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RAMAdvanseManual

RAMAdvanseManual

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Sections

  • TRADEMARKS
  • DISCLAIMER
  • Introduction
  • How to learn RAM Advanse?
  • User Interaction Principle
  • Design in RAM Advanse
  • Voice commands
  • Do you need assistance?
  • How to report bugs?
  • New features
  • Interface:
  • Analysis:
  • Design:
  • Others:
  • RAM Connection:
  • Chapter 1: General Overview
  • Main Window
  • Data explorer
  • Units
  • Entering nodes, members and shells
  • How to create nodes?
  • End nodes of physical members
  • Nodes generation tools
  • Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet
  • How to create members?
  • Selecting the nodes
  • Connecting the members
  • How to create shells?
  • Assigning properties to nodes, members and shells
  • Selecting the elements
  • Entering the required information in the worksheet
  • Grouping members and shells
  • Load cases and combinations
  • Automatic generation of load combinations
  • Entering loads for a load case
  • Display of data and results
  • Zoom and rotation
  • Panning
  • Selecting and hiding elements
  • Other basic operations
  • Undo Command
  • Erasing elements
  • Erasing the contents of a worksheet
  • Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes
  • Segment Elements
  • Customizing the interface
  • General Configuration
  • Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes
  • Coordinate systems
  • Global coordinate system
  • Local coordinate system
  • Principal coordinate system
  • Element rotation
  • 180 and 90 degrees rotation
  • Rotating members at an angle
  • Making a local axis parallel to a global axis
  • Orientating a local axis toward a specific node
  • Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes
  • Principal axes
  • Laterally restrained for torsion
  • Physical members
  • Model Data Check
  • Rotating the Structure
  • Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members
  • Pin (hinges) at both ends of members
  • Pin one end of a member
  • Fixing ends of elements
  • Tension only members
  • Pre-tension
  • Cardinal Points
  • Rigid zone offsets
  • Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor)
  • Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points
  • Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges
  • Rigid floor
  • Entering Rigid floor
  • Pressure on frame members
  • Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials
  • Creating new sections
  • Section names
  • Section Collections
  • Parameters for the design of steel members
  • Laterally restrained for torsion:
  • Qmod2' exact:
  • Tapered Members
  • Creating Materials
  • Importing and exporting sections and materials
  • Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates
  • Templates
  • Example 1: Creating a Truss
  • Example 2: Creating an entire structure
  • Completing data
  • Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects
  • Generation of load combinations
  • Elastic supports
  • Prescribed displacements
  • Self - weight
  • Thermal loads
  • Node generation
  • Copy nodes
  • Linear generation of nodes
  • Quadratic generation of nodes
  • Circular generation of nodes
  • Chapter 9: Analysis
  • Frame Element
  • Shell Element
  • Rigid Diaphragm Constraints
  • P-Delta Analysis
  • What is P-Delta effect?
  • Small p-delta effect
  • Large P-Delta effect
  • P-Delta calculation methods
  • Iterative P-Delta Effects
  • P-Delta effect in load combinations
  • Dynamic analysis, and P-Delta
  • Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span
  • Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis
  • Eigen Value Analysis
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis
  • Modal Analysis
  • Determination of the Dynamic Forces
  • Methods of Modal Superposition
  • CQC Method
  • SRSS Method
  • ABS Method
  • Seismic results with sign
  • Entering Mass
  • Seismic Loads
  • Seismic analysis
  • Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration
  • Load combinations
  • Construction details
  • Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse
  • Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings
  • Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration)
  • Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code check
  • Optimization and code check
  • Optimization
  • Verification or Code Check
  • Optimization basis
  • How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section
  • Optimization process
  • Verification process
  • Structure deflections and deformations
  • Optimization with other criteria
  • Appropriate section not found
  • Non-steel or wood members
  • AISC and AISI sections
  • Optimization with default collection of sections
  • Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports
  • Model Data
  • Loads Data
  • Analysis Results
  • Dynamic Analysis
  • Steel Design
  • Reinforced Concrete Design
  • Connections Design
  • Wood Design
  • List of Materials
  • Parts List
  • List of Joints
  • Diagrams
  • Report
  • Display on the screen
  • Export diagrams to DXF files
  • Reports
  • General commands for print report
  • Customizing the heading of a report
  • Reports of the detailing modules
  • Printing Graphics
  • Text Box
  • Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data
  • Importing
  • Exporting
  • DXF files
  • What are DXF files?
  • Exporting as DXF files
  • Importing a DXF file
  • Creating a DXF file
  • Reading DXF files
  • RAM Structural System Files
  • SDNF Files
  • What are SDNF files?
  • Sending data to a SDNF file
  • Sending data to RAM BasePlate
  • Chapter 14: Shells
  • The Shell Element
  • Applications for the model
  • Generating shells
  • Description
  • Entering Shell Thickness
  • Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing)
  • Assigning Materials
  • Pressure on the Plates
  • Segmentation (meshing) of Plates
  • Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells
  • Printing the results
  • Shell stresses
  • Internal forces in nodes
  • Corner Forces
  • Face forces
  • Reinforced concrete design for plates
  • Graphic environment
  • Frame members (default)
  • Stresses
  • Reinforcement in RC plates
  • Smooth
  • Envel and Max
  • Stresses on both sides of the shell
  • Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros
  • Common parameters:
  • Default Units
  • Section type
  • Shape
  • Design code
  • Design formulation
  • Cbmax
  • Connection
  • Category
  • Commentary
  • Section variables
  • Prop AskUser
  • Prop Section Shape
  • Node
  • SetLine...EndLine
  • Segment
  • Rigid(ity)
  • SetSolid
  • Bars and Bar
  • Join
  • Closed
  • Line
  • Prop Tapered properties
  • Prop PropertiesCalc
  • Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates
  • The TEXT.tpl file
  • The TPL file
  • DESCRIPTION
  • VARIABLES
  • SELECT
  • LINE
  • DIAGONAL
  • TEMPLATE
  • Example 1: Creating a template
  • 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing
  • 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing
  • 3) Create the TPL file
  • Example 2: Creating a template
  • 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing
  • 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing
  • Using the Example 2 template
  • Chapter 17: Building Structures
  • Generating deck or wall areas
  • Generating Wind Load
  • Rigid floor diaphragm
  • Generating wind loads
  • Generating masses for each floor
  • Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules
  • Design
  • Design and Detailing Modules
  • Invoking the Modules
  • Dependent detailing modules
  • Independent detailing modules
  • Organization of the Modules
  • Navigation and Data Entry
  • Zoom
  • Font Size
  • Print graphics
  • Data Entry
  • Results and verifications
  • Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures
  • Sections
  • Selection of the design code
  • Coordinate system used in design
  • Design Parameters
  • Braced Against Sidesway Flag
  • Effective Length (K) Factors
  • Axial unbraced length of the member (L)
  • Lbpos, Lbneg lengths
  • Cm Coefficients
  • Cb Coefficients
  • Lepos, Leneg lengths
  • m Coefficients
  • mLT Coefficients
  • Torsion
  • Design and optimization
  • Steel Connections
  • Output of results
  • Screen output
  • Chapter 20: Design of Hot Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)
  • Determination of a member with an AISC section
  • CODE=HOTROLLED
  • TYPE=LINEOPEN
  • TYPE=LINECLOSED
  • SetSolid..EndSolid
  • FORMULATION=<formulation>
  • Second order analysis
  • ASD technical notes
  • Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements
  • Tension members
  • Beams and other flexural members
  • Columns and other compression members
  • Members subject to torsion
  • Combined stresses
  • LRFD technical notes
  • Assumptions and restrictions for elements
  • Members in tension
  • Tapered members
  • AISC-ASD Flowcharts
  • AISC-LRFD Flowcharts
  • Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)
  • Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member
  • CODE=COLDFORMED
  • TYPE
  • Technical notes
  • Flexural members
  • Compression members
  • Combined axial load and bending
  • Tubular members
  • AISI 96 Flowcharts
  • Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950)
  • Determination of a member with a BS section
  • CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED
  • Load Combinations
  • BS 5950 Flowcharts
  • Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced concrete design
  • Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced Concrete Design
  • Loads
  • Bar size series
  • Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design
  • Identifying Concrete Beams
  • Analysis
  • Second Order Analysis
  • Technical Notes
  • General
  • Limitations
  • Flexural Design
  • Shear Design
  • Torsion Design
  • Detailing Requirements
  • Reports and Screen Output
  • Summary Report of Beam Design
  • Screen Display of Reinforcement
  • Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module
  • Data Screen
  • Design Screen
  • Detailing Screen
  • Configuration Screen
  • Report of reinforced concrete beams
  • ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts
  • Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns
  • Identifying the columns for design
  • Column Design Parameters
  • Effective Length (K) Factor
  • Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor
  • Unbraced Member Length (L)
  • ACI Technical Notes
  • Design of longitudinal reinforcement
  • Slenderness effects
  • Bending design
  • Shear design
  • Special provisions for seismic design
  • Output
  • Report Output
  • Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module
  • Design screen
  • Report of reinforced concrete columns
  • ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts
  • Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing
  • Design Steps
  • Soil-footing-structure modeling
  • Adopted dimensions
  • Verifications
  • Overall stability against sliding, overturning and soil bearing capacity
  • Foundation Spring Modeling Tools
  • Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module
  • Report of reinforced concrete footings
  • Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction - Theory
  • Column Located at Center of Footing
  • Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing)
  • Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts
  • Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD)
  • Determination of the wood member data
  • Member Section
  • Wood materials
  • Species
  • Design post processing inside RAM Advanse
  • Deflection control
  • Wood Detailing Module
  • Wood design macro for adjustment factors
  • Chapter 28: Steel Connections
  • What is a Connection?
  • How to find technical information about a specific connection?
  • How to Use RAM Connection?
  • Grouped Connections
  • Individual Connections
  • Designing Connections
  • Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope)
  • HSS Section Supports
  • Design Criteria
  • The Connection Template Database
  • Database Organization
  • Defining Connection Templates
  • Databases for sections, materials, bolts and welds
  • Connection Toolbar
  • Group1: Selection options (connections and joints)
  • Group2: Result display options
  • Group3: Design and Assignment settings
  • Groups4,5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons
  • Customizing the connection toolbar
  • Connection Worksheet
  • Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet
  • Assign selected connection template to model
  • Replace (all) the current selected connection (s)
  • Assign connection description
  • Deleting model connections
  • Connection Pad
  • 1: Properties area
  • 2: Drawing area
  • 3: Help area
  • LEO Code (macros)
  • Connections Reports
  • Chapter 29: Retaining Walls
  • Design steps
  • 1) Data introduction
  • 2) Verification and Detailing
  • 3) Optimization
  • Terminology
  • Design Codes
  • Stem axial loads
  • Earth pressures
  • Seismic Load
  • Design of components of the wall
  • Unreinforced Concrete Design
  • Reinforced Masonry Design
  • Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module
  • View as RAM Advanse Model
  • Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams
  • 1) Entering Data
  • 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing
  • 3) Verifications
  • 4) Optimization
  • Pattern loading
  • Design parameters
  • Cracked Section Factors
  • Unbraced length Lb
  • Bending coefficient Cb
  • Design/Detailing Module Beam
  • Entering data for a Continuous Beam
  • Passing data of the main program
  • Optimization screen
  • Chapter 31: Programming in LEO
  • Macros for connections
  • Basic example of a macro
  • Customizing geometry
  • End Plate
  • Entering the commands
  • Connection Design
  • Assigning a status message to the connection
  • Bolted connection design example:
  • Welded connection design example
  • Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse)
  • Macros to define section types
  • LEO Commands
  • Data types and variables
  • Explicit form
  • Short form
  • By assigning an initial value
  • Operations with Float variables
  • Structured statements
  • IF THEN statements
  • IF THEN ELSE statements
  • FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements
  • FOR 2(i=0, <N ; +1) statements
  • WHILE statements
  • WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements
  • GROUP statements
  • PROP READ statements (Property)
  • PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property)
  • Parameters by reference
  • Properties as parameters by reference
  • Assigning expressions as parameters by reference
  • Additional commands for LEO Editor

RAM Advanse™

Version 7.0 May 2005

RAM International 2744 Loker Avenue West Bldg B, Ste 100 Carlsbad, CA 92008 Telephone: (760) 431-3610 Toll Free: (800) 726-7789 Fax: (760) 431-5214

TRADEMARKS
Microsoft, Windows, Excel and Word are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. The furnishing of the present program or documents does not give you any license to these trademarks and patents, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights implied.

DISCLAIMER
Both United States copyright law and international treaty provisions protect this software and related documentation. Any unauthorized copying or reproduction is strictly prohibited and subject to civil and criminal penalties. Please refer to the License Agreement for authorization to make a backup copy of the software. You may not sell this software or documentation or give copies of them away to anyone else. Except as expressly warranted in the License Agreement, RAM International disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the software, the accompanying written materials, and any accompanying hardware. All results should be verified to the user’s satisfaction. The contents of these written materials may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors and may be revised without prior notice.

Copyright 1990-2005, RAM International, L.L.C. All Rights Reserved.

RAM AdvanseTM, RAM ConnectionTM, RAM Connection StandaloneTM, RAM Structural SystemTM, RAM ManagerTM, RAM ModelerTM, RAM Steel® and RAM Frame® are trademarks of RAM International, L.L.C.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TRADEMARKS......................................................................................................................3 DISCLAIMER.........................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................17
How to learn RAM Advanse?.......................................................................................................................17 User Interaction Principle ............................................................................................................................17 Design in RAM Advanse ..............................................................................................................................17 Voice commands ..........................................................................................................................................18 Do you need assistance?.............................................................................................................................18 How to report bugs?.....................................................................................................................................18 New features..................................................................................................................................................19 Interface: .................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Analysis: .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Design: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Others:........................................................................................................................................................................ 20 RAM Connection:...................................................................................................................................................... 20

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................23
Main Window .................................................................................................................................................23 Data explorer .................................................................................................................................................24 Units ...............................................................................................................................................................26 Entering nodes, members and shells .........................................................................................................27 How to create nodes? ................................................................................................................................................. 28 End nodes of physical members ............................................................................................................................ 29 Nodes generation tools.......................................................................................................................................... 29 Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet............................................................................................... 29 How to create members?............................................................................................................................................ 30 Selecting the nodes ................................................................................................................................................ 30 Connecting the members ....................................................................................................................................... 32 Templates .............................................................................................................................................................. 32 How to create shells? ................................................................................................................................................. 32 Assigning properties to nodes, members and shells ...............................................................................33 Selecting the elements................................................................................................................................................ 34 Entering the required information in the worksheet................................................................................................... 34 Grouping members and shells ....................................................................................................................35 Load cases and combinations ....................................................................................................................37 Automatic generation of load combinations .............................................................................................................. 37 Entering loads for a load case.....................................................................................................................37 Display of data and results ..........................................................................................................................38 Zoom and rotation ........................................................................................................................................40 Panning..........................................................................................................................................................41 Selecting and hiding elements ....................................................................................................................41 Other basic operations.................................................................................................................................41 Undo Command ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 Erasing elements ........................................................................................................................................................ 41 Erasing the contents of a worksheet........................................................................................................................... 41 Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes ................................................................................................. 42 Segment Elements...................................................................................................................................................... 42 Customizing the interface............................................................................................................................42 General Configuration..................................................................................................................................45

CHAPTER 2: LOCAL AND GLOBAL AXES.......................................................................47

Coordinate systems ..................................................................................................................................... 47 Global coordinate system............................................................................................................................ 47 Local coordinate system ............................................................................................................................. 47 Principal coordinate system........................................................................................................................ 48 Element rotation ........................................................................................................................................... 48 180 and 90 degrees rotation........................................................................................................................................48 Rotating members at an angle.....................................................................................................................................50 Making a local axis parallel to a global axis...............................................................................................................50 Orientating a local axis toward a specific node ..........................................................................................................51 Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes .................................................................................52 Principal axes................................................................................................................................................ 53 Laterally restrained for torsion ................................................................................................................... 54

CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL MEMBERS, STRUCTURE DEBUGGING AND COMMANDS FOR ROTATING THE STRUCTURE .................................................................................. 55
Physical members ........................................................................................................................................ 55 Model Data Check......................................................................................................................................... 63 Rotating the Structure.................................................................................................................................. 64

CHAPTER 4: END RELEASES AND TENSION-ONLY MEMBERS .................................. 67
Pin (hinges) at both ends of members ....................................................................................................... 67 Pin one end of a member............................................................................................................................. 68 Fixing ends of elements............................................................................................................................... 69 Tension only members ................................................................................................................................ 70 Pre-tension .................................................................................................................................................... 71

CHAPTER 5: CARDINAL POINTS, RIGID ZONE OFFSETS, RIGID FLOOR AND PRESSURE ON FRAME MEMBERS.................................................................................. 73
Cardinal Points ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Rigid zone offsets......................................................................................................................................... 74 Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor)............................................................................................. 78 Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points...................................... 80 Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges........................................................................................... 82 Rigid floor...................................................................................................................................................... 82 Entering Rigid floor....................................................................................................................................................83 Pressure on frame members ....................................................................................................................... 84

CHAPTER 6: CREATING SECTIONS AND MATERIALS.................................................. 87
Creating new sections ................................................................................................................................. 87 Section names .............................................................................................................................................. 88 Section Collections ...................................................................................................................................... 89 Parameters for the design of steel members ............................................................................................ 90 Laterally restrained for torsion: ..................................................................................................................................90 Qmod2' exact:.............................................................................................................................................................91 Tapered Members ......................................................................................................................................... 92 Creating Materials......................................................................................................................................... 94 Importing and exporting sections and materials ...................................................................................... 95

CHAPTER 7: USING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ............................................................. 99
Templates ...................................................................................................................................................... 99 Example 1: Creating a Truss ....................................................................................................................... 99 Example 2: Creating an entire structure .................................................................................................. 103 Completing data.......................................................................................................................................... 108

CHAPTER 8: OTHER ADVANCED SUBJECTS .............................................................. 111
Generation of load combinations ............................................................................................................. 111

Elastic supports ..........................................................................................................................................112 Prescribed displacements .........................................................................................................................113 Self - weight.................................................................................................................................................114 Thermal loads..............................................................................................................................................115 Node generation..........................................................................................................................................115 Copy nodes............................................................................................................................................................... 117 Linear generation of nodes....................................................................................................................................... 118 Quadratic generation of nodes ................................................................................................................................. 118 Circular generation of nodes .................................................................................................................................... 119

CHAPTER 9: ANALYSIS...................................................................................................121
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................121 Frame Element ............................................................................................................................................122 Shell Element ..............................................................................................................................................124 Rigid Diaphragm Constraints ....................................................................................................................125 P-Delta Analysis..........................................................................................................................................125 What is P-Delta effect? ............................................................................................................................................ 125 Small p-delta effect .................................................................................................................................................. 125 Large P-Delta effect ................................................................................................................................................. 126 P-Delta calculation methods .................................................................................................................................... 126 Iterative P-Delta Effects........................................................................................................................................... 126 P-Delta effect in load combinations ......................................................................................................................... 127 Dynamic analysis, and P-Delta ................................................................................................................................ 127 Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span .......................................................... 128 Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis...............................................................................................128 Eigen Value Analysis..................................................................................................................................130 References...................................................................................................................................................131

CHAPTER 10: DYNAMIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS ...............................................................133
Modal Analysis............................................................................................................................................133 Determination of the Dynamic Forces......................................................................................................134 Methods of Modal Superposition............................................................................................................................. 134 CQC Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 SRSS Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 ABS Method......................................................................................................................................................... 134 Seismic results with sign...................................................................................................................................... 134 Entering Mass .............................................................................................................................................135 Seismic Loads.............................................................................................................................................136 Seismic analysis .........................................................................................................................................138 Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration ........................................................138 Load combinations .....................................................................................................................................139 Construction details ...................................................................................................................................139 Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse ............................................................................................................139 Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings....................................................................................................140 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) .....................................................................................................142

CHAPTER 11: STEEL AND WOOD STRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION AND CODE CHECK ...........................................................................................................................................145
Optimization and code check ....................................................................................................................147 Optimization ............................................................................................................................................................ 147 Verification or Code Check ..................................................................................................................................... 147 Optimization basis ......................................................................................................................................148 How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section ..................................................................................148 Optimization process .................................................................................................................................149 Verification process ...................................................................................................................................150 Structure deflections and deformations ..................................................................................................150

Optimization with other criteria................................................................................................................. 151 Appropriate section not found .................................................................................................................. 152 Non-steel or wood members ..................................................................................................................... 152 AISC and AISI sections .............................................................................................................................. 152 Optimization with default collection of sections..................................................................................... 152

CHAPTER 12: PRINTING GRAPHICS AND REPORTS .................................................. 153
Model Data................................................................................................................................................... 153 Loads Data .................................................................................................................................................. 153 Analysis Results ......................................................................................................................................... 153 Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 154 Steel Design ................................................................................................................................................ 154 Reinforced Concrete Design ..................................................................................................................... 155 Connections Design ................................................................................................................................... 156 Wood Design............................................................................................................................................... 156 List of Materials .......................................................................................................................................... 157 Parts List ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 List of Joints ............................................................................................................................................... 157 Diagrams ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 Report .......................................................................................................................................................................157 Display on the screen................................................................................................................................................159 Export diagrams to DXF files...................................................................................................................................160 Reports ........................................................................................................................................................ 161 General commands for print report...........................................................................................................................161 Customizing the heading of a report.........................................................................................................................163 Reports of the detailing modules ..............................................................................................................................164 Printing Graphics........................................................................................................................................ 164 Text Box....................................................................................................................................................... 166

CHAPTER 13: IMPORTING AND EXPORTING DATA .................................................... 169
Importing ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 DXF files ...................................................................................................................................................... 169 What are DXF files? .................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting as DXF files................................................................................................................................ 169 Importing a DXF file.................................................................................................................................... 170 Creating a DXF file...................................................................................................................................... 170 Reading DXF files ....................................................................................................................................... 171 RAM Structural System Files .................................................................................................................... 172 SDNF Files................................................................................................................................................... 172 What are SDNF files? ................................................................................................................................. 172 Sending data to a SDNF file....................................................................................................................... 172 Sending data to RAM BasePlate ............................................................................................................... 174

CHAPTER 14: SHELLS .................................................................................................... 175
Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 175 The Shell Element....................................................................................................................................... 175 Applications for the model ........................................................................................................................ 177 Generating shells........................................................................................................................................ 179 Description .................................................................................................................................................. 181 Entering Shell Thickness........................................................................................................................... 181 Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing)..................................................................................... 182 Assigning Materials.................................................................................................................................... 183 Pressure on the Plates............................................................................................................................... 183 Segmentation (meshing) of Plates............................................................................................................ 184 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells .......................................................... 187 Printing the results ..................................................................................................................................... 187

Shell stresses..............................................................................................................................................188 Internal forces in nodes .............................................................................................................................189 Corner Forces .............................................................................................................................................190 Face forces ..................................................................................................................................................190 Reinforced concrete design for plates .....................................................................................................191 Graphic environment..................................................................................................................................191 Frame members (default) ......................................................................................................................................... 192 Stresses..................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Internal forces in nodes ............................................................................................................................................ 192 Reinforcement in RC plates ..................................................................................................................................... 193 Smooth ..................................................................................................................................................................... 195 Envel and Max ......................................................................................................................................................... 195 Stresses on both sides of the shell ............................................................................................................................ 196

CHAPTER 15: CREATING NEW TYPES OF SECTIONS WITH MACROS......................197
Common parameters:.................................................................................................................................199 Default Units............................................................................................................................................................ 200 Section type.............................................................................................................................................................. 200 Shape........................................................................................................................................................................ 200 Design code.............................................................................................................................................................. 201 Design formulation .................................................................................................................................................. 201 Cbmax........................................................................................................................................................... 202 Connection ............................................................................................................................................................... 202 Category........................................................................................................................................................ 203 Commentary............................................................................................................................................................. 203 Section variables ........................................................................................................................................204 Prop AskUser ..............................................................................................................................................205 Prop Section Shape ....................................................................................................................................206 Node......................................................................................................................................................................... 206 SetLine...EndLine .................................................................................................................................................... 207 Segment ................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Rigid(ity).................................................................................................................................................................. 208 SetSolid.................................................................................................................................................................... 210 Bars and Bar............................................................................................................................................................. 211 Join........................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Closed ...................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Line .......................................................................................................................................................................... 213 Prop Tapered properties ............................................................................................................................213 Prop PropertiesCalc ...................................................................................................................................213

CHAPTER 16: CREATING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ..................................................215
The TEXT.tpl file..........................................................................................................................................216 The TPL file..................................................................................................................................................216 DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................ 216 VARIABLES ........................................................................................................................................................... 216 SELECT................................................................................................................................................................... 217 LINE ........................................................................................................................................................................ 218 DIAGONAL ............................................................................................................................................................ 219 TEMPLATE............................................................................................................................................................. 222 Example 1: Creating a template ................................................................................................................223 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing.................................................................................................................. 224 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing ................................................................................................ 224 3) Create the TPL file............................................................................................................................................... 225 Example 2: Creating a template ................................................................................................................227 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing........................................................................................................................... 228 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing ............................................................................................................ 228

3) Create the TPL file ...............................................................................................................................................229 Using the Example 2 template................................................................................................................... 232

CHAPTER 17: BUILDING STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 235
Generating deck or wall areas................................................................................................................... 235 Generating Wind Load ............................................................................................................................... 238 Rigid floor diaphragm ..............................................................................................................................................238 Generating wind loads ............................................................................................................................... 239 Generating masses for each floor ............................................................................................................ 241

CHAPTER 18: DESIGN AND DETAILING MODULES..................................................... 245
Design.......................................................................................................................................................... 245 Design and Detailing Modules .................................................................................................................. 245 Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 246 Invoking the Modules ................................................................................................................................. 246 Dependent detailing modules ...................................................................................................................................246 Independent detailing modules .................................................................................................................................248 Organization of the Modules ..................................................................................................................... 249 Navigation and Data Entry......................................................................................................................... 250 Zoom ........................................................................................................................................................................250 Font Size...................................................................................................................................................................251 DXF files ..................................................................................................................................................................251 Print graphics............................................................................................................................................................251 Panning .....................................................................................................................................................................251 Data Entry.................................................................................................................................................................252 Results and verifications ........................................................................................................................... 254

CHAPTER 19: GENERAL DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES ...................................... 255
Loads ........................................................................................................................................................... 255 Sections....................................................................................................................................................... 256 Selection of the design code..................................................................................................................... 256 Coordinate system used in design ........................................................................................................... 257 Design Parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 258 Braced Against Sidesway Flag ................................................................................................................. 258 Effective Length (K) Factors...................................................................................................................... 259 Axial unbraced length of the member (L) ................................................................................................ 260 Lbpos, Lbneg lengths............................................................................................................ 260 Cm Coefficients...................................................................................................................... 261 Cb Coefficients....................................................................................................................... 261 Lepos, Leneg lengths ...................................................................................................................... 262 m Coefficients................................................................................................................................... 262 mLT Coefficients .............................................................................................................................. 262 Torsion......................................................................................................................................................... 263 Design and optimization ............................................................................................................................ 263 Steel Connections ...................................................................................................................................... 264 Output of results......................................................................................................................................... 264 Screen output ............................................................................................................................................................265 Reports......................................................................................................................................................................266

CHAPTER 20: DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ....... 269
Determination of a member with an AISC section .................................................................................. 269 CODE=HOTROLLED .............................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINEOPEN ..................................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINECLOSED .............................................................................................................................................270

SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 270 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 270 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................271 ASD technical notes ...................................................................................................................................272 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 272 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 274 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 274 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 274 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 275 Combined stresses.................................................................................................................................................... 275 LRFD technical notes .................................................................................................................................275 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 275 Members in tension.................................................................................................................................................. 277 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 277 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 278 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................278 AISC-ASD Flowcharts ................................................................................................................................280 AISC-LRFD Flowcharts ..............................................................................................................................298

CHAPTER 21: DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS (AISI-96) ....................311
Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member ......................................................................311 CODE=COLDFORMED ......................................................................................................................................... 311 TYPE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 311 2nd order analysis........................................................................................................................................312 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................312 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 312 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Flexural members..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Compression members............................................................................................................................................. 314 Combined axial load and bending............................................................................................................................ 315 Tubular members ..................................................................................................................................................... 315 AISI 96 Flowcharts ......................................................................................................................................316

CHAPTER 22: DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS (BS 5950) ..............................................331
Determination of a member with a BS section ........................................................................................331 CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED ........................................................................................ 331 TYPE=LINEOPEN.................................................................................................................................................. 331 TYPE=LINECLOSED............................................................................................................................................. 331 SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 331 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 332 Load Combinations ....................................................................................................................................332 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................333 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................333 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 333 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 334 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 334 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 335 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 337 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................337 BS 5950 Flowcharts....................................................................................................................................339

CHAPTER 23: ACI REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN ................................................349
Loads ...........................................................................................................................................................349 Bar size series.............................................................................................................................................349

CHAPTER 24: REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM DESIGN............................................351
Identifying Concrete Beams ......................................................................................................................351

Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 352 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................352 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................353 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 353 General .....................................................................................................................................................................354 Limitations................................................................................................................................................................354 Flexural Design ........................................................................................................................................................354 Shear Design.............................................................................................................................................................355 Torsion Design .........................................................................................................................................................356 Detailing Requirements ............................................................................................................................................357 Reports and Screen Output....................................................................................................................... 358 Summary Report of Beam Design ............................................................................................................................358 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................362 Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module ................................................................................................ 363 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................363 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................369 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................371 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................373 Report of reinforced concrete beams....................................................................................................... 375 ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts ....................................................................................................... 378

CHAPTER 25: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS. 391
Identifying the columns for design........................................................................................................... 391 Column Design Parameters....................................................................................................................... 392 Braced Against Sidesway Flag .................................................................................................................................392 Effective Length (K) Factor......................................................................................................................................393 Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor........................................................................................................................393 Unbraced Member Length (L)..................................................................................................................................394 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 394 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................395 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................395 ACI Technical Notes ................................................................................................................................... 395 Design of longitudinal reinforcement .......................................................................................................................396 Slenderness effects ...................................................................................................................................................396 Bending design .........................................................................................................................................................398 Shear design..............................................................................................................................................................398 Special provisions for seismic design.......................................................................................................................399 Output .......................................................................................................................................................... 399 Report Output ...........................................................................................................................................................399 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................400 Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module............................................................................................. 402 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................402 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................414 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................419 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................419 Report of reinforced concrete columns ................................................................................................... 420 ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts.................................................................................................... 423

CHAPTER 26: FOOTING DESIGN AND DETAILING ...................................................... 441
Design Steps ............................................................................................................................................... 441 Soil-footing-structure modeling................................................................................................................................441 Adopted dimensions .................................................................................................................................................441 Verifications .............................................................................................................................................................441 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 441 Loads ........................................................................................................................................................................442 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................442 Overall stability against sliding, overturning and soil bearing capacity ...................................................................442

........................... 496 Combined stresses.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 518 Design Criteria ............ 495 Beams and other flexural members.........................504 Grouped Connections.......... 504 Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) .....................................................503 How to find technical information about a specific connection?.................. 479 Species ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 504 Individual Connections ................................................................................................................................. 459 Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction .........................................................................................540 Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet...............................................477 Loads................................................................503 What is a Connection? ......................................................................................................444 Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module ........................................................................................................................................................497 References.............................................................................................................................................. 533 Group2: Result display options............................................................................................................. 541 ......................................................................494 Tension members ............................... bolts and welds............................................... 464 Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts......................................................................... 486 Design post processing inside RAM Advanse ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ materials......................................Theory .................................................................... 540 Assign selected connection template to model ..........................................................................................Design ................................................................................................... 504 Designing Connections ................................................... 456 Configuration Screen ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 477 Member Section ............................................................................. 491 Deflection control ....................................................................................................5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................532 Group1: Selection options (connections and joints)........................................................................................................................ 453 Detailing Screen.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................490 Reports ......................................... 447 Design Screen ................................................................. 477 Wood materials ..............500 CHAPTER 28: STEEL CONNECTIONS............................................. 536 Groups4.....................................................................522 Database Organization .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................460 Column Located at Center of Footing................................................................................ 495 Members subject to torsion ....................................................................................................................................... 535 Group3: Design and Assignment settings ............................................................................................ 496 Wood design macro for adjustment factors ............................. 526 Databases for sections................................................. 522 Defining Connection Templates ................................................................ 492 Wood Detailing Module .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................447 Data Screen ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................477 Determination of the wood member data..................................................................... 495 Columns and other compression members................................................................... 531 Connection Toolbar ............................................................ 444 Foundation Spring Modeling Tools ............................ 460 Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) ................... 480 Design Parameters ................. 537 Customizing the connection toolbar.............................................................................................. 457 Report of reinforced concrete footings........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 490 Screen output ..................................519 The Connection Template Database............................................................................................................... 514 HSS Section Supports .....................................492 ASD technical notes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................467 CHAPTER 27: WOOD DESIGN (NDS-ASD) .......................................................................................................................................................................503 How to Use RAM Connection? ..... 537 Connection Worksheet.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................557 Seismic Load ..........................................................................................................................................................................556 Limitations..........................................................................................................................569 Configuration Screen.. 555 1) Data introduction.......................................................................................................................................................562 Reinforced Masonry Design ................................................................................................................................555 2) Verification and Detailing ..........................................................................................547 LEO Code (macros)................................................. 555 Design steps .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................557 Design Codes..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................547 DXF files ................................................................................543 Connection Pad ........................................................................................................580 .............543 Deleting model connections.............................................................................................................................................................561 Unreinforced Concrete Design .............. 577 1) Entering Data..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................555 Technical notes.....................................................................................547 Print graphics..................................................................................................548 Connections Reports .....................................................................543 Assign connection description .................................................................................................................................................................................................557 Earth pressures ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 555 Terminology ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................577 4) Optimization.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 543 1: Properties area ............563 Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module ................... 552 CHAPTER 29: RETAINING WALLS.....................................................561 Design of components of the wall ......................................................................................................................................................................................................555 3) Optimization........................................................................547 3: Help area..................................................................................................................................................................................577 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing............. 577 Design steps ..............................................................................................................................................577 3) Verifications .................................................................564 Design Screen.............................................................579 Load combinations.................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................547 Panning ....................................................................................................................................................573 References .........577 Technical Notes ......................................................................................555 General ............................................................................................................................. 576 CHAPTER 30: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS......................................................................................................................................................578 Limitations...................................................................557 Stem axial loads ...............................................................................................573 Reports and Screen Output .................................................. 551 References ...............................................................................................................................................545 Font Size.......................................................................................................................................................................................................571 View as RAM Advanse Model.......578 Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................................... 578 General ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................567 Detailing Screen ..............................................................................................561 Reinforced Concrete Design ..............579 Pattern loading ...Replace (all) the current selected connection (s)...........................................................557 Loads ...................................560 Load Combinations.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................580 Design parameters ............................................................................................................ 563 Data Screen....................................................................................................................................................................578 Design Codes.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................544 2: Drawing area .................................................

...................611 Data types and variables... 621 FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements ........................................................... 624 GROUP statements ...................................................................................... 621 FOR 2(i=0...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Cracked Section Factors .................................................................597 Basic example of a macro .........................................................................621 IF THEN statements......................................................................................................... 598 End Plate............... 618 By assigning an initial value..............................................................619 Structured statements............................. ..................................... 602 Bolted connection design example: .................................................................................................................. 632 Additional commands for LEO Editor........................................................................................................................ 598 Connection Design................................................................... .............................................................................. .................................... 605 Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse) .......................................... 629 Assigning expressions as parameters by reference... .....................................................................................632 ..................................................................................................610 LEO Commands ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................617 Explicit form......597 Macros for connections ........................................................... 581 Design/Detailing Module Beam ........................................................................................................................................................................... 581 Design .........................................................................................................................581 Entering data for a Continuous Beam ................................................................ 582 Data Screen ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 581 Passing data of the main program ... 622 WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements .................................................................................................. 586 Configuration Screen ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 601 Assigning a status message to the connection.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 624 PROP READ statements (Property)......................................................................................... 597 Customizing geometry ...........................................................606 Macros to define section types ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 602 Welded connection design example..................................... 582 Design Screen ..................... 629 Properties as parameters by reference.............................................................................................................................................................. 621 IF THEN ELSE statements ........................ ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 627 Parameters by reference...................................................................................................................................... .................... 618 Operations with Float variables........................................................................................................................................... <N .................................................................... 590 CHAPTER 31: PROGRAMMING IN LEO...................................................................................................................... 617 Short form.................................................................................................................. 585 Detailing Screen.......................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 588 Optimization screen ................................................................................... 624 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) ............................................................... 598 Entering the commands ............ 580 Bending coefficient Cb .................................................................................................................... 622 WHILE statements............................................................................ +1) statements.............................. 580 Unbraced length Lb...................................................................................... 590 Reports and Screen Output........................................................................................................................................................................................... 581 Detailing Requirements...............................................................................

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the user is free to change or confirm the properties with or without several tools developed for this purpose. The most important benefit of this procedure is that the user will have a complete control of the structure design and the certainty that it suits to his/her requirements 17 . the engineer can then apply any command that will only affect those elements. This ‘select and apply’ rule is a unique and fundamental feature of the program that facilitates rapid model creation and output customization. Additionally RAM Advanse can work with RAM Connection. RAM Advanse is also capable of designing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel structures. For further details please see the indicated chapters. The engineer defines initial properties (i. In addition. reinforced concrete columns. NDS and ACI codes respectively. The program includes special modules for designing isolated footings.e.Introduction Introduction Welcome to RAM Advanse. members or shells) of the structure and once they are selected. How to learn RAM Advanse? We strongly suggest that new users start reading Chapter 1 of the manual and then continue with the RAM Advanse Examples Manual to learn and practice the basic commands of the program. After each verification cycle. wood (sawn lumber and glulam) and reinforced concrete elements using the AISC. is the "trial and error" procedure. a revolutionary tool that allows the fast design of steel connections inside or outside RAM Advanse. All the provided tools for entering or generating data. Design in RAM Advanse Another philosophy that RAM Advanse has adopted for the design of steel. general-purpose structural engineering software package. This program provides unequaled flexibility for the design and analysis of different types of 2D or 3D structures containing linear members and shell elements. Specifically. sections and materials) and the program verifies the members obtaining a strength ratio that reflects the status of each element. the user has to select the desired elements (nodes. together with the display and printing options adhere to this ‘select and apply’ principle. The types of analysis available are: First order (Linear Analysis). User Interaction Principle RAM Advanse has adopted a constant philosophy in the way all of its commands (actions) are applied to members in a model. retaining walls and continuous beams. a powerful and flexible 3D. AISI. Second order (P-Delta Analysis) and Dynamic (Seismic Analysis). Experienced users may want to see the new features that are briefly explained in the next section. BS. reinforced concrete or wood structures.

Use the bug report option to compile all the information and send it to advansesupport@ramint. that a side effect is not detected during the quality assurance. Select the option: Help/Create bug report. members or elements should be selected using traditional methods (mouse or spreadsheet). all the involved changes are always thoroughly tested. Do you need assistance? RAM Advanse has several tools that can help you during the execution of the program.Introduction Voice commands This high-tech feature. it is possible. however. Although. analysis and design of a typical structure. It will guide you step-by-step through the modeling. or at any time you need assistance on any particular feature you are working on. 18 . can dramatically improve the speed at which models are created. How to report bugs? We are continuously improving the program to increase your productivity. combined with the mouse. You can call the Assistant (pressing F4 to activate it). for a feature that is not covered. press F1 (or click on the help button in the worksheet area) to access context sensitive help. and then commands can be verbally issued.com. If you find something that is not working as you expect during the check of your work. please let us know. Additionally. In principle.

This includes elapsed times and warnings. New features This section describes the features added in version 7. Improved graphics quality. 19 . New tool for the generation of intermediate nodes at certain distances from the start or end nodes. Interface: The user interface has been improved in many aspects.0.Introduction Select the desired options to create the compressed file and send it to our technical support. More detailed explanations of these features will be found in the corresponding chapters of the manual or in the Help context. Option to display merged loads for load combinations avoiding superposition. The most important are: • • • • • • New progress windows for analysis and design with an additional window that displays a log after the processes are completed. New button ( ) to access units configuration dialog without going to the menu. Enhanced spreadsheets with improved capacity to cut or paste information to the clipboard and many new features. New colors and improved ranges for the display of forces and stresses.

reinforced or un-reinforced walls according to ACI 318-99 and ACI 530-02. Now the program calculates bending moments and shear forces acting in plates with out-of–plane loads. • • • • Others: • • • • • New Concise AISI member design report. concrete. Calculation of the P-Delta effects using a geometric stiffness matrix. The order of the selected columns is smartly reordered (from bottom to top) before running the detailing concrete design module. tees or channels. tees. Spread footings design per ACI-318. Data exportation to RAM BasePlate enabled for HSS columns. The connections consider single braces. and any combination of braces and beams (only one brace per 20 . being more realistic (since it is directly derived from kinematics of motion) and also more robust in comparison with the method adopted in previous versions (the fictitious lateral load method). The time required for the analysis has been reduced to a fraction in the order of 20 to 50% of the time required in previous versions. masonry. A sparse solver is employed and utilizes a sky-line column storage algorithm. Improved data entering for members’ optimization process. This will be reflected even more in big models or complex structures. An internal bandwidth optimization is carried out before starting the analysis. channels. Now the footing-detailing module suggests the dimensions of the footing to be analyzed. The following improvements have been obtained: • Improved analysis time.Introduction Analysis: The analysis has been dramatically improved with the implementation of a completely new analysis engine. RAM Connection: Bracing connections that include bracing members as single angles. Consideration of shear forces for static loads in reinforced concrete seismic design. double braces (k-braces). The number of mode frequencies is restricted now only by the number of masses. concrete and steel beams according to the codes covered in the main program. Automatic load patterns (skip loading) is available in the module. double angles. • • • Design: • • New retaining wall design module that includes cantilever and restrained walls. Former versions had a maximum limit of 15 modes. Through shear or transverse shear in plates. Shell reports have been modified to include through shear and the new analysis features. Improved quality and speed of printing graphs and tables. W-shapes or HSS shapes. where the reduction in time will be close to the smaller percentage. New design and detailing module for continuous beams that includes wood.

21 . • • 2D Graphics with DXF output for all existing connections and several options to draw (dimensions. The connectors between members and gusset may be angles. labels. etc.) and export drawings. simple plates or welds. Calculation of welds for stiffeners and other minor enhancements. views.Introduction quadrant is allowed).

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The main window is displayed below with all of the individual work areas identified. E: Display area – Area where model and any other selected display options are shown. C: Data Explorer – Area to allow engineer to quickly navigate to desired input spreadsheet and to review what data has been input. members and shells 2. we recommend you practice the basic operations by modeling one of the structures in the Examples Manual. The basic operations of the program required to create a structural model are: 1. view data or results. and to familiarize the user with the programs interface. Create load cases and load combinations 5. Enter loads 6. The general use of these areas is described later in this chapter. Note that the location and visibility of the toolbars are configurable (see the last sections of this chapter). section and load data is input. 23 . Group members and shells 4. Assign properties to elements such as sections. materials. manipulated and viewed. Main Window RAM Advanse has a main window in which all the model geometric. output or process the model. Customizing the interface After learning the basic operations. B: Toolbars – Commands to help you rapidly select. Display various member properties 7. draw. 3. Create nodes. Other basic operations 8. etc. In short the areas are: A: Applications menu bar: Where you can find the main commands of the program to input. D: Data Panel Worksheet/Spreadsheet area – Area where member properties and geometric data are input for the selected members. and design elements of your model.Chapter 1: General Overview Chapter 1: General Overview The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the basic commands required to model a structure in RAM Advanse.

Data explorer The Explorer shows you all the available data worksheets where you can enter the data for the model. Remark.Chapter 1: General Overview RAM Advanse Main window. To navigate from one worksheet to another.. Or you can use the option available in the Applications Menu Bar or Main Menu: 24 . you can simply click over the required item in the Explorer and it will open the corresponding worksheet.Initially the Data Explorer is disabled (hidden). To activate (or deactivate) it you have to press the following button in the Panels Toolbar as shown in the figure (if this toolbar is visible).

25 . For example. Therefore you have to activate the worksheet as well. then the corresponding shell item can be ignored. It is only necessary to enter data required to completely model the specific structure. In this way the user can easily verify what data have been entered and what data is still required. Use one of these options to enable the worksheet. The user can skip from one worksheet to another in almost any order. If the items in the list are checked . if your structure does not have shells. The user is not required to enter data for all of the items. it means that those items contain data.Chapter 1: General Overview The data Explorer is always used with the Worksheet. It is also not necessary to follow a specific order in data entry.

To define the units press the button or go to the Applications Menu Bar select the units option: Select the option: Configuration/Units 26 . Units It is always recommended to define the current unit system before entering any data. and then the button related to the desired property (2).Chapter 1: General Overview If you want to hide your Explorer then you can still get to any worksheet on the Data panel by pressing one of the Tab elements (1). as it is illustrated in the figure above.

you can import it from RAM Structural System or you can generate it manually. SI or Metric). Entering nodes. Refer to the relevant chapters of this manual for a description of the other methods available to create a model. There are several methods available to generate these elements. 27 . the specific units within the selected system for different groups of variables (2) or select custom predefined settings for the former options (3). you can create it using templates. members and shells A single structural model consists mainly of nodes. the user can select the desired units system (1) (English. In this chapter we will explain the manual entry of nodes. you can import a model from a DXF file. members and shells. For example.Chapter 1: General Overview In the dialog box. linear members. and shell elements with their corresponding properties.

Note that while you are entering the coordinates. the nodes are displayed graphically. if you are working with inches for lengths in the English units system. When entering coordinates you can include the units of the coordinates. Then you can enter "10ft" and the program will automatically perform the conversion to the default units (in this case [in]). For example. You can even combine different units. For example. Use the space bar or tab button to move between cells on the same row and Enter to go to the next row of cells. but you want to enter a coordinate in feet. You can click in the Nodes/Coordinates item of the Explorer or if it is hidden you can use the Tabs (Nodes) and the corresponding buttons (Coordinates) of the Data Panel. Enter the node coordinate data in the worksheet.5 ft. you can enter 10'-6" and the program will interpret this value as 10.Chapter 1: General Overview How to create nodes? Go to the Nodes/Coordinates worksheet. Some examples of acceptable data entry are given next: 10ft 10’ 28 .

29 . Press F1 to obtain more information related to the use and application of these tools. Press the button to undo the entered data. In any worksheet of the Data Panel you can press F1 to display the Help context. Press ESC if you want to cancel the entry. See the description of all shortcuts and mouse operations in the help menu for more hints. End nodes of physical members It is only necessary to enter the nodes at the ends of physical members. The generation of intermediate nodes or the nodes at the intersections of members will be described later.Chapter 1: General Overview 10ft-6in 10’-6” 10ft-6” 10ft-16cm 10m 10m-50cm This feature can be applied in any worksheet of the Data Panel. which has useful information on: 1) The data to be introduced in the worksheets and 2) The use of the tool buttons to generate the data. Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet This is a powerful option for the generation of node coordinates. Nodes generation tools At the bottom of the Coordinates worksheet you can find several buttons for the automatic generation of nodes. The user can create the coordinates in another application like Excel and then paste the data into RAM Advanse. Press F2 if you want to edit the cell contents.

It is also possible to copy the contents of a RAM Advanse worksheet and paste it into another application. 2. For example. How to create members? Go to Members/Connectivity worksheet (Nodes and Description) to generate members. Selecting the nodes To generate any member. For more information on how to use this command. Connect the members pressing the button or . This paste option can be applied to any worksheet of the Data Panel. 30 . The creation of members is simple and it is performed in two steps: 1. you can generate the nodes coordinates in Excel. its initial and final nodes have to be selected.Chapter 1: General Overview The illustrated button pastes the information of the Clipboard to the active worksheet of the Data Panel. press F1 and then go to General commands of the worksheet. For example. Select the nodes that will be connected by the members. copy them to the Clipboard and then paste them to the Nodes worksheet using the indicated button. the user can generate the springs for a mat-slab in Excel and then import them with this command.

Using this technique only the elements fully enclosed by the area are selected. the four nodes have to be enclosed. click the cursor on the first node and then holding down the shift key select each of the remaining nodes. both nodes have to be enclosed in the rectangle. That is. all the elements partially covered by the area (with at least one node in rectangle) will be selected. member or shell). Pressing the Shift key. If you press the Ctrl key instead of the Shift key while you are selecting members. the user can select (or deselect) several members without affecting the previously selected elements. When you click on an element (node. pressing the Shift key enables the selection of the elements within the area without affecting the selection state of the elements outside the area. 31 . invoke the Assistant (press F4) and go to General actions of frequent use or see the list of Mouse Operations. the previously selected elements are deselected. and in the case of shells. You can select multiple members by enclosing the members in a rectangle created by click and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. in the case of members. For more information on the selection features.Chapter 1: General Overview To select multiple nodes. In this case.

Select the nodes that will be connected by shells or physical shells (with overall dimensions). Templates Available structural templates allow for the rapid generation of members and nodes for specific types of structures. Press the button to connect the nodes alternately with members. You can press F1 to have more information related to the rest of the tool buttons of this worksheet. This feature is explained in detail later in the manual but should be kept in mind when creating typical structural components such as trusses. See Chapter 3 for further details. You can create shells in the same way as members with the following two steps: 1. How to create shells? Go to Shells/Connectivity (Nodes) worksheet for the generation of shells. Remark.Chapter 1: General Overview Connecting the members Press the button indicated in the previous figure to connect the members between the selected nodes. This button will connect the nodes in a continuous manner. 32 . You can define physical members by selecting only the start and final nodes of the member: The member will be automatically segmented for the analysis.. It is also possible to generate the information in Excel (for example) and use the copy-paste command to bring the data into Advanse.Note that it is also possible to manually enter (directly in the worksheet) the information (initial and final node numbers) for each member. Important! Note that the selection order of the nodes is very important as it defines the local axes of the members.

Select the desired elements to be assigned with the properties 3. Please note the required selection order of the nodes. 33 . The steps to assign properties to elements are: 1. thickness. sections. Press F1 to obtain more information related to the tool buttons of this worksheet. These properties include restraints. Enter the required information in the corresponding worksheet. the user has to assign properties to them. Important! The shell elements are finite elements that need to be segmented to increment the precision in the analysis. members and shells have been entered.Chapter 1: General Overview 2. Create shells by pressing the button . Note that you can create several shell elements if you select more than 4 nodes. You can define the mesh size by typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet. materials. members and shells Once the nodes. etc. press the indicated button to generate them. The nodes have to be selected in the order shown in the figure. Then. Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes: Assigning properties to nodes. as it is illustrated in the previous figure. Go to the required worksheet 2.

Go to the Nodes/Restraints worksheet. It can also be defined by using the tool buttons. to assign the restraints to the support nodes you can proceed as follows: 1. Information can be entered manually in the worksheet. For example. 34 .Chapter 1: General Overview Selecting the elements Select the elements to be assigned with a property. To copy a value to all the selected members put the cursor in the cell with the desired value and press the button indicated in the figure above. Note that in the worksheet only the information of the selected members are displayed. You can select any element by entering its number in the first column of the worksheet and pressing ENTER (as it is show in the previous figure). For example. or it can be pasted from the Clipboard. Entering the required information in the worksheet In the worksheet enter the required information. select the support nodes to assign the restraints.

Grouping members and shells As you may have noticed. All the current data in a worksheet may be cleared using the button . This tool button does not erase the related elements. Select the support nodes 3. you can select the whole group (all members with the same description) by using the tool button shown in the figure above. it is of vital importance to group the elements to facilitate easier selection (and design).Chapter 1: General Overview 2. The members and shells can be grouped using the Description property. Press one of the following buttons indicated in the figure. Therefore. Once the members or shells have a description. so that elements can be selected in groups instead of individually. 35 . To group several members or shells you have to assign them the same Description. It only erases the properties or information of the current worksheet. Button to select all elements with the same description. the rapid and easy selection of elements is very important in the program. which is found in the Members/Connectivity and Shells/Thickness worksheets.

Chapter 1: General Overview For example. To simultaneously select several groups select one instance (member or shell) of each group using the Shift key and then press the button . This command copies the description of the last selected element to the rest of the selected elements. The program will select all members with the same Description(s) of the previously selected members. to select all the roof beams of the model shown in the figure above. You can automatically generate default descriptions with the buttons for shells. . for members and 36 . select one instance of the members and then press the button . to copy a description to all the selected members. You can use the button .

Chapter 1: General Overview Load cases and combinations Loads tab of the main menu. select the desired load case before proceeding to enter loads. Clear load cases or combinations. In the event that no generator file matches your needs. This figure shows the option in the Application Menu bar used to create. RAM Advanse manages the dynamic load cases exactly in the same way as the static load cases. Note that the limit of the number of load conditions in RAM Advanse is 200. you can create a new one. Edit the load case or combinations. Execute the Loads/Generate load combinations command on the main menu and select one of the combinations file provided by the program. For more details press F1 in the dialog box. 5. delete. edit and select load conditions (RAM Advanse refers to both load cases and load combinations as load conditions). Entering loads for a load case First. You can use the Loads toolbar to select the current load case or combination for the entry or editing of loads Loads toolbar Automatic generation of load combinations You can automatically generate load combinations in RAM Advanse. 6. Create new load cases or combinations. 37 . This option allows you to: 4.

members or shells as explained for other properties. Continue with the entry of the loads on nodes. 38 . This command is very useful. invoke the command Loads/Copy forces from another load case from the main menu. Then you can erase the loads over alternate spans in the two load cases. You can also copy the loads from one load case to the current load case. To do this. This is controlled through the Display options window or the set of available tool bars that may be shown on the screen. which will be associated with the loads to be entered.Chapter 1: General Overview Select the current load case. This procedure can also be used for 3D structures with similar load cases. for example. Display of data and results RAM Advanse follows the forces sign convention shown below: RAM Advanse can show almost all data and results in a graphical way. to create alternate loads in different spans of continuous beams. You only have to create one load condition with the loads over all the spans and then copy the loads to the other load cases.

The following button the screen unselects all the display option buttons. You can find it at the top right of 39 . A tooltip for the button will be displayed if you hover with the cursor over the desired button. Press the button with the desired option to display it or unselect it to hide the option. It has several tabs with the different display toolbars Available display toolbars.Chapter 1: General Overview Enable the Display options window (1) or the different toolbars to display data and results (2) Display options window.

.Chapter 1: General Overview Or you can use the available option in the main menu Note that you can also use the shortcut Ctrl + U to unselect all the display options This group of buttons allows the user to select the degree of freedom to be displayed for certain selected parameters. change perspective. press the button to display the reactions and then press the "2" button. Visualization and Cursor toolbars to define the view of the model. If you have a mouse wheel you can use it to rotate and zoom in or out the model. Display of translations and rotations 2. If you want to display the moments around the global Z axis you have to press the "6" button. rotate and edit the view of the model. Zoom and rotation The following toolbars are used to zoom. Mouse wheel is equivalent to or or or or . . For example. font size. if you want to display the Reactions parallel to the global Y-axis. Display of masses Press the button . Display of reactions 3. These buttons are applicable with the following display options (see Model properties and Analysis toolbars): 1. in the Units toolbar to view the units with all of the displayed values. Ctrl + mouse wheel is equivalent to Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + 0 (or mouse wheel click) is equivalent to 40 .

Select what you want to view. you have to first select them and then press the button Erasing the contents of a worksheet To erase data related to a group of elements select the desired elements. members and/or shells. To view the whole model press the same button again. Erasing elements If you want to delete nodes. Other basic operations Undo Command If you have accidentally performed an action. If you press the button again.Chapter 1: General Overview Notice that you can modify the rotation increment for each rotation command in the Configuration/General/View rotation increment option of the main menu. go to the corresponding worksheet. you can undo it by pressing the button in the Worksheet. Clicking with the right button of your mouse will move the center of the screen to that point. (Unselect the other elements) 2. the previous command will be undone and so on. 41 . and press the button . Panning Click the right button at the point on the structure that you want centered on the screen. Selecting and hiding elements The selection of elements and nodes are performed with the following toolbar: Selection toolbar To hide parts of your model you can perform the following steps: 1. Press the button .

and define the perspective and font size of the graphics. deformed shapes and force diagrams after the analysis. 2. you will be able to compare similar elements of the new model to the ones of the initial model.. the member is segmented and the node is incorporated. See Chapter 3 for further details. you can select them and apply the tool of the worksheet. press in the Model toolbar or use the option Tools/Data Generation/Delete duplicated elements. Customizing the interface The different tools available in RA are now grouped into different toolbars: • • • • • • • • • 42 Model properties: used to display data in the graphics window. It is used in combination with other display buttons that require this information (i. However if you want to reorder the numbers of your elements. Eliminate members with zero length and "floating" nodes (nodes not connected to elements) To execute the command. shells. Design properties: toolbar to display parameters required for design. it is possible to generate members and nodes that are duplicated or disconnected. displacement values or reactions).Chapter 1: General Overview Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes When you automatically generate data with the various tools available in the program. Note also that for consistent output and reference. Code Check: toolbar to display the results and status of the elements after the design. element numbering (nodes. Rendering: to display the model in 3D with data and/or results. It is recommended that this command be issued before performing an analysis.of the main menu. etc) is maintained even if there are some elements that have been deleted.o. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect members to the remainder nodes. If you had a printout before erasing these elements. load areas. masses. . This will eliminate all the unnecessary elements that can even affect the results of the analysis. irrespective of which elements are currently selected. members. d. zoom out. Model: toolbar to open. To eliminate duplicated members (members with exactly the same connectivity) 3. Segment Elements This tool is used when a node is located in the same physical space as a member. This command acts over all the elements in the entire structure.e. Selection: toolbar to assist in the selection of elements. Visualization: toolbar to zoom in. This tool solves this problem by eliminating those elements. Analysis: toolbar to display deflections.f: toolbar to select the desired degree of freedom. save or debug the model. The purposes of this tool is: 1..

RAM Voice) Different available toolbars in RA. analysis and code check toolbars. Connection toolbar. Units: toolbar to select the current units and define if they will be shown in the graphics display.Chapter 1: General Overview • • • • • Cursor: toolbar to define the rotation of the model in the view. Data Panel. You can configure the location and visibility of your toolbars according to your needs: 1. design properties. Loads: toolbar to select the current load condition. Views: toolbar to select different predefined views. rendering. Enable the desired toolbars. Alternatively you can use the mouse wheel. Panels: toolbar to define if the different panels will be visible (Data Explorer. Note that the Display options toolbar can contain the model properties. 43 .

Note that you can also define the number of rows or columns of your toolbar picking the bottom or lateral edges of the toolbar with the mouse. These options follow standard Windows procedures. You can drag them with the left button of the mouse to the desired location. Define the desired position of your toolbars.Chapter 1: General Overview Option to enable/desable the toolbars (Checked toolbars are visible) 2. save your desktop using the following option 44 . 3) Once all your toolbars are in the desired locations and conditions.

Chapter 1: General Overview Save your current desktop (1). General Configuration Several general characteristics of the program may be configured using the following option in the main menu: Configuration/General option 45 . A shortcut will be assigned. Notice that it will be available for future use (2).

size. alignment and fonts) Graphic scales for deflections and force diagrams Quality for printing graphics Quality for rendering Default folders for models and databases Nomenclature according to the country (US or UK) You will find more information in the Help context. 46 .Chapter 1: General Overview General Configuration dialog window A dialog window will be displayed where you can define the several characteristics of the program: • • • • • • • View rotation increment for graphics Graphics fonts (styles.

distributed forces. RAM Advanse orientates the frame members as follows: . Y. axes. bending moments. rotate structure) are based on this assumption. local axes are useful for defining the orientation of the element in space. The structure geometry is entered in this coordinate system. 47 By default. • • • Global coordinate system Local coordinate system Principal axis coordinates system Global coordinate system The global coordinate system is a user-selected system. and principal. These loads can also be related to the global system. and Z.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Coordinate systems Three coordinate systems are used during the analysis of a structure. Results: the analysis results are related to local. Origin of local coordinate system is located at the J node (initial node). etc. and moments). Some data and results are presented in this coordinate system. J = initial node K = final node In frame members the data that is associated with the local axes coordinate system are: • • • • • Section orientation Rigid offsets and releases Some applied loads on the element (concentrated forces. Some of the data entered in the Global coordinate system are nodal coordinates. It is recommended that the structure be elevated in the Y axis. nodal forces and moments. This is because certain program commands (rigid floor. these include local loads. Global axes are represented by X. Also. springs. In RAM Advanse. nodal restraints. and 3). 2. Local coordinate system Each frame member and shell of a structure has its own local coordinate system that is referred to as its local axes (represented by number 1. axial forces.

In the case of members that are vertical with axis 1 in the Y direction. For inclined members. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated. Axis 1 (longitudinal axis) will be ALWAYS located at the section’s center of gravity independent of the sections cardinal point (see chapter on cardinal points). Axis 2 is defined by the right hand rule with the thumb finger pointing toward 1-axis. • • • Principal coordinate system Section properties such as moment of inertia. local and principal axes of the element coincide. axis 3 will be parallel to Z-axis. This greatly facilitates the data entry. The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. axis 3 will be perpendicular to the plane formed by axis 1 and its projection over plane X – Z.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes • Local 1-axis (axis of the element) lies along the vector created between the J and K nodes. Notice that this axis is automatically defined when the element is created and cannot be changed. RAM Advanse allows the engineer to place the local axes in a different orientation to the principal axes. In most cases. for certain shapes the local axis is different from the principal axes. such as with Z and L profiles. 48 . and section modulus are related to the principal axis. Axis 3 is parallel to X-Z plane for horizontal members. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. However. Element rotation There are several ways to rotate members to an angle other than the default orientation these include: 180 and 90 degrees rotation If you need to rotate a member 90 or 180 degrees.

Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Go to Members/Local axes. as you need. 49 . Elements have been rotated. Press button (180 degrees) or (90 degrees).

Making a local axis parallel to a global axis Occasionally. 50 . other than 90 and 180 degrees. you may want to set a local axis parallel to the global X-. To do this.or Z-axes. Y. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Enter the angle to be rotated (in degrees) and press Elements have been rotated. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the local axis (2 or 3) that you want to set parallel to a global axis.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Rotating members at an angle When you need to rotate one (or more) frame members to a known angle.

Select the node to which the local axis should orient (point).Only one node should be selected. Orientating a local axis toward a specific node To orient a member’s local axis in the direction of a specific node proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated.When you set the orientation of a local axis. To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Z. Note. the other local axes are also rotated accordingly. Note. so as not to deselect the elements (notice that only one node should be selected). To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis X.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Then press one of these buttons: To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Y. 51 . Remember to press Shift. If several nodes are selected press De-Select nodes command and then select the desired node.

Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes To orient an element’s local axis parallel to a vector determined by two nodes proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the two nodes that define the vector. Then press The elements are now rotated with their local axis (axis 3 in this case) orientated to a node. 52 .Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Select the local axis (2 or 3) that should point to the node.

to use an L section. If several nodes are selected. we have: Local axes Principal axes 53 . Then press The selected local axis (axis 3 in this case) is orientated parallel to the vector.Only two nodes should be selected. RAM Advanse allows you to set your members local axes system different to the principal axes. For instance. Select the local axis (2 or 3) that will be parallel to the vector. Principal axes As mentioned before.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes . press menu-item De-Select nodes and then select the two desired nodes. This characteristic of the software allows the engineer to more easily set the orientation of certain elements.

Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. In the next section you will find the way to change this. When the option is enabled. Laterally restrained for torsion When the dimensions of a section are entered (ConfigurationDatabases/Sections/Edit or Configuration/Databases/Sections/New).Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. See the chapters devoted to Steel Design for further details 54 . There are other design provisions in the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) for bending. This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. the user can define a flag to consider the section laterally restrained for torsion: Flag used to define the local axes or geometric axes to be used in the design of steel members instead of the principal axes. For the code check the forces in the principal axes are normally used. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. This flag is only applicable in steel members.

physical members do not have to be used in the model. regardless of the number of segments created along its span. The user only needs to define the nodes at the ends of a physical member and does not need to break the member at intermediate nodes along the length.). Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure This chapter explains how to work with physical members. It describes how to delete duplicate elements and un-connected nodes. it is recommended to view the finite element model by selecting the command View/Finite element model (FEM)( ). Physical members Physical members are single continuous members such as girders that support multiple members framing in along their length. RAM Advanse allows the user to specify what constitutes a physical member. 2-3. with results accordingly. how to segment elements (members and shells) and how to rotate a structure. For programs reporting analysis and design results for each node-to-node element.. As could be seen. and it provides result reports accordingly. Consider a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5. which is hinged at the ends. physical members allow the creation of a structure model "as constructed". the user need to define one member between nodes 1 and 5. this segmentation greatly increased the number and complexity of reports. In the past. 3-4 and 4-5 due to the geometry of the problem. if not required by the engineer.. Example of a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5 55 . explained farther down. The following example illustrates the process of defining a physical member. Instead of defining four members between nodes 1-2. Now. This step will help to avoid unexpected or uncontrolled behavior in member segmentation during the actual analysis. The decision to not consider physical members is indicated at analysis time by deselecting the Automatically segment physical members and shells option in the Finite element model tab of the analysis window (Menu Process/Analyze structure. If the engineer has decided to use physical members in the model. However. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Chapter 3: Physical Members.Chapter 3: Physical Members. the engineer had to fragment the elements of an actual structure for the analysis in any finite element program.

Chapter 3: Physical Members. The generated segmentation will be “proportional” to the shape of the shell as shown on the figure below: Note. If the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled. The option Automatically segment physical members and shells is enabled by default. You can disable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Calculation/Analyze structure…). the user may view the actual Finite Elements (with the physical member segmented) in the model. the segmentation will be done following the direction of the local axis as shown in the next figure (this is the default option): 56 . the segmentation is independent of the local axis of the shell. to successfully analyze any model in which physical members are modeled (i. the model does not represent the actual finite elements in the model but rather the physical elements in the model) this option should be selected.e. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Before analyzing the model. The segmentation of shells can be done with the option Proportional segmentation of shells. You can enable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Process/Analyze structure…). Note.

Chapter 3: Physical Members. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure In this case. For example. the segmentation is dependent of the local axis of the shell. consider the structure in the next figure: The segmentation of the shells starts at node A. in some cases. excessive and unnecessary segmentation. The segmentation will generate new nodes (B and C) which will force more segmentations as shown in the figure below: 57 . which is part of the structure data. The user must be aware that the Proportional segmentation of shells option can generate.

the segmentation of the same structure will be done as shown below (the program will not consider the segmentation of the shell with the dotted line): The segmentation can be done to members and/or shells (the normal procedure is to segment both. members and shells). Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure On the other hand. 58 . if the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled.Chapter 3: Physical Members.

in some cases (for example a shell enclosed with beams).Chapter 3: Physical Members. Both cases are shown in the following figures: Deformed shape of the model when only “segmentation of shells” is done. 59 . there will be continuity in the model. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure If you select the option Segment shells and not the option Segment members. there will be no continuity between the shell and members because the nodes generated by the segmentation of the shell will not be joined to the members. If you select both options. Note that there is no continuity between the shell and the member in the lower part of the model.

and in the dialog box select the Note: The nodes generated with the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature are not generated with floor number or restrictions of contiguous nodes. Once the model has been analyzed. and the Note however. if the node is closer than the tolerance to a member. it is recommended to apply smaller values for this parameter. press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. To do this. . it is recommended to apply smaller values for the tolerance. press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. To do this.Chapter 3: Physical Members. that the original unsegmented element will be treated as a single element for the reports. That is. the program will ask for a tolerance to build the FEM model (note that the tolerance option is also available at the Analysis window): Tolerance to be considered in the FEM Model. select the shell. and in the dialog box select the The user can also view the actual finite element model by pressing the following button in the Model toolbar: If the structure was not yet analyzed. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Deformed shape of the model when segmentation is done to shells and members. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. select the shell. Note the continuity between the shell and the member at the lower part of the model. the display of results and its design. This tolerance is the maximum distance between a member and a node to consider the node as segmenting the member in the Finite Element model. Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. you can also press the “Finite element model” button program will show the split members and shells. . the related member will be segmented internally by the program considering that node. 60 . Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message.

However. The physical shell element allows you to define only the four extreme corners of a “physical” shell while controlling the required degree of meshing. This method is recommended whenever a uniform mesh is desired: 61 . the FEM rules and hypothesis require that there be a finer mesh in order to achieve reliable results. There are two ways to determine the mesh. Adopted Finite Element Model for the previous example. In the case of shells and plates. Normally. 2) Define nodes at the sides to indicate the desired mesh.Chapter 3: Physical Members. the user may desire to obtain results for the overall wall or slab dimension. The first method consists of applying nodes at the sides of the shells where you want the shell to be divided. this is performed when a denser mesh is required near singularities such as point loads or edges: 1) Define the overall dimensions. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Example of a continuous beam treated as a single physical element. This mesh is shown when is pressed The second way to define the mesh consists of typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet.

2) Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure 1) Define the overall dimensions and determine the local axes of the elements. 62 . it is advisable to check the generated finite element model (FEM). If elements don’t have enough subdivisions the results may be inacurate and even invalid. RAM Advanse automatically maintains the physical members defined in the RSS. See chapter 14 for further details and suggestions. Warning! If the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature is used. 3) Press the button and the Finite Element Model will be shown Warning! The user must always check the number of subdivisions adopted by the program. Note: When importing RAM Structural System models.

5. Eliminate duplicated frame members (elements are considered as duplicated when they connect to the same two nodes as another element). Press to segment elements (members and shells). When two nodes are superimposed. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect the frame members to the node that remains. 4. Eliminate nodes that do not have any elements connected to them.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Model Data Check The Model toolbar has two commands available to assist you in cleaning up the structure to avoid analytical errors. It is best that you execute this command after generating copies of your structure. The function of this command is: 3. 63 . Eliminate elements with zero length. to eliminate one of the two and reconnect the elements to Eliminate duplicated frame members. use the node that remains. 6. Frame members are considered as duplicated when they are connected to the same nodes as other elements. and before analyzing your structure. When a node is located along a frame member axis. Press to join parts of your structure and eliminate duplicate nodes and elements. this command divides the frame member and then reconnects the two elements to the node.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure When a node is on a frame member. but the physical rotation of the nodal coordinates about some of the global axis. To rotate the structure. while with the second button. This double division is due to the fact that the original entered numbers to indicate the shell segments on local axes are kept. 64 . the resulting segmented shells will be divided once more for analysis if the shell division has been specified entering the number of segments on both local axes. Rotating the Structure This command allows you to rotate a portion or all of the structure. In the case of physical shells. the physical elements will be segmented (original physical elements will be altered). to divide the frame member and connect the divided Note: The difference between the button and the button is that. follow these steps: Select the elements to be rotated (nodes. use elements to the node. with the first one you can “view” the Finite Element Model (FEM) keeping the original physical elements of the model unaltered. members and shells) and take note of the coordinates of the pivotal point for rotation.Chapter 3: Physical Members. It is suggested to verify the FEM model by pressing the button in all cases. Notice that we are not referring to view rotation. Caution: If you use this command on previously defined physical members. they will permanently be segmented into smaller physical members.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Execute the Rotate command.Chapter 3: Physical Members. the angle of the rotation and choose the axis about which the structure is to rotate. Enter the pivotal point of rotation. 65 .

Chapter 3: Physical Members. Be sure to check nodal coordinates once the rotation is complete 66 . Nodes are rotated about the selected axis and do not remain in the same vertical or horizontal plane. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure After the rotation is completed. verify the supports and orientation of the elements.

proceed as follows: Select members to be pinned 67 . Release the degree of freedom to accurately model the joint. for instance. Warning! The user should note that if excessive members in a model are hinged. for instance. To do this.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members End releases are needed to accurately model the joints between elements. A release should be used to represent the actual condition of the joint. Releases. Note: RAM Advanse’s default joint is a rigid connection of the element with the end nodes. some nodes might become unstable. represent the hinges of elements. Pin (hinges) at both ends of members It is quite common that an element has bolted joints at both ends. In this case you should pin both ends of the member. a single bolted connection will not carry bending moments and as such the joint should be released for that degree of freedom.

Select the end to be released. 68 . Remember to press Shift to select the nodes without deselecting the elements.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Go to Members/Hinges and press The elements are released and shown in the screen. Pin one end of a member Occasionally you will need to pin only one end of members. This can be done as follows: Select the element(s) to be released.

to release bending moment Fixing ends of elements By default. However. (clear the contents of 69 . if you need to fix some elements that were previously released. Fix the bending moment about axis 3 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members. all frame members have rigid joints. Remember that you can also erase all release information by pressing a spreadsheet). press the buttons that are complementary in action to the buttons described above: Fix both ends of selected members.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Press to release bending moment about axis 3 or press button about axis 2. Fix the bending moment about axis 2 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members.

To define the tension members proceed as follows: Select the elements to be defined as tension only members. Press to define the tension only members.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Tension only members All members defined as tension only will be capable of resisting only tension forces. . Warning! The tension only element flag is ignored in a dynamic analysis. All selected tension only members are shown when the display option 70 Hinges is pressed. which is an iterative procedure for each load condition and therefore all load conditions are analyzed. The method RAM Advanse uses to analyze these members involves a nonlinear analysis. It is no longer possible to superimpose individual load case results even in a first order analysis. including the combinations.

This option allows you to consider the influence of the initial tension in the deformation and distribution of forces in the structure.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Pre-tension In several cases cables and tensors are subjected to a pre-tension force. Loads (show values) is selected. If the display option be displayed. It is generally applied to members defined as tension only elements. Go to Members/Loads on members/Pre-tension of cables and tensors and enter the value of the pretension. all the members with pre-tension forces will 71 . To consider a pre-tension in the elements proceed as follows: Select the desired elements.

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73 . Rigid Zone Offsets.9). select the desired members Select the members. Cardinal Points Cardinal points are used to define the members’ cross section axis location.4.6. the center (5) or the center-of-gravity of the section (0) The default position is zero.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Common applications are to model eccentric members or tapered members.3. Rigid Floor and Pressure on frame Members This chapter explains several advanced concepts. To enter cardinal points. This feature is normally used to align members in the desired position.2.8. The available cardinal points are described in the following figure: Cardinal points defined along the perimeter (1. which are aligned in relation to a center or a perimeter cross section axis. Rigid Zone Offsets. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.7.

and (c) tapered members with position 2 and with axis rigid end (see next section).Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid offsets are typically used to model large joints. they will just transmit the forces from one point to another along the length of the rigid offset. to account for panel zone deformation. These rigid segments will not undergo deformation under bending moments. The following example can illustrate graphically the function of the cardinal points with respect to a tapered member: Examples of different position of the cardinal points (a) tapered members with default position (0). Rigid Zone Offsets. (b) tapered with position 2 (see the location of the member in relation to the nodes). Rigid zone offsets Rigid offsets are infinitely rigid segments at the ends of frame members. eccentric columns.2) and select the desired position (3) for your members. 74 . and several other reasons. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Cardinal Point Worksheet (1. shear forces. or axial forces.

L = member length Note that the loads and forces in the member will be provided always along the clear length considering the axis rigid ends. Axes rigid ends. 2. Rigid Zone Offsets. Define the members and assign their sections. Select the desired members. To enter members with rigid axis ends. It is strongly suggested to adopt only one method for each structure depending on the particular characteristics of the structure. proceed as follows: 1. The clear length of the member will be the distance between nodes less the rigid ends. The values of the axis rigid end J and axis rigid end K are used to define the overlap distances. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members RAM Advanse offers two ways of considering rigid end zones. In the first method. Leff=clear length of the member. the first one takes into account axes rigid ends in conjunction with cardinal points and the second one is considering rigid end offsets in the three directions of the global axes (with the member cardinal point in the default position).Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 3. Go to members/Cardinal point worksheet and use the tool to create axis rigid ends: 75 . The distributed or concentrated loads on the member will be considered only for this length. the end offsets are considered when the sections’ dimensions overlap.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Axis rigid ends defined with the tool of the cardinal point worksheet The second method for defining rigid end offsets allows considering the offsets in any direction independently of the longitudinal axis of the member. The user has many tools to define the desired offsets. 76 .Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. See the help context for the details of the tools. To model a rigid end zone with the second method proceed as follows: Select sections that intersect each other Select the member and the node where the rigid offset is required. The offsets are defined in the global directions. Rigid Zone Offsets.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Press to create rigid offset. Rigid zone offset has been created. proceed as follows: Select the overall column 77 . Considering the second method.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Warning: The tool only works for segmented columns (not physical columns) Notice that you can enter column eccentricities (offset columns) with any of the described methods. Rigid Zone Offsets.

Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Rigid offsets and press one of the following buttons: or Column offset has been created Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor) The cardinal points or the rigid end offsets (second method) can be used to align beams at floor level (drop the floor). Proceed as follows: Select beam to align with floor level (drop) 78 . Rigid Zone Offsets.

79 . Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members If you are using cardinal points. Rigid Zone Offsets.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. select its worksheet and use position 2 for the selected members. Or go to Rigid end offsets worksheet and press the following button Selected beams will be aligned with the floor level Warning! The use of cardinal points or rigid end offsets to align beams to floor level may alter the distribution of bending moments. see next section for further details.

It is important to notice that the rigid zone offsets or cardinal points change the model. the model will be changed . Press the button to display the rigid ends for the cardinal points in green and the rigid zone offsets in red. The method to be adopted will depend on the facility to define the required data for the specific model to deal with. in general. The cardinal points allow. while the rigid zone offsets may be suited for any particular condition. a uniformly distributed load and the end supports pinned. If rigid offsets are included to align the beam at the floor level.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Zone Offsets. The bending moment diagram will have the known shape: Beam with two segmented pinned at both ends without rigid offsets or cardinal points. This influences the results to be obtained. to define the axis location for common locations as at the top or bottom of the section in an easier and automatic way (internally the program adopts the required rigid offsets). Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points It is important to mention that both methods can be used to define the member longitudinal axis at the desired location. 80 . Lets take for example a beam with two segments.

Model without rigid offsets with continuous bending moment diagram. Rigid Zone Offsets. originating discontinuities at the locations of the concentrated loads from the beams framing into them (see the following figure). Note that the distribution of the bending moments have changed and that an axial load is generated due to the eccentricity at the supports. 81 .Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Beam with two segments with rigid offsets or cardinal points. The rigid offsets modify also the distribution of the bending moments in more complex models.

When rigid offsets and hinges are used in nodes between beams and girders. 82 .e. In many cases this stiffness is not sufficient to adequately resist the applied load. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Model with rigid offsets with discontinuities in the bending moment diagram. the supporting girders experiences a torsion due to the beam’s reaction at the specified offset. i. They can however be used simultaneously in beam-column joints. Rigid Zone Offsets. Part of the moments are taken by the rigid offsets. Rigid floor When a building is being analyzed the engineer can choose to model the structure with a Rigid floor Diaphragm or Rigid Floor. In some cases their use will not be appropriate and the user may use them only for displaying the 3D view of the structure in a more realistic way and not for the analysis. Therefore. In the case shown below. the supporting beam will need to resist the rigid zone moment through its torsional stiffness. It depends on the engineers judgment whether to adopt rigid offsets for the different members of a model. A Rigid floor diaphragm simulates the in-plane rigidity produced by the slab. it is suggested not to use rigid offsets and pinned beam where two beams intersect. infinitely rigid link between all nodes in the horizontal plane. Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges The user must be very careful when using rigid offsets and hinges simultaneously.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. and rotate (around Y) together. This constrains all nodes of a floor to translate (in X and Z-axes). One problem is the possible creation of instabilities around hinged supports. and the rigid diaphragm assumption is of no assistance to resist this torsion. Cross section showing girder (in profile) supporting a beam (shown with single line) with a specified rigid end offset. The simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges in the case of joints between a beam supported on a girder can influence the way the supporting girder resists the applied loads. Instability due to simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges around hinged supports.

the first node of the floor will be considered the master node. follow these steps: Select the nodes of a floor (all the selected nodes should have the same Y coordinate). Each diaphragm or rigid floor may have just one master node. it is necessary that the building height be orientated along the Y-axis. It is important to notice that the program accepts a tolerance for the difference between the y-coordinates of the nodes of each floor up to 0. Important! In order to use rigid floor diaphragm. Entering Rigid floor To enter a Rigid floor diaphragm.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members With a rigid floor all nodes of a floor translate as a whole in the in-plane directions All the nodes of a floor rotate around Y constrained to a single point The engineer should decide if the rigid floor assumption is appropriate for their structure. which will be the rotation point for the rest of the nodes of the floor.4in or 1cm. 83 . This node is taken coincident with the mass node (only one node may have masses in the floor). When a rigid floor is activated the vertical deformation of the beams (out of plane rigidity) isn't affected. Rigid Zone Offsets. If no masses are defined in the nodes of a floor. If so this rigid floor diaphragm can result in a faster analysis. which is reasonable for any building of normal size. but it is not adequate for very small structures.

Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. RAM Advanse finds the projected area (depending on the dimensions of the section) perpendicular to the pressure force. Important: A Rigid Floor diaphragm can only be used when all the nodes of a floor have the same Y coordinate. Remember that you can press the rigid floor.) the wind force can be entered as a pressure on the frame members. etc. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Nodes/Floor and press button Rigid floor diaphragm has been entered Repeat the same steps to enter the Rigid Floor number of the other floors. Go to Members/Loads on members and press button Pressures. bridges. Rigid Zone Offsets. 84 . to clear the contents of the current spreadsheet and so erase Pressure on frame members In open structures (towers. and calculates an equivalent distributed force. During the analysis.

X. 85 . Pres Z: Pressure of the wind in the Z direction. Pres X: Pressure of the wind in the X direction. Rigid Zone Offsets.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. PresY. PresZ columns. Pres Y: Pressure of the wind in the Y direction. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members The pressures on the frame members are entered in the Pres.

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Creating new sections To create a new section... command.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials RAM Advanse comes with a complete section database. Those sections (profiles) and materials that are not available in the database can be added as described in this chapter. follow these steps: Execute Configuration/Databases/Sections. 87 . Press button New.

the section name (2). (See below to for more details concerning valid section names). Section names Names of the sections should consist of three parts: 1.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Choose the shape of the profile to be created. These sections become part of the program database and can be used in all subsequent models. Type of section (should or not contain space characters) 88 . the data to define the section geometry (3) and then press OK. Note that the AISC steel sections are shown in black or yellow. wood sections (NDS) are shown in brown and yellow. Enter the units system (1). BS sections are shown in blue and AISI sections start with the string “aisi”.

That is to say that a profile named “PIPE 11_4x0.191. hyphens. Designations can contain the division ("/") character.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials 2. which is the designation of the section (with or without spaces). dots and special characters. Examples of valid profile names are: W 15x25 TUBE 15x10 TUBE 15_25 Non valid profile names are: W15x25 (separation space character is missing) At least the name must have one separation space character Section Collections A section collection is defined as a group of members that will be considered in the optimization. Note that the engineer can use different types of sections in the same collection (W. "T2L".e. The sections in a collection should be ordered according to the order in which they should be considered in the optimization. Designation is a description of the dimensions of this profile i. "W". “2x25x15”. Type of sections is for instance. BS. it must has the same name exactly. A space character 3. Important. where ‘PIPE’ is the section type (without space characters) followed by a single space ‘ ‘ and ‘1-1_4x0.e. NDS. space characters..5”. In case the PIPE group does not exist. “15x22x1. and "TUBE". The Type of Sections should not have space characters.191’. RAM Advanse will create a new one. AISI and AISC) You can create a new section collection executing the command Configuration/Databases/Sections/Section collections for optimization and executing the following steps: 89 . and they can be designed by different codes (i. C etc). So if the user want that the section belongs one specific type section.191” will be stored in the PIPE group. Designation or description (should or not space characters) A valid name is for example ‘PIPE 1-1_4x0.the Type of Section groups the profile..

Parameters for the design of steel members Laterally restrained for torsion: When the option is enabled. The collection files can be edited using Notepad or any text editor. you can only have one instance of a section in a collection. 1. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. Select the desired sections to be included in the collection with the mouse. For example an angle beam loaded parallel to one leg. Press the button to add the selected sections. The name of the collection must be a valid and unique filename. The Collection window is divided in different areas. The file is located in the “Sets” folder (in the main RAM Advanse folder). which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. The first window displays a list of the available collections. RAM Advanse will create a text file with this name where it will save a list with the sections’ names. 4. will deflect and bend about that leg only if the angle is restrained laterally along the length. 3. 6. (Drag a continuous list. In this case simple bending occurs without any torsional 90 . Select one of the groups that contain the desired sections. That is.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Steps to create a new section collection for optimization. sections are not added if they already exist in the collection. or ctrl+left mouse button to select discrete sections). The second window displays a list of sections in the currently selected collection. 2. Press the button to create a new collection. 5. Sort the section in the list according to their weight or to other criteria. Note that when sections are added to a collection they are not duplicated. Then enter a name for the collection in the dialog window. This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. Repeat steps 2 to 4 as desired.

equal to the web depth multiplied by its thickness (d*tw).Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials rotation or lateral deflection and the geometric axis section properties should be used in the evaluation of the stresses: The geometric axes 2 and 3 should be used instead of the principal axes 2' and 3' for angle beams restrained laterally for torsion. Which implies an integral that considers the static moment about the neutral axis and the moment of inertia. The user can choose 91 . Qmod2' exact: This option is only valid for “I” and “C” shapes designed with the between the exact value based on the following definition: Maximum shear stress = V(shear force) * Qmod. See the chapter devoted to Steel Design in this manual for further details. There are other design provisions on the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. Code. or an approximate value for Qmod2’ used by most of the codes.

the design is restricted to hot rolled steel members with a section that possesses at least one axis of symmetry perpendicular to the plane of bending.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Tapered Members RAM Advanse offers the possibility to consider tapered members with a linear variation of the depth. the user has to assign a section to the member following the usual steps illustrated in the figure after selecting the desired members: Then the initial and final depth of the member has to be provided. If d0=0 and dL=0. d0 is the depth at the J end of a web-tapered member (see next figure) while dL is the depth at the K end of the member. 92 . Although the program can deal in the analysis with any type of section with variable depth. For this case. If d0>0 and dL>0 it is assumed that the section varies linearly from d0 at the J end to dL at the K end. The width of the section and its flange thickness are considered to be constant along the member. the program considers that the depth at the J end is equal to the specified depth of the adopted section (d0=d).

The stiffness matrix of the whole member is then assembled considering each sub-element with an equivalent prismatic section corresponding to the mean depth of the sub-element. which reduces the time required for the solution and gives a more precise definition of the section properties. which increases the time needed for the solution. Or they can be calculated using the special subroutine Prop TaperedProperties as part of the section macro. you can use rigid end offsets to align tapered members The analysis of tapered members is performed with an internal subdivision of the member into 6 elements with a stepped variation of the section properties. 93 . Alternatively. In this way the section will be aligned at the top of the section.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Note that a one side tapered member can be achieved by using the section cross section axis point or the member rigid end offsets as it is illustrated in the following figures: Use the cross section axis point to align the section in position number 2. (See Chapter 15). All the section properties of each sub-element can be calculated in a similar way as for prismatic members.

94 . follow these steps: Execute command Configuration/Databases/Materials. For more details about the design of tapered steel members see the chapters on Design of hot rolled steel members (AISC or BS Codes).Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Members with variable depth are subdivided in 6 sub-elements with an equivalent prismatic section. Note that a special built up section type is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up tapered members. Creating Materials To create your own material. Note that no web depth is entered as it is assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in this worksheet. To create a new tapered section invokes the Configuration/Databases/Sections command and create a new section using the I_tapered section type.

You can also define each value with its corresponding units. For further details see the help context. To export the data. select the group of materials to be exported: 95 . You can select any unit system for entering the data. Importing and exporting sections and materials This feature allows the user to import and export sections and materials to the clipboard. Enter data of the material and then press OK.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Select the desired folder and press button .

The steps to import data are as follows: • • • 96 Define the required fields. Note that when the property Read Only is enabled. Copy the data to the clipboard. Please see the Excel files with several available groups of sections and their properties that are included in the Tables directory or visit our web site (www. etc) may be entered together with geometric properties. inertia.com) to download the latest files that include many tabulated sections. Missing section properties will be calculated. enter the new values in their corresponding fields and then proceed to copy the information to the clipboard. it is recommended to first export an instance of the type of material or section to be imported to define the labels of the different fields.ramint. These entered values will override the calculated ones if the Read Only property is set to true. .e. This feature is particularly useful with steel sections where tabulated values can be slightly different from those calculated by the program.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials And then press the export button . Input the data in a spreadsheet. Notice that calculated section properties (i. area. with a corresponding effect on code check equations. it preserves the imported properties and avoids overwriting them with the properties calculated by the program. The exported data may then be pasted into any text editor or spreadsheet application such as Notepad or Excel: To import data of materials or sections.

Additionally. From Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System. • • From text files. For more information about RSS Master Steel Tables see the RAM Manager Manual 97 . button.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials • Press the button in RAM Advanse to paste the information into the database. using the Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System (RSS) contains all section properties of sections available in RSS.tab) and it will be automatically imported. there are two options to import sections. using the button. To import the data. select the desired table (file with extension .

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it automatically generates nodes. This Template requires the nodes shown below: Template Truss1 requires 4 referential nodes and the number of segments. To enter the truss. Execute the Template and enter the information that it asks for. In order to use Templates you should already be comfortable using RAM Advanse. using the Truss1 Template you can enter a triangular truss. etc. frame members and descriptions. If not. 99 . 2. should be entered manually. we suggest you first read the RAM Advanse Examples Manual.com to download other free Templates created by RAM International and other users. and incorporate them into the RAM Advanse program.ramint. See the chapter on Creating Structure Templates to get information on how to create your own Templates. please visit our RAM Advanse community web page www. Templates When a Template is executed. This chapter explains how to use Templates to quickly generate portions of your structures. To execute a Template three steps are required: 1. proceed as follows: Enter the nodes illustrated in the following figure. RAM Advanse already contains several partial Templates.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Templates are a unique concept introduced by RAM Advanse to allow engineers to create models of structures in a fraction of the time normally required. Example 1: Creating a Truss For instance. materials. Additional information such as supports. 3. etc. They help in the generation of segments or parts of the structure. Select them in certain specific order. such as number of segments. sections. Enter the nodes that the Template requires. One of the most unique and important characteristics of these templates is that you can create your own.

Notice that they can be entered in any order.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Go to Nodes/Coordinates and enter the nodes illustrated Enter the illustrated nodes. Then select the nodes in the order required by the Template. Go to Members/Connectivity (Nodes and description worksheet and press button 2. Select nodes as required by the Template Then execute the desired Template in one of the two following ways: 1. Go to Tools/Data generation/Templates 100 .

In this case. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. Next enter the data required by the Template.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates To execute the desired Template. enter 3 in the number of segments. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. 101 . go to Members/Nodes and Description or Tools/Data Generation.

Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the number of segments. Templates generally create meaningless descriptions such as "g1". Therefore. To do this. g2. In this case. enter 3 The truss has been created. Note . etc. To change them to meaningful descriptions. "h1". follow these steps: Select description to be changed. etc. g3. "g2". Descriptions typically created by Templates are g1. you should change them to more meaningful descriptions. first select one element of the group and press 102 .When using the Templates it is very important the order in which nodes are selected.

In this case.Remember that you should type the "diag1" description and then press the button. change the other descriptions. Select the preferred units system. Note. Proceed as follows: 3. Change the generated descriptions to other more meaningful descriptions.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Then go to Members/Nodes and Description and press In the same way as explained before. Example 2: Creating an entire structure In the following example you will see how powerful Templates are. Enter the reference nodes 103 . select Metric System 4. This structure will be entered using Templates. The structure shown below will be entered using Templates.

2. the roofTruss1 template will be used. To generate the principal truss. 1. Execute Template roofTruss1 and enter the number of segments (enter 4 in this case) 104 . Remember to assign them a COL1 description.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the reference nodes before calling up the Templates (meters) Enter the columns as illustrated. The template roofTruss1 will be used to generate the principal truss. Enter the columns and assign them COL1 description. Select the nodes as requested by the Template. Select the nodes as indicated.

Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute RoofTruss1 template Enter the number of segments (4). Assign descriptions as shown in the figure below: Assign descriptions as shown. 105 . Note. The principal truss has been created. you'll get the "Select 6 nodes in the illustrated order" message.In the event you did not select the correct number of nodes.

5 meters in Z direction Now. Template Truss1 is used to generate the longitudinal trusses. longitudinal trusses will be generated using theTruss1 template. Copy the whole structure 3 times. each 5 meters in the Z direction. Select the nodes shown next: Select nodes in the illustrated order 106 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Copy the frame 3 times.

Enter 12 segments in this case. a longitudinal truss has been created Assign descriptions as shown Repeat previous steps to generate the other two trusses shown below. 107 . As you can see.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute Truss1 template Enter number of segments.

etc. the structure is ready to be completed with other information such as supports. materials. To complete the information. select the illustrated nodes Then press button Completing data As you can see. please proceed as explained in the RAM Advanse Assistant (F4). sections. loads. Then enter the roof beams.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Repeat the steps explained before to enter the other two trusses. 108 . all the geometry of the structure was entered very quickly. At this point. To enter the roof beams.

Go to sections spreadsheet. first select one member of the group description and press . follow these next steps: Select a group of elements. 109 . to enter sections.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates For instance. To do this. This will expedite structural modeling. choose the section that you need and press Sections have been assigned As you can see at this point it is very important to assign meaningful descriptions.

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The formulae have to be organized in the following order: 3. 111 . Mathematics symbols (+. Window for the generation of load combinations. (These must be valid symbols that are to be associated with the individual load cases). The reserved words AND or OR followed always by a space. etc). The name of the desired category. A factor which may be any real number. In the displayed window the engineer can enter a template file for the adopted local building code from which load combinations can be generated (based on the load case category. 7.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Generation of load combinations Elastic supports Prescribed displacements Self weight Thermal loads Generation of nodes This chapter deals with several additional features that provide RAM Advanse with several advanced capabilities. Generation of load combinations This utility tool allows the engineer to generate combinations to be used in the model. 4. LL for live loads. Note that you can save or retrieve this file for use in any structure or even in the Continuous Beam or Retaining Wall detailing modules. 6. DL for dead loads. Steps 1 – 4 are repeated as required. Note that the rest of the components of the formulae may or may not be separated by spaces. -). The tool is called from the command Loads/Generate load combinations on the main menu. 5.

05DL + AND 1.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects 8. See the example files (path: main RAM Advanse directory/combos) that come with the program which have the basic load combinations to consider for the different codes. proceed as follows: Select the nodes. the combinations will be generated based on the selected load combination file and the currently available load cases.4DL1 + 1.4EQ2 Notice that the seismic load cases are not included in the same combination due to the OR designation. 112 .28LL2 + 1. Category = EQ) the following load combinations will be generated: 1.40DL + AND 1.4EQ1 1. LL2.28LL1 + 1.70LL +AND 1.05DL1 + 1. It is important to note that only the names of the categories can be used in the editor. When the OK button is pressed. Load combinations in the template file will be ignored if they contain a load category that is not currently adopted in the model. category = LL) and two seismic load cases (EQ1. One possible method of calculating the spring stiffness is using the soil modulus of subgrade reaction as follows: K spring = Modulus of subgrade reaction* tributary area for the node It is the engineers' responsibility to obtain appropriate spring stiffness.05DL1 + 1.7LL1 + 1.28LL1 + 1.28LL + OR 1. while the reserved word OR is used to generate different load combinations for each load case of the specified category The following example illustrates the procedure //Example combinations +AND 1. while the live loads are always in the same combination due to the AND designation. Elastic supports Elastic supports are modeled in the RAM Advanse program using springs. Special commentary lines are also allowed if they start with "//" Note that the reserved word AND is used to show that each load combination to be generated has to include ALL the load cases that belong to the specified category.28LL2 + 1. two live load cases (LL1. To enter the springs. category = DL).7LL2 1. EQ2.40EQ If there is one dead load case (DL1.

Enter the value of the spring in the adequate direction and press . RZ). it is possible for a node to have springs in some degree of freedom and restraints in the other degrees of freedom. RY. TY. Note: A node cannot have a spring if it is restrained in the same degree of freedom. is available to assist the user in the entry of the appropriate Notice that the tool to model footings values for the rotational and translational springs under a footing of known dimensions. Springs have been entered. The different components of the displacements are specified in the global coordinate system (TX. To enter prescribed displacements proceed as follows: 113 . See the chapter of Footing Design and Detailing for more details. RX. However. TZ. Prescribed displacements This option is used to apply specified ground displacements (translations and rotations) at joints that are restrained. Only the components that have restrained degrees of freedom will be considered as loading the structure.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Nodes/Springs.

weight RAM Advanse can calculate the self-weight of the elements (shells and/or members) in a structure. Enter the displacement/rotations in the restrained degrees of freedom. To activate the self-weight calculation proceed as follows: Select load case that is to include the self-weight loads.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Select the restrained node(s) with prescribed displacements . Self . 114 .

2. Therefore. The RAM Advanse Data Panel has only limited functions to manipulate the data. This option is particularly useful when the geometry is very complicated and the node coordinates are not easily defined. This tool is very useful for trusses or structures with typical geometry. It is important for the user to know them in order to optimize the time of the data input: 1. Note: To deactivate the self-weight calculation. Temp 2. The user can draw the structure in any drawing software and then import the data in RAM Advanse. press Note: Notice that you can also manually enter the self-weight multiplier. Temp 3 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 3. Import from Excel and other spreadsheet applications. the nodes and frame members). Import from DXF files. Thermal loads When there are differences of temperature in-between faces of the members. Temperature loads are only applicable to linear elements and cannot be applied to shells. For more details see Using Structure Templates. This option allows you to define the basic geometry (that is. . the user can generate the 115 . It causes bending about axis 2. you can enter these loads in the following way: Go to Members and press the Load button and then go to Temperature differences The temperature differences are entered in the Temp1. transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. 3. Node generation RAM Advanse has several methods of generating nodes. otherwise centigrade. Use of templates. The user enters the nodes required to position the new portion of the structure that will be generated including the nodes. Temp 1 is the temperature differential that will cause axial expansion (positive values) or shortening (negative values) in the member length. It causes bending about axis 3. Note the temperature differential should be in degrees Fahrenheit if the units are in the English System.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Gen/Self weight and press . if the nodes coordinates follow special functions like trigonometric or exponential functions. Temp 2 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 2. For more details see chapter related to Importing and Exporting Data. and Temp3 column.

Then you have to select the data and press the going to be entered and press the paste button. The data is selected and copied to the Clipboard. copy button. For example. The use of special tools for the generation of nodes. You can see the generated nodes in the Display window: 1. You can create the data in a spreadsheet application: Data generated in a spreadsheet like Excel.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects coordinates in applications like Excel which are plenty equipped with those functions and then transfer the data in RAM Advanse. This is performed with the known "copy and paste" operation very common in all applications. if you want to generate nodes following the natural logarithmic function y=ln(x). The available tools are the following: • 116 Copy nodes. In RAM Advanse you go to the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates locate the area where the data are The data is pasted in the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates. .

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects • • • Lineal generation of nodes. Press “Copy Nodes”. Copy nodes To copy nodes. Two new nodes have been created. Circular generation of nodes. Y and Z direction) that the selected nodes will be copied to. A dialog box appears. Enter the distance (in X. Quadratic generation of nodes. Press the OK button. proceed as follows: Select the nodes to be copied. 117 .

we have: Quadratic generation of nodes Go to Nodes. Now. select four nodes in the order shown in the illustration.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Linear generation of nodes Select two nodes Press Linear Generation of nodes button. In the dialog box that appears enter the number of nodes to be generated and press OK. Press “Quadratic generation of nodes” button. 118 .

Node 1 (first node to be selected) is the center of the circle. Node 3 is the starting point of the generation and the node that determinates the radius of the circle. The result will be: Circular generation of nodes Select three nodes. as shown below in the figure. Press In the dialog box enter the number of nodes to be generated. and the total angle that the nodes will cover. Node 2 (second node to be selected) is used to set a vector perpendicular to the circle.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects In the dialog box enter the nodes to be generated along sides 1-2 and 1-3. 119 . The new nodes will be generated in the plane defined by nodes 1-3 and perpendicular to 1-2.

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects The result of the above choices is: 120 .

The user is referred to associated references given within the text for further information. Geometric nonlinear effects can be included. developed completely by RAM International. LLC. a brief description of these analysis capabilities and element types are summarized. 121 . nonlinear-inelastic and Eigen analysis of any type of framing systems. RAM Advanse is using a completely new analysis engine. Beginning with version 7. The problem is more involved if non-elastic materials are considered or if P-Delta effects are taken into account (see more details in the following sections). RAM Advanse currently supports the following type of analysis: • • • • • • • Static Linear – Elastic Analysis Static Nonlinear – Elastic Analysis Eigen Value Analysis Frame element with 6 degrees of freedom (dof) at its both ends. For each load case defined by the user. the time to decompose large symmetric-profile matrices is greatly reduced. Tension-Only frame elements Quadrilateral Shell element with 6 dof at each corner (three translational dofs. two rotational dofs and one drilling dof) Linear axial and rotational springs In addition the following list contains element types currently available for the users: In the subsequent sections. K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and D is the matrix of resulting displacements. The currently enforced bandwidth optimization method is Reverse Cuthill-McKee Ordering algorithm. there is a vector of loads that generates a vector of displacements. which is part of a general-purpose finite element analysis library based on object-oriented programming architecture.0.Chapter 9: Analysis Chapter 9: Analysis Introduction The static analysis of a structure involves the solution of a set of linear equations that can be shown in terms of the following form: P=KD (Eq 1) where P is the matrix of generalized applied loads. The analysis engine is built on a highly optimized matrix library that is particularly tuned for sparse matrix computation and it is armed with a state of the art bandwidth optimization technique based on Graph theory. It has been used mainly for linearelastic. The bandwidth optimization provides a substantial reduction in storage requirements and when it is combined with the direct sparse solvers.

However. Point loads can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition Shear deformations due to bending can be considered in analysis: The current implementation adopts the concept of an “equivalent shear area”. the implemented method is usually satisfactory. where A is the member cross section. For most members of practical length. Based on this concept. For illustrative purposes. shear deformations may be included in analysis by augmenting the member stiffness matrix with additional shear terms. Among these are Reference 2 and 3. The element has the following features: • • • • Three translational and three rotational DOFs defined at each end. For these cases.e. Several references can be found in literature on how to calculate “equivalent shear area”. Fs = τna As). This area is multiplied by the shearing stress (τna) at the neutral axis to obtain the total shear force on the cross section (i. These additional terms can be found in any structural analysis book (Reference 1). the influence of transverse shear deformations is negligible. it can be significant for members with small span-to-depth ratio. Therefore. RAM Advanse uses the cross-sectional property fs (form factor for shear) that is defined as As= fs A. the above figure is given showing total number of 12 DOFs. (As) for considering transverse shear deformations.Chapter 9: Analysis Frame Element Element Degrees of Freedom for Frame Element The frame element is a two-node element and there are 6 DOFs at each node. Distribute loads (trapezoidal in general form) can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition.. Element stiffness matrix is derived as follows: • 122 . The corresponding neutral axis shear strain is γ = Fs / As G. it is assumed that there is a uniform shear stress on the cross section.

Offsets\eccentricities can be defined at element ends in three separate directions. minor moment of inertia. J. G. The terms αx and αy are shear correction terms to account for transverse shear deformations. Temperature effects can be included by considering both axial and bending effects due to relative temperature changes. respectively. E and L are major moment of inertia. Iy. due to fabrication errors. (3) in which Asx and Asy are “equivalent shear area” for major and minor directions. The engine calculates these deformations at any point accounting for element end displacements 123 • • • . Such effects can be used for applying axial pre-stress to members or for considering member axial initial imperfections (for instance. In this case. (2) is reduced to conventional stiffness matrix for frame members. elastic modulus and member length. it creates initial strains when placing these members into position) Geometric nonlinear effects are considered (see Iterative P-Delta Effects) in element formulation. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. therefore. (2) where Ix. shear modulus. members can be too short or too long.Chapter 9: Analysis Eq. Frame elements can be converted to tension-only members. Axial pre-tensioning can be defined. shear and axial releases can be defined at element ends. • • • • Bending. It should be noted that if αx and αy are zero. St. In this case. respectively. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. Venant torsion constant. Eq. They are calculated as follows: Eq. Deformation at any point within an element is extracted after the analysis is completed.

Chapter 9: Analysis and loads applied. Only constant surface loads are allowed. Shear deformations are not considered in the calculation of these deformations. Geometric stiffness matrix (i. the four node quadrilateral shell element can not be degenerated into a three node shell element. geometric nonlinear effects) is not calculated for shell elements. The element is capable of generating both in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness. 5 and 6 for further assistance. Triangular shell elements in which three nodes of the shell are co-linear are not allowed (i. Surface loads can be applied to the shell either in global system or in local system of the shell. Loads (point loads on nodes) can be applied in global system or in the local axis of the shell. Shell Element A four-node shell element is developed and it consists of six degrees of freedom at each of the four nodes: three translation.e. Refer to References 4. Degrees of Freedom of Shell Element (local definition) The general characteristics of the shell element are summarized as follows: • • • • The element is a quadrilateral element with 6 DOFs at each node. two rotation and one drilling degrees of freedom (see next Figure). Positive Definition of Shell Local Forces at Nodes 124 .e. The drilling degree of freedom facilitates fixity of members that frame into the wall.

a rigid diaphragm is assumed completely in the X-Z plane: translation DOFs in X and Z directions and rotation around Y are used to define diaphragm constraint equations. There are two kinds of P-delta effects: P-δ (small p-delta). What is P-Delta effect? When an element experiences a lateral displacement. 125 . all members attached to this diaphragm have the same displacements in X and Z if there is no rotation around Y. and P-∆ (large P-Delta). secondary moments arise as a result of the axial force acting through the lateral displacement of the member. Small p-delta effect Secondary P-δ moments are caused by axial force acting through the lateral displacements of the member relative to its central line (See figure below). The simplest method is to allow RAM Advanse to calculate P-Delta during the analysis stage. The secondary moments created by the lateral displacements are also called P-Delta moments. P-Delta Analysis To analyze most structures it is necessary to take into account the P-Delta effect. Otherwise. This effect can be considered either at the analysis stage and/or at the code check stage. members attached to these rigid diaphragms are moved together according to defined constraint equations. or simply the P-Delta effect. In the current implementation. member displacements are adjusted due to diaphragm rotation around Y according to the distance between member nodes and diaphragm mass center. P-δ effect This effect is also called a member instability effect because it increases the instability of the members of a structure. Therefore. Hence. It is assumed that the diaphragm is infinitely rigid in its plane and it transmits forces through it without deforming.Chapter 9: Analysis Shell membrane and bending Forces Rigid Diaphragm Constraints RAM Advanse provides a method to define a rigid diaphragm by enforcing a set of constraint equations.

and they usually carry low axial loads. These effects can be interpreted as the effect of axial force on element bending (i. Iterative P-Delta Effects P-Delta effects at element level are accounted for through element geometric stiffness matrix.e. P-Delta effects can be ignored only when axial forces (tension or compression) are small and lateral displacements minor. axial-bending interaction) so that they create additional flexural moments and then it leads to additional lateral displacements. torsionbending interaction etc. one can ignore P- 126 . P-Delta effect (also called P-Delta with axial-bending interaction) is a second order effect that causes a non-linearly behavior of the structure. If this is the case. They are summarized below: • It considers axial.. girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. RAM Advanse used in previous versions the fictitious lateral load method to calculate the P-delta effect. Both P-delta moments combined are simply called the P-Delta effect. In the current version the adopted method is more robust and it is detailed in the following Section. which may considerably increase the computation time. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects). where a solution can be obtained in a direct way.bending interaction in members (1D element only). Beams. a second-order analysis requires several iterations to obtain the solution. The current implementation considers only axial-bending interaction but it does not consider other effects such as torsion-axial force interaction.Chapter 9: Analysis Large P-Delta effect P-∆ moments are caused by axial force acting through the relative displacements of the ends of the member (figure below). one can disregard P-Delta effects. The P-Delta effect generally decreases the structure and member stability. The current implementation has some limitations. P-∆ effect This effect is also called structure instability effect because increases the instability of the structure. It should be taken into account by the analysis. even if lateral displacements are small. P-Delta calculation methods As opposed to first-order analysis. The geometric stiffness matrix is calculated in each iteration and analysis is repeated until convergence (equilibrium) is achieved.

Therefore. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problem if encountered during analysis. However. That is by simply adding together the results of each basic load case together multiplied by the respective combination factors. load combinations are prepared before the analysis as opposed to ones created after the analysis in the first-order analysis. when a second-order analysis is performed. L are axial force and member length. Therefore. With this modeling approach. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for further explanation. 127 . (4) where P. Dynamic analysis. small P-Delta effects is accounted for. Note that it is referred to the figure given in Frame Element section. If one also wants to consider small PDelta effects. and P-Delta Second order analysis cannot consider dynamic loads. No geometric stiffness matrix is calculated for shell elements. when they are present in the load combination.Chapter 9: Analysis Delta effects for these types of members. P-Delta effect in load combinations When a first-order analysis is performed. However. the results for a combination can be found using superposition. 4. The above procedure is generally referred to as large P-Delta. The geometric stiffness matrix for a frame element is given in Eq. it is advised to divide frame members into two or three sub-elements. respectively. the results for a combination cannot be calculated in the same way. the rest of the loads will be calculated with the P-Delta effect and the dynamic load forces will be "added" to the result obtained in the P-Delta analysis. • • The P-Delta affect due to self-weight is always considered as if it were applied with equivalent forces at end nodes. This is only possible due to the linear elastic analysis assumption. for load combinations P-Delta will be calculated in the analysis results using the same iterative method as was used with the load cases as described above.

128 . Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis RAM Advanse is capable of performing a nonlinear analysis. This procedure could be faster than the first one. Beams. Thus. it may require more iteration. one can disregard P-Delta effects for them. and they usually carry low axial loads. girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. However. It is usually used with nonlinear elements such as tension-only members or it is called for an analysis to include P-Delta effects. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects).Chapter 9: Analysis Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span The current implementation for P-Delta application is in such a way that it considers axial. The standard method calculates. where the original calculated tangent matrix is similar to the final one. In both methods the total applied load is divided into a number of load steps. at each load step. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problems during analysis. but the iterative displacements are found using the original tangent matrix without updates. one can ignore P-Delta effects for these members. In the Modified Newton Raphson Method the load increments are applied using the tangent stiffness matrix too. it is recommended only for big models with few non linear members. a tangent stiffness matrix of the structure that is used to iteratively search the equilibrium state. a greater tolerance and may have more difficulties in the convergence. If this is the case. Two methods are available for the nonlinear analysis: The standard or full Newton Raphson method (NR) and the Modified Newton Rhapson method (MNR).bending interaction in members (1D element only). saving the time required for updating the tangent matrix.

The number of iterations can also be set prior to the analysis. If divergence is observed in analysis solution. Again. this increases analysis time but it helps convergence with smaller number of load increments. 129 . The load is applied incrementally and analysis is carried out until all loads are applied. At the end of each increment. equilibrium is checked in such a way that the difference between element resisting forces and externally applied loads is less than the pre-defined tolerance. the solution is forced to converge within number of iteration per load increment. one can increase the number of increments. In this case. Usually. The following is a summary of the features in this type of analysis: • The number of (load) increments is defined before starting the analysis. It is always recommended to perform a preliminary linear analysis to check the model and to compare the results with the non-linear analysis. this number can be increased if any difficulty is found in converging. In this case it is assumed that an equilibrium state is found.Chapter 9: Analysis Comparison of the two methods available for the non-linear analysis. • • To perform the P-Delta analyses select the Second-Order option when the structure is analyzed.

In general for an efficient analysis the following values are recommended (default values): Number of increments = 1 Number of iterations per increment = 10 Convergence tolerance = 1E-5 Eigen Value Analysis The analysis engine is capable of finding Eigen values for a given system. It is assumed in the current implementation that constructed stiffness matrix is always positive definite and constructed mass matrix is a diagonal matrix.Chapter 9: Analysis Choose Perform second order analysis (P-Delta). 8. 9 and 10) to find the lowest frequencies (i. higher periods). Enter the required parameters for the second order analysis. The program utilizes a sub-space iteration technique (see References 7. The general characteristics of the current implementation are summarized as follows: 130 ..e.

. L. L. R. any mass should be defined at nodes or at master nodes. and Harder. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods. "The Finite Element Methods: Linear and Static Dynamic Finite Element Analysis". Vol. pp. 5th Edition.. Therefore. 2nd Edition. New York. R.J.. 7. Timoshenko. 1-9 [7] Bathe. static condensation can be applied for Eigen solution. Van Nostrand.H.L. “A Unified Formulation for Triangular and Quadrilateral Flat Shell Finite Elements with Six Nodal Degrees of Freedom”. 259-265. and Ziemian. Thomas J. K. • • • • • References [1] Matrix Structural Analysis. No. McGraw-Hill. 1996 [8] Hughes. 16.. The algorithm is optimized for sparse computation. John Wiley & Sons. 30. L. pp. "An Eigensolution Strategy For Large Systems".J. 75-84 [5] Ibrahimbegovic. 445-457 [6] Ibrahimbegovic. No. 2000 [2] Strength of Material.Chapter 9: Analysis • • Only diagonal mass matrix is allowed in the current implementation. 1-4.D. and Young. S. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. If all the masses are not applied to master nodes and hence there are some other masses assigned to other nodes. W.. This usually reduces the risks for having numerical problems related to DOFs without mass. Inc. The program internally sets a number of trial vectors.. R. static condensation is not used.L. W. The program assigns 1. “A Refined Four-noded Membrane Element with Rotational Degrees of Freedom”.H. E. Vol. and Wilson. “A Robust Quadrilateral membrane Finite Element with Drilling Degrees of Freedom”. R. Vol. McGuire. (1991). 28. For most cases. and Wilson. If all masses are lumped at master nodes (master nodes generally associated with rigid diaphragms). The program also applies Gram-Schmidt orthogonality technique to prevent converging to already converged solutions.R. In this case. "Finite Element Procedures". Vol. Gallagher.. Princeton. A. It is advised to increase the required number of Eigen values that may accelerate convergence characteristics in subspace. N. This guaranties that the solution does not miss any Eigen values so that the lowest “n” Eigen values are always found. 1975 [4] MacNeal. R.C. E.0E-8 for degrees of freedom where no mass is defined. Roark. Part 1. this number is enough to converge in sub-space.. Computers & Structures. Taylor.. There are rare cases that the program is not able to converge. (1988). 1983 131 .. The program internally enforces spectrum slicing (Sturm sequence check) to make sure that found “n” Eigen values are the first “n” Eigen values in the solution queue. which is larger than the number of requested Eigen values. 1987 [9] Wilson. This is also called lumped mass approach...1.. 3rd Edition. E. (1990). Computer and Structures.L. A.... 1955 [3] Formulas for Stress and Strain. the program statically condenses out all degrees of freedom without mass. R.

"Large Eigenvalue problems in Dynamic Analysis". EM6.. No. Vol. K.L. 98. E.. Journal of Engineering mechanics Division. ASCE.J. 1972 132 .Chapter 9: Analysis [10] Bathe. Wilson.

The modal shapes for each Mode. The seismic response spectrum.spectrum curve. To perform a dynamic analysis it is necessary to first enter the corresponding masses in the respective nodes and a seismic response spectrum. which represent the ground acceleration in an earthquake in a certain direction. Modal Analysis The Modal Analysis consists of the calculation of the period. The dynamic analysis can be subdivided into two parts. The Mode frequencies. T is the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. The output of the modal analysis given by the program consists of the following: • • • • • • 133 . M is the diagonal mass matrix and Z is the corresponding matrix of eigenvectors. frequencies and the undamped free vibration mode shapes of the structure. The number of Modes to be calculated will depend on the following factors: • • The number of Modes specified by the user in the Analysis dialog window. not on the loads. The type of Modal Analysis performed by the program is the Eigenvalue Analysis. Each eigenvalue-eigenvector pair is called a natural vibration mode and they are calculated with a numeric method of iteration (see more details of the modal analysis in the Analysis Chapter).T² M] Z=0 Where K is the stiffness matrix. The list of the masses that are acting on the different nodes of the structure. which is an excellent insight to the behavior of the structure.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis RAM Advanse performs dynamic analysis using the method of modal superposition. The number of mass degrees of freedom of the structure that considers both the translational and rotational masses. periods and maximum accelerations The mass participation percentage that provides a measure of how important the Mode is in the calculation of the response of the structure. the Modal Analysis which determines the free vibration behavior of the structure. Free vibration is only dependent on the rigidity of the structure and its masses. and the determination of the Seismic forces and displacements due to the combination of modes for a given direction of acceleration. This parameter is very useful for the determination of the accuracy of the Modal Analysis The total mass that is the sum of the masses in each degree of freedom that acts over the whole structure. It is given as a digitized response. In this process the following equation has to be solved: [K . The function is displayed in a graphical way.

The sign of the results can impact the combination of dynamic loads with other types of loads that already have an associated sign. the results of the adopted methods are traditionally given as single positive results (this includes the displacements. ABS Method It combines the results by taking the sum of absolute values. Der Kiureghian and Bayo (1981) and is taken as the default method. forces and stresses calculated from the dynamic analysis. reactions. Therefore the damping factor must be greater than zero for this method.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis • The base reactions that are the total moments and reactions in global coordinates required by the supports to resist the inertia forces originated by the response spectrum loading. Seismic results with sign Even though the response can be expected to vary within a positive and negative value range. Therefore the damping factor is not considered in this method. It is quite conservative and therefore not commonly used. member forces and stresses). It is very similar to the CQC method. SRSS Method It combines the results by taking the square root of the sum of their squares. It considers the statistical coupling between closely spaced Modes caused by modal damping. In this case the program performs a statistical measure of the likely maximum response of the structure for the given response spectrum. considering a damping factor equal to zero. We can consider the case of a column in a building: 134 . forces and stresses for each vibration mode. Determination of the Dynamic Forces Seismic Dynamic Forces are the maximum forces (response) that occur on the structure as a result of a dynamic analysis utilizing a loading response spectrum. RAM Advanse offers two methods for performing this superposition: CQC Method CQC represents the Complete Quadratic Combination technique developed by Wilson. each Mode frequencies and for the modal combination. RAM Advanse includes a method to assign signs to the displacements. For example when bending and axial loads are combined. displacements and stresses. This includes member forces. Methods of Modal Superposition Modal superposition is performed in order to compute the maximum displacements. They are printed for each load combination. Advanse does this by taking the sign from the predominant modes acting on each member to determine the sign of the total seismic response. Therefore. the member design will not be accurate if the moment diagram due to seismic loading does not reflect the true moment signs.

the user has to create load combinations in the two opposite directions. for example in -X and +X direction. Nevertheless. It is important to mention that when signs are going to be considered.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Combination of dynamic loads with and without signs with other type of loads. To enter mass. Mass can only be entered at the nodes. Entering Mass Modal shapes are automatically calculated when the structure contains a mass on at least one node. the combination of loads will better reflect the real behavior of the structure. 135 . which are to contain mass. the user must be aware that the signs are only estimated and must be used with caution. follow these steps: Select the nodes. with the feature to calculate signs for the dynamic loads. As you can see.

Seismic Response spectrum.in the Model Properties toolbar. Now the masses have been introduced. Available tools for automatic mass generation. Damping constant (in percentage). Refer to the context sensitive help for instructions related to their use. Seismic Loads The dynamic response spectra analysis requires the following data: Dynamic scale factor = Seismic acceleration/gravity constant. proceed as follows: 136 . To perform the seismic analysis. Choose the direction of the mass that you want to view graphically with It is important to note that there are two available tools to automatically generate masses for one or several floors considering members and shells. They are located in the lower part of the worksheet. You can view the mass graphically by depressing .Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Enter in the value of the mass and then press (or press to copy the entire row).

180 degrees for an earthquake in global -X. Note . as specified by the code that you are using. 137 . sx = Seism in X (positive direction) or ez = Earthquake in Z. In the opposite case the results for the seismic for X and -X or for Z and -Z will be the same).g. Enter the scale factor and direction of the earthquake force.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a load case for seismic forces.The seismic direction should be 0 degrees for an earthquake in global X. -90 degrees for an earthquake in global Z direction and +90 degrees for an earthquake in global -Z direction. E. (This is only valid when the seismic is calculated with sign.

138 . you should take into account the following: • Seismic loads. the response spectra curve shows on its vertical axis the maximum acceleration/gravity. Load combinations where seismic load is included. Wind load). All elements are considered as carrying compression as well as tension in dynamic load cases. Notice that acceleration is normalized with respect to gravity. Seismic load is represented by a response spectrum. You can also load a saved response spectrum using the saved with the button. Construction details Warning! The program does not include the” tension only” option in the dynamic analysis. you need to determine the magnitude of the seismic forces. To perform a seismic design. the response spectra. That is. The response spectrum can be button and later recovered with this button Seismic analysis As described previously RAM Advanse performs modal dynamic analyses. This kind of dynamic analysis is the most convenient for seismic design because most seismic building codes include the response spectra to be used in the design of a building. This means that the seismic dynamic load is represented by a response spectra (it is also possible to represent other dynamic forces with a response spectra). Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration Just as with other loads (i. That is.e. and on it's horizontal axis the period of the structure.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Go to the Gen/Spectrum panel and enter the response spectrum specified by the code you are using for the design.

Modal superposition is done using the CQC. and a second one that will add all the dynamic cases calculated with a first order analysis. This is because of step 3. Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse RAM Advanse performs modal analysis as follows: 2. The first one. 4. Load combinations Once you have created a seismic load case in X. RAM Advanse offers an analysis option to automatically assign a sign to the calculated response based on the fundamental mode of response. It is important to note that the combinations that include both types of load cases will be analyzed in two parts. The RAM Advanse Reinforced Concrete Design modules handle many of these details included in Chapter 21 of the ACI -318 Code. Notice that RAM Advanse allows you to enter a Scale Factor. This factor scales the response spectra. considering all the non-dynamic cases where the second order effects will be included. 3. Refer to your local concrete and building code for the pertinent detailing information. Nodal mass is entered in Kip. 5. Enter 1 (one) if the response spectra need not be scaled. RAM Advanse will divide the mass load by gravity. you should create the load combinations required by the code you are using. The summation of bending moments and other forces is not zero at the nodes when the option seismic results with signs is not used. 139 . or in Z. Ton. Note that RAM Advanse allows the simultaneous analysis of load cases with second order effects and dynamic load cases (these are calculated with a first order analysis). in order to obtain the respective units for the analysis. Kg. ABS or the SRSS method. Construction details It is important that you understand the behavior of structures subject to seismic loads and the design details that are required to provide a structure with the required ductility. Results from a dynamic response spectra analysis are always positive since they represent the maximum values of the structure vibration.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Response spectra: acceleration/Gravity versus period of the structure. Lb.

Note. bending moments are always positive in a typical dynamic load case (right). However. All nodes in a floor (including the node with the masses) should be connected with a rigid floor diaphragm.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis As opposed to wind load (left). This rigidity is represented by rigid floor diaphragm. These are the masses of the entire floor. Reactions are always positive when the option seismic results with signs are not used. The other nodes should not have mass. 140 .In a floor. select all the nodes of a floor and then assign them a floor number. only the mass center node should have a mass. Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings Dynamic analysis of buildings has some special considerations to be taken into account. RAM Advanse offers an option to obtain the seismic results with signs. To model this rigid diaphragm proceed as follows: • • • Create a node at the mass center of each floor Assign TX and TZ translational masses and RY rotational mass. Often a building contains a slab which increases the horizontal rigidity of a floor (perpendicular stiffness of the slab is taken as zero). To do this.

141 . and RY floor masses to the master node. Assign TX. TZ.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a node (master node) in the mass center of each floor. Select all the nodes in a floor Go to Nodes/Floor and press button to assign a floor number to the selected nodes.

Analysis Then proceed to the analysis as usual: Perform analysis as usual Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) To see the modal shapes of the building. follow next steps: Press to activate modal shapes. this number should not occur on any other floor.Notice that each floor should has a unique number in the structure. Note. . That is to say.. Select desired modal shape Press 142 to see vibration.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Assign all floor numbers.

press button and in the Code Check toolbar To view stress created by vibration modes also depress Press buttons press . You can also press to see a static view of the structure with the deformed modal shape or you can to see the normalized displacements of the selected mode 143 .Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis To see vibration modes with 3D sections depress (or press ) in the Rendering toolbar. . To view 3D vibration. and to see stress and vibration.

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Execute Optimize structure. There are many optimization criteria that can be applied to these processes.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code check After the analysis and design of a steel or wood structure has been checked graphically. members with the same description (same group) should have the same initial section. 2) Sections that fail the code check will be changed to a section that passes the code check. you can proceed to structure optimization. first select all the members that should be included in the optimization. To optimize. RAM Advanse will not optimize a structure if a group (or description) of members has different sections assigned within that group. The order of the sections in this list will determine the priority of each section to be considered for replacing the current section. The criterion to be adopted will be defined with the list of sections to be considered (section collection). 145 . Important.To optimize a structure. Structure optimization has two purposes: 1) Oversized sections will be changed to another section (normally with lower weight) from a predefined group of sections that can adequately carry the imposed loads.

In the optimization of wood members. . determine the maximum allowable deflection for each description together with the load combinations to be considered for the deflection check.When sections are changed all analysis results will be lost. 3. 5. When optimization is finished. Warning. 2. RAM Advanse will change the current sections to those suggested. Assign the collection(s) to the desired groups of members. you should analyze and design the structure again. Note. Choose the section collection to consider in the optimization. 1. 6. and press OK. See the Wood Design Chapter for more information. In this case. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. 146 . Then check the load conditions that members should resist. Optionally. the user has to check that the assigned material is adequate for all sections of the collection and the type of loads of the members. Check all approved changes and press OK. Check all groups of members (descriptions) that you want to optimize.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Steps for the optimization of a structure. . select Optimize. 4. Therefore. Then select the operation to be performed: Optimize or Code check.

Structure design is iterative. Important. After optimization. it should be re-analyzed. 147 . . Then press OK for RAM Advanse to make the suggested changes. Do not check changes that you don't want to perform. You should study the structure results and optimize the structure again. Verification or Code Check Verification or Code Check will suggest section changes for only those elements that fail the code check. So you must perform the analysis-design cycle more than one time. In this case. until you are satisfied with the sections used in the structure. choose P-Delta analysis. Oversized elements are not modified. analyze the structure again.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Check all changes that you agree with. Normally this results in the reduction of the weight of oversized members to a lower weight section. After the structure has been optimized. Notice that the program tells you the reason for the changes (strength or deflection). and 2) Replaces elements that fail the code check by others that pass it. Optimization and code check Optimization Optimization performs two actions: 1) Adopts the first section of the selected section collection (list of sections) that fulfills the strength and deflection requirements.

e. Different types of sections (i. How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section The program chooses a section to replace the original only if it exists in the section collection. That is. RAM Advanse will choose the section to replace from the section collection. a "W 10x20" section has "W" type. L. The program will pick the first section in the list that resists the applied loads within the deflection limits. width or any other criteria). Note that the sequence in which sections are considered is based on the order of the sections in the collection.Remember that the Type of a section is defined by its name. "Tube 15" has "Tube" type 148 . A search is done only among those sections. Important . A section is assigned to each group of members. cold-form steel and wood) can also co-exist. all elements with description COL1 will have the same section.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization basis The purpose of structure optimization is to find the optimum section that complies with your set of criteria (weight. RAM Advanse will assign the same section to all elements with the same description. That is. I. a collection with sections that belong to different material types (steel. Sizes in a set can be sorted by weight by clicking on after the collection is defined.. .Optimization and Verification assign the same section to all the elements of a group of members (or description). the sections in the collection have to be sorted by weight. after optimization. depth. C. etc) can exist in a single section collection. If an optimization based on the weight of the members is desired. For example the test1 collection shown below is acceptable. Elements with BEAM1 description will have a common section that may differ from COL1. Note. furthermore.

Once RAM Advanse gets the first section that meets these criteria it is selected for a possible change. RAM Advanse checks sections in the selected collection and selects those that pass the code check (strength and deflection) for all the selected load conditions and for all the selected elements that belong to the same group. 149 .Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization process For each group (description) of elements.

However. If the current section passes the code check. (You may need to use service load conditions to perform this check). 150 . 1. 3. Structure deflections and deformations Optimization and verification processes may additionally check structure deflections or deformations (lateral deflections are considered with the same limit). then RAM Advanse proceeds to the optimization explained above. If the current section does not pass the code check. Select the load conditions to be considered. Steps to include deflection check in the optimization. then it is left without modification. Enable the deflection check 2.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Verification process The Verification process is similar to the Optimization process. The following procedure can be used to optimize your structure and at the same time limit deflections to allowable values. Define the allowable deflections. checks are first made to see if the current section passes the code check. Note that you can enter absolute values (a) or values in function of the members length (b).

Notice that you should work with physical members for deflection check because deflections are always calculated relative to the members end points. One possible way to include them is limiting the value for the stress ratio to a value different than one. 151 . It is the engineers' responsibility to ascertain if this is appropriate for the given structure.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Notes: • • • Some load conditions should only be used for deflection verification and others should only be used for code check. You can review the slopes graphically to see if they are within the given limits. Optimization with other criteria There may be other factors to be considered in the optimization that are not included in the deflection or strength check. This deflection check is very important and it may be performed as part of the design process.

RAM Advanse will ignore them during the optimization or verification processes. it means that no section in the section collection passes the code check for the imposed load conditions or specified lengths. 152 . RAM Advanse can change one kind for the other. Optimization with default collection of sections If the user does not define a collection of section.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Appropriate section not found In the event that you get the message "No section was found to resist imposed load” in the replace sections list. add stronger sections to the section collection. the optimization will consider the complete set of sections of the original adopted section. AISC and AISI sections When both AISC and AISI elements are present in a structure. The optimization process will look for the lightest section that comply with the defined strength and deflections requirements. To correct this. or change the geometry or loads of the model. Non-steel or wood members If the structure has frame members with sections that are not made of steel or wood.

reinforced concrete. This window also allows you to choose the load conditions to be included in the output. and then choose the type of output you want to see. data of members. wood. and connection design. The second group allows you to print all the information related to steel. The first one provides the ability to print all the data and results of the analyzed structure.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports For many of the output you are required to first analyze and design the structure. Loads Data This option allows printing all the information relative to node forces. Analysis Results Before printing the reports. These quantities are given in length. geometric data for the design. This window allows the engineer to choose which information will be printed. etc. a window is displayed. etc. The last group allows the user to print the forces and deflections. only the information of the graphically selected members will be printed. including the points of inflection and envelopes. Note: Before printing data or results. The third group has lists of the structure’s members or connections with their section type and quantities. Like all the other reports. A description of the options in each group of the Reports menu is given next: Model Data This option allows you to print all the structure geometric information like coordinates of the nodes. weight or number of members. The Reports menu is divided into four groups. first select the elements that you want to be included in the printout. RAM Advanse offers you a variety of printing options. Groups of options in the Reports menu. self-weight multipliers for load conditions. distributed forces on members. seismic loads. 153 .

This report also includes a graphic of the seismic response spectrum. 154 . a window is displayed. For more details about the information given in each type of report. Steel Design Before printing the report. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures. or whether to group by elements. Note that for some print options additional information is required in the form of additional parameters like the number of stations along the member. It also gives the calculated accelerations for each vibration mode together with the percentage of mass participation. group by conditions. All the data and results that can be obtained are shown in the graphic below. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design. press the key to obtain the printed report. ) to select or deselect Dynamic Analysis The dynamic response results are displayed in this report. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. Window of Analysis Results Use the two options at the top right edge of each group of reports ( all reports of the group. etc. The user must choose at least one static or dynamic load condition.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Once all the information to be printed is set.

155 . Reinforced Concrete Design Before printing the report.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing steel design reports. the type of stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design. This window allows you to choose the code to be used. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. a window is displayed.

see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the Design of Wood Members. use the respective detailing module. see the Reports section in the Connections chapter. This window allows you to choose the scope of the report. a window is displayed. 156 . For more details about the information given in each type of report. spacing of stirrups. Wood Design Before printing the report. family or description. The report gives information relative to the design of beams and columns like forces acting on members. Connections Design Before printing the report. The user can also have a detailed report for each connection in the detailing module for connections. minimum and calculated reinforcement. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. etc. Window displayed prior to printing connection design reports. the connections grouped by tag. In this window the user can choose the code. Each option is a summary of the former one. the stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design. For a more detailed design of reinforced concrete columns and beams. For more details about the information given in each type of report. Each detailing module has a more detailed report where the user can introduce more information for a complete design. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. considering all the selected connections. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. a window is displayed. maximum. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to the printing of reinforced concrete design reports. type.

In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. shear. List of Materials This option allows you to obtain a list of the selected materials with their respective quantities. This list may be very useful for the detailing and to know if there are still joints without connections. Before printing the report window is displayed where the user can choose the diagrams to be printed.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing wood design reports. and c) Export as Dxf : To export as DXF file. Report The diagrams display axial. Note that the envelopes will consider only the selected load conditions. These quantities can be expressed in length or weight. this window allows you 157 . Parts List This command prints the list of parts for the currently selected members. Diagrams This menu option has a sub-menu with three choices: Three choices to print/display the forces diagrams: a) Reports : to print a report. List of Joints This option prints the list of connections assigned to the joints. b) Show on screen : to show the diagrams on a graphical window. Also. translations and rotations for each selected member and load condition. flexural and torsional forces as well as their respective envelopes.

It is advisable to save the structure before executing this command and not to process more than approximately one hundred diagrams each time. 158 .Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports to select the option to show the points where the values of the diagrams are zero. which varies between 1 and 6. Note that where more diagrams are included in a line. You can choose the number of diagrams per printing line. the user will be able to see on the screen a preview of the report and continue with the printing. Warning! The large number of figures that can be generated when multiple members and load conditions are chosen in big structures may produce problems of memory and resources on the computer. which is recommended for reports in a letter size with portrait orientation. That is to choose the particular members you want diagrams displayed for. The default value is 2. It is advisable to perform a small print test to determine if the chosen number is adequate for the current paper size and printer. which is very useful for reinforced concrete members. All the diagrams are referenced to the member local axes. they will be smaller. Once the type of diagrams and the load conditions are chosen. Screen displayed before the diagram report.

It is important to note that the envelopes that are displayed with this option are calculated only from all the selected load combinations. The user can select the number of displayed diagrams per line. The available member force options include the bending moments. axial forces. together with translation and rotation diagrams. torsional moments.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report of diagrams. In the upper part of the displayed window the user will find two menus to chose the type of diagram and the load condition to display in the diagrams. shear. Note that there is a track bar at the bottom of the window which allows you to chose any point along the member and get the numerical value of the diagram at that point. Display on the screen This option displays the member force diagrams for the member that was selected first on the screen. 159 .

160 . Export diagrams to DXF files This option displays a screen very similar to that of the detailing modules and includes an option to export the drawing as a DXF file. Note the track bar at the bottom of the window (at the left) which allows you to display the numerical values of the diagram at any point along the member. Option to export diagrams as a DXF file. The type of diagrams is chosen from the menus at the top of the window.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Option to display the diagrams on the screen. The screen is very similar to the ones of the detailing modules.

Press CLOSE to close the report window. Press to print the current report. Each time the user prints a report. Press to set all the print configuration parameters. For more details refer to your Windows manual or to your printer’s manual. General commands for print report A description of all the buttons in the top bar of the screen report is given next. The window that appears is the standard Windows printer setup dialog. In this case the standard dialog window for printing will appear 161 . Standard window to setup the printer. a screen similar to the one shown below will be displayed: Report screen The characteristics and components of the report screen are explained next.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports The reports have icons and information that are very useful.

Press to select the complete report. Press to export the selected block to Microsoft Excel. The program exports only the text without Press the font styles or graphics (without format). Press to copy a selected block (Ctrl+C) to the Clipboard to read it from another program like Excel. This button is very useful because the user can export the selected blocks of the report. to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. etc. The program exports only the text without the font styles or graphics (without format). tabulations and graphics (with format).Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Standard dialog window for printing. From Microsoft Word the user can make any modification desired to the report. WordPad. This is a very useful button because it Press includes the styles. and bring them back (using the Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V keys to copy and paste the selected blocks) to the RAM Advanse worksheets. modify them in Microsoft Excel. Exported report to Microsoft Excel. 162 . to export the selected block to Microsoft Word.

Note that the export is done with the original formatting intact. Other information given in the report is the path of the file. This allows the user to export the file in a simple text format (TXT). This requires that the user must have this software properly installed on their computer. RAM Advanse automatically runs the respective software (Word or Excel). and the date and time of the printed report. which is automatically obtained.bmp file in the BMPS folder. Warning! The user must be aware that the transfer of a report to Microsoft Word or Excel might take some time. Later the user can read the report from WordPad or NotePad. To change the logo. It is advisable to make a back up of the original file (Reportitle. This logo is found in the logo.txt file that is located in the root directory of RAM Advanse (C:\RAMadvanseEng) can modify this and other data to show in the report title.txt). Note that when this option is activated you will see the titles that will be repeated on the screen. This will allow you to revert to the original file whenever necessary. depending on the speed of the processor and the number of pages of the report. Use this option to repeat the title block on the top of each page. even graphics are exported. Customizing the heading of a report The logo of RAM International is located at the top left of the report. replace the logo. The program will automatically insert the logo in the predetermined location on the report page. 163 . Press to save the complete report as a text file (*. Warning! When exporting a report.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report exported to Microsoft Word.bmp file with your company logo. the chosen units system. Editing the Reportitle. Note that the drawing file is in a bitmap format and it can be edited in any drawing program. This folder is located in the root directory\BMPS folder.txt) in a safe location before proceeding with any changes.

Option to print the current graphic on the screen. If you want to print in gray tones.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports of the detailing modules For more information about general commands. the printout will be in the original colors. refer to the chapters of each module as required. The user can change the print quality in the program configuration option. If you have a black and white printer. Printing Graphics The program has an option to print exactly what is seen on the screen. refer to General commands for print report For a complete description about detailing module reports. the printout will be in gray tones. 164 . use the option to improve the quality of printings for black and white printers. If you have a color printer.

Better qualities will require more resources of the system. The normal quality will give a standard print. Notice that you can save the graph to a file.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Go to Configuration/General/Print. to change the print quality. In this case you should use the following option: Option to save the current graphic in BMP or JPG format. 165 .

you can increment the quality. 166 . a description. a comment. allows the user to enter any information that will be printed on the graphic output. This information can be a title. Remarks: If you experience printing problems (the computer freezes or the printing is too slow).Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports A dialog window will appear were you should define the type of file BMP (Windows Bit Map) or JPG (JPEG graphic). Additionally you can set the scale and the size (in bitmaps) of the graph. Reduce the printing quality in your printer (see your printer manual). you may experience small differences in the tones between your printed graph and the graph displayed in the screen. If you have a color printer. If the user wants to include a comment on the graphic. take into account the following suggestions: • • • • Reduce the printing quality in RAM Advanse. Install the last available driver for your graphics card and printer considering your current operating system. Text Box This option found in the File tab of the main menu. This text box will be located below the graphic screen of RAM Advanse and will be printed along with the graphic. Text Box. Once you succeed in printing the graphic. press the “Add text box” command that is explained next. etc.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Note that graphs include always the description of stresses and their type when they are drawn. 167 .

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RAM BasePlate: Exporting data of the selected column for the base plate design in RAM BasePlate It is also possible to import or export information to the databases.0 or later you will be able to import models only for your current version of RAM SS. select the command File/Export/DXF Model. RAM Structural System . MicroStation.). To export as a DXF file. Importing and exporting sections and materials.Lateral Model: To import only lateral members from a RAM Structural System version 7.2x file and later. enter the name of the file and press OK. Note: If you have RAM SS version 8. including loads. and others which create DXF files) RAM Advanse Neutral: Special tex t file containing the complete structure data. What are DXF files? DXF files (Drawing Exchange Files) are ASCII files (plain text) that contain almost all the information necessary to produce a drawing. the nodes and frame members). etc. Note that the dxf file is created from all the members of the model. Exporting • • • • DXF: exporting to drawing software (Autocad. RAM Structural System . SDNF: Exporting to steel detailing neutral file for detailing software.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data This chapter describes how to import and export information from and to other programs. 169 . not just the currently visible or selected members on the RAM Advanse display. This is very useful for transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. DXF files DXF files allow you to interchange only the basic geometry (that is.2x file and later.Full Model: To import all members from a RAM Structural System version 7. These files have extension "DXF". for more details see Chapter 6. RAM Advanse Neutral: exporting data to an ASCII text file. Autocad. Exporting as DXF files RAM Advanse can export the geometry (frame member lines) of a model to a DXF file. The following options are available: Importing • • • • DXF Importing from drawing software (MicroStation.

draw the frame members of the structure using any available command but explode everything into LINES before exporting. Draw using as many layers as you want. loads. use command File/Export/ DXFModel… Note. etc. springs. which are the most time consuming data to enter. This option is very useful since it allows you to easily create nodes and frame members. Creating a DXF file You have to perform the following steps: 1. Using your CAD software. hinges.RAM Advanse only exports the basic geometry to DXF files. 2.) are ignored. Draw lines to represent the frame members. 170 . Importing a DXF file RAM Advanse will import the basic geometry of a structure that was created in some other drawing software and exported in a DXF format file. rigid offset.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. shells. but change everything to layer 0 (zero) before exporting. This includes: • • Nodal coordinates Frame members All other data (restraints.

Select the command File/Import from/DXF. 2.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data 3. Reading DXF files Make sure RAM Advanse is set to the correct units (the same length units of your drawing) before you import the DXF file. . Then select the desired file and press OK.It is only possible to import frame members. For instance. circles and polygons. if RAM Advanse locates a line as illustrated in the picture below-left. Save the drawing as DXF file. The graphic must be draw in simple lines. Shells cannot be imported. If there are polylines. 171 . All the geometry must be in layer 0. it will automatically insert a node and will create an additional element as illustrated by the right picture. Note. For good results: 1. those must be exploded to lines. Other layer will not be considered during the drawing importation. (a) Line as drawn (b) Nodes and elements as created by RAM Advanse RAM Advanse will automatically create joints when it is necessary. Execute command File/Import from/DXF to read the DXF file Important! RAM Advanse will automatically insert nodes at straight-line intersection points.

g. This is a standard format conceived to facilitate data interchange among analysis/design and detailing software. member properties (shapes. The gravity loads can only be imported once the structure’s tributary loads have been calculated (by entering any of the design modules in the RAM Structural System). Xsteel) can read or create SDNF files. Full Model –This option will import all lateral and gravity members. the supporting beam will be broken in two and a node inserted. What are SDNF files? SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) are ASCII (plain text) files that allow you to send the structural member data to steel detailing software. the member types by description (optional) and press OK. Columns however will be imported as fixed top but not bottom. 172 .Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data RAM Structural System Files RAM Advanse has the ability to import a RAM Structural System model (. Note that in RAM Advanse the intersection of any two members results in a node being created. enter the name of the file. Note that RAM Advanse has a maximum of 10 uniform loads and 10 concentrated loads per member per load case. Sending data to a SDNF file To export data to a SDNF file. will need to be manually added to RAM Advanse. This file can be read by steel detailing software that supports the SDNF format. Member fixity and tributary gravity loads will also be imported.ram file). but not available in the RAM Advanse database. fixity etc) and gravity loads can be imported. All gravity beam and brace members will be imported with pin conditions at their ends. Note that any member shapes used in the RAM Structural System. For example. Many detailing programs (e. wherever a beam frames into another beam. The structural geometry. the desire units. invoke the command File/Import from/RAM SS. Lateral Only – This option will import only lateral members from the RAM SS model. SDNF Files RAM Advanse can export the structural data as a SDNF file. execute command File/Export/SDNF. To import a RAM Structural System model.

select File/Export/SDNF A dialog window will appear. if the member nodes are completely horizontal or vertical. the units and the member types. The "Type field" can only be COLUMN.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. otherwise. By default. You may change this in the dialog window. BEAM or BRACE. the member will be reported as a beam or column. You have to define the file name. The "Piecemark field" contains the RA member description The "Revision level field" is reported always as "0" Length units: in the specified units 173 . Now you can read the file with any detailing software that supports the SDNF file. as a brace. Some characteristics of the exported SDNF File: Member description first line: "Member number" "Cardinal point" field” "0 " "0 " “Type field” “Piecemark field” “Revision level The cardinal point number is according to the standards.

A dialog window will appear. To design a base plate. Dialog window to export data for RAM BasePlate. RAM Base Plate will be executed and you will be able to proceed with the base plate design. select the desired column and execute the command File/Export/RAM BasePlate. The column can be a tube. You have to define the loads to be considered. Within RAM BasePlate you have a Load Combination Generator that will generate the combinations according to the selected code. 174 . See RAM BasePlate documentation for further details. the program will “remember” the template file that you have selected and you do not have to define it again. pipe or wide flange and may be of any size contained in the database. Notice that only the load cases are considered. Notice also that if you have already exported data from a specific column. The user has to select which moment will be considered: M33 if the strong axis option is selected or M22 if the weak axis option is selected. Immediatelly. Press OK and the column shape together with the load cases will be exported.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Sending data to RAM BasePlate RAM Advanse has the ability to export the required data for the design of base plates. the Code for the load combinations. It is important to remark that RAM BasePlate works only with a single moment in the strong or in the weak axis. the axis where the loads are applied (RAM BasePlate currently does not analyze biaxial bending) and the template file with the initial anchor geometry.

Two types of loads can act over the shells: Bending and torsion moments originated by loads acting out of the plane of the shell: M11. isotropic and homogeneous Strength developed by a combination of bending and membrane actions. The calculation method uses the force matrix and the general element adopted is rectangular with four nodes. Adopted element of 4 nodes. In order to model with shells you should have a solid understanding of the finite element theory because it is very easy to make mistakes in the structural modeling or in misinterpreting the results. you will learn certain necessary concepts. and you will learn how to view the results numerically or graphically. Bending and torsion moments originated by out-of-plane loads. It is also possible to have loads acting in the plane of the shells (membrane loads) that can be normal loads F11 and F33 and shear loads F13. The Shell Element The following assumptions are made regarding the shell element used in RAM Advanse: • • • Rectangular plates Elastic material.Chapter 14: Shells Chapter 14: Shells Introduction In this chapter you will see how to enter shell elements. M33 or M22 with the corresponding transverse shear forces. 175 .

we will have 6 degrees of freedom. the magnitude of which can be evaluated based on the differences in the forces for each common point of the shells. 176 . Forces in the nodes calculated for each element. The forces in the element are evaluated in the Gauss points using the local coordinate system and the values obtained are extrapolated to the nodes at the corners in global coordinate system. The numerical procedure always produces some amount of error. The adopted elements are formulated based on a numeric integration of 8 points located in both faces of the shell. They are called the Gauss points: Gauss points of the element.Chapter 14: Shells Membrane actions acting over the shell. If both types of loads are considered.

N3 or N1. 177 . N2. It is recommended to avoid these elements. Triangular element suggested only for transition zones. The program will generate an error if the following three nodes of the shell are collinear: N1. Applications for the model There are many applications for the adopted element. These forces are parallel to the smallest dimension of the shell: Membrane behavior with forces acting in the plane of the shell. It is also possible to model a triangular element. with three nodes lying on one line. The behavior as a membrane is used when loads acting in the same plane of the shells originate the stresses in the shells. This feature is intended only to completely cover a non-rectangular area with the shells. The correct order of the nodes for the triangular element is shown in the next figure. N2. This is just a special case of the rectangular element. This limitation is due to the definition of the local axes. N4.Chapter 14: Shells Approximated error of the forces calculated in the nodes. which is only suggested for transition zones. The calculation and distribution of stresses in this element is not as accurate as a traditional four-node element.

178 .Chapter 14: Shells These types of loads occur frequently in shear walls with vertical and lateral forces: Example of a shear wall with a membrane effect. Bending stresses frequently occur in floor slabs and mats: Example of slabs modeled with plates. Bending occurs when loads act perpendicular to the plate’s plane. It is also possible to have shells in three dimensions with a curvilinear axis. Loads that originate bending in shells.

Select the nodes in the order shown above.Chapter 14: Shells Shells with curvilinear axis. first select the bottom row of nodes. 179 . RAM Advanse offers the ability to calculate the required reinforcement for flexure (positive and negative relative to shell local axis orientation) for shells positioned in the X-Z plane. Determination of the reinforcement needed in reinforced concrete slabs. Generating shells The generation of shells is similar to the generation of frame members: that is. This option allows the user to verify the floor slabs and mat reinforcing requirements. and then press a button to create the elements. first you need to select the nodes to which shells will be connected to. and then select the top row of nodes in the same direction. That is. The generation of shells is best explained with an example: Above is a row of four plates to be generated.

Node selection should be done in the following order: in order to undo the generation of First select the bottom row of nodes in the order indicated. Next select the top row of nodes in the order indicated. Take the time to check the local axis orientation of the shells. the rest of the elements may be generated automatically by controlling the degree of segmentation (meshing).Chapter 14: Shells Next go to Shells/Nodes panel and press . 180 . It is only necessary to define big physical units. If the plates have not been generated as you expected press plates and start over. Output such as top and bottom reinforcing steel is all presented relative to the shells local axis orientation. The plates will be generated. Please notice that the top and bottom rows of nodes should be selected in the same direction. Note – Be advised that the order of selection of nodes is very important to correctly generate the plates and to establish their local coordinates.

select the plates to be assigned a description. To do this. Description As with beams. First.Chapter 14: Shells Irregular plate divided into smaller rectangular plates. go to Shells/Description and press the button or write in the description and then press Entering Shell Thickness To enter the thickness of the plates. follow these steps: 181 . The process for assigning the description is similar to that of beams and is explained below. select one of the groups of plates and then press Next. the shells should be assigned a description immediately after you create them.

by extra nodes at the sides of the basic elements already defined and two. Alternatively. you can use the quadratic generation ( ) or the tool to segment the shells ( but these options has not to be used with physical members. Then. select the plates. press the following buttons of the Display options window.To graphically view the description and thickness of the plates. by entering the segmentation (meshing) values in the worksheet as was explained in Chapter 3. or ). type in the value of the thickness of the plates and press the button Note . 182 . The number of segments that will have each basic unit can be defined in the worksheet. Physical members. Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing) There are two ways to indicate the segmentation (meshing): One.Chapter 14: Shells First.

183 . follow these steps: Select the Shells Tab Next.To avoid viewing the material names graphically. and In the case of a reinforced concrete slab you will have to enter the mechanical cover too. Pressure on the Plates To enter pressure on the plates. follow these steps: First choose the corresponding load condition. lift up (deactivate) the buttons in the Model properties toolbar. Choose the material with the mouse and press the button The materials have now been assigned. go to Shells/Materials.Chapter 14: Shells Assigning Materials To assign materials. Note .

184 . and also enter their thickness (entering thickness) and then select them. subdividing is necessary in order to reduce errors and increase precision.Chapter 14: Shells Select the plates. In the case of very coarse meshes. When subdividing a mesh.If the pressure you see in the graph is opposite to what you want. enter a pressure with the opposite sign. For example: first generate the shells that are illustrated in the graph (entering shells). We strongly recommend you to read the available literature on this subject before you use shell elements in your structure. A positive value coincides with the positive direction of the local axis 2. it is necessary to mesh the shell into a reasonable number of sub-plates. Segmentation (meshing) of Plates To obtain an acceptable precision in the analysis of shells. same shape finite elements should be employed. Model idealization and mesh subdividing is one of the most important steps in finite element modeling. Engineering knowledge and judgement plays a very important role in the structure idealization. then type in the value of the pressure and press Note . Go to Shells/Load on shells.

It is important to mention that this precision diminishes at the borders. The dimensions of the slab are: 30 ft x 15 ft and a uniform pressure is acting from top to bottom. Then. performing two calculations with two different subdivisions. The differences between the forces in the nodes calculated in contiguous shells are good parameters to determine the precision obtained with the subdivision of the plates. The slab is fixed in the four borders and it is a reinforced concrete slab. Large differences in the results will indicate that a larger number of plates are needed to accurately model the structural behavior. The results obtained by tables are: 185 .Chapter 14: Shells Select plates to be subdivided. and there are tables with the solutions for the stresses and deflections following classic methods. As an example. the case of a rectangular slab is presented. It is a very simple example. Characteristics of the adopted example. Another possibility for determining the precision obtained is to study the convergence of the results. This example will be used in several sections of this chapter and will be referred to as Shell1. enter the number of segments of each plate. to subdivide.

084*p*l². 4x8 and 8x16: Different subdivisions adopted for Shell1.88 2. in this case = 15 ft E = Deformation Modulus t = thickness of the shell p = applied uniform pressure µ = Poisson Coefficient Three different numbers of subdivisions are adopted: 2x4.67 1.61 2x4 -2.Chapter 14: Shells Main moments: on support Mxx = -0.78 1.88 -2. The results (*) obtained are: Description M11 on supports (Kip) M11 at midspan (Kip) M33 on supports (Kip) 186 Tables -3.058*p*l².010*p*l² Maximum deflection: ω = 0.85 -2.82 4x8 -3.35 8x16 -3.90 -1.06 -2. at midspan Mzz = 0.49 .49 2.030*p*l4/(E*t3) Where l = the least span. at midspan Mxx = -0.041*p*l² Secondary moments: on support Mzz = -0.

45 0.46 0.0047 0. The calculation is performed by unit length of the shell using the moments obtained in the elastic analysis. Dialog window used for Print – Analysis Results options.45 0.00183 61 0. considering the properties introduced in the materials section and the mechanical cover.00468 0 0. The report options available are shown in the shell frame of the dialog shown in the next figure.55 0.Chapter 14: Shells (Kip) M33 at midspan (Kip) Maximum deflection (ft) Maximum error (%) 0. Printing the results This section describes the reports provided for the RAM Advanse Shell element.6 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells Within the options for printing results (see next section).00472 0 12 4. RAM Advanse includes the option to determine the reinforcement area needed for flexure in reinforced concrete shells or slabs. In the calculation the torsional moments and the membrane stresses are not considered. The method adopted is the Strength Design Method suggested by the ACI 318-99. 187 . These reports are provided by selecting menu Reports – Analysis Results.

σ min: Total minimum stress. τ13: The shear force along the edge.Chapter 14: Shells Shell stresses In this report the shell stresses acting on each shell node are shown. τ max: Maximum transverse shear stress (average for both faces) Ang: τ: The angle of the maximum shear stress in relation to local axes. τ12. σ22: Transverse direct stress (it is always assumed equal to zero). Figure that shows the stresses in the local axes with the positive directions. Ang σ: The angle of the main axes in relation to the local axes. The different stresses at each node are: σ11.σx*σy + 3*τ²)1/2 where: σe = von Mises uniaxial equivalent stress σx. each node has two points where the stresses are calculated. It is calculated with the following expression: σe = (σ²x + σ²y . The shell stresses are defined as the forces per unit area of the plate that act within the element to resist the applied loads. 188 . One located at the top face or +t/2 of the shell middle fiber and the other at the bottom face or-t/2 of the shell middle fiber. The main or principal stresses are: σ max: Total maximum stress in the plane formed by the plate. The in-plane and out-of-plane forces determine the value of the stresses on both faces of a shell. Von Mises: The uniaxial equivalent stress proposed by von Mises (used for the design of steel plates). τ13: Transverse shear stress. σy = biaxial stresses referred to any coordinate system τ = Shear stress related to the former biaxial stresses All the calculated stresses consider bending and membrane forces. σ33: In-plane normal stresses in the Axes 1 and 3 directions. Note that both the top and bottom face are relative to the shell local axes. Thus.

Vmax: Maximum shear force (average) Ang V: The angle of the maximum shear force in relation to local axes. The adopted sign convention is according to local axes. M33: Bending moments around Axis 1 and Axis 3. V23: Transverse shear forces. 189 . M13: Twisting moment. M max: Maximum bending moment.Chapter 14: Shells Example of a Shell Stresses Report Internal forces in nodes They are defined as the resultant forces and moments considering the stresses along the thickness of the shell per unit length. These forces are: F11. The main forces are: Fmax: Maximum axial force. M min: Minimum bending moment. F13: Membrane shear force. Ang M: The angle of the main moments in relation to the local axes. V12. Fmin: Minimum axial force. F33: Normal membrane forces. M11. Ang F: The angle of the main forces in relation to the local axes.

the precision of the number of plates applied to a specific problem is in direct relation to the equilibrium of these forces.Chapter 14: Shells Adopted sign convention for internal forces in nodes. The option to get the envelope of corner forces is also included. It is very useful for design purposes. This option is useful to verify the magnitude of each force that must be in equilibrium with the force of the contiguous shell. Sign convention for corner forces according to global axes. The adopted sign convention is: 190 . The convention adopted to display such forces is given in the following figure and it is related to the glocal axes. This option displays the maximum local forces acting for the chosen load combinations. Corner Forces The local corner forces are the internal forces that are acting on each node of the plate. It is very useful in the design step. As it was stated before. Face forces This option shows the forces acting on each lateral face of the shells: Face forces with the adopted sign convention. because it allows having the loads act on different sections of the wall. mainly in the design of shear walls.

Bending moments. Reinforced concrete design for plates This option provides the required reinforcement area per unit length. Warping moment. clear and concise manner. The reference axes are by default the local axes. positive for tension and negative for compression. RAM Advanse allows printing the envelope of the face forces considering the selected load conditions. In a similar way as for the envelope of corner forces. This option provides the range of values of the face forces. F. according to local axis 2. considering the unitary bending moments obtained in the analysis. A graphic can show many results at the same time in an easy. Selecting the desired elements and then pressing the following buttons activates this option: (Rendering toolbar) + (Analysis toolbar) When you activate this option an additional window appears where the units. V and S according to the former figure. the parameter name and range are displayed. There is also a submenu where you can find the list of parameters that can be displayed and several options to display the graphs.Chapter 14: Shells • • • • Shear forces. M22. Graphic environment RAM Advanse offers the tools to display stresses and other results in a highly graphical manner. M. positive if the bottommost fiber is in tension and negative otherwise. Axial force. The list of parameters is: 191 . Optionally a rotated coordinate system can be adopted This option is very useful when the direction of reinforcement does not coincide with the local axes.

They are the equivalent uniaxial stress proposed by von Mises and used in the design of steel plates. To see both faces enable the option to draw stresses on both sides of shells. the normal and shear stresses in the local axes. -τ max. • • • • • Stress contours for a membrane stresses example.e. -σ max.Chapter 14: Shells Frame members (default) This option is used to view the stresses in the frame members (see the Examples Manual for more details). Stresses The stresses that can be seen graphically are: • -Von Mises stresses. -τ12 and τ23. M33 and M13. σ33 and τ13. the transverse shear stresses in planes 1-2 and 2-3 respectively. ) referring to the local axes. the principal normal forces. Internal forces in nodes The internal forces that can be seen graphically are: • • • • 192 F11. the main or principal normal stresses. σ min. the bending and torsion unitary moments related to the local axes. F33 and F13. Fmax and Fmin. the principal bending moments. M11. The selected shells are shown in white with this option. -σ11. Important! The stresses that are shown are always in the positive face (according to local axes). . the normal forces and in-plane shear force related to the local axes. the main or principal transverse shear stress (averaged from both sides) -It is also possible to see the different stresses related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i. For more details see the section Principal stresses in the section Printing results. Mmax and Mmin.

Vmax. ) referring to the local axis 1. 193 .Chapter 14: Shells • • • V12 and V23. the transverse shear forces. the principal shear force (averaged) It is also possible to see the different forces and bending moments related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i. Reinforcement in RC plates The required reinforcement for flexure can be displayed in function of the following parameters: • • Location of the reinforcement (at the top or bottom of the shell) Orientation of the reinforcement referring to the local or any rotated axes. In the former example (Shell1) it is very easy to see the main reinforcement needed at the top and the bottom of the slab. Contours for a bending forces example. The reinforcement needed in the bottom is concentrated in the midspan and the reinforcement needed in the top is concentrated in the fixed borders.e.

Chapter 14: Shells Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. The required reinforcement can be oriented in relation to the local axes or any rotated coordinate system. The rotation of the axes is referred to the local axis 1. 194 . .

This action smoothes the contour lines displayed. The load combination used is c1=dl 195 . Envel and Max The options (Envel and Max) provide the envelope graph for the chosen parameter. Note that these options work only with load combinations. the positive envelope is displayed and when Max is deactivated the negative envelope is displayed. When the option Max is activated.Chapter 14: Shells Reinforcement in rotated axes. Example of the effects of the option smooth. Smooth The option uses an algorithm that averages the values obtained in contiguous shells. In the next figure the positive and the negative envelopes for the moment M11 are presented for the example Shell1.

Stresses on both sides of the shell RAM Advanse offers an option to display the stresses and the equivalent uniaxial stresses (von Mises stresses) on both sides of the shells. 196 . In this case the user has to activate the shell thickness (in the Rendering toolbar) together with the button to show the stresses (in the Analysis toolbar).Chapter 14: Shells Positive and negative envelopes for the bending moment M11 in model Shell1. An example with von Mises stresses at both sides of the shell.

These are included in the program with macros where their shape and geometrical parameters are defined. 2) Create a new 100x100-pixel bitmap drawing that shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. 2. (For more details please refer to the LEO Chapter of this Manual) This chapter shows you how to create new section types (all the files to be created have to be stored in the def folder of the main RA directory): 1. thickness).bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def. Note that this file will serve as the Help context for the user when they enter the cross section data. use any drawing software that can handle BMP format. Next. 4. Create a new 16x16 pixels bitmap drawing. The adopted macro language is very simple: It is called LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) and it is used for different applications within RAM Advanse. Insert the bitmap created in the former step. Then. save it as TEST_100x100. You can also add a remark. such as the Paint program that comes with Windows. 1)Create a new 16x16-pixel bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_16x16. To do this. This drawing should illustrate the new shape. height.bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def Example of 16x16 bmp For other section types. 197 . This drawing will be used for some reports too. 3. It is also possible to define how the main section properties will be calculated based on the cross section proportions (such as width. replace the word TEST with the name of the section that you wish to create. Create a 100x100-bitmap drawing that clearly shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. create the macro for the section type. Example of a 100x100 bmp. Let’s create a section type that will be called TEST. Create a htm file with any text editor able to save files in this format.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros RAM Advanse has the ability to allow the user to create their own types of sections.

htm in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def 1. It advisable to copy a macro of an existing section type. which is similar to the new one. . Create the macro for the new section type. Enter the new name for the section type 198 .Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros 3) Open a htm editor like Microsoft Word™ supplied with Microsoft Windows and insert the drawing. Select a type of section similar to the new one and press and the LEO Editor will be opened with the new macro. Save it as Test. If you want you can add some remarks. Execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections from the main menu.

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

LEO Editor with a macro for sections. Note that it is divided in three parts. The macros for sections have three parts. The first one is where the common properties or general parameters are defined. The second part defines the section variables or the input data for the section, for example the height, width, etc. Finally, the last part contains the subroutines that define the section. There we find the askUser function that defines the order and characteristics of the input data, the SectionShape function that defines the geometry of the section, and others. The next section of the manual details the characteristics of each part. The macro of each section type is stored in a basic text file with the extension .leo. located in the def folder of the main RA directory. Note that the macros of previous versions (before 6.0) with .def extension have been replaced. Warning- If this file contains errors, RAM Advanse will not necessarily give you an error message, and therefore the properties of the sections could be incorrect. The reason is that as in any programming language, only syntax errors are detected. The user is responsible for verifying that the section properties are correct.

Common parameters:
This part contains commands for the general definition of the section. For example, you have to include the following line: (To set In (inches) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='In' (To set Cm (centimeters) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='Cm' As you see, a command consists in this case in the assignation of a default value to a parameter. Note that if a string is assigned to the parameter, the string is between quotation marks. The most common commands are explained below:
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Default Units
Command action: Assigns the default units to a shape (cm, in or mm). When you create a new section the specified unit will show by default. However, you'll be able to change it when creating the section, if desired. Syntax: UNIT=<unit> Allowable values for <Unit>: cm: Centimeters in: Inches mm: Milimeters

Section type
Command action: Instructs RAM Advanse which procedure should be used to calculate section properties. Syntax TYPE=<type> Allowable values for <type> LINEOPEN: shape is an open section composed by elements that are thin in comparison with its overall dimensions. Normally it is applicable to steel shapes such as L, I, W, S, T2L, etc. LINECLOSED: section is also composed of thin elements but they belong to a closed shape such as: square box, pipe, etc. SOLID: shape is solid. This is applicable to square solid bars, round bars, reinforced concrete sections, etc.

Shape
Command action: Describes the shape of the section. If the shape is 'I' or 'C', RA offers two methods for the calculation of Qmod2 (an exact and an approximated method) . For other shapes RA will calculate Qmod2 with the exact method. T sections have to be defined always with shape='T' in order to follow the code specifications for these shapes. Syntax SHAPE=<shape> <Shape> is a string of maximum 5 characters that describes briefly the form of the section. The adopted strings are: 'Built Box', 'C', 'Circle', 'Circular', 'Compound', 'I', 'L', 'Rectangular', 'Spaced', 'T', 'Z'

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Design code
Command action: Specifies the design code to be used with this shape. Syntax CODE=<code> Allowable values for <code> HOTROLLED: Section is made from hot rolled steel and will be designed with LRFD or codes, as applicable. COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with -LRFD codes, as applicable. BS_COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with WOOD: Section is made of wood (lumber or glulam) and will be designed with RCONCRETE: Section is made of reinforced concrete and will be designed with as selected. -ASD, -

-ASD or Code

-ASD Code. or EH codes,

OTHER: Any other section or profile that does not belong to the categories explained above, such as aluminum.

Design formulation
Command action: For steel sections, RAM Advanse designs hot rolled or cold formed sections according to the design specification sections of the adopted Code. You should choose which specification RAM Advanse should use for this section. For wood sections, RAM Advanse has to know if it is lumber or glulam. This parameter is not required for AISI-cold formed sections. Note. - It is very important that you understand this instruction and its effects on the design of your new section template. Please see the chapters on Design of Steel Members (AISC or BS) for how the program has implemented the code provisions or the chapter devoted to wood design. Syntax FORMULATION=<formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> are GEN, TUBE, IC, and L for steel sections and LUMBER or GLULAM for wood. Each one of these formulations represents a different approach, as stated by the AISC, BS or NDS codes. These approaches (or formulations) are: IC: Assign this formulation only to I (W, HP, S, UB, UC or Joists) and C shapes. This formulation is exactly as explained in AISC-F (AISC-ASD and AISC LRFD) This formulation applies to rolled or welded I or H cross sections (BS). TUBE: This formulation should be used with Tube and Pipes shapes.
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It is similar to the IC formulation but takes into account the large Warping constant of Tubes, closed shapes and it's high critical flexural-torsional bending moment.(AISC LRFD Specification for Steel Hollow Structural Sections). This formulation is intended for hot finished RHS or cold formed RHS L: This formulation should be used with L and T2L sections. It is explained in AISC-ASD and LRFD Specifications for Single-Angle Members. GEN: This formulation should be used with other shapes that do not belong to previous formulations. This formulation is similar to the IC formulation but does not use the flexural-torsional formulas suggested by the AISC. Instead, it uses more complicated and general formulas for the critical flexural-torsional bending moments (without simplifications), suggested by Galambos. T sections have a formulation=GEN and a shape='T'. The flexural-torsional strength of compound sections are calculated approximately with the method suggested by Galambos with a safety factor = 0.7. Ref: Galambos T. V., Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988. For wood members, the following formulations are available: LUMBER: This formulation should be used with rectangular and rounded sections. Spaced columns are also considered. This formulation is explained in Chapter 4 of the NDS-ASD Code. GLULAM: This formulation should be used only with rectangular sections. It is explained in Chapter 5 of the NDS-ASD Code.

Cbmax
Command action: It adopts maximum limits for Cb (Bending coefficient) This command sets a limit for the maximum value of Cb. The Code specifies to take Cb smaller than 2.3, which is the default value considered by the program. Syntax CBMAX=<value>

Connection
Command action: This command indicates if the connection between flange and web is continuous or intermittent (welded). If the shape is hot rolled then the connection is continuous. If the shape is welded then the connection is intermittent (built-up members). Syntax CONNECTION=<connection> Allowable values for <connection> CONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web is continuous
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NONCONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web isn't continuous

Category
Command Action: It is an additional classification that is used for reinforced concrete members. It helps to determine the type of members suitable for the section (it is only a descriptive property). Syntax: CATEGORY=<Category> Allowable values for <category> are BEAM, COLUMN and WALL

Commentary
Command action: To make any comment you want concerning the shape. The commentary does not have an affect on properties or the design. You would use this, for instance, if the shape has unequal legs, some unique shape, or any other unusual condition that you wish to communicate to the user. This commentary appears when the user creates new sections. Syntax COMMENTARY=<commentary> Allowable values for <commentary> Any pertinent commentary. All the previous commands can be illustrated with an example. Lets define an angle section type with the following data:

Geometrical data of the angle. The following command lines should be included: UNIT='In' TYPE='LineOpen' SHAPE='L' CODE='HOTROLLED' FORMULATION='L' CBMAX=1.5 //It will be calculated with the Single-angle Specifications //Cbmax=1.5 < the default value of 2.5 (Section 5.2.2 AISC-LRFD) //It is a laminated shape
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//Defines inches as the default unit //it is an open section //The shape is L, it is only a descriptive property of the shape

CONNECTION='Continuous'

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

COMMENTARY='(AISC L with unequal legs)'

Section variables
These commands specify the name, the default value and tags of the variables required for calculating section properties of the new section type. You should create as many variables as needed to define the shape dimensions. Syntax Name of the variable = default value [units] tag <string> Name of the variable. When possible, use a descriptive name with few characters. The first one should always be a letter (shouldn't be a number) following the general rules for variable names in LEO. For example: “a” “bf” “d2” “t” The tag is a text description of the variable. For instance, "Total height", "Width", "Web thickness", "Internal bending radius". Examples for variable definitions are: a = 0.0 [cm] tag 'Section height' bf = 1.0 [in] tag 'Flange thickness' Note that the default value has not to be necessarily zero. The units between brackets defines the units for the variable. In order to follow the different steel design codes for specific shapes, it is required to adopt unique names for certain variables. The shapes with specific variables are: Shapes with IC formulation (I, H or C shapes) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width r: radio (only for BS) k,k1 distances (only for AISC) Shapes with tube formulation Rectangular and/or square tubes: a: height b: width T: thickness
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Pipes D: diameter T: thickness Shapes with Gen formulation and shape=’T’ (only for BS) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width Shapes with L formulation a: height b: width (only for unequal legs) T: thickness Other shapes do not have any restrictions. Following the example of the angle section, the required variables are: //section variables a = 0.0[in] tag 'Height' b = 0.0[in] tag 'Width' T = 0.0[in] tag 'Thickness' k = 0.0[in] tag 'Distance k'

Prop AskUser
This subroutine defines the data that will be required. In general two types of command lines are used: Declaration: Html(fileName as string) This shows the help context that will be used when the data is asked. Specify a htm file that has to be located in the Def folder of the main directory of the program. Declaration: Ask(ref data, caption as string) This requests information from the user> Syntax Prop AskUser() html(<FileName.htm>) ask(Variable name, <input line>) ...
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End Prop The variable has to be previously declared. The input line contains the text that will be associated with the requested variable Following with the example of the angle section, the required subroutine is: //user defined values Prop askUser() html('Test') ask(a, 'Height') ask(b, 'Width') //The help context that will be shown in the input data //First, the section height is asked //Then the section width

ask(T, 'Thickness') //and finally the thickness ask(k, 'Distance k') //This factor is only used for connections design End Prop

Prop Section Shape
The geometry of the section and some design properties are defined in this subroutine.

Node
Declaration: Node(id as integer, x as float, y as float) In order to define a new shape you should create nodes and then connect them with lines or elements. Command action: Creates a node that defines an edge of the section. Note. - The word "Node", as defined here, does not have any relation with the Node element of a structure. Syntax NODE (<Node number or identifier>, <X coordinate>, <Y coordinate>) The node is defined by an identifier and its coordinates. This command has to be repeated the required number of times to define all the edges of the desired section. The following lines have to be included for the example of the angle section:

Coordinates of the required nodes //Nodes Node(1, 0, 0)
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Node(2, -b+0.5*t, 0) Node(3, -b+0.5*t, a-0.5*t) The nodes that were defined are:

SetLine...EndLine
Declaration: SetLine(thickness as float, radius as simple) EndLine Command action: It allows to define the different elements of a section including the thickness and internal bent radius. Note that after starting this command, a variable number of lines can be adopted to include elements and their properties. The commands that are used within SetLine are: Rigid, Closed and Segment. Notice that at the end a line with the word EndLine indicates that the line definition has finished. Syntax SetLine(<variable for line thickness>, <variable for bent radius>) To define the line thickness, adopt any section variable as for example “t”. The bent radius has normally a value grater than zero for cold formed steel sections. The variable for the bent radius has also to be previously defined. If there is no bent radius, enter the a zero value “0”. Next, you will find the subroutine applied to the angle section example:

//lines SetLine(T, 0) //Other commands like rigid or closed are not included, they will be explained further in this chapter Segment(1, 2) Segment(2, 3) EndLine

Segment
Declaration:
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Segment(n1 as integer, n2 as integer) Command Action: It determines a line segment between two nodes (n1 and n2). This command has to be always within a SetLine. The actual values of rigid and closed will be assigned to the new segment Syntax: Segment(<Initial node identifier>, <final node identifier>) Two instruction lines are required for the angle section example:

Segment(1,2)

Segment(2,3) It is important to note that when defining the section, the start of the elements of an AISI closed section must be in a vertex; not in the middle of a length as shown in the next figures.

Correct and incorrect definitions of a tube section (AISI).

Rigid(ity)
Declaration: Rigid(value as integer) Command action: This command allows you to clearly specify what type of elements comprises a steel section profile. RAM Advanse requires this information for hot rolled steel shapes to determine if an element is Compact, Non-compact, or Slender, as AISC classifies them. When the AISC code check is performed, it is necessary to know if an element is stiffened, unstiffened, or an intermediate element such as a T web element.
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The program use this parameter to determine the class of an element (plastic, compact, noncompact or slender). This check is performed in hotrolled or coldformed steel shapes. If this command is ignored, RAM Advanse may consider an element to be stiffened or unstiffened. RAM Advanse will consider an element to be stiffened if each end of the element is connected to another element. Therefore, if only one other element is connected to the end of the element, it will be considered as being unstiffened.

When the RIGID command is omitted, RAM Advanse will consider the elements as illustrated in the figure. In the case of cold-formed steel sections, the program requires to define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Examples of rigid values to be adopted in AISI sections Syntax Rigid(<value>) This command should be inserted into the element creation command, as explained before: Notice that one rigid value may exist for several line segments with the same characteristics. Allowable Values for <rigid > The following rigid values represent the different possible elements of a shape (for more details, see the tables given in the steel design chapters): 1: Outstanding legs of pairs of angles in continuous contact: angles or plates projecting from rolled beams or columns 2: Stems of tees 3: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators 4: Flanges of square and rectangular box and hollow structural sections of uniform thickness, subject to bending or compression
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5: All other uniformly compressed stiffened elements i.e., supported along two edges. (Not applicable for BS) 6: Webs in combined flexural and axial compression 7: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators. Compact limit= 65*sqrt(Fy) 8: Circular hollow sections, in axial compression, in flexure 9: Flanges of I-shaped rolled beams and channels in flexure 10: Unsupported width of cover plates perforated with a succession of access holes. (Not applicable for BS)

SetSolid
Declaration: SetSolid EndSolid Action command: This command defines the perimeter shape of a solid section. Between the reserved words SetSolid and EndSolid three or more Segment commands have to be included. The EndSolid finishes the definition of the solid section. Syntax SetSolid Segment(n1,n2) Segment(n2,n3) ....Segment(n3,n4) ... End Solid Important Notice that you should close the border. This means that if you start with node 1 you should also end with node 1 in a clockwise direction.

The commands for the definition of the previous figure are: //solids SetSolid Segment(1, 4)
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y as float) Command action: The command Bars allows you to specify the number of bars that will be drawn in 3D for reinforced concrete members. x2 as float. 2) Segment(2. <0 or 1 to determine if a bar will be drawn on the initial point>) BAR (<X coordinate of the bar>. b-s. true) //Draw 3 spaces with 4 bars at the bottom part Bar(b-s. <X coordinate of the final point>. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top right corner Bar(s. 3.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(4. nroBars as integer. 1) EndSolid Bars and Bar Declaration: Bars(x1 as float. s. s. <Y coordinate of the bar>) The following is an example of the application of this command for a rectangular reinforced concrete section: The commands to define the reinforcement of the section consider a coordinate system with its center on the bottom left corner of the section. while the command Bar draws only one bar. n2 as integer) Action command: This command indicates the nodes that are considered joined when a single section is made up of more than one individual profile (like a W and C-section). n1 as integer. Syntax BARS (<X coordinate of the initial point>. 211 . <number of spaces between bars in the line between the initial and final points>. y1 as float. <Y coordinate of the final point>. <Y coordinate of the initial point>. Both commands are used normally after defining a solid section with SetSolid. y2 as float. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top left corner Join Declaration: Join(thickness as float. 3) Segment(3. //Bars Bars(s. setInitial as boolean) Bar(x as float.

Syntax Closed(<0 or 1>) Where 0: Is for open elements 1: Is for closed elements The application of the command can be illustrated with the following box section SetLine(t. An example for this command can be found in the C&C section where it is used to join nodes 3 and 5 of the two shapes (groups of elements) with a thickness given by the tf2 variable in the following way: Example for the application of the Join command Join(tf2..0) . It is used with the SetLine command.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Syntax Join(<variable for join thickness>.. 3. Closed(1) //The following segments will be considered part of a closed section Segment(1.e.2) 212 .<node of the first group of elements>. 5) //join nodes 3 and 5 with a thickness equal to tf2 Closed Declaration: Closed(value as boolean) Action command: This command allows you to indicate which elements are connected in a closed shape (i.<node of the second group of elements>) Note that the nodes to be joined must be very close. a box or a tubular section).

The template is the TAPERED_I (three plate) section template.0. The user may use this subroutine to include special formulae or considerations in the section properties calculations.<rigid>.4) Segment(4. the depth may have a fixed small value because the real depth will be defined during the execution of the program with the variables d0 and dL in the Data Panel/Member/Section. rigid=7. <final node>) For the example of the angular section. without bent radius. 213 . Note that no web depth is entered as it assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in the worksheet. the following command lines are required: Line(t.0.0. <bent radius>.3) Segment(3.7. n1 as integer. Therefore. See the Chapter for Creating Sections and Materials for further details.3) //Draws a line with thckness=t.7. Prop PropertiesCalc This is another optional subroutine that allows a section to override calculated properties of the section and perform that calculation based on the equations of the subroutine. rigid=7.1. n2 as integer) Command action: This is an alternative command to create a segment connecting two nodes with a line including all the characteristics of the line as bent radius and rigidity in a single command. It overrides the calculation of the section properties with the actual depth.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(2.2. rigid as integer. you can see the list of declarations in the LEO Editor. Only the redefined properties have to be specified. without bent radius. radius as simple.2) //Draws a line with thckness=t. To see the list of properties that may be edited or modified.1) EndLine Line Declaration Line(thickness as float.<closed>. open segments between nodes 1 and 2 Line(t. close as integer. Syntax Line(<thickness>. Therefore. Note that a special built-up section template is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up steel tapered members. 0.<initial node>. the subroutine has to include the formulae for the calculation of all the different section properties as a function of the depth. open segments between nodes 2 and 3 Prop Tapered properties Definition: Prop TaperedProperties(Depth as float) End Prop This optional subroutine is specially conceived for tapered members.

785 in4 Notice that the original value for the former section was Jtor=3. the torsional constant (Jtor) of a rectangular tube (Stube section) may be calculated with the following formula: Jtor = 2*t*a²*b²/(a+b) for b/t>10 To adopt this equation. which differ with the adopted one because the program is calculating with a general procedure (for all types of sections) that give approximated values. Insert the following code: Prop PropertiesCalc adopted for the example Now. you can test the calculation adopting section STube 3.912 in4.5 in. For example.1875in The calculated Jtor = 4.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Select the option to view declarations to see the list of available section properties. b = 2.5x1_4 with a = 3. execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections and edit the STube macro.5x2. 214 .5 and t = 0.

the following steps should be done: 2. Create a new bitmap drawing of 20x20 pixels. Proceed as follows: 1. Create a new bitmap drawing that represents the Template 3. Create a larger bitmap drawing that shows dimensions and variables 4.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. To create a Template. It is advisable to take a look at the available templates located in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates 3. This chapter will explain how to create your own templates. The best way to create a new template is to use and modify an existing one. Create a new 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_20x20.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. 2. Create a new text file as explained next and save it as TEST. Let's suppose that we want to create a new template named TEST. In the example that follows we will create a template called TEST. 215 . Create a text file that contains the Template definition All the Templates that come with your copy of RAM Advanse have been created as described in this chapter.tpl in the same RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Create a new150x150 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_150x150.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates RAM Advanse allows you to create your own structure Templates and incorporate them into the program. Create a new bitmap drawing of 150x150 pixels and save it as TEST_ 150x150. 4.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Save the 20x20 drawing with the name TEST_20x20.

This description is seen when the template is invoked. RAM Advanse will not give any error message therefore the created structure may have errors. Warning.TPL file defines how the structure will be created and it has a specific format that allows RAM Advanse to recognize it. you should include the following lines: DESCRIPTION Truss triangular type 1 As you can see. Each command can take one or more lines. two lines compose one command in this case: DESCRIPTION and the value of the description (Truss triangular type 1). Syntax: DESCRIPTION <description> Allowable values of <description>: A 25-40 characters commentary that indicates the purpose or use of the template.To create the bitmap drawing.tpl file contains errors. VARIABLES Command action: Use this command to declare the variables required by the template to generate the structure. The TPL file The TPL file is a text file with the required commands to define the creation of a structure. to assign a description to the template (this is not the description of the elements but of the template). . For instance.tpl file The *. Most commands take more than one line. Note. Syntax: 216 . The TEXT. use the Paint program from Windows or any other program that supports the BMP format.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Create a new text file as indicated next and save it as TEST.When the *. . Following is an explanation of the most common commands: DESCRIPTION Command action: Insert a description or commentary about the template. Notice that this command requires 4 lines.tpl in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.

Syntax: SELECT <number of nodes> Values of <number of nodes>: The number of nodes that the user must select before using the template. If this command is left out. Example: 1 217 . don't use more than two characters and the first character should be a letter not a number. Example: “a” “bf” “d” Allowable values of <description>: A description of the variable. This is a very important command to validate the node selection. This is the value that RAM Advanse will assign in the event that the user omitted entering a value.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates VAR <name> <description> <default value> Allowable values of <name>: Name of the variable. Example: "Number of segments" "Height" Allowable values of <default value>: The default value of the variable. SELECT Command action: This command indicates how many nodes should be selected to use the template. . the structure generated by RAM Advanse may contain errors.The variables created using this command will appear in the dialog box that shows up when the template is executed. This should have less than 20 characters and should give a clue about the meaning of the variable. Example: 2 0 desc1 Note. If possible.

(See the Joist.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 2 3 4 5 LINE Command action: This command creates a line between two nodes selected by the user.tpl template as an example). In that way. If there is already a line of members between the two nodes. The members of the line are assigned with a description. The line can be segmented into a number of frame members. Syntax: LINE <description> <number of segments> <n1> <n2> Values for <description>: The description to be assigned to the members that will be created. the user is able to assign a description when the template is being executed. Values of <number of segments>: The number of segments (or frame members) of the line that is being created. Example: 218 . 3 ns (ns-2)/2 Values of <n1>: The initial node of the line to be created. After using the template the user may modify the member's descriptions. Example: “Col1” "Beam1" "g1 "H1" desc1 Notice that you could assign a variable name instead of a constant value. not the absolute number of the nodes. Example: any integer value. Note that you can define also physical members if you consider only the two extreme nodes of a member. Notice that this is selection order of the nodes. variable or formula. they will not be modified.

the 2nd selected node} Example: to create a line between the 1st and 2nd selected nodes. The diagonal elements can also be sub-divided. Syntax: DIAGONAL <description> <n1> <n2> 219 . You should notice that these numbers (n1 and n2) refer to the order of selection of the nodes. enter the next command: LINE G1 {frame members description} Ns {variable for number of segments} 1 {line starts at the 1st selected node} 2 {line ends at the 2nd selected node} DIAGONAL Command action: This command creates one or more diagonal members between two lines of members. Values of <n2> The final node of the line to be created. if 5 nodes were selected. as illustrated in the figure above of a triangular truss.e. Therefore. it is not replaced. for example. and you wish to create a line between the 4th and 2nd nodes. If there is any member between the nodes to be generated. the 4th selected node} 2 {n2=final node of the line i.e. n1 and n2 should be: 4 {n1=initial node of the line i.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 (first selected node) 2 (second selected node) 3 (third selected node) Up to the number of selected nodes.

Please notice that the default description can be a variable previously defined. and <n4> Normally. Two lines (defined by n1-n2 and n3-n4) delimit the diagonal elements. instead of a constant value. Values for <n1>. <n2>. as illustrated in the next figure delimit the diagonal elements. 220 . two lines of elements. <n3>. Description by default of diagonal members.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates <n3> <n4> <number of segments> <initial offset 1-2> <initial offset 3-4> <final offset 1-2> <final offset 3-4> <step> <number of segments in each diagonal member> Values of <description> Any description to be assigned by default to the diagonal member.

Line 2 is the line determined by n3-n4. where the diagonals should end. 221 . Notice that this value should be zero or negative. Final offset 1-2 is the offset related to the n2 node.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Line 1 is the line determined by n1-n2. Initial offset 1-2 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n1 node. Initial offset 3-4 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n3 node.

Syntax TEMPLATE <template> <number of selected nodes> <n1> <n2> … <nn> <parameters> 222 . An example of this command can be seen in the RoofTruss1. Each diagonal can be segmented into various pieces. Notice that it should be 1 or greater. This is the step between one diagonal element and another.tpl template that is located at the folder RAM Advanse\Templates. Enter 1 or zero if you don't wish to segment the diagonal or the number of pieces if you want to segment. TEMPLATE Command action: Executes a template like a subroutine.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Final offset 3-4 is the offset related to the n4 node. where the diagonals should end. Note that this value should be zero or negative.

n2. Therefore. which required 3 selected nodes and the number of segments. The template to be executed should be located in the templates directory (RAM Advanse\templates). You should notice that this is the selection order of the nodes.. Values of <n1. if you wish to select the 3rd and 4th nodes.tpl {the template to be executed} 3 {number of nodes to be selected for Trian1 template } 3 {Select 1st node for Trian1 (this is the 3rd currently selected node) } 2 {Select 2nd node for Trian1 (this is the 2nd currently selected node) } 8 {Select 3rd node for Trian1 (this is the 8th currently selected node) } ns {first parameter required by Trian1: number of segments} Example 1: Creating a template In this example. Consequently. enter 3 4 Values of <parameters>: These are the parameters (variables values) required by the template to be called in the same order as they are present in the dialog box. nn> This selects the desired nodes for the template that is being called up. the command will be as follows: TEMPLATE Trian1.. Example: RoofTruss1 (with or without extension) Truss1 Values of <number of selected nodes> This is the number of nodes that should be selected in order to execute the template to be called up. if you need to call the Trian1 template.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Values of <template> It is the name of the template to be executed. the template illustrated below is going to be created: 223 .

The name of this template is example1. Note that the order is arbitrary but not the number of nodes. we'll use the member descriptions illustrated above Note. Then save the drawing as example1_20x20. we decide that the user should select 4 nodes in the illustrated order. in bmp format. Illustrative 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing. 224 . . 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. We'll allow the user to enter the number of segments and this value will be stored in the NS variable. To do this you can use the Paint software that comes with Windows.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Arbitrarily. By default.bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates. The following are the steps required to create this template: 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format.

Then.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that will need to be provided by the end user. in bmp format. 3) Create the TPL file Now.tpl is going to be created. Note. This file defines how the template will work.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. The file will be as follows: {description or commentary about this template} DESCRIPTION Example 1 DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable to store the number of segments } VAR ns Number of segments 2 {4 nodes should be selected before using this template} SELECT 4 {Generation of the first and last vertical members. the example1.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels. save the picture as example1_150x150. respectively} LINE g3 2 1 3 LINE g3 2 2 4 {Generation of the horizontal members } LINE g1 225 . .

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates NS 1 2 LINE g2 NS 3 4 {Generation of the middle vertical members} DIAGONAL g3 1 2 3 4 ns 1 1 -1 -1 1 2 {Generation of the diagonal members} DIAGONAL g4 1 2 5 6 ns 0 1 -1 0 226 .

227 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 0 DIAGONAL g4 5 6 3 4 ns 1 0 0 -1 1 0 Example 2: Creating a template In the following example we will create the template that is illustrated below: In this template we want the user to select the nodes as illustrated. Notice that there are 8 nodes.

Note. Illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Two variables are required to store the desired number of segments. The roof beam descriptions will be entered by the user and stored in the descRoof variable. The steps to create this template are as follows 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format.bmp in the c:\RAM Advanse\Templates folder. in bmp format. . 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. These values will be stored in the ns1 and ns2 variables. Then save the drawing as example2_20x20. 228 .The name of this template is example2. the illustrated descriptions will be assigned by the template. By default.

bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Note.tpl file that defines how the structure is going to be created.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that must be provided by the end user.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels. save the picture as example2_150x150. in bmp format. Next. The file contents are as follows: {description or commentary about the template} DESCRIPTION 3D example truss DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable required to input the number of segment 1} VAR Ns1 Number of segment1 2 {variable required to input the number of segment 2} VAR Ns2 Number of segment2 2 {variable where the description of the roof beams will be stored} VAR Desc1 Description 1 Roof1 {required number of selected nodes to execute this template } 229 . . 3) Create the TPL file Create the example2.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates SELECT 8 {call the Truss2 template to generate the front truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 2 6 4 8 ns2 {call the Truss2 template to generate the left side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 1 2 3 4 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the rear truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 5 6 7 8 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the right side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 1 230 .

231 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 5 3 7 ns2 {generation of the roof beams.tpl and run RAM Advanse to execute it. Notice that it uses description to be entered by you} DIAGONAL Desc1 3 4 7 8 ns1 1 1 -1 -1 1 0 Now save this file as RAM Advanse\Templates\example2.

simply go to RAM Advanse and execute the templates dialog box. Go to Tools/Data Generation/Templates Or you can also go to Members/Connectivity and press 232 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Using the Example 2 template To execute the template created by the previous example.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates As you can see. any newly created template appears automatically. When the template is executed. RAM Advanse will automatically ask for the variables. 233 .

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In the case of a free border.Chapter 17: Building Structures Chapter 17: Building Structures RAM Advanse has several special commands to facilitate data entry for building structures. In all cases the nodes of the members ends are required to be in a plane. The first require the selection of the surrounding beams and the second requires the selection of the nodes that define the deck area. following a clockwise or counter clockwise order of selection. There are two options to generate load areas. Generating deck or wall areas Deck or wall areas are used to generate the loads transmitted by surface loads. Generating the mass for a rigid diaphragm from applied surface loads. These options are described in more detail below. the user should model an additional beam in order to fulfill the former requirement: When physical members surround the area. Generating wind loads for each rigid diaphragm floor level. all the enclosed areas will be considered: The tools for the generation of the load areas are located in the worksheet Areas/Nodes that conform the perimeter: 235 . The areas have to be fully enclosed by members . These commands provide the engineer the capability of automatically: • • • Generating deck or wall areas (transmitted surface loads).

Click the tool button and enter the direction of load distribution.Chapter 17: Building Structures This worksheet has the following tools: Defining deck/wall areas spanning in X / Horizontal direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. Note that the order of the nodes does not determine the orientation of the loads. Press any of the following buttons: To create a deck spanning in the X direction. and setting the direction of load distribution as a specific angle (clockwise) of the horizontal Global-X direction or of the horizontal plane for inclined areas. Select the girders (members or physical members) that surround the deck area. Defining deck/wall areas spanning at an angle relative to the X axis / Horizontal plane: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-X direction or in the horizontal plane for inclined areas. Create deck/wall area at selected nodes (in a plane): The function of this tool is to generate a deck/wall element covering all the selected nodes in a clockwise or counter clockwise order. Defining deck/wall areas spanning in Z / Vertical direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. The tool does not define the direction of the deck/wall. The steps to generate the deck surface are: Select the desired load case. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-Z direction or in the vertical direction for inclined areas. 236 .

You can enter also any description manually. the members that belong to the four deck areas were simultaneously selected. you will have to specify the deck direction If you have used the tool manually. You can use the option Tools/Deck area Selection in the main menu to easily select all the deck/wall areas or the group of deck/wall areas attached to the selected nodes. Go to Area/Description and deck/wall spanning. Notes: 1. In the above example . they will be considered in the distribution of loads. The deck areas are not required to be generated one by one. The generated deck area will be shown with the specified deck orientation (for load distribution purposes). In this case you have to go to Areas/Description and deck/wall spanning and then the following tools may be used: To assign direction for load distribution in global X direction/horizontal plane XZ. Press the button and the program will automatically assign a new description. Assign a description to the generated deck areas. If there are members in the middle of the load area (marked in blue).Chapter 17: Building Structures To create a deck spanning in the Z direction. To assign direction for load distribution in global Z direction/vertical plane.. To assign direction for load distribution at an angle relative to global X axis/horizontal plane 237 . to generate a load area. To create a deck spanning at an angle relative to the X-axis. 2.

even if it has been or has not been Generating Wind Load Lateral wind loads can be calculated from a pressure applied to the side of a building. Select all the nodes of a floor. If a deck area is deleted. You can select the areas that will have the same load. even if not all areas are selected. 238 . This happens because the program automatically executes the tool executed previously. ) or perpendicular to the area ( ). before the analysis. The direction of the pressure may act downwards in the negative direction of the vertical axis (Yaxis. To create rigid diaphragms proceed as follows. these are the nodes that will be constrained to displace as a rigid diaphragm.Chapter 17: Building Structures XZ. The final step is to define the magnitude and direction of the loads that will act on the previously defined deck areas. This command is only applicable to rigid diaphragm stories. Notice that there is a tool to graphically see the loads that are generated on the beams. The generated loads are displayed in green and the other loads (defined directly by the user) are shown in red: Note: This command is applied over all deck areas. Rigid floor diaphragm Before generating a story wind load a rigid floor diaphragm should be created. the generated loads (displayed on green) will still be displayed graphically until the user applies the tool again or until the user analyze the structure. then go to deck Areas/Surface load in the worksheet and enter the pressure that is acting on the defined surface.

All the selected nodes (nodes with the same floor number) will now be constrained to move together as in a rigid diaphragm. 239 . Enter wind load cases (for example. WX=Wind in X and WZ=Wind in Z). Generating wind loads For models that contain rigid diaphragms. lateral wind loads can be automatically calculated from an applied lateral pressure.Chapter 17: Building Structures Press the floor number button Or enter the floor number and press .

Pressure Calculation: If you want the program will calculate the wind pressure on the structure based on the wind speed and a structural shape drag coefficient. These include: Wind Pressure in X/Z: Based on the selected floors and columns RAM Advanse can calculate an exposed vertical surface associated with each floor. Houghton Mifflin Where: Cd = Coefficient of Drag (approximately 2. Roberson Crowe. Note that the force applied to a story is calculated as the pressure times the floor height (largest column length below a floor) times the projected width of the structure in the required direction (based on the nodes selected in each floor). The pressure will then be calculated using the following formula: Pressure = Cd*1/2*d*v2 Co. Press The next dialog that appears requires several pieces of data. V = Wind velocity. Load Case name: The lateral load that is calculated must be associated with a load case.21 kg/m3).Chapter 17: Building Structures Select all the beams and columns of the floors against which wind will act. enter the appropriate values in the Pressure Calculation frame. 240 . Press Calculate Pressures to calculate automatically wind pressure in the X and Z directions. d = Density of Atmosphere (approximately 1. To use this option. The applied wind pressure is multiplied by the exposed area to generate a lateral wind load at each selected floor. Engineering Fluid Mechanics. Select the desired load case name from the drop down list box. 1975) (Ref. which should have already been created.0 for a flat surface).

Wind story force is applied at this node. The center of mass is the single point on the floor where the mass from all the elements and shells of a rigid floor can be considered to act without changing the results. These mass values are typically located at the center of mass of the floor. with the masses calculated in the following way: Translation masses Tx = Tz = dead load case * dead load factor + live load case * live load factor considering all the dead and live load forces on members and floor nodes. dm: is the mass that is equivalent to the distribution of the linear or surface loads of the elements of the floor. Generating masses for each floor To perform a dynamic analysis on a building structure with rigid diaphragms it is necessary to associate translation and rotation masses with the floor. The rotation mass is calculated with the following expression: Ry = integral (r²*dm) Where: r: distance from the mass center to the point where dm is acting. The program allows the engineer to create this node for each floor. The program will automatically create a node at the center of pressure of each floor. If loads have been applied to individual nodes on a floor. then RAM Advanse can automatically calculate the center of mass and the translation / rotation story mass properties. 241 . Notice that in this example wind force parallel to the X-axis is assigned to WX = Wind in X load case.Chapter 17: Building Structures Enter the required information and press OK. and wind forces parallel to Z axis are assigned to WZ = Wind in Z load case.

Before using the command for the generation. 242 .Chapter 17: Building Structures See the required steps for the generation of masses for each floor in the following paragraphs to know how the data is entered. Press Enter the required information and press OK. Select all the beams and columns from desired floors. This figure indicates that RAM Advanse should consider all the existing nodal dead load and half the nodal live load when calculating the mass properties for the floor. Refer to the previous section on wind load generation for how to create rigid diaphragms. rigid floor diaphragms should be created.

Z 243 . or for Mass values in X. .Chapter 17: Building Structures Nodes have been generated at the mass centers. press or about Y-axis respectively and . To view the translation and rotation mass values.

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You will find special options for each type of material. This information will be used only in the design procedures. For wood members. The strength ratio determines the condition of each member in relation to its strength (i. This is evaluated with the strength ratio and design status. footings. Design and Detailing Modules RAM Advanse has design and detailing modules for concrete members. More details related to the design of each particular material may be found in each specific design chapter Go to Process/Design all of the main menu or pulse F10 to design the model. United Kingdom: BS 5950 Code. Warning: The design results will not be available for wood members analyzed with the LRFD Design Code option. Independent detailing modules: retaining walls and continuous beams from the same menu. the user can design the model to check the design conditions of each member of the structure. With the former information the user can decide if it is necessary to perform further changes (i.e. select other sections. The dependent module will allow you to obtain the immediate custom design of the different components that participate in your structure. it is required to define the code that will be used in the design. if it is over or sub dimensioned) and the design status shows the overall condition of each element (OK or No Good).Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design After the analysis. retaining walls and continuous beams that will allow you to reduce your working time considerably. It is important to define some design parameters before proceeding with the design. These modules are divided into 2 groups: • • Dependent detailing modules: reinforced concrete beam. reinforced concrete column. materials. connections. The program offers the following possibilities: • • United States: ASD (AISI_AISC) or LRFD (AISI_AISC).e. wood and connections from the Detailing menu. For steel members. etc). This procedure is performed for wood and steel materials while concrete is designed directly in the detailing modules. In this case the duration of each load condition has to be specified. wood members. To use these modules the engineer should provide an 245 . To design steel members with the BS Code you can adopt the UK nomenclature with the option located in Configuration/General/Nomenclature. the program adopts the ASD (NDS) Code.

which form a continuous beam for example. refer to the particular member section in this manual. the user should enter all the necessary data to obtain the new model before making the analysis and going to the design screen. RAM Advanse has provided several Design and Detailing modules to assist the engineer in the design and detailing of: concrete columns and beams. These modules allow the engineer to take the results of the analysis performed in the main application. and complete his or her design and detailing of any member. retaining walls and continuous beams. The basic design is performed automatically after the building is analyzed. the same as in the other modules. For example. Analyze a concrete structure. or make an isolated analysis. This section describes how to invoke the design/detailing modules. 246 . isolated spread footings. To use the module. in the case of the independent modules. wood or steel structure requires the engineer to design and detail all the members in the structure. to detail a reinforced concrete beam. The design. It is advisable to consider each span as a physical member because all the tools of the detailer are designed with this consideration. Select the line of beams containing the members to be detailed. the engineer can use any of the available modules for more advanced design and detailing to further manipulate his or her design and obtain details for DXF purposes. select the beams you want to detail in RAM Advanse and then invoke the beam detailing module as described below. before invoking the detailing module. Introduction The design of any reinforced concrete. In both cases. For more detailed information on the content and display for each individual design/detailing module. how the design/detailing modules are organized and how to navigate within the modules. Invoking the Modules Dependent detailing modules Select those elements to be designed and detailed before invoking a dependent detailing module. The independent modules will allow you to easily generate a new model from this application.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. wood members. Analyze the structure and select the members in RAM Advanse. connections. Note that the beams must be in a continuous line. It can be saved with extension "AVW" and be used by RAM Advanse. is realized automatically to obtain the results in graphical form or report form. or with extension "RTW" or "RCB" to be used directly by the respective module. and the results can be displayed graphically or in a report form. in the case of the dependent modules.

Select all the members that belong to the column line to be detailed. Invoke the Detailing/Reinforced concrete beam command as illustrated. starting at the lowest column. the engineer can select the lowest column and press the Selection toolbar. in the Selection toolbar. 247 . To in select all the columns in a column stack. When selecting columns in a stack the engineer should start at the lowest column and select the columns sequentially upwards. select an end member and press in the Selection toolbar. and press The column module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Reinforced concrete columns menu item. Columns are selected and the detailer is invoked in a similar manner.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules To select all the beams in a line.

Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Invoke the Columns module For footings. The footing module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Footings menu item. 248 . If more than one node is selected the loads for each node will be transferred into the module. but the forces used to control the design are taken from all the nodes selected before invoking the detailer. the engineer can select one or more foundation nodes. Select all the nodes that are to have a common footing. you won’t have to select the elements in RAM Advanse since you will be able to generate a new model inside of this module directly. Independent detailing modules To use an independent detailing module. Select Detailing/Footings as indicated. Only one type of footing can be designed at a time.

the selected nodes do not contain geometric information so the footing dimensions are not read from the model. column or footing. Each module has four screens that can be accessed by pressing the following buttons: Data editing screen. In the case of the footings. material and load data are entered or modified as required. Organization of the Modules Every detailing module works in the same way. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when a dependent module is invoked. The screen has default values when an independent module is invoked. you will be ready to introduce your model. Select Detailing/Continuous Beam as illustrated. but it is not necessarily associated with any particular beam. Once you enter the module. This screen has two different formats for entering data depending on the module: • The first screen has a table as illustrated in the figure • The second screen has a path with drop-down options as shown below 249 .Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Select Detailing/Retaining wall as illustrated. In this screen geometric. The material data of this screen is maintained between sequential calling of the module.

This screen is used to establish the design and detailing criteria that RAM Advanse uses to determine the appropriate design and details. Additionally. Zoom out. The engineer can typically locate information here on the design results. the engineer can print a report . the engineer should switch to the data screen as described previously. See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. Detailing screen. Configuration screen. the user will be able to edit design values through a spreadsheet on the left side. All options of the different screens are described next. This extra screen is used to print a report with all the data and design results. according to the detailing module. press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. This screen displays design and analysis results as stresses and/or resistance. To change material properties or geometry to achieve a satisfactory design. This data is saved between different module calls and should be used typically to establish office standards for design and detailing of the various member types. These diagrams can be simple when a single stress is graphed as moment Mu or merged as moment Mu vs phi*Mn. Navigation and Data Entry Each module presents similar navigation and movement characteristics. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. 250 . This screen displays the generated details that can be exported to a CAD program. These options may be enabled depending on the detailing module. Zoom fence. These results are shown in a tabular form or in a graphical form according to the detailing module. Zoom To zoom.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design screen. Depending on the detailing module.

This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). Activate and inactivate edges movement. Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. name the file. Print graphics Print current graphic. Press . Click with the right mouse button on the point to be centered on the screen. 251 .Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Fit in window. and save it. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. Hint: If a mouse wheel is available way as in the main RA screen. the engineer can use the wheel to zoom in or out in a similar Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. DXF files Some modules have the option to export graphics to DXF. This option is enabled when the button appears in the bar. .

Hint: If there are problems in selecting a value for editing. 252 . Press ESC to cancel data editing. All editable values appear in red color.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules The screen will redraw with the clicked point at the center of the window. zoom in on the value. Note that in some cases the red texts have the display option through a drop-down as shown below. Enter the information and then press Enter or click out of the edit box. Data Entry Several screens allow the engineer to modify values. Click with the left mouse button on the red text. Click on the value (left-mouse button) to make it editable as shown in the figure below.

By adding the unit to the entered number. Remark: The defined units groups of variables of the main program are not valid in the detailing modules. Units for the entered data can be specified during data entry as illustrated in the figures below. the value will be automatically converted to the current unit system. The user can enter data in a unit that is different from the currently selected global unit. Some Design and Detailing screens also have editable data (text in red) used to choose display options.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Click the mouse on the red text. Acceptable values and units. 253 .

the Traffic light is automatically enabled (when the user goes to design. Once the data has been input. detailing or report screen). indicating the design status of the member according to 3 colors: • • • Red. the user is able to immediately see the analysis and design results of the member. See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. All the modules also have a graphic indicator for the strength verification and deflection called Traffic light. when the member fulfills all the code verifications. design parameters and results will be printed in a Report. Green. This indicator prevents the user from having to repeatedly go to the Report to see if the member fulfills all the code verifications. 254 . when the member fulfills the strength verifications but not some other parameter such as deflection or slenderness.0 Yellow. All the input data. when the member fails in the strength verification and the ratio is >1.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Results and verifications In the design and detailing screens.

Within the US. The program allows the user to choose between two countries: US and UK. which was popular in the past.serviceability and ultimate. the AISC Specifications (American Institute of Steel Construction) for hot rolled sections and the AISI Specifications (American Iron and Steel Institute) for cold-formed sections are used while the BS 5950 is adopted for the UK. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is deflection. The Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. The ASD codes allow wind and earthquake loads to be reduced and allowable stresses to be magnified by a factor of one third (1/3). For the ASD method. Manual of Steel Construction – LRFD (3rd Edition . See the result output sections of this chapter for more information. No increase is considered on the allowable stresses in ASD design. AISC-LRFD. This 255 . It is important to verify load types if they belong to a limit state.2001). The design philosophy embodied in the former concept includes the consideration of the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use. the user will need to specify service or nominal load conditions. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. The following codes are implemented in the current release of RAM Advanse: • • • • AISC-ASD. The BS 5950 Code is a Limit State Design method that requires the use of factored loads similar to the American AISC LRFD method. Two major categories of limit state are recognized . which has been developed more recently. British Standard BS 5950-1:2000. and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. The LRFD method will require specification of factored loads for limit states.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures This chapter describes the general options available in RAM Advanse for the design of steel members. Manual of Steel Construction – ASD (9th Edition -1989). The user may specify load conditions used for the optimization process and those that will be considered in the output report. Design is then performed automatically and the results are shown graphically or in a text form. AISI –ASD-LRFD Cold Formed Steel Manual – (1996 Edition). Two methods are available for performing steel member design in the US. The program does not automatically consider if a load is a wind or seismic load when performing a design. Loads The user will need to ensure that all loads are applied correctly and that required load combinations have been generated. The user is required to provide several design parameters before proceeding with the analysis of the model. The user may not exclude any of the created load conditions.

Selecting a steel section to the members. Illustrative figure of the local axes of a section.4. Selection of the design code When a section is assigned to a member. Sections Use the procedure illustrated in the following figure to assign steel section sizes to members. For more information on the design of steel members in accordance with a specific code see the chapters “Design of AISC Hot 256 . Note that new sections may be created and added to the list of available sections as described in Chapter “Creating Sections and Materials”.4. For detailed information on defining new sections see the Chapter “Creating New Types of Section with Macros”. the program checks the type of material (hot-rolled or coldformed steel) and associates the appropriate design code.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures increase has to be reflected in the load factors of the ASD load combination (see load combination AISC-ASD-LoadCombosStrength.2. The local 3 axis is also called the x-x axis or strong axis. Section 2.txt). while the local 2 axis is also called the y-y axis or weak axis. The user is responsible to include in the load conditions the notional horizontal forces specified in BS 5950.

Coordinate system used in design Normally the coordinate system adopted in design is coincident with the local axis. the variable ‘CODE’ assigned with either “HOTROLLED’. As examples of this naming convention. and the member is then designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. for example with L or Z shapes. AISC or BS codes. located in Configuration/databases/Sections of the main menu. Also note that in total asymmetric sections the longitudinal axis does not coincide with the centroid of the section. rigid offsets or the cardinal points have to be specified in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the correct position. the program assumes the principal axes are coincident with the local axes. It is important to remark that sections with CODE=HOTROLLED may be designed with either AISC or BS. However. which at the same time coincides with the principal axis. to define a member laterally restrained for torsion. 257 . AISI sections (cold-formed) could be named aisiAAA. respectively. When this option is enabled. ‘COLDFORMED’ and ‘BS_COLDFORMED’ implicitly results in the use of the AISI. It is customary though to only name hot-rolled sections based on their shape and size (W12x…). For these cases. For these situations it is important to define which coordinate system will be used. it is recommended that the naming convention adopted for section specification files reflect the implicitly used code as was done with the default sections in the database. etc. “Design of AISI Cold Formed Steel Members” and “Design of BS Steel members”. Option to determine the reference axis to be used in design for laterally restrained members for torsion along their length. Note that in section definition (*. aisiAAB. RAM Advanse presents a new option.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Rolled Steel Members”. there are cases where the local axis does not coincide with the principal axis. Because of this.leo) files.

Likewise. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. If the user is going to adopt specific values for former coefficients then it is not necessary to add a value for the variable. the user has to use the axis location tool or to adopt rigid offsets in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the right position. sway (unbraced) or non-sway (braced). Valid values are 0 and 1. Examples of some of the design parameters that may be specified are frame bracing. effective length factors and unbraced lengths. To enter required design parameters select the Members/General Design Parameters and the Members/Steel Design Parameters tabs. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length. The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) and the Cm (AISC. the Assistant or refer to the Examples Manual. Valid values are 0 and 1. Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. In the same way. See the next section for additional information.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In total asymmetric sections like the L shape. Braced3 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 3 axis. The tool buttons located below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. 258 . but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to running analysis and design.AISI) or m (BS) coefficients. Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse’s context sensitive Help system. Braced Against Sidesway Flag The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0).

For more details see the Help Context.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Effective Length (K) Factors The axial buckling capacity of a member is a function of the member length and the fixity of its ends.0.0 for design. In any case. If the user decides to rotate the columns afterwards. and are entered in the Members tab in the General Design Parameters worksheet.2 (BS 5950-1:2000) for the sway buckling mode in the BS Code. (Kx or Kmajor) and K22 (Ky or Kminor). The effective length is used to determine the member’s capacity to carry axial load. the adjoining members and whether it is braced against joint translation in the direction under consideration. respectively. If the K column contains a 0. By default K values are 1. are used for the 1-2 and 1-3 planes. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for the desired members (mainly vertical members and columns) It is important to verify that columns have been rotated to their correct position before applying the command to automatically calculate the K factors. the K factors will have to be recalculated. These values are entered in the Members/General Design Parameters spreadsheet. The K factor. multiplied by the true unbraced length of the element gives its effective length.0. Note that members pinned top and bottom are always assigned K=1. the K factor is a function of the end conditions of the member. 259 . Note that there are two toolbar buttons available to assist you in calculating the K factors based on the nomogram proposed by Jackson and Moreland as suggested by the AISC code for unbraced structures or the nomogram of Figure E.0 (zero) value. RAM Advanse will assume K=1. Press the button and the K coefficients will be calculated automatically. Refer to the appropriate design code for additional information. K Factors K33.

Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. Lbneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending AROUND axis 3-3 (also called major axis L or Lux). When this parameter has a zero value. AISI-LRFD Methods). RAM Advanse will use the unbraced length as the distance between member nodes if a value of 0. the program will take the distance between nodes as the unbraced length. AISI-ASD Methods) or in the calculation of the nominal moment. the unbraced length between lateral supports may be introduced (L33and L22). Refer to Chapter F (AISC) or the flow charts at the end of the AISC or AISI chapters for more information.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Warning! This tool is not applicable or appropriate for web tapered members. Axial unbraced length of the member (L) The L22 and L33 parameters represent the axial unbraced length of the member in the 3-3 (strong) and 2-2 (weak) axis respectively. Similarly. L22 is the unbraced length AROUND axis 2-2 (also called minor axis L or Luy). If necessary.0 is entered. Press the buttons and to see the K values graphically. 260 . Mn (AISC-LRFD. the true unbraced length for axial capacity calculations should be provided for each of the sub-members. Lbpos. Where a single member is divided into multiple sub-members for analysis reasons. These values represent the unbraced lengths between lateral supports to be considered in design. The values for L22 and L33 may be entered directly into the spreadsheet. These parameters are used in the calculation of the bending allowable stress Fb (AISC-ASD.

Enter the Lb value when it is different from the length of the frame member.001in). 261 . If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member.e. Note that Cm33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment. Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) in the spreadsheet or press the button to clear the values in order to let the program calculate them. The ‘Cm’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element.0 to all selected members. A spreadsheet value of 0. If the Cb value is 0. Please notice that if models from older RA versions are calculated. 0. an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i. Cm coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). Cb Coefficients Cb coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis. When any Lb is zero (0). In this case the user has to define the right values for Lbneg. Cm coefficients will then be calculated automatically. based on the elements end moments. Likewise. the members will have only values for Lbpos.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the adopted code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations).0 in the spreadsheet then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures LBpos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and LBneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. Cm Coefficients Cm coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Chapter H in the AISC or AISI Codes or the flow charts at the end of the chapters devoted to steel design). Cm22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy).

0.3. Cb must be calculate manually or take a value of one.0 will result in m being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the BS code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations). When any Le is zero (0). an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i. Please note that for destablizing loads. These coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). m Coefficients “m” coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Tables 18 and 26 of the BS or the flow charts at the end of the chapter devoted to BS steel design).0 to all selected members. Likewise. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. m22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis m or my).0 in the spreadsheet 262 . Enter the Le value when it is different from the length of the frame member.5 or the flow charts at the end of the steel design chapter for more information. (Table 13 BS 5950-1:2000) Lepos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and Leneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. mLT Coefficients mLT coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis.e.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Refer to the appropriate steel design code for additional information. RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element. Leneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet.1cm). If the mLT value is 0. the user should consider this effect in the Le values.0 to all selected members and the coefficients will then be calculated automatically. These parameters are used in the calculation of the moment capacity Mx (BS5950). A spreadsheet value of 0. Note that m33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis m or mx). Refer to Section 4. The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment. Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length member. The ‘m’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. Cb coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member. Lepos.

Select the option Process/Optimize structure from the main menu to run optimization. the user has to choose the desired design method from the dialog window (ASD . by the adopted code. This allows for the optimization of sections too. Selecting ‘Code check’ will cause the program to change a member section assignment only if it fails the applicable code check.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition.0 to all selected members. and then replacing all under and over sized members with this selection. Either of two types of optimizations may be selected. which verifies if the chosen section fills all the strength requirements. mLT coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. it is suggested that a second order analysis be used in order to take into account their effects in the calculated forces on the members. Before the design. Optimization may be performed once initial verification results are available. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. If the LRFD or BS method is selected. Refer to the BS steel design code for additional information. 263 . The results are shown in the AISC or BS comprehensive report. select the option Process/Design all. For more details related to torsion see the following chapters. In the case of hot rolled steel members. torsion is considered without the effect of warping in a simplified form. See the following sections for more details on the output of results. Torsion Torsion is not considered in the design of cold-formed sections ( code). Selecting the ‘Optimize’ option will result in the program selecting the lightest member section which meets all code requirements. To verify if members comply with a given code. if a group of possible sections is selected instead of a single section. Design and optimization The design of members is performed by an iterative procedure. LRFD or BS). based on the elements end moments. See the LRFD method in the AISC or AISI chapters or the BS Chapter for more details. for all the members. The user can verify design in accordance with the chosen code.

Steel Connections The program has incorporated a new module for the design and verification of steel connections (only available for AISC members). In the example shown. Because of this. Warning! All the results from the analysis and design are lost when sections are changed. button.K. You can control the deflections. all the descriptions and load combinations have been selected. Please refer to the chapter devoted to the Steel Structure Optimization and Code Check for more details. RAM Advanse will then change all the selected sections to the new ones. too(3). 264 . Check those section changes that you want and then press the O. Output of results There are several options available to display analysis and design results to the screen or in report form. optimization results may not converge in a unique section selection. in some cases.The section collection has been selected (5) and the OK button is then pressed to start the optimization process. The type of optimization has been selected as ‘Optimize’ (4). See the Connections Chapter for more details. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. This section describes these options. A new analysis and design of the structure is required after the change of sections The optimization process is iterative because the change of sections causes a change in the distribution of stresses in the members. and which causes a new change in sections.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Select the group of members (descriptions) (1) that are going to be optimized and also the load conditions to consider(2). After the optimization is performed. and results will alternate between optimizations.

This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range. Stress ratio fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to between 0. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition. • Maximum stress ratio: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. To select the members within a given range.0. The colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. The following lists the main options available for display of results to the screen. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. 265 . select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. Note that when a different group of members is selected. the range of colors is recalculated. such as the limit slenderness ratio (kl/r>200). This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Screen output The user has different options to see the results Code Check toolbar with different options for the presentation of design results. fail.0 and >1. Design Status: There are cases where members have enough strength to resist the applied forces but other conditions given by the code. Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Code Check buttons bar. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window.

The colors represent the nine different ranges of stresses. which include options for extensive or concise. To select and view only the members within a certain range of stresses select the stresses that you are interested in and then press the button Press the . The option available with the button will show if a member complies with all the requirements of the code. should be verified as well. such as the slenderness of the member. In this case. Other aspects. only the members with an ‘OK’ status or with a ‘no good’ status will be displayed from the selected group of members respectively. The ranges do not change when different members are selected. button to show the interaction values of each member for the current load condition. If the button is pressed together with the previous one. Design Status In same cases the verifications of stresses are not enough to verify the correctness of a member. Members with interaction values greater than one will be colored in red. the interaction values together with the governing load condition will be displayed for each selected member. combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Stress ratio fixed scale All the selected members will be colored with one of the nine available colors when the button of the Code Check tool bar is pressed. The name of the governing load is pressed. This option is ideal for identifying members that do not comply with the strength requirements. If the user selects one of the two following buttons . Reports are generated by selecting the desired members and then the option Reports – Steel design from the menu. press the and buttons. taking into account the full load combinations (not just the current load condition). The reports are grouped into three types. The labels represent the results for the current load condition. the result will include the name of the governing load condition for each member. which are defined as shown in the legend. Pressing together with shows the selected members with the color range determined from considering the full set of load combinations (not only the current load condition). 266 . Thus a specific member will maintain its color independently of the other members selected with it. To verify the same results. The other colors represent the interaction range value for the current load condition. Reports Different types of reports are available for displaying the results obtained after running a design with a given code. members with very low stresses and members working very close to their strength capacity.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Press the button to see the interaction values of the members.

only the controlling member in the group (having the critical load) will be considered. Note that in a report there are no indications of the eliminated (non-selected) load conditions. The results correspond to the controlling member in each group for each load condition. Comprehensive AISC member design This report provides full results for each selected member. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each 267 . the type of report is selected together along with the load conditions to be considered in the design. it shows all the results for each selected load condition. This means that when more than one member has the same description. A brief description of each type of report is included in the following paragraphs. the results obtained are related only to the critical member for each load condition. Group by description – each load case This report also organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. Group by description – controlling load case This report organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. Group by member – each load case This report provides one line of summary information for each member and load condition. This means that when more than one member falls under the same description.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In the dialog window. The report is organized in sections divided by the members of each group. The report presents the results for the critical member in the group. However. The window allows exclusion of any load condition.

The last column at the end of the different stations (0. The report includes the results for shear. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. Concise AISC member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member (approximately one page). The report includes the results for shear. The report includes the results for shear.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures load condition. The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions.25. Concise BS member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the BS (approximately one page).75. and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio.25. 268 . The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. Comprehensive BS member design This report provides full results for each selected member designed by the BS. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. Concise AISI member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the AISI code (approximately one page). bending. The last column at the end of the different stations (0. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition.50. torsion and the interaction for the controlling load case of each member. Comprehensive AISI member design This report provides full results for each cold-formed steel member designed by the AISI code.75. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition.50.

Note that all the AISC standard sections should not start with the letters aisc. while the hot rolled sections have a name that reflects only the shape. include the letters aisi. Example of an AISC section assignation for a member. 269 . adopting the alternative designs of Allowable Stress Design (ASD).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Chapter 20: Design of Hot Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) This module allows the design of hot rolled steel members in accordance to the AISC Codes. the name of the cold formed sections which do not conform to the current method. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the following American Institute of Steel Construction design codes: • • Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition) Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor design (3rd Edition) Determination of a member with an AISC section The determination of a member with an AISC section is done when assigning a hot rolled section and after selecting the AISC code before executing the design after the analysis. Normally. and Load and Resistance Factors Design (LRFD).

Because of this.leo extension) you can find the following data and/or specific commands used in the AISC design. as described further on. which can be adopted. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C. based mainly on the shape of the section. this was submitted to a series of simplifications and modifications depending on the particular shape of the section for a more direct application. CODE=HOTROLLED This value for CODE defines that the section is of hot rolled steel and that it will be designed with the AISC Code. SetSolid. in which calculation details are presented in section F for bending. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section.EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. FORMULATION=<formulation> The AISC Code has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design. in addition to their 270 . The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable. section E for compression. sections. The election of the method is done before performing the analysis. In this case. C and similar shapes. In spite of the possibility of using one general formulation. the allowable stress design (ASD) or the load and resistance factor design (LRFD). there are two methods to choose from. These assumptions cause differences in the results between the general and particular formulae. Yet. as will be shown later. applied to the known W. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. besides the section geometry.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) The ASD or LRFD design methods have to be selected before executing the design. In the LEO files (files with *. I.. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section. etc.

. John Wiley & Sons. but includes the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos: Equation (3. flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) and the parameters k and k1 for the connections design. 1968. Galambos. The code gives an indirect way to consider the second order effect by the magnification of the bending moments obtained from an elastic analysis. New York. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles. so the user must determine how the P-delta effect will be considered. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). Prentice Hall. Theodore V. USA. To do this. width (b). This is the methodology implemented to design WT sections in RAM Advanse. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) respective appendices. these are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect). Equation (3. the user can select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel Design Parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. Structural Members and Frames. and section B regarding the design requirements for each code. The user does have the option to give a user defined value to the Cm and Cb parameter. No special parameters are required.145) for the elastic critical stress of the ASD method. L This formulation is for L shaped sections.80) for the calculation of the critical moment of the LRFD method. See the flowcharts for each method for more details. USA. which is very similar to the IC formulation. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. Refer to Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. Both effects should be considered when designing. When the IC formulation is adopted. GEN Comprises the general formulation. Second order analysis It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). These sections are designed according to a special specification for single angle members located in the code Appendix. The proposed equations allow the estimation of the P-Delta (capital letter) as well as the P-delta (small letter) effect. 271 . the user can incorporate a magnification factor in his or her load combinations to consider both effects. TUBE This option is applied only to LINECLOSED sections. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a). including circular sections and rectangular tubes. flange width (bf). In this way. thickness (t). Theodore V. 1988. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos. Referring to the parameters Cm and Cb. the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d).

If the user does not give a value for the RIGID variable. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. if this is not the case. and is considered unstiffened if only one end is connected. The adopted RIGID variable for each element of a section determines the slender limits and whether an element will be considered as stiffened or unstiffened (see the table given further on). The element is considered stiffened if both ends are connected. The width b of an element of the section is considered between centerlines. the program displays an error message. The program does not consider hybrid sections (sections which elements have different yield stresses). 272 . the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements • The moment of inertia about 33 axis (usually called strong axis) must be equal or bigger than the moment of inertia about 22 axis (usually called weak axis). Because of this. then the program considers two options: stiffened or unstiffened. • • • • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable.

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When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. a limiting value of 300 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to tension. Based on section B7 of the code. When determining the shear stress for I or C shapes. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified on sections F1 to F3 of the AISC Code. Based on section D2 of the code. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • • Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes. . A section is considered to have a compression flange that is solid and approximately rectangular in cross section and that has an area not less than the tension flange (equation F18 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). Due to sign conventions. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. • Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design. • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section E2 of the code. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. a limiting value of 200 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to compression (fa>0. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. the program is considering this limit for all types of tension members. For the Cm calculation of each member. For more details see the flowchart given below. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. The shear stress is given in section F4 of the code. The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: • • A member is considered to be loaded through the shear center (equation F1-5 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). which is the default value adopted by the program.e. only gross section checks are performed. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • 274 A member is considered in compression when fa > 0. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section D1 of the code (AISC-ASD-89). i. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used.05Fa). the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. Although this limit is only for built-up members.05*Fa. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding.

Charles J.9* not considering warping) *Paul A. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centerlines of the elements confining the section. Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion are given in sections 4. AISC Inc. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. Carter. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section.. For open sections. Seaburg. 1997). Carter.. The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. The restrictions and assumptions adopted for torsional analysis are the following: • Warping is not considered in members subject to torsion. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending Biaxial shear and torsion (equation 4. 275 . See the flowcharts for more details.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered. Seaburg. not considering warping. 1997 LRFD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section).1 to 4. Steel Design Guide Series 9. AISC Inc.4 of the “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members” Guide (Paul A. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of sections H1 and H2 of the code. Steel Design Guide Series 9. “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members”. Charles J. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered. Therefore torsion is not considered in the interaction equations.

the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. The program does not consider the influence of hc (twice the distance from the centroid to the inside face of the compression flange less the corner radius) when calculating the limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact elements (λr).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • There are no special considerations for built up members. Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*. 276 . the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. This applies mainly to sections with different flanges. Because of this. (See the table below) • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable.leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters and whether the element will be considered stiffened or unstiffened.

Columns and other compression members The compression member analysis follows the steps given in chapter E of the code. The type of union is not considered in the design and in the estimation of the net area. 277 .Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Members in tension The calculation of members in tension is given in chapter D of the code (see the flowcharts at the end of the chapter) and the conditions are: • • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members. Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the calculation of the effective section are not considered. The program has adopted a slenderness limit Kl/r for members in tension of 300 (Sections B7 and D2 of the code). The adopted assumptions and restrictions are: • • A member is considered to be in compression when Pu > 0.05*Pn*φ.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • • The slenderness limit Kl/r for members in compression is 200 (Section B7 of the norm) and is only considered if the axial stress is over 5% of the capacity of the section. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding. The program assumes a compressive residual stress in flange of 10 ksi for rolled shapes and 16. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor Kγ for compression members. The classification is made considering the critical element of the section. section F1 for bending and section F2 for shear. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. . a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. The reason is that there may be cases as columns with relatively thin elements and/or short lengths where the flexural-torsional buckling is critical. It uses the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. the program always performs this verification. The flanges shall be of equal and constant area. When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. non-compact and slender. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified in section C3 of the code. In general. which shall be perpendicular to the plane of bending (3-axis. Due to sign conventions. When determining the shear stress of I or C shapes.5 ksi for welded (built-up) members. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • • There are three categories of sections for local buckling: compact. • • Tapered members The design of tapered members is restricted to AISC sections. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. Although the flexural-torsional buckling of many common shapes is not mandatory to be checked because it normally does not control the capacity of the member. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. M33). The shear and flexural design follows the criteria given in Appendix F. The additional assumptions adopted for tapered members are: • • 278 The member shall have at least one axis of symmetry (2-axis). the design is very similar to the one for prismatic members. For the Cm calculation of each member. which is the default value adopted by the program. Transverse stiffeners are not considered for the determination of shear stress for deep girders. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. The compression design follows mainly the criteria given in Appendix E of the code.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • The depth shall vary linearly from d0 (node J) to dL (node K). the code suggests a simplified and conservative method to check only the smallest section for compression and the largest section for bending. while the program is obtaining the interaction equations for each station of the tapered member. when designing the member. considering the section properties of the section at the station. It is not calculated by the program and can be obtained using the charts developed by Lee et al (1972) with some restraint modifiers that are included in the AISC Code. This factor is introduced in the design-parameters-tab of the worksheet as a K value. The shear strength is determined without modifications to the normal procedure for prismatic members. The user should know that. The maximum shear. and the prismatic cross sectional properties of the segment of the member under consideration. bending and axial loads in each segment are considered with respect to the cross sectional properties of that segment. The bending strength is calculated assuming the full member length (or the user entered length). An adequate effective length factor must be given taking into account the tapered member. • • • • 279 .

. Yield stress of steel. Ratio of "critical" web stress to the shear yield stress of web material. Moment of inertia of a cross section about 22 and 33 local axis. I33p: Moment of inertia of a cross section about the principal axis. fa: Fb: fb: Fcr: Fe: Fe': Computed axial stress. Computed shear stress. I22. Effective length factor for a prismatic member. Critical stress. Fob: Elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Compression element width.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-ASD Flowcharts A: Af: b: bf: Bratio: Cb: Cbmax: Gross-sectional area. Ftor: Permitted torsion stress. Outside diameter of tubular member. Bending coefficient. I33: K: 280 II22p. Computed bending stress. Elastic buckling stress. Clear distance between flanges. Error: Variable that has the error messages of a member design. Section depth. Euler stress for a prismatic member divided by factor of security. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. modified to account for effective width Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members and dependent upon Cmmin: Cv: D: d: Minimum Cm coefficient (given by the user). dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2) Maximun Cb coefficient (given by the user). Fv: fv: Fy: h: Permitted shear stress. . Fa: Axial compressive stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of bending moment. Flange width of rolled beam. Bending stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of axial force. Area of compression flange. Cc': Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling.

Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. Maximum bending moment in the unbraced beam segment. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a Sratio: section. Elastic buckling moment.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) kv: Shear buckling coefficient. Moment at k end of the member. Web thickness. Lb: Lc: M1: M2: Mcr: Me: Mj: Mk: My: P: Qa: Laterally unsupported length of the compression flange of a flexural member. Extreme fiber bending moment. Flange thickness. rT: Radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web Se: SF: Sf: Effective section modulus. t: tf: tw: V: Thickness of an element. Maxratio Mmax: Qmod: Qs: r: Axial stress reduction factor. Shear modulus. Torsion modulus. Maximum unbraced length of the compression flange. Initial yield bending moment. Ratio of effective profile area of an axially loaded member to its total profile area. Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Elastic section modulus. Reduction factor. Shear force. Radius of gyration. Maximum allowed interaction ratio (given by the user). Moment at j end of the member. Tormod: 281 . Normal force.

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Effective length factor for a prismatic member. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. . Required shear stress. λc: 298 Column slenderness parameter. Yield stress of steel. For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the compression flange. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2). Elastic buckling stress. Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members an dependent upon column curvature caused by applied moments. Required normal stress. Critical stress. E: Error: Fcr: Fe: fun: fuv: Fy: K: Modulus of elasticity of steel (E=29000 ksi) Variable that has the error messages of a member design.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-LRFD Flowcharts AISC-LRFD-2001 DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS α Bratio: Cb: Magnification factor. Bending coefficient.

Nominal flexural strength due to local buckling. Absolute value of moment at quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. 299 . about 22 axis. Limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact element. Distance between points braced against lateral displacement of the compression Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. Required flexural strength. Required flexural strength. Nominal flexural strength. about 22 axis. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Reduction factor for slender stiffened compression elements. Elastic section modulus. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a section. Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. v: shear. Effective section modulus about strong axis. about 33 axis. Nominal shear strength. Limiting buckling moment. Nominal flexural strength. Nominal axial strength (tension or compression). Nominal flexural strength due to lateral torsional buckling. Reduction factor for slender unstiffened compression elements. Resistance factors (b: bending. Absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced beam segment.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) λe: λp: λr: Lb: flange. t: torsion). Lp: Lr: M1: M2: Ma: Mb: Mc: Mcr: Mmax: Mn33: Mn22: MnLatT: MnLoc: Mp: Mr: Mu33: Mu22: φ: Pn: Pu: Q: Qa: Qs: r: Se: Sf: σe33. Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element. c: compression. Radius of gyration. Absolute value of moment at centerline of the unbraced beam segment. about 33 axis. Absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced beam segment. Full reduction factor for slender compression elements. Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Plastic bending moment. σe22: Sratio: Vn: Equivalent slenderness parameter. Coefficients for the calculation of Fe and Me. Elastic buckling moment. Required axial strength (tension or compression).

yo: Z Nominal shear strength about 2 axis. Nominal shear strength about 3 axis. Plastic section modulus. Required shear strength about 3 axis. 300 .Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Vn2: Vn3: Vu2: Vu3: xo. Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. Required shear strength about 2 axis.

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Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)
This module is used to the design of cold-formed steel members in accordance with the AISI Specifications. The AISI Code has an integrated treatment for two design methods, the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design method (LRFD). The code adopted is: • The 1996 Edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Steel Structural Members (American Iron and Steel Institute).

Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member
When an AISI section is selected for a member, it is automatically defined as a cold formed steel member and will be designed in accordance with the AISI Code.

Example of the selection of an AISI section for a member. It is suggested that all the AISI sections start with the letters aisi, for example aisiBox, aisiC, etc. In this way the user will recognize them very easily. In the macros for sections , very important data are considered, which will be needed to properly perform an AISI design, apart from the geometry of the section:

CODE=COLDFORMED
This option defines that the section belongs to a cold-formed steel member, which will be designed with the AISI code.

TYPE
This command defines if the section is open or closed. The values that may be assigned are:
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LINEOPEN This word is used to define an open section as in the case of I and C-sections. The geometry will define if an element is stiffened or unstiffened. If the element is connected at both ends it will be considered a stiffened element; unstiffened otherwise. LINECLOSED It shows that the section is closed as in the case of a tubular or box section. In this case all the elements of the section are considered stiffened. RIGID This command specifies the type of elements that comprises the AISI section. The user can define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Refer to the chapter “Creating Section Types” for more details relating to this subject. Important! Tapered members are not considered in the design of cold-formed sections

2nd order analysis
A second order analysis is recommended as the magnification of design moments to account for second order effects is not explicitly addressed in the cold-form design code. Although the code does not specifically mention this aspect, the second order analysis can be considered in the same way as is described in Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. The Cm and Cb parameters are calculated in the same manner for the first or second order analysis. The user may assign, however, any value for these parameters, to consider the type of analysis in accordance to his or her criteria. This can be accomplished by selecting all the desired members, choosing the option Members/Steel Design parameters from the spreadsheet and entering the correct values for the parameters as explained in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures.

Technical notes
Certain assumptions and simplifications have been incorporated in the AISI design module.

Assumptions and restrictions for elements
The following assumptions have been adopted in relation to the elements and parts of a given section. (Section B of the Code)

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Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

All considered elements are straight-line elements. In other words, they can be represented with a length and a thickness. At the edges or corners of the section where circular elements may be needed, they are approximated as a set of two straight lines as it is illustrated in the following figure:

Example of a section divided into linear elements to approximate a curved section. • The elements with intermediate stiffeners as the one shown in the following figure are divided in linear elements in a similar way as described in the former paragraph, without taking into account special considerations for the calculation of the effective lengths as prescribed in B4.1 or B5 of the Code.

Example of a section with a multiple stiffened element not considered in a special way for the calculation of the effective widths. • The ratios width/thickness of the elements are not verified in accordance to the limits specified in B1.1 of the Code. The user is responsible to verify that all those requirements are fulfilled for the adopted sections in the model. Sections with reinforced webs are not considered in a special way in the calculations.

Tension members
The calculation of tension members is given in section C2 of the Code (see also the flow chart at the end of this chapter). The adopted assumptions are: • • The net area is estimated as a function of the gross section applying a reduction factor. The influences of the type of connections used are not considered.

Flexural members
In the design of flexural members, the program takes into account the flexural strength based on the initiation of yielding, the lateral buckling strength and the local buckling specified in section C3 of the Code. The flow charts at the end of this chapter give more details of the different procedures adopted. The assumptions and restrictions adopted are:

313

This option is established when the type of section is defined. the program will assume that the member has no transverse loads.Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • A point symmetric section (such as the Z-section) is treated as a non-symmetrical section about both axes • In the shear calculations. • • • Web crippling strength due to concentrated loads and reactions are not considered in the calculations (Section C3. Due to the sign convention adopted. the torsional strength of the sections is very low and is normally neglected. No holes in the effective length region of the member are considered. Note that due to the small thickness of most of these sections. which is used in most of the examples of the AISI Manual. the user may choose if the shear strength for I or C Shapes will be calculated with the exact shear modulus Qmod or with a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t. The adopted hypothesis and restrictions are: • • 314 A member is considered a compression member when Pu > 0. the ratio M1/M2 is positive when the member is deformed in a simple curvature and negative otherwise. In the calculation of the Cm coefficient.05*Pn/Ω for the ASD method. Selection of the Qmod that will be adopted in the calculation of the shear strength for I or C shapes. . Compression members The calculation for compression members follows the specifications given in section C4 of the Code. Torsion is not considered in this type of member. The details of the calculations are given in the flow charts at the end of this chapter. the restrictions at the ends of each member are verified together with the type of supports to which the member is connected.05*Pn*φ for the LRFD method and P > 0.4 of the Code). When the transverse loads are very small in relation to the forces acting axially.

(Section C4. It is also important to note that the definition of sections for rectangular tubular members must be started in one corner of the section and not at the middle of one element as it is shown in the next figure. (See the chapter on the General Design of Steel Structures).4). with the flange attached to deck or sheathing through fasteners. Tubular members The Code has a special section devoted to cylindrical tubular members (Section C6).Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • The program does not consider the provisions applicable to C-or Z-sections concentrically loaded along their longitudinal axis. 315 .3 of the Code. The strength for combined bending and shear is also considered with the equations given in Section C3. In cases where this is desired it is suggested that you adopt the local axis as the design axis (check Laterally Restrained for Torsion in the Section dialog) and a Lb length that reflects the distance between fasteners. This aspect is also considered in the program and it is detailed in the flow charts. Combined axial load and bending The combination of stresses is considered with the interaction equations given in Section C5 of the Code: Combined tensile axial load and bending. Combined compressive axial load and bending. Correct and incorrect definitions of the different points of a rectangular tubular section. which considers special requirements for bending and axial compression loads.

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) AISI 96 Flowcharts 316 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 317 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 318 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 319 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 320 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 321 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 322 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 323 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 324 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 325 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 326 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 327 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 328 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 329 .

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331 . etc. adopting the Ultimate Limit State method of Design (or Load and Resistance Factor).Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RA allows the design of hot rolled and cold formed steel members in accordance to the BS. In both cases. sections. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable.EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. SetSolid. In these files you can find the following data and/or specific commands. it may be designed with the BS. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the British Standard: • BS 5950-1:2000 Determination of a member with a BS section The determination of a member with a BS section is done before the design: Setting the steel design to BS A section that may be designed with the BS is defined in the LEO files (files with *.. I. CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED These values for CODE define that the section is of hot rolled steel or cold formed steel.leo extension). besides the section geometry. In this case. as described further on. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C.

angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles. Galambos.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) FORMULATION=<formulation> The BS has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design. Load Combinations According to the BS5950 Code.2DL+1. live load (LL).4DL 1. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice. No special parameters are required. the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos (1968) was adopted and “calibrated” to the values obtained for the known sections and formulae given by the BS.2DL+1.4EQ 1. Prentice Hall. Section 2. width (b). Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. GEN Comprises a general formulation.4DL±1. thickness (t). based mainly on the shape of the section. in which calculation details are included in the Code. Theodore V. New York. square or rectangular tubes. H.0DL±1. wind load (WIND) and earthquake (EQ): 1.2WIND 1. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos. Although the BS do not specify a general case. the following load combinations may be included if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4WIND 1. L This formulation is for L shaped sections. When the IC formulation is adopted. Theodore V.2EQ 332 .4DL + 1.2LL±1. These sections are designed according to the special specifications for single angle members or similar shapes. flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) TUBE This option is applied only to circular. which can be adopted. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section.4EQ 1. John Wiley & Sons. USA. Structural Members and Frames.4DL±1. C and similar shapes. Table 2.4WIND 1.4. applied to the known I. the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d).0DL±1.. 1968. flange width (bf). The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a).2LL±1. USA. 1988. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D).6LL 1. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a).

H. see Chapter 1.1.4.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) You can automatically generate the required load combinations with the option Loads/Generate Loads Combinations and selecting the file: BS5950LoadCombosStrength. select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel design parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. Because of this. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect). For more information. Built up members (welded I. they are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis.txt. If this factor is less than 10. which may be calculated with the horizontal deflections on each floor due to the factored applied loads with an elastic analysis. The program does not consider the special considerations for I or H sections with unequal flanges.leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered. H. Second order analysis Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Automatic generation of load combinations. 333 . • • Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section). Members with such sections may be approximately calculated with a GEN formulation. L or T sections. the code requires a check for sway stability with the determination of the critical load factor (λcr) (Section 2. C. Technical notes Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • • • • Code checking is done using only the forces and moments at specific sections (stations) of the members.2 ). To do this. Depending upon the analysis requirements a P-Delta analysis may be specified. (See the table below) The width of an element of a section is considered between centrelines and is corrected to the actual value for common shapes like I. or box sections) were calculated with a py value 20 N/mm² below that obtained from Section 3. To evaluate the need for a second order analysis. It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. The user has the option to give a defined value for both parameters. Referring to the parameters m and mLT. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. then the structure is sway sensitive and a second order analysis must be carried out. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*.1 (BS).

Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises bending and lateral-torsional buckling as specified on sections 4. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members.3. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. Class 2 (compact). There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes. Class 3 (semi-compact) or class 4 (slender). The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: 334 .2.6 of the BS.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RAM Advanse checks the sections according to the following table in order to classify them for the calculation of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure: Sections are classified as either Class 1 (plastic).3 of the BS. For more details see the flowchart given below. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 4.2 to 4. The shear capacity calculations are specified in section 4.

• Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 4.2) and high shear (Section 4. 335 . Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design.7.7 of the code.9/Qmod. the program adopts a shear area (Av) equal to 0.5 of the code. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.10. 4. channels or T-sections are treated with the criteria given in Sections 4. For the m coefficients calculation of each member. the program use a simplified value given by Section 4.10.7. Lv is the length measured between interconnecting bolts and Cnx type is related to the connection types defined in Table 25 of the Code.3 of the Code.3. 4.10.2.2.2. otherwise the member is considered in bending or tension. End connections. Both parameters are entered in the spreadsheet Members/Steel Design Parameters Lv and Cnx Type parameters are located in the Members/Steel design parameters spreadsheet The following table relates the Cnx type values with the connection types of Table 25 of the Code. For any other section.3) and the member is considered to be loaded through the shear centre When determining the shear stress for the shapes.2. Compression members composed of angles. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. The coexisting shear is considered in two groups.4 with the definition of two parameters: Lv and Cnx type.2. RAM Advanse uses the general equations given in Tables 18 and 26 of the Code where Mmax and M24 are calculated considering intervals of 5% of L. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • A member is considered in compression when the stress at both extreme fibres are in compression.5.5.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) • • • The moment capacity of a section are based on the design strength and section modulus of the section as specified in Section 4. low shear (Section 4. holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered.7.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 336 .

5). Flange=1 for the desired members. A two-flange haunched member may be divided in two members.0 according to Annex B2. not considering warping. Warping is not considered. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. To enable this option. a simplified method is proposed with the following restrictions and assumptions: • The torsional loading is mostly resisted by uniform torsion. torsion. assuming that the flange thickness is constant. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centrelines of the elements confining the section. There are some methods proposed. The cross section properties at each station are used with the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. This criterion may be conservative for I or channel section members.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion were not included in the Code. but they are more suited to a plastic analysis and are restricted for specific shapes. The program allows the use of Annex G directives for the design of members with one flange laterally restrained. 337 . As an alternative to those methods. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section. a tapered member with varying depth and a constant member. go to the Members/Steel design parameters Spreadsheet and set Restr. whose torsional rigidities are very large or in members with small warping rigidities as angle and tee sections. Von Mises interaction check is adopted to evaluate the maximum stress due to shear forces. axial and bending • The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. This occurs mainly in thin walled closed sections. For open sections. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor for compression members and the equivalent uniform moment factor (equal to 1. Tapered members Only sections that vary their depth may be designed. The design is very similar to the one for prismatic members.

Flange Flag parameter allows to use Annex G for members with one flange laterally restrained. 338 .Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) The Restr.

semi-compact=3 or slender=4 mLT.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) BS 5950 Flowcharts BS 5950-1:2000 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS Aeff: Effective cross-sectional area Area: Area Av: d: Fv: E: K: L: Mb: Mc: Shear area Depth of section Shear force Modulus of elasticity of steel Effective length factor Span Buckling resistance moment Moment capacity Equivalent uniform moment factors Class: Classification of sections in plastic=1. compact=2.M3.M5: Moment at 0.m.50.M2.M4.my: Mmax: Maximum moment in the member M1.Pv) Zeff: Effective section modulus 339 .75 and 100% of L Pc: pc: PE: py: Pv: qw: r: S: Seff: Sv: Sx: Sy: t: Vb: Z: Compression resistance Compressive strength (π²*E/λ²) Design strength of steel Shear capacity of a member Shear buckling strength Radius of gyration Plastic modulus Effective plastic modulus Plastic modulus of the shear area Plastic modulus about the major axis Plastic modulus about the minor axis Thickness Shear buckling resistance of a web Section modulus Vcrit: min(Vb.mx.25.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Zx: Zy: α: ε: λ: Section modulus about the major axis Section modulus about the minor axis Robertson constant (Annex C2) Constant SQRT(275/py) Slenderness λLO: Limiting equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λLT: Equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λw: λ0 SQRT(0.6*py/qe) Limiting slenderness (axial compression) 340 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 341 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 342 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 343 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 344 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 345 .

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Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 347 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 348 .

The next lines contain a series of reinforcing bars to be considered. Refer to the next chapter on the Design/Detailing module for more information on filtering loads when viewing the results.Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced concrete design Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced Concrete Design This chapter describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail concrete beams.375 #4=0. This external file format is as follows: The first line of the text file contains the units in which the bar diameters are found.6 8mm=0. in #3=0. sorted by size. and the results can be displayed graphically or in report form.txt file which is located in the Base folder of the main directory of RAM Advanse. columns and footings in accordance with the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Bar size series It is important to note that the user can modify the diameters of the bars to be considered as well as their designation (#3 etc. However. A pair of examples is given next: cm 6mm=0. The ACI design post processing is performed automatically when the building is analyzed. Loads The application of appropriate loads and the generation of the required load combinations are the responsibility of the engineer. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. Concrete design is performed for all load combinations. This file sets the names and diameters of the reinforcing bars used in the verification and design of reinforced concrete elements.) by editing the bars.500 349 .0 ..8 10mm=1. For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke one of three designer/detailing modules as described in the following chapters. The format is: name. the engineer does have the ability to filter the design in the designer/detailer module to obtain results for any individual load condition (case or combination). The user is not able to turn off any individual load case or combination when performing the design in the main program. The units can be inches (in) or centimeters (cm). followed by the equal sign (=) with the value of the diameter in the specified units. All applicable loads and load combinations should be applied to the structure as illustrated in the Examples Manual.

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you should select the appropriate Section Type for Beams or Columns.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete beam design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. as illustrated below: 351 . To assign a reinforced concrete beam to a member select a RC Beam section as illustrated in the figure below. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed. Identifying Concrete Beams RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns. This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. If you need to create a new section.

The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below.0 is entered.35*Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Creating new sections. Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. Analysis Before proceeding with a beam design.0 is used in the analysis. Note that if 0. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. Valid values are 0. 352 .0 to 1. For example. the model should be analyzed appropriately. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. a value of 1.0.

353 . Technical Notes The beam design in RAM Advanse incorporates the requirements of: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected beams. The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes in the column section).Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI 10. A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed.4. The toolbar button can be used to automatically enter the 0. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis.13. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for beam design.

the beam is designed for the envelope (max positive and negative) moments from all the appropriate load conditions. The minimum flexural reinforcing requirements of ACI 10.3) compression reinforcing will be added.3.1xLength).2.2. In the main program. The main 354 . In the Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beam Detailer.6) are implemented with Equation (10-5). In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0.5 are implemented. The appropriate moment frame is specified as ordinary. particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution. • • • • Flexure Shear Torsion Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design. For the summary output in the main program flexure.7. beam design is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog. the location of bars can be adjusted as described later. In the main program the following additional limits exist Flexural Design The flexural design of concrete beams is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. At each section. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in the RAM Advanse implementation of the ACI318 with respect to beam members: • • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. Where the compressive stress encroaches on the web of the T or L section the beam is designed to account for the reduction in the width of the compression zone. For negative moments. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently.4) are not considered. the engineer can specify which load conditions to consider for design. the position of the reinforcing is as specified when the section was created. Only rectangular beams are designed (no T or L beams). shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. Note that the distribution of flexural reinforcing provisions (ACI 10. this should be checked by the engineer. the flanges of the beam are ignored. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer. Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. The following items are checked in the design of the reinforced concrete beams. No deflection limits are checked. For T and L shape beams (RC Beam Detailer Only) the full flange width provided by the user is considered for calculating the compressive stress block under positive moments. The design assumptions of ACI 10.75 #ρb (ACI 10. In the Reinforced concrete detailing module. intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer.7 are fully implemented. but the limits of distance between lateral supports (ACI 10. No deep member design is considered.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General In the main program. Note that no checks are performed on the validity of the flange width provided.

3.10 Reinforcing Limits and Prescriptive Reinforcing Requiremen As indicated below ts for Moderate Risk: Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Assume zero 21.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design program always assumes an ordinary moment frame.2 Flexural Requiremen axial loads ts 21.4/ Limits on responsibility Responsibility 5 Concrete and Reinforcing Strength 21. 2 21. which does not require any additional provisions.4 Prescriptive Implemented Reinforcing Shear Design The shear design of concrete beams is according to the provisions of Chapter 11 of ACI.2. The following items describe the implementation of the flexural requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediate moment frames Special moment frames Engineer Engineer 21. The design shear force is that produced by the envelope of all selected load combinations.10.2.3.1 21.3. 1 21.2.3 Flexural Frame Members Dimensiona l Limits Not Applicable As indicated below Assume zero axial loads.10. In the RC Beam Detailer the controlling shear at a distance of d (effective depth) from the face of a column may be 355 . Dimension limits engineers responsibility Implemented 21.

member torsion design can result in additional steel for both the longitudinal and the shear reinforcing of a member.1. This strength is evaluated according to the shear forces related to the probable flexural moment (Mpr).1 21. taking into account the factored static load during the earthquake. which is calculated according to Section 21. Additional longitudinal steel is calculated per 11.6. intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design used as the design shear (ACI 11. Where significant torsion is present.3.6.2. the concrete capacity is sometimes ignored for resisting shear.5 and 11.1. the minimum area of stirrups is per ACI 11.3. For ordinary moment frames no additional provisions are implemented. The moment frame type is specified as ordinary.2. The capacity of a rectangular concrete section Equation (11-3) (ACI 11.1 and 21.6.3.10.4.1.6.4.6.3.6.1) and it is assumed that all the torque is resisted by stirrups (the nominal torsional moment strength provided by concrete is zero).5. Vertical stirrups (closed or open hoops) are designed in accordance with ACI 11.5 when required. The design shear force (Ve) is determined from Section 21.3. With high torsion. No axial load assumed Vc is Transverse Reinforcement considered in frame members The provisions of 21.3(a bending ) capacity 21. For special moment frames.1) is calculated considering an ordinary moment frame in the reinforced concrete beam detailer and in the main program (reinforced concrete design output).4.2.4. the maximum between Vu and Ve is considered within a 2d length for the shear design. The nominal torsion resisted with the provided stirrups is calculated per 11.3 refers to the requirement of designing the member for the maximum shear that the beam can be subject to. 356 . the shear strength of the sections will be reduced according to Equation (11-13) (ACI 11.5.6.7. It is the responsibility of the designer to check that there are no other places critical for shear. No reduction in the factored torsion is considered per 11.5.2 of the Code.9.3. The torsion capacity of a section is limited per Equation (11-18) (ACI 11.3.3. Note that RAM Advanse check the limits on concrete strength per 11. Torsion Design When necessary. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer.2 Implemente Not d Applicable Vc is considered according to Mpr.3.1).3.2.10.4. For this. assuming the ends of the member to be fully hinged.1. Finally.3). the user should define the load corresponding load combination to such case. Torsion is only considered where the design torsion exceeds a lower limit as specified by ACI 11.6.6. Minimum and maximum allowable shear stirrups are provided per ACI 11. The following items describe the implementation of the shear requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Special moment frames Implemented Design shear based on member 21.

6.3.5. This section identifies those detailing provisions implemented by RAM Advanse in the Reinforced Concrete Beam Detailer.12 12.14 12.2.6 11.4 12.4 11.3 .3. Engineer responsibility Engineer responsibility Splices of reinforcement in Implemented tension Splices of reinforcement in Not compression Implemented Transverse reinforcement Hoops at lap locations Implemented Engineer responsibility 357 Special moment frames 21.2 Description Distribution of flexural reinforcing Spacing limits for shear reinforcing Maximum spacing of torsion reinforcement Development of deformed bars in tension Development of deformed bars comp. size and spacing of reinforcement comes from prescriptive code requirements.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Detailing Requirements A substantial influence over the number.2.6 12. Development of negative moment reinforcing.5 12.5. Note that it is the engineers responsibility to confirm that the reinforcing is in agreement with all the provisions of the local concrete building code.3.5 Not Implemented Not Implemented Implemented except 12.3. The following is a summary of detailing provisions: ACI 10. length and placing of reinforcing within a concrete section.3 12. Development of bundled bars Development of standard hooks tension Comment Implemented Implemented Implemented Implemented except for 12.16 Development flexural bars Implemented – General Development of positive moment reinforcing.2 21. These requirements often control the number. RAM Advanse should offer significant assistance in achieving compliance with the many detailing requirements.10 12.4 12.11 12.

Summary Report of Beam Design RAM Advanse provides a summary output for concrete beam design. select the desired concrete design code and the two sizes of stirrups that you want the program to consider. 358 .Reinforced concrete design From the displayed dialog (See figure below).Reinforced Concrete Design command as illustrated below. Note that output is relatively wide. Execute command Reports . first select the beams to obtain output for and then press the Reports . more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Intermediate moment frames 21.10.2 Transverse reinforcement Implemented Note that the program gives most of the data to easily evaluate the requirements not covered directly by the program. To view the output of a reinforced concrete design. Reports and Screen Output Two forms of concrete design output are available to the engineer in RAM Advanse main program. Significantly. In the main program the engineers can obtain a design summary report and they can view the reinforcing in their concrete members.4. The output consists of two lines for each member.

The report that appears is described below. and right ‘zones’. The beam design is performed assuming an ordinary moment frame with no special seismic provisions implemented.right This is the required top and bottom area of reinforcement for the left. The area of steel in the 359 . and torsion. shear in axis 2. Beam design output.cent.left column.P.right. A. Other forces and sections are ignored. central. The previous output is described below Beam Num The beam number to match the number of the beam selected in the model. The area shown under the A.right column is the area of steel required from the K end of the section for the distance shown under I. A.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Select OK and the report will be generated for all selected members. The area shown in the A. If a beam should be designed for biaxial bending it should be specified as a column section. In the RC Beam Detailer the engineer can change this to examine the impact of some of the seismic provisions.left.P. Beams with rectangular sections are designed only for bending moment about axis 3.left column is the steel area required from end J of the member for the distance shown in the I. A.

Cent) applies to the entire length of the beam. 360 . bar area may be controlled by the required compression reinforcing.0 away from K end of beam (i.P.P. The "Left" is the J node. the "Right" is the K node.left away from end J to a distance I. the steel shown in the A. right end of beam).P.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design A. they represent the J and K end of the member respectively.P.right are 0. The required reinforcement areas are provided in three zones: • • • The left zone is delimited by the J node and the left inflection point (I. The areas are given for top and bottom reinforcement. The inflection points reported are the largest distances from all the load conditions considered. point and the K node.P.e.right away from end K.0 in this case.P. When compression reinforcing is required the top. The central zone is delimited by the I.P. Note that where left and right are referred to. Where no inflection point occurs along a beam the reinforcing indicated for the center ‘zone’ (A.P.e. I.P. Based on the above description the I. I.P. Important! When you display a beam.left.0 away from J end of beam (i.cent zone is the area of steel required from the distance I. The right zone is delimited by the right I.left and I.P. and I.P.right are the distances of the inflection points from the ends of the beam.right points. as indicated by RAM Advanse Inflection points of the bending moment envelop.left. left end of beam) to 0. That is. below for more information on the inflection points.cent is required from 0. See the explanation for I.P.right I. or bottom. it has the J node at the left and the K node at the right Left and right. The design moment shown in the output is the maximum moment for all load conditions in the various zones. left).left and I.

SKIN When torsion must be considered in the design this value reflects the additional longitudinal reinforcing area that must be distributed in the section (equivalent to Al/3 in the beam-detailing module). 361 . A [] symbol shows that stirrups should be closed. The [] is an indicator of torsion in the section.) if detailing a beam using these results. U indicates that stirrups can be open. as shown in figure (a). The spacing of the stirrups is based on the shear demand and the torsion demand on the section. Stirrup spacing This is the maximum allowable stirrup separation for each zone.I.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Reinforcement bar zones in a beam The cut-off points should be calculated by the engineer (beyond the P. When closed stirrups are required for longitudinal compression bars. the spacing between stirrups shall be less than 15 times the longitudinal bar diameter. the center half and the last 25% of the beam. TYPE The Type indicates what kind of stirrup is required. The shear reinforcing will also be adjusted to resist the applied torsion. Note again that no seismic provisions are considered in this design. as illustrated in the figure (b). The stirrup separation is given for three lengths along the member: the first 25%. whereas the >[]< symbol indicates compression reinforcing is required.

V. Note. when no inflection point exists the A. and T Mmax and Mmin show the maximum and minimum values of bending moments about axis 3. Screen Display of Reinforcement To obtain a schematic layout of your beam and column bars select the concrete members and select the button of the Model properties toolbar. This moment is the maximum moment for all load conditions and it is the value used to design the critical reinforcing. even if this moment occurred somewhere other than the center of the beam. A more detailed output of the reinforcing can be obtained in the detailer described next. The display will indicate the correct layout of the longitudinal bars in the currently selected members. Length The length of the beam. Mmax/min.cent (normally top steel) will contain the area of reinforcing required over the full length of the member. 362 . T is the maximum torsion moment.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design (a) Closed stirrups ([]) (b) Open stirrups (U) An open stirrup should be placed as shown in the figure. V is the maximum shear force parallel to axis 2. Open stirrups are assumed to only carry shear forces parallel to axis 2. The Mmax and Mmin values shown reflect the moment that the steel was designed for. These are the true location of reinforcing bars in those sections selected.

The four areas outlined above are described in detail below.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the concrete beam design/detailing module to design and detail a reinforced concrete member. sections and geometry of the structure to match real world conditions. Data Screen The initial screen that appears in the detailer is the data screen. the design is faced as a trial and error process. As in all the detailing modules for reinforced concrete. The toolbar button allows the engineer to select which load conditions the detailer will consider for design. the engineer should enter the true dimensions. 363 . Sometimes dimensional modifications are made in the analysis phase to model more accurately the true structural behavior. it appears as shown in the following figure. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. This screen allows you to modify materials. As this module is most likely to be used to generate structural drawings. where the user input the geometry. This screen allows you to modify the dimensions that were used in the analysis to match actual conditions. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. materials and reinforcement and the program verifies the condition of the beam for the specified loads. This module is invoked by selecting one or more reinforced concrete beams located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete Beam from the menu bar.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item A

Selects the moment frame type. Moment frame: [Ordinary/Intermediat See the notes above on the design and detailing e/Special]: implications of this action. Clear Cover: Distance from edge of section to outer edge of stirrups.

Modulus of elasticity, Concrete and reinforcing f’c, Fy, Specific material properties. Weight: Static load case during It is the design static earthquake gravitational load that simultaneously acts during the earthquake (only for Intermediate and Special moment frames)

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Item B

Note that this column can be moved relative to the axis used in the analysis program. By clicking on the word Center (Figure on the left) and changing it to Left, the column is now located to the left of the gridline (Figure on the right). In addition, by selecting the 2ft dimension of the column (left figure) it can be modified (see 2.5ft dimension on the right figure). Remember that all text in red can be modified. Item C

By selecting the word Rectangular (left figure), the section can be changed to a T or L section as shown in the right hand figure. To change a dimension click on the text and edit appropriately. Once the section geometry is finalized, the design screen can be viewed.

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Item D the spreadsheet

The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement, and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. It is active in the Data Screen, Design screen and in the Detailing Screen. The spreadsheet is divided in three pages, the first one called Bars has the data to define the longitudinal reinforcement, the second one, Stirrups, has the information required to define the stirrups and the last one, Sections, the location of the cross sections. Bars The data needed to define the longitudinal reinforcement are:

Group: Bar:

The group number of a set of bars with a specific geometry. The bar size designation. Top: Flag that determines if the reinforcement goes on the top (1) or at the bottom (0) of the beam. Level: Flag used to define if the reinforcement will be continuous (0) or discontinuous (1). Axis1: The axis from which the start point of the group of bars is measured. Dist1: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the start point relative to the Axis1. Hook1: Flag that determines if the bars start with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Qnty: The number of bars.

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Axis2: The axis from which the end point of the group of bars is measured. Dist2: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the end point relative to Axis2. Hook2: Stirrups: The data required for the definition of the stirrups are: Flag that determines if the bars end with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Stirrup: Bar:

The group of stirrups.

Span: Span number where the group of stirrups will be located. The bar size designation. The spacing between stirrups. # spa: The number of spaces in the group. This parameter indirectly defines the number of stirrups. # of legs: The number of vertical stirrup legs to resist shear. Closed: Sections: The engineer can stipulate at which location/s along the beam they wish to obtain a cross-section. Flag that determines if the stirrup is closed hoop (1). Spacing:

The cross section locations are defined with the following parameters: Axis: The axis from which the location of the cross section is to be measured. Dist: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the cross section relative to the specified axis. Typically, it will not be necessary to enter each bar individually into the beam. There are several tools that you can use to automatically determine the required reinforcement. Enter reinforcement:

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Displays a dialog window to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement of the beam. All the parameters are defined by the user. Suggest reinforcement: RAM Advanse suggests longitudinal and transverse reinforcement based on the bar size designation entered by the user in a dialog window. The reinforcing calculated is based only on the member forces at the columns and beam mid-spans. Enter continuous reinforcement: This tool is used to define the continuous longitudinal reinforcement of the beam, either top or the bottom. These bars will run the full length of the beam. Enter top reinforcement at axes: This tool is used to define the top discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement that will be defined at the supports. Enter bottom reinforcement: This tool is used to define the discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement at the bottom in the mid-span region of the beams. Splice bars at (% of L): This tool is used to define the location of the required bar splices of longitudinal reinforcement. Bars will be spliced at the specified distance if they are longer than the maximum bar length. This tool will only work for spans that are less than 75% of the maximum bar length. Enter 0% if you want the splices located at the span supports or enter 50% if you want the splices located at midspan. The user should always check the generated bars. Note that only the bars that need splices will be affected. The spliced bars will still be treated as single bars for selection. The splice length considered in this tool is for class B splices where the maximum percent of reinforcement spliced within required lap length is 100. The user can reduce manually the lap length for class A splices. Enter stirrups: This tool is used to define the transverse reinforcement along the spans of the beam.

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Design Screen

The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design data. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. Note that two diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time, thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (demand) curve. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the load condition selected. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition.

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Warning! It is the engineers responsibility to review the required steel with respect to the provided steel to confirm that sufficient capacity is provided by the bars shown. This is best viewed in the design screen and the report of the RC Beam Detailer where the design against the nominal moments or the design shear forces against the nominal shear forces can be visually displayed. In some circumstances, the area of required steel may exceed the provided. This will most often happen at the end of a member where there is not sufficient length to develop the bars that are required for moments at the face of the column-beam joint. Item A The figure below is for the design moments in the beam. Note that the maximum negative moment is located at the face of the column that coincides with the start point of the diagram. The diagrams are always displayed from face to face of columns. Measurements are shown from the face-of-column to the controlling inflection points. Note that the envelope diagrams consider only the selected load conditions.

By clicking on the title of the diagram (in red), the user has the option of changing the diagram to any of the following:

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The Deflection, Moments, Shear, and Torsional moments are all dependent on the currently selected load condition. The other options are displayed and calculated for the selected load conditions. It is particularly important to view the envelope for design bending moments and the nominal bending moments. The last diagram illustrates the increase of section capacity over the development length of the longitudinal bars. As such the engineer can determine whether the strength of the beam is enough to resist the design moments over any length of the beam (particularly in the development zone of the bars). Item B the Spreadsheet The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Detailing Screen

The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the beam. Both longitudinal and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. Note that the user can only define the

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reinforcement and the localization of the cross sections in the figure, but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside RAM Advanse. Item A

To display the reinforcing takeoff and lengths, click on the word Detailing and select ‘List’. Note that the fine control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. To edit one or certain groups of bars, they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected, they are shown in blue and the bars not selected in light gray:

Item B
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The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Configuration Screen

This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. The items considered are described in the table below. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99. The only option available for the moment. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear, torsion and detailing. Affects the development length of bars
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of bars. The ratio of reinforcement Rho Ratio between maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho. ACI 10.3.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8.4.1 of the Code.

Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars. The user shall between consider section 7.6 of the Code. reinforcement Round bar length to Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch, foot etc.

Estimated distance This is the distance, which is added to the clear cover (see of clear cover to bar group centroid data screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. Delta X for each solution The increment at which design checks are performed. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment, shear) along the beam. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. This option allows the user to manipulate the spacing of the

Horizontal tick spacing for text
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spacing for text

tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. Applies the specification given in section 11.1.3.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. A normal value is 40 ft.

Reduce Vu near column face

Maximum bar length

Report of reinforced concrete beams
By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen, the report screen of reinforced concrete beams will be displayed. The screen is shown next:

Report screen of reinforced concrete beams. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report, see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The report of reinforced concrete beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. At the top the general information that are common to all the selected members of the beam is displayed. This section is followed by the data that is particular to each member of the beam. In the general information section, the user can find the loading conditions, the moment frame and the properties of the materials.

375

376 . In the specific data section for each member of the beam the user can find the geometry. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. namely a flexural and a shear/torsion section. Example of the flexural verification diagram. Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. In this way. The results are divided in two sections. All diagrams are drawn from face-of-column to face-of-column.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General information displayed in the report of reinforced concrete beams. Each member is divided in 10 equal lengths and thus 11 stations are considered in the verification of the bar layout. the reinforcement and some design parameters such as the clear cover. the initial spacing of stirrups. One particular feature is the graphic layout of the bar pattern with the position and number of each group of bars. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. etc. The status of the different stations are graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. Example of the graphic layout presented for the adopted reinforcement of the beam. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance.

Most of the seismic considerations given on chapter 21 of the Code are taken into account (see previous section for exceptions). A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. in order to avoid a brittle failure of the member.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Note that the report indicates the spacing of bars required to meet cracking controls of the beam as specified in ACI 10. 377 . In this case. the purpose is to get members with shear strength greater than the maximum probable bending capacity of the member. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. The actual spacing of the bars as currently laid out is also indicated.6.4. This spacing is calculated considering the dimensions of the following figure: The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts 378 .

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As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed. Identifying the columns for design RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns. Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. select the members graphically and proceed as shown in the figure below. you should select a Template for beams or columns as it is illustrated in the next figure: 391 . Assigning concrete sections to the members If you want to create a new section. This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. To assign a concrete section to a member. and new sections (and materials) can be created as described in the Chapter on Creating Sections and Materials. Note that the columns can be rectangular or circular in shape.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete column design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.

The Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway in (parallel to) the 2 axis. The tool buttons below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. These include the sidesway flag. Likewise. The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). Column Design Parameters Several design parameters should be input during the modeling phase. Braced Against Sidesway Flag To enter the required design parameters select the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab. but rather the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral load. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The creation of new sections is described in more detail in Chapter of Creating Sections and Materials. The engineer will be able to modify some of these parameters from within the column detailer. the effective length factor and the member axial unbraced length. Acceptable values are 0 and 1. 392 . The parameters are considered in the design as described in the Technical Notes Section. This setting has nothing to do with the member-unbraced length. as is described in the detailer section.

A spreadsheet value of 0. A spreadsheet value of 0. Cm22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). K22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis K or Ky). 393 . The K value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for columns.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. as they affect the calculated K. Note that K33 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis K or Kx). Likewise. Likewise.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination. this value is important when calculating the member local-stability moment-magnifier (Lamda ns).0 will always result in a K of 1. As discussed in the technical section this value is important when considering whether slenderness should be considered in the design of the column. As discussed in the technical section.0 for all currently selected members. alternatively the engineer can use the toolbar buttons below the spreadsheet to automatically calculate the K factors from a nomograph. The Cm value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the Reinforced Concrete Design toolbar button under the members design tab. The engineer can use the toolbar button to set the Cm value to 0.0 being used in the program. Note that if using the nomograph the sidesway (braced2 and braced3) flags should be set first. Note that Cm33 is for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). Effective Length (K) Factor The effective length (K) factor for each column should be entered. Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor The local member stability (Cm) Factor can be entered for each column.

Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis L or Lux). note that the Cb and Lb columns in the spreadsheet are not used in concrete design. However. The L22 and L33 value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab. It is suggested that all user design parameters be applied in the model prior to invoking the detailer. Likewise. These values represent the unbraced length between lateral supports that the program will consider in the design. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below. Analysis Before proceeding with column design. modifications made in the detailer will not be reflected back in the model. the model should be analyzed appropriately. A spreadsheet value of 0. If necessary.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) Unbraced Member Length (L) The engineer can modify the unbraced length for axial load capacity (and slenderness) calculations. Important: All of the design parameters described above can be modified in the detailer. you can enter the unsupported lengths between lateral supports (L33 and L22). 394 . A zero value means that it is equal to the member length between nodes. Also. L22 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis L or Luy). The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code.0 will result in L being calculated based on the distance between the nodes of the member.

7 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for columns. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. Note that if 0.0 is entered. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below. a value of 1. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis.13. ACI Technical Notes The column design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 395 .0 to 1.7 (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected members. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI318-99 (10.0 is used in the analysis. For example. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis. the results obtained from doing so should not differ significantly from that of a first order analysis. Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed before entering the column detailer module.4). The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes section).Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model.35 and 0.0. the ACI318-99 section 10-11 recommends 0. The toolbar buttons can be used to automatically enter values of 0. While technically there is no need to perform a second order analysis for a structure braced against sidesway. Acceptable values are 0.

to zero. not considering the reinforcement. This method divides the second order effect into two parts: a structure second order effect (P-∆) and a member local stability effect (p-(). displaying a warning message.10. P-∆ is addressed through the end moment magnification factor (ACI-99 10. or axial compression with flexure. The stress-strain diagram for the steel is elasto-plastic.13) due to the deformation of the whole structure. integrating the compression area.10.2 is implemented in the program. Design of longitudinal reinforcement The longitudinal reinforcement is designed to resist both biaxial bending and axial loads. or axial tension with flexure. The strain of concrete is proportional to the distance to the neutral axis.1 is a non-elastic fully second order analysis that is not available in Ram-Advanse and therefore.003 The compression force of the concrete is calculated using the equivalent rectangular block of forces proposed by Whitney.2 of the Code. Maximum concrete strain εmax = 0. 10. All the moments are in reference to the geometric centroid of the section. then it remains constant. the calculation is done in a similar way with the specified strength of the concrete.1 or 10.10. whichever is smaller. 10. which means that the stress of the steel has a linear variation up to the yielding point.3. The strength reduction factors used are in accordance with 9.12).9 in axial tension. For intermediate cases.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for column design. • If the reinforcement is less than 1% (the minimum suggested reinforcement ratio). The stress in the reinforcement is calculated based on the strain of the centroid of each reinforcement bar.7 in axial compression. The nominal strength of a section is calculated with the following strength reduction factors: φ = 0. φ = 0. 396 . The P-( effect is addressed through the local moment magnification (ACI-99 Section 10. of the ACI.10. The following assumptions have been made: • • • • • • • • • Strength Design Theory. the cracking effect and other global non-linear factors.90 as φ*Pn decreases from 10*fc’*Ag or φ*Pb. The tension strength of the concrete is neglected. • Slenderness effects The Code specifies that the slenderness effects in columns should be considered by performing either section 10. φ shall be permitted to be increased linearly to 0. Modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement E = 29000 ksi.

1 can be helpful to decide whether the members of the frame should be considered braced against sidesway.1. the cracked section factors should be modified by (1 + βd) as described in the ACI-99. The P-∆ effects for columns subject to sidesway are automatically obtained from the analysis results.11.4. The criterion stated in 10.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Important: The Code states that columns with k*lu/r >100 need to be designed according to 10. If the user wants to consider sustained lateral loads.12. This is not currently performed in the program and only a warning will be issued. Thus it is assumed that an elastic second order analysis has been performed. The moments M1 and M2 at the ends of the column are therefore obtained directly from the analysis without performing ACI-99 Equations (10-16) and (10-17). The flow charts attached to the end of this chapter indicate the algorithm used to consider the slenderness effects. taking into account the inertia reduction factors suggested in 10. The P-( is not considered in the analysis (even second order) and is therefore approximated following the procedure described in ACI-99 10. For sway frames this procedure is performed if equation 10-20 is exceeded. This procedure is used on braced frame members if ACI-99 equation 10-8 is exceeded. 397 .11.10. The user has the responsibility to decide if the columns belong to a sway or non-sway frame.1.

In the calculation of the nominal moment with tension forces. calculated with the interaction function. is taken according to Equation (11-8). The program considers the maximum factored shear forces (Vu). The nominal shear strength of the column. this involves both shifting and rotating the neutral axis to obtain equilibrium. The governing condition for bending is defined as the condition with the highest demand ratio. This methodology used to determine the true P-M limits involves a trial and adjustment procedure for establishing moment equilibrium. Note that phi is defined for Mu and Pu values.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Bending design Having determined the magnified moments (the required design moments). The demand or capacity ratio for the current load is defined as the ratio between the distances o-s and o-c of the interaction diagram. which are located a distance d from the face support of the column according to 11. This may produce smaller Mn values. Interaction diagram of a column. and the rebar pattern entered by the user in the Data Screen. It calculates also the nominal moments of the section with the adopted reinforcement and determines if the section is able to resist the imposed moments. which vary in the order of 20% in relation to the ones. Shear design Shear design is performed according to Chapter 11 of the Code. The demand or capacity ratio is defined as the ratio between the current loads acting on the column divided by the strength reduction factor (phi) and the nominal capacity (axial or bending moments) that are illustrated in the following figure. The shear forces in both axes are considered. but torsion is neglected in the design of the stirrups (option to suggest reinforcement). This procedure uses the true (full) section properties. The program also checks if the adopted reinforcement area is within the maximum and minimum allowed reinforcement limits prescribed by the code or set by the user. RAM Advanse assumes that the interaction equation varies linearly between the condition with pure tension load and the condition with pure bending. If Pu > Plim then the capacity of the column will be reduced to the Plim value. the required reinforcement area (As) is calculated using an exact determination of the axial-moment (P-M) interaction limits of the column design.1. if subject to axial tension.3.1. As illustrated in the attached flowcharts. 398 . Details of how the shear design is performed are given in the attached flow charts.

The length (Lo) measured from the joint face and the maximum tie spacing for this length (So) is calculated according to 21. Load Load is the number of the load condition that resulted in the largest area of reinforcing. the exact reinforcement distribution and geometry are taken into account in the calculations. 399 . F axial. The attached flow charts show the details of the sections that are considered in the verification. Col Numb. the axial force. Significantly more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section.5 of the code for special moment frames. M22 These are the forces corresponding to the governing load condition. the engineer can view a text summary of column output for the currently selected columns by clicking on the Reports . Intermediate moment frame where structures with intermediate seismic performance are considered. bending moment about axis 3 (major axis). This is because in the main program output. This section of the code specifies that the shear design has to be performed based on the flexural resistance of columns. and bending moment about axis 2 (minor axis) for the load condition that gives the greatest reinforcement area. M33. Report Output After an analysis.4 for special moment frames. Special moment frame where structures with high seismic performance are included. This version of the program considers all the requirements given in section 21. and M22. An example of this output is shown in the figure below.Reinforced Concrete Design menu item. It is the column number in the model.5 for intermediate moment frames and according to 21.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Special provisions for seismic design The user can specify the type of moment frame for each design (see the Detailer section): • • • Ordinary moment frame where no special considerations are taken into account. while in the detailing module. negative means compression. In the main program the engineer can obtain a text summary design output. .4. M33. and he or she can view the reinforcing in their concrete members. A positive axial force means tension.10.4. F axial. Output Two forms of concrete columns design output are available to the engineer in the program. This will provide a single line of output as shown below for all the rectangular and circular concrete columns currently selected. the reinforcement distribution is not known and an assumed distribution is considered. respectively. and the column headings of the table are described below: Important: some differences may appear between the results obtained with Reports/Reinforced concrete design and Detailing /Concrete columns. Refer to the list of load combinations shown at the top of the output. are.

Reqd and A. A.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns A. 400 . Refer to the column design/detailing module for consideration of shear demand on the design. Shear and torsion demand are not considered in this separation. Tie Spacing This is the maximum separation allowed between stirrups due to geometric considerations and code prescriptive detailing requirements. max This is the maximum area of steel allowed in this section. Important: Tie separation does not consider the shear demand on the column. The column should at a minimum use the larger of A. The reinforcement shown represents the true location of the reinforcing bars that were required for the design. required This is the computed required longitudinal reinforcement area. min This is the minimum reinforcement area required by the design code. A. An error message will appear if the required steel is larger than the maximum reinforcement area that is allowed by the code. Min. Note however that the area should never be less than the minimum reinforcement area required by the code. BxH The width and depth of the adopted rectangular section for each member. To view the position of the reinforcement (as shown in the figure below) select the desired columns graphically and press from the toolbar. only the detailing code requirements. Text summary of reinforced concrete column design Length This is the length of the column. Circular sections are not considered in this report. Screen Display of Reinforcement In columns the position of the reinforcement bars is very important. but do not reflect any detailing changes made in the concrete detailing module.

401 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Screen display of the reinforcing in the column and beams.

and also the ability to produce column detailing for design documents. Data Screen The first screen viewed in the detailer is the data screen. The data screen. Note that the first tie spacing Sini has to be < So/2. section geometry. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. The user can modify these as illustrated below. Following a successful analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design of their concrete columns. Note that the section and load data has all been read in from the modeled structure. From this screen the material properties. This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. On entry into the designer/detailer the program will provide reinforcing in the cross sections. design parameters and load data can all be modified. 402 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the column detailer to design columns subject to axial forces and bending moments. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. The engineer can use this reinforcing or can modify it as desired. The module will provide suggested reinforcing when the module is invoked. The engineer can then invoke the designer/detailing module by selecting one or more columns located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete columns from the menu bar.

The data screen can be divided into four areas as described below. Item A 403 . However. The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Note that when section data is modified in this screen it is copied up the column line. it is important to begin the column modifications from the lowest level and work up. These are described in detail below. if properties change up the column. The screen can be subdivided in four areas outlined above. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design. changes do not have to be made to each column up the column line. They only exist for that invocation of the detailing module. Therefore. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in this screen. Important: Changes to the physical model made in the designer/detailer are NOT transferred back to the model in RAM Advanse.

404 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns General parameters for the whole column line.

15. The minimum specified Rho.003) Block stress The reduction factor for the depth of Profile.06 for special moment frames (ACI-99 21. Refer to ACI-99 12. The Code Minimum reinforcemen suggests 0.01.1.3. f’c. Suggested and default value: 0.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Moment frame [Ordinary/ Intermediate/ Special]: Clear Cover Modulus of elasticity. For non-sway frames: the ratio of the maximum factored axial sustained load to the maximum factored axial load associated for the same load combination.08 for ordinary or intermediate moment frames and 0. The moment frame type affects the maximum reinforcement ratio.9.1) t ratio: suggests a Rho of 0. unit weight: Beta D: Classification according to ACI-31899. See figure below. the spacing between ties and the bar splices. Clear cover to longitudinal bars (not to transverse reinforcement). Type of splices: [Tangential/ Offset/ Bearing] Used to calculate the spacing between bars in the splice zones. Note that ACI-99 (10. Beta the equivalent block stress in the concrete (0.60 For sway-frames: the ratio of the maximum factored sustained shear within a story to the maximum factored shear in that story.85) 1 405 . fy.1).4. eu The maximum allowed strain in the concrete (0. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. t ratio The maximum Rho that the section can Maximum reinforcemen obtain before it fails code prescribed limits. normally equal to 0.0.

Column elevation Move the column position in relation to the axis 406 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Tangential lap splices Item B Offset lap splices Bearing lap splices Types of splices considered by the program Geometric characteristics of the column can be set in this area. Refer to the following diagrams for what information can be changed.

Item C Section information is modified in this area. 407 . Beam dimensions are NOT automatically read in from the structural model. The floor names can be changed but they are not saved between invocations of the designer/detailer module.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Modify the height between floors starting from the lowest level Modify the beam dimensions starting from the lowest level. The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column.

These are not transferred back to the original analytical model. Zoom fence on a particular column Select the column type (circular or rectangular). 408 . The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Member section information.

The actual reinforcement ratio is displayed for reference: If the value is highlighted in red it means that the actual reinforcement ratio is less than Min Rho or larger than Max Rho. 409 . This option tells the program if the splices are to be tension or compression splices. Enter Yes if none of the load combinations results in any of the bars going into tension. Remember to start from the lowest level if you want to have data automatically copied up. Typically a tension splice should be assumed.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns There are two types of sections available: Rectangular and Circular. the diameter of the bars and number of bars. Enter the dimensions. If it is highlighted in yellow it means that it is larger than Max Rho/2.

This spacing is applied to the top as well as to the bottom of the column.10. Initial spacing of ties (Sini).5. The maximum code prescribed (allowed) tie spacing for column detailing (per 7. Note how the program considers the initial spacing when there are beams with different heights. Enter the desired tie spacing. 410 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The user can input the initial spacing of the first tie.2) is also displayed for reference. The entry will be highlighted in yellow if it is larger than the maximum spacing.

the user is required to specify Lo and So. the spacing between bars is shown and the user can perform this verification by inspection. Note that the program does not verify the ACI-99 code specification (7. measured from joint face along the axis of the column. In the case of intermediate or special moment frames. Item D 411 . However.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the number of legs in each direction for the transverse reinforcement.5) requiring that at least alternate longitudinal bars must be braced and that no bar must be more than 6 in from a braced bar. Lo is the minimum length.10. over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. The spacing between longitudinal bars is shown as reference to help the user in the selection of the number of cross ties required for transverse reinforcement.

These parameters are read from the model for each column. If Cm = 0 the program will automatically calculate the appropriate value suggested by the Code based on end moments for each load combination.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Forces and data related to the slenderness of the column. Lu: Unsupported length for bending about axes 33 (major axis bending) and 22 (minor axis bending). Refer to the sheet below and the Technical Notes section for the impact of these parameters on the design. The engineer can modify the data required for the design of slender columns. Effective length factors for bending about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) A factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. K: Cm Sway Enter Yes for sway frames and No for non[Yes/No sway frames. ] 412 . Any changes made here will not be reflected back in the model when the detailer is closed.

It is provided as a reminder of the value used during the analysis for this column. 413 . only in the structural analysis.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ] Ic/Ig It is not used in the design.

3) As required 414 The maximum required area of steel. Ac: Splice length Area of the concrete section The required splice length. Design screen. Bar clear The clear spacing between bars in the spacing in splice zone. including the slenderness effects. This button displays the design results.6.5 times the bar diameter or 1. The Status is shown in green when it is O. The Code specifies that this value shall not be less than the smaller of splices 1.K and in red otherwise.5in (ACI-99 7. This value represents the maximum of the area required for strength purposes and that . The text in parenthesis indicates whether a tension or compression splice was specified.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Design Screen The second button on the toolbar is the design button. Item A The design results of the column.

13. Negative loads are in compression and positive loads are in 415 . lu is the unsupported length and r is the radius of gyration of the cross section. Ratio between the required reinforcement ratio and the provided reinforcement ratio.2. This variable show if the frame was specified as a sway frame (Yes) or as a non-sway frame (No) Effective length factor about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) This value is used to determine if frame columns are permitted to ignore slenderness effects (P-(. and does not consider the minimum Rho limit from the data screen. Rho required is the As required divided by the member area. ACI-99 10. Pu Axial load of the controlling load combination.5). Ig* refers to the cracked section moment of inertia used in the analysis. Asreq/Aspro Ratio between the required v reinforcement area and the provided area. K is the effective length factor. The value must be equal or less than one to be acceptable.12. As provided Rho req/Rho prov Provided reinforcement area.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns prescribed by the code as a minimum allowed (Rho min). Sway K Klu/r Pc Ig Item B Item B shows the proportion of the mobilized strength of the column for each load combination. Euler’s critical load for a slender column (ACI-99 10. This value is shown in red when it is larger than one.12) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section. 10. The As required is based purely on the area of steel required to meet demand.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns tension. This is based on the member end moments if not specified by the engineer. Cm33. Refer to the technical notes section for more information. Mc33. 416 . dns33. Phi Strength reduction factor calculated for the critical station of the considered load combination. These consider the slenderness of the column when necessary Mc = Mu*dns. Cm22 These show the calculated or the engineer specified values. dns22 Moment magnification factor to reflect the effect of member curvature between ends of a compression member. Mc22 Factored bending moments used for design. Remark: The additional moment magnification required to account for structural lateral load drift is implicit through the mandatory second order (PDelta) analysis.

The Status is shown in green when it is O. 417 Vu . The program calculates the maximum spacing required to resist shear and considers the code prescribed limits on reinforcement spacing. It will be shown in red if it is larger than the calculated Sini. It will be shown in red if it is greater than the calculated So Maximum allowed spacing of transverse reinforcement for intermediate or special moment frames in the Lo zone.K. So given by the user. Calculated S The maximum spacing allowed for ties. ACI 21. This spacing should be equal or less than the allowed spacing. It will be shown in red if it is smaller than Allowed Lo Minimum length. Provided S The spacing provided by the engineer. Provided Sini Calculated Sini Provided So (*) Calculated So (*) Provided Lo (*) Calculated Lo (*) Initial tie spacing given by the user. over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So.4.4. For circular columns the resultant Vu is shown. It is only required for intermediate or special moment frames.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Item C Shear design. Initial tie spacing calculated as being required by the program. Lo given by the user.4 Factored shear force for the controlling load condition. measured from joint face along the axis of the column.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Vc Nominal shear strength provided by concrete for the controlling load condition. Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement. Nominal shear strength (concrete + reinforcement) Vs Vn 418 .

Configuration Screen This screen allows the user to establish standards and control over the design and details calculated by the program. Domel A. A. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in the data screen.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the typical section of the column for each floor. As such it is the number of bars in the middle of the column that show in the elevation. A column with 4 vertical bars on all sides will still only show two vertical bars in the elevation view [Ghosh. 1995 ISBN 0-89312-098-7 (page 369)].. and the elevation with the reinforcing bars that are required per the previous screen design. S. “Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake and Wind Forces” PCA Publications. W. K. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. and not the exterior bars. Note that the common practice in detailing dictates that the elevation is drawn through the middle part of the column. These are saved between invocations of the module. Fanella D. To access to this screen press the button 419 . but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse.

For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module and should be set before the detailing is viewed. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. Affects the development length of bars. 420 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Configuration screen. Used for rounding down the spacing between ties Used to round-up the length of splices Epoxy Coated Round spacing to closest Round splices to closest Report of reinforced concrete columns By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. Refer to the table below. Concrete Type Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete columns. the report screen of reinforced concrete columns will be displayed.

General data displayed in the report of reinforced concrete columns. the design parameters and the forces at both ends of the column corresponding to the selected loading conditions. The fs/fy ratio for the critical bar in tension is also included to compare the basic limits of the interaction diagram with the value obtained for the point: 421 . the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The top section of the report contains data that is common to all the selected members. In the specific data section for each column. the reinforcement. the user can find the loading conditions. Information specific to a column in the column line. In the general data section. the user can find the geometry. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. In this version of RAM Advanse. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed. the type of moment frame and the properties of the materials. This is followed by specific information on each column.

All the seismic considerations given on Chapter 21 of the Code are considered.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Basic limits with known fs/fy ratios that may be compared with the fs/fy ratio obtained for the current load acting on the column. Sini and the length Lo are shown in the report (for a detailed description of these variables. which will determine the governing loading condition for the biaxial compression design. All the tie spacing like S. 422 . The biggest capacity ratio will be the one. see the table in the Design Screen section of this chapter). Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the biaxial compression design. So. Report screen with all the information regarding shear design. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts 423 .

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Adopted dimensions The next step is determining the basic dimensions for the footing geometry. The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the applied shear forces without reinforcement. together with the design of the required longitudinal reinforcement. or where the dynamic properties of the structure are influenced by soil-structure interaction.6 (This factor may be changed). Design Steps Soil-footing-structure modeling Before proceeding with footing design. For more details about the basic concepts for soil-footing-structure modeling and how to use this tool. refer to appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction – Theory at the end of this chapter. and make an approximation to the depth based on service loads with an overall load factor of 1. Technical Notes The footing design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 441 . The input data for modeling is described in: Foundation Spring Modeling Tools. Verifications The check of the overall stability against sliding. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. according to isolate footing to use. The base and depth dimensions should be defined separately. overturning and soil bearing capacity is the last step. These verifications are realized in the design and detailing module. the model should be analyzed appropriately.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This section describes the provisions of the isolated. with the recommended methods by RAM Advanse to model the soil-structure interaction and their implications in footing design: adopted dimensions and verifications. reinforced concrete footing-design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. ) located at The first button calculates the minimum dimensions of the base to accomplish with the soil allowable stress. A soil-structure analysis should consider appropriate soil springs for all the situations that include eccentric columns (columns that are not located at the center of a footing). The analysis should consider the soil-structure interaction where appropriate. They can be calculated with 2 buttons ( the top of the detailing module screen. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999).

Due to the numerical integration method used values such as soil pressures may differ by up to 3% from the exact solutions. SFsliding=(Fr+Pp)/H Where: SFsliding= Safety factor against sliding. All load combinations (factored and service) need to be generated by the engineer. Overall stability against sliding. Any passive earth pressure developed by the soil in front of the foundation will help against the slide forward. that is. Loads In accordance to Chapter 15 of the Code. The footing is assumed to be infinitely rigid. When calculating the soil pressures the weight of the footing and fill is considered. overturning and soil bearing capacity Any isolated shallow foundation must have stability against: Sliding: produced by the lateral forces acting on the footing base.50 Overturning at the bottom edge of the footing (point O) 442 . Fr = base friction and adhesion.e. If this soil is permanent (i. the footings should be designed to resist the factored loads and induced reactions (Item A of the Design Screen.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. see design/detail module). see design/detail module). This method considers the soil as an elastic material. covered by pavement or a sidewalk) it may be included to produce the passive pressure. For estimating the passive pressure and the soil bearing capacity the following reduction coefficients are suggested (and used as default values): For friction angle = 0.67 For cohesion = 0. the soil stress distribution below the footing is assumed to be linear. Service load conditions can also be used to verify soil stresses and settlements (Item B of the Design Screen. Pp = passive earth pressure H Horizontal load acting on the foundation. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for footing design. However. which can be represented by the modulus of subgrade reaction (ks). Analysis A numerical method is adopted to find the stress distribution in the soil. according to the applicable code. only the applied loads are considered when performing design of the footing. The engineer can consider some or all load combinations when performing the design.

Bearing capacity failure or allowable bearing pressure Please consider that the allowable soil pressure for a footing takes into account both bearing capacity and settlements. The differences are mainly in the correction factors. Joseph E.army. New York. Meyerhof or Vesic (this option considers the loads acting on the footing and the specific conditions of their surroundings as ground slope.usace. etc). the soil cohesion and the lateral pressure. if the engineer has enough soil information. 1992. SFoverturning=(Wc+Ws+P)*x/M Where SFoverturning=Safety factor against overturning. Additionally the depth of water table is taken into account.Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905).. For more information on the bearing capacity equations the user is referred to the following references 1) Bowles. Only a uniform soil layer is considered. Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. However. Free downloadable on /www. Engineering and Design .mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals 443 . The bearing capacity calculation considers the wedge weight. inclined loading. Sometimes the allowable bearing pressure is already furnished to the user and can be considered directly. for a better approximation. Ws=weight of the soil over the foundation.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Overturning about the footing base involves taking the moment summation about point O. These three components are affected by correction factors due to foundation shape. It is not advisable to have the eccentricity of the resultant out of the central middle third of the foundation (kern) because this can produce differential settlement that tilts the foundation. freatic level. load eccentricity. which affects the effective soil unit weight and pressures. he or she could use the included option to calculate the bearing capacity of shallow foundations with the equations proposed by Hansen. Mc Graw Hill. Eccentricity and inclined loading correction factors may not be used simultaneously and the factors not used are unity. M = overturning moment and x distance to the overturning edge. Wc=weight of the foundation. Any method for obtaining the bearing capacity is just an estimate and can be adopted depending on the engineers’ judgement or familiarity with the method. P Vertical load. 1995 2) USA Corps of Engineers. and foundation depth.

to resist uplift of a footing. ACI-99 section 15. the development length should be straight. Refer to the attached flowcharts and ACI318-99 for details of the design procedure implemented.2 specifies a concentration of longitudinal reinforcing in a center band for rectangular footings. b) the critical section used to consider punching shear at the perimeter columns is located at a distance d/2 from the column face. otherwise a standard hook is adopted. a) One-way shear strength is verified taking a critical section at a distance d from the face of the column.4. Top-of-footing (tension) reinforcing. Although both development lengths (in tension and compression) are listed in the report.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Design The strength design is performed considering both bending and shear. it is recommendable to follow the procedure below for the Soil-footing-structure modeling (step 1) in foundation design. a) The maximum factored moment is calculated at critical sections located at the faces of the column assuming a concrete column. The figure notes below describe the location of critical sections used for design. only one is considered to check if there is enough space. The development length in the footing is in accordance with Chapter 12 of the Code and the critical sections are the same as the ones adopted for bending. Important. When the dowels are only in compression (Splices in compression=Yes).4. Both one and two-way shear is considered in the design. The ‘column’ dimensions should be adjusted appropriately to consider a steel base plate. is not performed in RAM Advanse Foundation Spring Modeling Tools Once the user knows how these Code provisions are implemented for footing design. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement is always distributed uniformly across the entire width of the footing. 444 . this provision is only considered by the program for centered footings. The length of dowels is calculated considering the splice length and the minimum development length necessary inside the footing taking into account the compression or tension in the bars.

Dialog used to generate soil springs to model the Soil-Structure interaction. The basic concepts to use this tool are described in Appendix A. This selection is used to establish the footing modulus of sub-grade reaction.Modulus of Subgrade Reaction: Select the type of soil that most closely matches that of your site. Select the radio button that best reflects the position of your column. at the end of this chapter.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The program has a special tool to help you with input data for footing modeling and determining the spring constants required to model the soil-structure interaction correctly. By selecting ‘Use’ and entering a value. First. to activate this functionality select the support nodes where the footing/s are to be located. any modulus value can be entered. Press the indicated button to model footings for the currently selected nodes The following dialog will appear. Press the footing button shown below to model the footing-soil springs. Soil Type . Spring Method: 445 . Column Position: To automatically calculate rigid offset lengths the program currently allows nine different column positions on the footing.

The two methods.221-229 446 . On SMFE. krzz). pp.g. Vertical spring constant: kt = ks * B* L For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (δ2 . Note that to clear the footing springs and rigid offset from an existing footing select the ‘Remove Springs’ option in this frame. Proc.δ1) / B Considering that θ is a small angle. so θ = (δ2 . kip/ft2/ft). The derivation of kr is as follows: Parameters affecting the rotation and the calculation of the spring constants. (1967) “Design of Spread Footings For Earthquake Loadings”. W.δ1) / B [Eqn I] Stress in soil at edge of footing is moment/section modulus of footing = M*(B/2)/(L*B*B*B/12) = 6*M/(B2*L). thus krzz = ks*L*B3/12. Direct Method kt = ks * B* L krxx = ks*B*L3/12 krzz = ks*L*B3/12 Where ks is the modulus of subgrade reaction (Force/Area per Length Settlement e. Finally krzz = kt*B2/12 Taylor Method Taylor. 5th Australia-New Zealand Conference. ks = σ / δ Considering a conventional analysis of rigid footings the soil pressure can be computed from principles of mechanics of materials for combined bending and axial stresses: σ1 = N/(B*L) . direct and Taylor. tan θ = θ. Kr assumes that the ks value is uniform throughout the area below the footing. P. From the definition of modulus of subgrade reaction. are described below. There are two methods available to calculate the appropriate spring constants. [Eqn II] Substituting Eqns II into Eqn I we get : θ = 12*Mzz/ks/(B3*L) And krzz = Mzz/θ.6*Mzz/(B2*L). one translation spring (kt) and two rotation springs (krxx.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The footing is modeled with three springs. σ 2 = N/(B*L) + 6*Mzz/(B2*L).

tan θ = θ. Es is the stress-strain modulus and Iθ is an influence factor which can be expressed as Iθ = 16 / (π*(1+0. With the data provided.µ2)).22*B/L)) for rigid footings. To invoke the Design/Detailing module select one or several nodes that will have the same footing. the data is not transferred into the design/detailing module. Therefore. and taking into account the Vesic´s proposal relating ks with Es: ks = Es / (B*(1. thus krzz = ks*L*B3/Iθ Finally krzz = kt*B2/Iθ Although you provide the program with fundamental data on the footing and soil. Analysis reactions are therefore calculated in the geometric center of the footing. RAM Advanse does not store this information with the node. Considering that θ is a small angle. We get: θ = Iθ*Mzz / (B3*L) And krzz = Mzz / θ. This is all done in the Design/Detailing module.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This method does not assume uniform soil stiffness below the footing but rather is based on studies performed by P. Furthermore. Using this modeling technique the engineer can easily implement and model a combined (strap) type footing as illustrated below. W. steps 2 and 3 (Adopted dimensions and verifications). Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module Following a successful modeling and analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design and detailing of their concrete footings. future invocations of this dialog with the same node selected will not necessarily result in the correct data being displayed in the dialog. Most of the soil parameters are incorporated into the modulus of subgrade reactions so that this is the only parameter entered by the user. Data Screen Press the button to view the data screen that is the initial screen that appears in the detailer: 447 . Refer to chapter of Detailing Modules for information about how to invoke and navigate within the design/detailing modules. the program automatically calculates the required spring constants and rigid offsets to the geometric center of the footing. Thereby taking into account the effect of the footings’ vertical and rotational stiffness on the behavior of the structure. (a) Eccentric footing with a strap beam (b) Model to use in the analysis. Taylor as referenced above. This method calculates a rotational stiffness based on the soil properties and footing dimensions. For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (1-µ2)*Mzz*Iθ / (Es*B2*L) Where µ is the Poisson’s ratio. go to the menu and select Detailing/Footings.

The footing dimensions are not read in from the model. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. as these values are currently not saved with the footing node. 448 . The three areas outlined above are described in detail below. In this screen you can modify the column dimensions that were read in from the model. This screen allows you to modify material and load data. The dimensions will be calculated on this screen as described below.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Data screen that allows you to change the material and loads on the footing.

Fy. unit weight Footing bar sizes (xx. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. Reinforcement of the column. Size of reinforcement according to the standard bar designation (ACI-318) for bending about X axis (xx) and bending about Zaxis (zz). zz) Column tie bar size and tie spacing Show dowels[Yes/No] . If this option is activated a column cross-section will appear. This ill allo o to specif 449 Modulus of elasticity. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. f’c.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Item A General data Clear Cover Distance from edge of section to the outer edge of the longitudinal reinforcement.

Enter No if some load combination cause tension in the dowels. ACI 31899.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This will allow you to specify column reinforcement/dowel information. The calculated dowel lengths will also be shown in the detailing screen. It is used for the calculation of the bearing capacity and the soil weight over the foundation Enter Yes to calculate the soil bearing capacity using the soil data. In this case. It is used to calculate the vertical displacement and rotation of the footing. Enter No if you have the Soil unit weight (wet) Calculate soil bearing capacity 450 . The soil unit weight over the freatic level. See the design flow chart included at the end of this chapter in order to understand the assumptions made by the program. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. it is NOT read in from the selected footing node. Design moment [Yes/No] Design code Soil Data Modulus of subgrade reaction: Typically this value should be the same value used in the analysis. Splices in compression [Yes/No] Enter Yes if the dowels are in compression for all the load combination used in the design. The version of the adopted standard used in the design procedure. Even if this value was specified when generating a soilspring. Enter Yes if you want to include the shear force (transmitted by the column) multiplied by the depth of the foundation in the bending moment acting on the footing base.

451 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing allowable soil stress as datum considering the maximum allowed settlements Allowable soil stress Reference stress to be compared with the maximum soil stress of the different service load conditions Cohesion Interparticle attraction that measures the shear strength of cohesive soils Parameter that measures the shear strength of granular soils Ground slope to be considered in the bearing capacity Soil unit weight below water level Friction angle Slope of ground from base Saturated unit weight Depth of water level Depth of water level from ground level Item B Geometric characteristics of the footing. Input of the column geometry.

Thus n1c2=+1n1DL+1n1LL is interpreted as follows: n1c2 = Node 1 Combination 2 +1n1DL = 1. n2 is node number 2 etc. The depth of the footing base below ground is used to compute the weight of the fill. The loads read in from the analysis can be seen in the table (as illustrated above) together with their values. Only bending moments. For footings with the columns located at the center of the footing these forces represent the column 452 . Item C Input of the load combinations to use in design: axial forces.0 x Node 1 DL +1n1LL = 1. One important feature to input here is the footing type that define the position of the column in relation to the footing base: There are 10 options to define the position of the column relative to the footing base. The last option allows specifying the position of the column in relation to the center of the footing. shear forces and bending moments. Note that if several support nodes are selected prior to entering the design module. The detailing module does not automatically transfer the dimensions and geometry footing from the main program.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Enter the actual dimensions of the column. the different load combinations for each selected node are displayed in the order that they were selected.0 x Node 1 LL This module assumes that the forces shown are always for the geometric center of the footing. shear and axial forces are retrieved from the analysis performed in RAM Advanse. Note that n1 is node number 1.

Adopting footing dimensions Both dimensions will be calculated separately.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing forces. Note. The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the shear force without requiring any reinforcement. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design.. If no rigid offset was considered in the analysis (and the column is offset) then these forces must be transformed manually (the engineer must change the values) to the center of the footing prior to viewing the design screen.6 (changeable). value that the user should define before applying the tool for the footing design. as shown in the figure. select the appropriate factored load combinations and proceed to the design screen. For footings where the column is located away from the footing center these represent the reaction forces at the end of the rigid offset. 453 . The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button. Design Screen Press the button to view the design results. The depth is approximately taking into account the required depth to resist service loads with a load factor of 1. To perform footing design. This screen is used to display the capacity of the footing. select the appropriate service load combinations and check the bearing pressures in the design screen. If you are only interested in checking soil pressures. calculates the minimum dimensions of the base considering that the maximum The first button soil stresses should be less than the allowable stress. Note that the results are presented in two areas shown in the next figure. The adopting dimensions for the footing: base and depth are realized on this screen using simply 2 buttons at the top of this screen bar.Base dimension calculation is performed with the allowable soil stress.

punching shear and bending design of the footing. Design of the capacity of the footing for the controlling load combinations. the calculated values of Mu and Vu can differ between 0 to 2% in relation to the exact solutions.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Two main areas in the design screen. The nomenclature of the ACI-318 has been adopted. Some parameters are clarified in the following figures: 454 . Due to the adopted numerical method. Item A The first area is devoted to providing general information and the results of one-way shear.

development length for straight bars to be adopted in compression bars Length Ldh. Axial force.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Development lengths for straight bars and standard hooks. Item B 455 . bending moments and shear forces acting on a footing The user can check if the footing complies with all the requirements of the Code with all the results and information given in this screen. The verification will be done only with one of them depending on de enable flag. Both lengths are shown in the report. development length for standard hooks be adopted in tension bars. As shown in the graphic the development length of dowels could be: Length Ld.

Safety factors and total soil pressure due to the active load condition. Note also that the safety factors against overturning. The bars shown reflect the design from the previous screen. the engineer will still be able to view this screen. it is not valid for these load conditions where the footing is not in full contact with the footing (zero stress zones). 456 . These stresses are total stresses. the design status is no-good in the design screen). The dowels are also displayed when the option Show Dowels is selected in the data screen. which include the effect of the weight of the footing and fill. If a rotation spring was calculated (and used in the analysis). In the graphic area of the screen the user can see the soil stresses and the footing elastic settlements. It displays the footing in plan and elevation with the reinforcing bars shown. Detailing Screen Press the button to view the detailing screen. The user can choose any service load condition and compare the obtained stresses with the allowable soil pressures.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Elastic settlement. Note that for the footing design the soil weight is not considered. It is also possible to verify if there is a zone with zero stress which means that the soil resultant (the cross in the figure) is outside the kern limit of the base. sliding and bearing capacity are given for the current load condition if the option to calculate the bearing capacity is enabled. Caution! Even in the case of an unsuccessful design (i.e.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Detailing screen exportable as DXF file. The engineer will need to do this if uplift exists on the edge of a footing and soil or other load is supported above the footing. 457 . Configuration Screen Press the button to view the Configuration Screen. they will be displayed only in the x-direction. If the reinforcing bars of the footing need hooks. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. Note that no top-of-footing steel is provided. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. It allows the user to establish some standards for design and also to have control over the reinforcing design. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module.

75 is suggested by ACI.6. Round spacing to closest Concrete type The spacing between bars can be rounded down to the closest increment specified.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Round bar Longitudinal bar lengths can be length to closest rounded up to the increment specified. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. The code specifies that it must not exceed 3 times the thickness of the slab or 18in (7. Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for cohesion 458 . Per the applicable code the percentage of the balanced steel allowed for design before compression reinforcing is required. So for example. all the longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch etc. Used in the calculation of development length of bars. The upper limit for bar spacing.5) Epoxy Coated Maximum Rho/Rho balanced Maximum bar spacing Consider the soil Enter Yes when the soil over the foundation is permanent. Typically a value of 0. Enter No if over the it is uncertain if the soil over the foundation foundation will be always present.

material. The data is followed by the results. This is followed by the reinforcement details adopted for the footing. This part is particularly useful when the footing is checked in service conditions. Report of reinforced concrete footings By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. These values shall be compared with the allowable compression of the soil. The mean and maximum compression of the soil are printed with the controlling load case. Suggested value 0. The top section of the report contains the data (loads. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report.5 Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for friction for friction angle angle used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. soil and geometry) of the footing that is common to all the selected nodes. too. Suggested value 0.67 Ultimate soil This option defines the formulae to bearing capacity be used in the calculation of the soil after bearing capacity. Hansen or Vesic. the report screen of reinforced concrete footings will be displayed. which is useful to 459 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing for cohesion used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. The first one is devoted to the soil-foundation interaction. The available options are Meyerhof. which are divided in three parts. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete footings. The maximum elastic deformation of the soil and the base area in compression are printed. The selection will depend on engineering judgement.

Column Located at Center of Footing Consider the following column-footing system Typical footing with the column located at the center of the foundation. the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33. The next group of results is devoted to bending. Besides the provided and required steel area for bending. 460 .Theory The model may need to consider the interaction between footings and the structure.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing evaluate the footing behavior. Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the footing design. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. the typical case of a column located at the center of a footing and the less common case of a column located around the edge of a footing. overturning moment and bearing capacity will also be printed. Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction . RAM Advanse automatically handles two typical footing situations. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. If the soil bearing capacity was calculated. the safety factors against sliding. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed: The biggest capacity ratio will be the one that will determine the governing loading condition for bending.

then the column forces may be overly conservative. is small. If the engineer assumes that the column is fixed against rotation for analysis purposes. Note that the footing rotates due to the differential soil deformation. This models the elasticity of the soil. b) Soil stresses. and that often a simplified model can be used in which rotation and vertical translation are neglected. Therefore. with a column located at its center and subject to mainly axial load. 461 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing If the column is continuous with the footing. The footing is modeled using translation and rotation springs. but the lateral displacement will likely be underestimated. This is also true for the case of a pinned column located at the footing center. a more accurate modeling technique needs to consider the soil-structure interaction. This phenomenon can be modeled by using adequate translation and rotation springs. a) Actual footing rotation. Pinned columns (such as steel columns located at footing center) typically do not subject the footing to moment load and as such it is typically not necessary to implement a soil spring in this instance. then when subject to lateral load the actual footing rotates (see (a) in figure below) and this modifies the column bending moment and the distribution of the soil stress (see (b) in figure). Note that the rotation of a typical footing. In this case the effect of soil on the vertical translation and the rotation of the footing.

The following figures show the differences between two models in a typical example (units of kip-ft). Notice that the simplified model (fixed support) should only be used if the stiffness of the footing and soil is high compared to the bending stiffness of the column. but should be evaluated for each model independently. In the next section we will describe how the program can automatically calculate a rotation spring constant. The differences between moments are small in this example. If during the design of the footings it appears that this assumption has been violated the engineer is responsible for adjusting the spring stiffness to model the soil-structure interaction appropriately. Obviously this is not trivial and it is recommended that uplift be avoided whenever possible.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Simplified model (fixed support). Note that this calculation is only valid if the entire footing remains in contact with the soil for all load combinations. This may require changing the spring stiffness for each individual load combination. 462 . Comparison between the fixed support model and the spring model. The rotation of the footing is neglected.

The modeling sequence can thus be summarized as follows: 1) Create the model with springs. 2) Perform analysis.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Limitations: a) Rotation spring constant is valid only if footing base is in full contact with the soil. 3) Design the footings (See the section on the Design and Detailing module) 463 . b) Fixed support is valid when footing rotation is negligible.

particularly when a column is subject to a significant moment. eccentric footings rotate because of the applied bending moment. Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) To illustrate the impact of footing rotation on eccentric footings consider the following columnfooting system: Column footing system to be used for illustration of modeling concepts. The column takes a portion of the moment and the moment acting on the footing is somewhat less than N*d.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) Acceptable model when foundation stiffness is large relative to the columns. The example has only axial load in the column. For pinned columns the entire axial and moment load must be resisted by the footing. 464 . The axial force (N) causes a moment of magnitude N*d The axial force causes a strong moment of (N*d) Similarly to the footings with columns at their centers. If the column is continuous with the footing then this rotation modifies the column moments and the distribution of soil stresses. b) Required model when footing stiffness affects analytical results. The column is continuous (fixed) to the footing.

the model should incorporate the load eccentricity and footing rotation in the analysis. when appropriate. b) The column may take a significant portion of the bending moments c) The moment on the footing is less than the full N*d (x is always less than 1. Ignoring the rotation of the footing will often neglect the increased bending moment in the column and the moment reduction of the footing. This modeling technique is illustrated in the following figure. a) Inadequate spring model b) Inadequate fixed support model. In this case the distribution of the soil stresses does 465 . In the model where a rigid offset is present the column will have a non-zero bending moment and the soil stress will vary linearly below the footing. When modeling an eccentric footing a simplified fixed support should not be used as this ignores the additional moment present in the columns as illustrated below.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) The actual behavior of the footing. the reaction-resultant of the footing will have to coincide with the action line of the axial force N. The footing is modeled using a rigid offset to the geometric center of the footing and the respective translation and rotation springs. In the instance where no rigid offset is present the column will not resist any bending moment. Therefore.0). Also. This rigid offset is appropriate when the footing is assumed to act as a rigid member (bending in the footing is ignored in the analysis). This is the assumption made in the design of the footings in RAM Advanse. The soil spring properties can then be calculated with respect to the footing centroid. To model this situation appropriately it is recommended that a rigid offset is provided from the column to the footing centroid.

This is obviously true for a concrete column but may not be true for a steel column with a pinned base.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing not agree with the actual behavior of the column-footing system as illustrated in the next figure. 466 .

Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts The following flow charts are presented to inform the user the details of the design considerations that have been included in the program or the ones omitted for the design of isolated spread footings. 467 . the translation and the rotation springs.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Bending moment in column and soil stresses for a) the adequate spring model for concrete columnfooting and b) for the invalid concrete column-footing model. b) Model of the footings to adopt for analysis. the correct procedure to design an eccentric footing. 3) Design the footings. Therefore. 2) Analyze the structure. a) Example of a structure with different types of footings. Note the rigid offsets in the eccentric footings. The suggested method of modeling different type of footings. with a column fixed to the footing is as follows: 1) Model the footing with springs including rigid offset.

* Clear spacing of bars being developed or spliced should not be less than 2db and clear cover should not be less than db. (15. * Axial loads. * No shear reinforcement is considered.10. * Soil under the footing is considered elastic and homogeneous.7)) L: footing length lc: column height (for rectangular sections) (lc=D for circular sections) lwc: Boolean variable (true for lightweight concrete.5.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Material: Reinforced Concrete Elements: footings Code: ACI 318-99 Assumptions remarks: * Minimum reinforcement is always used. shear forces and bending moments entered by the user or read in from the analysis are assumed to occur in the geometrical center of the footing. Data: B: footing width bc: column width (for rectangular sections) (bw=D for circular sections) c: free cover for longitudinal reinforcement D: diameter of the column (for circular sections) db: diameter of footing bars dbc: minimum diameter of column longitudinal bars dbs: diameter of ties (at least #3 for #10 or smaller and #4 otherwise (7. i. false for normal concrete) Mx. * Pressure in the soil is considered with a planar variation. the footing is considered to be infinitely rigid.e.Muz: factored bending moments acting in the footing P: service axial load in the footing 468 .Mz: Mmax: service bending moments acting in the footing maximum factored bending moment of the different load combinations Mux.1)) ebs: f´c: Boolean constant (ebt=true if the column is tied) specified compressive strength of concrete fy: specified yield strength of reinforcement k: coefficient of subgrade reaction of soil hf: height of the footing slab (> 10 in.

. szz: spacing between bars in both directions Vcxx.2.Vuzz: φ: strength reduction factor (0. Vcxz: Vuxx. 0.qav: total service stresses in the soil sxx. Aszz: and z) ldbc Muxx. Vuxz: nominal shear strength factored shear forces in the critical sections of the footing 469 . Muzz: Nbxx.. Vczz.85 for shear.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing pos: position of the column (1.9) Pu:factored axial load in the footing Vxx.qmin. Nbzz: area of reinforcement needed in both directions (about axes x minimum dowel development length for the column reinforcement factored bending moments in the critical sections of the footing number of bars needed in both directions qmax.90 for bending) γc: concrete unit weight γs: unit weight of the soil over the footing Calculation of initial variables: Ab1: Area of one-bar dd: maximum allowed straight development length Output results: Asxx. Vuzz..Vzz: service shear forces in the footing Vmax: maximum factored shear force of the different load combinations factored shear forces in the footing Vuxx.

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Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 471 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 472 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 473 .

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Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 475 .

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adopting the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD). Wood members are designed according to the following American design Code: • National Design Specification . Required Data: Loads Loads and load combinations must be properly generated. Normally. names of sections reflect their shapes and materials.1997 Edition . The Wood Detailing module will be described later in this Chapter. While no load condition may be excluded from the analysis. The required data may be entered in two ways as follows: • • Design parameter worksheets Wood Detailing Module. 477 . grade. The Design parameters worksheet is fully integrated in RAM Advanse and will be described next. Determination of the wood member data To use the Wood Design module. The Wood Detailing module is an independent module (changes are lost when the module is closed and do not get saved into the model). are specified for each group. it is possible to specify load conditions used for the optimization process and output report. Design parameters such as species. See the result output section of this chapter for more information.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) This section describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail wood members using the add-on design and detailing modules. Member Section A member is automatically considered a “Wood Member” when a wood section is assigned to it. wood members must be grouped by “Description”. etc. This module includes design check of wood members in accordance to the NDS Code.American Forest & Paper Association American Wood Council. moisture conditions.

RAM Advanse is installed with a library of standard wood sections. SHAPE ‘Rectangular’. rounded and spaced-column wood sections. In this file the specific commands used for Wood Design can be entered as follows: CODE ‘WOOD’ //This reserved word indicates that it is a wood section and it will be designed with the NDS-ASD Code. ‘Circular’ or ‘Spaced’ //Indicates the type of section. • Glulam Table 1C (Section Properties of Western Species) and Table 1D (Section Properties of Southern Pine) of the same Supplement are adopted. The following sections are installed with the program: • Standard Dressed (S4S) Sawn Lumber These sections include boards. 478 . dimension lumber and timber.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Example of a wood section assignation for a member. It is also possible to define new rectangular. The type of wood section is defined with the section macros (files with the section type followed with the leo extension). These wood sections are grouped in folders. rectangular sections given in Table 1B of the NDS Supplement.

MSR or MEL lumber.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) FORMULATION ‘Lumber’ or ‘Glulam’ //Only rectangular glulam sections are considered. Includes sawn lumber (timber or dimension lumber). loads (i. Glulam group Glued-Laminated Timber. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Templates for more details (specially the notes preceded by ) Wood materials Wood design has two formulations or groups to be considered as materials for design: • • Lumber group. dimension lumber or timber).e. To edit or create a new wood material. positive or negative bending moments) and size of members (i. select the Configuration/Data bases/Materials option. It is the engineer’s responsibility to assign the right material considering the type (beam or column). The desired wood material can be assigned to each group of members as defined by the member description: First select the desired wood material (1) and then use one of the two available tool buttons (2) to assign the material to one or several wood members.e. 479 .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Then. The required data for materials are: Species Included are the most common species for The United States and Canada. A dialog window will appear. where the main properties of the material are entered or modified: Edit or Enter the wood design properties. Following is the list of these species: 480 . select the desired material or the New option to define a new material.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lumber: Aspen Beech-Birch-Hickory Cotton Wood Douglas Fir-Larch Douglas Fir-Larch (North) Douglas Fir-South Eastern Hemlock-Balsam Fir Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack Eastern Soft Woods Eastern White Pine Hem-Fir Hem-Fir (North) Mixed Maple Mixed Oak Northern Red Oak Northern Species Northern White Cedar Red Maple Red Oak Red Wood Spruce-Pine-Fir Spruce-Pine-Fir (South) Western Cedars Western Woods White Oak Yellow Poplar Southern Pine Southern Pine-Dry Southern Pine-Green Mixed Southern Pine Balsam Fir Coast Sitka Spruce Eastern Hemlock 481 .

3.1 Dense 482 . open grain No.1 & Btr Clear Structural Select Structural. open grain No.1.2 No.1 No. open grain No.2. open grain Dense Select Structural Non-Dense Select Structural No.3 Stud Construction Standard Utility No.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack (N) Eastern Spruce Mountain Hemlock Northern Pine Ponderosa Pine Red Pine Sitka Spruce Western Cedars (North) Western Hemlock Western Hemlock (North) Western White Pine Glulam: Hem-Fir Douglas Fir-Larch Southern Pine Grades The grades (stress grading criteria) adopted are the most commonly used: Select Structural No.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) No.2 Non-Dense No. The following combination symbols are installed with the program: 16F-V2 16F-V3 16F-V5 16F-V6 16F-V7 20F-V2 20F-V3 20F-V4 20F-V7 20F-V8 20F-V9 22F-V3 22F-V8 24F-V2 24F-V4 24F-V8 16F-E2 16F-E3 16F-E6 16F-E7 483 . which are MSR (Machine Stress Rated Lumber) MEL (Machine Evaluated Lumber) Combination Symbol Properties of glued laminated timber members are defined by the Combination Symbol.1 Non-Dense No.3 and Stud Dense Structural 86 Dense Structural 72 Dense Structural 65 Clear Heart Structural Two special groups are attached to the grades.2 Dense No.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 20F-E2 20F-E3 20F-E6 20F-E7 22F-E1 22F-E2 22F-E4 22F-E5 22F-E6 24F-E10 24F-E11 24F-E13 24F-E14 24F-E15 24F-E18 20F-V5 22F-V1 22F-V2 22F-V4 22F-V5 24F-V1 24F-V3 24F-V5 26F-V1 26F-V2 26F-V3 26F-V4 16F-E1 20F-E1 22F-E3 24F-E1 24F-E2 24F-E4 28F-E1 484 .

485 .Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 28F-E2 30F-E1 30F-E2 Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression are also considered.

1 2.4 Pinned Pinned Pinned Fixed Any other configuration not included in the table will be assigned a value of 1. A tool has been included in the program to automatically calculate the effective length factors for wood ( K33 and K22).0. These parameters are a function of the type of structure (braced or unbraced). the program will assume a value of K=1. However. and the relative rigidity of the member and the contiguous members connected to it (E*I/L). the user has always to check the calculated values considering that they are only approximations.0 2.2 1.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to performing analysis and design. General design parameter spreadsheet Effective Length Factors (K22. This tool takes into account the buckling length coefficients based on NDS Appendix G. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse's context sensitive Help system. Unbraced Lengths (L33. The tool will recognize automatically if a member end is pinned.65 0. The following table contains the values used for various conditions considering the minor and major axes: Node 1 Node 2 Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Pinned Fixed Free Braced K-value yes yes no yes no no 0. K33): K22 and K33 are the effective length factors for bending about axis 2-2 (minor) and 3-3 (major). fixed or free even if it is inclined. Note that the adjoining framing members will be always neglected.80 1. L22): 486 . If K has its default value of (0).

06*lu when lu/d<7. the values of these parameters should reflect the real length of the member. the physical member has been subdivided. Rigid end zones are assumed to reduce the length of the members. Temperature Conditions: Three levels of service temperatures are defined: 487 . Le=1. The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) by the available tool. Wet (1) for over 16%. The default value is (0) and the program will consider the general formulae given for single span or cantilever bending members with any loading conditions: Le=2. For multiple span applications the engineer should enter the appropriate values in the worksheet. If.3 of the Code). where lu = laterally unsupported span length of bending member and d = depth of member Wet/Dry Service Conditions: This parameter defines the moisture conditions for which design values or adjustment factors (Ct and CM) will be calculated. The NDS Specification indicates this value to be: Sawn lumber: Dry (0) for 19% or less. for analysis. The tool may be used to automatically calculate the values for these cases.63*lu+3*d when 7<=lu/d<=14.84*lu when lu/d>14. Likewise. If L22 or L33=0. Valid values are 0 and 1. the program will assume the length L between nodes. Braced Against Sidesway Flag: The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). It is the length of the face of the member that is in compression for any load condition. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘weak axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis.3 and Le=1. The NDS Code suggests different values for cantilever and single span beams depending on the type of load (Table 3. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length.3.3. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the ‘strong axis’ of the member.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) These distances are measured between centers of gravity of the bracing members in the 1-2 (weak) (L22 for bending about 2-2) axis and the 1-3 (strong) (L33 for bending about 3-3) axis respectively. Wood design parameter spreadsheet Effective span length of bending member (Le): This unbraced length is the length used for the determination of the slenderness ratio (Rb) and the general beam stability factor (CL). Glulam: Dry (1) for 16% or less. but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. And wet (1) for over 19%.

4. If Li has its default value (0). This assumption is on the conservative side and the maximum difference in relation to the exact value of the calculated Cv is in the order of 10%. 488 .Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) T<100°F (38°C) 100°F(38°C)<T<=125°F(52°C) 125°F<T<=150°F(66°C) Most cases will fall within the first level.3. Length of the bending member between points of zero moment (Li): This distance should be entered only for glulam members. truss chords. It is the length of the beam between points of zero moments and it is used for the calculation of the Volume Factor (Cv). of the Code. the prolonged heating can cause a permanent loss of strength therefore it is not considered by the program. This parameter is the repetitive member factor (Cr) applied to dimension lumber. The selected level will affect the Temperature Factor (Ct) calculations. Repetitive Member: This flag can be applied to joists. etc. For temperatures above 150°F. which are in contact or spaced not more than 24" on centers and meet the conditions specified in Section 4. the program will assume a value of Li=L.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Data for the model design Before analyzing the structure. the code and the load duration of each load condition to be considered in the design has to be specified. 489 . The following load duration categories are available: Load Duration Permanent Ten years Two months Seven Days Ten Minutes Impact Typical Design Loads Dead Load Occupancy Live Load Snow Load Construction Load Wind/Earthquake Load Impact Load For load combinations. the shortest duration of the different loads should be selected.

Reports Select Reports/Wood Design to print the wood reports.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design post processing inside RAM Advanse The basic design post processing is performed automatically after analysis. It allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if separation lines will be printed in the report: Reports dialog window. 490 . Results can be displayed graphically or in text form. Selecting Reports/Wood Design displays a dialog box with options for a concise or detailed report.

• • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options. Fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to the range between 0. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. Colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Tool buttons bar. Design Status: This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. the range of colors is recalculated. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group.0.0 and >1. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. 491 . Code check display Options. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window. select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. Results may be displayed on screen in the following ways: • Free scale: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. Note that when a different group of members is selected. To select the members within a given range. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Screen output There are several options to graphically verify the adequacy of wood members.

the deflection control is simplified to the determination of the calculated elastic deformation which the user should compare to the allowable deflection determined by the local building Code or the specific requirements of the member. The user can check the deflection using the option Print/Analysis results/Local deflections. combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Important! Wood structures can be optimized. the option Print/Forces diagrams/Show on screen/ Translations in 2. Therefore. Select only the member that is to be designed and detailed before invoking the detailing module. please see Chapter 11 for further details related to the optimization. The name of the governing load is pressed.5 of the NDS Code). See the Optimization Chapter in this manual for more details. Note that for optimization. 492 . Wood Detailing Module For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke the detailing module to further manipulate the design and obtain details for a specific member. Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. Deflection control The structural analysis provides the basis for determining the deflections of wood members. The usual practice in wood members is to calculate the long-term deflection as a multiple of the permanent load elastic deflection (See Section 3. The program considers only the bending deformation. thus the adopted modulus of elasticity (from tables) have a 10% reduction to consider the shear deflection. or pressing the Display option Note that you can include the deflection check in the optimization process. Select the desired member. it is suggested to avoid mixing different types of sections in the collections such as dimension lumber with timber.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range.

modification of adjustment factors for a specific member. Hint: You can also double click the desired member to open directly the Wood Detailing Dialog Window. by the preceding icon. as illustrated. Notice that you have status traffic lights at the bottom right of the window. Notice also that there are options that can only be calculated or modified in this detailing module such as bearing strength verifications. override of the adjustment factors.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) And invoke the Detailing/Wood command. etc. Important: Notice that the changes that are performed within the detailer will not be saved. if the green light is on. Typical cases of these modifications are the reduction of applied shear forces near supports. A dialog window will appear with a context sensitive help at the right side Geometric. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the member are no good. The user can easily recognize all data that has been transferred from the main program. If the red light is on. the detailed report may be printed. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when the module is invoked. material and load data is entered or modified in this screen as required. etc. the member design status is OK. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. After editing or entering data. Please see the context sensitive help for further information. When the yellow light is on. 493 . The detailing module can be very useful for special cases as it allows the user to apply special modifications to calculated parameters. Wood Detailing Dialog Window to enter/edit the data for the code check of the member.

11. 5A. A value of 1. Incising Factor (Ci) for structural sawn lumber incised to increase penetration of preservatives. 3. 16% for glulam members).3. Column Stability Factor (Cp). 6. See the tables in the NDS supplement for information on other CH factors. This factor is available in the Wood Detailer and included in the Detailer Reports. 2. 10.3. This general procedure considers a member subjected to flexure and shear on both principal axes. torsion and axial loads. 4B. The factors specified for Tables 4A. It is always assumed that local axis 2 is perpendicular to grain direction for sawn lumber and to wide faces of laminations for glulam The adjustment factors are calculated in separate procedures (Wood Design macro) considering all cases specified by the Code. This factor is calculated only for lumber following Section 3. 5.3. This factor has to be specified by the user. 5A and 5B are considered in the verifications.4 and Appendix C of the Code are implemented. Flat Use Factor (Cfu). Temperature Factors (Ct) for members that will experience sustained exposure to elevated temperatures.1 of the Code.0 is adopted. . Beam Stability Factor (CL).3 of the Code. This factor is calculated only for glulam members following Section 5. Shear Stress Factor (CH). This factor is used for loads applied in the axis 3-3. Wet Service Factors (Cm) based on the moisture service conditions specified in Tables 4A. This factor is calculated internally by the program to account for the buckling of axially loaded members according to Section 3. The factors specified for Tables 4B and 4D are considered in the verifications. 4B. 494 • • The following adjustment factors are included: . 4C. The CD factor must be entered for each load combination since the CD factor will change based on the types of loads that are applied in each load combination.7. 4. Note that the adopted CD factor for a load combination should be for the load with the shortest load duration in that load combination. These factors indicate whether the member has sustained exposure to high moisture (19% for solid sawn.2 and Appendix B for typical loads. it is not included on reports printed directly from the main program. Repetitive member Factor (Cr) applied only to dimension lumber. 4D. and 5B. 1.15 is adopted for these cases.11.3 of the Code 9. rounded and spaced sections. A default value of 1. 7. Load duration factor (CD) according to Table 2. 4C.3. Table 2. Volume Factor (Cv).Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for wood member design are as follows: • A unified verification procedure has been adopted for rectangular. Table 2. 8. Size Factors (CF) applied only for visually graded sawn lumber and round timber.

It has to be performed by the user with the available tools of RAM Advanse and considering the adequate modulus of elasticity affected by service conditions.4 of the Code. Shear stress is normally not a failure mode in wood flexural members. Adopted shear design equations are those specified in Section 3. service conditions. The requirements of Section 3. size. There are no special considerations regarding the type of connections used. The form factor (Cf).4. Following is the list of adopted restrictions and assumptions: • Deflection control is not checked in the wood design module. Bearing area factor is not considered in minimum bearing length calculations. Bearing Area Factor 2. The program does not consider the effect of fire. only gross section checks are performed. The shear stress requirements are given in section 3. which is only used for the adjustment of tabulated bending design values of equivalent rectangular sections in manual calculations. Notice that you can include it in the optimization process. the user may apply the appropriate reduction by using the Wood Detailer. 4. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Prismatic members in axial tension.8 of the code (NDS-ASD-97).6 of the NDS Code.2 of the Code. i. When shear stresses are significant. Curvature factor (glulam) used in curved members. type of load. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 3. The user can enter notch dimensions (width and length) and location (up or down) in the spreadsheet area.e.4. the refinement of calculating the reduction of the shear force within a distance from support equal to the depth is conservatively not considered. • • • • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 3. The members are assumed with a concentric axial load. Adjustment factors affect the allowable stress of members and are a function of the species. etc. grade. Loads are considered applied at the top of bending members and side loads on orthogonal faces (biaxial bending).Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) The program does not consider the following adjustment factors 1. 3. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding and lateral stability as specified on section 3.4 of the NDS Code for notched bending members are included in the program. Fire retardant treatment factors. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: 495 . Shear stresses on both principal axes are checked independently. Therefore.3 of the NDS Code.

Fv3/3) This equation is only applicable to rectangular members.4.2 of the NDS Code.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) • • Members in compression with side loads are checked with the general equations 15. This special type is commonly known as Spaced Columns. It is important to mention that due to uncertainties in allowable torsional stresses.1 and 15. The hypothesis adopted for this type of columns are described in Section 15.4 of the NDS Code. However. Condition 'a' is defined when the shear block centroid is within L/20 from the column end. Two eccentricities are used as follows: e1: measured parallel to wide face e2: parallel to narrow face • A special type of columns is considered in addition to the simple solid wood columns. According to this Section. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of Section 15.4. Members subject to torsion The Code has no special consideration for wood members loaded in such a manner as to induce torsional stresses. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending 496 .8*b)/(8*SQR(a)*SQR(b)) where fs is the torsional stress at midpoint of long side T is the applied torque a is the longest side dimension divided by 2 b is the shortest side dimension divided by 2 The capacity of the section is given by fs/F where F is the allowable torsional stress assumed equal to the minimum shear allowable stress divided by three: F=min(Fv2/3.2 of the NDS Code. two end conditions related to end fixity are possible. Condition 'b' occurs when this distance is between L/20 and L/10 (L is the distance between lateral supports). Eccentricity from rigid offsets is included in the analysis of wood members. separated at the ends and middle points of their length by shear blocks. Faherty & Williamson (1999) recommend one equation for this case which is adopted by the program: fs=T*(3*a+1. Spaced Columns are formed of two individual members with their longitudinal axes parallel. it is advisable to avoid torsion whenever possible.

List of the required constants. Here. Several subroutines form the wood design macro. The following code groups are found in the macro: 1. However.25 to 1. it will call the subroutine passing in the required parameters. The macro may be edited using the following option of the main menu: Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design. The LEO Editor will be called with the wood design macro. (See more details and an application example in Chapter 28. 2. 497 . for example. Constant definitions. which at the same time have only small variations in relation to the adopted Standard.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Wood design macro for adjustment factors The program comes already with a default design macro for wood that determines how the adjustment factors will be calculated according to the adopted NDS Code and it is not necessary to modify it in order to design wood members.33 as it is required by several local codes. Each of them is used to define a specific adjustment factor or design parameter. Each time that the program calculates these parameters. Leo Editor with the Wood Design macro. Programming in LEO) The adopted programming language is quite simple and the user may modify quickly the macro according to his/her own design criteria or local codes. the user may edit or modify it to consider particular design factors adjusted to local codes. Subroutine for the calculation of the Duration Factors (CDCalculation). the west-coast user can modify the duration factor for seven days from 1.

CDtest) //Test LmaxCalculation 498 . Note that first all the required data are defined as d. According to the type of wood.11 of the Code.4 of the Code.0[in] //member height b=2. 1' IncisedWood=true //Flag to show if the member is incised RepetitiveMember=true //Flag to show if the member is part of joists IsColumn=false Wet=true //Flag to show if it is a column //Wet/dry conditions Temperature = '100f<t<=125f' //Exposition to temperature Li=20[ft] //Custom length between inflection points. Subroutine for the calculation of the flat use factor (Calcfu). Subroutine for the calculation of the size factors (CalcCF).0[in] //member width Material=Lumber //Material 1=Lumber. Subroutine for the calculation of the incising factors (CalcCi). Note that to test the different subroutines you can use an additional code that assigns the required data and calls the different subroutines. etc. Subroutine for the calculation of the Temperature factors (CalcCT). Subroutine for the calculation of the volume factor (CalcCv). Fb=1[ksi] Fc=1[ksi] //Test CDCalculation CDtest=0. Subroutine for the calculation of the repetitive member factor (CalcCr). This length will be shown on the report. // values for tests Duration=0 d=4.3. 4.3. The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2. An example of a test code is the following. b. The entire code can be executed or it can be debugged. line-by-line. 10. Subroutine for the wet service factors (CalcCM). 6. Then the test variables are initialized and finally the calculation subroutines are called. the maximum member length may be defined. Subroutine for the calculation of the maximum physical length. 8. 7. material.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 3. The calculated values are checked against the expected ones. 9. 5. 2=Glulam. verifying the intermediate results. The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2. 3=Plywood Species='southern pine' Grade ='no.0 CDCalculation(Duration.

0 TestCME=0.TestCiFbtc. Species.0 CalcCF (d.0 TestCFFt=0.0 TestCiFvpc=0. Wet. TestCFFt.0 CalcCT(Temperature. IsColumn.b. TestCfu) //Test CalcCv TestCv=0.TestCiFvpc) //Test CalcCt TestCt1=0.0[ft] LmaxCalculation (d. TestCFE) //Test CalcCfu TestCfu=0.0 TestCFFc=0. Species. b.0 TestCiFbtc=0.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lmaxtest=0. TestCt1. Material.0 CalcCfu(d.0 CalcCi(IncisedWood. Grade.0 TestCt2=0. Material. TestCv) //Test CalcCr TestCr=0. TestCFFc.0 CalcCv(d. Material. TestCr) //Test CalcCM TestCMFb=0.0 TestCFE=0.TestCiE. TestCt2) //Test CalcCF TestCFFb=0. TestCFFby.0 TestCMFc=0.Material.0 499 . b. TestCFFb.0 CalcCr(b.Lmaxtest) //Test CalcCi TestCiE=0. RepetitiveMember.0 TestCFFby=0. b.0 TestCMFcp=0.Material. Li. Material.0 TestCMFv=0.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) TestCMFt=0. Inc. Fb.. TestCFFb. Breyer. Thomas G. 1997. Third Edition. Inc. 1999. Third Edition. Keith F & Williamson.. TestCMFcp. 1997 Edition. 500 . 1993. 2. Material. AFPA. McGraw Hill. Wet. Donald E. TestCME. Fc. 4. Faherty. Commentary on the National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook. TestCMFv. TestCFFc. AFPA. McGraw Hill. Design of Wood Structures. 1997. American Forest and Paper Association. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. 3. .0 CalcCM(b.. American Forest and Paper Association. TestCMFb. TestCMFt) References 1. TestCMFc.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 501 .

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What is a Connection? RAM Connection defines a Single Connection as all the parameters that completely define the quantities and dimensions of the pieces that make up a connection. beam-girder. To get you productive on RAM Connection we will proceed directly to the section on How To Use RAM Connection. geometry and material of the connecting pieces etc. How to find technical information about a specific connection? When you are entering or reviewing the different parameters of a connection you can go to the help context where you will find a detailed description of the data and checks that are performed for each connection type. Connection Assignment/Optimization.) using a macro language called LEO. The connection module is completely integrated into RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. size of bolts. Following this section we will describe in more detail some of the features of RAM Connection. We then proceed to directly show you How To Use RAM Connection. It is recommended that the structure be analyzed with final member sizes specified before connections are assigned to joints. as well as the number of bolts. Each connection can also have “intelligence” that allows it to customize itself to its environment (member sizes. the type of connection (shear. All connection templates are defined in the Connection database that is accessible from the Configuration menu. welds. etc). they (the connections) can easily be redesigned. optimize or verify connections of a structural model. including how to customize this toolbar. Connection Output and how to Customize your Environment and connection designs. beam-to-column web. It is recommended that you read at least the first two sections of this chapter to help you understand how the connection module works. For this section we will use the installed connection database and the default Connection toolbar. Before a connection can actually exist on your structure however. moment. automatically utilizing member dimensions and forces in the connection designs. However. Connections are designed and verified according to AISC-ASD 9th edition and LRFD 2nd edition steel manuals. It includes the information related to the Connection Family (beam-to-column flange. In this chapter we first define what is considered to be a “Connection” within the context of RAM Connection. This “intelligence” allows the connection to modify itself as changes in its members and forces occur. there needs to be a database of connection templates from which to assign to your structure. Following the How To Use section we describe in more detail the features of RAM Connection including the Connection Database.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Chapter 28: Steel Connections RAM Connection allows the engineer to rapidly design. joint forces. Both member forces and sizes are utilized to design the connections. bracing. splice or combined). At the end of this chapter the list of the main references used in the development of the program is given where the user can find more information. office standards etc. RAM Connection installs with an extensive pre-defined database of connection templates. if member sizes and forces change after the connections are designed. 503 .

As the connections typically have some ability to adapt to the geometry of the connecting pieces. joints with different size members or material may produce slightly different connections. It may be preferable to initially design all connections individually. For all the joints with identical member sizes the resulting connections will be identical (same bolts number. The inversion of this axis (downwards) will lead in some cases to incorrect connections or the inversion of results i. The engineer can still find out which connections end up being identical even when they were designed individually. Remark: All grouped connections will have the same description.e.) and same type (shear. No consideration is given to any other joint force or connection design. Individual Connections Individual connections are designed for the forces and member sizes at a specific joint.Chapter 28: Steel Connections How to Use RAM Connection? RAM Connection is designed to give you extensive flexibility in the way you design and manage your connections. In general. Designing connections in a group allows you to minimize the number of unique connection designs on a structure. providing the most efficient use of material.). it is also set up to allow you to get productive without requiring significant work on your part. moment or bracing connections) can be grouped together. This allows for each connection to be designed for its own forces and geometry. 504 . Only connections of the same family (beam-to-column flange. Grouped Connections Grouped connections are connections on several different joints that are to be designed with the same connection template. top plate will be bottom plate. even though some connections could be different due to the macro. which satisfies the joint forces and geometric conditions. The connections can be designed in a group or one by one. The engineer has control as to which joints are to be grouped together. However. If you have a RAM Connection License and the program is not active in RAM Advanse please see the Installation Manual. This assignment procedure permits the optimization of assigned connections by placing the connections in order of increasing strength the optimum connection for the applied forces will be selected. or beam-to-girder etc. As you gain experience with RAM Connection you can customize the behavior to better suit your business practice. Therefore. from a user customizable list of connections. Designing Connections Important Note: The connection design and the inclination angles are based on the assumption that the beam local axis 2 is coincident with the global positive Y Axis (upwards). the assignment lists should be created keeping in mind that the list order will determine which connection is selected at a particular location. and then use some of the available connection selection tools to determine how you would like to group your connections. The use and customization of the Connection Toolbar will be explained in detail in the following sections. The assignment procedure (from the connection toolbar) consists of having the program select the first connection template. connections are typically designed either in groups or individually. plate sizes etc.

0 will affect not only the design. it will affect also the code check and the determination of the status of the connection. To establish connection design criteria click on the menu command Configuration/ Connections and choose the Design Configuration option. The load conditions to be used in the design of the connection can also be selected in this window. 2) To automatically design connections the engineer should display the connection toolbar. It is important to note that a value other than 1. 505 . To display the connection toolbar select the Connection toolbar button (if it is not visible. turn the Panels toolbar on from View/Toolbars). Dialog window to configure the connections design The user may choose the maximum allowable strength ratio that will be used in the design of connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 1) Before connections are designed the engineer should configure the Connection Design criteria. The default and typical value is 1. This will cause the connection toolbar to show on the right edge of the screen. All load conditions are selected by default.0.

Depress state button to design the connections individually 4) Select the members and nodes you would like connections designed for. or deselect it if you want all the selected joints grouped for design. One option is to use the menu command Tools/Select Joints to select joints from a common family out of the currently selected members. so the selection is important. There are many tools available to assist you in selecting joints. 506 . 3) Select the design state button to indicate the upcoming design will be performed individually (each connection is based only on its own forces).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar displayed at right edge of screen. If you selected to group connections (in the previous step) all selected joints of the same family type will be grouped (one design for all joints with same member sizes and inclination angles).

The beam will be used to pass the loads to the bracket.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint selection options. Another option is to manually select each joint. you should select the related beam (usually a cantilever beam) and column.column splice joints Continuous beam over column joints Column – beam – braces joints Continuous beam – braces joints Vertical X-braces joints Elements to select Beam + node Beam + node Beam + node (Right) Beam + node (Bottom) Column + node Column + node Column + node Beam + node Braces + node Note that for the case of brackets. 5) Select the smart connections group button if this was not the active group button (Smart Connections and Basic Connections will be discussed in more detail in the Connection Database 507 . The following table shows the elements that should be selected for each type of joint: Joint type Beam – column flange joints Beam – column web joints Beam – girder joints Beam – beam splice joints Column. Select the members and nodes for which connections are to be designed.

it will also be given the template name used in its generation. shear connection is selected to assign Press the Double Angle ( 508 ) button . You will notice that the second column of buttons is updated with the connections available to be assigned for this group button. beam to column web. bolted end plate (2). The program will automatically determine the family (beam to column flange. if the double angle. Press the Smart Connection group button to display the smart connection assignment buttons. From smart connection group (3). The use of the tag will be explained later. bolt dimensions etc).) that is to be assigned for the selected joints. etc. each connection will automatically be given a description (assignment button's name) that identifies the design group. For example.Chapter 28: Steel Connections section). If assigned by group. and a tag (set on the connection pad or in the macro) that contains the designed features of each connection (the plate size. beam to girder. 6) From the connection toolbar select the connection (shear plate (1). choose one of the assignment buttons as the shear plate (1) or the bolted end plate (2). etc) of the joint and will apply the corresponding templates. See the toolbar section for more information.

directly welded for the gusset to beam connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The double angle shear connection will automatically be designed at the selected joints. CA for the gusset to column connection. i. Naming Convention The following connection naming convention has been adopted: <Connection Type – Connection Family -Connection Characteristic – Design Parameter> Smart Connection example: DA BCF Weld support Bolt beam Basic Connection example: Connection types CA = Shear angle(s) SP = Shear single plate EP = Shear end plate SS = Stiffened seated connection US = Unstiffened seated connection TEE = Shear tee TP = Through plate (only HSS supports) BP = Bent plate(s) DW = Directly welded moment connection EEP = Extended end plate FP = Flange plates MA = moment angles MT = Moment tees CP = Cap plate 4A = Four angles beam splice PBr = Plate bracket TBr = Tee bracket Remark: Bracing connections will have combined connection types. 509 DA_BCF_L 3x3x1/4_3B3/4 . etc.e.

Column web BG = Beam . For example press the buttons (Double Angle) and then the (Flange Plate) to get the combined connection of a flange plated moment connection with a double angle shear.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection families BCF = Beam . all the capacity values calculated to evaluate the strength ratio and the status of the connections are included. 510 . Any supplemental verification required is the responsibility of the engineer.Column flange BCW = Beam .Girder BS = Beam splice CS = Column splice CC = Continuous beam over column CBB = Column. This will be shown on the screen on the joint as follows: Shear and moment connection assigned to a joint. 7) You can combine shear connections with moment connections when the combination is possible. beams and braces CVR = Chevron braces VXB = Vertical X braces Remark: In the detailed connection reports. Connection characteristics bolted = all-bolted connection welded = all-welded connection Bolt support = bolted to support Weld support = welded to support Bolt beam = bolted to the beam Weld beam = welded to the beam n = number of bolts l = connector length Press the button to graphically display the number and template's name of the selected connections.

Connection capacity and status for the envelope of all load conditions To draw connections in extruded (3D) form. The 8) To view the results of the connection designs on the screen press the capacity ratio and status of the current load condition will be displayed for all selected connections. 9) To view the designs Double-Click on the connection to view the Connection Pad 511 . ) or the shrink Three-dimensional view of a double-angle shear connection. The bracing connection has all the options to combine any arrangement of beams and braces. bolts. etc). no other connection is allowed in the same plane. In this case the low-resolution connection draw will be placed over the related node. If you want to consider the envelope of all load conditions. Notice that the true dimensional characteristics of the connections are shown (plate length. the shear connection is drawn under the line of the beam and the moment connection is drawn above the beam line. press the extruded shape button ( extruded shape button ( ). These positions are assuming that the direction of the local beam axis 2 is vertical upwards. The only condition is to adopt a maximum number of one brace per quadrant. A shear connection displaying its capacity ratio and status for the current load condition Note that the capacity ratio may be different for the different selected connections because the loads acting on them are different but the connections are identical. Bracing connection assigned to a joint button of the toolbar. press the button. If a bracing connection is adopted.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that when the connections are drawn in low-resolution (wire) mode.

. select the option Envelope forces.. 10) To view a detailed design report select the 11) To view the connection geometry report select the button button 12) A detailed or summary report for connection groups is available by selecting all the desired connections and selecting the Reports/Connections design. 512 .. turn it on from Configuration/ Connections/ Show "Loads specification for report" dialog box. it can be displayed for each design set of joints. If you want to see the design envelope of forces. option in the main menu. More information on the connection pad is found in the following sections of this chapter. When a group connection is designed. Connection Pad to edit and check connections. To do so select the required connection and then press on the toolbar and go to Detailing/Connections.. If the forces dialog is inactive.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Before the connection pad is displayed.. it uses a conservative envelope of forces for each design set of joints of the group. the program will show the dialog box Loads specification for report that will ask you if you want to consider the forces envelope or all the load conditions forces separately in the connection Pad. in the Loads specification for report dialog. for more details see the Design Criteria section later.

You can generate a report organized by family. As you can see getting connection designs is quick and easy. The command will act on the selected connections and will preserve the previously defined groups and connection types. there is significant flexibility in exactly how connections are assigned and designed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections reports dialog window. structure geometry or loads. 13) If you modify a member size. connection type. etc. Notes: 513 . in the Model . you will need to redesign your connections by clicking on the redesign button in the connection toolbar. however. all connections that are designed individually are given the same color (white). description. Hint: To enable or disable the display of the descriptions. The following sections describe in more detail the features that were used above. Notice also that you can have a list of the joints and their connections with the option Reports//List of joints… It is very useful to know the joints that need to be designed and the ones that have already assigned connections. Note that for grouped connections the redesign will be based on the description of the connections (connections with the same description are grouped). click on one connection in the group and click click to color all the groups individually (up to 9 unique groups can be colored. or 14) To select all connections in a single group. press the button properties toolbar. tag.

the engineer should verify that the applied connections are able to transfer all the forces between members. the engineer should verify that the geometry of the designed connections is appropriate. but the status of the connection is N. the connection calculations required to guarantee the required ductility prescribed by the code are the responsibility of the engineer. therefore. In this case the capacity verifications are not valid anymore and the calculation assumptions are incorrect Besides the geometry verification and members compatibility made by the program. but the connection drawings will clearly show this incompatibility. (because of some geometric requirement is not satisfied or the members compatibility does not comply). BP.G.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • If the strength ratio is less than the limit specified by the engineer. or N. This may lead to the use of thicker plates or the reduction of bolt gages when the connection macro is a design macro. respectively. The 3D and 2D graphics can be used as a tool to verify the connections appropriateness. Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) Many of the connections allow beam inclination angles. either horizontal and/or vertical. An example of such a situation is when the beam flange width is wider than the column internal space in a BCW connection or when there are beams with depths larger than the girder depths they frame into. The list of the connections that allow inclination angles are as follows: Connection CA Family Horizontal BCF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Clip (shear) BCW Angle/s BG SP Shear Plate BCF BCW BG 514 Inclination angles Vertical Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Both Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . When the beam axial load is taken into account for shear connections the program also verifies the flexural and prying action capacities of some connection elements. so that the connection could still be OK. The user could specify special copes in these cases and may independently verify some additional connection capacities. TP and SS does not allow axial forces. US. and it is activated after pressing either status display button current load case) or (for the load envelope). it is strongly recommended to verify the design status of the resultant connections. After connections assignment or after the re-design of groups of connections. A useful tool for this purpose is the that allows the selection of all structure connections that are O. In this particular case and in all cases in general. (for the • • • • Some shear connections such as the TEE.K. In these cases the program does not display any error message. the connection drawing could be incorrect.G.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections BS CS EP End Plate SS Stiffened Shr US BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Unstiffened BCW Shr TEE Shear Tee TP Through Plate BP Bent Plate DW EEP Ext. End Plate FP Flange Plate BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BCF BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BS CS MA Moment Angles MT Moment BCF BCF Direct Weld BCW No No No 515 .

the beam local axis 2 must be coincident with the global Y positive axis (upwards). Each BP template connection has the skew angle limits specified in the connection pad. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). No No No BCF No No No BCW No No No BS No No No CC No No No No Yes (20°-70°) No The skew angle in degrees is defined over a horizontal plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. Slope angle for BCF and BCW families. Remark: For a correct calculation and graphic representation of the connections. Counterclockwise angles are considered positive.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Tee CP Cap Plate 4A Four Angles Splice PBr Plate Bracket TBr Tee Bracket CBB Bracing connections CVR beams CBB. Bracing connections VXB braces The CA connection has a 15º skew limit imposed by the code. The inclination angles are considered as follows: Skew angle for BCF and BCW families. CVR. 516 .

the beam forces are conservatively assumed to remain the same. axial.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The slope angle in degrees is defined over a vertical plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). it is treated as if only the slope angle would exist. This limit is currently assumed to be 44º from the support face (BCF) or from the support side (BCW). For braces: Remarks: • The components of the beam forces (moment. It is the engineer responsibility to verify in each case the additional required capacity verifications due to the inclination angles. They 517 • . that is to say. When skew and slope angles exist. Upward angles are considered positive. The worksheet tools should be applied over an existing connection. shear) transmitted to the support vary according to the inclination angles. When only a skew angle exists. When a connection should be assigned with an angle larger than this limit. it is considered as rectangular joint. When only slope angle exists. it can be assigned either with the worksheet tools or by changing the members’ geometry temporarily to assign the connection. the beam forces are decomposed over the support axis. The maximum angle at which a connection will automatically be considered a beam-column web as opposed to a beam-column flange connection must be defined.

Otherwise (default option) .Chapter 28: Steel Connections could apply even a BCF connection over a BCW connection.BCW BCF.BCW BCF.BCW BCF.BCW BCF. If this flag is enabled the program will assume that the member is a brace.BCW BCF.BCW BCF. The maximum slope angle allowed for members is 30º. /welded welded The following connections allow circular HSS supports: Connection SP TP Family to beam BCF. BCW bolted/welded bolted bolted bolted/welded bolted/welded bolted/welded welded welded bolted/welded welded welded welded welded welded welded welded bolted (to HSS) welded(to Doubler) welded Characteristics to support CBB Bolted (CA.BCW BCF. SP).BCW BCF. the user should identify the braces with the option located in the worksheet Members\Nodes and Description\Braces. The following connections allow square or rectangular HSS supports: Connection CA SP TP TEE US SS DW EEP FP (or diaphragm plate) Bracing Family to beam BCF.BCW BCF. so you will have a BCF connection with a skew angle greater than 44º.BCW bolted bolted welded welded Characteristics to support 518 . it will consider it as a sloped beam. • HSS Section Supports The connections that accept HSS section supports include some specific and other modified capacity verifications in reference to I shape supports. Members with bigger vertical inclination angles are not considered for the connection assignment. • To differentiate between sloped beams and diagonals.

for these connections the program is considering four different combination of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial. the connections will receive also as a description the name of the assignment button. In this way the design is covering the worst possible combination of forces in a conservative way.G.see the joint grouping graphic below).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Design Criteria It is important for the user to know exactly how the design process is performed. When an assignment button is applied to the model. size and thickness of some pieces) between assignment joint sets. but it still has a relation with the macro. and the connection template is assigned (after joints are selected) the program will check the templates in the order of the list. or ratio>max ratio defined by the user). If no connection meets all the requirements. It should be noted that the resultant connections of Smart Connections buttons. might have differences in the resisting elements (number of bolts. and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial). therefore. Any database connection template may be included in the list of an assignment button. but the model connection itself is stored with the structure and is not linked to the template after assignment. the resultant connections are based on one of the specified connection templates. As soon as it finds a connection template that complies with the strength requirements and geometrical conditions of all the appropriate joint sets (joints of the same family with identical geometry and inclination angles . When assigning by group. The following drawing shows schematically how the selected model joints are grouped when assigning connections by group. The user should always check the obtained results to correct or reject the assigned connections that are not acceptable (status = N. 519 . and may have a tag if it has been specified in the connection pad or in the macro. the last checked connection in the list would be assigned even if it does not satisfy the force or geometric conditions for all the joint sets. and the program will display a message if the assignment has not been successful. the re-design will execute the modified macro. The user has to be aware that the design may not always be successful. if the macro is modified after the assignment. If the assignment was by group. it will be assigned. Either the assignment method is by group or individually. These differences are expressed in the tag defined in the same macro. the resultant connections receive the name of the template used for design. Each connection button in the connections toolbar (either from the Smart Connections or Basic Connections group) is associated with a list of one or more connection templates. as the macro code specifies so. so. Note that the order of the list will give the hierarchy and preference for the connection assignment. For moment connections this criterion may not always be conservative.

particularly when the axial load and slope angle are relevant. The design of the shear connections by group considers the load envelope of all the joints on a given assignment set. other connections such as SS or US do not allow negative shear loads.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint grouping when the connections are assigned by group. The joint loads considered for connection design. The design of the moment connections by group considers the four different combinations of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial load. In this way the design is conservatively covering the worst possible combination of forces. Joint loads as the M22 bending moment and torsional moment are not considered nor checked in any way during connection design and calculation. the design loads are the result of the most adverse load combination. accept positive and negative shear loads (reported always as positive values). Some shear connections such as the SP. The beam axial force is not taken into account in the shear connections. The load envelope ratio for shear and moment connections could be bigger than the worst load condition stress ratio due to the envelope calculation method. are only those shown in the connection pad. as the connection is symmetric. However. 520 . the beam loads are decomposed over the support axis. As it was stated in the "Inclination angles of members" section. and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial load). taking into account only the slope angle. and it is assumed to be taken by a moment connection when the beam moment value is relevant. and in this case.

defining the template lists that will be included in each assignment button. The configuration of the different assignment buttons of the toolbar.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The next flowchart describes schematically the design procedure that is followed when the connections are designed in groups: Thus the connections design configuration should be executed in two parts: • • The definition of the templates to be used which may or may not include design macros (LEO). Remarks: 521 .

The Connection Template Database RAM Connection ships with an extensive collection of pre-defined connections templates. as it is assumed that the required moment connection will take the axial force. Beam . The bracing connections where the geometry is imposed (it is not automatically calculated) and/or a load is specified in one connector may generate moments in the gusset-to-column or gusset-to beam connections. each connection is given one of these designations: 1. member section types.Column Flange (BCF) 2.. Beam Splice (BS) 5. the connection is invalidated and it does not allow reporting data or results and it is not displayed. will only take the shear force and not the axial force. and it is out of the valid range. For example. the range for the skew and slope angles. If after the connection assignation a variable is modified. Database Organization Each connection in the database is categorized according to the family to which it belongs. • • In the next sections the parts of the program that can be customized will be explained. These moments should be transmitted only by directly welded connections. Vertical X braces (VXB) To view all the connection templates that are installed on your computer select the Configuration/Databases/Connections. Chevron braces (CVR) 9.. Beam . beams and braces (CBB) 8.G. etc. In the connections reports. RAM Connection currently offers engineers the following families of connections. remove or modify connections from this provided list of connections. status. Beam – Girder (BG) 4.Column Web (BCW) 3.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • The shear connections assigned to joints where the moment is bigger than a minimum value. Continuous beam over column (CC) 7. command as illustrated below: 522 . The engineer is free to add. such connections will be displayed with a zero ratio and N. Single plates or clip angles are not allowed to deal with moments and an error message will be displayed in this case. The connection assignation will be effective only in the joints where the range check of the connection variables is fulfilled. Column Splice (CS) 6. Column. Consider that the macro (LEO file) can also modify the connection variables.

This classification keeps the shear. 523 . plate sizes etc) to resist the applied forces. It is the engineer’s prerogative how to group templates within a folder. Moment or Bracing) and type (Shear plate. welds. the engineer can also create folders where the bracing. moment and bracing connections separate. end plate etc). even in different folders. The folder name should be used as an organizational tool to assist you in grouping connections according to your own practice. moment and shear connection templates are in one folder and even in one connection template (combined connection template. Smart Connection: A connection template that can automatically calculate the quantity and dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. Each connection template in the database can be considered a ‘Basic’ or a ‘Smart’ connection according to the design routines programmed in the macro. Within each folder is a list of single connection templates.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Go to Databases/Connections The window that is displayed is the connection-database window. The connection templates that are installed with RAM Connection are grouped in two main groups (Smart and Basic connections) and subdivided according to function (Shear. Basic Connection: A connection template that can automatically adjust the geometry (position or dimensions) of the connection pieces to fit the connection members. However. It does not calculate the quantity or dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. plates etc) to resist the applied forces. only for moment and shear connections). Two templates with the same name are not allowed.

Once again it should be noticed that this organizational structure (separating the smart connection templates from the other connection templates) is not significant in terms of how RAM Connection works. but each of these connections contains the intelligence (in its LEO code) to design some of its own properties based on the forces (this is the characteristic that makes them ‘Smart’) and members to which it is assigned. it will make it easier to locate the connections you want to consider for design. The ‘Basic’ connections contain a simple macro that adjusts the dimensions and location of the connection pieces according to the joint members. It is very important to note that in the case of Smart Connections. others may be designed according to geometry. The following smart connection templates are included in the program. However. if an item is not listed then there is a default value associated with the connection that you can modify as required to suit your requirements: 524 . To handle this situation create 3 copies of the smart connection template(using the database command Copy the selected object ). each with its own bolt dimension (5/8.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The smart connections folders contain a single connection for each family and connection type. If a smart connection template does not design the connection the way you would typically like. ¾. while some of the connection parameters are designed based on the required forces. In fact. the default size is ¾ inch and if the bolts fail they will not be increased in size. Note that the items that are optimized in each template are listed. For example. 7/8) then put all these connection templates in the list of the appropriate assignment button (see customizing the toolbar) and the first one that works for the selected joint group will be assigned. these are the connection templates assigned to the default connection toolbar that was used in the previous ‘How To’ section. the default Smart DA does not design your bolts size. before creating your own connection database think about how you want to organize the data. you may create copies of the smart connection with variations on the parameter that you want designed.

weld size to beam for bolted connections and plate size and welds sizes for welded connections tee size. SSP. BG end plate connections Smart ST BCF. weld size and connector size angle size bolts rows or weld size extended plate size for BCW connections bolts rows. pf . plate size bolt rows and angle size Welds. BCW. BG welded flange plate connections BCF extended end plate connections BCF bolted moment angle CBB 525 . BCW stiffened seated connections. bolts spacing. weld size to support number of bolts. weld size to support welds sizes. distances between bolts. bolts and element thicknesses BCF. BCW. BG shear tee connections Smart SS Smart US Smart DW Smart FP BCF. type SST. BG directly welded connections BCF. BG bolted flange plate connections Smart FP Smart EEP Smart MA Smart CBB BCF. BCW. SS2L BCF. number of bolts for bolted and weld size for welded connections bolts rows . top and bottom plate sizes bolts sizes. single plate angle connections BS single plate angle connections BCF. BG double angle connections Smart DA Beam splice Smart SP Smart SP Beam splice Smart EP BS double angle bolted connections BCF. plate size. plate size. top and bottom plate thickness. BCW unstiffened seated connections BCF. BCW. weld size for welded connections and angle size number of bolts and angle size number of bolts.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Type of connections (Folder name) Smart DA Family and Description Optimization of the following parameters number of bolts for bolted connections. BG. plate size number of bolts. BCW. BCW.

Press New group button (top of the toolbar) Enter a name for the New folder where you are going to define your connections. The following window will appear: 526 .. The program will not allow you to enter a template unless there are available folders (groups) already defined and selected. Note: if you want to enter a new connection template in an existing folder. by choosing any required directory. For details please see the dialog help context. Press New item to define a new connection template. To do this. Directories configuration Defining Connection Templates The steps to define a connection template and add them to the connection database are discussed next.. Proceed to the database from Configuration/Databases/Connections. the LEO files and the Toolbar are located could be configured.. even a network directory.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Basic connection templates are organized in different folders with the following naming convention: Basic + {Connections type initials} + {connection family} + {connection characteristics}. select the option Configuration/General. place the cursor in the folder where you want to insert the template.. Remark: The folders where the Connection Database. The connection template name thus reflects the relevant characteristics of the connection. To add a new folder for your connection templates proceed as follows.

For example. Then choose if you want to define a simple or a combined connection template. Select family. The name is used to identify the template and has to be unique in the whole database. and press OK. A combined connection is comprised of both a shear and a moment connection. Shear Connection and Moment Connection for a combined connection template.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Enter a descriptive name for the template connection. the extended end plate connection is considered a combined connection. 527 . A simple connection template is comprised of either a shear or a moment connection.

beam-to-column-flange.g. Moment or Gusset) will be displayed. The 9 available families in the list are: 1.Column Web 3. Column.Column Flange 2. (3) OK: To finish the connection template definition press the OK button. 528 . beams and braces 8. The corresponding connection pad with the default data will be displayed. Beam Splice 5. Column Splice 6. etc). The drop down list will contain all the available connections depending on the selected family.Girder 4. for example. Beam . Beam .: beam-to-girder. and for combined connections both connection lists will be displayed (2a and 2b). Chevron braces 9. Continuous beam over column 7. Beam .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Or Select the family and the connection type for a simple connection (1) Family: describes the type of connected members (e. Vertical X braces (2) Connection Type: For simple connections only the correspondent list (Shear. shear web plates are available only in “Beam Splice” or “Column Splice” families.

Note: To create a copy of a connection template. 1) Select the folder you want copied to Excel. you can use the Copy button. 529 button as shown below: . or size of plates etc. place the cursor at the connection that you want to copy and press the You also have the following tools to manage the database: Create a new template folder Create a new template Edit the current template Delete the current template or folder (with all its templates) Rename the current template or folder Move the current folder or template one position up Move the current folder or template one position down Export to the clipboard all the templates of the current folder Import the templates from the clipboard Order alphabetically all folders Order alphabetically all connections of the selected folder If you want to create multiple connection templates that are similar except for one or few parameters (number of bolts. The off-white background and DATABASE window title indicate we are creating a connection template for the database.) then it may be preferable to use the ability to generate connections in Excel™ as illustrated below.Chapter 28: Steel Connections After pressing the OK button the connection pad is displayed. To do this.

REMEMBER to name the connections uniquely (maintain the folder name at the beginning of the name). press the button “Copy to clipboard”. 3) In Excel modify the desired data.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 2) As illustrated above. 530 . 4) Then select ALL the information and copy the data to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) 5) In RAM Connection paste the connection templates into the database by pressing the indicated paste button. Open Excel and paste the information in a worksheet In Excel you will see the templates and its variables names. Each template data corresponds to one table row.

In the connection pad of any template or model connection. welds. materials. go to the desired field and click on the right part of the combo box to access to the item database. Databases for sections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The new connection templates will be imported. 531 . the user can edit or define new items in a very similar way as connections. they are extracted from the main program (RAM Advanse or RAM SS). See the main program manual for further details. Note: The process to import several connection templates may take some time. bolts and welds RAM Connection already comes with the most common types of bolts. In the case of materials and sections of members. In the case of bolts and welds. materials and sections.

It is located on the right side of the screen and it is comprised of different sections or groups of buttons classified according to their function. edit and manage the database.Chapter 28: Steel Connections A dialog window will appear with the list of available items and the tool buttons to create. A new pad with the data related to the selected item will appear when you edit or create a new item. 532 . To display the connection toolbar press the button on the Panels toolbar. Connection Toolbar The connection toolbar helps in the design and management of connections.

so the user has to first select the elements where the desired command will be applied. Here the frequently used commands for the selection of connections are assigned to the following buttons: To select equal connections (all connection parameters as bolts. members.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar groups Group 1 Selection buttons: Buttons to assist the user in selecting or displaying connections Group 2 Result Display buttons: Buttons to display connection properties (name. Each button can have one or more connection templates associated with it that will be assigned to the appropriate selected joints. 533 . are identical) To select all connections of the model To deselect all connections To select all connections with the same tag (same designed elements) The program offers many graphical ways for selecting model connections.1. Group 6 Connection assignment buttons: List of assignment buttons included in the selected button group (Group 5). welds. Group 3 Design and Assignment settings: Assignment and design options Group 4 User group button: By default each assignment button in this group contains a connection set used for optimization in versions prior to v5. press Shift while clicking with the mouse on each connection. You can click on the desired connection or you can drag around it with the mouse. To select multiple connections. Group1: Selection options (connections and joints) This first group of the connection toolbar is devoted for the selection of connections. You can click with the left button of the mouse over each desired connection. Group 5 Connection group buttons: Select one to show all the connection assignment buttons (Group 6) in the group. The toolbar follows the general rule of 'select and apply'. grouping) or results. etc. inclination angles.

You can select groups of connections too. will be selected. in this way a change can be made to multiple connections at one time. Press to select all connections that are identical (in every parameter of the connection pad). the members and node that make up the joint need to be selected. Selecting joints: Before assigning a connection to a joint. 534 . You can find several options for the selection of joints in Tools/Select joints option. select an instance of the desired connection and go to Tools/Connection Selection and choose the desired option.Chapter 28: Steel Connections You can make a fence over the desired connections clicking and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. This tool is normally used to select the connections to be detailed after with the command Detailing/Connections… When using the connections detailer the Connection Pad will consider all equal (selected) connections. even if they have different descriptions and template names. Available options for the connection selection If you want to select connections by description (remember that a design group has the same in the Selection toolbar. All description). select an instance of the desired connection and press connections in the model that share the same description will be selected. Note that all the connections that have exactly the same properties.

Other orientation would lead to nonsense connections. Special selection of joints. 535 . which allows the selection of joints of a particular family. displays the tag of the selected connections. Then you can erase the connections of the selected joints and/or proceed with a new design by pressing any assignment button of the connection toolbar.. The related members and nodes will be highlighted in the model. with special characteristics as a determined range of beam heights and end conditions. Notice that you can limit the selection by beam depth and beam end conditions. displays graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. This tool is very useful if you want to change or modify the design of a group of connections. Another important option for joints selection is the command Select connection nodes and members in Tools/Connection Selection. Group2: Result display options The second group is devoted for the display tools: colors the selected connections by description. Notice that you have a Special selection. Note: The beam local axis 2 is supposed vertical. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the current load condition. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the load envelope. option..Chapter 28: Steel Connections Available options for the joints selection.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections When a smart connection template is assigned. For basic connections this button will show the connection template name. The available buttons are: to specify if connection design on selected joints will be made by group (button lifted) or individually (button depressed). including the maximum allowable strength ratio and load conditions to be considered. you have to first display the status and capacity ratio of the connections using the (current load condition) or (envelope of load conditions) buttons of the connection toolbar . The user can get quick visual feedback of the designed parameters by pressing the button which displays a line summary (tag) with the value of the designed parameters on the selected connections. Press to select all smart connections with the same designed elements (expressed in the tag). loads or member sections. The same description can be given to several connections to group them for design purposes to ensure the same designs during assignment. Press the button to display graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. Note also that connections with the same tag could have different connection data as for example the members sections. to assign the same description to the selected connections.G. and the user wants to find all the connections that have similar designs so as to assist in determining an appropriate grouping of connections. Note that when the connections were designed by group. so the text to be displayed may be modified by the user. In this case the program will redesign all the selected 536 . but all must have been designed with the same assignment button. Group3: Design and Assignment settings The third group of buttons is used in the design of connections. they are automatically given a description consisting of the assign button name plus a sequential number. Note that the tag text that is displayed is defined in the LEO code with the command Tag = 'string to be displayed' or in the Connection Pad. Press the to select all the not good (N. This tool is very useful when the model is re-analyzed due to changes in model geometry. certain parameters are designed by the LEO Macro (plate thickness. to define the design criteria to be adopted.) connections. bolts. welds etc). to redesign connections. To select connections by status. For details see the How to Use RAM Connection? section at the beginning of this chapter. This tool is useful when connections are designed individually. This will enable the to select all the OK connections or press buttons at the top of the graphic screen. Display of the connection number and the template name (for smart connections).

Selection of their joints. To configure the connections toolbar. Remark: For individually designed connections. This command is equivalent to reassigning the connections to the joints in their original groups (same description). The connections toolbar configuration window will appear with the current configuration of the toolbar. 2.Chapter 28: Steel Connections connections considering the new loads and/or geometry of the model. The configuration of the toolbar determines the group buttons. the available assignment buttons on the toolbar (group 6 of the connection toolbar) will change to reflect the group selected. the user might get results different from the original design. 3.. the assignment buttons of each group button. Deletion of the current connections. 537 . the templates macros. even if loads or members have not been changed. go to the main menu.5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons The user can create its own groups of connection assignment buttons (see Customizing the toolbar next). Groups4. this command is equivalent to re-assign the original template (run the macro). Remember that the template position determines the order in which these templates will be attempted. which is equivalent to applying each template on the button list. Application of the original design button. and the list of connection templates that will be associated with each assignment buttons. This command performs the following actions in each design group: 1. If the connections descriptions (groups). the user has to select absolutely all the connections of the original design groups. or the list of templates of the assignment buttons were modified after the assignation. By selecting one of the group buttons. moment and bracing connections in different groups or smart connections and basic connections in different groups. Warning! To maintain the original design criteria. The engineer may choose to configure the shear. option.. and select Configuration/Connections /Customize Toolbar. Customizing the connection toolbar It is important that the connection toolbar be configured according to your practice and preferences.

You will be asked for the name of the new Dialog window asking the name of the new group.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar configuration window. On the left pane of the window (1). place the cursor on the group where you want the new button to be placed. The toolbar root folder corresponds to the connection toolbar Group 4 (See the connection toolbar groups at the beginning of this section). To create a new assignment button. therefore. any assignment button placed in root folder will always appear on the toolbar Group 4. you have the tools to configure the toolbar. you have all the available database connection templates. on the right (2) you will find the group buttons (with the assignment buttons inside) and finally in the middle (3). 538 . button. You can create a new group button with the group. irrespective of which ‘group’ of assignment buttons is selected.

You can also insert a separator between buttons with the tool with the tool . Then go to the list of available connections of the database and choose the templates for the button (1). Then press the button and enter the name of the new button. If you want to sort the templates use the buttons selected template up or down. and to move the or erase a button or a template Notice that all buttons that are created have by default the same bitmap. all the connection templates of the folder will be assigned to the button keeping the same order as the database (3). Select the connection templates you want associated with the button “ My Button” in the group “My Group”. It is very important to specify the order of the templates within a list because this order will be used for the assignment. Press the button to include the current template in the button list (2). Note that if you have selected a folder of the database.Chapter 28: Steel Connections For example locate a new assignment button in the recently created group. The user can define the bitmap to be associated for each button with the tool 539 .

540 . unlike other model connections. Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet Once connections templates have been created in the database. It is also possible to use the connection worksheet to assign "single" connections or delete connections. the connections will always be designed individually no matter if the design individually button in the toolbar is depressed or not. The connections worksheet is displayed by pressing the Conn tab. Connection Worksheet The data of the currently selected connections is displayed in the connection worksheet. connections can be assigned using the worksheet. Notice that you can draw your own bmp´s with any drawing application like Microsoft Paint. Note that if assigned from the worksheet. You have several ready-to-use choices in the SmartConn folder.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The bitmap has to be a bmp file of 22x22 pixels. A single connection. has not been assigned by an assignment button.

541 . In the worksheet database area select the desired connection template to be assigned. The steps to assign single connections to a model are shown below. Press the button to assign the template connection. You can select several members and nodes at once. This is because the redesign button (in the connections toolbar) does not display warning messages for these connections when they are inadequate (NG). There is also a way to replace existing connections that is explained below down.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note: It is recommended to interact and verify the status of the single connections in the model separately from the other model connections. Assign selected connection template to model Select members and nodes where you want the connection designed.

you can select indiscriminately a large group of members and nodes and the connection will only be applied where that connection is possible. Otherwise. Therefore. the connection toolbar has to be configured to consider the new template in an assignment button. otherwise the Beam to Girder connection will not be assigned. one of the main functions of the assign button the worksheet is to test and assign recently created templates. Therefore. If the user is going to assign a Beam to Girder connection. in 542 . This command will only assign connections where it is possible. Trying to do so will have no effect and it will be ignored (no message is displayed). For example. the girder must be defined in RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System as a physical member. you cannot assign a column splice connection on a beam to girder joint. When a new connection template is created it can be directly assigned to a joint with the assign button of the worksheet.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The single connections are assigned.

In the worksheet select the desired connection template to replace. Another method to assign the same description (CNX1. or when several identical model connections are selected and the detailing command is invoked from the main menu.. CNXn) to the currently selected connections (recommended only for single connections) is to apply the assign description button from the worksheet or connections toolbar.. Note that it is not possible to assign a template from another family.. However the engineer should be aware that the description for these connections is used to identify the design groups and will be used also for the redesign of connections (redesign tool of the connections toolbar). This button will delete only the selected connections even if members. they can also be deleted with the worksheet tool the end of the worksheet. when the user double clicks a model connection. or many model connections with the connections detailer. shells and nodes are also selected.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Replace (all) the current selected connection (s) This option allows you to replace one or all the model connections currently selected and displayed in the connection spreadsheet. The connection pad has the following areas: 543 . It is recommended to only change the description when two or more identical groups/connections need to be grouped together and designed as one new group. . Assign connection description It is possible to modify or assign the descriptions of your model connections. buttons to This tool is very useful to replace existing connections with other connections of the same family. Deleting model connections. Alternatively the engineer can type any description label into the spreadsheet description column. To assign the same description to the currently selected connections you may copy them to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) and then paste them to all the desired connections (Ctrl+V). Press one of the replace one or all of the selected model connections respectively. To delete a connection of the model select it and press . Connection Pad The connection Pad is required for the creation of templates for the database and also to review/edit a model connection. If only connections have been selected. CNX2. because the user only needs to select the connections and not the members and the nodes. It is accessed when any template of the database is edited. button at Note: The connection label (identification number) once assigned to a model connection does not change. even if connections with lower value labels are deleted.

LEO file. When editing a model connection. Used to enter connection information.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection pad. Notes: All data with the icon (when editing model connections) is passed to the connection pad directly from RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. Code. any change in this data will not be permanent. The loads can be entered in a worksheet that enables only certain loads according to the selected connection i. This feature will be explained in detail below and in the LEO Chapter. The available units systems are Metric. the joint loads are passed to the connection automatically. The following connection data should be provided: Units system. Note that when editing model connections. in a bracket plate connection. English and SI. 1: Properties area In this section the user enters all the necessary data to define the connection template (or reviews/modifies the properties of the selected model connections). The available codes are ASD and LRFD. and the all the specific data required in Shear. 1) Properties area. 2) Drawing area.. Remember also that the LEO file (macro) offers the engineer the possibility to program the template to automatically calculate some of the connection properties. Used to display the entered data in 3D or 2D. Used to display information about the specific item selected in the properties area. as they will be modified for each model joint.e. Loads. only shear load is allowed. these data are not required. 3) Help area. When creating a template ( icon). 544 . Moment or connections. Tag. as they are updated every time a report or graphical presentation is required.

2: Drawing area In this part of the Connection Pad a true 3D or 2D visual representation of the selected connection is shown. plate length. If you are creating a connection template in the database through the connection pad. feet or m. you should assign your required sections and materials. (as edge distances. Although this is accepted. select ASD and provide all the connection data. this will not change the units of the property (in this case a length measure will not be changed to a force measure). If you want to enter information for both codes. If you enter a property value with small units. SI: mm. etc. Note: All the connection properties with units.5 kip” for a length. Metric: cm. Notice that the current units of each property are shown beside their value. Notice that the program will allow you to enter. the default units when editing the property will be cm. m. which could be different from the current units system. “1. m.5 inches Entering “0. the default units would be m. 545 . according to the current units system. English: in. You may also enter a value with its own units. If you enter a value without units. Choose the unit system of your preference to enter and display the connection data. if big units would have been used (as meters or feet). enter the information for one or for both options. ft. For example (If the current units system is English): Entering “1. Consider that this modification is applied only to the template or model connection currently being modified. the resulting value may not be the expected. a dimension in centimeters for example.1 feet (the default unit becomes “ft”).5” in Setback means 1.) will show their value and will be edited according to the current units system. The following length units are displayed according to the unit system selected. the currently shown units will be considered for the value. Also. If you want to see it drawn with some specific member sections (and materials) or if you want to get preliminary or test reports. as required. then change to LRFD and enter the data that is different or is not required in the ASD code. the first time the connection pad is displayed.1 ft” in Setback means 0. Notice that you can only see one representation at a time. for example. it is filled with the default connection properties values. in this case the program will transform the entered value to the current units system. Press to view the 3D model of the joint or press to view the 2D drawing of the joint at the bottom part of the window. inches or mm.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Templates could be used with either ASD or LRFD code. on the other hand.

2D Drawing with different views and the option to export as a DXF file. The following buttons are used to zoom and rotate the view of the connection: Connection pad tools to zoom and rotate the connection 3D representation. press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. You may view the connection transparent (3D view). 546 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections 3D view of a Single Plate BCF. To zoom. Connection pad tools for the 2D views.

Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Zoom out. use the Ctrl-mouse wheel combination. Print graphics Print current graphic. Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. To zoom. 547 . Activate and inactivate graphic layers. Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. DXF files This module has the option to export graphics to DXF. You can reposition the dim lines when this option is enabled. This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. the engineer can use the wheel to rotate. name the file. in the plane perpendicular to the screen. use the mouse wheel. Press . you may do this with a right-click over the center of the drawing. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. If a mouse wheel is available . Activate and inactivate edges movement. To rotate vertically. 3: Help area In this section of the Connection Pad the help information related to the selected data in the Properties area is displayed: Click the button to return to the previous explanation of the help window. First. Zoom fence. Notice that the new positions are not saved and this should be done prior to printing or exporting the drawing. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). use the Shift-mouse wheel combination. Fit in window. To rotate vertically. use the Ctrl-Shift-mouse wheel combination. zoom in or out. and save it. To rotate horizontally. use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. make the drawing area active. in the screen plane.

Click this button to see the connection data report. Push this button to display the Help area. When the yellow light is on. LEO Code (macros) The macro files for connections may be created to be used for a variety of conditions with formulae to calculate some connection data per user’s specifications. Edit the desired connection template and in the Connection Pad choose the LEO file that you want to adopt for the connection clicking the right side of the LEO file entrance box to display the LEO window. If the red light is on. if the green light is on. Notice that you have a status traffic light at the bottom right of the toolbar. Click this button to see the model connection results report. Push this button to display the Drawing area (3D view). Pull the button to hide it. You can select the macro file that will be adopted for each connection template. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. Push this button to display the Drawing area (2D view). 548 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Click the button to print the current explanation of the help window. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the connection are no good. Click this button to prevent from saving all the data that has been entered or modified in the Connection Pad. the connection design status is OK. Pull the button to hide it. The Connection Pad also has a toolbar in the bottom part of the window. which has different functions: Toolbar of the Connection Pad (when editing a model connection) Click this button to save all the data entered or modified in the Connection Pad. Pull it to hide the Help area.

where you can enter formulae. For example. it can Edit LEO File Command of the Connection Pad. The LEO Code can always be edited or changed to suit the specific design procedures of the user or the user’s company. the Single Plate – BCW (beam-column web) cannot share the same LEO file with the Single Plate . if the LEO files referenced by the connections have been modified.BCF (beam-column flange) connection. select an all bolted double angle shear connection template beam to column flange family (DA BCF All Bolted Connection in the Smart DA Database folder) and edit the following macro: DA BCF BOLT. The user can create a new LEO file with the be edited with the displayed: New File Command. For example. Once the file is created. you may get different results based on the modifications made to the LEO file. The LEO window will be LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2). Notice that the following parameters are designed in the macro: Number of bolts on both sides of the angles (to the beam and to the support) Angle thickness 549 . LEO code is executed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Window to select and manage the LEO file (macros) Note that only the available LEO files for the specific type of connection that is being edited will be displayed. Therefore. Note: When redesigning model connections.

the angles have to be bolted to the support and to the beam. where the used code is indicated: 2. Heading of the design procedure.e. the angle thickness and the number of bolts will be calculated according to the required loads. bolt spacing. The LEO Code determines the parameters that will be designed: In the example you can find the following parts in the LEO code: 1. In this case. etc) are constant and are defined in the template. • Macro main design procedure. In this example. which defines the adopted design variables of the connection. Please review the LEO Chapter together with the given examples for further applications. materials. 550 . Main hypothesis or conditions required for the macro.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that the remaining parameters (i. the bolt size. Each user can customize this part of the LEO code to reflect the preferred design criteria and the angle sizes and bolt diameters to be considered in the design. Note that the LEO Code is very flexible and allows considering any design criteria.

Finally. this check will indicate if a plate exceeds the support width) in which case a warning message will also be reported. The third section shows the different capacity checks that are performed comparing the calculated capacity of the connection with the connection required force. the status of the connection will change to N. at the bottom of the report. invalidating the connection. The data report provides the full description of the connection(s) considering the geometry and characteristics of the members and connection elements. To obtain model connection reports for a group of connections. The second section of the report checks that the critical dimensions are within allowable code prescribed ranges or geometrical requirements.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections Reports You can obtain connection reports from the Connection Pad or from the program main menu. (not good). either you are reviewing/editing a model connection or a group of identical model connections (Detailing connections). select the desired connections and go to Reports/Connections design… 551 . To obtain data or results reports from the Connection Pad. The results report provides all the connection capacity values for each load condition or for the load envelope depending on the option selected in the dialog Loads specification for report before the pad was opened. RAM Connection also offers the possibility to have detailed or summary reports of several connections. There is also a geometric verification to see the compatibility of the connection with the members (for example. the most critical strength ratio and the status of the connection are reported. If a dimension is out of range. or creating/editing a connection template in the database. the status of the connection will reflect it. At the beginning of the report there is a list of the load conditions considered.G. If any capacity is not sufficient. You can press: or .

and R. New Orleans.Connections. 2nd Edition. Volume II . Brockenbrough. AISC. The Connectors report is a summary of all the connectors with their main characteristics (note that the connections are grouped according to the listed parameters. Ellifritt Duane S. References The used references are: AISC. 2nd Edition. AISC. 1998 J. 1994. You can specify if the connections will be grouped by tag. Extended End-Plate Moment Connections. Note that you have an option to report a list of joints. Manual of Steel Construction.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Select the type of report. Load and Resistance Factor Design. by family. AISC. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 2001. within the connections of a group there could be differences in the parameters not listed). L. Engineering Journal. 1990. Design Loads for Seated-beam in LRFD. 1-3.. 552 . Load and Resistance Factor Design. AISC. H. 1986. Manual of Steel Construction. The detailed report always considers the connections load envelope of the selected load conditions. April. Proceedings of NSCC Sponsored by AISC. Garret. and Sputo Thomas. Steel Design Guide Series 4. Manual of Steel Construction. summary or detailed. 3rd Edition. Design Criteria for Stiffened Seated Connections to Column Webs. 1994. while the rest of reports are a review of the design that include the strength ratio and status considering the selected load conditions. by type. Murray Thomas M. JR. by description or connectors. so.

M Ales.A Design Guide. 1997.A. Loescher Michael. R. The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Connections. Proceedings of the 1991 National Steel Construction Conference. 1991. and J. Henderson. 553 . Ales. AISC . American Institute of Steel Construction. 1999.Connections and Trusses . Chicago. 1999 Sherman. Handbook of Structural Steel Connection Design and Details. Bull Moose Tube HSS Connections Manual. Master of Engineering Project.. Joseph M.Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual. 1990. Hollow Structural Section . William A. Donald R. The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Columns.E. 2003. Connection Design for Steel Structures (Lecture Notes). Tamboli. Thornton. Packer. J. J. IL. LLC.. Dowswell Bo. Bull Moose Tube Company..1-1.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Akbar R. McGraw Hill. pp. University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee.22. Structural Design Solutions. D.1. 1997. Sherman. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. AISC.

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Design steps 1) Data introduction The user has to enter the required data related to the geometry and characteristics of the desired wall before performing the analysis and design of the wall. 3) Optimization The optimization process can be achieved in two phases by two tool buttons: 1) suggest geometry to comply with global stability requirements starting from the given retained height and loads and 2) suggest reinforcement. once the geometry is totally defined. The data input is performed through drop-down windows or multiple options in the pad. Technical notes Warning! It is suggested to read carefully this notes before using the module because they summarize the scope. hypothesis and methods adopted. The report or the Design Screen will show the different diagrams and strengths of the elements of the wall according to the adopted codes (ACI 318 or MSJ). sliding and soil pressures). and design parameters may be modified at any moment before and after the analysis. Similar to the other design modules. geometry. All data entries as the material properties. You can review the Chapter related to the general characteristics of the detailing modules for more details about their management and organization. The report shows additionally the results of the global verifications (overturning. Terminology The following names have been adopted for the different parts or elements of a wall: • • • • Toe Heel Stem Key 555 . the aim of this one is to obtain a fully functional and economic retaining wall according to the code practice and the office standards of the engineer.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Chapter 29: Retaining Walls This chapter describes the options available in the module for the design and detailing of retaining walls. 2) Verification and Detailing Once the wall is defined. you can proceed with the analysis and verifications. which is performed in the detailing window.

at rest pressures) 556 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls The front face corresponds to the side of the toe and the posterior face to the heel and backfill side. gravity or restrained retaining walls (with a lateral restraint and pinned or fixed base) Tapered stems or stems with several blocks of uniform thickness Hydrostatic water pressure (no seepage) Reinforced concrete. Graphical input of wall loads and geometry Context sensitive help Backfill with multiple horizontal soil layers (up to 5 layers) Sloped backfill (only positive slopes are allowed) Surcharge (on both sides of the wall) Options to define cantilever. EFP (Equivalent Fluid Method). General The general characteristics of the module are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analysis and design of reinforced or unreinforced concrete or masonry retaining walls . Different parts of a retaining wall. Coulomb. unreinforced concrete or masonry materials (only for stem blocks) are allowed Axial loads on the stem are considered (with or without eccentricity) Wind lateral pressures Includes moment and shear diagrams Influence of adjacent footings Different theories for calculating lateral soil pressures (Rankine.

Building Code Requirements for Masonry structures. adjacent footing loads.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • • • • Seismic load (with the Mononobe-Okabe method considering a single homogeneous backfill layer without cohesion). 557 .01*H to 0. This method does not consider the wall –soil friction. the program has different options for their calculation (see configuration window). ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02 reported by MSJC. stem lateral loads and sloped backfill. Rankine Method: It is used for walls that are allowed to have a lateral displacement big enough to produce an active earth pressure. In concrete retaining walls the axial loads are not considered in the design.001*H to 0. stem axial loads.004*H for granular soils and 0. Earth pressures Considering that lateral earth pressures are the most significant load in a retaining wall. The strength capacities table presented for masonry. This implies to have an amount of lateral translation in the order of 0. includes the maximum allowable axial load and the strength ratio taking into account the compression and flexure interaction. Wall tilt calculations (deflections) DXF export of the main graphics Option to save and retrieve data and results Detailed report Limitations The features not covered by the module are: • • • • Alternate retaining walls or counterfort and buttressed reinforced concrete walls Walls modeled with springs (possible for next version) Shear reinforcement Restrained walls can not have multiple restraints (multi-level basement walls) Design Codes The currently implemented codes for retaining wall design are: • • American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Loads The module works with surcharges on both sides of the wall. ACI 31899 (ACI 1999). Stem axial loads Axial loads at the stem are always considered for the global stability of the wall and in the design of masonry stem blocks. Only positive eccentricities are allowed for axial loads (from the center line to the left) because this is critical for global stability checks.04*H for cohesive soils.

It is important to remark that lateral earth pressure calculations for the global stability of the wall do not consider the heel of the wall (see next figure). The only difference is that it considers the wall-soil friction (δ). The program considers a default value equal to (1-sin φ)*(1+sin β). Although this method is common. The reason is that any soil beneath the water level will have a different unit weight (saturated) than a similar soil located over the water level. The user can. the program is able to consider the cohesion of the soil layers of the backfill. Although the presence of water is considered by the program it is suggested. In this case the lateral at-rest soil coefficient (Ko) is adopted. In this case it is suggested to neglect the tension zone for the active soil pressures where cracks may be formed in the soil-wall interface. whenever is possible. Equivalent Fluid Pressure (EFP): This method assumes that the soil behaves as a fluid with an equivalent unit weight related to the lateral earth pressure coefficient multiplied by the soil unit weight (pressure per unit depth). Backfill with cohesive soils: Although this type of backfills are not recommended. β is the slope angle of the backfill. Effect of water in earth pressures: The presence of water is considered as an hydrostatic pressure without considering any seepage for the calculation of the destabilizing pressures. The section adopted for this verification is coincident with the back face of the stem instead of the vertical section at the end of the heel: Lateral earth pressures and their horizontal distances to point O. Drains or any other technical alternative may be used to solve this problem. Bowles (1995) gave some suggestions depending on the soil types. 558 . to avoid the presence of water on backfills due to economic reasons. several references do not recommend it because it does not take into account the soil properties. In this case the water level should be defined and it has to coincide with any interface between soil layers.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Coulomb Method: It is used with the same considerations of the Rankine method. This option is found in the configuration window. however. At rest pressure: This option is used mostly for restrained walls or walls where the lateral displacements are negligible. define any appropriated value for this parameter. where φ is the friction angle.

The decision will depend on the engineering judgment. the value of this property has to be selected carefully considering that it will be taken constant for all soil layers independently of the number of adopted soil layers. It is important to note that the Boussinesq method requires the value of the Poisson constant and it will have a big influence on the calculated pressures. sliding or soil pressure checks. The height that will be adopted for the resisting earth pressures will be equal to the depth of the foundation base minus the undermining depth. The different options are available in the configuration window. Both methods are based on the Theory of Elasticity. The two available methods for the calculation of the lateral pressures are Spangler (1956) and Boussinesq (suggested by Bowles. lineal loads. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Use of vertical component for stability checks: The program allows to choose if the vertical component of earth pressures will be considered for overturning. an equivalent lateral soil pressure coefficient will be calculated and the inclination angle of the resultant force will be coincident with the backfill slope similarly to the Rankine method. 1997). Therefore. strip footings. Resisting pressures: There are three options to consider the resisting pressures in the case of the overturning check: Do not consider any pressure. concentrated loads). The program will automatically calculate the lateral pressures of the adjacent footing and will add them to the lateral earth pressures. Bowles (1997) gives different suggestions for this value. Water level is not considered for the resisting forces being on the safe side. 559 . which has a distance shown in the former figure. This will depend only on the engineering judgment. If the EFP method is used. This depth is also defined in the configuration window. It is important to note that the location of the vertical component will be normally at the heel edge for all earth pressure calculation methods on exception of the Coulomb method. Adjacent footings: The program offers different options to consider the influence of adjacent footings (rectangular footings.

The precision will be limited to the calculated pressures at those points.25 Where Aa.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Lateral earth pressures due to adjacent footing load Weight: It will be calculated based on the unit weights of the different materials of the wall. Seismic Load The program may consider seismic loads using an extension of the Coulomb´s active earth pressure theory using the Mononobe-Okabe equation including the modifications of Seed and Whitman. no water table and no liquefaction possibility. The EPV is proportional to spectral ordinates at a period of about 1 sec. The method uses the ratio of the horizontal earthquake acceleration component and the acceleration due to gravity (kh). It consists in the calculation of the coefficient for combined active and earthquake forces (Kae). 560 . covering the whole height of the wall.5 sec. Precision of the lateral earth forces calculation: The pressures will be calculated on a maximum of 20 equally distant points. This value is normally tabulated (common values are in the range of 0. The following figure describes the effect of the calculation points (black squares). the obtained pressure diagram (red line) and the theoretical pressure diagram (gray) for three soil stratum.40) or can be calculated as: kh=Aa*(0. These are normalizing factors for construction of smoothed elastic response spectra for ground motions of normal duration. Effect of calculation points over the theoretical pressure diagram. It is important to remark that the obtained diagram is closer to the real soil diagram because it has no abrupt changes. Av are Effective peak acceleration and effective peak velocity They are dimensionless coefficients representing the Effective Peak Acceleration (EPA) and the Effective Peak Velocity (EPV).2SQR(Av)/Aa/Delta)0. For the backfill. The EPA is proportional to spectral ordinates for periods in the range of 0. It considers the calculation of the increased earth pressures (in walls that may yield laterally) and the inertial forces of the wall due to self-weight.1 to 0. The method is limited only for cohesion-less material.05 to 0. the wet soil unit weight will be adopted for all layers over the water level and the submerged unit weight (saturated unit weight minus water unit weight) for the rest of the layers.

2 of the Code. α is the internal slope angle of the stem (related to the horizontal plane). the program will consider the element as a plain concrete member. plain concrete or masonry.5. Delta is the maximum lateral displacement during the earthquake. heel or key) may have reinforcement and should always be checked for flexure and shear. toe. δ is the soil-wall friction angle and θ is defined as the arctan (kh/(1-kv)). More details of this method may be found in Das (1995). The flexure strength is defined with the tension strength given in Section 22. kv is the vertical seismic component. Allowable stress design combinations for masonry design: Note that only the combinations of this set will be considered in the masonry design. In this case. it is assumed that ∆Pae acts at 0. Unreinforced Concrete Design If no reinforcement is defined. Finally. ∆Pae=Pae-Pa. the active force per unit width of the wall including the seismic effect (Pae) is calculated and the seismic force (∆Pae) is obtained by subtracting Pa to Pae. The program assumes kv=0.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Both factors (Aa and Av) are given by the Applied Technology Council or the local building codes like the BOCA seismic maps for most regions in the United States. It is important to know that the combinations may be automatically generated with the load combination generator. 561 . Their names start with “A”. Load Combinations The module has up to three groups of load combinations: Service Combinations: They are used for global checks and for the deflections calculation. The shear strength is determined according to Section 22. Design of components of the wall The different elements of the wall (stem blocks. while for the foundation base only concrete materials are allowed. The program allows to set different materials for stem blocks: reinforced concrete. Chapter 22 of the ACI-318 specifications will be adopted.6*H. The adopted method for the design of this material is the limit states design. Load factor combinations for concrete design: They are used for the design of the different (reinforced) concrete elements of the wall. Their names start with “S”. When Kae is calculated. Their names start with “R”. β is the slope angle.4. The equation used for Kae is: Where: φ is the friction angle.5. The rest of the design considerations are similar to the ones adopted for concrete design.

1.3) compression reinforcing will be added.7.2.3.1xLength) The following figure illustrates the critical sections that are normally adopted to check the different wall components for flexure.2.3.7 are fully implemented. The development lengths are calculated according to Chapter 12 of the code and the critical sections are the same as the ones considered for flexure. The wall is calculated as a slab in one direction.75ρb (ACI 10. 562 . particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution. The critical sections for shear may coincide with the flexure sections or they me be localized at a distance d (effective depth) from the face of support. flexure. The program does not consider stirrups or any other shear reinforcement.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the different elements of reinforced concrete has the following characteristics: The flexural design is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. This is established according to Section 11. shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. Critical sections for flexure design The shear design of the different reinforced concrete elements is performed according to Chapter 11 of the ACI code. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently.1 of the code. The design assumptions of ACI 10. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0. For the summary output in the main program. The program does not consider any extra reinforcement to resist axial loads (in tension or compression). It does not consider either any special consideration for the reinforcement in seismic areas. The option is available in the configuration window. The program checks the strength along the whole length of each element considering that the reinforcement may change due to cut offs and it is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog.

together with an allowable shear stress (Fv) and an allowable compression stress due to flexure (Fb). The masonry below the neutral axis is assumed cracked. An allowable axial load (Pa) is calculated.1. XX = specified compression strength in ksi and YY is the grade of the reinforcement steel in ksi.10. which at the same time are used for determining the allowable axial load. Fb = allowable compressive stress due to flexure only. The axial. The flexure design is performed with a transformed section. j = ratio of the distance between centroid of flexural compressive forces and centroid of tensile forces to the distance d. The user is responsible to adopt a correct value for the thickness according to the nominal thickness of the masonry available in the market. materials and reinforcement (if required) and the program will check the condition of the wall for any 563 . No special consideration is adopted for seismic loads. BM 1. and completely bonded reinforcement. The net thickness is normally given by the supplier and depends on the type of grout (full or partial). shear and flexure design is performed according to Section 2. The allowable shear force (Va) is calculated as: Va = Fv*b*d. Only rectangular sections are considered. Mrs). The smaller of the resisting moments is the allowable moment. k = ratio of the depth of the compressive stress block to the total depth from compression face to the reinforcing steel (d).3 of the Code. The resisting moments for masonry and reinforcement (Mrm and Mrs respectively) are calculated together with the corresponding stresses (fb and fs): Mrs = Fs*As*j*d Mrm = Fb*k*j*b*d² Where Fs = allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement. Ma = min(Mrm. Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module This section describes the available options in the retaining wall design/detailing module. ACI 530-02. C = clay masonry units. The reinforcement development length and the splices are calculated according to Section 2. stresses are proportional to strains. where Fv is the allowable shear stress. As in many other detailing modules. This parameter together with the net thickness is used for the calculation of the net area and net inertia. This value depends strictly on the masonry geometry and normally has a fixed value.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Masonry Design The design of the masonry stem blocks are performed with the following specification: 2002 version of the Building Code Requirements for Masonry reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee. The adopted method is the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and therefore. the program will request a special load combination group for the design of these special elements. the modulus of elasticity is constant. masonry does not resist tension forces. where the user enters the geometry. The program data base includes a small set of masonry materials that have the following nomenclature: BM XX-YY or CM XX-YY Where B= concrete masonry units. b= width of the member effective in compression. The basic equations assume that the plane sections remain plane after bending. the design is a trial and error process. For example. Another parameter that must be selected with caution is the reinforcement spacing.5-40 is a concrete masonry unit with f’m = 1500 psi and FS = 20000 psi that corresponds to a grade 40 steel.

In this way the user may optimize the design of the wall.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls applied load cases. materials or loads. Data Screen The first screen that is accessed after calling the module is the data screen that is used for the introduction of geometrical data. In the data screen 3 different areas may be distinguished: 564 . Initial screen of the module: Data Screen. This module is independent of the main program (no data from the main model is used ) and it is called selecting the command Detailing/Retaining Walls… from the main menu. Calling the retaining wall module from the main menu. This screen allows you to easily modify or define the dimensions and loads of the wall.

Properties (A) 4. The help window (C). is used for introducing all the necessary information related to the retaining wall. this window may change as data are being entering. as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or edit this value. represents the whole information entered in the property window like geometry and assigned loads. in red text. shows the information about the selected current item in the property window (A).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Data screen with 3 different windows 3. through this window. 565 . Some options will only appear for certain options or loads. Graphic (B) 5. The user can modify all the properties. Help (C) The property window (A). The graphic window (B).

566 . which involves an automatic calculation of the wall.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Every item in the Pad is included in the help context. you can see the design or detailing screen. After entering all the data.

Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design Screen Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the Design Screen. those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: 567 . thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required strength) curve and the capacity (actual strength) curve. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the retaining wall. The user can view the combined diagrams too.

the green light indicates that the design status of the wall is OK.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Combined bending moment and simple shear diagram Note that at the top left corner you can select the element of the wall that will be considered for displaying the diagrams. This is an indicator of the design status where: the red light indicates that the relationship between stresses is greater than one or the global stability checks are no good. the reinforcement extends out of the wall). Notice the existence of a “traffic lights” in the top right corner. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition. The yellow light indicates that the adopted reinforcement arrangement is no good (i. thus it fails. Traffic Lights 568 . Finally.e. A special option is available that allows to simultaneously check the diagrams for all elements of the wall. This helps in getting a global picture of the strength status.

Note that the user can export the figure by pressing the DXF button. Both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements are shown on this screen. A CAD file will be created and may be edited with any drafting software. The following window will be displayed where the desired bar sizes for the different bar groups are introduced. 569 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the retaining wall. Notice that there are three ways to define the reinforcement in a retaining wall: • Using the Suggest Reinforcement Button .

This option is used when a particular reinforcement bar group has to be introduced (with a defined spacing between bars). The program will automatically calculate the required bar lengths to cover the geometry and conditions of the wall. The program will show a dialog window to define the bar sizes together with bar spacings. the rest of the parameters will adopt initial default values. The reinforcement of these elements should be defined with the other choices after the use of the present tool.It is important to define also the free covers to be adopted for the different wall elements with the button . you can edit the values in the worksheet to control exactly the lengths and positions of the different bar groups. spacing. • Using the Define Continuous or Discontinuous Reinforcement buttons ( . axis of reference. This option do not include the required reinforcement for masonry stem blocks or reinforced concrete keys. This method allows to define any type of reinforcement. The following data are required for each group: bar size. which may be edited according to the required characteristics of the new group. Note also that this tool will erase any previously defined reinforcement of any element of the wall. distance to the end point and flags to define if the ends are hooked or not.. Remark. Using the worksheet.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls When you press the OK button. Note that when you enter the first value of a new group of reinforcement. • Independently on how have you defined your reinforcement. 570 . distance to the start point. ). the required reinforcement for the whole wall will be automatically designed.

All the required data for each bar type are included. Option Active pressures calculation Description It determines the calculation method used for the 571 . but it does not need to be modified for subsequent walls. It is found in the Detailing Screen and it has two tabs.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Worksheet for defining the bar groups. and to have control over the reinforcement design. The first one is used for longitudinal bars and the second one for transverse bars. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed. Note that changed data on this screen are saved with the model and the defined options may be set as defaults for subsequent new walls with the option Set these values as default. Configuration Screen Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some calculation methods and office standards for design. The worksheet is used to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. The items considered are described in the table below.

0. Equivalent Fluid Pressures (EFP) and at-rest pressures (Ko). These methods consider the acting loads in the wall and the specific surrounding conditions as the backfill slope angle. An error will be displayed if the soil bearing safety factor is less that the given value.0. More details related to these methods may be found in Bowles (1997) and Das (1995). The bearing capacity may be calculated with the equations given by Hansen. An error will be displayed if the overturning safety factor is less that the given value. Coulomb. Note that the option to calculate the bearing capacity should be enabled. It will not allow a foundation base depth smaller than the undermining depth. If Yes.5 and 2. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the sliding check. Meyerhof or Vesic. It is recommended a value between 1. Calculation method for lateral pressures due to adjacent footings Two options are available. The program will not consider the resisting pressures of the soils over the undermining depth for global verifications.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls method calculation of lateral earth pressures. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. The Boussinesq method need the Poisson coefficient for the backfill and the SpanglerJarquio method is only available for strip foundations. etc. water level. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the overturning check. If Yes. Consider tension zone for the active earth pressures Consider resisting pressure for Three options are available: Not consider any resisting overturning pressure. If Yes. Lower depths of the foundation base in relation to this depth are not allowed.5 and 2. It is used in cohesive soils and the tension zone may or may not be neglected. It is recommended a value equal to 3. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the soil pressures check. The program offers four methods: Rankine. An error will be displayed if the sliding safety factor is less that the given value. It is recommended a value between 1.0. Calculation method for soil bearing pressures Consider active pressure vertical component for overturning Consider active pressure vertical component for sliding Consider active pressure vertical component for soil pressures Allowable safety factor for overturning Allowable safety factor for sliding Allowable safety factor for bearing capacity Frost depth Undermining depth 572 .

materials. It is the free horizontal distance between bars. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report where you can find the input data. Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of load factors combinations. In the report you will find: • A summary of the data (geometry. The user may access to this window to see the acting loads. force diagrams and any other data or result over each wall element. A general tool bar is available with different buttons to see different data or analysis results in a similar way as in RA. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design.3.5).1. If no file is selected. the load combos will not be generated. Load Factors combinations Maximum ratio allowed between Rho / Rho balanced Minimum vertical reinforcement ratio Minimum horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio Minimum spacing between longitudinal bars Round bar length to Estimated distance to mechanical center Reduce Vu near support face View as RAM Advanse Model This option allows to see the wall as a standard RAM Advanse Model. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the vertical reinforcement ratio. the results of the analysis and the results of the design.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.3. The user shall consider section 7.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio. The ratio of reinforcement Rho provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced Rho. Section 14. which is added to the clear cover to determine the distance from the edge of wall (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel (bar diameter*0. This is the distance. If no file is selected.6 of the Code. Fore more details about the available commands. rigid offsets.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Service load combinations Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of service load combinations. the load combos will not be generated.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. Applies the specification given in section 11. ACI 10.75 Section 14. refer to Chapter 1 of this Manual. loads and reinforcement) 573 . foot etc.

The report of retaining walls displays all the detailed information of the wall. soil properties. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. In this section and depending on the material. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report. but for reinforced concrete and masonry the results are presented in tables and graphically as shown below: 574 . etc. loads. At the top the general information of the wall is displayed. and the report will be displayed. press the button next: Report screen.1xLength) of the wall for reinforced concrete or masonry. Then the user will find the results of the global checks that include resisting forces. The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. The results presentation depends on the material. materials. and the safety factors for the global checks of each service load combination. the report presents the design results for each member of the wall. The screen is shown To enter to the report. as geometry. A summary of design results for flexure and shear considering the envelopes at evenly spaced stations along each element (0. Finally. destabilizing forces. the user will find different design parameters.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • A summary of the global verifications.

All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. In this way. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a concrete stem The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. For masonry design the results are presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 575 .

Mc Graw Hill. Engineering and Design – Retaining and Flood Walls (EM 1110-22502).Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905).mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals. For shear.army. 1992. USA Corps of Engineers. Free downloadable on /www. 3rth Edition. Braja M. the resistant moments in the table are the admissible according to the adopted design code (allowable stress ASD). the table shows the admissible shear force (Va). References • • • • Bowles. Das.army. Free downloadable on /www. 1989. "Principles of Foundation Eng. Engineering and Design .mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals. The user should note that in this case. 1995 USA Corps of Engineers.usace. Joseph E. Boston... 1995 576 . Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. in a similar manner as concrete blocks.". PWS.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a masonry stem The program perform verifications for masonry blocks (such as bending moment or shear force).usace. New York.

3) Verifications Depending on the selected material and design code. detailing. sections. the model should be analyzed completely. NDS for wood. It is a useful tool dedicated to provide the user all the tools necessary for inputting data. the code verifications are the next step where it calculates the longitudinal reinforcement for reinforced concrete beams only. materials. and detailing for continuous beams. Design steps 1) Entering Data The user should enter all the necessary data to obtain a new model before doing the analysis and going to the design screen. The module supports steel. For more details about these and other parameters. reinforced concrete. the unbraced length Lb and the bending coefficient Cb for steel beams. materials. The analysis should consider a moment of inertia reduction (factor Ig) only for reinforced concrete. or wood members submitted to shear and bending. and design any continuous beam under a variety loads. The verifications are completed in the design and detailing module that will be explained further ahead. geometry and other design parameters can be modified at any time during the analysis. 4) Optimization The last step is the optimization of sections that can be completed for steel and wood beams only. and sections in a practical and simple manner. Optimization involves reducing oversized sections an optimal section (normally a lighter section) 577 . 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing Before proceeding with a beam design. designing. This input is done through drop-down windows in the case of multiple options or by keypad for singular options. This module will allow you to model. All input data like material properties. This section will describe all the available options in the module such as input geometry. ACI for concrete and AISI for cold formed steel. loads . analysis. prescribed by the design code. design. analyze. see the relative chapters exclusive to each material. and different coefficients and design parameters for wood beams.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The Continuous Beam module allows the user to easily and quickly model a continuous beam independently of the main program. sections. cold formed steel. and obtaining results through a specific report for continuous beams. The available codes for this module are: AISC and BS for steel.

For more details. • • • • AISI – ASD-LRFD. ACI.American Wood Council (Edition – 1997). the engineer can use the main portion of the program. National Design Specification. Torsion is not considered. • • • Flexure Shear Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) Important! No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. reinforced concrete and wood beams. Design Codes The following codes are considered in the present version: • AISC-ASD. If this is required.1996). British Code BS 5950-1:2000. Cold-formed Steel Design Manual – Load and Resistance Factor Design (Edition . The following items are checked in the design of steel. see the following conceptual map: 578 . AISC-LRFD. NDS. see the optimization chapter of the Manual. Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition -1989). Technical Notes General The design of beams accounts for all load conditions. The user can see it. For a better orientation. American Forest & Paper Association . Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in this program with respect to the analysis and design beams: • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. No deep member design is considered. The user should specify the code that will be used for the design according to the material that will be used. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). they will be changed to larger sections that pass the code check. or for sections that fail the code check. by selecting the load case or load combination required in the bar Condition in the design screen. Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor Design (3rd Edition 2001).Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams from a predefined group of sections.

we will have the following generated load patterns: Load SK1 SK2 SK3 SK4 SK5 SK6 SK7 SK8 SK9 SK10 Span1 (*) + + + + + Span2 + + + + + Span3 + + + + + Span4 + + + + + Span5 (*) + + + + + (-) Negative load (downward) . in a 5 span continuous beam (*).Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis Pattern loading This is a special tool of the module that allows the generation of different load conditions considering pattern loading. For example. The tool works only with live loads. 579 . Percentage: This determines the fraction of the live load (between 0 and 100%) that will be effectively distributed. Dead loads are applied permanently and thus are not subjected to distribution. The load conditions that will be generated are 2*n. (*) The beam may have the two extreme spans as cantilevers. To define skip loading. where n is the number of spans of the continuous beam. The generated loads will be named starting with “SK”. the engineer needs to generate load combinations and choose the files which included skip loading. Note that it uses the conjunction OR for live load.

in LRFD (AISC. Mn. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. 580 . Valid values are 0. it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to beams and columns. The number of combinations depends on the Skip loading option. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. Design parameters Next. Load combinations There are two groups of load combinations: Service Load Combinations that are used for deflection control. These parameters are used for the calculation of the allowable bending stress.35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) to consider the cracked section in the analysis. Enter the 0. AISI) or for the nominal moment strength. AISI). This value can be entered directly into the Inertia reduction factor Ig option in the design data as shown in the figure below. see Chapter F (AISC-ASD or LRFD) in the steel manual. If LB=0 the program will adopt LB=L (distance between nodes). These names start with “S”. Cracked Section Factors To analyze a concrete structure accurately. You may automatically generate all the required combinations with the load combination generator. ultimate limit states combinations or unfactored load combinations may be selected. Design Load Combinations that are used for the design of the different beam spans.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams If the program uses a zero (0) instead of (+) or (-). Unbraced length Lb The unbraced length of the compression flange of the section is needed for the lateral torsional flexural buckling capacity calculation of steel members. some beam parameters that the user must keep in mind for input data are described. Fb.0 is entered. Note that only the load combinations of this group will be considered in the design. For example. These names start with “D”.0. a value of 1. Important! • The Inertia reduction factor Ig for reinforced concrete will be considered constant for all the spans of the beam. Note that if 0. For more information about these and other parameters. Depending on the material and Code.0 is used in the analysis.35 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. it means that the upward or downward loads are zero. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. For more information.0 to 1. in ASD (AISC. refer to specific chapters of each material.

the program will calculate the value according to the Code. Refer to the chapter for Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within these modules. calculated parameter. Design All the considerations and detailed information about the design procedure. The automatic calculation is recommended. Typical cases of these modifications are: “force shear reduction near column face”. As in all the detailing modules. For detailed information about the input data. If the automatic calculation is adopted.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams It should be noted that the unbraced length Lb can in some cases be greater than the total length of the beam (distance between nodes). the module has a detailed help for each option. Bending coefficient Cb This bending coefficient is used in steel design and it depends on the moment gradient (AISC-ASD.. the user can refer to previous chapters corresponding to the material the user wants to design. type of restrictions. Note. For that. the program allows you to introduce these values but it is the responsibility of the user to adopt the correct value and to use an appropriate approach for it. This module is invoked by selecting Detailing/Continuous Beam from the menu bar of the main program.. Design/Detailing Module Beam Entering data for a Continuous Beam The layout of Continuous Beam allows the user to optimize his time while inputting data through drop-down windows in cases where multiple options are found. refer to the chapter “Reinforced Concrete Beam Design” in the Manual. loads. and design code to be employees. If this is the case. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases since it allows the user to modify a special. the coefficient Cb should be calculated manually or the user must assume a value equal to 1. according to the material. refer to the Examples Manual of Continuous Beam. Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length of the member. are presented in this Manual. the user enters the necessary data for the analysis in the spreadsheet such as geometry. AISI). 581 . Then the program verifies the beam condition for the specification loads.. The value depends on the structure type (braced or unbraced) and the moments at the ends of the spans(according to each load condition). “factors of inertia”. LRFD..With the purpose of facilitating the user the navigation and input data.. and general design data. Detailing Requirements To obtain detailed information for the provisions adopted by the program for the detailing of reinforced concrete beams.

582 . materials. geometry. the user can modify the material properties. Continuous Beam is a design/detailing independent module that allows you to generate a new model from this application. pinned. the module will assume for the model a pinned restriction and the user will change it according to requirements. save it with an “AVW” extension. sections. which will consider the following data of the main model: geometry. the user should select from the main program the members he wants to analyze.The program will show an error message when the user selects members that do not belong to a continuous beam. for example selecting alternate members. not in the main program.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Passing data of the main program Contrary to the dependent modules that were explained in the detailing module chapter.. he is ready to enter to the module. When there are connected members. hinged and spring. and use it in RAM Advanse. The restrictions follow the next priority and excluding order in case of existing more than one restriction for each node: fixed. In this screen. Note that all beam data and the assigned loads have been entered and generated in the module. loads in the analysis plane and restrictions. The user should only consider that the first selected beam will be the reference for the results location in one or other direction. including other elements or excluding spans. considering that the selection order of the elements that compose his beam is not relevant. Some examples are shown below: What the user should not do Once the user has selected the elements correctly. and design parameters. Data Screen The first screen displayed after entering the module is the data screen.. section. To pass data of the main program. The model can also be saved with an “RCB” extension and use it directly in Continuous Beam. Note.

Some options will appear only for certain matericals due to the design code requirements for that material. loads. Graphic (B) 3. Help (C) The property window (A) is used for introducing all the necessary information about the beam. and any other option in a easily way and every time that the user wants.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Initial screen in the module: Data Screen This screen allows you to modify dimensions. If this model is to be used to generate structural drawings. 583 . This advantage allows you to model more exactly the beam behavior. Properties (A) 2. This window will be change interactively as data is being entered. the engineer should be careful to enter the exact dimensions. The Data screen has 3 different windows as shown below: Data Screen for a continuous beam with 3 different windows 1.

you can now view the design screen: 584 . Every item has an applicable help section. such as thegeometry and assigned loads. The user can modify all the properties in red text as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or type a new value. The help window (C) shows the information about the currently selected item in the property window (A).Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The graphic window (B) represents the summary of information that is entered in the property window. After completing the modeling.

The yellow light indicates that the ratio between stresses is satisfactory. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. Finally. This traffic light is an indicator of design status where the red light indicates that the ratio of demand to capacity is greater than one and thus fails. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time. Those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: Combine the demand and capacity curves for bending moment and simple shear into one diagram. thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (supplied) curve. Notice the existence of a Traffic light in the top right corner. the green light indicates that the status of design of the member is is satisfactory for all strength and service requirements. is not satisfactory. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition. 585 . The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. Traffic light. but another requirement.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design screen. The user can view combined diagrams too. such as deflection.

Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars designed for the beam.The Width of supports of the beam is constant and defined by the user in the Data Screen as shown below. Note. Window A: 586 . Both longitudinal reinforcing and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside Continuous Beam. Note that the user can only define the reinforcement and the locations of the cross sections in the figure. The Width of supports is constant. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span..

Note that control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. To edit a single bar or certain groups of bars. they are shown in blue and the bars not selected are shown in light gray as shown below: Window B (spreadsheet) 587 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The reinforcing can be entered through the Suggested reinforcing option in the data screen or through the Detailing screen. When only some of the groups are selected. they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet.

called Stirrups. is used to define the location of the cross sections. The spreadsheet is divided into three pages: the first one. For detailed information about this screen. the second one. 588 . It is active only in the Detailing Screen for this module. called Bars. is used to define the stirrups. called Sections. and the last one. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. refer to the chapter Reinforced Concrete Beam Design – Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module. is used to define the longitudinal reinforcement. Note. and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement. Note that data changed on this screen are saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design.

589 .75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8. Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars.4. Epoxy Coated Ratio between The ratio of reinforcement Rho maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho.3. reinforcement Round bar length Longitudinal bar lengths can be to adjusted up to the closest increment specified. The only option available at this time. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear.6 of the Code. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for his or her final design. The user shall between consider section 7. foot etc. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams These criteria should be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. ACI 10. The items considered are described in the table below.1 of the Code. Affects the development length of bars. torsion and detailing. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch.3 specifies that this factor should be 0. Estimated distance This is the distance that is added of clear cover to to the clear cover (see data bar group centroid screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required.

Note. In other words.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Delta X for each The increment at which design solution checks are performed. the original section can be replaced with another that resists the imposed loads. Reduce Vu near Applies the specification given column face in section 11. In the report you will find: • • A summary of analysis results performed for all the load combinations at different stations spaced at equal distances along the beam. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report that will summarize the input data. A summary of design results for flexure and shear performed for the most critical state or combination at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. Horizontal tick This option allows the user to spacing for text manipulate the spacing of the tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen.3. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. Maximum length bar It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. Fore more details about commands and procedures for section optimization.. the results of the analysis. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment and shear) along the beam. Optimization screen Optimization is valid only for steel and wood members. This option allows the engineer to change the existing sections with sections that are recommended (based on explicit criteria) from a collection of sections. 590 .1.1 x Length) for reinforced concrete only. and the results of the design. A normal value is 40 ft.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. refer to the corresponding chapter of this Manual.

member forces and deflections. At the top. In this section. Then the user will find analysis results for the total length of the beam. the general information for all the sections of the beam is displayed such as sections.such as reactions. see the Report section of the chapter for Printing Graphics and Reports. the user can find the loading conditions and a graphic display of loads . press the button shown next: on any screen and the report will be displayed. The report of beams displays all the detailed information of the beam.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams To enter the report. etc. material. 591 . The screen is Report screen of continuous beams. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report. number of spans. General information.

The presentation of results depends on the material. thus for example: steel design results are presented in tables as shown below: 592 . the report presents the envelopes of bending moment M33 and shear V2 and the deflections. The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. Envelopes of bending moment M33. the user will find design parameters. Finally. the report presents the design results for each section of the beam. In this section.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis results. and depending on the material. Afterward.

For reinforced concrete. • "ratio > 1" when the element fails one or more code verifications. In this case. the design results will be presented in tables and with graphics as shown in the figure below: 593 . the report will present a Status verification for each span of the beam.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a steel beam. There are two possible options: • “OK” when the element fulfills all the bending moment and shear code verifications.

this part of the diagram is displayed in red. This allows the user to evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. Example of the flexural verification diagram. The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear force envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. the design results will be presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 594 . The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. For wood.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a reinforced concrete beam. All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face.

595 . the program displays code verifications for results such as bending moment and shear force as shown in the Status verification.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for wood beam As seen before.

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In the example a shear-end-plate connection will be adjusted to the beam and column sizes. and structured statements. and would like to customize the connection design. data types. To avoid the need for an extensive connection’s database. Macros for connections Since connections can be assigned to different beam. girders) sizes. size of bolts. This will allow you to code office standard or user experience ‘rules’ into the connection designs. 597 . for example. variables. plate thickness. It is not required that the users know this information to use RAM Advanse or RAM Connection. Or you can even code how to design the connection parts including items such as number of bolts. an extensive list of connections would be required. different connections will be required based on the member geometry and loads. etc).Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Chapter 31: Programming in LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) This chapter is intended for users that want to know more in depth the details of the macro language. The following sections describe the different applications and the last sections describe in detail the different available commands. With LEO. an example of connection customization with LEO will be illustrated. weld length. If however you are comfortable with some basic programming tasks. etc. wood design or section types (only for RAM Advanse) to meet office or other standards then this chapter will describe how to do that. you can customize the connection geometry according to the member’s sizes to which the connection connects. Language for Engineering Objects (LEO) is a language embedded into the program where you can enter simple formulas or more significantly more complicated procedures to customize your connections. braces and support (columns. Basic example of a macro Before describing LEO commands. RAM Advanse allows you to customize your connections using LEO. To accommodate all the variations of connections (number of bolts.

include for example. it can be edited with the LEO window will be displayed: Edit LEO File Command from the Pad. the calculation of the number of bolts based on the required capacity. the following actions should be done: Set the plate position on beam = Upper Set the distance to beam top = (Beam Depth)/4 Entering the commands First. The 598 . The file window is activated with the LEO File option in the connection pad. and open a specific connection.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Connection pad of the connection to be customized. double click on the connection or go to the menu Configuration/Databases\Connections.. End Plate To locate the shear plate at a distance equal to (beam depth)/4 below the top of the beam. Create a new LEO file with the New LEO File Command inside the file window. open the connection pad. More elaborated macros include. To do this. we will customize the vertical location of the end plate considering the beam size. (See the Connections Chapter for more information). Customizing geometry First.. Some examples are detailed further on and the user is also referred to the pre-defined macros of each connection type. Once the file is created. etc.

In the editor. To find the variable names. Note that the order is identical to the connection pad. Now.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO A LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2) is opened. To find the variable name. select the desired property in the list and press the OK button. the required parameters should be defined using the appropriate variable names . you can select the desired property from a list. 599 . Press in the LEO window to see the list of parameters. you can enter the LEO code and debug it. To enter the formula to locate the end plate at beam-depth/4 from beam top do the following: Place the cursor in the LEO window where you want to copy the variable name.

you can press macro and the cursor is placed at the last executed line. Using the same procedure. write the following formulas (“//” are comments) Write the formulas indicated in the figure (for the PosC property. 2= Center and 3= Bottom) After entering the formulas. For the example select the one that defines the position on the beam. you can run the macro. Press the OK button. the cursor is kept at the last line. and to run the to run one Notice that the Help Context of the Leo Editor has a brief description of the different tools for writing and debugging your macros. 1= Upper. Or you can press step (one line) at a time. To do this.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Then press this button to see the list of variables Select the desired varible in the list. The LEO name of the property has been copied to the editor. To re-run the code. 600 . press and then press again one of the above buttons. Notice that once the code is running.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Notice that the distance to beam top has changed as illustrated in the figure. Press OK in the LEO window to save the code that you entered. Note. If you exit the LEO window with “Cancel”, the code that you entered is not saved. If you want the end plate located at a constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam, you can enter the following instructions:

Constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam to the end-plate

Notice that values should always have their corresponding units between brackets. Important: variables entered by the user in the macro should always have their corresponding units. If a value without units is used in later mathematical operations with variables that have units, the mathematical operations will not be valid, yielding unexpected and corrupted results, and this could even modify the units of the variables in the connection pad.

Connection Design
LEO allows the users to design the connections according to their requirements or rules. With LEO the user have access to all data, including geometry, loads and connection capacities. The load data include the maximum connection forces or moments. The capacities variables include all the calculated capacities as bolt shear, bolt bearing, etc. You can see all the available variables by selecting the declarations’ option in the main LEO window:

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You can expand each group to see the list of variables with their descriptions:

Select the name and press CTRL+C to copy the name of any variable to the clipboard. To paste the name in the LEO Editor, press CTRL+V The use of these variables allows the implementation of simple design rules as angle selection, definition of diameter and number of bolts, and much more. The capacities are initially with zero values. To set them with the actual values, the "Calculate" property should be executed, which besides calculating the connection capacities modifies the stress ratio and the status connection variables. If during the connection design, some relevant data for capacity has been modified, as number of bolts, weld length, etc., the special procedure Calculate should be called after the modifications, to get the updated capacities, ratio and status values. Assigning a status message to the connection. The status connection variable is a string that contains the current connection status (OK or N.G.). The user can assign his or her own message to the status variable (recommended no more than 10 characters). For example, if the connection does not satisfy some geometric condition and the user wants to assign an error message, he/she should change the status value as follows: Status = 'Ang > 5in' Note.- The changes in status variable will not be visible in the connection report but will be visible during the graphical results presentation and through the summary report in RAM Advanse (accessed by Reports menu\ Connections design ... option). Bolted connection design example: The following is a design example of an Angles(s) shear connection. To follow the design procedure, please copy the code to an Angle(s) connection and execute it step by step.
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prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 3x3x3_8' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop selectBolt(tw as float) = '1/2" A325 N' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = '7/8" A325 N' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = '1" A325 N' exit End If
End prop

prop doDesign //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) SupportPlateBoltsBolt = selectBolt(tw) BeamPlateBoltsBolt = SupportPlateBoltsBolt //call calculation of capacities
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calculate //store the initial number of bolts nbolts1 = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //No of bolts due to shear on beam BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(2,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BAngleBoltCapacity1+0.99)
//No. of bolts due to bearing on beam

BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(BeamPlateBoltsNrow,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BeamBearing1+0.99) SupportPlateBoltsNrow = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //length of the angle Length = BeamSidePlateLev*2+(BeamPlateBoltsNrow1)*BeamPlateBoltsSpaV //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesign //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

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Welded connection design example The design of welded connections and bolted connections are similar. The basic idea for welded connections is to find a resistance by unit weld length to calculate after the required weld length to support the maximum load. It should be noted that due to the weld eccentricity, the weld capacity has no direct and proportional relation with its length. The following code shows an Angle(s) shear connection design according to the weld capacity. prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 1-1_2x1-1_2x3_16' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop doDesignWeld //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) //select welding size BeamPlateWeldsWeldD = nearestBot(Angle_Thickness/[in]*16,1) SupportPlateWeldsWeldD = BeamPlateWeldsWeldD //call calculation of capacities length = 3[in] status = '' ratio = 0 calculate
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//length of the angle at the beam side weldlength = (length + 2*angle_width) weldstress = BAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthB = max(3[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress2*angle_width,1[in])) //length of the angle at the support side weldlength = length weldstress = SAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthS = max(2[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress,1[in])) //length of the angle length = max(lengthS,lengthB) //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesignWeld //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse)
Another application of macros within RAM Advanse is the wood design. This allows you to customize the design with local codes. You can edit or change the wood design macro to define mainly the way how the strength factors will be calculated. Use the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design

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Path to call the LEO Editor for Wood Design

LEO Editor for Wood Design. The LEO Editor will be opened with the macro for wood design. The macro is formed by several subroutines, which are described in the Wood Design Chapter. Lets look at an example of wood design customization with LEO. We will customize the Load Duration factors to adjust to the US West Cost practice.

In the LEO Editor click on the CD Calculation Property to expand it

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CD Calculation Property expanded As you can notice the CD factor for a Load duration of seven days is 1.25. It has to be edited to 1.33.

CD Duration Factor modified from 1.25 to 1.33 Now you have to check that the macro is working properly. To do this you need a test code that calls the modified subroutine.

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Test code at the end of the macro. Now that the desired formulae are entered, you are ready to run the test code. But first put a break in the following line.

Define a break. Go to the desired line and press the Now, you can press break point. to view the data panel and

button. to run the code. The macro will stop at the

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The execution of the macro is stopped at the break point. This is indicated with the red arrow. Press Press run one step at a time. to debug inside the subroutine

When you pass with the debugger the edited line of the CD Calculation subroutine, the factor adopts the desired value of 1.33. To re-run the code, press and then press again one of the above buttons. After verifying that your macro is working properly, you can erase the test code and save the macro. Now the wood design will consider the changes. As you have seen, it is very easy to perform changes to the subroutines and customize them.

Macros to define section types
Another application of macros is the definition of section types. The characteristics and calculation of the section properties are defined in the macro related to each section type. The different available macros can be edited or modified with the option: Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections. The special commands and variables that are used are described in Chapter 15.

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LEO Commands
In this section you will find the descriptions of the available LEO commands: +, –, *, /, ^, Div, Mod, (& / &+) Max, Min Trunc Round Abs Sqrt Sqr Sin, Cos Int Frac NearestRound NearestTop NearestBot =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, == Arithmetic operators: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, real division, power, integer division, remainder obtained by dividing its operands, concatenation. Compare two values and return the larger one and the smaller one. Truncates a real number to an integer. Rounds a real-type value to an integer-type value (nearest whole number). Returns the absolute value of the argument. Returns the square root of the argument. Returns the square of the argument. Returns the sine and cosine of the argument. Returns the integer part of a real number. Returns the fractional part of a real number. NearestRound, NearestTop, NearestBot (Value as float, Near as float) as float. Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near" Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equalto, greater-than-or-equal-to, absolute equality.

&=, &<>, &<, &>, Relational operators for strings: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than&<=, &>=, &== or-equal-to, greater-than-or-equal-to, casesensitive equality. Trim UpperCase Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to uppercase. Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to lowercase. Boolean operators: Conjunction, disjunction, exclusive disjunction, negation.
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LowerCase

and, or, xor, not

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Pi

Returns 3.141592

Lets illustrate some applications of the former commands. =, <>, <, >, <=, >= Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equal-to, greater-thanor-equal-to Note.- All this operators have a 1E-8 tolerance. // examples to illustrate the tolerance for the relational operators Cmp1 = (1.000000001 = 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 = 1.000000001) Cmp3 = (1.00000001 = 1.0) Cmp4 = '015' < '1' //units conversion takes place before comparison Cmp5 = 2.2[cm] >= 2.2[in]
//if dimensions differ, only the values are compared

Cmp6 = 9[in] > 5[ton/cm2] Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = false Cmp5 (Boolean) = false Cmp6 (Boolean) = true == Relational operator: Absolute equality Unlike "=" operator, the absolute equality makes the comparison without any tolerance over Float and Simple operands. Cmp1 = (1.000000001 == 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 == 1.000000001)
612

inequality. greater-than. less-than. greater-than-or-equal-to.2[in]' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = true &== Relational operator for strings: Absolute equality. String) temp = 0. This operator is case-sensitive Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'RAM Advanse' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true +. Note..0) Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false &=.real.2[ft] &<= '2. Examples: Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'RAM Advanse' Cmp3 = '015' &> '1' Cmp4 = 2.This operators are not casesensitive.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Cmp3 = (1.9 613 . &<. less-than-or-equal-to.00000001 == 1. &>= Relational operators for strings: Equality. &<>. (&+ / &) Arithmetic operators: Addition (integer . &<=. &>.

5 & 6. but with all letters converted to lowercase.1811 in st5 (Float) = 3.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st1 = 'Value : ' & Pi + 4 st2 = 5.The "&+.7 st3 = 'Width is : ' & 2[in] st4 = 2[in] + 3[cm] st5 = '2 in' + '3 cm' st6 = '83' + temp Results: st1 (String) = Value : 7.. ' temp = ' st1 = temp st2 = Trim(temp) Results: st1 (String) = ' Remove spaces .. st2 (String) = 'Remove spaces . st = uppercase('Change to UpperCase') Results: st (String) = 'CHANGE TO UPPERCASE' LowerCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text.56.1811 in st6 (Single) = 83. &" operators could be used indistinctly.. Trim Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Remove spaces . 614 ' .141 st2 (String) = 5... but with all letters converted to uppercase..7 st3 (String) = Width is : 2 in st4 (Float) = 3..9 Note.' UpperCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text.

1 Result: res (Integer) = 2 Max. '3 cm') res4 = min(2[in]. the operator uses its integer part. '3 cm') //if dimensions differ.3 615 . 7.3[cm]) res6 = min(9[in].Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st = lowercase('Change to LowerCase') Results: st (String) = 'change to lowercase' Div Arithmetic operator: Integer division res = 26 div 4.1 Result: res (Integer) = 6 Mod Arithmetic operator: Returns the remainder obtained by dividing its operands. 11) //units conversion takes place before comparison res2 = max(2[in]. Min Compares two values and returns the larger one and the smaller one. 3[cm]) res3 = min('2 in'. 5[ton/cm2]) Results: res1 (Integer) = 11 res2 (Float) = 2 in res3 (Float) = 3 cm res4 (Float) = 3 cm res5 (Float) = 7. (x mod y = x – (x div y) * y) res = 26 mod 4. If an operand is real. res1 = max(4. only the values are compared res5 = max(6.

If this parameter has no units. 0. NearestTop : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near". upward or downward.2 ft res2 (Float) = 26 cm res3 (Float) = 25 cm res4 (Float) = 25 cm . Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near". NearestBot : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near".44[in].4[cm]..Different units: res1 = NearestTop(3[cm].4[cm]. nearestBot (Value as float.2[ft]) (25. 1[cm]) .Equal units: res1 = NearestTop res2 = NearestTop res3 = NearestBot Results: res1 (Float) = 2. res3 = NearestTop(2.1[ft]. downward. res1 = NearestTop(2. 1[cm]) (25. 1[cm]) res4 = NearestRound(25.4[cm]. NearestTop. Results: res1 (Float) = 2 in res2 (Float) = 14 cm res3 (Float) = 26 in Note. (1/16)[in]) 616 ( 2. NearestRound: Rounded to the nearest multiple of "Near".Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res6 (Float) = 5 NearestRo und NearestTo p NearestBot NearestRound. Near as float) as float.1[ft]."Near" without explicit units. upward. .The results will be shown in the current unit system.5[in]. 1[cm]) 1[in]) 1[in]) res2 = NearestTop(5. the "Value" parameter units will be used. .

LEO assigns them the following values: "0" to an integer. 1/16) res3 = NearestTop(2.5 in res2 (Float) = 2. Examples: //without initial value var i as integer var s as string var sp1 as simple //assigning an initial value var b as boolean = true var sf as string = 'initial value' var sp2 as simple = 0.5 Results: i (Integer) = 0 s (String) = '' sp1 (Single) = 0.5 cm Data types and variables Integer.0 b (Boolean) = true sf (String) = 'initial value' sp2 (Single) = 0.5[in]. '' (empty) to a string.5 in res3 (Float) = 2.0" to a float (float type will be explained further down).0" to a simple. "0.For variables without initial value..Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res2 = NearestTop(2. String Integer values Double precision True or False 255 characters Variables declaration: Explicit form. 617 . Boolean. "false" to a boolean. 1/16) Results: res1 (Float) = 2.5[cm]. Simple.5 Note. and "0. This is the complete form to make a declaration.

2 By assigning an initial value. an initial value could also be assigned.2 Results: b (Boolean) = false s (String) = '' f (Single) = 1. This is the shortest declaration form. Examples: b as boolean s as string f as simple = 1. 618 //string //assigning variables and properties //string .0 s1 (String) = hi! s2 (String) = 12 s3 (String) = 12 Float It is a Simple data type with Dimension and Unit. In the short form. Examples: b i = true = 5 //boolean //integer sp = 0. The data type is taken from the assigned value that could be an initial value or another variable. otherwise it will be taken as integer) s1 = 'hi!' //string //expressions are allowed as initial values s2 = 1 & 2 s3 = s2 Results: b (Boolean) = true i (Integer) = 5 sp (Single) =0.0 //simple (the decimal symbol should be included. rotation.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Short form. the "var" command is omitted and only the name of the variable is declared. it consists only of an assignment. length. Dimension: The measurable properties (force.

82[kip/in2] //Units: Ton-cm //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f3 = 2[ton/cm2] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f4 = 2[ksi] //Units: Kip-ft //Dimension: Force*Length f5 = 6[kip*ft] Results: f1 (Float) = 2 in (units: Kip-in. LEO will adopt one unit system to calculate the whole expression. Dimension: Length) f2 (Float) = 12. otherwise.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO temperature. it will treat the variables only as numbers and the result will have no units.82 ksi f3 (Float) = 28.4468 ksi f4 (Float) = 2 ksi f5 (Float) = 6 Kip*ft Operations with Float variables. Examples: f1 = 5[kip] / 2[in2] f2 = 2[kip] * 3[ft] 619 . Examples: //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Length var f1 as float = 2[in] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f2 as float = 12. It is possible to evaluate expressions of float variables with different dimensions and/or units. time) or a combination of them. As long as there is consistency in the dimensions of the variables. Unit: This is the unit used to express the dimension.

5 ksi = 6 Kip*ft = 2 in = 4 in2 = 3 kip Length (Float) Pressure (Float) = 0.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Length = 2[in] Area = sqr(Length) Force = 3[kip] Pressure = Force / Area Moment = Force * Length Results: f1 (Float) f2 (Float) Area (Float) Force (Float) = 2.75 ksi Moment (Float) = 6 Kip*in 620 .

IF THEN ELSE statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code 1" Else "User Code 2" End If where COND returns a Boolean value.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Structured statements. then "User Code 1" is executed. IF THEN statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code" End If where COND returns a Boolean value. FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements This statement requires the user to specify explicitly the number of iterations that wants the loop to go through The syntax is: For I = 0 To N-1 "User Code" End For 621 . and include its code inside the statement structure. otherwise it is not. LEO has the following structured statements: To insert a statement in the editor. otherwise "User Code 2" is executed. then "User Code" is executed. The user should only replace the "COND" word with the statement condition. If COND is True. If COND is True. select and click an item LEO inserts the whole structure of the selected statement.

<N . incrementing "I" after each iteration. FOR2statement executes "User Code" repeatedly. I := I + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //short expression form. FOR 2(i=0. +1) statements The syntax is: Exp1 is the counter "I" initialization. (I<5)and(j>10). < 5 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //more than one variables in the expressions J = 15 For I = 0.j:=j-1 res = 'Iteration ' & I & J End for WHILE statements The syntax is: While COND "User Code" End while 622 . When Exp2 returns False the statement terminates Examples: //long expression form For I = 0. The FOR1 statement executes "User Code" repeatedly. used when the conditional and step expressions are over the counter "I" For I = 0. I < 5.I:=I+1. + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //the step +1 could also be omitted For I = 0. < 5. Exp2 is the conditional expression that returns a Boolean value.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where N is the number of iterations. When "I" reaches the same value as "N-1". and Exp3 is the step. "User Code" is executed once more and the FOR1 statement terminates. incrementing the counter "I" after each iteration.

testing COND before each iteration.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where COND returns a Boolean value. As long as COND returns True. 623 . The while statement executes its constituent "User Code" repeatedly. execution continues.

The while statement executes "User Code 1". PROP READ statements (Property) Properties or Subroutines are self-contained statement blocks that can be called from different locations in the code. As long as COND returns False.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements The syntax is: While true do "User Code 1" If COND Then //exit while break End If "User Code 2" End while where COND returns a Boolean value. Note that "User Code 1" is always executed at least once. "User Code 2" repeatedly.. i.It is also possible to expand or collapse a Group pressing "Ctrl + Left click" or "Ctrl + Enter" over the title or the text inside the title. they could expand or collapse. They also could be used as variables in expressions for assignments or 624 . GROUP statements This tool allows the code organization into pieces that behave like folders. The syntax is: Group //COMMENT "User Code" End Group Example: To collapse this group press To expand press Note. execution continues. testing COND in each iteration.e.

When the user declares a property.f3) End Prop Note.3[in] End Prop //initialized by an expression 625 . For example. the "Max3" property will now find the maximum value of its two float parameters and its initial float value. should specify its name.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO operations.f3 as float) as float result = max(f1. This means that the properties behave as functions..f1) result = max(result.3[in] result = max(result. the result is also float. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property. and. //initialized by a value Prop Max3(f1 as float. This feature is explained in next paragraphs The syntax is: Prop NAME( ) = EXP End Prop Example: The property "Max3" finds the maximum of its three float parameters. returning a value and/or receiving values as parameters."result" is the variable that stores the property return value.f2) End Prop //initialized by a variable Prop Max3(f1 as float.f2 as float) as float=2. returning its value also as a float. the type of its return value.f2 as float) as float = x End Prop //property type "as float" could be omitted Prop Max3(f1 as float. Properties could also have assigned an initial value that could also be an expression. To keep the change on parameters permanently.f2 as float. which is stored in the result variable.f2) result = max(result.f2 as float) = 2. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. number and type of parameters. Prop Max3(f1 as float. This could be used as any other variable inside the property. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. in the case it will behave as a function.

LEO takes their default values.f3 as float=0. the property takes a zero value.4[in]) Calling properties: When you call a property.f2 as float=f1. and in some cases by the = symbol and a default value. And if the third parameter is omitted. th as float. and returns a true value if the two previous calculations are greater than zero. Examples: (tw as float. You can make the call using the property’s declared name. The user could omit some or all of property's parameters in a call. Each declaration is followed by a type identifier. a volume with the third. Expressions could also be used as parameters.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop Max3(f1 as float. the execution passes from the point where the call is made to the body of the property.f3 as float) as float=max(f1. th = 3. the property assumes that it is equal to the first parameter. A parameter list is a sequence of parameter declarations separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses. area as float volume as float Prop Area_Volume(f1 as float. i as integer) //default values (tw as float = 5[in]. Example: The "Area_Volume" property calculates an area with its first two parameters.0[in]) as boolean = False area = f1*f2 volume = f1*f2*f3 if (area > 0)and(volume > 0) then result = True End If End Prop Call with all the parameters: a = 2[in] 626 . resulting in a zero volume. if the property is declared with parameters. in which case.f2) if f3 > result then result = f3 End if End Prop Parameters: Most property headers include a parameter list. the property call should pass them in the correspondent order and type property’s parameter list. If the second parameter has been omitted.f2 as float.

The values assigned to the properties in this way.c) Results: area (Float) = 7 in2 volume (Float) = 21 in3 Call with some parameters.c) Results: area (Float) = 6 in2 volume (Float) = 24 in3 res (Boolean) = True Call with only some parameters: a = 2[in] res = Area_Volume(a) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 0 in3 res (Boolean) = False Property call with values as parameters. which could be read with the "Set" operator. The property has not been assigned to any variable c = 3[in] Area_Volume(3.5[in]. Remark. are stored in an internal property variable called "Value".g.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO b = 3[in] c = 4[in] res = Area_Volume(a.2[in]. #f1:=a.b.. to pass "a" to the f1 parameter) a = 2[in] c = 4[in] Area_Volume(#f1:=a. The syntax is: 627 . #f3:=c) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 16 in3 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) The properties have another functionality when they receive a value as if they were variables.This type of call requires no specific parameter order because the "#" sign indicates the parameter (e.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop NAME( ) = EXP Set End Prop Example: RootSqr property: Prop RootSqr(x as float) as float result = sqrt(x) Set res = sqr(Value) End Prop This property. returns the square root of the argument: x = 81 res1 = RootSqr(x) Results: x (Integer) = 81 res1 (Float) = 9 628 . when used to behave as a function.

To keep the change on parameters permanently.The "res" variable should be declared before the property. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property. And if the reference is a property or an expression. ref condTrue) = cond If cond then condTrue End if End prop Prop ifElse(cond as boolean. An important feature in LEO is that the reference parameters are pointers. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. ref condFalse) = cond If cond then condTrue Else condFalse 629 . Parameters by reference. This concept allows to generate very general properties that can be reused in many different simply and easy ways in the future We can generate. for example. the "res" variable" receives the square of the assigned value as it is defined in the Set statement of the property: x = 81 RootSqr(x) = 9 Results: x (Integer) = 81 res (Float) = 81 Notes. The argument of the property has no change in this case. this reference could be called as many times as required inside the main property. the properties ifThen and ifElse which are statements that due to their structure take several code lines. Example: Prop getUppercase(ref s as string) s = uppercase(s) //returns in s End prop the uppercase of “s” Properties as parameters by reference. ref condTrue. This type of declaration is made simply by adding the "REF" word before the usual parameter declaration..Chapter 31: Programming in LEO But. if it is assigned a value to the property. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. Prop ifThen(cond as boolean. In this case we will write them only once and we are going to reuse them with only one line.

ref counter as integer) //x and dx should be initialized properly to: //x: the first value to be tested //dx: the initial value of dx and sign to assure that zero will be found 630 . The reference to expressions is a powerful concept not able to be found in other languages. this concept allows a major code reutilization.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End if End prop We can reuse it in the following manner: 1) res as string Prop message(s as string) res = s End Prop x = 0 ifThen(x = 0. it is suggested to the user to load and execute it step by step. ref x as simple. ref dx as simple.message('x is positive'). message('x is zero')) Results: Res (String) = 'x is zero' 2) x = -3. ref isDone as boolean. message('x is negative')) Result: Res (String) = 'x is negative' Example2: The main property finds the solution of any equation or function (included in the reference property) using the bisection method. prop bisect(ref y as simple. For a better understanding of the following property.3 ifElse(x > 0. The next code shows the use of a property as a reference parameter and illustrates how to use the reference property to be called many times during the execution of the main property.

0 prop y(x as simple) = x*x-5*x-3 //equation to be solved 631 .0 end if //calc new values x1 = x2 y1 = y2 x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y counter = counter + 1 //loop counter end while End prop x = 0.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO //initial values x1 = x y1 = y x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y dx0 = dx counter = 0 while not isDone do //change dx sign if y1 * y2 <= 0 then dx = .dx / 2.0 dx = 0.5 count1 = 0 res = 0.

The following are examples of expressions assignment: Res := y(x) //this expression is not valid as reference parameter Res:=y(x). dx.". Assigning expressions as parameters by reference. unlikeusual LEO code where the assignments use the "=" operand. should be done using the ":=" operand. abs(dx)<0. bisect(res:=y(x). the reference property y(x) is calculated each time the bisect main property requires a new Y value.count1) //solve equation It should be noted that the isDone condition is calculated each time it is required (each time it is called) inside the property.001.res. The expression variable to be used as reference parameter should also be declared after the assignment. the reference expression result is the Res value as it has been declared after the ".count1) //solve equation and store last y(x) result in Res Additional commands for LEO Editor LEO Editor is a simple editor that allows the user to expand or collapse objects or subroutines. the user can have an overview of his objects and subroutines but also can quickly get into the detail of each one easily. When Assigning expressions to be used as reference parameters.res //this expression could be used as reference parameter (it includes the reference variable after the expression) The following property call is valid in LEO.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End prop bisect(y(x). LEO Editor allows to expand and collapse objects and subroutines (generically called titles). x. However there are additional useful commands that are accessible by keyboard combinations: Ctrl+A 632 Selects all the line where the cursor is located . In this way. separated from the expression by a ". The reference expression is evaluated (property y(x) is calculated) and the assignment executed (Res receives the y(x) value) every time the reference expression is called.001 or count1>30.count1) //solve a linear equation It is also possible to use expressions as (2*x+5) directly as reference parameters. x = -10 dx = 1 count1 = 0 bisect(2*x+5.001 or count1>30. abs(dx)<0. x.dx. dx. the assignments. This feature is an enhancement of the previously explained LEO capacity to use properties as reference parameters. The different tools and options are described in the Help Context of the Editor. Also. abs(dx)<0." in the main property call. x.

select them previously. Inserts the correspondent statement End (End if. Copies the line where the cursor is to the line where the click is done. select them previously. Collapses / expands a title. the entire title and contents is deleted. Increases and decreases indent of the selected lines. If the line is a collapsed title. Ctrl-Del ALT + left click ALT + Ctrl + left CTRL + Enter CTRL+left click 633 . If more than one line wants to be copied. Press Ctrl and Left click over the title or the text inside the title. Deletes the line where the cursor is located. If more than one line wants to be moved. end Prop. If a title is collapsed. End For. To expand or collapse a title (subroutine or object). Copy the selected text to the clipboard Paste the text in the clipboard at the cursor location. Put the cursor at the title or at the text inside a title and press Ctrl+Enter to toggle between collapsed/expanded. etc). Moves to the click line the line where the cursor is located.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO located Ctrl-T Ctrl+Ins / Ctrl+C Shift+Ins / Ctrl+V Ctrl+E TAB / Shift+TAB Delete word contiguous to cursor. the operation is performed to all the text inside the title as well.

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