TROUBLE WITH ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS AND PRONOUNS?
Guided discovery materials, exercises and teaching tips at elementary and intermediate levels

David Bolton and Noel Goodey

c,\

\DELTA\ E~G'i:L~~ IIPUBLISHING. Tprft/isslonal

They are often rule. they can work out for themselves the use of the rule. number of different and their own lives. together with teaching tips. you may prefer to prepare an OHP presentation. The Remember! they have discovered. students work on their own. the correct choice when faced with two or more alternatives. would be unnecessarily then you need not present them.TO THE TEACHER Trouble With Adjectives. Adverbs and Pronouns? contains guided discovery materials and exercises for students. The ways. students can do Stage 4 before Stage 3. using immediate contexts or personalised situations. with a particular class. If necessary. to avoid having to write several sentences on the board. The exercises are varied and fully contextualised. • If you prefer. students can keep this page in their personal file. They can keep this page in a personal revision file for future reference. If you feel that. The book deals with common elementary and intermediate difficulties that students have with English adjectives. understanding. Of NOTES • Although we recommend the above (Stage 2) and to use Stage 1 as a progression. This book enables you to work on key grammar trouble spots as they arise. HOW TO USE THE BOOK Each of the 15 units can be approached in the following way: STAGE 4 STAGE 1 I I~ 111 THE RULE? TO PHOTOCOPY PRACTICE DESIGNED EXERCISES TO PHOTOCOPY I WHAT'S DESIGNED Here. • In TEACHING POINTS. • In TEACHING POINTS and CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES the class often needs to see a list of sentences. You do not need to work from Unit 1 through to Unit 15. Once you have checked their answers. you can add your own ideas as well. With the help of pictures and leading questions. invited to use the rule to talk about themselves 2 . students work on their own and do the I written exercises to check again that they have They provide a useful understood the rule. objective means of assessing students' They can be done in class or at Here. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES This page offers you a choice of classroom activities and games where students. box is a reminder of what STAGE 2 TEACHING POINTS with you. dealt with. and helps them to make It is particularly useful for remedial work. The Problem box lists for you students' typical mistakes and misunderstandings. often working together in pairs or groups. apply the rule in a contexts. but. the heading Extensions points concerning the STAGE 3 introduces supplementary some Extensions difficult. students can go back over the sections and finish with a final reading of the Remember! box. home. once the in WHAT'S THE RULE? TEACHING POINTS follow-up to your initial presentation. adverbs and pronouns. it is possible to begin a unit with TEACHING POINTS Students can now work together material on this page enables you to re-present the rule and tackle the problem in different course. • You can study the units in any order you like. We have have been kept the lists as short as possible.

11 Interrogative pronouns: who AND whose. Is she English? . Can I have some tea? Would you like some milk? There's something in there. She's a good player. She often goes there. He got up. OR -ed (exciting OR excited)? 12 I'm very interested in sport. She went to England recently. 4 He's a slow driver.CONTENTS Page 1 Adjective OR adverb (slow OR slowly)? She's a fast runner. OR 20 I like these jeans. I don't like fish. 13 Object pronouns and reflexive pronouns: me He looked at me. someone OR anyone? I've got some money. He drives more carefully than me. I'm not the best driver. These shoes aren't mine. I looked at myself in the mirror. I've got very little money and very few friends. Have you got one? Look at these boots. Do you like the black ones? 60 3 . OR myself? 52 14 There is/There are OR It isflhey are? 56 There's a man at the door. a little OR a few/very little OR very few? 32 I haven't got much money. Mine are black. It's 100 kilometres to London. 7 Some any. 5 Demonstratives: this/these 6 OR that/those? This jacket is nice. A CD is more expensive than a tape. That's the girl whose name I can't remember. He shaved. How many books have you read? -I've read a lot/lots. The fastest train in the world. there's someone coming. 15 When do we use one/ones? I've got a bike. It's the postman. They looked at themselves. I like this music very much. He's a better driver than me. He washed. We ate a little rice and a few vegetables. 16 4 How do we form comparatives and superlatives? The bus is slower than the train. red or blue? What's your name? 12 Relative pronouns: who OR which OR that? AND whose 48 The man who won was French.Neither do I.No. I think so. -I can't see anything. She runs fast. There are two letters for you. 8 Much OR many OR a lot/lots (of). but I don't like that shirt. Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns: my OR mine? 24 28 My brother and my sisters live here. what OR which? 44 Who is she? Whose book is this? Who's that man? Which colour do you want. He drives slowly. . Is there anyone at home? . 8 3 Adjectives ending in -ing This book is very interesting.Yes. but I don't like those. She plays well.Yes. They're from Tom. She ate the food that/which was on the table. 40 How do we use so and neither? I like ice cream. He spoke slowly. They looked at each other. 2 Where do adjectives and adverbs go in the sentence? They live in a lovely big old house. Is he coming? . He will never be President. . something OR anything. The house (that/which) they bought was very big. 9 10 How do we talk about habits? (usually It usually rains in November. I haven't got any tickets. The most expensive dress in the shop. I don't think so.So do I. AND used to) 36 He used to play football.

Anna didn't feel (1 confident (2 confident I confidently) I confidently) at the beginning of the driving lesson but now she's driving quite and she doesn't seem (3 nervous I nervously). get (become). that was good. tells you more about a verb. . S Hard. now drive carefully to the end of the road. 2 Are nervous and fine adjectives or adverbs? 3 Do the words carefully. She runs fast. She's a good player. . 1 An 2 An 3 An adverb usually ends in 4 tells you more about a noun. is fast an adjective or an adverb? 4 In the phrase fast drivers. early and late are both 6 After some verbs like seem. How do you feel? I'm fine. look we use 4 . not adverbs. quickly and slowly adjectives or adverbs? S What do most adverbs end in? B INSTRUCTOR: ANNA: OK. An adverb describes a verb. Some words are both adjectives and adverbs. c_1 _W_H_A_T_'_S _T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?______.. after these verbs: seem. C INSTRUCTOR: ANNA: You seem very relaxed. Adjective A OR adverb? (slow OR slowly?) He's a slow driver. and . 3 In the sentence You're driving too fast. I'm getting more confident. You're driving well. is good an adjective or an adverb? 2 Is well an adjective or an adverb here? . . 1 In the sentences above. An adjective describes a noun (a person. I'm trying hard to drive slowly. The most common are fast. She's a fast runner. fast. REMEMBER! Complete these rules. Answer the questions. Do the words nervous and fine tell you about a Anna OR b how she drives? 0 . Don't drive quickly. place or thing). It tells you how something is done. is fast an adjective or an adverb? . INSTRUCTOR: OK. is the adverb from the adjective good. I don't feel nervous now. taste. not adverbs. . Anna's having a driving lesson. fast drivers are dangerous drivers. quickly and slowly tell you about a Anna OR b how she drives? 0 . sound. feel. look. 4 Are carefully. INSTRUCTOR: Are you nervous? ANNA: No.. smell. Underline the correct alternative. But you're driving too fast. We use adjectives. He drives slowly. Remember. Answer the questions. She plays well. Drive very slowly. I'm fine. hard. feel. . early and late.

good = adjective. early. (lazy p. Ask a student to stand up or come to the front of the class.) Ask students: What are the underlined words? (Adjectives. is good an adjective or an adverb? (An adjective. Write it on the board. Examples: I'm young. He drives slowly. Read something in English very fast. we can use well as an adjective. She's a good player.TEACHING POINTS Adjective OR adverb? (slow OR slowly?) .lIy) (Ie lI> Iy) (ic fP. Now write on the board: How are you? -I'm well.) Ask: What exactly does an adjective do? (It describes a noun. she sang quietlv. his feet. Ask: Is fast an adjective or an adverb? Point out that a few adverbs in English have the same form as the adjective (fast. horrible I:>horribly.) Explain that when we're talking about health. She's a fast runner. Write up the following spelling rules on the board: (y ~ ily after a consonant) •. low. Ask: Is X good at English? Write on the board: X is good at English. Ask: In this sentence.) Now ask how X speaks English and elicit the answer: He/She speaks English well. students could describe famous people. straight). underlining the adverbs: She spoke English slowlv. Write their sentences on the board. underlining the adjectives. Write it on the board and ask: In this sentence. Listen careful. He's got long hair and blue eyes.) Good and well Choose a student who is good at English. Ask: Was I reading fast or slowly? Elicit the answer: You were reading fast. late. He's a slow driver. lazily. hard. easily easy careful terrible enthusiastic carefully terribly enthusiastically (I iP. she wrote her name clearlv. • etc. She runs fast. I'm tall. Typical mistakes: • What's an adjective? Using details about yourself. Ask other students to describe him/her. The problem: Students often use adjectives where they should use adverbs (or sometimes vice versa). high. beeutiiul s.) Write on the board: Normally. He's got big feet. Words which are adjectives and adverbs • Answers to WHAT'S THE RULE? 1: A 1a 2 adjectives 3b 4 adverbs 5 -Iy B 1 adjective 5 adjectives 2 adverb adverbs 3 adverb 6 adjectives 4 adjective C 1 confident 2 confidently 3 nervous REMEMBER! 1 adjective 2 adverb 3 -Iy 4 well 5 . Here it tells us more about X. draw (an object on the board).ically) Ask students for other examples of adverbs which follow the same rules. wrong. long. is well an adjective or an adverb? (An adjective. etc. shout. (Alternatively. she drew badlv. his hair and his eyes. Ask the class how he/she did each thing then write sentences like these on the board. historic if" historically. Examples: He's clever. sing. right. well = adverb. etc.) • What's an adverb? Ask a different student to come to the front of the class and do some of the following things: speak English. I've got brown eyes. is welJ an adjective or an adverb? (An adverb. Ask what letters an adverb usually ends in (-Iy)..beautifully. He's good at English. she shouted loudlv. write (his/her name on the board). give examples of adjectives. Ask: In this sentence. She works-l=!aff:lly: She swims-qeed. She plays well.

.something which they . team A get a point. She plays well. As soon as possible. student A must guess how they answered: You were angry. She talks very quickly. She plays the piano brilliantly.bad 5~ politely 1 1 True 2 False 11 wonderful 3 True 4 False 2 well 3-5lew slowly 3 1 good 4 hard 7 quickly 5 tired 6 tired 7 late 8 careless 9 careful impatient 8 badly 9 clearly 4 1-ea5ily. A different student goes out of the room and the rest of the class choose a different adjective or adverb. She's good at English but she's terrible maths..easy carefully 10 gJ_. Answers to 2 confusingly PRACTICE EXERCISES 1: 2 1 fine 2 nervous 3 terrible 3 hard 4 badly 5 late 6 bad 4-baG1y. each student tries to guess what the other person has written. fast but you speak I think you speak Italian English slowly. • Team game Divide the class into two teams. A and B. 84=af. He drives slowly. etc.something which they . and the Example: good Eng/and are not very good at (1 point) Choose another word and ask one of team B to think of an example in the same way. Student A then comes back into the room and asks different students different questions. They then read out their descriptions rest of the class guess who it is. Examples: What did you do yesterday How did you sleep? What time did you get up today? What did you have for breakfast? evening? Each student then sits next to someone they know quite well. Examples: I think you dance badly but you play the guitar well.something which they . Each student must answer as agreed in the same way (for example be angry or answer nervously). I play the guitar I eat fast I get up slowly. Choose one word from the box: good/well slow/slowly bad/badly quick/quickly sudden/suddenly loud/loudly quiet/quietly easy/easily perfect/perfectly • Guess who careful/carefully angry/angrily dangerous/dangerously nervous/nervously polite/politely Every student in the class should write a description of another student but without using the student's name. In turn. She runs fast How did they answer? Write these adjectives and adverbs on the board: nervously loudly clearly angry slowly quickly politely quietly serious excitedly fast rude Students write down: . 9 -100& loudly 6 . You answered nervously. If the example is correct.ill clearly confusing 6 impatiently 7 -Eafe-fuj. well. at Ask a student in team A to think of an example containing that word. • Guess which He's a slow driver. football. do do do do badly well fast slowly One student (A) goes out of the room.something which they Examples: I speak English badly. She's a fast runner. The rest of the class choose one of the adjectives (for example angry) or adverbs (for example nervously). • CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Adjective OR adverb ? (slow OR slowly?) She's a good player.

3 An adverb is a word which tells us how someone does something.PRACTICE EXERCISES I . 7 . So I practise my English with the taxi drivers.~. The problem is. She plays well.. Yes. Adjective 1 Write OR adverb? (slow OR slowly?) She runs fast. choosing the correct words from the box. . isn't it.. quick/quickly MOTHER: hard careful/carefully careless/carelessly good/well bad/badly late . He drives slowly. How about you? I'm (3 terrible / terribly) at remembering dates. taxi . .. She's a good player. but more loud. at French and I hated it. but he makes a lot of mistakes because he's very so he must try to be more (9) . TOM: BEN: I'm (10 glad / gladly) this is our last exam.. So I ask them to speak clear and carefully but they speak just as fast. . Complete the sentences.. it's (11 wonderful/wonderfully). Underline the correct alternative. FATHER: MOTHER: How about history? They say he tries (3) although he arrived ten minutes (5) and he didn't do (4) . He's a slow driver. He's telling a colleague about his problems. I'm feeling (2 nervous / nervously). My English is 4 5 6 7 8 9 . but I can't.. TOM: BEN: You look (6 tired / tiredly) now. 2 Two students are waiting to take a history exam. place or thing. BEN: TOM: BEN: How do you feel? I'm (1 fine / finely). 1 An adjective tells you more about a person. 3 Two parents are looking at their son's school report. Underground Underground trains are quite fast but it isn't easily to understand the system . . in the exam FATHER: MOTHER: And French? I was always really (6) They say he learns (7) (8) 4 A foreign businessman is in London for the first time.it's much easier. Cross out the mistakes he makes and write the correct form. especially when I'm (5 tired / tiredly). It says he's quite (1) ~?'?~ at maths but I'm afraid he didn't do (2) in the test at the end of the term.. I try (4 hard / hardly) to remember them.it seems very confusingly. last night and I slept (8 bad / badly) so now I can't think Yes. I went to bed (7 late / lately) (9 clear / clearly). quite good and I listen careful and I try hard to understand them but I find it very difficult sometimes. they listen polite for a few minutes but then they get impatiently and they start talking . She's a fast runner. . 2 An adjective usually ends in -Iy. .very fast. 4 Good and fast are both adjectives and adverbs. .~~ . Taxis are expensive and they go quite slow because the traffic's so badly. True or False after these statements. So I usually go by 1 2 3 ~.

and I'm going to California tomorrow. He's an interesting young man. or two colour adjectives together. + material/type bed.. 8 . with long dark hair. 4 Adverbs of place normally go in end position: NB Adverbs don't normally go between a verb and a direct object: I don't like flying very much. black square. . the second adjective. Rewrite the sentences. (today) He doesn't live. 2 Adverbs of frequency (always. etc.. She often goes there. adjectives normally go the noun. usually. Complete these sentences.) they go 3 When we use two adjectives together we put and 4 We put 'opinion' without a noun. I often go there. Adverbs of manner (carefully. (old/big/lovely) motorbike. (never) Time: 2 Place: 3 Manner: 4 Frequency: . 5 metres. Then I take a sleeping pill and I go to sleep immediately. I'm a rich man now. The problem is I don't like flying very much. A Adjectives Darren Hill's a new British artist. .. (there) He works. easily.. I always get on the plane quickly. I often go there. (Italian/powerful) B Adverbs I'm a rich man now. . But I don't often sell them here. etc. Look at the text about Darren. Darren's in London. He's tall and thin..) usually go in end position: I can sell my paintings easily.). (NOT I don't like very much flying. He spoke slowly. She went to England recently. I like this music very much. 3 Adverbs of time usually go in front or end position: Recently I sold a big painting..) 'fact' adjectives (big. . . I usually sell them in the USA. well. It's 8 metres long and 4 metres high! It has a lot of black and white circles. .. sometimes. 2 But in measurements (2cm. etc. etc. nice. (carefully) He works at the weekend. young. . often. the noun.) REMEMBER! Complete the sentence. I usually sell them in the USA. using these adjectives: big old Mexican wooden wonderful Adjectives usually go in this order: origin colour opinion + size + age + shape + + He sleeps in a . . I can sell my paintings easily. Look at what Darren says and write another example from the text each time.. . I've done very well. He will never be President. .IIDI L-I _W_H_A_T_'_S _T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?____j Where do adjectives and adverbs go in the sentence? They live in a lovely big old house. He often wears a black leather jacket and a big white American cowboy hat. using before or after. I went to Seattle last week. In English.. Recently I sold a big painting in New York.) normally go in mid position: I don't often sell them here. etc. adjectives (interesting. . putting the adverbs in the correct position. He's doing a big new painting. Look at the position of the adjectives in the text and put these adjectives in the right order. S Darren lives in a 6 He rides a house in the country.

Use these phrases: a little old man. ashamed. II went to Seattle last week. size little book Ask students: What kind of adjective is interesting? ('Size. Never I've been to England. • The correct order of adjectives material/type. sure. ') and 'size' adjectives: pleasant. First. They often put adverbs in the wrong position. Time (End/Front). tall. glad. 'shape' adjectives sometimes go before 'age' adjectives but it is a useful guide for students. etc. some time adverbs can go left the room) . ill. upset. Answers to WHAT'S THE RULE? 2: A 1 before 2 after 3 before 4 before 5 lovely big old 6 powerful Italian B 1 I always get on the plane quickly. and get the answer: 'Opinion. an Italian glass bowl/an Italian industrial company Now start a revised order list on the board. age. 1 Darren's in London today. 3 He works carefully. ready. Write: opinion (NB This order is not absolute . I I'm going to California tomorrow. She went to England recently. 4 He never works at the weekend. Indicate the list on the board. asleep. + size Then continue in the same way. 9 . • Measurement adjectives Using rulers or tape measures. get students to measure things in the 2m long and 1m high. 2 He doesn't live there. is. a black Italian car.TEACHING POINTS IDI Where do adjectives and adverbs go in the sentence? They live in a lovely big old house. alive.for example. He plays well tennis. She often goes there. Then write: an interesting Write this random list on the board: colour. List them on the board.) Finally. get the class to suggest adverbs that go with each heading. I I've done very well. 'opinion' Ask students to give you more 'opinion' adjectives come first.but they're a useful guide. aware. I like very much c!assical music. REMEMBER! He sleeps in a wonderful big old square black Mexican wooden bed. He will never be President. They come before 'size' adjectives. I like this music very much. He spoke slowly. Then write the headings Manner (End). He was wearing a leather black jacket. showing the position of the adverb. Place (End). get students to make their own sentences. classroom to practise the adjectives deep. Then get students to write a sentence for each heading. Mid I always get up I don't always sleep End ear/yo wel/. NB These rules about the position in mid position (He immediately of adverbs are not absolute . wide with measurements. were when they afraid. 2 I always get on the plane quickly. pleased. The problem: Typical mistakes: Students sometimes put adjectives after the noun. thick. I was always tired. origin. She goes often on holiday. I I go to sleep immediately. NOT He isn't a pleased person. opinion. shape.for example. The blackboard's Explain that these adjectives go after the measurement. using two or three adjectives before a noun.' Then ask: What kind of adjective is little? Then say: So. was. • Adverbs Front Nowadays Write this table on the board to explain to students front. Examples: Sofia's smile is 5 cm wide. II often go there. 4 I don't often sell them here. boring/big. alone. high. I never have met him. well Explain that most adverbs normally are the main verb: She isn't often ill. Extensions • Adjectives not usually used before a noun He isn't pleased. a round black hole. 3 Then I take a sleeping pill. and they often put them in the wrong order. awake. Frequency (Mid). adding age + shape + colour + origin + material/type to your list. Show students this list of adjectives that are not normally • The verb be + adverb used before a noun: go after am. mid and end positions. long. small. an old round table. She's an old interesting woman. are. IToday Darren's in London.

( rarely watch football matches. has got a big black sports bag. comment For example: Student A: I usually get up early on Sunday. 3a"" 4a She's 'often been . took your shoes off quickly. 2 I usually sleep for eight hours.CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Where do adjectives and adverbs go in the sentence? They live in a lovely big old house. I've never seen a ghost. Then students write similar sentences describing other students. very quietly. You You You You You closed the book angrily. stood up (very) slowly. She went to England recently. Ask the class to correct these mistakes 0% Students work • The adverb game Tell the class to think of adverbs. 7c"" 3 1 a big new American car. 13 I've always wanted to be a famous athlete. S an interesting well-paid job. I like this music very much. 11 I often spend an hour in the gym. You nearly dropped your book. 5c"" 6d She stayed *there . is wearing a lovely new grey sweatshirt. go to the door First.. Then students Encourage tell the class about themselves. 12 I ran 100m in 11 seconds last week.. Describe a student to the rest of the class and ask them to say who you're describing. X X X X X is about 1m 75 tall. 4 I don't often have coffee for breakfast. make. He spoke slowly. 2 b She speaks 'slowly. He will never be President. and close it very. has got long dark hair and brown eyes. 10 . I've often been to England. For example. How often How often do they do something? have they done something? Then mime an action that demonstrates adverb of manner. You nearly forgot your bag. used in mid position. give them examples. 10 After school I don't usually go straight home. / Last week I ran 100m in 11 seconds. the student Examples: as 'X'. 5 I normally have fruit juice. from other students. 4 1 I go to bed early. ( usually have coffee for breakfast. Now invite students to mime other actions while the class guess the adverb. • How often do you do it? Write these frequency 100% adverbs on the board. They read them out and the rest of the class guess who 'X' is. 9 I don't like noisy places very much.. You nearly sat on your hat. Examples: ( hardly ever go to the theatre.. an about themselves. (Quietly) Then ask them to describe your action: You closed the door (very) quietly. Talk about yourself: Ask the class to guess the adverb. 7 My friends have lunch in the canteen every day. ( don't often play tennis. danced badly. Make a note of any word-order after 'X' has been identified. 4 a lovely heated swimming pool. • Using adjectives to identify people Refer to You can also use this game to practise the common Examples: adverb nearly. talked loudly. Student B: ( never get up early on Sunday! Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 2: 1 1 beautiful new Italian 2 long green silk 2 1 b".. She often goes there. 3 I sleep well. is wearing old white tennis shoes. 6 nice young American friends. 8 But I don't eat there. 2 a beautiful modern Mexican-style apartment. mistakes they always usually/normally/generally oftenlfrequently sometimes/occasionally rarely hardly ever never in pairs and make sentences using frequency adverbs. 6 I always walk to college. 3 a nice quiet street.

(always) . using the adjectives given. (every day) 8 But I don't eat..(':.fl. I've got 6 His friends are American. Write his sentences.. 5 She went to London last year. They're young. 2 Match the sentences with the type of adverb used. They're nice. (well) 4 I don't have coffee for breakfast. It's modern. ~~::IY: . 1 Yasuko speaks English well. (early) Rewrite her sentences. . (last week) 13 I've wanted to be a famous athlete. is Mexican-style. V' llil a Adverb of frequency b Adverb of manner c Adverb of time d Adverb of place 2 She slowly speaks. It's quiet.'!!~~~~~r: . It's heated.. . 4 Sophie's a very healthy student! 1 I go to bed. She often goes there.:!. dress. 3 She rarely makes mistakes.'?~~. (usually) 3 I sleep. 6 She there stayed for a month.?:?:. D D D D D D 3 Sam has moved to California. He will never be President.PRACTICE EXERCISES 10 Where do adjectives and adverbs go in the sentence? They live in a lovely big old house. It's American. He's telling an English friend what he's got. It's interesting. . a 'colour' adjective) adjective) shirt.~~. I like this music very much.. Then put a tick (V') if the adverb is in the right position. (very much) 10 After school I don't go straight home... 1 Complete the sentences. He spoke slowly. . . (normally) 6 I walk to college. (always) 7 My friends have lunch in the canteen. . I've got a lot of . 4 His swimming pool is lovely. I've got 5 His job is well-paid. 4 She's been often to England..~ .? Y? . (usually) 11 I spend an hour in the gym. My apartment's in ~.... (often) 5 I have fruit juice. an 'opinion' 2 Kate's wearing a (a 'material' adjective. It's new. 1 His car's big. an 'age' adjective. I've got 2 His apartment I live in 3 His street is nice. including the adverbs in brackets. a 'size' adjective.~'!"!. Mark where it should go (*) if it's in the wrong position. She went to England recently. (often) 12 I ran 100m in 11 seconds.. 7 Yesterday she accepted a job in Australia. silk beautiful long Italian green new 1 Mike's wearing a (an 'origin' adjective. 11 . (there) 9 I don't like noisy places. It's beautiful.'. 2 I sleep for eight hours. using the right adjectives and word order.

I' f scinated.DIL--_W_H_A_T_' S_T_H_E_R U_L E_?___j Adjectives ending in -ing Thisbook is very interesting. ~ some rsations. OR -ed? (exciting OR excited?) I'm very interested in sport. A 'tOng . are 0 r .' things bL!t . . 12 . When I'm excited. I m seeln OJ nve fascinating co . OR b how Hannah feels? D REMEMBER! Complete these rules. sne's d When m a says sne s trre . . . are amazrng . 1 What ending do all the adjectives have? 2 Do all these adjectives describe a various things .India IS many enjoying myse it's never boring! J Hannah is travelling by train in India with her friend Rachel. d but sed S'ne gets irritate . xnenences u frightenrng e r .. long time.. very excr r • I'm meeting Everytning nere IS I d naving lots of ting neop e an lots of interes r . (and sometimes a amazrng . R hel Sne's not really blem IS ac . ' teresting fooo . . bored. . . Indian trainS '\'\ I' nad one or twO ve ft en d'sgustrng). Wnen t In d W'nen things take a 'n gets annoye . 1 Adjectives ending in 2 Adjectives ending in describe what things are like.' If . I'm amuse. 'n 's getting really I'm worried about her . h rrifying) sights . . she interested In India. I'm relaxed n' gs go wrong. some very rn and I m eating '(but the toilets . describe how a person feels.s e . 0 depressed. This is a postcard to her brother.' b t I'm really . 1 What ending do all the adjectives have? 2 Do all these adjectives describe a various things OR b how Hannah feels? D -rne pro .

teEl-(interesting) have a window seat.(tired) so I slept for a couple of hours. It isn't a very excited film. • Adjectives ending in -ed Write all or some of the following amazed disgusted tired amused annoyed excited relaxed astonished frightened surprised bored confused depressed fascinated embarrassed adjectives on the board: disappointed worried shocked interested Mime or act out a situation and then ask students: How did I feel? Examples: You were tired. the other in -ed.) Ask them how they would describe the following: Going away on holiday (Exciting) toilet by mistake.it was amazed (amazing)! from the Answers to A 1 -ing 2a REMEMBER! WHAT'S THE RULE? B 1 -eo 2b 2 -ed 3: 1 -ing 13 .TEACHING POINTS Adjectives ending in -ing This book is very interesting. It was a bit confusing but it was quite amused (amusing). When I woke up I was -stH'f)risiflg (surprised) to find we were nearly in New York. When they hear a mistake they must tell you to stop and then correct it. (exciting).F. That was very disappointing. (bored). I'm. adjective is.i.ffitefes. I felt -ti-rffig.fi. Ask students one at a time to choose one of the adjectives on the board and mime or act out situations in the same way.Rg. (Boring/interesting) Walking into a men's/women's rub out the -ed endings and Then ask students to think of similar things/situations. Then I tried to speak to the man next to me but he wasn't interested. You were disgusted. After that. (Embarrassing) The rest of the class must guess what the Football.I want to go to bed. Students confuse adjectives which are similar. In fact he seemed surprising (surprised) and annoyed when I tried to start a conversation. I'm not+nteresting in football. to look at because I didn't So I watched the I was excited for the first hour. • What's wrong? Tell students that you are going to read out a short text which contains a number of mistakes.A§-. You were frightened. The rest of the class guess what the adjective was. Let's go. First trip to New York I thought the flight across the Atlantic would be excited.i. one ending in -ing. but after that I was ~ There was nothing . The problem: Typical mistakes: OR -ed? (exciting OR excited?) I'm very interested in sport. Then I ate the food but it was~€EI(disgusting). (Alternatively replace them with -ing endings. I'm Bef:. • Adjectives ending in -ing Tell students to look at the words on the board and imagine they all end in -ing instead of -ed. film. I'll never forget the view of Manhattan plane . You were shocked.

Answers to PRACTICE 1 1 False 2 False 2 1lliillI. I think I think I think is/are exciting. Gabriella is worried about money (she hasn't Think of subjects which are likely to provoke comments from your class. They can then discuss what they have written and someone in each group tells the rest of the class what they have found out about each other's opinions.. Have any members of the group completed the sentences in the same way? One member of each group tells the rest of the class about some of the things they have found out about each other. I'm worried about I'm frightened of . Marco thinks Formula 1 is exciting. . students to make comments. Find out Students complete these sentences: I'm interested in . Roberto is frightened of spiders..1m • CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Adjectives ending in -ing This book is very interesting. The following the news politics maths girls/boys English grammar the first day of the summer holidays bull-fighting mosquitoes drugs rain school violence on TV advertisements the dentist motorbikes clothes Invite individual Examples: A: I'm interested in the news. different Write the words in the box on the board: disgusting/disgusted interesting/interested frighteningifrightened depressing/depressed worrying/worried exciting/excited shocking/shocked boring/bored annoyed/annoying fascinating/fascinated Divide the class into groups of four or five. subjects. Examples: Luigi is interested got any!). B: I'm not. using those words. in rap. on TV are suggestions: Now change groups and get students to complete these sentences. is/are boring. I think it's boring. is/are disgusting.ill!lg 10 interesting EXERCISES 3: 3 1 boring 2 worrying 3 surprised 4 disappointed 5 amazed 6 astonish_ing 7 illIP.r~~ 8 disappointed 9 interested 11 boring 12 disgusting 13 surprised 14 interesting 2 bored 3 interested 4 interesting 5 surprised 6 surprising 7 annoyed 8 annoying 9 depressed 10 depressing 14 . OR -ed? (exciting • Different OR excited?) comments I'm very interested in sport . Antonia thinks it's boring! Marta thinks English food is disgusting. They can then discuss what they have written.

to see you here. with me? ! . when we want to describe a thing. 'Before I came. 2 A teacher at a language school in London is describing the ideas about England that his students have. Underline the correct alternative to complete the sentences. 1 Write True or False. For example. 1 We use adjectives ending in -ing. 1S . surprised/surprising . Choose from the words in the box. when we want to talk about our feelings about something.Because you're being very (8) . Many of my students say they're (7 surprised / surprising) that English people don't all have eggs and bacon for breakfast and they're (8 disappointed / disappointing) that we don't all drink tea.Why are you (7) .' / interesting) is far more (10 interested / interesting) than cricket. But many say / interesting) that many students completely change their ideas while they're here.PRACTICE EXERCISES 10 Adjectives ending in -ing This book is very interesting.What's wrong? You look a bit (9) . OR -ed? (exciting OR excited?) I'm very interested in sport.Why is it (6) . Shall we go? I want to stay. It's (1 surprised / surprising) and a bit (2 worried / worrying) how foreign students all have the same ideas about England.I'm (5) . 3 Complete what the people at a party are saying. It's (14 interested / disgusting). I've lost my job.I've just had some (10) news.~:!~9. 2 We use adjectives ending in -ed. like excited.I'm not (3) bored/boring depressed/depressing annoyed/annoying interested/interesting ~. ? . French students in particular expect English food to be (12 disgusted they're (13 surprised / surprising) because it's really quite good.I thought you were in New York. like surprising. many of them are (3 surprised / surprising) and slightly (4 disappointed / disappointing) when they first arrive because it isn't foggy! They're (5 amazed / amazing) when the sun shines and they think it's (6 astonished / astonishing) when it doesn't rain for weeks.This party's (1) . ? Can't we talk about something more (4) . the English were only (9 interested A German student said to me. But the ones I've met think football They say cricket is (11 bored / boring). in football.I'm not (2) . I thought in cricket.

expensive.the best. Ali's heavier than him. Complete these sentences. He's heavyweight champion.worse .. bad. REMEMBER! Complete the rules. fast. early. He's lost six fights. A Joe's older than Ali. Joe's the quietest. short. .. He's the best in the world..better . but Joe trains than Joe (1m 70). . easily. Thefastest train in the world.. How do we form the comparative and the superlative of these adjectives and adverbs? We use the endings a) (comparative) and b) the (superlative). I'm taller than you. narrow. . careful. He always buys 2 Joe has never had a car accident. happy. quick. hard. more/the most with many adjectives of more/the most with many good/well ..long adjectives: successful. He's more famous than Ali and Julio. but he isn't the oldest. 4 I want a more comfortable bed. bad/badly 16 . They look 3 Julio trains than Ali. Julio trains longer than Ali. He's a better boxer than them. -ter/-iest with adjectives of two syllables ending in - with like long. He drives more carefully than me. high. Ali has lost four. Now complete the answer to this question.Adjectives with two syllables ending in . Look at these different kinds of adjectives and adverbs: . He doesn't talk much. 2 She's the prettiest girl in the world. But Joe trains the longest. He's more successful than Ali and Julio. fast. etc.the best. Ali's had five! results. straight. pretty. .. but he isn't the heaviest. The most expensive dress in the shop. etc. late adjectives syllables . 3 You get up earlier than me. B Everybody knows Joe. and the adjectives quiet. surprised. He's a better driver than me. 6 Can you speak more slowly? 7 Shespeaks English better than me. clever. easy. . He's the most famous boxer in Britain. etc. etc. A CD is more expensive than a tape. dirty. How do we form the comparative and the superlative of these adjectives and adverbs? We put a) (comparative) and b) the (superlative) before the adjective/adverb.many adjectives of two syllables: famous. tall. Julio spends a lot of money. Look at these different kinds of adjectives and adverbs: . hard.. carefully. but Julio (1m 90) is than Joe.Adverbs with the same form as adjectives: long. . Julio's older than him.the worst.the worst more/the most with 5 It's the most boring film I've seen. .~~I __ W_H_A_T_'_S_T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?~ How do we form comparatives and superlatives? Thebus is slower than the train. Now complete the answer to this question. .. 1 Ali (1m 80) is 2 Ali and Julio are smiling. using the correct forms of happy. He moves more quickly than they do. -er/i-est -er/-est with adjectives of syllable . using the correct forms of careful.. driver than Ali. funny. Joe has lost none.many adverbs: quickly. expensive.-y: heavy. Julio's heavier than Joe. etc. Complete these sentences. slowly. uncomfortable. modern. tall.Adjectives with one syllable: old. bad/badly . low.. often. I'm not the best driver. late. early. simple. hard. He's a 3 Julio has had clothes. But note these irregular forms: good/wellbetter .

(Write on the board three exam marks to demonstrate than B's. Elicit the use of expensive and (for revision) cheap: Carmen's jeans were more expensive than Rafael's. the most comfortable expensive more comfortable. Ask three students how much they paid for their jeans/their shoes. Say. etc. tallest Write on the board: tall. big. Now write on the board: comfortable. The Renault is more comfortable Show the class (magazine) pictures of three cars. to demonstrate . He drives more carefully than me.) more modern/the Adverbs and other adjectives .:f:R. C's are the best/the worst.) or the students themselves to demonstrate: A's marks are better/worse Extensions • • More/most Again use simple drawings/pictures for quantity (Not) As . (Ask three students what time than B. then write on the board: than the Fiat. as A isn't as old as B. (Draw three houses and mark the dates most modern.-er/-est A writes more carefully than B. The problem: Typical mistakes: Students often confuse the forms of the comparative and the superlative. etc.) they get up and elicit: A gets up later/earlier . The most expensive dress in the shop. Cesar's jeans were the most expensive. C writes the most carefully. Add a third bag and elicit: Leon's bag is the biggest. Then take two students' bags (very different in size) and ask the class to compare them. Elicit the answers. and Jorge's bag is smaller than Katya's.a:t-mine. with short adjectives (one syllable) like these. or add a superfluous more. Katya's bag is bigger than Jorge's.-er/-est with two-syllable most with most two-syllable adjectives ending in -yo (Write on the board three arithmetical to demonstrate easier/the easiest. Answers to WHAT'S THE RULE? 4: A a -er b -est 1 taller the tallest 2 happier 3 harder + the hardest A a more b most 1 the most expensive 2 more careful 3 the worst REMEMBER! 1 one 2 -y 3 adverbs 4 long 5 two 6 adverbs 7 worse 17 . Write this on the board.More/the they were built to demonstrate .TEACHING POINTS How do we form comparatives and superlatives? The bus is slower than the train. and The Mercedes is the most comfortable.This is -F1'Iefe-easier. I'm more tall than you. You speak English weffi than me.) on the board. each more legible sums of progressive difficulty . He's the -ekJeF. Write this on the board. Rafael's were cheaper than 'Carmen's. Ask two students to come to the front of the class. and Jorge's bag is the smallest. small. • Tall. (Show three types of writing than the other. Explain that we use more/the • most with long adjectives (three syllables or more). His bike's better . He's a better driver than me. They also forget to use than. I'm not the best driver. The fastest train in the world. You can do the same with the remaining 'rules': adjectives.) with adverbs that have the same form as adjectives. Then add a third student and say: Carmen is the tallest. Is B as expensive as A? A's got more money than B. taller. Compare them and say: Sasha is taller than Miguel. C gets up the earliest/the latest. She's more intelligent es-me... Cs got the most (money).in the class.better/the best/worse/the worst. Explain that we use -er/-est • Comfortable. A CD is more expensive than a tape.More/the most with most adverbs.

Pilar's line is the shortest. The music's more interesting. Then get students to work in pairs. They each write six sentences. My life will be more exciting. and each student writes down the five most important Examples: I'd like to speak English better. each using a different colour. Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 4: 1 1 earlier 2 more expensive 3 cheaper 4 slower 5 quicker 6 more frequent 2 1 longest 2 highest 3 closest 4 most distant 5 biggest 6 most international 7 easiest 3 1 earlier 2 earlierl/onger 3 more frequently 4 longer 5 more carefully 4 1 worse 2 best 3 worse 4 better 5 worst 6 worse 5 1 more tall taller 2~ strong 3 more good better 4~ more carefully 5 moderner more modern 6 more well better 18 . I'I! be the most famous actor in the world. longest line? • What changes would you like? Tell students what changes you would like in your life. Ask students to work in pairs and prepare a similar dialogue. then use a ruler or a piece of string to find the correct answers. Students read their dialogues to the class.X or Y? . Ask the rest of the class: Which is the shortest/the Encourage their opinions: I think Juan's line is longer than Monica's. Examples: My hair will be shorter. J'/I be more independent. Examples: I'd like a bigger flat. to draw a straight line on the board. They discuss the changes they would like. and it closes later. train ticket. • What will you be like in ten years' time? Students work in pairs and imagine themselves in ten years' time. changes. The fastest train in the world.Which club shal! we go to . a bike/a scooter/a motorbike my country/the USA racing to make sentences.Y's cheaper. and using comparative and superlative forms.CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES How do we form comparatives and superlatives? The bus is slower than the train. He's a better driver than me. using comparative and superlative Ideas: Buying c/othes/shoes/a car/food/a Choosing a holiday/a pet/a video. using comparatives and superlatives. The three lines should cross each other and should not differ too much in length. A CD is more expensive than a tape. He drives more carefully than me. I'd like a more powerful computer. I'd like to play the piano better. I'll speak English better. Get students to write their opinions. they've got the best OJ in town. I'I! have more money. forms. I'm not the best driver. Use as many comparative forms as possible. than English. I'd like a more modern kitchen. • Which is the longest line? Ask three students. • Making comparisons Write pairs or groups of comparable words on the board. The most expensive dress in the shop. I'd like the fastest motorbike in the world. Write this dialogue on the board: . Each student then tells the class his/her three most important wishes. Examples: maths/physics/English boys/girls I'd like to get up later in the morning. .I prefer X. basketball/footballlmotor Students work together • Short dialogues Give students an example. Physics is more difficult/easier Maths is the easiest/the most difficult.

long (x 2) 1 Girls often learn to read 2 Women usually get up 3 Women have a bath 4 Women live S Women drive forms of these adverbs: f!. using the correct comparative of the following adjectives: frequent. A CD is more expensive than a tape. It only takes an hour and a half.. ? It takes two hours. 19 . 3 Complete the sentences. when he got his result! mark in the class. but he's cleverer than me. slow. early. using better/best Dimitri did (1) (2) English (4) OR worse/worst. there's a bus every hour. me in the English exam. than the trains? LEILA: CLERK: Are the buses (6) Yes. but I speak mark in the class. than men. carefully.<!. He only got 30%.30? It costs £35. S 6 . quick. He got 80%. early (x 2). Felipe got the (5) He was feeling ill during the exam and he felt even (6) 5 Cross out the mistakes in each line and write the correct form. The most expensive dress in the shop. . . ~?:~~ than . but he's more tall than me. I got a (3) than him. expensive LEILA: CLERK: LEILA: CLERK: form (-er OR more) I want to go to London. He drives more carefulfy than me. longest . He works carefuller than me.30. I play tennis more good than him.~ . t h e wor Id . than boys. but it's (4) The train's (5) ~~r!!. He got 55%. But Mario got the mark than Mario. Men stay in bed than men. I like going to clubs and I dance more well than he does. Complete the dialogue. river . The fastest train in the world. t h e IS Mount Everest is the Mars is the What is the Is Canada the English is the What is the form (-est OR most).. but it's (2) That's too expensive! Is the bus (3) Yes. 3 4 . I wear moderner clothes than him. He isn't as stronger as me and I'm better than him at sport. train than the 10.. than men. than men. . using the correct superlative 1 (I) ong 2 (high) 3 (close) 4 (distant) 5 (big) 6 (international) 7 (easy) T h e A mazon . He's more interested in his college work 1 2 ~~~~f!. 2 Complete the sentences. In mountain planet to Earth. Is there an (1) Yes. 4 Complete the sentences. He's a better driver than me. than I am. I'm older than my brother. it's only £18...PRACTICE EXERCISES 10 How do we form comparatives and superlatives? The bus is slower than the train. planet from Earth? country in the world? language in the world. I'm not the best driver. cheap. using the comparative frequently. .~:.~!(~:. there's one at 8. 1 Leila's at a tourist office. route from England to India? in the world. I got 75%..

+ plural nouns for things which are further away. that.01 A WHAT'S THE RULE? Demonstratives: this/these Sam wants to buy a motorbike. 6 We can use this. Thisjacket is nice. but I don't like that shirt. + a singular noun for something which is further away. these and those on their own. these that. He's with his friend Tom. . this. these. these and and those those with people and with or without a . 1 We use 2 We use 3 We use 4 We use 5 You can use + a singular noun for something near. + plural nouns for things which are near. OR that/those? Ilike these jeans but I don't like those. that. 1 Is Sam talking about a one motorbike OR b two? 2 Is the Honda near him? 3 Is the Suzuki further a Yes OR b No OR D D D away? a Yes b No B Is Sam talking about a one OR b two Ducatis? OR 2 Are the Ducatis near the boys? a Yes 3 Are the Kawasakis also near them? b No OR a Yes b No OR 4 Do we use this. those only with things? a Yes b No D D D D c Can we use this. 20 . without a noun? a Yes OR b No D REMEMBER! Complete these rules. that.

) • These/those Borrow a pair of shoes from a student (or use your own l). (OR Hold them up. are we talking about one thing or many things? (Many. are we talking about one thing or many things? (One. Ask him/her to take his/her shoes off.. for example: This is my jacket and that's Paulo's. Extensions • This/these happening Tell students that we can also use this and these about things which are now or are about to happen (they are near in time). (Point as you say that bag. Examples: I'm not enjoying this film. Put them on your desk. Students often confuse the forms of the demonstratives. THERE Ask: When we use these and those.. (They are watching the film when she says this._ HERE THOSE ~.) Why did you do that? I was much younger in those days. This is my bag and that bag is yours. these and those for things and people. Indicate other things which students in the class have and then point to individual Get them to say. Ask: What's the difference between this and that? Elicit the answer: We use this for something which is near us and that for something which is further away.) Tell students that you can use this.TEACHING POINTS Demonstratives: this/these I like these jeans but I don't like those. This bag belongs to that boy.) Ask Marco to do the same. but I don't like that shirt. • That/those Examples: I didn't enjoy that film. These bags belong to those girls. Indicate another student. Write on the board: THESE ~. that. Say: Those are Gabbi's shoes. • This/that Put your bag on your desk in front of you. How long have you been in -#Ia-F country? Shall we sit at#ti5-table over there? Did you write to #le5€-people we met on holiday? Look at#le5€-birds up there. HERE THAT" THERE students. Say: This is my bag and that bag is Marco's. Say: These are Stefan's my) shoes. Tell a student at the back of the class to put his/her bag on the desk in front of him/her. (The film has finished. Ask: When we use this and that. The problem: Typical mistakes: OR that/those? This jacket is nice. Answers to A 1a 2a 3a REMEMBER! WHAT'S THE RULE? 5: 6 noun B 1b 2a 3b 4b C 1a 1 this 2 that 3 these 4 those 5 things 21 . actions or situations which are finished. Write on the board: THIS . What are you doing these days? We can use that and those about things.) What shall we do this afternoon? Listen to this.

(Pointing) Those shoes are Martin's. Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 5: 1 1 this that 2 these those 2 1 this 2 that 3 those 4 those 5 that 3 1 This 2 these 3 this 4 those 5 that 6 These 6 those 7 those 8 that 9 those 10 these 7 that 8 this 9 that 10 this 22 . Example: Is that your bag? Again. etc. etc.I0Il CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Demonstratives: this/these I like these jeans but I don't like those. socks. a comb. the student who produces this sentence should make a gesture to indicate that that refers to a bag which is further away. etc. Those are your (ears/knees. their hands and feet.). student X should go through the pile again. Practise with the class the sort of questions they must ask X. saying who all the things belong to. Write this sentence Is this your seat? on the board: Point to one student and ask him/her to repeat the sentence but with one word changed.).) B: Whose are these glasses? (X: They're Maria's. a bag. At the same time they ask these questions: What's this? OR What are these? The other student answers: That's your (nose/neck/back. glasses. Point to another student who should change one word in the same way. The other students in the class then make a pile of their personal possessions. but I don't like that shirt. • Whose is it? OR that/those? • Change a word This jacket is nice. X: This ring is Anna's.). Examples: Hold up a watch and say: Whose is this watch? Move away from the pile. rings. etc. They take it in turns to indicate various parts of their face and body. Now write this sentence on the board: Do you like these jeans? Continue round the class in the same way. Example: Is this your bag? If this is the new sentence. Send one student (X) out of the room. point and ask: Whose is that black bag? Student X comes back into the room and students ask questions like: A: Whose is that jacket? (X: It's Juan's. Continue round the class in the same way. he/she should make a gesture to indicate that this refers to a bag which is near and the question should be directed at another student. • Parts of the body Students work in pairs.) When all the items have been mentioned. Get a selection of singular and plural items (a watch.

(1) STEVE: This hote I's goo d' . . Complete their conversation. using this/these/that away. (7) Y TONY:What are you doing last year but we stayed in one of (4) big hotels by the beach. to talk about a person or a thing person or a thing that is further 2 We use to talk about away. And (2) (3) hotel before? sunbeds are very comfortable. it? TONY:Yes. using this/these/that or those. or 1 Complete We use these rules. It's near (9) us? we'll eat in the hotel. '" ? CAROLINE: Can I try on (3) trousers over there? ASSISTANT: Yes. are 41. style looks good ASSISTANT: (6) with (7) CAROLINE: Yes. (10) is our first night so I think 23 . CAROLINE: like (1) I ASSISTANT: Yes. of (5) block over there. STEVE: e're going to a restaurant W Do you want to come with TONY:No.f}/~ black top. we came to Benidorm N TONY:Where's your room? STEVE: e're on the top floor W TONY:One of (6) STEVE: es. (2) on you. right.Isn 't I. rooms with the balconies? room at the end. clock tower in the centre of town. using this/these/that or those. (4) (5) black colour. (8) evening? called Pepe's.. 3 Two people are sitting on sun beds by a hotel swimming pool in Spain. Have you stayed in STEVE: o. but I don't like that shirt. OR that/those? that is near us and to talk about a This jacket is nice.PRACTICE EXERCISES 10 Demonstratives: this/these I like these jeans but I don't like those. and I like (8) go well .t. those. What size are (9) ASSISTANT: (10) Er. will go well with black top. people or things that are near us and for people or things that are further :2 Complete the dialogue in a clothes shop. thanks. it is. you're boots would trousers.

B Possessive pronouns Later.Jack? No. We've all lost our cameras. Mine are black. 5 KATE: I've broken glasses. She's broken her glasses. his. The dog has hurt its leg too. her. This Canon must be hers. I think I've broken my arm. mine are size 43. Luke has cut his face. with a noun? is a Canon. Are these boots yours. . its. 6 They've all lost cameras. HARRY: REMEMBER! Complete the rules or the examples. his. a noun. your. their have the same form before . I think it's his.No. What possessive adjective do we use for animals and things? 3 Do we say I've broken the Complete these sentences. hers. . some boots and three cameras were found on the mountain. They've just come back to their campsite. Use them to complete the sentences. yours. Whose are these boots? Are they Does the Kodak belong to Dave? LUKE: . they aren't . our. Do we use mine. it isn't No. The possessive adjectives my. 2 We use its for and animals. her.ICII~I W_ _ _H_A_T_'_S_T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?~ Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns: my OR mine? My brother and my sisters live here. These boots must be theirs. CAMP MANAGER: And you've torn your A trousers! 1 my arm/my boots Does my change before a plural noun? . 4 Harry has broken arm? arm. our. theirs No. their arm. HARRY: I think these cameras are ours. Mine is a Minolta. its. Harryhas broken 4 We use the possessive pronouns (NOT Harry has broken -#te-arm. 2 The dog has hurt its tail. with parts of the body. his. theirs Thiscamera's mine. his. 3 We use my. your. Dave? . And the dog has hurt its tail. I'll ask Jack. HARRY: There was a terrible storm last night. Is the Kodak yours. ours. Jack and Dave have lost their boots. / I love Scotland and its mountains.Jack? JACK: 2 3 4 5 LUKE: LUKE: LUKE: Is Kate's camera an Olympus? Whose camera is this? Is it HARRY: No. Possessive adjectives Harry and his friends have spent a night in the mountains. HARRY: I think Kate had a Canon. She'slost her camera. These shoes aren't mine. ours. yours. but I don't know its name. The Olympus is mine. mine. LUKE: Jack and Dave lost their boots. and nouns. Kate has broken her glasses. hers.) on their own. Luke? LUKE: No. 24 . There'sa cafe in the village. it isn't JACK: .

She. it isn't mine. Student C: Anna has lost her passport. etc. and ask students to correct them orally. +kF5-eyes are blue. Anna and I You He. They sometimes add a superfluous the. they aren't ours.) Juan and Angela. 4 without 2 hers 3 yours/mine 4 yours/mine 5 his 25 . Mines are green. My head hurts. but I've forgotten This book isn't#le-mine. We've got ours.) Is this your bag? (No. • Possessive adjectives .-f"fti. We've lost our passports. Then start the drill indicating I've lost my passport. Then ask students to say who they belong to. Mine are black. belongs to someone She's got her and to nobody else. the students you want to answer.) They've got their own swimming pool. They often confuse the These shoes are black. it isn't hers. It's Miguel's.TEACHING POINTS Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns: my OR mine? My brother and my sisters live here. by giving students some key examples: (= It's just for me.!Lend me your pen . 4 his REMEMBER! 1 singular/plural WHAT'S THE RULE? 6: 5 my 6 their 2 things 3 his B 1 No. Ask students to come and write the English equivalent. Show how own is used. Student E: You've lost your passport.) use of possessive pronouns is common. Mine's here. I. Drill: Student A: He's lost his passport. The problem: Students sometimes confuse possessive adjectives and pronouns.drill Do a short speed drill.Re5-arebrown. own car now. but I don't know it's name. 2 its 3 No.) • Contrast and correct Write on the board examples of possessive adjectives and pronouns in your students' native language(s). my own film studio. Extensions • Own We use own after possessive adjectives to say that something I've got my own bedroom.!Have you washed the hair?/It's a street near here. We. (I'd like my own helicopter. Student D: Anna and I have lost our passports. I've broken my leg. Ask students to say what they'd • A friend of mine This idiomatic like. Have you got your own photocopier? He's got his own recording studio at home. Examples: Is this Pilar's book? (No. I've lost my passport. Give the class an example first. I've read a book of his. He. They mistakenly Typical mistakes: possessive pronoun its and it's (= it is/it has). are these your pens? (No. To show that we normally use possessive adjectives with parts of the body. and make them agree with a plural noun. W5-name. (= one of my friends) Show students that it can also be used with nouns: She's a friend of my mother's. (= one of my mother's friends) Answers to A 1 No. Student B: She's lost her passport. Say: A lot of people have lost passports. He's lost his passport. this drill could consist of sentences like: I've washed my hair. I know the town. Give examples: I've got a CD of yours.! No. And/Or write some incorrect sentences on the board. Sarah has hurt#le-Ieg. Examples: Hers eyes are blue. it's mine. • Possessive pronouns Collect a number of students' belongings. These shoes aren't mine. He's a friend of mine. then to come and write the correction on the board. use the with parts of the body. Anna.I've lost the mine.

Yesuko's lucky. They're too old . My parents have got one too. • Why are they lucky? (This activity can be done if you covered the first Extension on page 25. Hers has got a double bed. say to the class: I think this T-shirt is hers.! It must be his. etc.CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns: my OR mine? My brother and my sisters live here. Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 6: 1 1 my 2 its 3 your 4 my 5 my 6 your 2 1e 2d 3a 4c Sf 6b 7 my 6 His 8 your 7 Hers 9 their 8 Theirs 10 her 9 its 11 his 12 my 3 1 your 2 mine 3 yours 4 my 5 hers 10 your 26 . They've got their own tennis court. Students disagree with you. you • What's yours like? Explain to students that you're going to use words like mine. That's my sister and that's her husband. Mine are black .). Mine's a Kawasaki. give examples: I've got a motorbike. using as many possessive adjectives as possible. That's his brother. Mine is a lot smaller than hers. and el icit: It's his. A smart businesswoman. My brother's lucky. one of a very smart woman. His is more powerful than mine. They've got their own swimming pool. He's got his own boat. a (he Guevara T-shirt. They work in pairs. First. Theirs is a lot bigger than mine. Then show the class an object or the picture of an object (for example. She's too sma 11. hers. Examples: My cousins are lucky. Elicit: It can't be hers. theirs. She's got her own car.) Motorbikes/bedrooms/cars/computers/stereo systems/clothes they bought Examples: Give students practice in using own with possessive adjectives. Finally indicate the person who it must belong to. Alternatively. one of a young male student. • Whose is it? Find three or four pictures big enough for the class to see. Ask students to read their sentences to the class. Mine's very small. Examples: A 5-year-old girl.1 isn't hers. Hers is nicer than mine. my uncle Pedro. Then ask students to think of similar sentences. using possessive pronouns and comparing things that they've got and that their friends or family have got. Theirs is about 500m2• Then get students to write sentences. It's too big. Then give them an example: I've got a garden. You can suggest to students different possessions they can compare: could write very short descriptions of four people on the board. • This is my family If possible. a Mercedes car. These shoes aren't mine. It Then indicate two more pictures and elicit sentences like: It can't be theirs. You could start by giving examples based on a blown-up photocopy of one of your own family photographs. get students to bring in photographs of their families. My friend Leon has got one too. And that's their daughter. indicating the picture of the young child. and give each other details of the family relationships. etc. My sister and I have got our own bedrooms. one of a middle-aged couple. For example: a picture of a young child. Examples: That's my father. a small bike. instead of using pictures. My neighbours are lucky. Then.

etc. CUSTOMS FFICER: this (1) O Is PASSENGER: it is. I've changed (7) FREDDY: ave you looked in (8) H GARY:Yes. But the phone isn't in it! pockets? bag and (5) clothes today? trousers. etc. tOO. her.r. but I can't phone him because I've lost (12) 2 Match the questions and the answers. Y. GARY:I've lost (1) ~y. using possessive and pronouns (my. Yes. sir.). They're mine. ? mother's. These shoes aren't mine. I haven't got a camera.).lmine. It's a CD. pockets. they aren't theirs. CUSTOMS FFICER: O And which one is your parents'? PASSENGER: (8) is this one. It's some perfume. You can close (10) 27 . I've looked in (4) FREDDY: ave you changed (6) H GARY:Yes. but it wasn't there. so she lent me (5) . CUSTOMS FFICER: O What are these packets? PASSENGER: They're presents for my parents.PRACTICE EXERCISES Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns: my My brother and my sisters live here. I don't FREDDY: What about Mike? Do you know (11) number? mobile phone! GARY:Yes. It's a bottle called? name. But I can't phone Rachel. e No. Is this Jack's sweater? 2 Are these your shoes. CUSTOMS FFICER: O What's the perfume PASSENGER: forgotten I've (9) CUSTOMS FFICER: O OK. number. 4 Do these CDs belong to your friends? S Is this Carole's coat? 6 Is this my money? 0 0 D D D adjectives b No. CUSTOMS FFICER: O Which one is your sister's? PASSENGER: (7) is this one. hers is on the sofa. FREDDY: What's that on the table? GARY:That's (2) case. his is green. 3 Complete the dialogue.. using possessive adjectives (my. Mine are black. suitcase. my brother and my sister. f No. OR mine? 1 Complete the dialogue. old trousers? Mike and Rachel took me to college in (9) know (10) car this morning. we've got ours.c:. mine are black. Thank you. d No. his. CUSTOMS FFICER: O Which one is your brother's? PASSENGER: (6) is this one. etc.:. your. are these your bags? ~ a No. of cognac. its.~ suitcase. FREDDY: ave you looked in all (3) H GARY:Yes. sir? CUSTOMS FFICER: O Whose is that bag? PASSENGER: That's (2) CUSTOMS FFICER: that camera (3) O Is PASSENGER: it's (4) No. it isn't yours! c No. Perhaps I left it there. Kate? 3 Helen and Zoe. hers. mobile phone.

with a big pizza! NICK: Ah. Do we use some or any in positive sentences? 2 Do we use some or any in negative sentences? 3 Do we usually use some or any in questions? 4 But we use in questions when we expect the answer 'Yes' or when the question is an offer. as do anybody .. Nick. someone). A Nick's making an omelette. it's somebody on a motorbike. Have we got any cheese? Yes. . Can I use some olive oil? Yes..~~I __ W_H_A_T_'_S_T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?~ Some OR any. .. I need some tomatoes. We haven't got any. . it's OK. there's someone coming. I'm looking for something.. for the first time.. NICK: LISA: NICK: LISA: NICK: LISA: NICK: LISA: NICK: Lisa! Have we got any eggs? Yes. anything and anyone in Examples: sentences and . REMEMBER! Complete these rules and add examples from the dialogue above.Yes. Do we usually use someone 2 Somebody and or anyone in questions? mean the same. I can't find anything in this kitchen! that's all..) LISA: There's someone at the door. We use some. Do we use something or anything in negative sentences? or anything in questions? 2 Do we normally use something C (Half an hour later. I'm not expecting anybody. Is there anyone at home? . something Example: 2 We usually use any. would you like some help? No. yes. LISA: Nick. Can I have some tea? Would you like some milk? There's something in there. . er . and anyone. I'm fine..' or when the question is an . Are you expecting anyone? NICK: No.. Examples: . there are some in the cupboard. 3 But in questions which expect the answer ' we use some (and something.I can't see anything. I haven't got any tickets. well . B LISA: NICK: Do you need anything? No. something OR anything. and someone in sentences. His wife Lisa is watching television. of course.. someone OR anyone? I've got some money. . there's some in the fridge. 28 .

Can I heve eny cottee please? I'm sorry. After you've taken out each thing. Write the questions on the board. Can J have some tea? Would you like some milk? There's something in there. They should all be uncountable nouns or plural countable nouns. If somebody has. She rieeds eey new clothes. I've also got some tissues. say. offer 29 .) Look in your pockets/bag and tell the class two things that you haven't got. I've got some money. the word some.) If nobody has. Ask another student: Have I got anything • Someone or anyone? Ask: Is there anyone Ask a student: Have I got anything in here with a mobile phone? (at the back. underlining the word some. J haven't got any tickets. The problem: Typical mistakes: something/anything. Write the sentences on the board. . (= it doesn't matter which number. in your right hand but nothing in my left hand? in my right hand? Write the questions on the board. It's easy. underlining • Something or anything? Hold up your hands but keep them closed.) Anyone/anybody can"play this game. Have something in your left. I haven't got-seme-money. Did you know someone at the party? No. something OR anything. Ask: Are the sentences positive or negative? (Negative.) Ask another student: Would you like some money? Write the question on the board. not any.J can't see anything. anything and anyone/anybody in positive sentences Explain that these words can also be used in positive sentences like: Choose any number between 1 and 10. I haven't got any chewing gum. underlining the word anything.Yes. Extension • Any. elicit the answer: No. Open your hands and elicit: You've got something in your right hand but you haven't got anything in your left hand. there isn't anyone. the word any. we didn't know 5emeeR-e7 Students use some/any.) Ask a student to stand up or come to the front of the class and ask him/her: Have you got any money? Have you got any tissues? the word any. someone OR anyone? I've got some money. you use some. elicit the answer: Yes. Is there anyone at home? . for example. underlining Ask: So when do we use any instead of some? (In questions. Answers to WHAT'S THE ROLE? 7: C 1 anyone 2 someone A 1 some 2 any 3 any 4 some B 1 anything 2 anything REMEMBER! 1 positive 2 nega tive.) You can have anything you like. Examples: I haven't got any photos. underlining Ask: Are the sentences positive or negative? (Positive. someone/anyone randomly. He said anything-in Arabic but I didn't understand 50mething he said. Write the two sentences on the board. questions 3 'Yes'. Write the sentence on the board underlining something and anything. in the 3rd row etc.TEACHING POINTS IIDI Some OR any. there's someone coming. • Some or any? Take some things out of your pockets or bag. (= it doesn't matter what you choose. Explain that if you expect the answer 'Yes' or if you are making an offer. there's someone Say that someone and anyone follow the same rules as some and any and something/anything.

anyone. Can I have some tea? Would you like some milk? There's something in there. there isn't anything else. anything or anyone.Oll1blng 7 anything PRACTICE EXERCISES 7: 6 any 2 True 3 False 4 True 5 True 2 1~ 2 someone 3 someone 4 anyone 5 something 6 Some 7 anything 9~ 10 some 11 ~ 12 something 13 some 14 some 3 1 anyone 2 anyone 3 someone 4 any 5 some 8 something 9 some 10 any 11 anything 30 . point out that about what or is in their Students A and B should take it in turns to ask each other questions respective pictures using anything. students rubs out the word and replaces it with O. X answers using any. a campsite. I went shopping yesterday and I bought some (socks) but I didn't buy any (shoes).O's and X's. Noughts and crosses Write these words on the board in squares. Choose from: one thing backs letter and continue in the some and any is correct. The pictures anybody mean somebody. Team 0 choose a square. something OR anything. of a Team X then choose a square and think correct sentence in the same way. team A Is there anyone in the class with a red sweater on? X: Yes. . there aren't any. A and B. If the sentence sentence is correct. an office. • What did you buy'? Form two teams. A and B. Other students using he/she in the class ask X questions. someone. anyone. Is there anyone at home? . Answers to 1 1 True 8 Q. something. One member of team A then says what bought Example: and what he/she didn't buy. someone A: some. any.Yes.I can't see anything. there's somebody in one of the tents. a table in a restaurant If necessary. • • Draw two pictures Students sit in pairs. compare what they have drawn. with their to each other. In less than 10 seconds they must think of a sentence correctly. someone OR anyone? I've got some money. B: Are there any people in the tents? A: Yes. a street. If the is wrong the word stays. I haven't got any tickets. Each team tries to make a line of O's or X's before the other. for example'S' . B: Are there any girls with glasses? X: No. If the use of get a point. there's someone coming. something. When both pictures are finished.IDI CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Some OR any. any. SOMETHING ANY ANYONE ANYBODY SOME SOMEBODY a bedroom. or Tell team A they must think can buy beginning with'S'. anything Example: A: some. of two things you • How good is your memory'? One student at a time (X) sits at the front with his/her back to the class. There are some tents in my picture. a member of team 0 using the word in that square they draw should be as similar as possible. as do anyone and someone and Form two teams . a garden. the same. B: Is there anything else in that tent? A: No. there's someone in the front row. Tell team B another same way. a SOMEWHERE SOMEONE ANYTHING shop. They should then decide together that they are both going to draw. Choose a letter.

left on the plate. wine in the bottle? in the bottle but in the glass. 3 We usually use someone in negative sentences and questions. 2 James has just come home. using some. knives on the table spoons. there at the table but there is at the bar. (6) Some / Any of your friends will be there. Can I have some tea? Would you like some milk? There's something in there.Yes. can I have (12) something / anything to eat? MOTHER: Yes. Um. 15 there anyone at home? . someone OR anyone? I've got some money. on the plate? Yes. she said. 5 We use some in questions which are offers. Then write True or False after each one. there's someone coming. thanks. -I can't see anything. any. I'd love (14) some / any. something. 1 Read these rules. 2 We usually use anything in negative sentences and questions. What did she want? MOTHER: She said (5) something / anything about a party. No. JAMES: Did she say (7) something MOTHER: / anything else? else. Underline the correct alternative. 31 . anything. True We usually use some in positive sentences. He's talking JAMES: Have there been (1) some / MOTHER: Yes. ill1X phone calls for me? called Anna phoned about an hour ago. (9) Some / Any other MOTHER: messages? No. Would you like (13) some / any spaghetti? JAMES: Yes. else on the table. someone or Is (1) isn't (2) (3) Is there (4) Yes. (2) someone / anyone JAMES: to his mother. 3 Look at this picture and complete the sentences. There were (10) some / any other phone calls but there weren't (11) some / any for you. she didn't say (8) something / anything JAMES: OK. I'll phone her. ~:!r~:!~ sitting at the table? No. there's (5) there isn't (6) Is there (7) there's (8) There are (9) but there aren't (10) There isn't (11) anyone. JAMES: OK. something OR anything. I know (3) someone / anyone called Hannah but I don't know (4) someone / anyone called Anna. I haven't got any tickets. 4 We usually use any in negative sentences and questions.PRACTICEEXERCISEs=:JD Some OR any. of course.

pasta.. I don't eat much Italian food.. Just a little. A lot of people in England are trying to lose weight. a lot/lots (of) An English teacher is talking to her students at a party. nouns (wine. But now I've got a few friends and I speak a little English... bread. 6 We use 7 We use 8 9 and and and and with uncountable with plural nouns. 1 Do we use a little or a few with uncountable nouns (wine. etc.)? a She's got a few friends.. I knew very few people and I spoke very little English. Complete these rules. TEACHER: You speak a lot of English! Would you like some wine? ALICIA: Yes. have a positive meaning (= a small number/a small amount). many or a lot (of). . friends. Thank you. 1 We use 2 We use and and with uncountable nouns (pasta. I don't eat much. with lots of rice.. restaurants. etc.. I've got very little money and very few friends. with plural nouns (dishes. in negative sentences or questions. rice.). etc. 32 . etc. not much. have a negative meaning (= not many/not much)...). 3 We can use a lot (of) in positive and negative sentences and in questions. I cook a lot of Indian dishes. a little OR a few/very little OR very few? I haven't got much money How many books have you read? .. there aren't many....)..OIl L_ WHAT'S THE RULE? ~ Much OR many OR a lotllots (of). TEACHER: You're like me. I eat a lot of pasta.I've read a lot/lots. I like wine. d Give me very little wine.. mean the same.. using much. TEACHER: And some nuts? ALICIA: Just a few.. so life is easier.. Do we use much or many with uncountable nouns (food. please. you're Italian. PIERRE: I'm French. food. etc. very little.. restaurants. Do you eat much pasta? MARIA: No. 4 We can use S A lot of and and .. But we nearly always use . etc. a few.. without a noun.. We ate a littfe rice and a few vegetables.)? 3 Can we use a lot of with uncountable and plural nouns? 4 Do we use much or a lot of in positive sentences? S Do we usually use much and many in negative sentences and questions? 6 Can we use much.)? 2 Do we use a little or a few with plural nouns (people. using a little. without 7 What is another way of saying a lot of? a noun? B A Iittle/a few and very little/very few ALICIA: When I came to England. TEACHER: Are there many Indian restaurants in Italy? MARIA: No. on their own. c Give me a little wine. ALICIA: I'm trying to lose weight. many and a lot on their own. TEACHER: Maria. b She's got very few friends. etc.. 3 Which sentences have a positive meaning? DD Which have a negative meaning? DD REMEMBER! Complete the rules...... many. but I like Italian food.)? 2 Do we use much or many with plural nouns (people. very few.. A Much.

Say: He doesn't do much fishing. Put a lot of books on the table. Draw a wardrobe • A few/a little with just one sweater hanging in it. many 8 a little.) Now show other things and ask students to ask and answer a question using much. Elicit: Yes. Ask: Where do we use a lot of? Where do we use much? Where do we use many? Elicit: Much and many in negative sentences and questions. • Much. tell students that a lot (of) can be replaced by lots (of). He hasn't got manv friends. I've got very little money and very few friends. Ask students to suggest the meaning of plenty (of) (= more than enough.) used than few/little. I've got a lot of friends. The train leaves at 9.) Explain that a lot of can also be used in negative sentences and in questions: Have you got a lot of friends? Also. a lot of 3 much.) nouns? (No.) Elicit: A little/a few have a positive meaning.) Does Jack like reading more than Harry? (Yes. a bag filled with clothes.) Ask them to provide other similar examples. d (negative) 4 much. It's an uncountable Do we use many with uncountable What about a lot of? (We use it with uncountable He hasn't got a lot of money. underlining I've got a lot of money. but he reads a few. Ask: Is money a plural noun? (No. OR You haven't got a lot. fewl/ittle. We use many with plural nouns. very few 5 Yes 6 Yes 7 lots of REMEMBER! 1 much. A lot of in positive sentences.I've read a lotl/ots. Answers to A 1 much WHAT'S THE RULE? 8: B 1 a little 2 a few 3 a. a little OR a few/very little OR very few? I haven't got much money. c (positive). I drink -FRtJ€l::t. How many books have you read? . Harry reads very few books. Ask: Is books singular or plural? What kind of a noun is fishing? Elicit: A little with uncountable nouns. many.00. Elicit: You haven't got much. there are a lot. • Many in positive sentences Explain to students that many is sometimes used in positive sentences. a lot of Write these sentences on the board. I eat--ma-Rypotatoes. It takes ten minutes to get to the station. (Many foreign students come to Britain. little Write on the board: and very few/very When Jack goes on holiday. • Practice Ask the class: How much money have I got? Then look in your pockets or your bag and bring out just one or two coins. a picture of a big crowd at a match. noun) Is friends a plural noun? (Yes. he does a little fishing and he reads a few books. a lot of 2 many. a few with countable nouns. Have you got much money? Have you got manv friends? the key words: He hasn't got much money. The problem: Typical mistakes: Students tend not to use a lot of. and ask: Are there many books on the table? (NOT Yes. My teacher has very-:fewpatience. We've got plenty of time. Examples: Show a bottle with very little water in it. Extensions • Plenty (of) Write on the board: It's 8. very little 7 a few. We ate a little rice and a few vegetables.00. many.wine. very few 2 many 3 Yes 4 a lot of 33 . (NB Very few/very little are more commonly very little/very few have a negative meaning. but he does a little.TEACHING POINTS IDI Much OR many OR a lot/lots (of). which are also possible. and they confuse the use of much/many. a lot 5 lots of 6 a little.) and plural nouns. there are-ma-Aj'-. He doesn't read many books. many. b.) This usually occurs in more formal English. We use much. Write on the board: Jack reads a few books when he goes on holiday. a lot (of). Ask: Does Harry like reading? (No. a few 9 very little.

a businessman/woman • Asking how much and how many Each student says his/her sentence write it on the board.I've read a lot/lots. many. I've got very little money and very few friends . we've got a few ideas. Well. a little. and comes to Examples: a film star. Examples: She makes a lot of records. a policeman. give them other suggestions: A pet food: Does your cat have much energy? A new computer: Do you have many problems with the Internet? A deodorant: Have you lost a lot of girlfriends/boyfriends? Answers to 1 1 True 9 much 5~ 10 PRACTICE EXERCISES 3 True 11 many very few 4 False 7~ 12 a few 8: 6 False 8~ 2 14 QjgJ 1 a few 3 2 many 1-fl'Wffi. a lotllots (of). a little OR a few/very little OR very few? I haven't got much money.she doesn't eat much. They must use one or two sentences including much. She earns a lot of money. etc. a pop star or a famous model and a poor person. He's got a lot of problems. a few. He hasn't got much money. very little. Then each student writes seven sentences about himself/herself. very few. Ask students to imagine what each of these people has got. using much. Each group creates a simple advertisement for a product or a holiday destination. a soldier. We ate a little rice and a few vegetables. books. Each team gets a point for a correct guess. She wears a lot of fantastic clothes. a politician. very little. Students work in pairs and ask each other personal questions about friends. a priest. Students can read their sentences to the class . a lot/lots (of). I spend lots of time outside. what each of them does. a few. a little. many and a lot/lots (of). very few Students work in small groups. • What am 11 Ask the class: What am I? What's my job? Listen. many. people wouldn't much food. very few (people) 4-a-few. Examples: How many books do you read? How much money do you spend on clothes? Do you eat much for breakfast? Have you been to many foreign countries? She's very slim . (You're a farmer. a little. 3 lots of many 4!IlQ!l¥ 5 many many 6 very few (people) 7 much 3~ 8 Qjjj:tle a little 13 much a few 2-fl'Wffi. or about his/her partner.much 10 vcry littlc 34 . a lot/lots (of). I spend very little time in the house. Divide students into two teams and ask individual students to read out their sentences while the other team guesses what they are. • Imagine how much Show the class two contrasting photos. etc. Phone Cheapo Tours where big holidays cost very little.HI CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Much OR many OR a lotllots (of).!1. very few. to visit. have • Create an advertisement Students guess your job. Tell them to think of sentences. for example.d:! 6 vcry little 9fflil-1'lj'. a teacher. There are lots of places you want Then give students a few minutes to prepare a series of sentences describing a particular person or a particular job. He hasn't got many friends. You haven't got much money. very little. many.) Write these words on the board: much. If I didn't exist. 2 True 5 True m. tapes/CDs. clothes. I look after a lot of animals. a model. How many books have you read? . Write an example on the board: You don't have many holidays. If students need help. food. using much. a few. using the words on the board.

There are (12 very few I a few) seats left. If there is a mistake. PAUL: Can I ask you (1 a few I a little) about Joros? questions AGENT: There's (8 a few I a little). many . put a tick (V").... and she doesn't get many phone calls. Are there ffitIffi foreign restaurants in your country? Do you eat much foreign food? In Britain much people eat Italian food. there are (3 very few I lots of) beautiful beaches. but not (9 many I much). Nowadays very little have eggs and bacon for breakfast.. .. There aren't many people in Britain who don't eat pizza and pasta. Laura spends a lot of time at home. if you prefer Chinese food.. there are very little towns where there isn't a Chinese restaurant. because there are (6 a few I very few) hotels on the island.. 4 We use many with plural nouns and uncountable nouns. you won't have many problems in Britain. 3 Read this passage. If the line is correct.. . Of course. you can go on August 12th. Then look at the rules and write True or False after each one.I've read a lotllots.. Helen's got a lot of friends. She isn't invited to many parties. 1 We use a lotllots of in positive sentences. Indian or Chinese food. She always gets a few e-mails every day. Is there a flight to Joros on August 12th? Yes. So. If you want to eat a few Indian food.. 3 We don't use much with plural nouns. a little OR a few/very little OR very few? I haven't got much money. Not (11 much I many) people have cars... 5 6 7 8 9 10 .. I've got very little money and very few friends. She doesn't spend much time on her own. a lot of British people don't. .. PAUL: Is there (10 a few I much) traffic on the island? AGENT: PAUL: AGENT: No. nouns. she spends very little time at home. Does she get many e-mails? No.. Are there (2 much I many) beaches? Yes. We ate a little rice and a few vegetables. True 2 We use much and many in negative sentences and questions. It's a lovely island. 35 ..... . 2 Paul's asking a travel agent about the island of Joros.. AGENT: PAUL: AGENT: Yes. PAUL: How (13 many I much) does a week in Joros cost? PAUL: What about the weather? Do they have (7 many I much) rain in August? AGENT: I'm afraid it costs (14 much I a lot) in August. There are lots of Indian restaurants too. She's got very few friends... Underline the correct alternative... 2 3 4 .. 5 We don't use a few and very few with uncountable 6 This sentence is correct: She's got a little friends.. not (5 much I many). And. . . PAUL: AGENT: Are there (4 many I much) tourists? No. Does she spend much time at home? No. do the British eat many British food? Well. 1 Read these sentences. ...PRACTICE EXERCISES 10 Much OR many OR a lotllots (of)... She hasn't got many free evenings.. cross it out and write the correct word(s). How many books have you read? . there are a little British people who don't like Italian. of course. but not many.

she didn't use to go to bed before 2. . Make this sentence negative. She used to get up early.00. Now she's got a job and she usually has only 3 weeks holiday a year. He used to play football.--_W_H_A_T_'_S A usually / used to _T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?___j How do we talk about habits? (usually and used to) It usually rains in November.00 and she doesn't usually get up late. Answer these questions. Now she doesn't usually go to bed after 12. did she use to enjoy life? Yes. Is Rebecca a student now? 2 Does she have long holidays now? 3 What word tells us that these are her present habits? 4 What words tell us that these were her past habits or the situation in the past? B didn't use to When Rebecca was a student. Now she usually drives a car.more than she does now!! Complete this question. she did .00 and she didn't use to get up before 11.D I. holidays and her car. food and beer. C did she use to? What does she usually spend her money on nowadays? Clothes. What did she use to spend her money on? Books. She used to wear a T-shirt and jeans. 36 . How much money when she was a student? she have. . Now she usually wears a suit. . But when she was a student. She used to have long holidays. To talk about 2 To talk about past habits: 3 The question form of used to is 4 The negative form of used to is habits: usually. REMEMBER! Complete these rules. Rebecca used to be a student. She used to ride a bike.

never used to. I usually get home at about 4 o'clock. I never used to like rap music. up late. I used to play basketball. Ask students why you used the word usually. use to? 4 didn't use to 9: C 1 . • How long? Draw students' attention to the fact that used to is not used for 'how long'.TEACHING POINTS How do we talk about habits? (usually and used to) It usually rains in November. (NOT I used to smoke for three years. not true now.. Check students' understanding by asking. He used to play football.the things you used to do. Write one of the questions on the board. Tell them some more about your past life . The problem: Typical mistakes: Students often confuse usually and used to and don't know how to form negatives and questions with used to. Where you used to live? • Usually Tell students about some of your present habits. Write the sentences on the board underlining the words used to. to the correct form here (didn't use to • didn't-t:J5€fi: to). (To describe past habits. When I'm on holiday l-tJ5e4&get He not used to smoke.) • Didn't use to Tell students about some of the things you didn't use to do when you were young. Examples: We never used to go abroad for our holidays.. I used to ride a motorbike. Write the most interesting underlining didn't use to. Did you use to? Ask individual students questions like: Did you use to ride a bike to school? Did you use to have short hair? Did you use to live in Milan? the question form Did you use to . underlining Get students to ask each other or yourself similar questions. Examples: I used to be a student. for example.. When I was young I'm use to play football. Draw students' attention NOT examples on the board.) Ask students why you used the words used to. I used to have long hair. ? . (To describe a past situation. (To describe your present habits. now? Write the sentences on the board underlining Ask students why you used the words used to..) Answers to A WHAT'S THE RULE? 1 No 2 No 3 usually 4 used to B 1 She didn't use to get up early REMEMBER! 1 present 2 used to 3 did . Write the sentences on the board underlining the word usually. I usually come to school by bus. Ask individual students to tell the class about some of the things they didn't use to do when they were younger. I used to live in Madrid. I didn't use to wear glasses and I didn't use to have a beard. I used to smoke.) • Used to Tell students some facts about your life before you became a teacher and which are obviously not true now." did she use to have? 37 . Extensions • Never used to Explain that there is an alternative negative form of used to . Examples: When I was young. Do I ride a motorbike the words used to.

used to play an instrument but don't now. They didn't use to go to football matches.. Answers to PRACTICE 1 1c 2a 3d 4b EXERCISES 9: 2 1 Most people used to live in the country. They didn't use to stay at school till they were 18. used to ride a bicycle to school. 3 1-HS€.Did 9-HSe.used 2~ did you use 3 usee ts eaFA use to earn 4t15e-t& usually 5"" 6 "" 7 "" 8Wa5.o • CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES How do we talk about habits? {usually and used to) It usually rains in November. 2 They used to work hard. 3 People didn't use to travel by car. They can then read out some of their sentences.. 5 People didn't use to have electricity.used 11 "" 12~ used to 38 . Students move around the class for five minutes taking it in turns to ask each other questions (A asks B the question and then B asks A the same question). didn't use to have a teddy bear. using used to (Did you use to . (the following should be written on the board or photocopied and handed out) used to go to church but don't now.. 4 There didn't use to be any supermarkets. 3 A sport or game you used to play but you don't play now. using used to and usually. Examples: 50 years ago most people used to have bicycles.used 10-HSe. Students work in pairs and discuss what they have written. There only used to be small shops. They didn't use to have many holidays. Examples: What sort of music did you use to listen to? Did your parents use to like that sort of music? Did you use to buy records or cassettes? Did you use to go to concerts? Each group take it in turns to ask their questions. Things in common • Quick questions Students should write a sentence for each of the following: 1 Something you usually do now but you didn't use to do. 2 Something you used to do but don't do now. They can then tell the class about the things they have in common. They used to read or talk. In that time they should try to find as many people as possible who . Now they usually have cars. 4 A bad habit you used to have but you don't have now. ?). • Students interview you Students work in groups. • Changes Students form groups and write sentences about the changes in their town or country during the last 50 years. 8 Families didn't use to watch television. used to share a bedroom with a brother or sister but don't now. 6 People used to go to church on Sunday. They used to have oil lamps instead. They used to travel by train or on horseback. used to live in a different town or city. He used to play football .. Each group should choose one of the following subjects: music clothes TV programmes school holidays sports hobbies Members of the group then prepare questions to ask you. didn't use to bite their nails. used to play computer games but don't now . The student who collects the most names is the winner. 7 Most children used to leave school quite young. They didn't use to live in big cities. Now they usually watch TV. 50 years ago people used to listen to the radio. didn't use to suck their thumb.

. 6 7 8 . They / have / jobs. BERT: FRED: Was there use to be much crime when you were young? No. If the line is correct. If there is a mistake. using used to or didn't use to. b When I was a student. d when I go to work. That's true. 4 There / be / any supermarkets. 5 People / have / electricity. They / go / to football matches. They / stay at school till they were 18. They didn't use to when I was a boy. Example: Most women / stay at home. 8 Families / watch television. 2 They / work / hard. Nowadays people use to go abroad for their holidays. cross it out and write the correct word(s). . there never use to be as much crime as there is today. . 11 12 . They didn't use to have jobs. FRED: Well we don't. used 2 3 4 5 holidays. c but I don't now. We don't usually have foreign We usually go to the same place in this country every year. There only / be / small shops.. put a tick (v). .PRACTICE EXERCISES 10 How do we talk about habits? (usually and used to) It usually rains in November. 3 Two old men are talking about the past. People always say things usually be better before. 1 Match the two parts of the sentence. FRED: BERT: FRED: BERT: Everything *l5e-to be much cheaper when we were young. Most women used to stay at home. . 7 Most children / leave school quite young. They / travel/by train or on horseback. . 39 . They / live / in big cities.. They / have / many holidays. BERT: But my parents always used to complain about 'modern' things. . 1 I used to wear jeans 2 I didn't use to wear a tie 3 I usually wear a suit [£J a but I do now. 3 People / travel/by car. 4 When did you use to wear jeans? D D D 2 Make sentences about life 100 years ago. . The streets use to be much safer than they are now. 1 Most people / live in the country. They / have / oil lamps instead. 9 10 . They / read or talk. 6 People / go / to church on Sunday. He used to play football. But how much you used to earn? I didn't used to earn much but it always used to be enough.

He's gone on holiday.) 3 We use do. (I don't think so. I'm afraid? I think . be afraid? I'm afraid . will. what do we use after I think. I'm afraid. I hope. we use 7 But we use after I don't think. Will the others bring drinks? NICK: I expect so. NICK: I'm not free on Sunday. expect. does after a present simple. KATE: Well. 2 In negative short answers. NICK: Will we have enough food? KATE: I hope so. 2 We use forms of be and have or a modal verb (can. but I'm not sure. and so is Lisa.I hope not.So I. KATE: Neither have I.Yes.) after so and neither. NICK: Is he ill? KATE: No.) 8 We can use so or not after suppose. NICK: SO am I. 1 We use so to agree with a positive statement and neither with a statement. 1 In positive short answers. A So and neither Nick and Kate are trying to organise a party next weekend.) NOT after I hope. And Diana can't come on Sunday. I expect. And Jo's going out on Friday.) 6 In negative sentences. KATE: SO do I and so does Lisa. . . must.) he. I think so. Is he coming? . He doesn't work. Is your boyfriend coming? KATE: I'm afraid not. I don't think so. And Leo works on Sunday evening. Is she English? . NICK: I haven't asked Harry yet. (Yes. be afraid. . I think so. Do we use so or neither after a negative statement? FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY KATE HELEN NICK MARK LISA ZOE LEO X V' X V X V X X JO DIANA HARRY V ? V v' V V V V V V V ? X X X X X V X V X ? 2 We use an auxiliary verb after so and neither: Leo's going out. KATE: Is it going to rain on Saturday? NICK: I hope not. and neither is Helen. what do we use after think. what do we use after hope. . I don't expect. . .So 5 We use after think.) my sister.No. NICK: Neither can Mark. They usually bring something. suppose. KATE: Neither am I. (J like it. 3 Do we use do/does with so and neither after a present simple (works/doesn't 4 What auxiliary do we use with so and neither after a past simple (phoned/didn't B I think so/I hope not They're having the party in Kate's garden next Saturday. hope. She didn't sleep. I 40 . work)? phone)? . Saturday seems the only possibility. (J went home. I #Hftk..m . I don't like fish. . KATE: SO is Leo. etc. I phoned him last night.-I _W_H_A_T_'_S _T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?______j How do we use so and neither? I like ice-cream.Neither I. (Is he ill? .So Helen.Neither NOT I. I've finished. Yes.So 4 We use did after a past simple. I suppose. .So am I. . OR I don't hope . REMEMBER! Complete these rules and examples. (I don't suppose so. (I'm leaving.Neither I.Neither do I. . I think so. expect? I don't think 3 In negative short answers. I won't go by bus. I don't think so. NICK: SO did I. NICK: Is Harry coming? KATE: Yes. but he wasn't there. KATE: I'm busy on Friday. . .So do I. ) 50.

know it. Tell the class that B's answer means I'm learning English too. Ask: What does F's answer mean? (My brother plays rugby too.TEACHING POINTS IIII How do we use so and neither? I like ice-cream.So.ike. hope. (NOT I knoViso. NB Tell students that know is never followed France won the Cup! .I think 50.No.) What does Y's answer mean? (Leeds United didn't Ask: When do we use so? (After a positive statement. / I guess not. showing by the arrows the correct auxiliary: A: I'm learning English.I. will 3 do. Typical mistakes: I like tennis.) When do we use neither? (After a negative statement.I hope not. / 50. (See also Extension below. I hope not Write this question and answer on the board: Can you play tennis tomorrow? . Will the restaurant be cfosed? . See if students can put the correct verbs under each one. does 41 .I know.Yes.) we can use nor in place of neither . 15 she happy? -I hope #. . I think so. Is he coming?.' 50.f. I don't believe OR . and that D's answer means I haven't been to the USA either. OR I believe not. Write these sentences on the board. with a verb in the past simple.Neither-Ea-ft4: I. B: So am I. believe are also used in 50. D: Neither have I.) Answers to A 1 neither REMEMBER! WHAT'S THE RULE? 10: 3 not 4 did. The problem: Students often forget to use an auxiliary verb after 50 and neither. t T t E: My brother ~ t rugby. I don't like fish.) To show the negative forms. In short answers after think. f T C: I haven't been to the USA. F: So does mine.) (After a statement with a verb in the When do we use did? (After a statement Nor do I. I'm afraid 50. • So/Neither Show students the form and meaning of So/Neither + auxiliary + subject. did 5 so 6 so 7 not 8 suppose not 2 is 3 Yes 4 did B 1 so 2 so 1 negative 2 have. write these questions and answers on the board: Will Japan win the World Cup? .No. Are they coming? -I-#ri-AIt She can't come. • OR win either. t X: Chelsea didn't win. / or not: I imagine I believe I don't imagine by 50: 50. I guess 50.Yes. Write up a list: I expect 50. suppose. I don't think 50. . students forget to use 50. Ask students to give you other verbs that we can use in these short answers with I suppose 50. 50. .So do I.) NB Tell students that in th is construction I don't like fish. And they sometimes mistakenly use a negative verb after neither. guess (= suppose).they mean the same: I think so. Then write these two headings on the board. . Negative + 50 50 Positive + not I hope not I'm afraid not I suppose not 50 I don't think I don't expect so I don't suppose Extension • Other verbs used with so/not short answers with 50 Tell students that imagine. .Neither do I. t Y: Neither did Leeds United. etc. I don't think 50.Neither do I. Is she English?. I hope 50.) Then ask: When do we use do/does after so/neither? present simple.

Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 10: 1 1 So. I don't expect so.So have I. Write these verbs on the board: think. 2 So have I. 7 So do I. 42 . I don't speak Chinese.. 4 I don't suppose so. Neither 2 has. 3 So did I. . First.m • CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES How do we use so and neither? I like ice-cream. I don't like fish. I've been to X (a place in your town).Yes. I get up at 7. 2 I don't expect so. etc. I. I'm afraid not. I didn't come to college last Sunday.. using these verbs with so or not. Read this example to the class: A: Are you going out tonight? B: I don't think so. 10 Neither can I.I think so.So am I. Can you lend me the money? Are you going abroad this year? Will you be at college tomorrow? Can you speak perfect English? students to correct any mistakes they've noted.. I and Neither . Italian. I'm not (English. Examples: Are you going to pass your exams? Did Spain (your own country) win the World Cup? I want to buy a car. 5 I hope not. • • Speed exercise Make a list of sentences about yourself (as many sentences as there are students in your class). . give students a few examples: I'm 16. Write some possible short answers on the board: I hope so. 4 So am I. Think of statements that your students would normally feel the same about. 3 I'm afraid so. . . expect. I didn't pass my driving test first time. do 3 I think so. They talk about themselves and make about six statements and responses . I got up before 9. They should talk about situations where they do the same or feel the same as their partner. I've lived in this town all my life. I expect so.. . I'm afraid so. hope. S I don't think so. I think so.Neither do I. I don't think so. They can read out their dialogues to the class. I hope not 2 1 Neither have I. has. Are you going to Anna's party? B: I hope so.Neither did I.three statements each. I don't think so. using So . did. 6 Neither do I. Example sentences: I live in (Rome/the name of your city). I don't have coffee for breakfast.Neither do I. I'm afraid Get students to work in pairs and prepare a short dialogue where they use short answers.So do I.No.. S Neither willi. We're the same! Students work in pairs and prepare a dialogue. Prepare a list of questions and go round the class asking each student. 3 1 1expect so. I've never been to the Arctic. Spanish.. but she hasn't invited me yet. 7 1suppose so. . Is she English? . a Can you write a dialogue? .). Is he coming? . I. don't. I think so. directing statement at each student. 5 So is mine. I don't expect so. B: Are you going out on Saturday evening? A: I think so. What about you? A: I'm afraid not. 9 I'm afraid not. . suppose. At the end of each dialogue.30. 9 So would I. 6 1think so. or agree with you about. Students must reply using the construction So/Neither .So do I. Go quickly round the class. I'm going to work. encourage other • Quick replies Tell students that you're going to ask them questions.00 this morning.

Well. Is he coming? . 8 9 10 . 5 6 7 . . B: 50 has my sister. using So or Neither. This music's too loud.. 2 Underline the auxiliary verbs in these sentences. I don't expect. B: 50 did my sister. I think that girl wants to dance with you. Do you think some of them will leave soon? (2 expect) Phew! It's hot. Er. I hate dancing. I do too. Can you lend me some money? (9 be afraid) Excuse me. I'm staying with an English family. 2 A Greek student is talking to a French student in London.. 1 A: Fill in the gaps. I'd like a drink. B: do I. etc. Mine is too.. I think so.PRACTICE EXERCISES 1m How do we use so and neither? I like ice-cream.30.. but I don't suppose they'll turn it down. . 3 Complete this dialogue between a boy and a girl at a club. is the bar open? .. 43 . . I don't think so. I hate drinking tea with milk. Replace the underlined sentences with So or Neither + auxiliary + subject. I came last year. I won't either. .No. But I've been to England before. Me too. I love swimming. I haven't either.Yes..~~~. I think.~~ . (1 expect) . (4 suppose) (5 hope) Yes. I'll never like tea with milk. / I think so.. But I don't like English food very much. Is she English? . I don't expect so. I can't either. I don't like fish. . Underline the correct answer each time. Will it be open now? Will it be closed tomorrow? B: I don't hope so. Is it always so hot in here? (3 be afraid) . There are too many people here.!. Y: can I.. 3 A: Is there a bank at the station? A: A: B: B: Yes. DIIVIITRI: LUe: DIMITRI: LUe: DIMITRI: LUe: DIMITRI: LUe: DIMITRI: LUe: DIMITRI: I've never been to London before. I did too. I hope not. BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: BOY: GIRL: Are you going to stay here all evening? Yes. I have too. . . x: I can't swim.So do I. . A: I don't want to go to university. I'm going to dance. I don't either. B: A: My brother has gone to university. My family's very nice. (8 think) . No. Um. But it's expensive.~~p. Neither have I. .Neither do I. thank you. I can't go yet. / No. Neither do I. A: He went last October. It's on Iy 10. (6 think) Do they sell beer? (7 suppose) Will you have a beer? No. I'd like to go to the USA one day. / I hope not. 2 3 4 . Me too. Use I think so.

2 The question word whose is used to ask who something belongs to.. Mr Carter. DRIVER: Oh. to ask who owns something. POLICEMAN: Who is the owner of this car? DRIVER: Whose car is it? Er . when there are a lot of possible answers. Easton. And what's your name? Lee Carter. in questions about the name or identity of someone. 3 Who's is the short form of whose. Mark these rules True or False. I see. not exactly. You can explain why you're driving a stolen car or you can come with me to the police station. Which do you prefer? Underline the correct alternative.. We use Example: 2 We use the question word Example: 3 We use the question word Example: 4 We use the question word Example: when there are very few possible answers. . it's Dave's. no. .m A Who 1c___W_H_A_T_'_S_T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?_ Interrogative pronouns: who whose AND whose. Dave's . my mum's or my dad's? POLICEMAN: Which of them do you norma Ily Iive with? OR DRIVER: POLICEMAN: DRIVER: POLICEMAN: My mum.. POLICEMAN: Are you the owner of this car? DRIVER: Er . POLICEMAN: Who's Dave? DRIVER: He's a friend. 2 We use what / which when there are only two or a few possible answers. The question word who is used to ask about people. red or blue? AND A policeman has stopped a young driver. B What POLICEMAN: which? What's your address? DRIVER: Which address do you want. It's 28. mine or Dave's? POLICEMAN: Dave's. I don't know. 44 . Er. POLICEMAN: Can I have the address? DRIVER: Whose address. Brent Street.. what OR which? Who is she? Whose book is this? Who's that man? What's your name? Which colour do you want. 3 We can ask a question with Which of not What of / What of not Which of. . REMEMBER! Complete these rules and add examples from the dialogue. OK.. We use what / which when there are many possible answers.. .

Ask why you used the two different question words here. 'which' because there are only two or a few possible answers. red or blue? The problem: AND whose. ? Examples: What's your address? What's your postcode? Now ask a number of questions beginning What's your phone number? with Which . They don't understand the difference between pronouns which and what.wAi€h-is your telephone number? the interrogative Typical mistakes: • Who and whose Ask a number of questions about the students in the class.. jackets. / It's my brother. with What . but not What of . ? Examples: Who usually comes late? Who wears different clothes every day? Who... that boy over there? -What. If necessary. ? Examples: Which bus do you catch to school.TEACHING POINTS m Interrogative pronouns: who Who is she? Whose book is this? Who's that man? Which colour do you want. what OR which? What's your name? Students are sometimes unsure when to use who and whose and they confuse whose and who's.do you want. ('What' because there are many possible answers... ? Which of the books did you read? Tell students that you can ask questions with Which of ... all beginning with Who . Examples: A It's me. • Which of . compare this question with the equivalent • Whose and who's Write these two questions on the board: A Who's that? B Whose is that? Get students to think of suitable answers to the two questions. Ask: What is Who's short for? (Who is) • What or which? Ask various students questions beginning / It belongs to the man over there. in the students' language.. my home number or my mobile number? Underline the words What and Which... Who plays the drums? Write one of the questions on the board and underline Get a number of students to put their bags.. coffee or tea? Which hand do you write with? Which cinema do you normally go to? Which season do you like best? Ask why you used what and then which in these questions. on a desk at the front of the class. Of '""he is this? To whe is that? Wftes.) Write this short dialogue on the board: . First mime the question: Whose bag is this? then get students to ask the question and write it on the board. underlining the word Whose. Examples: Which of these do you prefer? Answers to A 1 True WHAT'S THE RULE? 11: 3 Which of not What of 2 True 3 False REMEMBER! 1 who 2 whose B 1 what 2 which 3 what 4 which 45 . the 89 or the 92? Which do you prefer. B It's mine. / It's the man I was telling you about. books.e. / It's my brother's. the black one or the blue one? . etc..Which phone number do you mean..What's your phone number? .

I CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Interrogative pronouns: who Who is she? Whose book is this? Who's that man? Which colour do you want. A police officer interviews the witness of a robbery. The question must begin with Who or Whose. Each student then writes a line of dialogue and hands it to his/her partner who writes the next line. --- -------------------------_ . Examples: with Who • General knowledge quiz Students form two teams. Team B should then think of another possible question. Examples: The President. The manager of a restaurant interviews someone for a job as a waiter/waitress. Example: • Who was the first person to land on the moon? Whose record is number 1 at the moment? What is the capital city of Holland? Which is longer. whose.. a mile or a kilometre? Teams take it in turns to ask each other questions and get marks for every correct answer. Whose is this bag? Whose car is that? Each team gets a mark for every correct question they can think of in 10 seconds. whose. My sister. Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 11: 1 1c 2a 3d 4b 2 1 What 2 What 3 Which 4 Which 5 Which 6 What 7 What 3 1 Whose 2 Who's 3 Who 4 VJ_i]Q 5 . Together t-rey choose one of the following situations: The President. A and B. _-_. Read out the first of your answers and ask team A for a question which would elicit that answer. It's Marco's. what OR which? What's your name? Finding the right questions Before starting the activity._-_ . A father asks his teenage son/daughter a lot of questions when he/she comes home late. think of a number of answers to questions beginning or Whose.{"hat 6 Which 7 Whose '------ ---------------------------_. Together each team think of 12 questions beginning '1 with these question words: who. A car salesman tries to sell a car to a customer. Who did you meet? Who made the decision? Who is the most important country? Example: person in the It's Marco's.. --_. red or blue? AND whose. what and which.m r. Divide the class into two teams._---. Finally students should read out their dialogues. A boy meets a girl for the first time at a party. A journalist interviews a politician.. A and B. They're mine. 8 Which 8 Whicb 9 Which 9 What __ ._------- ~I 46 . Write a dialogue Students work in pairs. what and which. The dialogue should include as many examples as possible of the question words who.

PRACTICE EXERCISES 1m Interrogative pronouns: who Who is she? Whose book is this? Who's that man? Which colour do you want. the 16 or the 217 We didn't come home by bus. Who's that? 2 Whose is that? 3 What's that? 4 Which room is it in? o o o [IJ a It's my sister's. (1 Whose / Who's) party was it? A girl called Joanna. Heathrow or Gatwick? credit card do you want to pay with. Visa or Mastercard? 3 Hannah has come home late from a party. MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: MOTHER: HANNAH: for her. mum. We came by car. red or blue? AND whose. b It's in my sister's. Monks Park or Backweli? Monks Park. what OR which? What's your name? 1 Match the questions and the answers. Can I go to bed now? 47 . 2 Complete these travel agent's questions with What or Which. (7 Whose / Who's) car was it? It was his mother's I think. c It's my sister. (3 What / Who) was there? Lots of people. Her mother's waiting Underline the correct alternative. What 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 can I do for you? sort of holiday do you want? of these brochures have you looked at? week in July do you want to go? country would you prefer. I think. (9 What / Which) is his father's job? I don't know. (8 Which / What) school does he go to. (4 Who / Whose) did you come home with? A boy I met at the party. (6 What / Which) bus did you catch. Spain or Italy? sort of things are you interested in? do you want to do when you get there? airport do you want to fly from. (5 What / Which) is his name? Damien. d It's my sister's mobile phone. (2 Whose / Who's) Joanna? A friend from school.

. that. She ate the food that/which was on the table. Complete the sentence. 1 When they are the subject. a Japanese student.the girl is the object. which when they are the object. animals and things. is used more often than which. then complete 1 and 2.-I _W_H_A_T_'_S _T_H_E_R_U_L_E_?__j Relative pronouns: who A Who. The girl who came to the club is a singer.. which ADAM: YASUKO: ADAM: YASUKO: ADAM: as the object This is the CD (that/which) I bought this morning. . ..The girl met is a singer.If) . The house (that/which) they bought was very big.. this is the CD (that/which) she made. the girl (that/who) we met at the club last night? Is she the girl (that/who) I liked? The girl who sings in a band? Yes. C Whose ADAM: YASUKO: ADAM: And do you remember the boy whose eyes you liked? You mean the boy whose father could speak Japanese? Yes. . which.. Well. It was half-price. That's the girl whose name I can't remember. and or for animals/things. ~ She's the girl you like. The girl that we met is a singer..) The girl who we met is a singer. we use the relative pronoun 48 . their). we usually use for people. that OR which OR that? AND whose The man who won was French. don't eat meat. . It's a film has been very successful. that's her... We use who for . It was a real bargain. Look at these two sentences. which. 1 She'sthe girl. Well. can be used for people.. he plays the guitar in Kelly's band. REMEMBER! Complete these rules about relative pronouns.. 2 But in spoken English we usually leave out that.. 3 But we usually leave out the relative pronouns when they are the 4 When we talk about possession.. (The girl came. You like her band. A bargain? A bargain's something (that/which) you buy at a very good price. YASUKO: And what's 'a blockbuster'? ADAM: It's a film or a book that/which has made a lot of money. . YASUKO: And what's a 'dotcom'? ADAM: It's a company that/which sells things on the Internet.. YASUKO: What's 'a vegan'? ADAM: A vegan is a person who doesn't eat any animal products. instead of who and which. 2 I know a lot of people B Who.. YASUKO: What's 'a telly-addict'? ADAM: A telly-addict is someone who watches television all the time. We use whose to talk about possession (his. Complete this rule and the example sentences. we use 2 When they are the object.. (We met the girl.the girl is the subject.. and that or which for animals and things . is asking an Engl ish friend about words she doesn't understand. her. iii>.. as the subject Yasuko.. that can be used as the object and it's the most common. Do you remember Kelly.) 1 Who. who.

which as subject Draw two men on the board. He lives in a country whose president is a woman. Answers to WHAT'S THE RULE? 12: 2 we A 1 people. We use them to identify people and things. we suggest you don't confuse students at this stage. Write under the second man: He can't speak Russian.) like B we use that for things and . And they sometimes add an unnecessary pronoun object in the relative clause. . Then ask: Which man can't help me? (The man who can't speak Russian. Write under the first man: He can speak Russian.) Write these two answers on the board. The house (that/which) they bought was very big.m.. that OR which (less common) B 1 That REMEMBER! 1 who. instead of who. They incorrectly use which for people. that.) that and which.. Say to the class: I've got a letter from a Russian friend. underlining which costs $3000. Under the first car. She ate the food that/which was on the table. Ask students: In sentences like B is it necessary to use that or who? (No.last night. that. (The girl knows you. that. (Note: We can quite often use that.. Typical mistakes: I saw the man who k lives next door. • Who. The problem: Students often use a superfluous subject after a relative pronoun. write: It costs $3000.the girl is the object. that 2 who. underlining who. This is the bed the queen slept in. which are relative pronouns. at the end of the relative clause. but I've only got $2000. (You know the girl. .TEACHING POINTS IFI Relative pronouns: who OR which OR that? AND whose The man who won was French. That's the girl whose name I can't remember. Now draw two cars on the board.) • Who. They use the wrong word order with whose. Explain to students that whose can be used with things as well as people.) Then write: I met a girl you know.) Explain that in B-type sentences we usually leave out the relative pronoun. However. that. I hate people wf:ti€.) who) you know. (Elicit: people.) Elicit the answer: The man who can speak Russian.f::li. do we use with people? (who) Which relative pronouns do we use with things? (that OR which) Tell students that we use that more often than which. He's the man I saw.. Which man can help me? (Point to the men on the board. which 2 that 3 object 4 whose C 1 whose band 49 . Extensions • Write on the board: This is a photo Explain that we put the preposition • Say to students: In sentences of the school I went to. since this isn't always the case. She's the girl whose I knOll'" the father. which as object B I met a girl that (OR Ask: Which relative pronoun Write these two sentences on the board: A I met a girl who knows you. Say to the class: I want to buy a car. but I don't understand Russian.I:t. Write under the second car: It costs $1500. OR Then ask: Which car can't I buy? (Elicit: The car that Write the two answers with alternatives on the board.the girl is the subject. when it is the subject of the relative clause: She's the girl that lives in London.smoke. Tell the class that who. Which car can I buy? Elicit the answer: The car that OR which costs $1500.

using relative clauses. My friend's on holiday. They then repeat the process. Examples: We like films that make us laugh. I found some sunglasses on the beach last summer. -_. something that begins with the letter 'b'.III CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Relative pronouns: who OR which • OR that? AND whose The man who won was French. Y' 4 whose 2 1 I've got a friend who comes from Seattle. • Who am I thinking about? Students take it in turns to describe a person. who's got long dark hair. Give some examples first: We We We We like people who like people who don't like people don't like people are generous. It can be someone in the class or a famous person. (Show the postcard. My brother's very good-looking. who never smile. My mother gave me a watch for my birthday. O 4 He's an American who loves England 5 The village (that/which) they live In is two kilometres U 50 rom my house 6 The house (that/which) they live in has got a swtmrturiq pool. because I don't like the music they play._---------------. We like books which are easy to read.) I'm thinking about something 1:1 A~swers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 12: . (Show your bag. She ate the food that/which was on the table. something (that) you buy in a fruit shop. This is the watch she gave me. Students then read their sentences to the class. I don't go to the XXX Club. That's the girl whose name I can't remember. but I don't like the clothes he wears. Give them an example: that is easy to eat. who's very good at maths. which 3 that. 1 1 who. Examples: Things you've got Here students use a relative clause where the relative pronoun object is usually omitted. smile a lot.) This is the bag I bought. These are the sunglasses I found. which 2 who. She sent me a postcard. We don't like clubs which close early. Now ask students to think of similar sentences which relate to them. using the relative pronoun who. What am I thinking about? (A banana. 2 She's a girl I met when I was in the USA 3 Her father works for an American company that R which makes computer software. using the relative pronouns that and which. • Your likes and dislikes Students work in pairs and identify the kind of people they both like or don't like. Examples: I bought a bag yesterday. They write down sentences that they both agree with. something which is green or yellow. Then different they're thinking students describe an object about.) This is the postcard she sent. Students read out their sentences to the class. this time identifying things they like or don't like. someone who isn't very tall. Who am I thinking about? The rest of the class have to guess who it is. who smoke. Give an example: I'm thinking about someone (that/who) you all know. mencan students 8 She's gOing out with a boy whose SISter I know 7 The college (that/which) my trieno goes to IS for 1 who 2 3 who 4 whose 5 who 6 that OR which 7 who 8- 9 whose 10 who 11 who 12 - __j . The house (that/which) they bought was very big.

Complete the dialogue. Sadie. put a dash (-).~. 2 She's a girl.~~. 2 Fill in the gap with x: Are you the girl v: Yes. It's for American students. that. I'm the one (7) Oh! Are you the one (9) 50 sister I know? Are you the one (10) kissed me? Oh.'!!. or no relative pronoun at all.v::~?~?'!!. 5 They live in a village. . Hi.~?~.':'Y.. It's two kilometres from my house. it's you! I lent you. If the sentence is correct. A: Are you the girl who lives in King Street? s: Yes. He loves England. . She comes from Seattle. 4 He's an American. danced well? Are you the boy (11) SAM: No. the house which is next to the church. which or whose. I work in a shop 3 Add the relative pronoun who or which. 3 Her father works for an American company. works in a shop? sells children's clothes.~:s oming to repair my stereo? c No. works for SAM: SADIE: No. using If a relative pronoun isn't necessary. put a tick (v). using 1 I've got a friend. I'm the boy (2) the mobile phone. It makes computer software. Tom. !:~::. 6 They live in a house. The village live in is pool. 1 Underline the relative pronouns in these sentences. you met at Steve's party.0. I'm the one (3) lent you SADIE: Are you the boy (4) the company (6) cigarette burned my arm? The boy (5) makes dog food? had the motorbike (8) you liked.. which or whose. And you've still got the phone (12) 51 . I know his sister. I met her when I was in the USA. I know a guitar player guitar cost $10. .~'!. Who are you? Are you the man (1) .PRACTICE EXERCISES 1m Relative pronouns: who 1 OR which OR that? AND whose The man who won was French...~?. He bought a car (?) cost a lot of money.. that if necessary. 3 Sam's phoning Sadie.:. . The house (that/which) they bought was very big. my name's not Tom. The college 8 She's going out with a boy. who. 4 Complete this sentence. 2 Combine the two sentences into one.. She ate the food that/which was on the table. That's the girl whose name I can't remember.~~~~~!~ . SAM: SADIE: SAM: who.~J:!. I live at number 7.000. It's got a swimming The house 7 My friend goes to a college. The car (?) he bought cost a lot of money. that.

WHAT'S

THE RULE?

_J
OR

Object pronouns and reflexive pronouns: me
A
Me OR myself? This is a letter to the problem page of a magazine.

myself?

He looked at me. flooked at myself in the mirror. He got up. He washed. He shaved. They looked at themselves. They looked at each other.

Dear Alice, You must help me. My boyfriend has left me but I still love him. He only loves himself! When we were together, ourselves. lie really er'Joyed I wake up myself. Now f never ef'ljoy myself. stop

! think about him from the moment
to the time I go to bed - I can't myself ill.

My friends worry spout: me because I'm making

Complete the rule and answer the questions. Me is an object pronoun self is a reflexive pronoun. .

2 He doesn't love her. Are he and her the same person? 3 She doesn't enjoy herself. Do she and herself 4 She wakes up early. Do we use a reflexive

refer to the same person?

pronoun with the verb wake up?

B

-Before

Ourselves/themselves

OR

each other? A They bought themselves B They bought each other presents. presents.

he left me, we really enjoyed ourselves. every day and we saw each other We really everything. every evening. We bought We told each other Now we don't

vVephoned each other each other presents.

loved each other. each other. tvty friends

even talk to I am, and they he wasn't

Which sentence means he bought presents for her and she bought presents for him? 2 Which sentence means he bought presents for himself and she bought presents for herself?

o
0

know how unhappy

blame themselves.

They told each other

the right boy for me. But they never told me. I'm so unhappy! vVhat should I do?

~REMEMBER!l~
Complete the rules and answer the questions.

.
.

___

1 She loves him. Is the subject she the same person as the object him? In this example, we use an

l
.

pronoun (him) not a reflexive pronoun. . .

The object pronouns are: me, you, him, her, it, us and 2 He loves himself.

Is the subject he the same person as the object himself? pronoun (himself).

In this example, we use a

The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself,

himself,

herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves

and

I

3 Jane and John talk to themselves. Jane and John talk to

= She talks to herself and he talks to himself.

= Jane talks

to John and John talks to Jane.

52

TEACHING

POINTS

m

Object pronouns and reflexive pronouns: me

OR

myself?

He looked at me. I looked at myself in the mirror. He got up. He washed. He shaved. They looked at themselves. They looked at each other.
The problem: Students confuse object pronouns and reflexive pronouns. They forget to use the plural ending -selves with plural reflexive pronouns. They sometimes assume that because a verb is reflexive in their own language it must Typical mistakes: also be reflexive in English. They confuse ourselves/themselves I cut-me- We enjoyed o I:1rseIfat the party. I got up -m-yse#, washed -m-yse# and shaved m-yse#. They wrote many letters to themsel'les. and each other.

Me

OR

myself, them

OR

themselves?

Ask two students (preferably a boy and a girl) to come to the front of the class. Whisper to the boy that he should hit her (but NOT hard) and whisper to the girl that she should hit him back (but again NOT hard!). Ask the class: What did he do? and What did she do? (He hit her and she hit him.) Write this on the board underlining

her and him. Tell the class that these are object pronouns. it ~ it we ~ us they ~ them

Then ask the class to tell you all the object pronouns and write them on the board like this:

I ~ me

you·~ you

he ~ him

she ~ her

Now mime cutting some bread and then cutting yourself with the knife. Ask: What did I do? (You cut vourself.) Write this on the board and ask:

Are you and yourself the same person? Tell them that yourself is a reflexive pronoun.
Get other students to do the same and elicit: He cut himself.lShe Write the sentences on the board underlining Draw students' attention • Verbs not reflexive to the plural ending -selves. If the mother tongue of students in the class has

cut herself.!They

cut themselves.

the reflexive pronouns.

in English

more reflexive verbs than English, mime those which are reflexive in their mother tongue, for example: wake up, get up, shave, wash, sit down. Ask students to say what you did in each case. Write a list on the board of those verbs which are not normally reflexive in English but are in the students' mother tongue. (Examples: to change clothes, to dress, to go to bed, to stand up, to sit down, to rest, to complain, to concentrate,
OR

to lie down,

to feel (+ adjective), to relax, to worry.)

to remember,

Ourselves/themselves

each other

Take a mirror out (or borrow one from a student). Ask two students to come to the front of the class. Hold the mirror up and get them, one at a time, to look at themselves in it. Alternatively hand a mirror to each student and get them to look at themselves in it. at themselves. Underline themselves.

Elicit from the class and then write on the board: They're looking

Now put the mirror away and get the same two students to look at each other. Elicit from the class and then write on the board: They're looking at each other. Underline each other.

Answers to WHAT'S THE RULE? 13: A 1 myself 2 No 3 Yes 4 No B 1B 2A
REMEMBER! 1 No; object; them 2 Yes; reflexive; themselves 3 each other

53

m

CLASSROOM

ACTIVITIES

Object pronouns and reflexive pronouns: me

OR

myself?

He looked at me. I looked at myself in the mirror. He got up. He washed. He shaved. They looked at themselves. They looked at each other.

Teach yourself?

Find out

Students work in pairs or small groups. Together they discuss which of the following you can teach yourself and which you need a teacher for: to walk, to speak English, to swim, to play chess, to ride a bicycle, to drive a car, to play the piano, to sing, to cook, to draw, to read, to type, to kick a football, to ski, to laugh, to run, to teach Before they start, give them examples like the following: I taught myself to swim. My sister taught herself to ski. You definitely can't teach yourself to drive. They should then put each skill in one of these two columns: NEED A TEACHER and TEACH YOURSELF. Discuss any differences in their answers. Ask students to think of more examples of things they need a teacher for and things they can teach themselves.
• • The things mothers say

Students work in small groups and find out from each other whether or not they have:
seen themselves on television heard themselves on the radio listened to themselves on a cassette looked at themselves on a video burnt themselves badly

cut themselves badly
hurt themselves badly playing a sport taught themselves to play an instrument made themselves something

to wear
dinner

cooked themselves a three-course

One person in each group can tell the rest of the class what they have found out about each other. Example:
Anna has heard herself on the radio but she hasn't seen herself on TV. Peter and Erik have both hurt themselves badly playing football.

Think of examples

Students work in pairs. They can, if necessary, look up in a grammar book a list of verbs which are normally reflexive in English. They should then think of the things which the mothers of small children often say. All the examples must contain reflexive verbs. Examples:
Behave yourself! Be careful or you'll hurt yourself

In pairs, students think of examples of sentences, one with ourselves/themselves, the other with each other. The sentences should contain the same verb. Examples:
The two old people in the village often talk to themselves. But they never talk to each other. There are five students living in the same house but they don't cook for each other. They prefer

to cook for themselves. They can read out their examples to the rest of the class.

They could then add the response of the child, again using reflexive verbs. Examples:
But I am behaving myself! It's all right. I won't hurt myself

Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 13: 1 1 False 2 True 3 True 4 False 5 True
7 ourselves 8 ourselves 9 metmyself

2 1 themselves 2 ourselves 3 themselves 10 rnyselftme 11 myselftme 12 me/myself

4 themselves

5 herself

6 himself'

3 1 HIMSELF 2 THEMSELVES 4 1 each other 2 each other

3 MYSELF 4 THEMSELVES 5 HERSELF 6 YOURSELF 7 OURSELVES 8 HIMSELF 3 each other 4 each other 5 each other 6 themselves 7 themselves 8 themselves

9 ourselves

54

Next time we go away.' SAY PARENTSOF LOST CHILD LUXURY HOUSE WITH SWIMMING POOL 4 Emily and Kate are at a party. Complete what they say.. But I was feeling (9 me / myself) so tired so I went to bed (10 myself / me).. ourselves.' SAYS LOTTERYWINNER .~~ . Then it started to rain but we couldn't keep (8 us / ourselves) dry because the tent had holes in it. They can't laugh at . 5 They loved each other means he loved her and she loved him. EMILY: Those two people over there . He shaved.) _lj!!'!'.. 4 The verbs to stand up. He got up... Laura had fallen off her bike and hurt (5 her / herself) and James had tried to light the fire and burnt (6 him / himself). we thought. 3 The reflexive pronoun from they is themselves. But when we got back.. using each other or the correct reflexive pronoun. He washed.' 2 CHILDREN 5 AND 7 LEFTTO LOOK AFTER 3 'I'M REALLYGOING TO ENJOy 4 CHURCH LEADERSAYS'YOUNG PEOPLEMUST LEARN TO BEHAVE 5 POP STARGINA FINDS 6 'LEARN TO CONTROL 7 'WE BLAME 8 BOY. we're going to stay in a hotel. or eress-out both alternatives if they are unnecessary. They looked at themselves.. to sit down. . etc. That's all very interesting 55 .' MANAGER TELLSFOOTBALL STAR .the ones who are looking at (1) . False 2 In the example She hurt herself. The children enjoyed (1 them / themselves) but we definitely underline the didn't enjoy (2 us / ourselves)."!. 3 Complete these newspaper headlines.?~~~:.. .":. all the time' . They looked at each other.. 2 Louise. Tom and I went for a walk and left the children to look after (3 them / themselves). correct alternative. have been going out with (2) much they love (3) speaking to (4) for only a month but they're telling everybody how That couple over there have had an argument and they're not They say they hate (5) Those two people by a big apartment by the river.... .. 1 He hurt him and He hurt himself mean the same. Mark these statements True or False. Kate doesn't know anybody so Emily is describing some of the people there.S~~F.PRACTICE EXERosE-s]m Object pronouns and reflexive pronouns: me 1 OR myself? He looked at me. using reflexive 1 GUNMAN SHOT 2 THEN KILLED pronouns (myself. In Louise's description. to lie down are reflexive in English. BUYS NEW MANAGER . Then we tried to light the gas stove and we nearly killed (7 ourself / ourselves) when it exploded. the window are very rich and they've just bought (6) But nobody likes them because they take (7) (8) KATE: too seriously.. she and herself are the same person. but I'm hungry! Let's get (9) something to eat. I looked at myself in the mirror. They're old enough to amuse (4 themselves / themself) for half an hour. But I woke up (11 myself / me) several times during the night because I felt (12 me / myself) so cold and wet. Tom and their two children went camping. 16..

Is there a bus to the next village? No. Yesterday there are / there were 2 There'll be / There is a lot of traffic a lot of people in the cafe. There's a small supermarket. There weren't many cars. if the first thing is singular. But it's two miles away. has been/ been. and there are + a 3 Write There is 4 Write There's OR a cafe in the vii/age. in the village tomorrow. 1 We use (there is OR it is?) 2 When there is followed 3 We use (there is OR to say that something exists. OR It's: B There with other tenses The American tourist is sitting in the cafe. 3 There's / There has been an accident. Underline the correct alternative. about it. They're all in the main street. will be and their 56 . There aren't any buses on Sundays. Next year there'll be a hundred new houses. But there have been a lot of changes. There + is/are. We don't say: A cafe is in the village. AMERICAN TOURIST: Was there much traffic in this village twenty years ago? WAITRESS: No. a few houses and a pub. it's next to the pub. there are a few shops. And there'll be a lot more traffic. was/ negative forms. Complete these sentences. there wasn't. It's 700 kilometres to London. by a list of things. But it isn't open today.~~I __ __T_H_E_R V__H_A_T_'S V __U_L_E_?~ There is I There are A There is/are It islThey are? OR It is I They are? There are two letters for you. we use when we talk about something to give more information for the first time. noun. not there are. There are: a shop. OR AMERICAN TOURIST: FARMER: TOURIST: FARMER: TOURIST: FARMER: TOURIST: FARMER: Is there a cafe round here? There's a cafe in the next village. there isn't. It's the postman. REMEMBER! Complete these rules. There were only 200 people living here. Are there any shops? Yes. it is?) OR and we use (there is it is?) 4 We can use there with other tenses. But they aren't open on Sundays. a pub in the village a very old pub. We say: 2 We use there is (there's) + a singular noun. . There's an ambulance in the street. Is there a bank here? Yes. a post office and two antique shops. There'sa man at the door. . They're from Tom.

• There + other tenses Take the shoe.) in your bag. There's going to be a storm. have A 1 There's (There is) 2 plural 1 there is 3 There is 4 There's.were two books. There's a man at the door. Write the two sentences with there on the board. Extension • Might. Elicit sentences like: There has been an earthquake in Japan. etc. • There Establish the meaning and use of There is and its plural form There are. Ask them: What has happened in the world this week? Tell them to think of sentences with There. They mistakenly use there is with a plural noun. Then write on the board: A shoe is in there to say that something exists. A spider is in my hair. or mirrors. They're from Tom. It's the postman. There have been a lot of accidents on our roads. it is 4 were. Look at those black clouds. +hey. two books and a mirror on the table. There has been a plane crash in America.TEACHING POINTS There is/There are OR It is/They are? There are two letters for you. • There OR FRj' bag. Show the shoe to the class and say: It's a black shoe.t. (NOT. a mirror and two books on the table. It's a black shoe. There might be sharks! There used to be a cinema here. going to You can demonstrate other constructions with There: I'm not going to swim here. but they've closed it.) between There is and It is. -f. Put three shoes (or books.) Then put the two books back on to the table. Now ask students about recent world news. The second sentence gives Tell students that we can't say:-IH a shoe in my bag. Then put a shoe. There's too many people in the car. (The first sentence says what is in my bag. See if the class can explain the difference more information about it.. used to.) Ask students to explain when we use There is and when we use There are. was a shoe. Tell students that this is wrong . Take one of them out and say: There's a shoe in my bag. They sometimes use it's where they should use there is. And say: If I put four more books on the table. what 'exists' in my bag. (Write the full form there is.they must use It Now take the third shoe out of your bag and say: There's another shoe in my bag.t!s-something in my eye. It's 57 . the two books and the mirror off the table. and say: There's a shoe.f. The problem: Typical mistakes: Students often don't use there is when it's essential. Take a second one out and say: There are two shoes in my bag. Then ask: What was on the table? Elicit the past tense: There was a shoe. There were two books. It's 100 kilometres to London. Answers to REMEMBER! WHAT'S THE RULE? 2 there is 14: B 1 there were 2 There'll be 3 There has been 3 there is. what will be on the table? Elicit the future tense: There will be (There'll be) six books. not There are. Write on the board: There's a shoe in my bag. Write the sentence on the board and explain that if there's a list of things and if the first thing is singular (a shoe) we must use There is.

Student A describes his/her bedroom. Members of each team work together to devise clues to the identity of a place. using a) a sentence with there is/there are followed by b) a sentence with it is/they are. be sure they use the There's a book. For each item. A: There was a watch. (XXX .m • CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES There is I There are OR It is I They are? There are two letters for you. There's a bed. (New York) There were twenty-five people at this person's house last Saturday. It's a small room. There's a man at the door. OR There and a watch.) Each team reads their statements to the other teams. Students read their dialogues to the rest of the class. B: Are there many tourists? A: No. because there's only one hotel. there aren't many. The memory game • A guessing game Put a collection of between twelve and twenty objects on your table. If they guess correctly.). a book Divide the class into two or four teams. It's called the Statue of Liberty. Student B draws what he/she hears. • Is there a cinema? When all the objects have been recognised. Student B asks A about his/her home.2 4 Is there 5 it's 6 it isn't 7 There are 8 they're 9 Are there 10 there aren't 11 There isn't 14 it was 15 There was 16 They were 17 there'll 18 it'll 58 . The other team is the winner. a small village in England. They're full of books. an island in the Caribbean. Above the bed there's a picture. Student A imagines he/she lives in a particular place (London. a person and a thing. the asking team gets the point.the name of someone in the class) There's a lot of music on this thing. (A CD.e. If they don't. It's the postman. • Describe your bedroom Students work in pairs and give each other a picture dictation. correct form of there: and a watch. who get three guesses. They're from Tom. but it's a very small one. Then ask B: What was on the table? B: There were two books. The first statement must start with There and the second with It.) There are two pens. (If students give a list. Give them examples: In this American city there's a famous statue. using Is there/Are there? Read this example to the class: B: Is there a cinema on the island? A: Yes. Give an example: There isn't much space in my bedroom. they choose two statements. they get a point. It's a picture of a singer. It's 100 kilometres to London. Answers to PRACTICE EXERCISES 14: 1 1 There's 2 There's 3 It's 4 There was 2 1 there 2 There 3 there 4 3 1 There aLe 2 there were 1 There's 2 It's 3 There's 12 There are 13 Theyaren't 4 there 5 they 6 there 7 They 8 there 9 there 10 there 11 It 12 There 3 tbere have been 4 there were 5 They were 6 there'll be 7 there'll be 8 There's 9 It's 10 ther. It's round and silver. A and B. Continue until one team can't remember any more items. two pens are two pens. etc. Then divide the class into two teams. the Arctic. It was her birthday party. Ask A: What was on the table? Name one thing. sweep them off the table into a bag. etc. Ask students: What's on the table? Elicit: There's a watch. Opposite my bed there are some shelves. B: Are there any animals on the island? A: There are only a few cats and dogs. It's a single bed. Students work in pairs and prepare a short dialogue. there is.

There's 1 Lookl lt-s a man in the garden! 2 There are a dog and two children with him.f!. (15) only one bedroom. (2) a small village near Totnes. She's talking to an estate agent. But (10 it's / there's) a possibility that this year's rainfall will beat all records. (6) And (8) MARIE: JOSE: MARIE: Is (9) Yes. But (18) 59 . (10) (13) Did you like the flat I showed you yesterday? POLLY: No.. all European? are three Japanese students..~~ a house for sale in Bickley. but open every day.PRACTICE EXERCISES 1m There is I There are 1 The OR It is I They are? There are two letters for you. be) more thunderstorms (8 It's / There's) usually a lot of rain in this region. (1 They are / There are) 365 days in a year. (11) 's very useful. using there . (14) too small. (9 There's / It's) a very wet region..... (12) 3 Underline the correct alternative. isn't a video in our classroom. (10) You're lucky. say that this summer (6 they'll be / there'll (5 They were / There were) very violent. a video in your classroom? is. It's the postman. a garage.'s-an article in the newspaper yesterday about a dangerous man. POLLY: AGENT: (4) Yes. Last year in southwest England (2 there were / they were) 95 days of rain. but they left.~ in your English class? 'II be thirteen tomorrow. but (6) some shops there. a few houses and a pub in the village. (12) buses to Plymouth. (16) AGENT: I think (17) be another one next week. (2) because (4) r!'!. And (8) any trains to Plymouth? (11) very frequent. And I didn't like all those horrible. + parts of the verb be. Weather experts and (7 it'll be / there'll be) a lot more rain... a station. are from Osaka.f}. But Totnes is only open every day. There's a man at the door. MARIE: JOSE: Are (5) No. Complete the dialogue.. (7) POLLY: AGENT: (9) No. But (3) 's a new student from Sweden starting tomorrow. 4 Polly wants to buy a house. They're from Tom. (7) were two students from Brazil. AGENT: (1) (3) T.~!. a shop? next to the pub. and it/they . words crossed out are incorrect. It's 100 kilometres to London.. 80 days of sunshine and 190 days of dry but cloudy weather.. (5) two miles away. Are there any other houses for sale? be a lot more expensive. This year (3 they have been / there have been) 70 days of rain already and it's only May! In April (4 they were / there were) three thunderstorms. plastic cupboards in the kitchen. using there or it or they. 2 Marie's French and Jose's Spanish. There's a gun! 4 TRefe. Complete their dialogue.. a church. Write the correct words. are twelve. 3 Look! There's something in his hand. MARIE: JOSE: How many students are (1) ..~'!.

3 We must use 4 We must use Have you got any sunglasses? . And I found that one on the floor. ASSISTANT: Excuse me a moment. Would you like one? SUE: No. after this and that. .101 A WHAT'S THE RULE? ~ When do we use one/ones? I've got a bike. You can buy one in the hotel. Are these watches yours? MAN: This one's mine. 1 We use one/ones when we don't need to repeat a noun 2 We can use 1 refers back to a plural noun. ASSISTANT: And what about sunglasses? Which ones do you like? SUE: The ones in the window. Have you got one? Look at these boots. The black ones. pear. Look at these sunglasses.Yes. But we often use 60 . . MIKE: I bought these pears. using the or a or some and one or ones. I think he's stealing things. or ones after the + adjective: Which one do you want? after these and those. ASSISTANT: I don't believe you. And I need some sunglasses. I haven't. MIKE: Well. We often use one after 2 We don't normally and that. use ones after these and REMEMBER! Complete these rules and examples. I need a new one. Come with me. SUE: I'll buy a hat too. Which one do you like? SUE: The one with the ribbon. ASSISTANT: And what about these sunglasses? MAN: These are mine and I'm going to pay for those. white one. Have you got one? MIKE: No. I haven't after a + adjective: I'd like a hat. . B Sue'sin the hotel shop. I've got these hats. ASSISTANT: SUE: ASSISTANT: Which one? The one with the white shorts. and 2 We use the + one/ones 3 We must use one/ones to identify things or ? for a plural noun. We use Which one? for a singular noun. Complete the sentences. Fill in the gaps. after the + adjective: are nice. The white one. I need a new film for my camera. The black C The shop assistant is talking to the man with the white shorts. It replaces a/an + noun: I need a hat. Have you got after some + adjective: got white one? . I've got 5 We must use 6 We don't usually use black . thanks. Buy some cheap ones. I'm watching that man. Do you like the black ones? Mike and Sue are on holiday. 1 Would you like one? What does one replace here? 2 We must use one after a + adjective (Example): 3 We must use after some + adjective. don't spend too much. ASSISTANT: Complete the rules. on its own.

Give me some stamps. Have you got one? Look at these boots. Have you got many CDs? . and the people already drawn on the board to demonstrate. You can't use it for uncountable like milk. I haven't got meny-eees. (When we add an adjective before one we must use a/an. Students don't add the necessary one/ones after a/the + adjective. Touch the red circle and point to the black circle and say: This one is smaller than that one. The 3 ones 6 ones. I've got a black one. beauty. Ask: Which one is smaller? Elicit: The (red) one. etc. • Explain that one can only replace a countable noun. people 4 ones. Would you like a chocolate? I haven't got a car. Write this on the board. ones 5 one.I haven't got any-eRe5. Have you got a car? Ask students what they would change. They use a possessive adjective + one/ones instead of a possessive pronoun. any.) Ask: Can we use one/ones for people and things? (Yes. Do you like the black ones? The problem: Where one is used on its own. demonstrate after these and those: These are bigger than those. Then draw two people.) Ask why you use one here. I've found your book but I haven't found my one. one 3 one. (It isn't necessary to repeat a pen. Extensions • Explain to students that we don't use ones after 'number' words like some. (Find one). a few.) Then write on the board: I've got some chocolates. some. Ask: What word do we use to replace a plural noun like circles? (Ones). mime searching for a pen. • One = a/an + noun Mime looking for something in your bag and in your pockets.TEACHING POINTS m When do we use one/ones? I've got a bike./The one who's wearing a hat. one taller than the other and with a hat on. (. I've got one. Write these two sentences on the board. I need a new one. money. Which shoes do you want? . many. etc. Draw two circles on the board.) Write the question and answer on the board. Ask: What does one represent? (A pen.No. there's one here. And say: OR I need a pen. Ah.) • Which one/ones? and the one/ones colour and size.The black. Ah. a B 1 Which ones? 2. Then draw two black circles and two smaller red circles. those 61 . Ask: Which ones are bigger? (The black ones..) • This/that + one and these/those Explain to students that one is often used with this and that. Typical mistakes: I haven't got-a-one with a ribbon. Ask students to explain the difference between this sentence and the earlier ones. but I haven't got a red one. a lot. By using the two black and two red circles. or they repeat the noun(s} instead of using one/ones. . students sometimes mistakenly add an indefinite article. Ask: Which one is taller? (The one with a hat. one C 1 this 2. Would you like one?/Have you got one?) Again. one. each of a different Use the circles. 3 ones REMEMBER! 1 Ones 2. and say: I want a red pen.. Write this question and answer on the board. in my bag. Ugh! This milk tastes awful! (Here we would repeat the word mille) I haven't got any fresh e-RC-c that we don't usually use ones nouns Answers to WHAT'S THE RULE? 15: A 1 a (pear) 2.

those are too small.one 2 1 bigger one 2 fashionable ones 3 better one 4 new ones 5 blue ones 6 faster one 3 1 one 2 one by the window 3 ones 4 ones who are making a lot of noise 5 one 6 one who's talking 8 ones on the wall behind you 2- to those women 7 ones 62 .3-f*lftef. Do you like the black ones? • Write a dialogue Students work in pairs. not that one. Is this your desk? Did you see any fish? The teams score a point for each correct answer. Alternatively point at one habit at a time and elicit responses like: The one who bites her nails is Stefania. The one on the right. I'd love one. A and B. Have you got one? Look at these boots. I I.one 4 -.one 12 tIeef.one. for example: Stefania is the one who bites her nails. Answers to 1-_ one PRACTICE EXERCISES 15: ones 8 -5lfit€a5eone ones 3 -fGeffi. I smoke. Do you want to borrow Shall we watch a film? Which restaurant this book? did you go to? Did you buy any jeans? Which hotel are you going to stay at? Why do you always go to the same cafe? Which of these photographs Which boy did you like most? Can you lend me a pen? Have they got a car? Which room do you want to have? did you take? A: No. The customer melon and some tomatoes some jeans.one 6~ ones 7~ 9 -EIeef. I'd like a kilo of the other ones. Each student writes a line of dialogue should contain and they write a a customer OR a sweater and a and • Quick responses Divide the class into two teams. wants to buy a T: Would you like a drink? A: Yes.m I've got CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES When do we use one/ones? a bike. thanks. The dialogue who writes the next as many No. Other students asking her. Example: A: Can I have a melon please? B: Which one would you like? This one? A: No. Examples: I bite my nails. B: Ah.one 10 -€leer one 11 -9t>ef. OR The ones with the high heels. you mean this one. Julia and Paulo are the ones who smoke.one 5 -. Write some of them on the board. I've got one. should then say. or make up You can ask these questions your own. -GeGf. A: Yes. examples as possible of one and ones. OR hands it to his/her partner line. And can I have some tomatoes please? B: The ones over here? T: Which shoes did you buy? B: These red ones. I borrow my sister's clothes without I talk too long on the phone. Finally students should read out their dialogues. It's too big. Together dialogue in a shop between shop assistant. Point at one student at a time. • Can you remember? Ask students to think of one bad habit they have.3-f*lftef. that's right. Ask members of each team in turn a question to which they have to respond Examples: using one or ones.

Cross out the words in the dialogue which are repeated and write RECEPTIONIST: one 1 or ones. well-paid job.. . fashionable .(5) Which . not that door.. TOURIST: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I'll have the room on the top floor thank you. .(2) The r:?!!.Which (1) . Thewem-on the first floor is $150 a night. The green door next to it. . using one to or ones. I'll buy some 5 I don't like the curtains in my bedroom.(8) The ? . And be careful.(3) Which . I'll get a 4 Most of my shoes have got holes in them. They're red. by the window on the wall behind you who are making a lot of noise . Complete the sentences with words from the box + one or ones. . . . . . . Can you get me a porter? RECEPTIONIST: Certainly madam. . ~!!.PRACTICE EXERCISES 1m When do we use one/ones? I've got a bike. This door here? No.(7) Which . ..I like those pictures. . Do you like the black ones? 1A foreign tourist has just arrived at a hotel in New York. bigger faster better blue new . Now I need a porter to help with my suitcases. . .(4) The 7 . Have you got one? Look at these boots. I'll find you a porter. The black suitcase is very heavy. 63 .(6) The ? . RECEPTIONIST: TOURIST: RECEPTIONIST: TOURIST: RECEPTIONIST: The dining room is through Which door? the door on the left. She's thinking about all the things she wants to buy.Do you know those people? . I'll get some 6 My computer's very slow. . .. Which suitcases are yours? TOURIST: The suitcases over there. My TV s very small.Who's that man? who's talking those women . . . We've got three rooms free.~ The rooms on the top floor are $130. 2 Joanna has just got a new. 3 Use the information in the box to complete these short conversations in a restaurant. .f! ? . I can buy a bigger one I can buy some 2 Most of my clothes are old-fashioned. I'll buy a . 9 10 11 12 .Shall we sit at that table? . The door next to the elevator. 3 My CD player isn't very good.

without the prior permission of the publishers. mechanical.. For further catalogue. information and a copy of the latest DELTA PUBLISHING please contact: '.- may be freely reproduced by the purchaser for classroom use.uk Web www. or transmitted..deltapublishing.\ 'f\ PUBLISHING!. photocopying. exercises and teaching at elementary and intermediate levels ISBN 0 953 30984 3 tips 64 . practical resource materials to help them in their everday teaching tasks.com Teaching English is your profession ENGLISH TEACHING professional is your magazine Photocopying Pages marked: I~ DESIGNED TO PHOTOCOPY I -.with innovative.wherever Edited by Sally McGugan Illustrations by John Plumb Cox Eileen Fryer DELTA Publishing 39 Alexandra Road Addlestone Surrey KT15 2PQ England Tel +44 (0) 1932854776 Designed by Christine Printed in England by Hillman Printers Fax +44 (0) 1932 849528 Email delta@deltabooks. \l:~ teachers of English .uk Creative materials for creative teachers Also by David Bolton and Noel Goodey TROUBLE WITH VERBS? guided discovery materials.etprofessional. electronic.. in any form by any means. 1pip=~~1 ENGLISH For more information please contact: ENGLISH TEACHING professional Tech West House © David Bolton and Noel Goodey 2000 First published 2000 10 Warple Way London W3 OUE England Tel +44 (0) 20 8762 9600 Fax +44 (0) 20 8749 6916 Email ETp@etprofessional.. ~. \" J-I\\~. All other rights are reserved and no part of this publication may be reproduced.com ISBN0 9533098 7 8 Web www. publishing articles on practical methodology and personal and professional development."~. or otherwise. recording.co. and provides the fresh ideas and renewed enthusiasm that every classroom teacher needs. about ENGLISH TEACHING professional..". stored in a retrieval system.Published by DELTA PUBLISHING 39 Alexandra Road Addlestone Surrey KT15 2PQ and ENGLISH TEACHINGrofessional / p First Person Publishing Limited 15 Baldwyn Gardens London W3 6HJ ENGLISH TEACHING professional (ETp) is a quarterly magazine for teachers of English worldwide.\ t*DE[Jf~t\ _.A pte DELTA PUBLISHING aims to provide they are and whatever their teaching situation ..co. creative..-.

.

something anything. DVERBS A AND PRONOUNS? identifies common elementary and intermediate 'trouble spots'. a little a few/very little very few? How do we talk about habits? (usually AND used 1'0) How do we use so and neither'? Interrogative who AND pronouns: whose. exercises and teaching tips at elementary and intermediate levels COPYCATS designed to photocopy Adjective (slow OR OR TROUBLE WITH ADJECTIVES. is a new series of teachers' resource books materials for use in the published by DELTA PUBLI~HING.OPYCATS ENGliSH TEACHING Object pronouns and reflexive pronouns: me There is/There are OR OR myself? It is/They are? series is jointly professional and When du we use one/ones'? . • Guided discovery activities that clarify and explain • Photocopiable materials that reinforce understanding • Comprehensive teaching notes that ensure success adverb slowly)? Where do adjectives and adverbs go in the sentence? Adjectives ending in -ing (exciting OR excited)? OR -ed How do we form comparatives and superlatives? Demonstratives: this/these OR that/those? Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns: my Some OR OR mine? OR any. designed to provide the teacher with varied and innovative photocopiable classroom. Between them they have written six main courses.TROUBLE WITH ADJECTIVES. practise and master key grammar rules. what OR OR which? Relative pronouns: who OR which that'? AND whose. and provides the teacher with full guidance on classroom presentation and exploitation. Their most recent book together is Trouble With Verbs? COPYCATS many OR OR a lotllots (of). ADVERBS AND PRONOUNS? Guided discovery materials. someone Much OR OR OR anyone? "Just what's needed to help students correct common mistakes and misunderstandings" David Bolton and Noel Goodey nave both taught English to students of all nationalities more than 30 books. The C. including for over 25 years. enables students to discover.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful