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Version 1.0 – 8/22/2000
… Creating real-time music through jazz improvisation …
*Level 4: Strong*
by Bob Taylor
Author of Sightreading Jazz, Sightreading Chord Progressions
©2000 Taylor-James Publications
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Strong 4A: Soundscapes 229 About Soundscapes Painting with Sound Visualizing What You Play 4. Pull in Improvisation 230 Intensity in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos 232 Artists and Styles Conservative Improvisation Recording Sessions Casuals Chapter Review 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time 235 About Double-Time and Feel Psychology of Double-Time Double-Time Transitions 4.7 Creating Double-Time Material 236 Multiplying by 2 Practicing Double-Time Fills Expanding Your Reach Double-Time in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos 237 Using Triplets in Double-Time Triple-Time Feel 4.3 Building Intensity in Solos 4.2 Variety Within a Tune Intensity in Solos 4.4 Lowering Intensity in Solos 229 229 229 230 231 231 232 240 Wind Instrument Effects 240 4.5 Going into Double-Time 4.6 Coming Out of Double-Time Double-Time Material 235 235 236 236 236 236 233 234 234 234 234 4.Level 4 .1 Push vs.8 Using Triple-Time Feel Half-Time Feel Chapter Review Expressions 4C: Special Effects 238 238 238 238 239 239 237 237 237 .11 Falls and Glissandos 240 4.10 Bends 240 4.
23 Harmonics Chords Bowed Notes 243 244 244 244 244 244 244 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 246 246 246 246 246 246 246 247 247 247 247 247 247 248 248 248 248 248 .15 Humming or Singing while Playing 241 4.14 Air and Keys 241 241 241 4.and Triple-Tonguing Using Mutes Lip Trills (Shakes) Pedal Tones Walking Bass Lines Saxophone Effects Overtones/Split Notes Altissimo Thunks Trombone Effects Alternate Positions Slides Keyboard Effects Clusters Tremolo Block Chords Hammering Using Strings and Pedals Piano Bass Lines Wide Glissandos Guitar Effects Bends Tremolo Muted Strumming Guitar Harmonics Playing in Octaves Bass Effects 4.16 Circular Breathing 4.17 Alternate Fingerings 242 242 Alternate (Altissimo) Fingerings for Sax 243 Alternate-Fingered Trills Trumpet Effects Double.13 Half-Sounds 4.4.12 Growls (Flutters) 4.
28 Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Basic Development Combinations 248 248 Turnarounds and Inserted Chords 260 4.31 New Resolutions for V Chords 256 4.38 Blues Turnarounds 249 249 250 250 250 251 251 252 253 253 260 Turnaround Variations 261 4.37 Minor ii-V and V-i Chains Chapter Review 4F: Chord Substitutions 260 259 259 .39 Inserting Stepwise Chords 261 Chord Substitutions in Jazz Standards 262 Altered Blues 263 Combining Development Techniques 253 4.24 Varied or Partial Quotes Quotes on the BRIDJJ CD Riffing 4.29 Using Development Combinations Chapter Review 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s 255 Tritone Substitutions 255 4.36 V-I Chains 256 257 258 258 258 258 254 254 Example: Bridge of “Cherry Key” 257 Example: First Half of “Giant Stops” 258 4.32 Resolving to a Related Minor Chord 256 ii-V-I Chains 4.26 Changing a Riff 4.27 Riff Transitions 4.30 Building Tritone Substitutions 255 Going from the V to a New I 256 4.Other Effects Chapter Review 4D: More Development 249 Using Quotes Quoting Naturally 4.25 Two-Part Riffs 4.35 ii-V Chains Parallel ii-V’s 4.34 Parallel ii-V-I’s ii-V and V-I Chains 4.
44 Stop-Time Solo Fills Playing in Duets and Trios Instrument Combinations Switching Roles Time and Form Gig Survival Chapter Review 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 269 269 269 270 270 271 271 271 272 273 273 274 4J: Transcribing Solos Basic Transcription Skills Step 1: Select a Solo 277 277 277 4.Variation #1: Bird Blues 263 Variation #2: Altered Minor Blues 263 Variation #3: Another Altered Minor Blues 264 Variation #4: Another Bird Blues 264 Static Playing: Avoiding ii-V-Is Chapter Review 4G: Group Interaction Interaction Ideas Communicating in Solos When and How to Copy Style and Rhythmic Transitions Interaction on the BRIDJJ CD Ensemble Texture Background Riffs Multiple Soloists Solo Formats Half-Chorus Solos 4.45 Solo Endings and Transitions270 Step 2: Outline the Form and Chords 278 4.47 Transcribing the Chords Step 3: Sketching the Rhythms 278 279 Step 4: Adding Pitches and Expression 279 Chapter Review Expressions Exercises for LEVEL 4 280 280 281 .43 Trading Bars 4.
Melody: Rhythm: Soundscapes 281 Double-Time and Half-Time 282 Special Effects 283 Chord Progressions: V-I’s 287 4 Performance: Analysis: Variations on ii- Expression: Group Interaction 290 290 Development: More Melodic Development 285 Transcribing Solos .
At this level. your performance skills keep you in demand as a respected soloist. You can analyze ideas of great improvisers and adapt them effectively in your solos. At Level 4.Django Reinhardt Jimmy Blanton Oscar Pettiford Lionel Hampton Stuff Smith Stephane Grappelli Gene Krupa Billie Holiday Dizzy Gillespie Fats Navarro Charlie Parker *Level 4 — Strong* As a Strong Improviser. you can take rhythms and expression to new heights. May the strong get stronger Sonny Stitt Don Byas J. Johnson Bud Powell Thelonious Monk Kenny Clarke Max . J. You have the skills and tools to handle solos over most kinds of chord progressions. you’ve paid your dues in practice and concerts. using rhythmic development and special effects to enhance your solos.
Roach Buddy Rich Ella Fitzgerald Miles Davis Chet Baker Paul Desmond .
painting approach. About Soundscapes Painting with Sound Artists pick up brushes or other tools and create with them. Here are some common elements in landscapes and soundscapes: Landscapes (Art) Soundscapes Intervals and contours Smooth & rough surfaces Smooth/rough expression.4A: Soundscapes In this chapter you’ll learn: • • • • About Soundscapes Intensity in Solos Artists and Styles Conservative Improvisation A high and low. Visualizing What You Play . variety and meaningful direction in your solo. fast and slow. heavy and light. what makes an interesting landscape? In painting or photography a beautiful landscape is easy to appreciate. legato/staccato articulations Hard vs. and rough and smooth in your “soundscape” is like a visual map or landscape of your music. Your sound patterns can flow together to create a vivid musical landscape. work to create beautiful soundscapes. When you balance music. contours As you use your musical tools of improvisation. As an improviser you choose melodic and rhythmic tools and essentially “paint with sound.” With this sound. In music. you can create patterns of sound that are much more than just notes filling space. you can concentrate on beauty. So. That raises the goal from simply surviving chord changes to creating a work of art. soft objects Loud and soft dynamics Dense or empty texture More notes or fewer notes (Music) Angular lines. so it adds up to a work of art. a soundscape can be beautiful but hard to describe in words.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4A: Soundscapes • 229 . 3 Play the starting note and shape. And Play Expressively). This is SHAPE (See.Creating soundscapes depends on how well you can see musical shapes and objects (see also Ranges and Neighborhoods in Chapter 2B: Melodic Shapes. Here are the basic steps: 1 See the starting note and the first part of the shape you want to play. Hear. 2 Hear the starting note and shape.
2 Get a secure start on the pitch and rhythm of the idea. To “pull” ideas. you’ll find that the pulling approach can open new creative possibilities for you. until something interesting emerges. Pull in Improvisation When we improvise we instinctively think of pushing out a stream of notes to fill up the musical space. While you can still play interesting solos that way (John Coltrane’s Giant Steps solo worked well). Exercise 4. You get higher density but lower creativity. You’re not sure when a motif. • You see where and how to end ideas and phrases. • Expression becomes a vital part of your playing instead of an afterthought. 4 Pull towards a clean and interesting ending. phrase. the typical way to improvise in a fast swing tune is to play a lot of eighth-notes.4. You change directions too often.” pushing things along. Some of the differences between pushing and pulling are described below. When you use a pulling approach to improvisation. you might miss the wealth of variety in other approaches. Also described are some unusual approaches that can add variety to . One aspect of variety is how you handle the type of tune you’re playing. and in a variety of places. But this pushing approach has natural weaknesses – it seems like you’re at the “back of the train. with a clear view of what’s ahead. Pushing (weak): • • • • It’s hard to see where you’re headed. With practice. instead of just pushing ahead for “new” notes. Pulling (strong): • You see musical shapes and objects. 1 Visualize the first part of the idea. • You use silence more effectively: more often. longer.2 Variety Within a Tune One of the keys to beauty in improvisation is a healthy amount of variety (see Chapter 1D: Rhythmic Variety and Chapter 1F: Developing with Motifs and Phrases. or solo is really completed.1 Push vs. interesting things start to happen – it’s like being at the “engine” of the train. For example.1Pulling Improvisation Ideas 4. visualizing as you go. 3 Work through the idea. Remember the shapes you create so you can develop them later. Below are common tune styles and the most common approaches players take in soloing on those tunes. • You do more with the notes at hand.
triplet ties. intensity 230 • 4A: Soundscapes (Level 4 — Strong) . rough expression. long Double-time & triple-time (see Chapter 4B). mostly soft Unusual: Common:Slow quarters and 8ths. Ballads notes.your solos.
repeat it several (or many) times. You can also combine them for even more intensity. dotted Exercise 4. • • 4. • Repetition. many downbeat accents Slow swing Unusual: Double-time and triple-time. Below are some basic ways to build intensity in solos.Latin Common: Unusual: 5C) Legato quarters. rhythmic variations (see Chapters 5C and 5D) Med. triplet variations Lots of eighth-notes Quarter-notes. consec. offbeat ties. you’ll sense it. Use short. groups of 5 or 7 (Chapter Common: 8ths. occasionally you’ll want to build the intensity to a higher level. faster. and economy can build interest in a solo even without typical intensity. Suspense. subtlety. it’s an opportunity missed. Here are some guidelines on understanding and using intensity effectively: • Don’t confuse intensity with interest. • Held note.3 Building Intensity in Solos While intensity should often rise and fall by small amounts in your solo. • Louder dynamics. It’s frustrating for the listener when a great opportunity presents itself and you leave it hanging without building some intensity. Be careful with higher. and you must be ready to play your ideas quickly and effectively. not just intensity. swing Unusual: Up swing Common: Unusual: quarters Common:8ths w/ simple syncopations Double-time. • Riffs. This can be triggered by your own solo ideas or by something the group plays. Vary a motif slightly over repetitions. Gradually develop an idea and make it climb in range. Otherwise. repeated patterns that are dense & quick (see Riffing in Chapter 4D: More Development). even 8ths Triplets. Remember: When the time is right to build. offbeat ties. The main goal is interest. If a motif is interesting enough. You can hold out a high note for intensity. Or. Be ready to pounce on intensity when the time is right. sustain an idea in a high range. • Development.2Variety in Rhythmic Styles Intensity in Solos Intensity is the process of turning up the heat in a solo to build to a high point. and louder. • High range. or crescendo. you can . These elements can build intensity in a solo but can also kill the interest in a solo if you overdo them. Go suddenly loud.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4A: Soundscapes • 231 .also add expression. You can move from slower to faster rhythms (see Stepping Through Rhythms in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom). • Burning and wiggling (see Using Rubato in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom). • Accelerating. or a trill to it. alternate fingerings.
You can also combine them for less intensity. • • • • • • Longer rests – use unpredictable entrances Less density – use care with selecting each note Lower range – keep the melody line flowing Slower rhythms – keep them interesting Softer dynamics – balance with the group Longer notes with expression Exercise 4. m48 rest stops the energy. 3J. m6-9 gradually increases range. as long as your group lowers the intensity with you.• • Special effects (see Chapter 4C: Special Effects). m49 jump-starts with double-time. then holds a high note with alternate fingerings before ending on highest note. The solos are in Chapters 2J. 3) Trumpet solo. then resolves to G#. “Precious Caboose” (Ch. at the high point the rhythm repeats downbeats. double-time 16th-note passages are divided by longer rests. and the density decreases. and 4J. • • • • m18-24 transfers energy to the low range.3Building Intensity 4. Exercise 4. But you can also lower intensity suddenly. m47 wiggle starts energy. • m9-12 lowers range and intensity.4 Lowering Intensity in Solos After reaching high intensity in your solo.4Lowering Intensity Intensity in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos Below are selected places in BRIDJJ transcribed solos where intensity is built or lowered. m53-57 builds range. upper range of bass is used. • m15-18 builds range. 3J) • m1-9 gradually increases density. m37-41 repeats F# and G for 4 bars. with rhythmic variations and alt. or occasionally lower the intensity where there was no high intensity before. fingerings. “Precious Caboose” (Chapter 2J) • Motif in m57-58 is developed in m59-60. Harmonic intensity -. . you usually lower the intensity gradually. 2) Trumpet solo. 1) Bass solo. 2J) • m1-14 is mellow to match the delicate background.outside (Chapters 5A and 5B). • m61-64 lowers the intensity: the range gradually goes down. Below are some basic ways to lower the intensity in solos. “Deja Blue” (Ch.
232 • 4A: Soundscapes (Level 4 — Strong) .
• m27 to the end increases the density. Wynton Marsalis Range Extremes Piano .Jaco Pastorius.Allan Holdsworth. Wallace Roney Guitar . but there are many recordings available on which they do. • m57-61 builds intensity with long. Wynton Marsalis Bass . James Carter Trumpet . Michael Brecker. • m71-72 uses rough expression. and “outside” passages. Clark Terry Guitar .Woody Shaw. James Carter Trumpet . 4) Trumpet solo. • m45 uses consecutive offbeats to add energy. high notes. 4J) • m1-26 is lower in density but uses high range and varied rhythms for interest.Miles Davis.• m30-35 builds intensity (similar to m53-57 in “Precious Caboose” solo). 6) Guitar solo. Count Basie Sax .Jaco Pastorius (harmonics) Strong Expression Piano . John Pattitucci Density: Light Piano . Michael Brecker. Density: Heavy Piano . • m51-54 accelerates rhythms in a riff.Michael Brecker. • m31 lowers intensity with a dotted half-note.Arturo Sandoval. Wynton Marsalis. James Carter.Allan Holdsworth. The artists listed below don’t play exclusively in the styles listed. Gonzalo Rubalcaba Sax . “I Think I’ll Keep Her” (Ch.Paul Desmond.John Coltrane. Artists and Styles As you listen to jazz recordings it’s good to recognize different approaches to soundscapes. 4J) • m5-6 has low intensity with long.Art Tatum. more intense. John McLaughlin Bass . m53-56 repeats Bb and A many times. • m57-64 gradually lowers intensity. 5) Flugelhorn solo. non-harmonic tones. “Where’s Waldis?” (Ch. low notes.Bill Evans.• m51-52 builds range after a rest.Lennie Tristano (lower) Sax .John Coltrane. “Beat the Rats” (Ch. John McLaughlin • . Joshua Redman Trumpet Wynton Marsalis. Stan Getz Trumpet . McCoy Tyner. 3J) m45-50 lowers range to the bottom limit of the trumpet. Chet Baker. • Overall: many color tones. Chick Corea Sax .Lennie Tristano (lower range).
Jaco Pastorius. Christian McBride (Level 4 — Strong) 4A: Soundscapes • 233 . John Pattitucci.Bass .
it should flow with the rest of the song. And once in a while. call for more conservative improvisation. held high notes. instead. 4) You can lower intensity in a solo through longer rests. and outside playing. 5) Conservative improvisation can be valuable in situations that call for light or controlled jazz. burning and wiggling. Exception – when the crowd is dancing and really getting into a high-energy tune. Your solo shouldn’t draw attention to itself. but who would be intrigued by thoughtful solo development. development. • Keep most tunes short – not everyone needs to solo on every tune. and longer notes with expression. 2) You can get variety in a tune by emphasizing unusual rhythmic styles. lower range. and where give and take is necessary with other instruments. go ahead and stretch things out. Chapter Review 1) A soundscape is like a musical landscape that you paint with sound. Casuals In a casual gig. such as recording sessions or casuals. But when you need to improvise something meaningful in a limited space. There may be a lot of jazz newcomers at the gig who might be annoyed at complicated solos. Here are some soundscape elements to focus on: • • • • Light density Lower intensity Careful and subtle expression Restraint with non-harmonic tones or complicated rhythms Recording Sessions In recording sessions with light improv. In some cases. you might as well just write something out instead of improvising. 3) You can build intensity in a solo through repetition. riffs. SHAPE becomes more important than ever. high range.Conservative Improvisation Some situations. . and one or one-half for ballads. such as two choruses for faster tunes. accuracy is as important (or more important) than coming up with fresh ideas. slower rhythms. louder dynamics. softer dynamics. accelerated rhythms. one or two for medium tunes. • Concentrate on group textures and interactions during each song (see Chapter 4F: Group Interactions). you may want to plan out where the solo peaks. • Keep the mood of the piece intact. less density. special effects. such as casuals or recording sessions for light jazz. Here are some points to consider about jazz casuals and improvisation: • Keep solos short. • Develop solo ideas simply and carefully. improv can range from light to occasionally fullbore.
234 • 4A: Soundscapes (Level 4 — Strong) .
half-time.” it means double-time feel. bad double-time can pretty much ruin a solo. To avoid changing the form. without graceful transitions • • Using predictable and uninteresting contours Repeating the same double-time material in each solo • Playing double-time passages with a shaky rhythmic feel or stiff articulations • Ending double-time passages awkwardly or abruptly . and triple-time. About Double-Time and Feel Technically. double-time has many possibilities and challenges.time. double-time and double-time feel are two different things. Also.time makes the chord progression go by twice as fast. and leave the audience wanting more. double-time feel is used more often than true double-time in jazz improvisation. A good double-time passage at the right time can energize and lift a solo. Double-time feel is when you start playing twice-as-fast rhythms. not true double-time. Important: When this chapter discusses “double time.4B: Double-Time and Half-Time In this chapter you’ll learn: • • • • • About Double-Time and Feel Double-Time Transitions Double-Time Material Triple-Time Feel Half-Time Feel P melodies. true double. while half-time can be a creative switch from the normal rhythmic flow. triple-time is used for triple-time feel. Here are some common double-time pitfalls to avoid: • Jumping headlong into and out of double-time. On the positive side. On the other hand. even though the measures and chords go by at the same speed. as if the tempo were going twice as fast. and half-time is used for half-time feel. laying double-time passages can add excitement and intensity to your solo This chapter explains how to use double-time. In contrast. but this shrinks the actual form of the tune. Psychology of Double-Time Perhaps no other jazz improv technique can be as exciting or disappointing as double.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time • 235 .The topics in this chapter help you gain control of double-time and explore some of its many possibilities.
4.5 Going into Double-Time
To go smoothly from the original tempo into double-time, follow these steps: 1 Make sure you feel the quarter-note pulses in the original tempo securely. (You don’t have to play quarter-notes, but you must be able to find them.) 2 Quickly imagine straight eighth-notes at the same tempo. In a swing tune, it takes some practice to imagine straight eighthnotes. 3 These straight eighth-notes become the quarter-notes of the new double-time. 4 In the new double-time, work for active rhythms. Many players try only eighth- notes in the new tempo, missing a lot of rhythmic possibilities. Steps 2 and 3 help you solidify the transition into double-time. With practice, you’ll get the double-time feel quickly without worrying about the steps. You can drift in and out of double-time during a solo, as long as it’s smooth and not overused.
Exercise 4.5Going Into Double-Time
4.6 Coming Out of Double-Time
To return from double-time to the original tempo, follow these steps. 1 Quickly imagine your current double-time quarter-notes as 8thnotes of the original tempo. If the style is swing, stretch out the eighth-notes so they become swing 8ths. 2 In the new tempo, work for active rhythms to re-establish the original feel. If the tune is swing, be sure to play accurate swing rhythms with the correct triplet subdivisions. With practice, you can move in and out of double-time whenever it feels right.
Exercise 4.6In and Out of Double-Time
4.7 Creating Double-Time Material
Here are some good ways to create interesting material for doubletime feel: 1) Use the suggestions in Using Flexible Scales in Chapter 1A: The Virtual Practice Method to generate double-time ideas. 2) Avoid predictable scale contours and repetitive ideas. 3) Begin on (or emphasize) active rhythms or tones. 4) Use contour patterns of 3 eighth-notes in 4/4 time.
5) Mix some chromatic notes with the scale tones to slow down the contours. 6) Mix in one or more riffs (see Chapter 4D).
236 • 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time
(Level 4 — Strong)
Multiplying by 2
You can get started with double-time practice by creating an interesting one- or two-bar idea at an easy tempo. For example, try a flexible scale with a few skips and maybe a slight rhythm variation. Then play the same idea exactly twice as fast to turn it into double-time. Once that idea is comfortable, transpose it to other keys – first at the original tempo and then at the double-time tempo. As you progress through new ideas, gradually introduce wider skips, non-harmonic tones, and different rhythms to add spice to your double-time ideas.
Practicing Double-Time Fills
One way to begin working with double-time is to play a short double-time fill during a one- or two-bar rest. For example, start at a slower tempo, rest for two beats, and play eight 16th-notes (two beats) and a downbeat note. At first, you should work on short phrases of 8th-notes with smaller contours. After you’re comfortable with basic fills, try these ideas: • • • Rest a bar and play a bar of 16th-notes Rest two bars and play two bars of 16ths. Vary the rhythms, mixing eighths and 16ths.
Work for pitch and rhythm accuracy as you go; then gradually boost the tempo each time until you can handle reasonably fast double-time passages.
Expanding Your Reach
When you can play phrases accurately and confidently at faster tempos, expand the length and contour of each double-time phrase. You can also transcribe and play double-time material from CDs, but don’t rely too much on imitation. You’ll be amazed at how much mileage you can get just from flexible scales and chromatic notes. Here are some additional points to keep in mind with double-time playing: • • You’ll need split-second timing and quick reflexes. Be securely locked into the tempo. The rhythm section must play steady time, and you must be able to hear them clearly and work with them. Use melodic and rhythmic development in your doubletime material and remember SHAPE. Use sequences and patterns in your double-time material.
As you play long double-time passages, the soundscape becomes very detailed and low- level, something like flying a spacecraft at high speeds along a planet’s surface. You become very involved in the shapes, contours, colors, and changes of direction as you create fast double-time material.
Exercise 4.7Using Double Time Material
Double-Time in BRIDJJ Transcribed Solos
Below are some double-time passages in the transcribed BRIDJJ solos in Chapter 4G: Analyzing Solos, Level 4. If you have the
(Level 4 — Strong) 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time • 237 . you can check the CD timings and follow along with the recording.BRIDJJ CD.
time. In half-time feel. and triple-time is 240. 29-30. For details on how to do this. If the tempo of the triple-time is very fast. the chords go by at the same rate. as described earlier in this chapter. and single-time feels as you like. play easier ideas and consider patterns. 3 In the new tempo. sequences. . you can switch among triple-. Exercise 4. Triple-time works best in ballads or slow blues. double-. You can mix eighth-notes and eight-note triplets in the double-time passages for variety.8Using Triple Time Half-Time Feel Half-time feel is less common than double-time. 50-56 Tune I Think I’ll Keep Her (piano) I Think I’ll Keep Her (flugelhorn) m11-16. 4. play accurate swing rhythms with correct triplet subdivisions. You can go in and out of half-time. which makes it four times as fast as the original feel. If the original tempo is 60. In swing tunes. and riffs. after you’re into double-time. follow these steps: 1 Concentrate on half-notes in the original tempo. This sounds like the basic pulse is going three times as fast (four quarter-notes to 12 eighth-note triplets). play varied rhythms to get the new half-time feel. The switching process is similar to going in and out of double-time. you can emphasize eighth-note triplets in the double-time. 19-24.61-63 m6-14. 37-42. Triple-Time Feel 4. see Using Triplet Pulses in Chapter 5E: Rhythmic Pulses.9 To go into half-time.8 Using Triple-Time Feel Triple-time feel is not three times as fast as the original feel. 43-48 Three and Me (flugelhorn) Using Triplets in Double-Time Instead of simply converting quarter-notes to eighth-notes for double-time. double-time is 120. Another way to give the feeling of triple-time is to repeat eighthnote triplets and then establish a new pulse of quarter-notes based on the speed of those triplets.Measure #s m17-22. it’s twice as fast as double. and your group can follow you or stay in the old tempo. Half-time feel is also used quite often in the rhythm section to introduce a tune or at the start of a solo. Once you establish triple-time. 2 Imagine them as quarter-notes of the new tempo. but it can be very effective. 29-32. but it feels like half as many bars are played.
follow these steps: 1 Concentrate on 8th-notes in half-time tempo. 238 • 4B: Double-Time and Half-Time (Level 4 — Strong) .To return from half-time back to the original faster tempo.
in nature. Mix in chromatic notes and slow down the contours. B) Imagine straight 8th-notes (same tempo). use active rhythms to re-establish the original feel. A) Feel secure quarter-note pulses (orig. In a swing tune. Expressions *See some good picture -. C) Think of straight 8th-notes as the quarter-notes of the new double-time tempo.9In and Out of Half-Time Chapter Review 1) Double-time feel (or double-time) means playing twice as fast but leaving the chords in their original locations. tempo).2 Imagine those 8th-notes as the new quarter-notes of the original fast tempo. A) Think of half-notes in the original tempo. or read a great poem every day. it's what you think of in time. Henry Ford *It isn't what you know that counts. 3) To return to single-time. Dr. D In the new tempo. Oscar Wilde *Strange how much you've got to know before you know how little you know. 4) Get double-time material from the suggestions in Using Flexible Scales in Chapter 1A: The Virtual Practice Method. or on canvas hear a page of the best music. if possible. Samuel Johnson . 3 In the new tempo. 5) Multiplying short ideas by two and practicing short fills helps you build double-time skills and ideas. use active rhythms to establish the new double-time. work for varied rhythms to establish the new half-time feel. You will always find a free half hour for one or the other. B) Imagine the half-notes as the quarter-notes of the new slower tempo. C) In the new tempo. reverse the process. 2) To switch to a double-time feel. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow *Thinking is the hardest work there is. and at the end of the year your mind will shine with such an accumulation of jewels as will astonish even yourself. 7) To shift to half-time feel. Benjamin Franklin *The only thing worse than being talked about is not being talked about. Exercise 4. 6) Triple-time feel is four times as fast as the original feel (twice as fast as double-time feel). be sure to play accurate swing rhythms with the correct triplet subdivisions. You can also get double-time ideas from recorded solos. which is the probable reason so few engage in it.
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” Exercise 4. and return to it. Practice bends in these ways: • • • • Play a note. Play a note. then use multiple bends up or down. . trumpet.4C: Special Effects In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • • • Wind Instrument Effects Trumpet Effects Saxophone Effects Trombone Effects Keyboard Effects Guitar Effects Bass Effects S playing. bend it fast or slow. usually by less than a half-step.10 Bends A bend is moving a pitch down (or sometimes up). For an example of bends on the BRIDJJ CD. Sometimes you can get great results by adding an effect to just one or two pecial effects are unusual sounds you play that add an extra dimension to your notes. 4. and trombone. be sure to experiment on your instrument. listen to timings 6:116:16 (flugelhorn solo) of “Three and Me.10 Using Bends 4. You can also combine special effects in many ways. Play a note and bend it. Wind Instrument Effects This section discusses special effects common to the sax. Bend all the way to the next regular note.11 Falls and Glissandos A fall is moving a pitch downward so the actual pitches are vague. or by repeating the same special effect as you develop a motif. Sometimes it helps to press one or more valves or keys as you bend. this chapter deals just with acoustic effects. Note: Although there are many possible electronic effects. to get a more controlled sound. but don’t return to the note.
Practice falls in these ways: • • • • Play a short or a long fall. Continue the phrase after falling to the low note. Attach a glissando (see below) to the end of a fall. Fall after holding a note. or just after the attack. (Level 4 — Strong) 240 • 4C: Special Effects .
To produce a half-sound you press valves or keys halfway down. Continue the phrase after glissing to the low note. or just after the attack. then begin the growl. With practice. Hold a note. As you do this. repeating or varying the pitch. you can even tune up multiple half-sounds so they sound something like a recognizable tune.between the half steps. It can be a surprising effect when it’s used well. you can vary dynamics. And you can go from halfsound to full-sound to create a kind of sliding effect. You can practice this by breathing out “hoooo” and forcing the tongue against the roof of the mouth. 4. the sound should be under control. Growl on a held note. move the slide. Practice growls in these ways: • • • • Start the growl on the attack of a note. with half the emphasis on a good vocal pitch and half on the played pitch. or change the basic pitch of the air-stream. To emphasize a half-sound. Combine a growl with a bend or fall.14 Air and Keys Occasionally in a softer passage you can simply blow air through the instrument without playing a note. This creates a sense of mystery or surprise. you use a flutter-tongue technique. But it can lose its appeal if it’s done too often. in.” Exercise 4.11 4. or at the end of a tune. Attach a fall to the end of a glissando.13 Half-Sounds The pitch of a “half-sound” is usually somewhat vague. To practice the basic concept away from your instrument. up or down. Practice glissandos in these ways: • • • • Play a short or long glissando. and it’s usually done in a ballad or free jazz piece. This is most effective in softer passages. listen to timings 5:41-5:42 (flugelhorn solo) of “Three and Me. try whistling and singing at the same time. For best effect. Gliss after holding a note. the note takes on an unusual sound.A glissando is like a fall that goes up instead of down. With practice. then play the note normally. Quarter-tones expand the chromatic scale. . wiggle keys or valves. play it as a longer note or the highest note in a phrase. you can play half-sounds that are actually quarter-tone pitches.12 Growls (Flutters) Using Falls and Glissandos To “growl” a note. For a glissando on the BRIDJJ CD. 4. 4. You can also play multiple half-sounds in a row. You can hum/play on an entire phrase or just a few exposed notes.15 Humming or Singing while Playing When you hum or sing at the same time you play a note.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 241 .Here are some variations on humming while playing: • Hum the same pitch that you play.
Exercise 4. You can practice this by accurately whistling and singing the interval together. there may be multiple alternates for higher pitches.• • • Hum a different pitch than the one you play.Phrase with regular and alternate-fingered notes For examples of trumpet alternate-fingerings on the BRIDJJ CD. You can include alternate fingerings for several different notes in a phrase. such as a major third or a fourth away. An alternate note is usually played directly after a regular note. and Circular breathing is the process where you keep a sound going while you sneak a breath.17 Alternate Fingerings An alternate fingering produces the same basic note as the regular fingering. the more . or change the played pitch as you hold the hummed pitch. When you tongue the altered note it stands out more.15 Humming 4. away from your instrument. listen to timings 2:052:08 of “Precious Caboose” and 2:44-2:45 of “Where’s Waldis?” Alternate fingerings for trumpet are shown in the table below. In some cases. It can also be used for riffing (see Chapter 4D: More Development). but the altered note is slightly out of tune (less than a quarter-tone away from the regular. you puff out the cheeks to get an extra reservoir of air. then hum it as you hold it. Circular breathing is usually used on a long note or to hook two long phrases together. the listener usually just hears it as being slightly out of tune.16 Circular Breathing Growling. You can try out your own combinations of tongued/not-tongued. or just to get an audience reaction. Change the hummed pitch as you hold the played pitch. With practice. It usually takes quite a bit of practice to get the sound to stay smooth during the breath. Half-Sounds. Play a regular note. 4. then quickly breathe in through the nose as you expel the air from the cheeks. it’s more subtle. Air/Keys. you can insert altered notes wherever you need to. = = Example 4. when you just finger it. for maximum contrast. But don’t use circular breathing just because you can do it.17 .fingered pitch). at a moment’s notice. Use it only when your improv ideas really call for it. The pitches in the table below start with the F# on the first space of the treble clef and extend to the G above high C. To do this. The example below shows several alternate-fingered notes (underlined) in a phrase. If you play an alternate note instead of a regular note. This out-of-tune sound is what gives the alternate fingering its spice.
the stronger the trill sounds. (Level 4 — Strong) 242 • 4C: Special Effects . Pitch Reg.valves pressed. Alt.) Pitch Reg.Alt. (Read columns downward.
If an alternate fingering is too close to the original pitch (and no other alternate fingering works). In the second example.17b . see http://ourworld/compuserve. trilled pitches go up with various rhythms. you just wiggle the valves or keys. you can wobble the alternate pitch . you can play a series of alternate trills that go up or down a scale or arpeggio. Alternate-Fingered Trills The alternate-fingered trill is dramatic.17a . ascending/descending If a note has no alternate fingering or the alternate fingering is tricky. especially with shorter lengths like quarter-notes. you quickly alternate between a note’s regular fingering and its altered fingering. Example 4. download the SaxTutor program for Microsoft Windows® for a view of altissimo fingerings. In the first example below. It sounds like a cross between tonguing and trilling. ascending Example 4.Alternate-fingered trills. trilled pitches go up or down with constant rhythms. For altissimo (very high range) fingerings. This requires some practice to execute cleanly. To play an alternate-fingered trill. you can use a regular trill instead of the alternate-fingered trill. Each trill should last a quarter-note or longer.com/homepages/mar tin_carter/ At the site.F# G Ab A Bb B C C# D Eb E F 2 0 2+3 1 2 0 1+2 1 2 0 1 1+2+3 1+3 (no alt) 1+2+3 1+3 B 2+3 1+2+3 1+3 2+3 3 or 1+2* 1+3 F# G Ab A Bb 2 C# D Eb E F 2 0 2+3 1+2 1 1+2 2+3 1+3 1 2 1+2+3 2+3 1+2 2+3 1+2 1+3 1+2 3 C (high) 0 2 2 0 1 0 or 1 1+3 Alternate (Altissimo) Fingerings for Saxophone Alternate fingerings for saxophone are found in various method books.Alternate-fingered trills. You don’t tongue each new note in the trill. especially in the upper register. To add variety.
with your lips or breath. (Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 243 .
18 This section covers: • • • • • Double. you can occasionally use these tonguing methods when the accompaniment is sparse. Lester Bowie uses these effects wisely in his playing. wide or narrow. or cadenzas. or in free improvisation. As much as possible. listen to timings 1:44 to 1:55 (trumpet solo) of “Beat the Rats. Wallace Roney does this well. Using Mutes The most commonly used mutes are the cup. bends. Common places for pedal tones are the ending of a tune.For an example of alternate-fingered trills on the BRIDJJ CD. as an alternative to the “doo-dul” tonguing of 8th-notes. Double-tonguing can also be used for articulating very fast passages. For basics on . The harmon mute can be used without the stem for cool jazz. you’re missing an unusual experience. and harmon. using air and lip tension.” Exercise 4. When using a mute. such as growls. and half-sounds with a mute. or with the stem for “wah-wah” sounds (hand covering and uncovering the stem). you need to be miked well.and triple-tonguing Using mutes Lip trills (shakes) Pedal tones Walking bass lines Double. higher range uses wide or narrow trills. You can accompany the bass player’s walking notes during or outside your solo.and Triple-Tonguing Double-tonguing and triple-tonguing are much more common in classical music than in jazz. Pedal Tones A pedal tone is one that is below the bottom range of the horn. Each mute lends a characteristic sound that colors the mood of your improvisation. You can also use pedal tones in walking bass lines. or in interaction with another soloist. or have the rhythm section play quieter. softer passages. You can also use other effects. Still. plunger. alternate two notes of the same fingering. play each pedal tone in tune and with a good tone. Low range uses wide trills.17 Trumpet Effects Alternate Fingerings 4. depending on what works best. Walking Bass Lines If you haven’t played a walking bass line on the trumpet. You can use regular or half-valve fingerings for pedal tones. The trill can be slow or fast. Lip Trills (Shakes) To play a lip trill.
you can play regular pitches (from low F# to about middle G) or pedal tones (below low F#) or both kinds. see Rhythm Section Techniques in Level 1.creating walking bass lines. If you switch between regular and pedal notes. make the transitions smooth. 244 • 4C: Special Effects (Level 4 — Strong) . In trumpet bass lines.
you can mix quarter-tones with chromatic notes. or play chromatic thunks.19 Saxophone Effects Trombone Effects 4. but small slides are often under-used. James Carter and Joshua Redman use this effect well in solos. Exercise 4. You can also play a note slightly out of position for effect.18 Trumpet Effects Saxophone Effects 4. double-tonguing. Using alternate positions helps you play faster and more easily in the upper register. use other approaches as well. To use altissimo effectively.” Overtones/Split Notes You can play two notes at once (a main note and an overtone above it) by loosening the embouchure just enough. such as starting in altissimo or skipping up to it. Alternate Positions Alternate positions are like alternate fingerings for trumpet. When you slide up or down a half-step or less. Exercise 4. Don’t just climb up the scale to altissimo and then climb down. You can also combine slides with growls. Long slides are common. Slides The trombone plays the smoothest glissandos or slides of any wind instrument. You can switch from high range to low thunks. • • • Play the notes in tune with a good sound. Thunks A thunk is made when you blow air and finger a low. staccato note with a loose embouchure.Exercise 4. except that the positions are better in tune on trombone. Use dynamics. Be sure to get a balanced sound between the two notes.20 Trombone Effects . altissimo playing. above the regular fingerings (see Alternate Fingerings). including soft altissimo notes. This can be done for one note or a phrase. or triple-tonguing for effect. and “thunks.20 This section covers alternate positions and slides (glissandos). Altissimo Altissimo is the extreme upper range of the sax.19 This section covers overtones/split notes.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4C: Special Effects • 245 .
Each chord follows a right-hand melody. Erroll Garner. Using Strings and Pedals Although you can actually play melody lines on the strings by touching them with your fingertips. The most common tremolo interval is the octave. Hammering is also effective in the middle of a full passage. it builds intensity or suspense. Masters of block chords include Red Garland. such as in a duet or trio.21 This section covers: • • • • • • • Clusters Tremolo Block chords Hammering Using strings and pedals Piano bass lines Wide glissandos Clusters Clusters are groups of notes that are half-steps (or sometimes whole-steps) apart. play them in the upper range or include only white keys or only black keys. With hammering. or play more notes (use a horizontal hand or forearm). Wynton Kelly. For more intense clusters. Piano Bass Lines . strings are usually played to set up a rhythmic accompaniment vamp (as done by Chick Corea). instead of isolated by rests. such as in the Thelonious Monk style. As you work with tremolos. you can also play tremolos with smaller intervals or with chords. and George Shearing Hammering Hammering is the technique of rapidly attacking one key with two index fingers (it can also be done by rotating between the thumb and fingers one and two). Block Chords Block chords (or locked chords) are played in both hands at once. pay close attention to dynamic subtleties. Make sure the texture is light enough so the strings can be heard. or extend it by going up or down chromatically or by wider intervals. They can also be used as percussive effects. you rapidly alternate between plucking and touching one or two strings to set up the vamp. especially with many notes at once. mix white and black keys. In this case. Experiment with one-hand or two-hand clusters.Keyboard Effects 4. They can be used to spice up chords or melody lines. For gentler clusters. you can start and stop on one key. The idea is to get the maximum speed of clean attacks. with the same or similar voicings for each new chord. This lends a traditional swing feeling to the solo. Tremolo Tremolo is like a wide trill. The sustain and soft pedals are effective in solo passages or where the accompaniment is light.
especially with different rhythms (triplets.Playing bass lines on the piano is most effective in a solo or duet situation. or when everyone drops out during a piano solo. accelerating / decelerating 246 • 4C: Special Effects (Level 4 — Strong) . Some highly unusual and effective bass lines can be created.
22 This section covers: • • • • • Bends Tremolo Muted strumming Guitar harmonics Playing in octaves Bends Bends can be slow or fast (fast bends are like a wide vibrato). After a bend you can continue with a note that’s near the pitch where the bend finished. Follow it with a continuous idea. Gonzalo Rubalcaba uses wide glissandos effectively. Exercise 4. More difficult but effective is playing a melody line with harmonic notes.). Use it in the middle of a solo. 3 against 4. Muted Strumming Muted (soft) strumming is an interesting technique for quieter passages or accompanying solos (especially bass players) in duets or trios. See also Tremolo in Piano Effects above. at the end of a phrase or solo.notes. Related to tremolo is quick strumming. Guitar Harmonics Harmonic notes are played by pressing a string halfway down. . this builds intensity. see Rhythm Section Techniques in Level 1. Tremolo Notes in a tremolo chord can gradually change as you continue the tremolo.21 Guitar Effects Keyboard Effects 4. not at the finish. For basic ideas on creating walking bass lines. Wide Glissandos Wide glissandos have been overused so much by some players that they can tend to sound stale to the rest of us. somewhat in a flamenco style. To make a wide glissando more effective: • • • • Play it up more often than down. In a melodic line you can ascend from high regular tones into harmonics. Jim Hall uses this effect quite well. You can play a single harmonic. or try octaves or triads. etc. These usually work best in a soft setting. or repeated several times from the same pitch. Use it rarely. the result dramatically extends the range of the melody. where you play chords with 16th-note patterns.
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Other Effects Here are some other effects for the bass: • Slides . As you play a melody line in octaves (melody line plus an octave above or below). you can play notes with a bow. circular breathing. humming.23 Harmonics Guitar Effects You can play bass harmonics as single pitches or as a melody line.23 Chapter Review Bass Effects 1) Special effects can be used alone or in combinations.You can twang or slap strings.22 Bass Effects 4. You can also play several harmonics together as a chord. pedal tones.like an out-of-control sound when it’s done unevenly. A five. In addition to soloing with occasional chords.Use them as pickups or after notes. and fills. 2) Wind instrument effects include bends. growls. using mutes. you need to approach the bass more like a guitar. Bowed Notes On acoustic bass. contours. especially at faster speeds. you can use chords in a bass pattern behind other soloists. and alternate fingerings. Chords To play chords on the bass. slide up or down • Twangs and slaps . such as roots of a chord or 1-3 or 1-5 combinations. Exercise 4. You can also play them in solo melodies. or one at a time as an arpeggio. or slap the bass itself (acoustic). walking bass.string bass is easier for playing chords. altissimo playing. use chord slides. and thunks. . 4) Saxophone effects include overtones and split notes.Playing in Octaves The technique of playing simultaneous octaves was made popular by guitarist Wes Montgomery. keep in mind basic principles such as melodic development. falls. but shouldn’t be distracting. halfsounds. air and keys. but it takes a lot of practice to play bowed solos. Christian McBride plays great bowed/plucked solos. You can also interject some chords between phrases of octave notes. 3) Trumpet effects: double/triple-tonguing. intervals. Exercise 4. Bowed notes can be accompaniment notes. • Wide vibrato .
muted strumming. plus some trumpet effects. and glissandos. wide vibrato. tremolo. tremolo. 8) Bass effects include harmonics. block chords. hammering. 7) Guitar effects: bends and vibrato. and octaves. strings and pedals. slides. 248 • 4C: Special Effects (Level 4 — Strong) . harmonics. and bowed notes.5) Trombone effects include alternate positions and slides. 6) Keyboard effects: clusters. twangs and slaps. tuning effects. chords.
To prepare for using quotes in your solos. you should: . 6) The easiest tunes for using quotes are ones with simple progressions. It also his chapter covers some interesting melodic development techniques. The quote should spring naturally out of a idea in your solo (see Quoting Naturally below).?” not “OK. use quotes that grow out of your own melodic ideas. When you do play it. Instead.. such as blues. It can also be transposed to fit any key. otherwise. 3) Don’t repeat the same quote in the same tune (but you can vary the quote). On simple tunes you can sometimes play some rather long quotes. wasn’t that . pitches. children’s. The following guidelines can help you with quotes: 1) Keep the quote short. that’s enough!” 2) Know the quote well (intervals. they sound predictable or forced. The quote can be as silly as “Three Blind Mice” or as hip as a quotation from a great artist’s solo.. rhythms). Quotes can be fresh.4D: More Development In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • Using Quotes Riffing Basic Development Combinations T using quotes from other tunes and developing with up-tempo riffs. Using Quotes A quote happens when you play all or part of the melody of a wellknown song in your solo. That way. such as explains development combinations that can add variety to your solos. “Hey. you play the quote because it fits. 4) Draw from many types of music (folk. The listener should say. you should play quotes sparingly. etc. The idea is to pleasantly surprise the listener. chances are it will sound stiff or predictable because it doesn’t relate well to what you played just before. rock. modal tunes. Quoting Naturally Probably the worst quoting mistake is having a favorite quote you must play in a tune. or anything in between. and tunes that don’t modulate. pop. not because you’re forcing it to belong. 5) Generally. classical.). entertaining material if you handle them well.
from many different styles. • Be able to play the tunes in just about any key. If you pay close attention to the intervals and rhythms you play (or someone else plays) during your solo. something may remind you of a well-known song you can quote. it sounds like it fits with what you’re playing. • Practice the tunes with slightly different rhythms. Then when you play the quote. (Level 4 — Strong) 4D: More Development • 249 .• Memorize the melodies to many different tunes.
It slightly varies the rhythm and pitches of the original. you can change some notes in the quote to non. Varied quotes leave the audience in more suspense. Another useful technique is to blur the rhythm of the quote. Thomas Twilight Zone Anything Goes Satin Doll Surrey With the Fringe on Top I Love Lucy “Deja Blue” 4:27-4:37 “Beat the Rats” 1:30-1:33 “I Think I’ll Keep Her” 1:00-1:09 5:55) 3:38-3:41 3:52-3:56 5:23-5:28 “Three and Me” 5:16-5:19 “Precious Caboose” 2:11-2:15 “Where’s Waldis?” 1:48-1:51 2:20-2:22 Riffing A riff is a short. The quotes in these solos were not pre-planned.24 . or partial (notes left out of the original). Most of the quotes on the CD are varied.24 Quotes on the BRIDJJ CD Using Varied Quotes Below are quotes played in the BRIDJJ “Beat the Rats” CD. CD Track Timing Quote **Peter Gunn Autumn in New York **Whistle While You Work (5:45How Are Things in Glocca Morra? St. fast motif you repeat several times. An example riff and its repetition are shown below. With imagination.4. and sixteenth-notes at least at quarter-note = 120. you can come up with many variations of an original quote.24 Varied or Partial Quotes Some of the best quotes are varied (altered rhythm or pitches). playing it in a rubato style (see Using Rubato in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom).Varied quote of “Three Blind Mice” For some humor in your solo. start a little before each timing so you get the context of how the quote fits into the solo. . eighth-note triplets at least at quarter-note = 180. The riff can be repeated several or many times. Riffs can add energy and variety to solo. if they aren’t overused. letting you use quotes more frequently. eighth-note riffs should be played at least at a tempo of quarternote = 240. As you listen to these quotes. Exercise 4. the quotes in the main tune melodies (marked by asterisks) were. ==== ====== ========= Example 4.harmonic (“wrong”) pitches. A varied quote of “Three Blind Mice” is shown below. This riff works best at quarternote = 180 or faster. Generally.
250 • 4D: More Development (Level 4 — Strong) .
...Two-part riff and repetition ....….... ……… ======= …… You can also play riffs that aren’t in strict tempo (Off-Tempos and Burning in Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom).. Here are some ways to vary riffs: • • • Change individual pitches Sequence the riff Insert notes into the riff Below is a riff that changes individual pitches. the third changes two notes....…...25 4. you can change a riff repetition slightly.. The changed notes produce expanded intervals.. Repetition 1 Repetition 2 Repetition 3 Example 4... ===== .. These riffs are harder to invent. ======= .....Another two-part riff and repetition Exercise 4. 4....Changing pitches in riff repetitions. ….26 ....25 Two-Part Riffs A two-part riff is a riff made from a two-part motif.... …......... The first repetition is exact.. expanded intervals Next is an example of sequencing............26 Changing a Riff Creating Riffs For variety..25a .... ======= Example 4....…........ but they can add even more energy to a melody.….... The two parts should be far enough apart in pitch so they are heard as separate. ===== Example 4....etc.... .. Even a slight change can produce extra energy and interest.... the second changes one note..25 ..... . The second and third repetitions are transposed down a whole-step each (a half-step .
(Level 4 — Strong) 4D: More Development • 251 .down from the last note of the riff).
.27a .. and in this example the rhythms slow down somewhat. ..…............Sequencing a riff. slow rhythms And here’s an example of hooking two riffs together....Exiting a riff .. Here are some transition techniques: • Get into the riff smoothly • Get out of the riff smoothly • Hook two riffs together To get into a riff. * * * * ....... .. Repetition 1 Example 4. .. and the second riff is higher in pitch or faster... the effect is to displace the riff..Inserting notes into riff repetitions Repetition 2 Exercise 4.….... Exit: reverse contour........…….26a . to build intensity.. The first exit note is close to the last riff note...27 Riff Transitions Changing Riffs Riffs are usually better with smooth transitions before and after..........Getting into a riff Riff Next is an example of getting out of a riff.......27 .... There is a brief transition between the riffs.... This example inserts two notes (**) at the start of the first repetition and 4 at the second.. And here’s an example of inserting notes.......26 4......26b .. * *..........…... ............ Repetition 1 Example 4....……………. Repetition 1 Repetition 2 Repetition 3 Example 4.... make the last intro note and the first note of the riff close in pitch: Intro Example 4....…....
252 • 4D: More Development (Level 4 — Strong) .
28 Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Pentatonic and blues riffs can be an exciting technique as long as they’re not overdone (some players seem to be fixated on them).Repetition 1 Transition. if you choose both members of a pair (such as adding notes and omitting notes) apply one technique to the first part of the motif and the other to the end.. Combining Development Techniques Combine any two of the techniques below to develop a motif..Pentatonic riff and repetition Example 4.28a .Pentatonic riff and repetition Example 4. Items 1 through 5 work in pairs.. each one can be repeated several times: Example 4..28 Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Basic Development Combinations You can play some very interesting ideas by using combined development..28b . (Level 4 — Strong) 4D: More Development • 253 ..Blues riff . which means developing a motif in two ways at once. new riff …… Example 4. Make sure they fit naturally into your overall ideas as a way to build intensity.Blues riff .28c ..27b ..27 Riff Transitions 4.28d . Exercise 4. Below are some examples. and repetition Example 4. and repetition You can also vary one or more pitches in blues or pentatonic riffs so they take on additional color.Hooking two riffs together Exercise 4.
29b .Displacing. or inserting notes in repetitions. exit smoothly. Example 4.Original motif Example 4.Expanding intervals.29a .29 Using Development Combinations You can combine these development techniques in many different ways. transposing Example 4.or two-part) that is repeated several times. fast. Exercise 4. motif (one. 2) A varied quote changes the melody of a well-known song in your solo. invert omitting notes Example 4. See also Chapter 5E: More Development Combinations.29 Development Combinations Chapter Review 1) A quote is all or part of the melody of a well-known song played in your solo. 5) Riff transitions are effective when you enter the riff smoothly. Below are a sample motif and a few of its development combinations.Compress.29c . or hook two riffs together. sequencing. 6) You can combine two different development techniques in a motif or phrase. .1) Expanding intervals1a) 2) Adding notes 2a) 3) Augmenting rhythms 4) Slow-to-fast rhythms 5) Diatonic sequence 5a) 6) Semi-sequence 7) Inverting the contour 8) Fragmenting 9) Displacing 10) Converting to a riff Shrinking intervals Omitting notes 3a)Compressing rhythms 4a) Fast-to-slow rhythms Transposed sequence 4. 3) A riff is a short. 4) You can repeat a riff exactly or change it by altering pitches.29 .
254 • 4D: More Development (Level 4 — Strong) .
using the bII is called a tritone substitution. Tritone substitution favors dominant alterations (b5. +5. This chapter discusses common modulations and ii-V-I any jazz tunes have chord progressions that modulate (change keys) or use ii-V- variations so you can recognize them in chord progressions and use them in your solos. creating a ii-bII-I progression. as in the example below. b9.30 . Tritone Substitutions Just as you can simplify ii-V-I’s.Tritone substitution: ii-bII-I (Dm7-Db7-CMa7) over ii-V-I You can also use “opposite” tritone substitution: when the actual chords are ii-bII-I. you can also spice them up with tritone (augmented 4th) substitutions. You can substitute a ii-bII-I wherever you see a written II-V-I. 4.4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • Tritone Substitutions Going from the V to a New I ii-V-I Chains ii-V and V-I Chains ii-V-I Variations in Jazz Standards M I’s in different ways. These chords move down by half-steps – a strong chord movement. +9). you can use II-V-I instead. in the key of C the iibII-I progression would be Dm to Db7 to CMa7. Because the substitute bII is a tritone away from the V. For example. Dm7 Db7 (play a G7) CMa7 .30 Building Tritone Substitutions A tritone substitution occurs when you use a bII chord instead of a V. For example:: Dm7 G7 (play a Db7) CMa7 b9 +5 b5 Example 4.
30 (Level 4 — Strong) Using Tritone Substitutions 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s • 255 .Opposite tritone substitution:. ii-V-I (Dm7-G7-CMa7) over iibII-I Exercise 4.30a .Example 4.
going to the minor vi (such as G7 to Am in C Major) • Down a minor third.31 Chords Resolving Dominant Chords to Other I 4. going to the minor iii (such as G7 to Em in C Major) Resolving to the minor vi or iii chord makes the progression sound like it’s switching to minor. Below are chord progressions for each of these dominant resolutions. key of Ab Example 4.V resolves up an augmented fourth Exercise 4.32 Resolving to a Related Minor Chord A dominant chord can also resolve to a related minor chord (a minor chord in the key of the major I): • Up a whole step. F Major.31 . It begins with a iiV-I in the key of C Major then adds ii-V-I’s in E Major. Any ii-V-I’s can be used in a chain.32 ii-V-I Chains Dominant to Related Minor Chords Some tunes “chain” consecutive ii-V-I progressions together to modulate to a I chord in a distant key – one with several more (or fewer) sharps or flats.Going from the V to a New I A dominant chord (V) usually resolves up a 4th to the root chord (I or i). they sound good because of the strong chord movements (up a 4th). the new I chord is unexpected but sounds good.V resolves down 1/2 step Cm7 F7 | BMa7 ii V new I. key of B Example 4. 4. or G7 to Cm. Exercise 4. This resolves the built-in energy of the dominant chord.31a . it sounds like you modulate to a new key. 4. such as G7 to CMa7. Em7 ii A7| AbMa7 V new I.31 New Resolutions for V Chords A dominant chord can also resolve to a I chord that is: • • Down a 1/2 step (such as G7 to F#Ma) Up or down an augmented 4th (G7 to C#Ma) By using a different dominant resolution. But a dominant chord can also resolve to certain other chords besides the root chord. The example below chains ii-V-I’s together. A tug between major and minor can give welcome variety to the progression. and B Major.33 .
| CMa7 | F#m7B7 | EMa7
(Level 4 — Strong)
256 • 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s
(ii-V-I in C -----------------------) (ii-V-I in E ----------------) Gm7 C7 | FMa7 | C#m7 F#7| BMa7 (ii-V-I in F ------------------------) (ii-V-I in B ---------------)
Example 4.33 - Eight-measure progression using arbitrary ii-V-I chains
4.34 Parallel ii-V-I’s
Writing ii-V-I Chains
Although any ii-V-I’s can be chained together, usually the ii of each ii-V-I moves up or down by a constant interval. This makes the ii-VI’s sound like they are related to each other in a parallel way. Examples of parallel ii-V-I progressions are shown below. Chain Intvl. 1/2-step up 1/2-step down 1-step up 1-step down Fourth up First ii-V-I Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Dm7-G7-CMa7 | Second ii-V-I Ebm7-Ab7-DbMa7 C#m7-F#7-BMa7 Em7-A7-DMa7 Cm7-F7-BbMa7 Gm7-C7-FMa7
Using parallel ii-V-I’s, a tune can modulate to any key. You can use this technique to add your own chords when the original progression stays on a single chord for a while.
Example: Bridge of “Cherry Key”
The bridge (B) section of “Cherry Key” uses a chain of ii-V-I’s. Starting in B Major, each ii-V-I moves down a whole-step. Instead of F Major for the last two bars, the tune uses a ii-V (Cm to F7) to get back to the original key of Bb Major.: C#m Bm Am Gm | F#7 | E7 | D7 | C7 | BMa6 | AMa6 | GMa6| •/• |Cm |F7 | •/• | •/• | | | | (ii-V-I in B ---------------------------------------------------------) (ii-V-I in A ---------------------------------------------------------) (ii-V-I in G ---------------------------------------------------------) (ii-V in F --------------------------- (ii-V in Bb ---------------)
Example 4.34 - Bridge to “Cherry Key”
Modulating w/ Parallel ii-V-I Chains
(Level 4 — Strong)
4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s • 257
Dm7 G7 | CMa7 C#7 | F#Ma7 F7 | BbMa7 (V-I in Bb) (ii-V-I in C ------------) (V-I in F# ------) Example 4. adds a ii-V in Db Major. It begins with a ii-V in the key of C Major. As with II-V’s. or the only chord in an even-numbered bar). C#m7-F#7 (the V and ii are an augmented Dm7-G7.ii-V and V-I Chains 4. then ends with a ii-V-I in E Major.36 . ii-V’s often move up or down by a constant interval.35 . You can also play a single scale for each V-I. . Bb7-EbMa). Any iiV’s can be used.35 4.Modulating with V-I chains Example: First Half of “Giant Stops” The first half of the tune “Giant Stops” uses two chains of V-I progressions (the first one is D7-GMa. Each chain begins on the V halfway through a bar. The example below uses consecutive V-I progressions to modulate from C Major to F# Major to Bb Major.36 V-I Chains Modulating with Parallel ii-V Chains An alternative to the II-V chain is the V-I chain.V-I so each V chord will be in the “even-numbered” position (such as the second chord in a bar. Dm7 G7 | Ebm7 Ab7 |F#m7 B7 | EMa7 (ii-V in C -------) (ii-V in Db --) (ii-V-I in E ----------) Example 4. The V-I chain usually begins with a ii. Ebm7-Ab7 Dm7-G7. they work well because of the strong movement (up a 4th) of each ii-V. Chain Interval Example 1/2-step up 1/2-step down 4th apart) 1-step up 1-step down 4th up Dm7-G7. Gm7-C7 (the V and ii are on the same pitch) Exercise 4. the V-I’s can be random or parallel. Parallel ii-V’s Like ii-V-I chains. creating a parallel movement.35 ii-V Chains Some tunes chain ii-V progressions then resolve to a I chord. The example below chains several ii-V’s.Using arbitrary ii-V chains You can also simplify a ii-V by playing only the I or ii scale across both chords. Cm7-F7 (circle of fourths) Dm7-G7. Em7-A7 Dm7-G7. after starting the bar on a major chord.
BMa D7 | GMa Bb7 | EbMa | Am D7 | (Level 4 — Strong) 258 • 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s .
3) ii-V-I progressions can be chained together to modulate to another key. or up or down an augmented 4th.Modulating with minor ii-V chains Minor V-i progressions can also be chained together to modulate to other keys. The interval between each progression can be random or parallel.37a .V-I chains in “Giant Stops” tune Exercise 4.I in Eb--) (V. Dm7-5 G7-9| Ebm7-5 Ab7+9 | F#m7-5 B7-9| Em7 (ii-V in C min) (ii-V in Db minor) (ii-V-i in E minor -----) Example 4. or dominant chords can be used to modulate quickly. . Dm7-5 G7-9 | Cm7 C#7+9 | F#m7 F7 | Bbm7 (V-i in F# min) (V-i in Bb minor--) (ii-V-i in C minor ----) Example 4.36 Modulating with Parallel V-I Chains 4. minor. The ii chords are m7-5 in quality. 2) A V chord can also resolve to a substitute I chord. The example below modulates from C minor to Db minor to E minor. 4) ii-V progressions and V-I progressions can be chained together to modulate to another key.I in Eb ----------) GMa Bb7| EbMa F#7 | BMa |Fm Bb7 || (V.37 . The example below modulates from C minor to F# minor to Bb minor. this gives the feeling of minor iiV progressions. or on an even-numbered bar if one chord per bar). 5) V-I progressions usually start in an even-numbered position (halfway through a bar if there are two chord per bar.36a . even though the minor i chord is not actually played.(V.Modulating with minor V-i chains Exercise 4. 6) Consecutive major.37 Chapter Review Using Minor ii-V and V-i Chains 1) A V chord can resolve to a new I chord by moving down a halfstep. such as the vi or iii.I in G --) (V.37 Minor ii-V and V-i Chains Minor ii-V progressions can be chained together to modulate.I in B------------) Example 4.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4E: Variations on ii-V-I’s • 259 .
4. mark these spots as places where you need to add chords: • • • Beat 3 of bar 11 Beat 1 of bar 12 Beat 3 of bar 12 In a C blues. follow the steps below. Turnarounds are often used to add variety in the last two bars of a blues. 1 In the last two bars. This should be a dominant (V) chord that moves strongly to the C7 (I) chord in bar 1. the last two bars look like this (the blanks indicate added chords): ||: C7 __ | __ __ :|| C7 (bar 1) 2 Find a chord for the last slot. or Db7 (down 1/2 step to C7). Let’s pick G7 for now: | C7 __ | __ G7 :|| (C7) . Turnarounds and Inserted Chords A turnaround is a way to add chords to a progression so you get back to (“turn around” to) a starting place. Good choices are G7 (up a 4th to C7). which are two bars of the I chord. sometimes it’s helpful to know when not to substitute them.4F: Chord Substitutions In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • Turnarounds and Inserted Chords Chord Substitutions in Jazz Standards Altered Blues Static Playing: Avoiding ii-V-Is the harmonic interest. followed by another bar of the I chord when the blues repeats back to the beginning bar. or F#7 (up a #4 to C7). The two main substitution methods J discussed in this chapter ust as you can vary ii-V-Is in a tune. And once you get the knack of substituting chords. you can insert and substitute chords to increase are turnarounds and inserted chords.38 Blues Turnarounds To figure out the chords to add in a blues turnaround.
It should move strongly to the Dm chord. let’s pick A7 for now (up a 4th to Dm7): 260 • 4F: Chord Substitutions (Level 4 — Strong) . let’s pick Dm7 for now (up a 4th to G7): | C7 __ | Dm7 G7 :|| (C7) 4 Find a chord for the second slot. It should move strongly to the G7 chord.3 Find a chord for the third slot.
the inserted chords are D7. | C7 E7 9. | C7 F7 10. | C7 A7 | Dm7 | Dm7 | Dm7 | Ab7 | Ab7 | Dm7 Db7 :|| (C7) G7 :|| (C7) Db7 :|| (C7) G7 :|| (C7) Db7 :|| (C7) Db7 :|| (C7) Example 4. | C7 A7 6. C7 (Level 4 — Strong) (D7 Eb7 E7) F7 4F: Chord Substitutions • 261 . and E7.38 . | C7 A7 5. the original chords are C7 & F7. Eb7.Turnarounds with arbitrary V-I progressions Exercise 4. Turnaround Variations Below are some common turnarounds for a C blues. | C7 A7 2. 1. | C7 Bb7 | F#Ma7 | AMa7 | Bbmi7 | BMa7 | Ebmi7 G7 G7 :|| (C7) :|| (C7) :|| (C7) Db7 G7 Db7 :|| (C7) :|| (C7) Example 4. They use strong dominant chord movements. This fills in the gap between two chords that are a third or a fourth apart. Each new sequence of the pattern is based on the next note up or down the scale (chromatic or diatonic). 7. forming a stepwise bridge going up. | C7 F#7 11.38 Using Turnarounds 4. In the first example below. In this case.| C7 A7 | Dm7 G7 :|| (C7) The turnaround is now complete.38a . | C7 Eb7 3. but the other movements are strong.Common turnaround examples in C You can also use a V-I progression to fill the second and third slots of the turnaround. | C7 Eb7 4.39 Inserting Stepwise Chords You can insert a melodic pattern between harmonically distant chords. there would not be a strong movement from the third to fourth chord. | C7 Db7 8.
third bar). then try the exercise. up a #4 ii-V-I.39 . Parallel ii-V-i’s Minor ii-V-i ii-V chain ii-V Dom. bar-number (L2m3 = line 2. up a #4 ii-V-I chain Minor ii-V-i Turnaround ii-V’s ii-V chain Turnaround Dom. L6m2.Example 4. Compare the chart to the tunes in the 200 Standard Tunes section. which form a chromatic bridge going down. C7 (B7 Bb7) A7 Example 4.L7m2-L8m1 L3m2-L5m4 L5m4-L1m1.Adding chromatic arpeggios.Adding stepwise arpeggios. The bars with the variations are indicated by linenumber. L7m2 L2m2-3 L3m2-L6m1 L6m4-L7m1 L8m3-4 L1m3-4 L2m3-4 L4m3-4 L1m4-L2m1 L2m4-L3m1.40 Finding ii-V-I Variations . L7m4-L1m1 L6m1-L7m2 L1m2.40 Tune A Night in 2-Kneesia Variation Minor ii-V-i Dom. down 1/2 Dom. the inserted chords are B7 and Bb7.39 Inserting Chromatic Chords Chord Substitutions in Jazz Standards The chart below describes the ii-V-I variations in several of the standards in 200 Standard Tunes. going down Exercise 4. Son Joysprinkles Exercise 4.39a. L4m4-L5m1 L3m4-L4m2 L8m3-4 Air-Again I Remember Yews Half Nails. 4. going up In the next example. up a #4 Tritone subst. L3m1-3 L1m1-6 L4m4-L1m1 L5m1-L6m1. modulate ii-V chain Turnaround Bars L2m3-4. the original chords are C7 and A7.
262 • 4F: Chord Substitutions (Level 4 — Strong) .
each chord goes up a 4th. with explanations of the inserted chords.41a . 6: Switches to minor. The Fm7 in bar 6 moves smoothly to the Em7 in bar 7.4: Goes around the circle of 4ths to get to the F7 in bar 5. There are many variations of altered blues.“Bird” blues in C Bars 2 . | Cm 1 | Fm7 5 9 | Dm7b5 G7 | Cm 2 | Fm7 6 10 3 Bb7| EbMa7 7 11 | Gm7 C7 | 4 | Ebm7 Ab7| 8 || 12 | Dm7b5 | Db7+9 | Cm7 A7b9 | Ab7 G7 Example 4.) 11 -12: Typical 2-bar turnaround w/ circle of 4ths.41 You can insert chords in a blues progression.Altered Blues 4. 2-bar turnaround with downward chromatic movement .41 . From bar 2 to 5.10: Goes around circle of 4ths to get to G7 in bar 10.7: ii-V-i to Fm7 in bar 5. | C7 1 | F7 5 | Dm7 9 | Bm7 E7 2 | Fm7 6 |G7 10 | Am7 D7 3 | Em7 7 |Em7 A7 11 |Gm7 C7| 4 | A7 8 |Dm7 G7 12 || | Example 4. 9 -11: 11 -12: A tritone substitution (ii-bII-I) in minor. because it was often used by Charlie Parker (nicknamed “Bird”). The V chord (Ab7) moves up a #4th to the Dm7b5. Below are some altered blues progressions in C. but most variations follow the guidelines of inserting chords and using turnarounds. creating an altered blues progression. 7 . Variation #1: Bird Blues This altered blues is called “Bird” blues. but bar 9 is Dm. The progressions use turnarounds and variations on ii-V-Is.9: ii-V in key of DbMa. (Em7 in bar 7 is also a substitute for CMa7. Variation #2: Altered Minor Blues This minor blues has several ii-V’s and a turnaround. 8 .Altered minor blues Bar 4: 6 . ii-V-I to EbMa7.
from A7b9 to G7. (Level 4 — Strong) 4F: Chord Substitutions • 263 . The Ab7 remains dominant for variety.
Another altered minor blues Bar 4: #4 chord (F#7) resolves down a half-step to the minor iv chord in bar 5.41b . 11-12: Exercise 4. starting in bar 6.41 Writing Blues Variations . | C#m7 F#7| Bm7 1 | F7 5 9 6 10 2 3 7 E7 4 | Ebm7 Ab7| 8 11 12 | Am7 D7 | Gm7 C7 | | Fm7 Bb7 | EbMa7 | DbMa7 | Dbm7 Gb7 | CMa7 Bb7 |EbMa7 Ab7 Example 4. 12: Simple turnaround of one chord: the #4 that resolves to the minor i chord in bar 1.Variation #3: Another Altered Minor Blues This minor blues uses a long chain around the circle of fourths. Variation #4: Another Bird Blues This blues starts on the bii.10: Long chain of ii-V’s. Switches to Db minor. It goes around the circle of 4ths from Bb to C# (same as Db). Switches to Eb minor. A 2-bar turnaround designed to get to the C#m7 in bar 1. The F#7 was also used in bar 4. The CMa7 in bar 11 and the F7 in bar 5 give us the only real clues that this blues is actually in C. ending at the minor i chord in bar 11.A different “Bird” blues Bars 1 .7: 8 . starting a long chain. then uses a ii-V-I to go to Eb Major.9: 10-11: Switches to F minor. 6 . a similar location. | Cm 1 | Fm7 5 9 | Dm7b5 G7 | Cm | F#7 2 | Em7 6 10 A7 3 | Dm7 G7 7 11 | 4 | Cm7 F7 8 | Cm7 | F#7 12 || | | Bbm7 Eb7| Abm7 Db7 Example 4. starting down a half-step from the minor iv. 6 . then uses a ii-V-I to go to Db Major (like taking bars 6 and 7 down a step). The beginning C#m7 is an interesting contrast to the original C7. This gives the listener a rest after the long chain.4: Goes around the circle of 4ths starting with bar 1.41c . then uses an altered ii-V-I (Dbm7 to Gb7 to CMa7) to get back to C Major.
264 • 4F: Chord Substitutions (Level 4 — Strong) .
F-E (4 to 3.Static Playing: Avoiding ii-V-Is 4.42 Static Playing Chapter Review 1) A turnaround is a special way to add chords to a progression so that you get back to (“turn around” to) a certain starting place. That’s when static playing can be valuable. 4) You can create altered blues progressions by substituting ii-V’s. . D-B-G-C (V-I). Using ii-V-Is is somewhat like creating harmonic “tides” of push and pull in the music. and development. In static playing you can still use a few non-harmonic tones and even play outside a little. In static playing.V-Is in your solo to reduce the harmonic energy. V-I’s. Here are some examples of note patterns to avoid in static playing (in C Major): D-F-A-B-G (ii-V). the focus shifts towards your rhythms. and turnarounds. as long as you don’t imply ii-V-Is. Staying away from ii-V-Is eliminates that “tidal pull” of harmony.42 Some tunes or solos suggest an open feeling – perhaps a single chord vamp or a blues. you avoid outlining ii. 5) Static playing (avoiding ii-V-Is) can be helpful to draw attention away from harmony and towards the basic key. When you eliminate the ii-V-I’s. rhythms. 2) To fill in a turnaround progression. and expression in a solo. style. like G7 to C) Exercise 4. expression. work backward from the final resolution chord. 3) Two common ways to add chords to a progression are chromatically and around the circle of 4ths.
(Level 4 — Strong) 4F: Chord Substitutions • 265 .
etc. someone else may be communicating with it. This simplifies the rhythm or chords and draws attention to the soloist and can enhance a solo that’s building intensity. such as repeated tones. Even when you let it go by. the soloist is not the only one who is playing important ideas. Interaction Ideas One of the most enjoyable challenges for the soloist is learning to interact musically with the members of the group. As you learn to interact with your group. play against it with downbeats. or in some cases can even join in as multiple soloists.4G: Group Interaction In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • Interaction Ideas Ensemble Texture Solo Formats Playing in Duets and Trios Gig Survival Q group interacts musically. pedal notes. . and the group members are like the supporting actors who feed the leader ideas. Good interaction can take a solo beyond its borders. The other members can greatly inspire the soloist. but does not necessarily build communication. etc. your solos can uestion: When is a jazz group greater than the sum of its parts? Answer: When the take on new dimensions. When members of the group hear interesting ideas from the soloist (or from the other members). drum rolls. A successful solo is like a conversation among the group members. Remember: the soloist may be in the middle of his or her own development and may play something even more interesting in a few seconds. Communicating in Solos Contrary to what some players think. This by helps the idea stand out. 4) Copy the idea (explained below). For example. so you’ll get your turn soon. 3) Play under the idea. if the idea uses offbeats. 2) Play against the idea. 5) Alter or develop the idea (explained below). they can react in any of these ways: 1) Let the idea go by. making it an exciting group experience. play descending. or vice versa. if the idea is ascending. The soloist leads the discussion.
266 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) . It’s not necessary for all members to copy or play against at the same time. variety makes an effective engine behind the soloist.Important: The group can use any or all of the above methods at the same time.
from ballad to double-time swing. However. 2) Copy part of the idea (the most intriguing part. too often the style shifts feel forced.When and How to Copy Whether and how to copy a soloist’s idea are ongoing decisions made with split-second timing. For example the feel could change from bossa to samba. half the group could shift to double-time while the other half stays is single-time. Here are two common misconceptions about style shifts: Misconception #1: The whole group needs to shift styles. or someone else can trigger it. from swing to funk. For example. conversing with a soloist is not an imitating contest. Here are the basic choices for imitation: 1) Copy the whole idea. alter them and play them back. Remember: you can copy one or more pitches. or unsteady. preferably all at once. between soloist and band. 3) Alter or develop the idea. it’s usually better to create a short (or very short) conversation and be ready to develop the next exciting idea. This is the most subtle way to communicate . or augment the rhythm. sometimes it is cool when everyone shifts styles at once. predictable. This leaves the door open for more twists and turns and tends to pull the audience into the conversation. the soloist isn’t always the originator. or among the band members. But don’t overdo it. (And yes.you take a few notes of the idea. the farther the communication goes. This works best with shorter ideas.) For ways to create rhythmic shifts. with one player joining at a time so the intensity builds. see Chapter 5D: Rhythm Pulses. The more the soloist and group members respond. . or the part you can manage to hear and play accurately). Fact #2: The style shift can build gradually. Misconception #2: The shift needs to happen as quickly as possible. This can be exciting when it occurs naturally and isn’t forced. it’s communication. You can play a sequence or semi-sequence on the original idea. Remember: the next idea could be something the group just played. etc. they were not pre-planned. But too many groups get in the habit of conversing too long on a single idea (like talking too long on a limited subject). Style and Rhythmic Transitions One of the most exciting events in a tune is when the entire rhythmic style changes unexpectedly for one or more bars. but don’t forget about copying part of the rhythm (such as a triplet group or offbeat). The interactions happened on the spot during the recording. Fact #1: It’s OK to have one or more players not join in the shift sometimes (unless the shift is a radical one). Unless the idea is developing well. Interaction on the BRIDJJ CD This section describes some of the locations in solos on the BRIDJJ CD “Beat the Rats” where obvious musical interaction occurs. You can trigger this with a rhythmic idea.
guitar solo imitates and shifts to eighth-note triplets with contours of 2.Deja Blue 1:26-1:33 Bass plays consecutive downbeat quarter-notes in solo. drums then play accented roll. 2:26 Drums and bass kick into quarter-note triplets. guitar then comps with quarter-notes. (Level Four — Strong) 4G: Group Interaction • 267 . on beat 4.
4:10-4:12 Guitar figure of 8th-note triplets picked up by drums at 4:12. 3:03-3:05 Trumpet repeats high notes several times. guitar answers from 3:313:34. Barney Meets Godzilla :47-:48 Trumpet fill notes at :47 answered by piano at :48. Overall During trumpet and bass solos. from 1:54-1:55. Guitar distorts at end of solo. or they can develop out of something that happens during a solo. guitar fills with a repeated rhythmic pattern. 5:45-5:57 Keyboards and drums fill behind long.Beat the Rats 3:03 kick. drums follow at 2:44. 2:40-2:47 While trumpet holds alternate-fingered trill in high register. the horn(s) can play a simple repeated background riff. . then the guitar at 2:28. The riffs can be pre-planned. Precious Caboose 1:52-1:55 Trumpet quarter-note triplets answered by drums. smooth switching between guitar comping and piano comping. drums imitate rhythm. but they must not interfere with the solo. piano adds strong fill. piano solo follows at 2:37. Where’s Waldis? 2:36-2:38 Trumpet plays sparse chromatic fills. held high notes in trumpet. 2:32-2:33 Trumpet and bass simultaneously play eighth-note triplets. 2:27-2:29 Trumpet trill answered by drum roll. 6:02-6:52 Guitar and piano trade and vary 2-bar rhythmic pattern Ensemble Texture Background Riffs Background riffs can sometimes add excitement behind solos. Below are some ideas of how to use background riffs: 1) During a rhythm section solo. 7:27-7:29 Trumpet wiggle answered by percussive piano chord at 7:29. 3:29-3:34 Bass solo plays offbeat quarters from 3:29-3:31. 2:25-2:28 Dotted quarters in trumpet solo are picked up by the drums at 2:27. drums follow with a strong I Think I’ll Keep Her 2:35-2:44 Bass fills with eighth-note triplets with contours of 2. This creates a light and interesting background.
3) The keyboard or guitar can intersperse motifs in a bass solo and sometimes during a drum solo. 268 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) .2) During latin or fusion drum solos. the bass can play a repeated pattern over one or two chords.
Half-Chorus Solos In ballads or tunes with longer solo choruses. 3) Try to develop on the ideas the previous soloist just played. drums. don’t be unprepared. a soloist improvises uninterrupted for several choruses. brief quotes from other tunes can be effective during trading (see Using Quotes in Chapter 4D: More Development). a secondary soloist can take half a solo. when appropriate. it’s often a good idea for one soloist to take the first half of the chorus and another soloist the second half. guitar. have two soloists play together. 4. Don’t let the trading go on too long. or 12 bars if the tune is a blues. Specify the kind of trading (with drums. etc. Anyone who wants to be left out of the trading should signal that. or around the group) and how many bars to trade. But there are many other solo formats to use. Trading bars is a safer alternative. Here are some tips: 1) Have the second soloist wait for a bar or so after the first soloist starts. Trading is usually done with the drums (horn. bass. Here are some guidelines for successfully trading bars: 1) Clearly signal when trading is to start. Usually. Make sure the rhythms are solid. drums.) or around the group (piano. Solo Formats Usually. 3) Keep listening for where to build and end the solo. You can get into multiple soloing by practicing jazz duets and learning how to give and take with ideas. Other common trading lengths are eight bars.Multiple Soloists Occasionally. 2) For shorter durations. horn. but simultaneous soloing can be effective if the players use space. 4) Clearly signal when it’s time to end trading and return to the tune melody.). 2) Be ready for your turn. Sometimes.43 Trading Bars in Solos 4.43 Trading Bars Trading bars is where two or more soloists divide up the chord progression and play short solos. Exercise 4. etc. try any of the techniques below. drums. each player takes four bars (called “trading 4’s”).44 Stop-Time Solo Fills . allowing one and a half (or more) choruses for the featured soloist. timing. two or more soloists can play at once. for variety. This also lends contrast to a feature piece. Try to keep an active musical conversation going. two bars. drums. The trading continues for several choruses as soloists repeat the order until trading is finished. bass. and development wisely.
This builds (Level Four — Strong) 4G: Group Interaction • 269 . These are most effective as stop-time fills.You can build solo fills into the structure of the tune melody. where everyone drops out during the fill except the soloist.
Likewise. During solos. Duets almost always include chord instruments. A good example of playing many stop-time fills is Wynton Marsalis’ solo on Buggy Ride on the CD “Joe Cool’s Blues. Use interesting rhythms. . Exercise 4.) Bass (acoustic or electric bass.” Exercise 4. guitar. the priorities are: 1) 2) 3) 4) Melody (horn. you can look around and see who else wants to solo later or who wants to skip a solo. if some good intensity is building. or chord instrument) Chords (piano. Some do’s and don’ts for ending solos: • Don’t end your solo in the middle of the progression.45 Solo Endings and Transitions The end of your solo leaves a lasting impression on the audience.44 Playing Stop-Time Solo Fills 4. The basic jazz functions are now handled by two or three people instead of four or more. and someone should signal the immediate return to the melody to avoid annoying delays. and bass. vocalist. • For variety. but it requires clean and imaginative playing on each fill. unless you’re intentionally (and clearly) doing a half solo.suspense well. • At the start of your solo. Here are some suggestions for playing stop-time fills: • • • Use double-time frequently (see Practicing Double-Time Fills in Chapter 4B: Double. Instrument Combinations Some typical instrument combinations for duets and trios are listed below.Time and Half-Time). • Don’t commit to another solo chorus unless you can feel momentum or new ideas spurring you on. try extending your solo a few bars into the next soloist’s progression. don’t bail out on the solo too soon. but usually don’t include drums. vibes. try to pick up on the last idea of the previous solo for a smooth transition. etc. chords. Develop ideas from previous fills. or chord instrument) Drums Notice that chord instruments can play melody. In duets and trios. there’s a new set of challenges and opportunities.45 Using Solo Endings and Transitions Playing in Duets and Trios When you play in duets or trios. The group should always know which is the last solo.
Duets: 270 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) .
or two pianos. it’s a good idea to fit in well with the band (especially if you’ve never met them) and the audience. No matter what the gig. Instead of walking with quarter-notes. the bass “runs” with faster rhythms. it’s vital to keep a solid sense of time. In this combination. Horn held notes and trills. This is especially true when players switch roles for a while (see Switching Roles above). Gig Survival There are many kinds of jazz gigs. Two melodies can be played during the tune melody or during solos. You can still take rhythmic chances. Here are some examples: • Running bass. Double melodies (counterpoint). chords. These can be played behind the tune melody or behind solos. Horn. or all players can play staccato notes or patterns together. it’s very important for each player to be accurate with the tempo and confident with rhythms. (See also Trumpet Effects in Chapter 4C: Special Effects). piano and vibes. bass. The held notes shouldn’t compete or conflict with the melody player or soloist. and bass. or trill on the held notes. This is like a double melody (see below). One or two players can play staccato notes behind the soloist. bass. Switching Roles One of the best ways to keep a duet or trio sounding fresh and interesting is for the players to occasionally switch roles in the music. Trios: • • • • Chords. Here are some survival tips: . Players should always know exactly where they are in the tune form. This is usually piano and guitar. The chord instrument can sometimes fill in with a walking bass line. but every “liberty” should be compared against a solid framework of rhythm and form.• • • • Chords and bass Horn and chords Vocalist and chords Two chords. • • Bass chords. The piano can occasionally fill in the bass line. the horn player has a more chordal responsibility. and drums. • • Time and Form Because many duets and trios don’t have drums. • Bass lines in other instruments. A horn player can hold out harmony background notes. Percussive effects. Two chords and bass. In the latter case. Horn. and drums (for advanced players. from free jazz to stiff casuals.
method and timing of payment. (Level Four — Strong) 4G: Group Interaction • 271 . physically and mentally. Get all the details straight (time.). location. dress.1) Prepare for the gig. etc.
These elements tend to set you apart from other players. bass. know chord progressions. 8) Be on top of solo entrance. When the time is right. playing a subtle and effective background behind another soloist can expand your role in the group. You can never be too prepared. and drums. and expression. 5) Common duet combinations: a) chords and bass. and effective solo endings and transitions. etc. segues. 5) Resist the temptation to go overboard or grab too much spotlight. 9) Professionalism and musical sensitivity on a gig increases your demand as a soloist. D) Alter part of the idea. Focus on the group sound and direction. 9) Play intelligent backgrounds. 4) Style shifts by one or more players can increase the variety in the tune. b) horn or vocalist and chords. Your solo and background ideas should fit in smoothly. 3) Treat the gig professionally. especially when solo space is limited on the gig. chords. dynamics. . In short or conservative solos. c) two chords and bass. generally avoid harmonically “outside” playing. On casuals. 7) In duets or trios. cuts. B) Play under the idea (background). and c) two chords. know styles. C) Copy the idea. 6) Play solid rhythms and strong motifs.2) Be sure you understand the kinds of music you’ll be playing. Be ready for shortened solos. background riffs. solo fills. bass. but you do have time for a lot of meaning. listen to examples beforehand. try half solos. you don’t have time for a lot of notes. and drums. The last thing you want is to be the only player to “miss the train. 8) Accurate time and form are essential in duets and trios. 7) Know tunes. trading bars. not just your own ideas. special endings. 10) Watch and listen for road signs and endings. multiple soloists.” Chapter Review 1) Group interaction depends on everyone accurately hearing the musical ideas. but people form opinions of your playing and professionalism on each gig. You can always turn down a loser gig the next time. and bass. 4) Listen closely to the styles the other soloists use. and d) horn. b) horn (or vocalist). players can sometimes switch basic roles. 6) Common trio combinations: a) chords. 2) Basic ways to communicate in solos are: A) Play something against (contrary to) the idea. especially with no drums. 3) For variety in solo formats.
272 • 4G: Group Interaction (Level 4 — Strong) .
*m31 “Burning” (Chapter 5C: Rhythmic Freedom) *m36 3 against 2 triplet motif borrowed from bass fill. m54. burning. *m19-20 Displacement. long *m53 Motif displaced in m54-56.4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 *m1-2 Motif borrowed from end of flugelhorn solo. *m43-47 Long. *m1-4 Downward sequences. double-x. *m17-18 Expanding intervals. *m6 Notes added to motif. “I Think I’ll Keep Her” *m13-14 Sequence of m11-12 *m14 Notes added to motif. *m41 *m48 Wide intervals. Diminished-wholetone scale.” *m27 Expanded intervals of motif in m25. Comments for Piano Solo. *m63 Semi-sequence triplets from previous bar. *m61 2nd half of bar is displacement of first half. “Whistle While You Work. developed in m15-16. *m56 Chromatic semi-sequence. . varied displacements. *m21-22 Descending diatonic sequence. *m28 Augmentation of motif in m25. *m37-42 Development of motif in m36. m17. *m25-26 Varied quote. *m38-43 4 against 3 triplets contours. shrink/expand intervals. developed in m7-8.
(Level Four — Strong) 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 • 273 .*m63-65 Lowering the intensity.
*m11-13 Riff w/ variations *m16 In E7 chord. *m20-24 Double-time. *m57-61 “Whistle While You Work. outside. “How Are Things in Glocca Morra. *m42 Growl and riff. *m46-48 Shifted quarter-note triplets (beat 2). lower intensity. nonharmonic tones. Thomas.” *m62-63 Rubato. desc. *m44 Downward octave rip.” *m3 *m4 Contour groups of 3 triplets and triplet rest.” *m8-11 Double-time passage. “I Think I’ll Keep Her” *m6-8 Quote.*m0-1 Varied quote.” *m53-54 Linked semi-sequences. *m38-41. F is b9. long note and descending line. line. *m31-32 Release. “Twilight Zone. “St. *m22-24 3-against-4 riff *m25-26 Downbeat color. *m47-49 Quote. G# is 3. *m56 Consec. Semi-sequence of m3 Comments for Flugelhorn Solo. G is #9. offbeats. *m27-28 Two-part riff. *m36 Rhythmic variation of motif in m35. . 50-54 Double-time.
274 • 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 (Level 4 — Strong) .
trilled and glissed. *m26-28 Consecutive offbeat 8thnotes. Comments for Flugelhorn Solo. *m31-32 Double-time passage. m15-16 Varied quote. motif repeats with slight rhythmic variations. *m29-30 Variations on G and F pitches.*m2-3 Displacements of motif in m1.sequences. m5-7 4-against-3 brackets. Double-time *m44-46 2 against 3. **m43-48 passage. *m33 Non-harmonic tone. *m25 Alternating minor and major 3rd in key of D. *m31 Transposed sequences. *m39-40 4-against-3 brackets. *m49-54 Outside playing (Chapters 5A and 5B) starting in the key of the previous transposed sequence (key of C). *m48 Transposed sequences of beginning of m47. linked semi. *m50-51 Use of +5 tones in major chords. “Three and Me” m11-16 Double-time. groups of two 16ths and an 8th in a descending diatonic pattern.” m21-24 4 against 3. *m57-60 Long bend. *m36-38 Offset 8th-note pairs. *m54 Abruptly short articulations. . “Anything Goes.
(Level Four — Strong) 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 • 275 .indiscriminate tones. *m61-64 Only use of dotted quarters in solo.
48. *m51-54 Two-part riffing. downwards *m13-14 Unequal compression of m1213. then Comments for Guitar Solo.14.*m6-7 Compare m2-5: rhythmic variations. *m18-25 Half-note triplets and ties give a free-floating feeling.16 AMa chord over FMa. pulling sequence with ascending DMa chord. *m11-16 Winding octave fill. *m27. See also m43. produces a #5 (C#). with natural 7 (G#) emphasized. *m53 Compression of eighthnotes into eighth-note triplets. *m57-64 A Harmonic Minor over DbMa. *m9. *m52 Displacement. *m41. *m62-64 Expanding intervals. descending. *m45 Consecutive offbeats. *m65-66 5-note brackets over 3/4. *m35-36 DMa and EMa chords over Cmi. *m23-24 GMa chord over EbMa.29 Downbeat emphasis (after floating feeling) *m33 Hitting the root and pausing (after numerous polychords). See also m4956. “Beat the Rats” . *m36 Descending EMa over Cmi. compressed long notes. *m18-22 Octave fill.43 Similar motif in m9. eighth-note early (only 7 notes in prev. produces a #5 (B). motif). AMa over C/D.
CMa over B. over Eb/Bb. *m68 DMa chord over Gb/Ab. 276 • 4H: Analyzing Solos – Level 4 (Level 4 — Strong) . pentatonic 6-note contours of eighthnotes. *m67 AMa chord. then Bb Ma chord. *m67-68 3 against 4.
You should be able to identify the chord root (usually in the bass) and type (major. • Dividing and organizing music into choruses.” Here are the basic steps to follow in order to transcribe a recorded solo (single-line melody): 1 Outline the form of the solo and divide it into choruses and bars on your music paper. If you don’t have the chords. into a tape recorder with your own “jazzed-up” rhythms. accents. you may want to improve them before you start transcribing solos. read Basic Transcription Skills below.4J: Transcribing Solos In this chapter you’ll learn about: • • • • • Basic Transcription Skills Step 1: Select a Solo Step 2: Outline the Form and Chords Step 3: Sketch the Rhythm Step 4: Add Pitches and Expression T just an exercise in frustration. Otherwise. Twinkle. but good relative pitch is essential. Perfect pitch is not required. 2 If you have the chords to the solo. Then play back the tape and write down the exact rhythms for what you recorded. effects. you can sing or play a familiar tune. 4 Add the pitches and expression (articulations. Little Star. transcribe them from the recording. or dominant). • • Recognizing pitches and intervals. go to Step 2: Outlining the Form and Chords below. write them in above the empty bars on your paper. This chapter shows how to transcribe solos without ranscribing (writing down) a recorded solo should be a great exercise for your ear. Play the rhythms you wrote and see if they match the recording. To practice rhythmic notation. Notating rhythms correctly. If you are currently weak in any of these skills. . • Recognizing chords (if no lead sheet). If you’re already skilled in writing rhythms and melodies. such as Twinkle. rubato) to the rhythmic sketch. Basic Transcription Skills Transcription requires the musical skills listed below. 3 Sketch the rhythms in the solo accurately. not “banging your ear against the wall. minor.
46 Here are ideas for selecting a solo to transcribe: • • • It should fit your current transcription skills. It should be interesting and pose challenges to you. it should be clear enough so you can hear the notes you will transcribe.Step 1: Select a Solo 4. 4J: Transcribing Solos • 277 (Level Four — Strong) . If the recording is a tape.
(The bass line may be more clear in the melody section than in the solos). blues tunes use 12-bar sections. Use a keyboard for this. . minor. dominant) of each chord in the chorus. copy the chords above empty bars on your music paper. When the solo is finished. making sure you include repeats and road signs. Write four empty bars on each staff of music paper. etc. This is usually the same as the original tune’s meter. • To transcribe the chords of a tune. Another approach is to transcribe a solo for which you already have a written transcription in a book. the Miles Davis trumpet solo on “So What” from the “Kind of Blue” CD is simple melodically and rhythmically but is quite interesting. Most tunes will use eightbar sections. Find strong dominant movements. such as up a 4th. Then follow these steps: 1 Find the meter (4/4. the recorded solo should be on cassette tape or CD. follow these steps: 1 Transcribe the bass line for the first solo chorus as well as possible. Look back at the book version only when you get stuck. If you don’t have a lead sheet. this can save you time in finding out the chord progression for the solo.). If you have a lead sheet of the tune. you can better appreciate how the soloist’s melody works against the chord progression of the tune.47 Transcribing the Chords So why do you need to transcribe the chords to the solo if you’re just trying to copy the solo melody? Transcribing the chords helps in these ways: • • The chords can help you better determine some of the more difficult pitches in the solo later on. 2 Determine how many bars are in each complete chorus of the solo. etc. These bass notes will usually indicate the roots of the chords you’re trying to transcribe. 3/4. If it’s too long. 2 Determine the quality (major. down a half-step. Start simple. Also. For example.46 Selecting a Solo Step 2: Outline the Form and Chords Outlining the form of the solo in advance helps you get the right number of bars in your transcription.• If you have a lead sheet (melody and chords) of the tune being improvised on. Exercise 4. decide how much of it you want to transcribe. 4. listen to the solo once all the way through. with a double bar at the end of each section. It’s good ear training. phonograph recordings are difficult to work with.
if any). but at least you’ll have basic chords at your disposal. b9. or +9 dominant alterations. +5. 4 When you finish the chords for an entire chorus (including the bridge. Occasionally the chords may change from chorus to chorus. 278 • 4J: Transcribing Solos (Level 4 — Strong) . copy these chords to the remaining choruses in the solo.3 Find any b5.
you need to write a rhythmic sketch of the solo.49 Once your rhythmic sketch is complete. If not. 5 Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each phrase in the solo. write down the rhythm you hear. 4 In light pencil. Write any necessary rests before the start of the phrase. 6 If a phrase seems to have a strange rhythm. In this case. you will have heard the solo enough to be familiar with its pitches. find the pitches that occur on beats 1 and 3. 2 Find and mark the exact beat or offbeat where the soloist’s phrase ends (followed by a silence or longer note).48 Sketching the Rhythms Step 4: Adding Pitches and Expression 4. the rhythms and pitches in the solo may be obvious enough that you can go ahead and write the actual notes down. and write “rubato” over the phrase. 1 Find and mark the exact beat or offbeat where the soloist’s phrase starts. count the number of pitches you hear. 3 See if the missing notes fit with the current chord symbol in the tune. When you finish. 1 Change rhythm notes in your sketch to actual pitches. Next. With pitches that are difficult to hear. chorus by chorus. . To add the pitches for the solo.Exercise 4. the soloist may have been using rubato (or made a mistake). The steps below show how to create rhythmic sketches. Use diamonds for longer notes (whole. as these are often easier to hear. In some places.48 After you have the chord progression ready. there will likely be many spots where a rhythmic sketch will definitely speed up the transcription process. Exercise 4. try these steps: 2 Find the top and bottom pitches of the contour first. Use a keyboard or other instrument if necessary.notes or half notes) and slash marks for faster notes. Write each sketch note so it matches the contour (not exact pitch) of the melody. Contours in the rhythm sketch will help.47 Outlining the Form and Chords Step 3: Sketching the Rhythms 4. if possible. mark where the phrase begins and ends. go back and check your sketch so it accurately fits the rhythms you hear. 3 Listen to the rhythm in the phrase until you can hum it accurately. they may be part of an added or outside chord. However.
Half-speed notes sound an octave lower than normal speed. tape the recording at half-speed to help you hear the notes better.4 If you have a variable-speed tape recorder. (Level Four — Strong) 4J: Transcribing Solos • 279 .
It is over and gone. if necessary. Carlyle *Don't talk to me about a man's being able to talk sense. B) Outline the form and chords of the solo. Gibbon *Nothing ever happens but once in this world. D) Add the pitches and indicate any significant expression or effects in the solo. To commonplace people all men are much alike.49 Adding Pitches and Expression Chapter Review 1) The basic transcription skills you need are: A) Organize the solo into bars and choruses.When you have finished adding the pitches for the transcription. everyone can talk sense -. with all its eternity of solemn meaning. C) Sketch the rhythm figures in the solo. Aristotle *There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult when you do it with reluctance. mark the following types of expression in the solo: • • • Strong or unusual accents Unusual articulations Dynamics and effects Exercise 4. C) Recognize pitches and intervals. Expressions *The more intellectual people are.can he talk nonsense? William Pitt the Elder . What I do now I do once for all. the more originality they see in other men. Terence Heauton Timorumenos *To know how to hide one's ability is great skill. D) Notate rhythms correctly. 2) The steps in transcribing a recorded solo are: A) Select a recorded solo on CD or cassette. but one must also know how to say it. Blaise Pascal *It is not sufficient to know what one ought to say. B) Recognize the chords. Rochefoucauld *The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.
280 • 4J: Transcribing Solos (Level 4 — Strong) .
A) don't pause between keys . 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. choose a latin. make it louder. A) don't pause between keys . then develop it by inserting longer rests or Basic __/__/__ ( ) . special effects. B) play 2 octaves on each key.4 ❏ *Basic: Lowering Intensity Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play a dense idea for two bars.connect to the next root and proceed.connect to the next root and proceed. higher.3 ❏ *Basic: repetitions. wiggling. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys . choose an up-tempo latin or swing tune. or medium swing tune. ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. slow swing.connect to the next root and proceed. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. or outside. Start and end securely. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Building Intensity Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Repeat an interesting idea several times. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Same as Basic. vary it slightly after several Build intensity by gradually developing an idea. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. use a 4-bar phrase.2 Variety in Rhythmic Styles Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: Choose a ballad play-along recording. use a 6. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.Exercises for LEVEL 4 Melody: Soundscapes Exercise 4. ❏ **Medium: Same as Basic.1 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Pulling Improvisation Ideas Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Choose a major or minor key and “pull” a two-bar phrase.or 8-bar phrase. use an interesting shape. or Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Experiment with techniques in Part 5: accelerating. Use the table in 4. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. burning. ❏ **Medium: both.2 for ideas in rhythmic variety.
use slower rhythms and long notes with expression. ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 281 .playing fewer notes. ❏ **Medium: Same as Basic. use a lower range and softer dynamics.
C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. then shift to double-time feel for 4 bars. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ **Medium: ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. play swing eighth-notes for two bars.6 ❏ *Basic: In and Out of Double-Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Using a metronome setting of quarter-note = 100. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. A) don't pause between keys . Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ **Medium: ❏ ***Challenge: Same as Basic. ❏ ***Challenge: Play the longest stream of eighth-notes at the fastest tempo you’re OK with. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. then shift back to single-time for the next two bars. B) play 2 octaves on each key. quarter-note = 120. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. descending.connect to the next root and proceed. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys . go as far you can with no breaks or errors. play swing eighth-notes for 4 bars. A) don't pause between keys . 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord . quarter-note = 120. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Rhythm: Double-Time and Half-Time Exercise 4. or mixed contours. Use any scale notes.7 Using Double Time Material Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: Create four bars of steady double-time eighth-notes (two bars in the original. ascending. slower tempo). ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Same as Basic. quarter-note = 140. create eight bars of double-time eighth-notes. B) play 2 octaves on each key. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Same as Basic. Shift to double-time feel for two bars. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. quarter-note = 140.❏ >More: Same as Basic.connect to the next root and proceed. ❏ **Medium: Same as Basic.5 ❏ *Basic: Going Into Double-Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Using a metronome setting of quarter-note = 100.connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys .
282 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .
Then go to half-time feel for one long bar (two original bars) and back to single-time for the next two bars. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Expression: Special Effects Exercise 4. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key. ❏ **Medium: Using Bends Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play long.connect to the next root and proceed. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. convert it to double-time (one bar). some bends go up. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord . C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.8 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Triple Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write several simple motifs and convert them to triple-time. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key. slow bends on random chromatic notes. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Add falls and glisses to standard tunes or other familiar melodies.connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Same as Basic. work for control and Play quick bends on notes in a flexible scale. A) don't pause between keys . Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Add bends to notes in standard jazz tunes or other familiar tune melodies . use quarter-note = 240. then triple-time (half a bar).10 ❏ *Basic: intonation. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ **Medium: ❏ >More: Same as Basic. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. use glisses to skip up. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Play a two-bar motif in slow single-time (quarter-note about 60).Exercise 4.connect to the next root and proceed. some down. B) play 2 octaves on each key.9 ❏ *Basic: In and Out of Half-Time Medium __/__/__ ( ) At quarter-note = 200.11 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Falls and Glissandos Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Playing a flexible scale. Same as Basic. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. play swing eighth-notes for two bars. A) don't pause between keys . occasionally using falls to skip down. A) don't pause between keys .
and Half-Sounds (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 283 .15 Growling. Humming.Exercise 4. Air/Keys.
hum some notes. A) don't pause between keys .18 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Trumpet Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) On a flexible scale. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord . ❏ ***Challenge: Combine growling. from slow to fast.19 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Saxophone Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Slowly play all the split notes in a chromatic scale. then play a familiar melody adding a few split notes. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. then create melodies that switch between altissimo and regular range. B) play 2 octaves on each key. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. air. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4.connect to the next root and proceed. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. Basic __/__/__ ( ) o ***Challenge: Play a flexible scale. Use real or fake fingerings. growl some notes. humming. Play all alternate-fingered trills on your instrument. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Learn as many altissimo notes as you can.connect to the next root and proceed. then use some in a flexible scale or melody. B) play 2 octaves on each key. then add alternate-fingered trills on some pitches. ❏ >More: Same as Basic.Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play a flexible scale. ❏ >More: Same as Basic.17 o *Basic: o **Medium: Alternate Fingerings Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Memorize and play all alternate fingerings on your instrument. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys . Experiment with thunk notes. and key sounds in a longer passage. play a walking bassline. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: On a C blues progression. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed. A) don't pause between keys . use occasional double-tonguing or triple-tonguing on repeated or new pitches. Play an octave’s worth of pedal tones (below low F#) with good sound and intonation. use alternate fingerings on repeated pitches. ❏ >More: Same as Basic.
284 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .
wide glissandos. B) play 2 octaves on each key.22 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Guitar Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Experiment with any of these effects: bends. and both. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Play a flexible scale and add slides that go up. strings and pedals.24 Using Varied Quotes .23 Bass Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Experiment with any of these effects: slides. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys . Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. tremolo. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Development: More Melodic Development Exercise 4. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. tremolo. B) play 2 octaves on each key.connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. muted strumming.connect to the next root and proceed. Create smooth piano bass lines for blues and other progressions. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. A) don't pause between keys . ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Experiment with bass chords and bass harmonics. down. A) don't pause between keys . Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Fill a familiar melody with block chords. hammering.connect to the next root and proceed.Exercise 4. slaps. wide vibrato. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.20 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Trombone Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Learn and play alternate positions for all notes that have them. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed.21 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Keyboard Effects Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Experiment with any of these effects: clusters. B) play 2 octaves on each key. twangs. B) play 2 octaves on each key. A) don't pause between keys . Experiment with guitar harmonics and playing melodies in octaves.
(Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 285 .
connect to the next root and proceed. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Create a riff and insert notes into the riff repetitions. B) play 2 octaves on each key. A) don't pause between keys .26 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Changing Riffs Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Create a riff and change a few notes on the riff repetitions. A) don't pause between keys .28 ❏ *Basic: Using Pentatonic and Blues Riffs Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Create a pentatonic riff (minor or major) and transpose it into 12 keys. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. add transition material. ❏ ***Challenge: Play a riff. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. A) don't pause between keys . Create a two-part riff and repeat it several times. Medium __/__/__ ( ) Choose an easy tune and play it as several varied quotes. A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed.27 Riff Transitions Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Play a simple melody line and create a riff from the end of the line. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.25 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Creating Riffs Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Play a simple riff. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. repeat it a few times. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. Play a riff and transition into a melody. Choose a jazz standard you know and play the first part of it as a varied ❏ >More: Same as Basic.connect to the next root and proceed. Basic __/__/__ ( ) . B) play 2 octaves on each key. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. Create a riff and sequence two riff repetitions.Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: quote. B) play 2 octaves on each key.connect to the next root and proceed. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ ***Challenge: Create and repeat another simple riff and another two-part riff. ❏ >More: Same as Basic. and hook into a second riff.
create a blues riff.❏ **Medium: Same as Basic. 286 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .
Bb. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Chord Progressions: Variations on ii-V-I’s Exercise 4. B.connect to the next root and proceed.connect to the next root and proceed.). ❏ >More: Same as Basic.in the circle of 4ths. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.connect to the next root and proceed. Write a chromatic progression down from C (C. Name the two related minor chords that each dominant chord could resolve to. A. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. A) don't pause between keys .29 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Development Combinations Medium __/__/__ ( ) Create a motif and use the development combinations above. B) play 2 octaves on each key. then do an “opposite” tritone substitution for each bII chord.❏ ***Challenge: Combine a pentatonic and blues riff into a longer riff. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key. Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. B) play 2 octaves on each key. use three other development combinations.32 Dominant to Related Minor Chords Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) .connect to the next root and proceed.30 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Tritone Substitutions Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write the ii-bII-I progression for each key. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. etc. A) don't pause between keys . ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys . Think of each chord in the circle of 4ths as a dominant chord. Think of every other chord as a bII.31 Resolving Dominant Chords to Other I Chords Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Resolve each dominant chord around the circle of fourths to two major chords (not up a fourth). try in several keys. Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key.
create ii-v’s that resolve to the minor vi chord. (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 287 . resolve to minor iii. Same as Basic.❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Around the circle of 4ths.
❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:
Writing ii-V-I Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write an arbitrary, four-bar ii-V-I chain that includes these chords somewhere in the progression: A7, Ebm7, and GMa7. Same as Basic; pre-select any three chords to include.
Basic __/__/__ ( )
❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:
Modulating w/ Parallel ii-V-I Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write a parallel ii-V-I chain that starts with a Cm7 and ends up in E Major. Same as Basic; pre-select your own starting and ending chords.
Basic __/__/__ ( )
❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
Modulating w/ Parallel ii-V Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write a parallel ii-V chain of seven total chords that starts with Am7 and ends up in Bb Major. Hint: You may want to work backwards from the final ii-V-I. Same as Basic; pre-select your own starting and ending chords.
Basic __/__/__ ( )
Modulating w/ Parallel V-I Chains
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Write a parallel V-I chain of seven total chords that starts with F#m7 and ends up in D Major. Hint: You may want to work backwards from the final ii-V-I. Same as Basic; pre-select your own starting and ending chords.
Basic __/__/__ ( )
❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B
Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
Using Minor ii-V and V-I Chains
288 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction)
Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:
Medium __/__/__ ( )
__/__/__ ( )
Create a chord progression of four bars with a minor ii-V chain. Same as Basic; use a minor V-i chain.
❏ ***Challenge: Same as Medium; also use a minor ii-V chain, and go for 8 bars. ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
Write a 2-bar turnaround for each key.
Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
Inserting Chromatic Chords
Around the circle of 4ths, insert chromatic chords between each key.
Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:
Finding ii-V-I Variations
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Find as many tritone substitutions as you can in 200 Standard Tunes. Find chains (ii-V-I, ii-V, V-I) in tunes.
Basic __/__/__ ( )
❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium:
Writing Blues Variations
Medium __/__/__ ( ) Challenge __/__/__ ( ) Transpose the chords for Variation #1 into two different keys. Transpose the chords for Variations #2 and 3 into another key.
Basic __/__/__ ( )
❏ ***Challenge: Write your own variation of Bird Blues. ❏ >More: Same as Basic; A) don't pause between keys - connect to the next root and proceed; B) play 2 octaves on each key; C) both A and B
❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord (Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 289 .
Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic.46 ❏ *Basic: Selecting a Solo Select a recorded solo to transcribe. A) don't pause between keys . B) play 2 octaves on each key.Exercise 4.connect to the next root and proceed. In a blues. Start a solo by developing the last idea played by the previous soloist. B) play 2 octaves on each key. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol. make the ending solid.45 ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using Solo Endings and Transitions Medium __/__/__ ( ) Extend a solo a few bars into the next chorus.412 ❏ *Basic: of 4ths.47 Outlining the Form and Chords . Playing Stop-Time Solo Fills Medium __/__/__ ( ) On a play-along recording. C) both A and B ❏ Play-Along: Aebersold Vol.43 Trading Bars in Solos Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: next. trade 4-bar solos w/ a friend. play solo Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ >More: Same as Basic. A) don't pause between keys .connect to the next root and proceed. in all dominant and minor keys. trade 4-bar solos for one chorus and 2-bar solos for the ❏ >More: Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4.connect to the next root and proceed. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Analysis: Transcribing Solos Exercise 4. Basic __/__/__ ( ) Exercise 4. ❏ **Medium: Static Playing Medium __/__/__ ( ) Create a static melody of eighth-notes in each major key around the circle Same as Basic. B) play 2 octaves on each key.44 ❏ *Basic: fills. Same as Basic. 1 – circle of 4ths – 4 bars per chord Exercise 4. A) don't pause between keys . Basic __/__/__ ( ) 4 Performance: Group Interaction Medium __/__/__ ( ) Exercise 4. mute or turn off volume every 2 bars.
Basic __/__/__ ( ) Medium __/__/__ ( ) 290 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .
(Introduction) Exercises for Level 4 • 291 . Same as Basic. transcribe the chords. Basic __/__/__ ( ) Exercise 4.48 ❏ *Basic: Sketching the Rhythms Sketch the rhythms for the tune. Exercise 4.49 Adding Pitches and Expression Medium __/__/__ ( ) Basic __/__/__ ( ) ❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Using the guidelines in section 4. Same as Basic. add expressions.41.❏ *Basic: ❏ **Medium: Outline the form for the tune. add the pitches for the tune.
292 • Exercises for Level 4 (Introduction) .
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