Hi this is a project on a 220 kV Grid substation in Sarusajai, Guwahati, Assam Most of the documents are taken from different

search engines and I am not responsible for any wrong information here. All the data are from the substation itself. -Preetom Parasar

1. Introduction: 1.1. About the substation:
1

The substation in Sarusajai, Guwahati-781034, Assam was completed by the year 1986 under AEGCL; it is one of the largest power grids in the state of Assam and the north eastern India. This substation has the capacity of 220kv and can step down to 132kv using three input lines through the incoming feeders. The input feeders are namely: AGIA- i; AGIA-ii; LONGPI- i; LONGPI- ii; SAMUGURI-i; SAMUGURI- ii. All these feeders come into the substation with 220kv. The substation has another substation under it. The capacity of this is 132kv/33kv. This substation was completed by the year 1997 under AEGCL. The purpose of this station was to step down the 132kv to direct distribution to the 33kv/11kv substations in six different areas of the state. The substation of 132kv/33kv has six outgoing feeders, namely: JWAHAR NAGAR, GARBHANGA, MIRZA, PALTAN BAZAR, and Kahilipara STATION. These out going feeders are of 33kv line. The most important of any substation is the grounding of the instruments, transformers etc. used in the substation. For grounding of the substation a metallic square or some poly shaped metal boxes are placed in the ground. These ground the extra high voltage to the ground. As it is dangerous to us to go near the instrument without proper earth. If the instruments are not ground properly they may give a huge shock to anyone who would stay near it and also it is dangerous for the costly instrument as they may get damaged by this high voltage.

1.2. Construction – Site Selection & Layout
E HV S U B STATION EHV Sub-Station forms an important link between Transmission network and Distribution network. It has a vital influence of reliability of service. Apart from ensuring efficient transmission and Distribution of power, the sub-station configuration should be such that it enables easy maintenance of equipment and minimum interruptions in power supply. Flexibility for future expansion in terms of number of circuits and transformer MVA Capacity also needs to be considered while choosing the actual configuration of the sub-station. EHV Sub-Station is constructed as near as possible to the load center. The voltage level of power transmission is decided on the quantum of power to be transmitted to the load center. Generally, the relation between EHV Voltage level and the power to be transmitted is as follows: S.NO. POWER TO BE TRANSMITTED VOLTAGE LEVEL 1) Upto 150 MVA 132 KV. 2) From 150 MVA to 300 MVA 220 K.V. 3) 300 MVA to 1000 MVA 400 K.V. 1.3. SELECTION OF SITE 2

Main points to be considered while selecting the site for EHV Sub-Station are as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) The site chosen should be as near to the load center as possible. It should be easily approachable by road or rail for transportation of equipments. Land should be fairly leveled to minimize development cost. Source of water should be as near to the site as possible. This is because water is required for various construction activities; (especially civil works,), earthing and for drinking purposes etc. The sub-station site should be as near to the town / city but should be clear of public places, aerodromes, and Military / police installations. The land should be have sufficient ground area to accommodate substation equipments, buildings, staff quarters, space for storage of material, such as store yards and store sheds etc. with roads and space for future expansion. Set back distances from various roads such as National Highways, State Highways should be observed as per the regulations in force. While selecting the land for the substation preference to be given to the Govt. land over private land. The land should not have water logging problem. The site should permit easy and safe approach to outlets for EHV lines.

v) vi)

vii)

viii)

ix) x)

1.4.

Process of Land Acquisition After the selection of site of the proposed EHV Substation and finalization of the area required, proceedings for acquisition of land have to be initiated. The acquisition of land generally takes quite a long time. Forecasting and planning of substation and selection of substation site needs to be done much in advance taking into account the normal period of acquisition of land. The acquision of land should not in any way disturb the commissioning of programme of sub-staion. In MSETCL a land acquisition is carried out by the concerned Civil wing. The proposal for acquisition of land is submitted to the District Collector in case of Govt. land and to the land 3

acquisition officer in case of private land through the PWD Authorities accompanied by following documents:
(i) (ii)

7/12 abstracts along with the resolution of local authority. Village map with suitable land duly marked on it.

(iii) Sales statistics around the area.

(iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

No Objection Certificate from the Forest Deptt. if applicable. The certificate in case of private agricultural land that the owner of the land does not become landless if his land is acquired. These papers should be submitted after their due scrutiny. The land selected should be marked on the village map by taking joint measurements with Revenue Authorities. Once the proposal is submitted to land acquisition officer further legal proceedings are completed by him, and the award is given followed by allocation of land to the utility.

Possessions of land are taken by taking joint measurements. 1.5. STORAGE OF EQUIPMENTS FOR THE SUB STATION:

All the substation equipments / materials received on site should be stored properly, either in the outdoor yard or in the stores shade depending on the storage requirement of that particular equipment. The material received should be properly counted and checked for any damages / breakages etc. The storage procedure for main equipment is as follows:
i)

EHV C.T.s and P.T.s Normally, 132 KV C.Ts. and P.Ts are packed and transported in wooden crates vertically while those of 220 KV and 400 KV are packed in iron structures for extra supports with cross beams to avoid lateral movement. 132 KV C.Ts. and P.Ts. should be stored vertically and those of 220 KV and 400 KV should be stored in horizontal position. C.Ts and P.Ts. packed in wooden crates should not be stored for longer period as the packing would may deteriorate. The wooden packages should be stored on a cement platform or on M.S. Channels to avoid faster deterioration of the wooden crates. C.Ts and P.Ts packed in iron cases stored in horizontal position should be placed on stable ground. No C.Ts and P.Ts. should be unpacked in horizontal position.

ii)

L.A. s. and B.P.I. These are packed in sturdy wooden case as the porcelain portion is very fragile. Care should be taken while unpacking, handling and storage due to this reason. iii) Batteries, Acid, Battery charger C & R panel, A.C.D.Bs copper piping, clamp connectors, hardwares etc. should be stored indoor. 4

1. Insurance Fund / Insurance Authority ) the cost of equipments and the period of insurance should be mentioned. wiring materials. and those of higher capacity are transported with N2 gas filled in them +ve pressure of N2 is maintained in transformer tank to avoid the ingress of moisture.Bs should be stored on raised ground and properly covered with tarpaulins or should be stored in door. 1. density monitor. Oil Piping. oil flow indicators. These should be stored on raised ground and should be covered with tarpaulins.9. Other accessories like pr. 1. The transformers are received on site with loose accessories hence the materials should be checked as per bills of materials. dust. The oil barrels should be stored in horizontal position with the lids on either side in horizontal position to maintain oil pressure on them from inside and subsequently avoiding moisture and water ingress into oil. Earthing design 5 . Transformer tanks up to 25 MVA capacity are generally oil filled. oil surge relays.iv) v) vi) Circuit breakers: The mechanism boxes of 33 KV – V. The Oil piping should also be blanked at the ends with gasket and blanking plates to avoid ingross of moisture. C. gasket ‘ O ‘ rings etc. Rediators – These should be stored with ends duly blanked with gaskets and end plates to avoid ingross of moisture. Air Piping. hence the equipments should be insured against storage. if necessary by filling N2 Bushings . The arcing chambers and support insulators are packed in iron crates and transported horizontally. Power transformers: The main Tank . The radiators should be stored on raised ground keeping the fins intact.V. SF6 cylinder should be stored in store shed. Oil is received in sealed oil barrels . PRVs.generally transported in wooden cases in horizontal position and should be stored in that position. should be properly packed and stored indoor in store shed. control cables. transportations. SF6 gas pipes.6. THE FIRE PROTECTION: The fire protection device should be kept in store yard for safety of equipments during storage. erections. The +ve pressure of SF6 gas is maintained in these arcing chambers to avoid the ingress of moisture. and any foreign materials inside.C.B. The interrupter chambers should be stored on raised ground to avoid rain water in storage area. The care should be taken to protect the fins of radiators while unloading and storage to avoid further oil leakages. This pressure should be maintained during storage. SUBSTATION STRUCTURES: It should be properly checked as per bills of materials of stacked and stored outside.7.The transformer is transported on trailor to substation site and as far as possible directly unloaded on the plinth. INSURANCE – Transport of equipments from one place to other is done. During transport.8. The control and operating cabinets are covered in polythene bags and are packed in wooden and iron crates. testing and commissioning as the paying authorities feels suitable and can be insured with ( Govt. and foreign All other accessories like temperature meters. buchholtz relay. Switches. Now-a-days SF6 circuit breaker are used at EHV rottages. care should be taken while handling them. It should be ensured that this pressure is maintained during the storage. dust. E. where they are actually erected. There being more of Fragile material. 1.H. erection and commissioning the equipments may get damaged resulting into loss.

5. Coupling 1. CBIP-223.Circuit Breakers .C. Various outdoor equipments used are as follows: capacitor with line matching units – These are high pass Filters ( carrier frequency 50 KHZ to 500 KHZ ) pass carrier. control cables etc. When A.Current transformers. – These are used for i) Measurement of current ii) Protection 1. Voltage for operation of protective systems and circuit brakes. 6 .C. & D. There are two main Buses in this arrangement connected by each diameter. supplies whenever required through various circuits. through protective relays installed on these panels various protection schemes for transformers.Isolators ( w. in a definite time. Line Isolator with E.4. IS: 3043.10.Guiding standards – IEEE 80.C. lines etc. 1. supply voltage for operation of protection 1.10.These are used to operate on the Fault either on line or transformer.10.Potential transformers – A) Measurement of voltage. yard and high frequency signals are blocked.These are used to control the operations of breakers. EB ) without earth blade. system and circuit breakers. B) Provide secondary voltage 1. for protection purposes and measurements.3. 400kV & 220kV system are designed for 40kA.B. supply fails as an emergency stand by.10. Battery Charges to provide appropriate D.C.L. it under shut down.11. are provided on these panels. i) Through either of line breakers the line side Main Bus can be charged normally (BusI).Battery sets – to provide adequate D.7.C.6. AC & DC DB’S – These are used for extending A.Low pass filter when power frequency currents are passed to switch 1. – To isolate the bay from the Bus.Wave Traps.To discharge the switching and lightening voltage surges to earth. isolates.10.10. . To keep the battery set continuously is charged condition as it gets discharged to certain extent due to internal resistance of batteries. 1. depending upon where it is connected. 1.A. CONTROL AND RELAY PARTS . Basic Objectives: Step potential within tolerable Touch Potential limit Ground Resistance Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current (considering corrosion) 1.o. – To isolate the line from Sub Station and earth.1. This isolates the Faulty line or equipments from the live portion of the Sub Station by opening automatically through protective relays.2. Frequency to carrier panels and power frequency parameters to switch yard. current circuits when currents are passed through protective relays.10.10. .

1.13. Breaker from any bay can be taken out for maintenance without interrupting the supply. Electrical clearances . Outage on anyone Bus can be availed without interruption on any Bus. The second Bus can feed all the loads. If all the four breakers connected to Bus are out the transformer can be charged through the breaker from remote substation source. On Bus fault on any Bus only the two breakers (of two diameters) connected Bus will Trip.e. CLEARANCES vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) 1. Ground Clearances – 7 . tie breaker and IInd Bus breaker if closed in series will charge the IInd Main Bus.This is minimum distance required between live parts and earth materials (earth clearance) or between live parts of different potentials (phase clearances) in order to prevent flashovers. from one side only one tie breaker can be attended at a time). Distinction should make between electrical clearances. Changing over as in case of 2 Bus or 3 Bus systems is not necessary as supply is not interrupted.) connected to Teed point (tie breaker + Bus breaker) will Trip. On line or transformer fault the tie breaker with respective line or transformer breaker will trip. necessary to ensure satisfactory performance in service and safety clearances which are required for safety of personnel in inspection. Safety clearances to the conductor . The Teed-point remains unprotected in any of line or transformer or bus faults hence the Teed point protection is given by differential relay. All the breakers in the diameters are in energized position including tie breakers to keep the system in tact in case of any fault.12.(Live Part) – Minimum distance required but live conductor and the limits of work section for safety to personnel working. If both the sources are connected to same Bus (i. in any case as said above. In case of this protection the breakers (2 Nos.ii) iii) iv) v) The line breaker. operation and maintenance work. For efficient working two diameters are required having source in each diameter preferably connected diagonally opposite to two different buses.

( meter) ( Right angle to Bus) Height of Earth wire from ground 15.2770 mm 132 KV level – 3505 mm 220 KV level – 4280 mm 400 KV level – 6500 mm 3) This is Minimum clearance from any point where a man may be required to stand to the nearest live conductor in air.6 meters. Distance bet formulations – 4. Height of Earth wire – above ground – 28.5 meters. 33 KV – 3. Distance bet. Height of 1st Steels Bus above ground – 18. Distance of Earth wire from ground – 10. Height of Earth conductor – 30 meters above ground Bay width – 27 meters.> 6 Meters. Double Bus – 12 meters.6 meters. 132 KV – 4. Single line diagram (SLD) A Single Line Diagram (SLD) of an Electrical System is the Line Diagram of the concerned Electrical System which includes all the required ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT connection 8 . 4) Ground clearance.5 meters. Distance bet equipments – 4.5 meters.5 meter ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Width to Bay – 18 Meters.7 meters.5 meters. 400 KV 8. Height of IInd Bus – 25 meters.5 meters 220 KV/ Bus two / three. From ground.The space where the person may work safely provided he remains with in that space. 2. 132 KV SYSTEM: Height of Bus from ground – 8 meters. Phases 7 meters.0 meters. and limits of work section where safety of personnel is ensured.5 meters. Distance bet Equipments (Right angle to Bus) . Bay width . Between equipments At right angle to Bus – 3 meters For 220 Kv System – (Single Bus) i) Height and Bus forms ground – 12. 220 KV – 5. Work Section . 400 KV Height of Main Bus from ground –15. 132 KV Single – Bus system 1) Minimum clearance to earth on air for : 132 KV level – 1070 mm 22 KV level – 280 mm 33 KV level – 380 mm 220 KV level – 1780 mm 400 KV level – 3500 mm 2) Minimum clearance between phases in air : 22 KV level – 330 mm 33 KV level – 430 mm 132 KV level – 1220 mm 220 KV level – 2060 mm 400 KV level – 4000 mm Sectional clearances : 22 KV level – 2745 mm 33 KV level .The minimum distance required between any exposed insulator which supports or contains live conductor.5 meters. Ph to Ph Distance – 3 meters.Single Bus – 11 meters. Height of stab Bus from ground – 22 meters.

T & C.sequence wise from the point of entrance of Power up to the end of the scope of the mentioned Work.T/P. C V T 3. all protective devices/relays and other special equipment like NGR. They are as follows in the single line diagram. Protection and Metering P. Current transformer 12. As these feeders enter the station they are to pass through various instruments. Circuit breaker 7. Isolators. Transformer 15.T. Circuit Breakers. As in the case of 132KV Substation. Isolator 11. BUS 9. the SLD shall show Lightening Arrestor. 2. 1. Line isolator 8. Isolators with earth switch 6. Lightening arrestors. Fig: Single line diagram of substation. Current transformer 5.T Unit. Lightening arrestors 14. SDR etc as per design criteria. The instruments have their usual functioning. State Electricity Board's C.1. Circuit breaker 13. 2. Lightening arrestors with earth switch 9 . Wave trap 4. CVT. Potential transformer in the bus with a bus isolator 10. GUARD RINGS. Main Power Transformer. again Isolators and circuit Breakers.

The lightening arrestor works with an angle of 30° to 45° making a cone. 3. a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal. Its shape is like a drum. The lightening arrestors do not let the lightening to fall on the station. 2. is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. Brief descriptions of the instruments in the line diagram are1. an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. Wave trap Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. C V T A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. and hence the secondary terminals. Isolator 19. Potential transformer with a bus isolator 21. so to prevent any damage lightening arrestors are used. a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. C2. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split. Lightening arrestors Lightening arrestors are the instrument that are used in the incoming feeders so that to prevent the high voltage entering the main station. Current transformer 18. The function of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves. The device has at least four terminals. 2. C1. 10 . A capacitor bank attached to the bus. In practice the first capacitor. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor.2. Circuit breaker 17. Bus 20. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. This high voltage is very dangerous to the instruments used in the substation. In any substation the main important is of protection which is firstly done by these lightening arrestors. The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it can pull the lightening to the ground. It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the instruments here in the substation. Its function is of trapping wave. If some lightening occurs the arrestors pull the lightening and ground it to the earth. Even the instruments are very costly.16.

(b) spring circuit breakers. By doing so maintenance and repair of any instrument can b performed. This also helps in breaking the line entering the station. The circuit breaker has a direct link with the instruments in the station. The earth switch can be operated manually. The spring type of circuit breakers is used for small kv stations. There are mainly two types of circuit breakers used for any substations.4. This lightening arrestor has an earth switch. Circuit breaker The circuit breakers are used to break the circuit if any fault occurs in any of the instrument. This isolator prevents the instruments to get damaged. 8. which can directly earth the lightening. The arrestor works at 30° to 45° angel of the lightening making a cone. Line isolator The line isolators are used to isolate the high voltage from flow through the line into the bus. The spring type is used for step down side of 132kv to 33kv also in 33kv to 11kv and so on.e. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower than 20. When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor connected to the circuit breaker. Lightening arrestors with earth switch Lightening arrestors after the current transformer are used so as to protect it from lightening i. when any fault occur alarm bell rings. This transformer steps down the current from 800 amps to 1 amp.8 bar. This is only done automatically by the circuit breaker. 5. The circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the torque produce in it due to any fault in the line. The main use of this transformer is (a) distance protection. (b) backup protection. 7. (c) measurement. Current transformer Current transformers are basically used to take the readings of the currents entering the substation. say above 220kv and more. They are only used in low distribution side. It also allows the only needed voltage and rest is earthed by itself. by pulling the switch towards ground. They are (a) SF6 circuit breakers. BUS 11 . The spring here reduces the torque produced so that the breaker can function again. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other instrument in the station. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker by force ie under high pressure. This is done because we have no instrument for measuring of such a large current. There is a meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually seen if the gas goes low. from high voltage entering into it. For any unwanted fault over the station we need to break the line current. The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are having high input kv input. 6.

Potential transformers with bus isolators There are two potential transformers used in the bus connected both side of the bus. In case of a 220kv or more kv line station auto transformers are used. The potential transformer uses a bus isolator to protect itself. 13. Current transformer Current transformers are used after the bus for measurement of the current going out through the feeder and also for protection of the instruments. Transformer There are three transformers in the incoming feeders so that the three lines are step down at the same time. (b) protection. Lightening arrestors with earth switch The lightening arrestors are used with earth switch so that lightening would not pass through the instruments in the station. 15. The main use of this transformer is to measure the voltage through the bus. Circuit breaker The circuit breakers are used to break the circuit if any fault occurs in the circuit of the any feeders. Thus an isolator is used after the bus also for protection. 11. This is done so as to get the detail information of the voltage passing through the bus to the instrument. The two lines in the bus are separated by a little distance by a conductor having a connector between them. Circuit breaker 12 . 12. Isolators The use of this isolator is to protect the transformer and the other instrument in the line. 14. The first bus is used for putting the incoming feeders in la single line. The isolator isolates the extra voltage to the ground and thus any extra voltage cannot enter the line. 16. 10. This is so that one can work at a time and the other works only if the first is having any fault.The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders come into and get into the instruments for further step up or step down. While in case of lower kv line such as less than 132kv line double winding transformers are used. There may be double line in the bus so that if any fault occurs in the one the other can still have the current and the supply will not stop. Lightening arrestors The use of lightening arrestors after the bus is to protect the instrument in the station so that lightening would not affect the instruments in the station. There are two main parts in it (a) measurement. 9.

MIRZA.The circuit breakers are used to break the circuit for any fault. 21.ii. LONGPI. 20. The capacitor banks are used across the bus so that the voltage does not gets down till the require place. The substation of 132kv/33kv has six outgoing feeders. Potential transformer with a bus isolator Two PT are always connected across the bus so that the voltage across the bus could be measured. Guwahati. Firstly the 220kV and next the 132kV/ 33kV substation. 17. and Kahilipara STATION. The 220kV substation has the capacity of 220kv and can step down to 132kv using three input lines through the incoming feeders.i. Isolator These are used to ground the extra voltage to the ground.ii. Bus This bus is to carry the output stepped down voltage to the required place. SAMUGURI. The line diagram of the substation: The Sarusajai 220kv/ 132kv substation. The purpose of the 132kV/ 33kV substation was to step down the 132kv to direct distribution to the 33kv/11kv substations in six different areas of the state.i. These out going feeders are of 33kv line. SAMUGURI-i. Capacitor bank attached to the bus. The complete line diagram of the station are shown in the figure below: 13 . 3. All these feeders come into the substation with 220kv. LONGPI. PALTAN BAZAR. 18. namely: JWAHAR NAGAR. Its main use is of protection and measurement. The input feeders are namely: AGIA. AGIA-ii. GARBHANGA. 19. Current transformer Current transformers are used to measure the current passing through the transformer. has two stations in it.

Guwahati.Fig: Line diagram of the Sarusajai substation. Instruments used in the Sarusajai. 4. 220kV grid substation are: Lightening arrestors: 14 . Assam.

It is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. (2) Surface concentric with the Earth such that the quantities stored over it and under it are equal. (4) Building on a site of low electrostatic charge density. These lightening arrestors can resist or ground the lightening if falls on the incoming feeders. Landscape suited for purpose of explanation: (1) Represents Lord Kelvin's "reduced" area of the region. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. Fig. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester. (3) Building on a site of excessive electrostatic charge density.Firstly we can see lightening arresters. The lightening arrestors can work in a angle of 30 degrees around them. They are mostly used for protection of the instruments used in the substation. lightening arrestor. As the cost of the instrument in the station are very high to protect them from high voltage from lightening these lightening arrestors are used. 15 . Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. the current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth.

so it is prudent to consider carefully where a rod structure will have the greatest effect. it steps toward the grounded objects nearest its path. a lightning arrester is placed where wires enter a structure. Other designs of lightning arresters use a glow-discharge tube (essentially like a neon glow lamp) connected between the protected conductor and ground. To determine strike points. consisting of a porcelain tube several feet long and several inches in diameter. These provide a short circuit to the ground that is interrupted by a non-conductor. or a spark gap. To understand this requires knowledge of how lightning 'moves'. but more modern varieties are filled with dry gas and have a small amount of radioactive material to encourage the gas to ionize when the voltage across the gap reaches a specified level. or myriad voltage-activated solidstate switches called varistors or MOVs. A better technique to determine the effect of a new arrester is called the "rolling sphere technique" and was developed by Dr Tibor Horváth. As the step leader of a lightning bolt jumps toward the ground. preventing damage to electronic instruments within and ensuring the safety of individuals near them. so an object outside the critical distance is unlikely to be struck by the leader if there is a grounded object solidly OR within the critical distance. are devices that are connected between each electrical conductor in a power and communications systems and the Earth. consider a sphere rolling over the terrain. it suffices to consider all possible spheres as they touch potential strike points. filled with disks of zinc oxide. locations that are safe from lightning can be determined by imagining a leader's potential paths as a sphere that travels from the cloud to the ground. Objects are likely to be struck if they are nearer to the leader than this critical distance. The maximum distance that each step may travel is called the critical distance and is proportional to the electrical current. we are simulating a potential leader position. or insulated from the tower structures by small insulators that are easily jumped by lightning voltages. as it is possible for lightning to strike the side of a building. Electric power system lightning protection High-tension power lines carry a lighter conductor (sometimes called a 'pilot' or 'shield') wire over the main power conductors. also called surge protectors. Electrical substations may have a web of grounded wires covering the whole plant. Historical understanding of lightning. It is standard practice to approximate the sphere's radius as 46 m near the ground. At each point. or to carry current for aircraft clearance lights. over which lightning jumps. assumed that each device protected a cone of 45 degrees. from statements made by Ben Franklin. This has been found to be unsatisfactory for protecting taller structures. For lightning protection. Lightning arresters. Lightning is most likely to strike where the sphere touches the ground. Lightning arresters built for substation use are impressive devices.In telegraphy and telephony. Its purpose is to limit the rise in voltage when a communications or power line is struck by lightning. Points that the sphere cannot roll across and touch are safest from lightning. Lightning protection system design Considerable material is used to make up lightning protection systems. Primitive varieties of such spark gaps are simply open to the air. A safety port on the side of the device vents the occasional internal explosion without shattering the porcelain cylinder. This conductor is grounded at various points along the link. The latter allows the pilot wire to be used for communications purposes. Noting this. The non-conducting material may consist of a semi-conducting material such as silicon carbide or zinc oxide. Lightning protectors should be placed where they will prevent the sphere from touching a 16 . Electricity travels mostly along the path of least resistance.

The energy in a lightning strike is measured in Joules. Evaluations and analysis A controversy over the assortment of operation theories dates back to the 1700s. when Franklin himself stated that his lightning protectors protected buildings by dissipating electric charge. Lightning strikes to a metallic structure can vary from leaving no evidence excepting perhaps a small pit in the metal to the complete destruction of the structure. A weak point in most lightning diversion systems is in transporting the captured discharge from the lightning rod to the ground.1 m or 7. (Bryan. additional air terminals will be installed in the middle of the roof at intervals of 15 m or less in a rectangular grid pattern. very good data is being obtained through techniques which use radio receivers that watch for the characteristic electrical 'signature' of lightning strikes using fixed directional antennas. The dissipation theory states that a lightning strike to a structure can be prevented by altering the electrical potential between the structure and the thundercloud. This is the intent of charge dissipation. Diversion is a misnomer. however.6 m. or along the peaks of sloped roofs at intervals of 6. The introduction of lightning protection systems into standards allowed various manufactures to develop protector systems to a multitude of specifications and there are various lightning rod standards. When a flat roof has dimensions greater than 15 m by 15 m. the American Geophysical Union concluded that "[t]he Bryan Panel reviewed essentially none of the studies and literature on the effectiveness and scientific basis of traditional lightning protection systems and was erroneous in its conclusion 17 . Lightning rods are typically installed around the perimeter of flat roofs. There are also inventors working on this problem. Through accurate timing and triangulation techniques. stating that the device's exact mode of operation was something of a mystery at that point. If the same energy could be released slowly over a period of many seconds or minutes. the current flow would be in milliamperes or a few amperes at most. analyzing the strikes is difficult. lightning strikes can be located with great precision. and the random behavior of lightning renders such observations difficult. It is noted that sharply pointed objects will indeed transfer charge to the surrounding atmosphere and that a considerable electric current through the tower can be measured when thunderclouds are overhead.structure. He later retracted the statement. depending on the height of the rod." In response. 1999) The same panel also concluded that "the recommended [NFPA 780 standard] lightning protection system has never been scientifically or technically validated and the Franklin rod air terminals have not been validated in field tests under thunderstorm conditions. The NFPA's independent third party panel found that "the [Early Streamer Emission] lightning protection technology appears to be technically sound" and that there was an "adequate theoretical basis for the [Early Streamer Emission] air terminal concept and design from a physical viewpoint". but rather to intercept the charge that terminates on a structure and carry it to the ground. though. This is done by transferring electric charge (such as from the nearby Earth to the sky or vice versa). When there is no evidence. This means that a strike on an uninstrumented structure must be visually confirmed. no modern systems are claimed to divert anything. The reason that lightning does damage is that this energy is released in a matter of microseconds (typically 30 to 50 microseconds). such as through a lightning rocket. While controlled experiments may be off in the future. so strikes on specific objects often can be confirmed with confidence. The research situation is improving somewhat. Transferring electric charge from the Earth to the sky is done by erecting some sort of tower equipped with one or more sharply pointed protectors upon the structure.

following a request for a project to address Dissipation Array Systems and Charge Transfer Systems. Scientists from the National Lightning Safety Institute claim that these dissipation devices are nothing more than expensive lightning protectors and that they. C1. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split. has currently endorsed a device that can prevent or reduce lightning strikes. Members of the Scientific Committee of the International Conference on Lightning Protection has issued a joint statement stating their opposition to dissipater technology. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. 18 . CVT : A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. Some field investigations of dissipaters show that their performance is comparable to conventional terminals and possess no great enhancement of protection.that there was no basis for the Standard. In practice the first capacitor. William Rison states that in his opinion the underlying theory of dissipation is "scientific nonsense". No major standards body. the path distance from the source to the elevated ground point will be shorter. Various investigators believe the natural downward lightning strokes to be unpreventable. C2. and hence the secondary terminals. a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal. such as the NFPA or UL. unlike traditional methods. According to opponents of the dissipation technology. an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. creating a stronger field (measured in volts per unit distance) and that structure will be more prone to ionization and breakdown. denied the request to begin forming standards on such technology (though the Council did not foreclose on future standards development after reliable sources demonstrating the validity of the basic technology and science were submitted). these devices have not shown that they totally eliminated lightning strikes. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor. The NFPA Standards Council. the various designs of dissipaters indirectly "eliminate" lightning via the alteration of a building's shape and only have a small effect (either intended or not) because there is no significant reduction to the susceptibility of a structure to the generation of upward lightning strokes. a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. there is no proof that the dissipation arrangement is at all effective. The device has at least four terminals. According to these sources." AGU did not attempt to assess the effectiveness of any proposed modifications to traditional systems in its report. are not based on "scientifically proven and indisputable technical arguments". is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. According to these field studies. Since most lightning protectors' ground potentials are elevated.

5 V for 30 sec. such as noise or other interference. 19 .CVT 220 kV rating Type: WP-245 V Operating voltage: 220/√3 kV Voltage factor: 1. Its function is of trapping wave. Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. of a wave. A device used to exclude unwanted frequency components. Wave tape: A device used to exclude unwanted frequency components. It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may be dangerous to the instruments here in the substation. of a wave. Test voltage: 460 kV Test impedance 1050 kv peak Ellec cap: 4400±10% PF of 50 Hz ± 5% Nominal intermediate voltage 20/√3 kv Spark over voltage: 36 kv Voltage divider ratio 220000/√3 /20000/√3 Total thermal burden: 1000 VA Temperature categ: 10 to 55°C Total weight: 900 Kg. The function of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves. such as noise or other interference. Its shape is like a drum.

Recently." or 10% of the nominal current (there are. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load. measurements of high values of current can be obtained. The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. this large increase in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer. special CTs designed to measure accurately currents as small as 2% of the nominal current). around the primary coil. inducing an excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load. A current transformer should always be short-circuited when not connected to an external load. which contains only a few turns of wire. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. Rating factor: Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. In this manner. These transformers are basically used to get the incoming current on the incoming feeders. Because the magnetic circuit of a current transformer is designed for low magnetizing current when under load. It steps down the incoming 800 amps to 1 amps. however. Conversely. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms.Current transformer: The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding 20 . This is done by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire.

around the primary coil.2 30 2S1-2S3 5P 10 15 Isolator with earth switch (ES): The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer. A current transformer should always be short-circuited when not connected to an external load. inducing an excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load.hysteresis curves. In this manner. Because the magnetic circuit of a current transformer is designed for low magnetizing current when under load. which contains only a few turns of wire. Conn: Accuracy class: Burden (VA): Highest system Voltage: 145 kV insulation burn 275 kV/ 65014 Vp 800/1 400/1 800/1 core 2 400/1 800/1 core 3 400/1 3S1-3S3 PS NA 1S1-1S2 0. heavy gas having good dielectric and arc extinguishing 21 . Isolator ratings Voltage rating: 145 kV Basic insulation level: 650 kVp Current rating: 1250 Amp. since the CTs are most accurate between their rated current and rating factor Current transformer Type 132 kV CT Core 1 Ratio (A/A) Sec. measurements of high values of current can be obtained. Circuit breaker: using SF6 gas: Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inert. This is done by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. The main use of using the earth switch (E/S) is to ground the extra voltage which may b dangerous for any of the instrument in the substation. this large increase in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer.

high voltage metal clad switchgear. The steel box is made gas tight.properties. each bearing about 4 kg of sulphur. The cost of gas is low if manufactured in large scale. SF6 is now being widely used in electrical equipment like high voltage metal enclosed cables. The gas thus obtained contains other fluorides such as S2F10. current transformers. SF4 and must be purified further SF6 gas generally supplier by chemical firms. 22 . etc. Sulphur hexafluoride gas is prepared by burning coarsely crushed roll sulphur in the fluorine gas. capacitors. The gas is liquefied at certain low temperature. bushings. circuit breakers. The dielectric strength of the gas increases with pressure and is more than of dielectric strength of oil at 3 kg/cm2. liquefaction temperature increases with pressure. provided with staggered horizontal shelves. in a steel box.

Due to its electronegativity. the rate of rise of dielectric strength is very high and the time constant is very small. the SF6 gas regains its dielectric strength rapidly after the current zero. and low arc time constant. The diameter becomes small during the current zero and the arc is extinguished. the arc diameter reduces during the decreasing mode of the current wave. As a result. 23 .During the arcing period SF6 gas is blown axially along the arc. The gas removes the heat from the arc by axial convection and radial dissipation.

24 .

25 .Fig: SF6 circuit breaker.

5 Rated duration of short circuit current is 31. Rated ling charging breaker breaking current 125 Amp Rated voltage 245 kV Rated frequency 50 Hz Rated normal current 1600 Amp Rated closing voltage: 220 V dc Rated opening voltage 220 V dc Main parts: (a) Power circuit (b) Control circuit Gas circuit breaker: low voltage side Type 120-SFM-32A Voltage rating: 220kv Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 650 kVp Rated short circuit breaker current: 31.5 kg/ cm2g First pole to clear factor 1.5 kg/ cm2g First pole to clear factor 1. Rated ling charging breaker breaking current 50 Amp Rated voltage 245 kV Rated frequency 50 Hz 26 .Gas circuit breaker: high voltage side Type 220-SFM-20B Voltage rating: 220kv Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 1050 kVp Rated short circuit breaker current: 40 kV Rated operating pressure: 16.5 kV Rated operating pressure: 15.5 kA for 30 sec.3 Rated duration of short circuit current is 40 kA for 30 sec.

(b) protection. Most flexible in operation 2. Bus fault does not remove any feeder from the service Demerits 1. These VT’s may be required in all cases for synchronizing live line or voltage indication 4. There are two potential transformers used in the bus connected both side of the bus. Remarks 1. If fault occurs during bus maintenance. Potential transformer ratings: 27 . Potential transformers: with BUS isolator The instrument potential transformer (PT) steps down voltage of a circuit to a low value that can be effectively and safely used for operation of instruments such as ammeters. From service 4. and relays used for various protective purposes. There are two main parts in it (a) measurement. Most widely used for very large power stations having large no. The main use of this transformer is to measure the voltage through the bus. Double main bus & transfer bus system Merits 1. watt meters. voltmeters. Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance. High cost due to three buses Remarks 1. The potential transformer uses a bus isolator to protect itself. This is done so as to get the detail information of the voltage passing through the bus to the instrument. Simple operation. Mesh (Ring) busbar system Merits 1. no isolator switching required 6. Breaker failure on bus side breaker removes only one ckt. 7. Highly reliable 3. Preferred by some utilities for 400kV and 220kV important substations. All switching done with breakers 5. 3.Auto-reclosing and protection complex. Busbars gave some operational flexibility Demerits 1. 2. of incoming and outgoing lines and high power transfer. Requires VT’s on all circuits because there is no definite voltage reference point. Breaker failure during fault on one circuit causes loss of additional circuit because of breaker failure. ring gets separated into two sections.Rated normal current 1250 Amp Rated closing voltage: 220 V dc Rated opening voltage 200 V dc Main parts: (a) Power circuit (b) Control circuit 220kv BUS: It is a incoming 220kv feeder BUS from which the line is taken to the transformer for further step down.

measurements of high values of current can be obtained. Due to its electronegativity. in a steel box. Current transformer: The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer. each bearing about 4 kg of sulphur. the SF6 gas regains its dielectric strength rapidly after the current zero. 28 . circuit breakers. The steel box is made gas tight. around the primary coil. A current transformer should always be short-circuited when not connected to an external load. Because the magnetic circuit of a current transformer is designed for low magnetizing current when under load. Sulphur hexafluoride gas is prepared by burning coarsely crushed roll sulphur in the fluorine gas. the arc diameter reduces during the decreasing mode of the current wave. The isolator prevents damage to the instruments by just isolating the line current or the voltage. high voltage metal clad switchgear. this large increase in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer. and low arc time constant. provided with staggered horizontal shelves. During the arcing period SF6 gas is blown axially along the arc.High voltage side: 245 V Rated insulation voltage: 395/ 900 Voltage rating: 220/√3 kV/ 110/ √3 V BUS Isolator: These isolators are used to isolate the incoming high voltage or the high incoming current from the incoming feeder which enters the bus. capacitors. heavy gas having good dielectric and arc extinguishing properties. The cost of gas is low if manufactured in large scale. the rate of rise of dielectric strength is very high and the time constant is very small. This is done by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire. The gas removes the heat from the arc by axial convection and radial dissipation. The gas is liquefied at certain low temperature. bushings. In this manner. current transformers. which contains only a few turns of wire. SF4 and must be purified further SF6 gas generally supplier by chemical firms. etc. SF6 is now being widely used in electrical equipment like high voltage metal enclosed cables. As a result. liquefaction temperature increases with pressure. The dielectric strength of the gas increases with pressure and is more than of dielectric strength of oil at 3 kg/cm2. The gas thus obtained contains other fluorides such as S2F10. The diameter becomes small during the current zero and the arc is extinguished. inducing an excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load. Circuit breaker using SF6 gas: Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inert.

a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP. Auto transformer: Transformer is static equipment which converts electrical energy from one voltage to another. Construction. Even the instruments are very costly. As the system voltage goes up. the techniques to be used for the Design. 29 . or around separate but magneticallycoupled cores. In an ideal transformer. the conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP). an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will flow from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. Hence. The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it can pull the lightening to the ground. it can give the user trouble free service throughout the expected life of equipment which of the order of 25-35 years. it is very essential that the personnel associated with the installation. This effect is called mutual induction. Lightening arrestors are the instrument that are used in the incoming feeders so that to prevent the high voltage entering the main station. Installation. maintenance and condition monitoring of the transformer. or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary to the number of turns in the primary as follows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. The lightening arrestors do not let the lightening to fall on the station. Except for air-core transformers. If a load is connected to the secondary. It is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors — the transformer's coils. In any substation the main important is of protection which is firstly done by these lightening arrestors. Operation and Maintenance also become more and more critical. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary" winding. operation or maintenance of the transformer is through with the instructions provided by the manufacture. If some lightening occurs the arrestors pull the lightening and ground it to the earth. A varying current in the first or "primary" winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. The lightening arrestor works with an angle of 30° to 45° making a cone. If proper care is exercised in the installation.Lightening arrestor: These lightening arrestors are used to prevent the lightening from damaging the instruments in the substation. This high voltage is very dangerous to the instruments used in the substation. so to prevent any damage lightening arrestors are used.

Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids. All operate with the same basic principles. although the range of designs is wide. Sarusaji. in Sub Station. transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Pole-mounted single-phase transformer with center-tapped secondary. AEGCL. which makes long distance transmission economically practical. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. An auto transformer 220kv/132kv. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. Guwahati Basic principles 30 . Note use of the grounded conductor as one leg of the primary feeder.

If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation 31 . the flux is the product of the magnetic field strength B and the area A through which it cuts. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil.The transformer is based on two principles: firstly. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. An ideal transformer. An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. which states that: where VS is the instantaneous voltage. being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core. The area is constant. such as iron. NS is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both primary and secondary coils.

the transformer is perfectly efficient.of the primary. the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage Ideal power equation The ideal transformer as a circuit element If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow. If this condition is met. then the current is decreased by the same factor. For example. electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Pincoming = IPVP = Poutgoing = ISVS giving the ideal transformer equation Transformers are efficient so this formula is a reasonable approximation. all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If the voltage is increased. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio. if an impedance ZS is 32 . Ideally. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer.

157.5V 33 . Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer. since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit.91 Amp. the magnetizing current is negligible. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current. The simplified description above neglects several practical factors.38 Amps 209. When a voltage is applied to the primary winding. Transformer rating Type of cooling: capacity: OFAF 100mV ONAF 80mV ONAN 60mV No load voltage: 220kv/ 132kv Line current: HV LV 262.46 Amp.43 Amp.This is due to Lenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field.94 Amp. 349. are equal to the corresponding EMFs. it appears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of . Impedence voltage: 12. so that the impedance ZP of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be Detailed operation . The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage.attached across the terminals of the secondary coil. a small current flows. although still required to create the magnetic field. Since the ideal windings have no impedance. is sometimes termed the "back EMF". 437. in particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. The primary EMF. This relationship is reciprocal. they have no associated voltage drop. 262. driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core.43 Amp.

The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it can pull the lightening to the ground. The lightening arrestor works with an angle of 30° to 45° making a cone Current transformers: 34 . If some lightening occurs the arrestors pull the lightening and ground it to the earth. In any substation the main important is of protection which is firstly done by these lightening arrestors. so to prevent any damage lightening arrestors are used. This high voltage is very dangerous to the instruments used in the substation. The lightening arrestors do not let the lightening to fall on the station. Even the instruments are very costly.1u 2u 3u 3w 2w 1w 3v Vector symbol: YNad1 2v 1v Lightening arrestors: Lightening arrestors are the instrument that are used in the incoming feeders so that to prevent the high voltage entering the main station.

It also allows the only needed voltage and rest is earthed by itself. Circuit breaker: The circuit breakers are used to break the circuit if any fault occurs in any of the instrument. This isolator prevents the instruments to get damaged.2 30 2S1-2S3 5P 10 15 Isolator: The line isolators are used to isolate the high voltage from flow through the line into the bus. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other instrument in the station. Current transformer LV side Type 132 kV CT Core 1 Ratio (A/A) Sec. This transformer steps down the current from 800 amps to 1 amp. This is done because we have no instrument for measuring of such a large current. 35 . The main use of this transformer is (a) distance protection.Current transformers are basically used to take the readings of the currents entering the substation. (c) measurement. Potential transformer: 2 with bus isolator Two PT are always connected across the bus so that the voltage across the bus could be measured. (b) backup protection. This is only done automatically by the circuit breaker. 132kv BUS: This bus is to carry the output stepped down voltage to the required place. Conn: Accuracy class: Burden (VA): Highest system Voltage: 145 kV insulation burn 275 kV/ 65014 Vp 800/1 400/1 800/1 core 2 400/1 800/1 core 3 400/1 3S1-3S3 PS NA 1S1-1S2 0. For any unwanted fault over the station we need to break the line current.

Circuit breaker: The use of the circuit breaker again is to break the circuit if there is any fault in the line. Its main use is of protection and measurement. The primary EMF. driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit. Current transformer: Current transformers are used to measure the current passing through the transformer. and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer. in particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. they have no associated voltage drop. Since the ideal windings have no impedance. the magnetizing current is negligible. are equal to the corresponding EMFs. The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. Isolator: Isolator ground the extra voltage to the earth. since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance.BUS isolator: This are used for the protection of the instruments. Transformer: with two windings The simplified description above neglects several practical factors. Lightening arrestors: The use of lightening arrestors after the bus is to protect the instrument in the station so that lightening would not affect the instruments in the station. although still required to create the magnetic field. a small current flows. 33kv BUS: 36 . Lightening arrestors: The use of lightening arrestors after the bus is to protect the instrument in the station so that lightening would not affect the instruments in the station. is sometimes termed the "back EMF". Current transformer: These transformers are used for measurements and protections.This is due to Lenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field. Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current. When a voltage is applied to the primary winding.

and increase revenue. reduce kVA demand. BUS isolator: The bus isolator is used to isolate the extra high voltage through the bus. Capacitor bank: A capacitor bank is used in the outgoing bus so that it can maintain the voltage level same in the outgoing feeder. coming from reactive component of the load. 1). improve voltage profile.This bus is used for the 33kV line. Reactive losses come from circuit 37 . Line isolator with earth switch (E/S): An isolator with switch is part of an electrical circuit and is often found in industrial applications. Such an arrangement would apply to circuits which inter-connect power distribution systems where both end of the circuit need to be isolated. Circuit breaker: The circuit breaker breaks the circuit whenever there is any fault in the line. In some designs the isolator switch has the additional ability to earth the isolated circuit thereby providing additional safety. Lightening arrestors: Lightening arrestors are used to protect the instruments from lightening. Potential transformer on the bus: The potential transformer is used in the bus only. Experience shows that switched feeder capacitors produce some of the fastest returns on equipment investment. whereas circuit breaker is an on-load device. decrease customer energy consumption. The use of the potential transformer is to measure and to protect the instruments. Major difference between isolator and circuit breaker is that isolator is an off-load device. Isolator switches may be fitted with the ability for the switch to padlock such that inadvertent operation is not possible . Current transformer: The use of the CT here is to protect the instrument and for measurement purpose. Capacitor Control is usually done to achieve as many as possible of the following goals: Reduce losses due to reactive load current. however they are commonly fitted to domestic extractor fans when used in bathrooms in the UK. This bus carries 33kV voltage. This is because to measure the voltage in the bus. Indirectly capacitor control also results in longer equipment lifetimes because of reduced equipment stresses. Sources of Energy Loss Energy losses in transmission lines and transformers are of two kinds: resistive and reactive. The former are caused by resistive component of the load and cannot be avoided. The latter. can be avoided (Fig.

Some are discussed below. 1). and details of the distribution circuit. usually degrades voltage profiles. increases kVA demand. Substation capacitors cannot do the job . This increases losses due to reactive load current. thereby reducing the observed power demand. 2). 1. therefore. increases customer energy consumption. 38 . their sizes. When a heavy inductive load is connected to the power grid. the above mentioned losses can be minimized by reducing the reactive power component in Fig. There are many aspects to this compensation and its effects. the overall energy reduction is usually greater than when using large banks which are turned on for shorter amounts of time (Fig. and reduces revenue. Since energy saved is the product of power reduction and the time the banks are online.the reactive load current has already heated feeder conductors downstream from the substation. depending on where capacitors get to be located. important to locate feeder capacitors as close to the loads as possible. Reactive Compensation When capacitors of appropriate size are added to the grid at appropriate locations. a large positive reactive power component is added. Another way to minimize energy losses is to use capacitor banks that are not too large. To minimize energy losses it is. Reducing reactive current at the substation can not recover energy losses in the feeders. thereby increasing observed power load (Fig.capacitance (negative). Energy Loss Reduction More than one half of system energy loss is caused by the resistance of the feeders. This makes it possible to put the banks on-line early in the load cycle. and circuit inductance (positive).

multiple banks on a feeder can lead to ‘pumping’ as the controls affect the operating points of each other. If the objective is voltage control the bank should be farther from the substation. the usual two-thirds. The latter makes it possible to upgrade lines and transformers less frequently. Several benefits become available: The kVA demand can be increased to arrive at the original voltage drop (this is equivalent to releasing feeder demand). Usually no more than three or four banks are used per feeder. Depending on the type of the switching control used. Voltage Profile Distribution feeder demand capacity is usually limited by voltage drop along the line. If there is to be only one capacitor bank on a uniformly loaded feeder. This means that the bank kVAr size should be two-thirds of the heavy load kVAr as measured at the substation. and the bank should be located two-thirds the length of the feeder from the substation. System Considerations Obviously properly switched capacitors located at appropriate locations along distribution feeders provide great financial benefits to the utility. the total capacitor kVAr can more closely match the total load kVAr.Demand Reduction When capacitors are on-line reactive current and. the substation voltage can be lowered to reduce peak demand and save energy. The customer service entrance voltage must be stable. All of these contribute to reduced costs and higher revenues. twothirds rule gives optimum loss and demand reduction. During heavy load periods this has several advantages: The peak load is increased when it is most needed (essentially releasing demand). usually ±5% to ±10%. With several banks on a uniformly loaded feeder. total line current is reduced. the effective line current capacity is increased. and the operating line and transformer temperatures are reduced – prolonging equipment lifetimes. The feeder voltage profile can be ‘flattened’ by connecting large capacity banks to the grid. therefore. 39 . or the service entrance voltage can be allowed to increase thereby increasing revenue (at the expense of less than optimum kVA demand).

though expensive to implement. If enough current. located as close to each load as possible (Fig. a centrally managed computerized capacitor control system taking into account the variety of available input parameters can be most effective. BUS isolator: 40 . Not useful in cases where those characteristics change often. Temperature control does not require any current sensors. Current controls require current sensors. Voltage control is used to regulate voltage profiles. Combination control using various above methods is usually the best choice. in multiple capacitor feeders. Current sensors are needed. Control effectiveness depends on how well load characteristics are know. Since reactive current at any point along a feeder is affected by downstream capacitor banks. Voltage control requires no current sensors. Not useful in cases where those characteristics change often. sized to almost equal the reactive load current. Control effectiveness depends on how well load characteristics are know. Current control is not as efficient as VAr control because it responds to total line current. this kind of control is susceptible to interaction with downstream banks. however it may actually increase losses and cause instability from highly leading currents. and off-line last. there should be a bank. Time control does not require any current sensors. and assumptions must be made about the load power factor. Consequently. 3). Temperature control is based on assumptions about load characteristics. and/or other sensors are available. the furthest downstream banks should go on-line first. VAr controls require current sensors. Types of Control VAr control is the natural means to control capacitors because the latter adds a fixed amount of leading VArs to the line regardless of other conditions. Time control is based on assumptions about load characteristics. and loss reduction depends only on reactive current. Power factor control is not the best way to control capacitor banks because power factor by itself is not a measure of reactive current.In the case of concentrated industrial loads.

GARBHANGA. Line isolators with earth switch: The line isolator with earth switch is to isolate the extra high voltage through the feeders going out of the station. The isolator used in the line is known as the line isolator. Line circuit breaker: The circuit breaker used in the line is known as the line circuit breaker. PALTAN BAZAR. The use of the circuit breaker in the outgoing feeder is to break the circuit when the any fault occurs in the line i.e. Line Current transformer: The current transformer used in the line is known as the line current transformer. MIRZA. any fault on the outgoing feeder. The main use of this current transformer is to measure and to protect the instruments. The Sarusajai substation has six output feeders it six different places namely: JWAHAR NAGAR.The bus isolators are used to isolate high voltage entering the bus or entering the substation. and Kahilipara STATION. This feeders supply the voltage to the required place for further step down or its use in the place. 41 . To output feeder: The outgoing feeders are used to give the step down voltage to the required area.

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