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f]l-]l- & 2010


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$M>MS$ MS ^l{MS
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u>VS* A$z {]l


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g$ ^l]l_{l A$z$
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]lMS P A$z

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Iyl AlS$yl$ J# V> {W]l$lMS$ 2007 f]l l{* Al>j$
A]lV>]l #P> > { s {]l ^l>$.

C> A$z {]l


V>l {]l]l${ MSMS$ 2009 C>V> > #P> >
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{s {]l ^l>$. A$z MSl {{l *.25S ]lVSl$]l$ $MS


^$. >, {g]l$ M ^l]l MS-MS Bl$]l$ D #P>MS GMS ^l>$.

AlMS$ A$z

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lZ N V> >yl {ss (Bs) ]l]l]l$ f$]llV>


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El VSMS$ C #P
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>MS GMS*$. ]l*lZ fW]l JMS M>{MS]l$Z E> $l A


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B >]l#MS$ Cyl$l Ol A$z

Cyl$l Ol A$z]l$ tst$l B >]l#MS$ { ]l$l VS Cyl$l


Ol M>{VSZ {]l ^l>$. Cl lMSO }>]l*]l$fl #P>
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l$$ $$.

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MS ]l$> {rt D #P> $MS$. 2009Z D A$z l*l
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{-]l- & 2010


H sMS$ > $]l$

{]lQ ]l*hMS M>MS Hs 27]l > $]l$MS GMS*$.


lZl l ]l$ A$]lMS ^l]l MS-MS VS$#V> Bl$MS$ D V]l lMSP.
s 1972Z Gyl El$l A$l(GDyl*H)]l$ H>r$ ^l>$.
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*$. l S, Zl]l, A]l-Z ^l]l MS-MS B$]lMS$ D A$z {MSs
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1986Z H>r$ ^l>$. lZ >, MSM>]l-MS MS- ^l]lMS { Hs
yl]l$ Ol$]l lZ D A$z]l$ Alg$.

l _{l]l A$z$

60]l l _{l$ lZ {]l 20]l ]lW>.


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2009 Xl rMS AM>yl$ #P>$


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^$. D #P>MS$ (Z) B$VS$$ GMS*$. $& yls f>g,
MS Al*lMS (l$ Xl), VS$yl f$>]l$l (]l*l), *$
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MS-~]l (]l-l), }> VS* ( ]lr$yl$), MS]l$ ll {w(VS ]lr$yl$).


Xl, ]l-l, ]lr]lMS$ ^l]l ]l$ 33 ]l$ Xl rMS AM>yl$ A$zMS$
GMS ^l>$. Z B{l{lMS$ ^l]l MSMS-~ (B{lr), B]ll MS
f$l (lr) E$. MSMS$ _ MS{l {$l A^l Al$]ll
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AM>yl$ Alg$. Cs]lMS$ 32 ]l$MS ]l*{ll$ D #P>$ (Z)
lM>P. D #P> MSl ]lyl$ S *$$, A$z MSl S *$$
$MS$.

_l*$MS$ GlBDiH A$z

]l*lMS$ {V>$ A$z$

]l$V> E $ lMS ]l$V> A]l$$ ^l]ll$MS$ _l*$ hMS$


g$ A$z _. _l*$MS$ D A$z ^lyl y.

2010 ]ll>MS 52]l {V>$ A$z]l$ GgZ {]l 1]l {]l ^l>$.
Cl$Z l$yVS $$ _{MS HB ]l*l A_]l XMS yl$
{V>$ A$z$ ^. t yl {sMS, t l*l MSa VS V>Z D
A$z$ lM>P. ]l*l r$ r >]l VS$j, lMS$ MSV> t
VS A$z _. El]l$ V>$V> Al$MSl VS *l l
GOMS. W yl Al Bl$ Bl$MS$ D $]l$ lMSP. {V>$ O Os
A`ll$s A$z ]lVSl VS Ol$R gMSlMS$ lMSP.

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]l*a & 2010


^lMS l${sZ Os A$z
l* H>r$ ^l]l l${sZ Os A$z 2010 ]ll>MS lMS ^l]l
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H>r$ ^l]l D A$z MSl SS*$$ *MS$.

fl BPsMSa MS$ {sjMS {Og

BPsMSaZ Al$]ll $]l$ {sjMS {Og 2010 ]ll>MS fl BPsMSa$


MSk* h]l*, gMS$ _. D VSZ {Og
]l*]lV> VS$. $ {^lV> AlMS >MS$ BPsMSa$V>
^l>$. D A$z MSl S y$ *MS$.

$l $MS$ P A$z

lS* {$ M> ]l$yl(P) O Os G_ll$s A$z (2010)


MSl {MSyl$ $l $MS$ _. ]l*lZ ]lyl$ k P 33]l
l ElZ ]l*a 26]l D A$z]l$ {M s^$. MSlMS$ ^l]l h*
]l* blMS$ $l GWjMS*sl Gylr. P ]l ^ll A$z V>l
^ll $M> MSMS$ _.

gl s{l ssMS$ A {Og


{tlMS A {Og]l$ 2010 ]ll>MS Al$M> VSl >ll gl s{l
ssMS$ ]l*a 24]l KZ {MSs^$. Cs]l M>Z All {]lQ l
$t ss. VSlZ All { ^l*]lMS A {Og]l$ C$. D
A$z]l$ VSl >ll { A(1802&29) r AM>yl$ B Ol
Ayl r A$.

$jl MS$ ]l*l


]l*l A$z&2009]l$ g MS $jl MS$ ]l*a 22]l ]l*lZ
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{MSs^$. B$]l >]l MS #s "jl l>Y'MS$ D A$z lMSP. MS.MS. >


yll A^l D A$z MSl *. Il$ S ]lVSl$, gqMS *MS$.

]l$lMS GtB A$z


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GMS*$. MS O^llV> Eyl GtB gql {rt D A$z]l$ {]l
^l$. A$z MSl { {l, *. S ]lVSl$ *MS$.

MSMS$ l$Z ]ls A$z

lMS ]l l A$z

{]lQ $yl$ yls MS]l$ "yMSt B ' A$z lP^l


]l$]lr$t l$Z ]ls l. ]l*]l]ll, XlZ MS- ^l]ll$MS$
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l, ]l$$ {g]l$ El]l$ll BVSl *MSMS$ D A$z {MSs^$.

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]l*a 18]l ]l*lZ {]l ^l>$. B$]l MS]lylZ >]l ">]l*$ ]l$
l'MS$ D A$z _.

A]l$M>lMS$ ]l*l A$z


{]lQ ^ll A]l$M>l ]l*l A$zMS$ GMS*$. "C
l' Al ]l]lMS$ D A$z _. MS.MS. > yll lM]l D A$z
MSl { {l, *. 2.5 S ]lVSl$ *MS$.

{MS ]lz ts l$l A$z


l {]l]l${ ]l$l VSMS$ 2010MS ]lz tsl$l A$z _.
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*g C* * ylMS$ _. ]l$l ^le, ]l*]l]l MS$P M


^l D MSlOl yll]l$ 1965Z A$ $ ^$.

B{l{l ^l]l _{l A$z$

2008MS ^l]l _{l A$z]l$ ]l*a 11]l B{l{l {$l {MSs_. Cl$Z
]lyl$ g$ A$z$, JMS >{t A$z E.
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{ {l A$.

> VS$MS$ M>]l$l Or {Og

l ]l]l ^ll > VS$MS$ 2010MS$ M>]l$l Or {Og {$


VSZ _. B$]l r$ MSlMS$ ^l]l y$ ]l]l$lMS$ D
$]l$ _. VS$ >]l "Z' ]l]lMS$, ]l]l$l >]l "Cl Al
*l$, Al ]lyl'MS$ D {Og _.

^ll$ A$z

$yl*Z All { ^l*]l ]l$MS$ C^la ^ll$ l A$z 2009 ]ll


>MS lP GWjMS*sl Gylr ]l* ^l, V>yl g Gylr l*
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MSll VSZMS$ BP #P
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{Pl, GylsVS, yl GylsVS, $MSVS V>Z t MS _{MS ll B$


BP$ lM>P. A]l _{MS k]l GMSt, ]l*sZ{VS, MS lMSl
V>Z BP A$z$ ]l^a.
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]ll>MS Ol>l ^l{ ]l$flMS$ _. D A$z MSl *.
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]ls f*^lalMS$ yll t]lZ O Os A`ll$s #P


*MS^$. l V>MS ^l]l ]lMS$ ]l*a 5]l yllZ f*^lalMS$
D P fW.

ll {slMS$ g$ >rMS A$z


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]ly lMSP. ]l*a 3]l E> $l ll {sl O^ll G.
lMSs>]l#MS$ D A$z]l$ Alg>$. 1970 ]l$_ D >rMS ]l$
A. >rMS V>MS ]ll$ MS]lZ 2008&09 ]ll>MS El]l$ >V>
B{l{l GOMS.

{MS ]l$lMS$ l AM>yl$ A$z


ll El]l$ ^l{l l$VS$ A]l$MS {MS ]l$lMS$ l AM>yl$ A]l$l
A$z&2009 _. D A$z MSl *. 50 l$ *MS$.
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H{- & 2010


$ MSMS$ l A$z
2010 l A$z M>*t$t $ MSMS$ _. M>*tl ffZ ^l]l MSMS D
A$z A$]lr$t l yll H{ 26]l Ol>lZ l. D A$z MSl
{ {l, 50 l ]lVSl$ *MS$.

2010 $ Cyl* ]lz ]l$]l ]l*OVS

]ls >lMS$ _l*$ VS$ A$z

$ $ Cyl* ]lz&2010V> lMS ^l]l ]l$]l ]l*OVS GMS*$. H{ 30]l


]lOZ fW]l O]lZ VS*MS$ ^l]l Z * $ Cyl* & GV>, $
Cyl*& Cr]lV> ]l$l{lMS$ ^l]l l VS GMS*$. $ l l#]l
Al>j$ sZ Ys$.

{]lQ ^l]l_{l ]ls >lMS$ ]lVSl ]lr$yl$ _l*$ VS$ A$z]l$ H{ 24]l
^lOlZ {]l ^l>$. .VS$ l$l*$ {rt D A$z]l$ Alg.

.Gl.VS]lMS Oli* #P

l ]l*i {]l $]l .Gl. VS]lMS Oli* " B l$' #P


_. AM> l$*V> AMSrtyl, AV>]l ]l>YMS$ $ Al$
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Oli$l Cltr*s B AylVS tyl A$z lMSP]l lls ]lMS VS]l.
1985&1986 ]l$l M>Z B$]l l {]l $]lV> ^l>$.

VS$MS$ M>]l$l Or {Og


l lMS ^l]l {rl ]l]l ^ll > VS$MS$ 2010 ]ll>MS
M>]l$l Or {Og _. B$]l ^l]l ZMS$ D $]l$ lMSP.

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B V$M>MS$ O Os Adll$s A$z


Bi Gr{Og O^ll B V$M>MS$ B Cyl* l$lgl$s A$l
(HIGH) O Os Adll$s A$z _. C HIGH A^l lls
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]l${ {# s V$M>MS$ Alg>$.

llssMS$ IG V Cyl$l A$z

l {>$MSll, ss {VS* O^ll llssMS$ 2010MS IG ^l^ V


Cyl$l A$z _. Al>j$ $MSl, ]l- Ol# ^l*]ll$MS$
D A$zMS$ GMS*$. MS]ly Cyl* yll (IG) Alg D A$z
MSl 22,500 y ]lVSl$, {{l *MS$.

{ CMSMS$ l$VS$ #P

{]lQ MS { MMS* CMSMS$ 2010 l$VS$ #P H{ 1]l


{MSs^$. l$VS$, lZ MS- ^l]l MS { ]ll D
A$z {]l ^l$. {ol AM>yl$, B yll D A$z]l$ lM$.
D A$z MSl *.2.50 S ]lVSl$, V>$ lMS Alg$.

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l$ & 2010
gi MS$ t ]l$l *MSS {g
ll gi MS$ t]l$l *MS {Og&2010 _. ]l$]ll B$]l
"{r$' #M>MS D A$z l$ 20]l {MSs^$. MS$ C y *MS {g. D$]l
>]l "g B MS~N'MS$ 1973Z D {g _.

ll ssMS$ V Cyl-$l A$z

G--s MS$ fl #-P

MS]ly Cyl* yl-l ^l^l- V Cyl* A$z ss {VS* O^ll ll ssMS$


-_. D A-$z]l$ MS]l-y-Z M-]l-Z l$ 15]l B$-]lMS$ Al-g->$. Al->j-$
$-MSl, ]l---Ol$]l {-MS$ D A$z l-lMS$ lMSP. A$z MSl Ms *-$
]lVSl$, gq-MS]l$ *-MS--^$.

{]lQ ]l*-hMS M>-MS G-s(7-6-)MS$ 20-10 ]l-l->-MS fl #-P "-


{g' sM>Z l$ 13]l *-MS--^$. -lZ l ]l$- A$-]l-MS MS ^l-]l-l$MS$
Bl$MS$ D #-P -_. D A$z MSl { {l r$ 2,15,390 y ]lVSl$
Al-g->$. sZMMS$ ^l]l yl-l D #-P-> 19-83 ]l$_ Hs *-MS--. s
19-7-2Z G-yl El$l A--$--l-(-G.C.yl$.G.) -^$. Cl$Z 12 S
$-$-$. 19-7-4Z Bl$ G.C.yl$.G -M> MS$]l$ -^$. Cl$Z {$l
30 S ]l$--MS$ -l-]l.

]ll ]lMS$ yl > #-P


{]lQ oMS >-ll, >-]l- ll ]ll ]l 20-10 ]l-l->-MS yl > #-P-(- {g-)MS$ G-MS-*$. ]l*-hMS $, ]l$ -M>-l, A-V>-]l ]l>Y MS$P$,
>-]l- --S-MS$ ^l]l MS-MS-V>]l$ Bl$MS$ D $-]l$ C$-]lr$ yl -]l-s l. Dl$MS$ VSlZ IMS->-f--$ >-]l- M>-{MS-]l*-MS ^l]l "V- 50-0' A$z, Os
O-$yl A$z -^. {$ ]l]l--* {l-^l "]l-]l--]l' Al >-]l-
^lal ]l$ ]ll ]l l-M-$.

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$ll s$MSMS$ {^l A$z

l OMSl $ll s$MSMS$ "# ^' Vz l$yl lMSP. ]l*PZ fW]l


y {^l OMSl b$l sZ D $]l$ $. VSly "g ]l$'
*MS {lMS $]l$ _. VSlZ l ]lz b$lZ V VSO
*_]l MS s $MSMS$ A$z _.

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--l & 2010


MS$ Bg {g

Al$M> ]l]l ^l{ > MSVS 2010 Bg {gMS$ GMS*$. " MS$'
]l]lMS$V>]l$ Bl$MS$ D $]l$ _. MSl VSZ ]l$ ^llMS$ D
#P> Alg$.

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O & 2010
lMS "lMStt' A$z
MS{l $>Q ]l${ l yllMS$ ^l]l "lMStt yll 2010' A$zMS$
GMS*$. $]l]l$ st ^ll$MS$ B$]l ^l]l MSMSV>]l$ _]l D #P
> yllZ {]l ^l>$.

AZMSlMS$ VSMS l]l #P

E]l*MS Al$M> #P

VSMS >Z $MS^l g$ #P>MS { AZMSl GMS*$. "tstMS


yl&2010' lV> ]l*lZ fW]l M>{MS]l$Z E> $l A D A$z]l$
{]l ^l>$. MSl { {lr$ *.3S ]lVSl$ Alg>$. {]lQ VSMS
> #$yl$ {>l ^l{l ]l$Z f]l]l lV> { Hs l 29]l g$
VSMS l $.

]l*]l]l A{MS]l$ ]l$ AMSrtylZ ^l]l MSMS V>]l$ B{l{l IG AM> G.


E]l*MS Al$M> V]l #P _. Ol>lZ Al$M> M>]l$sZ B l
l ]l]l> Clbj tl Os D #P> E]l*MS $MS^$. D V]l
]l $ AM> E]l*.

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BVS-$t & 2010


>]l$l l$VS&2010 A$z$
B* V> ^l {tlMS >]l$l l$VS A$z]l$ 2010]l ]ll>MS {MSs
^$.
 ll AMS(fl): A *]l M MS^l]ll$MS$.
 $ Oll(O^l): M>$MS VS$O]l O^lZ ]ly Al ]l $$MS {^l$
MS_ ]ll$MS$.
 l $(O^l >]l ]l${), # MSVS (O^l): O^l {f A$]l, A]l
$Z >]l l$^l ^l*yl]l$ {^l$ MS_]ll$MS$.
 {MSt, ]l** y: lZ l M Ml Zl]l ]l$ A]l_]l
l$MS$.
 G.^l.G. ]l$l Rl: V>lZ 13 $$]l ]l$ MSVS$MS$ $ ^l]ll$MS$.

2009 sVS P A$z$

MS{l ]lf]l ]l]l>$, {MSyl ]l${l >Q 2009 ]ll>MS sVS P g$


A$z]l$ {MSs_. A$z ]l Z..
 MS]l$ MS$]l* o*& D$]l 1994 ]l$_ {MS]l$ lMS$y ]ls G]lt, M>^l]
VSV>, {* llO]l Q>]l$ A$$.
 VS MS]l*yl Og MSl& D$]l OP OylVSZ {^l M>$z t^yl$. ]ls G]ltZ
OP OylVS ^l]l $]ll MS*y D$]ll.
 $*l MS& $ ]l{]l$ 17 HMS D]l A ]l ]l$$PylV> {^l M>$z
t^yl$. AlM>MS$y D Hy A$z {VSlZ ]l ]l$$Pyl$ MS.
 ^l{l{ A& Dl$MS$ OOs Adll$s A$z {MSs^$. Dl$ 59 HMS$
]l**Z ]ls gZ A^$.

El]l$ l$s$l A$z$


El]l$ l$s$l A$z]l$ 2007, 08, 09 ]ll>MS$ ]l$V>.. ]l*i MS{l ]l${
{$fl ]l (M>{VS), ]l*g t $ $MS$yl$ l*l VS, $
f]l t $MS$yl$ ]l ]l$ gZMS$ {]l ^l>$.
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l$f gZl VSMS$ AZMS ^l{MS

]l]ll RlMS$ >il ]l]l A$z

l{ll]l lV> {MSs^l Al$]ll OMS #P "AZMS^l{MS' B l$ylMS


B l$f {>l$ gZl VSMS$ ]l$]ll _. Al >f
M>*Z l l M>>$O D Hy E{VSl$ yl lV> ]l$
^l$ {]l$ M>ylrZ gZl VS {l_]l OlMS$ VS$#V> {$
l B$]lMS$ D A$z {MSs_. f]l M>Z E{VSl$O W$]l $Z ]l$
_]l MStl llVS g, *s ]lMS B]lZ Ol $ {l_]l bl
VSlMS$ ^l]l G l MS$]l* ^MS$ "MS^l{MS' lM>]l$ {MSs^$.

{]lQ C$MS yll$yl$, ^ll ]l ]l]ll Rl 18]l >ilV> ]l]l


A$zMS$ GMS*$. >, ]l$l ]l$ M MS ^l]l MS { Hs ]l*i {
>ilV> f$ BVSt 20]l D #P> Alg$. A$z MSl *.5 S ]lVSl$,
{> {l $MS$. VSlZ ]l$l l, ]l*i > MS.B. >$l,
]l$VSP, $ ll, $yl$ El RlMS$ D #P lMSP.

l*l VSMS$ ]l A$z

l lMS ^l]l {Rl oMS >ll, ^ll, ft l*l VS ]l


A$zMS$ GMS*$. VSl >Z ^l]l t ]lMS$ VS$$V> Cr]l l$ll$sMS
$l l*lVS]l$ GMS ^l. D A$z MSl *.10 S ]lVSl$, {{l
*MS$.

{MS > Zl A$z$


2010 ]ll>MS {MS > Zl]l A$zMS$ ]l$VS$$ >ll$ GMS*$.
C{ A]l$l hMS a Zr(.B.G) D A$z]l$ {MSs_. D
A$zMS$ GOMS]l Z { f$> ^lVS$(QV oMS VS & #), {.
A$ MSlMS (Ol sM>i &IIs, ]lO), {M> ^l (]l{l > Al
$]l& Al), {. MS.}ll (M>#s]l h*l${sMS&IIs ^lOl) E$.

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BVS}MS D&Cyl* A$z

B{l{lZ A]l$$ ^l$]l ]l*hMS BVS ]l* lMS ">il BVS}'MS D&Cyl*
2010 A$z _. MSMS gq *W^l$M]lyl > ]l$]llV>
]l*hMS BVS ]l* lM> A]l$$ ^l$]ll$MS$ D A$z lMSP. Ol>lZ fW]l
D&Cyl* l$Z BVSt 5]l D A$z]l$ BVS{ .C.KMS$ *MS^$. ]l
Ol# A]lZ MS ^l$]l B{l{l Is >Q BlZ ^l$]l f]l gq]l
MS{MS(gMS)MS MS*y "D& Cyl*' A$z _.

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t- & 2010
2010 > * sVS A$z$

]l$lMS$ "]lz ts ]l$l' A$z

{tlMS >* sVS A$z$ 2010 ]ll>MS GIB ]l


l]l lV> t 26]l {MSs^$. ]l>$..
il V>yl(Ol&#); $(sIGB&]lO); l MS.s (VS
*$); ]l(M>]l*); h.MS. A]ll $(VS*$); $${l $
(MMSl); $ ]lQj(l); El$ $yl$ $ ]l*(VS*$); M>Zl Ol$
(]lO); 2009 ]ll>MS {V>$]lZ > MSMS BP #P&
Cyl$l B M>l Zl]l, A]l MS{l (l).

l {]l]l${ ]l$l VSMS$ 2010]l ]ll>MS "]lz ts ]l$l' A$z]l$


t 23]l ]l**PZ {]l ^l>$. {g ]l$, ^le, >, ]l*]l]l MS$P r
]l$l ^l*]l llMS$V>]l$ Al$M>MS$ ^l]l "A B M>lOl yll' D
#P> {MSs_. { l#]l Al$M>Z l >$ $> MS D #P
> MS^$.

l*VSMS$ {yl B Cyl* A$z

Olsyl MSVSyll$Z $]lV> l$$ $]l l*VSMS$ 2009MSV>]l$ {yl B


Cyl* #P> $MS^$. t 22]l fW]l JMS M>{MS]l$Z {rlZ l
OMS$]l ]ll * D A$z]l$ {]l ^l>$. Olsyl MSVS yll$Z $]lV>
^l$]l lls MS$P gyl$.. B* QyMS ^l]l ]lMS l* VS. D A$z]l$
Cyl* Cr]l yll (IIG) lM.

APMS$ "Ol'
{]lQ ]l#yl ]lr$yl$ B$ Rl _]l "Ol' 2011 ]ll>MS BP A$zMS$
$ll . El]l$ l _{l VSZ ]l$]l l ]l$_ D _{l AM>MS G{sV>
_. $yl* Al$O ]lV>V> *_]l D ]l*]l$ yll
B Cyl* BPMS$ GMS ^l. A]l$ i D _{MS MSl]l$ A^lylr$
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lMSl ] ^$. VSlZ B$ Rl _ ]ls_]l V>l MS*y BPMS$ $ls


A.

gql u A$z$
2007, 2008 ]ll>MS$ _ gqlu #P ]l>]l$ A$z MS$s O^ll
M>l ]l${l t 24]l {MSs^$. $ lZ gqlu #P
> {tlMSV> $.
 2007 ]ll>MS {]lQ ]l$* MS KGl MS$* GMS*$. "Efj'
"$]l' ]ls MSl$ B$]lMS$ ]l$_ $ l_ast. MS$* Cs]lMS$ 20
]lMS$ MS #s]l$ l$]l^$.
 2008 ]ll>MS El{lMS$ ^l]l {]lQ E*MS ARMS Rl > GMS*$,
Bl$MS E*MSlMS$ B$]l ]l*Y ^l*$. "l$MS'V> $V>^$. Bl$MS ]l*]l]l#
Blll]l, ]l*]lMS B]l B$]l MSlZ ^l*$.

57]l g$ ^l]l_{l A$z$

MS{l{$l 2009 ]ll>MSV>]l$ 57]l g$ ^l]l_{l A$z]l$ {MSs_.


]l>$..
 El]l$ _{l: MS$st {>MS (]l$*& lMS$yl$ i MS$)
 El]l$ ]lr$yl$: A$ ^lal ( _{l&). (El]l$ ]lr$ylV> A$ GMS M>]lyl
C ]ly . VSlZ AWl(1990), MS(2005) _{MS$ D #P lMSP)
 El]l$ ]ls: A]l]l blrj (V> _{l& AZZ]l$l)
 El]l$ lMS$yl$: $l$~ * (V> _{l& AZZ]l$l).
 ]lYll g$ Ol$MS _{l: l&6()
 El]l$ Xl lMS$yl$:A$l {l(ll &)
 El]l$ l>lMS _{l: lyll A (lMS$yl$&>l$]lVS)
 El]l$ _{l: # t(MS]lyl), MS* (]l$*) _{MS$ MSV>.
 l$VS$ _{l ]l$VSMS$ El]l$ GMSt(MS]l$ MS~l), M*{VS (MS.]lMS)
VSZ A$z$ ^.


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$l MSMS$ >g #P
{tlMS C>V> >g #P 2008&09 ]ll>MSV>]l$ $l
MSMS$ _. ]lMS ^l]l ]lMS$V>]l$ D A$z]l$ {]l ^l$.

^l MS$ lP A$z

^]l* MS$ u>VS* A$z

Ol>lZ {Rl ^l ]l$ 2010 ]ll>MS ^{lMS MSrty gZ


^l$al* {th$ B l$s A$z]l$ lP {MSs_. V> B{l{lMS$ D
#P lMSP. ]l]lZ D A$z]l$ Alg$. ^l ]l$^l
Ol>l > Ag$ ^l$. $l t, BPsMSa lOl$]l D
Z Aj, A, l, l$l Al $VS$ ]l$$ E. D $VS$
]l$$ MS ^lV> . 30 GMS> ~Z E]l D ]l]l > 1750Z
{Ol$ 5]l g Aj Al ]lZ N. 2006Z D ]l >rMS
MS{lV> ]l*>a$.

El]l$M> Cl$ ^]l* MS$ {ll u>VS* > $]l$ {]l ^l>$.
D>]l llZ l l {lMS S ^lst]l$ E^l$M
]l]l, 2000 ]l$_ >S ^l.

>]l*yl$MS$ "P' #P

l ^l]l_{l VSZ Al$l]l$ A$zV> VS^l P#P 2009MS


{]lQ _{l >l yl.>]l*yl$ GMS*$. >]l*yl$ 12 Z 130 _{]l$
^$. AlMS _{ >lV> W $MS B ]lz M>zZ ]l ^$.
 $ ^l]l_{l VSZ P #P> {tlMSOl$V> $.
 $ ^l]l _{l V>MS ^l]l ]lMS$ VS$#V> D A$z]l$ $MS$.
 {]lQ lMS$yl$&>l V MS{l{$l { Hs D #P>
Al g.
 $ ]l* V>MS P ^l]l ]lMS$ VS$#V> B$]l lf$
El lV> 1969Z D A$z]l$ H>r$ ^l>$. #P MSl ~ MS]l$,
10 S ]lVSl$ $MS$.
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]l$ "l B Cyl$l ]l*'V> MS$.


 P 1913Z V> >g a{l Al ]lMS _{MS lMSl ]l
^$. lZ Cl #&l ^l .
 D #P> {]lQ ]l#yl ]ls lM> >MS $MS^$.
 A l>l 1970Z a]l$ V>MS$ ^l]l Gl M> D #P> Al$MS$$.
 1971Z V> ]l$]ll {]lQ ]l#yl ]lr$yl$&lMS$yl$ >g M NMS$ D
A$z]l$ {MSs^$. D$]l MS$]l*$yl$ {]lQ ]l#yl ]lr$yl$&lMS$yl$ >gMSNMS$
1987Z D #P lMSP. l> D A$z]l$ Al$MS$]l l{yl&Myl$MS$ frV>
]l$MSM>P$.
 {]lQ ]l#yl >l&lMS$$ B ^{ (1998)&$ ^{(2001) l$ fr
MS*y D #P> Al$MS$$.
 D A$z]l$ ]l Z AM>P&^l fr MS*y E. $..{]lQ ]l#yl V>$
]l$VSP (1989), Bl$ ^l$ B> Z(2000)$ D $]ll lMSP^l$MS$$.
 D #P ]l Z {]lQ Xl lMS$yl$ l A(1981), {Rl lMS$yl$,
BP A$z{VSl lhl (1984), {]lQ lMS$yl$ >>l$(1985), Xl ^ll$
{(1997), ]l$g$ $l#(1993), {]lQ lMS$$ Bl* V MS~l(2004),
>l$ ]lVS(2005) E$.
 D A$z]l$ ]l ]l*sZ{V> .MS. ]l. 2008Z D #P _.
 l$VS$ _{l {]l$ ]l$_ Cs ]lMS$ Il$VS$$ D #P>MS GMS*$. D
A$z]l$ ]l ]lMS {]lQ >l & lMS$yl$ .Gl.ylz(1974). B l>l G
{l(1982), .Wylz(1986), AMSPl VS >]l#(1990), yl.>]l*yl$(2009)]l$
D #P ]l_. Z .Gl.ylz, .Wylz Cl$ A]ll]l$.

]llMS$ l AM>yl$ A$z


{]lQ MS ^ll MS$]lM]l$ ]ll MS{l l AM>yl$ A$zMS$ GMS*$.
B$]l __]l "Ayll' ]l]lMS$ D #P _.

{l $ Os G$ A$z$
Al$M>Z GgZ 62]l {l$ Os G$ A$z]l$ $MS^$. Cl$Z El]l$
]lr$ylV> {*l {M>ltl, El]l$ ]lsV> MS> yljMS GMS*$. El]l$ $]ls A
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$z]l$ l lMS ^l]l {s ]ls B g Al$MS$$. "l VS$yl Ol' ]lr]lMS$ V>]l$
Bl$MS$ D A$z lMSP.

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AMt-- & 2010


C A$z$&2010
C Ol yll Il$ MSrWZ "C 2010' A$z]l$ {MSs_. #P
MSl glMS$ 50 S ]lVSl$]l$ $MS$.
 ]l*ll$sMS: ^l{lQ R(]ls B M>*&l $Z ^l]l MSMS)
 hMS: {l(sIGBZ a {, * {tVS $Z h P
_]ll$MS$)
 CfVS Ayl MSNr Ol:A$ (M>]l$ IIs {, l$s$ OlZ
^l]l MSMS)
 O Ol: ^lll.C. _s (O ]l$* MSl A]l M ^l]l MSMS)
 Ol: A$l P (Cltr*s B GMS$MS{Vl), ]l $l(l *P
B GMS$MS)MS$ MSV>.

MSMS$ PMS l A$z

{Rl $yl$ yls MSMS$ {tlMS PMS l Az


_. $ {$ X Al$M>Z {^l$ MS_]ll$MS$ B$]lMS$
Al$M>Z H* Os D Az]l$ AMt 24]l {MSs_..

ZzMS$ $MS {g

{rl ^ll Zz gMSl 2010 ]ll>MS "]l*l $MS {g'MS$ GMS*$. "l
MS MSal' Al ]l]lMS$ D A$z lMSP.
 ]l*l $MS {g]l$ 1968Z lM$. D #P> { Hs M>]l$l l>MS$
^l]l ^ll$ >]l #VS CW ]l]lMS$ {]l ^l$. MS D #P
$ $MS&l$MS]l {Og.
 A$z]l$ lM]ls ]l$_ $MS {VS*]lMS$ ^l]l "$MS&l$MS]l' Al MS ]l
^l$ylyl D #P>MS $MS Al $ yl.
 D A$z ll]l$ 2002Z ^lst]l $MS {g yll&]l*l {VS* "$MS' Al
$ M]lW^ ~_.
 D #P MSl llsZ 21 l {rl yl$ $MS^l$. l>l 2002Z D
l 50 l ylMS$ ^$.


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{Z AlMS$]ll$ ]ll {^l$lOl$]l ]l]l]l$ ]l*{ll$ A$zMS$ GMS


^l$. 1971 ]l$_ ]l*{l H ]ll {^l$lOl$]l ]l]lMS$ B ]lll$ A$z]l$
{]l ^l$yl ll$ st$. 1970Z $MS glV> G]l {MSs^ll$.
Cl$M 2010 l$Z {lMSV> t ]l*l $MS {Og]l$ CVSylMS$ ^l]l gi
(]l]l& {r$)MS$ {]l ^l>$.
 D #P AlMSV> CVSylMS$ ^l]l 25 ]l$ ^llMS$ lMSP. l> Z
B{t*(6), Cyl*, I>yl(4) ^ll$ E$.
 $MS{g]l$ lM 40 H$ N]l lV> 2008Z t B $MS {g]l$
{]l ^l>$. {Ol$]l Hy ]l$_ 2008 ]lMS$ $MS glZ_ t ]l]lMS$ t
B $MS #P> Alg>$. l __]l $ylOls _{zlMS$ D V]l
lMSP.
 lls $MS #P {VSl & CVSylMS$ ^l]l .^l. ]l*. ]l]l&l$VS r$ B]l

 $MSMS$ GOMS]l $ &l ($ylOls _{zl& 1981), A$l >$(l V>yl


B VS&1997), MS l>$(l Clsl B &2006), Al AylV>(l
Ols OsVS&2008).
 $MS glZ ]l$VS$$ #P> MS*y Al$MS$$.. .G.Ol#($MS&1971,
& 2001), ]lOyll V>zl$($MS&1974, &1991), $l$ VzVS($MS&1980,
&1983), gG Msj($MS&1983,1999, &2003)

2009 ]l A$z$

B{l{l > {$l 2009 ]l A$z]l$ AMt 7]l {MSs_. ]l>$.. El]l$
_{l& l F$, $ El]l$ _{l&, l$ El]l$ _{l&MS]l]l*$]l$Z,
El]l$ {gl ]l _{l&]l$VS, MS$r$ l$lV> ^l*yllVSY _{l& M^l Ct
M^l MSt, El]l$ ]lr$yl$& >$ >]l# (l$), El]l$ ]ls& (l F $),
El]l$ lMS$yl$ &>f]l(]l$VS), El]l$ MS ^ll& Q MS]l(yl), El]l$ $
]lr$yl$&>l$ fVSl(]l$l),El]l$ $ ]ls& ]l$MS~(>k ]l$>k), El]l$
V>$MS$yl$& ${ (]l$l), El]l$ V>$& _{l (MS]l]l*$]l$Z), El]l$
Xl lMS$yl$& MS (lVS]l*), El]l$ Xl ^ll &$ AZMS lf (l$), El]l$
_{l&s
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A$ >$MS > A$z

l* > g$ A$z]l$ >fMS$, ]l*hMS M>MS A$ >$MS$ >


{ s AMt1]l {]l ^l>$. {$l ]l, l, Z { ^l*]l
MS D A$z C$. lMSl, ]l*^ MS$P M MS^l]l >$ MSl MS $rl
]l]lMS $>$.

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]l]l- & 2010


]lMS AMS V fl A$z
$l Cyl{t O^ll ]lMS AMS V fl A$z]l$ ]l**PZ ]l]l17]l
$MS^$. B$]l, Al$MS]l ]l$l A]lV>]l M ^l]l MSMSV>]l$ ]lMSMS$ D
#P lMSP. D A$z]l$ B* Os H>r$ ^l.

* ylMS$ C > $]l$

{slMMS$ "Cyl* ]l' A$z

{h AlS$yl$ *g C* * yl C>V> > $]l$&2010MS


GMS*$. { ]l$l VS lllZ Al>j$ $ ~l MS$s *
yl]l$ GMS ^l. #P MSl { {l, 2.5 $$]l ]lVSl$ $MS$.
>, >MS, A]lMS MS ^l]l MS Alg D #P> 1986Z H>r$
^l>$. { Hy C>V> f$ k]l {MSs$. VSlZ D A$z V>l
{ MS , I> ]l*i {]l M>l M A]ll, $ y VSs yll,
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$). 1952Z l Al>j$ ^ll_{ll {Ol$.


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f]l]l & -2-0-11


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C-$->-gMS$ $$-MS A$z


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20-10 C- A-$z$

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{]l & -2-0-11


.>lMS$ yl]l$ A$z
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M>{t {MSMSs A-$z$

M>{t {MSMSs A-$z-]l$ f]l-]l 28]l ]lOZ {]l ^l>$. ]l->$..


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]l*a & -2-0-11


l A$z {]l
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-l --S M D A$z lMSP. >Z D A$z ]l ^-{lMS MSrtyl


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-l-]l l-V> ]l*a 8]l ]l*-l--Z 2010 MS #--P->-]l$ ]l$--, $ S ]l*]l


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MSt-Z E]l--- Bl$--MS$-ll$-MS$ Dl$ MS ^l>-$.
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]l-MS-r *#-]l*--yl, -$, Ar->--l-]l, OW-MS l#--O {fZ A]l-V>--]l
-MS-^lyMS Dl$ MS ^l>-$.
l A---$ ZP- A-$z: El--{lMS$ ^l-]l 1989 ^l IH-G- A-M>- l*-M> G.V>-Y-MS$ {-]l ^l>-$. {$-l M>-{MS-]l*-Z ]l$---MS$ VS--]l$ MS^l-yl > ]l$-
-M>-MS-l-MS$ MS ^l>$.
-]l*- h-g--$, > ${l-]l$-l- A-$z--MS$ D Hyl$ G-]l-- G-MS ^l-$--l$.

V-^l-l-MS$ Al$-]l-l #-P-

-$--s -$-l _]l- Al-S$-yl$ $R- V-^l-l-MS$ Al$--]l-l #P "B--


B s B{yl-l-' _. V-^l-l 80]l f]l---l-]l lV> D #-P-
]l*a 3]l ]l*P-Z --lP-^-$. 1991Z --$--s -$-l -_e-]l l>-l V-^l-l
>i]l* ^l>-$. 20 HZ B$--]l-MS$ _-]l ll-s, JMS JMSP #--P- C.

{-l $ ^{-MS$ ]l$l- l- A-$z


{-t-l-MS-Ol$-]l ]l$l- l- A-$z {]l-Q -]l#-yl -]l-r$-yl$ {l$ -^-{-MS$ --_. ^{
]l*]l-]l- lMS-l ^l-]l ]l-MS$ D A-$z _. ^{ Il$ l>$-V> 400 OV> _{Z ]ls^-$. VSlZ ]l$-l- l- A-$z --]l ---Z >i-l-V>-, lO--]l* ]ls--$
E-$.

{l--l -u>-VS*- r Al->j--$ A-$z


-MS- {l--l u>VS*- r Al>j$ A-$z H>-r$ ^l$-]l-r$ MS{l B-MS-]l${
{- ]lQ-j {-]l- 28]l l]l ylj-s- {VS-Z l--$. u>VS*- 150]l f$ El
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l-V> MS{l D A$z l-M-. D A--$z MSl Ms *-$-$ *-MS---$.

2011 BP A$z$

2011 ]ll>MS 83]l BP A$z$ HhZ MylM $rZ {]l 27]l


{]l ^l>$. MSV ^, CMS$ ^l $VS$ A$z$ lM>P. ls]lP
_{MS ]lyl$ A$z$ ^.
 El]l$ _{l : MSV
^
 El]l$ ]lr$yl$ : M ( MSV ^)
 El]l$ ]ls : ]ls* tl$ (M)
 El]l$ lMS$yl$ : sl$ *( MSVS ^l)
 El]l$ l _{l: C G r ]lz (ylP)
 El]l$ *l$ _{l: s$ t&3
 t Jh]l {P : yly z ( MSV ^)
 t Ayty {P : AMS ( $ ls]lP)
 t ]l*sZ{VS : C
 t y $MSV : C
 t y GylsV : C

il$ GM A$z$: i]l >{MS ^l]l ]lMS$ yMSt Ahylz (ylz

r), ]l*]l]l f]l$ {MS]l$O ^l]l MSMS hV Ctr*s B il$ $M


{ MSV V]l$MS$ Cr]l il$ GM A$z]l$ *&H*
l$Z ]l${ Xylz {]l ^l>$.

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H{ & -2-0-11
V- r A$z
.G.sMS VS $-s-ylMS$ "i-yl-*I V r A-$z' -_. $, ]l ->
--Z $-V>-_]l D MS$ {-t-l-MS-Ol$]l DA--$z]l$ H{ 18]l -lZ *-MS-^$.

-$MS lMS$ V>VS*j A$z

- ]lQ-jMS 20-11 #-rj A$z

MS$P El]l$M>$yl$ -$MS lMS$ 20-11MS$ V>]l$ lS M-*MS$ ^l]l V>VS*j


A$z -_. B-*Z >, $, {g-]l$ M >-yl-]l--MS D A-$z C$.

-l l-MS ^l]l yMSt ]lQ-jMS 20-11 #-rj A$z -_. l MSl VSZ B$]l M>]l O >]l #MS " G- B B ]l$-yl: G *-{VS B M>]l-'MS D #-P lMSP. ]lQj M-* ----$Z A-ts {--V> -^l-$$. MSl l -VSZ g- GV>-lMS$ D A$z -_. Bl$ >]l "G hs
{ l l s-'MS A$z lMSP. {g-]l -VSZ Hg Osl$MS$, Al->j-$ tVS, R-]lZ ]l**P Osl$MS$ yl$ A-$z$ lM>P.

2009 & 10 P A$z$

{$l VS lZ P (tylV M>]l B M Gr{Og) A$z


]l$ >{t { s H{ 11]l {]l ^l>$. l V>Z El]l$ $
MS]l_]l $ {$lVS MS$ D A$z$ ^.
P Vz {sZ: t As B Cyl*MS$ El]l$ >]l $, $>]lMS
_.
M>s VS]l: G{M>tMMS$ _.
M>s ]l*hMS ll: l$ {sZ$ M>MS$ lMSP.
Zl]l, MSMS A]l: G{MStMS $sy
El]l$ ]l*]l]l ]l]l$ : Cyl$ B M>
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$ MS~ MS$ Olr A$z


{tlMS "Olr V yl' A$z]l$ VStZ H{ 13]l yMSt $
MS~ Al$MS$$. Dl$ Ol> MS{lV> "{f' ]l$ $$. MS$,
]l$ A{MS]l$ {MS* AMSstl$MS$ MS ^l$$. VSt MS{lV> ^l Olr
*MS^l D ]l*]l]l MS$P A$z $ MS~ r$ AV *MS
(]l$$), O> V & y$ Q$s (C{g$), ]l* AMS (AY)
MS$ MS*y _.

A g-MS$ u>VS* > $]l$

]l*-hMS El-]l$-M>-$yl$, fl-Z-MS- ]l]l M >-yl$-l$]l A g-MS$ 20-1-1 -{ll u>VS* Al->j-$ > $-]l$ -_. #-PV> Ms ]lVSl$ *-MS-$. D A-$z]l$ Cyl-$l Cl-t-r*s B VS Ayl l$l-g-l$s Al-g-.

l$lMS MS-M>-$-ylMS "-l M> l'

l$lMS h {V>]l*-MS ^l]l {]lQ g]l-l MS-M>-$yl$ r {M>-MS$ MS{l


{$l "-l M> l-' -#--P-> {MS-s-_. l {$l ]l*-^, {->
]l${l >Q-Z VS$, rMS VS, VS-*-$-Z --$ yl-l MSV> D
A-$z]l$ H>r$ ^l>.

O-MS$ - ]l*l

{]lQ MS]lyl ^l-l G.G. O {-t-lMS l #-P - ]l*-l-&2011MS$ G-MS-*$. "]l$-{' Al ]l]l--MS$- B$-]lMS$ D A$z lMSP. #-P MSl 7.5
S ]lVS-l$]l$ Al-g-$. D A-$z]l$ 19-91 ]l$_ MS.MS. > yl-l Al-g-.

]l*tl MS$ s#- -rl {g


{s QV >-ll ]l*tl g. 20-11 ]l-l s#--rl {gMS$ G-MS-*$. A$z
MSl 1.6 $-$l y ]lVS-l$]l$ *-MS--$. Al$--M>MS$ ^l]l s#--rl yl-l D
#-P-> H>r$ ^l.

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>f-V-- MS$ G.G. $$-MS A$z

lrt-l-ls "l* -VS]l$ G.G. $$-MS A-$z' MS>~-rMS Xl MS-M>- >fV--MS$ -_. 20-1-0Z l-M-]l D A-$z]l$ MS>~-rMS X-lZ { VSyl-_]l 25&-35 ]l$l ]l$-$Z E]l MS Al-g-$.

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l$ & 2011
g$ ^l-]l-_{l A-$z$

MS{l {$l 20-10 ]l-l->-MS 58]l g$ ^l-]l-_{l A-$z-]l$ {MS-s-_. ]l->$..


El]l$ _{l:
Ayl-$s ]l$M>l A$ (]l$--*-)
El]l$ l-MS$yl$:
l{s-]l*-l (l-$--_-{l-&-A-yl$-VS-)
El]l$ ]lr$-yl$-(---MS-V>):
MS$]l*- -(-A-yl-$s ]l$M>l A$),
l]l$--(-A-yl$-VS-)
El]l$ ]ls (--MS-V>):
--]l-l- (-l-$ _{l-&-l-l-$$P #]l-MSP-{r$), $ fVS-l ]l>-lP--(-]l$->w _{l&-* yl g)
El]l$ _{l: fjV $(-MS-]l-yl)
]lY--ll A-$z- (-g-$ Ol$-MS-l]l$ -^l _{-MS A^l #-P-):
]l$l ]l$]l$-- (--V>-)
El]l$ Xl l-MS$-yl$-(---MS-V>):
> --g- (-C-P-*), CMS ]l$-- (A-yl-$s ]l$M>l A$)

lMS$ ]l*l $MS {g

Al$--M>MS$ ^l]l -l ^ll lMS$ 20-11 ]l*l $MS Cr---]l {g _. D$]l ^l-]l$ "-t- MS-s' "A-l$--MSl t--' "I ]l*yl G MS]l--t' "
*]l$l t-l'V> {^l$ . "A-l$--MSl t---'MS$ 19-98 #-rj $-]l$
-_. ]l*l $MS {g]l$ { yl--M- J-h-]l-V> CW-Z {^l$--_]l CW-ZMS A]l$-l ^l]l {^l$--MS$ Al-g-$.

A-gMS$ yl > $-]l$


^l-- MS-MS l-Os ]l]l---MS$yl$ -$ A-gMS$ {-t-lMS yl > $-]l$
Vz l$yl -_. yl-lZ l$ 11]l f-W]l JMS M>-{MS-]l$Z yl yl-l >-MS$$ B$-]lMS$ D #-P-> Al-g->$. ]l*]l]l MS$P --S M A-- Z
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MS ^l-]l-l$MS$ D $-]l$ Al$-MS$]l $V ]lMS Ag. VSlZ MS]l ]lVS$Y-MS


]l*{ll$ ]l*]l]l MS$P --S-MS$ ^l]l MS-MS-V>]l$ D #-P lMSP. $..ss ]l$lVS$-$]l# lO-]l*, lS--{M> ]l*i Al-Syl$ ll ]l$yl, fl ol-]l$l $-MS$yl$ OlMS$
CMSy.

{sZ-yMS$ Is A$z

OMSl sZ $l-l s-$-MSMS$ ~

{-]l-]l${ ]l$l VS --$ > {sZy IMS->-f--$-MS ^l]l Al->j-$


s-MS-]l--MS-l $-(-I-s-) A-$zMS$ G-MS-*$. D #-P-> Is ]lz
s-MS-]l--MS-l Ayl C]l--l Os A-$zV> MS*y ]l]l---$. D A-$zMS$ G-OMS]l
--yl$ {sZy. C]l--l, MS]l--MS-l sM>-i VSZ {sZy ^l$]l MS-MSV>]l$ D #-P MSP.

-lMS$ ^l]l {]lQ OMSl $l-l s-$-MSMS$ ]l*PZ f-W]l {^l OMSl
sZ ~ lMS -_. "-$--z O' r.. _$ ]l]l#$ _^l l*-, B
_{ X]l $-z y ]lR-]l$ MS $l-l *--_]l OMSl -MS$-V>]l$
B$-]lMS$ D #-P lMSP.

-MS- $- Al->j--$ A-$z

-MS- {l-l u>VS*- $ Al>j-$ A-$z-]l$ -l {$-l H>-r$ ^l$-]l-r$


{-]l-]l${ ]l$ lVS {MS-s^-$. -- $]l$- {VS-l -u>--VS*- 150 f$ El---]l$ ]l*l--Z l$ 7]l {]l]l${ {^-$. {^lZ Al$--]l-l $-]l-- ]l_-]l -MS { ]l-l- D A-$z-]l$ *MS$. D A-$z-MS$ {- lllZ GMS ^l$. A-$z MSl Ms *-$-$ *MS$.

l.B-. >]l#-MS$ >$- O-s l$yl-


Q-MS > #-$-$ .B-. >]l#-MS$ yll-MS$ ^l--]l ->-$- ts-t-MS- O-s OVS l$yl-
_. 2011 ]l-l--# V>-$ l-M>--MS Q-MS>Z B$-]l ^l-]l MS-MS-V>-]l$ G-MS-*-$. ---V> B-* l>--MS$ ^l-]l ]lMS-MS D A-$z _-.
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lf b]lMS$ l{* A$z

f]l l{* Al>j$ A$z 2009 f b]l Ag l$PMS$ _.


Al>j$ A]lV>]lMS$ C^la D A$z]l$ l E>{t A$ lllZ
MS$s GMS ^l. $ A]l, $]l M Bl$ AMSl]l ^l]l t MSMS
D A$z _. VSlZ D A$z ]l*t *l MSV, R A$ VS R, ]l$l
l, MSl My, AV *MS, Z ]lM, gZ {Zg ssZ, l ]l$ylMS$
_.

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l & 2011
$ $rt- MS$ Cl-yl A$z
{]lQ Al->j-$ h-l *P Cl--yl- (-I-G-l-G--D-G-yl) {]l ^l "-h-l yl ]lz'
A--$zMS$ Gr--{-g A- $ $rt G-MS-*$. f-$-]l-l-Ol$]l, $--Ol$]l,
{^l Z ]l*l]l {]l*-$ l-M-]l --l-l-MS$ D #-P-> {]l ^l$.

--MS-MS$ l$ A$z

Bt B VS ]l]l---MS$yl$ --MS-MS$ {M>l l$ A$z -_. D #-P> l 24]l {-Z {]l ^l>$. D A$z ]l lls --yl$ --MS.
VSlZ D #-P Al$-MS$]l Z Gg l$P, l$l , * A>-l, $R V-^ll E$.

I A-$z$

MS]l-y-Z s-sZZ 12]l I -(A-l->j-$ l AM>-yl-$) #-P-> {--l]l


f-W. ]l->$..
El]l$ _{l: lVS
El]l$ ]lr$yl$: $R Rl -(Ol$ ll$ Dg Rl)
El]l$ ]ls: A]l$P (yl g >-l)
El]l$ l-MS$yl$: MS gZ-- (Ol$ ll$ Dg Rl)
O Os Ad-l-l$s A$z: B> Z

]lz #yl {g

]lz #yl {g-&-2-0-1-1 $ ]l*i Al-S$yl$ gl AVS-MS$l$ MS*, {h ]l*i Al-S$yl$


*g C-* *yl -MS$ -MSV> -_. l]l$ l]l$ l>Z BMS, l-MS
*--]lMS$ ^l]l MS-MS-V>]l$ MS D A-$z]l$ {MS-s-^$. D #-P-> 19-8-7Z
$-]l$ {VSl, l ]l Bl$yl$ l Z>VS l-M-$. lls ]lz #yl {g
G.G. $--l-lMS$ lMSP.

t IG-l -G >
D[tl sZ t ]l---_]l IG-l-G > D Hy t- {sZ lMSP-^l$-MS$. IG-lwww.sakshieducation.com

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G >g-#-lMS$ l*t -syl {sZ -_. Hy--r$ s-Z l--MS$ A-_]l


]l$, - l-l A> B-V> -M>-l D A-$z$ {MS-s-$. s l
19]l >-Q--rZ l*$ -M>-l ` MS]l*-ylVS VS B- Ol Ayl- A]l*--VS
Al-g->$.

l{* A$z {]l


D -r-]l-Zl l >- { s 2009 ]l-l->--MS-V>]l$ f]l--- l{* A$z]l$ Gg l$P-MS$ {]l ^l>$.

-l$->-MS .MS. -yl$ A-$z

]l*i st {MSMS-r -l$->--MS 2011 ]l-l->--MS MS-- .MS. -yl$ A-$z _-.
B$-]l -l l-#-]l 29 s$t-$ By-$. I -Al-g- D A-$z MSl {sZ----r$ 15
S- ]lVSl$ *MS$.

->-k-MS$ "g--$ ]l B-P-' A-$z

MS{l {$---MS ^l-]l g-$ Zl]l, A-]l- C^la "g--$ ]l B-P- A$z-' 2009 ]l-l->--MS M-yl--s ->-k-MS$ lMSP. D A-$z-]l$ V--Z l$ 26]l
_]l g-$ l-$-Z *-MS-^-$. --->-k *_-]l Bl-O-l MSVS- {ll-MS$ yl-yl "-]l-lOsl$ -]l-z f]l--r--'-MS$ D $-]l$- lMSP.

A$-]l-st >-MS$ M>]l$-l- Or- {g


*-{> *-l ]l]l- ^ll A$-]l-st ->-MS$ 2011 M>-]l$-l-- Or- {g _.
Bl$ >- l] " l$l- B l'- ]l]l- M- S $ D $-l] $- lMSP. *{> *-l - - - -MS -]l Al-$-lO D ]l]l- W. D lZ l--]l$ l$--*-$. Ps--yl-Z f-_-]l > *-{> *-l-Z V>$. Bl$-MS$ D {g MSl 10,000 -yl$- -*-MS---$.
t t $MS-MS$ C^la $-]l$- ]l*hyl-MS$ ^l-]l {MSVS MS--MS$ lMSP. "G ]l*l l$tVS-' ]l]l-MS$ $-]l$- _.

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OO & 2011
VSl J--*-ylZ BM>- MS$ ~
ll->-yl-Z Bl$-t--yZ f-W]l VSl J--*-ylZ -lMS$ ^l]l BM> l
~ lMS VS$-^l$-MS$-yl$. Il l>l D Dl-sZ -lMS$ V>$ lMS -_.
Cl$Z 102 l> ]l$_ 564 ]l$ -$$ Y-$.

C->-V>-MS V> Al$-]ll #-P

l ]l*i {-]l-]l${ C->-V>-MS V>-l {$l B l Al$-]ll #-P "V>-l -]l ' {MS-s-_. 19-71 V>-l ]lMS lZ C->-V> A_]l y-r$-MS$-V>]l$ {MSs_]l D A-$z]l$ C>V> Myl$, H O^ll
*V> O 25]l M>Z Al$MS$$. Al--lV> V> l-{-l-]l*-MS AylV> _]l 47]l$ l---]l$, 5 -]l$ MS*y "]lMS k---' "]l-MS-k Ol${ -' A-$z- lP--_.

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BVS$t & 2011


]l* ${>, yl-MS$ l$VS- A$z

{-t-lMS >]l$l l$VS---&-2-0-11 A-$zMS$ G-OMS]l Z Cl$ --$ ]l* ${>,


yl$ E$. #-P->-]l$ BVSt 31]l {]l ^l$. g-l ]l->$..
 ]l* ${> (]l$-->-Z *MS $ -$ {V>$ l ]l$- -M>l M
^l]l MS-MS)
 yl (ZP Cyl* > MS>~-rMS, VS$f->-l--Z l$-l- {V>]l*Z
1,20,000 l$l $ H>r$ ^l-]l-l$-MS$)
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 l kO$-- (-C-y-l--*Z -MS M C-$MS u-> -_-]l-l$-MS$)
 {s ]l#-- (-C-y-l--*Z *MS f l$l -gq- {l--_-]l-l$-MS$)
 M (MS-Z-yl-*Z {g-]l$ #]l-$-l--MS$ ^l]l MS-MS)

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