Draft

LECTURE NOTES

AREN4525 STUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND SYSTEMS FOR ARCHITECTS
VICTOR E. SAOUMA
SPRING 1997

Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428
April 30, 1997

Draft 0{2

In order to invent a structure and to give it exact proportions, one must follow both the intuitive and the mathematical paths.
-Pier Luigi Nervi

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft

Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Science and Technology : : : : : : Structural Engineering : : : : : : : Structures and their Surroundings Architecture & Engineering : : : : Architectural Design Process : : : Architectural Design : : : : : : : : Structural Analysis : : : : : : : : : Structural Design : : : : : : : : : : Load Transfer Mechanisms : : : : Structure Types : : : : : : : : : : Structural Engineering Courses : : References : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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: 1{1 : 1{1 : 1{1 : 1{2 : 1{2 : 1{2 : 1{3 : 1{3 : 1{4 : 1{4 : 1{12 : 1{13 : 2{1 : 2{1 : 2{2 : 2{2 : 2{4 : 2{5 : 2{5 : 2{5 : 2{9 : 2{11 : 2{14 : 2{16 : 2{18 : 2{18 : 2{18 : 2{19 : 2{19 : 2{20 : 2{20 : 2{21 : 2{21 : 2{21 : 2{25

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2 LOADS

2.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.2 Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.2.1 Dead Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.2.2 Live Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 2-1 Live Load Reduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.2.3 Snow : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3 Lateral Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3.1 Wind : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 2-2 Wind Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3.2 Earthquakes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 2-3 Earthquake Load on a Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 2-4 Earthquake Load on a Tall Building, (Schueller 1996) 2.4 Other Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.4.1 Hydrostatic and Earth : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 2-5 Hydrostatic Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.4.2 Thermal : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 2-6 Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996) : : : : : : 2.5 Other Important Considerations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.5.1 Load Combinations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.5.2 Load Placement : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.5.3 Load Transfer : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.5.4 Structural Response : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.5.5 Tributary Areas : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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Draft 0{2
3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
3.1 Steel : : : : : : : : : : : 3.1.1 Structural Steel : 3.1.2 Reinforcing Steel 3.2 Aluminum : : : : : : : : 3.3 Concrete : : : : : : : : : 3.4 Masonry : : : : : : : : : 3.5 Timber : : : : : : : : : 3.6 Steel Section Properties 3.7 Joists : : : : : : : : : : 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Materials, & Geometry : Loads : : : : : : : : : : Reactions : : : : : : : : Internal Forces : : : : : Internal Stresses : : : :

CONTENTS
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4 Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER

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5 REVIEW of STATICS

5.1 Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.1 Equilibrium : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.2 Equations of Conditions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.3 Static Determinacy : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.4 Geometric Instability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.5 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-7 Simply Supported Beam : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-8 Three Span Beam : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-9 Three Hinged Gable Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2 Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.1 Assumptions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.2 Basic Relations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.3 Determinacy and Stability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.4 Method of Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-10 Truss, Method of Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.1 Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.1.1 Design Sign Conventions : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.1.2 Load, Shear, Moment Relations : : : : : : : 5.3.1.3 Moment Envelope : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.1.4 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-11 Simple Shear and Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : E 5-12 Frame Shear and Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-13 Frame Shear and Moment Diagram Hydrostatic Load E 5-14 Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-15 Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame : : : : : : 5.3.2 Formulaes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.4 Flexure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption Curvature : : : : : : : : 5.4.2 Stress-Strain Relations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.4.3 Internal Equilibrium Section Properties : : : : : : : : 5.4.3.1 Fx = 0 Neutral Axis : : : : : : : : : : : :

5{1

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft CONTENTS
5.4.3.2 M = 0 Moment of Inertia : : : : : : : : : : : 5.4.4 Beam Formula : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-16 Design Example : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.4.5 Approximate Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 5-17 Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam

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6 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE
6.1 Theory : : : : : : : : 6.2 The Case Study : : : 6.2.1 Geometry : : 6.2.2 Loads : : : : 6.2.3 Cable Forces 6.2.4 Reactions : : 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

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7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE
Before the Greeks : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Greeks : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Romans : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : The Medieval Period (477-1492) : : : : : : : : The Renaissance : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.5.1 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 : : : : : 7.5.2 Brunelleschi 1377-1446 : : : : : : : : : 7.5.3 Alberti 1404-1472 : : : : : : : : : : : 7.5.4 Palladio 1508-1580 : : : : : : : : : : : 7.5.5 Stevin : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.5.6 Galileo 1564-1642 : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century : : 7.6.1 Hooke, 1635-1703 : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.6.2 Newton, 1642-1727 : : : : : : : : : : : 7.6.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 : : : : : : 7.6.4 Euler 1707-1783 : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.7 The pre-Modern Period Coulomb and Navier 7.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) : : : : : : 7.8.1 Structures/Mechanics : : : : : : : : : 7.8.2 Ei el Tower : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.8.3 Sullivan 1856-1924 : : : : : : : : : : : 7.8.4 Roebling, 1806-1869 : : : : : : : : : : 7.8.5 Maillart : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.8.6 Nervi, 1891-1979 : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.8.7 Khan : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.8.8 et al. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Geometry : : : : Loads : : : : : : Reactions : : : : Forces : : : : : : Internal Stresses

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7{1

8 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI
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Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

1.1 Equivalent Stress Block : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.1.1 y Probabilistic Preliminaries : 9.1.2.Draft 0{4 9 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES 9.1.3 Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.2 Failure Modes and Classi cation of Steel Beams : 10.2 Flexural Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : E 12-24Prestressed Concrete I Beam 12.3 Analysis vs Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.1.5 Equivalent Load : : : : : : : 12.1 Safety Provisions : : : : : : : : : : : 9.2 Working Stress Method : : : : : : : 9.3.4 Partially Compact Section : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10.5 Slender Section : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10.6 Load Deformation : : : : : : 12.1 Nominal Strength : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10. Ultimate Strength Design Method : 11.3 Continuous Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.1 Bending Capacity of Beams : : : : : : : : 10.3.5 ACI Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.1.5 Design Guidelines : : : : : : : : : : : CONTENTS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{1 : 9{2 : 9{3 : 9{3 : 9{5 : 9{7 : 9{7 : 9{7 9{1 10 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS 10.1.2 Modes of Failure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.6 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 10-19Z for Rectangular Section : : : : : : : : : E 10-20Beam Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10{1 : 10{2 : 10{2 : 10{4 : 10{4 : 10{6 : 10{6 : 10{7 : 10{7 : 10{7 : 10{8 : 11{1 : 11{1 : 11{2 : 11{2 : 11{3 : 11{3 : 11{4 : 11{4 : 11{5 : 11{6 : 11{7 : 11{8 : 11{9 : 11{9 : 11{10 : 11{10 : 12{1 : 12{1 : 12{4 : 12{4 : 12{4 : 12{4 : 12{4 : 12{5 : 12{8 : 12{10 11 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 11.2 Balanced Steel Ratio : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.3.2 Discussion : : : : : : : : : : : 9.4 Example : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 9-18 LRFD vs ASD : : : : : : : : 9.4 Tendon Con guration : : : : 12.2.3 Ultimate Strength Method : : : : : : 9.4 ACI Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge : : 11{1 12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{1 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2.3 Compact Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions : : : : : : : 11.2 Cracked Section.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12.1.2 Design of Compact Sections : : : : : : : : 10.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.3.1.4 Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 11-21Ultimate Strength Capacity : : : : : : : : : : E 11-22Beam Design I : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 11-23Beam Design II : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.1.1.1 Materials : : : : : : : : : : : 12.2.3 Assumptions : : : : : : : : : 12.1 Notation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11.2 Prestressing Forces : : : : : : 12.

2.4.1 Beam Column Connections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.Draft CONTENTS 12.1 Portal Method : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : E 14-26Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads 14.7 E ect of Bracing Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{1 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 Buildings Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.3.2 Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.1 Example: Tube Subsystem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.4.3.3.2.1 Wall Subsystems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.2 12.2.2 Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.2 Tall Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.1 Short Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.1.2.2.4.1.3.1 12.4 Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.3 Rigid Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.4.2.3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.2 Behavior of Simple Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.3.2 Shaft Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.5 Internal Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) : 13.1 Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.3 12.3 Structural Behavior of Deck-Sti ened Arches 13{1 : 13{1 : 13{1 : 13{3 : 13{5 : 13{5 : 13{8 : 13{8 : 13{11 : 13{12 : 13{13 : 14{1 : 14{1 : 14{1 : 14{2 : 14{5 : 14{5 : 14{5 : 14{7 : 14{8 : 14{9 : 14{10 : 14{10 : 14{11 : 14{13 : 14{14 : 14{15 : 14{27 : 14{27 : 14{28 : 14{28 : 14{29 : 14{30 : 14{32 : 14{34 14 BUILDING STRUCTURES 14.2.2.2.4 Cross-Section Properties : Prestressing : : : : : : : : Loads : : : : : : : : : : : Flexural Stresses : : : : : 0{5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{10 : 12{12 : 12{13 : 12{13 13 Three-Hinges ARCHES 13.3 Walls and Lintel : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.5 Trussed Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.4.4 Internal Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.1 Geometry : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.1.2.2.1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.4 Lateral De ections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.1 Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.4.1.2.1 Uniform Horizontal Load : : : : : : : E 13-25Design of a Three Hinged Arch : : : : 13.4.3.1.3 Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13.3.2.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.6 Example of Transverse De ection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.1.

Dead Load Idealization (Billington and Mark 1983) : el Tower.5 1.1 2.1 4. ubc : : : : : : : : Loads on Projected Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : Wind Map of the United States.1 1.5 3.2 3.12 2.1 3. (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{13 Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{18 Load Placement to Maximize Moments : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{21 Load Transfer in R/C Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{22 Two Way Actions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{23 Load Life of a Structure.3 4.11 2.5 2.8 1.2 4. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{4 : 1{5 : 1{6 : 1{7 : 1{8 : 1{9 : 1{10 : 1{11 : 1{12 : 2{2 : 2{5 : 2{6 : 2{7 : 2{8 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3{2 : 3{2 : 3{4 : 3{4 : 3{5 : 3{7 : 3{8 : 3{17 : 4{1 : 4{3 : 4{4 : 4{5 : 4{5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : .6 1.Draft List of Figures 1.4 2. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{24 Concept of Tributary Areas for Structual Member Loading : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{25 Stress Strain Curves of Concrete and Steel : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Standard Rolled Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Residual Stresses in Welded Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : In uence of Residual Stress on Average Stress-Strain Curve of a Rolled Section Concrete microcracking : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : W and C sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : prefabricated Steel Joists : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ei Ei Ei Ei Ei el Tower (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : el Tower Idealization.3 3.3 2.2 2.9 2.6 2. Wind Load Idealization (Billington and Mark 1983) : el Tower.8 4.8 2.7 1. (UBC 1995) : : : E ect of Wind Load on Structures(Schueller 1996) Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{10 Vibrations of a Building : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{12 Seismic Zones of the United States. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : el Tower.7 3.9 2.5 Types of Forces in Structural Elements (1D) : Basic Aspects of Cable Systems : : : : : : : : Basic Aspects of Arches : : : : : : : : : : : : Types of Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Variations in Post and Beams Con gurations Di erent Beam Types : : : : : : : : : : : : : Basic Forms of Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : Examples of Air Supported Structures : : : : Basic Forms of Shells : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Approximation of a Series of Closely Spaced Loads Snow Map of the United States.14 3.13 2.4 1. Wind Loads.4 3.10 2.3 1.2 1.4 4.7 2.6 3.

16 6.12 7.6 6. Cover Page : Leonhard Euler : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Coulomb : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Nervi's Palazetto Dello Sport : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8.1 7.3 6. Horizontal Reactions (Billington and Mark 1983) : : el Tower.8 5.10 5.3 7.9 7. or Between Shear and Moment Deformation of a Beam un Pure Bending : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Elastic Curve from the Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Approximate Analysis of Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cable Structure Subjected to p(x) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Longitudinal and Plan Elevation of the George Washington Bridge Truck Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dead and Live Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Location of Cable Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vertical Reactions in Columns Due to Central Span Load : : : : : Cable Reactions in Side Span : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cable Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Deck Idealization. Shear and Moment Diagrams : : : : : : : : : : : Hamurrabi's Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Archimed : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Pantheon : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : From Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture.6 7.5 5.15 7.1 5.9 5. Internal Wind Forces (Billington and Mark 1983) : : LIST OF FIGURES : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4{5 : 4{6 : 4{7 : 4{8 : 5{2 : 5{3 : 5{4 : 5{4 : 5{9 : 5{10 : 5{11 : 5{11 : 5{14 : 5{15 : 5{15 : 5{17 : 5{17 : 5{38 : 5{43 : 5{44 : 6{1 : 6{4 : 6{5 : 6{6 : 6{7 : 6{7 : 6{8 : 6{9 : 6{9 : 7{2 : 7{3 : 7{3 : 7{4 : 7{5 : 7{7 : 7{9 : 7{9 : 7{10 : 7{11 : 7{11 : 7{12 : 7{13 : 7{14 : 7{15 : 7{16 : 7{19 Types of Supports : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Inclined Roller Support : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures : : : Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions : : : : : : : Bridge Truss : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : A Statically Indeterminate Truss : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : X and Y Components of Truss Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sign Convention for Truss Element Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design : : : : : : : : : : : Sign Conventions for 3D Frame Elements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Free Body Diagram of an In nitesimal Beam Segment : : : : : : : Shear and Moment Forces at Di erent Sections of a Loaded Beam Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear. (Vitruvius 1960) Hagia Sophia : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Florence's Cathedral Dome : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Palladio's Villa Rotunda : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Stevin : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Galileo : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. Cover Page : : : : \Galileo's Beam" : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Isaac Newton : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.2 7.4 7.16 7. Internal Gravity Forces (Billington and Mark 1983) : el Tower.2 Magazzini Generali Support System.12 5.13 7.6 4.4 6.8 6.8 7.5 6.7 6.15 5.7 7.11 7.6 5.11 5.4 5.9 7. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{2 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 7. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{2 8.8 4. Reactions (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : el Tower.2 6.9 5.2 5.17 Ei Ei Ei Ei el Tower.1 Magazzini Generali Overall Dimensions.3 5.Draft 0{2 4.14 5.7 4.13 5.10 7.1 6.7 5.14 7.

(Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{10 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6 Salginatobel Bridge Idealization.3 11.1 12.2 11. (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{6 12.1 Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{2 13. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{6 13. (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{2 Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam.3 8.7 0{3 Magazzini Generali Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{3 Magazzini Generali Beam Reactions.3 10. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{3 Magazzini Generali Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : 8{4 Magazzini Generali Internal Moment.1 11. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{3 13.7 11. (Nilson 1978) : : : : 12{5 Determination of Equivalent Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{6 Load-De ection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam.3 12.2 12. Plan View : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{11 12. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{6 13. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{7 13.7 Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity Maximum Moment Section and Support Section.4 Arch Rib Sti ened with Girder or Truss. Cross Section : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{12 13.10Salginatobel Bridge Truck Load.9 Magazzini Generali E ect of Lateral Supports. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{5 8.6 8. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : 8{6 9. (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{7 12.4 11. (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{2 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{3 Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam.9 Walnut Lane Bridge.5 10. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{9 13.2 10. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{5 8.2 Statics of a Three-Hinged Arch. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{2 13.6 10.11Salginatobel Bridge Total Vertical Load.5 Salginatobel Bridge Dimensions.5 12.1 Load Life of a Structure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{2 9. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{4 Magazzini Generali Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram. Limit State : : : : : : : Whitney Stress Block : : : : : : : : : : : Reinforcement in Continuous R/C Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10{1 : 10{3 : 10{3 : 10{4 : 10{4 : 10{5 : 10{7 : 11{2 : 11{3 : 11{4 : 11{5 : 11{11 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam.1 10.Draft LIST OF FIGURES 8.6 Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Failure of Steel beam Plastic Hinges : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Failure of Steel beam Local Buckling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Failure of Steel beam Lateral Torsional Buckling : : : : : : : : : Stress distribution at di erent stages of loading : : : : : : : : : : Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels : : : : : : : : : : Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections : Failure Modes for R/C Beams : : : : : : : Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam : : : Cracked Section.8 Magazzini Generali Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support.4 8.3 De nition of Reliability Index : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{4 10.3 Two Hinged Arch. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{8 13. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{5 13.9 Salginatobel Bridge Dead Load.7 Salginatobel Bridge Hinges.2 Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{4 9. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{3 13.8 Salginatobel Bridge Sections.5 8.8 Walnut Lane Bridge.5 12.4 10.4 12.

(Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{10 14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{2 14.2 Deformation of Flexible and Rigid Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{6 14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : 14{31 14.9 Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Girder Moments : : : : : : 14{12 14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{28 14.28Side-Sway De ection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load.15Structural Behavior of Sti ened Arches. and Semi-Flexible Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : 14{31 14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{32 14.10Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Column Axial Forces : : : : 14{12 14.4 Axial and Flexural Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{4 14.14Salginatobel Bridge Live Load Moment Diagram.21Portal Method Spread-Sheet Format : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{24 14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{34 14.5 Design of a Shear Wall Subsystem.Draft 0{4 LIST OF FIGURES : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{10 : 13{11 : 13{12 : 13{14 : 14{1 13.1 Flexible.14Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Column Axial Force : : : : 14{15 14.23Shear Deformation in a Short Building. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : 14{35 : : : : 14. (Billington 1979) : : : : : : : : : : : : 14.27Shear and Flexural De ection of a Rigid Frame Subsystem.25De ection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels.29Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : 14{31 14.13Salganitobel Bridge Shear Diagrams. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : 14{30 14.22Portal Method Equations in Spread-Sheet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{25 14.15Example Approximate Analysis of a Building : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{16 14.3 Deformation.19Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads Equations in Spread-Sheet : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{21 14.20Approximate Analysis of a Building Moments Due to Lateral Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{23 14.13***Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Girder Moment : : : : : 14{15 14. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : 13. Shear. Rigid.26Portal Method to Estimate Lateral Deformation in Frames.12Salginatobel Bridge Reactions.31Frame Rigidly Connected to Shaft. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{9 14. Moment.18Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads Spread-Sheet Format : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{20 14.11Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Column Moments : : : : : 14{13 14.6 Trussed Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{8 14. (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : 13.32E ect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings.7 Design Example of a Tubular Structure.24Flexural Deformation in a Tall Building. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{29 14.12Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Column Shear : : : : : : : : 14{14 14.8 A Basic Portal Frame.30Transverse De ection. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{28 14.16Approximate Analysis of a Building Moments Due to Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{17 14.17Approximate Analysis of a Building Shears Due to Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{18 14. and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{3 14. (Billington and Mark 1983) : 13.

1 Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{12 1.3 9.Draft List of Tables 1.3 2. (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{13 Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems.10 2.1 Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{26 14.6 2.1 3.2 Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5{10 5.2 tab:secae : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{12 2.2 9.2 3.7 2.4 Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{3 Selected values for Steel and Concrete Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{5 Strength Reduction Factors.2 2. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{6 Approximate Structural Span-Depth Ratios for Horizontal Subsystems and Components (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{8 14.1 9.3 3.13 3.1 2.8 2.1 Equations of Equilibrium : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5{3 5.12 2. ubc : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{12 S Site Coe cients for Earthquake Loading.11 2.3 Section Properties : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5{41 9. (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{8 Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load.4 2.4 Unit Weight of Materials : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{2 Weights of Building Materials : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{3 Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{3 Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads. (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{15 Coe cients of Thermal Expansion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{19 Properties of Major Structural Steels : Properties of Reinforcing Bars : : : : : Joist Series Characteristics : : : : : : Joist Properties : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3{3 : 3{5 : 3{17 : 3{19 5. (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{4 Wind Velocity Variation above Ground : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{7 Ce Coe cients for Wind Load.2 Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{27 .5 2. (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{8 Wind Pressure Coe cients Cq . (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{9 Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{10 Z Factors for Di erent Seismic Zones.9 2.

Draft 0{2 LIST OF TABLES Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

2 1. Natural light: A at roof in a building may not provide adequate light. hydraulic. pipelines. submarines to ensure the structural safety of those important structures. Naval structures: aeroplanes. Sound and structure interact: A dome roof will concentrate the sound A dish roof will di use the sound 3. Technology deals with the arti cial. earthquake). o shore structures.1 Science and Technology 1 \There is a fundamental di erence between science and and technology. 2. For those structures they play the leading role. Mechanical.2 Structural Engineering Structural engineers are responsible for the detailed analysis and design of: Architectural structures: Buildings. science with the natural. . nuclear and other engineers. Engineering or technology is the making of things that did not previously exist." (Billington 1985) 1. Major movements: For example. whereas science is the discovering of things that have long existed. factories. Technological results are forms that exist only because people want to make them.Draft Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. They must work in close cooperation with an architect who will ultimately be responsible for the design. ships. Civil Infrastructures: Bridges. They work with transportation. spacecrafts. whereas scienti c results are informations of what exists independently of human intentions. cars. dams. elevator shafts are usually shear walls good at resisting lateral load (wind.3 Structures and their Surroundings 3 Structural design is a ected by various environmental constraints: 1. houses. Aerospace.

partly due to his/her education think in reverse.5 Architectural Design Process 11 Architectural design is hierarchical: Schematic: conceptual overall space-form feasibility of basic schematic options. 1. computer). Collaboration is mostly between the owner and the architect. They are generalists.6 Architectural Design Architectural design must respect various constraints: Functionality: In uence of the adopted structure on the purposes for which the structure was erected. 4. starting with details and without su cient regards for the overall picture. 5 Architect stress the overall. Engineers play a leading role. (S)he is a pragmatist who \knows everything about nothing". 1. 6 The engineer. A bearing and shear wall building may not have enough openings for daylight. rather than elemental approach to design. it is the architect who is the leader of the construction team. Conduits for cables (electric. In the design process.4 Architecture & Engineering 4 Architecture must be the product of a creative collaboration of architects and engineers. telephone. 5. Economy: It should be kept in mind that the two largest components of a structure are labors and materials. 10 A possible compromise might be an Architectural Engineer. Some collaboration with engineers is necessary. 8 Engineer's education is more specialized and in depth than the architect's. However. Final design: nal in-depth design re nements of all subsystems and components and preparation of working documents (\blue-prints"). A Frame design will allow more light in (analysis more complex). may dictate type of oor system. Preliminary: Establish basic physical properties of major subsystems and key components to prove design feasibility. they conceptualize a space-form scheme as a total system. HVAC ducts. 7 Thus there is a conceptual gap between architects and engineers at all levels of design. 12 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . engineer must be kept aware of overall architectural objective. 1. Net clearance between columns (unobstructed surface) will dictate type of framing. and the engineers are his/her servant. This in turn can place severe limitations on the structural system. 9 In the last resort. Design cost is comparatively negligible.Draft 1{2 INTRODUCTION A Folded plate will provide adequate lighting (analysis more complex). Aesthetics: The architect often imposes his aesthetic concerns on the engineer.

If the design is found not to be acceptable.8 Structural Design 16 Given a set of forces. hotels. A preliminary design is made using rules of thumbs (best known to Engineers with design experience) and analyzed. parking. Failure (limit state): and compare the failure load with the applied load times the appropriate factors of safety. Industrial: warehouses. retail stores. Institutional: Schools. Compare with acceptable values speci ed in the design code. stadium. airport. then it must be modi ed and reanalyzed. prisons. 19 In summary.7 Structural 13 1{3 Buildings may have di erent functions: Residential: housing.7 Structural Analysis 14 Given an existing structure subjected to a certain load determine internal forces (axial. Reinforced Concrete: Determine dimensions of the element and internal reinforcement (number and sizes of reinforcing bars). or veri cation of an old infrastructure. de ections. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 15 Thus the basic structural requirements are: Strength: stresses should not exceed critical values: < f Sti ness: de ections should be controlled: < max Stability: buckling or cracking should also be prevented 1. exural. restaurants. torsional or stresses). manufacturing. 1. mid-rise (up to 6-8 oors) and high rise buildings. government buildings. we check for Serviceability: de ections. dimension the structural element. shear. 17 For new structures. Following design. crack widths under the applied load. Commercial: O ces. Special: Towers. analysis is always required. and verify that no unstable failure can occur. iterative process between analysis and design. Steel/wood Structures Select appropriate section. 18 For existing structures rehabilitation.DraftAnalysis 1. shopping centers. hospitals. which includes low-rise (up tp 2-3 oors). analysis is the most important component. chruch. etc.

plates Torsional: Grids. 1. Arches are used for large span roofs and bridges. 1.Draft 1{4 INTRODUCTION Figure 1.3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . shells Flexural: Beams. exure/shear is minimized and most of the load is transfered through axial forces only. Fig. In an arch.1: Types of Forces in Structural Elements (1D) 1. 1. no shear. Those are the most e cient types of structures. and dish roofs. grids. makes cables ideal structural elements to span large distances such as bridges. Arches (mostly compression) is a \reversed cable structure". truss elements. Cable (tension only): The high strength of steel cables. arches. exure. combined with the e ciency of simple Structures can be classi ed as follows: tension. or torsion. 1. A cable structure develops its load carrying capacity by adjusting its shape so as to provide maximum resistance (form follows function). 3D frames Shear: Frames. loads can be transferred through various mechanisms. grids. Fig. Care should be exercised in minimizing large de ections and vibrations.2. membrane. Fig. frames.1 Axial: cables. shear walls.10 Structure Types 21 Tension & Compression Structures: only.9 Load Transfer Mechanisms 20 From Strength of Materials.

10 Structure 1{5 Figure 1.2: Basic Aspects of Cable Systems Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Types 1.

Draft 1{6 INTRODUCTION Figure 1.3: Basic Aspects of Arches Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

there may be secondary stresses caused by relatively Figure 1. thus we must have sti eners). 1. 1. shear. Fig. and 1.6. they may buckle. Trusses are used for joists.4: Types of Trusses Whereas r/c beams are mostly rectangular or T shaped. Axial. The frame is composed of at least one horizontal member (beam) rigidly connected to vertical ones1. screwed.5.10 Structure rigid connections. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .e. Elements are connected by either slotted. exure and sometimes axial forces. or gusset plate connectors. i. torsion (only in 3D). electric tower. roofs. 1 Post and Beams: Essentially a support column on which a \beam" rests. bridges. However. The vertical The precursor of the frame structures were the Post and Lintel where the post is vertical member on which the lintel is simply posed. Recall that = Mc is applicable only for shallow I beams. due to construction details. steel beams are usually I shaped (if the top anges are not properly sti ened. Frames: Load is co-planar with the structure. Beams: Shear.Draft Types 1. exure (with respect to one axis in 2D structures and with respect to two axis in 3D structures).4 1{7 Trusses have pin connected elements which can transmit axial forces only (tension and compression). span/depth at least equal to ve. Fig.

5: Variations in Post and Beams Con gurations Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 1{8 INTRODUCTION Figure 1.

10 Structure VIERENDEEL TRUSS TREE-SUPPORTED TRUSS 1{9 OVERLAPPING SINGLE-STRUT CABLE-SUPPORTED BEAM BRACED BEAM CABLE-STAYED BEAM SUSPENDED CABLE SUPPORTED BEAM BOWSTRING TRUSS CABLE-SUPPORTED STRUTED ARCH OR CABLE BEAM/TRUSS CABLE-SUPPORTED MULTI-STRUT BEAM OR TRUSS GABLED TRUSS CABLE-SUPPORTED ARCHED FRAME CABLE-SUPPORTED PORTAL FRAME Figure 1.6: Di erent Beam Types Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Types 1.

However. rigid. Folded plates are used mostly as long span roofs.8. Membranes: 3D structures composed of a exible 2D surface resisting tension only. In a grid. Used mostly for oor slabs.7: Basic Forms of Frames Grids and Plates: Load is orthogonal to the plane of the structure. Frames are extensively used for houses and buildings. Plates are at. additional sti ness is introduced by the torsional resistance of members. Folded plates is a combination of transverse and longitudinal beam action. Because of the rigid connections between the beams. torsion. 1. two dimensional structures which transmit vertical load to their supports. Used for long span roofs.7. they can also be used as vertical walls to support both vertical and horizontal loads. They are usually cable-supported and are used for tents and long span roofs Fig. shear. 1.Draft 1{10 INTRODUCTION members can have di erent boundary conditions (which are usually governed by soil conditions). beams are at right angles resulting in a two-way dispersal of loads. Grids can also be skewed to achieve greater e ciency if the aspect ratio is not close to one. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Flexure. Figure 1. Note that the plate may be folded circularly rather than longitudinally. Fig.

10 Structure 1{11 Figure 1.8: Examples of Air Supported Structures Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Types 1.

??.Draft 1{12 axial stresses only. depending on the audience.9: Basic Forms of Shells Shells are classi ed in terms of their curvature. Frames Per code Table 1.9.1: Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers Table 1. 1.2: tab:secae Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . \rules of thumbs" preliminary Structures Most Design Approximate Approach Emphasis Analysis Engineers Elemental Component Exact. detailled Final Trusses.11 Structural Engineering Courses 22 Structural engineering education can be approached from either one of two points of views. Architects Global Structure Approximate. Fig. they are usually shaped to transmit compressive Figure 1. 1. INTRODUCTION Shells: 3D structures composed of a curved 2D surface.

Princeton University Pres. 1993. W. yBillington.. French. plates. R. Gordon. F.. Design. Determinate Structures Statics. Da Capo paperback. J. Princeton University. Wiley.N. Lectures Notes CE 262. 11. cables. M. 4. J. Scienti c American Library.. 8. and Salvadori. Approximate analysis for most of them. M. D.P.. R. Petroski. 6. MacMillan. Prentice Hall. Emphasis on good understanding of overall structural behavior. Structures. The Structural Basis of Architecture. yMainstone. M.. J. Salvadori. S. Structural Analysis and Behavior. Billington. 1978 5.. yLin.Norton.12 References 1{13 Architects: Start from overall design. M. frames. 1991. 1979. Department of Civil Engineering. 1983. ySchueller. Ambrose. H.P. Salvadori. McGraw-Hill. M. 3. 1996. 1.. Hawkes.W... Vintage Books. Structure in Architecture The Building of Buildings.. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers. and move toward detailed analysis. Very seldom are arches covered. 7. The design of Building Structures. Prentice Hall. arches. To Enginer is Human. 1986.. Allen Lane Publishers. 1986.D..12 References 23 Following are some useful references for structural engineering. 1981. Structures and the Urban Environment. frames (mostly 2D) and trusses. 17. yBillington.. Delmar. 1996. D. Why Buildings Stand Up The Strength of Architecture. 2. 1990. second Ed. and \borrowed from" in preparing the Lecture Notes or are particularly recommended.P. 12. Norton Paperack. 1975. and Stotesbury. and Eggen. 1981.E. The Science of Structures and Materials. 16. 1988.Draft 1.. Focus on beams.. 1978. Strength. those marked by y were consulted. W. B.Y. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Second Edition. Biggs. 9. 1992. S. Developments in Structural Form. ySalvadori.M. Why Buildings Fall Down. Develop a good understanding of load transfer mechanism for most types of structures. 1990. N. the way things are built. shells. or Why Things Do'nt Fall Down. and Heller. 1992.. A. M. New York. 13. 1992. The Tower and the Bridge The new art of structural engineering. Levy. 15. Structures. Analysis. Third Edition. John Wiley. D. Structural Design in Architecture.P. 10. Prentice hall. Princeton University Pres. Rober Maillart's Bridges The Art of Engineering.. 14. T. and Levy. Introduction to Structural Engineering Analysis and Design. 2.E. J. Plates and shells are not even mentioned. Gordon. Structures for Architect Structures for Engineers 1. Victor Saouma 1. Whitney Library of Design.. Building Structures. Inc. ySandaker.. y Arbadi. Prentice Hall. Engineers: Emphasis is on the individual structural elements and not always on the total system. beams.

H. Eleventh Edition. F. and Winter....Draft 1{14 INTRODUCTION Codes 3. 1960. 1988. John Wiley. y Gaylord. and Sexmith. Steel Structures. 10.1. Elementary Theory of Structures. and Johnston. Gergely. Prentice Hall. C. P. and Johnson. McGraw Hill. G. Design of Steel Structures. R. Dover Publications. y Nilson. 9. 1996. Harper Collins Publisher. B. 7. T. and Neville. Structural Engineering Combined Edition. Load & Resistance Factor Design.. American Institute of Steel Construction. Dover Publication. 1976.G. A. Structural Analysis.Y. American Concrete Institute 2.. R. McGraw Hill. Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures. Palladio. 1991. The Four Books of Architecture.. Third Edition. The Ten Books on Architecture. Y. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . A..N. Hsieh. J. ACI-318-89. New York. A. and Stallmeyer. American National Standards Institute. 1992.J. CA 90601 4. 6.M.. Lin. 11. Design of Concrete Structures. White. Inc. Gaylord. 1972. Manual of Steel Construction. Third Edition. ANSI A58. 1990. A. Chapman and Hall..E. 4. E. y Salmon C. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. J.. Galambos. Third Edition. Vitruvius. Prentice Hall. Ghali. 3. International Conference of Building O cials. 5360 South Workman Road Whittier.. Third Edition. Basic Steel Design with LRFD. 1. Uniform Building Code. 1989 5. 8..

2.1 Introduction 1 The main purpose of a structure is to transfer load from one point to another: bridge deck to pier slab to beam beam to girder girder to column column to foundation foundation to soil. live load (LL) also included are snow loads. 5 For a detailed coverage of loads. Earthquake load (EL) this also includes hydrostatic and earth loads. dead load (DL) 2.Draft Chapter 2 LOADS 2. P-Delta e ects (additional moment caused by the product of the vertical force and the lateral displacement caused by lateral load in a high rise building). 2 There can also be secondary loads such as thermal (in restrained structures). di erential settlement of foundations. Fig.2 Vertical Loads 6 For closely spaced identical loads (such as joist loads). 2. 3 Loads are generally subdivided into two categories Vertical Loads or gravity load 1. Wind load (WL) 2. (UBC 1995). 4 This distinction is helpful not only to compute a structure's load. refer to the Universal Building Code (UBC). it is customary to treat them as a uniformly distributed load rather than as discrete loads. but also to assign di erent factor of safety to each one. Lateral Loads which act horizontally on the structure 1.1 .

1 Material lb=ft3 Aluminum 173 Brick 120 Concrete 145 Steel 490 Wood (pine) 40 kN=m3 27.0 6.3 can be used: 2. dead loads can easily be determined from the structure's dimensions and density. and other permanent xtures (such as walls.2. The loads are essentially variable point loads which can be placed anywhere.9 33.1: Unit Weight of Materials 9 For steel structures.Draft 2{2 P1 P2 P3 P4 LOADS P5 P6 P7 REPETITIVE JOIST LOADS ACTUAL DISCRETE LOADS ON SUPPORT BEAM w LB/FT = TOTAL LOAD / SPAN SUPPORT BEAM SPAN ASSUMED EQUIVALENT UNIFORM LOAD TYPICAL SYSTEM OF JOISTS Figure 2. dead loads must be estimated and veri ed at the end of the design cycle. slabs. equipment. Table 2.1: Approximation of a Series of Closely Spaced Loads 2.8 77. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . machinery). 8 For analysis purposes. live loads (LL) are movable or moving and may be horizontal.2 12 For preliminary design purposes the average dead loads of Table 2.2 18. furniture.3 Table 2.1 Dead Load 7 Dead loads (DL) consist of the weight of the structure itself. 11 Weights for building materials is given in Table 2.2. the weight per unit length of rolled sections is given in the AISC Manual of Steel Construction. This makes the design process iterative. 14 Occupancy load may be due to people.2 Live Loads 13 Contrarily to dead loads which are xed and vertical. 10 For design purposes.

Hollow concrete block (heavy aggregate) 4 in. Hollow concrete block (light aggregate) 4 in. 8 in. lb=ft2 1 1 2-10 12 1 4 1-5 6 3 9-14 3 2 17 40 14 2 10 5 40 120 30 55 80 21 38 55 2{3 Table 2. Bricks 12 in. Wood studs 2x4 (12-16 in.) Plaster 1 in. 12 in. 8 in.2 Vertical Loads Material Ceilings Channel suspended system Acoustical ber tile Floors Steel deck Concrete-plain 1 in. Hardwood Roofs Copper or tin 5 ply felt and gravel Shingles asphalt Clay tiles Sheathing wood Insulation 1 in.c. Clay tile 10 in. 12 in. Linoleum 1/4 in. cement Plaster 1 in. o. gypsum Walls Bricks 4 in. poured in place Partitions Clay tile 3 in.Draft 2.3: Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2: Weights of Building Materials Material lb=ft2 Timber 40-50 Steel 50-80 Reinforced concrete 100-150 Table 2. Gypsum Block 5 in.

88 40.4 80 80 47. 2. including oors above it. what is the total live load and total load for which a column must be designed on the ground oor Solution: 1.44 40.68 6 1536 1386 110.e. R) LL=100 Roof 10 256 512 106 362 8. 150 R0 R% LL (100 . 16 A statistical approach is used to determine a uniformly distributed static load which is equivalent to the weight of the maximum concentration of occupants.4 80 47.4 40.4 80 47.4 80 47. 4.96 20 80 18.4 80 47. R can not exceed 40% for horizontal members and 60% for vertical ones.96 8. stairs 100 Garage 50 O ce buildings 50 Residential 40 Storage 125-250 Table 2.4. a column with a total tributary area. snow load 20 psf and live load 80 psf. 3.48 28.68 4 2048 1898 151.36 40.4 80 47.83 9 768 618 49.68 8 7 1024 1280 874 1130 69. 150) = 8:48% .48 28.4 80 47. The tributary area is 16 16 = 256ft2 > 150 The reduction R for the roof is is R = :08(16 16 . Table 2. the UBC code speci es that the occupancy load for members supporting an area A larger than 150 ft2 (i.Draft 2{4 15 LOADS In analysis load placement should be such that their e ect (shear/moment) are maximized. Use or Occupancy lb=ft2 Assembly areas 50 Cornices.3 56. marquees.40 40. These loads are de ned in codes such as the Uniform Building Code or the ANSI Code.68 2 2560 2410 192. p 60 Maximum allowable reduction Rmax = 23:1 1 + 80 = 40:4% which is less than 60% The reduced cumulative load for the column of each oor is Floor A A . the total dead load is 60 psf.8 40. A is the supported area ( 2 ) DL and LL are the dead and live loads per unit area supported by the member. 150) 23:1 1 + DL LL ft (2.92 90. (UBC 1995) 17 For small areas (30 to 50 sq ft) the e ect of concentrated load should be considered separately. 18 Since there is a small probability that the whole oor in a building be fully loaded.68 5 1792 1642 131. Example 2-1: Live Load Reduction In a 10 story o ce building with a column spacing of 16 ft in both directions. larger than 150 ft2 ) may be reduced by R where R = r(A .68 p Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . residential balconies 60 Corridors.4: Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads.32 40.68 3 2304 2154 172.68 47.1) where r = :08 for oors.84 40.

3. Fig. Figure 2.4) Wind load depend on: velocity of the wind.540 LLReduced = (18:3) {z(256) } + | (2.3 Lateral Loads psf ft psf ft lbs psf ft psf ft lbs 2{5 The resulting design live load for the bottom column has been reduced from 2 (9)(80) (256) 2 = 189. height. They range from 20 to 45 psf. texture of the building surface and sti ness of the structure. For snow loads greater than 20 psf and roof pitches more than 20 the snow load p may be reduced by 2. 20) 40 .2. 2. 2.3 Snow 19 Roof snow load vary greatly depending on geographic location and elevation. 343 psf ft k lbs k k 2.2) | {z } Roof 9 oors to 2 (9)(47:68) (256) 2 = 114. 21 The steeper the roof.3) {z } | Roof 9 oors 5. shape of the building.2: Snow Map of the United States.3.3 Lateral Loads 2. thus the total reduction in load is from 153:6+189:4 = 343 to 153:6+114:5 = 268:1 a reduction of 343.Draft 2.1 Wind 22 p R = ( . The total dead load is DL = (10)(60) (256) 2 (1 000) = 153:6 Kips. the lower the snow retention. geographical location.440 LLBefore = (20) {z (256) } + | (2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .268 100= 22% .2. Fig. ubc 20 Snow loads are always given on the projected length or area on a slope. 0:5 (psf) (2.

the ai weighs 0. V can be obtained from wind maps (in the United States 70 V 110). 1 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 25 During storms.7) qs = 0:00256V 2 where V is the maximum wind velocity (in miles per hour) and qs is in psf. Fig. 24 When a steady streamline air ow of velocity V is completely stopped by a rigid body. 2. which corresponds to a dynamic pressure qs of about 60 psf (as high as the average vertical occupancy load in buildings).4. The primary design consideration for very high rise buildings is the excessive drift caused by lateral load (wind and possibly earthquakes).3: Loads on Projected Dimensions Wind loads are particularly signi cant on tall buildings1. At sea level and a temperature of 15oC (59oF). the stagnation pressure (or velocity pressure) qs was derived by Bernouilli (1700-1782) 1 qs = 2 V 2 (2.0765 lb/ft3 this would yield a pressure of 23 LE N G TH RUN or 1 qs = 2 (0:0765)lb/ft2 (32:2)ft/sec 3 (5280)ft/mile V (3600)sec/hr 2 RISE (2.Draft 2{6 LIVE LOAD DEAD LOAD WIND LOAD LOADS Figure 2. wind velocities may reach values up to or greater than 150 miles per hour.6) (2.5) where the air mass density is the air weight divided by the accleration of gravity g = 32:2 ft/sec2 .

the design base pressure (at 33.8) The pressure is assumed to be normal to all walls and roofs and Ce Velocity Pressure Coe cient accounts for height. where Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6 28 This magnitude must be modi ed to account for the shape and surroundings of the building.e the wind pressure is not steady). It accounts for the fact that wind velocity increases with height and that dynamic character of the air ow (i.6. 2.200 20 15 20 25 30 35 40 Wind-Velocity Map Area 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 25 25 30 35 40 25 30 35 40 45 50 30 40 45 50 55 60 40 45 55 60 70 75 45 55 60 70 80 90 50 60 70 80 90 100 Table 2.4: Wind Map of the United States.3 ft from the ground) p (psf) is given by 27 p = Ce Cq Iqs (2. Table 2. Height Zone (in feet) <30 30 to 49 50 to 99 100 to 499 500 to 1199 >1. l Cq Pressure Coe cient is a shape factor which is given in Table 2.3 Lateral Loads 2{7 Figure 2. exposure and gust factor. I Importance Factor as given by Table 2.7 for gabled frames.Draft 2.5.5: Wind Velocity Variation above Ground Wind load will cause suction on the leeward sides. Thus. Fig.8. (UBC 1995) 26 Wind pressure increases with height. Table 2.

19 Table 2.1:4 Horizontal Projections .Draft 2{8 LOADS Figure 2. (UBC 1995) Windward Side Leeward Side Gabled Frames (V:H) Roof Slope <9:12 .6: Ce Coe cients for Wind Load. at terrain facing large bodies of water C Flat open terrain.7: Wind Pressure Coe cients Cq .0:7 .06-2. or surface irregularities 20 ft or more in height 1.1:3 height > 40 ft 1:4 .0:7 Table 2.80 B Terrain with buildings.62-1.34 1. extending one-half mile or open from the site in any full quadrant 0.0:5 Buildings (height < 200 ft) Vertical Projections height < 40 ft 1:3 .0:7 9:12 to 12:12 0:4 .0:7 Walls 0:8 . forest.0:7 .0:7 >12:12 0:7 .5: E ect of Wind Load on Structures(Schueller 1996) Exposure D Open.39-2. (UBC 1995) Ce Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

supporting or containing su cient quantities of toxic or explosive substances to be dangerous to the safety of the general public if released.4 the maximum wind velocity is St. capacity > 250 persons. II Hazardous Facilities: Structures housing. Louis is 70 mph.9) Example 2-2: Wind Load Determine the wind forces on the building shown on below which is built in St Louis and is surrouded by trees. yielding p = (1:3):020256V 2 = :00333V 2 which corresponds to a pressure of 21 psf for a wind speed of 80 mph.25 1. 29 For the preliminary design of ordinary buildings Ce = 1:0 and Cq = 1:3 may be assumed. communication centers. (UBC 1995) I Essential Facilities: Hospitals Fire and police stations Tanks Emergency vehicle shelters. The base wind pressure is qs = 0:00256 (70)2 = 12:54 psf.00 1.000 persons.Draft 2. and required for continued operation. 2.00 1. standby power-generating equipment Structures and equipment in government. Medical facilities with 50 or more resident incapacitated patients. Fig. Solution: 1.15 1.25 1. Structures and equipment in power generating stations and other public utilitiy facilities not included above. (2. Table 2. capacity > 500 persons.00 1. 2.6. capacity > 300 persons. From Fig. IV Standard occupancy structure: All structures having occupancies or functions not listed above. I = 1:.15 1. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9.00 Table 2. Buildings for schools through secondary or day-care centers.3 Lateral Loads I II III IV Essential facilities Hazardous facilities Special occupancy structures Standard occupancy structures 2{9 Occupancy Category Imprtance Factor I Earthquake Wind 1. since the building is protected we can take Ce = 0:7. III Special occupancy structure: Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly. but not included above Jails and detention facilities All structures with occupancy >5. Buildings for colleges or adult education schools.8: Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load.

70 mph Exposure B.6: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures 400 Exposure B. 80 mph Exposure C. 70 mph Exposure C. 80 mph 350 300 Height Above Grade (ft) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Approximate Design Wind Pressure (psf) 45 50 Figure 2.Draft 2{10 Height Above Grade (ft) 0-15 20 25 30 40 60 80 100 120 160 200 300 400 LOADS Exposure B C Basic Wind Speed (mph) 70 10 11 12 12 14 17 18 20 21 23 25 29 32 80 13 14 15 16 18 22 24 26 28 30 33 37 41 70 17 18 19 20 21 25 27 28 29 31 33 36 38 80 23 24 25 26 28 33 35 37 38 41 43 47 50 Table 2.

and for the leeward wall 0:7 (.39 psf (suction) . Dynamic properties of the building. 4. 32 Actual loads depend on the following 1. 3. such as its mode shapes and periods of vibration and its damping characteristics. 2. Intensity of the ground acceleration (including soil/rock properties).0:5 for the leeward one.4:12 which gives Cq = . The winward wall.3 Lateral Loads 2{11 2. The vertical walls have Cq = 0:8 for the winward side and Cq = .0:7 for both the windward and leeward sides.02 psf . 30 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 3. The direction of the wind can change and hence each structural component must be designed to resist all possible load combinations.2 Earthquakes Buildings should be able to resist Minor earthquakes without damage Moderate earthquakes without structural damage but possibly with some nonstructural damages Major earthquakes without collapse but possibly with some structural damage as well as nonstructural damage This is achieved through an appropriate dynamic analysis. 6.14 psf that is the roof is subjected to uplift.3. 31 For preliminary designs or for small structures an equivalent horizontal static load can be determined.0:7) 12:54 = -6. The slope of the roof is 8:15=6. 2. 5. Mass of the building.Draft 2. testing in a wind tunnel of the structure itself and its surroundings is often accomplished. the pressure is 0:7 0:8 12:54 = 7. Thus the applied pressure on the roof is p = 0:7 (. For large structures which may be subjected to large wind loads.0:5) 12:54 = -4.

If the earthquake excitation has a frequency close to the one of the building.075 0.4 Table 2.10. 35 The horizontal force at each level is calculated as a portion of the base shear force V 34 V = ZIC W RW where: (2. This is the time required for one full cycle of motion.8.7: Vibrations of a Building Earthquake load manifests itself as a horizontal force due to the (primarily) horizontal inertia force (F = ma).8 and Table 2. This should be avoided.11) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . ubc I : Importance Factor: which was given by Table 2.15 0. 2.10) Z : Zone Factor: to be determined from Fig.3 0. Seismic Zone 0 1 2A 2B 3 4 Z 0 0.10: Z Factors for Di erent Seismic Zones. C : Design Response Spectrum given by Victor Saouma : S C = 1T253 2= 2:75 (2.7. Fig. 2. Figure 2.Draft 2{12 LOADS 33 A critical factor in the dynamic response of a structure is the fundamental period of the structure's vibration (or rst mode of vibration). then resonance may occur.2 0.

12) Ct 0. or estimated from the following empirical formula (2.3 Lateral Loads 2{13 Figure 2.5 clay but not more than 40 ft.11: S Site Coe cients for Earthquake Loading. S4 Soil containing more than 40 ft of soft clay 2. and either the free vibration analysis of the building.Draft 2.020 S : Site Coe steel moment resisting frames reinforced concrete moment resisting frames and eccentrically braced frames all other buildings cient given by Table 2.11 Note that most of the damages in the 1990? earthquake Type Description S Factor S1 A soil pro le with either rock-like material or sti /dense soil less 1. and C RW 0:075 (2. This can be determined from T = Ct (hn )3=4 where: hn is the building height above base in ft.8: Seismic Zones of the United States. of soft clay. S2 Dense or sti soil exceeding 200 ft 1.2 S3 70 ft or more soil containing more than 20 ft of soft to medium sti 1.0 than 200 ft.0 Table 2.13) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .035 Ct 0. (UBC 1995) T is the fundamental period of vibration of the building in seconds. (UBC 1995) in San Francisco occurred in the marina where many houses were built on soft soil.030 Ct 0.

3 I =1. Example 2-3: Earthquake Load on a Frame Determine the approximate earthquake forces for the ductile hospital frame structure shown below. The balance of the force V . (2. The fundamental period of vibration is T = Ct (hn )3=4 = (0:030)(24)3=4 = 0:32 2. The structure is built on soft soil. 36 LOADS The horizontal force V is distributed over the height of the building in two parts.12. then the force acting on each one is given by ( F x t (2.+ t )h+ h = (V . Note that it is assumed that all oors have also same width.) is a concentrated force F1 equal to Ft = 0:07TV 0:25V (2. or x respectively.Draft 2{14 RW is given by Table 2. The DL for each oor is 200 lb/ft and the LL is 400 lb/ft. Ft is distributed as a triangular load diminishing to zero at the base. Use DL plus 50%LL as the weight of each oor.17) use C = 2:75. The other coe cients are: Z =0. Solution: 1. The C coe cient is sec. The building is in zone 3. W Load total structure load. The rst (applied only if T 0:7 sec.16) (2. 37 Assuming a oor weight constant for every oor level.25 RW =12 : : S C = 1T253 = (1:25)(2=0) = 5:344 > 2:75 2= (0:32)2 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 3.14) is applied at the top of the building due to whiplash. Fh)hx n i 1 2 n i=1 where hi and hx are the height in ft above the base to level i.15) Fx = h +Vh .

160 - 2{15 Light-framed walls with shear panels Plywood walls for structures three stories or less All other light-framed walls Shear walls Concrete Masonry Steel eccentrically braced ductile frame Light-framed walls with shear panels Plywood walls for structures three stories or less All other light-framed walls Shear walls Concrete Masonry Concentrically braced frames Steel Concrete (only for zones I and 2) Heavy timber Building frame system using trussing or shear walls) Special moment-resisting frames (SMRF) Steel 12 Concrete 12 Concrete intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF)only for zones 1 and 2 8 Ordinary moment-resisting frames (OMRF) Steel 6 Concrete (only for zone 1) 5 Dual systems (selected cases are for ductile rigid frames only) Shear walls Concrete with SMRF 12 Masonry with SMRF 8 Steel eccentrically braced ductile frame 6-12 Concentrically braced frame 12 Steel with steel SMRF 10 Steel with steel OMRF 6 Concrete with concrete SMRF (only for zones 1 and 2) 9 Table 2. 160 160-N.L.12: Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems. N. L. N.L.Draft 2. N. 160 - Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (UBC 1995) Moment-resisting frame system N.L.3 Lateral Loads Structural System Bearing wall system RW H (ft) 8 6 8 8 10 9 7 8 8 8 8 8 65 65 240 160 240 65 65 240 160 160 65 N.L.L.

Soil conditions are unknown.20-a) (2. 8.18) (2. an average building total dead load of 192 psf is used.21-a) (2. and the structure is 25(12)=300 ft high. Check 5. rigid space frame concrete structure in the short direction. The plan dimension of the building is 175x100 ft.Draft 2{16 4. ductile. The total seismic base shear is 25)(2 V = ZIC = (0:3)(1:12 :75) = 0:086W RW = (0:086)(16000) = 1375 lbs 7. (Schueller 1996) Determine the approximate critical lateral loading for a 25 storey. For this investigation.21-b) Example 2-4: Earthquake Load on a Tall Building. The rigid frames are spaced 25 ft apart in the cross section and 20 ft in the longitudinal direction. The total vertical load is LOADS C = 2:75 = 0:23 > 0:075p RW 12 W = 2 ((200 + 0:5(400)) (20) = 16000 lbs (2.3 lbs 12 + 24 F2 = (1375)(24) = 916.7 lbs 12 + 24 (2. The load on each oor is thus given by F1 = (1375)(12) = 458. there is no whiplash.19) (2. This o ce building is located in an urban environment with a wind velocity of 70 mph and in seismic zone 4. Since T < 0:7 sec.20-b) 6. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Since T > 0:7 sec.27-b) 6. p : : S C = 1T253 = (1:25)(1=5) = 1:12 2:75p 2= (2:16)2 3 4. > 0:7 sec.4 I =1.26-b) (2.26-a) (2.25) (2. We check p C 1:12 R = 12 = 0:093 0:075 W (2. RW =12 5.Draft 2. The total building weight is W = (0:1926) (100 175) ksf ft 2 25 storeys = 84 000 7(25)=175’ 25(12)=300’ k (2.27-a) (2. The other coe cients are Z =0.3 Lateral Loads 470 k 2638 k 1523 k 2{17 300/2=150’ 2(300)/3=200’ 84000 k 3108 k 5(20)=100’ Solution: 1.22) (2. The total seismic base shear along the critical short direction is V = ZIC W = (0:4)(1)(1:12) W = 0:037W RW (12) = (0:037)(84000) = 3108 kip 7.24) 2. .23) (2. the fundamental period of vibration for a rigid frame is T = Ct (hn )3=4 = 0:030(300)3=4 = 2:16 3. the whiplash e ect must be considered Ft = 0:07TV = (0:07)(2:16)(3108) = 470 le 0:25V = (0:25)(3108) = 777 k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . The C coe cient is sec.

K = 1. q=K h where is the soil density. Figure 2.1 Hydrostatic and Earth Structures below ground must resist lateral earth pressure. 1+sin 39 40 (2. psf ft k k 2.4. let us check if wind load governs.Draft 2{18 Hence the total triangular load is LOADS V .29) The magnitude of the total seismic load is clearly larger than the total wind force. From Table xx we conservatively assume a uniform wind pressure of 29 psf resulting in a total lateral force of PW = (0:029) (175 300) 2 = 1523 < 3108 (2. 470 = 2638 k (2. Fig. ft Example 2-5: Hydrostatic Load Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .30) For sand and gravel = 120 lb= ft3 .9: Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures q = Wh where W = 62:4 lbs (2.4 Other Loads 38 2. h is the height.31) = 3.9.28) 8. and 30 . it must also resist hydrostatic pressure of water. Ft = 3108 . 2. If the structure is partially submerged.sin is the pressure coe cient.

The structure was built at a temperature of 60oF and is located in the northern part of the United States where the temperature range is between -20o and +120oF. Since p = h we equate the two pressures and solve for h the height of the concrete slab (62:4) = 3 (12 .6) = =oF (. This expansion is given by l= l T where is the coe cient of thermal expansion. 60)o F (100) (12) = 0.6 Concrete 5:5 10. E = 2 400 000 psi) bearing wall. Ground water is located 9 ft below grade.2 Thermal 41 If a member is uniformly heated (or cooled) without restraint. To avoid excessive stresses due to thermal loading expansion joints are used in bridges and buildings. what thickness concrete slab is required to exactly balance the hydrostatic uplift? ft The hydrostatic pressure must be countered by the pressure caused by the weight of concrete.6 in.26 (2. then a compressive stress = E T is developed.20 .Draft 2. Assuming that the wall can move freely with no restraint from cross-walls and foundation. 60)oF (100) (12) = -0.33-a) LWinter = TL = (3:6 10.0 inch (150) {z 3 h ) h = (62:4) = 3 (3) (12) = (150) | } concrete lbs ft lbs ft ft in/ft in 2.4 Other Loads Solution: lbs ft lbs ft 2{19 The basement of a building is 12 ft below grade. 9) } = | {z water = 3 = 14:976 ' 15. the wall expansion and contraction (summer and winter) are given by LSummer = TL = (3:6 10.6) = =oF (120 .13 (/ F ) Steel 6:5 10. Example 2-6: Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996) A low-rise building is enclosed along one side by a 100 ft-long clay masonary ( = 3:6 10. then it will expand (or contract)./oF.13: Coe cients of Thermal Expansion 42 43 (2./in.6 Table 2. Solution: 1.33-b) in in ft in/ft in in in ft in/ft in Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4.32) If the member is restrained against expansion. Table 2.35 (2.

6 ) = =oF (120 .4(D+T) whereas for steel structures. We now assume (conservatively) that the free movement cannot occur ( L = 0) hence the resulting stress would be equal to = E" = E LL = E LTL = E T T = (2 400 000) 2 (3:6 10.7L 2. building codes allow certain reduction when certain loads are combined together. 47 Denoting D= dead L= live Lr= roof live W= wind E= earthquake S= snow T= temperature H= soil: 48 For the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method of concrete structures.6(Lr or S) 4.34-c) Note that the tensile stresses being beyond the masonary capacity.5(Lr or S)+1.8W)+1.4D 2.7L+1.7L+1.5. Hence.d. structures should be designed to resist a combination of loads.20 .4D+1.4D +1.34-a) ( 2 T = (2 400 000) 2 (3:6 10. cracking will occur.Draft 2{20 Summer = E Winter = E LOADS 2.7L) 6.2D+1.2 S)+1. 2. (of Steel COnstruction 1986) requires that the following combinations be veri ed 1.5L+0.2D+0.1 Load Combinations 44 Live loads speci ed by codes represent the maximum possible loads.5E Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 1. 60)o F = -691 lbs in Compression (2. 1.5L(or 0.4D+1.6L+0.7H 5.5(Lr or S) 3.4D+1.4T+1. 0.6 ) = =oF (.75(1.2D+0. 0. 1. 1.34-b) (2.7W) 3.5L (or 0. 1. 1. the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building design code (318) (318 n.2D+0. 46 Furthermore.9D+1.3W 4. 1. 1.3W 5.75(1. 60)oF = 518 lbs in in in lbs in in in lbs in 2 Tension2. 0.) requires that the following load combinations be considered: 1.5 Other Important Considerations 2. 45 The likelihood of all these loads occurring simultaneously is remote. the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code.

5. The beam or girder is really part of a three dimensional structure in which load is transmitted from any point in the structure to the foundation through any one of various structural forms. The live load on the other hand may or may not be applied on a given component of a structure. 50 Loads are often characterized as Usual. 2. W. 2. 9. Unusual and Extreme.10: Load Placement to Maximize Moments 2.12. Hence.3W(or 1. 2. Fig.11 or by two way slabs as illustrated in Fig. Fig. Fig.9D+1. shear) at di erent locations must be considered.Draft Considerations 2.1. the structure must be able to respond with proper behavior. 53 Load transfer in a structure is accomplished through a \hierarchy" of simple exural elements which are then connected to the columns.2 Load Placement 51 Only the dead load is static.5. etc) and then using the principle of superposition the loads can be linearly combined (unless the elastic limit has been reached).5 Other Important 6. 0. 2. D.3 Load Transfer 52 Whereas we will be focusing on the design of a reinforced concrete or steel section. 2. we must keep in mind the following: 1. Figure 2. the load placement arrangement resulting in the highest internal forces (moment +ve or -ve.4 Structural Response 54 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 E) 49 2{21 Analysis can be separately performed for each of the basic loads (L.5. Under the action of the various forces and loadings described above. The section is part of a beam or girder. 2.10.

Draft 2{22 LOADS Figure 2.11: Load Transfer in R/C Buildings Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

12: Two Way Actions Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Considerations 2.5 Other Important 2{23 Figure 2.

Draft 2{24 LOADS Figure 2. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .13: Load Life of a Structure.

Draft Considerations 2.14: Concept of Tributary Areas for Structual Member Loading Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 Other Important 2.5. 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 11 00 11 1111 11 00 0000 00 Figure 2. the tributary area of a structural component will determine the total applied load.5 Tributary Areas 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 2{25 55 For preliminary analyses.

Draft 2{26 LOADS Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

5%) or by adding other elements such as silicon.1 Structural Steel Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.5 /deg F. Most commonly used structural steel are A36 ( yld = 36 ksi) and A572 ( yld = 50 ksi). W or wide ange sections have a much smaller inner slope which facilitates connections and rivetting. 5 The yield stress of steel can vary from 40 ksi to 250 ksi. 3. Its properties can be greatly varied by altering the carbon content (always less than 0. 3. Usually the most desirable members are those which have a large section moduli (S ) in proportion to their area (A). 9 Common sections are: S sections were the rst ones rolled in America and have a slope on their inside ange surfaces of 1 to 6. deep weighing 114 lb/ft. and a coe cient of thermal expansion equal to 0:65 10. C are channel sections MC Miscellaneous channel which can not be classi ed as a C shape by dimensions.000 ksi.2. 2 Characteristics of the most commonly used structural materials will be highlighted.1. HP is a bearing pile section. manganese and copper. 7 Steel can be bolted. riveted or welded. Fig. 4 Practically all grades of steel have a Young Modulus equal to 29. W sections constitute about 50% of the tonnage of rolled structural steel.1 6 Structural steel can be rolled into a wide variety of shapes and sizes. density of 490 lb/cu ft. their depth and their weight. Fig. 8 Sections are designated by the shape of their cross section. 27 in. . nickle. For example W 27 114 is a W section. 1 3.Draft Chapter 3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Proper understanding of structural materials is essential to both structural analysis and to structural design.1 Steel 3 3.

1: Stress Strain Curves of Concrete and Steel Figure 3.2: Standard Rolled Sections Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 3{2 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Figure 3.

Fig.3 and welded ones. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 3.5 to 4 in.Bolted and welded less sections Plates and bars in and less Building frames and thick trusses Bolted and welded Hot and cold rolled sheets Atmospheric corrosion resistant Cold rolled sheet in cut Cold formed sections lengths Structural shapes. A36 A500 A501 A529 A606 A611 A 709 Shapes Available Shapes and bars Use y (kksi) u (kksi) Riveted. the stress-strain curve of a rolled section exhibits a non-linear segment prior to the theoretical yielding.1) Zx wd=9 11 (3.5in. welded Buildings and bridges Cold formed welded and General structural purseamless sections pose Riveted. L are angle sections which may have equal or unequal sides. Fig3. WT is a T section cut from a W section in two.) and 90 (over 2.) Table 3. (32 above 8.1. welded or bolted Hot formed welded and seam.) Grade A: 33 Grade B: 42 Grade C: 46 36 42 45-50 Grade C 33 Grade D 40 Grade E 80 Grade 36: 36 (to 4 in.) Grade 50: 50 Grade 100: 100 (to 2.1 Steel M is a miscellaneous section. it cools unevenly because of varying exposure. 13 Due to those residual stresses.2) Properties of structural steel are tabulated in Table 3. 3. The area that cool rst become sti er. This would have important implications on the exural and axial strength of beams and columns.4 have residual stresses.1: Properties of Major Structural Steels 12 Rolled sections. 10 3{3 The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula Sx wd=10 or Ix Sx d wd2 =20 2 and the plastic modulus can be approximated by (3. resist contraction. Those originate during the rolling or fabrication of a member. The remaining regions continue to cool and contract in the plastic condition and develop tensile stresses. ASTM Desig. and develop compressive stresses. 3. The member is hot just after rolling or welding. plates and Bridges bars 1 2 36 up through 8 in. bolted.5. Fig.

Draft 3{4 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Maximum compressive stress.4: Residual Stresses in Welded Sections Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3: Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections say 20 ksi say 12 ksi + + + _ + say 40 ksi 20 ksi + say 35 ksi tension - Welded H say 20 ksi compression Welded box Figure 3. say 12 ksi average Compression (-) (-) Tension (+) (+) Figure 3.

270 1. A rope consists of multiple strands helically wound around a central plastic core.650 18/8=2.043 6/8=0.Draft 3. 5 No.56 4. fabric roofs and other structural applications. 10 No.376 4/8=0.44 2.18 0.60 2.32 7. F 16 Steel is also used as wire strands and ropes for suspended roofs. 4 No.27 3.25 5. 1 Stirrups which are used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear usually have a yield stress of only 40 ksi.2 .1 Steel Fy Average stress P/A Ideal coupon containing no residual stress 3{5 . 7 No.2. and becomes brittle at .5: In uence of Residual Stress on Average Stress-Strain Curve of a Rolled Section 3.36 1.57 0.2 Reinforcing Steel 14 Steel is also used as reinforcing bars in concrete.09 13.400 10/8=1.) ( 2) in lb/ft 2/8=0.313 14/8=1. 6 No. 9 No. and a modulus of elasticity of 20.000 0. 3 No.250 0.875 0.11 1.3 .5202 7/8=0.167 3/8=0.54 3.20 1. 2 No.31 1.30 deg. 14 No.625 0.128 1.500 0. cable-stayed bridges.410 1.75 2.60 in Table 3. F (and thus must be properly protected from re).43 5.00 7. 18 Diameter Area Perimeter Weight (in.044 8/8=1.1.000 ksi.668 5/8=0.257 4.750 0. 17 Prestressing Steel cables have an ultimate strength up to 270 ksi.1 Members with residual stress Maximum residual compressive stress 1 Fp 2 Average copressive strain Shaded portion indicates area which has achieved a stress F y 3 Figure 3.96 1.693 2.79 0.99 4. and an ultimate strength of 220 ksi. 8 No. 11 No.79 3. and usually have a yield stress of 60 ksi1 .670 9/8=1.375 0. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Table 3.00 3.2: Properties of Reinforcing Bars 15 Steel loses its strength rapidly above 700 deg.05 0.14 2.303 11/8=1. Bar Designation No. Those bars have a deformation on their surface to increase the bond with concrete. A strand is a helical arrangement of wires around a central wire.

light roof framing. and the larger ones being coarse aggregates. The tensile strength of concrete ft0 is about 10% of the compressive strength.Draft 3{6 3. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . lbs ft 3. Density of normal weight concrete is 145 = 3 and 100 = 3 for lightweight concrete. lbs ft lbs ft 2 Portland cement is a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials which are calcined in a kiln and then pulverized.3 Concrete Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement2 . lbs ft p (3.3) (3. 27 28 29 30 26 Typical concrete (compressive) strengths range from 3. A minimum amount of water is provided to complete the chemical reaction with cement. and aggregates (usually sand and crushed stone).003.000 psi. 25 Contrarily to steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on the strength and is given by 23 E = 57 000 fc0 or p E = 33 1:5 fc0 where both fc0 and E are in psi and is in = 3 .000 psi) but with the addition of alloys it can go up. 3. Pre-peak nonlinearity is caused by micro-cracking Fig.2 Aluminum 18 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Aluminum is used whenever light weight combined with strength is an important factor. A minimum amount of cement-water paste is used to ll the interstices between the particles of aggregates. a coe cient of thermal expansion of 2:4 10. about 3/4 of the volume is constituted by the aggregates.5 and a density of 173 = 3 . Fig. steel and aluminum in a structure must be carefully separated by means of painting or a nonconductive material.4) concrete can go up to 14.6. Those properties. galvanic corrosion may cause damage. and the remaining 1/4 being the cement paste. 20 Aluminum has a modulus of elasticity equal to 10. 19 Aluminum members can be connected by riveting. In such a mixture.000 ksi (about three times lower than steel). An ideal mixture is one in which: 1. 21 The ultimate strength of pure aluminum is low (13. cement hardens through a process called hydration. 3. 22 When aluminum is in contact with other metals in the presence of an electrolyte. 2. Thus. water. bolting and to a lesser extent by welding.1. along with its resistance to corrosion have made it the material of choice for airplane structures.000 psi However high strength All concrete fail at an ultimate strain of 0. 24 Smaller particles up to 1/4 in. When mixed with water. in size are called ne aggregates.000 to 6.

. 35 As for concrete. all modern structural masonry blocks are essentially compression members with low tensile resistance. stacked and bonded together with mortar. and one of the few natural materials with good tensile properties. this is called creep.5 Timber Timber is one of the earliest construction materials. then cracking will occur3. 31 3. 39 Timber is a good shock absorber (many wood structures in Japan have resisted repeated earthquakes).6: Concrete microcracking Coe cient of thermal expansion is 0:65 10.500 psi can be achieved. the free water not needed for the hydration process evaporates over a period of time and the concrete will shrink. and exural strengths as high as 2.. stones by the Egyptians. 3. Mud bricks were used by the Babylonians. 40 The most commonly used species of timber in construction are Douglas r.5f’c linear εu non-linear 3{7 Figure 3. hemlock and larch. masonry cement. can reduce the shrinkage by 75%. or of manufactured products such as bricks and concrete blocks4. and either Portland cement or hydrated lime. southern pine. This should be taken into consideration when computing the de ections (which can be up to three times the instantaneous elastic de ection).4 Masonry . and ice blocks by the Eskimos. 37 For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete. 3 4 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects f’c . 32 When concrete is poured (or rather placed). and the strength is time dependent. 38 The properties of timber vary greatly. 36 The mortar used is a mixture of sand.5 /deg F for normal weight concrete. 33 Concrete will also deform with time due to the applied load.Draft 3. such as stones. 41 Members can be laminated together under good quality control. and a 2% reinforcement. This shrinkage is about 0.4 Masonry 34 Masonry consists of either natural materials.05% after one year (strain). Thus if the concrete is restrained.

7. Fig.6 Steel Section Properties 42 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Dimensions and properties of rolled sections are tabulated in the following pages. Figure 3.Draft 3{8 3.7: W and C sections ============== Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 3.

0 52.8 4.0 673.4 70.2 3.0 1430.0 241.21 38.0 3190.85 35.0 172.0 190.53 bf f hc tw 2.5 13.0 3570.49 33.6 18.0 437.0 1260.9 59.0 104.53 34.2 16.0 137.0 1550.0 1660.0 114.3 2.0 387.0 2110.0 2840.1 5.2 43.0 107.6 2.4 33.0 202.0 514.1 25.7 6.5 85.4 41.95 35.0 104.47 37.Draft Properties 3.0 190.3 35.0 467.9 57.2 49.0 325.7 6.0 84.0 292.17 30.6 Steel Section Designation W 36x848 W 36x798 W 36x720 W 36x650 W 36x588 W 36x527 W 36x485 W 36x439 W 36x393 W 36x359 W 36x328 W 36x300 W 36x280 W 36x260 W 36x245 W 36x230 W 36x256 W 36x232 W 36x210 W 36x194 W 36x182 W 36x170 W 36x160 W 36x150 W 36x135 W 33x619 W 33x567 W 33x515 W 33x468 W 33x424 W 33x387 W 33x354 W 33x318 W 33x291 W 33x263 W 33x241 W 33x221 W 33x201 W 33x169 W 33x152 W 33x141 W 33x130 W 33x118 W 30x581 W 30x526 W 30x477 W 30x433 W 30x391 W 30x357 W 30x326 W 30x292 W 30x261 W 30x235 W 30x211 W 30x191 W 30x173 W 30x148 W 30x132 W 30x124 W 30x116 W 30x108 W 30x 99 W 30x 90 3{9 2t Victor Saouma A in 249.0 3.5 5.33 36.0 142.8 8.0 581.12 36.0 1150.0 1060.0 123.0 47.0 97.0 1700.7 15.66 33.5 3.2 41.0 265.7 6.81 36.0 1790.43 37.1 30.1 4.6 34.5 38.0 772.1 15.0 137.5 4.0 668.0 164.2 34.7 23.7 2.74 36.5 3.40 37.6 38.0 49.0 283.8 3.0 1270.2 4.55 35.0 656.0 41.4 2 d in 42.7 181.0 176.49 36.76 34.5 5.6 77.0 62.0 1040.94 30.5 13.2 3.4 76.5 2.3 492.0 1300.6 3.7 6.6 51.0 378.3 2.5 3.0 223.34 35.0 166.5 39.7 69.0 749.84 39.19 40.3 5.09 32.0 454.8 4.0 196.17 36.0 1380.0 147.0 3.0 1080.0 96.0 438.0 182.2 14.0 1610.68 30.3 5.6 75.0 1190.8 77.4 2.0 580.7 170.0 5.5 12.39 34.0 629.0 2070.6 50.0 175.0 312.8 47.0 128.5 3.0 250.0 127.31 30.0 115.0 93.1 61.40 32.8 37.3 7.7 41.6 2.5 16.0 204.5 2.0 1860.5 34.30 30.1 49.0 312.86 35.0 1990.7 26.0 234.30 33.8 25.0 2270.6 21.3 70.0 517.18 33.0 138.0 44.2 4.0 151.0 154.0 211.9 38.0 68.9 36.7 537.0 1010.19 32.80 32.7 76.0 509.6 19.7 4.0 939.7 54.09 36.01 35.9 66.01 31.7 3.0 310.8 49.65 29.7 7.1 38.1 26.0 282.9 4.8 43.0 1510.0 941.9 38.0 367.26 37.91 37.0 743.01 29.2 31.0 32.6 51.74 38.0 23.97 41.45 41.0 346.0 105.80 37.8 23.6 37.9 7.0 855.0 1890.9 65.3 39.5 44.0 5.4 44.3 82.7 5.7 29.84 34.7 47.0 412.8 50.0 2550.7 90.0 3 Zy in 799.6 18.4 5.4 7.0 415.9 33.4 54.26 36.6 5.4 73.7 41.0 767.0 2330.7 3 .1 42.0 2.52 36.36 36.8 4.8 31.9 3.0 113.08 35.7 83.0 1420.93 33.0 59.0 500.5 51.0 56.0 17.2 6.0 559.83 29.4 88.6 5.55 38.0 845.0 485.0 390.5 72.0 252.5 Ix in 67400 62600 55300 48900 43500 38300 34700 31000 27500 24800 22500 20300 18900 17300 16100 15000 16800 15000 13200 12100 11300 10500 9750 9040 7800 41800 37700 33700 30100 26900 24300 21900 19500 17700 15800 14200 12800 11500 9290 8160 7450 6710 5900 33000 29300 26100 23200 20700 18600 16800 14900 13100 11700 10300 9170 8200 6680 5770 5360 4930 4470 3990 3620 4 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Sx in 3170 2980 2690 2420 2180 1950 1790 1620 1450 1320 1210 1110 1030 953 895 837 895 809 719 664 623 580 542 504 439 2170 1990 1810 1630 1480 1350 1230 1110 1010 917 829 757 684 549 487 448 406 359 1870 1680 1530 1380 1250 1140 1030 928 827 746 663 598 539 436 380 355 329 299 269 245 3 Iy in 4550 4200 3680 3230 2850 2490 2250 1990 1750 1570 1420 1300 1200 1090 1010 940 528 468 411 375 347 320 295 270 225 2870 2580 2290 2030 1800 1620 1460 1290 1160 1030 932 840 749 310 273 246 218 187 2530 2230 1970 1750 1550 1390 1240 1100 959 855 757 673 598 227 196 181 164 146 128 115 4 Sy in 501 467 414 367 328 289 263 235 208 188 171 156 144 132 123 114 86 77 68 62 58 53 49 45 38 340 308 276 247 221 200 181 161 146 131 118 106 95 54 47 43 38 33 312 278 249 222 198 179 162 144 127 114 100 90 80 43 37 34 31 28 24 22 3 Zx in 3830.68 33.16 34.9 6.1 67.44 30.7 85.0 943.0 140.0 19.0 1040.47 39.5 43.4 68.2 6.0 122.0 624.0 154.0 718.0 4.67 30.0 223.7 21.8 5.2 39.9 44.2 47.5 36.0 2560.0 279.9 46.0 408.0 1170.90 37.21 33.0 348.8 57.0 53.0 58.0 6.0 54.1 6.5 29.0 605.8 2.82 33.61 31.3 3.1 16.0 95.0 2210.0 345.2 19.3 34.1 50.8 28.0 433.0 5.9 59.5 34.8 28.69 36.0 833.0 226.1 2.0 154.0 124.0 936.9 21.5 6.

0 850.0 172.2 81.0 227.6 29.0 468.7 42.9 88.5 4.2 Ix in 25500 22900 20400 18100 16100 14500 13100 11900 10800 9660 8870 7820 6990 6280 5630 4760 4090 3620 3270 2850 19100 17100 15100 13400 11900 10700 9600 8490 7650 6820 6260 5680 5170 4580 4020 3540 3100 3000 2700 2370 2100 1830 1550 1350 12200 10800 9610 8480 7620 6760 5950 5310 4730 4280 3630 3220 2960 2670 2420 2070 1830 1600 4 Sx in 1570 1440 1300 1170 1060 970 884 811 742 674 624 556 502 455 411 345 299 267 243 213 1290 1170 1060 957 864 789 718 644 588 531 491 450 414 371 329 291 258 245 222 196 176 154 131 114 937 846 769 692 632 569 510 461 417 380 329 295 273 249 227 192 171 151 3 Iy in 2110 1890 1670 1480 1310 1170 1050 953 859 768 704 618 555 497 443 184 159 139 124 106 1670 1490 1320 1160 1030 919 823 724 651 578 530 479 443 391 340 297 259 119 109 94 82 70 34 29 1270 1120 994 873 785 694 609 542 483 435 376 333 305 274 248 93 81 71 4 Sy in 277 250 224 200 179 161 146 133 120 108 100 88 79 71 64 37 32 28 25 21 237 214 191 170 152 137 124 110 99 89 82 74 68 60 53 46 41 26 24 21 18 16 10 8 189 168 151 134 122 109 96 86 77 70 60 54 49 44 40 22 20 17 3 Zx in 1880.5 30.0 418.0 2.2 3.9 6.0 252.06 24.6 24.0 476.2 15.9 37.3 43.1 37.9 6.3 2.02 25.6 5.1 63.5 71.0 1250.48 24.66 28.6 75.0 816.5 34.0 313.0 915.0 267.8 27.09 28.0 177.9 45.8 65.0 187.4 42.5 2.0 432.52 27.0 1710.0 835.7 6.0 109.6 28.5 32.5 3.73 26.7 56.8 14.2 20.47 25.3 36.2 4.7 90.8 57.3 33.0 741.0 663.3 51.6 48.6 5.3 5.7 26.4 62.47 25.0 6.0 196.63 27.0 98.3 47.1 2.6 33.3 2.9 22.4 17.7 5.6 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 47.0 153.0 93.0 1020.6 7.9 32.3 296.0 1010.65 29.0 97.24 25.3 75.2 16.2 80.7 10.0 289.0 108.5 67.0 394.2 82.0 134.6 30.6 39.0 1240.2 35.13 23.0 461.2 15.4 6.0 333.0 567.48 22.0 73.34 26.4 4.1 18.87 30.5 7.0 1550.9 11.0 131.81 27.2 3.0 1410.0 171.5 24.74 24.0 122.8 2.7 7.0 769.02 25.97 31.4 59.7 30.7 22.09 26.0 132.8 72.8 82.1 18.0 221.42 30.0 193.0 933.0 1130.0 214.0 97.0 628.6 20.13 26.71 25.0 168.9 26.2 3.0 263.5 7.11 27.6 68.1 18.7 29.98 28.7 34.5 5.3 2.0 922.7 30.0 3.4 38.2 43.9 3.7 24.7 4.5 5.0 589.54 27.00 24.00 29.92 26.5 2.10 23.0 189.7 2.0 253.0 224.7 43.92 23.9 49.29 27.0 395.0 206.0 1020.1 39.9 6.8 33.00 24.9 2.8 35.99 27.35 23.0 145.0 133.0 92.9 3.0 278.4 41.0 169.0 279.3 21.7 4.59 27.2 118.7 13.5 32.4 4.8 11.9 24.4 14.0 4.7 69.0 5.0 38.0 6.0 676.1 54.2 53.0 108.83 21.74 23.53 24.8 4.8 144.6 12.1 28.0 119.6 49.6 28.5 26.5 15.7 15.0 119.7 7.8 12.4 41.43 28.0 115.68 21.0 107.0 279.2 5.4 89.4 30.8 33.0 98.0 49.0 327.1 7.0 337.71 29.62 21.0 210.9 17.1 14.0 1380.74 23.29 28.5 2.8 26.1 2.2 32.0 244.8 20.0 119.2 61.1 4.38 27.0 530.7 24.0 511.52 31.31 24.03 22.0 52.4 52.0 300.4 6.6 24.0 1120.6 22.0 1530.51 21.6 82.2 4.61 29.06 21.0 512.0 27.0 237.36 21.6 17.6 10.2 41.9 13.8 43.0 126.5 3.0 154.0 108.24 2t bf f hc tw 2.7 22.0 708.0 373.0 1130.7 47.2 375.3 27.0 6.0 307.5 8.0 200.2 60.0 370.57 26.0 39.0 137.72 22.9 31.0 154.0 343.0 280.5 2 d in 32.0 351.53 24.4 36.0 305.3 34.0 606.5 37.3 24.39 30.0 50.0 744.43 21.0 254.Draft 3{10 Designation W 27x539 W 27x494 W 27x448 W 27x407 W 27x368 W 27x336 W 27x307 W 27x281 W 27x258 W 27x235 W 27x217 W 27x194 W 27x178 W 27x161 W 27x146 W 27x129 W 27x114 W 27x102 W 27x 94 W 27x 84 W 24x492 W 24x450 W 24x408 W 24x370 W 24x335 W 24x306 W 24x279 W 24x250 W 24x229 W 24x207 W 24x192 W 24x176 W 24x162 W 24x146 W 24x131 W 24x117 W 24x104 W 24x103 W 24x 94 W 24x 84 W 24x 76 W 24x 68 W 24x 62 W 24x 55 W 21x402 W 21x364 W 21x333 W 21x300 W 21x275 W 21x248 W 21x223 W 21x201 W 21x182 W 21x166 W 21x147 W 21x132 W 21x122 W 21x111 W 21x101 W 21x 93 W 21x 83 W 21x 73 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS A in 158.26 24.0 238.5 3.5 57.6 19.0 52.0 105.2 38.0 136.73 23.3 13.9 4.7 3.2 5.0 149.2 2.0 559.4 20.7 2.0 3 Zy in 437.7 40.8 5.

0 1750 188 201 36 211.24 2.72 5.7 11.0 20.06 5.7 16.39 7.0 94.92 2.3 23.0 18.5 8.0 758 92 43 12 105.90 5.2 18.8 10.0 652.3 16.0 14.0 274.3 22.0 19.54 3.0 162.0 83.8 3060 310 347 61 356.0 21.0 101.7 18.0 163.0 180.3 1380 190 495 68 212.0 117.5 6160 564 704 118 676.35 3.1 448 56 24 7 64.0 18.7 14300 1280 4720 527 1660.48 7.7 984 108 50 13 123.8 1330 146 152 28 163.24 5.0 22.0 14.9 954 117 119 23 130.4 38.6 45.9 27.6 68.8 3.7 42.9 6.70 7.92 3.0 54.8 6.0 44.2 10.0 55.5 5510 514 628 107 611.0 24.0 21.6 37.69 8.8 19.3 16.5 12.0 20.9 2460 256 278 50 291.0 119.7 14.02 10.1 49.0 196.7 32.5 16.0 48.0 27.6 18.8 20.1 6600 707 2360 283 869.0 146.2 9.Draft Properties 3.0 20.1 11.3 11.22 6.0 246.0 56.1 26.06 5.7 13.72 3.5 1110 157 402 55 173.0 18.4 51.0 198.0 113.4 18.0 12.0 185.7 1240 173 447 61 192.7 1530 209 548 74 234.9 5440 607 1990 241 736.3 1170 111 31 9 129.88 6.7 38.97 5.5 11.9 46.2 35.7 1070 117 55 14 133.8 62.0 14.7 13.0 29.0 17.4 1530 166 175 32 186.4 20.78 7.0 468.8 4900 466 558 96 549.0 147.3 16.5 83.0 20.0 48.8 14.42 1.0 16.0 3450 344 391 69 398.2 25.0 41.8 13.0 17.4 10800 1040 3680 423 1320.7 3870 380 440 77 442.86 8.16 9.2 41.5 510 58 15 5 66.21 8.0 33.2 800 89 40 11 101.0 133.6 712 79 22 7 90.2 586 73 33 9 82.3 24.0 1300 155 163 31 175.0 14.0 92.0 41.9 68.4 30.3 46.3 29.1 16.5 17.0 35.0 522.0 43.0 16.1 28.6 19.2 1110 134 138 27 150.46 2.83 6.5 2190 231 253 45 261.1 7.0 85.9 2750 282 311 56 322.0 18.0 816.43 5.33 7.1 2 hc d btff Ix Sx Iy Sy Zx Zy tw in in in in in in in 21.1 18.1 16.8 10.7 51.0 19.0 21.6 9.02 2.0 7.2 20.5 18.1 56.7 2140 281 838 107 320.9 22.4 5.8 46.3 18.6 5.4 11.1 4.0 207.48 5.9 1330 127 58 14 144.8 19.9 19.6 18.6 Steel Section Designation W 21x 68 W 21x 62 W 21x 57 W 21x 50 W 21x 44 W 18x311 W 18x283 W 18x258 W 18x234 W 18x211 W 18x192 W 18x175 W 18x158 W 18x143 W 18x130 W 18x119 W 18x106 W 18x 97 W 18x 86 W 18x 76 W 18x 71 W 18x 65 W 18x 60 W 18x 55 W 18x 50 W 18x 46 W 18x 40 W 18x 35 W 16x100 W 16x 89 W 16x 77 W 16x 67 W 16x 57 W 16x 50 W 16x 45 W 16x 40 W 16x 36 W 16x 31 W 16x 26 W 14x730 W 14x665 W 14x605 W 14x550 W 14x500 W 14x455 W 14x426 W 14x398 W 14x370 W 14x342 W 14x311 W 14x283 W 14x257 W 14x233 W 14x211 W 14x193 W 14x176 W 14x159 W 14x145 W 14x132 W 14x120 W 14x109 W 14x 99 W 14x 90 W 14x 82 3{11 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 Victor Saouma A in 20.0 14.8 301 38 10 3 44.2 22.0 20.1 17.8 1710 232 677 87 260.0 15.8 35.25 4.4 984 94 25 8 110.0 15.7 35.7 7190 756 2560 304 936.0 15.3 1900 254 748 96 287.0 44.8 31.04 3.5 15.3 4.2 5.31 5.3 14.6 375 47 12 4 54.0 91.99 6.2 75.3 42.49 4.0 69.0 76.0 46.6 16.0 134.0 12400 1150 4170 472 1480.0 21.0 178.6 23.6 2660 338 1030 130 390.0 612 68 19 6 78.7 46.6 8.8 3840 459 1440 179 542.5 62.8 15.32 2.4 9.26 5.73 6.0 56.66 7.0 60.2 21.52 6.0 125.1 53.74 3.35 5.2 8210 838 2880 339 1050.0 15.9 8.5 22.13 6.12 3.75 5.1 16.66 7.0 102.99 6.0 21.98 6.0 16.01 6.7 17.13 6.7 13.3 1490 175 186 36 198.2 1910 204 220 39 230.60 2.0 304.8 9430 931 3250 378 1180.0 434.0 17.0 221.1 6.0 109.38 4.0 20.85 2.0 132.8 19.0 10.6 14.2 14.9 17.5 21.2 33.6 6960 624 795 132 753.64 2.3 24.0 730.0 24.3 7.1 31.0 15.0 19.2 22.0 91.9 16.4 19.7 18.8 2400 310 931 119 355.6 843 82 21 6 95.0 106.5 24.67 2.4 83.9 16.4 4900 559 1810 221 672.0 402.4 26.4 6000 656 2170 262 801.1 4330 506 1610 199 603.4 10.7 215.2 890 98 45 12 112.7 3010 375 1150 145 436.6 14.0 42.67 3.0 13.5 25.8 51.9 999 143 362 50 157.0 75.0 370.6 1480 140 65 16 160.3 20.1 37.0 166.0 14.04 4.0 583.0 4.1 38.3 75.6 10.06 2.1 16.5 18.32 8.5 16.7 15.7 14.9 12.7 21.1 4330 419 493 85 490.6 518 65 29 8 72.0 16.4 882 123 148 29 139.0 18.0 338.8 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .47 4.6 18.3 51.7 3400 415 1290 161 487.1 35.1 17.11 6.2 53.97 5.1 48.6 12.59 6.4 659 81 37 10 92.29 2.0 16.0 149.3 32.4 1170 127 60 16 145.

1 2.0 61.5 39 20 6 43.2 10.7 7.06 11.5 118 241 40 132.2 112 207 40 130.41 15.94 12.3 7.6 17.87 2t bf f hc tw 6.1 6.1 29.0 5.8 46 24 7 51.8 10.25 12.0 7.0 36.1 67 116 23 74.8 4.8 14 3 1 16.1 6.0 5.0 209 454 73 243.05 14.0 274.6 15.8 28 14 5 31.2 12.0 177.9 7.5 9.9 15.3 2.4 25.6 11.7 4.3 10.1 67.0 9.38 14.2 8.7 39.4 54.5 23 11 4 26.17 10.9 6.66 14.10 9.9 92 107 22 102.6 35.6 5.8 89.6 6.8 14.22 10.5 2.5 6.9 22.Draft 3{12 Designation W 14x 74 W 14x 68 W 14x 61 W 14x 53 W 14x 48 W 14x 43 W 14x 38 W 14x 34 W 14x 30 W 14x 26 W 14x 22 W 12x336 W 12x305 W 12x279 W 12x252 W 12x230 W 12x210 W 12x190 W 12x170 W 12x152 W 12x136 W 12x120 W 12x106 W 12x 96 W 12x 87 W 12x 79 W 12x 72 W 12x 65 W 12x 58 W 12x 53 W 12x 50 W 12x 45 W 12x 40 W 12x 35 W 12x 30 W 12x 26 W 12x 22 W 12x 19 W 12x 16 W 12x 14 W 10x112 W 10x100 W 10x 88 W 10x 77 W 10x 68 W 10x 60 W 10x 54 W 10x 49 W 10x 45 W 10x 39 W 10x 33 W 10x 30 W 10x 26 W 10x 22 W 10x 19 W 10x 17 W 10x 15 W 10x 12 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS A in 21.8 46.3 31.8 47.7 8.91 13.3 55 93 19 60.0 75.60 10.8 16.4 7.7 6.9 27.33 10.8 7.8 33.5 12.8 7.0 44.5 30.2 4.0 60 103 21 66.3 55 27 8 61.1 22.4 32.74 16.1 131 270 44 147.4 107 216 36 119.0 186 398 64 214.71 14.7 22.5 8.3 11 2 1 12.03 13.0 6.4 9.53 12.0 111.6 7.4 11.3 16 4 2 18.22 12.36 11.4 8.2 88 174 29 96.1 45.12 12.89 12.7 2.6 4.5 5.0 7.4 28.5 9.4 8.0 67.17 14.5 25.06 12.2 11.0 159.9 17.1 19 4 2 21.3 15 2 1 17.2 4.0 393 937 143 481.6 8.3 97 195 32 108.9 74.4 3.31 12.1 5.0 60.7 5.04 13.6 13.0 7.9 29.5 16.4 58 50 12 64.6 43.6 33 17 5 37.6 20.6 14.3 8.2 9.3 42 45 11 46.4 13.7 13.1 17.10 10.0 6.8 50.1 7.9 35.2 11.4 1.24 10.2 8.0 17.5 5.0 98 179 35 113.9 3.7 6.1 86 154 30 97.0 36.5 2 d in 14.0 52 44 11 57.4 8.4 19.0 2.0 244.5 98.0 8.3 11.2 29.0 49.1 49 23 7 54.3 13.9 35.4 3.7 15.2 5.7 6.8 44.0 196.2 10.2 28.9 36.0 435 1050 159 537.3 5.41 13.7 6.1 19.2 9.2 25.2 6.82 16.19 12.9 20.16 11.3 7.3 40.0 163 345 56 186.7 21 4 2 24.2 35 37 9 38.5 5.4 30.3 9.91 11.0 28.0 70 51 13 78.50 12.6 63 45 11 69.84 13.0 69.7 3.4 483 1190 177 603.4 39.9 7.92 13.79 13.1 65 56 14 72.1 26.8 17.6 81.0 15.3 49 53 13 54.19 12.7 3 4 3 3 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 49.5 46.34 12.8 55.0 35 9 4 40.99 11.92 9.4 25.3 27.0 126.8 6.3 7.6 1.0 53.98 13.2 21.7 18.5 8.1 3.0 235 517 82 275.8 8.6 5.5 4.99 9.4 21.84 10.11 9.6 103 121 24 115.0 4.0 292 664 104 348.9 126 236 45 147.6 6.0 85.7 21.1 78 107 21 86.2 23.4 36.6 Ix in 796 723 640 541 485 428 385 340 291 245 199 4060 3550 3110 2720 2420 2140 1890 1650 1430 1240 1070 933 833 740 662 597 533 475 425 394 350 310 285 238 204 156 130 103 89 716 623 534 455 394 341 303 272 248 209 170 170 144 118 96 82 69 54 4 Sx Iy Sy Zx Zy in in in in in 112 134 27 126.1 12.6 45.5 71 96 19 77.4 48.7 7.9 20.7 19.98 10.8 7.4 145 301 49 164.6 24.38 12.12 12.0 353 828 127 428.5 34.09 9.85 15.32 15.7 4.40 10.0 32 17 6 36.2 41.5 29 7 3 33.9 29.7 18.0 32.6 3.0 143.5 37.8 20.8 14.10 13.7 61.6 14.0 263 589 93 311.89 13.2 5.71 13.0 98.3 3.4 2.5 6.47 10.6 10.6 42 20 6 47.6 8.0 17.2 32.6 8.0 220.73 10.1 9.6 7.0 17 3 1 20.1 22.2 25 5 2 29.9 6.0 32.3 7.0 40.0 7.1 11.0 54.9 76 134 26 85.9 38.8 78 58 14 87.7 2.2 41.7 6.7 6.0 27.6 31.0 14.5 7.6 23.0 321 742 115 386.71 12.1 53.0 4.

5 31 8 2 1 6.8 5.97 9.9 62 15 8 3 8.2 1.Draft Properties 3.4 12 5 1 1 4.00 4.7 2250 187 45 13 24.5 14.0 62 10 1 1 10.8 3.1 1280 128 30 9 20.7 30.2 17.4 2.0 9.6 16.9 10.9 4.1 44.0 7 2 0 0 5.6 3 2 1 0 3.00 4.1 11.4 2.00 3.00 6.8 0.4 12.00 4.0 0.7 23.5 12.4 20.0 447 60 14 5 12.5 2.9 2.00 4.16 5.1 8.9 2.8 14.1 6.1 3.00 4.6 1670 165 50 14 20.00 5.2 7.3 26.1 10.5 4.7 2.7 24.8 11.99 7.6 6.00 4.2 19.5 16.6 Steel Section Designation W 8x 67 W 8x 58 W 8x 48 W 8x 40 W 8x 35 W 8x 31 W 8x 28 W 8x 24 W 8x 21 W 8x 18 W 8x 15 W 8x 13 W 8x 10 W 6x 25 W 6x 20 W 6x 15 W 6x 16 W 6x 12 W 6x 9 W 5x 19 W 5x 16 W 4x 13 M 14x 18 M 12x 12 M 12x 11 M 12x 10 M 10x 9 M 10x 8 M 10x 8 M 8x 6 M 6x 4 M 5x 19 S 24x121 S 24x106 S 24x100 S 24x 90 S 24x 80 S 20x 96 S 20x 86 S 20x 75 S 20x 66 S 18x 70 S 18x 55 S 15x 50 S 15x 43 S 12x 50 S 12x 41 S 12x 35 S 12x 32 S 10x 35 S 10x 25 S 8x 23 S 8x 18 S 7x 20 S 7x 15 S 6x 17 S 6x 12 S 5x 15 S 5x 10 S 4x 10 S 4x 8 S 3x 8 S 3x 6 3{13 2 4 3 4 3 Victor Saouma A in 19.1 32 10 4 2 6.3 4.00 4.2 1.0 140.00 4.00 5.00 4.4 229 38 10 4 12.9 15.0 27.1 21.0 125.3 5.0 2.4 10.4 3160 258 83 21 24.3 2390 199 48 13 24.9 18.4 5.2 33.5 0.5 5.1 1.5 7.0 7.2 22.4 19.7 26.4 127 31 43 11 8.00 6.6 14.7 15.1 8.6 9.2 5.9 23.00 4.00 7.25 7.0 26 10 9 4 5.8 18 5 0 0 6.1 10.93 8.4 47.97 7.7 17.9 22 7 2 1 5.06 7.4 4.2 8.00 4.00 4.5 21.0 1.7 26.0 198.0 279.1 272 60 89 21 8.0 29.5 72 12 1 1 11.0 39.9 1.00 5.9 34.0 0.9 22.8 11.7 8.9 26 9 2 1 6.00 4.4 28.4 28.0 222.01 6.00 4.5 23.2 16 6 2 1 5.2 24 10 8 3 24.0 13.0 240.7 21.5 6.7 6 3 1 1 3.12 8.7 12.00 5.5 28.7 2 hc d btff Ix Sx Iy Sy tw in in in in in 9.3 16.00 4.3 61.1 2940 240 77 20 24.2 9.6 2.3 63.7 2.7 12.8 5.9 2.1 69.7 4.4 11.8 184 43 61 15 8.5 21.7 3.4 228 52 75 18 8.7 27.75 5.7 58 14 4 2 7.2 28.2 29.99 11.2 3.0 3.2 2.2 12.00 4.0 53.6 65 11 1 1 11.0 204.2 11.8 42.0 16.00 4.1 41 13 13 4 5.5 2.7 2.0 11.8 21 9 8 3 4.50 3.2 1.0 153.8 8.5 4.3 8.38 6.8 6.4 2.0 42.4 31.6 29 10 9 3 6.7 15.20 8.6 40.6 6.5 65 16 4 2 8.1 2100 175 42 12 20.6 22 7 3 2 5.89 9.6 17.0 7.2 1580 155 47 13 20.4 5.1 1190 119 28 9 18.4 59.2 20.6 5.9 1.1 14.95 7.9 14.11 6.6 11.8 3.0 77.4 39 8 1 0 9.8 83 21 18 6 8.90 9.3 2.6 146 36 49 12 8.50 3.4 1.0 22.4 6.6 0.1 68.7 3.7 7 3 1 1 4.00 6.5 23.5 75 18 10 4 8.3 7.8 26.3 2.3 24.3 42 12 3 2 7.5 11.5 14.00 9.8 34.8 0.5 58.9 305 51 16 6 12.6 35.6 11 5 4 2 14.7 5.3 34 7 1 0 9.0 10.1 1.9 37 10 3 1 6.9 14.0 19.0 36.1 48 12 3 2 7.2 13.8 62.2 59.9 40 10 3 1 7.3 9.9 12.6 27.0 105.9 22.2 1.7 3.7 5.7 272 45 14 5 12.7 10.1 33.0 3 Zy in 32.0 183.1 12.1 14.8 29.30 3.3 5.8 147 29 8 3 10.3 148 21 3 1 12.00 4.4 27.4 3 2 0 0 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Zx in 70.1 25.2 29.0 10.2 486 65 16 6 15.6 8.6 19.5 53 17 17 6 6.6 31.3 5.8 926 103 24 8 18.3 33.6 28.6 804 89 21 7 15.7 4.3 20.0 13.9 4.9 15.6 218 36 9 4 10.3 13.3 2.7 3 .9 14.2 23.0 33 7 0 0 8.7 5.30 3.5 3.3 14.2 23.0 306.00 4.3 22.2 53.00 4.03 7.50 5.15 5.0 3.8 5.00 4.5 15 6 2 1 5.2 110 28 37 9 8.4 60.9 21.8 2.2 98 24 22 7 7.7 4.99 7.4 8.7 0.4 1.4 3.2 5.0 35.00 4.4 124 25 7 3 8.00 4.4 2.1 3.7 23.3 9.9 1.9 18.1 20.0 19.8 65.1 14.00 6.7 8.9 6.3 1.28 6.7 4.28 5.14 8.3 6.2 7.4 17.0 20.1 10.9 10.8 49.0 9.00 4.6 34.2 25.

44 7.17 3.06 33.70 15.97 2.49 5.9 1.2 22.0x0.44 6.60 4.50 31.1 4.20 22.20 23.0x0.3 17.750 L 7.5 31.80 2.Draft 3{14 Designation STRUCTURAL MATERIALS 2 A in C 15.17 16.3 C 7.0x6.0 9.2 78.20 6. 8.6 54.x 12 3.60 26.8 46.8 13.0 C 4.27 1.53 5.03 2.3 1.20 4.40 13.96 12.88 29.00 18.20 5. 7.73 0.12 1.43 5.20 14.375 L 6.0x3.0x1.36 0.313 L 6.71 1.69 6.0x0.04 4 3 Sy Zx Zy in in in 3.94 5.84 1.80 12.0x6.26 8.1 19.30 11. 6.x 20 5.x 6 1.80 2.90 19.39 2.7 20.90 12.0x0.10 17.80 2.40 27.50 4.10 28.0x0.0 36.40 3.20 8.0x0.18 3.37 57.52 6.32 1.0x0.9 6.34 2.1 32.94 3.47 3.75 7.54 0.0x0. 10.x 9 2.30 7.0 2.70 0.63 0.78 3.5 20.5 C 3.76 2.03 4.6 7.8 C 10.18 4.90 5.375 L 6.06 4.59 1.9 4 Ix in 404.73 8.84 6.6 12.07 2.0 8.0 315.85 1.500 L 6.50 1. 10.9 C 9. 5.6 C 7.16 15.6 35.63 7.x 5 1.65 12.0x4.74 9.8 38.85 3 4 Iy in 11.500 L 6.01 13.x 50 14. 9.53 2.34 2. 5.25 0.500 L 7.10 35.5 42.438 L 6.0x6. 9.00 3.20 22.1 5.9 10.00 8.2 24.5x0.4 15.15 0.70 24.70 8.74 10.15 3.0 349.98 11.625 L 7.1 21.66 4.38 13.40 33.26 1.73 25.2 24.35 1.31 4.36 2.25 3.4 13.875 L 6.35 12.43 6.0x4.35 1.0x6.438 L 6.2 6.32 0.3 C 10.11 6.40 6.43 0.78 9.50 2. 15.97 1.45 4.x 8 2.68 7.15 1.6 4. 6.313 L 6.75 5.x 15 4.88 3.85 3 3 3 3 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .8 2.750 L 8.1 8.5 C 8.1 5.0x1.80 5.5 11.35 5.0 7.0x4.9 44.81 2.60 17.4 8.8 32.70 6. 8.5 3.26 0.1 C 6.0x0.62 8.69 0.2 Designation L 8.30 10.47 9.51 0.85 5.23 1.4 26.30 12.0 24.90 1.13 0.3 3.60 20.0x6.65 26.58 0.000 L 6.4 7.66 5.0x4.000 L 8.0x4.50 13.38 3.7 Sx in 14.0x6.1 19.47 1.0x0.26 0. 12.x 12 3.0x0.58 2.9 7.38 2.98 1.61 4. 10.0x0.86 5.36 7.313 d in 15.9 67.40 7.x 15 4.19 1.0x0.x 4 1.36 0.40 Zx Zy in in 24. 12.x 11 3.9 C 10.25 3.17 0.55 1. A in 11.87 2.563 L 8. 4.33 1.40 1.8 C 6.47 0.750 L 6.x 25 7.72 18.63 6.4 60.0x6.0 C 8.81 0.34 6.5 4.6 27.23 1.0x0.9 C 8.75 6.60 37.x 25 7.4 C 9. 3.8 4.80 13.2 21.0x6.0 91.98 6.51 4. 10.76 0.34 7.10 19.500 L 6.50 3.20 1.0 27.3 5.03 2.0x4.91 5.6 3.94 3.90 15.1 1.x 30 8.93 1.00 12.20 21.0x4.50 15.5 C 9.28 2.60 4.0 129.4 C 5. 7.64 0.0x0.70 9.5x0.30 2.750 L 6.6 C 5.2 1.6 C 3.60 1.05 7.60 4.0x0.0x4.1 10.4 16.85 10.8 C 12.30 0.x 40 11.6 11.78 1.563 L 6.0x0.00 10. 3.9 17.87 2 2t bf f hc tw 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 wgt k=ft 37. 15.0x4.49 1.36 3.3 10.38 1.26 9.4 C 7.28 2.0x4.0x4.5 11.7 5.0x0.65 7.14 4.20 9.x 10 2. 3.70 21.23 2.17 0.x 5 1. 6.x 19 5.60 3.0x0.8 3.01 13.7 18.9 C 6.0x4.1 7.50 0.5 8.x 13 3.23 8.0x4. 8.0x0. 9.00 9.9 28.35 5.8 4.48 23. 9.7 5.30 3.32 19.12 1.8 5.20 14.80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ix in 69.8 C 15. 4.95 1.90 13.81 14. 3.31 0.91 6.0x4.31 11.76 1.0x4.x 15 4.x 34 10.4 1.78 9.7 4 3 Sx in 53.35 6.9 51.05 0.11 50.78 8. 12.8 C 3.x 21 6.54 2. 7.5 37.75 4.56 6.64 7.90 19.0 103.375 L 6.375 L 6.0 27.2 2.0 144.0x6.563 L 6.40 28.92 0.30 15.0 47.0 162.31 7.90 17.2 3.625 L 6.43 5.1 C 4.31 8.7 C 15.99 0.1 3.90 4.20 10.66 5.8 6.5 21.6 6.4 3.50 2.0 C 12.90 14.5 13.63 8.7 15.x 7 2.60 9.875 L 6.x 13 3.20 Sy in 3.2 13.42 1.08 1.72 0.500 L 7.05 0.625 L 6.6 3.20 24.43 0.61 3.42 2.5x0.13 5.0x0.90 28.00 9.57 7.1 Iy in 11.4 7.53 1.57 0.83 7.5 13.08 3.3 C 12.0x3.9 8.30 5.14 4.4 15.0x3.97 3.9 1.x 7 2.85 1.x 14 4.97 2.48 5.0x0.3 4.27 5.75 8.0x4.3 2.0x0.2 15.1 C 10.68 1.1 4.20 3.3 17.19 7.88 3.10 16.48 0.x 30 8.9 42.x 20 5.8 4.31 2.87 0.87 3.7 24.

23 3.15 1.03 4.0x3.03 5.10 3.4 2.74 2.35 1.5x0.0x3.16 2.00 3.5 3.313 L 5.72 2.40 8.60 20.25 2.65 6.6 7.0x4.80 8.66 5.2 1.0 13.11 2.9 4.0x0.30 12.4 2.438 L 4.60 1.30 9.0 5.87 2 wgt k=ft 27.68 7.35 1.00 8.44 4.0 8.31 2.55 4.33 8.0x3.750 L 4.4 2.52 1.8 4.07 4.79 2.0x3.56 3.50 15.79 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .53 3.0x3.0x0.83 4.9 5.0x4.27 5.0x3.5x0.21 1.12 0.5x0.61 3.25 1.75 1.6 11.750 L 5.78 1.09 5.375 L 5.33 3.16 6.3 1.73 2.88 3.67 6.0x0.86 2.42 2.30 10.500 L 5.6 1.50 3.09 2.17 4.86 2.375 L 5.625 L 5.3 12.30 10.0 3.29 1.250 L 4.0x0.53 3.5x0.0 1.3 3.18 4 Sy in 5.95 5.625 L 5.0x0.0x3.5 7.56 3.07 4.0x4.20 14.86 3.6 7.6 2.0x0.8 5.70 6.44 7.83 2.3 1.80 11.0x4.0x0.0x5.5x0.86 4.33 8.55 5.8 1.7 4.49 2.250 L 4.70 7.39 1.40 1.71 3.36 3.60 18.5 13.60 12.5x0.438 L 5.Draft Properties 3.90 1.0x3.313 L 4.0x0.04 1.58 2.20 6.04 3.0x5.68 5.97 4.75 1.81 3.500 L 4.72 5.10 9.97 1.0 1.49 2.81 2.80 15.16 2.0x0.03 4.75 3.0x0.61 3.55 2.40 2.8 2.7 1.0 5.250 L 4.7 4 3 A in 7.00 10.97 3.99 3 Zx in 9.5 1.7 2.16 4.0x4.9 1.0x0.50 3.71 2.02 0.20 6.0x0.77 4.39 1.88 2.5 9.500 L 4.16 1.4 3.60 11.0x3.0 2.61 2.4 2.0x3.70 12.313 L 4.0x0.42 5.80 Iy in 17.04 2.6 3.5x0.375 L 5.0x5.47 2.67 2.5x0.0x5.06 4.0x0.313 L 5.60 9.14 3.10 7.42 2.3 2.94 5.313 L 5.9 11.9 4.40 1.0x0.56 4.74 7.36 3.16 6.03 3 Zy in 9.79 3.0x0.33 3.70 12.7 2.32 1.82 1.0x3.99 0.7 4.0x3.875 L 5.60 11.500 L 5.05 1.29 1.0x5.20 11.68 5.32 2.42 2.4 5.0x0.95 5.16 2.0x0.61 3.32 1.30 19.500 L 4.70 13.8 8.68 4.0x3.0x3.02 0.9 5.80 13.375 L 4.0x0.90 10.375 L 4.500 L 5.52 1.0x4.9 8.11 1.38 4.438 L 5.16 0.80 11.20 23.57 3.438 3{15 Ix Sx in in 17.63 3.5x0.0x3.98 6.44 2.81 1.83 6.75 3.94 3.75 4.56 1.18 2.06 2.00 15.0x4.40 1.2 6.89 0.0x0.0x3.36 3.7 10.6 Steel Section Designation L 5.05 2.438 L 5.5 3.9 4.0x3.61 2.2 15.41 3.4 7.8 6.74 2.1 1.0x3.0x0.0 5.56 2.30 9.750 L 5.83 1.625 L 5.0x0.31 2.36 2.1 1.81 4.92 4.03 1.250 L 5.80 16.9 2.05 3.09 2.438 L 4.5x0.4 1.86 1.625 L 4.0x3.7 2.5x0.0x5.6 1.0x5.75 0.00 16.2 10.3 3.0x3.80 8.4 1.18 3.5x0.11 1.22 1.0 3.95 2.86 3.47 2.3 6.94 5.

15 3.93 6.188 L 2.0x2.41 1.81 2.92 6.5x0.250 L 2.90 1.0x2.9 1.5x3.375 L 3.313 L 3.87 0.19 4.44 0.09 7.8 0.45 0.25 7.39 0.7 1.0 1.500 L 3.188 L 2.50 1.5x2.37 0.47 0.44 0.0x2.06 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .35 0.55 0.250 L 2.5x3.70 1.4 2.375 L 2.5 0.1 2.71 0.0x2.19 0.76 1.0x2.438 L 3.5x3.91 0.6 1.46 5.59 0.313 L 3.5x0.37 0.8 1.55 0.5x0.250 L 3.10 0.98 0.02 0.4 0.02 4 Sy in 0.1 2.59 1.5 0.0 2 4 3 Iy in 1.48 0.0x0.13 0.375 L 3.20 1.70 0.0x2.63 2.50 8.26 0.00 10.24 0.313 L 3.5x2.04 0.97 0.188 L 2.13 0.20 3.0 1.8 0.375 L 3.70 0.0x0.8x0.5 0.53 0.5x0.8 3.0x0.73 5.30 1.34 0.250 L 3.65 1.0x2.1 0.72 0.48 0.5 0.05 1.10 1.0 0.0 0.5x0.40 1.67 0.33 2.39 0.0x0.5x0.44 4.30 0.0x0.30 0.438 L 3.12 0.9 0.0x0.64 3.19 0.32 1.250 L 1.92 0.73 1.5 2.31 1.18 1.59 0.47 1.69 5.31 1.5x2.80 3.3x0.35 0.5x0.8 0.5x2.79 1.27 0.20 2.61 0.9 1.1 0.50 1.60 1.9 1.250 L 3.8 0.8 0.0x2.3 2.1 0.5x0.1 0.98 0.250 L 3.0x0.38 2.23 0.68 2.82 2.43 8.40 0.09 7.0x3.34 0.125 L 1.15 0.188 L 1.50 0.58 0.5x2.20 0.2 0.92 1.42 0.19 0.8x1.0x0.78 1.16 0.71 2.30 0.75 1.32 0.81 2.3 0.99 1.0 1.07 0.92 0.34 0.76 1.20 1.34 0.9 0.31 0.00 1.40 1.68 0.5x2.78 1.5x2.188 L 1.26 0.0x0.0x0.72 1.19 4.9 1.89 0.63 0.0x0.55 0.25 7.5x0.00 3.23 0.0x3.5x0.77 0.71 0.3 1.00 6.57 0.78 2.1 1.25 0.8x1.313 L 3.1 0.47 0.1 1.5x0.90 0.13 0.71 0.20 3.41 2.79 1.5x3.83 0.69 5.9 0.44 0.30 2.73 5.62 0.49 1.0x3.85 1.7 1.42 0.08 0.5x0.188 L 1.66 0.5x0.54 0.69 2.68 0.8 1.375 L 3.5x0.22 1.23 0.10 3.4 2.02 0.49 0.0x0.07 0.5 1.7 1.23 0.8 1.0x0.5x2.2 1.6 1.48 8.90 1.39 0.5x0.10 0.188 L 3.43 1.3x1.07 0.2 0.438 L 3.8 2.09 1.90 3.54 0.46 5.04 0.04 1.1 0.0x2.20 0.66 0.64 2.5 2.75 9.0x2.56 1.250 L 3.87 0.3x1.07 0.50 0.438 L 3.88 1.56 0.23 1.19 0.0x3.1x0.2 0.50 1.87 9.5 0.98 0.38 2.0 2.313 L 2.27 1.0x0.08 1.47 0.5x1.0 3.125 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS A wgt Ix Sx in k=ft in in 2.1 0.2 1.97 1.3 0.09 0.0x2.500 L 3.24 0.65 9.25 11.51 1.5x3.0x0.5x3.31 1.4 0.5x0.80 0.94 0.90 2.375 L 4.16 0.35 0.50 2.43 1.96 1.07 0.26 0.188 L 3.438 L 3.0x0.25 0.5x0.1 0.5x2.125 L 1.53 1.21 7.45 2.438 L 3.50 4.11 7.04 0.5x1.7 0.46 0.500 L 3.10 2.79 1.5x3.58 0.0x2.99 0.0x3.11 0.26 2.31 1.90 0.36 0.250 L 3.78 6.05 0.18 0.30 7.11 7.24 1.60 1.7 0.19 0.5x0.60 1.65 0.375 L 3.51 0.2 0.4 1.375 L 2.1 1.7 1.06 3 Zy in 1.5x2.36 4.3 1.94 3.34 2.6 1.13 0.5 0.27 1.69 0.0x3.4 0.71 1.4 1.5 1.58 1.56 5.8x0.80 0.76 1.10 3.67 1.0x0.34 0.2 1.0x0.2 0.0x0.75 0.23 0.04 0.0x2.3 1.1 0.1x1.14 0.31 4.84 0.55 5.0x0.5 1.85 0.188 L 2.24 0.48 8.72 1.27 0.0x2.23 1.5 1.01 2.35 1.8 2.10 0.30 1.53 2.40 1.5x0.0x3.30 2.36 1.5x0.7 0.2 0.72 0.06 3.68 1.03 3 Zx in 2.5x3.250 L 3.20 2.5x0.0 1.0x3.4 2.0 2.9 1.0x2.60 2.89 0.03 0.70 1.0x1.1 1.0x2.31 4.0 2.5x2.55 0.313 L 2.53 1.5x0.09 3.76 0.85 0.3 0.0x0.06 2.0x0.500 L 3.9 1.72 0.95 0.50 2.0x0.3 2.2 0.36 1.313 L 4.78 6.0 0.5x2.500 L 3.0x0.80 1.5 1.62 5.0x0.44 4.313 L 3.02 0.0 0.76 1.43 2.43 8.74 0.313 L 3.31 0.19 0.06 0.30 1.93 1.07 0.5x2.63 0.25 1.79 0.60 1.26 1.5x0.62 2.0x0.5x2.313 L 2.250 L 1.36 3.58 0.5x3.4 0.87 2.74 0.40 3.0 0.3x0.7 0.93 1.48 0.0x0.73 0.2 0.36 1.75 9.90 3.0x0.80 2.87 0.2 0.74 1.23 0.90 1.44 0.10 1.54 0.0 0.40 2.56 1.7 1.0x0.6 1.Draft 3{16 Designation L 4.375 L 3.1 0.3 0.08 1.0x2.29 0.90 1.14 0.80 2.8 1.500 L 2.5x3.5 2.2 0.98 1.00 0.0x3.09 0.0x0.375 L 2.58 0.3 2.9 0.250 L 1.6 1.4 2.250 L 2.07 0.3 1.48 1.500 L 3.68 2.1 0.

and provides an e cient use of the corrugated steel deck which itself supports the concrete slab.8 look like shallow trusses (warren type) and are designed as simply supported uniformly loaded beams assuming that they are laterally supported on the top (to prevent lateral torsional buckling).33 FT.3 Series Depth (in) K 8-30 LH 18-48 DLH 52-72 Span (ft) 8-60 25-96 89-120 Table 3.3: Joist Series Characteristics [Design Length = Span – 0. 44 The standard open-web joist designation consists of the depth.7 Joists 3. Fig. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 4" 4" Span .Draft 3. 3. Table 3. the series designation and the chord type. Three series are available for oor/roof construction.] 4" 45 Figure 3. The lateral support is often pro ded by the concrete slab it suppors.7 Joists 3{17 43 Steel joists.8: prefabricated Steel Joists Typical joist spacing ranges from 2 to 4 ft.

47 Table 3. Note that the dead load (including the one of the joist) must be substracted in order to determine the safe live load. therefore d L=2 (3. a depth to span ratio of 24 can be assumed.4 list the load carrying capacity of open web. For each span.5) where d is in inches.Draft 3{18 46 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS For preliminary estimates of the joist depth. the rst line indicates the total safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity in pounds per linear foot. and L in ft. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . The second line indicates the live load (pounds/linear foot) which will produce an approximate delection of L=360. K-series steel joists based on a amximum allowable stress of 30 ksi.

0 3{19 550 550 550 510 550 463 543 428 476 351 420 291 374 245 335 207 302 177 273 153 249 132 227 116 208 101 550 550 550 510 550 463 550 434 550 396 550 366 507 317 454 269 409 230 370 198 337 172 308 150 282 132 550 550 511 475 448 390 395 324 352 272 315 230 284 197 257 170 234 147 214 128 196 113 180 100 166 88 154 79 143 70 550 550 550 507 550 467 495 404 441 339 395 287 356 246 322 212 293 184 268 160 245 141 226 124 209 110 193 98 180 88 550 550 550 507 550 467 550 443 530 397 475 336 428 287 388 248 353 215 322 188 295 165 272 145 251 129 233 115 216 103 550 550 550 507 550 467 550 443 550 408 550 383 525 347 475 299 432 259 395 226 362 199 334 175 308 56 285 139 265 124 550 550 512 488 456 409 408 347 368 297 333 255 303 222 277 194 254 170 234 150 216 133 200 119 186 106 173 95 161 86 151 78 142 71 550 550 550 526 508 456 455 386 410 330 371 285 337 247 308 216 283 189 260 167 240 148 223 132 207 118 193 106 180 96 168 87 158 79 550 550 550 526 550 490 547 452 493 386 447 333 406 289 371 252 340 221 313 195 289 173 268 155 249 138 232 124 216 112 203 101 190 92 550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 503 373 458 323 418 282 384 248 353 219 326 194 302 173 281 155 261 139 244 126 228 114 214 103 550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 548 405 498 351 455 307 418 269 384 238 355 211 329 188 306 168 285 151 266 137 249 124 233 112 550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 550 406 550 385 507 339 465 298 428 263 395 233 366 208 340 186 317 167 296 151 277 137 259 124 550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 550 406 550 385 550 363 550 346 514 311 474 276 439 246 408 220 380 198 355 178 332 161 311 147 Table 3.Draft 3.6 10.1 5 5 (lbs/ft) Span (ft.5 16 6.5 16 16 16 5.2 14 6 14 14 16 5.7 7.7 Joists Joint 8K1 10K1 12K1 Desig.) W 5. Depth 8 10 12 (in.) 8 550 550 9 550 550 10 550 550 480 550 11 532 550 377 542 12 444 550 550 288 455 550 13 377 479 550 225 363 510 14 324 412 500 179 289 425 15 281 358 434 145 234 344 16 246 313 380 119 192 282 17 277 336 159 234 18 246 299 134 197 19 221 268 113 167 20 199 241 97 142 21 218 123 22 199 106 23 181 93 24 166 81 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 12K3 12K5 14K1 14K3 14K4 14K6 16K2 16K3 16K4 16K5 16K6 16K7 16K9 12 12 14 5.3 16 7 16 7.7 7.1 6.1 8.4: Joist Properties Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .7 8.

Draft 3{20 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

4.1 1 Figure 4.1: Ei el Tower (Billington and Mark 1983) .Draft Chapter 4 Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) 4. & Geometry The tower was built out of wrought iron. Fig.1 Materials.and Ei el had more expereince with this material. less expensive than steel.

x . It is a relatively \light" structure.Draft 4{2 2 Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER The structure is essentially a tower. and 328 feet wide at the base.3-a) (4.2-b) (4. = 984952x 2 Also dy dv dv dx dy = tan ) = tan. The large base was essential to provide adequate stability in the presence of wind load.4) . x 984 | 2 } (4. 5 We can assume that the shape of the tower is parabolic. 3 To avoid overturning M wind This can be achieved either by: 1.1 dy dx dx where is the angle measured from the x axis to the tangent to the curve.2-a) (4. Post-tension the support. 4.1) av(x)2 {z 2 We recall from calculus that for y = v(x) Thus for our problem dy dv dy dx = dv dx d 2 dx ax = 2ax dy 1 2(164) 984 . 3 We now can tabulate the width and slope at various elevations Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . so dead load is small compared to the wind load. 4 The tower is 984 feet high. Increase the width of the base 3. thus the equation of the half width is given by y = 164 984 . Design support to resist tension. 984 dx = | 984 } | {z } {z (4. subjected to gravity and wind load. Increase self weight (as in Washington's monument) 2. M gravity had to be much higher than 1. then we know that at x = 984 the (half) width y = 0 and at x = 0 the half width is 328=2 = 164. If we take the x axis to be along the vertical axis of symmetry and y the half width.3-b) (4.

and is approximated as follows.Draft 4.205 11.0264 1.4o First platform 186 108 216 240 .000 0o 4 The tower is supported by four inclined supports.270 15.2 Loads Width dy Location Height Width/2 Estimated Actual dx Support 0 164 328 .115 6. 4.2: Ei el Tower Idealization.2 Loads 5 6 The total weight of the tower is 18 800 .6o Intermediate platform 644 20 40 .top 340 ft 1 100 Total 984 ft 18 800 7 k k k k From the actual width of the lower two platforms we can estimate the live loads (the intermediate and top platforms would have negligible LL in comparison): psf ft lbs lbs k k psf ft k kip 1st platform: (50) (240)2 2 (1 000) 2 880 2 2 2nd platform: (50) (110) (1 000) 600 Total: 3 480 Hence the total vertical load is Pvert = DL + LL = 18 800 + 3 480 = 22 280 .3: k Location Height Dead Weight Ground.5o Top 984 0 0 0. in 4{3 2.second platform 380 ft 15 500 Second platform-intermediate platform 264 ft 2 200 intermediate platform . each with a cross section of 800 of the tower is shown in Fig.6o Top platform 906 1 2 . The dead load is not uniformly distributed.333 18. 4.1o second platform 380 62 123 110 . An idealization ACTUAL CONTINUOUS CONNECTION IDEALIZED CONTINUOUS CONNECTION ACTUAL POINTS OF CONNECTION Figure 4.2. Fig. k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (Billington and Mark 1983) 4.

x) . The moment at a distance x from the support along the cantilevered beam subjected to a uniform pressure p is given by 2 (4.6.5) Plat = (2:6) (984) = 2.5 (4.7) Mlat = p(L{z x} L . Dead Load Idealization (Billington and Mark 1983) 8 4.4.560 acting at 984 = 492 2 k/ft ft k ft Simplifying the three dimensional structure with 4 supports into a two dimensional one with two supports.Draft 4{4 Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER Figure 4. 4. the reactions can be easily determined for this statically determinate structure. Fig. ) | 2 2 | {z } Force Moment arm Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . x = p (L . Hence we will simplify our analysis by considering an equivalent wind force obtained from a constant wind pressure (force/length) and constant cross section Fig. thus the lateral wind force is.6-b) Lateral Load Lateral Moment (we essentially have a cantilivered beam subjected to a uniform load). Fig. the cross sectional area over which the wind is acting is also parabolic (maximum at the base).3 Reactions 9 The wind pressure is known to also have a parabolic distribution (maximum at the top).4: The pressure is assumed to be 2.3: Ei el Tower.6-a) (4. Gravity Load Pvert = 22 280 ? grav Rvert = 22 2280 = 11.6 k/ft. 4.140 k 6 (4.

(Billington and Mark 1983) + = WINDWARD SIDE LEEWARD SIDE VERTICAL FORCES WIND FORCES TOTAL Figure 4. Wind Loads.3 Reactions 4{5 Figure 4. Reactions (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5: Ei el Tower.6: Ei el Tower.Draft 4.4: Ei el Tower. Wind Load Idealization (Billington and Mark 1983) TOTAL LOADS LOADS P P=2560k Q L/2 Q=22.280k 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 H 0 111 000 1111 0000 111 000 111 000 111 000 V0 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 REACTIONS M0 Figure 4.

850 6? (4.12-a) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Fig. 12 Gravity load are rst considered.10) 2 ft k. a biref reminder θ Fy θ Fx F cos sin tan = Fy (4.7: β=18. the maximum moment is equal to 2 .40 β=18.8) 2 We observe that the shape of the moment diagram is also parabolic.Draft 4{6 k/ft Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER 4.000 (4. At the base (x = 0). remember those are caused by the dead load and the live load. 4.ft k.ft k ft k k First. This is not accidental.11-a) F F = Fy (4.9) d 328 Lateral Forces to be resisted by each of the two pairs.11-b) F x = Fx (4. the lateral force will be equally divided among the two pairs of supports and will be equal to wind Rlat = (2 560) = 1. To determine the resulting internal forces caused by the lateral (wind) moment. 2 .11-c) 11 Internal forces are rst determined at the base.4 Internal Forces 10 Thus the lateral moment caused by the wind is parabolic. By symmetry.280 (4. just like the tower itself.260.4 INCLINED INTERNAL FORCE: N CONSEQUENT HORIZONTAL COMPONENT: H N V KNOWN VERTICAL COMPONENT: V H FORCE POLYGON Figure 4. as nearly optimum structures have a shape which closely approximate their moment diagram (such as the varying depth of continuous long span bridges). and since we have two supports (one under tension and the other under compression) we use wind Rvert = M = 1 260 000 = 3. x) = (2:6) (984 2 0) 2 = 1. Internal Gravity Forces (Billington and Mark 1983) cos Victor Saouma V V = N ) N = cos (4.7: Ei el Tower. Mlat = p (L .

14 At the second platform.14-d) (4.8. (1 280) (sin 18:40) k k 2 Nvert = cos 11:6o = 1 685 Hvert = 3 300 (tan 11:6o) = 339 2 k k 3 300 k (4.8: Ei el Tower.9: wind wind Nc = . 4.730 kip cos 18: H ) H = V tan tan = V H = 11 140 (tan 18:4o) = 3. 15 Wind Load: We now have determined at each pair of support the vertical and the horizontal forces caused by the wind load. the next step is to determine their axial components along the inclined leg. would lead the designer to reduce (or taper) the cross-section.14-e) (4.13-b) = Nt = = = Leeward wind .050 Winward k -4.12-c) (4. H H 3700 k 3700 k Figure 4.14-c) (4. Fig. the total vertical load is Q = 1 100 + 2 200 = 3 300 and at that height the angle is 11:6o thus the axial force (per pair of columns) will be k Note that this is about seven times smaller than the axial force at the base.13-a) k (4.12-b) (4. Fig.050 wind vert k k k (4.Draft 4. the axial force will also decrease with height.14-a) (4.R cos + Rlat sin (3 850) (cos 18:4o) + (1 280) (sin 18:40) 4. 4. Horizontal Reactions (Billington and Mark 1983) 13 Because the vertical load decreases with height.(3 850) (cos 18:4o) . Rlat sin = .700 kip k k 4{7 (4.14-f) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .12-d) The horizontal forces which must be resisted by the foundations. which for a given axial strength.4 Internal Forces N = 11 1404o = 11. The horizontal force will be resisted by the axial forces in the second platform itself.Rvert cos .14-b) (4.

Draft 4{8 3.(11 730) .15 780 (4.16) comp = A = 1 600 2 = -9. Internal Wind Forces (Billington and Mark 1983) 4.850 k 3.4 1.780 Leeward side NL gravity lateral Total = . 17 In the idealization of the tower's geometry.15-a) (4.280 k Figure 4.(11 730) +(4 050) = -7. 2.9 in k ksi in 18 The strength of wrought iron is 45 ksi.4 1.17) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4 18. the windward side is still under compression.4 Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER 18.850 cos 18.9: Ei el Tower.280 sin 18. the area of each pair of the simpli ed columns is 1 600 and thus the maximum stresses will be determined from T NL .(4 050) = -15.630 NW {z }| {z } | gravity lateral k k | {z k }| {z k } k (4.5 actual ksi ksi (4.15-b) k Winward side We observe that even under wind load. hence the safety factor is stress 45 Safety Factor = ultimatestress = 9:9 = 4.5 Internal Stresses 16 The total forces caused by both lateral and gravity forces can now be determined: Total = .

1 Equilibrium 5 6 7 method. In a 3D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 6 independent equations of equilibrium: This is the sequence of operations in the exibility method which lends itself to hand calculation. Summation of forces and moments.1. In the sti ness 1 . Fig.1. A roller will allow rotation. Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions. internal forces are determined next nally. 3 Reactions are necessary to determine foundation load. 2 Reactions are determined from the appropriate equations of static equilibrium. it is often easier (but not always necessary) to start by determining the reactions.Draft Chapter 5 REVIEW of STATICS To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton's third law of motion 5. Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements.1 Reactions 1 In the analysis of structures (hand calculations). Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure. in a static system must be equal to zero2. 4 Depending on the type of structures. we determine displacements rsts. in 3D structures a roller may provide restraint in one or two directions. In a dynamic system F = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration. internal stresses and/or deformations (de ections and rotations) are determined last1 . then internal forces and reactions. 2 Once the reactions are determined. there can be di erent types of support conditions. 5. 5. This method is most suitable to computer implementation.

Table 5. 10 Summation of the moments can be taken with respect to any arbitrary point. moments are also vectorial quantities and are represented by a curved arrow or a double arrow vector. 11 Whereas forces are represented by a vector. 14 It is always preferable to check calculations by another equation of equilibrium. the externally applied load may be reduced to an equivalent force3 . MzB .Draft 5{2 REVIEW of STATICS Figure 5. 1. B. The right hand side of the equation should be zero 3 However for internal forces (shear and moment) we must use the actual load distribution. 12 Not all equations are applicable to all structures.1 13 The three conventional equations of equilibrium in 2D: Fx Fy and Mz can be replaced by the independent moment equations MzA. Arbitrarily decide which is the +ve direction 2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Assume a direction for the unknown quantities 3. 15 Before you write an equation of equilibrium. MzC provided that A.2) For reaction calculations.1: Types of Supports Fx = Mx = 8 Fy = My = Fz = 0 Mz = 0 (5.1) In a 2D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 3 independent equations of equilibrium: Fx = 9 Fy = Mz = 0 (5. and C are not colinear.

16 Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones. 20 In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection. no axial forces 2D Truss.1.2: Inclined Roller Support 5. then the reaction R would have. Fig. 19 Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to determine reactions.1. then this will provide an additional equation ( M = 0 at the hinge) which can be exploited to determine the reactions. Thus the net force/moment is equal to zero. 17 The external forces give rise to the (non-zero) shear and moment diagram.Draft 5. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 Static Determinacy 21 In statically determinate structures. 5.2 Equations of Conditions 18 If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures). Frame. Frame. boundary conditions and loads. no axial Force 2 D Truss. reactions depend only on the geometry. Frame Beams. Rx = Sy Ry Sx (5. Beam 5{3 Fx Fx MzA Fx MzA Fy Fy Fy MzB MzA MzB Equations Fz Fz MzB MzC Mx Mx My My Mz Mz Mz Alternate Set Table 5.1 Reactions Structure Type Beam.1: Equations of Equilibrium If your reaction is negative.3) Figure 5. Beam Grid 3D Truss. then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed.2. 5.

4: Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Figure 5. Young's and/or shear modulus) and element cross sections (e. Thus a statically indeterminate structure is safer than a statically determinate one. reactions depend also on the material properties (e.4. area. 5.4 Geometric Instability 26 The stability of a structure is determined not only by the number of reactions but also by their arrangement.g.3: Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures 24 Failure of one support in a statically determinate system results in the collapse of the structures. Figure 5. 5. Fig.g. length. 23 The degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the di erence between the number of reactions and the number of equations of equilibrium (plus the number of equations of conditions if applicable).Draft 5{4 22 REVIEW of STATICS If the reactions can not be determined simply from the equations of static equilibrium (and equations of conditions if present). 25 For statically indeterminate structures.1. All reactions are concurrent. All reactions are parallel and a non-parallel load is applied to the structure. then the reactions of the structure are said to be statically indeterminate. 2. 27 Geometric instability will occur if: 1. moment of inertia). Fig. 5.3.

28 Mathematically.) Mzc = 0 ) 12Ray . (+ .) Fx = 0 ) Rax . that is a mechanism is present in the structure.5 Examples 5{5 3. 48 = 0 ) k k Check: 6 6 p Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . The number of reactions is smaller than the number of equations of equilibrium. (4) (12) = 0 ) (+ . (60)(6) = 0 k k k/ft ft or through matrix inversion (on your calculator) 2 4 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 12 . Gerstle textbok Basic Structural Analysis.1. hence it is statically determinate. 29 Examples of reaction calculation will be shown next. 36 = 0 (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) Ray + Rdy . this can be shown if the determinant of the equations of equilibrium is equal to zero (or the equations are inter-dependent). (48)(6) = 0 ) Ray = 56 (+ 6 Fy = 0 56 . (Rdy )(18) = 0 ) Rdy = 52 d (+ . Many of those problems are taken from Prof. (60)(12) .) Mza = 0 (60)(6) + (48)(12) . 60 . Example 5-7: Simply Supported Beam Determine the reactions of the simply supported beam shown below. we have 3 equations of static equilibrium.) Mz = 0 (Ray )(18) . 60 . Each example has been carefully selected as it brings a di erent \twist" from the preceding one.Draft 5.6 38 < 5 : Rax Ray Rdy 9 = =: 8 < 36 108 360 9 = ): 8 < Rax Ray Rdy 9 = =: 8 < 36 56 52 k k k 9 = Alternatively we could have used another set of equations: (+ . Solution: The beam has 3 reactions. Some of those same problems will be revisited later for the determination of the internal forces and/or de ections. 6Rdy . 52 .1 Reactions 5.

) Ma = 0 (40)(4) .7 6 12 k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (40)(15) . thus the structure is statically determinate.7 6 Fx = 0 ) Rax = 30 k k k 2. three equations of equilibrium and one equation of condition ( Mb = 0). (40)(5) = 0 ) Ray = 22. (40)(3) + (4)(8)(4) + (30)(10) .b = 0 (9)(Ray ) . (30)(2) + Rcy (12) = 0 236 ) Rcy = 1 12 = 103 6 .(17:7)(18) . Isolating ab: M .Draft 5{6 Example 5-8: Three Span Beam Determine the reactions of the following three spans beam REVIEW of STATICS Solution: We have 4 unknowns (Rax Ray Rcy and Rdy ). Isolating bd: (+ . (+ ) Mc = 0 .(17:7)(6) .) Md = 0 .2 6 (+ . Rdy (12) = 0 ) Rdy = 201:3 = 16. (4)(8)(8) . 1. (S )(9) = 0 ) S = 17.

1 Reactions 3. Check 5{7 Fy = 0 622:2 . 3. Determine the critical design values for the vertical and horizontal reactions. 2. of 30 of horizontal projection 3) Wind load of 15 of vertical projection. 32 . on center. Due to symmetry. 30 + 16:7 = 0p Example 5-9: Three Hinged Gable Frame The three-hinged gable frames spaced at 30 ft. Determine the reactions components on the frame due to: 1) Roof dead load. Due to symmetry. psf psf psf Solution: 1.Draft 5. we will consider only the dead load on one side of the frame. Roof dead load per frame is p 1 302 + 152 1 000 DL = (20) (30) = 20:2 ? psf ft ft lbs/k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 40 . 40 + 103 . of 20 of roof area 2) Snow load. there is no vertical force transmitted by the hinge for snow and dead load.

Draft 5{8
4. Snow load per frame is

REVIEW of STATICS
SL = (30)
1 (30) (30) 1 000
ft ft

psf

lbs/k

= 27:

k

?
k

5. Wind load per frame (ignoring the suction) is

WL = (15)

psf

1 (30) (35) 1 000
ft ft

lbs/k

= 15:75

-

6. There are 4 reactions, 3 equations of equilibrium and one equation of condition ) statically determinate. 7. The horizontal reaction H due to a vertical load V at midspan of the roof, is obtained by taking moment with respect to the hinge (+ ;) MC = 0 15(V ) ; 30(V ) + 35(H ) = 0 ) H = 15V = :429V 35 Substituting for roof dead and snow load we obtain
A VDL = A = HDL A VSL = A = HSL B VDL B HDL B VSL B HSL

= 20:2 6 = (:429)(20:2) = 8:66 = 27: 6 = (:429)(27:) = 11:58 k k k k

8. The reactions due to wind load are B (+ ;) MA = 0 (15:75)( 20+15 ) ; VWL (60) = 0 2 ; B (35) ; (4:6)(30) = 0 (+ ) MC = 0 HWL A (+ - ) Fx = 0 15:75 ; 3:95 ; HWL = 0 B ;VA =0 (+ 6 Fy = 0 VWL WL ) 9. Thus supports should be designed for

B ) VWL = 4:60 B ) HWL = 3:95 A = 11:80 ) HWL A ) VWL = ;4:60

k k

6
k k

?

H = 8:66 + 11:58 + 3:95 V = 20:7 + 27:0 + 4:60
k k k k

k

k

= 24.19 = 52.3

k

k

5.2 Trusses
30

5.2.1 Assumptions
Cables and trusses are 2D or 3D structures composed of an assemblage of simple one dimensional components which transfer only axial forces along their axis. 31 Trusses are extensively used for bridges, long span roofs, electric tower, space structures. 32 For trusses, it is assumed that 1. Bars are pin-connected

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 5.2 Trusses
2. Joints are frictionless hinges4 . 3. Loads are applied at the joints only.
33

5{9

A truss would typically be composed of triangular elements with the bars on the upper chord under compression and those along the lower chord under tension. Depending on the orientation of the diagonals, they can be under either tension or compression. 34 In a truss analysis or design, we seek to determine the internal force along each member, Fig. 5.5

Figure 5.5: Bridge Truss

5.2.2 Basic Relations

Sign Convention: Tension positive, compression negative. On a truss the axial forces are indicated as
forces acting on the joints. Stress-Force: = P A Stress-Strain: = E" Force-Displacement: " = LL Equilibrium: F = 0

5.2.3 Determinacy and Stability
Trusses are statically determinate when all the bar forces can be determined from the equations of statics alone. Otherwise the truss is statically indeterminate. 36 A truss may be statically indeterminate with respect to the reactions or externally indeterminate and/or statically indeterminate with respect to the internal forces that is internally indeterminate. 37 a 2D truss is externally indeterminate if there are more than 3 reactions.
35

In practice the bars are riveted, bolted, or welded directly to each other or to gusset plates, thus the bars are not free to rotate and so-called secondary bending moments are developed at the bars. Another source of secondary moments is the dead weight of the element.
4

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 5{10
38

REVIEW of STATICS

Since each joint is pin-connected, we can apply M = 0 at each one of them. Furthermore, summation of forces applied on a joint must be equal to zero. 39 For a 2D truss we have 2 equations of equilibrium FX = 0 and FY = 0 which can be applied at each joint. For 3D trusses we would have three equations: FX = 0, FY = 0 and FZ = 0. 40 If we refer to j as the number of joints, R the number of reactions and m the number of members, then we would have a total of m + R unknowns and 2j (or 3j ) equations of statics (2D or 3D at each joint). If we do not have enough equations of statics then the problem is indeterminate, if we have too many equations then the truss is unstable, Table 5.2. External R>3 R>6 Internal m + R > 2j m + R > 3j Unstable m + R < 2j m + R < 3j Table 5.2: Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses

Static Indeterminacy

2D

3D

41

Fig. 5.6 shows a truss with 4 reactions, thus it is externally indeterminate. This truss has 6 joints (j = 6), 4 reactions (R = 4) and 9 members (m = 9). Thus we have a total of m + R = 9 + 4 = 13 unknowns and 2 j = 2 6 = 12 equations of equilibrium, thus the truss is statically indeterminate.

Figure 5.6: A Statically Indeterminate Truss
42

There are two methods of analysis for statically determinate trusses 1. The Method of joints 2. The Method of sections

5.2.4 Method of Joints
43

The method of joints can be summarized as follows 1. Determine if the structure is statically determinate

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 5.2 Trusses

5{11

2. Compute all reactions 3. Sketch a free body diagram showing all joint loads (including reactions) 4. For each joint, and starting with the loaded ones, apply the appropriate equations of equilibrium ( Fx and Fy in 2D Fx , Fy and Fz in 3D).

~ ~ ~ 5. Because truss elements can only carry axial forces, the resultant force (F = Fx + Fy ) must be along the member, Fig. 5.7. F = Fx = Fy l lx ly
(5.4)

44 Always keep track of the x and y components of a member force (Fx , Fy ), as those might be needed later on when considering the force equilibrium at another joint to which the member is connected.

Figure 5.7: X and Y Components of Truss Forces
45

This method should be used when all member forces should be determined. 46 In truss analysis, there is no sign convention. A member is assumed to be under tension (or compression). If after analysis, the force is found to be negative, then this would imply that the wrong assumption was made, and that the member should have been under compression (or tension). 47 On a free body diagram, the internal forces are represented by arrow acting on the joints and not as end forces on the element itself. That is for tension, the arrow is pointing away from the joint, and for compression toward the joint, Fig. 5.8.

Figure 5.8: Sign Convention for Truss Element Forces

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 5{12
Example 5-10: Truss, Method of Joints
Using the method of joints, analyze the following truss

REVIEW of STATICS

Solution:
1. R = 3, m = 13, 2j = 16, and m + R = 2j 2. We compute the reactions
k

p

(+ ;) ME = 0 ) (20 + 12)(3)(24) + (40 + 8)(2)(24) + (40)(24) ; RAy (4)(24) = 0 ) RAy = 58 6 ) (+ ? Fy = 0 ) 20 + 12 + 40 + 8 + 40 ; 58 ; REy = 0 ) REy = 62 6
k

3. Consider each joint separately: Node A: Clearly AH is under compression, and AB under tension.

(+ 6 Fy = 0 ) FAHy ; 58 = 0 ) FAH = lly (FAHy ) p ly = 32 l = 322 + 242 = 40 Compression ) FAH = 40 (58) = 72:5 32 (+ - ) Fx = 0 ) ;FAHx + FAB = 0 FAB = llx (FAHy ) = 24 (58) = 43:5 Tension 32 y

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

20 = 0 (II) 2 +32 2 +10 Solving for I and II we obtain FHC = .) Fx = 0 ) FAHx .) Fx = 0 ) FBC = 43:5 Tension (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) FBH = 20 Tension ) (+ . p2424 2 (FHG ) = 0 (I) 2 +32 2 +10 ) (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) FAHy + FHCy .7:5 Tension FHG = 52 Compression Node E: Fy = 0 ) FEFy = 62 ) FEF = p2432 2 (62) = 77:5 2 24 +32 Fx = 0 ) FED = FEFx ) FED = 32 (FEFy ) = 24 (62) = 46:5 32 The results of this analysis are summarized below k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . FHCx . 12 . FHGx = 0 43:5 . FHGy .Draft 5. 12 . p2424 2 (FHC ) . 20 = 0 58 + p2432 2 (FHC ) .2 Trusses Node B: 5{13 Node H: (+ . p2410 2 (FHG ) .

Draft 5{14 REVIEW of STATICS 4. 5 49 The sign convention adopted here.9 Figure 5. With reference to Fig. is the one commonly used for design purposes .1 Theory 48 5.1 Design Sign Conventions Before we derive the Shear-Moment relations. let us arbitrarily de ne a sign convention. such as D 5. 5. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . in more advanced analysis courses we will use a di erent one. We could check our calculations by verifying equilibrium of forces at a node not previously used.3.3.1.9: Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design 5 Later on.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 5.

6 y Load Positive along the beam's local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention).z z ** Tx -Mz Figure 5. Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower bers.1. Considering an in nitesimal length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load6 w(x). or \down" on a positive one. 53 To denote that a small change in shear and moment occurs over the length dx of the element. The in nitesimal section must also Figure 5. 52 Since dx is in nitesimally small. For frame members. thus we only have two equations of equilibrium to satisfy Fy = 0 and Mz = 0. Moment Relations 50 Let us (re)derive the basic relations between load. 6 In this derivation. Alternatively. Fig. Torsion Counterclockwise positive Draft 3D: Use double arrow vectors (and NOT curved arrows). Axial: tension positive. a positive moment is one which causes tension along the inner side. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3. Shear. as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive.10.3 Shear & Moment 2D: 5{15 positive upward.2 Load.Draft Diagrams 5. Fig.*x5. shear and moment. Forces and moments (including torsions) are M 6 de ned with respect to a right hand side coordinate system. we add the di erential quantities dVx and dMx to Vx and Mx on the right face. 5. a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation.11: Free Body Diagram of an In nitesimal Beam Segment be in equilibrium. and compression in the upper ones.10:> Sign Conventions for 3D Frame Elements M Tx 5. 51 There are no axial forces. Shear A positive shear force is one which is \up" on a negative face. that is y 6 My 6 6 > -. the small variation in load along it can be neglected. therefore we assume w(x) to be constant along dx.11.

(Mx + dMx ) = 0 2 Neglecting the dx2 term. (+ .10) The change in moment between 1 and 2.1.) Mo = 0 ) Mx + Vx dx .3. (Vx + dVx ) = 0 ) dV = w(x) dx (5. V21 . 5. we should draw the shear. Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively. 58 Fig.5) The slope of the shear curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by the load curve at that point.8) The change in shear between 1 and 2. and M = Z V (x)dx M21 = M2 . is equal to the area under the shear curve between x1 and x2 .9) V (x)dx (5.Draft 5{16 54 REVIEW of STATICS or Next considering the rst equation of equilibrium (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) Vx + wx dx . M1 = Z x2 x1 (5. we often must consider di erent load combinations. this simpli es to 55 Similarly dM = V (x) dx (5.13 further illustrates the variation in internal shear and moment under uniform and concentrated forces/moment.12 and 5. 56 Alternative forms of the preceding equations can be obtained by integration V = Z w(x)dx V21 = Vx2 . M21.3 Moment Envelope For design.7) w(x)dx (5. moment diagrams. and then we should use the Moment envelope for design purposes. is equal to the area under the load between x1 and x2 . 59 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 60 For each load combination. wx dx dx . Vx1 = Z x2 x1 (5.6) The slope of the moment curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by the shear at that point. 57 5.

12: Shear and Moment Forces at Di erent Sections of a Loaded Beam Positive Constant Negative Constant Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing Load Shear Positive Constant Negative Constant Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing Shear Moment Figure 5. or Between Shear and Moment Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Diagrams 5.3 Shear & Moment 5{17 Figure 5.13: Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear.

1.Draft 5{18 5.4 Examples Example 5-11: Simple Shear and Moment Diagram Draw the shear and moment diagram for the beam shown below REVIEW of STATICS Solution: The free body diagram is drawn below Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3.

3. etc. 11 . It stays constant up to D and then it decreases (constant negative slope since the load is uniform and negative) by 2 per linear foot up to .14 is also the reaction previously determined at F . As a check. is determined last: The moment at A is zero (hinge support). 2. 5. RFy (18) = 0 ) RFy = 14 (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) RAy ..A = (13)(4) = 52. The change in moment between A and B is equal to the area under the corresponding shear diagram. At A the shear is equal to the reaction and is positive.Draft Diagrams 5.) MA = 0 ) (11)(4) + (8)(10) + (4)(2)(14 + 2) . 3. 4. . 1.3 Shear & Moment Reactions are determined from the equilibrium equations (+ ) Fx = 0 ) .14 . 2. At C it drops again by 8 to . Example 5-12: Frame Shear and Moment Diagram Draw the shear and moment diagram of the following frame Solution: Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .. At B the shear drops (negative load) by 11 to 2 . (4)(2) + 14 = 0 ) RAy = 13 ) k k k 5{19 Shear are determined next.6 . or MB. k k k k k k k Moment 1. 8 .RAx + 6 = 0 ) RAx = 6 (+ .

Draft 5{20 REVIEW of STATICS Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Since B .3 Shear & Moment Reactions are determined rst (+ ) Fx = 0 ) RAx . VB = 64:06. maximum moment occurs where the shear is zero. D. the slope of the shear must be equal to . equal to the horizontal reaction at A and negative according to our previously de ned sign convention. 39RDy = 0 2 5 5 2 RFy = 52:96 RAy .C (x) = 64:06 . We check our calculations by verifying equilibrium of node C p 3 (+ ) Fx = 0 ) 5 (42:37) + 4 (13:22) = 25:42 + 10:58 = 36 p 5 4 (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) 5 (42:37) . Thus the shear at point C is such that Vc . 3. Along B . Along A . VA = .C (x) = 64:06 . 5 9(3) = . 937:5 = 232 ft k. the shear is constant. The equation for 3 the shear is given by (for x going from C to D) V = 13:22 . B . C will have a slope equal to . 7:93 = 25:97 ) 5 1. 4 (3)(15) 12 .ft Z x Z x words. 3x = 0 ) x = 3 MB. 3 (13:22) = 33:90 . C .432 + 64:06x . B . For A . 3x k 4. 3 (3)(15) + 52:96 = 0 5 RAy = 64:06 k k . the shear along B . the moment is equal to k. 3 302 = 139:8 2 B 3. C .36 2. The shear along C .C = 0.432 + 64:06(25:0) .36)(12) = . Based on our sign convention for the load. (3)(30) . Shear: 1. 4 (3)(15) = 0 5 | {z } 5{21 ) (+ . we know that dMdx. 3x k Moment: 5. C is subjected to a uniform negative load.432 + 1 601:5 . In other point where VB. : 2 max Thus MB. the shear must be equal to the vertical force which was transmitted along A . 3 (2520) = . Substituting for x = 30.C = MB + k. and its slope is equal to the shear.31:78 or Vc = 13:22.C (x)dx = . 3 x2 which is a parabola. B . D is obtained by decomposing the vertical reaction at D into axial and 3 shear components. we obtain at node C : MC = .432 2.Draft Diagrams 5. If we need to determine the maximum moment along B .C = .ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and which is equal to the vertical reaction at A. the moment is zero at A (since we have a hinge).432 + (64:06 . thus at B the moment is equal to (. For member B .3 along C .432+64:06(30) . Thus at D the shear is equal to 5 52:96 = 31:78 and is negative.ft VB.) MA = 0 ) ) (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) ) ) RAx = 36 load k 9 (3)(30)( 30 ) + 3 (3)(15) 30 + 2 .C = 0 at the 64:06 = 25:0 . C at B .3 and in terms of x (measured from B to C ) is equal to VB. 3x)dx 0 0 2 = . that is VB.

Assuming that the frames are spaced 2 ft apart along the length of the ume. show the location of the reinforcement. lbs/ft lbs/ft k/ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Draw the shear and moment diagrams 3. 1. The pressure is linear and is given by p = h. Determine all internal member end actions 2. If this is a reinforced concrete frame. 3 x2 which is a parabola.D = MC + 0x VC . Locate and compute maximum internal bending moments 4. the moment varies quadratically (since we had a linear shear). 3 15 = 139:8 + 2 p 198:3 . Since each frame supports a 2 ft wide slice of the ume. 3x)dx 2 = 139:8 + 13:22x . Finally along C .Draft 5{22 REVIEW of STATICS 4. the equation for w (pounds/foot) is w = (2)(62:4)(h) = 124:8h At the base w = (124:8)(6) = 749 = :749 Note that this is both the lateral pressure on the end walls as well as the uniform load on the horizontal members. Solution: The hydrostatic pressure causes lateral forces on the vertical members which can be treated as cantilevers xed at the lower end. D. and then decreases (negative shear). 2 Substituting for x = 15. we obtain at node C MC = 139:8 + 13:22(15) .D (x)dx = 139:8 + 0x (13:22 . the moment rst increases (positive shear). D is given by R R MC . 337:5 = 0 Example 5-13: Frame Shear and Moment Diagram Hydrostatic Load The frame shown below is the structural support of a ume. The moment along C .

Reaction at C is RCy = (:749) 16 = 5:99 2 Shear forces 1.:749)(3) = . Base force at B is FBx = (:749) 2 = 2:246 6 2.3 Shear & Moment 5{23 6 1.ft k k k k End Actions Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Based on the orientation of the x . Base moment at B is MB = (2:246) 3 = 4:493 3.2:246 + 5:99 = 3:744 Moment diagrams k k. E are equal and opposite. Base at B the shear force was determined earlier and was equal to 2:246 . 4. 4. B ) 3. End force at B for member B . The shear to the left of C is V = 0 + (. The vertical shear at B is zero (neglecting the weight of A . y axis. 2. The shear to the right of C is V = .2:246 .Draft Diagrams 5. this is a negative shear.

Mc = . 3 2. k.A. At the support C . the sign convention for design moments is the opposite of the one commonly used in the U. that is on the side of the negative moment7 .S. The maximum moment is equal to Mmax = .ft k.4:493 + (. The gure below schematically illustrates the location of the exural8 reinforcement. Reinforcement should be placed where the moment is \postive".7:864 5 3. 7 8 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . At the base: B M = 4:493 as determined above.:749)(3)( 2 ) = . Shear reinforcement is made of a series of vertical stirrups.ft REVIEW of STATICS 1.7:864 + (:749)(5)( 2 ) = 1:50 Design: Reinforcement should be placed along the bers which are under tension.Draft 5{24 k.ft Example 5-14: Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame That is why in most European countries.

3 Shear & Moment 8’ 5k/ft A VA 30k B E 5’ 20k G V bd 52.5)/2 (17.5k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5k 17.5+(-30) Vba (17.5k 30.6’k -20’k -22.5)(3.5)(12)+(-20) -650’k M ba V bd 450’k (50)-(4)(15)/2 M bd Hbd 20k 450’k (50)(15)-[(4)(5)/2][(2)(15)/3)] 20k 50k 4k/ft 50k 82.5-(5)(8) M bc -200’k (10)(10)+(2)(10)(10)/2 -22.5)/2 (-52.5k 17.Draft Diagrams 5.5k CHECK 10k B Vba Hba M ba Hbc M bc Vbc B 2k/ft C Vbc 10k (10)+(2)(10) 30k 3.5’ -52.5k 17.5)(3.5k 15’ 0 D 4k/ft VD 30k 5k/ft A 17.5-5*x=0 5{25 12’ 10’ 2k/ft 10k C V ba V bc bd M ba H M bc M bd 30k 0 HD 650’k 450’k 0 200’k 82.5)/2+(-22.5)(8-3.

Draft 5{26
Example 5-15: Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame

REVIEW of STATICS

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft Diagrams 5.3 Shear & Moment
26k 13’ B 2k/ft 20’ A Va
(60)(20)-(2)(20)(20)/2

5{27
10’ C 10’ 20k

26k 13’ 13’
13 5 12

3 4

5

15’ D

Ha 36’ 20’

E Ve

19.2k
(20)(20)+(60-20)(20)/2

48.8k
60-(2)(20)
Fy

Fx F z y x F/Fy=z/x F/Fx=z/y Fx/Fy=y/x

800k’

20k

800’k 0k’

20k

2k/ft

60k 60k

19.2k

1

2

3
1k

4

48.8k
17.2 8k 12k
16k

5

6
(20)(15)/13=7.7
(20)(12)/(13)=18.46 (19.2)(5)/(13)=7.38 (19.2)(12)/(13)=17.72 (26)(12)/(13)=24 (26.6)(13)/(12)=28.8 (26.6)(5)/(12)=11.1 (28.8)(4)/(5)=23.1 (28.8)(3)/(5)=17.28 (20)(4)/(5)=16 (20)(3)/(5)=12 (39.1)(5)/(4)=48.9 (39.1)(3)/(4)=29.3

24k

24k

10k

20-10-10

800k’

26.6k 8k

11.1k

778k’ 0k

20k

26k

10k

0k

23.

26k

778k’

28.8k

17.72k

18.46k 7.38k

20k

28.8k

0k’
39.1k 29.3k

19.2k
8.7 17.7+ .4k

7

48.9k

10

-23

+25

k k -26.6 -0.58 26 -0.6-26
25.42 -

.1k -2 39
3.1

8 B-C
1,122-(26.6)(13) 488+(23.1)(12.5)

-16 k

.1

11 C-D

1,130-(.58)(13) k’ 800+(25.4)(13) 1122

777

777k

k’
(39.1)(12.5)

1130

’k

488’k
12 C-D

800’k
13

9 B-C

14

+25.4
+20k

k

-23 .1k 8k 26.6k 0.5 -39 .

0’k 113
1k

112

2k’

777k’
48 8’ k

800’k

Victor Saouma

+60k

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 5{28
5.3.2 Formulaes
Adapted from (of Steel COnstruction 1986)

REVIEW of STATICS

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft Diagrams 5.3 Shear & Moment
1) Simple Beam uniform Load
L x

5{29

w L R
L / 2 L / 2

R

V

Shear

V

M max.

= V = w L ;x 2 wL2 at center Mmax = 8 Mx = wx (L ; x) 2 4 5 = 384 wL max wx EI = 24EI (L3 ; 2Lx2 + x3 ) x

R Vx

Moment

2) Simple Beam Unsymmetric Triangular Load
R1 = V1 Max R2 = V2 Vx at x = :577L Mmax Mx at x = :5193L max
x

= W 3 = 2W 3 W ; Wx2 = 3 L2 = :1283WL = Wx (L2 ; x2 ) 3L2 = :01304 WL EI
3 3

Wx = 180EIL2 (3x4 ; 10L2x2 + 7L4)

3) Simple Beam Symmetric Triangular Load
W 2 W (L2 ; 4x2 ) 2L2 WL 6 1 x2 = Wx 2 ; 2 L2 3 Wx (5L2 ; 4x2 )2 = 480EIL2 WL3 = 60EI

R=V for x < L Vx 2 at center Mmax for x < L Mx 2
for x < L 2
x max

= = =

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 5{30
4) Simple Beam Uniform Load Partially Distributed
Max when a < c Max when a > c when a < x < a + b when x < a when a < x < a + b when a + b < x at x = a + R1 w

REVIEW of STATICS

R1 = V1 R2 = V2 Vx Mx Mx Mx Mmax

= = = = = = =

wb 2L (2c + b) wb 2L (2a + b) R1 ; w(x ; a)

R1 x R1 x ; w (x ; a)2 2 R2 (L ; x) R1 R1 a + 2w

5) Simple Beam Concentrated Load at Center

max R1 = V1 R=V at x = L Mmax 2 L Mx when x < 2 whenx < L x 2 at x = L 2
max

wa (2L ; a) 2L 2P PL 4 Px 2 Px (3L2 ; 4x2 ) 48EI PL3 = 48EI
= = = = =

6) Simple Beam Concentrated Load at Any Point
max when a < b max when a > b at x = a when x < a at x = a when x < a
a(a+2b) & a > b 3

R1 = V1 R2 = V2 Mmax Mx
a x max

at x =

q

Pb L Pa L Pab L Pbx L Pa2 b2 = 3EIL = 6Pbx (L2 ; b2 ; x2 ) EIL p Pab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b) = 27EIL
= = = =

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

a + b) L P ( L .Draft Diagrams 5. b R1 = V1 R2 = V2 Vx M1 M2 Mx Mx = = = = = = = P ( L . a2 ) x EI 8) Simple Beam Two Equally Concentrated Unsymmetric Loads max when a < b max when b < a when a < x < L . 3x2 . wx wL2 8 9 wL2 128 2 3 wL 8 5 wL 8 at x = :4215L max = R1 x . a) 9) Cantilevered Beam. P (x . Uniform Load R1 = V1 R2 = V2 Vx Mmax at x = 3 L M1 8 Mx x = = = = = R1 . wx wx 2 = 48EI (L3 . b + a) L P (b . b max when b < a max when a < b when x < a when a < x < L . x2 ) x when a < x < L . a = 6Pa (3Lx . 3a2 . 4a2 ) Px when x < a = 6EI (3La .3 Shear & Moment 7) Simple Beam Two Equally Concentrated Symmetric Loads 5{31 R=V = P Mmax = Pa Pa max = 24EI (3L2 . 3Lx+ 2x3 ) wL4 = 185EI Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . a) L R1 a R2 b R1 x R1 x .

Concentrated Load at Center R1 = V1 R2 = V2 at x = L Mmax when x < L Mx 2 when L < x Mx 2 at x = :4472L max REVIEW of STATICS = = = = = P L . a L Pab2 a = 6EI 2L + a2 = = = = 12) Beam Fixed at Both Ends. 11x 2 16 3 = :009317 PL EI 5P 16 11P 316 PL 16 5Px 16 11) Propped Cantilever Concentrated Load R1 = V1 R2 = V2 at x = a M1 at x = L M2 at x = a a 2 +a2 when a < :414L at x = L 3L 2 . Uniform Load R = V = wL 2 Vx = w L . a ) R1 a Pab (a + L) 2L2 2 3 Pa b = 12EIL3 (3L + a) ( 2 23 = 3Pa (3L 2.x 2 wL2 at x = 0 and x = L Mmax = 12 2 at x = L M = wL 2 24 4 wL at x = L = 384EI max 2 wx2 = 24EI (L . a 2))2 EI r .Draft 5{32 10) Propped Cantilever.a2 max L when :414L < a at x = L q 2L+a a max Pb2 (a + 2L) 2L3 Pa 2 2 2L3 (3L . x)2 x Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

L) 2 8 3 PL L = 192EI at x = 2 max Px2 when x < L = 48EI (3L . 5L2x + 4L5 ) WL3 = 15EI 15) Cantilever Beam Uniform Load R=V Vx Mx at x = L Mmax x at x = 0 = wL = wx 2 = wx 2 wL2 = 2 = 24w (x4 .Draft Diagrams 5. 4L3 x + 3L4 ) EI 4 = wL 8EI max Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 Shear & Moment 13) Beam Fixed at Both Ends Concentrated Load R=V = P 2 L Mmax = PL at x = 2 8 when x < L Mx = P (4x . 4x) x 2 5{33 14) Cantilever Beam Triangular Unsymmetric Load = 8W 3 2 x = W L2 = WL 3 R=V Vx at x = L Mmax Mx x at x = 0 max 2 = Wx2 3LW = 60EIL2 (x5 .

b) 6EI Pb3 = 3EI Pb2 = 6EI (3L .x 2 PL at x = 0 and x = L Mmax = 2 PL3 at x = 0 max = 12EI L 2 = P (12. 3x . b) . x) ((L + 2x) x EI Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . L + x) 6 = = = = 17) Cantilever Beam Point Load at Free End R=V = P at x = L Mmax = PL Mx = Px PL3 at x = 0 max = 3EI P = 6EI (2L3 . a) Pb2 (3L . 2 = P (LEIx) (3b .Draft 5{34 16) Cantilever Beam Point Load R=V at x = L Mmax when a < x Mx at x = 0 max at x = a when x < a when a < x a x x REVIEW of STATICS P Pb P (x . 3L2x + x3 ) x 18) Cantilever Beam Concentrated Force and Moment at Free End R=V = P Mx = P L .

a2 ) x 6 at L < x < L + a = Pabx1 (L + a) x1 6EIL 21) Continuous Beam. Two Equal Spans Concentrated Force Pb 2 4L3 4L . x2 . Pab (L + a) 4 3 PaL 4L2 + b(L + a) 4L3 Pab 4L2 . x2 ) x EIL L. a(L + a) Pa 2 2L3 2L + b(L + a) .Draft Diagrams 5. b2 . when a < x = Pa(EIL x) (2Lx .x 2 Mx = wx (L . x) 2 5wL4 L at x = 2 max = 384EI wx = 24EI (L3 . a(L + a) 4L3 Pab (L + a) 4L2 R1 = V1 R2 = V2 + V3 R3 = V3 V2 Mmax at x = L M1 = = = = = = Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 2Lx2 + x3 ) x 3 x1 when L < x < L + a = wL EI x x1 24 20) Beam Overhanging one Support Concentrated Force Max when a < b R1 = V1 = Pb L Pa Max when b < a R2 = V2 = L at x < aL Mx = Pbx L p q Pab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b) a(a+2b) when a > b = at x = max 3 27EIL Pa2 b2 at x = a = 3EIL a when x < a = 6Pbx (L2 .3 Shear & Moment 19) Beam Overhanging One Support Uniform Load Between Supports 5{35 R = V = wL 2 Vx = w L .

M2 2 L PL . 4x2 = 48EI 3L . End Moments R1 = V1 R2 = V2 at x = L M3 2 when x < L Mx 2 when L < x Mx 2 when x < L x 2 P + M1 . M2 Vx = w 2 L . x) (M1 (2L . Uniform Load. 8M1 L . End Moments REVIEW of STATICS R1 = V1 = wL + M1 . x) + M1 . M2 2 L P . 4M2L + w w w 23) Simple Beam Concentrated Force. M = 2 1 L = P (L . M2 x . M1 2Px L 2 . x) + M2(L + x)) PL = = = Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . x + M1 . M1 . M1 . M2 2 L L . M2 x . M2 2 L R2 = V2 = wL . M2 x . 4M2 x2 = 24EI wL wL 12M1 x + L3 . M2 2 4 w wl wx x3 . M1 + M2 + M1 . 8(L .M at x = L + M1wL 2 2 wx (L .Draft 5{36 22) Simple Beam. M1 + M2 4 2 P + M1 . M Mx = 2 1 L s b x = L2 . x) + M1 . 2L + 3M1 .

a2 . 2L2x2 + Lx3 . Fig. 2a2 L2 + 2a2 x2 ) 24EIL 2 . wx w(a .1. x )2 ( 2 wx 1 4 3 2 2 2 2 L2 2 24EIL (L . a) 2 = wa 2 = wx (L2 . 62 Except for the neutral surface all other longitudinal bers either lengthen or shorten. Considering a segment EF of length dx at a distance y from the neutral axis. 2a L + 2a x ) wx1 (4a2 L.4 Flexure 61 wx (L4 . L2 2 at 0 < x < L at L < x < L + a at 0 < x < L at L < x < L + a at x = L R1 = V1 R2 = V2 + V3 V2 V3 Vx Vx1 M1 M2 = Mx = Mx1 = x x1 = = = = = = = = = = = 5. a2 ) 2L w 2 2 L ( L + a) wa w (L2 + a2 ) 2L R1 . x )2 2 1 at 0 < x < L at L < x < L + a a at x = L 1 . 3 wx1 (4 2 2 3 24EI 2 a L L + 6a x1 . x1 ) w 2 2 8L2 (L + a) (L . x1 ) w 2 2 8L2 (L + a) (L . L + 6a2x . a2 .11) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . a) wa2 2 wx (L2 . 4ax1 + x1 ) w ( L .4 Flexure 24) Beam Overhanging one Support Uniform Load R1 = V1 R2 = V2 + V3 V2 V3 Vx Vx1 M1 M2 Mx Mx1 = = = = = = = 5{37 w (L2 . thereby creating a longitudinal strain "x. its original length is EF = dx = d (5. support conditions. 4ax2 + x3 ) 1 1 1 24EI 5.4.14 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the radius by end couples M . L22 2 at 0 < x < L at L < x < L + a at 0 < x < L at L < x < L + a x x1 at x = L at 0 < x < L at L < x < L + a a2 at x = L 1 .Draft 5. a2 ) 2L w 2 2L (L + a) wa w (L2 + a2 ) 2L R1 . xL) 2L = w (a . It is assumed that plane cross-sections normal to the length of the unbent beam remain plane after the beam is bent. xL) 2 wLa .5. wx w(a .1 Basic Kinematic Assumption Curvature Fig. 23 x + Lx . 5.

EF = dx . yd = dx . y dx (5.14: Deformation of a Beam un Pure Bending and 63 d = dx E 0 F 0 = ( . the curvature (Greek letter kappa) is also used where =1 (5.16) thus. Thus strains are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. y (5. dx "x = EF dx "x = .17) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 64 (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature.Draft 5{38 O +ve Curvature.15) where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). y)d = d .14) (5. -ve Bending REVIEW of STATICS ρ M M Neutral Axis E’ F’ Y dA E F X Z dx Figure 5. we consider the deformed length E 0 F 0 (5. "x = . +ve bending dθ -ve Curvature. y (5. y dx .12) To evaluate this strain. In some textbook.13) The strain is now determined from: or after simpli cation E 0 F 0 .

4 Flexure 5. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 Internal Equilibrium Section Properties 68 Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium.3. 67 Combining Eq.18) where E is Young's Modulus.1 70 Fx = 0 Neutral Axis The rst equation we consider is the summation of axial forces. substituting we obtain Z A But since the curvature and the modulus of elasticity E are constants.2 Stress-Strain Relations 5{39 65 So far we considered the kinematic of the beam.4. Z Fx = 0 ) (5. The internal forces on the \cut" section must be in equilibrium with the external forces. we conclude that Z A x dA = .Draft 5.19) 5. with equation 5.4. the internal axial forces must be in equilibrium.19. 66 For linear elastic material Hooke's law states x = E"x (5. the internal forces must also satisfy the equilibrium equations. yet later on we will need to consider equilibrium in terms of the stresses.3. 5.4. 5.20) x dA = 0 where x was given by Eq.21-a) A ydA = 0 (5.22) neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross section. Z A E ydA = 0 (5. 69 The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam. we now have an external moment to account for.4.17 we obtain x = .E y (5.2 72 or the rst moment of the cross section with respect to the z axis is zero. However contrarily to the summation of axial forces. 71 Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beam-column). Hence we conclude that the M = 0 Moment of Inertia The second equation of internal equilibrium which must be satis ed is the summation of moments. Hence we need to relate strain to stress. 5.

5.26) S def I = c 75 Section properties for selected sections are shown in Table 5. 77 We merely substitute Eq. x ydA M = E y 2 dA A A x = . My M I = EI Hence. where dA is an di erential area a distance y from the neutral axis.29) Example 5-16: Design Example Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . we will have compressive stresses above the neutral axis.19 9 Z Z = M = .S a y2 dA A y2 dA 9 > = > M 1 EI = = (5.28) x = . and a positive moment. we obtain x = .23) Int. inserting Eq. the beam formula. | Z REVIEW of STATICS x ydA A{z } the one from the moment diagram at that particular location where the beam was sliced. for a positive y (above neutral axis).4.27) M (5.24. 78 Finally. This formula will be extensively used for design of structural components. 73 Substituting Eq. 5.3.E y 74 (5. 5.25 into 5.24) We now pause and de ne the section moment of inertia with respect to the z axis as I def = and section modulus as Z A y2 dA (5. M Ext. hence (5.25) (5.4 Beam Formula 76 We now have the ingredients in place to derive one of the most important equations in structures. M = I = Z E Z which shows that the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a beam is proportional to the bending moment M and inversely proportional to EI which we call exural rigidity. the maximum ber stresses can be obtained by combining the preceding equation with Equation 5.E y (5.19 above.26 x=. 79 Alternatively.Draft 5{40 Mz = 0 . 5.+ve |{z} = .

3: Section Properties Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 5.h0 b03 12 c Y x h y b X A = h(a2+b) (2 + y = h3(aa+bb)) 3 (a2 +4ab+b2 Ix = h 36(a+b) h y b Y X A x y Ix Iy = = = = = bh b2 c + h3 3 bh3 36 bh (b2 .4 Flexure Y x Y 5{41 h y b Y a X A x y Ix Iy = = = = = bh x b 2 h 2 bh3 12 hb3 12 h h’ y b’ b X A x y Ix Iy = = = = = bh .b0 h03 12 hb3 . b0 h0 2 h 2 b bh3 . bc + c2 ) 36 Y r X A = Ix = Iy = d r 4 = 64 d2 r42 = 4 4 t r X A = 2 rt = dt Ix = Iy = r3 t = d3 t 8 Y b X b a a A = Ix = Iy = ab3 4 ab 3 ba3 Table 5.

The beam is composed of a steel tube with thickness t = 0:25 . uniformly loaded. beam is simply supported at one end. and I = r3 t.14.ft (5. we recall that that the moment is directly proportional to the curvature .Draft 5{42 in ksi REVIEW of STATICS A 20 ft long. The maximum moment will be 2 (20)2 2 = 50 Mmax = wL = (1) 8 8 ksi 2 4 k/ft ft k.32) 5.27 ( EI = = 1 ). We next seek a relation between maximum de ection and radius wL4 max = 185EI 3 I = rt = = = 9 = 185E r3 t 4 4 3 3 3 (1) k/ft(20) ft (12) in = ft (185)(29 000) ksi(3:14)r3 (0:25) in 65:365 wL4 (5.ft in/ft in (5. and from above Mmax = wL . 5. We now set those two values equal to their respective maximum L (20) (12) max = 360 = 360 ft in/ft max = (18) ksi = r2 764 ) r = r = 0:67 = 65:365 ) r = r in r 3 764 = 6. Similarly for the stress = S = I = M IS r 3 rt = M2 t r = (50)14)r2(12) (3: (0:25) = 764 r2 k.30) 3.4. 81 Thus. 80 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and rigidly connected at the other. 8 2.25’ Solution: wL 1.33-b) in 5.33-a) (5. 1 k/ft r 20’ 0. max = 185EI . Steel has E = 29 000 .51 18 65:65 = 4:61 0:67 in (5. and max L=360. and Eq. Select the radius such that max 18 .5 Approximate Analysis M From Fig. 5.31) r 4.

15: Elastic Curve from the Moment Diagram Statically indeterminate structure. Locate those in ection points on the structure. 3. Identify in ection points. A zero moment correspnds to an in ection point in the de ected shape. 4. 2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . we can: 1. Statically determinate structure. Perform an approximate analysis.14). Hence. Plot the de ected shape.Draft 5. approximate their location. for Figure 5.4 Flexure 82 5{43 1. 5. Fig. we can determine the de ected shape from the moment diagram. 5.15. A positive and negative moment would correspond to positive and negative curvature respectively (adopting the sign convention shown in Fig. which will then become statically determinate. 2.

Draft 5{44 REVIEW of STATICS Figure 5.16: Approximate Analysis of Beams Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

4 Flexure Example 5-17: Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam 5{45 Perform an approximate analysis of the following beam. We sketch the anticipated de ected shape. 20k 16’ 12’ 28’ 28’ Solution: 20k 16’ 12’ 28’ 28’ 22’ 6’ 28’ 20k Approximate Location of IP A 22’ B C 6’ D 28’ 1. At that location. We have 3 unknowns RA . all in the vertical directions. and only two applicable equations of equilibrium (since we do not have any force in the x direction).Draft 5. thus the problem is statically indeterminare. and we now have an additional equation of condition at that location ( M = 0). 3. 2. RC . Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . we place a hinge. and compare your results with the exact solution. and RD . and guess the location of the in ection point.

4(28)3 Mmax = R1 a = (6:64)(16) = 106.28 2(28)3 R3 = RD = .34-a) (+ .38-d) (5.38-f) (5. (20)(28 + 12) + (RC )(28) = 0 (5:45)(56) . 494:76 + 174:72 = 0 7. (20)(22 . We now compare with the exact solution from Section 5. (20)(40) + (RC )(28) = 0 ) RC = 17.45 k 6 (5. The moments are determined next (5. Pab (L + a) 4L3 (20)(16)(12) (28 + 16) = . a(L + a) (5.12 ? k k 6. If we now consider the entire beam: REVIEW of STATICS (+ .1.) MB = 0 (22)(RA ) .Draft 5{46 4.36-a) (5.38-c) (5. 16) = 0 ) RA = 5. and take the moments with respect to point B: 5.8 9.38-g) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3:12 3. b = 12. (17:67)(28) + (3:12)(56) = p 320 .3. a = 16. and P = 20 = (20)(12) 4(28)2 . 20 + Rc + RD = 0 5:45 .37-b) Mmax = RA a = (5:45)(16) = 87.) MA = 0 (20)(16) .67 6 (+ 6 Fy = 0 ) RA .) MD = 0 (RA )(28 + 28) . solution 21 where:L = 28.92 = .38-b) (5. (RC )(28) + (RD )(28 + 28) = 320 . (16)(28 + 16) = 6.64 4(28)3 Pa R2 = RB = 2L3 2L2 + b(L + a) = (20)(16) 2(28)2 + 12(28 + 16) = 15. If we tabulate the results we have Pb R1 = RA = 4L3 4L2 .38-e) (5.36 8.2 M1 = R3 L = (1:92)(28) = 53. If we consider AB.38-a) (5.2.2 M1 = RD L = (3:12)(28) = 87. 20 + 17:67 + RD = 0 ) RD = . Check (+ .37-a) (5.

2 18 10. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .36 53.92 63 M1 87.64 18 RC 17.12 1. one should not underestimate the simplicity of this method keeping in mind (an exact analysis of this structure would have been computationally much more involved).45 6.8 62 Mmax 87.Draft 5.2 106.28 -16 RD 3. Whereas the correlation between the approximate and exact results is quite poor.4 Flexure 5{47 Value Approximate Exact % Error RA 5. Furthermore. often one only needs a rough order of magnitude of the moments.67 15.

Draft 5{48 REVIEW of STATICS Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

1 and in the absence of any horizontal load we have T V V θ w dv dx V+dV θ H T+dT H H v x w(x) v(x) ds dx L Figure 6. Let us consider a cable with distributed load p(x) per unit horizontal projection of the cable length (thus neglecting the weight of the cable). its con guration must be derived from its deformation.1-b) where V is the vertical component of the cable tension at x (Note that if the cable was subjected to its own weight then we would have wds instead of wdx). 6.1-b yields H =constant. An in nitesimal portion of that cable can be assumed to be a straight line. Because the cable must be tangent to T . Summation of the vertical forces yields (+ ? Fy = 0 ) .1 Theory 1 Whereas the forces in a cable can be determined from statics alone.1-a) dV + wdx = 0 (6.Draft Chapter 6 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE 6.1: Cable Structure Subjected to p(x) Substituting into Eq. 6. we have V tan = H (6. dx (H tan ) = w (6.3) .2) d d(H tan ) + wdx = 0 ) .V + wdx + (V + dV ) = 0 ) (6. Fig.

6-a) (6. 6. this relation clearly shows that the horizontal force is inversely proportional 8 to the sag h. L ) we can solve for the horizontal force 5 Since the maximum sag h occurs at midspan (x = 2 .Hv00 = w (6. Finally.10) Thus the cable assumes a parabolic shape (as the moment diagram of the applied load).Draft 6{2 2 3 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE d . Furthermore.H dx (tan ) = w (6. we can rewrite this equation as r def L = h wL = 8r H 6 (6. thus.9-b) Eliminating H from Eq. thus s s 2 2 p Tmax = V 2 + H 2 = wL + H 2 = H 1 + wL=2 (6.8) we note the analogy with the maximum moment in a simply supported uniformly loaded beam M = Hh = wL2 . as h & H %.4 yields the governing equation for cables .11) 2 H Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4) But H is constant (no horizontal load is applied).Hv = wx + C1 x + C2 2 (6. 6.5) 4 For a cable subjected to a uniform load w .9-a) (6. 7 Whereas the horizontal force H is constant throughout the cable.7 and 6. the tension T is not. The maximum tension occurs at the support where the vertical component is equal to V = wL and the horizontal one 2 to H . we can determine its shape by double integration of Eq. Thus 2 v = 2w x(L .5 and the constants of integrations C1 and C2 can be obtained from the boundary conditions: v = 0 at x = 0 and at x = L ) C2 = 0 and C1 = . x) (6. tan = dx which when substituted in Eq. wL .8 we obtain x2 x v = 4h . 6.7) H This equation gives the shape v(x) in terms of the horizontal force H . this last equation can be rewritten as dv Written in terms of the vertical displacement v.6-b) H = wL 8h 2 (6. L2 + L (6.Hv0 = wx + C1 2 .

8 we obtain1 . they can be idealized a perfectly exible members with no shear/bending resistance but with high axial strength.500 ft (at the time the world's longest span). ( 1)(n 3! . and the pairs themselves are 106 ft apart.DraftStudy 6. is a suspension bridge spanning the Hudson river from New York City to New Jersey. the anchors.12) Had we assumed a uniform load w per length of cable (rather than horizontal projection). this 1 1 ( 1) 2 2 ( 1)b Recalling that (a + b)n = an + nan. The cables are made of 26. 2! 2 2 2 2 2! + n n. 6{3 Tmax = H 1 + 16r2 H (1 + 8r2 ) 8 p (6.1 Geometry A longitudinal and plan elevation of the bridge is shown in For simplicity we will assume in our analysis that the two approaching spans are equal to 650 ft. The bridge was designed by O. We will assume a span width of 100 ft. 10 6. 6. 6. 1 + b = (1 + b) 1 1 + b Derivation of this equation is beyond the scope of this course. Assuming an average width of 100 ft. Because of our assumption regarding the roller support for the cables. the towers will be subjected only to axial forces. 12 The cables are idealized as supported by rollers at the top of the towers.196 inch in diameter.2 The Case Study Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) 9 The George Washington bridge. 15 The towers are 578 ft tall and rest on concrete caissons in the river. an. who had emigrated from Switzerland. 2)b 3 + Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the equation would have been one of a catenary2.2 Loads 16 The dead load is composed of the weight of the deck and the cables and is estimated at 390 and 400 psf respectively for the central and side spans respectively. I 14 Because the cables are much longer than they are thick (large L ). 11 There are two cables of three feet diameter on each side of the bridge. They are continuous over the tower supports and are rmly anchored in both banks by huge blocks of concrete. In 1962 the deck was sti ened with the addition of a lower deck.13) The cable between transmission towers is a good example of a catenary. b + n n. It was completed in 1931 with a central span of 3. hence the horizontal components of the forces in each side of the cable must be equal (their vertical components will add up).2 The Case Combining this with Eq. b + or (1 + b)n = 1 + nb + n n. The centers of each pair are 9 ft apart.474 steel wires. w v = H cosh H L . x w 2 +h (6. p 2 Thus for b << 1.H. Amman.2. 13 The cables support the road deck which is hungby suspenders attached at the cables.2. each 0. 6.

HUDSON RIVER N.760 ft 650 ft ELEVATION N.J.2: Longitudinal and Plan Elevation of the George Washington Bridge Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Y.500 ft 4.Draft 6{4 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE ?? 377 ft 327 ft 610 ft 3. PLAN Figure 6.

This loading must be placed such that maximum stresses are produced. or wind loads in this analysis. design loads are given by the AASHTO (Association of American State Highway Transportation O cials). Fig.15) We do not consider earthquake. we estimate that there is a total of 12 lanes or LL = (12)Lanes(:64) = =Lane = 7:68 k ft k/ft 8 k/ft (6. Either the design truck with speci ed axle loads and spacing must be used or the equivalent uniform load and concentrated load.3 Cable Forces 20 The thrust H (which is the horizontal component of the cable force) is determined from Eq.8 2 cs H = wLh 8 (3 500) = (47) (8)(327) = 220 000 k/ft ft k 2 ft 2 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 19 Final DL and LL are.3: Truck Load 18 With two decks. k/ft Figure 6.4: TL = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft 6. 6. 17 For highway bridges.14) for the main span and 40 for the side ones. 6. 6.2 The Case would be equivalent to 6{5 DL = (390) (100) (1 000) k psf ft lbs = 39 k/ft (6.2. Fig. The HS-20 truck is often used for the design of bridges on main highways.DraftStudy 6.3.

S DEAD LOADS w = 8 k/ft L Figure 6.Draft 6{6 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE w = 40 k/ft D.S w = 39 k/ft D w = 40 k/ft D.4: Dead and Live Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

5: Location of Cable Reactions 22 The vertical force in the columns due to the central span (cs) is simply the support reaction. the total load is TL = 40 + 8 = 48 .000 6.5.2.16) (6. POINTS WITH REACTIONS TO CABLES Figure 6.18-a) MD = 0 . 6.2 The Case From Eq. Vss Lss = 0 k/ft Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .17) Note that we can check this by determining the vector sum of H and V which should be equal to Tmax : p p Vcs + H = (82 250) + (220 000) = 235 000 kp 2 23 Victor Saouma Along the side spans (ss).6 wTOT = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft A POINT OF NO MOMENT B REACTIONS AT TOP OF TOWER L = 3.4 Reactions 21 Cable reactions are shown in Fig.6: Vertical Reactions in Columns Due to Central Span Load 1 Vcs = 2 wLcs = 1 (47) 2 2 2 k/ft (3 500) = 82 250 ft 2 k (6.500 FT Figure 6.+ hssH + (wss Lss) L2 .DraftStudy 6. We determine the vertical reaction by taking the summation of moments with respect to the anchor: ss (6.12 the maximum tension is r = Tmax = = = 6{7 h 327 Lcs = 3 500 = 0:0934 p k k k H 1 + 16r2 p (2 200) 1 + (16)(0:0934)2 (2 200) (1:0675) = 235. 6. 6.

20-c) (6.(48) (650) + (143 200) + Ranchor = 0 (6.Draft 6{8 k k Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE k/ft = (377) (220 000) + (48) (650) (650) .450 k 220.500 (6.22-c) (6. 6.22-e) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .20-d) k/ft ft k k 225.18-b) (6.20-b) Ranchor = 112.21-a) q p ss 2 Ttower = Vss + H 2 = (143 200)2 + (220 000)2 = 262.18-c) 24 Hence the total axial force applied on the column is V = Vcs + Vss = (82 250) + (143 200) = 225. Fig.20-a) (+ 6 Fy = 0 (wss Lss) + Vss + Ranchor = 0 . 6.22-b) 2 in (6.22-a) 2 =wire = 3 200 (6.19) 25 The vertical reaction at the anchor is given by summation of the forces in the y direction.21-b) k k 27 Victor Saouma The cable stresses are determined last.000 k Figure 6. 650Vss = 0 2 Vss = 143 200 ft ft k (6. q p ss 2 Tanchor = Ranchor + H 2 = (112 000)2 + (220 000)2 = 247 000 (6.450 k k k (6.22-d) (6.8: 2 2 Awire = D = (3:14)(0:196) = 0:03017 2 4 4 Atotal = (4)cables(26 474)wires/cable(0:03017) Central Span = H = (220 000) 2 = 68:75 A (3 200) ss Ttower (262 500) 2 ss Side Span Tower tower = A = (3 200) 2 = 82 T ss 000) 2 ss Side Span Anchor tower = anchor = (247200) 2 = 77:2 A (3 in k ksi in in ksi in in ksi in in (6.000 k 112.000 ? (6.7: ) (6.7: Cable Reactions in Side Span 26 The axial force in the side cable is determined the vector sum of the horizontal and vertical reactions. Fig.

K=AL/E Shear Moment Figure 6.75 ksi 81. 6.DraftStudy 6. and the resulting shear and moment diagrams for this idealization are shown in Fig.8: Cable Stresses If the cables were to be anchored to a concrete block.2 The Case 73. for all practical purposes can be treated as a continuous beam supported by elastic springs with sti ness K = AL=E (where L is the length of the supporting cable). This is often idealized as a beam on elastic foundations. Shear and Moment Diagrams Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the volume of the block should be at least equal to V = (112 000) (1 000) = = 747 000 3 or a cube of approximately 91 ft 150 = 3 k lbs k lbs ft ft 28 29 The deck.2 ksi 6{9 Figure 6.9: Deck Idealization.9 ksi 77.4 ksi 68.9.

Draft 6{10 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

2 Greeks 5 The greek philosopher Pythagoras (born around 582 B. on pain of death.C. 7. at Crotona in southern Italy. guarded by secrets of the guild. would be better appreciated if we were to develop a sense of our evolution. Gothic cathedrals to name a few). Colisseums. 7. 2 7. Our profession. Via Appia. Sir Isaac Newton 1 More than any other engineering discipline.1. At his school he allowed neither textbooks nor recording of notes in lectures. Fig. Despite this. which was primarily a secret religious society. and seldom supplemented by new knowledge. The builders were guided by rules of thumbs and experience. He was the builder of the step pyramid of Sakkara about 3. second oldest.Draft Chapter 7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE If I have been able to see a little farther than some others. it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants..) founded his famous school. aqueducs. Architecture/Mechanics/Structures is the proud outcome of a of a long and distinguished history. 3 The rst structural engineer in history seems to have been Imhotep. He taught until the age of 95. which were passed from generation to generation. and is . No record exists of any rational consideration. 4 Hamurrabi's code in Babylonia (1750 BC) included among its 282 laws penalties for those \architects" whose houses collapsed. structures erected before Galileo are by modern standards quite phenomenal (pyramids. either as to the strength of structural members or as to the behavior of structural materials. structural engineering existing as an art rather than a science.000 B. one of only two commoners to be dei ed.1 Before the Greeks Throughout antiquity.C. and yielded great in uence over ancient Egypt.

) was Dean of the Lyceum. He introduced the concept of center of gravity. he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined.C. If a builder build a house for some one. one of his generals Ptolemy I became Pharaoh and established a library. Fig. 232. containing about 700. and its rst professor of geometry was Euclid (315-250 B. If it kill a slave of the owner. he shall re-erect the house from his own means. 229 If a builder build a house for some one. It was one such invention (the lens) which kept the Roman armies at bay outside Syracuse for three years. Many of these scrolls were subsequently brought to the attention of the western world through translations by the arabs. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it. He is credited with having written in more than 25 di erent elds of knowledge. and later became the largest of the ancient world. 9 The greatest of the Greeks was Archimedes (287-212) who was one of the greatest physicist of the ancient world and one of its greatest mathematician.) who founded the city of Alexandria in 323.). Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .000 students). 7. a college just outside the city gates of Athens. 8 Alexandria was also the seat of the rst university (with a reported enrollment of 14. 230. the builder must make the walls solid from his own means. He is considered by many as the founder of mechanics because of his treatise \On Equilibrium". and does not construct it properly. Upon his death. When the city fell. even though he has not yet completed it if then the walls seem toppling. He refused to write about \practical stu " such as machines. he was supposed to have had his life spared. If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to death.1: Hamurrabi's Code reported to have coined the term mathematics which means literally the \science of learning" (and also the word philosopher meaning \one who loves wisdom").Draft 7{2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE 228. One of the most in uential men of early civilization. If it ruin goods.C. and by other he was slain because he was too busy solving a mathematical problem to appear in front of the Roman consul and conqueror of Syracuse.000 scrolls. By some accounts he was killed by an ignorant soldier who disobeyed orders. and was a man of universal ability. then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house. Figure 7. spiral pumps. 233. and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell.2. 6 Aristotle (384-322 B. and others. he shall give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of surface. 231.C. But the circumstances of his subsequent death are obscure. then that builder shall be put to death. 7 A pupil of Aristotle was Alexander the Great (356-323 B. catapults. and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner. The library of Alexandria was founded with the private library of Aristotle as a nucleus.

Draft 7.3 Romans

7{3

Figure 7.2: Archimed

7.3 Romans
10

Science made much less progress under the Romans than under the Greeks. The Romans apparently were more practical, and were not as interested in abstract thinking though they were excellent ghters and builders. 11 As the roman empire expanded, the Romans built great roads (some of them still in use) such as the Via Appia, Cassia, Aurelia Also they built great bridges (such as the third of a mile bridge over the Rhine built by Caesars), and stadium (Colliseum). 12 One of the most notable Roman construction was the Pantheon, Fig. 7.3. It is the best-preserved

Figure 7.3: Pantheon major edi ce of ancient Rome and one of the most signi cant buildings in architectural history. In shape it is an immense cylinder concealing eight piers, topped with a dome and fronted by a rectangular colonnaded porch. The great vaulted dome is 43 m (142 ft) in diameter, and the entire structure is lighted through one aperture, called an oculus, in the center of the dome. The Pantheon was erected by the Roman emperor Hadrian between AD 118 and 128. 13 Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (70?-25 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer. He was an artillery engineer in the service of the rst Roman emperor, Augustus. His Ten Books on Architecture (Vitruvius

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1960) is the oldest surviving work on the subject and consists of dissertations on a wide variety of subjects relating to architecture, engineering, sanitation, practical hydraulics, acoustic vases, and the like. Much of the material appears to have been taken from earlier extinct treatises by Greek architects. Vitruvius's writings have been studied ever since the Renaissance as a thesaurus of the art of classical Roman architecture, Fig. 7.4.

Figure 7.4: From Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture, (Vitruvius 1960)

7.4 The Medieval Period (477-1492)
14

This period, also called the Dark Ages, was marked by a general decline of civilization throughout Europe following the decline and fall of the western Roman Empire. 15 The eastern Roman Empire on the other hand was to continue, and the center of Greek life had by then been transferred to Constantinople. This city exerted great in uence throughout Asia Minor. 16 Hagia Sophia, also Church of the Holy Wisdom, Fig. 7.5, was the most famous Byzantine structure in Constantinople (now Istanbul). Built (532-37) by Emperor Justinian I, its huge size and daring technical innovations make it one of the world's key monuments. The size of its dome though, 112 ft, was nevertheless smaller than the one of the Pantheon in Rome. 17 During that period, the Arabs carried the torch of knowledge, gave birth to algebra, translated some of the great books of the Library of Alexandria. 18 Architecture, was the most important and original art form during the Gothic period, (Anon. xx). The principal structural characteristics of Gothic architecture arose out of medieval masons' e orts to solve the problems associated with supporting heavy masonry ceiling vaults over wide spans. The problem was that the heavy stonework of the traditional arched barrel vault and the groin vault exerted a tremendous downward and outward pressure that tended to push the walls upon which the vault rested outward,

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Figure 7.5: Hagia Sophia thus collapsing them. A building's vertical supporting walls thus had to be made extremely thick and heavy in order to contain the barrel vault's outward thrust. Medieval masons solved this di cult problem about 1120 with a number of brilliant innovations. First and foremost they developed a ribbed vault, in which arching and intersecting stone ribs support a vaulted ceiling surface that is composed of mere thin stone panels. This greatly reduced the weight (and thus the outward thrust) of the ceiling vault, and since the vault's weight was now carried at discrete points (the ribs) rather than along a continuous wall edge, separate widely spaced vertical piers to support the ribs could replace the continuous thick walls. The round arches of the barrel vault were replaced by pointed (Gothic) arches which distributed thrust in more directions downward from the topmost point of the arch. Since the combination of ribs and piers relieved the intervening vertical wall spaces of their supportive function, these walls could be built thinner and could even be opened up with large windows or other glazing. A crucial point was that the outward thrust of the ribbed ceiling vaults was carried across the outside walls of the nave, rst to an attached outer buttress and then to a freestanding pier by means of a half arch known as a ying buttress. The ying buttress leaned against the upper exterior of the nave (thus counteracting the vault's outward thrust), crossed over the low side aisles of the nave, and terminated in the freestanding buttress pier, which ultimately absorbed the ceiling vault's thrust. These elements enabled Gothic masons to build much larger and taller buildings than their Romanesque predecessors and to give their structures more complicated ground plans. The skillful use of ying buttresses made it possible to build extremely tall, thin-walled buildings whose interior structural system of columnar piers and ribs reinforced an impression of soaring verticality. 19 Vilet-Le-Duc classical book, (le Duc 1977) provided an in depth study of Gothic architecture.

7.5 The Renaissance
20

During the Renaissance there was a major revival of interest in science and art.

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7.5.1 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519
21 Leonardo da Vinci was the most outstanding personality of that period (and of human civilization for that matter). He was not only a great artist (Mona Lisa), but also a great scientist and engineer. 22 He did not write books, but much information was found in his notebooks, one the most famous (Codex Leicester) was recently purchased by Bill Gates whose company Corbis made a CD-ROM from it. 23 He was greatly interested in mechanics, (Timoshenko 1982), and in one of his notes he states \Mechanics is the Paradise of mathematical science because here we come to the fruits of mathematics."

He was the rst to explore concepts of mechanics, since Archimedes, using a scienti c approach. He applied the principle of virtual displacements to analyze various systems of pulleys and levers. He appears to have developped a correct idea of the thrust produced by an arch. 25 In one of his manuscripts there is a sketch of two members on which a vertical load Q is acting and the question is asked: What forces are needed at a and b to have equilibrium? (From the dotted line parallelogram, in the sketch, it can be concluded that he had the right answer). 26 Leonardo also studied the strength of structural materials experimentally. He tried to determine the tensile strength of an iron wire of di erent length (size e ect). 27 He also studied the load carrying capacity of a simply supported uniformly loaded beam and concluded that \the strength of the beam supported at both ends varies inversely as the length and directly as the width" (is this correct? how about the depth of the beam?). 28 For a cantilevered beam he stated \If a beam 2 braccia long supports 100 libre, a beam 1 braccia long will support 200" Finally, Leonardo brie y studied the strength of columns and found that \it varies inversely as its length, but directly as some ratio of its cross section."
24

Leonardo's was the rst indeed to attempt to apply statics in nding the forces acting in members of structures, friction and the rst to perform experiments to determine the strength of structural materials. 30 Interestingly, here is Leonardo's de nition of force, (Penvenuto 1991) \I say that force is a spiritual virtue, an invisible power, which, through accidental exterior violence, is caused by motion and placed and infused into bodies which are thus] removed and deviated from their natural use, giving to such virtue an active life of marvelous power".
29 31

Unfortunatly, these important ndings, were buried in his notes, and engineers in the fteenth and sixteenth centuries continued, as in the Roman era, to x dimensions of structural elements by relying on experience and judgment.

7.5.2 Brunelleschi 1377-1446
32

Brunelleschi was a Florentine architect and one of the initiators of the Italian Renaissance. His revival of classical forms and his championing of an architecture based on mathematics, proportion, and perspective make him a key artistic gure in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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33 He was born in Florence in 1377 and received his early training as an artisan in silver and gold. In 1401 he entered, and lost, the famous design competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery. He then turned to architecture and in 1418 received the commission to execute the dome of the un nished Gothic Cathedral of Florence, also called the Duomo. The dome, Fig. 7.6 a great innovation both

Figure 7.6: Florence's Cathedral Dome artistically and technically, consists of two octagonal vaults, one inside the other. Its shape was dictated by its structural needs one of the rst examples of architectural functionalism. Brunelleschi made a design feature of the necessary eight ribs of the vault, carrying them over to the exterior of the dome, where they provide the framework for the dome's decorative elements, which also include architectural reliefs, circular windows, and a beautifully proportioned cupola. This was the rst time that a dome created the same strong e ect on the exterior as it did on the interior. 34 Completely di erent from the emotional, elaborate Gothic mode that still prevailed in his time, Brunelleschi's style emphasized mathematical rigor in its use of straight lines, at planes, and cubic spaces. This set the tone for many of the later buildings of the Florentine Renaissance. 35 His in uence on his contemporaries and immediate followers was very strong and has been felt even in the 20th century, when modern architects came to revere him as the rst great exponent of rational architecture.

7.5.3 Alberti 1404-1472
36

Alberti was an Italian architect and writer, who was the rst important art theorist of the Renaissance and among the rst to design buildings in a pure classical style based on a study of ancient Roman architecture. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Victor Saouma

Fig. He was an outstanding engineer who 44 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . he was a theoretical rather than a practical architect. and his facades have a noteworthy simplicity almost austerity and repose. adopted by Inigo Jones. he later joined the poet Trissino who took him to Rome. and other English architects. 40 In the late 1440s. 43 Palladio was the author of an important scienti c treatise on architecture. Tiene. He was pro cient in Greek. 7. As a poet.7 At the same time he shared the Renaissance concern for harmonious proportion. 7. While quartermaster in the Dutch army. and the natural sciences. 42 In and near Vicenza he designed many residences and public buildings. Although his buildings rank among the best architecture of the Renaissance. the son of a Florentine noble. which Brunelleschi had studied.Draft 7{8 37 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE He was born in Genoa. He received the best education available in the 15th century. 45 Stevin was a bookkeeper in Antwerp. He freely recombined elements of Roman buildings as suggested by his own building sites and by contemporary needs. where he became intensely involved with the cultural life of the city. Alberti began to work as an architect. and literature.5. He also wrote books on sculpture. then he entered the University of Leiden in 1583 (at the age of 35). which preceded and in uenced the neoclassical architecture of the Georgian Style. Its precise rules and formulas were widely utilized. mathematics. He was born in Padua. where Palladio studied and measured Roman architectural ruins he also absorbed the treatises of Vitruvius. After this he moved to Leiden where he rst attended the Latin school.8. government. Although the historical antecedents of Palladio's style are the classically Roman-in uenced High Renaissance works of architects such as the Italian Donato Bramante. I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura. extensive study of Roman architecture. the family. 7. and one of the rst organists of his day. He furnished the plans of his buildings but never supervised their construction. One outcome of these studies was Palladio's Antiquities of Rome (1554) (Palladio 19xx). Subsequently he joined the papal court in Florence. then a clerk in the tax o ce at Brugge. The best known of these are the Barbarano. 7. Palladio's own use of classical motifs came through his direct. the principal guidebook to Roman ruins for the next two centuries. Chieregati. a philosopher. Christopher Wren.5. was a Dutch mathematician and engineer who founded the science of hydrostatics by showing that the pressure exerted by a liquid upon a given surface depends on the height of the liquid and the area of the surface.4 Palladio 1508-1580 41 Andrea Palladio was one of the most in uential architects in European history. Stevin invented a way of ooding the lowlands in the path of an invading army by opening selected sluices in dikes. and trained as a stonemason. Alberti greatly in uenced his contemporaries. and were basic to the Palladian style. 38 Alberti's architectural training began with the study of antique monuments during his rst stay in Rome. 39 Alberti took took an active part in the literary life of Florence and championed the literary use of Italian rather than the use of Latin. Porto. (Palladio 19xx) which was widely translated and in uenced many later architects. Fig. His De Re Aedi catoria (1485) was the rst printed work on architecture of the Renaissance. and Valmarana palaces and the Villa Capri. or Villa Rotunda. especially in England.5 Stevin Stevin. Probably at this time he became familiar with the mathematical laws of linear perspective.

5 The Renaissance 7{9 Figure 7.7: Palladio's Villa Rotunda Figure 7.8: Stevin Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 7.

He received his early education in Latin. Inspired by Archimedes. Just as his father had played an important role in the musical revolution 47 Figure 7. Stevin wrote important works on mechanics. by dropping two objects of di erent weight simultaneously from the Leaning Tower. and lecture halls capable of containing 2.5. condemned and had to read his recantation (At the end of his process he murmured the famous e pur se muove). In his book De Beghinselen der Weeghconst in 1586 appears the theorem of the triangle of forces giving impetus to statics. 49 In 1589 he became professor of mathematics at Pisa. locks and ports.000 students from all over Europe were used. Stevin made signi cant contributions to trigonometry. 50 In Padua he achieved great fame. he received a semio cial warning to avoid theology and limit himself to physical reasoning. where he remained until 1610. and navigation. 7. He subsequently became interested in astronomy and built one of the rst telescope through which he saw Jupiter and became an ardent proponent of the Copernican theory (which stated that the planets circle the sun as opposed to the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic assumptions that it was the sun which was circling Earth). probably because he contradicted Aristotelian professors. where he is reported to have shown his students the error of Aristotle's belief that speed of fall is proportional to weight. In 1592 he wrote Della Scienza Meccanica in which various problems of statics were treated using the principle of virtual displacement. but he soon turned to philosophy and mathematics. 48 In 1581 he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . For a time he tutored privately and wrote on hydrostatics and natural motions. When he published his books dealing with the two ways of regarding the universe (which clearly favored the Copernican theory) he was called to Rome by the Inquisition. forti cation. Greek and logic near Florence. This theory being condemned by the church. leaving the university without a degree in 1585. but he did not publish.6 Galileo 1564-1642 Galilei Galileo was born in Pisa in 1564. Fig. His contract was not renewed in 1592. He advised the Prince Maurice of Nassau on building forti cations for the war against Spain. geography.Draft 7{10 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE built windmills. Galileo came to see Aristotelian physical theology as limiting scienti c inquiry. The same year. he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua. In 1586 (3 years before Galileo) he reported that di erent weights fell a given distance in the same time. thus modern dynamics was born. 46 The author of 11 books. 7.9: Galileo from medieval polyphony to harmonic modulation.9.

he retired to his villa near Florence and wrote his nal book. Since the full publication of Galileo's trial documents in the 1870s. 7. Fig. his life shattered by the Inquisition. 53 It is interesting to note that when Galileo studied the strength of a cantilevered (wooden) beam with an applied load at the end. He determined that the stress is constant throughout the cross section (whereas as we know it varies linearly).Draft 7.laws governing the trajectory of projectiles.11.10. His rst science was the study of the forces that hold objects together -the dialogue taking place Figure 7. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . His second science concerned local motions . One cannot reason from the small to the large.5 The Renaissance 51 7{11 When he was almost seventy years old. Fig. triggered by observations of craftsmen building the Venetian eet.11: \Galileo's Beam" distribution. he failed to properly understand the exact internal stress/strain Figure 7. 52 He observed that if we make structures geometrically similar. because many mechanical devices succeed on a small scale that cannot exist in great size.10: Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. Strength of Materials as a discipline was born. 7. Cover Page in a shipyard. then with increase of the dimensions they become weaker and weaker. 54 Galileo's lifelong struggle to free scienti c inquiry from restriction by philosophical and theological interference stands beyond science. (Galilei 1974). A portion of the book dealing with the mechanical properties of structural materials and with the strength of beams. Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences.

In October 1992 a papal commission acknowledged the Vatican's error.12: Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke \Take a wire string of 20. This conceals the role of the philosophy professors who rst persuaded theologians to link Galileo's science with heresy. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1663 and was appointed Gresham Professor of Geometry at Oxford in 1665. 7.6 Pre Modern Period. It contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies.Draft 7{12 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE entire responsibility for Galileo's condemnation has customarily been placed on the Roman Catholic church. but did not develop mathematically. calling for its reversal. and grasped. Figure 7. and was the rst paper in which the elastic properties of material was discused. 56 Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight and educated at the University of Oxford. and fasten the upper part thereof to a nail. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in mechanics.12. the fundamental theory on which Newton formulated the law of gravitation. he was appointed surveyor of London. and he designed many buildings. or 30. and set down the Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 1635-1703 55 Hooke was best known for his study of elasticity but also original contributions to many other elds of science. In 1662 Hooke was appointed curator of experiments of the Royal Society and served in this position until his death.1 Hooke. 58 His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva. Fig. 57 Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry many of them through to completion. After the Great Fire of London in 1666. 7. and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with a pair of compasses take the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground or oor underneath. An investigation into the astronomer's condemnation. was opened in 1979 by Pope John Paul II. He served as assistant to the English physicist Robert Boyle and assisted him in the construction of the air pump. or 40 ft long.6. Seventeenth Century 7.

He published this theory in his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica or simply Principia. and you will nd that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights do that made them". Newton is probably best known for discovering universal gravitation. 61 In 1684 Newton's solitude was interrupted by a visit from Edmund Halley. 62 During the following two and a half years.6.e.14. 59 Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention. 7. 7.6 Pre Modern 7{13 said distance. Then compare the several strtchings of the said string. Newton. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram \ceiinosssttuu" in 1676 and the solution was given in 1678. 63 The Principia's appearance also involved Newton in an unpleasant episode with the English philosopher and physicist Robert Hooke.then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the said string. Fig. 1642-1727 60 Born on christmas day in the year of Galileo's death.Draft Period. Newton returned to these studies. Seventeenth Century 7. in 1687. and set them down. which explains that all bodies in space and on earth are a ected by the force called gravity. and at that time he had already entertained basic notions about universal gravitation. Fig. Newton established the modern science of dynamics by formulating his three laws of motion.2 Newton. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbos u and v were employed interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v). 7. As a result of Halley's visit. i. extension varies directly with force. This book marked a turning point in the history of science.13 was Professor of Mathematics Figure 7. Newton applied these laws to Kepler's laws of orbital motion formulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler and derived the law of universal gravitation. This became Hooke's Law = E". the British astronomer and mathematician. who discussed with Newton the problem of orbital motion. he did not publish his law when rst discovered it in 1660. Newton had also pursued the science of mechanics as an undergraduate. In 1687 Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen from him a central Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .13: Isaac Newton at Cambridge university.

The e ects of the quarrel lingered nearly until his death in 1727. John was the father of Daniel.6. 64 Newton also engaged in a violent dispute with Leibniz over priority in the invention of calculus. According to Bernoulli. but because of religious persecution. Near the end of the seventeenth century this family produced outstanding mathematicians for more than a hundred years. they left Holland and settled in Basel. (Penvenuto 1991). historians have found little connection between these interests and Newton's scienti c work. 68 Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) rst postulated that a force can be decomposed into its equivalent (\Potentiis quibuscunque possunt substitui earundem aequivalentes". Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society published. 67 Whereas Galileo (and Mariotte) investigated the strength of beams (Strength). Newton also showed an interest in alchemy. this \necessary truth" follows from the metaphysical principle that the whole equalts the sum of its parts. mysticism. However. which charged Leibniz with deliberate plagiarism. Many pages of his notes and writings particularly from the later years of his career are devoted to these topics. Jacob Bernoulli (16541705) made calculation of their de ection (Sti ness) and did not contribute to our knowledge of physical properties. Another hypothesis de ned the sum of two \conspiring" forces applied to the same point. and he secretly wrote the committee's report. He also showed that the curvature at any point along a beam is proportional to the curvature of the de ection curve.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 The Bernouilli family originally lived in Antwerp. and theology. most historians do not accept Hooke's charge of plagiarism. Cover Page idea of the book: that bodies attract each other with a force that varies inversely as the square of their distance. 65 In addition to science. and Euler his pupil. 66 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Jacob and John were brothers. Newton used his position as president of the Royal Society to have a committee of that body investigate the question.Draft 7{14 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE Figure 7. but assumed rotation to be with respect to the lower ber (as Galileo did) and this resulted in an erroneous solution (where is the exact location of the axis of rotation?). 7.14: Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Jacob Bernouilli is also credited in being the rst to to have assumed that a bf plane section of a beam remains plane during bending. However.

6. and is the work of a most wise Creator. Euler produced a number of important mathematical works and hundreds of mathematical and scienti c memoirs. Euler gave the rst full analytical treatment of algebra. Euler was interested principally in the geometrical forms of elastic curves. he stated Since the fabric of the universe is most perfect.15: Leonhard Euler at age 16. In his Introduction to the Analysis of In nities.4 Euler 1707-1783 69 7{15 Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and early on caught the attention of John Bernoulli whose teaching was attracting young mathematicians from all over Europe. and analytical geometry. Other works dealt with calculus. and Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Therefore there is absolutely no doubt that every e ect in the universe can be explained as satisfactorily from nal causes.15. 73 Euler obtained a near exact expression for the de ection of a cantilever subjected to a point load. optics. He was appointed professor of physics in 1730 and professor of mathematics in 1733. trigonometry.. mechanics. imaginary numbers. He approached problems from the point of view of variational calculus and in the introduction of his book Methodus inveniendi lineas curva . and acoustics. and determinate and indeterminate algebra. He also discussed three-dimensional surfaces and proved that the conic sections are represented by the general equation of the second degree in two dimensions. although principally a mathematician.. Fig. made contributions to astronomy.6 Pre Modern 7. 7. the theory of equations. Euler. Euler returned to St. He obtained his Master Figure 7. number theory. In this work he treated the series expansion of functions and formulated the rule that only convergent in nite series can properly be evaluated. Seventeenth Century 7. as it can from the e ective causes themselves.. nothing whatsover takes place in the universe in which some relation o maximum an minimum does not appear. and before the age of 20 won a competition from the French Academy of Sciences. At age 20 he moved to the Russian Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg along with the two sons of John Bernoulli (Nicholas and Daniel).Draft Period. 70 Although hampered from his late 20s by partial loss of vision and in later life by almost total blindness. including the calculus of variations. 71 In Russia he wrote a famous book in mechanics in which instead of applying the geometrical methods used by Newton. he introduced analytical methods.. remaining there until his death. Petersburg in 1766. 72 As a mathematician. In 1741 he became professor of mathematics at the Berlin Academy of Sciences at the urging of the Prussian king Frederick the Great. by the aid of the method of maxima and minima.

. In 1779 Coulomb published the treatise Theorie des machines simples (Theory of Simple Machines). friction. He also worked on friction (\Coulomb friction") and on earth pressure. and then correcly determined the stresses. He used Hooke's law. and credited Clapeyron for the theorem of equality between external and internal work. After the war Coulomb came out of retirement and assisted the new government in devising a metric system of weights and measures. exure. Fig. 76 Navier (1785-1836) Navier was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and became a professor there in 1831. 78 It should be noted that no clear division existed between the theory of elasticity and the theory of structures until about the middle of the nineteenth century (Coulomb and Navier would today be considered professional structural engineers).16. Coulomb was able to formulate the principle. developed the equilibrium of forces on the cross section with external forces.. 75 Coulomb did also research on magnetism. placed the neutral axis in its exact position. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . de Saint-Venant was perhaps the greatest elasticians who according to Southwell \. was named for him. and electricity. it took engineers more than forty years to understand them correctly and to use them in practical application 77 In 1826 he published his Lecons (lecture notes) which is considered the rst great textbook in mechanics for engineering. Whereas the famous memoir of Coulomb (1773) contained the correct solution to numerous important problems in mechanics of materials. In 1855-6 he published his classical work on torsion. Lam'e published the rst book on elasticity in 1852. In 1777 he invented the torsion balance for measuring the force of magnetic and electrical attraction. and shear stresses.16: Coulomb analysis of the ber stresses in exed beam with rectangular cross section (Sur une Application des Regles de maximis et minimis a quelques problemes de statique relatifs a l'architecture in 1773). The unit of quantity used to measure electrical charges. combined with high mathematical ability an essentially practical outlook which gave direction to all his work". Clapeyron and de Saint-Venant. 79 Three other structural engineers who pioneered the development of the theory of elasticity from that point on were Lame. 7. governing the interaction between electric charges.Draft 7{16 74 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE for the buckling load of a column. now known as Coulomb's law.7 The pre-Modern Period Coulomb and Navier Coulomb (1736-1806) was a French military engineer. the coulomb. In it he developed the rst general theory of elastic solids as well as the rst systematic treatment of the theory of structures. an analysis of friction in machinery. With this invention. 7. as was the rst to publish the correct Figure 7.

a radio communications station. 85 After studying architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Form follows function became the touchstone for many in his profession. and a television transmission antenna. each with an observation deck. A meteorological station. The lower section consists of four immense arched legs set on masonry piers. The Carson Pirie Scott (originally Schlesinger and Meyer) Department Store. 88 He also had tremendous respect for the natural world which played an enormous role in forging his theories about architecture (he spent all of his rst summers on his grandparents' farm in Massachusetts where he developed this love and respect for nature) expressed in his Autobiography of an Idea). constructed of about 6300 metric tons (about 7000 tons) of iron. Together they produced more than 100 buildings. while Sullivan concerned himself with the architectural designs. One of their earliest and most distinguished joint enterprises was the ten-story Auditorium Building (1886-89) in Chicago. 7. are located near the top of the tower.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 7. 86 Adler secured the clients and handled the engineering and acoustical problems. also ten stories high. In 1895 the Sullivan-Adler partnership was dissolved. and a theater renowned for its superb acoustics.8 The Modern 7. he spent a year in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and in the o ce of a French architect.3 Sullivan 1856-1924 Sullivan wan an American architect. Chicago. Settling in Chicago in 1875. he was employed as a draftsman. an o ce building. The Wainwright Building. Castigliano (1st and 2nd theorems). whose brilliant early designs for steel-frame skyscraper construction led to the emergence of the skyscraper as the distinctive American building type. Sullivan. His most famous pupil was the architect Frank Lloyd Wright. The tower. Mohr (Mohr's circle. was completed in 1891 in Saint Louis.Draft Period (1857-Present) 7. are at three levels on the rst is also a restaurant. 87 His famous axiom. 84 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .8. then in 1881 formed a partnership with Dankmar Adler. indeterminate analysis). was completed in 1904. Southwell (relaxation method). 83 The tower. Through his own work. Missouri. Cross (moment distribution). He meant that an architect should consider the purpose of the building as a starting point. not as a rigidly limiting stricture. 7.8. and as the founder of what is now known as the Chicago school of architects. leading to a decline in Sullivan's practice. Culmann (graphics statics).8. however. is 300 m (984 ft) high. 1924).2 Ei el Tower 82 The Ei el Tower was designed and built by the French civil engineer Alexandre Gustave Ei el for the Paris World's Fair of 1889. Platforms. did not apply it literally.1 Structures/Mechanics 80 7{17 From 1857 the evolution of a comprehensive theory of structures proceeded at astonishing rate now that the basic and requisite principles had been determined. regarded by many as Sullivan's masterpiece. 81 Great contributors in that period include: Maxwell ( rst analysis of indeterminate structures). without its modern broadcasting antennae. as well as a suite of rooms that were used by Ei el. especially his commercial structures. with a metal frame. The legs curve inward until they unite in a single tapered tower. has stairs and elevators. he exerted an enormous in uence on 20th-century American architecture. who acknowledged Sullivan as his master. This famous showplace incorporated a hotel.

no Swiss municipality would accept his designs for prominent urban locations.6 Nervi. where his father. whose technical innovations. 1891-1979 97 Pier Luigi Nervi was an Italian architect and engineer. he worked with di erent civil engineering organizations. He was born in Germany.A. Robert Maillart. Maillart stayed and worked in Russia until 1919. his wife having died in Russia. The 1941 rst edition of Space. when the Salginatobel and Landquart Bridges were completed. Roebling was the author of Long and Short Span Railway Bridges (1869).B. In the summer of 1914. Since the World War prevented their return to Switzerland. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .S. with its photographs and commentary on nearly all Maillart's bridges powerfully presented him as an artist of rst rank. Time and Architecture by art historian Siegfried Giedion introduced Maillart to a wide public in the U. educated at the Royal Polytechnic School of Berlin and immigrated to the States in 1831. In 1902. 1872. until his death in 1940. a Belgian citizen. made possible aesthetically pleasing solutions to di cult structural problems.8. 90 In his rst job he was employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Corp. even though he is regarded today as one of the half dozen greatest bridge designers of the twentieth century. 93 For eight years following his graduation. Max Bill's 1949 book.) although he had never o cially acted as architect on any project. he took his wife and three children to Russia. Finally.5 Maillart From (Billington 1973) 92 Robert Maillart was born on February 6. 95 During the twenties he began to develop and modify his ideas of bridge design and from 1930. He then demonstrated the practicability of steel cables in bridge construction and in 1841 established at Saxonburg the rst factory to manufacture steel-wire rope in the U.I. 94 Because of these misfortunes Maillart felt unable to take up the construction business again and henceforth concentrated on design alone.8. he founded his own rm for design and construction thereafter. 7.A. when his business was liquidated by the Revolution. 96 In 1936. Switzerland. 7. He studied civil engineering at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and graduated in 1894. Unfortunately. Ironically. he was elected an honorary member of the Royal institute of British Architects (R. he returned to Switzerland penniless and lonely.8. He built railroad suspension bridges over the Ohio and Niagara rivers and completed plans for the Brooklyn Bridge shortly before his death. Forced to ee. 1806-1869 John Augustus Roebling was an American civil engineer. 91 Roebling utilized steel cables in the construction of numerous suspension bridges and is generally considered one of the pioneers in the eld of suspension-bridge construction.4 Roebling.S. was a banker. in Bern. one of his lowest grades was in bridge design. He opened an o ce in Geneva in 1919 and branches in Bern and Zurich in 1924. who was one of the pioneers in the construction of suspension bridges. his business grew rapidly and expanded as far as Russia and Spain. particularly in the use of reinforced concrete. he produced over thirty bridge designs of extraordinary originality. to survey its route across the Allegheny Mountains between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh.Draft 7{18 89 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE 7.

Draft Period (1857-Present) 7. the Turin Exposition Hall (1949). Rome). in which the approximately 76-m (250-ft) corrugated lattice roof (only about 5 cm thick) creates an immense interior space as dramatic as a cathedral. 7. Fig. Champaign-Urbana. Frustrated by administrative demands that kept him from design work. 7. For airplane hangars he used reinforced concrete to cover enormous spans with a light but strong latticework. His introduction of a versatile new type of reinforced concrete layers of ne steel mesh sprayed with cement mortar made possible one of his masterpieces. however. 1960. in structural engineering. 100 The best known and most in uential is probably his Palazetto dello Sport (Small Sport Palace. Encircled by Y-shaped supports and topped by a shallow scalloped concrete dome.17. he returned to the United States and Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Qualifying for a scholarship in 1952.8 The Modern 98 7{19 He attended the Civil Engineering School in Bologna and established his own rm in 1920.A. His rst major commission (a stadium in Florence. he enrolled at the University of Illinois.8.17: Nervi's Palazetto Dello Sport this building has become a paradigm of the 20th-century sports arena. and he strove primarily for strength through form. 1932) features cantilevered beams and a daringly exposed concrete structure. not an architect. where he received master's degrees in both applied mechanics and structural engineering and a Ph. (Anon. xx).D. in engineering from the University of Dacca in 1950.7 Khan Fazlur Khan was born in 1929 in Dacca India. After obtaining a B. He returned brie y to Pakistan and won an important position as executive engineer of the Karachi Development Authority. 99 Nervi considered himself primarily an engineer and technician. He maintained that the strong aesthetic appeal of his buildings was simply a by-product of their structural correctness. Figure 7. Khan worked as assistant engineer for the India Highway Department and taught at the University of Dacca.

Texas. also in Jiddah (1977-78). Johnson. and One Shell Plaza in Houston. The system was innovative because it minimized the amount of steel needed for high towers. Saudi Arabia (1976-81). 7. and permitted freer organization of the interior space. His later projects included the strikingly di erent Haj Terminal of the King Abdul Aziz International Airport.8. Among his many designs for skyscrapers are Chicago's John Hancock Center (1970) and the Sears Tower (1973). Candella. eliminated the need for internal wind bracing (since the perimeter columns carried the wind loadings).Draft 7{20 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE joined the prestigious architectural rm of Skidmore. Calatrava. Torroja.. To name just a few of the most in uential Architects/Engineers: Menn. which are among the world's tallest buildings. Jiddah. Isler. . Pei..8 101 et al. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . The Sears Tower was his rst skyscraper to employ his "bundled tube" structural system. and King Abdul Aziz University. eventually becoming a partner (1966). Owings & Merrill in Chicago in 1955. which consists of a group of narrow steel cylinders that are clustered together to form a thicker column.

you may say. I don't think I can speak of my work as of any new architecture or even as architecture at all.University of Illinois Unauthorized reprint from (Billington 1973) 7{21 by Felix Candela The title of my lecture is New Architecture but I cannot avoid the feeling that I have not too much to do with this subject. because it may be important to know what impels people to do things and the circumstances and di culties that they had to deal with in order to achieve their purposes. But the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War saved me from such an ordeal. Whatever I learned from then on was to be the hard way. However. Shells appeared to be an intriguing challenge for me. he told me it could be interesting to know what had been the in uence of Maillart on my development. and I dreamed about the possibility of building some in the future. as it required some knowledge of mathematics. I discovered later that this modest background made me more knowledgeable on the matter than most practicing engineers whose training and interest tend to be directed towards mastering the accepted methods of analysis rather than questioning the basic hypotheses. with an unusual shape and a record span. upon discussing this with David Billington. as draftsman. Among my lectures I found several French and German papers dealing with shells which were beginning to be in vogue at that time in Europe. a clever move which secured them practically an exclusive on the construction of barrel vaults for more than twenty years. Examples of such structures built in Germany and France could be found in magazines and Torroja was building the famous roof of the "Fronton Recoletos" in Madrid. and perhaps the same could be said of Maillart's work. We had only one course in strength of materials. of course. working alone. since I never had a high opinion of myself as an artist. with no more baggage than my bare hands and no further addition to my academic background. hoping to learn something more from the German professors. and I tried. quite a backward kind of curriculum. This gave me opportunity to do some private tutoring to my classmates. such was my enthusiasm with this mathematical approach that I managed to get a fellowship to go to Germany. But my lack of experience and my youthful faith in the impressive wisdom displayed in learned magazines led me to believe that the key to shell design was in complete mathematical calculation. rather unsucessfully. but it was a very good course. hindering the normal employment of such structures during the same time. As a result. I recalled my old fancy with shells and began to collect again papers on the subject. I was more interested in the technical part of the curriculum and began to read extensively about structures. I was trained as an architect with. As you can imagine. I became more familiar with the theoretical bases of the current methods of calculation of indeterminate structures. But.Draft Period (1857-Present) 7. which was a very instructive manner to make some money to pay for my studies. in Madrid during the thirties. designer and contractor. After several years of general practice in Mexico. I could not leave the country and ended in Mexico after three years of military service. But. But let me speak rst about my background. But I am indebted to many people who did help me through their Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .8 The Modern NEW ARCHITECTURE Professor . to understand and follow them and to make some sense of their results. Anyway. dealing mainly with theory of elasticity and following the classical and rigoristic French tradition. I was not the only one misled and discouraged by the mathematical barrier so cunningly deployed by German engineers. it was very di cult for most of them to pass the examination. and all of a sudden I realized that he may have been one of the strongest in uences at the critical moment in my career in which I was trying to become a builder of shells. with no direct help from any university or engineering o ce. anyway. most students considered the matter completely useless for their professional practice and. it all depends on what you consider architecture and there is not anymore a general consent about the meaning of this word.

like in the case of Nervi.Draft 7{22 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE writings and Maillart was one of the foremost. Therefore. Van der Broek. was the common expression to designate a bridge in the old French engineering vocabulary. I devoured his articles about "Reinforced Concrete Design and Calculation" (he was very careful to di erentiate the meaning of such words and to avoid the more than semantic confusion prevalent nowadays in English-speaking countries). that the price for being the master of your trade is to accept the whole responsibility for the good performance of the structure. that Maillart did not judge himself an artist. I could not a ord nor had time for complex calculations and did welcome Maillart's advice that simpler calculations are more reliable than complex ones. through their writings. The discovery of rupture methods. It also helped me to get out of my naive belief in the indisputable truth of the printed word and to start reading with a new critical outlook. with Freudenthal. but well provided with opinions. Saliger. also your own contractor. This means. Kacinczy and so many others who showed me there was more than a single and infallible manner to approach structural analysis. I am simply stating that the Maillart phenomenom could not happen under today's situation of the industry. His main concerns must have been e ciency and economy of means. something I could rarely nd in other engineering articles. I learned later that to express personal opinions is considered bad taste among technical writers. Thus. it may be shocking to think of a contractor as an artist but it is indeed the only way to have in your hands the whole set of tools or instruments to perform the forgotten art of building. Time and Architecture and then I got Max Bill's book with its invaluable collection of Maillart's essays. I could make my own judgements about what methods of stress analysis were better suited for my practice. which was besides. in a fashion curiously similar to what could be expected of the councils of the Church or the meetings of any Politbureau. allowed me to trust in simpli ed procedures to understand and analyze the distribution of stresses in shell structures. with their emphasis on simple statics and their bearing on the actual properties of construction materials and their behavior in the plastic range. I was working with full scale models. I like to think. indeed. I am not advocating a return to the past history is an irreversible process. I discovered him in Giedion's Space. If a rebel was able to produce such beautiful and sound structures there could not be anything wrong with becoming also a rebel. I found Maillart's thoughts delightfully sympathetic and encouraging. and not too many people today would readily endorse such an awesome commitment. Any discussion should be restricted to insigni cant details. Following the general trend to mess up issues. check the results and con rm the accuracy of my judgement or correct my mistakes. of course.. I could control what was happening. Implicit in the above statement is the fact that you have to be. Kist. per se. a very di cult proposition in some countries where such mergings of today's disparate professions may even be considered unlawful. artistic ability to its holder) but few people realize that the only way to be an artist in this di cult specialty of building is to be your own contractor. especially for somebody who builds his own structures. since most structures I was building were of modest scale. being tired perhaps of performing long and tedious routines whose results were not always meaningful. I started to follow the bibliographic tread and met. Since I was working practically alone. As Picasso said of himself "he was not looking for beauty he found it". about the engineer as an architect (as if the title of architect could confer. however. In a way. there has been a lot of speculation about the engineer as an artist and in some instances. besides your own structural designer and calculator and perhaps your own architect. Johansen. but never touch fundamental dogmas. no matter how high-sounding the name of the author. I understand that this was also true of Maillart who in many cases was the actual builder of his designs. in countries like this. to produce "works of art" which. since to be able to build one of his bridges he had to win a bidding competition and prove that Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . This was exactly my case and. by the way." Very short papers. my only way to break the mystery surrounding shell analysis. No longer did I need to believe whatever was in print. But my attitude with respect to calculations of reinforced concrete structures was becoming unorthodox. where the building industry has been thoroughly and irreversibly fragmented and the responsibility diluted among so many trades. "The Engineer and the Authorities" which expresses his position in front of the establishment and "Mass and Quality in Reinforced Concrete Structures.

of being able to challenge the conventional wisdom and come up with the obvious solution. source of artistic creation and of all invention. This aversion to ugliness is quite the opposite of the task of the professional artist who has to produce beauty as an obligation or of today's star-architect who has to be original at any cost in each new project. If I nd something lacking in this commendable conference in memory of one of the greatest engineers of all times it is that the side of Maillart's personality as a rebel. They were simply enjoying what they were doing. He achieved a beauty without need or purpose just for the pure joy of it.which. But an e cient and economical structure has not necessarily to be ugly. with his tireless and successful struggle against the establishment of his times. This word did not even exist in the practical world of the serious citizens who had to judge his competitive bids. Therefore. nevertheless. I would like to insist at this moment c-n something that everybody knows but which is easily forgotten that all calculations. and so was obviously Maillart. But Maillart would not take any unnecessary risk and rst he tried the soundness of his approximated calculations in a small example (the Halbkern Bridge) with a span of only fteen meters. the accuracy of any calculation is still a question of personal judgement. Beauty has no price tag and there is never one single solution to an engineering problem. no matter how sophisticated and complex. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . can not be more than rough approximations of the natural phenomenon they try to represent by means of a mathematical model.8 The Modern 7{23 he could do it cheaper than anybody else. in which the curved route is supported in a straight arched slab.is that it was very di cult.Draft Period (1857-Present) 7. I can imagine the ts of rage and jealousy of some of his contemporary colleagues at the sight of one of his bridges (Landquart or Schwandbach). it is always possible to modify the whole or the parts until the ugliness disappears. to analyze with the methods available at that time. to the despair of dull and in exible technicians. This fortunate circumstance allows engineering to reach sometimes the highest category of art. The problem with this unusual combination . of course. Maillart's works did not need to be beautiful. looks perfectly logical after the fact . if not impossible. which nobody could think of before. The complexity. one. of such a model bears no relation at all with the degree of approximation. He did also possess that rare quality. notwithstanding the popular belief in the letter of the codes. has not been su ciently stressed. There is not such a thing as an exact method of structural analysis and. or even elegance. This was his testing model which gave him rm ground from which to extrapolate at the next opportunity. The kind of joy that you can feel also in the works of Haydn or Vivaldi.

Draft 7{24 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

3 The frame can be idealized as a simply supported beam hung from two cantilever column supports. 2 The most strking feature of the Magazini Generali is not the structure itself.6 psf ft k k/ft ft k/ft k/ft (8. Fig. and the frame itself.2.Draft Chapter 8 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) 8. built by Maillart in Chiasso in 1924.1-b) (8. Given the space between adjacent frames is 14. the overhang is designed in such a way as to minimize the net moment to be transmitted to the supports (foundations).2 Loads 4 The load applied on the frame is from the weights of the roof slab.1. Fig. 8. Fig.1-c) .7 ft. provides a good example of the mariage between aesthetic and engineering.3: psf qroof = (98) (14:7) = 1:4 (13 6) qframe = (63::6) = 0:2 qtotal = 1:4 + 0:2 = 1.6 kips. the total uniform load becomes. 8. 8.1-a) (8. 8. and that the total frame weight is 13. but rather the shape of its internal supporting frames. and that the roof load is 98 . Whereas the beam itself is a simple structural idealization.1 Geometry 1 This sotrage house.

(Billington and Mark 1983) B P MP =P*d 2 d2 d1 B MR=MB -M P MB =B*d1 Figure 8.Draft 8{2 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI HINGE IDEALIZATION OF THIN SECTIONS ACTUAL FRAME ABSTRACTION OF MID SECTION AS A SIMPLE BEAM 9.2 ft 63. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2: Magazzini Generali Support System.1: Magazzini Generali Overall Dimensions.6 ft Figure 8.

6 k/ft 8{3 Figure 8. q TOTAL = 1.4: We note that these reactions are provided by the internal shear forces. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5. Fig.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0. The shear varies linearly from 51 kip to -51 kip with zero at the center.6.ft 7 The externally induced moment at midspan must be resisted by an equal and opposite internal moment.3) 8 k/ft ft k.4 Forces 6 The internal forces are pimarily the shear and moments.2-a) (8. Fig.6 ft 51 k 51 k Figure 8.4: Magazzini Generali Beam Reactions.Draft 8.3 Reactions q ROOF = 1. Thus the net axial force is zero. 8. equal to: 2 2 Mmax = qL = (1:6) 8(63:6) = 808 (8. however there is a net internal couple. 8.6 k/ft W = (1:6) (63:6) = 102 R = W = 102 = 51 2 2 k/ft ft k k (8.3: Magazzini Generali Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) 8. 8. and the moment diagram is parabolic with the maximum moment at the center. (Billington and Mark 1983) 8.3 Reactions 5 Reactions for the beam are determined rst taking advantage of symmetry. Those can be easily determined for a simply supported uniformly loaded beam.2 k/ft q ROOF = 1. Fig.2-b) 63. This can be achieved through a combination of compressive force on the upper bers. and tensile ones on the lower.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0.2 k/ft q TOTAL = 1.

6: Magazzini Generali Internal Moment.5: Magazzini Generali Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983) q TOTAL A d VA C M T Figure 8. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 8{4 51 K Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI SHEAR FORCE 25 K 0 25 K 51 K L L/2 x MOMENT Mmax L 0 L/4 L/2 3L/4 x Figure 8.

Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and the 88 kip compression must be transmitted to the lower chord. Fig. and the moment is also parabolic.8. it was determined that the supports are contributing a compression force of about 8 kips which needs to be superimposed over the central values. Fig.4 Forces T = C = (808) (9:2) ext Mext = Cd ) C = Md k.ft ft 8{5 (8.4-b) 8 Because the frame shape (and thus d(x)) is approximately parabolic.Draft 8. then the axial forces are constants along the entire frame.7.4-a) k = 88 (8.7: Magazzini Generali Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram. 8. Fig.8: Magazzini Generali Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support. (Billington and Mark 1983) tied arch. 8. 8. Fig.9 This is analogous to the forces transmiited to the support by a 88 k 88 k 88 k 88 k Tension Compression Horizontal Component Tied Arch Cable Force Axial Force Vertical Reaction Figure 8.9. M MOMENT DIAGRAM d FRAME CABLE : CURVE OF DIAGRAM FRAME : SHAPE OF DIAGRAM Figure 8. (Billington and Mark 1983) 9 The axial force at the end of the beam is not balanced. 8. 10 It should be mentioned that when a rigorous computer analysis was performed.

Draft 8{6 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI FRAME ACTS AS A UNIT.69 2 and 6 other bars with 0. 11 in k ksi in in in in k ksi in Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .17 (8.5 Internal Stresses The net compressive stress. than this stress would be even lower.7) = P = (88) 2 = 14. (Billington and Mark 1983) 8.5) A (75) this is much lower than the allowable compressive stress of concrete which is about 1.8 k = -96 k 16 k 88 k .58 2 .8 k = 80 k 16 k Figure 8. 12 Since concrete has practically no tensile strength. The lower chord has 4 bars with 0.9: Magazzini Generali E ect of Lateral Supports. for a top chord with a cross sectional area of 75 2 is equal to = P = (88) 2 = 1. UNLIKE THE ABSTRACTION -88 k . the tensile force in the lower chord must be resisted by steel. It should be noted that if the frame was cast along with the roof (monolithic construction).6) Thus the steel stresses will be (8. thus we have a total of As = 4(0:69) + 6(0:58) = 6:24 2 (8.1 A (6:24) which is lower than the allowable steel stress.350 ksi.

Seriousness of a failure. Consequences of Failure: The consequence of a structural component failure must be carefully assessed. if no redistribution of load is possible (as would be the case in a statically determinate structure). 3. . There is a greater variation in the live loads than in the dead loads.1 Safety Provisions 1 Structures and structural members must always be designed to carry some reserve load above what is expected under normal use. 3 The following items must be considered in determining safety provisions: 1. This is to account for Variability in Resistance: The actual strengths (resistance) of structural elements will di er from those assumed by the designer due to: 1. Variability in the strength of the material (greater variability in concrete strength than in steel strength). earthquakes). Finally. Some types of loadings are very di cult to quantify (wind. whereas other are sudden and catastrophic. 2. Expectation of overload and to what magnitude. 2. Reliability of workmanship and inspection. Variability in Loadings: All loadings are variable. E ect of simplifying assumptions made in the derivation of certain formulas. 2 The purpose of safety provisions is to limit the probability of failure and yet permit economical structures. The collapse of a beam is likely to cause a localized failure. either to humans or goods. Alternatively. a higher safety factor must be adopted.Draft Chapter 9 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES 9. the failure of certain components can be preceded by warnings (such as excessive deformation). Di erences between the actual dimensions and those speci ed (mostly in placement of steel rebars in R/C). Alternatively the failure of a column is likely to trigger the failure of the whole structure. 3.

8 The AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) code refers to it as the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and was used until 1986. 6 Structural elements are designed for their service loads. Working Stress Method 2. 4 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES Two major design philosophies have emerged 1. 9. and the one which has been historically used by structural engineers.1. Ultimate Strength Method 9. Chance of warning prior to failure. 7 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and are dimensioned such that the stresses do not exceed some predesignated allowable strength. 5.1: Load Life of a Structure In R/C this method was the one adopted by the ACI (American Concrete institute) code up to 1971.Draft 9{2 4. Fig. Working Stress Design Method (WSD).2 Working Stress Method 5 This is the simplest of the two methods. Figure 9. Importance of the member in the structure.

DraftStrength Method 9. Table 9. 2. yld < all = F:S: (9. 11 Allowable strengths are given in Table 9. 2. Safety factors are not rigorously determined from a probabilistic approach. 9.3. For concrete structures.3. 3.1: Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete 9.3. ACI/WSD Tension 0 Compression 0:45fc0 E ective net area will be de ned in section ??.3 Ultimate 9 9{3 In this method: 1. Fig. 9. E ective Net Area Ft = 0:5Fu Bending Fb = 0:66Fy Shear Fv = 0:40Fy Concrete. The entire variation of the loads and the strengths is placed on the strength side of the equation. The safety margin is de ned as Y = R . R X = ln Q (9.3 Ultimate Strength Method 9. Failure would occur if Y < 0 Q and R can be combined and the result expressed logarithmically. stresses are not linearly proportional to strain beyond 0:45fc0 . 10 Major limitations of this method 1. it is assumed that the load Q and the resistance R are random variables. An elastic analysis can not easily account for creep and shrinkage of concrete.2. Steel. Failure would occur for negative values of X 16 The probability of failure Pf is equal to the ratio of the shaded area to the total area under the curve in Fig. Gross Area Ft = 0:6Fy Tension.1 12 13 14 15 y Probabilistic Preliminaries In this approach. AISC/ASD Tension.1.1) where F:S: is the factor of safety. Typical frequency distributions of such random variables are shown in Fig.2) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 9. All loads are assumed to have the same average variability. but are the result of experience and judgment. Q.

Draft 9{4 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES Figure 9.3: De nition of Reliability Index Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2: Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R Figure 9.

5-4 Table 9.4. 25 Terms such as failure load should be avoided it is preferable to refer to a structure's Limit State load. 22 These factors are referred to as resistance factor and Load Factor respectively.000 structural members designed with = 3:5 will fail because of either excessive load or understrength sometime in its lifetime.3 Ultimate 17 9{5 R If X is assumed to follow a Normal Distribution than it has a mean value X = ln Q and a m standard deviation .2: Selected values for Steel and Concrete Structures 21 Because the strengths and the loads vary independently. (previously referred to as the Ultimate Strength Method). 9. 24 AISC refers to it as Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). it is desirable to have one factor to account for variability in resistance. 1 26 The general form is (LRFD-A4.3) Rn where RM RN and VR are the mean resistance.75 Ductile Failure Sudden Failures AISC ACI 3-3. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .1) Rn i Qi (9. and must account for the type of structural element.5 DL + LL + WL Members 3. Type of Load/Member DL + LL Members 3.3. it can be shown that the probability of failure is Pf = 9 091 or 1:1 10.5 3.2 Discussion 23 ACI refers to this method as the Strength Design Method. 18 We de ne the safety index (or reliability index) as =X 1 19 For standard distributions and for = 3:5. The resistance factor is de ned as = Rm exp(. the nominal resistance (to be de ned later). less than 1. That is 1 in every 10.2.0 DL + LL Connections 4.3.0:55 VR ) (9.4) where is a strength reduction factor. 20 Target values for are shown in Table 9.5 DL + LL +EL Members 1. and the coe cient of variation of the resistance. 1 Throughout the notes we will refer by this symbol the relevant design speci cation in the AISC code.DraftStrength Method 9. Table 9. and another one for the variability in loads.

2.70 0. 6.3W(or 1.3W 1. 3.2D+0. Shear ACI AISC 0.85 0.7L 0. 4. i Qi is the required strength based on the factored load: i is the type of load 27 AISC The various factored load combinations which must be considered are 1. yielding Tension.8W)+1.5(Lr or S)+1.5L (or 0.2D+0.6(Lr or S) 1.7L+1.4T+1.2D+1. 2. 5.05D+1.5L(or 0.85 0.7H 1.9D+1. 3.4D 1. spiral reinforcement Axial Compression. fracture Compression Beams Fasteners.7L+1. Rn is the nominal resistance (or strength). 1. 4. 7.3W 1.75 0.6L+0.Draft 9{6 Type of Member DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES Axial Tension Flexure Axial Compression.5L+0.2D+0.4D+1.5E 0.4D+1.9 0.9D+1.65 Table 9.9 0.75(1.9D+1.5 E) 1.7L) ACI Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 5. Tension Fasteners.2 S)+1.75 0.7H 0.75(1.70 0. 6.275W 0. other Shear and Torsion Bearing on concrete Tension.4D +1. Rn is the design strength. 1.5(Lr or S) 1.75 0. i is the load factor corresponding to Qi and is greater than 1.7W) 0.4D+1.9 0.9 0.3: Strength Reduction Factors.

applying Eq. Hence. De ections 2. invert the statics matrix B ]. and Rn = (0:9)A yld .5 Design Guidelines 30 To assist in the preliminary design/dimensioning of structures.1. subjected to a dead load of 100 and live load of 80 . 9.4 Example Example 9-18: LRFD vs ASD To illustrate the di erences between the two design approaches.1 by each one of the load cases. 28 Thus. and multiply B ]. this may not be the case for di erent ratios of dead to live loads.4(D+T) where D= dead L= live Lr= roof live W= wind E= earthquake S= snow T= temperature H= soil.Draft 9. one for each load. (Refer to Section ??).4 the cross sectional area should be A = i Qi = (0:248 = 7:65 2 9)(36) in yld Note that whereas in this particular case the USD design required a smaller area. The most important ones being 1. maximum and typical spans for various types of structures. let us consider the design of an axial member.3 = 0:9. the allowable stress is 0:6 yld = 0:6 36 = 21:6 ksi . in this method. Table 9. We must select the one with the largest limit state load. For the WSD method. 29 Serviceability Limit States must be assessed under service loads (not factored). Stability 9. Thus the required cross sectional area is 180 A = 21:6 = 8:33 2 in k USD we consider the largest of the two load combinations i Qi : 1:4D = 1:4(100) = 140 1:2D + 1:6L = 1:2(100) + 1:6(80) = 248 k k From Table 9.4 Example 9{7 8. Crack width (for R/C) 3. 1. 9. this is best achieved if we use the matrix method. we must perform numerous analysis. Use A36 steel. From Table 9. For trusses. k k ASD: We consider the total load P = 100 + 80 = 180 . we need not perform more than one analysis in general. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . of a given structure.4 provides average.

thickness may govern) Longitudinal span to structural depth 15 20 60-120 Transverse span to thickness 60 70 15-35 Table 9.4: Approximate Structural Span-Depth Ratios for Horizontal Subsystems and Components (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) REINFORCED CONCRETE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . thickness may govern) Longitudinal span to Structural depth 12 15 50-70 Transverse span to thickness 50 60 12-30 Solid slabs 40 44 20-35 Slabs with drops 44 48 35-45 Two-way slab on beams 44 48 35-45 Wa e slabs 28 32 35-70 Cored slabs 36 40 30-60 Joists 32 36 40-60 Beams 24 28 30-80 Girders 20 24 40-120 Cylindrical thin shell roof (Min. 36 28 22 16 12 26 4 18 18 14 12 30 8 40 10 6 40 32 26 20 16 30 8 24 25 20 18 40 16 50 15 10 3-5 2-6 10-25 15-30 20-35 30-50 30-100 15-60 15-60 40-100 40-80 50-120 80-200 150-300 150-300 TIMBER Solid slabs 28 32 10-25 Slabs with drops and capitals 30 36 20-35 Two-way slab on beams 30 36 20-35 Wa e slabs 20 24 30-40 Joists 22 26 25-45 Beams 16 20 15-40 Girders 12 16 20-60 Gable bents 24 30 40-80 Arches span to rise 8 12 60-150 Arches span to thickness 30 40 Cylindrical thin shell roof (Min.Draft 9{8 Plywood Planks Joists Beams Girders Gable bents Trusses I Beams Joists Plate and I girders Trusses Gable bents Arches span to rise Arches span to thickness Simple suspension (span to rise) Cable stayed DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES Average Max Typical Span Ft.

1: Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams buckling. Thus overall buckling of the compression ange as a column cannot occur prior to its full participation to develop the moment strength of the section. Fig. 2 A laterally stable beam is one which is braced laterally in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the web.1.Draft Chapter 10 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS 1 This chapter deals with the behavior and design of laterally supported steel beams according to the LRFD provisions. 10. 3 If a beam is not laterally supported. . 4 By the end of this lecture you should be able to select the most e cient section (light weight with adequate strength) for a given bending moment and also be able to determine the exural strength of a given beam. we will have a failure mode governed by lateral torsional A) COMPOSITE BEAM B) OTHER FRAMING C) CROSS BRACING Figure 10.

Lateral-Torsional buckling: of the entire member. Partially compact sections: Where local buckling may occur Slender sections: where lateral torsional buckling may occur. ksi The strength of exural members is limited by: Plastic Hinge: at a particular cross section. Singly symmetric (channels and angles) loaded in plane of symmetry or through the shear center parallel to the web1 .3.1) where: Mn nominal moment strength Mu factored service load moment.2. the web or the ange).g. Fig. 10. 6 b strength reduction factor for exure 0:90 The equations given in this chapter are valid for exural members with the following kinds of cross section and loading: 1. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Strength is based on the plastic moment. the LRFD manual classi es steel sections as Compact sections: No local buckling can occur. 10.3) Lp = p y Fy r (10. Fig.1 Nominal Strength 5 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS The strength requirement for beams in load and resistance factor design is stated as b Mn Mu (10. Doubly symmetric (such as W sections) and loaded in plane of symmetry 2.4) ry = Iy A where ry is the radius of gyration with respect to the (minor) y axis (as opposed to the major x axis). however with exception of short beams (and no self-respecting architect will ever conceive such a thing:-).4. exure generally controls. local buckling: of a cross-sectional element (e. 8 Accordingly.Draft 10{2 10. 9 1 More about shear centers in Mechanics of Materials II. Fig. 10. We will cover only the rst two cases.2) 300 r (10. 10 Shear should be checked.2 Failure Modes and Classi cation of Steel Beams 7 A beam is classi ed as laterally supported depending on Lb which is the distance between lateral supports (or unbraced length) and Lp . Lb < Lp (10. 10.

Draft and Classi cation of Steel Beams 10.2 Failure Modes
w
2 M=(wL )/8

10{3

σy

σy

+

wu
11 00 11 00 11 00

+

σy

Mp σy
2 M p=(wL )/8

Figure 10.2: Failure of Steel beam Plastic Hinges

bf

tw

hf hc

COMPACT

FLANGE BUCKLING

WEB BUCKLING

Figure 10.3: Failure of Steel beam Local Buckling

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 10{4
A B
COMPRESSION FLANGE

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS
LATERAL DEFLECTION AND TORSION OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE

LATERAL DEFLECTION AND TORSION OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE

B

A B A

Figure 10.4: Failure of Steel beam Lateral Torsional Buckling

10.3 Compact Sections
11

For compact sections, the mode of failure is the formation of a plastic hinge that is the section is fully plasti ed. Hence we shall rst examine the bending behavior of beams under limit load. Then we will relate this plastic moment to the design of compact sections.

10.3.1 Bending Capacity of Beams
The stress distribution on a typical wide- ange shape subjected to increasing bending moment is shown in Fig.10.5. In the service range (that is before we multiplied the load by the appropriate factors in the LRFD method) the section is elastic. This elastic condition prevails as long as the stress at the extreme ber has not reached the yield stress Fy . Once the strain " reaches its yield value "y , increasing strain induces no increase in stress beyond Fy .
12

Figure 10.5: Stress distribution at di erent stages of loading

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

DraftSections 10.3 Compact

10{5

Figure 10.6: Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels
13

When the yield stress is reached at the extreme ber, the nominal moment strength Mn, is referred to as the yield moment My and is computed as

Mn = My = SxFy

(10.5)

(assuming that bending is occurring with respect to the x ; x axis). 14 When across the entire section, the strain is equal or larger than the yield strain (" "y = Fy =Es ) then the section is fully plasti ed, and the nominal moment strength Mn is therefore referred to as the plastic moment Mp and is determined from

Mp = Fy
where

Z

A

ydA = Fy Z

(10.6) (10.7)

Z = ydA

def

Z

is the Plastic Section Modulus. 15 The plastic section modulus Z should not be confused with the elastic section modulus S de ned, Eq. 5.25 as

I S = d=2 Z I def = y2 dA
A

(10.8-a) (10.8-b)

16

The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula

Sx wd=10 or Ix Sx d wd2 =20 2
and the plastic modulus can be approximated by

(10.9)

Zx wd=9

(10.10)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft 10{6
10.3.2 Design of Compact Sections
17

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS

A section is compact if the following conditions are met: 1. Flanges are continuously connected to the web 2. Width to thickness ratios, known as the slenderness ratios, of the ange and the web must not exceed the limiting ratios p de ned as follows: Flange 2btff hc Web tw
hc Note that 2btff and tw are tabulated in Sect. 3.6. p p
65 p = pFy 640 p = pFy

(10.11)

18

The nominal strength Mn for laterally stable compact sections according to LRFD is

Mn = Mp
where:

(10.12)

19

Mp plastic moment strength = ZFy Z plastic section modulus Fy speci ed minimum yield strength Note that section properties, including Z values are tabulated in Section 3.6.

10.4 Partially Compact Section
20

If the width to thickness ratios of the compression elements exceed the p values mentioned in Eq. 10.11 but do not exceed the following r , the section is partially compact and we can have local buckling. Flange: Web:
p< p<
2tf

bf

hc tw

r r

where:

65 p = pFy 640 p = pFy

141 r = pFy ;Fr 970 r = pFy

(10.13)

21

speci ed minimum yield stress in kksi width of the ange thickness of the ange unsupported height of the web which is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression ange less the llet or corner radius. tw thickness of the web. Fr residual stress = 10:0 ksi for rolled sections and 16:5 ksi for welded sections. The nominal strength of partially compact sections according to LRFD is, Fig. 10.7

Fy bf tf hc

Mn = Mp ; (Mp ; Mr )( ; p ) Mp r; p

(10.14)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

DraftSection 10.5 Slender
Draft
Mn

10{7

6
Compact
Mp

-

Partially Compact

-

Slender

-

Mr

Flanges Web
2tf

bf

65 pF

p
y

pF141 F ;
y

r

r

hc tw

640 pF

y

970 pF

y

Figure 10.7: Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections where:

Mr Residual Moment equal to (Fy ; Fr )S bf =2tf for I-shaped member anges and hc=tw for beam webs.
associated with the one being

22

All other quantities are as de ned earlier. Note that we use the violated (or the lower of the two if both are).

10.5 Slender Section
23

If the width to thickness ratio exceeds r values of ange and web, the element is referred to as slender compression element. Since the slender sections involve a di erent treatment, it will not be dealt here.

10.6 Examples
Example 10-19: Z for Rectangular Section
Determine the plastic section modulus for a rectangular section, width b and depth d.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

The internal plastic moment is equal to 2 M = Fy b d d = Fy b d4 22 Force | {z } (10. The simply supported span is 20 ft. Solution: Case 1: A36 Steel 1. 6 Example 10-20: Beam Design Select the lightest W or M section to carry a uniformly distributed dead load of 0:2 kip/ft superimposed (i. Select the sections for the following steels: A36 A572 Grade 50 and A572 Grade 65. The yield stress. plastic moment Mp and plastic section modulus Z are related by: Z = Mp Z 3.. in addition to the beam weight) and 0:8 kip/ft live load.15) 2.16) (10. Determine the factored load.Draft 10{8 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS Solution: 1.e.17) Note that this is to be contrasted with the elastic section modulus S = bd2 . Fy . we get: y bd2 Z = Mp = F4F = bd2 4 Fy y (10. The compression ange of the beam is fully supported against lateral movement. wD = 0:2 wL = 0:8 wu = 1:2wD + 1:6wL = 1:2(0:2) + 1:6(0:8) = 1:52 k/ft k/ft k/ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Substituting.

Check compact section limits p for the anges from the table = 2btff = 4:7 p 65 65 p = pFy = p36 = 10:8 > and for the web: hc = tw = 41:8 p 640 640 p = pFy = p36 = 107 3 5.ft in ksi in/ft k. or 0. Iy = 5 = 0:88 A 6:5 300 r Lp = p y Fy 300 0:88 = 43 = p ry = 36 ft r r in (10. Check the Strength by correcting the factored moment Mu to include the self weight. we select a W12X22 section which has a Zx = 29:3 Note that Zx is approximated by wd = (22)(12) = 29:3. The design strength b Mn is b Mn = b Mp = b Zx Fy The design requirement is or. Required Zx is b Mn = Mu b Zx Fy = Mu u Zx = MF = 076(12) = 28:1 :90(36) b y 3 in in From the notes on Structural Materials.022 kip/ft wD wu Mu Mn b Mn = = = = = 0:2 + 0:022 = 0:222 1:2(0:222) + 1:6(0:8) = 1:55 (1:55)(20)2=8 = 77:3 3 Mp = Zx Fy = (29:3) (36) = 87:9 (12) p 0:90(87:9) = 79:1 > Mu k/ft k/ft k. 6. We nally check for the maximum distance between supports. Self weight of the beam W12X22 is 22 lb. Compute the factored load moment Mu .ft k. combing those two equations we have: 3. Mu = wu L2 =8 = (1:52)(20)2=8 = 76 Assuming compact section./ft.18-c) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . since a vast majority of rolled sections satisfy p for both the ange and the web.ft 10{9 2. For a simply supported beam carrying uniformly distributed load.18-a) (10.6 Examples k.Draft 10.ft Therefore use W12X22 section. 9 9 4.18-b) (10.

(94:2 . same as in case 1 u 3.ft Therefore provide W12X14 section. p 0:90(92:5) = 83:25 > Mu in 3 ksi in in/ft k. Check the strength: Since the section is non-compact. Since p < < r . Mr )( r. For the anges: 141 141 pFy . Check compact section limits p : = = p = p = in BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS 3 Select W12X14: Zx = 17:4 in 3 Note that Zx is hc 3 t640= 54:640 w pFy = p65 = 79:4p bf 2tf = 8:82 65 65 pFy = p65 = 8:1 < Not Good In this case the controlling limit state is local buckling of the ange.88::11 = 92:5 . 5. approximated by 9 9 4. 68:3) 19::80. Fr ) = (14:9)(12)(65. the section is classi ed as non-compact.10) = 68:3 8 94:2 .ft ksi in/ft k. as above. pp ) Mp .ft k.Draft 10{10 Case 2: A572 Grade 65 Steel: 1.10 = p65. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . same as in case 1 2. (Mp . the strength is obtained by interpolation between Mp and Mr .10 = 19:0 Mn = Mp . Required Zx = MFy = 076(12) = 15:6 :90(65) b wd = (14)(12) = 18:7.ft : k. r = Mp Mr Mn b Mn = = = = ZxFy = (17:4) (65) = 94:2 (12) 3 Sx (Fy .

the moment which should be considered for design is the one obtained from the moment envelope at that particular point. it is customary to use the following notation . a reinforcement must be added. 5 We will focus on determining the amount of exural (that is longitudinal) reinforcement required at a given section. Some of the most relevant provisions of this code are enclosed in this set of notes.1. such as shear.1 Notation 6 In R/C design. 4 Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed in most cases by the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. of the American Concrete Institute (ACI-318). 11. 3 The following lectures will focus exclusively on the exural design and analysis of reinforced concrete rectangular sections. Other concerns. but in poorer countries other indigenous materials have been used (such as bamboos). torsion. For that section. concrete by itself is a very poor material for exural members.1 Introduction 1 Recalling that concrete has a tensile strength (ft0 ) about one tenth its compressive strength (fc0 ). cracking.Draft Chapter 11 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 11. 2 To provide tensile resistance to concrete beams. and de ections are left for subsequent ones. Steel is almost universally used as reinforcement (longitudinal or as bers).

This will result in excessive rotation and deformation prior to failure. 11.1. when the concrete strain reaches its ultimate value ("c = "u = 0:003).1. As bd 11. design codes require the section to be moderately under-reinforced. 9 Ideally in an optimal (i.Draft 11{2 As b c d fc0 fr0 fs0 ft0 fy h REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS Area of steel Width Distance from top of compressive bers to neutral axis Distance from the top of the compressive bers to the centroid of the reinforcement Concrete compressive strength Concrete modulus of rupture Steel stress Concrete tensile strength Steel yield stress (equivalent to Fy in AISC) Height Steel ratio. This occurs if we do not have enough reinforcement that is the section is under-reinforced.3 Analysis vs Design 11 In R/C we always consider one of the following problems: Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .e.2. This is a sudden mode of failure. a section should be dimensioned such that crushing of concrete should occur simultaneously with steel yielding. This occurs if there is too much reinforcement that is the section is overreinforced.1: Failure Modes for R/C Beams 1. 2. ACI 318: 10. 10 However since concrete crushing is a sudden mode of failure with no prior warning.2 Modes of Failure 7 A reinforced concrete beam is a composite structure where concrete provides the compression and steel the tension. Fig. This would then be a balanced design. 8 Failure is initiated by. Yielding of the steel when the steel stress reaches the yield stress (fs = fy ).5: Steel Yielding Concrete Crushing Figure 11. most e cient use of materials) design. Crushing of the concrete.3. 11. whereas steel yielding is often accompanied by excessive deformation (thus providing ample warning of an imminent failure).

ACI-318: 8. 11.2) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 11. or Mn Mu thus a similar design philosophy is used as the one adopted by the LRFD method of the AISC code.1. determine cross sectional dimensions (b and h) as well as reinforcement (As ).2 16 The required strength is based on (ACI-318: 9. Equilibrium: of forces and moment at the cross section. 14 Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip). Basic assumptions used: 11. Note that those two materials do also have very close coe cients of thermal expansion under normal temperature. Design: Given an external moment to be resisted. 1) Fx = 0 or Tension in the reinforcement = Compression in concrete and 2) M = 0 or external moment (that is the one obtained from the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension in steel and compression of the concrete).1. We often consider the maximum moment along a member. Fig.3.1 Introduction 12 11{3 Analysis: Given a certain design.1 9.5 ACI Code 15 The ACI code is based on limit strength. 2.2: Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam 1.1 9. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain u = :003 in compression irrespective of fc0 .1. Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the beam (b and h) are xed by the architect. determine what is the maximum moment which can be applied. Plane section remain plane ) strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.3. the following basic relations will be used. and design accordingly.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions In developing a design/analysis method for reinforced concrete. ??: 13 Compatibility Equilibrium C d εy T T=C M_ext=Cd Figure 11.

The resultant force is equal 2. Thus we seek an equivalent stress distribution such that: 1. Ultimate Strength Design Method 10.2. 2. ACI-318: 1.1 Equivalent Stress Block REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS U = 1:4D + 1:7L (11. We note that this is similar to the approach followed in determining reactions in a beam subjected to a distributed load when the load is replaced by a single force placed at the centroid. Limit State Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . we consider Fig.1) = 0:75(1:4D + 1:7L + 1:7W ) (11. Figure 11.2 Cracked Section. Use a simpler equivalent stress distribution.2) 11. Whereas the strain distribution is linear (ACI-318 10. the stress distribution is non-linear because the stress-strain curve of concrete is itself non-linear beyond 0:5fc0 .Draft 11{4 11.2).2. 19 The ACI code follows the second approach. 18 Thus we have two alternatives to investigate the moment carrying capacity of the section. The location of the resultant is the same.3. Use the non-linear stress distribution.6 17 In determining the limit state moment of a cross section. 11.2.3: Cracked Section.

that is an optimal design. 11. 11.4) Compression Failure: where the concrete strain is equal to the ultimate strain From the strain "c = 0:003 c :003 d = :003+"s )c= 9 > = > d fs Es + :003 :003 (11.4 to Eq.3.2 Cracked 20 11{5 It was shown that the depth of the equivalent stress block is a function of fc0 : 1 = :85 if f 0 4 000 0 .DraftSection. Ultimate Strength Design Method 11.6) This b corresponds to the only combination of b.4: Whitney Stress Block 11.3) Figure 11.5) 22 Balanced Design is obtained by equating Eq.2 Balanced Steel Ratio 21 Next we seek to determine the balanced steel ratio b such that failure occurs by simultaneous yielding of the steel fs = fy and crushing of the concrete "c = 0:003.5 and by replacing by b and fs by fy : 0 0:85fc fy 1 d = fs:003 d Es +:003 fs = fy = b :003 b fy f :85fc0 1 d = Eys + :003 d When we replace Es by 29 000 ksi we obtain b = :85 1 f c 87 000 + f y y f 0 87 000 (11.2 We will separately consider the two failure possibilities: Tension Failure: we stipulate that the steel stress is equal to fy : = As bd As fy = :85fc0 ab = :85fc0 b 1 c diagram ) c = 0:85fy0 d f c 1 (11. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . ACI-318: 10.2. 4 000) 1 if 4c 000 < fc < 8 000 0 = :85 . d and As which will result in simultaneous yielding of the steel and crushing of the concrete. (:05)(fc 1 000 (11.

if such a section exists. Thus. 0:59 As0fy fb | Mn {z c } MD = fy bd2 1 . act = As bd fc 87 2. then we have two unknowns: (a) Steel strain "s (which was equal to "y in the previous case) (b) Location of the neutral axis c.2. If < 0:5 b (thus we will have a deeper section) then we need not check for de ection. fs = fy ) a = :Asffc0yb . 25 A minimum amount of reinforcement must always be used to prevent temperature and shrinkage cracks: 200 (11.Draft 11{6 < :75 b 24 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 23 Because we need to have ample warning against failure.3 Analysis 0 Given As . a 2 Combining this last equation with = As yields bd ) MD = As fy d . fc0 . If act < b (that is failure is triggered by yielding of the steel. d.8) min fy 26 The ACI code adopts the limit state design method MD = Mn > Mu = b = 0:9 (11. y If act > b is not allowed by the code as this would be an over-reinforced section which would fail with no prior warning.10) 4. and we need to determine its moment carrying capacity.9) 11.11) c = :85fs0fbs c 1 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . :59 fy0 fc (11. b. However. depending on the relative cost of steel/concrete and of labour it is common to select lower values of . b = (:85) 1 fy 87+fy 3. the ACI code stipulates: (11. and fy determine the design moment: 1. hence we prefer to have an under-reinforced section. We have two equations to solve this problem Equilibrium: of forces A (11.7) In practice. Equilibrium From 85 MD = As fy d .

4 Design 27 We distinguish between two cases. :59 fy0 bd2 fc } | {z R or R = fy 1 . Then solve for bd2 : (11. the second has the dimensions known (usually speci ed by the architect or by other constraints). d and As unknowns and MD known: 1.14) which does not depend on unknown quantities1 . We start by assuming . solve for b and d (this will require either an assumption on one of the two.2. or on their ratio).15) 3.003.12) (11. 2c (11. and if de ection is of a concern (or steel too expensive). then we can select = 0:5 b with b determined from Eq.2 Cracked to 0. Ultimate Strength Design Method 11. From Eq.6 Mp = Fy Z for stell beams.10 MD = fy 1 . Thus from similar triangles we have 11{7 Strain compatibility: since we know that at failure the maximum compressive strain "c is equal c = :003 d :003 + "s Those two equations can be solved by either one of two methods: (a) Substitute into one single equation (b) By iteration Once c and fs = E"s are determined then 1 MD = As fs d . Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .13) 11. :59 fy0 fc D bd2 = MR (11. The rst one has dimensions as well as steel area unknown. 11. and we seek As . 11. 10. at most = :75 b. b. As = bd 1 Note analogy with Eq.6 f0 = 0:75 :85 1 fc 87 87 000 f y 000 + y 2.DraftSection. 4.

16) (11. 2.in f 0 act fy bd2 1 . As unknown: In this case there is no assurance that we can have a design with b . then it will require too much steel resulting in an over-reinforced section. Assume initially that fs = fy 4.Draft 11{8 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS y b. c in in in psi ksi 2:35 act = As = (10)(23) = :0102 bd 0 87 p fc 4 87 b = :85 1 fy 87+fy = (:85)(:85) 60 87+60 = :02885 > act a = :Asffc0yb = (:(2:35)(60) = 4:147 in 85 85)(4)(10) Mn = (2:35)(60)(23 . c = c ) fs = Es c :003 < fy where c = a1 . We will again have an iterative approach 1. :59 act fy c fy = As fy d 1 . d = 23 . Assume an initial value for a (a good start is a = d ) 5 3. 2 . fs d .ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .17) (11. :59 act fc0 k. Check equilibrium of forces in the x direction ( Fx = 0) f a = :Asf 0sb 85 c 6. If the section is too small. use fs .in = 245 k. a 2 5. Check equilibrium of moments ( M = 0) 7. Check assumption of fs from the strain diagram "s :003 d. MD . Since we do not know if the steel will be yielding or not.in 2 MD = Mn = (:9)(2 950) = 2 660 k. 4:147 ) = 2 950 k.in Note that from the strain diagram Alternative solution c = 0:a = 40::414 = 4:87 85 85 in Mn = = (2:35)(60)(23) 1 . As = (11. (:59) 60 (:01021) = 2 950 4 MD = Mn = (:9)(2 950) = 2 660 k.18) Example 11-21: Ultimate Strength Capacity Solution: As = 2:35 Determine the ultimate Strength of a beam with the following properties: b = 10 . f 0 = 4 000 and fy = 60 . Iterate until convergence is reached.c d . d and Md known.

in k. Neglect beam weight wu = 1:4(1:27) + 1:7(2:44) = 5:92 2 2 MD = (5:92) 0 8 (15) (12) = 2 000 fc 87 = :85 1 fy 87+fy b 3 87 = (:85)(:85) 40 87+40 = 0:040 = :75 b = :75(0:04) = 0:030 R = fy 1 . a live load of 2.DraftSection. Check equilibrium of forces: 2 f a = :Asf 0yb = (:(2:47) (40):5) 85 c 85)(3) (11 in ksi ksi in = 3:38 in 4. We originally assumed a = 4. this will give d = 2 10 = 15:57 . We thus adopt b = 10 Finally. As = bd = (0:030)(10)(16) = 4:80 2 we select 3 bars No.000 psi concrete and 40 ksi steel.in ksi ksi in in d = 20 to support a design moment in 1.44 k/ft using a 3. (0:59)(02:03) 40 = 0:917 3 2 000 d bd2 = MR = (0:9)(0:917) = 2 423 3 k/ft k/ft ft in/ft k. let us iterate again with a = 3:30 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 Cracked Example 11-22: Beam Design I Solution: 11{9 Design a 15 ft beam to support a dead load of 1. at the end of this rst iteration a = 3:38.27 k/ft. Assume a = d = 20 = 4 and fs = fy 5 5 2. 11 in in in q in and d = 16 in .in in k in ksi 423 Assume b = 10 . Equilibrium of moments: 1 600 As = f MD a ) == (:9)(40) (20 . 2 2 k. Example 11-23: Beam Design II Md = 1 600 Solution: Select the reinforcement for a cross section with b = 11:5 using fc0 = 3 and fy = 40 k. Ultimate Strength Design Method 11. 4 ) y (d .in ksi in = 2:47 in 2 3. :59 fy0 fc = (0:03)(40) 1: .

If resistance to structural e ects of a speci ed wind load W are included in design.000 psi. Actual is act = (1125)(20) = :011 : 9. 8. Check equilibrium of forces: in REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 1 600 As = f MD a ) == : (d .1 .2. b is equal to 3 87 f 0 87 b = :85 1 f c 87 + f = (:85)(:85) 40 87 + 40 = :037 y y 10.2.6 through 8. Equilibrium of moments: 6. 9.1 . except as modi ed according to Section 8. Ec may be taken as 57 000 fc0 .1 .1.Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall be at least equal to U = 1:4D + 1:7L 9. 323 ) y k. 2 (:9)(40) (20 . using load factors and strength reduction factors speci ed in Chapter 9. :42 8.5.9 may be used. ?? illustrates a typical reinforcement in such a beam. For normal weight concrete. and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest required strength U U = 0:75(1:4D + 1:7L + 1:7W ) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5.in ksi in = 2:42 in 2 2 f a = :Asf 0yb = (:(2:42) (40):5) 85 c 85)(3) (11 ksi ksi in = 3:3 in p 7. p values of Wc 8.1 .3.Structures and structural members shall be designed to have design strengths at all sections at least equal to the required strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in such combinations as are stipulated in this code.All members of frames or continuous construction shall be designed for the maximum e ects of factored loads as determined by the theory of elastic analysis. Fig.2 .Draft 11{10 5. 8. 9.1. Simplifying assumptions of Section 8. 8. 11.4 ACI Code Attached is an unauthorized copy of some of the most relevant ACI-318-89 design code provisions.3 Continuous Beams 28 Whereas coverage of continuous reinforced concrete beams is beyond the scope of this course.4.Modulus of elasticity Es for non-prestressed reinforcement may be taken as 29.Required Strength 9. members shall be proportioned for adequate strength in accordance with provisions of this code. the following combinations of D.Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete may be taken as Wc1:533 fc0 ( psi) forp between 90 and 155 lb per cu ft. we have converged on a. L.In design of reinforced concrete structures. max = :75 = (0:75)(0:037) = :0278 > 0:011 thus fs = fy and we use As = 2:42 p in 2 11.2 .2 .1 .

4 ACI Code Victor Saouma Cracks Cracks Reinforcement (a) Deflected shape Points of deflection (b) Moment diagram under typical loading Stirrups Straight top bar Top bars Straight bottom bar Interior column Stirrups Bottom bars Section through beam Exterior span Interior span Interior span (c) Straight bar reinforcement No.Draft 11.5: Reinforcement in Continuous R/C Beams Top bars Bent bar Stirrups Straight bottom bar Bent bar at noncontinuous end Section through beam Exterior span Interior span Interior span Interior column Bent bars Bottom bars Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects (d) Straight and bent bar reinforcement 11{11 .3 stirrup support if necessary Stirrups Straight bar Figure 11.

2 .2.4 . shear. 9.75 of the ratio b that would produce balanced strain conditions for the section under exure without axial load.003.Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its speci ed yield strength fy just as concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0. and torsion. in terms of exure.90 9.5 . 10.2. shall be taken as the nominal strength calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code.2.3.2 and 10. the ratio of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.000 psi.3.3.Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression ber shall be assumed equal to 0. without axial load 0. L. 10.000 psi.Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.003.5 may be considered satis ed by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution de ned by the following: 10.Flexure. 10. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy . except as provided in Sections 10. except when meeting requirements of Section 18.000 psi. 10. multiplied by a strength reduction factor .At any section of a exural member.3.3.Strength reduction factor shall be as follows: 9.7. required strength U shall not be less than Eq.2.2.2.4. 1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0. and for members subject to combined exure and compressive axial load when the design axial load strength ( Pn ) is less than the smaller of (0:10fc0 Ag ) or ( Pb ). stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy .2. (9-1). the ratio provided shall not be less than that given by = 200 min fy Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be assumed to be rectangular.7.4 .Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in exural calculations of reinforced concrete.1 . trapezoidal.3. a non-linear distribution of strain shall be considered. and its cross sections.Draft 11{12 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more severe condition. 10.5.65. 10.1 . or any other shape that results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests. 10.5.1 .Design strength provided by a member.1 .3 . except for prestressing tendons.2 .85 for concrete strengths fc0 up to and including 4.Stress in reinforcement below speci ed yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement used shall be taken as Es times steel strain.5. 9. 10.7. but 1 shall not be taken less than 0. For members with compression reinforcement.6 .2 .2. parabolic. its connections to other members.2. the portion of b equalized by compression reinforcement need not be reduced by the 0.Distance c from ber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a direction perpendicular to that axis.Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement fy in excess of 80.3 .05 for each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4.75 factor.Requirements of Section 10.Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement may be used to increase the strength of exural members.3 . 10.Factor 1 shall be taken as 0. where positive reinforcement is required by analysis. except.Concrete stress of 0:85fc0 shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a distance (a = 1 c) from the ber of maximum compressive strain.000 psi.7. axial load. 10. See Section 10.7 . 10.2 .2. For strengths above 4. 10. and U = 0:9D + 1:3W but for any combination of D. for deep exural members with overall depth to clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans.For exural members. and W.2.4 .3.

then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between concrete and steel. Prestressed beams can have fc0 as high as 8. In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved through prestressing of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis. longer spans.Draft Chapter 12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 12. 12.1.2. Postensioning: Concrete is rst poured. Fig. If we consider the following: . 8 The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example. or higher grade steel and concrete must be used. we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the top and compressive stress at the bottom. Large crack widths will in turn result in corrosion of the rebars and poor protection against re. will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. concrete is then poured around the stressed bars. then when enough strength has been reached a steel cable is passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed.1 Introduction 1 Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones. Fig. 5 Main advantages of P/C: Economy. 6 There two type of Prestressed Concrete beams: Pretensioning: Steel is rst stressed. for a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances. 12.1. 3 One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to prestress the beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will be induced by the load. de ection & crack control.1 Materials 7 P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. durability. 12. 2 However. 4 For a simply supported beam. if we were to use a steel with fy much higher than 60 ksi in reinforced concrete (R/C). fatigue strength. When enough concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released.000 psi. it would have to have to be relatively deep (and at some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live load). However.

(Nilson 1978) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 12{2 Vertical bulkhead Harping hold-up point Harping hold-down point PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Anchorage Jacks Prestressing bed slab Precast Concrete element Jacks Tendon anchorage Continuous tendon Casting bed Jacks Support force Hold-down force Casting bed Tendon Figure 12.2: Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam. (Nilson 1978) Anchorage Intermediate diaphragms Anchorage Jack Beam Jack Tendon in conduct Anchorage Slab Jack Wrapped tendon Figure 12.1: Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam.

:90) 10. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 . The creep and shrinkage strains are about "cr + "sh ' :9 10. Fig. Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52. The residual stres which is left in the steel after creep and shrinkage took place is thus (1:03 .3. :55 fpi 10 fpy (12. Es = 29 000 .1) 6. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 after losses we would be left with 124 10. "s = 2930 = 1:03 10.3(29 103) = 4 ksi ksi we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the stretch of the steel (for prestressing to be e ective).4 = 87% which is unacceptably too high. 9 Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel.3ls 7.3: 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch. Relaxation occurs inde nitely and produces signi cant prestress loss. Note that the actual loss is (:90 10.1 Introduction 12{3 1.Draft 12. Grade 145 or 160 ksi. Due to shrinkage and creep. 5. resulting in a stressed length of concrete and steel equal to 0 0 ls = lc. 4. Note that yield stress is not well de ned for steel used in prestressed concrete. 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 1111111 000000 0000000 1111111 0000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 1111111 000000 0000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 1111111 000000 0000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 1111111 000000 0000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 1111111 000000 0000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 111111 000000 1111111 0000000 Figure 12. and fpy the yield stress. If we denote by fp the nal stress after t hours. Grade 250 or 270 ksi.3)(29 103 ) = 26 in each case ksi or a 17% loss.3 8. we will use Strands usually composed of 7 wires.3 = 000 ksi ksi in in (12. usually we take 1% strain as e ective yield. Prestress the beam with the cable. An unstressed steel cable of length ls 2. log t fpi .2) ksi Thus the total loss is 30. then fp = 1 . The total steel elongation is "s ls = 1:03 10. 12. fpi the initial stress. A concrete beam of length lc 3.3) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 10 Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which is reduction of strain at constant stress) occrs. 30 9. there will be a change in length lc = ("sh + "cr )lc (12.

12. .ve compression 4. 12.Draft 12{4 12.4. 12. Pe E ective force 12. e + ve if downward from concrete neutral axis 12. Pj Jacking force. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Materials are both in the elastic range 2. section is uncracked 3.6 Load Deformation 15 The load-deformation curve for a prestressed concrete beam is illustrated in Fig. I S1 = cI1 S2 = cI2 6.2 Prestressing Forces 11 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Prestress force \varies" with time.1. Subscript 1 refers to the top and 2 to the bottom 5.3 Assumptions 12 The following assumptions are made 1. Fig. 12.1. sign convention: +ve tension. Pi Initial prestress force But then due to time dependent losses caused by (a) relaxation of steel (b) shrinkage of concrete (c) creep of concrete is reduced to: 3.1. 14 12.5.1. Fig.5 Equivalent Load An equivalent load for prestressing can be usually determined from the tendon con guration and the prestressing force. so we must recognize 3 stages: 1.1.6. But then due to (a) friction and anchorage slip in post-tension (b) elastic shortening in pretension is reduced to: 2.4 Tendon Con guration 13 Through proper arrangement of the tendon (eccentricity at both support and midspan) various internal exural stress distribution can be obtained.

and the actual service (not factored) load is apllied 3.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam. Ai + PiI 1 = . Pi 1 + ec2 f2 = . ec21 r c c Pi .6) r S1 c Pi 1 + ec2 + M0 (12. A I Ac r2 c (12. the prestressing force. Pe and M0 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (Nilson 1978) 12. M0 (12. Ai 1 .2 Flexural W 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 f’ y h 12{5 Q P 2Q P h/2 fc 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 fc + fc 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 fc =f t = 2f c 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 P P 2h/3 2f c 0 11 1111111 00 0000000 11 1111111 00 +0000000 11 1111111 00 0000000 11 1111111 00 0000000 = 11 1111111 00 0000000 2f c 2f =2f t c 0 2f c 11 1111111 00 0000000 11 0000000 00 + 11 1111111 00 1111111 1111111 11 0000000 00 0000000 = 11 1111111 00 0000000 2f c 2f t =2f c fc Midspan 111 000 111 000 + = 0 111 000 000 111 000 111 Ends fc 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 2f c 2f c 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 0 2f c 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 0 fc 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 fc fc 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 fc fc 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 fc 2Q P h/3 P h/2 Q P h/2 h/3 + f c 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 ft =f c = P fc 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 fc Midspan + 0 Ends = Figure 12. Pi ec2 = .2 Flexural Stresses We now identify the following 4 stages: Initial Stage when the beam is being prestressed (recalling that r2 = AIc 1. Pi only 16 P ec P f1 = . ec21 .DraftStresses 12.5) 2.7) f2 = .4) (12. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers due to prestressing) P f1 = . Ai 1 . A r2 S2 c Service Load when the prestressing force was reduced from Pi to Pe beacause of the losses.

5: Determination of Equivalent Loads Load Ultimate Steel yielding Service load limit including tolerable overload First cracking load Decompression Balanced Full dead load cgs (f=0) Ru ptu re Overload Tn Service load range fcr or higher ∆o ∆D ∆L Deformation ∆ (deflection of camber) ∆ pi= Initial prestress camber ∆ pe= Effective prestress camber ∆ O= Self-weight deflection ∆ D= Dead load deflection ∆ L= Live load deflection ∆ pe ∆ pi Figure 12.Draft 12{6 Member (a) P θ P P cos θ 2 P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ P cos θ (b) θ P P P cos θ P sin θ P sin θ P cos θ PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Equivalent load on concrete from tendon Moment from prestressing (c) Pe P e P P Pe P (d) P e P θ M P sin θ P sin θ M P cos θ P cos θ (e) P P P P cos θ P sin θ P sin θ P cos θ 2 P sin θ None (f) P P None (g) P P Figure 12. (Nilson 1978) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6: Load-De ection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam.

A r2 S2 c The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. tension. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL 12{7 P DL f1 = . i and s refer to compression. 12. initial and service respectively): Those (service) exural stresses must be below those speci ed by the ACI code (where the subscripts Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .10) r c 1 Pe 1 + ec2 + M0 + MDL + MLL (12.DraftStresses 12. Ae 1 . Ae 1 . ec21 .11) f2 = . M0 + MS + MLL (12.7. 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 00 11 Pi Ac c1 e c2 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 Pi e c 1 Ic Pi (1Ac e c1 ) r2 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 Stage 1 Pi Ac Pi e c 2 Ic Pi (1+ Ac e c2 ) r2 Pi (1Ac 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 e c1 ) r2 - 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 Mo S1 Pi (1Ac 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 e c1 Mo )r2 S1 Stage 2 Pi (1+ Ac e c2 ) r2 + Mo S2 Pi (1+ Ac e c2 Mo )+ r2 S2 Pe (1Ac e c1 Mo )r2 S1 - 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 Md + Ml S1 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 Pe (1Ac e c1 Mt )r2 S1 Stage 4 Pe (1+ Ac e c2 Mo )+ r2 S2 + Md + Ml S2 Pe (1+ Ac e c2 Mt )+ r2 S2 Figure 12. (Nilson 1978) 17 c. t.8) r S1 c Pe 1 + ec2 + M0 (12. A r2 S2 c 4.9) f2 = .7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity Maximum Moment Section and Support Section. M0 (12. ec21 .2 Flexural P f1 = .

Pi = 169 . No limits are speci ed for Pe . I = A = 68:2 2 . 169 000 1 + (5:68:21 176 (12. psi in k Adapted from (Nilson 1978) 12" 4" 5" 2" 6" 24" 7" 6" 2" 5" 4" 7" 4" r2 The section properties for this beam are Ic = 12 000 4 . cracks are allowed to occur (just as in R/C). because section would be cracked.12-d) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . L = 40 ft. Ac = 176 2 . S1 = S2 = 1 000 3 .12-c) psi (12.12-a) psi = . Abeles. no tensile stresses. no crack. concrete density = 150 lb/ft3 and multiple 7 wire strands with constant eccentricity e = 5:19 . DL+LL =0. Determine exural stresses at midspan and at support at initial and nal conditions.83 176 68:2 Pi 1 + ec2 = . 169 000 1 . shinkage. and they are easier to control in P/C than in R/C.12-b) (12. Prestressing force. Solution: in in in in 1.A r2 c 19)(12) = 1 837 = . Pi only P f1 = . 18 Based on the above. and the total losses due to creep. Partial prestressing (pioneered by Leonhardt.Draft 12{8 fci fti fcs fts PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 0 permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage :60fp ci 0 permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage < 3 fci 0 permitted concrete compressive stress at service stage :45fc p p permitted concrete p tensile stress at initial stage 6 fc0 or 12 fc0 Note that fts can reach 12 fc0 only if appropriate de ection analysis is done. but there are some problems with excessive camber when unloaded. (5:19)(12) = . relaxation are 15%. we identify two types of prestressing: Full prestressing (pioneered by Freysinet). ec21 r c f2 (12. Example 12-24: Prestressed Concrete I Beam The following I Beam has fc0 = 4 000 . Ai 1 . 19 The ACi code imposes the following limits on the steel stresses in terms of fpu which is the ultimate strength of the cable: Pj < :80fpuAs and Pi < :70fpuAs .55 k/ft. Thurliman).

Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL 2 MDL + MLL = (0:55)(40) = 110 (12. then the e ective force Pe is equal to (1 .16-d) (12.DraftStresses 12. 0:15)169 = 144 P f1 = . 439 = . Ae 1 .16-c) (12.2 Flexural in k ft k/ft in ft k. If we have 15% losses.1 837) respectively.71 and .1 398 fci = :6fc0 = .1 837 + 439 = . 4.15-d) psi (12. Ae 1 + ec22 + M0 r S2 c = .15-a) (12. Pe and M0.83) and (0:85)(.522 p fti = 3 fc0 = +190p P f2 = .510 psi (12. M0 + MDL + MLL k.17) 8 and corresponding stresses f1 2 = (110)(12 000) = 1 320 (12. ec21 . 439 = .ft 12{9 2. 176 68:2 = . (12.15-f) k 3.1 561 + 439 = .18) 1 000 Thus.2 400p = .16-a) (12.1 122 psi note that . (5:19)(12) . Pe 1 .16-e) (12.1 561 are respectively equal to (0:85)(.19-a) f = . 439 = . Ai 1 + ec22 + M0 r S c 2 P f1 = .14) 1 000 12 psi = .16-f) P f2 = . ec21 . 144 000 1 + (5:19)(12) + 439 176 68:2 = .15-e) (12. M0 r S1 c 144 000 1 .15-b) (12.71 .16-b) (12.ft psi 1 Victor Saouma Ac Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects r2 S1 . Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers due to prestressing) (176) 2 (12.15-c) (12.83 . Ai 1 . ec1 . M0 r S1 c psi (12.13-a) w0 = (144) 2 = 2 (:150) = 3 = :183 2 M0 = (:183)(40) = 36:6 (12.13-b) 8 The exural stresses will thus be equal to: M 0 f1w2 = S 0 = (36:6)(12 000) = 439 (12.

two side ones with lengths of 74 ft and a middle one of length 160 feet.19-e) (12. In between the beams.9 and is simpli ed Ac = 2(8:9)(52) + (7)(61:2) = 1 354 2 " 3 I = 2 (52)(8:9) + (52)(8:9) 79 .20-a) (12. 12. 8:9 in 2# c1 = c2 Victor Saouma 12 = = 1 277 103 = h = 79 = 39:5 2 2 in 4 2 2 + (7)(61:2) 12 3 (12.20-b) (12.1 122 + 1 320 = +198 p fts = 6 fc0 = +380p psi psi (12.1 830 fcs = :45fc0 = . and cast with them.20-c) (12. Thirteen prestressed cocnrete beams are placed side by side to make up a total width of 44 fet of roadway and two 9. Ae 1 + ec22 + M0 + MS + MLL r c 2 = .8 20 12.Draft 12{10 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE = .19-f) 5.3.19-d) (12. -1830 -83 -510 -522 4 +198 3 -1122 2 -1398 1 -1837 12. 12. Fig.25 feet of sidewalk. 1 320 = .20-d) in Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) The historical Walnut Lane Bridge ( rst major prestressed concrete bridge in the USA) is made of three spans.2 700p P DL f2 = . The stress distribution at each one of the four stages is shown below.19-b) (12.19-c) (12. are transverse sti eners which connect the beams laterally.1 Cross-Section Properties 21 The beam cross section is shown in Fig.510 .

SECTION OF BEAM TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM 10" 7" 6’-7" SLOTS FOR CABLES Figure 12.8: Walnut Lane Bridge.25’ SIDEWALK BEAM CROSS SECTIONS TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS CROSS .3 Case Study: 12{11 80 ft CENTER LINE ELEVATION OF BEAM HALF 9.Draft Walnut Lane Bridge 12. Plan View Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .SECTION OF BRIDGE 52" 10" 3" 7" 3’-3" 6 1/2" 3 1/2" 7" 30" CROSS .25’ 44 ’ ROAD 9.

21-a) 2 Acable = 64(0:0598) 2 = 3:83 2 (12.27 inches.9" SIMPLIFIED CROSS .8 inch. Thus the total area of prestressing steel is given by: Awire = (d=2)2 = 3:14( 0:276 )2 = 0:0598 2 (12. or 31. 23 Each prestressing cable is made up 64 wires each with a diameter of 0.9" 22. thus the initial prestressing force Pi is equal to Pi = (131) (15:32) 2 = 2 000 (12. thus the e ective force is Pe = (1 .65 ft.SECTION OF BEAM Figure 12. All four have approximately the same eccentricity at midspan of 2.23) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 12{12 52" 8.9: Walnut Lane Bridge.21-c) in in in in in in 24 Whereas the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used is 247 ksi.20-f) 12.2" 6’-7" = 79" 8. Cross Section 3 S1 = S2 = I = 1 277 :5 10 = 32 329 c 39 I = 1 277 103 = 943: 2 r2 = A 1 354 in in 3 (12.20-e) (12. 0:13)(2 000) = 1 740 k k (12. the cables have been stressed only to 131 ksi. and two outer horizontal ones along the anges.21-b) 2 = 15:32 2 Atotal = 4(3:83) (12.3.5" PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 61.22) ksi in k 25 The losses are reported ot be 13%.2 Prestressing 22 Each beam is prestressed by two middle parabolic cables.5" 7" 22.

4 Flexural Stresses 1. 1 (12. 29 The total dead load is qDL = 0:23 + 0:13 = 0:36 (12. Ai 1 .3 Case Study: 12. (31:8)(39:5) = 490: 354 943: ec2 1 + r2 106) 1 + (31:8)(39:5) = . Pi only P f1 = .5 feet this gives a uniform live load of 1 wLL = 13 (0:094) =ft2 (62:5) = 0:45 (12.3. thus over a width of 62. Ai c (2 = .6 feet thick: 1 qs tot = 13 (2)(9:25) (0:60) (0:15) = 3 = 0:13 (12. (21 P = .3 445: 354 943: (12.29-a) psi 106) 1 . ec21 r c f2 = .30) 8 k.28) 12.24) qr tot = 13 (44) (0:45) (0:15) = 3 = 0:23 ft ft k ft k/ft Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9.29-b) (12. 27 The concrete (density=.3. Thus for a 44 foot width. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers due to prestressing) 2 M0 = (1:72)(160) = 5 504 (12.25) We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral diaphragms. the total load over one single beam is 1 (12.15 = 3 ) road has a thickness of 0.29-c) psi (12.45 feet.26) 28 ft ft k ft k/ft k/ft 30 The live load is created by the tra c. and is estimated to be 94 psf.3 Loads 26 k/ft k ft 12{13 The self weight of the beam is q0 = 1:72 . the combined dead and live load per beam is wDL+LL = 0:36 + 0:45 = 0:81 k/ft (12.29-d) 2. Prestressing force.27) k ft k/ft 31 Finally.ft The exural stresses will thus be equal to: M 0 f1w2 = S 0 = (5 50:4)(12 000) = 2 043 943: 12 psi (12.31) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Walnut Lane Bridge 12.25 feet wide and 0.

32-a) psi = . (31:8)(39:5) .2 578: fcs = :45fc0 = .1 616 .36-b) (12.36-a) (12. 1:74 354 1 .35) and corresponding stresses psi Thus.36-c) (12.1 553 p p 3 fc0 = +190 Pi 1 + ec2 + M0 A r2 S c 2 (12. If we have 13% losses. Ae 1 .2 400p lbs 490 .36-d) (12. ec21 .954: = . ec21 . M0 r S1 c (12.36-f) = . 2 043: = .33-b) (12.32-e) (12. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL k.3 445 + 2 043 = .1 616 1 943: Pe 1 + ec2 + M0 f2 = A r2 S2 c 1:74 106 1 + (31:8)(39:5) + 2 043: = . 1 354 943: MDL + MLL = (0:81)(160) = 2 592 8 f1 2 = (2 592)(12 000) = 962: 32 329 2 (12.954 + 962: = +8: p fts = 6 fc0 = +380p c 2 psi Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 12{14 = fti = f2 = PRESTRESSED CONCRETE P f1 = .33-d) psi 4. then the e ective force Pe is equal to (1 .32-d) psi (12.2 700p P DL f2 = Ae 1 + ec22 + M0 + MS + MLL r psi (12.36-e) (12. P DL f1 = .33-a) psi (12.32-c) (12. Ai 1 . 2 043 = . M0 r S1 c 6 10 = .1 402: fci = :6fc0 = . Ae 1 .34) (12. 962: = .ft (12.32-b) (12. Pe and M0 .32-f) 3.33-c) (12. M0 + MS + MLL r c 1 = . 0:13)(2 106 ) = 1:74 106 P f1 = . ec21 .

1) M = Hh . and h is the overall height of the arch.1. They are also easy to analyse through statics.. or tendon con guration in a prestressed concrete beam all are nearly parabolic.1. it is often more economical to build a curved structure such as an arch. 3 Since the dawn of history. suspended cable or thin shells. L = 0 2 2 4 Solving for H H = wL 8h 2 (13. T forces in a beam. mankind has tried to span distances using arch construction. for spans in excess of 100 ft. Since h is much larger than d. (13. H will be much smaller than C . 5 Since equilibrium requires H to remain constant across thee arch.2 where the vertical load is per unit horizontal projection (such as an external load but not a self-weight). wL L . . and labour was not an issue. Taking 2 moment about the crown. 13. T in a beam. 2 Long span structures can be built using at construction such as girders or trusses. hence an arch.Draft Chapter 13 Three-Hinges ARCHES 13. 6 Three-hinged arches are statically determinate structures which shape can acomodate support settlements and thermal expansion without secondary internal stresses. Essentially this was because an arch required materials to resist compression only (such as stone. and H is analogous to the C . 4 The basic issues of static in arch design are illustrated in Fig.2) We recall that a similar equation was derived for arches. Fig. bricks). Due to symmetry. masonary. a parabolic curve would theoretically result in no moment on the arch section. long span structures should have their shapes approximate the coresponding moment diagram.1 Uniform Horizontal Load In order to optimize dead-load e ciency. the vertical reaction is simply V = wL . However. 13. suspended cable.1 Theory 1 13. and there is no shear across the midspan of the arch (nor a moment).

wL /8 .Draft 13{2 M = w L /8 2 Three-Hinges ARCHES L w=W/L C RISE = h -C BEAM +T W/2 M-ARM small C C-T large BEAM T T IDEALISTIC ARCH SHAPE GIVEN BY MOMENT DIAGRAM -C +T W/2 SAG = h IDEALISTIC SUSPENSION SHAPE GIVEN BY MOMENT DIAGRAM NOTE THAT THE "IDEAL" SHAPE FOR AN ARCH OR SUSPENSION SYSTEM IS EQUIVILENT TO THE DESIGN LOAD MOMENT DIAGRAM Figure 13.2: Statics of a Three-Hinged Arch. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) w wL/2 w H h H L R V = wL/2 V R R = V 2+ H 2 h H 2 H = wL /8h L/2 V = wL/2 MCROWN = VL/2 .H h = 0 2 2 Figure 13.H h = 0 M BASE = wL /8 .1: Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

3: Two Hinged Arch. we may have buckling problems. Finally. APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING EXCEPT AT THE BASE APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING INCLUDING BASE w w h’ H’ H’=wl /8h’< 2 wl /8h 2 M h V V h h’ M base M crown L M base h H H’<H H’<H V V Figure 13. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 10 Since H varies inversely to the rise h. the crown will require a smaller section than the support. live loads may act on portion of the arch. For a combination of aesthetic and practical considerations. whereas at the crown 12 Since the greatest total force in the arch is at the support. A well dimensioned arch will have a small to negligible moment. a span/rise ratio ranging from 5 to 8 or perhaps as much as 12. as the ratio goes higher. then due to the inclination of the arch the actual self weight is not constant. 13. APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING EXCEPT AT THE BASE APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING INCLUDING BASE w w h’ H’ H’=wl /8h’< 2 wl /8h 2 M h V V h h’ M base M crown L M base h H H’<H H’<H V V Figure 13. p 2 2 V + H ). (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the depth (and thus the weight) of an arch is not usually constant. is frequently used. and the arch advantage diminishes. and the section would then have a higher section depth.4: Arch Rib Sti ened with Girder or Truss. it is obvious that one should use as high a rise as possible. in practice an arch is not subjected to uniform horizontal load. and relatively high normal compressive stresses. then bending moments may exist either at the crown or at the supports or at both places. thus the line of action will not necessarily follow the arch centroid.3.Draft 13. 8 An arch is far more e cient than a beam. This last e ect can be neglected if the live load is small in comparison with the dead load. First.1 Theory 7 13{3 An arch carries the vertical load across the span through a combination of axial forces and exural ones. However. 9 If the arch has only two hinges. and possibly more economical and aesthetic than a truss in carrying loads over long spans. or if it has no hinges. 11 In a parabolic arch subjected to a uniform horizontal load there is no moment. However. (R = we simply have H . Fig.

4-a) (13. Solution: 1.260 k ing capacity of each component is Concrete As (4 070)(2:5)ksi = 10. 100’ Garage and hotel Building 510’ It is necessary to determine preliminary dimensions for the size of the arch section. This process of trial and error can be repeated until a satisfactory preliminary design is achieved. a new estimate for the arch self weight should be undertaken.k.Draft 13{4 Example 13-25: Design of a Three Hinged Arch Three-Hinges ARCHES adapted from (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) A long arch 100 ft high and spanning 510 ft is to be designed for a garage and hotel building. then the steel cross sectional area is As = 2 rt = Dt = (3:14)(6) (12) = (0:5) = 113 2 (13.600 k.5 ksi (noting that the strength of con ned concrete can be as high as three times the one of fc0 ). using air rights over roads and highways. 6. k ft in ft in in ft in in R = p H 2 + V 2 = (10 700)2 + (8 400)2 = 13 600 p Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Furthermore.700 k) but not quite for the abutments at R=13.5) The concrete area is 2 2 (13. 4.6) Ac = D = (3:14) (6) 2 (144) 2 =ftsq = 4 070 2 4 4 Assuming that the steel has an allowable stress of 20 ksi and the concrete 2. (13.lled steel pipe for arch section. then the load carrySteel Ac (113)(20)ksi = 2. 5. To the initial DL and LL of 27 k/ft we add the arch own weight estimated to be load. The arches are spaced 60 ft on centers and carry four-story loading totaling 27 k/ft along each arch. We next determine the various forces: 2 2 H = wL = (33)(510) = 10 700 8h 8(100) V = wL = (33)(510) = 8 400 2 2 k/ft k k 25% of the (13. for the crown section (H =10.4-b) 3.3) (13. thus the total load is w = (1 + :25)27 = 33:7 33 2.440 kip which is o. and selecting a pipe diameter of 6 ft with a thickness of 1/2 inch.180 k Total 12.4-c) If we use concrete.

Fig. 14 It is a three hinged pedestrian bridge which crosses a deep valley with a most beautiful shape which blends perfectly with its surrounding. Fig. perhaps the most famous and in uential structure of Maillart is located in high up in the Swiss Alps close to Shuders. 13. 16 The arch cross section is not constant.1 Geometry 13 The Salginatobel bridge. 13.Draft Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) 13.6 ft 295 ft Figure 13.8.5 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 42. whereas the bridge deck and the piers are transfering the vertical load into the arch. (Billington and Mark 1983) 15 The load supporting structure is the arch itself. 13. 20 At the crown/hinge the section is rectangular with Acr = (1:05)(11:48) = 12:05 ft 2=1 735 in 2 (13.6 17 The basic shape of the supporting structure is a three hinged arch as shown in Fig.5: Salginatobel Bridge Dimensions.9) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .8) Each ange has an area of ft in AF = (0:62)(12:46) = 7:73 2 = 1 113 and the e ective depth of the section is d = 12:79 ft.7) (13.7 18 The arch is parabolic (which as we saw an the optimal shape which minimizes exure).5 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 87. and can be idealized as in Fig.2 Case Study: 13. 13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) 13{5 13.2. and the cross section at the quarter point has an area of At = 2 (0:62)(12:46) + (0:59)(12:17)] = 29:8 19 ft 2 = 4 291 2 in 2 (13.5 ft 87.

(Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 42.Draft 13{6 ACTUAL ARCH WITH CENTROID (DOTTED LINE) Three-Hinges ARCHES IDEALIZATION (ONE DEMENSIONAL) 295 ft Figure 13. (Billington and Mark 1983) CONCRETE CORK PADS HINGE ACTUAL SPRINGING HINGE CORK PAD CONCRETE HARD WOOD ACTUAL CROWN HINGE IDEALIZATION HINGE IDEALIZATION Figure 13.6 ft .6: Salginatobel Bridge Idealization.7: Salginatobel Bridge Hinges.

46 ft 0.79 ft 13.62 ft Figure 13.2 Case Study: 13{7 ACTUAL ARCH SECTIONS 295 ft 12.6 ft .Draft Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) 13.17 ft d=12.59 ft 0. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 12.62 ft 0.41 ft 42.8: Salginatobel Bridge Sections.

11-b) (13.2.) Mc (840)(147:5) . (840)(73:75) .11-f) (13. Fig.11-h) (13.10. HL (42:6) = ) HL = p 2 + (1 455)2 = RD = (840) p RL = (55)2 + (95)2 = 55 0 0 1 455 0 95 1 680 110 k k k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .11-c) (13. 13. The total vertical load is shown in Fig.11-i) = = = ) HD = (55)(147:5) .10) w = 5. 13. each weighing 55 kips. 13. and the vertical members longer) and is equal to 1. Fig.11-g) (13. wD = WD = (1 680) = 5:7 L (295) k ft k/ft (13.9: Salginatobel Bridge Dead Load. Fig.15 VD = 1 680 2 110 VL = 2 (+ . and we consider the case in which two trucks. 23 The live load is caused by tra c.11-e) (13.11-d) (13. 13.Draft 13{8 13.2 Loads 21 Three-Hinges ARCHES The dead load WD is assumed to be linearly distributed (even though it is greater where the arch is deeper.2.9. are placed at the quarter-point.3 Reactions 24 Reactions are easily determined from equilibrium.7 k/ft D WD = 1680 k L = 295 ft Figure 13. (Billington and Mark 1983) For the sake of simplicity we will neglect the snow load (which is actually negligible compared to the dead load). HD (42:6) = 840 k k (13.11-a) (13.11 22 13. (55)(73:75) .680 kips. This placement of the load actually corresponds to one of the most critical loading arrangement.

10: Salginatobel Bridge Truck Load. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects PLAN ROADWAY P = 55 k .Draft Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) 13.5 ft 13{9 P = 55 k 295 ft Figure 13.2 Case Study: ARCH ABUTMENT 42.

D = 840 k DEAD LOAD B VB.5 ft Figure 13.L = 55 k LIVE LOAD 295 ft B VB.L = 55 k Figure 13.12: Salginatobel Bridge Reactions.Draft 13{10 Q D = 1680 k P = 55 k Three-Hinges ARCHES P = 55 k A VA. (Billington and Mark 1983) P C d=42.75 ft V l/2=147.11: Salginatobel Bridge Total Vertical Load.6 ft H A l/4=73. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 42.D = 840 k A VA.6 ft .

1 455) cos0o + (.14-b) NL and at the crown where there is no vertical force (and = 0) k k cr ND = (.13: Salganitobel Bridge Shear Diagrams.4 Internal Forces 25 13{11 The shear diagrams for the dead. and H is constant.14-a) qr = (.420) sin 16:1o = .2.17) k.ft (13. The second is caused by the horizontal reaction.12) where tan = 2d (13.15-b) 27 28 The uniform dead load will not produce a moment on the parabolic arch. The (point) live load will create a moment which can be decomposed into two parts. and the vertical forces are obtained from the shear diagram. 13.1 514 (13.13.15-a) (13.1 455 cr NL = (.55) sin 16:1o = . live and combined load is shown in Fig. and the resulting moment is ML = Hd(x).420 k .106 (13.Draft Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) 13.895 k 295 ft Figure 13.475 k L x . The horizontal force for the dead and live loads was determined previously as 1 455 and 95 kips respectively.55) sin 0o = .ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .95 k k (13. 1.13) L and = 16:1o at this location. and the max moment is V ML = P L = 11o 295 = 4 050 24 2 4 k. thus qr ND = (.1 455) cos16:1o + (. since d varies parabolically.95) cos 16:1o + (.4 050 (13.420) sin 0o = . Vertical load will cause a trapezoidal moment diagram.16) H 2. 840 k 420 k + SHEAR FORCE 3L/4 L/4 L/2 420 k 295 ft 840 k 295 ft x 0 SHEAR FORCE 55 k L/2 0 L -55 k 295 ft + 895 k + 475 k + 420 k = SHEAR FORCE 0 . (Billington and Mark 1983) 26 At the quarter point the axial force can be expressed as: N = H cos + V sin (13.2 Case Study: 13.95) cos 0o + (. that second moment is parabolic with a peak value equal to V ML = Hdmax = (95)(32:6) = .

ft ft k 13.k MOMENT 295 ft Figure 13. Fig.k = 1.19) (13.050 k-ft = BENDING 4.2.49 (13. 13.750 .Draft 13{12 at the quarter point V ML = Hd1=4 = (95) 3(32:6) = .(110) L (13.1 680 and .(1 680) D (13.050 ft.21-b) sp = (2 240) 2 1 000 = .18) 29 The overall bending moment diagram from the live loads is determined by simply adding those two components.14. 3 040 = 1 010 k.k-3.799 in k psi in k psi in psi Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (Billington and Mark 1983) 30 We observe that the actual shape of the arch follows this bending moment diagram for one of the most critical live load case.21-a) sp = (2 240) 2 1 000 = .5 Internal Stresses 32 The axial stresses at the springlines were determined to be .110 kips for the dead and live loads respectively. thus the axial stresses are 33 At the support the area of concrete is Ac = 2 240 .14: Salginatobel Bridge Live Load Moment Diagram.010 ft.21-c) s spTotal = . 2 .050 k-ft -3.ft Three-Hinges ARCHES (13. 31 The maximum moment at midspan is max ML = 4 050 .040 k-ft BENDING MOMENT 0 L/4 L/2 295 ft x 3L/4 L + PL/4 = 4.20) which would produce internal forces in the upper and lower anges equal to: max 010) Fint = ML = (1(12:8) = 79 d k.040 ft. 49 = .ft (13.750 . P P L/4 L/4 + BENDING MOMENT -4.3 040 4 k.

22-c) s cr Total = .353 .449 (79) . 13.3 Structural 34 k psi in k 13{13 At the crown.15 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .23-c) | DeadLoad = .55 (13.(1 514) .(106) bot qr = (4 291) 2 1 000 + (4 291) 2 1 000 (1 113) | {z } | {z }| {z psi k k in in AxialStresses {z LiveLoad } Flexural (13.307 AxialStresses psi {z LiveLoad } Flexural } (13. 71 .Draft Behavior of Deck-Sti ened Arches 13. (1 113) 2 | {z } | {z } | {z } 35 k k k in in in | DeadLoad = .(95) L (13.(1 455) D (13.3 Structural Behavior of Deck-Sti ened Arches From (Billington 1979) INCOMPLETE 36 The issue of unsymmetrical live load on a sti ened or unsti ened arch was also addressed by Maillart. 55 = .23-b) in k 2 (13. As discussed in (Billington 1979) and illustrated by Fig.23-d) 13. we repeat the same calculations.22-a) cr = (1 735) 2 1 000 = .23-a) qr = (4 291) 2 1 000 + (4 291) 2 1 000 .(1 514) (79) . Note that we must include the e ect of both axial and exural stresses .353 .839 . 25 + 71 .22-b) cr = (1 735) 2 1 000 = . 25 .(106) top (13.839 .894 psi in psi The stresses at the quarter point are determined next. where the axial force is equal to the horizontal component of the reactions .

15: Structural Behavior of Sti ened Arches.Draft 13{14 Three-Hinges ARCHES wL a wL ∆ wL ∼∆/10 wL wL a wL Unstiffened Arch 0 wL a 2 wL a 2 Stiffened Arch Figure 13. (Billington 1979) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Fig.1 Introduction 1 14.1.Draft Chapter 14 BUILDING STRUCTURES 14.2 Behavior of Simple Frames 2 For vertical load across the beam rigid connection will reduce the maximum moment in the beam (at the expense of a negative moment at the ends which will in turn be transferred to the columns). 6 Semi-Rigid: The end moments are equal and not equal to zero. col = beam. .1 Beam Column Connections The connection between the beam and the column can be. In a exible connection the column and beam end moments are both equal to zero. col = beam.1. Mcol = Mbeam = 0. Mcol = Mbeam = 0.1: θb θb θb θc θc θc θb = θc θb = θc M=K(θ b . and Semi-Flexible Joints Flexible that is a hinge which can transfer forces only. the end moments and rotations are equal (unless there is an externally applied moment at the node). beam = 6 6 col . 14.θc ) s s θ b = θc Semi-Flexible Flexible Rigid Figure 14. Rigid. the di erence in rotation is resisted by the spring Mspring = Kspring ( col . Mcol = Mbeam = 0. The end rotation are not equal. Furthermore. In this case we really have cantiliver action only. 6 Rigid: The connection is such that beam = col and moment can be transmitted through the connection. In a rigid connection. but the rotation are di erent. 14.1: Flexible. beam).

prestressing) can be replaced by a static equivalent one in which the moment M is eliminated and the force P applied with an eccentricity 5 e= M P (14.1. shear. 14. Fig. 14. thus the neutral axis (where the stress is equal to zero) passes through the centroid of the section. columns. 14.1) 6 The induced stresses can be decomposed into uniform (. L (14. θ PI PI V V V V PI PI PI PI PI PI Figure 14.2-a) (14.P + L . i. max equals zero.P . Mint = Mext . and M = 0.3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads A concentric axial force P and moment M .Draft 14{2 3 H ∆ θ H ∆ BUILDING STRUCTURES The advantages of a rigid connection are greater when the frame is subjected to a lateral load. the connection will sti en the structure and reduce the amount of lateral de ection. applied on a support sytem (foundation. Under those conditions.3 illustrates the deformation. moment and axial forces in frames with di erent boundary conditions under both vertical and horizontal loads.2-b) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 4 Fig.2: Deformation of Flexible and Rigid Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads.P=L) (assuming a unit width) and linearly varying one ( = M=S ) and the end stresses are min = max = We note that the linearly varying stress distribution must satisfy two equilibrium requirements: F = 0.2. then = P 7 If we seek the eccentricity ecr for which L .e.

3: Deformation.5M’/L M’/4 M’/4 p/2 -M’/L M’/4 M’/4 Figure 14.45M 0.4M w/2 -w/2 -M/L 0. Moment. and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects -M’/2L p/2 p/2 M’/2L M’/L p/2 p/2 M/L p/2 p/2 M’/L M’/L .4M/h w/2 w/2 i j -0.1 Introduction Frame Type L w 14{3 Deformation w/2 -w/2 w/2 w/2 Shear W=wL.64M 0.Draft 14.68M/h -0. M’=Ph 2 Moment M Axial a h b POST AND BEAM STRUCTURE P p M’ w/2 -w/2 M w/2 w/2 c d SIMPLE BENT FRAME p -M’/L M’ w/2 -w/2 M w/2 w/2 e f p THREE-HINGE PORTAL -M’/L M’ -M’/L w/2 -w/2 M M M/h -M’/L g h -M/h -M/L M/h M’/2 M’/2 w/2 w/2 p/2 THREE-HINGE PORTAL 0.55M 0.4M 0. Shear.68M/h w/2 w/2 -0.68M/h k l RIGID FRAME 0.36M/h -M/L M’/2 M’/2 p/2 TWO-HINGE FRAME w/2 -w/2 0.45M 0. M=wL/8.36M/h 0.

3) (14. Fig.4 L/2 L/2 L/3 L/3 e L/3 L/3 L/6 P L/3 L/3 L/3 L/2 P L/2 L/3 P L/3 e L/6 L/3 L/3 L/6 P L/3 L/3 L/3 P P/A + M/S = = = + + Figure 14. the resultant force P must be placed within the midle third kernel.6) } 6 | {zcr |{z} or Mint Mext ecr = L 6 (14. 14.7) in other words to avoid tensile stresses on either side. this internal moment must be equal and opposite to the external moment Mext = Pecr hence PL = Pe (14.Draft 14{4 8 BUILDING STRUCTURES T=1 L 2 2 (14.4: Axial and Flexural Stresses 10 This equation is fundamental in preventing tensile forces in Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4) (14. then T = 4L T = P L 2 = P applied at 3 L from the centroid A 2 Thus the net internal moment is Mint = 2T 2 L = 2 P 2 L = PL 32 432 6 9 To satisfy the equilibrium equation.5) The net tensile force due to the eccentric load is If we want this net tensile force to be equal and opposite to the compressive force.

staircases) and/or exterior. 14.1. This is not a very e cient structural form to resist lateral (wind/earthquake) loads.8 kip/ft of vertical height acting on the wall. then there will not be any tensile stresses caused by prestressing alone. 14.8-b) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 Buildings 14{5 1. 14 If the wall is braced by oors. then it can provide an excellent resitance to horizontal load in the plane of the wall (but not orthogonal to it). both of them can also have a structural role in trnsfering vertical and horizontal loads.Draft Structures 14. Buildings: If the eccentricity of the vertical load is within the middle third. 2.1 Wall Subsystems 12 Whereas exterior wall provide enclosure and interior ones separation. 11 14. or steel trusses constitute a rigid subsystem.ft ft (14. Prestressed concrete beams: If the prestressing cable is within the kernel (i. 3. Vertical Shafts: made up of four solid or trussed walls forming a tubular space structure. then we have compressive stresses only under the foundation and no undesirable uplift. Rigid Frame: which consists of linear vertical components (columns) rigidly connected to sti horizontal ones (beams and girders).1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) We consider a reinforced concrete wall 20 ft wide.ft ft k k. it is best if the center of orthogonal shear resistance is close to the centroid of lateral loads as applied. 1. 1 ft thick. 13 Walls are constructed out of masonry.5. paneled or braced timber. all columns will be loaded under compression only. 15 When shear-walls subsytems are used. we assume a uniform horizontal force of 0.2.8-a) k. then there will be torsional design problems. Foundations: If the eccentricity is within the middle kernel. As a result of wind. It is required to compute the exural stresses and the shearing stresses in the wall to resist the wind load.e middle third). This is only adequate for small rise buildings. Fig.2. The tubular structure may be interior (housing elevators.2 Buildings Structures There are three primary types of building systems: Wall Subsytem: in which very rigid walls made up of solid masonry. and 120 ft high with a vertical load of 400 k acting on it at the base. If this is not the case. timber concrete or steel. 14. Maximum shear force and bending moment at the base 16 Vmax = wL = (0:8) (120) = 96 2 (120)2 2 = 5 760 Mmax = wL = (0:8) 2 2 k. Most e cient for very high rise buildings.ft (14.

8 k/ft 120’ W 400 k H=96 k. The critical eccentricity is thus there will be tension at the base.11) = (600) (14. The maximum exural stresses will be Mc (5 760) (10) = (86:5) max = I = (667) 4 ft ksf psi 6.9) 3.5: Design of a Shear Wall Subsystem.7’ IN TENSION Figure 14.12) 5.ft ft ft 3 = 667 ft 4 (14.13) = V = (96) 2 = 4:8 = 33:3 A (1)(20) A concrete with nominal shear reinforcement can carry at least 100 psi in shear.10) 3 (20) I = bh = (1) 12 12 ft k.ft k = 14:4 60’ ft (14.Draft 14{6 1’ BUILDING STRUCTURES 1111 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 11110 00001 0 +F VERTICAL + FDL +140 + 740 PSI + 600 M 20’ w=0. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 2. The resulting eccentricity is 760) eActual = M = (5(400) P ft k. 4. The moment of inertia of the wall is ecr = L = (20) = 3:3 < eActual N. k ksf psi ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 6 6 ft (14. those computed shear streses are permissible. The average shearing stress is (14.G. M =5760 k’ V -f HORIZONTAL +f -F 2/(3d) M 11111 00000 11111 00000 7.

760) = 288 F = (5 (20) (14.14-a) psi 8. it would have to be resisted by some steel reinforcement. k in ksi 14.8-b). Fig.140 (14.6.(400) 2 = (20) (1)(20) k ft ksf 14{7 = . 600 = . we adopt the WSD approach. 10. The compressive stress of 740 psi can easily be sustained by concrete. but use a trussed shear wall instead of a concrete one. which in turn will be increased by 4=3 for seismic and wind load.140 + 600 = 460 = . 14. The length of the tension area is given by (similar triangles) x = 20 ) x = 460 (20) = 7:7 (14. In addition.15-b) 11. Given that those stresses are service stresses and not factored ones. the foundations should be designed to resist tensile uplift forces (possibly using piles).140 . Using the maximum moment of 5 760 kip-ft (Eq.18) width 13. as to the tensile stress of 460 psi. At the base of the wall.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 17 We consider the same problem previously analysed.740 psi psi (Tension) (Compression) (14. we can compute the compression and tension in the columns for a lever arm of 20 ft.19) As = (26:7) = 9:4 2 This amount of reinforcement should be provided at both ends of the wall since the wind or eartquake can act in any direction.17) 460 460 + 740 460 + 740 ft 9. The total amount of steel reinforcement needed is (250) (14.16) all = 3 (20) = 26:7 ksi 12. and tension at the other. 4 (14.1. 1. The total tensile force inside this triangular stress block is T = 1 (460) (7:7 12) (12) } = 250 | {z 2 ksi in in k (14. compression at one end.ft k ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .20) k. The stress distribution is linear. and use an allowable stress of 20 ksi.15-a) (14. 14.2. the axial stresses will be = . The maximum stresses will thus be: 1 2 = .2 Buildings 7.Draft Structures 14.

with an aspect ratio under 1 or 2. and exure dominates.Draft 14{8 20’ BUILDING STRUCTURES 120’ W 400 k H=96 k 1 24’ 1.21-a) (14. If there is only one shaft. (400) . If the aspect ratio is between 3 and 5. 19 If the shaft is relatively short and wide.2. 288 = . 2 k k k k 60’ (14.22) 4.6: Trussed Shear Wall 2. then the dominant strcutral action is that of a sti shear resisting tube.6 V +FM -F M Figure 14. the forces would be C = . then the shear forces may not be the controlling criterion. The design could be modi ed to have no tensile forces in the columns by increasing the width of the base (currently at 20 ft). 14. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 Shaft Systems 18 Vertical shear-resisting shafts in buildings act as a tubular section and generally have a rectangular cross section. If we now add the e ect of the 400 kip vertical load. If there are many shafts. The force in the diagonal which must resist a base shear of 96 kip is (similar triangles) F = (20)2 + (24)2 ) F = (20)2 + (24)2 (96) = 154 96 20 20 p p k (14.488 2 (400) + 288 = 88 T = . then they should be symmetrically arranged.21-b) 3.2 ~1. it is generally located in the center and houses the elevators.

1 Example: Tube Subsystem From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 20 ~ 20 ’ 14{9 With reference to Fig. The average shear stress is =V = A (96) 2(20)(1) k ft 2 = 2:4 ksf = 17 psi (14.A.600 k produces an axial stress of P .Draft Structures 14.8 k/ft H = 96 k 60 ’ 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 120 ’ N. and with 1 ft 20 ’ 20 ’ ~ 20 ’ w = 0. Figure 14.2.26) 6.140 psi (14.27) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .ft k ft k. Comparing this structure with the one analysed in Sect.2 Buildings 14.25) fl = I (4 600) 4 k k. The maximum exural stresses: MC = (5 760) (20=2) = 12:5 = 87 (14.8 k/ft.24) 12 12 12 4. The vertical load of 1. 14. the maximum moment and shear are 5 760 and 96 respectively. 14. 3.(1 600) ax = A = (4(20)(1) 2 = . the reinforced concrete shaft is 20 ft square. 1.7.2.ft ft ksf psi ft 5. As previously.1.2. (18)(18) = 4 600 4 (14. 120 ft high.20 k ft ksf = .23) 2. The moment of inertia for a tubular section is 3 3 3 I = bd = (20)(20) . It is subjected to a lateral force of 0.1 the total vertical load acting on the base is now increased to V = 4(400) = 1 600 (14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) thick walls.7: Design Example of a Tubular Structure.

28-b) (14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 1. Inherent assumption made regarding the validity of a linear elastic analysis vis a vis of an ultimate failure design. The total stresses are thus 1 2 BUILDING STRUCTURES = ax + fl = . The point of in ection for all girders is at midspan.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 25 Despite the widespread availability of computers. and those stresses are much better than those obtained from a single shear wall. Each bay of a bent acts as a separate \portal" frame consisting of two adjacent columns and the connecting girder. 4.140 + 87 = . however their analysis is more complex than for tubes. 87 = . However. approximate methods of analysis are justi ed by 1. Fig.8: 21 L P L/2 h h/2 V =P/(2L) 1 V2 =P/(2L) P P h/2 H 1=P/2 H 2=P/2 PI Figure 14.53 = . 23 There are two approximate methods for the analysis of rigid frames subjected to lateral loads: 1) Portal and 2) Cantilever method. For a multibay frame.140 . The point of in ection (zero moment) for all columns is at midheight 3. 24 The portal frame method is based on the following major assumptions.Draft 14{10 7. This method will be discussed in more details in the following section. the shears on the interior columns are equal and the shear in each exterior column is half the shear of an interior column. 14.3 Rigid Frames Rigid frames can carry both vertical and horizontal loads. 14. 2.28-c) psi psi thus we do not have any tensile stresses. 14. 22 The rigorous and exact analysis of a rigid frame can only be accomplished through a computer analysis.227 (14. for preliminary design it is often su cient to perform approximate analyses.8: A Basic Portal Frame. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2.28-a) (14.

0:045wL2 2 2 (14. and take algeebraic sums. depending on the nature of the connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for the approximate location of the hinge). In all free body diagrams assume positivee forces/moments.8 the original length of the girder. all beams are statically determinate and have a span.10 V lft = wL 2 V rgt = . Ls equal to 0. 33 End forces are given by Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is. 14. 30 32 Based on the rst assumption. 3. 14. and for shear (ccw +ve). w (0:1L)2 .211 L.31) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . L. Ability of structures to redistribute internal forces. (Note that for a rigidly connected member. Axial forces and deformation in the girder are negligibly small. Assume girders to be numbered from left to right.3 Approximate 2. (b) Mid-height of the columns 3. and at the support for a simply supported beam hence. w (0:8L)(0:1L) = . Unbalanced end moments from the girders at each joint is distributed to the columns above and below the oor. Fig. wL 2 (14.1 Vertical Loads The girders at each oor are assumed to be continuous beams.3. Girders at each oor act as continous beams supporting a uniform load. In ection points are assumed to be at (a) One tenth the span from both ends of each girder. We use the design sign convention for moments (+ve tension below).9 1 M + = 1 wL2 = w 8 (0:8)2 L2 = 0:08wL2 8 s (14. 14. 31 Basic assumptions 1. and columns are assumed to resist the resulting unbalanced moments from the girders.29) Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by.30) Girder Shear are obtained from the free body diagram. 4. Fig. 14. the in ection point is at 0. 2. Uncertainties in load and material properties 26 27 28 29 14{11 Vertical loads are treated separately from the horizontal ones. Fig.9 M left = M rgt = .Draft Analysis of Buildings 14.

Draft 14{12 w M lft BUILDING STRUCTURES Mrgt Vrgt Vlft 0.9: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Girder Moments Pabove Vrgti-1 Vlfti Pbelow Figure 14.10: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Column Axial Forces Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .1L 0.8L L 0.1L Figure 14.

Fig.11 h/2 h/2 Mi-1lft Vi-1rgt Mcolabove Mi-1rgt Milft Vilft Mirgt Virgt Vi-1lft Li-1 Mcolbelow Li h/2 h/2 Figure 14. Vilft .11: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads Column Moments bot M top = Mabove .11 top V = Mh 2 (14. the de ected shape is dominated by overall exural deformation.32) Column Moment are obtained by considering the free body diagram of columns Fig.34) Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears above and below a oor will be resisted by girders at the oor. 34 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . where the height is at least samller than the hrizontal dimension.33) Column Shear Points of in ection are at mid-height. where the height is several times greater than its least horizontal dimension. Fig.3. 14. Low rise buidlings.1 (14.10 14{13 Column axial force is obtained by summing all the girder shears to the axial force transmitted by the P dwn = P up + Virgt . High rise buildings. with possible exception when the columns on the rst oor are hinged at the base. Mirgt1 + Milft . 14.top (14. 14.2 Horizontal Loads We must di erentiate between low and high rise buildings. M bot = .Draft Analysis of Buildings 14.3 Approximate column above it. 14. the de ected shape is characterized by shear deformations.

then Fig. or at the base if hinged. (c) At the center of each girder.12: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Column Shear F lateral V ext = 2No. Total horizontal shear at the mid-height of all columns at any oor level will be distributed among these columns so that each of the two exterior columns carry half as much horizontal shear as each interior columns of the frame. 14. 36 The portal method is based on the following assumptions 1.36) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .35) Column Moments at the end of each column is equal to the shear at the column times half the height M top = V h 2 M bot = . 2.2. the approximate analysis of this type of structure is based on 1. 14.Draft 14{14 14. In ection points are located at (a) Mid-height of all columns above the second oor. (b) Mid-height of oor columns if rigid support. Distribution of horizontal shear forces. of bays of the corresponding column. Fig.12 37 H/2 H H H/2 Figure 14. Forces are obtained from Column Shear is obtained by passing a horizontal section through the mid-height of the columns at each oor and summing the lateral forces above it.1 Portal Method 35 BUILDING STRUCTURES Low rise buildings under lateral loads. Thus. 2. have predominantly shear deformations.3.M top (14.12 P V int = 2V ext (14. Location of in ection points.

2L V rgt = V lft (14.13 M V lft = .13 above below Milft = Mcol . 14.39) Example 14-26: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Mcol + Mirgt1 . Mirgt = .38) Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the column above.37) Girder Shears Since there is an in ection point at the center of the girder. Fig. Fig.Draft Analysis of Buildings 14. 14. the girder shear is obtained by considering the sum of moments about that point.13: ***Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Girder Moment Girder Moments is obtained from the columns connected to the girder. ?? Pabove Vrgti-1 Vlfti Figure 14.14: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads Column Axial Force Pbelow P = P above + P rgt + P lft (14. Fig.Milft (14.3 Approximate h/2 h/2 Mi-1lft 14{15 Mcol above Mi-1rgt Vi-1rgt Milft Vilft Mirgt Virgt Vi-1lft Li-1/2 Li-1/2 Mcolbelow Li/2 h/2 Li/2 h/2 Figure 14.

ft k.ft k. =.(.ft k. = =.ft k. = =.6:5) bot = .M12 + M13 = . =.ft k. and moment diagram for the following frame. = = =.ft k.0:045w13L2 = . =.Draft 14{16 0.ft k.M6 rgt lft M7top = . = =.(0:045)(0:5)(20)2 9 M9cnt = 0:08w9 L2 = (0:08)(0:5)(20)2 9 M9rgt = M9lft lft M10 = .ft k.0:045w12L2 = . Solution: 20’ 30’ 24’ Vertical Loads 1.50K/ft 13 7 14 11 8 14’ 16’ 30 10 2 3 1 4 Figure 14.(.ft k.ft k. = =. Top Column Moments lft M5top = +M12 bot = .M top M7 7 rgt M8top = . =.(. Bottom Girder Moments M9lft = .M14 = .(0:045)(0:25)(20)2 12 = 0:08w12L2 = (0:08)(0:25)(20)2 12 lft = M12 = . 4:5 8:0 4:5 10:1 18:0 10:1 6:5 11:5 6:5 9:0 16:0 9:0 20:3 36:0 20:3 13:0 23:0 13:0 4:5 4:5 5:6 5:6 3:6 3:6 6:5 6:5 k.10:1) top M6bot = .ft k.10:1) + (. =.(0:045)(0:25)(24)2 14 = 0:08w14L2 = (0:08)(0:25)(24)2 14 lft = M14 2.ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .ft k. = =.ft k.ft k.M13 + M14 = .0:045w10L2 = .0:045w12 L2 = . Top Girder Moments lft M12 cnt M12 rgt M12 lft M13 cnt M13 rgt M13 lft M14 cnt M14 rgt M14 = . = =.ft k.(0:045)(0:5)(30)2 10 cnt = 0:08w10 L2 = (0:08)(0:5)(30)2 M10 10 rgt lft M10 = M11 lft = .(0:045)(0:5)(24)2 M11 12 cnt M11 = 0:08w12 L2 = (0:08)(0:5)(24)2 12 rgt lft M11 = M12 3.M top M8 8 =.ft k.ft k.ft k.(0:045)(0:25)(30)2 13 = 0:08w13L2 = (0:08)(0:25)(30)2 13 lft = M13 = .6:5) bot = .M top M5 5 rgt lft M6top = .0:045w14L2 = . =.ft k. = =.ft k.25K/ft BUILDING STRUCTURES 15 K K 5 12 9 6 0.4:5) + (.ft k.ft k.ft k.ft k.ft k. = =.0:045w9L2 = .15: Example Approximate Analysis of a Building Draw the shear.

= =.6:5 .6’k -6. = =.0’k 24’ +11. = =.M top M3 3 rgt M4top = +M8bot .6’k -6.5’k +5.ft 5 12 9 6 0.6’k -4.ft k.0’k -10.2’k -20. = =.5’k k +3.6’ k -3.5’ k 30’ +18. M10 + M11 = .6’k -5. M11 = .V13 .Draft Analysis of Buildings 14.3:6 .9:0) + (.20:3) + (.5’ +32. 4:5 4:5 5:6 5:6 3:6 3:6 6:5 6:5 k.0’k +23. Top Girder Shear lft V12 rgt V12 lft V13 rgt V13 lft V14 rgt V14 = = = = = = .3 Approximate 4.5’k +4.M top M2 2 rgt lft M3top = +M7bot .13:0) bot = .5’k k -4.ft k.0’ -20.1’k -6.25K/ft 14{17 =.0’k -4. M9rgt + M10 = 5:6 .5’k Figure 14. = = =. Bottom Column Moments M1top = +M5bot + M9lft = 4:5 .16: Approximate Analysis of a Building Moments Due to Vertical Loads 5.5’k -13.ft k.6’ +6.ft k.5’k +16.0’k k k -13.2’ -4.ft k.1’k -10.5’k -5. (.5’k +4.ft k.13:0) top M4bot = .ft k.6’k +6.50K/ft 13 7 14 11 8 14’ 16’ 10 2 3 1 4 20’ +8.M1top lft M2top = +M6bot .V14 w13 L13 = (0:25)(30) 2 2 lft w14 L14 = (0:25)(24) 2 2 lft w12 L12 = (0:25)(20) = 2 2 lft =.6’k +3.0’k -9. (.5’k +5.0’ k -6.M4 0. 2:5 2:5 3:75 3:75 3:0 3:0 k k k k k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5’ k -3.V12 .0’k -9. (.20:3) bot = . 9:0 M1bot = .

5:6 = . 0:64 k 14 H5 2 2 top M6 = .0K -5.17: Approximate Analysis of a Building Shears Due to Vertical Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 0:70 k 16 H top M3 = 3:6 16 H3 2 2 top M4 = 6:5 16 H 4 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 = = K 0:46 0:81 k k +2.5K -6.80K +0.5K +5.0 -2. = =. 0:56 k 16 H1 2 2 top M2 = .64K -0.Draft 14{18 6. 5:00 5:00 7:50 7:50 6:00 6:00 k k k k k k 7.70K +0.81K Figure 14.75K +6. 0:80 k 14 H6 2 2 top M7 = 3:6 = 0:52 k 14 H top M8 = 6:5 = 0:93 k 14 H8 2 2 top M1 = .4:5 = .V11 w11 L11 = (0:5)(24) 2 2 lft w10 L10 = (0:5)(30) 2 2 lft w9 L9 = (0:5)(20) 2 2 lft = =.51K +0. Bottom Girder Shear BUILDING STRUCTURES V9lft V9rgt lft V10 rgt V10 lft V11 rgt V11 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = K .0K -7.V9 .5 K -3. Column Shears V5 V6 V7 V8 V1 V2 V3 V4 +3.0 K +7. = =.5K +3.4:5 = .V10 .45K +0.56K -0.0 K -3.0K -0.93K -0.5:6 = .75 top M5 = .

= =.3:75) + 3:00 .ft k. Bottom Column Moments M1top M1bot M2top M2bot M3top M3bot M4top M4bot V1dwn H1 = (7:5)(16) = 2 top 2 V2 H2 = (15)(16) 2 2 .ft k.up 7top M V7 H7 = (5)(14) 2 2 V8 H8 = (2:5)(14) 2 top 2 17:5 17:5 35:0 35:0 35:0 35:0 17:5 17:5 60 60 120 120 120 120 60 60 k. = =.up 6top M . 2:5 5 5 2:5 7:5 15 15 7:5 k k k k k k k k 2.ft k.3 Approximate 8.ft k.V14 k k k k 9. = =.dwn2top M V3 H3 2 .ft k. k. Bottom Column Axial Forces P1 = P5 + V9lft = 2:50 + 5:0 rgt P2 = P6 .ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . = =.dwn1 M . (.ft k.ft k.ft k.2:50) + 3:75 rgt + V lft = .5:00) + 7:50 rgt lft P3 = P7 .M5 V1 H5 = (2:5)(14) 2 top 2 V6 H6 = (5)(14) 2 2 .6:00) P4 = P8 .(.ft k. (.Draft Analysis of Buildings 14. Top Column Moments .M4top = (15)(16) 2 = (7:5)(16) 2 =.(. V11 7:5 18:75 20:25 9:00 k k k k Horizontal Loads. V11 + V10 = 6:75 .ft k. (.ft k.ft k. Column Shears V5 V6 V7 V8 V1 V2 V3 V4 M5top M5bot M6top M6bot M7top M7bot M8top M8bot = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 15 (2)(3) 2(V5 ) = (2)(2:5) 2(V5 ) = (2)(2:5) V5 15+30 (2)(3) 2(V1 ) = (2)(7:5) 2(V1 ) = (2)(2:5) V1 = = = = = = = = = =. Portal Method 1.V13 14 rgt .ft 3.ft k. = =. = =. Top Column Axial Forces 14{19 = = = = 2:50 6:25 6:75 3:00 = = = = P5 P6 P7 P8 = = = = lft V12 rgt lft .ft k.V12 + V13 = .7:50) + 6:0 rgt = 3:00 .M8 . V10 + V9lft = 6:25 .dwn3top M V4 H4 2 .

00 0.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -4.Draft 14{20 BUILDING STRUCTURES Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads APROXVER.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -10.25 0.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -5.00 0.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -5.0 16.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -4.50AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 6.6 3.80 0.75 20.52 0.00 A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 7.75 3.1AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -6.25 0.XLS Victor E.25 6.3 36.00 0.81 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AXIAL FORCE Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 ColAAAAA Beam Column AAAAAAAA Beam Column AAAAAAAAA Beam Col AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0.00AAAAAAAAAAAA -5.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA 6.5 -6.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -0.50AAAAAAAAAAAA -2.5 F G H I J K L M N O P Q Height 14 16 Span Load Load L2 L3 30 24 0.0 -20.00 AAAAAAAAAAAA -6.46 0.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 3.56 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -0.18: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads Spread-Sheet Format Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .00 0.6 3.5 0.50 AAAAAAAAAAAA -7.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 5.5 AA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 4.0 -13. Saouma A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E L1 20 0.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -0.6 -3.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Figure 14.00 A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.1 18.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 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AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.0 -4.5 11.93 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 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045*N4*N3^2 =0.5 L2 30 0.08*N5*N3*N3 =+N13 =-F13+I13+G12 =-G14 =-K13+N13+L12 =-L14 =-P13+Q12 =-Q14 =+D3*D5/2 =-D22 =+I3*I5/2 =-I22 =+N3*N5/2 =-N22 =2*G14/A5 =2*L14/A5 =2*Q14/A5 Bay 2 Beam 0 Column Beam 0 Column Bay 3 Beam 0 Col =-F20+I20 =-K20+N20 =-P20 0 0 0 =+G28-F22+I22 =+L28-K22+N22 =+Q28-P22 B Span Load Load A 1 2 3 Height 4 14 5 16 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Bay 2 Bay 3 Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col Lft Cnt Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAALft Cnr Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Cnt Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-0.25 0.08*I5*I3*I3 =+I13 =-0.19: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads Equations in Spread-Sheet Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 29 30 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+C28+D22 14{21 .045*D4*D3^2 =0.Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads APROXVER.XLS Victor E.5 =-0. Saouma Draft Analysis of Buildings 14.045*N5*N3^2 =0.045*I4*I3^2 =0.3 Approximate Victor Saouma C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q L1 20 0.08*I4*I3*I3 =+I10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-0.08*D4*D3*D3 =+D10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-0.08*N4*N3*N3 =N10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-P10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-F10+I10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-K10+N10 =+D10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-C11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-Q11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-G11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-L11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA MOMENTS Bay 1 Col 13 14 15 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+D13+C12 =-C14 16 17 18 19 20 21 Bay 2 Bay 3 Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col Lft Rgt Lft Rgt Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+D3*D4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-D20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+I3*I4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-I20 A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N3*N4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-N20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*C11/A4 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*G11/A4 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*L11/A4 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=2*Q11/A4 SHEAR Bay 1 Col 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA A AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*C14/A5 AXIAL FORCE Bay 1 Col =+D20 Figure 14.045*I5*I3^2 =0.08*D5*D3*D3 =+D13 =-0.5 L3 24 0.25 0.045*D5*D3^2 =0.25 0.

M14 = =. V14 = . (2)(17:5) = .6:46 8. Bottom Girder Moments M9lft = M1top .1:46 .1:46) = 0:29 rgt = . 2L12 = .Draft 14{22 4. (.ft k.1:75 lft 2M13 = .1:75) rgt .2.ft k. M6bot = .3:16 rgt lft P3 = P7 + V11 + V10 = 0:29 .5:17 lft 2M11 = .1:46 lft lft V9lft V9rgt lft V10 rgt V10 lft V11 rgt V11 k k k k k k k k k k k k k k Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .ft k.1:46 .(. 17:5 17:5 17:5 17:5 17:5 17:5 k. -ve compression) lft P5 = . M7bot = .7:75 L 20 = +V9lft = .ft Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses. = =. M5bot = 60 .35) rgt = .ft = =. (. (. = =.6:46 = .7:75) = 9:5 rgt P2 = P6 + V10 + V9lft = .0:58 . (. Top Column Axial Forces (+ve tension.1:75 20 lft +V12 = . = =. (2)(77:5) = .1:17 .1:75 .17:5) M9rgt = .V12 = . (. L13 30 lft +V13 = .1:17 lft 2M14 = .1:17 .M13 rgt M13 + M7top = .ft k. L14 24 lft +V14 = .17:5 + 35 M12 6 lft . (.M12 rgt + M top = .1:46 P8 = V14 9. Top Girder Shear lft V12 rgt V12 lft V13 rgt V13 lft V14 rgt V14 M5top lft . Top Girder Moments lft M12 rgt M12 lft M13 rgt M13 lft M14 rgt M14 BUILDING STRUCTURES = = = = = = 5.17:5 + 35 lft . = .ft k. 6:46 P4 = P8 + V11 = . 2L10 = . L11 24 lft = +V11 = .ft k.ft k. 2M912 = . Table 14. (. (2)(17:5) = .5:17) = .35) rgt lft M11 = . -ve compression) P1 = P5 + V9lft = 1:75 .M11 6.5:17 30 lft = +V10 = .M lft M10 10 rgt lft M11 = M10 + M3top .ft k. vertical and lateral load. k k k k k k 77:5 77:5 77:5 77:5 77:5 77:5 k.ft k. V lft = .1:17) = . = =.0:58 P6 = +V12 13 rgt lft P7 = +V13 .7:66 7. Bottom Girder Shear = = = = = = M12 .ft k. (.77:5 + 120 . we now seek the design parameters for the frame. 7:75 . (2)(77:5) = .M9lft lft M10 = M9rgt + M2top .6:46) = 1:58 rgt = . (2)(77:5) = .77:5 + 120 . Bottom Column Axial Forces (+ve tension. 5:17 .7:75 lft M10 = . (2)(17:5) = .

5’K +77.5’K -120’K -60’K +17.5’K -17.5’K -77.5’K -60’K -120’K +17.3 Approximate 14{23 15K 30K 5 12 9 6 13 10 7 14 11 8 14’ 1 2 3 4 16’ 20’ 30’ 24’ +17.5’K +35’K +35’K +17.5’K +120’K -35’K +120’K -35’K +60’K -17.5’K +60’K -17.5’K -17.5K -77.5’K -17.5K +77.5K +77.Draft Analysis of Buildings 14.5’K +17.20: Approximate Analysis of a Building Moments Due to Lateral Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5’K -77.5’K Figure 14.

46 -1.17 -5.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 15.00 15.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -35.17 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.29 -1.5 5 H2 16 30 45 7.46AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.00 2.21: Portal Method Spread-Sheet Format Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Tot Ext Int H1 14 15 15 2.92 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA # of Storeys 2 Force Shear H Lat.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 9.0 -17.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA SHEAR Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Col Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col Lft Rgt Lft Rgt Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.0 120.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AXIAL FORCE Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Col Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0.0 60.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 5.58 0.50 AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 7. Saouma A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F 3 G H I L1 20 J K L M N O P Q R S PORTAL METHOD # of Bays L2 L3 30 24 MOMENTS Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Col Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.0 -60.75 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 15.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.5 -77.00 5.75 -7.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 120.00 0.5 -77.00 7.00 5.0 -35.46AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -7.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 35.46 -6.00 15.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.0 35.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 5.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -60.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA 1.75AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAA -0.5AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.00 2.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -17.5 -77.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -3.XLS Victor E.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.00 0.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.0 17.0 -120.17 1.00 0.5 -17.5 -17.58 -7.17 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -6.5AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 60.5 -17.75 -1.Draft 14{24 BUILDING STRUCTURES Portal Method PORTAL.17 -1.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -120.00 0.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 15 Figure 14.46 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0.00 7.75 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -5.

Saouma A 1 PORTAL METHOD A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A MOMENTS A A A A AA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A Bay 1 Bay 2 AA Bay 3 A A A A2 A A A A A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAA A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Force A Shear Col Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col 6 A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A A A H Lat. A Tot Ext Lft Lft 7 A AInt A Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft ARgt A Rgt A AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A =-I8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+J8+K9 =-M8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N8+O9 =-Q8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA 8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H9 AAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A 9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA15 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+D9/(2*$F$2) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9*B9/2 H1 14 AAAA A =+C9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9*B9/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A=2*E9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A 10 =-H9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-K9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H10 AAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAA AAA AAA AA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H12-H10 =-I11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A 11 =+K12-K10+J11 =-M11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O12-O10+N11 =-Q11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A 12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA30 H2 16 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+D12/(2*$F$2) A=2*E12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F12*B12/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H12 A =SUM($C$9:C12) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E12*B12/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-K12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K13 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H13 A A 13 =-H12 A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A 14 A SHEAR A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A 15 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Bay 1 Bay 2 AA Bay 3 A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 16 Col Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 17 Lft Rgt Lft Rgt Lft Rgt A A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-2*I8/I$3 =+I18 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 18 =-2*M8/M$3 =+M18AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*Q8/Q$3 =+Q18AAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 19 =+E9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9 A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 20 =+H19 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K19 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O19 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S19 A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 21 =+I21 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*M11/M$3 =+M21AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*Q11/Q$3 =+Q21AAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-2*I11/I$3 AAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E12 A A A A A A 22 =+E12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K22 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O22 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S22 A A A A A A 23 =+H22 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A 24 A AXIAL FORCE A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A 25 Bay 1 Bay 2 AA Bay 3 A A A A A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A A A A A 26 Col Beam Column Beam Column Beam Col A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 27 0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 28 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-I18 AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+J18-M18AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N18-Q18 AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+R18 AAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 29 0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA0 AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AA AAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A 30 =+H28-I21 A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K28+J21-M21 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O28+N21-Q21 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S28+R21 A A A A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A AA A A A A 2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA3 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA # of Bays L2 A A A A AAAAA AL1 A A AA A A A L3 A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A A A AA A A A A A A A A A A A A AA A A A A 3 30 A A A A A A20 A A AA A A A 24 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A A A A D A A A A A A E A A A A A A F A A A A A G A A A A A H A A A A A A I A A A A A A J A A A A A A K A A A A A L AA AA AA AA AA AA M A A A A A A N A A A A A A O A A A A A P A A A A A A Q A A A A A R A A A A A A S 4 5 # of Storeys Figure 14.XLS Victor E.22: Portal Method Equations in Spread-Sheet Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft Analysis of Buildings 14.3 Approximate 14{25 Portal Method PORTAL.

64 2.92 8.25 Shear 0.00 Axial 7.92 Shear 0.50 1.50 17.00 4.00 Axial 9.60 34.45 15.00 Axial 6.60 120.60 34.46 Shear 0.25 3.50 Axial 3.43 Table 14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vert.75 15.25 2.00 Moment 3.92 Shear 0.00 Moment 6.93 2.45 66.17 5.83 Shear 0.50 Shear 0.50 15.51 5.14 40.50 16.1: Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .50 17.50 Axial 2.50 Design Values 64. Moment 4.60 35.50 60.60 35.75 Shear 0.06 125.50 Moment 4. Hor.31 22.70 123.50 Moment 5.00 Axial 6.51 24.00 Axial 20.50 Moment 5.80 38.46 3.60 120.00 1.80 5.81 7.00 Moment 6.00 7.25 14.50 9.50 60.60 9.38 5.00 Axial 18.63 Shear 0.00 8.60 9.00 Moment 3.Draft 14{26 BUILDING STRUCTURES Mem.00 4.50 17.56 7.70 15.58 15.75 2.

17 77. 3.50 0.00 12.00 2.75 6.00 1.00 6. For a concentrated load 1:2V h (14. they must move together and through their sti ness (deformation per unit load) we can determine the contribution of each subsystem.00 12.25 27.75 77.2: Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads 14. how much is carried by the shaft compared to the frames).50 0.46 17.00 11.75 97.00 6. shear de ections.00 20. 14.4 Lateral De Mem.Draft ections 14. A building that de ects severly under lateral forces may have damage problems associated with vibration (as with vertical defelctions of beams).50 4.23 dominates.50 3.50 0.40) GA where for concrete and steel G 2 E.46 14{27 Values 86. 2.50 16.20 36.50 13.46 Table 14.00 16.50 0.50 0.75 17.1 Short Wall 39 In short structures (as with short beams). Since all systems are connected.00 Hor.10 18. Fig. Design 77.00 3.50 11.4 Lateral De ections Even at schematic or preliminary stages of design.50 10.0 23. for example < h=500 where h is the height of the story or of the building.4.17 17.00 5.50 23.50 8. 9.00 4. This is important because occupants should not experience uncomfortable horizontal movements.00 12. it is important to estimate the lateral de ections of tall buildings for the following reasons 1. 38 14.70 36.00 8.e.00 1. one may also get some idea of the relative horizontal load carried by the various vertical subsystems in a building (i.46 22. 5 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .00 4.60 18.92 24.00 1.00 7. Through the evaluation of de ection.67 90.50 0. Lateral de ections are often limited by code requirements.00 7.00 5.00 4. 9 10 11 12 13 14 -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear Vert.

the entire subsystem can be made to act as one cantilever supported by the foundations and de ections will be small. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) and the moment of inertia I = bh for rectangular sections. Victor Saouma 111111110 000000001 11111111 000000001 111111110 000000001 111111110 000000001 111111110 000000001 111111110 000000001 0 WALL ELEVATION h ∆ 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 wh4 8EI h (14. w WALL (OR TUBE) ELEVATION Figure 14.41) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . in a tall building exural deformations.23: Shear Deformation in a Short Building. However if we have light lintels.25. 14.24 are predominant. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 14. their deformation is larger than those of the walls. Fig. dominates.3 Walls and Lintel 41 When two slender walls are connected by (heavy) lintels.2 Tall Wall 40 Alternatively. Fig. 14.4. 12 3 14.Draft 14{28 V ∆ BUILDING STRUCTURES Figure 14.4.24: Flexural Deformation in a Tall Building.

Draft ections 14.44-c) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .26.25: De ection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels.44-a) (14.4 Lateral De LINTELS L ∆ w 14{29 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 a 2 WALLS CONNECTED BY LINTELS Figure 14. 14.42-b) (14.42-a) (14.42-e) (14.42-d) (14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 42 In this case de ections can be estimated from: 2 Mmax = wh 2 M T =C = a T V=Lintel # of Lintels V L2 wall = lintel 12EI and 14.42-c) (14.43) h VcolE h3 col = 12EI colE Vgdr L2h 2VcolE Lh2 gdr = 12EI = 12EI gdr gdr Vcol h2 totE = colE + gdr = 12E E (14.4 Frames 43 De ection of a rigid frame is essentially caused by shear between stories which produces vertical shears in the girders. 44 The deformation for the rst story at the exterior joint can be approximated from Victor Saouma 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 α h LINTEL BENDING α α RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WALL AND LINTEL DEFORMATION (14.4. Fig.44-b) h 2L IcolE + Ig dr (14. From the portal method we can estimate those deformations.

14.5 Trussed Frame 48 The cantilever de ection due to column shortening and lengthening (produced by overturning moment) is usually of secondary importance until the building is some 40 stories or higher. 14. Fig.47) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Fig. Fig.27. ??.45-a) (14. 14. 46 The two major sources of lateral de ection are the bending of column in resisting horizontal shear and girders in resisting vertical shear. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 45 For the interior joint: VcolI h3 col = 12EI colI Vgdr L2 h 2VcolI Lh2 gdr = 12EI = 12EI gdr gdr VcolI h2 totI = colI + gdr = 12E tot tot = n 2 (14.4.28. 47 A vertical unsymmetric load will cause lateral de ection in frames. 49 The total de ection at C is given by = PPL AE (14.Draft 14{30 ∆ BUILDING STRUCTURES DUE TO GI DUE TO CO h STORIES α θ h α L OVERALL FRAME ELEVATION DEFORMATION OF ONE BE Vcol h/2 L/2 h/2 Vcol MOMENT EQUILIBRIUM EXTERIOR JOINT V (L/2)=Vcol (h) gdr Vgdr V gdr V col L/2 h/2 L/2 h/2 V INTERIOR JOINT Vgdr (L)=Vcol (h) Vgd Figure 14. and tot is for either the interior or exterior joints.45-c) (14.46) where n is the number of stories.45-b) and the total displacement will be h L IcolI + Ig dr (14.26: Portal Method to Estimate Lateral Deformation in Frames.

(Lin and Stotesbury 1981) H1 H2 H3 H4 P1 ∆c C C 1 δT ∆ δc ΣH a h a T C Figure 14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft ections 14.27: Shear and Flexural De ection of a Rigid Frame Subsystem. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) SIDE SWAY P Figure 14.29: Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame.28: Side-Sway De ection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load.4 Lateral De ∆S ∆M ∆S + ∆M 14{31 ELONGATION SHEAR EFFECT (RACKING) SHORTENING MOMENT EFFECT (OVERALL BENDING) OVERALL EFFECT (RACKING + BENDING) Figure 14.

5’ 12" GIRDER SECTION 156’ MOMENT DIAGRAM Figure 14. P the force in the same member due to a unit (1) force applied in the direction of the de ection sought. ft 53 The solution proceeds as follows: Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 CORE 111 000 11 00 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 1 0 W=4.8 K/FT LOAD 5" .30. 40’ A 20’ A TRANSVERSE ELEVATION OF CORE 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 20" 20" COLUMN SECTION 60’ 20’ 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 FLOOR PLAN 2. Shaft walls are of uniform thickness for all stories. L is the length of the member. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) elements are the center concrete shaft (20ft 40ft in section and made up of four 12-in walls) and the reinforced-prestressed concrete frames (made up of 12in 30in T beams.49) 14. and 20 inch square reinforced concrete columns).6 Example of Transverse De ection 51 Typical plan. 3. 2.4. 14.Draft 14{32 a Th t + c = 2 AE BUILDING STRUCTURES where: P is the force in any member due to loading on the whole system. Igdr = 3:64 4 . We neglect wall openings.48) (14.30: Transverse De ection. The wind load is uniform over the height of the building. The lateral resiting CORE SHAFT 13@12’=156’ TOTAL M 58500 K-FT 12’ TYP. 20’ 20’ 60’ TRANSVERSE ELEVATION OF BUILDING 20" TYP. 50 Alternatively. elevation and oor section of a building are shown in Fig. Colums are of uniform sectional properties and height for all stories. we can neglect the web deformation and consider only the axial deformations in the colums: t + c h (14. A and E the corresponding cross sectional area and modulus of elasticity.8 k/ft in the transverse direction and make the following assumptions: 1. 52 We consider a wind load of 4. and at the point in question.

51-b) (14.51-f) 3.52) = (13)(0:031) = 0:40 which indicates a drift ratio of (0:4) 1 (14. the de ection will be correspondingly smaller. which decreases linearly to the top.50-c) (14.51-e) (14. If the wall thickness is reduced. Since the story drift varies with the shear in the story. the average drift will be 0:062=2 = 0:31 per story and the de ection at top of the building is approximately (14.51-d) ft ft 4 (14. 3 = (41)(21) 12 (39)(19) = 9 400 4 E = 3 106 = 432 000 (4:8) (156)4 4 = 0:087 = 8(432 000) (9 400) 4 0:087 1 p h = 156 = 1 800 ft psi ksf k.51-c) (14. and neglecting column shortening.800 indicates only the average drift index for the entire building. and s within the usual index for concrete buildings. 3 I = b1 d1 12 b2 d2 3.000 and 1/2.50-e) (14. and if door openings are considered.ft ft k k ft ksf ft ft (14. We next consider the de ection of the top of the frame.53-a) Drift Ratio for Building = (156) = 400 :062) 1 Drift Ratio for Ground Floor = (0(12) = 194 (14.51-a) (14.50-b) (14. Assuming that each frame takes 1/9 of the total wind load and shear.Draft ections 14. 2. especially for the top oor.50-f) The h ratio is much less than 1/500 as permitted in most building codes.500.53-b) ft ft ft ft ft ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the value of 1/1.50-d) ft (14.50-a) (14. which ranges between 1/1. The de ection due to moment increases rapidly at the top.4 Lateral De wh4 = 8EI 3. then: 2 = VcolE h I h + I2L 12E colE g dr 3 (20=12)(20=12)3 Icol = bh = = 0:64 4 12 12 Igdr = 3:64 4 (156) = 41:7 =col ground = (4:8) VcolI (2)(9) (12) + 2(60) (41:7) (12)2 = 12(432 000) (0:64) 4 (3:46) = 0:00116(18:8 + 34:7) = 0:062 ft ft k. whereas the story drift index may be higher. Determine the exural deformation of the top of the shaft (we may neglect shear deformations since the shaft is slender): (14.ft ft ksf ft 14{33 1.

since thegirders contribute about 2/3 of the de ection. and the remaining 5/6 will be carried by the shaft.7 E ect of Bracing Trusses 54 Through strategically located havy trusses at the top and possibly at the middle of a building we can brace the exterior columns against the core shaft.Draft 14{34 ft BUILDING STRUCTURES ft 4.4. it is seen that the frame is about ve times more exible than the shaft. Finally. but in order to be really e ective. we have not studied the e ect of the shaft sti ened by the exterior columns. the girder sti ness will also need to be increased. 14. Proportioning the lateral load to the relative sti nesses.31: Frame Rigidly Connected to Shaft. Comparing the frame de ection of 0:40 with the shaft de ection of 0:087 . the frame would not be sti enough to carry all the lateral load by itlself. so that the above simple comparison of top de ections is not an accurate assessment. In summary. the frame would carry about 1/6 of the load. Fig. This would 60’ 20’ 20’ 20’ w - - Figure 14. 14. further analysis would re ne and optimize it. this appears to be quite an e cient layout. This will result in a frame-like action in the shaft. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) be quite e ective as the horizontal oor diaphragms will hold and force them to de ect together. 5. which are rigidly connected to the shaft walls and will avt with the shaft as a unit. Then the frames can be made o carry a larger proportion of the load.31. Increasing the column size will sti en the frame. Furthermore. Victor Saouma 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 CORE + + COLUMNS PARTICIPATE Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 156’ . Note that the de ected shapes of the shaft and the frames are quite di erent.

4 Lateral De TUBE HAT FULL CANTILEVER DEFLECTION WIND HAT .HEIGHT BRACE WITH CANTILEVER CORE BENDING TIEDOWN TOTAL RESISTANCE ARM IS INCREASED BY COL.TRUSS TRUSS 14{35 equalize temperature shortening of vertical components. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .32.Draft ections 14.32: E ect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings. ACTION RESISTANCE ARM OF CORE SHAFT ONLY DEFLECTION Figure 14. 14. Fig. and reduce lateral de ections. T TENSION COMPRESSION C C T CORE WITH BRACING EFFECT BRACING REDUCE OVERALL DEFLEC OF BUILDING HEIGHT MID .

Draft 14{36 BUILDING STRUCTURES Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Billington. The Tower and the Bridge.: 1982. Springer-Verlag. Prentice Hall. G. History of Strength of Materials. W. and Mark. Department of Civil Engineering. Madison. S. D.: xx. Lin. Heritage and the Humanities. in D.: 1973. S.d. Manual of Steel Construction Load and Resistance Factor Design. D. Princeton University Press. Abel (eds). Technical report. Design of Prestressed Concrete.: 1977. Mark and J.: 1981.Draft Bibliography 318. D. D.: 1996. Schueller.: 1983. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Princeton University. John Wiley and Sons. Two New Sciences. of Steel COnstruction. S. Anon. The Four Books of Architecture. Department of Civil Engineering. A. The Maillart Papers Second National Conference on Civil Engineering: History. Bruxelles. Dover Publications.: 19xx. C. Nilson. Belgique. Billington.: 1985. I. xx. Including Centers of Gravity and Forces of Percussion. Timoshenko. Robert Maillart's Bridges The art of Engineering. Pierre Mardaga.: 1986. E. V. Penvenuto. R. Billington.: 1974.: 1978. Billington. American Institute of Steel Construction. R. Structural studies. A.: n. University of Chicago. John Wiley.: 1991. and Stotesbury. Billington.. International COnference of Building O cials. Galilei.: 1979. Drake translation. Vitruvius: 1960. Princeton University. le Duc. T. An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics. UBC: 1995. Technical report. A. Dover. Uniform building code. The Ten Books on Architecture. Dover Publications. Palladio. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers. A. University of Wisconsin Press. Envyclopaedia Brittanica. . Entretiens sur L'Architecture. The design of Building Structures. (ACI 318-83). American Concrete Institute. Wisc.

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