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Art of Improvisation

Art of Improvisation

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The Art of Improvisation

Version 1.0 – 8/22/2000

… Creating real-time music through jazz improvisation …

*Level 4: Strong*

by Bob Taylor
Author of Sightreading Jazz, Sightreading Chord Progressions
©2000 Taylor-James Publications


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Level 4 .6 Coming Out of Double-Time Double-Time Material 235 235 236 236 236 236 233 234 234 234 234 4.7 Creating Double-Time Material 236 Multiplying by 2 Practicing Double-Time Fills Expanding Your Reach Double-Time in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos 237 Using Triplets in Double-Time Triple-Time Feel 4.11 Falls and Glissandos 240 4.3 Building Intensity in Solos 4.4 Lowering Intensity in Solos 229 229 229 230 231 231 232 240 Wind Instrument Effects 240 4.2 Variety Within a Tune Intensity in Solos 4.Strong 4A: Soundscapes 229 About Soundscapes Painting with Sound Visualizing What You Play 4.8 Using Triple-Time Feel Half-Time Feel Chapter Review Expressions 4C: Special Effects 238 238 238 238 239 239 237 237 237 .5 Going into Double-Time 4. Pull in Improvisation 230 Intensity in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos 232 Artists and Styles Conservative Improvisation Recording Sessions Casuals Chapter Review 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time 235 About Double-Time and Feel Psychology of Double-Time Double-Time Transitions 4.10 Bends 240 4.1 Push vs.

4.14 Air and Keys 241 241 241 4.and Triple-Tonguing Using Mutes Lip Trills (Shakes) Pedal Tones Walking Bass Lines Saxophone Effects Overtones/Split Notes Altissimo Thunks Trombone Effects Alternate Positions Slides Keyboard Effects Clusters Tremolo Block Chords Hammering Using Strings and Pedals Piano Bass Lines Wide Glissandos Guitar Effects Bends Tremolo Muted Strumming Guitar Harmonics Playing in Octaves Bass Effects 4.23 Harmonics Chords Bowed Notes 243 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 247 247 247 247 247 247 248 248 248 248 248 .12 Growls (Flutters) 4.16 Circular Breathing 4.17 Alternate Fingerings 242 242 Alternate (Altissimo) Fingerings for Sax 243 Alternate-Fingered Trills Trumpet Effects Double.13 Half-Sounds 4.15 Humming or Singing while Playing 241 4.

38 Blues Turnarounds 249 249 250 250 250 251 251 252 253 253 260 Turnaround Variations 261 4.31 New Resolutions for V Chords 256 4.29 Using Development Combinations Chapter Review 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s 255 Tritone Substitutions 255 4.35 ii-V Chains Parallel ii-V’s 4.25 Two-Part Riffs 4.27 Riff Transitions 4.28 Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Basic Development Combinations 248 248 Turnarounds and Inserted Chords 260 4.37 Minor ii-V and V-i Chains Chapter Review 4F: Chord Substitutions 260 259 259 .26 Changing a Riff 4.39 Inserting Stepwise Chords 261 Chord Substitutions in Jazz Standards 262 Altered Blues 263 Combining Development Techniques 253 4.24 Varied or Partial Quotes Quotes on the BRIDJJ CD Riffing 4.32 Resolving to a Related Minor Chord 256 ii-V-I Chains 4.34 Parallel ii-V-I’s ii-V and V-I Chains 4.30 Building Tritone Substitutions 255 Going from the V to a New I 256 4.Other Effects Chapter Review 4D: More Development 249 Using Quotes Quoting Naturally 4.36 V-I Chains 256 257 258 258 258 258 254 254 Example: Bridge of “Cherry Key” 257 Example: First Half of “Giant Stops” 258 4.

44 Stop-Time Solo Fills Playing in Duets and Trios Instrument Combinations Switching Roles Time and Form Gig Survival Chapter Review 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 269 269 269 270 270 271 271 271 272 273 273 274 4J: Transcribing Solos Basic Transcription Skills Step 1: Select a Solo 277 277 277 4.Variation #1: Bird Blues 263 Variation #2: Altered Minor Blues 263 Variation #3: Another Altered Minor Blues 264 Variation #4: Another Bird Blues 264 Static Playing: Avoiding ii-V-Is Chapter Review 4G: Group Interaction Interaction Ideas Communicating in Solos When and How to Copy Style and Rhythmic Transitions Interaction on the BRIDJJ CD Ensemble Texture Background Riffs Multiple Soloists Solo Formats Half-Chorus Solos 4.43 Trading Bars 4.45 Solo Endings and Transitions270 Step 2: Outline the Form and Chords 278 4.47 Transcribing the Chords Step 3: Sketching the Rhythms 278 279 Step 4: Adding Pitches and Expression 279 Chapter Review Expressions Exercises for LEVEL 4 280 280 281 .

Melody: Rhythm: Soundscapes 281 Double-Time and Half-Time 282 Special Effects 283 Chord Progressions: V-I’s 287 4 Performance: Analysis: Variations on ii- Expression: Group Interaction 290 290 Development: More Melodic Development 285 Transcribing Solos .

Django Reinhardt Jimmy Blanton Oscar Pettiford Lionel Hampton Stuff Smith Stephane Grappelli Gene Krupa Billie Holiday Dizzy Gillespie Fats Navarro Charlie Parker *Level 4 — Strong* As a Strong Improviser. At Level 4. You can analyze ideas of great improvisers and adapt them effectively in your solos. At this level. You have the skills and tools to handle solos over most kinds of chord progressions. you can take rhythms and expression to new heights. J. Johnson Bud Powell Thelonious Monk Kenny Clarke Max . you’ve paid your dues in practice and concerts. your performance skills keep you in demand as a respected soloist. May the strong get stronger Sonny Stitt Don Byas J. using rhythmic development and special effects to enhance your solos.

Roach Buddy Rich Ella Fitzgerald Miles Davis Chet Baker Paul Desmond .

Your sound patterns can flow together to create a vivid musical landscape. fast and slow. So. contours As you use your musical tools of improvisation.4A: Soundscapes In this chapter you’ll learn: • • • • About Soundscapes Intensity in Solos Artists and Styles Conservative Improvisation A high and low.painting approach. That raises the goal from simply surviving chord changes to creating a work of art. soft objects Loud and soft dynamics Dense or empty texture More notes or fewer notes (Music) Angular lines. Here are some common elements in landscapes and soundscapes: Landscapes (Art) Soundscapes Intervals and contours Smooth & rough surfaces Smooth/rough expression. As an improviser you choose melodic and rhythmic tools and essentially “paint with sound. Visualizing What You Play . heavy and light. so it adds up to a work of art. you can concentrate on beauty. work to create beautiful soundscapes. variety and meaningful direction in your solo. you can create patterns of sound that are much more than just notes filling space. a soundscape can be beautiful but hard to describe in words. and rough and smooth in your “soundscape” is like a visual map or landscape of your music.” With this sound. legato/staccato articulations Hard vs. what makes an interesting landscape? In painting or photography a beautiful landscape is easy to appreciate. About Soundscapes Painting with Sound Artists pick up brushes or other tools and create with them. When you balance music. In music.

2 Hear the starting note and shape.Creating soundscapes depends on how well you can see musical shapes and objects (see also Ranges and Neighborhoods in Chapter 2B: Melodic Shapes. This is SHAPE (See. Hear. Here are the basic steps: 1 See the starting note and the first part of the shape you want to play. (Level 4 — Strong) 4A: Soundscapes • 229 . 3 Play the starting note and shape. And Play Expressively).

the typical way to improvise in a fast swing tune is to play a lot of eighth-notes. You’re not sure when a motif. Exercise 4. With practice. • You see where and how to end ideas and phrases. Pull in Improvisation When we improvise we instinctively think of pushing out a stream of notes to fill up the musical space. interesting things start to happen – it’s like being at the “engine” of the train.” pushing things along. with a clear view of what’s ahead. 3 Work through the idea. You change directions too often. • You use silence more effectively: more often. Also described are some unusual approaches that can add variety to . You get higher density but lower creativity.2 Variety Within a Tune One of the keys to beauty in improvisation is a healthy amount of variety (see Chapter 1D: Rhythmic Variety and Chapter 1F: Developing with Motifs and Phrases. until something interesting emerges. • You do more with the notes at hand. One aspect of variety is how you handle the type of tune you’re playing. phrase. 2 Get a secure start on the pitch and rhythm of the idea. visualizing as you go. Pushing (weak): • • • • It’s hard to see where you’re headed. When you use a pulling approach to improvisation. Some of the differences between pushing and pulling are described below. you’ll find that the pulling approach can open new creative possibilities for you. and in a variety of places.1 Push vs. For example. longer. Pulling (strong): • You see musical shapes and objects. Remember the shapes you create so you can develop them later.1Pulling Improvisation Ideas 4. But this pushing approach has natural weaknesses – it seems like you’re at the “back of the train. Below are common tune styles and the most common approaches players take in soloing on those tunes. 1 Visualize the first part of the idea. • Expression becomes a vital part of your playing instead of an afterthought. you might miss the wealth of variety in other approaches.4. While you can still play interesting solos that way (John Coltrane’s Giant Steps solo worked well). To “pull” ideas. 4 Pull towards a clean and interesting ending. or solo is really completed. instead of just pushing ahead for “new” notes.

rough expression. triplet ties. Ballads notes. intensity 230 • 4A: Soundscapes (Level 4 — Strong) .your solos. mostly soft Unusual: Common:Slow quarters and 8ths. long Double-time & triple-time (see Chapter 4B).

and economy can build interest in a solo even without typical intensity. repeat it several (or many) times. and louder. • High range. Be ready to pounce on intensity when the time is right. Go suddenly loud. You can also combine them for even more intensity. • Repetition. rhythmic variations (see Chapters 5C and 5D) Med. repeated patterns that are dense & quick (see Riffing in Chapter 4D: More Development). Vary a motif slightly over repetitions. This can be triggered by your own solo ideas or by something the group plays. Or. Be careful with higher. triplet variations Lots of eighth-notes Quarter-notes. it’s an opportunity missed. occasionally you’ll want to build the intensity to a higher level. you can . The main goal is interest. • Development. groups of 5 or 7 (Chapter Common: 8ths. Here are some guidelines on understanding and using intensity effectively: • Don’t confuse intensity with interest. • Louder dynamics. Remember: When the time is right to build. swing Unusual: Up swing Common: Unusual: quarters Common:8ths w/ simple syncopations Double-time. and you must be ready to play your ideas quickly and effectively. If a motif is interesting enough. faster. It’s frustrating for the listener when a great opportunity presents itself and you leave it hanging without building some intensity. consec. Suspense. not just intensity. sustain an idea in a high range. These elements can build intensity in a solo but can also kill the interest in a solo if you overdo them. offbeat ties. Below are some basic ways to build intensity in solos.2Variety in Rhythmic Styles Intensity in Solos Intensity is the process of turning up the heat in a solo to build to a high point. you’ll sense it.3 Building Intensity in Solos While intensity should often rise and fall by small amounts in your solo. even 8ths Triplets.Latin Common: Unusual: 5C) Legato quarters. subtlety. • Held note. many downbeat accents Slow swing Unusual: Double-time and triple-time. Gradually develop an idea and make it climb in range. dotted Exercise 4. Use short. or crescendo. offbeat ties. • • 4. Otherwise. You can hold out a high note for intensity. • Riffs.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4A: Soundscapes • 231 .also add expression. • Burning and wiggling (see Using Rubato in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom). or a trill to it. • Accelerating. You can move from slower to faster rhythms (see Stepping Through Rhythms in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom). alternate fingerings.

• m15-18 builds range. “Precious Caboose” (Ch. then resolves to G#. m37-41 repeats F# and G for 4 bars. “Deja Blue” (Ch. • m9-12 lowers range and intensity. 3) Trumpet solo. m53-57 builds range. m6-9 gradually increases range. Exercise 4. and the density decreases. upper range of bass is used. m47 wiggle starts energy.3Building Intensity 4. 3J) • m1-9 gradually increases density. Below are some basic ways to lower the intensity in solos. 1) Bass solo. . m48 rest stops the energy.4 Lowering Intensity in Solos After reaching high intensity in your solo. • m61-64 lowers the intensity: the range gradually goes down.• • Special effects (see Chapter 4C: Special Effects). • • • • • • Longer rests – use unpredictable entrances Less density – use care with selecting each note Lower range – keep the melody line flowing Slower rhythms – keep them interesting Softer dynamics – balance with the group Longer notes with expression Exercise 4. m49 jump-starts with double-time.4Lowering Intensity Intensity in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos Below are selected places in BRIDJJ transcribed solos where intensity is built or lowered. then holds a high note with alternate fingerings before ending on highest note. But you can also lower intensity suddenly. 3J. The solos are in Chapters 2J. double-time 16th-note passages are divided by longer rests. 2J) • m1-14 is mellow to match the delicate background. 2) Trumpet solo. or occasionally lower the intensity where there was no high intensity before. “Precious Caboose” (Chapter 2J) • Motif in m57-58 is developed in m59-60. at the high point the rhythm repeats downbeats. and 4J. fingerings. you usually lower the intensity gradually. • • • • m18-24 transfers energy to the low range. You can also combine them for less intensity. Harmonic intensity -. with rhythmic variations and alt.outside (Chapters 5A and 5B). as long as your group lowers the intensity with you.

232 • 4A: Soundscapes (Level 4 — Strong) .

Chet Baker. 4J) • m1-26 is lower in density but uses high range and varied rhythms for interest. The artists listed below don’t play exclusively in the styles listed.Allan Holdsworth.Woody Shaw. low notes. Wynton Marsalis Bass . 6) Guitar solo.Jaco Pastorius (harmonics) Strong Expression Piano .Allan Holdsworth. non-harmonic tones. Count Basie Sax . McCoy Tyner.Bill Evans. Gonzalo Rubalcaba Sax .Miles Davis.Lennie Tristano (lower) Sax .• m51-52 builds range after a rest. Stan Getz Trumpet . but there are many recordings available on which they do. more intense. James Carter Trumpet . Wynton Marsalis. Density: Heavy Piano . Chick Corea Sax . Michael Brecker. and “outside” passages. “Where’s Waldis?” (Ch. James Carter. Wallace Roney Guitar . • m45 uses consecutive offbeats to add energy. Artists and Styles As you listen to jazz recordings it’s good to recognize different approaches to soundscapes.Art Tatum. • m57-64 gradually lowers intensity. • m31 lowers intensity with a dotted half-note. 4) Trumpet solo. Michael Brecker. • m71-72 uses rough expression. Wynton Marsalis Range Extremes Piano . John Pattitucci Density: Light Piano .John Coltrane. 3J) m45-50 lowers range to the bottom limit of the trumpet. “I Think I’ll Keep Her” (Ch.John Coltrane.Arturo Sandoval. 5) Flugelhorn solo. • m51-54 accelerates rhythms in a riff.Michael Brecker.• m30-35 builds intensity (similar to m53-57 in “Precious Caboose” solo). John McLaughlin Bass . John McLaughlin • . high notes.Lennie Tristano (lower range). “Beat the Rats” (Ch. • Overall: many color tones.Paul Desmond. 4J) • m5-6 has low intensity with long. James Carter Trumpet . • m57-61 builds intensity with long. • m27 to the end increases the density.Jaco Pastorius. m53-56 repeats Bb and A many times. Clark Terry Guitar . Joshua Redman Trumpet Wynton Marsalis.

Jaco Pastorius. Christian McBride (Level 4 — Strong) 4A: Soundscapes • 233 . John Pattitucci.Bass .

softer dynamics. accuracy is as important (or more important) than coming up with fresh ideas. • Keep most tunes short – not everyone needs to solo on every tune. you may want to plan out where the solo peaks. you might as well just write something out instead of improvising. development. and longer notes with expression. 4) You can lower intensity in a solo through longer rests. In some cases. special effects. held high notes. Exception – when the crowd is dancing and really getting into a high-energy tune. SHAPE becomes more important than ever. such as two choruses for faster tunes. but who would be intrigued by thoughtful solo development. Here are some soundscape elements to focus on: • • • • Light density Lower intensity Careful and subtle expression Restraint with non-harmonic tones or complicated rhythms Recording Sessions In recording sessions with light improv. But when you need to improvise something meaningful in a limited space. Your solo shouldn’t draw attention to itself. and one or one-half for ballads. call for more conservative improvisation. slower rhythms. Casuals In a casual gig. 5) Conservative improvisation can be valuable in situations that call for light or controlled jazz. accelerated rhythms. lower range. • Concentrate on group textures and interactions during each song (see Chapter 4F: Group Interactions). such as casuals or recording sessions for light jazz.Conservative Improvisation Some situations. Chapter Review 1) A soundscape is like a musical landscape that you paint with sound. Here are some points to consider about jazz casuals and improvisation: • Keep solos short. go ahead and stretch things out. louder dynamics. 3) You can build intensity in a solo through repetition. one or two for medium tunes. • Keep the mood of the piece intact. There may be a lot of jazz newcomers at the gig who might be annoyed at complicated solos. . instead. less density. such as recording sessions or casuals. and where give and take is necessary with other instruments. • Develop solo ideas simply and carefully. And once in a while. high range. improv can range from light to occasionally fullbore. and outside playing. it should flow with the rest of the song. riffs. burning and wiggling. 2) You can get variety in a tune by emphasizing unusual rhythmic styles.

234 • 4A: Soundscapes (Level 4 — Strong) .

time. On the other hand. Double-time feel is when you start playing twice-as-fast rhythms. half-time. and half-time is used for half-time feel. not true double-time. To avoid changing the form. triple-time is used for triple-time feel. A good double-time passage at the right time can energize and lift a solo. Here are some common double-time pitfalls to avoid: • Jumping headlong into and out of double-time. About Double-Time and Feel Technically. Psychology of Double-Time Perhaps no other jazz improv technique can be as exciting or disappointing as double. laying double-time passages can add excitement and intensity to your solo This chapter explains how to use double-time. double-time and double-time feel are two different things. true double. as if the tempo were going twice as fast. bad double-time can pretty much ruin a solo. but this shrinks the actual form of the tune.time makes the chord progression go by twice as fast.4B: Double-Time and Half-Time In this chapter you’ll learn: • • • • • About Double-Time and Feel Double-Time Transitions Double-Time Material Triple-Time Feel Half-Time Feel P melodies. without graceful transitions • • Using predictable and uninteresting contours Repeating the same double-time material in each solo • Playing double-time passages with a shaky rhythmic feel or stiff articulations • Ending double-time passages awkwardly or abruptly . even though the measures and chords go by at the same speed. double-time feel is used more often than true double-time in jazz improvisation. Also. On the positive side. and leave the audience wanting more. In contrast. Important: When this chapter discusses “double time. while half-time can be a creative switch from the normal rhythmic flow. double-time has many possibilities and challenges. and triple-time.” it means double-time feel.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time • 235 .The topics in this chapter help you gain control of double-time and explore some of its many possibilities.

Double-Time Transitions
4.5 Going into Double-Time

To go smoothly from the original tempo into double-time, follow these steps: 1 Make sure you feel the quarter-note pulses in the original tempo securely. (You don’t have to play quarter-notes, but you must be able to find them.) 2 Quickly imagine straight eighth-notes at the same tempo. In a swing tune, it takes some practice to imagine straight eighthnotes. 3 These straight eighth-notes become the quarter-notes of the new double-time. 4 In the new double-time, work for active rhythms. Many players try only eighth- notes in the new tempo, missing a lot of rhythmic possibilities. Steps 2 and 3 help you solidify the transition into double-time. With practice, you’ll get the double-time feel quickly without worrying about the steps. You can drift in and out of double-time during a solo, as long as it’s smooth and not overused.

Exercise 4.5Going Into Double-Time
4.6 Coming Out of Double-Time

To return from double-time to the original tempo, follow these steps. 1 Quickly imagine your current double-time quarter-notes as 8thnotes of the original tempo. If the style is swing, stretch out the eighth-notes so they become swing 8ths. 2 In the new tempo, work for active rhythms to re-establish the original feel. If the tune is swing, be sure to play accurate swing rhythms with the correct triplet subdivisions. With practice, you can move in and out of double-time whenever it feels right.

Exercise 4.6In and Out of Double-Time
Double-Time Material
4.7 Creating Double-Time Material

Here are some good ways to create interesting material for doubletime feel: 1) Use the suggestions in Using Flexible Scales in Chapter 1A: The Virtual Practice Method to generate double-time ideas. 2) Avoid predictable scale contours and repetitive ideas. 3) Begin on (or emphasize) active rhythms or tones. 4) Use contour patterns of 3 eighth-notes in 4/4 time.

5) Mix some chromatic notes with the scale tones to slow down the contours. 6) Mix in one or more riffs (see Chapter 4D).

236 • 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time

(Level 4 — Strong)

Multiplying by 2

You can get started with double-time practice by creating an interesting one- or two-bar idea at an easy tempo. For example, try a flexible scale with a few skips and maybe a slight rhythm variation. Then play the same idea exactly twice as fast to turn it into double-time. Once that idea is comfortable, transpose it to other keys – first at the original tempo and then at the double-time tempo. As you progress through new ideas, gradually introduce wider skips, non-harmonic tones, and different rhythms to add spice to your double-time ideas.
Practicing Double-Time Fills

One way to begin working with double-time is to play a short double-time fill during a one- or two-bar rest. For example, start at a slower tempo, rest for two beats, and play eight 16th-notes (two beats) and a downbeat note. At first, you should work on short phrases of 8th-notes with smaller contours. After you’re comfortable with basic fills, try these ideas: • • • Rest a bar and play a bar of 16th-notes Rest two bars and play two bars of 16ths. Vary the rhythms, mixing eighths and 16ths.

Work for pitch and rhythm accuracy as you go; then gradually boost the tempo each time until you can handle reasonably fast double-time passages.
Expanding Your Reach

When you can play phrases accurately and confidently at faster tempos, expand the length and contour of each double-time phrase. You can also transcribe and play double-time material from CDs, but don’t rely too much on imitation. You’ll be amazed at how much mileage you can get just from flexible scales and chromatic notes. Here are some additional points to keep in mind with double-time playing: • • You’ll need split-second timing and quick reflexes. Be securely locked into the tempo. The rhythm section must play steady time, and you must be able to hear them clearly and work with them. Use melodic and rhythmic development in your doubletime material and remember SHAPE. Use sequences and patterns in your double-time material.

• •

As you play long double-time passages, the soundscape becomes very detailed and low- level, something like flying a spacecraft at high speeds along a planet’s surface. You become very involved in the shapes, contours, colors, and changes of direction as you create fast double-time material.

Exercise 4.7Using Double Time Material
Double-Time in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos

Below are some double-time passages in the transcribed BRIDJJ solos in Chapter 4G: Analyzing Solos, Level 4. If you have the

(Level 4 — Strong) 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time • 237 . you can check the CD timings and follow along with the recording.BRIDJJ CD.

double-time is 120. 19-24.61-63 m6-14. 37-42. Exercise 4. In half-time feel. 2 Imagine them as quarter-notes of the new tempo. see Using Triplet Pulses in Chapter 5E: Rhythmic Pulses. and triple-time is 240. In swing tunes. 29-32. You can go in and out of half-time. For details on how to do this.8 Using Triple-Time Feel Triple-time feel is not three times as fast as the original feel. and single-time feels as you like. sequences. follow these steps: 1 Concentrate on half-notes in the original tempo. This sounds like the basic pulse is going three times as fast (four quarter-notes to 12 eighth-note triplets). 4. .time. and your group can follow you or stay in the old tempo. 43-48 Three and Me (flugelhorn) Using Triplets in Double-Time Instead of simply converting quarter-notes to eighth-notes for double-time. which makes it four times as fast as the original feel. play easier ideas and consider patterns. Triple-Time Feel 4. but it can be very effective. The switching process is similar to going in and out of double-time. If the tempo of the triple-time is very fast. the chords go by at the same rate. play varied rhythms to get the new half-time feel. after you’re into double-time.9 To go into half-time. but it feels like half as many bars are played. 3 In the new tempo. Triple-time works best in ballads or slow blues. Another way to give the feeling of triple-time is to repeat eighthnote triplets and then establish a new pulse of quarter-notes based on the speed of those triplets. you can switch among triple-. Once you establish triple-time. double-. If the original tempo is 60. and riffs. Half-time feel is also used quite often in the rhythm section to introduce a tune or at the start of a solo. 50-56 Tune I Think I’ll Keep Her (piano) I Think I’ll Keep Her (flugelhorn) m11-16.Measure #s m17-22. You can mix eighth-notes and eight-note triplets in the double-time passages for variety. play accurate swing rhythms with correct triplet subdivisions. it’s twice as fast as double. 29-30.8Using Triple Time Half-Time Feel Half-time feel is less common than double-time. as described earlier in this chapter. you can emphasize eighth-note triplets in the double-time.

238 • 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time (Level 4 — Strong) .To return from half-time back to the original faster tempo. follow these steps: 1 Concentrate on 8th-notes in half-time tempo.

A) Think of half-notes in the original tempo. D In the new tempo. Benjamin Franklin *The only thing worse than being talked about is not being talked about. 6) Triple-time feel is four times as fast as the original feel (twice as fast as double-time feel). work for varied rhythms to establish the new half-time feel. You can also get double-time ideas from recorded solos. or on canvas hear a page of the best music. Oscar Wilde *Strange how much you've got to know before you know how little you know. Dr. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow *Thinking is the hardest work there is. if possible. it's what you think of in time. C) In the new tempo. or read a great poem every day. be sure to play accurate swing rhythms with the correct triplet subdivisions. Exercise 4. and at the end of the year your mind will shine with such an accumulation of jewels as will astonish even yourself. In a swing tune. 3 In the new tempo.9In and Out of Half-Time Chapter Review 1) Double-time feel (or double-time) means playing twice as fast but leaving the chords in their original locations. You will always find a free half hour for one or the other. C) Think of straight 8th-notes as the quarter-notes of the new double-time tempo. Expressions *See some good picture -.2 Imagine those 8th-notes as the new quarter-notes of the original fast tempo. 2) To switch to a double-time feel. 5) Multiplying short ideas by two and practicing short fills helps you build double-time skills and ideas. B) Imagine the half-notes as the quarter-notes of the new slower tempo. 3) To return to single-time. use active rhythms to establish the new double-time. which is the probable reason so few engage in it. Mix in chromatic notes and slow down the contours. 4) Get double-time material from the suggestions in Using Flexible Scales in Chapter 1A: The Virtual Practice Method. A) Feel secure quarter-note pulses (orig. B) Imagine straight 8th-notes (same tempo). 7) To shift to half-time feel. tempo).in nature. reverse the process. use active rhythms to re-establish the original feel. Henry Ford *It isn't what you know that counts. Samuel Johnson .

(Level 4 — Strong) 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time • 239 .

usually by less than a half-step.4C: Special Effects In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • • • Wind Instrument Effects Trumpet Effects Saxophone Effects Trombone Effects Keyboard Effects Guitar Effects Bass Effects S playing. and return to it. then use multiple bends up or down. trumpet. Note: Although there are many possible electronic effects. 4.11 Falls and Glissandos A fall is moving a pitch downward so the actual pitches are vague. Wind Instrument Effects This section discusses special effects common to the sax. or by repeating the same special effect as you develop a motif. but don’t return to the note. . Bend all the way to the next regular note.” Exercise 4. bend it fast or slow. Play a note. Sometimes you can get great results by adding an effect to just one or two pecial effects are unusual sounds you play that add an extra dimension to your notes. to get a more controlled sound. this chapter deals just with acoustic effects. Sometimes it helps to press one or more valves or keys as you bend. You can also combine special effects in many ways.10 Bends A bend is moving a pitch down (or sometimes up). Play a note and bend it. listen to timings 6:116:16 (flugelhorn solo) of “Three and Me. be sure to experiment on your instrument. For an example of bends on the BRIDJJ CD. Practice bends in these ways: • • • • Play a note. and trombone.10 Using Bends 4.

Fall after holding a note. or just after the attack. Continue the phrase after falling to the low note.Practice falls in these ways: • • • • Play a short or a long fall. Attach a glissando (see below) to the end of a fall. (Level 4 — Strong) 240 • 4C: Special Effects .

As you do this. Practice growls in these ways: • • • • Start the growl on the attack of a note.13 Half-Sounds The pitch of a “half-sound” is usually somewhat vague. To emphasize a half-sound. the sound should be under control. You can hum/play on an entire phrase or just a few exposed notes. repeating or varying the pitch. Hold a note. up or down. Attach a fall to the end of a glissando. You can practice this by breathing out “hoooo” and forcing the tongue against the roof of the mouth. play it as a longer note or the highest note in a phrase. the note takes on an unusual sound. For a glissando on the BRIDJJ CD. 4. Gliss after holding a note.11 4. with half the emphasis on a good vocal pitch and half on the played pitch. 4. or at the end of a tune. then play the note normally. For best effect.A glissando is like a fall that goes up instead of down. Quarter-tones expand the chromatic scale.14 Air and Keys Occasionally in a softer passage you can simply blow air through the instrument without playing a note. .12 Growls (Flutters) Using Falls and Glissandos To “growl” a note. But it can lose its appeal if it’s done too often.15 Humming or Singing while Playing When you hum or sing at the same time you play a note. This creates a sense of mystery or surprise. 4. in. And you can go from halfsound to full-sound to create a kind of sliding effect. With practice. try whistling and singing at the same time. you can play half-sounds that are actually quarter-tone pitches. You can also play multiple half-sounds in a row. With practice. Continue the phrase after glissing to the low note. you can even tune up multiple half-sounds so they sound something like a recognizable tune. or change the basic pitch of the air-stream. move the slide.between the half steps. wiggle keys or valves. you use a flutter-tongue technique. To produce a half-sound you press valves or keys halfway down. Practice glissandos in these ways: • • • • Play a short or long glissando. listen to timings 5:41-5:42 (flugelhorn solo) of “Three and Me. and it’s usually done in a ballad or free jazz piece.” Exercise 4. Combine a growl with a bend or fall. or just after the attack. then begin the growl. Growl on a held note. To practice the basic concept away from your instrument. This is most effective in softer passages. you can vary dynamics. It can be a surprising effect when it’s used well.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 241 .Here are some variations on humming while playing: • Hum the same pitch that you play.

or change the played pitch as you hold the hummed pitch. When you tongue the altered note it stands out more. An alternate note is usually played directly after a regular note. Air/Keys. Half-Sounds. you puff out the cheeks to get an extra reservoir of air. or just to get an audience reaction. such as a major third or a fourth away. You can try out your own combinations of tongued/not-tongued. then quickly breathe in through the nose as you expel the air from the cheeks. You can include alternate fingerings for several different notes in a phrase.fingered pitch). Play a regular note. when you just finger it. You can practice this by accurately whistling and singing the interval together. But don’t use circular breathing just because you can do it. 4.17 Alternate Fingerings An alternate fingering produces the same basic note as the regular fingering. If you play an alternate note instead of a regular note. there may be multiple alternates for higher pitches. listen to timings 2:052:08 of “Precious Caboose” and 2:44-2:45 of “Where’s Waldis?” Alternate fingerings for trumpet are shown in the table below.• • • Hum a different pitch than the one you play.17 . Use it only when your improv ideas really call for it. It usually takes quite a bit of practice to get the sound to stay smooth during the breath. To do this. you can insert altered notes wherever you need to. It can also be used for riffing (see Chapter 4D: More Development). The example below shows several alternate-fingered notes (underlined) in a phrase. but the altered note is slightly out of tune (less than a quarter-tone away from the regular. = = Example 4. then hum it as you hold it. and Circular breathing is the process where you keep a sound going while you sneak a breath.16 Circular Breathing Growling. Change the hummed pitch as you hold the played pitch. at a moment’s notice. This out-of-tune sound is what gives the alternate fingering its spice. Circular breathing is usually used on a long note or to hook two long phrases together. for maximum contrast. away from your instrument. it’s more subtle. the more . In some cases.15 Humming 4. the listener usually just hears it as being slightly out of tune.Phrase with regular and alternate-fingered notes For examples of trumpet alternate-fingerings on the BRIDJJ CD. The pitches in the table below start with the F# on the first space of the treble clef and extend to the G above high C. Exercise 4. With practice.

(Level 4 — Strong) 242 • 4C: Special Effects .Alt. Pitch Reg.) Pitch Reg. Alt.valves pressed. the stronger the trill sounds. (Read columns downward.

see http://ourworld/compuserve. ascending/descending If a note has no alternate fingering or the alternate fingering is tricky. ascending Example 4.17b . If an alternate fingering is too close to the original pitch (and no other alternate fingering works). you can play a series of alternate trills that go up or down a scale or arpeggio.F# G Ab A Bb B C C# D Eb E F 2 0 2+3 1 2 0 1+2 1 2 0 1 1+2+3 1+3 (no alt) 1+2+3 1+3 B 2+3 1+2+3 1+3 2+3 3 or 1+2* 1+3 F# G Ab A Bb 2 C# D Eb E F 2 0 2+3 1+2 1 1+2 2+3 1+3 1 2 1+2+3 2+3 1+2 2+3 1+2 1+3 1+2 3 C (high) 0 2 2 0 1 0 or 1 1+3 Alternate (Altissimo) Fingerings for Saxophone Alternate fingerings for saxophone are found in various method books. you can use a regular trill instead of the alternate-fingered trill.Alternate-fingered trills. To play an alternate-fingered trill. For altissimo (very high range) fingerings. trilled pitches go up with various rhythms.com/homepages/mar tin_carter/ At the site. especially in the upper register. download the SaxTutor program for Microsoft Windows® for a view of altissimo fingerings. you just wiggle the valves or keys. you can wobble the alternate pitch . trilled pitches go up or down with constant rhythms. Each trill should last a quarter-note or longer. especially with shorter lengths like quarter-notes. This requires some practice to execute cleanly. To add variety. It sounds like a cross between tonguing and trilling. You don’t tongue each new note in the trill. In the second example.17a . Example 4. you quickly alternate between a note’s regular fingering and its altered fingering.Alternate-fingered trills. In the first example below. Alternate-Fingered Trills The alternate-fingered trill is dramatic.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 243 .with your lips or breath.

using air and lip tension. You can also use other effects. The harmon mute can be used without the stem for cool jazz. bends.For an example of alternate-fingered trills on the BRIDJJ CD. alternate two notes of the same fingering. The trill can be slow or fast.and triple-tonguing Using mutes Lip trills (shakes) Pedal tones Walking bass lines Double. you need to be miked well. Using Mutes The most commonly used mutes are the cup. For basics on . You can use regular or half-valve fingerings for pedal tones. When using a mute. Each mute lends a characteristic sound that colors the mood of your improvisation. or in free improvisation.17 Trumpet Effects Alternate Fingerings 4. Low range uses wide trills. softer passages. or cadenzas. you’re missing an unusual experience. Lip Trills (Shakes) To play a lip trill. Double-tonguing can also be used for articulating very fast passages.” Exercise 4. plunger. Pedal Tones A pedal tone is one that is below the bottom range of the horn. Wallace Roney does this well. or have the rhythm section play quieter. and harmon. Lester Bowie uses these effects wisely in his playing. As much as possible. such as growls. play each pedal tone in tune and with a good tone. or in interaction with another soloist. and half-sounds with a mute. as an alternative to the “doo-dul” tonguing of 8th-notes. You can accompany the bass player’s walking notes during or outside your solo. Still. depending on what works best. Common places for pedal tones are the ending of a tune. wide or narrow. listen to timings 1:44 to 1:55 (trumpet solo) of “Beat the Rats. or with the stem for “wah-wah” sounds (hand covering and uncovering the stem). Walking Bass Lines If you haven’t played a walking bass line on the trumpet. You can also use pedal tones in walking bass lines. you can occasionally use these tonguing methods when the accompaniment is sparse.and Triple-Tonguing Double-tonguing and triple-tonguing are much more common in classical music than in jazz.18 This section covers: • • • • • Double. higher range uses wide or narrow trills.

you can play regular pitches (from low F# to about middle G) or pedal tones (below low F#) or both kinds. make the transitions smooth. see Rhythm Section Techniques in Level 1. In trumpet bass lines. 244 • 4C: Special Effects (Level 4 — Strong) .creating walking bass lines. If you switch between regular and pedal notes.

and “thunks. except that the positions are better in tune on trombone. James Carter and Joshua Redman use this effect well in solos.19 This section covers overtones/split notes. When you slide up or down a half-step or less. use other approaches as well. Using alternate positions helps you play faster and more easily in the upper register. or triple-tonguing for effect. Use dynamics. double-tonguing.19 Saxophone Effects Trombone Effects 4. including soft altissimo notes. Be sure to get a balanced sound between the two notes. Don’t just climb up the scale to altissimo and then climb down.” Overtones/Split Notes You can play two notes at once (a main note and an overtone above it) by loosening the embouchure just enough. staccato note with a loose embouchure. To use altissimo effectively. This can be done for one note or a phrase. Thunks A thunk is made when you blow air and finger a low. but small slides are often under-used. You can also play a note slightly out of position for effect. altissimo playing.18 Trumpet Effects Saxophone Effects 4. • • • Play the notes in tune with a good sound. you can mix quarter-tones with chromatic notes. such as starting in altissimo or skipping up to it. Slides The trombone plays the smoothest glissandos or slides of any wind instrument. Altissimo Altissimo is the extreme upper range of the sax.Exercise 4. You can switch from high range to low thunks.20 Trombone Effects . above the regular fingerings (see Alternate Fingerings). Exercise 4. or play chromatic thunks. You can also combine slides with growls. Alternate Positions Alternate positions are like alternate fingerings for trumpet.20 This section covers alternate positions and slides (glissandos). Long slides are common. Exercise 4.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 245 .

Experiment with one-hand or two-hand clusters. Wynton Kelly. you can start and stop on one key. mix white and black keys. instead of isolated by rests. with the same or similar voicings for each new chord.21 This section covers: • • • • • • • Clusters Tremolo Block chords Hammering Using strings and pedals Piano bass lines Wide glissandos Clusters Clusters are groups of notes that are half-steps (or sometimes whole-steps) apart. Erroll Garner. it builds intensity or suspense. As you work with tremolos. or play more notes (use a horizontal hand or forearm). Each chord follows a right-hand melody. Make sure the texture is light enough so the strings can be heard. With hammering. especially with many notes at once. pay close attention to dynamic subtleties. such as in the Thelonious Monk style. They can be used to spice up chords or melody lines. play them in the upper range or include only white keys or only black keys. or extend it by going up or down chromatically or by wider intervals. Masters of block chords include Red Garland. Block Chords Block chords (or locked chords) are played in both hands at once. Tremolo Tremolo is like a wide trill. For more intense clusters. you rapidly alternate between plucking and touching one or two strings to set up the vamp. For gentler clusters. They can also be used as percussive effects. The most common tremolo interval is the octave. and George Shearing Hammering Hammering is the technique of rapidly attacking one key with two index fingers (it can also be done by rotating between the thumb and fingers one and two). Using Strings and Pedals Although you can actually play melody lines on the strings by touching them with your fingertips. you can also play tremolos with smaller intervals or with chords. strings are usually played to set up a rhythmic accompaniment vamp (as done by Chick Corea). This lends a traditional swing feeling to the solo. The idea is to get the maximum speed of clean attacks. Piano Bass Lines .Keyboard Effects 4. such as in a duet or trio. Hammering is also effective in the middle of a full passage. The sustain and soft pedals are effective in solo passages or where the accompaniment is light. In this case.

Some highly unusual and effective bass lines can be created.Playing bass lines on the piano is most effective in a solo or duet situation. especially with different rhythms (triplets. accelerating / decelerating 246 • 4C: Special Effects (Level 4 — Strong) . or when everyone drops out during a piano solo.

You can play a single harmonic. These usually work best in a soft setting. where you play chords with 16th-note patterns. the result dramatically extends the range of the melody. Jim Hall uses this effect quite well.).21 Guitar Effects Keyboard Effects 4. To make a wide glissando more effective: • • • • Play it up more often than down. Related to tremolo is quick strumming. not at the finish. Gonzalo Rubalcaba uses wide glissandos effectively. Use it in the middle of a solo. Use it rarely. or repeated several times from the same pitch. etc. After a bend you can continue with a note that’s near the pitch where the bend finished. Guitar Harmonics Harmonic notes are played by pressing a string halfway down. Tremolo Notes in a tremolo chord can gradually change as you continue the tremolo. somewhat in a flamenco style. Wide Glissandos Wide glissandos have been overused so much by some players that they can tend to sound stale to the rest of us.notes. More difficult but effective is playing a melody line with harmonic notes.22 This section covers: • • • • • Bends Tremolo Muted strumming Guitar harmonics Playing in octaves Bends Bends can be slow or fast (fast bends are like a wide vibrato). . In a melodic line you can ascend from high regular tones into harmonics. 3 against 4. For basic ideas on creating walking bass lines. Exercise 4. or try octaves or triads. at the end of a phrase or solo. Follow it with a continuous idea. See also Tremolo in Piano Effects above. see Rhythm Section Techniques in Level 1. this builds intensity. Muted Strumming Muted (soft) strumming is an interesting technique for quieter passages or accompanying solos (especially bass players) in duets or trios.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 247 .

and fills. or one at a time as an arpeggio. 4) Saxophone effects include overtones and split notes.string bass is easier for playing chords.Playing in Octaves The technique of playing simultaneous octaves was made popular by guitarist Wes Montgomery. falls. You can also interject some chords between phrases of octave notes. humming. growls. As you play a melody line in octaves (melody line plus an octave above or below).23 Harmonics Guitar Effects You can play bass harmonics as single pitches or as a melody line. . but shouldn’t be distracting. 3) Trumpet effects: double/triple-tonguing. keep in mind basic principles such as melodic development. you can use chords in a bass pattern behind other soloists. slide up or down • Twangs and slaps . You can also play several harmonics together as a chord. 2) Wind instrument effects include bends. Bowed Notes On acoustic bass. circular breathing. Other Effects Here are some other effects for the bass: • Slides . such as roots of a chord or 1-3 or 1-5 combinations. Exercise 4.like an out-of-control sound when it’s done unevenly. using mutes.23 Chapter Review Bass Effects 1) Special effects can be used alone or in combinations. walking bass. A five. contours. altissimo playing. pedal tones. you need to approach the bass more like a guitar. In addition to soloing with occasional chords. you can play notes with a bow. and thunks. intervals. Bowed notes can be accompaniment notes. and alternate fingerings.Use them as pickups or after notes. Chords To play chords on the bass. air and keys. • Wide vibrato . especially at faster speeds. halfsounds. You can also play them in solo melodies. but it takes a lot of practice to play bowed solos. Exercise 4.22 Bass Effects 4. use chord slides. or slap the bass itself (acoustic). Christian McBride plays great bowed/plucked solos.You can twang or slap strings.

hammering. tremolo. block chords. muted strumming. plus some trumpet effects. wide vibrato. and octaves. tuning effects. 6) Keyboard effects: clusters. and glissandos. twangs and slaps. 248 • 4C: Special Effects (Level 4 — Strong) . chords. and bowed notes. strings and pedals. 7) Guitar effects: bends and vibrato. tremolo. 8) Bass effects include harmonics.5) Trombone effects include alternate positions and slides. slides. harmonics.

otherwise. Instead. It also his chapter covers some interesting melodic development techniques. you should play quotes sparingly. It can also be transposed to fit any key. not because you’re forcing it to belong. such as explains development combinations that can add variety to your solos. On simple tunes you can sometimes play some rather long quotes. 4) Draw from many types of music (folk. classical. that’s enough!” 2) Know the quote well (intervals. rhythms). That way. To prepare for using quotes in your solos. 3) Don’t repeat the same quote in the same tune (but you can vary the quote). or anything in between. etc. you play the quote because it fits. you should: . The quote can be as silly as “Three Blind Mice” or as hip as a quotation from a great artist’s solo. “Hey. chances are it will sound stiff or predictable because it doesn’t relate well to what you played just before.4D: More Development In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • Using Quotes Riffing Basic Development Combinations T using quotes from other tunes and developing with up-tempo riffs.. pitches. use quotes that grow out of your own melodic ideas. entertaining material if you handle them well. The idea is to pleasantly surprise the listener. The following guidelines can help you with quotes: 1) Keep the quote short. 5) Generally. Quoting Naturally Probably the worst quoting mistake is having a favorite quote you must play in a tune.). such as blues. modal tunes. children’s. they sound predictable or forced. Quotes can be fresh. 6) The easiest tunes for using quotes are ones with simple progressions. rock. When you do play it. pop. and tunes that don’t modulate. Using Quotes A quote happens when you play all or part of the melody of a wellknown song in your solo. The listener should say.. wasn’t that . The quote should spring naturally out of a idea in your solo (see Quoting Naturally below).?” not “OK.

• Practice the tunes with slightly different rhythms. something may remind you of a well-known song you can quote. from many different styles. (Level 4 — Strong) 4D: More Development • 249 . it sounds like it fits with what you’re playing. • Be able to play the tunes in just about any key. Then when you play the quote.• Memorize the melodies to many different tunes. If you pay close attention to the intervals and rhythms you play (or someone else plays) during your solo.

Exercise 4. start a little before each timing so you get the context of how the quote fits into the solo. Thomas Twilight Zone Anything Goes Satin Doll Surrey With the Fringe on Top I Love Lucy “Deja Blue” 4:27-4:37 “Beat the Rats” 1:30-1:33 “I Think I’ll Keep Her” 1:00-1:09 5:55) 3:38-3:41 3:52-3:56 5:23-5:28 “Three and Me” 5:16-5:19 “Precious Caboose” 2:11-2:15 “Where’s Waldis?” 1:48-1:51 2:20-2:22 Riffing A riff is a short. It slightly varies the rhythm and pitches of the original. ==== ====== ========= Example 4. the quotes in the main tune melodies (marked by asterisks) were. . Another useful technique is to blur the rhythm of the quote. Varied quotes leave the audience in more suspense. Generally. This riff works best at quarternote = 180 or faster.Varied quote of “Three Blind Mice” For some humor in your solo. With imagination.24 .24 Varied or Partial Quotes Some of the best quotes are varied (altered rhythm or pitches).harmonic (“wrong”) pitches. As you listen to these quotes. you can change some notes in the quote to non. and sixteenth-notes at least at quarter-note = 120. CD Track Timing Quote **Peter Gunn Autumn in New York **Whistle While You Work (5:45How Are Things in Glocca Morra? St. A varied quote of “Three Blind Mice” is shown below. fast motif you repeat several times. if they aren’t overused. letting you use quotes more frequently. playing it in a rubato style (see Using Rubato in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom). An example riff and its repetition are shown below. The quotes in these solos were not pre-planned. Most of the quotes on the CD are varied. or partial (notes left out of the original). eighth-note riffs should be played at least at a tempo of quarternote = 240.24 Quotes on the BRIDJJ CD Using Varied Quotes Below are quotes played in the BRIDJJ “Beat the Rats” CD. Riffs can add energy and variety to solo. eighth-note triplets at least at quarter-note = 180.4. The riff can be repeated several or many times. you can come up with many variations of an original quote.

250 • 4D: More Development (Level 4 — Strong) .

.etc.. ======= ...........…..... . the third changes two notes... The changed notes produce expanded intervals.........Two-part riff and repetition .…. ……… ======= …… You can also play riffs that aren’t in strict tempo (Off-Tempos and Burning in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom)....25a . The two parts should be far enough apart in pitch so they are heard as separate.Changing pitches in riff repetitions. you can change a riff repetition slightly........ The first repetition is exact.26 ..25 . ===== Example 4.... .. but they can add even more energy to a melody. ===== .. These riffs are harder to invent..…..…. 4. Here are some ways to vary riffs: • • • Change individual pitches Sequence the riff Insert notes into the riff Below is a riff that changes individual pitches...26 Changing a Riff Creating Riffs For variety... The second and third repetitions are transposed down a whole-step each (a half-step .. ….. …..... Even a slight change can produce extra energy and interest. the second changes one note......25 Two-Part Riffs A two-part riff is a riff made from a two-part motif...Another two-part riff and repetition Exercise 4... ======= Example 4.....25 4.. Repetition 1 Repetition 2 Repetition 3 Example 4............. expanded intervals Next is an example of sequencing......

down from the last note of the riff). (Level 4 — Strong) 4D: More Development • 251 .

..........26b .........Getting into a riff Riff Next is an example of getting out of a riff..….... and in this example the rhythms slow down somewhat..... This example inserts two notes (**) at the start of the first repetition and 4 at the second.... Here are some transition techniques: • Get into the riff smoothly • Get out of the riff smoothly • Hook two riffs together To get into a riff... Exit: reverse contour...…..... to build intensity.27a ... make the last intro note and the first note of the riff close in pitch: Intro Example 4.... And here’s an example of inserting notes. ......Inserting notes into riff repetitions Repetition 2 Exercise 4... The first exit note is close to the last riff note......26 4.. and the second riff is higher in pitch or faster.....……………...Sequencing a riff.. There is a brief transition between the riffs. slow rhythms And here’s an example of hooking two riffs together.. * * * * .Exiting a riff ......….....…. .......... ............……....... Repetition 1 Repetition 2 Repetition 3 Example 4. the effect is to displace the riff...26a .27 Riff Transitions Changing Riffs Riffs are usually better with smooth transitions before and after. .. Repetition 1 Example 4... Repetition 1 Example 4...27 ..... * *..

252 • 4D: More Development (Level 4 — Strong) .

new riff …… Example 4..28c .Hooking two riffs together Exercise 4.28b ..27 Riff Transitions 4.28d . which means developing a motif in two ways at once. Make sure they fit naturally into your overall ideas as a way to build intensity...28 Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Basic Development Combinations You can play some very interesting ideas by using combined development.Pentatonic riff and repetition Example 4. and repetition You can also vary one or more pitches in blues or pentatonic riffs so they take on additional color.Blues riff .. and repetition Example 4.Blues riff ..27b ...28 Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Pentatonic and blues riffs can be an exciting technique as long as they’re not overdone (some players seem to be fixated on them). each one can be repeated several times: Example 4. Items 1 through 5 work in pairs.Pentatonic riff and repetition Example 4. if you choose both members of a pair (such as adding notes and omitting notes) apply one technique to the first part of the motif and the other to the end.28a . Below are some examples. (Level 4 — Strong) 4D: More Development • 253 .Repetition 1 Transition. Combining Development Techniques Combine any two of the techniques below to develop a motif. Exercise 4.

Example 4. transposing Example 4. . 2) A varied quote changes the melody of a well-known song in your solo.Original motif Example 4.1) Expanding intervals1a) 2) Adding notes 2a) 3) Augmenting rhythms 4) Slow-to-fast rhythms 5) Diatonic sequence 5a) 6) Semi-sequence 7) Inverting the contour 8) Fragmenting 9) Displacing 10) Converting to a riff Shrinking intervals Omitting notes 3a)Compressing rhythms 4a) Fast-to-slow rhythms Transposed sequence 4. invert omitting notes Example 4.29a .Displacing. 5) Riff transitions are effective when you enter the riff smoothly.29 . Exercise 4. or hook two riffs together.29 Development Combinations Chapter Review 1) A quote is all or part of the melody of a well-known song played in your solo. See also Chapter 5E: More Development Combinations.29c . 3) A riff is a short. or inserting notes in repetitions. 4) You can repeat a riff exactly or change it by altering pitches. sequencing.Compress. fast.Expanding intervals. exit smoothly.29 Using Development Combinations You can combine these development techniques in many different ways.or two-part) that is repeated several times. motif (one. Below are a sample motif and a few of its development combinations.29b . 6) You can combine two different development techniques in a motif or phrase.

254 • 4D: More Development (Level 4 — Strong) .

Tritone Substitutions Just as you can simplify ii-V-I’s. These chords move down by half-steps – a strong chord movement. you can also spice them up with tritone (augmented 4th) substitutions. Tritone substitution favors dominant alterations (b5. creating a ii-bII-I progression.30 Building Tritone Substitutions A tritone substitution occurs when you use a bII chord instead of a V. This chapter discusses common modulations and ii-V-I any jazz tunes have chord progressions that modulate (change keys) or use ii-V- variations so you can recognize them in chord progressions and use them in your solos. +9).30 . using the bII is called a tritone substitution. For example. as in the example below. you can use II-V-I instead.4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • Tritone Substitutions Going from the V to a New I ii-V-I Chains ii-V and V-I Chains ii-V-I Variations in Jazz Standards M I’s in different ways.Tritone substitution: ii-bII-I (Dm7-Db7-CMa7) over ii-V-I You can also use “opposite” tritone substitution: when the actual chords are ii-bII-I. Because the substitute bII is a tritone away from the V. For example:: Dm7 G7 (play a Db7) CMa7 b9 +5 b5 Example 4. Dm7 Db7 (play a G7) CMa7 . 4. b9. in the key of C the iibII-I progression would be Dm to Db7 to CMa7. You can substitute a ii-bII-I wherever you see a written II-V-I. +5.

ii-V-I (Dm7-G7-CMa7) over iibII-I Exercise 4.30 (Level 4 — Strong) Using Tritone Substitutions 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s • 255 .Opposite tritone substitution:.30a .Example 4.

the new I chord is unexpected but sounds good. A tug between major and minor can give welcome variety to the progression. Any ii-V-I’s can be used in a chain. key of B Example 4. Exercise 4.Going from the V to a New I A dominant chord (V) usually resolves up a 4th to the root chord (I or i). The example below chains ii-V-I’s together. such as G7 to CMa7.33 .31 . or G7 to Cm. key of Ab Example 4. 4.V resolves down 1/2 step Cm7 F7 | BMa7 ii V new I. Em7 ii A7| AbMa7 V new I.32 Resolving to a Related Minor Chord A dominant chord can also resolve to a related minor chord (a minor chord in the key of the major I): • Up a whole step. going to the minor iii (such as G7 to Em in C Major) Resolving to the minor vi or iii chord makes the progression sound like it’s switching to minor. 4. Below are chord progressions for each of these dominant resolutions. It begins with a iiV-I in the key of C Major then adds ii-V-I’s in E Major. they sound good because of the strong chord movements (up a 4th).V resolves up an augmented fourth Exercise 4. and B Major. going to the minor vi (such as G7 to Am in C Major) • Down a minor third. it sounds like you modulate to a new key. F Major. This resolves the built-in energy of the dominant chord. But a dominant chord can also resolve to certain other chords besides the root chord.31a .32 ii-V-I Chains Dominant to Related Minor Chords Some tunes “chain” consecutive ii-V-I progressions together to modulate to a I chord in a distant key – one with several more (or fewer) sharps or flats.31 Chords Resolving Dominant Chords to Other I 4.31 New Resolutions for V Chords A dominant chord can also resolve to a I chord that is: • • Down a 1/2 step (such as G7 to F#Ma) Up or down an augmented 4th (G7 to C#Ma) By using a different dominant resolution.



| CMa7 | F#m7B7 | EMa7
(Level 4 — Strong)

256 • 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s

(ii-V-I in C -----------------------) (ii-V-I in E ----------------) Gm7 C7 | FMa7 | C#m7 F#7| BMa7 (ii-V-I in F ------------------------) (ii-V-I in B ---------------)
Example 4.33 - Eight-measure progression using arbitrary ii-V-I chains

Exercise 4.33
4.34 Parallel ii-V-I’s

Writing ii-V-I Chains

Although any ii-V-I’s can be chained together, usually the ii of each ii-V-I moves up or down by a constant interval. This makes the ii-VI’s sound like they are related to each other in a parallel way. Examples of parallel ii-V-I progressions are shown below. Chain Intvl. 1/2-step up 1/2-step down 1-step up 1-step down Fourth up First ii-V-I Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Second ii-V-I Ebm7-Ab7-DbMa7 C#m7-F#7-BMa7 Em7-A7-DMa7 Cm7-F7-BbMa7 Gm7-C7-FMa7

Using parallel ii-V-I’s, a tune can modulate to any key. You can use this technique to add your own chords when the original progression stays on a single chord for a while.
Example: Bridge of “Cherry Key”

The bridge (B) section of “Cherry Key” uses a chain of ii-V-I’s. Starting in B Major, each ii-V-I moves down a whole-step. Instead of F Major for the last two bars, the tune uses a ii-V (Cm to F7) to get back to the original key of Bb Major.: C#m Bm Am Gm | F#7 | E7 | D7 | C7 | BMa6 | AMa6 | GMa6| •/• |Cm |F7 | •/• | •/• | | | | (ii-V-I in B ---------------------------------------------------------) (ii-V-I in A ---------------------------------------------------------) (ii-V-I in G ---------------------------------------------------------) (ii-V in F --------------------------- (ii-V in Bb ---------------)
Example 4.34 - Bridge to “Cherry Key”

Exercise 4.34

Modulating w/ Parallel ii-V-I Chains

(Level 4 — Strong)

4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s • 257

The example below uses consecutive V-I progressions to modulate from C Major to F# Major to Bb Major. Each chain begins on the V halfway through a bar. You can also play a single scale for each V-I. then ends with a ii-V-I in E Major. Gm7-C7 (the V and ii are on the same pitch) Exercise 4.Modulating with V-I chains Example: First Half of “Giant Stops” The first half of the tune “Giant Stops” uses two chains of V-I progressions (the first one is D7-GMa. adds a ii-V in Db Major. . Chain Interval Example 1/2-step up 1/2-step down 4th apart) 1-step up 1-step down 4th up Dm7-G7.ii-V and V-I Chains 4. Em7-A7 Dm7-G7.Using arbitrary ii-V chains You can also simplify a ii-V by playing only the I or ii scale across both chords. after starting the bar on a major chord.35 4. creating a parallel movement. Bb7-EbMa). Dm7 G7 | Ebm7 Ab7 |F#m7 B7 | EMa7 (ii-V in C -------) (ii-V in Db --) (ii-V-I in E ----------) Example 4. or the only chord in an even-numbered bar). Dm7 G7 | CMa7 C#7 | F#Ma7 F7 | BbMa7 (V-I in Bb) (ii-V-I in C ------------) (V-I in F# ------) Example 4. As with II-V’s. The V-I chain usually begins with a ii. they work well because of the strong movement (up a 4th) of each ii-V.36 V-I Chains Modulating with Parallel ii-V Chains An alternative to the II-V chain is the V-I chain. the V-I’s can be random or parallel.35 .V-I so each V chord will be in the “even-numbered” position (such as the second chord in a bar. Parallel ii-V’s Like ii-V-I chains.36 .35 ii-V Chains Some tunes chain ii-V progressions then resolve to a I chord. The example below chains several ii-V’s. Cm7-F7 (circle of fourths) Dm7-G7. Ebm7-Ab7 Dm7-G7. It begins with a ii-V in the key of C Major. Any iiV’s can be used. ii-V’s often move up or down by a constant interval. C#m7-F#7 (the V and ii are an augmented Dm7-G7.

BMa D7 | GMa Bb7 | EbMa | Am D7 | (Level 4 — Strong) 258 • 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s .

2) A V chord can also resolve to a substitute I chord. 6) Consecutive major. this gives the feeling of minor iiV progressions. The ii chords are m7-5 in quality.I in G --) (V. Dm7-5 G7-9 | Cm7 C#7+9 | F#m7 F7 | Bbm7 (V-i in F# min) (V-i in Bb minor--) (ii-V-i in C minor ----) Example 4. even though the minor i chord is not actually played.Modulating with minor V-i chains Exercise 4. such as the vi or iii. 3) ii-V-I progressions can be chained together to modulate to another key.I in B------------) Example 4.37a . The example below modulates from C minor to Db minor to E minor. or on an even-numbered bar if one chord per bar).V-I chains in “Giant Stops” tune Exercise 4. The interval between each progression can be random or parallel. minor.37 Minor ii-V and V-i Chains Minor ii-V progressions can be chained together to modulate.(V. 4) ii-V progressions and V-I progressions can be chained together to modulate to another key.37 Chapter Review Using Minor ii-V and V-i Chains 1) A V chord can resolve to a new I chord by moving down a halfstep. 5) V-I progressions usually start in an even-numbered position (halfway through a bar if there are two chord per bar.I in Eb--) (V. Dm7-5 G7-9| Ebm7-5 Ab7+9 | F#m7-5 B7-9| Em7 (ii-V in C min) (ii-V in Db minor) (ii-V-i in E minor -----) Example 4. The example below modulates from C minor to F# minor to Bb minor. .36a .I in Eb ----------) GMa Bb7| EbMa F#7 | BMa |Fm Bb7 || (V. or dominant chords can be used to modulate quickly.37 . or up or down an augmented 4th.36 Modulating with Parallel V-I Chains 4.Modulating with minor ii-V chains Minor V-i progressions can also be chained together to modulate to other keys.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s • 259 .

followed by another bar of the I chord when the blues repeats back to the beginning bar. Turnarounds are often used to add variety in the last two bars of a blues. sometimes it’s helpful to know when not to substitute them. This should be a dominant (V) chord that moves strongly to the C7 (I) chord in bar 1. which are two bars of the I chord. the last two bars look like this (the blanks indicate added chords): ||: C7 __ | __ __ :|| C7 (bar 1) 2 Find a chord for the last slot.4F: Chord Substitutions In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • Turnarounds and Inserted Chords Chord Substitutions in Jazz Standards Altered Blues Static Playing: Avoiding ii-V-Is the harmonic interest. Let’s pick G7 for now: | C7 __ | __ G7 :|| (C7) . or Db7 (down 1/2 step to C7). Good choices are G7 (up a 4th to C7). or F#7 (up a #4 to C7). And once you get the knack of substituting chords. 4. mark these spots as places where you need to add chords: • • • Beat 3 of bar 11 Beat 1 of bar 12 Beat 3 of bar 12 In a C blues. you can insert and substitute chords to increase are turnarounds and inserted chords.38 Blues Turnarounds To figure out the chords to add in a blues turnaround. Turnarounds and Inserted Chords A turnaround is a way to add chords to a progression so you get back to (“turn around” to) a starting place. The two main substitution methods J discussed in this chapter ust as you can vary ii-V-Is in a tune. 1 In the last two bars. follow the steps below.

It should move strongly to the G7 chord. It should move strongly to the Dm chord. let’s pick Dm7 for now (up a 4th to G7): | C7 __ | Dm7 G7 :|| (C7) 4 Find a chord for the second slot.3 Find a chord for the third slot. let’s pick A7 for now (up a 4th to Dm7): 260 • 4F: Chord Substitutions (Level 4 — Strong) .

| C7 A7 5. but the other movements are strong. Eb7.Turnarounds with arbitrary V-I progressions Exercise 4. 1.| C7 A7 | Dm7 G7 :|| (C7) The turnaround is now complete. the inserted chords are D7. | C7 F7 10. This fills in the gap between two chords that are a third or a fourth apart. | C7 E7 9. They use strong dominant chord movements. the original chords are C7 & F7. | C7 A7 | Dm7 | Dm7 | Dm7 | Ab7 | Ab7 | Dm7 Db7 :|| (C7) G7 :|| (C7) Db7 :|| (C7) G7 :|| (C7) Db7 :|| (C7) Db7 :|| (C7) Example 4.38 Using Turnarounds 4. Each new sequence of the pattern is based on the next note up or down the scale (chromatic or diatonic). In the first example below. | C7 A7 6. and E7.Common turnaround examples in C You can also use a V-I progression to fill the second and third slots of the turnaround. | C7 Bb7 | F#Ma7 | AMa7 | Bbmi7 | BMa7 | Ebmi7 G7 G7 :|| (C7) :|| (C7) :|| (C7) Db7 G7 Db7 :|| (C7) :|| (C7) Example 4. forming a stepwise bridge going up. | C7 Db7 8. C7 (Level 4 — Strong) (D7 Eb7 E7) F7 4F: Chord Substitutions • 261 . 7. Turnaround Variations Below are some common turnarounds for a C blues. | C7 A7 2. In this case. | C7 F#7 11.38a . | C7 Eb7 4. | C7 Eb7 3. there would not be a strong movement from the third to fourth chord.38 .39 Inserting Stepwise Chords You can insert a melodic pattern between harmonically distant chords.

going down Exercise 4. L7m4-L1m1 L6m1-L7m2 L1m2.40 Finding ii-V-I Variations .L7m2-L8m1 L3m2-L5m4 L5m4-L1m1. third bar). L3m1-3 L1m1-6 L4m4-L1m1 L5m1-L6m1. then try the exercise. the inserted chords are B7 and Bb7. up a #4 Tritone subst. the original chords are C7 and A7. bar-number (L2m3 = line 2.40 Tune A Night in 2-Kneesia Variation Minor ii-V-i Dom.Adding stepwise arpeggios.Adding chromatic arpeggios.39a.Example 4. Compare the chart to the tunes in the 200 Standard Tunes section. L7m2 L2m2-3 L3m2-L6m1 L6m4-L7m1 L8m3-4 L1m3-4 L2m3-4 L4m3-4 L1m4-L2m1 L2m4-L3m1.39 Inserting Chromatic Chords Chord Substitutions in Jazz Standards The chart below describes the ii-V-I variations in several of the standards in 200 Standard Tunes. up a #4 ii-V-I. going up In the next example. Parallel ii-V-i’s Minor ii-V-i ii-V chain ii-V Dom. Son Joysprinkles Exercise 4. down 1/2 Dom. L6m2.39 . C7 (B7 Bb7) A7 Example 4. 4. which form a chromatic bridge going down. L4m4-L5m1 L3m4-L4m2 L8m3-4 Air-Again I Remember Yews Half Nails. modulate ii-V chain Turnaround Bars L2m3-4. up a #4 ii-V-I chain Minor ii-V-i Turnaround ii-V’s ii-V chain Turnaround Dom. The bars with the variations are indicated by linenumber.

262 • 4F: Chord Substitutions (Level 4 — Strong) .

but most variations follow the guidelines of inserting chords and using turnarounds. but bar 9 is Dm.) 11 -12: Typical 2-bar turnaround w/ circle of 4ths.10: Goes around circle of 4ths to get to G7 in bar 10. because it was often used by Charlie Parker (nicknamed “Bird”). creating an altered blues progression.7: ii-V-i to Fm7 in bar 5. Below are some altered blues progressions in C. The V chord (Ab7) moves up a #4th to the Dm7b5. ii-V-I to EbMa7.4: Goes around the circle of 4ths to get to the F7 in bar 5. | Cm 1 | Fm7 5 9 | Dm7b5 G7 | Cm 2 | Fm7 6 10 3 Bb7| EbMa7 7 11 | Gm7 C7 | 4 | Ebm7 Ab7| 8 || 12 | Dm7b5 | Db7+9 | Cm7 A7b9 | Ab7 G7 Example 4.9: ii-V in key of DbMa. each chord goes up a 4th.Altered minor blues Bar 4: 6 . 2-bar turnaround with downward chromatic movement .41a . From bar 2 to 5.Altered Blues 4.41 . There are many variations of altered blues. The progressions use turnarounds and variations on ii-V-Is. with explanations of the inserted chords. | C7 1 | F7 5 | Dm7 9 | Bm7 E7 2 | Fm7 6 |G7 10 | Am7 D7 3 | Em7 7 |Em7 A7 11 |Gm7 C7| 4 | A7 8 |Dm7 G7 12 || | Example 4. 9 -11: 11 -12: A tritone substitution (ii-bII-I) in minor. 6: Switches to minor.“Bird” blues in C Bars 2 . The Fm7 in bar 6 moves smoothly to the Em7 in bar 7. Variation #1: Bird Blues This altered blues is called “Bird” blues.41 You can insert chords in a blues progression. 8 . (Em7 in bar 7 is also a substitute for CMa7. Variation #2: Altered Minor Blues This minor blues has several ii-V’s and a turnaround. 7 .

The Ab7 remains dominant for variety.from A7b9 to G7. (Level 4 — Strong) 4F: Chord Substitutions • 263 .

A different “Bird” blues Bars 1 . starting a long chain. It goes around the circle of 4ths from Bb to C# (same as Db). | C#m7 F#7| Bm7 1 | F7 5 9 6 10 2 3 7 E7 4 | Ebm7 Ab7| 8 11 12 | Am7 D7 | Gm7 C7 | | Fm7 Bb7 | EbMa7 | DbMa7 | Dbm7 Gb7 | CMa7 Bb7 |EbMa7 Ab7 Example 4. Switches to Db minor. The CMa7 in bar 11 and the F7 in bar 5 give us the only real clues that this blues is actually in C. then uses a ii-V-I to go to Eb Major. The F#7 was also used in bar 4. The beginning C#m7 is an interesting contrast to the original C7.Another altered minor blues Bar 4: #4 chord (F#7) resolves down a half-step to the minor iv chord in bar 5. 6 . then uses an altered ii-V-I (Dbm7 to Gb7 to CMa7) to get back to C Major. | Cm 1 | Fm7 5 9 | Dm7b5 G7 | Cm | F#7 2 | Em7 6 10 A7 3 | Dm7 G7 7 11 | 4 | Cm7 F7 8 | Cm7 | F#7 12 || | | Bbm7 Eb7| Abm7 Db7 Example 4.41c . 6 .10: Long chain of ii-V’s. starting down a half-step from the minor iv.9: 10-11: Switches to F minor.7: 8 .41b .41 Writing Blues Variations . ending at the minor i chord in bar 11. starting in bar 6. 11-12: Exercise 4.4: Goes around the circle of 4ths starting with bar 1. This gives the listener a rest after the long chain. 12: Simple turnaround of one chord: the #4 that resolves to the minor i chord in bar 1.Variation #3: Another Altered Minor Blues This minor blues uses a long chain around the circle of fourths. Variation #4: Another Bird Blues This blues starts on the bii. A 2-bar turnaround designed to get to the C#m7 in bar 1. then uses a ii-V-I to go to Db Major (like taking bars 6 and 7 down a step). a similar location. Switches to Eb minor.

264 • 4F: Chord Substitutions (Level 4 — Strong) .

V-Is in your solo to reduce the harmonic energy. 3) Two common ways to add chords to a progression are chromatically and around the circle of 4ths. 5) Static playing (avoiding ii-V-Is) can be helpful to draw attention away from harmony and towards the basic key.42 Some tunes or solos suggest an open feeling – perhaps a single chord vamp or a blues. In static playing you can still use a few non-harmonic tones and even play outside a little. as long as you don’t imply ii-V-Is.Static Playing: Avoiding ii-V-Is 4. 2) To fill in a turnaround progression. . like G7 to C) Exercise 4. In static playing. rhythms. the focus shifts towards your rhythms. Staying away from ii-V-Is eliminates that “tidal pull” of harmony. style. F-E (4 to 3. Here are some examples of note patterns to avoid in static playing (in C Major): D-F-A-B-G (ii-V). and expression in a solo. V-I’s.42 Static Playing Chapter Review 1) A turnaround is a special way to add chords to a progression so that you get back to (“turn around” to) a certain starting place. expression. That’s when static playing can be valuable. and turnarounds. you avoid outlining ii. D-B-G-C (V-I). and development. Using ii-V-Is is somewhat like creating harmonic “tides” of push and pull in the music. work backward from the final resolution chord. When you eliminate the ii-V-I’s. 4) You can create altered blues progressions by substituting ii-V’s.

(Level 4 — Strong) 4F: Chord Substitutions • 265 .

if the idea is ascending. the soloist is not the only one who is playing important ideas. so you’ll get your turn soon. . Good interaction can take a solo beyond its borders. play descending. A successful solo is like a conversation among the group members. Interaction Ideas One of the most enjoyable challenges for the soloist is learning to interact musically with the members of the group. etc. For example. Even when you let it go by. such as repeated tones. As you learn to interact with your group. and the group members are like the supporting actors who feed the leader ideas.4G: Group Interaction In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • Interaction Ideas Ensemble Texture Solo Formats Playing in Duets and Trios Gig Survival Q group interacts musically. The other members can greatly inspire the soloist. 4) Copy the idea (explained below). etc. Remember: the soloist may be in the middle of his or her own development and may play something even more interesting in a few seconds. making it an exciting group experience. they can react in any of these ways: 1) Let the idea go by. or in some cases can even join in as multiple soloists. This simplifies the rhythm or chords and draws attention to the soloist and can enhance a solo that’s building intensity. or vice versa. This by helps the idea stand out. but does not necessarily build communication. When members of the group hear interesting ideas from the soloist (or from the other members). if the idea uses offbeats. drum rolls. someone else may be communicating with it. 3) Play under the idea. 2) Play against the idea. Communicating in Solos Contrary to what some players think. pedal notes. 5) Alter or develop the idea (explained below). The soloist leads the discussion. play against it with downbeats. your solos can uestion: When is a jazz group greater than the sum of its parts? Answer: When the take on new dimensions.

It’s not necessary for all members to copy or play against at the same time. variety makes an effective engine behind the soloist. 266 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) .Important: The group can use any or all of the above methods at the same time.

For example the feel could change from bossa to samba. see Chapter 5D: Rhythm Pulses.) For ways to create rhythmic shifts. Unless the idea is developing well. Style and Rhythmic Transitions One of the most exciting events in a tune is when the entire rhythmic style changes unexpectedly for one or more bars. too often the style shifts feel forced. alter them and play them back. with one player joining at a time so the intensity builds. You can trigger this with a rhythmic idea. conversing with a soloist is not an imitating contest. or among the band members. Remember: you can copy one or more pitches. or the part you can manage to hear and play accurately). half the group could shift to double-time while the other half stays is single-time. or someone else can trigger it. but don’t forget about copying part of the rhythm (such as a triplet group or offbeat). Here are two common misconceptions about style shifts: Misconception #1: The whole group needs to shift styles. preferably all at once. But too many groups get in the habit of conversing too long on a single idea (like talking too long on a limited subject). This can be exciting when it occurs naturally and isn’t forced. . from swing to funk. the soloist isn’t always the originator. between soloist and band. it’s communication.When and How to Copy Whether and how to copy a soloist’s idea are ongoing decisions made with split-second timing. or augment the rhythm. predictable. 2) Copy part of the idea (the most intriguing part. For example. it’s usually better to create a short (or very short) conversation and be ready to develop the next exciting idea. the farther the communication goes. This leaves the door open for more twists and turns and tends to pull the audience into the conversation. You can play a sequence or semi-sequence on the original idea.you take a few notes of the idea. Interaction on the BRIDJJ CD This section describes some of the locations in solos on the BRIDJJ CD “Beat the Rats” where obvious musical interaction occurs. This is the most subtle way to communicate . However. etc. Remember: the next idea could be something the group just played. This works best with shorter ideas. from ballad to double-time swing. The interactions happened on the spot during the recording. Fact #2: The style shift can build gradually. sometimes it is cool when everyone shifts styles at once. (And yes. or unsteady. Here are the basic choices for imitation: 1) Copy the whole idea. they were not pre-planned. Fact #1: It’s OK to have one or more players not join in the shift sometimes (unless the shift is a radical one). 3) Alter or develop the idea. Misconception #2: The shift needs to happen as quickly as possible. The more the soloist and group members respond. But don’t overdo it.

2:26 Drums and bass kick into quarter-note triplets. on beat 4. (Level Four — Strong) 4G: Group Interaction • 267 . guitar then comps with quarter-notes. drums then play accented roll. guitar solo imitates and shifts to eighth-note triplets with contours of 2.Deja Blue 1:26-1:33 Bass plays consecutive downbeat quarter-notes in solo.

Precious Caboose 1:52-1:55 Trumpet quarter-note triplets answered by drums. This creates a light and interesting background. 3:29-3:34 Bass solo plays offbeat quarters from 3:29-3:31. then the guitar at 2:28. guitar answers from 3:313:34.Beat the Rats 3:03 kick. The riffs can be pre-planned. Below are some ideas of how to use background riffs: 1) During a rhythm section solo. Barney Meets Godzilla :47-:48 Trumpet fill notes at :47 answered by piano at :48. 7:27-7:29 Trumpet wiggle answered by percussive piano chord at 7:29. piano solo follows at 2:37. drums imitate rhythm. Guitar distorts at end of solo. guitar fills with a repeated rhythmic pattern. drums follow at 2:44. 2:25-2:28 Dotted quarters in trumpet solo are picked up by the drums at 2:27. 2:40-2:47 While trumpet holds alternate-fingered trill in high register. 6:02-6:52 Guitar and piano trade and vary 2-bar rhythmic pattern Ensemble Texture Background Riffs Background riffs can sometimes add excitement behind solos. or they can develop out of something that happens during a solo. held high notes in trumpet. but they must not interfere with the solo. piano adds strong fill. 3:03-3:05 Trumpet repeats high notes several times. smooth switching between guitar comping and piano comping. Overall During trumpet and bass solos. 2:32-2:33 Trumpet and bass simultaneously play eighth-note triplets. 4:10-4:12 Guitar figure of 8th-note triplets picked up by drums at 4:12. the horn(s) can play a simple repeated background riff. drums follow with a strong I Think I’ll Keep Her 2:35-2:44 Bass fills with eighth-note triplets with contours of 2. from 1:54-1:55. Where’s Waldis? 2:36-2:38 Trumpet plays sparse chromatic fills. . 2:27-2:29 Trumpet trill answered by drum roll. 5:45-5:57 Keyboards and drums fill behind long.

268 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) . the bass can play a repeated pattern over one or two chords. 3) The keyboard or guitar can intersperse motifs in a bass solo and sometimes during a drum solo.2) During latin or fusion drum solos.

don’t be unprepared. But there are many other solo formats to use. etc. 3) Keep listening for where to build and end the solo. Exercise 4. or 12 bars if the tune is a blues. two or more soloists can play at once. when appropriate. try any of the techniques below. 2) For shorter durations. drums. 2) Be ready for your turn. a secondary soloist can take half a solo. You can get into multiple soloing by practicing jazz duets and learning how to give and take with ideas. two bars. Try to keep an active musical conversation going.43 Trading Bars in Solos 4. Other common trading lengths are eight bars. 3) Try to develop on the ideas the previous soloist just played. Usually. for variety. a soloist improvises uninterrupted for several choruses. This also lends contrast to a feature piece. Don’t let the trading go on too long. drums.). guitar. horn. Here are some tips: 1) Have the second soloist wait for a bar or so after the first soloist starts. etc. Anyone who wants to be left out of the trading should signal that. bass. 4. Half-Chorus Solos In ballads or tunes with longer solo choruses. Make sure the rhythms are solid. or around the group) and how many bars to trade. Trading bars is a safer alternative. allowing one and a half (or more) choruses for the featured soloist. and development wisely. brief quotes from other tunes can be effective during trading (see Using Quotes in Chapter 4D: More Development). Here are some guidelines for successfully trading bars: 1) Clearly signal when trading is to start.) or around the group (piano. Solo Formats Usually. bass. drums. have two soloists play together.44 Stop-Time Solo Fills . timing. The trading continues for several choruses as soloists repeat the order until trading is finished. but simultaneous soloing can be effective if the players use space. Specify the kind of trading (with drums. it’s often a good idea for one soloist to take the first half of the chorus and another soloist the second half. Sometimes. each player takes four bars (called “trading 4’s”).43 Trading Bars Trading bars is where two or more soloists divide up the chord progression and play short solos.Multiple Soloists Occasionally. Trading is usually done with the drums (horn. drums. 4) Clearly signal when it’s time to end trading and return to the tune melody.

where everyone drops out during the fill except the soloist. These are most effective as stop-time fills. This builds (Level Four — Strong) 4G: Group Interaction • 269 .You can build solo fills into the structure of the tune melody.

Develop ideas from previous fills. try extending your solo a few bars into the next soloist’s progression. Likewise. guitar. and someone should signal the immediate return to the melody to avoid annoying delays. • At the start of your solo. the priorities are: 1) 2) 3) 4) Melody (horn.) Bass (acoustic or electric bass.” Exercise 4. A good example of playing many stop-time fills is Wynton Marsalis’ solo on Buggy Ride on the CD “Joe Cool’s Blues. you can look around and see who else wants to solo later or who wants to skip a solo. Instrument Combinations Some typical instrument combinations for duets and trios are listed below. During solos. • For variety. Duets almost always include chord instruments.44 Playing Stop-Time Solo Fills 4.Time and Half-Time). In duets and trios.45 Using Solo Endings and Transitions Playing in Duets and Trios When you play in duets or trios. Use interesting rhythms. or chord instrument) Chords (piano. Some do’s and don’ts for ending solos: • Don’t end your solo in the middle of the progression. or chord instrument) Drums Notice that chord instruments can play melody. unless you’re intentionally (and clearly) doing a half solo.45 Solo Endings and Transitions The end of your solo leaves a lasting impression on the audience. vocalist. Exercise 4. vibes. but it requires clean and imaginative playing on each fill. don’t bail out on the solo too soon. The group should always know which is the last solo. The basic jazz functions are now handled by two or three people instead of four or more.suspense well. Here are some suggestions for playing stop-time fills: • • • Use double-time frequently (see Practicing Double-Time Fills in Chapter 4B: Double. try to pick up on the last idea of the previous solo for a smooth transition. if some good intensity is building. • Don’t commit to another solo chorus unless you can feel momentum or new ideas spurring you on. and bass. . but usually don’t include drums. chords. there’s a new set of challenges and opportunities. etc.

Duets: 270 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) .

Percussive effects. A horn player can hold out harmony background notes. One or two players can play staccato notes behind the soloist. In this combination. Gig Survival There are many kinds of jazz gigs. This is like a double melody (see below). Trios: • • • • Chords. bass. chords. Players should always know exactly where they are in the tune form. or two pianos. or trill on the held notes. Double melodies (counterpoint). but every “liberty” should be compared against a solid framework of rhythm and form. No matter what the gig. In the latter case. Horn held notes and trills. and drums. The held notes shouldn’t compete or conflict with the melody player or soloist. Instead of walking with quarter-notes. it’s vital to keep a solid sense of time. Switching Roles One of the best ways to keep a duet or trio sounding fresh and interesting is for the players to occasionally switch roles in the music. This is especially true when players switch roles for a while (see Switching Roles above). The piano can occasionally fill in the bass line. This is usually piano and guitar. Here are some survival tips: . Horn. Here are some examples: • Running bass. and drums (for advanced players. the horn player has a more chordal responsibility. Two melodies can be played during the tune melody or during solos. The chord instrument can sometimes fill in with a walking bass line. piano and vibes. the bass “runs” with faster rhythms. it’s very important for each player to be accurate with the tempo and confident with rhythms. These can be played behind the tune melody or behind solos. from free jazz to stiff casuals.• • • • Chords and bass Horn and chords Vocalist and chords Two chords. You can still take rhythmic chances. or all players can play staccato notes or patterns together. Horn. bass. • Bass lines in other instruments. • • Bass chords. it’s a good idea to fit in well with the band (especially if you’ve never met them) and the audience. Two chords and bass. (See also Trumpet Effects in Chapter 4C: Special Effects). • • Time and Form Because many duets and trios don’t have drums. and bass.

physically and mentally. location.). etc. dress. (Level Four — Strong) 4G: Group Interaction • 271 .1) Prepare for the gig. method and timing of payment. Get all the details straight (time.

multiple soloists. generally avoid harmonically “outside” playing. try half solos. and drums. and drums. cuts. you don’t have time for a lot of notes. and d) horn. background riffs. 2) Basic ways to communicate in solos are: A) Play something against (contrary to) the idea. When the time is right. and bass. 9) Professionalism and musical sensitivity on a gig increases your demand as a soloist. segues. On casuals. dynamics. players can sometimes switch basic roles. special endings. and expression. know styles. 9) Play intelligent backgrounds. The last thing you want is to be the only player to “miss the train. and effective solo endings and transitions. 3) For variety in solo formats. listen to examples beforehand. 7) Know tunes. D) Alter part of the idea. but you do have time for a lot of meaning. You can never be too prepared. Your solo and background ideas should fit in smoothly. playing a subtle and effective background behind another soloist can expand your role in the group. not just your own ideas. know chord progressions. especially when solo space is limited on the gig. These elements tend to set you apart from other players. 10) Watch and listen for road signs and endings. but people form opinions of your playing and professionalism on each gig. bass. Focus on the group sound and direction. b) horn or vocalist and chords. You can always turn down a loser gig the next time. 7) In duets or trios.2) Be sure you understand the kinds of music you’ll be playing. 3) Treat the gig professionally. solo fills. etc. c) two chords and bass. Be ready for shortened solos. 4) Style shifts by one or more players can increase the variety in the tune. B) Play under the idea (background).” Chapter Review 1) Group interaction depends on everyone accurately hearing the musical ideas. In short or conservative solos. C) Copy the idea. 8) Be on top of solo entrance. trading bars. and c) two chords. 5) Common duet combinations: a) chords and bass. 6) Common trio combinations: a) chords. chords. 6) Play solid rhythms and strong motifs. . 8) Accurate time and form are essential in duets and trios. 4) Listen closely to the styles the other soloists use. 5) Resist the temptation to go overboard or grab too much spotlight. especially with no drums. bass. b) horn (or vocalist).

272 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) .

Diminished-wholetone scale. developed in m7-8. developed in m15-16. varied displacements. burning. Comments for Piano Solo. shrink/expand intervals. *m6 Notes added to motif. double-x.4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 *m1-2 Motif borrowed from end of flugelhorn solo. *m17-18 Expanding intervals. *m41 *m48 Wide intervals. *m1-4 Downward sequences. long *m53 Motif displaced in m54-56. m17. *m38-43 4 against 3 triplets contours. *m25-26 Varied quote. “Whistle While You Work. *m56 Chromatic semi-sequence. “I Think I’ll Keep Her” *m13-14 Sequence of m11-12 *m14 Notes added to motif. *m37-42 Development of motif in m36. *m19-20 Displacement. *m43-47 Long. *m31 “Burning” (Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom) *m36 3 against 2 triplet motif borrowed from bass fill. *m28 Augmentation of motif in m25. . *m21-22 Descending diatonic sequence. *m63 Semi-sequence triplets from previous bar. *m61 2nd half of bar is displacement of first half.” *m27 Expanded intervals of motif in m25. m54.

*m63-65 Lowering the intensity. (Level Four — Strong) 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 • 273 .

desc. *m27-28 Two-part riff. *m38-41. long note and descending line. . Thomas. *m57-61 “Whistle While You Work.” *m8-11 Double-time passage.” *m62-63 Rubato. “Twilight Zone. *m22-24 3-against-4 riff *m25-26 Downbeat color.” *m53-54 Linked semi-sequences. *m11-13 Riff w/ variations *m16 In E7 chord. 50-54 Double-time. Semi-sequence of m3 Comments for Flugelhorn Solo. G# is 3. *m31-32 Release. *m46-48 Shifted quarter-note triplets (beat 2). “How Are Things in Glocca Morra. *m42 Growl and riff. lower intensity. *m44 Downward octave rip. “I Think I’ll Keep Her” *m6-8 Quote. F is b9. G is #9. *m36 Rhythmic variation of motif in m35. *m56 Consec. offbeats. *m47-49 Quote.*m0-1 Varied quote.” *m3 *m4 Contour groups of 3 triplets and triplet rest. outside. “St. *m20-24 Double-time. nonharmonic tones. line.

274 • 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 (Level 4 — Strong) .

“Anything Goes. m15-16 Varied quote. *m25 Alternating minor and major 3rd in key of D. *m54 Abruptly short articulations. . *m33 Non-harmonic tone. *m39-40 4-against-3 brackets. groups of two 16ths and an 8th in a descending diatonic pattern.” m21-24 4 against 3. **m43-48 passage.sequences. linked semi. *m31 Transposed sequences. Comments for Flugelhorn Solo. Double-time *m44-46 2 against 3. *m26-28 Consecutive offbeat 8thnotes. *m31-32 Double-time passage. motif repeats with slight rhythmic variations. “Three and Me” m11-16 Double-time. *m57-60 Long bend. m5-7 4-against-3 brackets.*m2-3 Displacements of motif in m1. trilled and glissed. *m49-54 Outside playing (Chapters 5A and 5B) starting in the key of the previous transposed sequence (key of C). *m50-51 Use of +5 tones in major chords. *m48 Transposed sequences of beginning of m47. *m29-30 Variations on G and F pitches. *m36-38 Offset 8th-note pairs.

(Level Four — Strong) 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 • 275 . *m61-64 Only use of dotted quarters in solo.indiscriminate tones.

See also m43.29 Downbeat emphasis (after floating feeling) *m33 Hitting the root and pausing (after numerous polychords). *m23-24 GMa chord over EbMa. *m18-22 Octave fill. 48. *m53 Compression of eighthnotes into eighth-note triplets. then Comments for Guitar Solo. *m27. *m62-64 Expanding intervals. downwards *m13-14 Unequal compression of m1213.43 Similar motif in m9. *m18-25 Half-note triplets and ties give a free-floating feeling. *m52 Displacement. *m41. motif). *m57-64 A Harmonic Minor over DbMa. *m11-16 Winding octave fill. pulling sequence with ascending DMa chord. *m65-66 5-note brackets over 3/4. with natural 7 (G#) emphasized. *m36 Descending EMa over Cmi. eighth-note early (only 7 notes in prev. descending. *m51-54 Two-part riffing. *m9.16 AMa chord over FMa. “Beat the Rats” . *m35-36 DMa and EMa chords over Cmi. *m45 Consecutive offbeats.14. compressed long notes. produces a #5 (B). AMa over C/D. See also m4956.*m6-7 Compare m2-5: rhythmic variations. produces a #5 (C#).

*m68 DMa chord over Gb/Ab.CMa over B. over Eb/Bb. 276 • 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 (Level 4 — Strong) . pentatonic 6-note contours of eighthnotes. *m67 AMa chord. then Bb Ma chord. *m67-68 3 against 4.

minor. If you don’t have the chords. read Basic Transcription Skills below. or dominant). You should be able to identify the chord root (usually in the bass) and type (major.4J: Transcribing Solos In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • Basic Transcription Skills Step 1: Select a Solo Step 2: Outline the Form and Chords Step 3: Sketch the Rhythm Step 4: Add Pitches and Expression T just an exercise in frustration. • Recognizing chords (if no lead sheet). 2 If you have the chords to the solo. 4 Add the pitches and expression (articulations. but good relative pitch is essential. Otherwise. transcribe them from the recording. you can sing or play a familiar tune. you may want to improve them before you start transcribing solos.” Here are the basic steps to follow in order to transcribe a recorded solo (single-line melody): 1 Outline the form of the solo and divide it into choruses and bars on your music paper. If you are currently weak in any of these skills. Play the rhythms you wrote and see if they match the recording. 3 Sketch the rhythms in the solo accurately. Little Star. Perfect pitch is not required. Twinkle. write them in above the empty bars on your paper. • • Recognizing pitches and intervals. If you’re already skilled in writing rhythms and melodies. This chapter shows how to transcribe solos without ranscribing (writing down) a recorded solo should be a great exercise for your ear. rubato) to the rhythmic sketch. Notating rhythms correctly. not “banging your ear against the wall. into a tape recorder with your own “jazzed-up” rhythms. accents. Basic Transcription Skills Transcription requires the musical skills listed below. To practice rhythmic notation. effects. Then play back the tape and write down the exact rhythms for what you recorded. go to Step 2: Outlining the Form and Chords below. • Dividing and organizing music into choruses. such as Twinkle. .

Step 1: Select a Solo 4. It should be interesting and pose challenges to you.46 Here are ideas for selecting a solo to transcribe: • • • It should fit your current transcription skills. If the recording is a tape. it should be clear enough so you can hear the notes you will transcribe. 4J: Transcribing Solos • 277 (Level Four — Strong) .

• To transcribe the chords of a tune. 3/4. Exercise 4. 2 Determine how many bars are in each complete chorus of the solo. listen to the solo once all the way through.). Look back at the book version only when you get stuck. etc. Most tunes will use eightbar sections. such as up a 4th. dominant) of each chord in the chorus. Then follow these steps: 1 Find the meter (4/4. down a half-step. you can better appreciate how the soloist’s melody works against the chord progression of the tune. copy the chords above empty bars on your music paper. 2 Determine the quality (major. this can save you time in finding out the chord progression for the solo. For example. If you don’t have a lead sheet. Start simple. making sure you include repeats and road signs. (The bass line may be more clear in the melody section than in the solos). the Miles Davis trumpet solo on “So What” from the “Kind of Blue” CD is simple melodically and rhythmically but is quite interesting.46 Selecting a Solo Step 2: Outline the Form and Chords Outlining the form of the solo in advance helps you get the right number of bars in your transcription. the recorded solo should be on cassette tape or CD. minor. 4. Use a keyboard for this.47 Transcribing the Chords So why do you need to transcribe the chords to the solo if you’re just trying to copy the solo melody? Transcribing the chords helps in these ways: • • The chords can help you better determine some of the more difficult pitches in the solo later on. Also. follow these steps: 1 Transcribe the bass line for the first solo chorus as well as possible. This is usually the same as the original tune’s meter. When the solo is finished. etc. Find strong dominant movements. If it’s too long. If you have a lead sheet of the tune. phonograph recordings are difficult to work with.• If you have a lead sheet (melody and chords) of the tune being improvised on. It’s good ear training. with a double bar at the end of each section. . These bass notes will usually indicate the roots of the chords you’re trying to transcribe. Another approach is to transcribe a solo for which you already have a written transcription in a book. blues tunes use 12-bar sections. decide how much of it you want to transcribe. Write four empty bars on each staff of music paper.

3 Find any b5. copy these chords to the remaining choruses in the solo. 4 When you finish the chords for an entire chorus (including the bridge. or +9 dominant alterations. but at least you’ll have basic chords at your disposal. 278 • 4J: Transcribing Solos (Level 4 — Strong) . if any). b9. Occasionally the chords may change from chorus to chorus. +5.

there will likely be many spots where a rhythmic sketch will definitely speed up the transcription process. Write any necessary rests before the start of the phrase. mark where the phrase begins and ends. the soloist may have been using rubato (or made a mistake). Write each sketch note so it matches the contour (not exact pitch) of the melody. Use diamonds for longer notes (whole.49 Once your rhythmic sketch is complete. To add the pitches for the solo. find the pitches that occur on beats 1 and 3. go back and check your sketch so it accurately fits the rhythms you hear.Exercise 4. count the number of pitches you hear. With pitches that are difficult to hear.notes or half notes) and slash marks for faster notes. you need to write a rhythmic sketch of the solo. Contours in the rhythm sketch will help. In this case. Use a keyboard or other instrument if necessary. try these steps: 2 Find the top and bottom pitches of the contour first. and write “rubato” over the phrase. chorus by chorus. Exercise 4.48 After you have the chord progression ready. 3 Listen to the rhythm in the phrase until you can hum it accurately. if possible. the rhythms and pitches in the solo may be obvious enough that you can go ahead and write the actual notes down. When you finish. The steps below show how to create rhythmic sketches. 1 Find and mark the exact beat or offbeat where the soloist’s phrase starts.47 Outlining the Form and Chords Step 3: Sketching the Rhythms 4. 3 See if the missing notes fit with the current chord symbol in the tune. . In some places. write down the rhythm you hear. 1 Change rhythm notes in your sketch to actual pitches. 6 If a phrase seems to have a strange rhythm. However. If not. as these are often easier to hear. they may be part of an added or outside chord. Next. 5 Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each phrase in the solo. 4 In light pencil. 2 Find and mark the exact beat or offbeat where the soloist’s phrase ends (followed by a silence or longer note). you will have heard the solo enough to be familiar with its pitches.48 Sketching the Rhythms Step 4: Adding Pitches and Expression 4.

(Level Four — Strong) 4J: Transcribing Solos • 279 . Half-speed notes sound an octave lower than normal speed.4 If you have a variable-speed tape recorder. tape the recording at half-speed to help you hear the notes better.

Rochefoucauld *The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators. Blaise Pascal *It is not sufficient to know what one ought to say.When you have finished adding the pitches for the transcription. D) Add the pitches and indicate any significant expression or effects in the solo. Gibbon *Nothing ever happens but once in this world. B) Outline the form and chords of the solo.can he talk nonsense? William Pitt the Elder . but one must also know how to say it.49 Adding Pitches and Expression Chapter Review 1) The basic transcription skills you need are: A) Organize the solo into bars and choruses. Expressions *The more intellectual people are. C) Sketch the rhythm figures in the solo. mark the following types of expression in the solo: • • • Strong or unusual accents Unusual articulations Dynamics and effects Exercise 4. Carlyle *Don't talk to me about a man's being able to talk sense. if necessary. B) Recognize the chords. 2) The steps in transcribing a recorded solo are: A) Select a recorded solo on CD or cassette. D) Notate rhythms correctly. with all its eternity of solemn meaning. C) Recognize pitches and intervals. It is over and gone. What I do now I do once for all. To commonplace people all men are much alike. Terence Heauton Timorumenos *To know how to hide one's ability is great skill. everyone can talk sense -. Aristotle *There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult when you do it with reluctance. the more originality they see in other men.

280 • 4J: Transcribing Solos (Level 4 — Strong) .

2 Variety in Rhythmic Styles Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: Choose a ballad play-along recording. or Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Experiment with techniques in Part 5: accelerating. slow swing. vary it slightly after several Build intensity by gradually developing an idea. use an interesting shape.2 for ideas in rhythmic variety.connect to the next root and proceed. use a 6. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4.3 ❏ *Basic: repetitions.or 8-bar phrase. A) don't pause between keys . ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. B) play 2 octaves on each key. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. choose an up-tempo latin or swing tune. Building Intensity Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Repeat an interesting idea several times. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. choose a latin. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.1 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Pulling Improvisation Ideas Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Choose a major or minor key and “pull” a two-bar phrase. A) don't pause between keys . A) don't pause between keys . wiggling. Start and end securely. special effects. or outside. burning. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key. then develop it by inserting longer rests or Basic __/__/__ ( ) . ❏ **Medium: Same as Basic.4 ❏ *Basic: Lowering Intensity Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play a dense idea for two bars. or medium swing tune. Same as Basic.connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Use the table in 4. make it louder. ❏ >More: Same as Basic.connect to the next root and proceed.Exercises for LEVEL 4 Melody: Soundscapes Exercise 4. use a 4-bar phrase. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. higher. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. ❏ **Medium: both. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.

use slower rhythms and long notes with expression. (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 281 . ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic.playing fewer notes. ❏ **Medium: Same as Basic. use a lower range and softer dynamics.

6 ❏ *Basic: In and Out of Double-Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Using a metronome setting of quarter-note = 100. create eight bars of double-time eighth-notes. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.7 Using Double Time Material Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: Create four bars of steady double-time eighth-notes (two bars in the original. then shift back to single-time for the next two bars. Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. B) play 2 octaves on each key.connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord . A) don't pause between keys . ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Shift to double-time feel for two bars. or mixed contours. quarter-note = 120.❏ >More: Same as Basic. B) play 2 octaves on each key. quarter-note = 140. ❏ ***Challenge: Play the longest stream of eighth-notes at the fastest tempo you’re OK with.connect to the next root and proceed.connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key. play swing eighth-notes for two bars. ascending. descending. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. then shift to double-time feel for 4 bars. play swing eighth-notes for 4 bars. Use any scale notes. quarter-note = 120. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ **Medium: ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. go as far you can with no breaks or errors. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. A) don't pause between keys . ❏ >More: Same as Basic. quarter-note = 140. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Rhythm: Double-Time and Half-Time Exercise 4. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ **Medium: ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. Same as Basic. slower tempo). 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. ❏ **Medium: Same as Basic.5 ❏ *Basic: Going Into Double-Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Using a metronome setting of quarter-note = 100.

282 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .

Then go to half-time feel for one long bar (two original bars) and back to single-time for the next two bars. Play a two-bar motif in slow single-time (quarter-note about 60).8 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Triple Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write several simple motifs and convert them to triple-time. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key. A) don't pause between keys . some down. B) play 2 octaves on each key. A) don't pause between keys . 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord .connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Expression: Special Effects Exercise 4. ❏ **Medium: Using Bends Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play long. A) don't pause between keys . Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Add bends to notes in standard jazz tunes or other familiar tune melodies . occasionally using falls to skip down. convert it to double-time (one bar). 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed.10 ❏ *Basic: intonation. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ **Medium: ❏ >More: Same as Basic. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. some bends go up. then triple-time (half a bar). B) play 2 octaves on each key.connect to the next root and proceed. Same as Basic. use quarter-note = 240. work for control and Play quick bends on notes in a flexible scale.11 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Falls and Glissandos Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Playing a flexible scale.connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. slow bends on random chromatic notes.Exercise 4. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. use glisses to skip up. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. play swing eighth-notes for two bars. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Add falls and glisses to standard tunes or other familiar melodies.9 ❏ *Basic: In and Out of Half-Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) At quarter-note = 200.

Exercise 4. and Half-Sounds (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 283 .15 Growling. Air/Keys. Humming.

C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. growl some notes. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Play all alternate-fingered trills on your instrument. A) don't pause between keys . A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. A) don't pause between keys . humming. ❏ ***Challenge: Combine growling. and key sounds in a longer passage. Use real or fake fingerings.Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play a flexible scale. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. from slow to fast. then add alternate-fingered trills on some pitches. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. hum some notes. use occasional double-tonguing or triple-tonguing on repeated or new pitches. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord . then play a familiar melody adding a few split notes.connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Play an octave’s worth of pedal tones (below low F#) with good sound and intonation.18 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Trumpet Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) On a flexible scale. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key.connect to the next root and proceed. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. use alternate fingerings on repeated pitches. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Learn as many altissimo notes as you can.17 o *Basic: o **Medium: Alternate Fingerings Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Memorize and play all alternate fingerings on your instrument. air. then create melodies that switch between altissimo and regular range. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. play a walking bassline. then use some in a flexible scale or melody.19 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Saxophone Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Slowly play all the split notes in a chromatic scale. B) play 2 octaves on each key. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Experiment with thunk notes.connect to the next root and proceed. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: On a C blues progression. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. A) don't pause between keys . Same as Basic. Basic __/__/__ ( ) o ***Challenge: Play a flexible scale.

284 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .

strings and pedals.20 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Trombone Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Learn and play alternate positions for all notes that have them.connect to the next root and proceed.connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key.21 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Keyboard Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Experiment with any of these effects: clusters. Experiment with guitar harmonics and playing melodies in octaves. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Create smooth piano bass lines for blues and other progressions. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic.24 Using Varied Quotes .connect to the next root and proceed.Exercise 4. hammering. A) don't pause between keys . twangs. A) don't pause between keys . muted strumming. tremolo. Experiment with bass chords and bass harmonics. Play a flexible scale and add slides that go up.connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. down. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Development: More Melodic Development Exercise 4. and both. wide vibrato. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.23 Bass Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Experiment with any of these effects: slides. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. tremolo. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. slaps. wide glissandos. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. ❏ >More: Same as Basic.22 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Guitar Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Experiment with any of these effects: bends. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Fill a familiar melody with block chords.

(Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 285 .

1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4.28 ❏ *Basic: Using Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Create a pentatonic riff (minor or major) and transpose it into 12 keys. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed. Medium __/__/__ ( ) Choose an easy tune and play it as several varied quotes. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Choose a jazz standard you know and play the first part of it as a varied ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys . A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Play a riff and transition into a melody.Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: quote. add transition material. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. ❏ ***Challenge: Play a riff. Create a riff and sequence two riff repetitions.25 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Creating Riffs Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play a simple riff. A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. B) play 2 octaves on each key.connect to the next root and proceed. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Create a riff and insert notes into the riff repetitions. B) play 2 octaves on each key. repeat it a few times. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Create and repeat another simple riff and another two-part riff.26 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Changing Riffs Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Create a riff and change a few notes on the riff repetitions. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Create a two-part riff and repeat it several times. A) don't pause between keys .27 Riff Transitions Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Play a simple melody line and create a riff from the end of the line. and hook into a second riff. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Basic __/__/__ ( ) .

create a blues riff.❏ **Medium: Same as Basic. 286 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .

B) play 2 octaves on each key. use three other development combinations.connect to the next root and proceed. Think of each chord in the circle of 4ths as a dominant chord. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. A. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Bb.29 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Development Combinations Medium __/__/__ ( ) Create a motif and use the development combinations above.connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys . A) don't pause between keys . try in several keys.32 Dominant to Related Minor Chords Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) . Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic.in the circle of 4ths. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Chord Progressions: Variations on ii-V-I’s Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key.❏ ***Challenge: Combine a pentatonic and blues riff into a longer riff. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. etc. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.).connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys . ❏ >More: Same as Basic.31 Resolving Dominant Chords to Other I Chords Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Resolve each dominant chord around the circle of fourths to two major chords (not up a fourth). Name the two related minor chords that each dominant chord could resolve to.30 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Tritone Substitutions Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write the ii-bII-I progression for each key. A) don't pause between keys . C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Same as Basic. B. Write a chromatic progression down from C (C.connect to the next root and proceed. then do an “opposite” tritone substitution for each bII chord. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Think of every other chord as a bII.

❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Around the circle of 4ths. resolve to minor iii. Same as Basic. create ii-v’s that resolve to the minor vi chord. (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 287 .

❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.33
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:

Writing ii-V-I Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write an arbitrary, four-bar ii-V-I chain that includes these chords somewhere in the progression: A7, Ebm7, and GMa7. Same as Basic; pre-select any three chords to include.

Basic __/__/__ ( )

❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.34
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:

Modulating w/ Parallel ii-V-I Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write a parallel ii-V-I chain that starts with a Cm7 and ends up in E Major. Same as Basic; pre-select your own starting and ending chords.

Basic __/__/__ ( )

❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.35
❏ *Basic:

Modulating w/ Parallel ii-V Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write a parallel ii-V chain of seven total chords that starts with Am7 and ends up in Bb Major. Hint: You may want to work backwards from the final ii-V-I. Same as Basic; pre-select your own starting and ending chords.

Basic __/__/__ ( )

❏ **Medium:

❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.36
❏ *Basic:

Modulating w/ Parallel V-I Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write a parallel V-I chain of seven total chords that starts with F#m7 and ends up in D Major. Hint: You may want to work backwards from the final ii-V-I. Same as Basic; pre-select your own starting and ending chords.

Basic __/__/__ ( )

❏ **Medium:

❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B

Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.37

Using Minor ii-V and V-I Chains
288 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction)

Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:

Medium __/__/__ ( )


__/__/__ ( )

Create a chord progression of four bars with a minor ii-V chain. Same as Basic; use a minor V-i chain.

❏ ***Challenge: Same as Medium; also use a minor ii-V chain, and go for 8 bars. ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.38
❏ *Basic:

Using Turnarounds
Write a 2-bar turnaround for each key.

Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.39
❏ *Basic:

Inserting Chromatic Chords
Around the circle of 4ths, insert chromatic chords between each key.

Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.40
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:

Finding ii-V-I Variations
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Find as many tritone substitutions as you can in 200 Standard Tunes. Find chains (ii-V-I, ii-V, V-I) in tunes.

Basic __/__/__ ( )

❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord

Exercise 4.41
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:

Writing Blues Variations
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Transpose the chords for Variation #1 into two different keys. Transpose the chords for Variations #2 and 3 into another key.

Basic __/__/__ ( )

❏ ***Challenge: Write your own variation of Bird Blues. ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B

1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 289 .❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.

A) don't pause between keys . trade 4-bar solos w/ a friend. ❏ **Medium: Static Playing Medium __/__/__ ( ) Create a static melody of eighth-notes in each major key around the circle Same as Basic.connect to the next root and proceed. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. B) play 2 octaves on each key.45 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Solo Endings and Transitions Medium __/__/__ ( ) Extend a solo a few bars into the next chorus.412 ❏ *Basic: of 4ths. A) don't pause between keys . make the ending solid.47 Outlining the Form and Chords . mute or turn off volume every 2 bars. A) don't pause between keys . 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Basic __/__/__ ( ) 4 Performance: Group Interaction Medium __/__/__ ( ) Exercise 4. Basic __/__/__ ( ) Exercise 4. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Same as Basic.44 ❏ *Basic: fills.Exercise 4.43 Trading Bars in Solos Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: next.connect to the next root and proceed. play solo Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Analysis: Transcribing Solos Exercise 4. Playing Stop-Time Solo Fills Medium __/__/__ ( ) On a play-along recording. Start a solo by developing the last idea played by the previous soloist. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4.connect to the next root and proceed. In a blues. B) play 2 octaves on each key. in all dominant and minor keys.46 ❏ *Basic: Selecting a Solo Select a recorded solo to transcribe. trade 4-bar solos for one chorus and 2-bar solos for the ❏ >More: Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. B) play 2 octaves on each key.

Basic __/__/__ ( ) Medium __/__/__ ( ) 290 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .

Same as Basic. Exercise 4. transcribe the chords. Same as Basic. add expressions. Basic __/__/__ ( ) Exercise 4.41. add the pitches for the tune.❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Outline the form for the tune.49 Adding Pitches and Expression Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using the guidelines in section 4. (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 291 .48 ❏ *Basic: Sketching the Rhythms Sketch the rhythms for the tune.

292 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .

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