This is to certify that the summer training Report entitled GENERALBIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINFOMATICS TECHNIQUES carried out by PRASHANT SAXENA of AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDAat Birla Institute of Scientific Research, Jaipur under the supervision and guidance of Ms.Shivani Chandrais an authentic work . The matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other university for award of any other degree or diploma.

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ABBREVIATIONS ORP oxygen-reduction potential PBS phosphate-buffered saline PCR polymerase chain reaction PDT population doubling time PEG polyethylene glycol PHA-P phytohaemagglutinin-P PNA peptide nucleic acid SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate STR short tandem repeat TE tissue engineering YAC yeast artificial chromosome .