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Welding and inspection

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WELDING AND INSPECTION


Presentation on Welding fundamentals,application , Symbol,inspection An Overview by
V UMASHANKAR Info.umashankar@gmail.com Chennai

Introduction
Trainers background info 15Years in Welding Inspection by Visual and NDT Heavy Equipment Fabrication Construction equipment Trainer in Manufacturing Quality, QMS, Six sigma Green Belt, TPM Facilitator, Quality Circle Team Leader, Welding Quality, NDT Ultrasonic testing and Quality concept.

WELDING THEORY
Welding is joining two pieces of materials. Solid+solid Welding = Solid state bonding Liquid+Liquid welding=Fusion Welding Solid+Liquid Welding=Braze Welding Oxy-Aceteline=Gas Welding Thermit = Atomic hydrogen=

ELECTRICAL ENERGY WELDING

A) ELECTRICAL ARC WELDING


FCAW CAW SMAW GMAW GTAW SW PAW -Flux cored Arc Welding -Carbon arc Welding -Shielded metal arc Welding -Gas metal arc Welding -Gas Tungsten arc Welding -Stud Welding -Plasma Arc Welding

SHIELDED METAL ARC WELD

SUBMERGED ARC WELDING

Metal inert gas welding,MIG

TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING

BRAZE WELDING

B) ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE WELDING


Spot Welding Seam Welding Projection welding Flash butt Welding Electro slag Welding Stud Welding

C) ELECTRICAL INDUCTION WELDING


Induction Presuure Welding Induction Brazing

MECHANICAL ENERGY
Friction Welding Ultrasonic Welding,High freq sound waves Explosive Welding

SPECIAL SOURCE WELDING


Electron Beam Welding Laser Welding

ELECTRODE DAMAGE & INFLUANCE


Absorbtion or loss Moisture Cracking & discaling covering Contamination Oxidation of the cored wire Formation of deposits on the surface

Absorbtion or loss Moisture & INFLUANCE


Porosity in weld metal Excessive Projection Spattering arc instability Visual worsening of seam suface Scouring / Blistering in cellulose coating Difficulty in removing slag Cracking caused by hydrogen

Formation of deposits on the surface


Absorbtion or loss Moisture Cracking & discaling covering Contamination Oxidation of the cored wire

Welding inspection
Crack Bead shift Burn through Porosity Pin holes Waviness Under cut Weld appearance

Weldments - Symbols and Drawing Practices

DWGA130 Overview (Cont.)


Primary Reference ISO 2553:1992 Secondary References AWS A2.4:1998

Welding Symbol, Weld Symbol

FIGURE 1: Elements of a Welding Symbol

Elementary Weld Symbols

Most common are fillet, square groove and flare bevel weld joints

Supplementary Weld Symbols

Contour symbols not used much in the past

Weld Symbol Orientation


Reference lines and weld symbol details remain the same regardless of which end the arrow is on.

Weld Both Sides


Appropriate weld symbols above and below reference lines. Dashed line not required where the weld joint is exactly symmetric.

Combined Weld Symbols


More than one weld type. Size specified individually for each.

Fillet Weld Size


Required minimum weld size dimension (mm)
z = leg dimension a = throat dimension

Butt/Groove Weld Size


Required minimum throat dimension (mm) No direct measurement requires destructive test and evaluation

Intermittent Weld Dimensions


ISO vs AWS (App 2) Size convention is the same Number and length of segments Spacing between segments vs AWS ctr to ctr method

Symmetric Intermittent Weld


Same weld symbol and dimensions both sides Dashed line not required Anchor welds at each end

Staggered Intermittent Weld


Usually specified to avoid weld distortion or interference Offset dimension specified in detail vs default Anchor welds standard shop practice

Z denotes staggered intermittent weld

Intermittent Weld on Circular Part


If necessary, start location must clearly be identified Weld size Number and length of segments Spacing between segments (chord dimension)

Weld All Around


Simplified details Exactly the same joint conditions and welds all the way around

Testing methods
Visual inspection
Destructive Mechanical, Chemical, Testing

Ultrasonic Testing

DP Testing , MPT,ECT, X-RAY AET,LEAK, NRT,

Good welding Practice summary


Right Welding parameter at any time

Setting With error proof interlock (Poka yoke)

WELDING SOUNDNESS

No Adjustment

Monitering For right welding at first Time and any time

Continuous Improvement Model


Welding parameter entry Trend Chart GOAL

Check

TIME

RESULT EVALUATION
REPAIR, IDENTIFY

Set alingment

ACTION PLAN
Action Name Date

100%

PARETO ANALYSIS

PM Good Welding
CURRENT Wire feed VOLTAGE

Setting

Alingment

WIRE POSITION

Input Quality, Good Fittment, Job position,

DIFT

TIME

GOOD WELDING CONTRIBUTION

METHOD 27% OTHERS 9% MATERI AL 14%

MACHIN E 34%

WELDER 16%

Flux baking FITUP GAP Spool quality

Check incoming component Clean and remove rust,oil Ensure proper welding.

Rollequality

CHECK POINTS

RUST Torch setting

Key Decisions Made


Ensure proper welding parameter Set appropriate Time Correct and monitor the process

Alingnment Input material Quality Machine truness

Requirement
Weld width

Leading Consultants for 6 and Cycle time Reduction Clients:Citicorp, PwC, ICI, 3M, Telstra
Meet spec
Penetration

Side wall fusion

Quantum Improvement in terms of Quality Cost Cycle time

Six Sigmas definition of Defect

NDE

Circumferentia l Butt Weld Inspection

ll welds shall be inspected. A weld subject to inspection shall be acceptable if inspection shows: a) No surface cracks b) No Visible lack of fusion between welds and base metal c) No craters
Repairable

d) Uniform Weld profiles e) That frequency of visible porosity in fillet welds does not exceed one in each 100 mm of length and the maximum diameter does not exceed 2.4 mm That groove welds have no visible porosity. g) Undercut is not more than 0.5 mm deep.