the fan and shut the baghouse isolation gates. • For direct fired systems. 52 .es for So'id 'Fuel ·LJse ir} Cement Piants Increase the inlet gas flow rate or reduoe the mill outlet temperature set point if the mill inlettem. Be sure to follow all safety instructions and procedures. • The mill outlet temperature will indicate when the fire has gone out. Monitor the mill motor power to provide an indication that the mill is empty. and run the raw coal feed belt empty. If a fire occurs in a direct fired coal mill system.4 Fi. shut off the hot air to the mill. and sufficient time has elapsed to ensure all of the pulverized solid fuel has been purged from the system. proceed with a normal shutdown. stop the solid fuel feed to the mill. 7. • Stop the raw coal feeder.Recommended Guj~hr.2.

2 Fuel volatile content Volatiles content of the solid fuel affects several important parameters When switching to a higher volatiles content fuel. Operatmg procedures most likely will require revisions to reflect the higher volatile fuel's charaderistics. inspection doors should not be opened until all evidence of fire has been absent for 2 to 4 hours. Before making a fuel switch. Indirect fired systems are nearly always fitted WIth a fire fighting system which injects liquid N2 or CO2 Into components of the system to 1ight fires. DISTURBING BURNING OR SMOLDERING COAL IN ANY WAY IS VERY HAZARDOUS If a fire occurs in an indirect fired coal mill system.DO NOT attempt to open any mill inspection doors UNTIL ALL evidence of the fire has disappeared. and cleaned where necessary. When a fuel supply is changed. 7. If a fire occurs in the coal mill. as shown in Figure 7-1.Chapler 7 . the required fuel fineness will also change. volatile content. HGI. the higher the fineness required. it will require more mass of the fuel to supply the same energy. Be sure all personnel are safely positioned before spraying 7. or the fire suppression system can be anivated manually. However. which can be an extremely dangerous situation.3.3 Switching Solid Fuels Each solid fuel preparation system was Originally designed for a particular solid fuel. If everything is satisfactory. should be reviewed to snsura t~at they are still appropriate for operation with the new coal characteristics. SeveraJthings should be considered when changing from one fuel to another. The design of all safety systems such as explosion venting or suppression system stc. After ihe system temperatures and CO concentrations have fallen to safe levels. carefully inspected. This will minimiz~ the possibility of fire propagating from the pulverizer to the bag house. A system thal is safe to use for pet coke may not be safe for a hIgh volanle coal.1 Fuel heating value The pyroprocesslng system requires a given amount of energy (kcal/h or Btulh) from the solid fuel system. water into a hot system. In all cases. be sure that the solid fuel preparation system can process the required amount of the new fuel. • When the coal mill outlet temperature has fallen to ambient or near ambient. switching from pet coke to a high volatile bituminous coal (or PRBcoal) will create a more hazardous situation.KIln Sl'Items OpQrauoos and filing Note that if water is sprayed into a hot system a large volume of steam will be generated. The fineness required for proper combustion of pulverized coal depends on the volatile content. the solid fuel preparation system should be reviewed to ensure it is safe to operate with this fuel. the procedures to follow will depend on the location of the fire and what fire andlor explosion suppression systems are included in the design. If a fuel With a lower specific heating value is seleaed. Typically Isolation gates will be dosed in the duct between the mill and the baghouse and the exhaust 7. the source of the solid fuel will certainly change during the lifelime of the installation. When the volatile content of the solid fuel or solid fuel rnimre is changed. NEVER use compressed air in an attempt to blowout the fire. DO NOT shut the mill down.3. These systems can be automatically activeted based on carbon monoxide concentrations or temperatures. As an extreme example. fan will be shut down. The lower the volatile matter in the coal. the mill should be opened. carefully open and inspect the system according to established safety procedures. The fuel heating value. . The lubricants should also be checked at this time. and moisture content should all be reviewed prior to switching to a different fuel. shut down the (oal mill. the heating value of the fuels most likely will not be the same. When all evidence of burning coal and fire has disappeared (useof a thermal imaging device or camera is recommended). The system design should be inspected by qualified personnel to ensure the design is adequate for a higher volatile content fuel. the mill may be placed in service once again 53 .

the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) will probably not be the same. it is also prone to errors. It is not uncommon to have 100% coal or 100% pet coke at the burner tip when a blend of the two is expected.. " / ~ Coal meal for normallemp calciner /'''I / I / .' 10 . the grindability of thp new fuel and the required fineness needs to be considered to be sure the existing solid fuel preparation system can process sufficient fuel (with an adequate excess capacity margin) to 54 ..s(daij Figlln 7-1.. high lamp calciner .. must be reviewed to ensure that they are adequate for the ne\\! fuel's explosability characteristics. o C7J a:: 20 .. Although this is inexpensive and does not require any capital Investment.3. Then a heat and materia! balance needs to be done to ensure the new fuel can be dried from the as-received moisture to the desired moisture as-fired Finally. all explosion prevention and protection systems. The solid fuel pulverizer should be checked to ensure that It is able to process the required amount of the new fuel at the new HGI (based on kWM gr. .3 Fuel Hardgrove Gfindability Index When switching from one solid fuel to another..5 Summary When a fuel switch is contemplated.~---?. Coal meal fOf supply the pyroproce~s.front end loader to manually mix pet coke and coal according to a set ratio of bucket loads. a heat and material balance of the system should be calculated to determine if suHicient heat is available without exceeding the maximum hot gas inlet temperatures . Most importantly.ng system. .indability and mill installed power).... A solid fuel with a lower HGI will be harder to grind than a fuel with a higher HGI. I'o/aliles conffllf 7.. A more precise method of blending two solid fuels is to install two separate rawfuel silos (one with coal and the other with pet coke) with weigh fe·eders from each to the mill so that the ratio of coal to pet cake can be preLisely set and changed if/when needed.. 7. Most common is introducing some pet coke into bituminous coal. The most inexpensive method is to use a. ~ Coal meal for -------------\.".. / " 20 30 coal 40 50 % Volatile.u/2IJ04).ep is to perform the necessary process calculations to determine the quantity of the new fuel that will be required. 7. and in kiln operational stability.: / kiln bumer 704 Blending Different Solid Fuels Numerous cement plants have used or are using blends of differ@l1t solid fuels. It is also possible to use two hoppers with weigh feeders and a ratio controller to blend the solid fuels as they are fed from the stockpile into the day tank of the solid fuel system. Once the required quantity of the new fuel is calculated.4 fuel moisture 3 The drying capacity of the solid fuel preparation system will also have to be reviewed to ensure it is capable of drying a new fuel or fuel mixture.Recommended Guidelines (or Solid ~u~ the in Cement Planl5 ~~--------------------------~ 30 :l. This can cause numerous problems in name shClpe.3. Suggtsltd finrnm bll5edol1 (Pn... flame stability. the first st.. .....

Photo provided courtesy of Loesche America. Quebec.~ecommen<led GUIdelines lor Solid Fuel Use III Cement Plants Loesche LM 30. Basile ofPortneuf.4 miff installatioll in St. 56 . Inc.

and coal dust belongs to Group F The follOWing charts illustrate the dassification system: . For example. such as the Inside of the coal baghouse in an indirect fired system. handling and pulverizing systems operate. This. Electrical equipment may form the i. methane belongs to Group D. chapter provides examples from the cement Industry that provide electrical equipment design requirements for areas where Fuel "Class !I locations are those which are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dusts" These locations are further categorized into Divisions. where Zone 1 = Div 1 = normally hazardous. Division and Zone are not alternative designations for the same categories. DiVIsion 2 indicates locations that are not normally hazardous. Combustibles are further subdivided into groups based on their material characteristics.1 Classification locations in which fife or explosion hazards exiSt are classified according to the nature of the hazard in the National Electrical Code (NEG NEe Article 500 (NFPA 70) defines the two main classes as follows: "Class l locations are those in which flammable gases or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures" The Zone classification system can also be used as an alternative to the DiviSion system. such as the area outside tile coal mill feed belt conveyor discharge chute. but which could become so. Ignition 8. I ncoal firing cement plants.gnition s~de of t~e fire trian?le. However. and Zone 2 = Div 2 = not normally hazardous.Chapter 8 Electrical Equipment for Solid Pulverized Fuel Systems ceal storage. methane andlor coal dust may form t~e fuel side of the fire triangle. a location that is hazardous under normal operations is considered Division 1. For example.

etc. for Solid ~U4!llJle In CE'ment Plants Divisions Division 1 Hazardous under Normal Operation Figure S-./oTlS.1'. Division 2 Not :Normally Hazardous Class I Flammable Gases Group A Acetylene Group B Typical Material: Hydrogen Group C Typical Material: Ethylene Group 0 Typical Material: Propane FigurllB-2 NEe Clast I mvi.011$.RecommendPd Guidel. including Flour.ne. Dusts Pig lITe 8-3. 58 . Metal Dusts Group F Carbonaceous Group G Other Combustible Dusts. Grain. Class II Combustible Dust Group E. 11 Grol/p.1. NEe 0. NEC Clns.!.s.

The intent is for eledric equipment to be designed such that occurrence of fuel and an ignition source IS so low that in practice it does not happen. the atmosphere inSide an indirect firing system's pulverized coal bin (where a level detector might be installed) would be classified as Class II (Combustible dust).. the area can usually be re-classified as a Division 2 Dr even as an unclassified area. The risk for cement plants includes: equipment that may need frequent maintenance and repair and is habitually opened. Tented covers can also be used to minimize dust layer accumulation In a coal reclaim tunnel. For example.Chapter 8 . Explosion Proof. The electnc equipment design requirements are provided below. If the area is ventilated and maintained below the . Division 1 (normally hazardous) or 2 (not normally hazardous)._all apparatus may be listed for Class I (combustible gas). Division 1 or 2.S conSidered as a Class II Hazard. per reference to NEC 501 (NFPA 70)." LEL. but were likely originally designed to be Division 2 (not normally hazardous) Electric equipment in these areas rated for 59 .2 Design Guidelines 8. Electric equipment design the probability of simultaneous facilities. per reference to NEe 502 (NFPA 70). even at concentrations less than their lower explosion limit (LEL). Methane: Additional Guidelines: Methane is considered as a ClaSs J Hazard.) dust accumulation is considered a Division 2 area. Division 2.Lower Explosive Limit. This is usually only a problem in a confined area such as a reclaim tunnel. the electriC equipment should be specified to meet both Class I. In ths case. espeunloading facilatmosphere coal dust. Group F (carbonaceous du<.E!ectrical Equlpmentl!)1 P~IVenzed fuel Systems Location classification is normally given In the order' Class. all apparatus shall be listed for Class II. Group F dassification as per reference to NFPA 499.2. Div 1 (normally hazardous). Group. Group D (methane). Locations where coal dust is present are classified as Division 2 If good hou5ekeeping is maintained. Division. Division 2. Coal Dust: Coal dust I.1. Division 2 would be out of compliance as per NEC until the conditions causing the problem were completely resolved. Dust-Ignition Proof. Group F. less than 3 mm (Va in.t). Cable trays should be vertically mounted and jundion boxes should be arranged In such a manner to prevent accumulation of coal dust partides. Electrical equipment not located in the Dwision 1 or 2 areas of the coal systems should be NEMA 4 waterproof. The reclaim tunnel example provlcled above provides a good example if ventilation was inadequate and there was airborne coal dust The regulations of the National Electrical Code (NEe) specify which equipment or types of protection can be used In the individual areas subject to explosion hazard. and Class II. and it can be released by coal during handling. or areas that are habitually dirty. with large amounts of fugitiv!! coal dusts Such areas ale considered as Division 1 (normally hazardous) during these Circumstances. IS the possible formation of an explosive originating from the mixture of methane and A 8. so that the building can be washed down as required. for example. Group D. Hybrid Mixtures: major hazard associated with coal handling cially In enclosed areas or tunnels such as rail ities. If it is expected that coal dust and methane gas Will be present Simultaneously.

PA. ATOX coal mills like this one ill Southeast Asia are used to grind haTd~ low volatile fuels SlIch as anthracite coal or pet coke to less than 596 [nco Photo provided courtesy of FLSmidth Bethlehem.Reoommendeo:l Guidehnes for 501i:1 F~ L}§@ In Cement Plant! residue on Q 90-micron sieve. 60 .

2. (Ref: Standard Practice Interlocks for mdirert firing systems should be arranged to trip under the following conditions: • "High" level in pulverized fuel bin reduces raw fuel feed to minimum. and blocks restarting of fuel feed until feeder start-up conditions are re-estabhshed.2 Interlocking Systems Electrical interlocks and visual and audible warning systems should be provided to protect personnel and th~ coal systems for the different conditions. (Ref: ISA MC96 1 Temperature Measuring Thermocouples) The devices should be routinely maintained to determine their suitability in actual service. Start primary air fan If driven separately from the pulverizer.1 Instrumentation Thermocouples with thermo wells for sensing the solid fuelair stream temperature should be selected based on the maximum velocity and insertion length. (CEO) Broken bag detectors should be installed in the outlet ducts of indirect firing system bag filters to provide an indication of any potential problems.Chapter 9 Instrumentation and Safety Interlocks 9. • UHlgh-High" level in pulverized fuel bin tnps pulverIZed fuel conveyrng system to bin. 9. 9. Start cyclone and open dust collector gates. Ignitors for all of the burners served by 1he pulverizer are In service and proven.1 Interlocks Interlocks for direct firing sys1emsshould be arranged to trip under the follO'Ning conditions: • loss of primary air flow tnps the raw fuel feeder. NFPA85 recommends he 1ollowing electrical equipment interlocks: '9. the pulverizer can be started only in the following sequence: 1. • Failure of pulverizer trips raw fuel feeder. Establish minimum air flow (should be at least 70% of normal airflow rate). but should have a fast response time to changes in temperatures. abrasion and corrosive process atmosphere. Permissive sequential starting interlocks for indlred firing systems are: 1.2 Starting interlocks Permissiv~ sequential starting interlocks for direct fired systems should be arranged so that aher appropriate kiln interlocks have been satisfied. Start pulverized fuel feed system to bm 2. 4.2. I Failure of pulverizer exhaustlVent fan trips the pulverizer and raw fuel feeder.2. The thermowell material should be suitable for the temperature. • Failure of plJlverlzed coal conveying system trips puberizer ventJexhaust fan and pressure locks. Start raw fuel feeder. Pr5Sure transmitters for sensing the coal-air stream pressure should be selected based on the maximum temperature and the corrosive process atmosphere. Start pulverizer. • loss of fuel feed through the pulverizer energizes alarms. 5. 3. 61 .

S. • lnerting or fire fighting initiated.Recommentled GUidelines for 50IKl Fuel Use III Cement PfanlS 3. Start vent/exhauster fan (should be at least 70% of normal airflow rate). • Oxygen level in bag house outlet duct above 10% (inert systems only).3 Alarm System All trip interlocks should be alarmed and alarms should also be provided 10 warn operators of impending trip conditions when practical. • Fuel-air high temperature at mill outlet. Start raw fuel feeder. • Inlet air high temperature at mill inlet. • Pulverized fuel bin high CO (indirect firing system only). Start pulverizer. Slart dust collector system. • Pulverizer tripped. Required annunciated alarms (both visual and audible) should be provided for the following snuatons. 6. 62 . • Primary air fan tripped (direct fired system) or mill exhaust fan tripped (indirect fired system). • Pulverized fuel bin temperature "high" (indirect firing system on~). • Sofld fuel stoppage to pulverizer. 4. • During any emergency pulverizer stop. 9.2.

Bethlehem. . 3·D 8TapJlic cutaway of all ATOX colli mill with high efficiency Photo provided courtesy of FLSmidth Inc. PA.Recommended Guidelines for Solid Fuel Use In CemEnt Plants separator arrd twill screw feeder.

2 Welding and Cutting The use of welding. and thoroughly inspected prior to perlormmg maintenance. baghouse. regular preventive maintenance is essential to ensure safe. all that is needed for an explosion is an ignition source. for example around an unloading facility or because of a leaking solid fuel conveying line. a cutting torch. Solid fuel handling. the dust build-up can be dispersed into the air as a result of the relatively minor first: explosion and then produce a very large secondary explosion. Welding or cutting on a solid fuel preparation system should only be performed by experienced repair personnel under the direct supervision of someone who understands the mherern dangers of working on a pulverized solid fuel system 10. A routine preventative maintenance program should be established and strictly followed.Chapter 10 Maintenance should be provided for personnel performing matntenance on any system component. An air lance used to dean dust layer5 will disperse the dust into the air. a welding are. and firing systems should be cleaned out. solid fuel bunkers. be exceptional because of the potential for spontaneous ignition.. and creatl=l the potential for an explosion.3 Spontaneous Ignition A plan should be Implemented for routine inspection for any hot spots in the solid fuel storage pile. cutting and other heat generating equipment should be carefully monitored The system should be washed down with water prior to cutting 01 welding or inerted lnsde the ducts while outside welding IS done. The ignition temperature for a layer of coal dust is substantially less than the ignition temperature of a cloud of coal dust dispersed in air A potentially serious problem exists if solid fuel dust is allowed to accumulate inside a building or enclosure. With combustible dust dispersed in the air. Small piles or layers of coal or coke dust may spontaneously heat and start a fire. The system should be visually inspected every shift. solid fuel storage bin. around the raw fuel crusher. A dequate . This includes areas underneath all belt conveyors and transier points. A 5pec~fic set of written Instructions for the fuel system(s) firing system ~itnin design specifications 10.1 Housekeeping Clean up of a solid fuel preparation system area is a prerequisite for safe operation of the system. or a broken light bulb. beanngs. 65 . washed down with water. reliable performance of a solid fuel . preparation. Clean up around solid fuel grinding and firing systems should Compressed air can not be used to clean up solid fuel dust. Solid fuel dust spills or leaks should be cleaned up and repaired as soon as it can be safely done. and any accllmulations of coal or coke dust should be cleaned up promptly. If large accumulations of dust exist and a small explosion occurs. such as a cigarette. pulverized solid fuel bin and dosing areas. conveyor transfer pOints. spills. equipment surfaces. All leaks. 10.

10. metal detector and subsequent two-way reject gate on the solid fuel belt are always operating properly. and indicates the best placement on pipes. Follow stnct preventive maintenance schedules and inspection routines. 10.11 Bearings Overheated bearings in the coal mill system can cause a fire or explosion.Recommended Guidelines lor Solid Fuel Use In Cerne'" P1an& swrtch boxes. J 0. . however.5 Belt Magnets and Metal Detectors Be sure the belt magnet. Periodically. and firing systems. 10. Hard faCing on fan blades and fan housing liners should be replaced when worn. 10_7 Bowl Mill Rolls The clearance between the bowl or table and the rolls should be set at the gap specified in the equipment manual. Rotary airlocks should be maintained in top condition. and wherever else they are needed. special instructions. Coal mills are typically designed to be pressure vessels. preparation. 00 not operate a mill with the debrs chute airlock tied open. Explosion doors should be regularly checked to ensure proper sealing to minimize leaks. It is important that worn vanes or a worn Inverted (one are replaced. if they experience wear. If metal gets into a sohd fuel mill system it can lead to sparks and cause fires or explosions. 10. the air outlet. If the mill begins to fill up when the arkxk is closed. equipment. etc. doorways.10 Coal Mill Rejects Solid fuel that spills over the bowl and into the area below the bowl can cause a fire-since it is exposed to the hot drying air entermg the coal mill.4 Dust Collectors The dean side of dust collector bags should be thoroughly deared of pulverized solid fuel following replacement of bags that have holes in them. The VIP system pnpoints the areas in a facility where signs.8 Air Separators for Fineness Control Adjust static separator classifying vanes so that all vanes are at the same relative position. the pressure rating may no longer be valid. Air leaks in a solid fuel preparation system should be immediately repaired. Check if the millleject gate operates properly. this could indicate a problem with the hot gas supply flow rate.12 Visually Instructive Workplace (Facility Safety Management 2005) A Visually lns:tructive Plant (VIP) program helps in creating an orqanized and consistent system to make a plant safer. ensuring that plant and outside personnel are aware of area restrictions. and tags are necessary. labels. rotor. is necessary for safe operation and maintenance. if a solid fuel buildup occurs at the hot air inlet to the mill a fire is likely to occur. and.6 Thermocouples Be sure that the temperature sensors (thermocouples) are operating properly. This can be accomplished with a handheld thermal imaging camera. Adjust the mechanical stop (on some Raymond mills and Loesche coal mills) that prevents contact between the rolls and bowl. For solid fuel handling. In a high efficiency separator. re align the (oils with the grinding ring to maintain the specified gap. The following Sections are extracted from the VIP program. tl1e system should be inspeded and the thickness of the metal tested as required to ensure the original pressure rating is stili valid. If a solid fuel system has been in operation and any wear appears on the system itself. Adjust the inverted cone to the position specified in the manual (for Raymond mills). 10. Check the body of the containment vessel for minimum thickness to maintain 50 psi pressure rating.9 Wear Liners Preventive maintenance should make sure that bowl or table liners and rolls are replaced when they are worn. The information is easily seen and available at the location where It IS needed. The collected debris could contain coal particles and should be buried beneath inert dusts at land fills. Incorrect temperature measurements could cause fires or explosons as they may result in improper (ontrol of the solid fuel drying process. Adjust the roll spring tension of the journals as described in the maintenance manual. if not manufactured from a wear resistant material These areas should be inspected routinely to monitor actual wear conditions. Replace worn scrapers to make sure rejects are removed from the mill. aisles. 10. and drive shaft are exposed to high wear and should be protected. 10. etc. The coal mill scrapers will usually sweep the fuel pieces around to the debris chute and discharge them.

It helps keep your faCility organized.12. Do not assume that because everyone has worked there for a long time. confused or disoriented during an emergency. Clean dirty signs and labels.not label it with just this number. signs and labels may become dirty and unreadable. directional signs are not necessary. Have a regular. For example. do . It helps prevent mistakes by having the correct information readily available at the POint of need.4 Directional signs (emergency evacuation) Make.1 Equipment labels 10. Do not forget about maintenance.12. and process flow labeling. Completely identify it as . pipes and conduit should be marked at frequent intervals. operating information. . Use signs to identify the areas in your plant in which each step of the process takes place. Although this is a simple example. Tubing. emergency phone numbers and procedures.. An identifying number. may become distracted. jf a coal pulverizer is designated as CPU2-0S. For example.6 Summary • 10. Mark all tubing.it easy for anyone to find their way around in your facility. frequent inspection and maintenance schedule.12.12. equipment. Identify who can and who cannot enter certain sreas Identify what should be done before entering certain areas PrOVIde first aid Information. Information on the labels should be complete. maintenance procedures. And it helps keep your employees safe and healthy Directional mformatlon. 10." The conveyor bringing solid fuel into the feeder would be Identified as: "From Coal Bin 2-05. do not rely on bar codes alone. maintenance procedures. as well as their tuncton in the process should be given. Remove or update out-of-date signs and labels.12." Ensure that all employees have sufficient training to understand the equipment coding before entering fhe area. After a few years.12. and process flow labeling should be included in new employee training as well as in safety meeting training materials. However. Bar codes might also be used for quick. the solid fuel feeder area might be identified as: "Kiln #12 Crushed Coal Feeders. "To Coal Pulverizer 2-05.Chapl@! 19 - Malll!MallCP • 10.3 Instrument labels Have the information people need. areas and safety concerns. pipes and conduits to identify their function and the direction of flow. People who need 10 get out of the building quickly. and switches should be • clearlv identified and labeled. clear signs and labels to identify hazardous materials. People should be able to look at the label and identIfy the instrument without the aid of a bar code reader. Replace miSSing or damaged signs and labels. 10. the point where they need it.2 Process flow labeling _ Use labeling and signs to clearly Identify locations as to where they belong in the process. at least every 15 meters (50 feet) and near bends. automatic identification. 10. All instruments and transmitters should be identified with labels. All machines. Complete labeling and signage eliminates wasted time caused by someone having to return to their office or shop to look up the information they need. emergency evaruation signs are critical. at. saving time and increasing productivity. accurate and easy to understand. ·Coal Pulverizer CPU2-0S: Use large. so that they can be Identified (the marRings are visible) from any reasonable location in your fadlity. valves. it ensures that anyone that standing bV the crushed coal feeders will know exacth' where they are in the process and what is happening. This includes directional Information." And the outlet pipe from the solid fuel feeder would be labeled. In particular. operating Information.5 'Safety signs I hazard warnings .

68 . PA. Mexico. Photo provided courtesy of FLSmidth Inc. Bethlehem.5 mill for grinding petcoke and coal mix in Ramos Arispe.Recommended Guidelines for SOlid fuel use In Cement Plants ATOX 27.

. If heating occurs or fire breaks out 69 . adsorption. A solid fuel cement plants burning • Solid fuel stockpiles • feeders • Conveyors • Dust collectors • Bunkers/silos • Pulverizers system that goes down. Operators should be trained to properly respond to normal and emergency 11. however. and modified as new situations occur and the proper responses to these new situations evolve.2 Fire Fighting Reliance on humans to detect fire hazards. Air admitted to the system allows oxygen to reach a smoldering pile of pulverized solid fuel that then ignites explosively. ThIS Will help to shorten the dedsion and response times. An operating manual should be developed. Particular caution should be exercised by operating personnel working on shifts. policies about the type of fire fighting mechanisms and procedures to be used should be well planned and distributed to all concerned personnel. A ny solid fuel system requires extensive employee training. solid fuel have experienced fires or explosions in these areas: remains in the mill. formal. it can slowly increase in temperature because of moiS1ure condensing. an • Pulverized fuel bin • Pulverized fuel conveYIng lines. When a piece of equipment. If the pulverized solid fuel undergoes spontaneous heating and the mill is restarted With hot embers present.Chapter 11 Training conditions. particularly under load. a solid fuel system should be designed to operate with the minimum number of starts and stops possible (NFPA 1992). and prevent or fight fire> should be minimized. Also. the proper response 10 these conditions may prevent a fire or explosion. fire. 11. added to. If a coal mIll is shut down and a small amount of solid fuel inrush of air may create a pulverized solid fuel dust cloud that then explodes (Young undated). A continuing. or reduce the severity of a fire or explosion. Solid fuel stockpiles should be accessible to mobile eQuipment from all sides. or oxidation of the solid fuel. goes down the typical response is to resolve the problem that caused the outa. In several casas.ge as quickly as possible and return the equipment to service. or elCplosions have occurred when an employee on the next shIft opened an Inspection door. An improper response to conditions may turn a minor process upset into an explosion. the more frequently a mill is stun down and then restarted tile more likely it becomes. an explosion or fire is possnle This does not happen often.1 Fires in Solid Fuel Preparation Systems Start-up and shutdown of a solid fuel system is the most likely time for fires or explosions to occur. should be traatsd with extreme caution and a cooling period that extends across shift change times may be required. including a solid fuel system. Therefore.. When a series of dangerous events occur. operators' training program Is essential. Where the human element is unavoidable.

and barricade access to that area. The FFPR may have to be angled toward the fire depli'ndlng. and the fire extinguished. 4. 11. pneumatic driver. Once the fire is extinguished. Water should not be used on a fire in a coal stockpile or in a coal bin as It may spread the fire. Dealing with a fire inside a bunker or silo is highly dangerous and should be addres~ed with the correct equipment and training. for the application of water and a fire-suppressant agent to solid fuel fires that must be fought from the top of a silo or bunker. or an elearic driver. directly onto the top of the fire. a hand watering line with a fog pattern can be used. continue to monitor the area With a laser pyrometer or thermal-imaging camera for signs of reignltion. 7. Firefighting in limited height silos may be executed by using a special tool called the piercing rod. locate and determine the extent of the fire using a laser The typical FFPR was designed and built by Solid Systems Engineering. and will wet the top of the solid fuel. Fire piercing rods should be used to minimize fire effects in a !>tock pile. The FfPR IS deSigned to penetrate the solid fuel pile by means of a sledgehammer. continue monitoring CO levels In the silos or bunkers. Activate the silo or bunker deluge fire-suppression system. whichever is available at the plant Using the FFPR helps minimize the amount of water and F-SOO required to safely extinguish the fire. Open drain pipe or pipes located just above the mill feeder gate to decant any water prior to opening the ga1e. Colorado. Wash down the entire area above the silo or bunker. It is imperative to also train all coal first responders (such as fire figilters) on the risks of your system and what to do in case of fires or explosions Note: 3. and light fixtures. Personnel jnjured in the area of these explosions often are severely burned. Shut off all equipment in the area above the silo or bunker.Recommemled G Uidellfles for SOld FtJeI IJie In Cemen I Plarll! at the stockpile. silos that are more than 16 m (55 feet) in height should be equipped With a fixed hazard mitigation system such that a fire suppression agent can be automatically applied where fire is detected. 9. A well1hought out plan should be developed for each facility. beams. 12. Evacuate the area above the silos or bunkers. Boulder. A bunkers/silos firefighting procedure written for a particular facility is listed here as an example only (Merritt and Rahm 2000): 1. solid fuel should be removed with a front end loadli'f and spread out to cool. Water by itself should be pyrometer or thermal imaging camera. After the area has been thoroughly wetted and as much solid fuel dust as possible has been removed. where safe access into the storage area is limited or not available. on the location of access holes In the top 01 the silo or bunker 70 . including face and hand protection. Infrared thermographs and agent applicators should be Installed at predetermined zones. Close the gate above the mill feeder and shut off the mill-feeder purge air. post driver. S. Fire fighting procedures should be developed for each facility. However. A sudden collapse of a burning cavern in the solid fuel bed may create a life threatening situation. This should include access ports around the silos and at different levels to enable fire suppression agent injection. They should also be equipped for fire fightmg including Installation of fire extinguishing agent connections.ained personnel equipped with proper firefighting gear. Ease of access to solid fuel silos for fire fighting should be incorporated in the initial design. 8. Also. 10. although access to the solid fuel dust on the beams may be limited. Insert a firefighting pierCing rod (FFPR)through an opening in the top of the silo or bunker. pipes. but (an be used If It IS the only fire fighting agent available. In lieu of a pennanent deluge system. DangeJOLIS situations should be anticipated and measures should be in place to minimize the danger Solid fuel silos should be prcvided with an emergency discharge chute. 2. which may take the fire suppression agent to the seal of fire. using F-500 at a 3% concentration. Each facility is unique and will present unique situations. Allow access only to lr. This will remove solid fuel dust from tne walls and roof besrns. including walls. ceiling. The objective is to remove all of the solid fuel dust from the area. 6.

determIne the equipment and personnel required.Training avoided for silo fire fighting as it may rat-hole down the sideswhere coarse solid fuel segregated during silo filling. are best extinguished using a micellHncapsulating agent and water.2. Solid fuel conveyors should be provided with an automatic sprinkler fire protection system. t Fire training . • Extinguishing the fire . The PRB Coal User's Group has developed recommended fire prevention practices for coal bunker.2. (UL) for the type of applications mentioned. Solid fuel firefightmg training. Micelle-encapsulating agent will reduce the surface tension of water significantly for deep penetration without having to use large quantities of water.e.neutralize dusting in the immediate area.1 Fire prevention and detection • Housekeeping . • Prepare the area . which in turn reduce smoke and soot. or temperature scanners should be used to detect any sign of spontaneous ignition. CO rnomtors. The micelle-agent will also encapsulate any liquid or gaseous phase molecules of the fuel and render them non-flammable.Perman()nt installed Inside bunkers or silos. Foams are not very effective in some situations because the blanket formed to reduce oxygen availability may be required for a long period of lime and also because foam tends to break down over time.controlling dust and preventing spills • Preplanning -For planned outages. drills and instrualons should be made available to plant personnel and responsible parties (I.Fire fighting personnel should be properly trained for the hazards which they are expected to control. If a bunker or silo can not be emptied. local first responders). ventilate the area. mlselle encapsulating agents. • Bunker and silo design .agents such as water. t systems Manual fire fighting tools . hopper.Using a piercing rod IS the most effective way of getting a fire fighttng agent directly to the fire's source. • Fire and Gas detection . The product has also been listed by the Underwriters Laboratories.2 Fire protection equipment and training • Fixed hazard mitigation system . Inc..monitor the fire closely 11. These agents also interrup1 the free radical chain reaction and combustion propagation. especially with PBR coal.2.CO monitoring. and infrared scanning are all recommended 11. Inc. all idled bunkers and silos should be completely emptied. can be used. A summary of the guidelines is as following: inerted WIth C02. thermal monitoring. as gaseous agents provide no cooling effect. and silo fire protection guidelines which can also be applied to bituminous and sub-bituminous coals (Douberly 2003). (HeT).locat~ the fire source. Micelles are "chemical cocoons" that form around hydrocarbons preventing the release of flammable vapors. • Fire extinguishing agents .Chapter 11 . Water by itself is not recommended as a fire extinguisher because water must be used In large quantities and water cannot penetrate into all levels and directions became of its inherent surface tension. Coal fires. Note: • Micelle-encapsulating agent is an advanced fire suppression technology agent that has been commercially established under the brand name F-SOO by Hazard Control Technologies. foam. mfrared scanners. and stage equipment and personnel to prepare to attack the fire. Solid fuel fires are best extinguished using a micelle·encap5ulating agent and water.should be "mass flow" design. they should be completely sealed and 71 . set up a procedure.3 Fire fighting • Develop an action plan . etc. 11. wettmg agent.

RlKummended Guidelines (or SOlid fuel Use In Cement PlanlS Raymond. 72 . RS Bowl Mill with Dynamic: Turbine Cia sifler. Cross Section Raymond" HP Bowl Mill. Raymond #863 Bowl Mill being erected. Photo provided courtesy of Alstom Power.

121 11. 2007 Ed. there art: new methods 10 evaluate the effects of vent ducts. The 2002 edition indudes ne"'. OIl %20Final%20Report%20WebsiteO/02011·17-06.S.gov/docslbulllbull0094. beginning WIth the raw fuel bunker. U. This chapter applies to pulverized fuel systems. Dept oj the Interior. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board Inve5tigation Report. The LOC values for gases and vapors in Annex C hava been updated based upon recent research.S. All design guidelines lor gas mixtures helve been combined Into a single chapter.html Combustible Dust Hazard Study. and initially elevated pressures. In addition to the generalized correlation for dusts.govldtslshib/shib073105. DOEIHE0320. me Zabetakis. A reorganization of protection methods now reflects a hierarchy based upon the deqree of explo~ion prevention. 12. Safety and Health Information Bulletin. 2002 Ed.1 NFPA 68. OSHA http://www. 93-4. Of pertkuler pages 1965 http://www.Chapter 12 Safety Codes 12.pdf The Fire Below: Spontaneous Combustion of Coal. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 627. Report No.4 Additional Information Combustible Dust in Industry: Preventing and MLtl- The 2002 edition represents a complete revision of the guide and includes updated and enhanced treatment for deflagration venting design for dust and hybrid mixtures.osha. The revision Includes new venting design equations based upon the methodology developed by gating the Effects of Fire and Explosions. Pulverized Fuel Systems. Department of Energy. interest is Chapter 6.gov/compleled investigationsldocsIDust Fadory Mutual Research Corporation. 2006·H-1. SHIB 07-31-2005. flammability chereaedstcs of combustible gases and vapors.csb. vent panel Inertia. Guide for Venting of Deflagrations. U. and terminating at the point where pressure can be relieved by fuel being burned or collected in a device that is built in accordance with this code. information on spark detenton and extinguishment system design.hssenergy.S. Standard 2002 Ed.3 NFPA 85.html Explosion Prevention Systems. which is upstream of the pulverizer and the point at which primary air enters the pulverizing system. U. Issue No. http://'. Environmental Safety and Health Bulletin.govlenergycitationsJservletslpurln32 8370~wx68Fyn328370·Pdf 73 . May 1993.2 NFPA 69. http://www. Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code.osti. partial volumes. Michael George.AIvm. 12. November 2006.

Chapter 13 Appendices

13.1 Unit conversions
13.1.1 lengths
1 m = 3.281 1 in

13.2 Abbreviations
A.FNOR Association Francaise de Normalisation. AFNOR develops reference systems and represents French interests within standardization authorities. American National Standards instttute. (ANSI) coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards In the United States and represents the U.S stakeholders In standardization forums arOLmd the globe

ft = 39.37 in

= 25.4 mm 1 mile = 1.609 km
13.1.2 Weights'
1 kg 1 Ib


= 2,2


1 lb = 454 gm= 16 oz
7000 grain (gr)

ASTM International
Originally known as the American Society

13.1.3 Pressure
1 bar = 1000 Nlm2 = 1 psi

llPa = 14.5 psi

= 6895 Pa = 0.06895 bar 1 kPa = 4,02 in. wg = 102 mrn wg 1 in. wg = 249 Pa
13.1.4 Oust Concentration
1 gr/ad

for Testing and Materials (ASTM). ASTM International is one of the largest voluntary standards development orqanizanons in the world. CEI Commission Electrotechnique Internationale prepares and publishes International standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. Also referred to as the International Electrotechnical Commission (lEe). Cement Kiln Dust,

= 2.29 gmlm3

13.1.5 Energy, Work, Power
1 J", 1 N-m

= 1 W-5


the dust collected from of volatiles.

cement kiln exhaust, which may con tam
higher concentration

1 kJ = 0.9479 Btu
1 Btu \ kcal

= 0.252


4.186 kJ

1 kW = 1.34 hp = 860 kcallh FM Global

Discrete Element Modeling, computational simulation and modeling of a flow pattern a condUit One of the world's largest commercial and industrial property insurance and risk management orqemzauons speoahznq In property protection.



Gllidclines lor Solid Fuel Use In Cement Plant;


Hardgrove Grindability Index is derived from Hardgrove grindability test of coal established in 1930 by Hardgrove. It is a relative measure of grindability. The test procedure conssts of grinding SO9 of 1.18 x 0.6 mm US coal for 60 revolutions in a standardized bal' and race mill The sarnpls is carefully produced and air dried. The coat ,is removed after the test and sieved. The weight (w)


Minimum Ignition &lergy, 15 the lowest electrical energy stored in a capacitor that upon discharge IS suffident to effect Ignition of the most easily ignitable dust-air mixture under specified test conditions.


fraction of the portion less than 75 microns is used to calculate HGI a.ccording to: HG.I t 3.6 + 6.93 w, Coal requiring tess grinding energy (easy-togrind) results in a higher HGI.

Minimum Ignition Temperature of a dust cloud, is the lowest temperature of a! hot surface on wnich the most ignitible dust-air mixture is ignited under specified test conditions. MinimumIgnitionTemperature of a dust /ayrn; is the lowest temperature of a hot
surface at which ignitionoccure5 in a dust layer under specified test conditions.




,High Healing Value is the heat produced at constant volume by complete combustion of a unit coal sample in an oxygen bomb


National Electric Code !National Electrical Manufacturers Assodation, created in the fall of 1926 by the merger of the Electric Power Club and the



The .I'nternational Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) prepares and publishes international Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. Also referred to as the Commission E1ectrotechnique Internation.lle ~CEI).

Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies, provides a rorlJm for the standardization ofelect.rical equipment. NITA
N'ational Fire Protection Association, was established in 1896, the mission of the international nonprofit NFPA is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating consensus codes and standards, research, training, and education. Portland Cement Association


Instrument Society of America. ISA is a nonprofit organization that provides technical standards and information for automation protessionels.
!.ower !ExplosionLimit is the concentretion of combustible dust in a dust-air rnlxture which, even subject to a strong ignition energy, will have no explosion. The LEL is determined under specified test conditions.



Programmable Logic Controller


Low Heating Value is HHV less latent heat of the water formed from combustion. It is the heat available to produce dinkier,
limiting Oxygen Concentration, is the manmum oxygen concentration ,in a mixture of a

Powder River Basin. The Powder RiVer Basin
spanning the Montana-Wyoming border in the single largest source of coal mined in the United States. The region contains one of the largest deposits of coal in the world. The region covers southea~ Montana and northeast Wyoming and is about 120 miles east to west and 200 miles north to south, The


flammable substence and air and an inert gas, in which an explosion will not occur;
determined under specified test conditions.

basin is so named because ITIS drained by the Powder River.


Minimum Explo!>ive Concentration, LEL, lower ExplOSion Umit

same as


ChJpter 13 - Appendices


Underwriters Laboratories Inc., founded In 1894, is an independent, not-for-profit product-safety testing and certification organization. Verein Deutscher l'ngenieuTe. The Association of German Engineers is a non-profit orga,n;zation of engineers and natural sci e ntist5.


13.3 FM Global-Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets
6.17 Rotaf)' Kilns and Dryers 6.24 Coal Pulverizers and Pulverizing Systerru 7.11 Belt Conveyors 7.76 Prevention and Mitigation of Combustible Oust Explosions and Fires 7.73 Dust Collectors and Collection Systems



I~C" Coal handling system fire protection.


http://pgiOS.events.pennnet,comlcontent.dm Language=? .

?Navid",3 595&

Air Control Science Inc.• http://www.aircontrolscience.com/ uploadsipublicationslinsertsZ.pdf. sales brochure, 2006, 5 pages,
Barton, John, Dust Explosion Prevention end Professional. Woburn, Massachusetts, 200Z.

Eckhoff, R. K" "Prevention and Mitigation of Dust ExplOSions in the Process Industries." Powder Handling & Processmg, Vol. 7. No.2. Trans Tech Publications. Clausthal-Zellerfeld, F.R. Germany. ApriVJune 1995, page 125. Ehrenhuber, "Modern metering technology throughout the cement manufacturing process," Conference Ke<:ord,


Protection, Gulf

f999IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference,
Institute of Electrical and Hectrorscs Engmeers, Piscataway, New Jersey and Portland Cement Association, Skokie, illinOIS, 1999, pages 143-149.

Bharry, Javed L; Miller, f. MacGregor; and Kosmatka, Steven H., eds., Innovations in Portland Cement Manllfactudng, SP400, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois. 2004,
page 189.

"Burning PRB Coal: Problems and Solutions," PoI'Ver, Sp&ial Report, NovemberlDecember, 2004. Cashdollar, Kenneth, "Coal Oust Exploslbllity." Journal of Loss Prevention in file Process Industries, vol, 9, No.1. Butterworths, Guildford, Surrey, UK. 1996, pages 65-76, pages 69 and 71.
Cashdollar, Kenneth, "Overview Of Dust Explosibility ( haracteristics," loumal of Loss Prevention in tlJ(~Process InduJfries, Vol. 13, Butterworths, Guildford. Surrey, UK, 2000, pages 183-199.

Foiles. R., and Copelin, B.• • Explosion Protection of Pulverized Coal Processes. or Safety & Technology News - a pvblicat/on of the fil::e Corporation, Vol 7, No.2, Fall. 1995, page 1.
Hattwig, Martin, and Steen, Henrikus, Handbook


&ploslon Prevention and l1'otection, Wtley-VCH, Weinheim (Germany), 2004, pages 393, 395, 413. ~ 16,539, 560

"Introduction to DU5t Explosions, Induslfial Dust Explosions, A5TM STP 958, American Sadety for Te5ting and Materials. Philadelphia, Pennsylvan ia, 1987, page 21.

Cox. Ed. "Issues in Converting a Cement Plant to PRB Coal Firing," presented at the PRB Coal User's Annual Meeting. April,2005. Czaphnski, A., "Test Firing Anthradte."

Hertzberg, M., and Cashdollar, K L., "Introduction to Dust Explosions, Industrial Dust Explosions, ASTM SIP 958, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. 1987, page 18.

Intemational Cement

Revi£w, March, 2002. pages 81-84.
Douberly, E. B., "Fire-protection guidelines: for handhnq and storing PRB coal," PoW@(. Ortobsr, 2003. pages 70-73.

Hertzberg, Marlin; Conti, Ronald S.; and Cashdollar, Kenneth L. Electrical Ignition Energies And Thermal Autoignrtion Temperatures For Evaluating E)(plosion Hazards Of Dusts, Report of Investigations. U,S. Dept. of the Interior,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1985.


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page 37. Indo. Germany..IASII'CA Cement Industry Technical Conference.. bunker.pdf. and . Baldya N. pages 71-74. American Society for Testing and Materials.accuratefeeders. 1987. Gerald L.. Gurueh'nes for AIr Polllltion control Devices Safety and Fire Protection. 2002. American Institute 01 Mining.fsm mag. Wiemann. ASTM STP 958. "Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) Compared to Solid Modeling as Applied to Bulk Material Transfer.comlpdf/gliderRoller. Skokie. Trans Tech Publications. l. P. Tosunoglu. "Dust Explosion Hazards in Silos.2. vent. Schenck Process GmbH. pages 12-1 S.pdf. 33.. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.. Illinois. ed.htm." Powder Handling & Proce5Sing. 1999/EEE-lAs/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference. "Improving Fuel Handling with PRB (oal by Converting a Bunker from Funnel Flow to Mass flow. "(ement Plant Matenal Handling Considerations For Burning PRB Coal. and Exploration. Skokie." Power. New Jersey and Portland Cement Association.lIlinois.pdf.. Solid Systems Engineering Co. 2 pages. Pittsburgh. 33. Coal Preparation." presented at the PRB Coal User Group Annual Meeting. Rupp. R.mshagovlS&HINFOITECHRPTIP&T/COALDUST.· Air Control Science November. Gary R. 2006. 2002." presented at the PRBCoal User's Group Annual Meeting. K. Colorado. "Influence of Temperature and Pressure on the Explosion Characteristics of DusVArr and Dust/Airl1nert Gas Mildures." Conf@IPn~ R€!Cord.Mine Safety and Health Administration. Oka.flsmidth. Philadelphia. UttJeton. Skokie. 1004 IfEf.. 2004. 5th ed . sales brochure..R. w. and dust-colledor fires. page 6. April. http://www." Industn". ApriVJune 1996.. B. NO. R. J.. and Oantoin. Crete R.. Byron C. Thorwesten Vent GmbH. Reese. 2002. Zeeuwen.9. 4th ed. PCA R&D SN2426. April. Richard. "Managing silo.. 1999.thorwesten. Illinois.corrv..· PCA Kiln Process class training materials." World (emen~ Vol. "Allthracile Coal Firing: I 00% success.· Facility Safety Management http://WINw. Metallurgy. .1. Coal Dust EXplosion Hazards. 2003.• and Grunewald.2. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.. June 2005.. F.com/ sales brochure. 2006.. Clausthal-Zellerfeld. 2006. pages 131-141. Coal Prepcration. section 1-3. K. Leonard. "The Visually Instructlve Plant.. . "Petcoke Combustion Characteristics. Merritt. 199 1. MetallurgICal. NFPA 8503. http:/{ lNINW. Portland Cement Assooation.31 Dust Explosions. Stephan. "System Design and Safety Considerations for Grinding High Volatile Coal. Piscataway. Piscataway. "Coal Mills. McAtee.Recommended Gwdellnes (or Solid Fuel U5e n Cement Plan15 Kidman. pages 53·60. and Petroleum Engineers. March.. page 144. Young.corrv'Articles12 00 S/06lThe % 2OVisually%2 Olnstrudive% 20Plant%20Signs%20and%20Labels%20for%20a%20Safe %20Workplace. Pennsylvania. 2006. Diana. pages 113-119. Leonard. 2005. K. Randy. Hossfeld.Schnarre. Pulven'zed Fuel Systems. 1979.. September. 2003.coml massflowmeters." Conference Record.4. Paul.htm. 1992 ad. Joseph w. sales brochure. Vol a. November/December 2000.. sales brochure. http:JtwNw. Wiedenhues.thorw2A"ltml!explosion-doors. Pfister GmbH. Society for Mming. http)lwwvv. W.. Pennsylvania.solidsystemsenglneerlng. No. Melahat. Signs and labels for a Safe Workplace." Work! Cement Vol. hnp://www. and Rahm. Roy. and Hardinge. No.htm. "Pulverized coal and dust feeding based on the Coriolis-prindple..pfister/eng1ish/ contactlbrochurestand+infotbrochureslmodernedosiertechnikdt. New Jersey and Portland CernentAssooation.

54. 31 Dust suspensions 23 Burgess-Wheeler (B-W) 21 L C Calciner 6 Carbon Dioxide (COz} 13. 36. 48. 39. 60 As-received 5. 72 Dust cloud 18. 61 system 62 Anthracite 6. 66 Dust explosion 14.25. 35. 27 Dust suppression 10. 40. 14. 24. 69. 24. 76 Dust collector 35.. 16. 71 Coal dosing 35. 19. 25. 24. 65.47. 22.65 Direct-fired systems 6 Discr~te Element Modelmg (DEM) 32. 28.70. 40 EKplosion pressure waves 28 EKplosion prevention 2. 27. 8.D Deflagralion 16. 34. 70. 23. Belt conveyor 31. 40. 71 Silo 14. 23. 27 Primary explOSion protedion 27 Secondary explosion protection 27 Guidelines 34 Combustion Combustion air 39 trianglE' 13 Explosion risk assessment 27 Explosion suppression 25. 40. 40. 22. 65 Dry fog spray 33 Drying capacity 40.49. 31.40. 19. 16. 18. 53 _E Emergency procedure 52 Exothermic reactions 13 EKplosion isolation 26. 36 Coal mill components Coal mill feed bills 35 Coal pump 22 Coal stockpiles 34 14.54 l8 Baghouse 22. 76 61 Bituminous coal 7. 9. 26. 53 81 . 40.53.71 6 Explosion processes 1 Explosion protection 15.35. 66.48.47. 24.52. 75 Dosing 35. 22. 61. 53. 62. 45. 15. 71 Carbon monoxide Coal ash 6 Coal bunker 14. 17.Index -A Air-to-doth Alarm ratio 49 Continuous oxygen monitoring 23 Cyclone 17. 35.47. 73 Detonation 22 Dew point 47 Dired firing 39.40. 18. 9. 54 Bowl mill 24. 26. 57. 54 Ash analysis 6 . 35. 53 Explosion vent 16. 53. 53. 23. 23. 35. 22. 48. 21. 57 Belt conveyors 23. 19. 73 CO 21.24.62.

9. 8. t76 Easy to grind 10 Harder to grind 10 Gnnding systems I.17. 76 High Heating Value (HHV) 5. 52 Grindability 2. 18. 10. Mill outlet pressure 46. 8 Fluid coke 7. 45.23. 48.36. 10. 59. 16 Metal detector 24. 53. 62 Infrared monitors 34 Inherent moisture 2. 20-22.35.20. 65. 7S. iO. 2.39.22. 53 Minimum Explosive Concentration (MEC) 76 Minimum Ignition Energy (ME) 19. 54 Heatmg value 5. 13. 70 Fire piercing rods 35. 48. 59. 46.22. 17.27. 23. 16 Minimum Ignition Temperature (Mm 18. 53. 19. 75 to. 71. 16. 62. 8 Furnace volume 21 G Gas ducts 10. 6. 74. 18 Typical analysis 6 Green delayed coke 7 44. 12.28. 7.23. 24. 24.76 MITdoud 18. 8 Flame arrester 25. 2. 6.42. 76 HIgh-volatile 1 Housekeeping 9. lignite coal 7 Umiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) 17. 47. 50. 22. 26 Dust-specific explosibility charaderistic 15 -l 6B. 64. 24. 27 Impact flow meter 36 Indirect firing 2. 39.48. 18.51 H Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) 6. 53.30.0 Oxygen 2.53 . 20.Recommend«! Guldelll1eS !of Solid Fuel Use in Cement Plants F Falseair 23. 45. 41. 54. 70 Firefighting piercing rod 70 Fixed carbon 5. 8 Free moisture 5 Fuel handling 1. 54.40. 45. 62.76 Inerting 17.40.24 Maximum rate of pressure rise IS. t76 False air-leakage 23 Fan 6. 9. 5.37. 76" low Heating Value (lHV) 5.16.27. 56. 52. 21.32. 72. 76. HRD suppressors 25 Hybrid explosive mixture 21 .23. 8.69. 47. 75. 45. 53. 34. 49. 62 Inert gas 17. 14. 17.49. 27. 6.33. g. 18.47. 24.14. 40. 7.34. 8. 58. 5.47. 42 Inorganic residue 5 nK Kiln feed chemistry 5 Kst 16. 75 ID fan 48 - ~---- . 2B Flammability 21 flexicoke 7. Mill outlet temperature 51.38.23. 6. 23. 14. 66 Fineness 2. 4.20. 24 Pmax 15. 17. 25.65. 16. 10.31. 66 Fire fighting procedures 2. 78 fuel selection 2.46. 49 Grades of coal 6. 20. 7.51. 41. 40. 23. 66 Micelle-encapsulating agent 71 Mill inlet temperature 10. 76 lower explosion limit (LEl) 14. 14. 10. 75. 66. 51. 75. 75. 52. 46.5. 10.59. Heat and Material Balance (H&MB) 46. 40 Hygroscopic moisture 5 71 76 Mrflayer 76 Moisture content 5. 62. 52. 61. 73.40. 8.20. 46. 76 Oxygen bomb calorimeter 5.35.27. 61. Ignition sources 13. 48. 10. 46. 60. 76 -M Magnetic separator 34 Magnetic separators 24 Mass flow design 22 Maximum explosion pressure 15. 54.40. 16 54.

72. 9. 24.65. 8. 48.Passivedust control 32 Pet coke 5. 32.44. 76.fety interlock systems 2 Secondary explosion protection 27 SelHgnition 2 Solid fuel handling 1.•52 Raw materials 1. 10. 16. 10. 10. 8. 70 Sustainable development 1 39. :P . 74.70 Sub-bituminous coal 7. '53 W Water spray 52 Weathering 7. 26 Pressure waves 28 Primary explosion protection 27 Properties of combustible dust 14 Proximate analysis 5 Pulverized coal bin 23.34. 51 Visually instructive workplace 66 Volatil~ matter 5. 5. 23. 7. 10. 14. 40. 47. 42. 2. 36. 65. 38.. 53. 22.35. 41. 34 exhaust gas 23 Pressure pIling 22. 45.2.Ind".22. 31. 4. 46. 59. 34. 31 Preheater T Tertiary explo~on protection 27 Total moisture 5. 54 Spontaneous ignition 2. 66. 35.. 28.20. . 23. 23 Sulfur alkali ratio 10 Suppressant 25.22.. 6. 46. 54. 7. 57. 13.40. 5. 34. 54.22. 60. 56. s. 53. 5. 59 Pulverized coal dust 41 Rate of oxidation 14 Raw (oal9. 78 Solid fuels \ . 70. 49. 9. 9. 35. 40. 18.45. 8. 26. 26. 50..65 V Vertical mill 48. 60 P@tcoke dassiikation 8 Petroleum coke 7 Piercing rod 70. 39.26. 6. 71 Pneumatic pump 36 Powder River Basin coal 6. 12.23. 62. 42. 47 Typical ash chemistry 6 U Ultimate analysis 5 Unloading 21. 8. t76 Roller mill 10 5 Safety characteristics 9 Sa. 58. 10. 14. 65. 52.24. 24. 9. 71 Starting interlocks 61 Storage 2. 30. 10 Recycle gas 40 Residual moisture 2. 7. 14.. 34. 31.40. 68. 64.

• md d brle! r e. fowl LJPI~. ~ lou U' 1. and the authors dlsclalm (lny and responsibility for the i1C(UrilCY of the information andlor the appllcatlon of the procedures . Jayaraman. ~O WARRANTY IS MADE OF lRCHANTABIUTY OR FIPIESS fOR A PARTICULAR PUR SE PCA AND ITS ME ~1BlRSDIS(l/ 11. :'1007 POltland ("ment A~o(latiorl ("rCA") IS11not. Il'j mt'lrlb .andhng.ol..l'lI mdll'll.pili 'I. p'f1I(lO!r ... PCA.. buuminous coal.lI tlllilly. nduhr g safe drscusslon of the la lonal Fire Pro ecuon As~Clatlon BI d f III G' b I He an e. dlE'lTlI. methods of Of! rallOIt.u~ Orll p tloleum r..p IlIllll" H .tl • J.ln1l1!or 01 OI. millt' .1 IIfIll'. Hollt1'9~head 4nd·(>W Siroker. lro are competent \0 e~i1IU1l\~ the Sir nlilcan{e and III uattons of he Information prOVIded heH'lrI. I cordmons For these 1t'i1SOr1S ltlle On11'1.I . tI.. tlalavana lsenQ Herr) n...lIaglcl\IO I..e\1' GlJId~11I <.j.rd .r'9 (. PorildmJ Cern nt Asscoeuon hied ?IlW Stepl'i!1 e.3r) Cd'i:! ha~ been use<11fl .altil hum IIIhdlill9 !l1~1 a DISCLAIMER hlly 01 .\1I011 pUIIIOSes itd IIglJ I<~'r . 01 In' tornbnaton of these malenals f"ovld d al£> ollld(lhnes fOf 1111. dP111 J I . ~~ • . I • [ :-lOIS.1 • r.·8 978·0893' 2·151·6 bl1ra'Y of Congtl. cern nl plants. nor do y assume any Ii<lbilily t('~ultiI19 hom 11'11" of this information use and thes@ procedurp~~ In an II I he t>l < rn ot . and conunuous y var nq Op. d L I rota g Ab5lr. . mant nance and trc1tnIll9.uons It IS k:nown th. «ontellioner> ~U\l. III lui (cool 1~~( m NS Its own uuque J dIU!'!>. I ~I.• 1 a Ii l). TAKE APPROPRIATE PRECAUTIONS WHEN WORKING IN DUm ENVIRONMENTS..for-profit orgdr1l7 lion and prOVIdeS U"S puulKal 00 sol !y for til (OI1111lJIIlY duceuon ot quallft_d profesuonals." r' II.lnd fealurl'S prl'wnli'd h(lrpin. John J HailS. may OJ.prollided in this document.' u e 01 pulv 111"0~lld Ut I \}'\Ierns If (eMe!' plcHlb.m!! I lit I: . i'! plication of this Inforrn lion OTHER READERS(HOUlD OBTAIN AS~lsrAtlCl fROM A QUAUFllD P~OFES510 JAL B fORf PRO(fFOIIJG P( A AUD ITS MEMBERS 1. hl(T I IAflllilY It! TOR I) II COWIEeTIOr< WITH THIS PU[lUCATIOt-J OR ANY 'JP)RMATV'lN CONTNNf C HI RrtN st WARNING: DUST (AN BE OANGEROUS. LOdI (omLU51dJ '.1A ~y PRODUC I liABilITY ftNllUDltlG WITHOUT lIMIiATIor~ AN'. 10 1. Jr.' rl~ 10 VOII' hl.'I~~. EBIl3. It S no! p)5."ILI.811(ArIOll OR AN'III~FORMATION (OIlTAlt to H~~£It~ IN I'A IICULAR. P.Po omrl. 10 beth rontract for IOlilrlll.ewer '011 d IlldljilZtne or newspaper IS N 0·1)9312·25·. '101' stenuard croc dUll'S dfld methods 01 opera ion that WIII'!lSlI!' ~afe t'per(l!lon at all um s or Ill.. U~A. \hould OT be conSIdered a "coo 11001:" Ilelt I Yldd II (Ol'ffl restllts II arh pro{l'lj'lle I~can l f'''' Iv followl!-d 11~" (.ll:llill lIlurg.11re$poll~lll! (10..1 ' . d loPtrl9 II procedurns .110 possess 111tequlIPd 1I(~mP(!.'rl ent 111 III AS)Q{ldllon All f10hlS I • 1'lVl'd No n.ltt: PUIVl'!l7t'rI ~oll[llu~1 UII' at cement plants In ~ orlh AmerICd rs unt el~a and Hldullps lllluM nous ~nd sub I tum 'c.\lIU""II'" :If I Inll'mJ d onl' as uuul nel' \0 piotr sional u ·rsonllel (on Jll'ler I 10 ...'d w. t 1\\llye"7.'lldl:\l 1.j [' l~lr'1!lml'f" 1[)CCICIity It IImalel! II. lin!).un In :1.1lJf. [ 1)1prociU({'tj [ror !xt nalu'al and drtlhn IIOUI{l'S may post' a II 'dIU I rl~1 10 wur~PIS III conftnl'd 11 r 111IV .' lor th. O! code 'ssut's New f' hr )lo(W on fir ard e~rlosion prev nton Indutltny d lIagralto vent'ng ~ "Iso I enred Refl'rente: " 100 paQC5 Youno.)~. Gerald L.htl' 01 J> "mVOrr't-1 \jIlregJle.IAM ~O EXf'R[S5 OR IMPLIED WARRAf>J1Y WITH RLSPfCT TO THIS P1.hCl • b hrnil I III Ihf. {. detonauon du~! e~pl(..' I IllIr..!reproduced who WIShesto QUOle bile! passaqes In a review wnuen or In ilil Ifill tor m wilhoul II P ImISSion III VIIf tlilg r rom ll1e put'listwr. englneermg \"'5 ~n Iheor •• : In wster'l oper ons. mall M'I(Xlfl sol dust call cas Iy become alli)orl1£' elml roun a potenlirll1y explOSive u~1 (rOUII EvauJtl' lite rl~~ 0 elJ. P 1" rw~lrtrv 11l11l1 11 prevent an exploson THERE IS A RISK OF EXPLOSION.om r nr.:II) •• vr IIJUlI! . .111' . elrctncal eqUlpm 01. lostrum ntahan and safe intErlock ISS 5.l'nI "Ir. and ~ho a« ep\ 0\. nndablhly.Jr Of In"I'1 ran 1'1)«(> 115 • ApjllOpnate I pua orv prot non will reel ce tin.1 Aldl9dJlll If IIlPly d"ild INHALING DUST CAN HURT YOU.lIld PlodLJ(t nilml'S are mcntlOnNj Itl> does 00' IIlplv 1'( A cnd~!.. fLlei handling and fuel5)'SIPrn de~cl'r 110m.lft ul IllS bool. Penta Engineering Corporation.ploslOll prevention \Ial'd fin Addre~s <J are tue anu e plO 011 l'i!Zi:!'d~ le'ated 10 solid III I u~e In the cement Industry.lllvn And '1eghgenc' dauns .(. .1 ~ 101~I(ffuel In· LIIe III (rom! 11 nts l(eywQrd~: I Ilth.·retl nu cond.. THIS PU811CI\TION SHOULD amy B~ U to ElY QUALIfiED I' O~ESStONAlS \.y 'Cv.'s~ Cortrol Numhel 1007924018 Cover pho!. e Ilepl t. O£ 1101urn col .acllc..) (lMG2l]Ol) E81H (SN2Ci6) ii .slble to 0'.(( pt rt 0 r It I I I t. gill ding ICOn 'llIf1UIIOnl maten ~ h.1 S terns fI' prone 10 flies an e~plost(HI5 Ihell'lole. n...' C 007 PorllatUJ C 81illlri .i .llosIOll b (or ll( (jl1~t (loud 15 l1!'rlt'rdleU and nIl' I II..11''11 dnd wI''l Yo I .rh c tid Iroptll( "ull ").50 tI J 50 The provsrons of LIIIS pillar raph Illall appl. h qe quantlll Even IlulSdl1Ce dllSls sU(iI a~ 1I0u'.rl ~nd dlSI ers d In ~lIltrCICIII conccnuauons f\'~n. n Mar • Recommended GU/delinE'S{Of Solid Fuel L~e II Cement Plants.I ~ >1 .

Gebr. Eric Powell.lltant PENTA Engineering Corp. Inc. and other peers who prov. The lruernational Journal of Chemical and Process Plant Safety. Schenck AccuRate. Hakim. Photographs and graphiCS were graciously provided by Aistom Power. PENTA Engineering Corp: [haled S. John J. f1Smidth Inc.Munager.ided many useful comments. Manufacturing Peliormance Center. Penta Engineering.Senior Consult~nt PEN7:4Engineering Corp. Narayana Jayaraman . PENTA Engineedng Corp Herman Tseng . Inc Acknowledgements This engineering bulletin was developed under the guidance of the Manufacturing Technical Committee (Project MOS-03).M~na!Jl!J.Manager 01 Technic(]/liainin9. E/@(TricalEngineedng. HoJ1lngshead . and John Wiley & Sons.Process £ngin~ring. Michael Polagye. journal. Institution 01 Chemical Engineers. Stephanie Price .About the Authors Gerald L Young .Consultant Mark Morgan . Stephanie Price. Gulf Publishing.Senior Process fngineet. PENTA Indurtn..al Corp. Loesche America. Sioker . Special thanks 9~s to Mark Morgan.denr.' PENTA Engineering Corp. The Journal ollo5S Prevennon in the Process Industries.pfeiffer AG. pfister GmbH. . and primary source documel\t research assistance. Hans .Senior Process (OIJjl.Pres. Andrew F. Connie Field and Bill Burns DfOVlded bibliographic. TholWesten Vent GmbH.

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