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Krishna Murari

Scheduling

Scheduling is process of setting up operations processing time so that job is completed by the time they are due. The main objective of scheduling to provide the best service to the customer through efficient use of resources.

Purpose of Scheduling

To help the firm to maximise customer satisfaction To Minimize service delays To Enable the firm to allocate the capacity to meet customers’ demands on time. To reduce cost and maximise profit To create flexibility to accommodate variation in customer demand

**Manufacturing Execution Systems
**

Continuous – Assembly type – large number of units of homogenous product is produced Intermittent – production of variety of product one at a time or in batches (custom made as per customer’s requirement) Combination – neither strictly continuous nor intermittent

Sequence in which waiting jobs are processed is critical to efficiency and effectiveness of the intermittent system

Work Center

A work center is an area in a business in which productive resources are organized and work is completed Can be a single machine, a group of machines, or an area where a particular type of work is done

Scheduling Methods

Infinite loading : jobs are assigned to work centers without regard to the work center’s capacity as if it’s capacity is infinite. Gantt load charts and visual load profiles and assignment algorithm are used to evaluate loading and assigning the jobs. Finite loading : A scheduling procedure that assigns jobs into work centers and dermines their starting and completion dates by considering the work center’s capacity. Work center’s capacity is allocated unit by unit by simulating job starting and completion time.

Selection of scheduling method depends on volume of production, capacity of work center and nature of operations

Scheduling Methods

Forward scheduling : Determining the start and finish times for the waiting jobs by assigning them to the earliest available time slots at the work centre. (Used in job shops). Forward scheduling is simple in use and it gets job done in shortest lead time but has excessive inventory as jobs get accumulated at various work centers as they get completed before the availability of next work center. Backward scheduling : Determining the start and finish times for the waiting jobs by assigning them to the latest available time slots at the work centre to enable to complete each job just when it is due. (Used in assy). It minimizes the inventory since job is not completed till it must go to next work center on its routing.

Scheduling Methods

2 jobs are to be processed on 2 machines. The route sheets is given below. Both jobs should be ready in 8 hours. Develop schedule using forward and backward scheduling. Job X route Sheet Job Y route sheet

Routing Machine sequence 1 2 3 Total 1 2 1 Processing Routing Machine Processing Time Hrs sequence Time Hrs 2 3 1 6 5 1 2 1 2 2 3

Scheduling Methods

Forward Scheduling

8

Cumulative time in Hrs

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Y1 X1 X3

Y2

X2

Scheduling Methods

Backward Scheduling

Job X route Sheet

Routing sequence 1 2 3 Total Machine 1 2 1 Processing Time Hrs 2 3 1 6 5

**Job Y route sheet
**

Routing Machine Processing sequence Time Hrs 1 2 1 2 2 3

Scheduling Methods

Backward Scheduling

8 X3 Y2

Cumulative time in Hrs

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 X1 Y1 Y2 X2

Typical Scheduling and Control Functions Allocating orders, equipment, and personnel Determining the sequence of order performance Initiating performance of the scheduled work Shop-floor control

**Work-Center Scheduling Objectives
**

Meet due dates Minimize lead time Minimize setup time or cost Minimize work-in-process inventory Maximize machine utilization

Scheduling Activities

Routing : it is specifications of work flow. It explains the sequence of operations and processes to be followed in order to produce a particular product. It defines the what to do and where and how to do. Route sheets give these details. Loading : It is assigning specific job to each work centre for planned period. For loading capacity limitation of each machine is to be considered. Dispatching : It is the final act of releasing the job orders to the worker to go ahead with the production process. In this, operation manager releases the job orders as per the planned sequence and then controls the process for effective implementation of schedule. Dispatching rules called as priority rules are used in scheduling the production activities.

**Priority Rules for Job Sequencing
**

1. First-come, first-served (FCFS) or first-in, first served : Jobs are processed in the order of their arrival, all jobs are treated as equally important for example – petrol filling Shortest operating time (SOT) or shortest processing time (SPT) : priorities is given based on the shortest processing time of the jobs. This is used when firm wants that maximum no. of jobs should be completed.

2.

3. Earliest due date first (DDate) : The jobs are prioritized according to their earliest due dates. Dispatching is done in such a way that the one with earliest due date is dispatched first, the next earliest next and so on.

**Priority Rules for Job Sequencing
**

4. Slack time remaining (STR) first : In this method, the operating manager calculate the slack time of each job i.e. the difference between the time remaining in the due date and the processing time required. Job with the shortest slack time is dispatched first. Slack time remaining per operation (STR/OP) : Orders with shortest STR/OP are run first as follows: Time remaining before due date _ STR/OP = Number of Remaining operations Remaining Processing time

5.

**Priority Rules for Job Sequencing
**

6. Critical ratio (CR) : This is calculated as the

difference between the due date and the current date by the work remaining. Order with the smallest CR are run first.

**(Due date - Current date) CR = Number of days remaining
**

7. Last come, first served (LCFS) : This happens frequently by default. As orders arrive, they are placed on the top of the stack and operator using picks up from top and run. 8. 9. Random order or whim : the supervisor or operator selects whichever he feels like running. Longest processing time

10. Start date-due date minus normal lead time.

**Example of Job Sequencing: FirstCome First-Served
**

Suppose you have the four Suppose you have the four jobs to the right arrive for jobs to the right arrive for processing on one machine processing on one machine

What is the FCFS schedule? What is the FCFS schedule?

Jobs (in order of arrival) A B C D Processing Due Date Time (days) (days hence) 4 5 7 10 3 6 1 4

Do all the jobs get done on time? Do all the jobs get done on time? No, Jobs B, C, No, Jobs B, C, and D are and D are going to be late going to be late

**Answer: FCFS Schedule
**

Jobs (in order of arrival) A B C D Processing Time (days) 4 7 3 1 Due Date Flow Time (days hence) (days) 5 4 10 11 6 14 4 15

Delay A-0, B-1, C-8 and D – 11 days

**Example of Job Sequencing: Shortest Operating Time (SOT or SPT)
**

Suppose you have the four Suppose you have the four jobs to the right arrive for jobs to the right arrive for processing on one machine processing on one machine

Jobs (in order of arrival) A B C D Processing Time (days) 4 7 3 1 Due Date (days hence) 5 10 6 4

What is the SOT schedule? What is the SOT schedule?

Do all the jobs get done on time? Do all the jobs get done on time?

**Answer: Shortest Operating Time Schedule
**

Jobs (in order of arrival) D C A B Processing Time (days) 1 3 4 7 Due Date Flow Time (days hence) (days) 4 1 6 4 5 8 10 15 No, Jobs A No, Jobs A and B are and B are going to be going to be late late

Delay D-0, C-0, A-3 and B -5 days

**Example of Job Sequencing: Earliest Due Date First (DDate)
**

Suppose you have the four Suppose you have the four jobs to the right arrive for jobs to the right arrive for processing on one machine processing on one machine

What is the earliest due date What is the earliest due date first schedule? first schedule?

Jobs (in order of arrival) A B C D Processing Time (days) 4 7 3 1 Due Date (days hence) 5 10 6 4

Do all the jobs get done on time? Do all the jobs get done on time?

**Answer: Earliest Due Date First
**

Jobs (in order of arrival) D A C B Processing Time (days) 1 4 3 7 Due Date Flow Time (days hence) (days) 4 1 5 5 6 8 10 15

**No, Jobs C No, Jobs C and B are and B are going to be going to be late late
**

Delay D-0, A-0, C-2 and B -5 days

**Job Sequencing: Critical Ratio Method
**

Suppose you have the four Suppose you have the four jobs to the right arrive for jobs to the right arrive for processing on one machine processing on one machine

CR =

(Due date - Current date) Number of days remaining

**Jobs (in order Processing Due Date of arrival) Tim e (days) (days hence) A 4 5 B 7 10 C 3 6 D 1 4
**

Do all the jobs get done on time? Do all the jobs get done on time?

What is the CR schedule? What is the CR schedule?

In order to do this schedule the CR’s have be calculated for each job. If we let today be Day 1 and allow a total of 15 days to do the work. The resulting CR’s and order schedule are: CR(A)=(5-4)/15=0.06 (Do this job first) CR(B)=(10-7)/15=0.20 (Do this job second, tied with C and D) CR(C)=(6-3)/15=0.20 (Do this job second, tied with B and D) CR(D)=(4-1)/15=0.20 (Do this job second, tied with B and C)

No, but since No, but since there is a there is a three-way tie, three-way tie, only the first only the first job or two will job or two will be on time be on time

**Job Sequencing: Last-Come First-Served (LCFS)
**

Suppose you have the four Suppose you have the four jobs to the right arrive for jobs to the right arrive for processing on one machine processing on one machine

**Jobs (in order Processing Due Date of arrival) Time (days) (days hence) A 4 5 B 7 10 C 3 6 D 1 4
**

Do all the jobs get done on time? Do all the jobs get done on time?

What is the LCFS schedule? What is the LCFS schedule?

**Answer: Last-Come First-Served Schedule
**

Jobs (in order of arrival) D C B A Processing Time (days) 1 3 7 4 Due Date Flow Time (days hence) (days) 4 1 6 4 10 11 5 15

**No, Jobs B No, Jobs B and A are and A are going to be going to be late late
**

Delay D-0, C-0, B-1 and A -10 days

**Slack Time Remaining
**

Suppose you have the four Suppose you have the four jobs to the right arrive for jobs to the right arrive for processing on one machine processing on one machine

What is the STR schedule? What is the STR schedule? Slack Time for A, B,C and D are (5-4), (10-7), (6-3) and (4-1) , B , C and D have same slack time but D has less processing time so D will be before C &B and sequence will be A,D,C,B Job sequence A D C B Processing time 4 1 3 7 Due date 5 4 6 10

**Jobs (in order Processing Due Date of arrival) Time (days) (days hence) A 4 5 B 7 10 C 3 6 D 1 4
**

Do all the jobs get done on time? Do all the jobs get done on time?

Time Flow 4 5 8 15

**No, Jobs D,C No, Jobs D,C and B are and B are going to be going to be late late
**

Delay A-0, D-1, C-2 and B-5 days

Scheduling Techniques

Many

**techniques are used by operations manager. Important techniques are :
**

Gantt chart Job sequencing rule Queuing theory Critical ratio

Gantt Charts

It was developed by Henry L. Gantt. It is a graphical display of the duration of a set of activities. Gantt chart: Used as a tool to monitor the progress

of work and to view the load on workstations.

The chart takes two basic forms: (1) the job or activity progress chart, and (2) the workstation chart.

The Gantt progress chart graphically displays the current status of each job or activity relative to its scheduled completion date. The Gantt workstation chart shows the load on the workstations and the nonproductive time.

**Gantt Progress Chart
**

Gantt Progress Chart for an Auto Parts Company

Start activity Finish activity Nonproductive time

Job Ford Plymouth 1/11 2/11 3/11

Current date

**Scheduled activity time Actual progress
**

6/11 7/11 8/11 9/11 12/11

4/11

5/11

Pontiac

**Gantt Workstation Chart
**

Gantt Workstation Chart for Hospital Operating Rooms

**Johnson’s Job Sequencing Rules
**

Sequencing of jobs is important for scheduling of jobs. It helps in minimizing the processing time and maximizing the operations efficiency. It also reduces the operations cost over a period of time. When jobs are processed in multistage, it is necessary to sequence in such a way that idle time is reduced. Johnson's rules developed by Johnson and Bellman, are utilized to minimized the total time span required for completing the given jobs.

**Johnson’s Rule for Two stage Production
**

If a firm has to perform “n” jobs on two machines A and B in the order AB. Expected time for these jobs are A1, A2 , A3….. An on machine A and B1, B2, B3….. Bn in machine B. Following steps are followed: 1. Identify least processing time in A1, A2,….An and B1, B2….Bn. If there is tie , select either of the processing time. 2. If the smallest processing time is Ar (rth job in machine A then place it at the beginning of the sequence. And if it is Bs (sth job on machine B), then place it at the end of the sequence. 3. If there is tie for the least processing time on machine A, any of the jobs can be placed at the beginning of the sequence. In case of tie at machine B, any of the jobs can be placed at the end of the sequence. Contd…

**Johnson’s Rule for Two stage Production
**

4. Identify the next least processing time and repeat the above step. The process is continued till all the jobs are assigned in a sequence. The sequence obtained is called as optimum sequence. 5. Once the time sequence is found, the total elapse time and idle time on machine A and B can be calculated by the following formula. Total Elapse time = time between start of the first job – end time of last job. Idle time on machine A = time of completion of last job on machine B in optimum sequence- time of completion of last job on machine A in optimum sequence Idle time on machine B = Time taken by Machine A in completing first job in sequence - ∑ [ ( time when k th job starts on machine B) – (time when k-1 th Job finishes on B)

**Example of Job Sequencing: Johnson’s Rule (Part 1)
**

Suppose you have the following five jobs with time Suppose you have the following five jobs with time requirements in two stages of production. What is the requirements in two stages of production. What is the job sequence using Johnson’s Rule? job sequence using Johnson’s Rule?

Jobs A B C D Time in Hours Stage 1 Stage 2 1.50 1.25 2.00 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.00 2.00

**Example of Job Sequencing: Johnson’s Rule (Part 2)
**

First, select the job with the smallest time in either stage. That is Job D with the smallest time in the first stage. Place that job as early as possible in the unfilled job sequence below. Jobs A B C D Time in Hours Stage 1 Stage 2 1.50 1.25 2.00 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.00 2.00

Drop D out, select the next smallest time (Job A), and place it 4th in the job sequence as it is at stage 2

Drop A out, select the next smallest time. There is a tie in two stages for two different jobs. In this case, place the job with the smallest time in the first stage as early as possible in the unfilled job sequence. Then place the job with the smallest time in the second stage as late as possible in the unfilled sequence. Job Sequence 1 Job Assigned D 2 B 3 C 4 A

Problem

: A firm produces six type of shoes pairs and manufacturing of shoes pairs require processing on two machines A and B. The processing time for each shoe pair on both machines (in Hrs) are given below: Shoe pair type Machine A Machine B 1 35 75 2 105 100 3 55 95 4 25 65 5 95 35 6 105 20

Determine an optimum sequence so that the total elapse time is minimum. Also calculate idle time on machine A and Machine B

Solution:

stage:1

Least processing time is 20 for job 6 at machine B hence it will come at the end of sequence i.e. at 6th place

Shoe pair type Machine A Machine B 6 105 20

Solution:

stage 2

Next least process time is 25 hrs for shoe pair type 4 on machine A hence it will be placed at the beginning of sequence

Shoe pair type Machine A Machine B 4 25 60 6 105 20

Solution:

stage: 3

Next least process time is 30 hrs for shoe pair type 1 on machine A and 30 hrs for type 5 pair on machine B so type 1 is scheduled nest to type 4 on machine A and type 5 shoe pair before type 6 pairs shown below Shoe pair type Machine A Machine B 4 25 65 1 35 75 5 95 35 6 105 20

Solution:

stage: 4

Next least process time is 55 hrs for shoe pair type 3 on machine , hence it will be sequenced after shoe pair 1 Shoe pair type Machine A Machine B 4 25 65 1 35 75 3 55 95 5 95 35 6 105 20

Solution:

stage:5

last left our pair 2 will be sequenced after pair 3 Shoe pair type Machine A Machine B 4 25 65 1 35 75 3 55 95 2 105 100 5 95 35 6 105 20

Solution:

Job sequence Machine A

stage:6

Machine B

**Now we develop the schedule of each job in optimum sequence as shown below
**

Time in Processi Time out Time in Processi Time out ng time ng time 0 25 60 115 220 315 25 35 55 105 95 105 25 60 115 220 315 420 25 90 165 260 360 420 65 75 95 100 35 20 90 165 260 360 395 440

4 1 3 2 5 6

Note : Time- in for machine will be time-out of the job from machine A or time-out of previous job from machine B which ever is bigger

Solution:

stage:7

We can calculate elapse time and idle time as follows Total elapse time : 440 hours Idle time for machine A = 440-420 = 20 hrs Idle time for machine B = Time taken by machine A to complete first job 25 hrs + [ (90-90)+(165-165) + (260260) +(360-360) + (420-395)] = 50 hrs.

**Johnson’s Rule for Three Stage Production
**

If the expected processing time for n-jobs on 3 machines A, B and C are A1,A2,A3…..An; B1, B2, B3….Bn and C1,C2,C3…..Cn Stage -1 : check that Johnson rule can be used: Any one of the following conditions should be satisfied i) The smallest processing time on machine A should be greater than or equal to the largest processing time on machine B ii) The smallest processing time on machine C should be greater than or equal to the largest processing time of machine B Contd..

**Johnson’s Rule for Three Stage Production
**

Stage -2 : Assume two fictitious machines G and H Stage -3 : Find out corresponding time for these machines by they following formula Gi = Ai +Bi Hi = Bi + Ci Stage -3 : solve the problem like 2 machines and n jobs with order of GH. The resulting optimum sequence will also become the optimum sequence for the problem of 3 machines and n jobs.

**Example : Johnson’s Rule for Three Stage Production
**

A firm is involved in five types of jobs, each must process in 3 machines A, B, C in the order ABC. The processing time (in hours) for each job on the three machines is given below Job Ai 1 2 3 4 5 18 19 12 16 21 Processing time Bi 10 12 5 6 9 Ci 8 18 16 14 10

**Example : Three Stage Production
**

First we check that condition to apply Johnson’s rule is satisfied. Minimum processing time at machine A is 12 hrs. and maximum processing time at B is 12hrs , it satisfied the condition , hence the rule can be used. Now we use Gi=Ai+Bi andHi=Bi+Ci, the table will be as given below Job 1 2 3 4 5 28 31 17 22 30 Processing time Gi = Ai+Bi Hi=Bi+Ci 18 30 21 20 19

**Example : Three Stage Production
**

The optimum sequence will be as follows Minimum processing time of job 3 is 17 hrs in G hence it will be first in sequence i.e. job 3 will be first in sequence. Now, in remaining Jobs, job 1 in machine H is lowest processing time 18 hrs, hence it will be the last in sequence. Now , in left out jobs, job 5 has lowest processing time in machine H, hence, it will come last but one job i.e. before job 1. Job 4 has the lowest time in machine H so it will be before the job 5 and job 2 will be in left out slot i.e. after job 3. Hence sequence will be 3,2,4,5,1. The schedule will be as given in table in next slide.

**Example : Three Stage Production
**

Job Machine A sequen ce Time Proce Time in ssing Out time 3 2 4 5 1 0 12 31 47 68 12 19 16 21 18 12 31 47 68 86 Machine B Time in Proces Time sing Out time 5 12 6 9 10 17 43 53 77 96 Machine C Time in Proces Time sing Out time 16 18 14 10 8 33 61 75 87 104

12 31 47 68 86

17 43 61 77 96

**Example : Three Stage Production
**

Total operation time with optimum sequence is 104 hrs Idle time on machine A = 104 -86 =14 hrs. Idle time on machine B= 12 + [ (31-17)+ (47-43)+ (6853) + (77-86) + (104 -96) ]= 62 hrs. Idle time on machine C = 17 +[ (43-33)+ (61-61)+ (7775) +(96-87) = 38 hrs.

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs and m-machines
**

If n-jobs 1,2,3…,n on M machines A1,A2,A3,….Am are to ebsceduled. The processing time of job 1 on m machines are A11, A12, A13…..A1m ; processing time for job 2 are A21, A22, A23…..A2m and processing time for job n are An1, An2, An3….Anm. Stage -1 : check that Johnson rule can be used: Any one of the following conditions should be satisfied i) The smallest processing time on machine A1 should be greater than or equal to the largest processing time on machines A2, A3, A4…. Am-1 ii) The smallest processing time on machine Am should be greater than or equal to the largest processing time of machines A2, A3, A4…. Am-1

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs on m machines
**

Stage -2 : Assume two fictitious machines G and H Stage -3 : Find out corresponding time for these machines by they following formula Gi = Ai 1+Ai2 + Ai3…..+Aim-1 Hi = Ai2 + Ai3…..+Aim-1 +Aim Stage -3 : solve the problem like 2 machines and n jobs with order of GH. The resulting optimum sequence will also become the optimum sequence for the problem of m machines and n jobs.

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs on m machines
**

A firm is involved in 4 types of jobs, each must process in 4 machines P,Q,R and S in the order PQRS. The processing time (in hours) for each job on the 4 machines is given below Job P A B C D 10 9 8 12 Processing time Q 7 6 4 8 R 5 4 2 3 S 9 7 6 9

Determine the optimum sequence , elapse time and idle time on each machine

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs on m machines
**

First we check that condition to apply Johnson’s rule is satisfied. Minimum processing time at machine P is 8 hrs. and maximum processing time at Q and R are 8 and 5 , it satisfied the condition , hence the rule can be used. Now we use Gi=A1+A2+A3 A2+A3+A4 the table will be as given below Job A B C D 22 19 14 23 Processing time Gi = A1+A2+A3 Hi=A2+A3+A4 21 17 12 20

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs on m machines
**

The optimum sequence will be as follows Minimum processing time of job C is 12 hrs in H hence it will be last in sequence. Now in remaining Jobs, job B in machine H is lowest processing time 17 hrs, hence it will be the last but one in sequence. Now , in left out jobs, job D has lowest processing time in machine H hence, it will come before job B Hence sequence will be A,D,B and C. The schedule will be as given in table in next slide.

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs on m machines
**

Job P A D B C 0-10 10-22 22-31 31-39 Q 10-17 22-30 31-37 39-43 Machine R 17-22 30-33 37-41 43-45 S 22-31 33-42 42-49 49-55

**Johnson’s Rule for n jobs on m machines
**

Total operation time with optimum sequence is 55 hrs Idle time on machine P = 55-39 =16 hrs. Idle time on machine Q = 10+(22-17)+(31-30)+(3937)+(55-43) = 30 hrs. Idle time on machine R = 17+(30-22)+(37-33)+(4341)+(55-45)= 41 hrs Idle time on machine S =22+(33-31)+(42-42)+(4949)=24hrs

**Personnel Scheduling in Services
**

Issues :

Customer’s direct interaction High variability in demand

Two operations:

Front of the house Back of the house

**Personnel Scheduling in Services
**

Scheduling consecutive days off – 5 days week working Scheduling daily work times Scheduling hourly work times

**Personnel Scheduling in Services
**

Methods to meet customer demand under limited availability of service facilities Appointment system – customer arrival time can be

controlled

**Reservation system – like hotel rooms Strategic product pricing – to adjust the shift in
**

demand like higher price at peak hours – electricity at high price summer

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