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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI

UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES


FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

VI DIU THUN

THE MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEARNING SLANG IN ENGLISH: A STUDY OF THE FOURTH-YEAR UNDERGRADUATES AT FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of bachelor of arts (TEFL)

Hanoi, May 2011

VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI


UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

VI DIU THUN

THE MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEARNING SLANG IN ENGLISH: A STUDY OF THE FOURTH-YEAR UNDERGRADUATES AT FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of bachelor of arts (TEFL)

SUPERVISOR: Mr. KHOA ANH VIT, M.A.

Hanoi, May 2011

I hereby state that I: Vi Dieu Thuan, group 071E1, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelors Graduation Paper deposited to the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper. Signature: Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Khoa Anh Viet, M.A., who has given me valuable comments and instructions as well as encouragement and support during the whole period of time this graduation paper got fulfilled. I also wish to thank all my teachers, my friends at the university and my family who have given me precious support and helpful advice so that I could make remarkable progress and necessary improvements with my work. Finally, I want to show my sincere appreciation to the fourth-year students who participated in the questionnaire and interviews and provided essential and significant data for my study.

ABSTRACT This paper outlines the results of a survey which was conducted to investigate the motivation and attitudes of students at Faculty of English Language Teacher Education (FELTE), University of Languages and International Studies (ULIS), Vietnam National University, Hanoi (VNUH). The motivation was identified in terms of instrumental motivation, integrative motivation and personal motivation based on the constructs proposed by Cooper and Fishman in 1977 and Gardner in1985. The attitudes were identified regarding the use of slang in English in the social context, the use of slang in English in the educational context, the slang in English language and the culture of English speaking countries reflected through slang. 100 fourth-year undergraduates at FELTE were chosen to be the study sample. A questionnaire and interviews were used for data collection. As for the results, integrative motivation appears to have the most impact on the students when they learned slang in English. Personal motivation is also considered important to the students. Compared to the other two types of motivational constructs, instrumental motivation; however, has little influence on the students slang learning. On the other hand, the findings in terms of the attitudes reveal that the majority of the students have generally positive attitudes towards the use of slang in both social context and educational environment. Also, the students show certain interest in slang as a language itself. Particularly, the movies in which plenty of slang is used are, in general, enjoyable and interesting to the students. Thus, it can be inferred that the students positively respond to the culture of English speaking countries reflected through slang. At the end of the paper, the discussions and conclusion regarding the motivation and attitudes towards learning slang of students at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH are presented.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content Acknowledgement Abstract Table of content List of tables and figures List of abbreviation Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale of the study 1.2. Aims of the study and research questions 1.3. Methodology of the study 1.4. Scope of the study 1.5. Significance of the study 1.6. Organization of the study Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1. Definition of key terms 2.1.1. Motivation 2.1.2. Attitudes 2.1.3. Slang in English 8 8 11 13 1 5 5 5 6 7 Page number i ii iii v vi

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2.2. The importance and frequency of slang use 2.3. Related studies Chapter 3: Methodology 3. 1. Introduction 3. 2. Setting 3.3. Participants 3. 4. Sampling 3.5. Data collection instrument 3.6. Procedures of data collection 3.7. Procedures of data analysis Chapter 4: Results and discussions 4.1. Results 4.2. Discussions Chapter 5: Conclusions 5.1. Summary 5.2. Conclusions 5.3. Limitations and suggestions References Appendices

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24 25 26 27 28 30 31

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47 47 49

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES


Figures and tables Figure 1: Students experience in learning slang in English Figure 2: Students awareness of the importance of slang in English Figure 3: Students awareness of the frequency of slang use among native speakers of English Table 1: Students motivation towards learning slang in English Figure 4: Students demand to learn more slang in English Figure 5: Students attitudes towards learning slang in English 38 35 33 4 3 Page number 3

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
FELTE: Faculty of English Language Teacher Education ULIS: University of Languages and International Studies VNUH: Vietnam National University, Hanoi EFL: English as a Foreign Language ESL: English as a Second Language etc.: et cetera/ and so on i.e.: id est/ that is

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CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale of the study

English language has nowadays become the international language in the world. Learning English has consequently turned important to any individual because of the inevitable role of the language in almost every field. In order to fully understand the language, learners of English are required to study the full portion of English language which consists of both the so-called standard English and the non-standard one. Although belonging to the category non-standard, slang has significant role in English language. As a special type of language, slang is a tool that helps speakers communicate and a carrier that brings culture along with it. Eble (1996) says slang helps strengthen social identity of the speakers. H. Wentworth and S. Flexner (1975) even believe that slang beautifies English language, unlike the dull and plain standard English. Plus, they add that speakers use slang because it conveys more emotions, feelings and meanings. Other various functions of slang are also shown by a number of related studies. Slang also plays a vital part in English language because of its popularity and frequency among native speakers of English. According to the results of a survey on the frequency of using slang in daily conversations conducted by Nguyen (2004), there are approximately 75% of the native speakers of English in the randomly chosen group either often or usually use slang in their daily conversations. According to Spears (2000), expressions that can be called slang or colloquial make up a major part of American communication in movies, television, radio,

newspapers, magazines and informal conversations. The frequency of slang use in English can also be simply detected by daily observation. Despite the recognition of the noticeable existence of slang in English, it has been intentionally neglected in educational or academic environment due to its non-standard nature. The situation at the Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (FELTE, ULIS, VNUH) is of no exception. Specifically, the Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, like most other EFL environment, only requires the students to learn standard and academic English. In other words, learning the non-standard English or slang is not among the essential requirements at school. Students; therefore, might choose to optionally learn it by themselves. A question is naturally raised from this situation: Do students still care about learning something that they dont have to?. Before commencing the actual study, the researcher had already conducted a short survey among the fourth-year undergraduates at FELTE, ULIS, VNU to gain general idea of the students experience in learning slang and their awareness of the importance and frequency of slang use in English language. The data reveal that the majority of the students have certain experience in learning slang and most of them are aware that slang is important and the use of slang is frequent in the English speaking world. The results of the survey are briefly shown in the graphs below:

a. The students experience in learning slang in English

b. The students awareness of the importance and frequency of slang use in English language Figure 2: The students awareness of the importance of slang in English language

As can be seen from the charts, the students have ever attempted to learn slang before even though it is not required at school. Besides, they highly value the importance of slang in English language and believe there is frequent use of slang among native speakers of English. The researcher of this study finds it necessary to find out how the students feel motivated to learn slang and their attitudes towards learning it when it is not compulsory at school. The researcher also hopes that the discussions and conclusions drawn from the findings will help the students benefit from their motivation and attitudes to achieve more success in their language learning process in the long run. The reasons and factors mentioned above inspired the researcher to carry out a study entitled The Motivation and Attitudes towards Learning Slang in English: A Study of the Fourth-year

Undergraduates at Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi
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1.2.

Objectives of the study and research questions

The study aims at investigating FELTE students motivation and attitudes towards learning slang in English language. The objectives are presented in the two questions below: - Which of the three motivational constructs (instrumental motivation, integrative motivation and personal motivation) is the major source of FELTE students motivation towards learning slang in English language? - Which type of attitudes that FELTE students have towards learning slang in English? 1.3. Methodology of the study In this study, the conventional methods used are questionnaire and interviews. A questionnaire was used as the main tool to collect the data first. Interviews were then conducted on a smaller group of participants to confirm the validity of the collected data as well as to gain more additional information for the next step. After that, analysis was worked out based on the data from both the questionnaire and the interviews. Finally, discussions of the findings and further implications were drawn out as the last procedure. 1.4. Scope of the study The slang in English mentioned in this research is the slang in general. In other words, no specific type of slang is focused because as stated in the aims and objectives of the study, the investigation on the motivation and attitudes of the students is the actual target.

The sample of the study is limited to 102 out of all fourth-year students at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH, who are carefully chosen by the stratified random sampling method to represent the total number. The research is conducted at the FELTE, ULIS, VNUH only. Therefore, not any other faculty or university can be inferred from the findings of this study however closely related it may be. 1.5. Significance of the study Before this study, there have been other researches related to slang in English. However, most of them mainly focus on slang as a language itself and discuss over the definitions, categories, development, importance and frequency of slang in use. To the best of the researchers knowledge, there is hardly any official local study on learning slang, not to mention on any practical case of FELTE students. This research is the pioneer in specifically investigating the students motivation and attitudes towards learning slang in English language at the FELTE, ULIS, VNUH, providing an essential storage of information for any individual that may be concerned. Students, teachers and lecturers who are interested in this topic to any extent may hopefully find useful information provided in this research. Similarly, researchers who happen to have the same or similar concern about this very same or related area might also make full use of this research as a significant source of reference. Finally, authorities or policy makers who seek for necessary changes can consider the conclusions or base on the findings to make possible adjustments at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH. 1.6. Organization of the study
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There are five chapters in this paper: Chapter I: Introduction describes Statement of the Problem and Rationale of the Study, Aims of the Study and Research Questions, Methods of the Study, Scope of the Study, Importance of the Study and Structure of the Study. Chapter II: Literature Review lays the theoretical foundation for the study by discussing Definition of Terms, Importance and Frequency of Slang Use and Previous Related Studies. Chapter III: Methodology explains in detail the methods which were applied and the procedures that the researcher followed when conducting the study. Chapter IV: Results and Discussions present and discuss the findings of the study. Chapter V: Conclusion summarizes the main points, states the conclusions, admits the limitations, and suggests for further studies.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1. Definition of key terms 2.1.1. Motivation A number of experts have been attempting to define the term motivation in various ways. Behaviorists believe that motivation is quite simply the anticipation of reward (Brown, 2000, p. 160) while constructivists think motivation occurs when an individual focuses on both the surrounding environment and his own demands (Brown, 2000, p. 160). A closer view to the situation of learners by Keller (1983, p. 389) is expressed as motivation is the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid, and the degree of effort they exert in that respect. Naturally, most definitions mention the demands or needs in some way. Afterwards, Brown (2000, p. 161) provides the most satisfactory perspective on motivation as a combination of the definitions given, the fulfillment of needs is rewarding, requires choice and in many cases, must be interpreted in a social context. Gardner (1985, p. 133) says that learning a language requires both cognitive factors- intelligence and aptitude and affective factorsmotivation and attitudes. The importance of these factors is also emphasized as they are undoubtedly implicated in second language acquisition (Lambert, 1963). Similarly, Ellis (1994, p. 473) shares the same idea when he approves that motivation and attitudes are among a veritable plethora of individual learner variables i.e. factors that affect language learning. The significance of motivation is more specifically stressed when Gardner (2006, p. 241) presents that, students with higher levels of motivation will do better than students with lower levels.
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Brown (2000, p. 160) shares a similar idea that it is easy in language learning to claim that a learner will be successful with the proper motivation. In a study by Lifrieri (2005, p. 4), the findings also show that most people would certain mention motivation among the factors that influence individual levels of success in such activity as language learning. To clarify this idea, Gardner (2006, p. 243) specifies that if one is motivated, he/she has reasons (motives) for engaging in the activities, expends effort, persists in the activities, attends to the tasks, shows desire to achieve the goal, enjoy the activities, etc.. Askes (1988, p. 11) claims that effective learning can only take place when the pupil is keen to acquire knowledge, he must there be strongly-motivated. Wellmotivated learners can easily improve proficiency in the target language while weakly-motivated ones have difficulties in recognizing long-term benefits of language learning (Wilkins, 1978, p. 52). Ellis (1986, p. 300) posits that motivation in language learning can be defined in terms of the learners overall goal or orientation. In the view of Gardner and Lambert (1972), there are two main types of orientations namely, integrative and instrumental which are explained as below:
An integrative orientation toward language study reflects a sincere and personal interest in the people and culture represented by the other group. An instrumental orientation emphasizes the practical value and advantages of learning a new language. The integrative orientation thus stresses an emotional involvement with the other community, while the instrumental orientation does not necessarily.

Instrumental motivation occurs when the learners goal is function (Brown, 1987, p. 115) or when learning a language because of someone or less clearly perceived utility it might have for the learner (Gardner, 1983, p. 203). Wilkins (1972, p. 184) specifies this as the learner is
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motivated to learn a language to pass an examination, to use it in ones job, to use it on a holiday in the country, as a change from watching television, because the educational requires it. Integrative motivation occurs when the learners goal is to identify with the culture of the target language (Ellis, 1986, p. 300). Gardner (1983, p. 203) shares the same idea, learning a language because the learner wishes to identify himself with or become integrated into the society of the language. Common activities caused by this type of motivation include to make contact with the speakers of the languages, to live in the country concerned so that the learners know more of the culture and values of the foreign language group (Wilkins, 1972, p. 184). According to Gardner, there are two only distinctive types of motivational constructs as mentioned above. However, Cooper and Fishman (1977, p. 243) found another type of motivation which is called personal motivation or developmental motivation. It literally means the motivation is related to personal development or personal satisfaction. The learner is interested in watching movies and reading books in English (Brown, 2000). Crookes and Schmidt (1991) simply see motivation as the learners orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. Thus, identifying a learners motivation equals finding the reason why a language is learnt (Giles, 1985). A similar albeit more detailed explanation by Gardner (1985, p. 51) goes as follows:
The type of motivation answers the question of why the individual is studying the language. It refers to the goal. Many reasons could be listed: to be able to speak with members of that language community, to get a job, to improve ones education, to be able to travel, to please ones parents, to satisfy a
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language requirement, to gain social power, etc. It may even be that there are as many reasons for studying a second language as there are individuals.

In simple words, a language may be learned for any one or any collection of practical reasons (Spolsky, 1989, p. 160). Therefore, identifying the motivation for FELTE fourth-year undergraduates to learn slang in English is to identify the reasons why they learn it. The three motivational constructs are now reflected through instrumental, integrative and personal reasons. 2.1.2. Attitudes Another concept closely related to motivation is attitude. Gardner (1985, p. 8) admits that the term attitude is complex. Many definitions have been proposed to describe its essence. The concept has probably played the most central role in the development of social psychology during the twentieth century (Louw and Edwards 1997, p. 764). Likert (1932, p. 9) defines attitude as an inference which is made on the basis of a complex of beliefs about the attitude object. Gardner adds further details, the sum total of a mans instinctions and feelings, prejudice or bias, preconceived notions, fears, threats, and convictions about any specified topics. A hypothetical construct used to explain the direction and persistence of human behavior is another technical definition by Baker (1992, p. 10). Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) first say that attitude is the general feeling (ranging from positive to negative) or evaluation (good/ bad) a person has towards self, other people, objects or events. Ajzen (1988, p. 4) later provides a more concise definition by stating that attitude is a disposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object person, institution, or event.

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In terms of language learning, attitudes are considered sets of beliefs possessed by learners about such factors as the target language culture and the learners own culture (Ellis, 1986, p. 293). Attitudes, in Gardners view, are so closely related to motivation that they can be regarded as the components of motivation in language learning, motivation...refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language (Gardner, 1985, p. 10). For more technical definition of the term, expert Wenden (1991) claims that an attitude consists of three components which are cognitive, affective and behavioral. Cognitive component include the perceptions, beliefs, opinions, ideas of an individual about the object. Affective component is related to the emotions, feelings, preferences, interests which are normally shown in such words as likes or dislikes, for or against of a person for the object. Behavioral component refers to the intentions and actions of one towards the object. However, expert McGuire (1969, p. 157) argues that these three components of an attitude are extremely closely interrelated that it is not necessary to clearly separate them. Plus, investigating only one component, no matter which, is enough for collecting the sufficient information as well as measuring and analyzing the data. Wilkins (1978, p. 53) believes that lack of motivation goes hand-in-hand with negative attitudes. The importance of attitude in language learning is also confirmed by Lightbrown (1993, p.39) as follows: depending on the learners attitudes, learning a language can be a source of enrichment or a source of resentment. Additionally, attitudes are believed to affect learners determination as well (Ellis, 1994). He says when a person learns a language, that person develops certain attitudes towards the target language, the group of people speaking the target language, the culture of the target language world, the social values
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and the educational values of the target language. As can be inferred from this, positive language attitudes let learner have positive orientation towards learning English. In other words, attitudes more or less decide the success or failure when anyone attempts to learn a language. In short, motivation and attitudes are confirmed to be related to success in language learning (Gardner, 1985) or as stated by Brown (1987, p. 127) that language learners benefit from positive attitudes while negative attitudes decrease motivation or even lead to unsuccessful attainment of proficiency due to low input and poor interaction. 2.1.3. Slang in English According to Mr. Hoang (Basic English lexicology, 1993, p. 66), English words are divided into two major categories namely standard words and non-standard words. The standard English words consist of bookish words, neutral words, standard colloquial words and the nonstandard English words include dialectal words, slang words, vulgar words. As mentioned above, slang belongs to the non-standard group of English words which are chiefly used in spoken English and in informal contexts. Renown slang researchers say that it is very easy to use slang and very difficult to define it (Partridge, 1970, p.1). Often we may recognize slang as a phenomenon, but still cannot define it (Andersson & Trudgill, 1990, p. 69). There is no standard test that will decide what is slang and what is not (Spears, R. A., 2000, V). Generally, looking for the best definition of the term slang is almost impossible because slang is a broad term which reflects a number of aspects in peoples lives. Also, the term slang is changeable due to its close relation with culture. A
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definition of slang; therefore, can satisfy this group, but fail to another group. Still, slang may be defined by several ways at a time in order that readers have the most thorough and objective view of it. In the past, the attitude toward slang used to be rather negative due to its nonstandard nature. As a result, the definitions dated back from that time revealed more or less the discrimination for slang as the language of the lower social class. An American poet, Carl Sandburg once believed slang was the symbol of the working class, Slang is the language that takes off its coat, spits on its hands, and goes to work.(p.306). The discrimination got more severe as Oliver Wendell Holmes regarded slang as the advertisement of mental poverty and Ambrose Bierces defined slang is the speech of him who robs the literary garbage cans on their ways to the dumps. The position of slang turned worse than ever when in the book Stylistics, I.R. Galperin disliked the language by saying that the attitude of many Englishmen towards the thing called slang is also revealed in the fact that it is assigned to the class of so-called social evils together with drunkenness, prostitution and the use of narcotics (p.97). Additionally, the New Oxford English dictionary defined slang as follows:
a) The special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low or disreputable character; language of a low and vulgar type. b) The cant or jargon of a certain class or period; c) Language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense.

Obviously, slang users were once considered the uncivilized and uneducated people of the lower class.

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Up to now, slang has been popularized a great deal, which has lead to the major change in the conventional points of views towards slang among speakers of English. More neutral or positive opinions are now openly shared, very informal words and expressions that are more common in spoken language especially used by a particular group of people, for example, children, criminals, soldiers, etc. (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press). Similarly, linguist Pamela Munro believes that slang is language whose use serves to mark the user as belonging to some distinct groups within society (therefore, people who belong to more than one such group may use very different slang depending on who theyre with) (Munro, 1993). The two previous definitions show the usual groups of slang users. Another experts viewpoint generally presents expressions that are identified as slang are often some type of entertaining wordplay, and they are almost always an alternative way of saying something (Spears, 2000). Specifically, the main characteristics of slang are identified as the following theory, an informal, nonstandard, non-technical vocabulary composed chiefly of novel-sounding synonyms for standard words or phrases (Oxford English Dictionary, 1999, p.1878). The similar idea about slang belonging to the nonstandard category among the English words is also given by Hoang, T.T. in his Basic English Lexicology. Nevertheless, NTCs Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions states, if slang words last long enough, they may become so well known that they become standard English unavoidably, which means that is the moment when slang is no longer slang and officially accepted on formal occasions. To sum up, slang can be understood as a nonstandard language used among particular groups, consisting of words and expressions which
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vividly convey the speakers feelings and attitudes in an informal way. As a language, slang is dynamic and flexible, and so are the acceptability and popularity of slang (Nguyen, 2004, p. 12).

2.2. The importance and frequency of slang use in English Slang is language. Language is a tool of thinking, communication and a carrier of culture. Slang reflects society and reality. Via slang, people freely express their own ideas, personal opinions, sincere attitudes towards any aspects of life that are rarely seen in formal speeches and official documents. Via slang, people can see not only the plain meanings, but also the feelings of the speakers. Slang is fresh, fashionable, creative, humorous, ironic, sarcastic, ambiguous, lifelike, biased, expressive, vivid and real. That reasonably explains why slang is getting more and more popular every day. Slang is used to establish or reinforce social identity and cohesiveness, especially within a group, or with a trend or fashion in society at large (Eble, C., 1996, p. 940). H. Wentworth and S. Flexner in their Dictionary of American Slang write as follows:
Sometimes slang is used to escape the dull familiarity of standard words to suggest an escape from the established routine of everyday life. When slang is used our life seems a little fresher and a little more personal. Also, it is sometimes used for the pure joy of making sounds or even for a need to attract attention by making noise.

It tends to satisfy a variety of emotional and intellectual needs of people: as an exercise of wit and humour slang is jesting language that gives fresh and pungent names to things often mentioned in discourse(p. 64). Nguyen. H. N. presents the functions of slang through a collection of the reasons for the slang use of English speakers: to create humor for fun, to self-display, to show off ones intelligence, to be different, to be novel, to be picturesque, to avoid plainness, to enrich the language, to be brief and concise, to create a friendly atmosphere, a close
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relationship, to employ litotes, to be in the swim or to belong to a particular group, and to be secret (Nguyen. H. N., 2004, 24). With its various functions, slang has been naturally accepted and popularized among generations of English speakers. Slang is rarely the first choice of careful writers or speakers or anyone attempting to use language for formal, persuasive, or business purposes. Nonetheless, expressions that can be called slang or colloquial make up a major part of American communication in movies, television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and informal conversation. (Spears, R. A., 2000). The lexicologist Stuart Berg Flexner shares a similar opinion that slang is frequently used by or intelligible to a rather large portion of the general American public. (Flexner, S.B., 1997, p.17). Statistics have also showed that Vocabulary of an ordinary American is about 20000, one tenths of which are slang (Wang Li, 2006). The results from a survey done by native English speakers staying in Hanoi show that 86% of them used slang. Among them, 20% chose often, 54% chose usually, and 12% chose sometimes. In short, more or less, intentionally or unintentionally, all people use slang in their daily dialogues (Nguyen. H. N., 2004, p.52). The frequency of slang usage can also be easily detected by observation. Communications mass media have made remarkable contribution in popularizing English slang worldwide. It is difficult to imagine anyone without certain English slang vocabulary can understand thoroughly a T.V series, a popular novel, an entertainment channel or a radio program. Slang is informal, nonstandard, but has been dramatically developing and changing peoples attitudes to become an indispensible part in both spoken and written English now. In the past, speakers of English tried not to use slang to avoid offensiveness and awkwardness,
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but now tend to use it with high frequency in daily conversations to create friendly atmosphere and improve social relationship as the primary purpose. 2.3. Related Studies In the world Investigating the motivation and attitudes of the learners towards learning a language has been a commonly chosen topic of many international researchers. Most of these studies are conducted on EFL or ESL learners and their motivation as well as attitudes towards the English language. The results vary from place to place, introducing various conclusions and discussions over the issues. Similar to the researcher of this study, the majority of others in the world also base on Gardner and Lamberts motivation constructs to identify the most influential one. The following are the most popular related studies arranged in time order. In 1985, a study on the students motivation for learning English was carried out at University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Basing on Gardner and Lamberts study from 1972, this research collected data from a questionnaire delivered to a thousand students. The results showed that students at UPM were equally motivated by the instrumental and integrative constructs when they learned English. In 1991, Benson attempted to find the motivation to study English language of over three hundred first-year undergraduates at a college in Japan. It eventually proved that these Japanese students were more influenced by both the integrative and personal constructs rather than the instrumental one (Benson, 1991, p. 34).

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Sarjit (1993) worked on a similar study over a slightly different target population at a workplace. Around thirty employees working as consultants at a company took part in the research. Sarjit used not only questionnaire, but also interviews and observation to collect the necessary data. Instrumental motivation appeared to be the most common orientation to learn English among the workers. Later on, in 1998, Buschenhofen carried out a study on the attitudes towards learning English of students in their last year at high school and others in their last year at college in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Questionnaire was the only instrument used to get the information. The findings indicated that although there were positive attitudes towards learning the language from both groups, differences in the attitudes towards other contexts of learning English language were remarkable due to changes in the educational environment, social context and linguistic conditions when students moved from high school to college. In Yemen Arab Republic, Al-Quyadi (2002) tried to analyze the nature of the psychological variables through their motivation and attitudes of over 500 Yemeni EFL English majors at the Department of English, Faculties of Education, Sanaa University. Conclusions drawn from a questionnaire were that 1) the most preferred motivations were instrumental and integrative constructs and 2) the major attitudes towards the usage of English language in social and educational contexts were generally positive. In Iran, about 50 freshmen and sophomores students at Kashan University of Medical Sciences participated in a study conducted by Arani (2004) to identify the attitudes of the students towards the school subject English language for Medical Purpose (EMP). Three different
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questionnaires were delivered at three different points of the courses to detect any differences. The results revealed that most of the attitudes towards English language were relatively positive. Another study conducted in India by Qashoa (2006) was aimed at students at a secondary school in Dubai. 100 students participated as the sample in the questionnaire and about 20 students and teachers were interviewed to collect more detailed data. Results showed that students were more instrumentally than integratively motivated. In Turkey, Karahan (2007) carried out a research on approximately 200 eighth graders attitudes towards learning English as a foreign language in order to find the reason for their poor proficiency as reported in previous studies. Interestingly, the findings displayed the fact that although most students were fully aware of the importance of English language, they only had mildly positive attitudes towards leaning it and the culture of the English speaking world. However, negative attitudes were shown towards the use of English language among Turkish people in social context. Al-Tamimi and Shuid (2009) co-worked on the most recent research on the motivation and attitudes towards learning English of Petrolium Engineering Undergraduates at Hadhramout University of Sciences and Technology in Malaysia. The researchers combined and adapted the most effective and feasible methods to approach this field by using both Gardner & Lamberts two motivational constructs and Cooper & Fishmans additional motivational construct i.e. personal construct. After analyzing the data collected from the questionnaire done by 82 students, the authors concluded that the most important motivation among the students was instrumental, personal motivation ranked second and
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integrative construct was least concerned. The most common type of attitude was generally positive towards the English language, the social and educational role of it and the culture reflected via the language. Also, there have been numerous researches on English slang around the world. Most focus on the native speakers of English and a specific category of slang. One of the most well-known researches is the U.C.L.A. Project on the college slang of the students at University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A. The findings of the project were used to compile two dictionary books about U.C.L.A. slang. Other reliable sources are the NTCs Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions dictionaries composed by Richard A. Spears (2000) whose name is cited a number of times in this paper. These provide a good number of definitions of the notion slang. Besides, the study on The Use of Slang in Modern American Press by Safronova Alexandra (2008) which mainly focuses on the situation of temporary American printed media still helps in the attempt to define the term. Still, the international studies aimed at students learning slang in English as a foreign language can hardly be found. In Vietnam Not as varied as the international related studies, the national and regional studies in Vietnam are still some certain useful sources of references to the author of this paper. In 2007, there was a study on the learners motivation and identity in a Vietnamese EFL writing classroom by Tran on 30 third-year students from English Department at a university in the Central Vietnam.
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However, the method was based on different categories namely intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. The study also focused on the factors influencing the motivation and orientation towards learning the language. Pedagogical implications and recommendations were fully presented at the end of the paper. A graduation paper on Slang In English by Doan. C. M. in 1999 at the English Department, College of Foreign Languages, VNU, Hanoi was one of the pioneers in studying slang in the region. As the first to explore the field, the study could only give a rather general and subjective view and had a number of limitations due to the limited sources of reference. The whole study chiefly presented the categories of slang through different classifications, with little discussions and findings at the end. However, very few references were based on, which made the study somehow less convincing and biased. At the same college, another graduation paper called The Use of Slang in English by Nguyen. H. N. in 2004 was a noticeably farther approach compared to the previous one. The research successfully covered the development of slang in English in a thorough, decent and insightful way. Complete discussions and conclusions were carefully made, making the study a particularly reliable and helpful source of reference. In summary, the primary points that can be made from all of the related studies mentioned above are presented as follows: The studies on motivation and attitudes pointed out the significance of identifying them in the process of learning a language.
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The studies carried out by Benson (1991), Sarjit (1993) and Qashoa (2006) on EFL/ ESL students motivation were referenced and adapted to apply a similar approach and develop some questions in the questionnaire to identify the motivation. The studies carried out by Buschenhofen (1998), AlQuyadi (2000) and Karahan (2007) on EFL/ ESL students attitudes were referenced and adapted to apply a similar approach and develop some questions in the questionnaire to identify the attitudes. Particularly, the four main aspects that the attitudes were supposed to show towards are the use of slang in the social context, the use of slang in the educational context, slang in English language and the culture of the English speaking world reflected through slang. The latest study by Al-Tamimi and Shuid (2009) was the major source of reference that the author of this paper based on to learn the synthesized theory and method. The importance ad popularity of slang was clearly proved in the studies, yet none related to learning slang has been carried out. In other words, no study has ever been conducted to investigate the motivation and attitudes towards learning slang in English of students, especially the fourth-year undergraduates at Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University Hanoi.
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III. METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction The objective of this study is to investigate the motivation and attitudes of the fourth-year undergraduates at Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University Hanoi towards learning slang in English. The theory of triangulation mixed method design by Creswell (2002) was applied to carry out this procedure, meaning two research tools including questionnaire and interviews were mainly used to collect the data. The questionnaire method was chosen because of its numerous advantages explained in detail `as follows: the questionnaire was efficiently delivered to a large number of participants in a short period of time; data collected from the questionnaires were quickly interpreted and decoded (especially the questionnaires with many close-questions), which also saved plenty of time; the questionnaire was easily standardized since every participant was supposed to be asked the same question in the same way, increasing the reliability of the method and the observers subjectivity is greatly eliminated; the questionnaire provided a safer environment for the participants to give more honest and sincere answers to the sensitive, personal or embarrassing questions as they were allowed to complete the questionnaire either anonymously or in privacy. Basically, questionnaire is useful in describing the characteristics of a large population and no other method of observation can provide this general capability (Milne, 1999).

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The face-to-face interviews were also carried out on a certain number of participants to confirm the reliability, validity of the data collected from the questionnaires as well as to get more additional information from the participants. Reasons for using this interview method are explained as follows: the social cues such as intonation, voice, body language of the interviewees added more information to their verbal answers; the answers were more spontaneous and direct because the interviewees did not have much time to think of the questions and consider the choices; the interviews were recorded then transcribed if the interviewees agreed on the deal, giving more accurate answers than the taking-note method (Opdenakker, 2006). According to Tellis (1997), the reason for using the triangulation mixed method design or the combination of both questionnaire and interview is to confirm and strengthen the validity, reliability and confidentiality of the data as well as to give a fuller picture and address many different aspects of phenomena (Silverman, 2000, p. 50). 3.2. Setting of the study The educational system at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH provides four years of training majorly in English Language Teaching that will qualify the students to graduate with a Bachelor of Arts degree. The students study the four English skills namely Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing and other English-based courses such as Literature, General Geography, Cross-cultural Communication, etc. Not only teachers use English to conduct lessons, but students are also expected to learn, interact and communicate in English. As students are believed to be advanced learners of English or English majors, the language is supposedly a second language which can be used naturally and
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instinctively. Like in other educational systems, standard English is the type of language that is primarily encouraged to use at school. Other types of languages including slang in English are assumed to be optionally learned out of school. However, whether or not the students are motivated to learn some language unrequired at school is not yet in question. In other words, school is unaware if students actually learn slang or not and holds little responsibility for that. 3.3. Participants The target population of the study was the fourth-year students studying at Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University Hanoi in the academic year 2011. The nature of slang as a part of the non-standard English language basically indicates that native speakers of English are most likely to use it. Experts believe that it is unnecessary for beginner learners of English to learn slang because their proficiency in the language is low and they need to master the standard English as a firm base first. However, advanced learners of English are encouraged to learn slang because now that their proficiency in English is higher and the standard English base is relatively well-built. Compared to students of the other first three years at the university, the fourth-year undergraduates who have completed almost all eight semesters at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH, are considered to guarantee the most sufficient proficiency in the English language. Among all faculties at ULIS, VNUH, the educational system at the Faculty of English Language Teacher Education particularly does not require students to learn slang at school. Yet, it has also been pointed out
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the importance and frequency of slang in the English language as mentioned previously. Thus, the researcher of this study decided to find out why the students at this faculty still learned slang and how they felt about learning it even though it was not necessarily required at school. These characteristics mentioned above explain why the fourth-year students at Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, ULIS, VNUH appeared as the most suitable participants of the study. 3.4. Sampling As for choosing the questionnaire participants, a non-probability judgment sampling was the technique employed by the researcher of this study to choose the representative sampling of the subjects. According to Milroy (1987), judgment sampling or purposive sampling or purposeful sampling is to select a particular group of informative or useful participants by the researchers own judgment. Therefore, 120 students were picked out of the total number of the fourth-year students at FELTE to fill in the questionnaire. Nevertheless, there were 18 invalid questionnaires collected, decreasing the number of the valid participants down to 102 among which are 10 males and 92 females. Only 10 of those students were chosen for the interviews taken place after the questionnaires were analyzed. Among them, 2 were male, 8 were female undergraduates who represented a range of attributes that were potential for the interviews based on this set of certain criteria displayed by item 4 about the reasons why the students learned slang and item 7 about how they felt about slang and learning slang in the questionnaire:

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1. The cases in which the major questionnaire results of the motivation for learning slang were most typically presented. 2. The cases in which the major questionnaire results of the attitudes towards slang and learning slang were most typically presented. The researcher expected to have more thorough and insightful understanding of the students opinions and the situation with their detailed clarification and confirmation of the information. 3.5. Data collection instruments The main method used to collect the significant data in this study was the questionnaire which is divided into three parts. In the first part, an introduction of the researcher and a request for participants personal information were presented. Plus, a short definition and an example to illustrate the key term slang were also included. The purpose of the second part was to investigate the students motivation for learning slang, including item 1, item 2 and item 3 which were adapted from Benson (1991), Sarjit Kaur (1993), Qashoa (2006) and Al-Tamimi & Shuib (2009) based on the two types of motivational constructs i.e. instrumental and integrative motivation in Gardners (1985) theory and the personal motivational construct in Cooper & Fishmans (1977). Specifically, item 1 was mainly to sort out the students that had learned slang from the ones who had not to continue with item 2 about the motivation they had when they learned slang. In item 2, a list of 9 sub-items was included to display the three types of motivational constructs: item 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 presented the instrumental construct; item 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 presented the integrative construct; item 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9 presented the personal construct. Gardners theory of the two
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constructs was said to help stimulate the studies on motivation and attitudes that had been somewhat neglected (Benson, 1991, p. 35) and Cooper & Fishmans of the one construct was preferably used by a number of researchers who had interest in investigating EFL/ ESL learners motivation and attitudes towards language learning such as Benson (1991), Sarjit Kaur (1993) and Al-Tamimi & Shuib (2009). In item 5, participants were asked if they wanted to learn more slang to improve their vocabulary and proficiency in English. This item was created to identify the students demand or desire for learning slang in English. According to Gardner (2006), the demand or desire played a very important role as a key component to motivate language learners. The third part with only item 4 was for finding the students attitudes towards learning slang in English. There were 8 sub-items in this part: item 4.1 and 4.2 showed the use of slang in social context; item 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6 presented the use of slang in educational context; item 4.7 illustrated slang as a language itself and item 4.8 displayed the culture of the English speaking world through slang. The participants were supposed to choose among Agree, Disagree and Undecided to express their attitudes towards the statements which had been adapted from Bushenhofen (1998), Al-Quyadi (2000), Karahan (2007) and Al-Tamimi & Shuib (2009) in the items given. After the data were collected and analyzed from the questionnaire, the face-to-face oral interviews were carried out in order that the validity and reliability of the information were confirmed. Three main questions regarding their motivation and attitudes towards learning slang in English were proposed to the chosen students as follows: 1. Their reasons for learning slang in English
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2. Their interest to learn to know more slang in English 3. Their attitudes towards slang in English in general and towards the culture of the English speaking world reflected through slang 3.6. Procedures of data collection On 21st March 2011, the researcher began to conduct the survey at some classrooms in the French Department building, Block B2, FELTE, ULIS, VNUH. Permission was given from the three lecturers who were in charge of the classes that the students were attending at the time so that the questionnaire could be carried out smoothly during the breaks. Before filling in the questionnaire, the students were informed of the introduction of the researcher and the objectives of the study. Besides, they were reminded to pay attention to all the items to avoid incompleteness and that their sincere and honest responses would be highly appreciated and valued. The researcher also declared that any unclear instructions could be explained and clarified at the point. After guaranteeing that no more question was raised and the students were all clear about the instructions, the questionnaires were delivered. After the procedure was finished, all the questionnaires were quickly collected. On 28th March 2011, the interviews were eventually carried out at the front yard of the French Department building in the campus of ULIS, VNU. Firstly, the interviewees were briefly informed of the aims and procedures of the interviews. Furthermore, the subjects were ensured that their personal information as well as their true and honest answers or opinions would be kept in absolute confidentiality. Before starting the actual procedure, the interviewer asked the interviewees for their

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permission for recording the interviews. An MP3 player was prepared to record the interviews and a notebook was used to take notes if necessary. 3.7. Procedures of data analysis In this study, the collected data were classified into two main kinds namely quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative data of the questionnaire were analyzed in terms of means with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and percentages. Not using the mathematic methods given, the qualitative data were processed by a content analysis method. As for the answers and opinions from the interviews, they were replayed from the MP3 player and transcribed. The data were then analyzed and categorized into appropriate groups that served particular objectives of the study.

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CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1. Results Students motivation to learn slang in English Questionnaire results To investigate the students motivation to learn slang in English, 92 students out of 102 in total who claimed that they had ever tried to learn some slang words or expressions were asked to rank a list of 9 reasons in terms of the importance in enhancing their learning of slang. Table 1 shows the mean values which represent the subjects responses to the former question. The means are the arithmetic average of the responses with 1 point assigned for not important, 2 for of little important, 3 for of some important, 4 for important, and 5 for very important.

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Table 1: The students results on their motivation for learning slang in English.

Motivational constructs Instrumental motivation

Reasons for learning slang in English

Mean

SD

Overall mean

1. Because it helps me pass my 92 2.0543 1.11664 examinations more effectively. 2. Because it is necessary for my 92 2.4782 1.16257 future job. 3. Because I will travel to English 92 3.5217 1.24959 speaking countries someday and need to use it.

2.6847

Integrative motivation

Personal motivation

4. Because via slang, I know more about the culture and values of English speaking countries. 5. Because I want to make contact and communicate with native speakers of English. 6. Because I want to live in an English speaking country someday. 7. Because I want to fully understand the movies, T.V. programs and magazines in English. 8. Because I want to be smart and thoroughly competent of English language. 9. Because of my personal development. 10. Others (please specify):

92 4.4478 .73776

4.0910

92 4.5972 .95217

92 3.2282 1.45877 92 4.2282 .58921 3.8586

92 3.6956 .86391

92 3.6521 .92252 -

Among the three motivational constructs namely instrumental motivation, integrative motivation and personal motivation, integrative motivation represented by items 4, 5 and 6 received the highest mean scores with 4.0910 as overall mean. Specifically, the students highly
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favored learning slang to make contact and communicate with native speakers of English since this reason gained the highest mean score i.e. 4.5972. Learning slang to know more about the culture and values of English speaking countries was the second most common reason with 4.4478 as mean score. Finally, the reason of learning slang to live in an English speaking country someday was also regarded as important to some extent to the students with mean score 3.2282. Personal reasons represented by items 7, 8 and 9 come as the second major source of motivation with overall mean score 3.8586. Among them, the reason to fully understand the movies, T.V. programs and magazines in English was outstandingly favored with mean score 4.2282. Meanwhile, the purposes to be smart and thoroughly competent of English language (mean=3.6956) and for personal development (mean=3.6521) appeared to be the almost equally important motives for the students to learn slang in English. The results shown in Table 1 also indicate that the instrumental motivation represented by items 1, 2 and 3 had the least impact on the students when they learned slang (overall mean=2.6847). Merely the least number of the subjects viewed learning slang to pass the examinations more effectively as an important motive with only 2.0543 as mean score. Similarly, the case of learning slang because it was necessary for the future job was not considerably favored with mean score 2.4782. Among these; however, the intention of learning slang in order to travel to English speaking countries someday still remained fairly important to the students (mean score=3.5217). The subjects were additionally asked to specify their opinion on the desire to learn to know more slang to enhance their vocabulary and
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proficiency in English language. In the chart below, the results point out that 95.1% approved of the idea.

Interview results Similar to the questionnaire results, most of the interviewees agreed that their motivation arose from their initial interest or passion for English language as well as the culture of English speaking world. That is to say the majority of the students learned slang because they wanted to identify themselves with or become integrated into the society of the target language (Gardner, 1983, p.203). In other words, integrative reasons were the main source of the students motivation for learning slang in English. These are the direct quotes from the interviews: I simply just love English language. Slang is a part of the language. Thus, I care [about slang] and try to learn as many [slang] terms and expressions as possible.

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I met many native speakers [of English] in Hanoi. I saw how often they used slang in everyday conversations. Then I tried to learn the most common and up-to-date slang words to keep up with the current trend and communicate with the native speakers more easily. The culture and lifestyle of the English speaking countries have always inspired my way of life. To me, these are most sophisticated ones compared to other cultures and lifestyles in the world. Slang is not simply a language, but also [the carrier of the] culture, so I learn a lot about it [via slang]. I wish I could live in the U.S. or the U.K. someday. Well, at least spend some time of my life living there. Coming next in the subjects views is the motivational construct namely personal or developmental motivation which basically means personal development or personal satisfaction (Cooper and Fishman, 1977, p.243) and normally consists of such activities as watching movies and reading books in which slang in English is used as an interest (Cooper and Fishman, 1977). I like to watch movies in English. They are either British or American most of the time. My favorite [T.V.] shows are FRIENDS, High School Musical, Hannah Montana and Glee. They are all about teenagers and youngsters, so lots of slang is frequently used. If I dont know those [slang] words, I wouldnt understand and enjoy [the shows] at all. I got people commenting on how natural and native I sound whenever I use slang. Its like one of my favorite praises, so I will just keep on learning to know more slang and use it more often. The remaining motivational construct having the least impact on the students when they learned slang is instrumental motivation. This
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type of motive is defined by Skehan (1989) as to be affected by the functional and external needs like to pass an examination, to get a job, to go on a trip, etc. The quotes below show how the students disagree with the influence of instrumental motives on their learning of slang. I personally never thought of learning slang to pass an exam. Slang is rarely seen in the exam paper because mostly academic and standard English is required [at school]. I think students are not really allowed to use it in exam paper anyway. I havent decided which profession I should get into after graduation yet. But I dont think my job will require me to use slang. Well, Im not sure if I want a job like that though. Its work. It should be polite, serious and formal. Students attitudes towards learning slang in English The questionnaire and interview findings in terms of the students attitudes towards learning slang in English are presented in this subsection. Questionnaire results 102 students were all required to respond to 8 statements by ticking either Agree or Disagree or Undecided. The answers were then calculated into percentages for data analysis. The data in detailed are illustrated in Figure 1 below.

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Figure 5: Students' attitudes towards slang in English

1= Slang creates friendly atmosphere and improves social relationship. 2= Using slang helps me stay more up-to-date and feel young around my friends. 3= It is necessary for advanced learners of English like FELTE students to learn slang. 4= FELTE students may not have to use slang, but should at least know it. 5= I feel like an uneducated person if I use slang at school. 6= Slang should not be encouraged to use in the educational environment. 7= When I hear someone using slang fluently, I wish I could speak like him. 8= Movies in which lots of slang is used are more enjoyable than the other movies in plain standard English language.

The findings in Figure 5 show the subjects most remarkable agreement on the social role of slang- to create friendly atmosphere and improve social relationship (81.4%). The other social role of slang in helping students stay more up-to-date and feel young around friends was also highly approved of with 75.5 percent. Similarly, 76.5 percent responded positively to the idea that FELTE students may not have to use
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slang, but should at least know it. Other ideas that also received major agreement from the students with 64.7%, 60.8% and 57.8% are expressed in items 3, 7 and 8 respectively. Two statements gaining the lowest degree of agreement are also the ones receiving the highest degree of disagreement. To be more specific, items 5 and 6 showing negative opinions of using slang in educational context actually got disapproval from the majority of the students with 78.4% and 53.9% respectively. The percentage of the neutral responses moderately fluctuated from 9.8% to 29.4%. Items getting the highest level of uncertainty from the subjects are 8- Movies in which lots of slang is used are more enjoyable than the other movies in plain standard English language, 6- Slang should not be encouraged to use in the educational environment and 7 about the need to speak slang as well as someone else does with 29.4%, 27.5% and 25.5% respectively. Interview results Consistent with the questionnaire results, the findings in the interviews also showed the majority of the students had generally positive attitudes towards the social functions of slang, learning slang in educational context, slang as a language itself and the culture of the English speaking world reflected through slang as some interviewees shared: Slang is the symbol of the youth. Using slang makes us appear young and even fashionable. I find it most fun if we use slang when my friends are around. I find nothing wrong with using slang at school. It actually helps [us students] more relaxed and intimate.
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Its true that slang is very informal, even to the point of offensive to some people sometimes, but that doesnt mean we should not know about slang. Whether we want it or not, slang is here to stay. It is existing in the English language. We ignore it; we lack a considerable amount of vocabulary [of the language]. As advanced learners of English, FELTE students should at least know and understand [slang] even if we dont use it. I simply love slang [because] its cool. There are a lot of feelings and attitudes [you can convey] through some simple [slang] words. While standard English just gives you the exact meanings [of the words], slang gives you a lot more than that. Watching a movie in which lots of slang is used is more real lifelike and believable than the ones in sheer standard English. Everybody knows native speakers of English always use slang in their daily life, so the real society and culture are more vividly portrayed through such movies with informal words and expressions. However, there were some different views from the majoritys on learning slang in educational context and the culture of the English speaking world reflected through slang. I dont think its appropriate to use slang at our school. Its an educational environment here. Were supposed to be on our best behavior and acquire standard English in order to teach our students in the future. Knowing slang doesnt help them in exams. EFL students like us should not learn to know slang. Instead, we should focus on the standard English only. If we spend so much time on

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learning slang, we would end up with poor standard grammar and vocabulary, which is certainly not the point of the education. Im not sure if its necessary for us FELTE students to learn slang. I think it mostly depends on the learners themselves. School clearly doesnt require us to know slang. So it actually depends on the learners interest and willingness for learning slang. I cant say that movies in which lots of slang is used are more enjoyable than the others because there are ones in which lots of standard and formal English is used like the old movies or the ones with the settings of the old time, but they still manage to be great by reflecting the culture and society of the old time. 4.2. Discussions In this section, the findings are discussed in the order of the objectives of the study: 1) the students motivation towards learning slang in English and 2) the students attitudes towards learning slang in English. Students motivation towards learning slang in English As stated in the part about the objectives, this study aims to find out which of the three motivational constructs (instrumental motivation, integrative motivation and personal motivation) is the major source of FELTE students motivation towards learning slang in English. The final results show that integrative motivation is preferred by the majority of the subjects. Typical examples of integratively motivated activities are communicating or interacting with native speakers of English, getting to know more about the cultural values through slang and living in English speaking countries where slang is commonly used. According to Gardner and Lambert (1972), these learners have a personal affinity for the group
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of people who speak a particular language. They want to learn the language because they are interested in getting to know the people who speak that language and they are also into the culture associated with that language. In many cases, integratively motivated learners may have significant others such as a boyfriend or girlfriend or family members who speak the language, and heritage language learners typically have a particularly strong integrative motivation for language learning. Recently, several studies carried out in North America have found that language learners who are integratively motivated are more successful than those who are instrumentally motivated. It is also proved that integratively motivated language learners are more successful because their motivation is stronger than that of instrumentally motivated students. Despite the fact that there is no need to learn slang to meet the requirements at school, FELTE students find integrative reasons to learn it instead. The most reasonable explanation for this situation is that as English majors, FELTE students themselves have already had passion and interest in the English language as well as the cultures of the English speaking countries. They are interested in learning slang words simply as much as they are interested in English words in general. Ranking second in the order of importance is personal or developmental motivation. Students who are developmentally motivated learn slang because they often set certain goals for themselves to, firstly, improve their knowledge, and develop their ability or intellectual level and, secondly, to enhance their status among friends or counterparts (Cooper & Fishman, 1977). This type of students may not have any special interest in slang, but they are somehow aware of the importance and frequency of slang in English language so they decide to learn it to complete their thorough proficiency in the language. Plus, these learners
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can usually be detected by their high concern in intellectuality. Knowing more slang words probably equals being at a higher level of intelligence to them. Under the condition that their personal goals are fixed and their determination is strong, the developmental motivation might lead to certain success in language learning. Lastly, instrumental motivation had the least impact on FELTE students when they learned slang. It is fairly easy to understand the situation because of the nature and characteristics of slang. Slang is nonstandard language, so it is not used in formal and official environment such as schools and offices. In other words, learning slang cannot help students to either get good marks or get employed. As a result, students do not feel instrumentally motivated to learn slang in English. However, success in a foreign/second language is likely to be lower if the underlying motivational orientation is instrumental rather than integrative (Gardner, 1972). Therefore, it can be inferred that in the situation of FELTE students, the learners are having the most desirable type of motivation to learn slang as a language. Additionally, the findings revealed that almost all students wanted to learn more slang words and expressions to improve their vocabulary and proficiency in English language. That also means the majority of the students were not satisfied with their current proficiency in slang. Having great desires for learning the language is considered to be one of the main components of language learning motivation (Gardner, 2006). With reference to other related studies, the findings of this research share both similarities and differences with those of the others. For instance, this study is in harmony with Bensons (1991) and Vijchulata & Lees (1985) since in the end, all three studies showed that the integrative
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motivation played the most important part in students language learning in the three countries. On the other hand, other researchers proved that instrumental motivation was the most favored construct instead of the integrative one (Al-Tamimi & Shuib, 2009; Sarjit Kaur, 1993; Al-Quyadi, 2002; Qashoa, 2006). Students attitudes towards learning slang in English The findings in terms of the students attitudes towards slang showed different types of responses from the students towards many aspects related to slang. The social value of slang in English received remarkably positive attitudes from the majority of the students. Specifically speaking, most students agreed that slang creates friendly atmosphere and improves social relationship and using slang helps stay more up to date and young around friends. The students could easily understand that slang was informal and suitable for daily and intimate social situations. The use of slang in educational context also gained relatively positive opinions from the students. First off, students generally agreed on the ideas that it is necessary for advanced learners of English like FELTE students to learn slang and highly approved that FELTE students may not have to use slang, but should at least know it. Apparently, the students were well aware of the importance and frequency of slang usage then consequently realized the necessity of learning slang. Similarly, when the statements containing the opposite views on slang were presented, they got negative responses from the students. A large number of disapprovals were shown towards the idea that using slang at school made the students feel like uneducated people. Obviously, the students
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did not consider slang a bad language or discriminate or reject it. However, that does not mean they totally agree of the usage of slang at school because they only gave moderately positive responses to the idea that slang should not be encouraged to use in the educational environment. The slightly larger half of the population disagreed with the idea above while the other slightly smaller half either agreed with the idea or were not sure whether to disagree or agree with the statement, leaving this opinion rather controversial. In regards to the students attitudes towards slang as a language itself, the majority indicated that their willingness to express themselves as fluent speakers of English. It is also their demand or desire to master slang in English and achieve the ability to speak like native speakers of English. Possible explanation for this desire is that FELTE students are integratively motivated with the initial passion for English language, being able to identify themselves as closely like native speakers of English as possible is believed to be a common goal among them all. Meanwhile, a considerable percentage of disagree and undecided still existed, implying both the disagreement and the uncertainty in their own use of slang. This might be supported by the previous idea that FELTE students may not have to use slang, but should at least know it. As for their attitudes towards the culture of the English speaking world reflected through slang, the results of the study also revealed that more than half of the participants showed interest in the culture of the English speaking countries reflected through movies in which plenty of slang was used. Reasons for this might be because of the influence of globalization on almost every aspects of life all over Vietnam. Western culture is presented in movies, music, fashion, television, radio, Internet,
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etc. Another potential reason is related to the students integrative motivation for the language. FELTE students not only desire to know and understand more about the Western culture, but also wish to integrate in that culture through watching movies. As an opinion shared by a participant, the informal nature of slang as a language helps reflect the real society and culture most truthfully. That explains why most of the students agreed movies with frequent slang use reflected the English speaking world culture more vividly than the ones with plain standard English.

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS 5.1. Summary This study aimed at investigating the FELTE students motivation and attitudes towards learning slang in English. Concerning the students motivation, the findings showed that the integrative motivational construct was the primary source of the students motivation and orientation for learning slang in English. Personal or developmental motivational construct was also regarded as an important motive to the students. Integrative motivational construct; nevertheless, appeared to have the least impact on the students when they learn slang in English language. In regards to the students attitudes towards learning slang in English, the results revealed that the students generally had positive attitudes towards 1) the use of slang in social context, 2) the use of slang

in educational context, 3) slang as a language itself and 4) the culture of the English speaking world reflected through movies in which slang is used. 5.2. Conclusions Slang, due to its nature, belongs to the category of the non-standard language in English language. Basically, the educational system at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH does not require students to learn slang. Thus, learning slang apparently has little relation with the conventional pedagogy in the classroom. Presented as follows are the several minor opinions and suggestions that learners can possibly benefit from to attain higher achievements in their language learning process.

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FELTE students have certain reasons to learn slang and especially are integratively motivated, which might imply that the students are able to learn slang by themselves. In addition, they hold significantly positive attitudes towards learning slang as well as other aspects concerning slang. Apparently, FELTE students own the most desirable conditions for learning slang. According to Burke (2008), educators such as lecturers or teachers need not promote the use of slang but have a responsibility to familiarize the nonnative speaker with this type of language. After all, whether we like it or not, this nonstandard English is here to stay because it has existed for years and will continue to exist. Knowledge of slang is fundamental to nonnative speakers' understanding of the language that native speakers actually use. Plus, he also emphasizes that it is essential for those who want to integrate into the English speaking worlds culture like in the case of the integratively motivated FELTE students. Without slang, nonnative speakers possibly remain the forever outsiders.
A vast majority of EFL and ESL teachers agree that familiarizing students with slang is more favorable than having students pick up this type of language haphazardly from some random situation (Burke, 2008).

The problem is that students often hear slang words used loosely and gratuitously without fully understand the meaning and connotation of the term; therefore, it is likely that the many students may find themselves in embarrassing or awkward situations. In short, learning to know this nonstandard type of English may even be important for students' safety and well-being (Burke, 2008). Therefore, teachers may at least consider starting to give students some brief introduction on slang together with instructions and recommendations of reliable sources to learn slang from.
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5.3. Limitations and suggestions for further researches In spite of the researchers effort, there are unavoidable limitations regarding different aspects of the study. They are pointed out as follows in order to reduce or avoid any possible overgeneralization or misinterpretation. The study is confined to only 102 students due to the time and financial pressures. The sample size is still relatively small compared to the total number of the fourth-year graduates at FELTE, ULIS, VNUH, making the findings and results of the study quite a reflective of the motivation and attitudes of those who participated in this research only. Among the participants (n=102), there are 92 females, but only 10 males due to the fact that there is usually a small number of male students learning at FELTE. The results might be more or less affected and overgeneralization may be unconsciously caused by this gender imbalance. The target of this research is to investigate motivation and attitudes which are mostly psychological factors in language learning. They are objectively perceived by the students themselves. The issue is that a student may think this way, but act the other way round. Thus, this study may not be practically valuable in reflecting the actual situation of the learning slang process. Further researches on the similar topic may learn from these limitations to enhance the quality of the studies. For instance, the sample can be enlarged to the double size to improve the representative capability of the research. Gender imbalance can also be lessened by intentionally picking out more male participants for the study. The
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females are still likely to outnumber the males, but overgeneralization is hopefully reduced to some extent. Finally, other researchers concerning about learning slang may consider the investigations on the current situation revealed by the students difficulties in learning slang, their techniques in learning it or their level of slang vocabulary to provide more practical views on the same issue.

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Ajzan, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behaviour. Chicago: Dorsey Press. Al-Quyadi, A. (2000). Psycho-sociological variables in the learning of English in Yemen. Ph.D thesis, Bhagalpur University. Al-Tamimi, A., & Munir Shuib. (2008). The English language curriculum for petroleum engineering students at Hadhramout university of science and technology. In Moris, Z. Abdul Rahim, H. & Abdul Manan, S. (Eds.), Higher education in the Asia pacific: Emerging trends in teaching and learning (pp. 115-125). Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. Andersson, L. & Trugill, P. 1990: Bad language. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Askes, H. 1988. Second language teaching today: Techniques and activities. Goodwood: Via Afrika Limited. Ayto, J and Simpson, J. The Oxford dictionary of modern slang. Oxford University Press. Benson, M. J. (1991). Attitudes and motivation towards English: a survey of Japanese freshmen. RELC Journal, 22(1), 34-48. Brown, H. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Buschenhofen, P. (1998) English language attitudes of Final-Year High School and First-Year university students in Papua New Guinea. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 8, 93-116. Burke, D. (2008) The Slangman Guide to Street Speak . California: Los Angeles Press. Sandburg, C. (1959) New York Times.

Cooper, R. L., & Fishman, J. A. (1977). A study of language attitudes. In J. A. Fishman, R. L. Cooper, & A. W. Conrad (Eds.), The spread of English. (pp. 239-276). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Creswell, J. (2002). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991). Motivation: reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41(4): 469-512. Doan, C.M. (May, 1999) Slang in English. Vietnam National University, Hanoi. Eble, C. (1996) Slang & sociability. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ellis, R. 1986. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gardner, R. (1980). On the validity of affective variables in second language acquisition: conceptual and statistical considerations. Language Learning, 30 (2), 255-270. Gardner, R. (1983). Learning another language: a true social psychological experiment. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2, 219-240. Gardner, R. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitude and motivation. London: Edward Arnold. Gardner, R. (2006). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: a research paradigm. EUROSLA Yearbook, 6, 237 260. Gardner, R., & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and motivations in second language learning. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House.
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Hasman, M. (2000). The role of English in the 21st century. Forum, 38 (1), 2-5. Holmes, O. W. (1908). The Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Wendell Holmes. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. Karahan, F. (2007). Language attitudes of Turkish students towards the English language and its use in Turkish context. Journal of Arts and Sciences Say, 7 May, 73-87. Lambert, W.E. 1955. Measurement of the linguistic dominance in bilinguals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 50, 197200. Lambert, W.E. 1963a. Psychological approaches to the study of language Part I: On learning, thinking and human abilities. Modern Language Journal 14, 5162. Lambert, W.E. 1963b. Psychological approaches to the study of language Part II: On second language learning and bilingualism. Modern Language journal 14, 114-21. Lambert, W.E. 1967. A social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23,91-109. Lambert, W.E. 1974. Culture and languages as factors in learning and education. InAboud, F.E. and Meade, R.D. (eds.), Cultural factors in learning and education (Bellingham, Washington: Fifth Western Washington Symposium on Learning). Lifrieri, V. (2005). A sociological perspective on motivation to learn EFL: The case of escuelas plurilinges in Argentina. M.A thesis, University of Pittsburgh. Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. 1993. How Languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Louw, D.A. and Edwards D.J.A. 1997. Psychology: An Introduction For Students in Southern Africa. Second Edition. Sandton: Heinemann Higher & Further Education (Pty) Ltd.
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Milne, J. (1999). Questionnaires: Advantages and disadvantages Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press. Milroy, L (1987). Observing and analysing natural language. Britain: Blackwell. Nguyen, H. N. (2004). The use of slang in English. Vietnam National University, Hanoi. Opdenakker, R. (2006). Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research. Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology Press. Qashoa, S. (2006). Motivation among learners of English in the secondary schools in the eastern coast of the UAE. M.A thesis, British University in Dubai. Tellis, W. (1997). Introduction to case study. Connecticut: Fairfield University Press. Sarjit Kaur (1993). Analysis of the English language needs of consultants at NCVC. M.A thesis, University of South Australia. Silverman, D. (2000). Doing qualitative research. A practical handbook. London: Sage Publications. Spears, R. A. (1990). Forbidden American English. Illinois: NTC Publishing Group. Spears, R. A. (2000). NTCs dictionary of American slang and colloquial expressions (3rd ed.) NTC Publishing Group. Spolsky, B. 1986. Overcoming language barriers to education in a Multilingual World. In Spolksy (ed.). Spolsky, B. (1989). Conditions for second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Vijchulata, B., & Lee, G (1985). A survey of students' motivation for learning English. RELC Journal, 16 (1), 68-81.
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Wenden, A. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. London: Prentice Hall. Wentworth, H. and Flexner, St. B (1975). Dictionary of American slang. Thomas Y. Crowell, Co. Whitman, W., (1885). Slang in America. Wilkins, D. (1972). Linguistics in language teaching. Cambridge: CPU. Wilkins, D.A. 1978. Second-Language Learning and Teaching. London: Edward and Arnold.

APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Questionnaire form
MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEARNING SLANG IN ENGLISH
I am Vi Diu Thun from E1K41, FELTE, ULIS, VNU. I am working on my graduation paper on Motivation and Attitudes towards Learning Slang in English: A Study of Fourth-Year Undergraduates at FELTE, ULIS, VNU. I would highly appreciate it if you could carefully and sincerely give answers to the questions in this questionnaire. That would certainly play a major part in the success of my final thesis. Thank you for your cooperation! PERSONAL INFORMATION Your name: ................................................................................................................................................ Your class: ................................................................................................................. ................................. Gender: Male Female Contact information: Email: ................................................................ Mobile: .........................................

Definition: Slang is nonstandard language used among particular groups, consisting of words and expressions which vividly convey the speakers feelings and attitudes in an informal way. Example (The words and expressions that are underlined and in italics are slang): A: Whats up, dude? B: Not much. How are you? A: Im doing awesome. Hey, wanna, like, hang out at the mall now? B: Cool! Lets roll!

Answer the questions by putting a into the box. Give more additional details as you please.

1. Have you ever tried to learn any slang words or expressions? *If No, please skip question 2 and move to question 3

Yes

No

2.

What are your reasons for learning slang? Rate the following reasons according to their importance.

Reasons for learning slang in English

Very important

Important

Of some important

Of little important

Not important

2.1. Because it helps me pass my examinations more effectively.


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Reasons for learning slang in English

Very important

Important

Of some important

Of little important

Not important

2.2. Because it is necessary for my future job. 2.3. Because I will travel to English speaking countries someday and need to use it. 2.4. Because via slang, I know more about the culture and values of English speaking countries. 2.5. Because I want to make contact and communicate with native speakers of English. 2.6. Because I want to live in an English speaking country someday. 2.7. Because I want to fully understand the movies, T.V. programs and magazines in English. 2.8. Because I want to be smart and thoroughly competent of English language. 2.9. Because of my personal development. Others (please specify):..............................

3. Would you like to learn more slang words and expressions to improve your vocabulary and proficiency in English language? Yes 4. What are your attitudes towards the following opinions? Opinions Agree 4.1. Slang creates friendly atmosphere and improves social relationship. 4.2. Using slang helps me stay more up-to-date and feel young around my friends. 4.3. It is necessary for advanced learners of English like FELTE students to learn slang. 4.4. FELTE students may not have to use slang, but should at least know it. 4.5. I feel like an uneducated person if I use slang at school. 4.6. Slang should not be encouraged to use in the educational environment. 4.7. When I hear someone using slang fluently, I wish I could speak like him. 4.8. Movies in which lots of slang is used are more enjoyable than the other movies in plain standard English language.
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No

Disagree

Undecided

Thank you for your cooperation!

Appendix 2: Guideline questions for interviews 1. What are your reasons for learning slang in English? 2. Do you want to learn to know more slang? 3. What is your attitude towards learning slang in English?

Appendix 3: Interview Transcriptions Time: 28th April 2011 Place: Front yard of French Building Interviewee: B Interviewer (A): Can you restate the reasons why you learned slang? Interviewee (B): I have tried to learn slang by myself for a while. The main reason I think is because I simply just love English language. I know that slang is a part of the language. Thus, I care [about slang] and try to learn as many [slang] terms and expressions as possible. That way I can improve my English. A: I see. So you have learned slang before and you love it. But how is your slang vocabulary? Good enough or not? Do you wish to know more slang? B: Compared to my classmates, I think my slang vocabulary is quite good. But I do still meet difficulties sometime when I experience an authentic daily native speakers conversations in which lots of slang is used. So yes, I want to learn to know more slang terms and expressions. A: It seems like you have positive attitude towards slang, right? (Yes) Can you specify how you really feel about slang? B: I simply love slang [because] its cool. There are a lot of feelings and attitudes [you can convey] through some simple [slang] words. While standard English just gives you the exact meanings [of the words], slang gives you a lot more than that. As a language learner, I find slang a very
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interesting and expressive language that I would love to be able to be fluent in it someday. A: I believe with such interest and enthusiasm for slang, you are surely going to reach that goal soon. Thank you so much for the short interview and good luck!

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Time: 28th April 2011 Place: Front yard of French Building Interviewee: C Interviewer (A): Hello (hi), as I can see from your answers in the questionnaire. You have learned slang words before and you seem to have certain reasons to do it. Would you like to give me more details about that? (yes) Interviewee (C): The culture and lifestyle of the English speaking countries have always inspired my way of life. To me, these are the most sophisticated ones compared to other cultures and lifestyles in the world. Slang is not simply a language, but also [the carrier of the] culture, so I learn a lot about it [via slang]. I wish I could live in the U.S. or the U.K. someday. Well, at least spend some time of my life living there. A: So you have a pretty strong connection with the culture and the people of the English speaking world, right? (yes) You also appear to have a fairly insightful view of slang. Do you want to know more slang then? C: Of course, I do. A: Okay. So in general, your attitude towards slang in English is positive? (yes) Alright. What do you think about the use of slang at school? C: I find nothing wrong with using slang at school. It actually helps [us students] more relaxed and intimate. We may not see or hear us students using slang often just because we do not know many slang words or
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expressions to use. If we ever did, Im sure it would be very popular among us. A: Thank you for the ideas. Time: 28th April 2011 Place: Front yard of French Building Interviewee: D Interviewer (A): Okay. As you do not have much free time, we are going to keep this short. Why did you learn slang? Interviewee (D): I met many native speakers [of English] in Hanoi. I saw how often they used slang in everyday conversations. Then I tried to learn the most common and up-to-date slang words to keep up with the current trend and communicate with the native speakers more easily. A: I understand. Do you want to know more slang? D: Certainly. A: What is your opinion of slang then? D: I think slang is the symbol of the youth. Using slang makes us appear young and even fashionable. As youngsters, who doesnt want to be young and fashionable? I personally find it most fun if we use slang when my friends are around. A: Thanks a lot.

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Time: 28th March 2011 Place: Front yard of French Building Interviewee: E Interviewer (A): Would you like to tell me why you learned slang? Interviewee (E): I got people commenting on how natural and native I sound whenever I use slang. Its like one of my favorite praises, so I will just keep on learning to know more slang and use it more often. A: Thats very impressive. You sound like you have decent knowledge and vocabulary of slang. Do you still wish to learn more slang? E: Thank you. Mine is still at a sort of average level though. I do want to know more slang. As I told you how like it when people commenting on how good I sound as I use slang. A: I see. So you do have a positive attitude towards slang. Any further details you feel like adding? E: Slang is an interesting language, but we should make sure we understand its meanings and usage before trying to use it. Or else, we might be in some trouble, I think. A: Thats a good point. Thanks for sharing.
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Time: 28th March 2011 Place: B2 Building Interviewee: F Interviewer (A): Why did you learn slang? Interviewee (F): I like to watch movies in English. They are either British or American most of the time. My favorite [T.V.] shows are FRIENDS, High School Musical, Hannah Montana and Glee. They are all about teenagers and youngsters, so lots of slang is frequently used. If I dont know those [slang] words, I wouldnt understand and enjoy [the shows] at all. A: Very nice. You must know a great number of slang words from such sources. Do you think you should still learn more? F: Sure. Those sources help a lot, but you know, slang is a language, it changes and develops every day, we just can never stop trying to learn more. A: Very brilliant. So what are your ideas of slang in short? Or specifically slang in English speaking movies like in your case.

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F: Watching a movie in which lots of slang is used is more real life-like and believable than the ones in sheer standard English. Everybody knows native speakers of English always use slang in their daily life, so the real society and culture are more vividly portrayed through such movies with informal words and expressions. A great type of language. Another great tool to connect us with the civilization and knowledge of the English speaking world. A: Its very nice to know of these opinions of yours. Thanks. Time: 28th March 2011 Place: B2 Building Interviewee: G Interviewer (A): The reasons you learned slang are. Interviewee (G): Mostly for personal development. I like to be smart. I dont usually use slang even though I know it. In my opinion, using slang too much makes us sound somehow less intelligent. A: Can you explain more about that idea? How does slang make us sound less intelligent? G: Its more like a personal idea though. I am a traditional type of person. I tend to think and act like the old people. But I like being that way. Slang is a bit too young for me. A: I see your point. So you dont like to use slang, but do you still want to know it anyway? G: Yes. As I said, Im eager to learn more to develop my own knowledge.

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A: Yes, I got it. How about your opinion on the idea that movies with more frequent use of slang are more enjoyable than the ones with mostly standard English? G: I cant say that movies in which lots of slang is used are more enjoyable than the others because there are ones in which lots of standard and formal English is used like the old movies or the ones with the settings of the old time, but they still manage to be great by reflecting the culture and society of the old time. A: Thanks a lot for the ideas. Time: 28th March 2011 Place: B2 Building Interviewee: H Interviewer (A): You answered in the questionnaire that you have never tried to learn slang before. Is it true? Interviewee (H): No, I never really tried to learn slang terms. I dont find essential reasons to do it. Its not going to help your study or your future job then why spend time learning it? A: You have a point. So you naturally just dont want to learn more slang? H: Im afraid not. A: So your general attitude towards slang is basically negative? H: Im afraid so. To be honest, I think EFL students like us should not learn to know slang. Instead, we should focus on the standard English only. If we spend so much time on learning slang, we would end up with
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poor standard grammar and vocabulary, which is certainly not the point of the education. A: Thank you so much for the honest opinions.

Time: 28th March 2011 Place: B2 Building Interviewee: I Interviewer (A): Could you tell me why you learned slang? Interviewee (I): It should be why I have ever tried to learn slang to be more exact. I did try finding the meanings of some very common slang terms since too many people were using it. But I never really attempt to learn it as a language I would use. A: Does that mean you dont have desire to learn more slang? I: No, I dont. A: Okay. Could you please clarify your negative attitude towards slang? I: As a future teacher, I dont think its appropriate to use slang at our school. Its an educational environment here. Were supposed to be on

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our best behavior and acquire standard English in order to teach our students in the future. Knowing slang doesnt help them in exams. A: Thank you so much for taking your time the interview.

Time: 28th March 2011 Place: B2 Building Interviewee: J Interviewer (A): What motivated you when you learned slang? Interviewee (J): Because its very popular. Native speakers use it all the time. I encountered it so often that I decided to get to know what it was. A: I see. Would you like to know more slang words? J: Yes. A: There are negative attitudes towards slang, saying that its inappropriate for formal and educational environment like school, especial a very pedagogically related school like ours. What do you think?

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J: Its true that slang is very informal, even to the point of offensive to some people sometimes, but that doesnt mean we should not know about slang. Whether we want it or not, slang is here to stay. It is existing in the English language. We ignore it; we lack a considerable amount of vocabulary [of the language]. As advanced learners of English, FELTE students should at least know and understand [slang] even if we dont use it. A: Very smart. Thank you so much.

Time: 28th March 2011 Place: B2 Building Interviewee: K Interviewer (A): You answered that you tried to learn slang before right? What made you do that? Interviewee (K): Just totally by chance. There were these English songs that I really liked. I wanted to sing them so I went look for the lyrics. These slang words were always there. Like in almost every song I listened to. So I looked for their meanings. A: Nice. So you want to know more slang? K: Yeah. And singing them out loud is a good way to remember such new words.
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A: Very great idea. But its all about songs and music. How about something more academic like school. Do you think its necessary for FELTE students to learn slang? K: Im not sure if its necessary for us FELTE students to learn slang. I think it mostly depends on the learners themselves. School clearly doesnt require us to know slang. So it actually depends on the learners interest and willingness for learning slang. A: Thank you so much for the ideas.

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