Alenia Aeronautica and EADS CASA (Spain). close air fighter aircraft with surface attack capability. with 232 for the UK. In January 2003. but has not committed to purchase of the fighter. Fiat Aviazione and ITP. by the four services on 30 June 2003. beyond-visual-range. Italy (29). 121 for Italy and 87 for Spain. An overall production contract for 620 aircraft was signed in January 1998. 180 for Germany. in Munich which is owned by Rolls Royce. . Initial orders have been placed for 148 aircraft: Germany (44). Alenia Aeronautica of Italy and the EADS Deutschland (formerly DaimlerChrysler) and EADS Spain (formerly CASA). BAE Systems. Spain (20) and the UK (55). Development of the aircraft has been carried out by Eurofighter GmbH. The first four series production aircraft for the four participating nations took maiden flights in February 2003 and the Eurofighter received type acceptance. Eurofighter has 'supercruise' capability: it can fly at sustained speeds of over Mach 1 without the use of afterburner. a prerequisite for entry into service. Norway signed an agreement for industrial participation in the project. Prime customer is the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA). MTU Aero Engines. The EJ200 engine has been developed by Eurojet GmbH. representing the four governments.The four-nation Eurofighter Typhoon is a foreplane delta-wing. Series production of the aircraft is underway at EADS Military Aircraft (Germany). based in Munich and wholly owned by BAE Systems of the UK.

. Tranche 2 comprises 236 aircraft: Germany 68. to the Spanish Air Force in September 2003. The first single-seat aircraft were delivered to Spain in December 2004. two UK RAF Typhoons flew to Singapore for evaluation by the Singapore Air Force. Italy in January 2005 and Germany in February 2005. Austria signed a contract for 18 Eurofighter aircraft in August 2003. Italy 46. Tranche 2 deliveries are scheduled to begin in 2008 with final deliveries scheduled for 2015. Spain 33 and UK 89.The first series production twin-seat aircraft were delivered to the German Air Force in August 2003. Greece has also chosen to join the Eurofighter programme but has decided to delay its acquisition of 60 aircraft until 2005. The four participating nations signed the contract for Tranche 2 production in December 2004. In June 2004. to the UK Royal Air Force in December 2003 and to the Italian Air Force in February 2004. to be delivered from 2007.

and integrated health monitoring. a convergent /divergent exhaust nozzle.000lb. each delivering thrust of 90kN in full reheat and 60kN in dry power mode. . The engine features: digital control.The Eurofighter is equipped with two Eurojet EJ200 engines. Single-stage turbines drive the three-stage fan and five-stage HP compressor. wide chord aerofoils and single crystal turbine blades. Total combat thrust generated is 40.

low drag and enhanced lift. The foreplane/delta configuration is intentionally aerodynamically unstable which provides a high level of agility (particularly at supersonic speeds). passive sensors and supercruise ability. Eurofighter Typhoon DA2 for the United Kingdom offers envelope expansion and carefree handling . aluminium lithium. titanium and aluminium casting. glass-reinforced plastic. The pilot controls the aircraft through a computerised digital fly-by-wire system which provides artificial stabilisation and gust elevation to give good control characteristics throughout the flight envelope. Stealth technology features includelow frontal radar cross-section.The aircraft is constructed of carbon fire composites.

two ASRAAM. two ARM and two GBU-24 Paveway III/IV. German and Spanish aircraft will also be armed with the Taurus KEPD 350 standoff missile from EADS/LFK and Saab Bofors. RAF Eurofighters will carry the MBDA Storm Shadow / Scalp EG stand-off cruise missile. Depending on role. An Armament Control System (ACS) manages weapons selection and firing and monitors weapon status. and also the MBDA Brimstone anti-armour missile which is to enter service in 2005. The EurofighterTyphoon has 13 hard points for weapon carriage. SEAD (Suppression of Enemy Air Defences) .six BVRAAM (Beyond Visual Range)/AMRAAM air-to-air missiles on semi-recessed fuselage stations and two ASRAAM short-range air-to-air missiles on the outer pylons. Meteor uses a new air-breathing ramjet motor for increased range and manoeuvrability.three AMRAAM. close air support . The UK RAF has selected MBDA (formerly Matra BAe Dynamics) Meteor for the BVRAAM requirement and Raytheon AMRAAM until Meteor enters service. two ASRAAM. which entered operational service on Tornado aircraft in March 2003. air interdiction . Italian and Spanish Eurofighters will . four under each wing and five under the fuselage. carry the imaging infrared IRIS-T air-to-air missile being developed by BGT of Germany. two ASRAAM. two cruise missiles and two anti-radar missiles (ARM). the fighter can carry the following mix of missiles: air-superiority . German. maritime attack .four AMRAAM.four AMRAAM.four AMRAAM. multi-role . two ASRAAM. expected to enter service in 2005.The internally-mounted Mauser BK27mm gun is a revolver gun system with a linkless-closed ammunition feed system. six anti-radar missiles.four AMRAAM. six anti-ship missiles. Eurofighter test firing the AMRAAM air-to-air missile . AMRAAM will be fitted from 2002 and Meteor around 2010. two ASRAAM. 18 Brimstone anti-armour missiles.

and the FLIR imagery. if necessary.The BAE Systems Striker Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMS) and Head Up Display show the flight reference data. systems status and map displays. BAE Systems TERPROM ground proximity warning system is being fitted. An international consortium EuroMIDS. head-down displays (MHDDs). colour. defence aids management.The pilot's control system is a voice-throttle-and-stick system (VTAS). The stick and throttle tops house 24 fingertip controls for sensor and weapon control. which includes Data Link Solutions of the US. The Eurofighter Typhoon cockpit. weapon aiming and cueing. supplies the MIDS Low Volume Terminal provides Link 16 capability for secure transfer of data. automatically take control of the aircraft and return to safe flight. . and inflight handling. . The cockpit has three multifunction.The quadruplex fly-by-wire flight control system has an Automatic Low Speed Recovery System (ALSR) which provides the pilot with visual and audio low speed warning and will. The direct voice input allows the pilot to carry out mode selection and data entry procedures using voice command. which show the tactical situation.


The F/A-22 entered full-rate production in April 2005 and is planned to achieve initial operating capability by December 2005. stealth and range. had built and flown the demonstration prototype aircraft.The F/A-22 Raptor advanced tactical fighter aircraft is being developed for service with the US Air Force from the year 2005. Initial Operational Test and Evaluation began in April 2004 and was successfully completed in February 2005. the USAF decided to redesignate the aircraft F/A-22 to reflect its multi-mission capability in ground attack as well as air-to-air roles. with emphasis on agility. The decision to proceed to low-rate initial production (LRIP) was authorised in August 2001 and Lockheed Martin has delivered 49 aircraft under LRIP contracts. The USAF requirement is for a fighter to replace the F-15. teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics. designated YF-22. In September 2002. The first F-22 fighter aircraft was unveiled in April 1997 and was given the name Raptor. . By 1990 Lockheed Martin.

which will have larger delta wings. longer range and the ability to carry an external weapons payload of 4.000kg.5 without the use of afterburner. eventually replacing F-15 Eagle aircraft. flying at sustained speeds of over Mach 1. The first operational wing of F/A-22 Raptors will be based at Langley AFB in Virginia. the FB-22. Lockheed Martin has put forward proposals for a fighter-bomber version of the F-22. . During flight tests.The USAF has a total requirement of 381 aircraft but funding may not be made available for more than 180. the F/A-22 has demonstrated the ability to 'supercruise'.500kg and total weapons payload of 15.

Thrust vectoring is controlled by a Hamilton Standard dual redundant full authority digital engine control (FADEC). . The F119-100 is a low bypass after burning turbofan engine providing 156kN thrust. The F119 is the first fighter aircraft engine equipped with hollow wide chord fan blades which are installed in the first fan stage. The F/A-22 is powered by two F119100 engines from Pratt and Whitney. The FADEC is integrated with the flight control computers in the BAE Systems Flight Controls vehicle management system.The F-22 is powered by two Pratt and Whitney F119-100 engines.

and for the honeycomb sandwich construction skin panels. The main underfuselage weapon bay can carry AMRAAM airto-air missiles and the Joint Direct Attack Munition. Carbon fibre composites have been used for the fuselage frame. including some of the bulkheads. JDAM. intermediate spars on the wings. and also for its heat-resistant qualities in the hot sections of the aircraft. 16% aluminium and 1% thermoplastic by weight. . 24% composite.The F/A-22 construction is 39% titanium. the doors. Titanium is used for its high strength-to-weight ratio in critical stress areas.

The main weapons bay can carry six AMRAAM AIM-120C missiles or two AMRAAM and two 1. The General Dynamics Linkless Ammunition Handling System holds 480 rounds of 20mm ammunition and feeds the gun at a rate of 100 rounds per second. with a range of 50nm.A variant of the M61A2 Vulcan cannon is installed internally above the right air intake. F/A-22 Raptor firing an AIM-120 AMRAAM. Up to eight SDBs could be carried. The bay is fitted with the EDO Corp.270kg. Raytheon AMRAAM air-to-air missile is an all-weather short to medium range radar-guided fire and forget missile.The GPS-guided. Boeing Small Diameter Bomb (SDB) is being integrated on the F/A-22.The F-22 has four hardpoints on the wings. which can carry AIM-120A AMRAAM or external fuel tanks. The side bays can each be loaded with one Lockheed Martin/Raytheon AIM-9M or AIM-9X Sidewinder all-aspect shortrange air-to-air missile.000lb GBU-32 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). . LAU-142/A AVEL AMRAAM Vertical Ejection Launcher which is a pneumatic-ejection system controlled by the stores management system. The Raptor has three internal weapon bays. each rated to carry 2.

stores management and air threat information. The Kaiser Electronics Projection Primary Multifunction Display provides a plan view of the air and ground tactical situation including threat identity. The cockpit has six color liquid crystal displays. Three secondary displays show air and ground threats. navigation. threat priority and tracking information.A BAE SYSTEMS head-up display (HUD) shows target status. . identification and flight information. weapon status. A video camera records data on the HUD for post-mission analysis.Two displays provide communication. The USAF has a total requirement of 381 aircraft .The cockpit is fitted with hands-on throttle and stick control (HOTAS). weapon envelopes and shoot cues.


The Su-47 completed the first stage of flight trials in December 2001. In May 2002. some of the avionics and the near-vertical tails. have been used in the Su-47. for example the design of the canopy. and it also . Su-47 is in a forward swept wing configuration and uses a highly unstable triplane (with three main lifting surfaces) aerodynamic configuration.The design of the very high manoeuvrability prototype is based on the avionics and aerodynamics technologies developed for the Su-27 upgrade programme. The PAK FA will be a development of the Su-47 but without the forward swept wings.The Sukhoi Design Bureau of Moscow. The Su-47 has extremely high agility at subsonic speeds enabling the aircraft to alter its angle of attack and its flight path very quickly. Russia has developed the Su-47 (previously called the S-37 Berkut or Golden Eagle) fighter aircraft. Some of the systems and component designs from the Su-27. which first flew in September 1997. Sukhoi was selected as prime contractor for the next-generation Russian PAK FA fighter programme. (the all weather supersonic fighter aircraft with NATO reporting name Flanker). landing gear.

.retains. when the mission may involve engaging consecutive targets in different sectors of the airspace. A high turn rate of the Su-47 allows the pilot to turn the fighter aircraft quickly towards the next target to initiate the weapon launch. a lower minimum flight speed. The Su-47 aircraft has very high levels of manoeuvrability with maintained stability and controllability at all angles of attack. higher range at subsonic speed. improved stability at high angles of attack. compared to a swept-back wing of the same area. and a shorter take-off and landing distance. The swept-forward wing. provides a number of advantages: higher lift to drag ratio. higher capacity in dogfight manoeuvres.Maximum turn rates are important in close combat and also at medium and long range. manoeuvrability in supersonic flightMaximum turn rates and the upper and lower limits on air speed for weapon launch are important criteria in terms of combat superiority. improved stall resistance and anti-spin characteristics.


.The Su-47 fuselage is oval in cross section and the airframe is constructed mainly of aluminium and titanium alloys and 13 per cent by weight of composite materials. The Su-47 has a maximum speed of 1. Detailed views of the Su-47.6 Mach and a greater than 9 g gforce capability.The nose radome is slightly flattened at the fore section and has a horizontal edge to optimise the aircraft's anti-spin characteristics.

The leading-edge root extensions blend smoothly to the wing panels. A substantial part of the lift generated by the forward-swept wing occurs at the inner portion of the wingspan. The all-moving and small-area trapezoidal canards are connected to the leading-edge root extensions. The lift is not restricted by wingtip stall. The ailerons . and controllability of the aircraft is retained even in the event of airflow separating from the remainder of the wings' surface. . The forward-swept wing configuration provides a higher drag-to-lift ratio and higher capacity in dogfight manoeuvres.The forward swept midwing gives the unusual and characteristic appearance of the Su-47. The forward-swept midwing has a high aspect ratio. flaps and ailerons on the trailing edge.The wing panels of the Su-47 are constructed of nearly 90% composites. which are fitted with deflectable slats on the leading edge. which contributes to long-range performance.remain effective at the highest angles of attack.the wing's control surfaces .

The Su-47 has demonstrated high agility and manoeuvrability at both subsonic and supersonic speeds. .The aircraft uses a retractable tricycle-type landing gear with a single wheel at each unit. The smaller nose wheel retracts towards the rear and the two mainwheels retract forward into the wing roots.

which reduces the impact of high G forces on the pilot. previously known as the S-37 Berkut (Golden Eagle) fighter aircraft. The variable geometry adaptive ejection seat is inclined at an angle of 60°.The cockpit's design has focused on maintaining a high degree of comfort for the pilot and also on the pilot being able to control the aircraft in extremely high G-load manoeuvres. . The aircraft is equipped with a new ejection seat and life support system. The seat allows dogfight manoeuvres with significantly higher G loadings than can normally be tolerated by the pilot. The Su-47. The pilot uses a side-mounted. low-travel control stick and a tensometric throttle control.


A new transportable hangar system has been developed which allows the B-2 to be deployed to forward locations overseas. strategic. the first in December 1993. The hangars are 126ft long.000nm unrefuelled and more than 10.Northrop Grumman is the prime contractor for the US Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. with a range of more than 6.000ft. 250ft wide and 55ft high. Its distinctive profile comes from the unique 'flying wing' construction. heavy bomber capable of penetrating sophisticated and dense air-defence shields.000nm with one refuelling. In the first three years of service. giving it the ability to fly to any point in the world within hours. long-range. 21 B-2s have been delivered to Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri. . An assessment published by the USAF showed that two B-2s armed with precision weaponry can do the job of 75 conventional aircraft. The B-2 is a lowobservable. It is capable of all-altitude attack missions up to 50. the operational B-2s achieved a sortie reliability rate of 90%. It is manufactured at the Northrop Grumman facilities in Pico Rivera and Palmdale in California. The leading edges of the wings are angled at 33 degrees and the trailing edge has a double-W shape.

Northrop Grumman has developed a new radarabsorbent coating to preserve the B-2's stealth characteristics while drastically reducing maintenance time. after ten years of service. B-2s have had to return to Whiteman AFB after missions. a B-2 squadron was deployed for the first time to Andersen Air Force Base in Guam in support of the USAF Pacific Command. . finally achieved full operational capability in December 2003. known as Alternate High-Frequency Material (AHFM).The first of these hangars has been erected on Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. In March 2005.The B-2. is sprayed on by four independently controlled robots. The B-2 was thus deployed for the first time during Operation Iraqi Freedom in March/April 2003. The new material. Prior to this development. for maintenance of the aircraft's stealth features.

provide a high subsonic speed and a maximum gross take-off weight of 336. . The engines. The B-2 is considered the most survivable aircraft ever built.500lb. The engines have an exhaust temperature control system to minimise thermal signature.The aircraft is powered by four General Electric F118-GE-100 turbofan engines internally mounted in the body of the wings. In-flight refuelling gear is installed in the top centre line of the aircraft behind the cockpit. rated at 77kN.


gravity bombs and a range of maritime weapons. B-2s have successfully released bomb shapes from the rotary launcher and conventional weapons from bomb-rack assemblies. The B-2 can also carry the AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missile. Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missiles (JASSM) and the Wind Compensated Munitions Dispenser (WCMD) when these enter service. enabling the aircraft to attack up to four different types of targets on a single mission. including conventional and nuclear weapons. The B-2 has the capacity to carry up to 40.Each weapons bay is equipped with a rotary launcher and two bomb-rack assemblies.500 miles. The aircraft will also be fitted with the Joint Stand-off Weapon (JSOW). The B83 is a strategic free-fall nuclear bomb. which is a strategic cruise missile with a range estimated at up to 1. The B61-11 is an earth-penetrating nuclear bomb for use against deeply buried and hardened targets. the B-2 successfully released B-61 and B-83 nuclear and Mk 84 conventional bombs from the rotary rocket launcher. Northrop Grumman is converting the B-2 bomb rack assembly to a new 'smart' configuration. which allows the B-2 to carry different mixes of stand-off weapons and direct attack munitions on a single sortie. which will increase the number of JDAMs which can be carried to a maximum of 80.The aircraft carries all its weapons internally and is fitted with two separate weapons bays in the centre of the aircraft. . precision-guided munitions. The GWIS is anintegrated digital software package.000lb of weapons. In tests.A Generic Weapons Interface System (GWIS) has been fitted as part of the Block 30 upgrade.16 satellite-guided JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition) missiles can be carried. and Mk-82 and CBU-87 conventional weapons from the bomb racks.

The cockpit is equipped with a colour. which displays flight. nine-tube. The pilot can choose to activate the appropriate selection of flight and mission equipment for take-off mode. electronic flight instrumentation system (EFIS) . go-to-war mode and landing mode by using a simple three-way switch. It is equipped with a colour. engine and sensor data and avionics systems and weapons status.The cockpit accommodates two crew. nine-tube. electronic flight instrumentation system (EFIS).


Nighthawk has been in operational service in Panama. during Operation Desert Storm. Have Blue. The mission of the aircraft is to penetrate dense threat environments and attack high-value targets with high accuracy. . but it was not until 1988 that its existence was publicly announced. was carried out in secret from 1975. However. the USAF is evaluating the F-117 for use on daylight operations and one aircraft has been repainted grey for the tests. The F-117A aircraft is also known as the Frisbee and the Wobblin' Goblin. The Nighthawk is only used for night-time missions. The first aircraft was delivered in 1982 and the last of the 59 Nighthawks procured by the US Air Force was received in 1990. 55 are still in service. and the predecessor test demonstrator aircraft. in Kosovo and during Operation Iraqi Freedom.The F-117A Nighthawk Stealth Fighter attack aircraft was developed by Lockheed Martin after work on stealth technology. The Nighthawk is the world's first operational stealth aircraft. Development of the F-117A began in 1978 and it was first flown in 1981.

000lb bomb for the first time. The integration of JDAM and other precision-guided weapons on the F-117 is coupled with the Block II software upgrade and is planned to achieve Initial Operating Capability (IOC) in 2005. an F-117 successfully released a JDAM (JDAM) 2.In January 2004. .

The wide and flat structure of the engine exhaust area reduces the infrared and radar detectability of the aft section of the engine. . The rectangular air intakes on both sides of the fuselage are covered by gratings. which are coated with radarabsorbent material. The Nighthawk is the world's first operational stealth aircraft. The two large tail fins slant slightly outwards to provide an obstruction to the infrared and radar returns from the engine exhaust area.The F-117A is powered by two low-bypass F404-GE-F1D2 turbofan engines from General Electric. The US Air Force has 59 Nighthawks.

The aircraft is mainly constructed of aluminum. and a drag parachute is used. at about 180 or 190 miles per hour. directed away from the enemy radar detector. By avoiding banking sharply. which controls the yaw of the aircraft. with titanium for areas of the engine and exhaust systems. All the doors and opening panels on the aircraft have saw-toothed forward and trailing edges to reflect radar.The surfaces and edge profiles are optimised to reflect hostile radar into narrow beam signals. The elevons do not act as flaps to reduce the rate of descent for touchdown.The F-117A has four elevons on the inboard and outboard trailing edge of the wing. which means that the whole surface acts as a control surface. the F-117A reduces its signal to enemy radar . so the landing speed of the F-117A is high. acts as a flying tail. The V-shaped tail. The radar cross-section of the F117 has been estimated at between 10-100cm2. The outer surface of the aircraft is coated with a radar-absorbent material (RAM).

An F-117 Nighthawk dropping a laserguided bomb . Raytheon AGM-65 Maverick and Raytheon AGM-88 HARM air-to-surface missiles. including BLU-109B low-level laser-guided bomb. GBU-10 and GBU-27 laser-guided bomb units.The aircraft can carry a range of tactical fighter ordnance in the weapons bay.

The fly-bywire system is supplied by BAE Systems Aircraft Controls.The cockpit has a Kaiser Electronics head-up display (HUD) and the flight deck is equipped with a large video monitor. Special coatings on the cockpit canopy glass make the panels appear as metallic surfaces to radar . which displays the infrared imagery from the aircraft's onboard sensors. The cockpit has a full-colour moving map developed by the Harris Corporation.

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