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EXAMPLE:GOENKA KNITWEAR LTD.
COMPANY NATURE: 100% export oriented garment unit. It receives the buyer order and executes it in its own factory. From receiving the inquiry of the buyer and manufacturing, to shipment of the product to the buyer, all activities are taking care of by the company. Their international standard production unit is equipped with modern quality control procedure and microbiological lab with latest technology and a group of top professionals. Each stage of production undergoes rigorous testing and quality control process. The finished products are again tested to ensure the desired standard of quality before placing products in the market..
Business Lines/ Products Manufacturing and Exporting: Ladies T-Shirt Gents T- Shirt Polo shirt
Export Partners: Germany France Turkey South Africa Canada
The raw materials and active ingredients of products are imported from reputed manufactures of Malaysia, Indonesia, Italy, France, Germany, Japan, Singapore, England, Switzerland and USA.
OBJECTIVES OF GOENKA KNITWAER LTD: To manufacture HIGH QUALITY products at COMPETITIVE price. No compromise with Quality is the key policy of the Top Management. They believe that, they are reasonable and accountable to all concerned with whom they deal; namely: their employees, their business associates, their consumers and their buyers.
PRODUCTS OF FOUR KNITWAER LIMITED: Ladies T- Shirt Gents T -Shirt Polo shirt Child shorts pant Ladies hooded jacket
Various Departments of Goenka Knit Wear LTD: Merchandising Department: this department is very much important for every garment industries. Merchandiser is a data bus between buyer and seller. Merchandising department perform the activities from collecting order to reaches the product on buyer. This department is responsible for providing all the raw materials needed for all kinds of garments products. Accounts Department :all the accounts of the organization are controlled by the accounts and administration department. Accountant record all the accounts, calculate profits or losses, prepared financial report . Finance /Commercial Department:. Import-export, L/C open, or any other banking activities performed by commercial department. Commercials manager cover all the activities. Shipping Department: transportation solutions for the export order are streamlined by this department. Human Resource Department: this department is very much important managing staff and employee of the company. It looks after the problem and opportunities of the company s employee. Production Department
Knitting and dyeing division: Here the fabric is manufactured by converting yarn into loop form and than these Loop are locked/intermeshed / inter looped together. Knitted Fabric for clothing Single jersey Double jersey Rib category Double jersey La-coste .VARIOUS DIVISIONS UNDER PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: 1. which form a structure/fabric called knitted structure/knitted fabric.
Toilet Card (one for every line) 11. Shoe bag (one for each operator & helper) 10. Supporting table for bigger components operation (as per required) 7. Fire extinguisher (at every corner of the factory) . Issue register (one for every line) 4. First Aid Box (for every floor) 12.2. Basket (five to six for each line) 9.Cutting section 3. Desk for trims keeping (with lock for every line) 3. Drawing / Marking table (Three for every line) 6. Sewing section Tools & equipment of sewing section are given below: 1. Attendance Register (one for every line) 5. Desk (one for every operator) 8. Rack for cut fabric keeping (for every line) 2.
Small Scissors / clipper (for every operator & helper) 17. Managers. Store section . Are puncher / gimlet 18. Hand needles 19. Finishing section 7. Manila board /paper board 21. Wash room 5. Pencil 4. Bodkin 20. Z punch plunk 15.13. 8. They audit all the process. Tailor chalk 22. They verify the quality as per the buyers specifications and their purchase order. Iron section 6. Hammer 14.C. Quality control department: This department keeps a check on quality through the Q. pre-production to packing & final audit. Big scissors 16.
MAJOR RAW MATERIALS OF GOENKA KNITWEAR LTD: Fabric Threads Labels Buttons Zippers Cartons Tags Poly bags Folders Strikers Eye lets .
Printing: After cutting the fabric. So we need to outsource the printing to various printing units as per our requirement.Garment Wash: After sewing the garment might require a particular wash effect. Printing is done by third party. It depends on the buyers requirement. At the time of cutting the fabric the Cutting master have to keep a check on the following: Shrinkage percentage Shade variation GSM and DIA Knitting pattern direction Dyeing variations 2. . In Goenka Knit wear ltd. different type of printing may be needed. cut fabrics are sewed .Sewing: In sewing section. 3. 4.LIST OF WORK-IN-PROCESS: 1.Cutting: Fabric is cut in the cutting section according to the size and design. Since 1978 garment prewash has become extremely popular.
we have adjust the water temperature. However. Bleach Wash: In bleach wash. timing is very important because any garment over bleached can not be corrected or reversed back to a lesser bleached condition. To achieve the pronounced washed effect through abrasion on the exposed areas. such as the seams and pocket corners. Pigment wash needs 50. Stone Wash: The idea of washing with porous volcanic stones is to give the garment a strong and rough wash.c-60. Depending on what kind of fabric the garment is made of and the extent of washed look needed. If we wish to have a more pronounced washed look on the garment we should add some sodium to wash.c to wash the garment in order to ensure that the color spreads evenly over the garment. Sometimes we add bleach to the wash to make the color fade more seriously. the amount of detergent or sodium and the length of time to wash. . Pigment Wash: Pigment wash is actually same as normal garment wash.following are different prewash techniques for garments: Normal Wash: Wash in hot water added with detergents and softener. you just have to add bleach to the water in the tumble for washing.
we wash them with caustic and hot water. Caustic Wash: When garments are stitched and ready for wash. We use it to the wash because we want it to break some of the fibers on the surface in order to give the fabric a soft.Washes (cont.) Acid Wash: .Enzyme Wash: Enzyme is a of live cell. sanded or preached effect. .
Manufacturing quality: Manufacturing quality is concerned with the degree to which the garment produced agrees with the sample or specifications. style.Finishing: Thread cutting. 6. Design quality: Design quality is concerned with material. rectifying small mistakes.Quality control: A quality controller checks the finished garments and ensures that they qualify according to the spec sheet of the buyer. fit and construction aspect. the stitching quality and measurements are important aspects. A . B . Satisfactory quality can only be ensured through: Knowing the customers needs Designing to meet them Faultless construction Certified performance and safety Clear instruction manuals Suitable packaging Prompt delivery Feed back of field experience .5. There are two main aspects to consider when discussing the quantity of a garment. mending and ironing.
Main Mark (AS per buyers Instruction) 2. we need to attach a packing list to each cartoon which contains the details of product assortment. Cartons/Packing: once the garments are put in a poly bag . After packing the product. Taping. 10.Polybag packing: It is used in order to ensure product stays clean and free from dust and protect it from any damage. It includes. Strapping each carton .Tagging: Finishing product is tagged here here by the hangtag 9. Packing list Shipping Mark: 1. The number of pieces in a poly bag varies according to the buyers specification. Side Mark Merchandise Description (Assortments) 11.7.the product needs to be put in a cartoon for shipping.
Size of the merchandise 3. packaging requirement etc. The inspection procedure is given below: Carton Check: during inspection the inspector generally checks following: A. Quality of Carton: 1. Strength of Carton etc. Quantity of Carton (As per packing list).C selects a sample Carton and picks out merchandise from those Carton to be inspected in terms of quality.B. Inspections: It is an important part of merchandising. Before the shipment is dispatched from the export house the buyer or buying house inspect the product to ensure that it meets the specifications ordered in terms of garment quality. quantity . Ply of carton 2.Construction of the merchandise. B. 3. .12. Color of the merchandise 2. Cartons Selection for merchandise inspection: From the shipment Lot Q. N. Size of carton 3. The inspection must be marked on the carton to avoid any unaccepted situation. Carton should be picked randomly. Points to be considered: 1.
Assortment Check 12. Position of garments inside the carton 2.): Packing and packaging check: After carton selection we check the packing methods used for the shipment order Following points are emphasized on: Packing: 1. Airport. Generally products are shipment in two way: a. Poly bag Check 5. Inspection(Cont. .. Protector check 4.Shipments: After produced the products the company have to shipment the products in time. Sea port b. Inner carton/inner box 3. It only depends on buyer decision.
MERCHANDISING IN EXPORT SET UP .
It refers to the planning. The term merchandising has been derived from the term merchandise . at the right prices. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials and accessories. in the right place. producing required garments. in the right quantities. maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time frame. buying and selling activities required to have the right fashion oriented merchandise at the right time. Merchandise means goods that are bought and sold .CONCEPT OF MERCHANDISING: The term merchandising is well known to the person specially involved in garments trade. . The term merchandiser may be defined as the person who merchandises the goods especially for export purposes.
Sources of information are limited as compared to buying house merchandiser Is directly responsible for the merchandise Ensuring inspections and quality levels. Liaison with Buyers . Order sourcing 2. fabric and trim orders. negotiations. Calculating costing of the product 6. Customers & Factory 9. production planning.MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF A MERCHANDISER ARE GIVEN BELOW Coordinator of all activities at the manufacturer's end Correspondence with buying Agencies Could be handling many buyers at a time Takes care of PD. Factory Scheduling . costing. Negotiation 3. Monitoring Quality aspect 7.delivery schedules. Production 4. Calculating Yarn/Fabric consumption 5. 1. sampling. regular follow up. Product development 8.
D . fabric . B.QUALITY OF A MERCHANDISER: From the above definitions we can assume that a garment merchandiser needs a wide range of knowledge and skill: A. Clear conception of the usual potential quality problems in garments manufacturing. Good knowledge of the usual raw materials inspection systems and garments inspection systems. . duty rate . printing. custom regulation. dyeing. C . shipping and banking documentation etc. finishing . Good knowledge of yarn . Knowledge of the EXPORT PROCEDURE used in each of the producing countries . garments production etc. E. Good command over English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and efficient communication.
7.Forwarding Accessories requirements to the accessories purchase department . quantity and delivered at the right time.FUNCTIONS OF A MERCHANDISER : It is the responsibility of the merchandiser to ensure that the order is executed in the right quality. a merchandiser has to schedule the following : 1.Interacting with the buyers to get the various sample and accessory approvals. 3. Ensuring that the fabrics and accessories are in-house in the factory as per production schedule.Forwarding fabric requirement to the purchase department. Pre shipment inspection schedule. 6. 4. When an export order is placed. Shipment documentation . Garments production planning and a constant check on the time and action plan. 8. 2.
Mock-Up) Pre. Sequence Of Sampling 1ST Pattern 2ND Pattern Counter Sample Salesman Sample Photo Sample Approval Sample (Size Set. · Any revision to the style work.Garments Merchandising CHRONOLOGICAL PROCESS OF MERCHANDISING Sample Sample is the physical form of buyer s specification or style/design. It is a Reference garment that corresponds to: · The artwork (styling) done by designer and/or developer · Particular purchase order.Production Sample Production Sample Shipping Sample. . · Confirm to any specific requirement.
First Pattern First pattern is the first physical version of any garment as per the artwork done by designer and for developer. Human Mind Sketch Paper Pattern Sample Purpose : See the design work & test the fitting Status : Nothing specific Material : Available Price : Not confirmed Quantity : 1 (for customer) + 1 (for merchandiser) Delivery : As per urgency .
Purpose : See the workmanship &test the factory skill Status : Nothing specific Materials : Available Price : Not confirmed Quantity : 1 (for customer) + 1 (self keeping) Delivery : As per request . but has to follow another sample given by the merchandiser according to buyer s specification. Second pattern is made as per their comments. Counter sample is to be made not on designer's artwork .Second Pattern Usually designer /developer always ask for some changes to the first pattern. Counter Sample Where first pattern is made on designers artwork.
market appraisal & Demand / order forecast Status : Final stage of the order confirmation Material : Actual Price : Confirmed Quantity : There is minimum quantity per color combination Delivery : Very. . These samples are paid for by the buyer Buyer holds meetings with its customers and record their response on order quantity per color. usually in one size in all color combinations of expected order. important to meet the delivery date.Salesman Sample Salesman sample is made when price is confirmed and orders are being considered . size etc. And finally places an order to their vendor. Purpose : Sales meeting by retailers.
MOCK UP: Any PART of the garment to be made -for PARTICULAR purpose. whenever any revision is required in the sample. It is sent to buyer for his approval for the conformation that-the revision is done correctly. SIZE SET: Consists of 1 pc of each size of the garment for each color combination . not complete garment .Photo Sample Photo samples are made as per actuals with actual color and material to be worn by the models on the event of shooting for catalog. a new sample is made (some times mock-up is worked on too) as per new specifications. Approval Sample In any discrete period of time.
It is the first garment produced in the production process of that order. Claim) shipping samples is important. Production Sample It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specifications. after the order has been shipped.Pre. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced & line workmanship conformed to the quality level.Production Sample When material for bulk production is in house in the factory. the factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends to buyer. Shipping Sample A sample is kept from every Pre-Shipping inspection to be referred for the buyer and the exporter.g. Usually for any disputes (e. .
Swatch Swatch is a presentation of all the materials is (Fabric & Accessories) used for any specific style /order. Swatch is very important for production line to make the correct construction of a garment and QC department ensures it. Proper selection of trims and its quality are very important for styling. . Concerned merchandiser should confirm/approve the swatch. otherwise the garment may be rejected or returned by the customers. Trims Trims cover all the items used in the garment except the basic fabric. There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments. Usually small piece of fabric and each piece of accessories are attached in board paper in a systematic manner.
3. Monitoring Import export procedures Banking procedures Customs procedure Warehouse arrangement . Classification of order: Study order Specification Details Order details/Style details Quantity Fabric Trims/Accessories Delivery terms & Conditions. Monitoring of contract: Opening and maintaining files Distribute the order specification to the relevant dept. Sourcing of supplies.ORDER FOLLOW UP PROCEDURE Just after the placement of the order a merchandiser has to study the requirement in the order sheet: 1. Sample controlling. 2.
Logistical and distribution Arrangements Freights forwarding (sea/air) 8. Factory production: Execution of order Meeting the Quality standards Checking work in progress 6. Financial Transactions Follow up Final payment . Arrival of purchased Materials Completion of custom procedures Inspection/Identification Storing of clothing materials 5.4. Co-Ordination with Buying Agents Liaison with buying office personnel for related manufacturing issues 7.
It includes the decision on the selecting supplier for material procurement and vendors for apparel production. Business directory (yellow pages) 3. Advertising 4.Merchandising is an important task of a textile company. The stages of sourcing: 1. Fore casting:It is an important term for merchandising. Internet 2. Buying house 5. After deciding the product then he will start for order sourcing. To exhibition Factor for sourcing: Sourcing decision depends on some factors- . Order Sourcing: Sourcing is a term use to describe the process of determining how and where item will be procedure. All country of Embassy 6. There are various products in textile sector. To complete merchandiser activities successfully a merchandiser has to follow some procedure or sequence that are given below. At first a merchandiser have to decide in what type product he will produce.
Product factor: Style.Factor for sourcing: Sourcing decision depends on some factors1. banking. Geographical: Distance. morality. Country factors: Political: The present political stability Economical: financial. religious factor. transport cost . ability of speaking English education. design. previous history. quality standard. facilities or tax free or others opportunities Cultural & language: In time delivery. price reference. and service ability 3. previous history. minimum order quality. Company/vendor factor: Company goodwill. insurance etc. quality standard. 2.
7. Contact number and person 3. . Minimum order quantity. Number of employees 8. Major products. Production facilities 11. (which products they experienced) 5. Major market of customers (which customer they deal) 4. Location of production 10. Name and address of the company. Quality standard 12.Information s: 1. Capacity (monthly or annually) 6. Physical size of the plan. Financial status 9. 2.
Its opportunity to establish good working relationship. 6. Listening effectively 4. Which obtaining a good deal. Understanding body language. negotiation is a stimulating way to arrive at acceptable solution to the need for something whither it is a need to resolve the difficulties or to settle terms. Questioning skill 3. 2. Observation and judgment. 5. The aim of negotiation/approach Win Win solution Both parties are benefited.Negotiation: Its not contest. Influencing skills . Or. Discovering common interest and removal of personal issues. The skill for negotiation: 1.
In textile sector generally back-toback L/C is used to collect Fabrics . Buyer to seller 2. Generally they communicate with them by email and telephone or mobile. which include which type s products. Buyer to buying house and buying house to seller. sample photo. he needs.Introducing: Actually merchandiser activities started by introducing with the buyers. Introducing may occur by two ways 1. Both local and foreign it needs to open a L/C. There are two sources of fabric. Enquiry: At the time of introducing the buyer send their requirements. style etc. 1. Source Fabric: After receiving the enquiry a merchandiser have to find from where fabric can be found as per buyers requirement. They also provide sample size. Local source 2. Foreign source.
If buyer wants color size product then he need to send them for proper coloring. Sub: Lab Dip Programmed Buyer Name: Info-united Art:-Zob-3 Fabrics.Prepare Lab Dipping : It is an important part of sampling. After that lab test is send to the buyer for approve. For an example Letter that is send to lab is given below: Date: To Mr. S/J 180 GSM SL # Color Name Pantone/Shade Fabrics Remarks 01 Orange 158 C . 35%Polyester. Babul Knit Concern Ltd.65%Cotton.
Gets approval Lab dipping: Lab Dip confirmation & may be fitting & workmanship changes: 1. Start with dyeing the fabric (if necessary start tests bulk) 2. and patch production . print. print. Start of label. After checking & necessary changes. . Sending preproduction samples or size set in original fabric with all already Confirmed details. the confirmation of labels.
then it is sent for print. Such as tag.Order Bulk Fabric Production FABRIC DYEING: Once the Lab dip is approved by the buyer for color. These are very much important for textile product. . scope tape etc. If there is any need of print. pin. so it is the duty of a merchandiser to sourcing accessories before starting production. Fabric Printing : Fabric printing is the process that applies a single or multi colored/design on a white of dyed background fabric. Source Prepare Trims & Accessories: for preparing a product a company need various types of trims and accessories. using textile dyes. the fabric is sent for dyeing.
After draw a cache a sample is prepared for the buyers and sends to the buyers.Sales man sample: Sample is made when PRICE is confirmed and orders are on speculation.Develop a Sample: Sample is the physical form of buyer s specification or style/design. Sampling may be in two ways. 2. Sampling after confirmation price.Production: It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specification. . Types of sample/Stages of sample: 1. yarn. Sampling before confirmation price. 2nd pattern: Usually designer/ developer always asks for some changes to the first pattern. 2. 2. etc. 1. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced and line workmanship confirm to the quality. level. usually in L size in all color combinations of expected or 3. For sampling a merchandiser need Fabrics. Second pattern is made as per comments.1st pattern: The first physical version of any garment as per the artwork done by designer and/or developer.
Approval sample: In any discrete period of time.) Where first pattern is made on designers artwork. has to follow another sample given by the merchandiser 6. Counter sample is to make not on designer s artwork. It is sent to buyer for his APPROVAL of the conformity that.Counter sample (Based on buyer requirement. 7. whenever it required any revision in the sample. Fit sample/red tag sample/ Proto type sample: Samples are made with actual color and material to be worn by the models on the event of SHOOTING for catalog. Marketing/Developing sample: 5.4. a new sample is made (some times mock-up is workable too) as per new specification.the revision is done correctly. .
such as sleeve. Sometimes it is necessary to send to the buyer any part of the garments. after the order has been delivered. 9. factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends to buyer. neck etc and some accessories. Claim) shipping sample is important. if required.8. Mock up sample: Any part of the garment to make for particular purpose. Shipping sample: A sample is kept from every Pre Shipping inspection to be referred. . Preproduction sample/size set sample/ production sample: When material for bulk production arrived. Usually for any disputes (e. collar. not complete garment.g. 10.
Swatch is very important for production line to make the correct construction of a garment and QC department ensures it. Usually small piece of fabric and each piece of accessories are attached in board paper in a systematic manner. .SWATCH: Swatch is a presentation of all the materials is (Fabric & Accessories) used for any specific style/order.
Deals will be done or not is totally depend on the price of the product.Pricing: It is the most important factor for a merchandiser. . A merchandiser is the person who fix or determining the price of the product.
Monitoring of contract: *Opening and maintaining files * Distribute the order specification to the relevant dept. 2. * Sourcing of supplies. Classification of test *Study order Specification Details *Order details/Style details * Quantity * Trims/Accessories * Delivery terms & Conditions.ORDER FOLLOW UP PROCEDURE Just after the placement of the order a merchandiser has to study the requirement laid down in the order sheet: 1. Monitoring Import procedures * Banking procedures * Customs procedure * Warehouse arrangement . 3. * Sample controlling.
Arrival of purchased Materials * Completion of custom procedures * Inspection/Identification * Storing of clothing materials 5. Logistical and distribution Arrangements * Freights forwarding (sea/air) 8.4. Co-Ordination with Buying Agents * Liaison with buying office personnel for related manufacturing issues 7. Financial Transactions * Follow up Final payment . Factory production: * Execution of order * Meeting the Quality standards * Checking work in progress 6.
the production can start 2. Before shipment inspect the production by buyers nominee 5. Send pre-shipment production to buyer. 1. Pay attention & special care to all further production instruction from the buyer. 4.Confirmation of the production. Ship the goods within shipment date . 3. Only if all confirmation has been given.
the cutting muster started to cut the fabrics .Production Execution Tracking: A. Cutting the Fabrics:After confirmation of production and approve of the cutting the fabrics from the buyer.
BLIND STITCH 16. EYELET ATTACH 12. SNLS (PLAIN) 2. ZIG ZAG 17.Sewing : In swing section the finish fabrics are sewing. FLAT LOCK 3. BUTTON ATTACH 14. COLLARTURNIN 10. SNAP BUTTON ATTACH 19. BUTTON HOLE 13. EYELET HHOLE 11. MULTI THREAD CHAIN STITCH 7. THREAD RE-CONNING 15. CUFFS ROLLING 9.B. CUCLE MACHINE 8. O/L 3-6THREAD 4. FEED OF THE ARM 6. CREASE MACHINE . BACK TAPE 18. DNLS (TWO NEEDLE) 3. There are various types of sewing machine that are given below: 1. 5 THREAD 5.
In different stages of production. . Various spot we found in products that are given below: 1.Washing: It is most important factor in textile sector. Print spot 4. Oil spot 2. various spot we found in products that are needed to wash. Etc. Dirty spot 3. Fabrics spot 5.
Types of L/C: 1. Transferable L/C: This type of L/C that is transferable as per the need.PAYMENT MONITORING: After getting order from buyer A L/C have to open by the buyer . Here all risks are involves for the seller but buyer has more flexible.So that the confirmation bank is responsible to make payment if the issuing bank to pay the beneficiary. Irrevocable L/C: This type of credit ca be amendment or cancel only to the agreement of all parties concern.It means that issuing bank request a 2nd bank to add its own confirmation to the credit . It is so much popular in textile area. 3.Irrevocable & Confirmed L/C: This type of credit involves the undertaking of the advising bank in addition to that of issuing bank . Revocable L/C: This type of credit can be amendment or cancel by the applicant without only prior notice to the beneficial. 5. It is a conditional undertaking of payment.L/C means Letter of Credit. Master L/C. 2. Back-to-Back L/C: This type of L/C can be against a valid expert L/C. It is a document issued by a bank on behalf of an applicant undertaking to make payment to a beneficial up to a stated amount of moneys within a prescribed time limit and design stipulated documents. . 4.
Trade license 2. Inspection Certificate 3. Bond license 7. Membership certificate 4. Memorandum Certificate 3.S. Agreement with the house owner ** L/C Export Document: 1.O 2. TIN 6. Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 3. Without having cash payment 2. U . Factory Insurance 9.D 4. Insurance 8. Risk free .** If we open a L/C then need some things that are given below: 1. IRC 5. G. C.P **Benefits of L/C Sellers End: 1.
Same with quality product. The buyer should be ensured that he would get the quality product . Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 2.Buyers end: 1. Risk free 4. Without having cash payment 3.
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