IndianARCH’09

From the desk of the Principal
Chandigarh College of Architecture

The TeAM eDITORS Apoorv Kaushik apoorvkaushik@gmail.com Jaskaran Chauhan jc.1124@yahoo.co.in

It is an honour for Chandigarh College of Architecture, a founding member of NASA association, to be presenting this magazine to you, dear students, on the occasion of the 52nd Annual NASA convention being held at Chennai. I am quite sure that all of you would enjoy going through this edition of IndianARCH’09, just as you would enjoy participating in the convention, cheering and winning laurels for your respective colleges. We must realise that architecture today, reacting to globalization, is giving up both its inexpensive energy saving juggernauts and simple environment sensitive techniques and expressions. We seem to be forgetting that our main purpose, being in this field, is to be able to contribute to the society and the world at large. It is evident that the need of the hour is the conservation of the world resources and our environment. We are, no doubt, striving towards this same aim with the emergence of energy efficient architecture and sustainable buildings. But if we look back at our own architectural history, we will realise that we have been making use of environment friendly designs since time immemorial, then be it the mud cottages or rock structures. We need to recognise this rich culture and go back to our old principles so that we are able to help, not only ourselves, but also, the entire world. The choice, however, lies with you, dear students. The world of ‘glamorous’ architecture is forever present to attract those who are weak enough to get illusioned by it. It is sad to see architects practicing merely for the sake of fame or for satisfying their greed for material contentment. What we need to understand is that we have to use the opportunity presented to us by architecture to contribute to the world, or else, we shall fail miserably at our chosen profession. So, it is for you to decide on which side you would prefer to be on. In other words, whether you would prefer hitting jackpots with “Slot Machines” or let the great Master Architects inspire you.

In the end I would wish each one of you a successful journey in your chosen future whether on your own or travelling along the “Garib Ratha”. Once again, I hope, that you will find this issue of the IndianARCH09 up to your expectations as, we, at CCA aspire to inspire individuals to seek their true aim and follow it to the end. Pradeep Kumar Bhagat Principal

MAGAZINe CORReSPONDeNT Shweta Sethi Surbhi Bharadwaj

GRAPhIC DeSIGNeRS Apoorv Kaushik Varun Mahopatra

MAGAZINe COORDINATOR Tawish Tayal

SPONSORShIP INChARGe Rajat Malik

ACKNOWLeDGeMeNTS Saurabh Vashist Dhruv Bahl Nishtha Bali Tanvi Mehta

Special thanks to Ar. Rajendra Kumar

Introduction

Chandigarh College of Architecture

Message from the Convention host University
SRM University

It is with immense pride that we introduce to you the annual NASA magazine-‘IndianArch09’. I express my gratitude to the Executive Council of NASA for giving Chandigarh College of Architecture an opportunity to publish this esteemed magazine, the souvenir for the annual NASA convention. It has been our endeavour to make the magazine highly informative and benefiting for our readers. Through the medium of this magazine, we intend to create a community that is innovative and harmonious, build a platform that celebrates intellect and individuality. And most importantly, we hope to design a walkway for preparing the young minds and future professionals to navigate the world of tomorrow. Passion, intelligence and skill has been the key ingredients for creating wonders in architecture. But the latest development in digital technology have further made it possible to give architecture a different dimension altogether. The magazine seeks to incorporate these attributes within students of architecture by the integration of artistic creativity and intellectual curiosity. Eminent architects have always modified and upgraded themselves by adapting to the changing needs of modernity. Today, graduates in architecture continue this tradition by acknowledging the challenges posed by contemporary society within a historically significant urban matrix. I would like to thank the students of all schools and colleges of architecture from whom we have received an overwhelming response in the form of articles etc. Also, I express my sincere gratitude to the architects who have provided us with some highly informative contributions. I hope that you will not mind pushing architectural boundaries and design technologies and prepare yourselves to become Leaders in perhaps the most complex of all professional arts - The discipline of Architecture. Sujay Sengupta Dean of Students Welfare Chandigarh College of Architecture

I am pleased to learn that the 52nd Annual NASA convention is to be held at SRM University as it celebrates its Silver jubilee. This gathering of the architectural fraternity is an occasion to delve into the problems faced by the modern world and the role of architects in providing every individual with her preferred environment. I am glad understand that a publication of a magazine is planned to coincide with the event. I hope the convention would help inspire young architects and provide constructive and innovative solutions for a better future. I take this opportunity to congratulate the staffs and students of School of Architecture & Interior Design, SRM University, and wish them success in all their present and future endeavors. T. R. Pachamuthu Chancellor

I am delighted to learn about the conduct of NASA convention on the grounds of SRM University as it celebrates the 25th year of success. It is indeed an occasion to contemplate on and discuss the direction of development in the field of architecture and understand the need for better living spaces at the individual level as conveyed by the theme of the convention. It is hearting to note the publication of a magazine as a part of the proceedings. I hope the convention emerges to be a hub of novel ideas to inspire and encourage the architecture community. I take this opportunity to congratulate the staffs and students of School of Architecture & Interior Design, SRM University, for having made an excellent attempt to host this event to kindle and awake the students, fraternity. P. Sathyanarayanan Vice Chancellor

Message from the Convention host University
SRM University

NASA & IndianARCh’09

It is indeed an honour to address the students of architecture and architects participating in the 52nd annual NASA convention and on behalf of the students and faculty members of the School of Architecture & Interior design, SRM University, it is my great pleasure to welcome all the delegates to this convention. Since our university had hosted the zonal NASA conventions twice in 2001 and 2005, it was our dream to play host to the national convention and at the outset, I wish to thank the Executive Council of NASA for giving us the opportunity to host this prestigious event. At the same time, I also wish to express our gratitude to the management of SRM University for giving us the facilities to host a convention of this scale, where the logistics accommodating 4000 delegates for 4 days is stupendous. I would like to thank our Vice Chancellor, Prof. P.Sathyanarayanan in particular for his unconditional support, both morally and financially. Most importantly, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to the students and faculty of the SRM architecture school, who burnt the midnight oil to make this convention a success. I also thank the students and faculty of the Chandigarh college of Architecture for bringing out this souvenir, which is befitting of the occasion. It is our great privilege to host the 52nd Annual NASA Convention 09, wherein students of architecture from the other South Asian nations are also participating. Apart from conducting the competitions for the 9 trophies and other events which are the mainstay of all NASA conventions, we feel honoured to have arranged the exhibition of the contemporary work of European architects and another exhibition highlighting the work of Bangalore architects. We are thankful to Ar.Durganand for arranging the European architects exhibition and to INCITE for the Bangalore architects exhibition. Moreover we have also arranged for the display of the portfolios of eminent Architectural practices in India and I express my gratitude to all the architects who had participated in this. Over the past decade the SRM University had been emerging as one of the premier privately run universities in India, with campuses in Kattankulathur, Ramapuram (Chennai), Trichy and Modinagar in Delhi.

The Survey by Education times of India ranking SRM as the No.1 university among private universities offering multiple streams of education, in 2009 only confirmed the public perception. As a constituent of this institution the SRM architecture school has left no stone unturned to ensure the best in hospitality and to provide food for thought. We hope that the presentations & deliberations by the leading national and international architects will provide the much needed exposure to architecture students and their mutual interactions would be intellectually gratifying. We have also ensured various cultural events to entertain the delegates and I sincerely hope that all the competitions & events are enjoyed by the architectural community and paves the way for furthering the cause of architectural education in the country. Prof. M. Thirumeni, Dean, School of Architecture & Interior Design, SRM University.

NASA The National Association of Students of Architecture brings together students from around 120 colleges, to form a community that is the largest organization of the students of architecture in Asia. The NASA community strives to provide a platform for the students to interact with each other and practicing architects and to share their experiences and difficulties. This approach helps students to not only gain valuable information in the field but also makes them aware of what all innovations and ideas are in vogue. NASA organizes national level competitions to fulfill its motto. These prestigious competitions see students from various colleges participate and present their ideas and concepts with gusto. The trophies cover various aspects of architecture and are judged on the basis of practicality and innovation. NASA also endeavors to assist the society through the radical and excellent ideas that come up during the convention. The end product is used to help the economically weaker sections by providing technical advice. This year, NASA has successfully made the event even bigger…. Celebrating 52 years since its conception, NASA has made the event a SAARC NASA event, with participation from colleges coming under the SAARC nations.

The Magazine The Annual NASA Magazine, The IndianARCH, this time around, is presenting its readers with an entirely new format. The aim of the magazine is to introduce the students to new concepts in architecture and to present the older ones in a way that is original and innovative. It is important for the students of architecture to understand the new concepts developing in the field. We have included interviews of famous architects so as to acquaint the students with their theories and ideas. Contributions from students occupy a major part of the magazine along with inputs and views from teachers and practicing architects. The Magazine has the cover story detailing out the various aspects of “Fractals”. The varied possibilities of the term and its applications in the field of application have been discussed in the section. It is hoped that the Magazine shall help the students to gain knowledge and wisdom.

with the belief that the light of NASA shall never fade and with a vision that it only grows. yearly IndianARCH into a monthly magazine by the year 2015! And with this aim.always!” Vidhu V. Introduction of three new trophies. There are many journals available in the markets that talk of the professionals and their works in the built environment but none of them speak about the role of a student. it’s a bitter sweet moment to bid adieu to those sleepless nights and mind whirling days.. The thought that ‘we make the event’ has been taken over by the ‘event makes the best of us’. who shall be the architects of a better tomorrow. I am more than proud to be the convenor of such an event. I would like to put my pen down. we present to you the IndianARCH ’09. we come to understand how much we have progressed. “Be the change you want to see in the world” – MK Gandhi Shiraz CP Magazine Coordinator SRM University . comes a big responsibility especially when themed on the quality of life. I would like to congratulate CCA-Chandigarh to have come up with this excellent publication. This gave birth to the IndianARCH! Being a student association.. When we look back. Adding to our zest is the fact that hosting the event on the occasion of 25th anniversary of the University gives it a special feel. Never has there been an interaction so huge.. It was thus envisioned for a journal that highlights and promotes the role of students in the built environments of the future. And to be a part of such an event. Pride and Pleasure is what everyone from SRM University feels now.a change for BETTER!’ IndianARCH.. the SAARC initiatives. I would like thank all the faculty members. Yes. I would like to conclude with quote by our father of nation. it’s a pleasure beyond words. U2. The aim was to act as a platform for architecture students of the country to bring out their works to the other members of the community and the general masses.and a change is what we still hold on to! A change for us. but it has rewarded us immensely that the fore mentioned seem regardless. Things were never always smooth but with the last year.a change for NASA. Kahn Trophy documentation.. The theme of the event. India When the most hectic months of my student life have finally come to an end. that most frightens us. and we as the future of the industry can contribute more than what was initially thought. Messages by the Convention Co-ordinators ‘A change was with what it began. Some of our friends were sceptical about and feared the pace with which we moved.The NASA President’s thoughts. It is our light. CCA editorial team & friends for their enduring support. the official journal of the National Association of Students of Architecture (NASA). The learning has been the most important part of the event. as was described by Churchill. With the coming of such a huge event.” Thus. Abhishek Convenor NASA At this juncture I am extremely exhilarated and proud just by the very idea of my close relationship with the 52nd Annual NASA Convention 2009. if not shaped. Saxena President NASA. the tremendous learning experience that we have cultivated while hosting this event. it has definitely taken our slumber and comfort. the 52nd annual nasa convention.to name a few. we had to face many problems as for the necessary finances and also for that the journal was to be handled along with our academics. so unifying that has made us amalgamated. a lot of changes have been brought about in the past one year. by the works of the students of today. ‘The period of Consequences’.. can definitely be altered.. India has come a long way since its inception..the Louis I. As I had mentioned earlier.. I would like them to recall Nelson Mandela in that: “Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate but that we are powerful beyond measure. Thank you all for your support. not our darkness.. has made us only believe stronger that improved quality of life is precisely what is required at the moment. so beneficial. I’m sure that the journal and the convention would bring the required change and keep up the spirits of NASA. No other platform would deliver then importance of rejuvenation of the value of human beings in a better manner. we were determined to change the face of NASA and IndianARCH! The vision is to transform the current.. “Let soaring high be NASA’s nature.. and to fulfil it I hope we haven’t left any stones unturned.

The NASA in the approaching duration has a long move to step to win a highest grade challenging its own history. And. . Sujay Sengupta for guiding us at every step and supporting our ideas. And NASA being one among them and also being the prime among them. Making this magazine has been a great personal advantage for me as it has enhanced my skills of time management. SRM University. A lot of effort has gone into the making of this magazine and it would not have been possible without the invaluable help and inputs from a lot of people. we realise the importance of change. On behalf of School of Architecture and Interior Design. SRM University.. celebrating its 25th anniversary have designed a numerous events in the forthcoming days. The present structure. I would like to thank the NASA authorities and the EC members for giving CHANDIGARH COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE this opportunity. Kunal Patel Unit Secretary School of Architecture and Interior Design. I feel privileged to welcome every single member of the gathering for the Annual NASA convention 2009.. SRM senses enormous pleasure to host it. . being known as one of the largest communities of architectural students in Asia with over 120 colleges of the architectural community as members of this organization holds a great value for us. With this as our aim we present to you IndianARCH’09. I would also like to acknowledge my college authorities. All challenges faced while making this magazine have polished my abilities which will surely have a good impact on my career. SRM University. Welcome to U2. today as we look forward to a new and exciting future. We really appreciate the contributions from various colleges and students.Notes from the U-Secs NASA has come a long way since its conception. My team and I are highly obliged to every individual who has shown his concern and contributed. Tawish Tayal U –Sec Magazine Co-ordinator CCA National Association of Students of Architecture. They are as important as my team who worked on this magazine. I also give credit to the General Council for cooperating with us for various subjects. Pradeep Kumar Bhagat and magazine in charge Prof. Our principal Prof. and the practising architects for all their suggestions and advice. We hope that we come up to your expectations. being a 52 years young body has undergone a massive growth within itself during the past years. I show gratitude to all the EC members for being with us all the way through the preparation for the convention and giving us the helpful and appreciative implications. .

Each individual idea is respected and given life to even though such ideas are. big or small always has something unique to offer in terms of creativity and knowledge. but does not depend on the advancement of scientific technology. rare and still in the process of growth. who are all set to change the common outlook toward architecture.. “I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul.” There are moments. which still leave us awestruck and shall do so till eternity. and belonging to different areas and levels of specialization. They act on him because he wants them to. All along the history of man and architecture. he also chooses the “thoughts” he wishes should motivate him. by their individuality. These thoughts are not his own but those of others around him. the deed” . The cause is not hard to decipher. of responsibilities and of the necessary competition that one cannot afford to neglect. Every single person involved in any effort. are brought together to put forth their views. Every deed done originates in one mind.the order that is all prevailing and eternal. the fault does not lie in these forces alone. if one but stops and thinks… Man is. “eras” have been defining the growth and progress of times. to bring about a change in the perception about architecture presently prevailing in our country. but needs tremendous effort from various sectors in order to be accomplished. It was not technological resources that created such wonders but the will that sprang forth from the souls of men.classicism. Then there is the strain of unending work. abridging the distance between two seemingly different disciplines where human intelligence finds its expression and application. being pulled in all directions by forces that “thoughts” impose on him. He lets chaos rule and prefers to follow the normal “flow” and makes no effort to seek an order---. that was enough to empower their hands to build impeccable reflections of ethereal dreams. Yet. Lord. that makes one reach out to achieve something. It can be surmised in the following lines. Architecture is an art that involves the intricacies of scientific principles. It is our endeavor to propagate the idea that architecture is not merely a convergence. We are lucky enough to live in a world that accepts new ideas and gives us the freedom follows a no particular style or order. It is a rare happening that such a vast number of people ranging from students to professionals. The whole idea is take charge of one’s own self and to appreciate those who. Apoorv Kaushik Editor. Centuries ago. gothic or post modernism. I find great pleasure in presenting IndianARCH’09 to the architectural community. as it has served not only as a means to bring together the ideas of various young architects in the making on a common platform. man created architectural masterpieces like the Pyramids. then be it modernism. An individual is free to choose what he wants and by this freedom of choice. For if a man must. Indianarch’09 has been a great learning experience. Each era was inspired by one singular spirit and idea of man. Conceive with originality. but the will that emerges out of a heart thirsting to achieve and accomplish. Open mindedness and acceptance of ideas that might seem alien but are true is the dire need of the hour. in form of solid and real structure. the Colosseum and the Taj Mahal.John Drinkwater It is not mere knowledge resting in a mind. But have we ever wondered what could be the reason for such instances. and thus this issue includes ideas and visions of people with different fields of expertise and varied opinions about the present form of architecture and the future prospects.. but has also been an opportunity to interact with many renowned architects and professors of architecture from all over the world. Create with novelty and Change for the better. IndianARCH’09 is a reflection of the will of the community of architectural students all over India. The conversations with the big shots of the world of architecture will indeed usher us into an arena where we can see things in a different light and from a new perspective. IndianARCH’09 Fifth Semester CCA “Knowledge we ask not Knowledge Thou hast lent But. he should seek inspiration from himself. when technology had not reached its present form. the will – there lies Our bitter need Give us to build above the deep intent The deed. Even though the beginning of each era was bound to cause conflict. As we forge into the future. inspire him. as has been done on FRACTALS – our main article. that seem so overbearing and fatiguing that one wonders if he would ever be able to break away. create and change. constantly and simultaneously. for the moment. neo. Architectural students from all over India have been a part of Indianarch’09. IndianARCH’09 Ninth Semester CCA . supposedly. it ultimately led to the triumph of the immortal soul of the individual. as we contemplate our mortal journey. of the various people who influence and. these moments seem to lengthen and become almost overpowering. It is not just brick and stone that are needed to build mansions. The publication of Indianarch’09 reaffirms the fact that we are endowed with the power to conceive. but hands with unwavering strength and refined skill.editorial Page editorial Page “I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. are trying to give rise to a new era. It is an anthology of innumerable radical ideas originating every moment in the minds of young architects.” Jaskaran Chauhan Editor. But we still have a long way to go. but a confluence of science and art.

India’s Peak Morphogenesis: Nullah Proposal Harry Sir Articles Manu Sobti: Global India B. Bad Master Durganand Balsavar: Sustainable Urban Ecology Aparajithan Narasimhan: U2 and the Indian city Medha Gokhale: Traditional Indian Streets Student’s Section Articles Graphics Works Short Messages . Banerjee: The Master’s Reminiscence Anil Laul: The Do or Die of the Financial Crisis Philipp Rode: Mumbai the Compact City Vikramaditya Prakash: Fractals and the modern Hindu temple KaranDev Mankotia: Architecture and Religion Deepika Gandhi: Good Servant.Chandigarh Where freedom finds form: CCA Chandigarh: The City of Sun Space and Verdure Interviews inside Christopher Charles Benninger Massimiliano Fuksas Javier G. Pioz Stefano Boeri Works Studio AMA: India Forum Tower .

If the alumni are sending their children to CCA. is of growth. With a compulsory educational tour every year and a two week long college fest. one at a time. make no mistake. the thought of where a modern Indian city should be headed. The USP of CCA is amazing because it imbibes the essence of Le Corbusier’s teachings. where students will share the rich repertoire of their experience with the whole college. . the essence of the dream of Chandigarh. to be absorbed gradually into all those who walk through its colourful corridors. who once were lucky enough to measure the periphery with their footsteps. I am tempted to indulge you with an insider’s account of what CCA is and where it is headed. blended to generate a concept. The number was a mere three in 2006 that jumped to ten in 2007 and is at nine in 2009. The persistent success of the well knit CCA alumni family settled all over India and the world. fifty years ago. it has to be doing something right! It is true that at fifty. Zvi Hecker. The backside on you. The initiative of this magazine is only an indicator. It surely is the best time to be a part of CCA. ‘is independence of thought. The most noticeable recent trend is the increase in the number of students who are going abroad for internships. you might be surprised to know that Le Corbusier’s philosophy is not spoon fed to the students. the curriculum is a wholesome amalgamation of various activities. The building stands humbly. These activities are backed by a flexible design philosophy wherein each student has hundred percent freedom in discovering and developing his/her own design philosophy. In addition to the obvious benefits. when you are in the campus you will notice the Corbusier imprint.. Visited every year by numerous students. The energy is changing its form and it will reach you. all of which have been for the better. will notice the impending and ongoing repairs and maybe hear the consequent conversations about the legacy of Le Corbusier. ’. its corridors have witnessed many a wide eyed on their personal quest to piece together the teachings of the great Le Corbusier. The rich legacy of Le Corbusier. but nicely so. The Chandigarh College of Architecture still emanates the creative energy with which it was built. studying architecture has never been more stimulating. This initiative by the faculty that encourages design driven learning is having multifaceted consequences. With the internet and with intense global impact. cannot be highlighted enough. It might become the only educational setup to produce master architects. Students from CCA have bagged internships with contemporary architects like Thom Mayne. It is omni present. all . The physical manifest of this concept is the campus of CCA. students are discovering the latent talent within them. The ever evolving system is headed to take off in a big way. Zavier Pios. in the words of Tagore. It is there for the first years. But stay in longer for a closer look and you’ll notice the subtle passion of the students towards learning and excellence. to name a few. The volumes are fascinating and the perfect dimensions of the courtyard are appreciated in every gathering held there.Where Freedom Finds Form: CCA CHANDIGARH COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE Richa Sarin graduated from CCA in 2009 with a Gold Medal for topping all ten semesters Writing this as a fresh graduate. will experience the spaces grow Facing Page: The CCA entry foyer Below: The Courtyard. the best motivation of all. The day is not far when there will be group discussions and enlightening conversations. these students are becoming an inspiration for their juniors as well. The ideologies of these exemplary educationists have been imbibed in the program. The design philosophy at CCA encourages thought process empowered by knowledge but never caged by restricting ‘isms’. it is an unsettling time at CCA. This is helping CCA retain and expand its intellectual footprint. is of self motivation. Surely. ‘Archo’ and active participation in NASA. waiting to awe a student in the third year who’s felt an awakening within. architects and tourists from all over the country and the world.round development is ensured for the students. It is a joy to discover the melting pot of global influences that the College is turning into. In each batch. While the design philosophy is etched in stone (concrete) and expressed in the built form. The winds of change are blowing softly in its corridors and studios. for whoever is ready to breathe it in. The undercurrent at CCA is of change. The College has gone through various paradigm shifts. Daniel Leibskind. Gerrard Melling. largely because of change in Principals. all from a batch of forty students. He wished to imbibe the spirit of true modernism which. It is wisdom that just hangs heavy in the air. Consequently.

Space and Verdure Sangeeta Bagga Mehta Below: Principal V2-Madhya Marg. Chandigarh occupies an area of 70 square kilometers. the Central State Library. including being the first Indian city to have a fully underground waterborne sewage disposal system. Space and Verdure. and an accelerated spending power of the people. restaurants offering exotic cuisine as well as a hawkers market offering toys. 50. Recognising the dual role of trees as elements of cityscape and microclimatic amelioration. With the demand for entertainment rising. Along it are laid out . the General Post Office. and the like. Town Hall. Designed for a population of 1. its present population has crossed the one million mark. keeping in view their potential for cutting off the harsh summer sun. ceded to Pakistan whereby. refugees. 50. It is the city’s commercial. Gallery of Portraits. suited to the local climate. Ideally nestled in the foothills of the Shiwaliks. chosen from among thirteen other existing towns was proposed to be the new capital and finalised through an aerial reconnaissance survey. specifying the shape of trees for each category of avenues. Presently phase three comprising sectors 48-57 is being developed. These plantations have lent an imageable character especially to the sector level market streets the V4s which display a riot of colour during the blossom time. Chandigarh symbolises India’s independence and faith in the future. The near vacuum of indigenous expertise to handle such a bold experiment in urban planning brought on the scene two visionaries.The heart of the city Envisioned as the most charming capital of the world. the ‘Periphery’. a harbinger of change. Extensive Landscape along city roads and roundabouts. Le Corbusier played a significant role in ordering the present urban form of the city. hotels . at the crossing of which lies the City Centre --Sector 17. Le Corbusier the French architect as the ‘spiritual director’ of the capital project and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. there was an emergent need for a new capital to administer redefined Punjab as well as regain the lost confidence of the displaced. District Courts and other office buildings.. trinkets. deployed local materials and methods to realize Chandigarh ‘the City Beautiful’. the historic capital.the Vs. The partition of 1947 saw Lahore.the Les Sept Voies. whose places of residence. 333m above sea level. whose eastern and western boundaries are marked by seasonal rivulets. As a socialist utopia too.V2s are the Madhya Marg (V2 station) and the Jan Marg (V2 Capitol). Utilising western skills a new conception was developed which originated from the exigencies of the project itself. girdles the town. Aptly hailed a city of convenience and comfort. work and recreation are easily accessible from all parts of the city.to provide the best of amenities to all classes of citizens. providing an address to branded international chain stores. Le Corbusier devised a comprehensive plantation scheme. adjacent to the City Centre is the verdant Leisure Valley. the lower ranges of the Himalayas. the single largest parkland of Chandigarh. the last word in beauty and simplicity. CCA The City of Sun. independent India’s first prime minister . The other important areas within the City Centre are the Bank Square. it had a mandate to fulfill-. Sector 17. cultural and civic hub . which was introduced to set limits to the builtmass of the city and as a measure against unsolicited sprawl. The two principal avenues. water balloons . The city has been developed in two phases sectors 1-30 in phase one and 31-47 in phase two.000 in the first phase and 3. Chandigarh. the City of Sun. Beginning in 1951. Chandigarh’s chequerboard plan is laid on a gently sloping site. three of the four cinemas in the City Centre are in the process of being converted into multiplexes and shopping malls.000 in the second phase. So the city had many first to its credit.the Sukhna Choe and the Patiali ki Rao. A protected green belt. The key elements of the master plan are the well ordered matrix of the generic ‘neighbourhood unit’—the Sector and the hierarchical street system of the ‘7Vs’.Chandigarh Senior Lecturer. Traversing north south along the length of the city.

Japan. Summer evenings and Winter afternoons witness the citizens enjoying nature’s bounty. “Shramdan” through city level participation helps prepare the Sukhna to receive the catchment from the Kansal and Nepli rivulets . holds it 27. which expanded their earlier definition beyond framed pictures to cover entire walls. for its various interlocking floors which are accessed through ramps. that every single detail such the lighting fixtures. painstakingly designing and monitoring the realization of its ingenious layout. interspersed with native bamboo plantations are the other interesting elements of this cubic ensemble in exposed burnt brick and reinforced concrete set against the free flowing landscape. the Chief Engineer of the Capital Project. Asia’s largest rose garden with more than 4. (approximately the length of the indigenous loom). Today. in vibrant colours.000 rose varieties. realized by building an earthen dam over the Sukhna Choe as early as 1958. The monumental High Court at the Capitol Complex administrative capital. the Legislative Assembly. symbolizing the celebration of democracy in a newly independent nation-state. depicting different motifs drawn from nature. Among the monuments. A counterpoint to this is Nek Chand’s world famous Rock Garden. The promenade also offers a silhouette view of the Capitol edifices in the setting Sun. presents a spectacular view of the rising sun to the morning walker and the sailboats and paddle boats are a colorful evening sight once again with the mountain blue backdrop! So important was the lake view to its designer . and the ‘Miracle Box’ (cyclorama). While vehicular circulation was arranged. The lake promenade 2341metres long.50m wide and 8. The Rock Garden Below: Boat Club at Sukhna Lake. Moonlit Gardens. the Open Hand adopted as the city’s mascot. its ‘monuments’ as well as pieces of furniture. The boat club was deliberately designed by Le Corbusier three metres below the lake promenade so that its view would not be obscured from the road. ferrying tourists between the city sights. sports and leisure activities as well as theme gardens such the Zakir Rose garden. Open Hand . designed to work as a wind vane. amidst numerous views of the azure blue Shiwaliks in the north.The city’s mascot. yet unattended by the public eye. Terraced Garden to name a few. and dug out where necessary below the esplanade. The Capitol Parc -la raison d’ etre of the enterprise representing the think tank of the economic opportunity to village households. since each unit was awarded to a family in contrast to benefit to a single industrial house.80m above the “Trench of Consideration” at its base. It is based on the theme of the never ending spiral utilizing the effect of natural sunlight for illumination from its roof lights. and the importance of balancing industrial development and sound environmental practices are the lessons it reveals. monumental tapestries and low-relief sculptures cast in concrete. the Government College of Art . it grew parallel with the constructions of Chandigarh. the Secretariat and the Museum of Knowledge (not realized)– and six ‘Monuments’. The fragility of the environment. Another element worth mentioning are the tapestries or ‘woolen walls’. The museum is part of a series by Le Corbusier at Ahmedabad and Tokyo. the Pavilion for temporary ‘Itinerant Exhibitions’. Ostensibly created for their ‘psycho-physiological’ properties to adorn as well as acoustically treat the courtrooms of the High Court. stands as the material symbol of the city’s ideology — …open to receive the created riches …open to distribute them to its people…” The 12. Proposed to be woven locally each of these nomadic murals was to provide open air theaters. its major ‘edifices’. white pebbled pools. Le Corbusier’s Capitol for Chandigarh comprises four ‘Edifices’ – the High Court. stone wall along the promenade was sensitively designed so that it would not detract the view of the lake. The City Museum initially designed for temporary exhibitions depicts the history and development of the city. these tapestries were designed as structured compositions of several rectangular units whose standard width was 140cm. lighting fixtures and works of art. A metal structure. the need for conservation of the earth’s natural resources. The Capitol Complex represents the plastic inventiveness and sculptural qualities of Le Corbusier’s works in ‘beton brut’—rough textured exposed concrete. Credited to PL Verma. Amritsar was assigned to deliver the consignment for the inauguration of the High Court in March. the lake was dedicated to the citizens. Sculpted gargoyles. the Nek Chand Foundation USA works in raising awareness of the Rock Garden and support for Nek Chand and his work which continues to boost tourism in the city. Comprising monumental buildings flanked by the ‘Rajendra Park’ and the ‘Sukhna Lake’ on each end. The lake continues to be the citizens pride and each summer prior to the Monsoon. the complex stretches across the entire width of the city. The Leisure valley also contains the “Cultural Complex” lying across the City Centre comprising The Museum and Art Gallery.Below: Leisure Valley-Nature in the city.The Sukhna wetland is also a home to the migratory Siberian seagulls and other fauna.86m Hand. The group represents Le Corbusier’s largest and most significant constructed architectural creation where the architect put in his heart and soul for over 13 years. . the Bougainvillea Garden . continues eastward to the Boat Club and the Sukhna Lake. An epitome of an individual’s perseverance to fashion art out of industrial waste and throwaway junk items. entrance gateway . is sculpted out of beaten iron sheets. The visit to the Rock garden on the double decker Hop on Hop off bus. a cast iron manhole cover inscribed with the map of the city and the Corbusian Modulor. all arranged within a profusely landscaped park-like environment. including the famed enamel door for the Legislative Assembly. occupies the geographical head. But later the idea was discarded and the East India Carpet Company. 1955.

Vertical green belts with the pedestrian V7s. V4 Shopping Street in a sector Below: Enamel Door for the stately Assembly. sports facilities provided similar links in the opposite direction and views of the hills in the north. ever evolving in the process of change. it is second to none and continues to grow. Chandigarh derives its urban form from the low-rise cubic forms in exposed brick. The sector surrounded by fast traffic V3 was conceived as a self sufficient introvert unit. brick and terracotta sunscreens. courtyards. painted surfaces using locally available building materials. schools. The head and heart were symbolised by the Capitol Complex and The City Centre respectively. PGIMER (Post Graduate Institute of Medical Research). As a modern socialist utopia which has fulfilled the aspirations of its citizens. The City has turned fifty five plus years now and continues to be a most favoured destination in the country for tourists and settlers alike. an icon of the Modern Movement in India and abroad. the Leisure Valley was its lung space. Last but not the least the epicentre of this great experiment in city planning has been the ‘think big’ attitude of its visionaries which is why the greatest experiment in urban planning of the twentieth century’s greatest architect has been realised on its verdant plain. verandahs. This design vocabulary generated from the exigencies of the prevailing extreme climate and the constraint of a shoe string budget. .Below (Clockwise): Information Technology Park. plastered. The City has also been acclaimed internationally. First year. while the rest of the matrix was to be filled in through the residential sectors. was enriched by elements such as sun breakers. Film City. by Sumit. and utilities. Botanical Garden. Embedded in its history. The Assembly Building. along which are located the daily shops. linked to the adjoining sectors through its V4 shopping street. facades and materials for the constructions. a second lake in its periphery and a mass rapid transport system along the V2 Jan Marg to regulate peak hour traffic. Another lesser known facet of the Chandigarh experiment. Often called the horizontal city. Chandigarh continues to grow with new developments such as the Information Technology Park. CCA Envisaged as an organism the other accents of the city were the Industrial Area in the east (close to the railway line) and the Panjab University. Tapestry – Woolen Wall. yet a prime determinant of the Chandigarh Style of Architecture are the city’s Aesthetic Legislations prescribing volumes. Its inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List of Modern Heritage is underway and it is likely to be realized by June 2008. Punjab Engineering College and other institutions in the west.

interviews .

he and I worked together in 1970s so I know these people through my contact and that’s much different from Zaha Hadid coming into . Malaysia. politicians who make money and architects who are prostitutes. the headquarters in New York. It’s almost an insult to Corbusier to say that his city would become a heritage site. I would say it was 99 % daunting. Then yes. which is a very large project. you have to do this. When you’re doing a project like a Capitol Complex. We even put things in the press. we don’t have enough sewage treatment and now we’re going to cover it with towers. overnight. though in my master plan I had a precinct for the site to become the future Capitol Complex. business and luxury hotels. I think there are plans for the tallest building in the world. For example. just to show-off. I was actually wrapping up my office after I had done the structural plan and I was going to say goodbye to the Director General of the PWD and he said – “You can’t leave.e. A Fulbright Fellowship brought him to Ahmedabad. particularly with the manpower planning with civil service commission about what were the future projections of the people who would use it. You look at Bombay. I think it’s not just the architects. Christopher Charles Benninger On his journey into the Indian architectural scene. He said— “No. particularly in the richer families because a lot of people have made quick money. I think. residential schools. I mean we had small generators around the whole town and I worked with them on some projects at that time. IA: How challenging and daunting did you initially find the task when the Government of Bhutan came to you with the project of the National Ceremonial Piazza in Thimphu? Did you do a background workshop on the architecture? Did you conduct workshops with the Bhutanese worksmen? CCB: On a daunting scale of 0 – 100. Suddenly you find people writing books. there are so many new buildings coming up. we had him on screen at noon. when actually. But we interacted with a huge number of people and I must say that there were three other architects who had done plans for the Capitol Complex and they were all rejected for various architectural reasons and mainly His Majesty and I saw these plans and I agree that they were like monk’s quarters. So. IA: Our politicians often declare their aspirations to convert our metropolitan cities into the Shanghais. in Bombay.A dialogue with Ar. even when le Corbusier was doing this project. You might make his buildings or the Capitol Complex a heritage site. it’s sort of the Mahatma Gandhis of the 21st Century. IndianARCH: In your lecture. So it’s not like I’m not fluent in Bhutanese architecture. Indonesia. where he was later a Professor of Architecture. Thimpu. Dubais and Singapores of the world. Are you of the opinion that campaigning for Chandigarh to become a world heritage site is a folly? CCB: I don’t think Chandigarh should be a heritage site at all. corporate headquarters and large scale housing projects. but not the city. some of the houses that people are building for themselves. there was a huge amount of backbiting and harassment in the progress. for example the prime minister. we don’t have enough water. no telephones. But I just think the architects are really into the packaging and the imagery and into the glitter of the facade. India (1976) involving him in rural development and poverty alleviation work. not because they are particularly brilliant Michelangelos and they are unusual in their energy and ideas. I think there’s a general ego maniac. Do you attribute this to increased competitiveness to provide a more attractive idea or to the ambitious needs of clients? Christopher Charles Benninger: this has a lot to do with the clients also. become billionaires and this architecture in a way. are a rather bad architecture. i. IA: You addressed the idea of placing Corbusier and his ideals on a pedestal being a mistake. We actually spent months meeting people and having conversations. expresses their desires as much as the architects’. who would do whatever people pay them to do. probably in Bombay. which are twenty storeys tall. my contract is over and my guys want to go back to India. They don’t understand they have money because they have quick business ideas.” So that was a big shock to me. I think you’re right. so I’ve been involved with the context for let’s say at least three decades. so that wasn’t really terribly successful. but companies and individuals as well. we don’t have enough roads to take the automobiles. India in 1968. A city is a machine for living—that’s Le Corbusier. It’s bound to do tall buildings. Unfortunately that was a mistake. As it is. Bhutan Born in America in 1942. Do you think that Indian cities may soon tread the path of other Asian economies ignoring urban infrastructure and celebrating iconic architecture? CCB: I’m afraid so. there is a nexus between megalomaniacs. which is going to generate more and more density and traffic. I didn’t even know there was a structural project. Bombay should be dispersed. and he returned as a Ford Foundation Advisor to found the School of Urban Planning there in 1971. don’t you know that the cabinet passed a resolution that you have to design our new secretariat. He has prepared plans for the Governments of Bhutan. no electricity. I actually went up to Bhutan in my mid-thirties and that was some thirty years ago by a jeep on gravel roads because there were no airlines. which is going to change the face of the city. Sri Lanka and India. Le Corbusier and Bhutan (Ar. I think there’s a huge egoism in business people who. we had some public consultations. He founded the Centre for Development Studies in Pune. Benninger lectured in CCA on Le Corbusier Day) Facing & Below: Tshechu Ground. Christopher Charles Benninger has lived and worked in India for the past thirty-three years. They’re supposed to keep on living and keep on changing.” I said I don’t know anything about this. you have to sign a contract because. And then we started working on it. It’s a place that I. Nepal. He has designed institutions. and machines don’t become heritage sites. He studied City Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Architecture at Harvard University. you spoke about the megalomaniac trend of iconic buildings. I think politicians make a lot of money clearing these buildings. there are thirty tall buildings now.

Then. within a year. healthcare. food policy and all kinds of things like that in the 70s and 80s. So I’ve been involved with them on a range of issues related to nutrition. So I went up and made a proposal and then I was fortunate enough to get that plan. where the streams came in. But then. you’d go up.’s in transportation planning. agriculture. Now. So I’ve actually worked contractually with them. You know. the Capitol complex being a new town. We got involved but nothing happened and I went back and taught at Harvard for 3 years. And a month after I started the school. Here you could do things which you can never do there. we started building an expressway on that. Bhutan the tender and putting up buildings in the middle of the city. Then I got a letter saying the school is going to start. You can do transportation planning. it’s so small I’d really call it almost a village plan. You see. particularly buses. it sounds like fun. like in Thimphu. Previously. I was asked to teach urban planning. they say – Why don’t you come and make a presentation? We have three contenders to do the structural plan of the city. you can pretty well imagine that the city’s going to work and need some sort of an urban core. All these kind of things really changed the way people moved in the city. So we put a kind of a 6 lane expressway right down the middle of the valley and it made every thing so easy for people. to get into this area. From someone I got to know about a very dynamic politician who wanted to do housing for the poor. I had planes fly over the city and take photographs so that we could do a ground coverage check of the existing land use in buildings. we needed growing houses and we needed narrow blocks because we wanted the networks to be cheaper and the plots were narrow. some small irrigation canals and tanks to get inputs into agriculture inside. first I came on a Fullbright Scholarship and while I was just a student.D. then back down. IA: Are you involved in transportation planning also? CCB: You have to be. in America the option of founding an institute at such a young age (I was 28 then) was not possible so it was frontier. IA: You came initially to Ahmedabad to teach. this politician that I had met 4 years earlier. so why not save land? A kind of a 200 foot wide sort of a thing goes through the middle of city and preserves the land now.Facing Page: Tshechu Ground site photographs. small buses into the city. but what made you stay back? CCB: Why did I stay back? To me India always was a frontier. if you look at the aerial view. became the minister of Housing and he called and . So it’s not at all that I came into a strange place and started working. See. It’s only about 120 acres or something. And if you look at the streams and the topography. if you’re designing a city. And they liked it a lot. Only. So I said – Why not. they just went off the edge. what are the land uses for of them. a corridor that runs through the city on which you can have mass transepts. they liked the way I did the plan because it was very efficient. you had to come along the tops of mountains because streams came down those routes. We introduced that. May be get some data like what are the densities. And then they asked me to do this. while I was a 24 year old student. A lot of things have nothing to do with buildings. There are people who do Ph. then back around the edge and then back where the next stream came and it took forever to get into this city. but in Bhutan that’s big because settlements are very small. you don’t have to do all this computer modeling. like which one of these long roads can be turned into an urban porter? Do we want subsidiary porters or do we just want one? There could be 4 groups working and they can come with 4 different answers to this whole thing. Just like you know we should really have a workshop and just take plans of Chandigarh. I’m also a planner so I worked on micro-level plans or clusters of settlements and how you do micro water shed planning. and then there were a lot of accidents on these roads because people couldn’t see around the corners or at night. And they didn’t have any buses. Thimpu. I’ve done actually three town plans for existing towns in Bhutan. out of the blue. So I went in and did some sketches. I had instantly made a new proposal to start a school of urban planning. So I came back and started that school.

I was just 28 and I was given a commission to do low cost township for people. I’ve used all local craftsmen. local motifs. I came here to do this Le Corbusier Day Panel discussion and this morning somebody asked –why don’t you design an international school in Chandigarh. So. I also found another institution in Pune called centre for development studies which does development research. like you see the Bhutan work. walls and spaces and start developing some sort of a regional architecture. So. Everybody can say its traditional Bhutanese architecture. you can find some very contextual ways of handling ventilation. they know how to make these columns. I’ve never had to look for a project. its not an amphitheatre but it’s a dance and singing plaza where twenty thousand people can participate interface with His Majesty and the Dalai Lama and all these people. everybody is sleeping out of work and they’re grumbling about the society and I say. in return. So. people keep on coming and asking us to do very interesting work. it’s a very modern and new space but built out of a local set of Bhutanese architecture. You see they’ve never. But they’ve never made a big space like that. Haryana and UP. It should not be ethnic architecture. it’s just terribly exciting. made a space which is. And it’s a very contextual building. but I think I’ve learned that architecture. students should be looking for a sort of contextual language in architecture. Interviewing Team: Jaskaran Chauhan.why don’t you get off your asses and change things yourself? Why are you waiting for somebody to give you a job? Why don’t you plan for something in America since you don’t have any work? Why don’t you use the time and do something interesting? IA: What have you learnt from architecture in India? CCB: I think one of the things I’ve learnt is that architecture has to be very contextual. say. given its not a stadium. So. Apoorv Kaushik . right out of history. CCA said – I would like you to do 2000 houses in Jamnagar as well. I’m not saying a style or imagery like these digitals. And it just kept on growing on like that till now. I actually built 600 houses. I haven’t even bothered to try to design new columns. Saurabh Vashist. up here. I’ve said –okay. So. somebody’s asking me to do something interesting. but there’s never been a space like that in the whole Himalayas for the last thousands of years. which can be very contemporary. Every time I turn around. I came to give a lecture and then it turned into a project.Below: Tshechu Ground in the evening Facing: St. but like. So. I think that’s really fun. Whenever I go back to America. Fourth Year. not 2000. probably in Punjab. so its fun. it’s like a roller coaster. like watershed-planning and work in slums and villages and what not. I came here and gave a lecture 4 years ago and the Government of Haryana asked me to design this Cultural Centre in Delhi. In fact I think in each region in India. Peters Dome by Dhruv Bahl. entrances. but again. windows. I’ll just put it together like a logo.

somewhere between Engineering and Fine Arts. the world of violence and poetry. Gordon Matta Clark. I am sure that all my projects show that my reference points certainly do not come from architecture. Church of San Paolo. From 1998 to 2000 he was Director of the VII Biennial of Architecture in Venice “Less Aesthetics. such as the École Speciale d’Architecture in Paris. otherwise the student was not admitted to the third year. Frankfurt in and Shenzhen. Forgetting itself every moment and finding itself is being able to evolve! . There were 39 exams. architecture and education with Massimiliano Fuksas while on his short trip to India Below: Hagia Sophia. AK: What are your views on spirituality and its relation with architecture MF: Architecture is strictly correlated to spirituality because it is concerned with feeling and giving emotions. We have always been very close. Fluxus. Great architectural masterpieces have to do with spirituality in the larger sense of the term. We see again for example architecture evolving in sculpture and vice versa. model or virtual images for example. known mainly for his studies on anamorphosis and the fantasy world of the Middle Ages.Rendezvous with Massimiliano Fuksas An interaction on art. To keep my mother happy. My interests as well as my training have always been closer to art. In other words. He was my primary school teacher and I often used to go to his house in the afternoon when school had finished. followed by studios in Paris. He was Lithuanian as well and. About digital architecture I don’t have a definitive opinion. I finished them all. spirituality has to do with the light. and along with environment can be the future ‘fuel’ of the history. MF: If I should give a tip to young people naturally they must use all the means possible without exception. I really liked seeing him as he reminded me of my roots and I could speak to him using the few words of Lithuanian that I still remember. ArtePovera and Land Art. the Staadtliche Akademia des Bildenden Kunste in Stoccarda. I have always refused to revere any master. AK: You have often emphasized on the importance of youth in architecture…comment. Beuys. We always look ahead as architects. as it was centuries ago with great architects as Bernini. I was simply trying to understand. the world of Krzysztof Wodiczko and Pierpaolo Pasolini. In my job I hope to produce more ideas for more people as possible. AK: How do you think architecture is related to the society? MF: There isn’t architecture without care for Ethics and for intense engagement in society. The only subject I was really interested in was the History of Architecture. I wasn’t so in love with architecture anymore. so I spent 6 months in Denmark. there is only the University. Despite all this I knew nothing which shows that one can do anything without knowing anything. In my opinion the architecture I admire most are Santa Sofia in Costantinopoli and The Sidney Opera House by Jorn Utzon. the Akademie der Bildenden Kunste in Vienna. A law dating back to the fascist period established the creation of a faculty of architecture. I was mad about poetry and his world. We built landscapes. an Architecture High School does not exist. There are hundreds of useless exams. Contemporary art. Fontana. Anyway. was my life. Another person I owe a lot to is Giorgio Castelfranco who I have known since I was a child. and fractals is (in a way) learning from nature) MF: The theory of quanta and fractals clarify better than anything else the strict relationship between the nature and the mathematics /geometrical models. Istanbul. but I began to do some work on the subject. For example in one of my last project the church of San Paolo in Foligno. when I lived in Paris. my real love. as I referred to it more than once but this doesn’t mean we are not looking ahead. When I came back. On the whole. we used to meet frequently. Architecture. Since 2000 is the author of the architectural column founded by Bruno Zevi in the weekly magazine “L’Espresso”. and the Columbia University in New York. I read books. I met many artists through Castelfranco including Giorgio de Chirico who I worked with for a while. Because I believe architecture is a democratic art and it should find again her popular dimension and involve more people in the life of buildings and cities. The first is Jurgis Baltrusatis. the creation can improve general conditions. Virtual reality affects realization of my projects and it allows to have more control on the project and to imagine it better before it is finished and takes a definitive shape. Light has always been a synonym for spirituality and it has always been like this as we see in the art of the past. The real ability is to find the key of the problem without fall in love of own work. At the time I did not feel alive if I didn’t paint every day. the sublime chaos. AK: What are you views on digital architecture? MF: The virtual technology is very useful. 19 of these had to be passed in the first two years. in his studio in Piazza di Spagna. which were clearly those of a ten-year-old child. I didn’t think they were that bad. at the same time. there’s a big chaos. copied plans and cross sections. The sum of the two disciplines resulted in a course that was ferociously difficult. Foligno Massimiliano Fuksas was born in Rome in 1944. The other person I would like to remember is Giorgio Caproni. Vienna. I visited Jorn Utzon’s studio where I went back to work the following summer and. It depends on the project. where he graduated in Architecture at “La Sapienza” University in 1969. I love Burri. AK: Where do you think is architecture headed now? What does the future look like to you? MF: Now that we assisted in the fall of the dreams of modern architecture which firmly believed that architecture could change the society. His works have been translated all over the world. an art historian. He played the violin and adored electric trains that we often assembled together. that is of own painting. He was Visiting Professor at several universities. I began to look very carefully at contemporary buildings. and Poetry: is there a greater art? MF: All the arts have equal dignity and I firmly believe that architecture is a contaminated art with cinema or sculpture. while I read him my poems. I am interested in becoming part of a process that is different from the architecture in which we live every day. China. before the scheduled time too. Apoorv Kaushik: What is the importance of good teachers in architecture? Can architecture be learnt only through education? Massimiliano Fuksas: Referring to my personal experience in Italy. AK: Art. on the other hand. one of the most important Italian contemporary poets and one of the greatest translators of Celine. I took all the exams which was crazy. but there have been some people in my life that I am thankful to and to whom I could dedicate many of my projects. More Ethics”. In 1967 he created his own studio in Rome. AK: What do you think of Fractals? (You once said you are against nature.

and lectures at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura. each louver is in a different direction and is of a different size. the Firm has. The answer is because it turns out to be the most efficient tool to make shapes! (Discussing Santa Isabel Health Care Centre. you can create these with algorithms. creating a full-on machine for converting energy. Zaragosa. each grape is like a module. Fractal is like a chain of modules. it’s a new way of thinking and also a new look at nature. Bionic questions why nature is using a module. we can say its a fractal. the sun changes its position. Prof. Pioz in New Delhi of CERVERA & PIOZ . However. we found the water lily leaf. This is mathematics. in 1960. then imagine the situation in 2050! As you can see during the last few years there is a reason behind these new emerging ways like green architecture and sustainable architecture.5 billion people right now and growing very fast (it is very serious). Thinking architecturally. our main question was. Spain we can create a much more comfortable space inside polygonaly. because everything in nature is sustainable. When we had started working on bionics in 1994 in Colombia University. and a Master of Science in Building Design from Columbia University. Madrid) IndianARCH: The field of bionic architecture has turned out to be a fast emerging branch. to pass from 6. the structures. Spain) To build a hospital is very expensive. Now there’s a difference between Bionics and Bioneumatics. but you need a research first. it is the logic of a fractal. The problem here was to create a hospital which is cheaper to maintain annually. In nature this kind of structure (image) is very well known with its capacity to move the air smoothly inside. He has been Professor of Architecture at the Polytechnic University in Madrid since 1987.Over a Cup of Coffee with Prof. Hangzhou. nature does not know anything about fractals. If you can analyse how the sun moves in on this particular space then you can create the fractal. Upon researching. It is the most deceived law. Nature is a best book. It moves along the way in which each one is placed. and in nature this is the way shapes are formed: many modules working together. China) The challenge was to create a museum completely self sustainable which required no energy from outside. which means to spend at least 8 times more energy. The bills of the hospital for the air-conditioning and heating were very high so we decided to make a structure in which air can move fluently. In winters the sunlight goes inside. But maybe we can reduce about 70% of the load and at the same time In this hospital. rather creating its own energy. If columns and beams would be sustainable.5 billion people to 12billion people would require to build at least 4 times more. She has been Professor of Architectural Composition at the School of Architecture of Alcalá University since 2001. In the summers it cannot. How to complete a square with a curve? Which seems impossible! Many mathematicians have tried to make an algorithm with repetition able to re formulate the structure. You not only use fractals to know how nature performs. From the very beginning. learning from nature. and lately you’ve seen that flourish. this is smaller. copying the module. (Water lily leaf has an enormous capacity to catch sunlight and to convert it into energy) We used this capacity to catch sunlight and to convert it into energy. so how would you like to describe this upcoming branch? Javier Pioz: We are living in a world of 6. IA: How exactly do you think that fractals contribute to sustainability? JP: Well yes! What is a fractal? This is a real fractal (image). This is what bionic means. This is larger. Mathematics is very closely related to fractals as it is the repetitive nature which derives these algorithms and makes its place in development of form with the use of fractals. I’m practising such knowledge accordingly. Sustainable or green mainly means saving energy. Zaragosa. not by calculations but by logic. Bionic was born before the green concept. the purpose of keeping the sunlight inside in winters and outside in summers. the shapes in nature are sustainable. Javier G. (Discussing Xi-Xi Wetland Museum. CERVERA & PIOZ was founded by Javier Pioz and Rosa Cervera in 1979. Fractal is a law. Pioz holds a PhD in Architecture from the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid. 4 times more highways.‘why every given building is built with columns and beams? And why nature never builds with columns and beams?’. If we are thinking that we need more efficiency or more sustainable architecture. Bioneumatics is getting inspired from nature and copying it. since then. Nature is logic. Santa Isabel Health Care Centre. Understanding that fractal is a human expression not a natural expression. But it it is in nature. the law for this purpose. but bionic was like a multidisciplinary. scientific procession to change different aspects of natural science. We believed that 100% sustainable is not possible. and so is its yearly maintenance. this inspired us to create a structure for the hospital. . So. The term ‘Fractal’ was coined by Benoît Mandelbrot dating back to the 19th century. Fractal is like the most copious tool to understand nature. and are still working while success comes closer. Javier Pioz An interaction with Prof. but you also use fractals for other purposes. yet there is a need to educate people regarding the opportunities and possibilities in this field. then nature would also use it. Madrid. (Discussing Numancia Hospital. Most mathematic and geometricians at that time were concerned about how to put a curve in a square. 4 times more single housing. But in fact we can say that nature builds its forms using fractals. discussing projects and varied interests from ‘Bionics’ to fractals and the new era dawning on architecture Prof. Bionic is a philosophy. 4 times more skyscrapers. She was elected Dean of the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura of Alcalá University in 2004. devoted itself to the creation of unique and emblematic buildings Below: Numancia Hospital. Now. in the next 50 years the world should be prepared to spend and use 8 times more energy than today’s consumption and if we are scared for the energy today. Taking the example of grapes in nature. Bionic architecture is learning from the way in which natural homes are built in order to get the knowledge to build a human home. María Rosa Cervera holds a PhD in Architecture from the Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid and holds a degree by the Royal Conservatory of Music in Madrid. New York. (refer drawing) Depending upon summers or winters.

what advice would you give to students who want to pursue Bionics in architecture? JP: My advice is ‘open mind’.Facing Page: Xi-Xi Wetland Hotel Villa & Museum. but we can change. People feel that a sky scraper will destroy nature. but a lot of people take care of nature. facing the sea with a garden and lawn. Why the tree this shape? Why the scio? Why the sound. It is a challenge but it is also easy because in India (and also in China) what happened is. WHY? Interviewing Team: Apoorv Kaushik. when I talk about Bionics. maybe some years later we will have the proper industry. The same happened in China about 10 yrs ago. Yes. By contrast. But there are 15 million people living there. 9000 skyscrapers! Now Shanghai is a very rich city. JP: For me it is a challenge you know. the Vertical City Bionic Tower can accommodate 100. when you finish your studies. We have the future open because nobody takes care of Bionics here. The challenge for young starters is to keep an open mind. we have a lot of people living in the planet and we are bound to fall short of space. Bionic Tower. Intercontinental Twin Towers. With time industry will progress and become open to all kinds of technologies. And its advantage is evident. Do you think that now it’s time to move into a new era of architecture? JP: It is compulsory. you are quite open minded but eventually.000 inhabitants using an area only 1km in diameter. India Below: Bionic Tower IA: You have a couple of projects going on in India. maybe you can build another 1000 skyscrapers. It is quite easy to explain to Indian people how to use Bionics. it is preserving it. under conventional models of ‘horizontal’ and ‘low-density’ town planning. instead of skyscrapers. Keep an open mind. the centre of Shanghai. allowing the unoccupied land to be returned to nature. 2-3 yrs into work. it is a challenge because when you don’t know something. you’ll realise it is not destroying it. But 12 billion people cannot do that! IA: But a lot of people feel sky-scrapers destroy nature… JP: Now the question is ‘which option do you believe destroys nature more?’ I believe the other (conventional planning) option is a lot more harmful to nature. you feel scared about it sometimes. it is developing very fast. Bionics is a like a net where you can put in the ideas of respective nature. people pop their eyes out and are like “WHAT?”!! I believe in India very few people take care of bionics. however.. So we still have a way to go. Now. Rounding up. (Drawing) There are 9000 skyscrapers in Shanghai. And it’s very important when you create any architecture you need an industry. What it needs is a city in vertical. always. is an appropriate example of the present day requirements. IA: It took a long time for Bionics to come to the forefront. Secondly be curious. Hangzhou.. Unfortunately we have to change a bit in accordance to the technology in India.000 inhabitants will occupy a space nearly 4km in diameter. on the professional scene you start closing your mind. (See image) Most people say that one cannot live in this kind of a space. It is much better to be in a single house. China. with the consequent impact on the environment. maybe they’re right. your mind is completely shut. Tawish Tayal . 100. Do you find it challenging (interesting) to work in India? Keeping in mind the ideologies you have of bionics. much better option. 100km wide. but at the moment we are introducing the ideas. Kolkata. Do question. and are moving towards 25 million. But once you know what Bionic tower means. IA: I agree with you.

individual configuration. At that time in Italy and Europe. So. in terms of what they call the Public Sphere. which are indeed probably more sensitive designers because they are interested to deviate and variate the language in relation with any specific place. you are totally in solitude. what kind of environment. To be honest. To be more precise. Boeri was in CCA on Le Corbusier Day) STEFANO BOERI was born in 1956. urbanism and art projects. to be open. So. to be generous. nearby the temples. immediately. Cambridge. You cannot go & say – “Well I’m going to propose six versions”. heritage is also a constraint. 80% of my time went into politics. you are always teaming as a collective sphere. AK: We have these two spheres in other professions also. They are schizophrenic because there is a conflict between generosity and solitude. be closed because we have to decipher what is happening around us. you have to do some unpredictable synopsis at the time you are designing something and then. but it’s important to understand and to learn there is a very specific approach to use inclusion and exclusion together. We should be careful because I do strongly believe in designing not only to the human requirement but also considering the capacity of the place. SB: I think there are some crucial steps we need to take together. So I decided to lecture. doing something different and. So it’s really more a sort of a process of changes. we should say that there are no laws. whom I consider extremely sensitive to the context. we need to be open. And I really started to understand architecture when I started to do some small jobs myself. So we should be careful and not destroy it. while you’re observing something. So. So. Sometimes there’s excess of cultural restraints which have not allowed the architecture to be more creative. the situation is quite different. only a few times the government has supported architecture. I totally think that the history of heritage is a testimony for the entire humanity. in any place. The profession is something that you do not necessarily learn here. An exception was the Venice biennale architecture. And for this reason. what happens in Milan triennale. imagine that that space could become another thing because you see another possibility in that space. more and more public places. It’s something that really is amazing. And for me he has nothing to do contextually. in Italy. which for instance. So. So that’s architecture and that’s so extraordinary. from one side you have to include. square. politics was very important. select. Public sphere is simply part of intense life where the social behaviors are not predictable and not planned. not only in India. He is a Milan-based architect and founder of the research agency Multiplicity participating regularly in architecture. some values that are absolutely exceptional. random changes. Apoorv Kaushik: As a student. Like in Indian cities. the other part of our profession is that you have to be exclusive. as it happens. The one law we have is about public construction and that’s all. And this is something that you learn only when you start working. and questions like: what could be located here and how. So. He teaches urban design at the Milan Polytechnic and is a visiting professor at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. ideas and opinions. While you can do like this in initial design steps. If we refer to Mario Botta. and from the other side you have to exclude. And so. suggestions. select until the end. The point is that at a certain point. and on the other side. Except this. but also in China and Europe. how do you relate to that? Do you conserve… SB: Well. How do u think can this ideology be accommodated in the planning of Indian cities. it’s very important. to develop new idea. But I finally understood that it was stupid. what I think is exceptional in our profession is that we always have to deal with two spheres. So. you could. Besides. To what extent have projects been supported in your country. There are architects who maybe are considered enemies of conservation and of concepts. like Nicholas. in Italy? SB: Well. They have to be a little crazy. The architects. His professional studio. AK: There has been an enormous support in some European countries for architecture. and at the same time. Since September 2007. Second part is that we have to create new. Italy and India (Ar. a building or a loft. Then. in my personal view. Nicholas is. all work can be done interestingly. it is a very interesting way to deal with the context. the same kind of style which is totally self-referential in every place. require the developers and the real estate companies to compete when we have to decide something regarding architecture. who’s still working as an architect. when we don’t have to publicize or show we’re following the evolution of contemporary architecture in Italy. in Venice. The idea is that you don’t need to establish a logical convention between these two spheres or to be precise. Tony Blair and Gordon Brown have championed the Olympic park design and Nicholas Sarkozy & Jacques Chirac have supported a lot of projects. it doesn’t matter if you start with designing an apartment or a small house or a public space. Boeri Studio is involved in several architectural projects and urban transformations. The first thing you have to do is to think clearly of the possibilities of the future of that space. It’s something which obliged or supposed to have a special relation with the history. while handling your projects. you understand that your profession has some resources. unique. are those who are more or less repeating the same kind of language. because to do the new. to select. And that’s why. did you have any initiation towards architecture or did you develop it later? How did you start building your style as a student? Stefano Boeri: Well I have a mother. sometimes you have to tackle the past. when you start to design something. and the European piazzas. AK: Italy has a lot of rich heritage and history across its cities. I think. in the beginning of the 80’s. In UK. more than studying. I remember very well that I did my best to screw architecture. AK: You have often mentioned the importance of urban spaces in city planning. between openness and exclusion and this conflict is pretty strong. Similarly in Spain too. This is because at the end of your work you have to define one. AK: Do you think that the architects of Europe and America are not sensitive in the context of the sites they chose and in projects they take up in Asia and the rest of the developing world? SB: No. as it is something that is a part of us and let oneself generate through the facts in our life and our profession. On one side you are a part of a larger group of people. this way. How do we combine them? SB: These two spheres are not practiced as strongly in other professions as we practice in architecture. without a too rigid structure or connection. Stefano Boeri is the editor in chief of the international magazine Abitare and from 2004 to 2007 he was editor in chief of Domus magazine. I think the best architects are schizophrenic. The first step is to stop the expansion of the city. in the end you have to propose one. The college is useful. . Someone may ask you to produce a design for a garden on a particular place.one is. From a certain perspective it is also a chain. it gives you a lot of good material. But my opinion is that in any case you should try to keep these two dimensions separate as much as you can. Mario Botta is someone who is capable of repeating his personal obsession everywhere. in the college. sometimes.a chair. studied architecture in Milan and in 1989 received his PhD from the IUAV. single.Walking down the street with Stefano Boeri On architecture studies. They should be capable of accepting this conflict. can be answered. first we need to understand the different ways of the evolution or the development of the city which are not necessarily related to extra physical growth and physical expansion of the city. which kind of material can be used. where space is a scarcity. we have to gather material. I think that these two spheres have to work together from the beginning. I think there are architects who have been considerate towards the kind of project proposed in relevance to a given site in contrary to some other architects.

it’s very important to understand what to do because. international combination is simply a repetition of two or three mediocre ideas. not simply lemmatizing the new into the past. So you have a heritage here. the modern architecture. or a design of some powerful. So. Some times you know that to have a dialogue with the past. because it is a global combination of something that is born in Europe. came here. the glass ones coming up in cities around Delhi…. but to transform.Below: Ex Arsenal at Maddalena Conversion. not as a continuation. In any place you have to understand which kind of relation you have to establish with what is present and what is past. Not destroying the past. modernity in Egypt. but at the same time you have to take distance from it. is very important. like. Modernity in India. There are no set rules. It is to become capable of adding the new as a contribution to the old. So. in every village. here. as I told you before. So architecture is an amazing tool to establish company nations. in Chandigarh. ultimately. AK: Would you like to say something to the students of architecture here? SB: I think that to run a school or to be a student in such a school in such a city is really complicated and difficult. modernity in Iran. This dialogue could be interpreted in many ways. then on your way you have seen the so-called post. AK: If we get specific to a country like India. in every small city.modern buildings. in this context.modern. it is important to establish a certain connection. The history of architecture in the fifties of last century with the architect like Rogers and Moretti. together with something that was born in Japan. But this kind of global post. . sometimes the new is the best way to balance the past. the best way to respect the past is not to avoid the new. And sometimes the best way to take distance is not to cancel the principle. you have a historical church. I think that is really a sign of mediocre globalization which is killing. it is better if you are completely different from the past. or a square. exceptional past. were capable to add new architecture in historical context. the myth. That is a why it is a complex language. SB: That’s horrible. accepting that there is a challenge of a new presence with just a dialogue. That’s the reason I’m so fascinated by seeing your heritage. So it depends upon a specific context. And at the same time you are surrounded by the day-by-day erosion. Stefano Boeri Facing: by Sanyam Bagha. CCA AK: You just said that you need to relate to the past… SB: When we have a heritage which is everywhere. then went on to the United States and. Third Year. Because you are surrounded by the history of architecture. At other times.

works .

he is also a trained pilot. The building will have an international standard commercial centre. character and nature of India. it cannot be enforced at any other site.000 people. as in the centers of big cities. The Poznan Tower will be 240m tall. The cultural centre and the museum are one of the main parts of the building which will draw visitors to the building who are not occupants. where land is scarce. India Forum Tower is a true reflection of our nation’s identity with a planning concept of designing a facade and creating spaces to which we. Spain. Spain in collaboration with Ar. high-end luxury residential apartments.600m2 of built-up area. skyscrapers are an increasingly common sight. hi-tech offices. schools etc. as individuals can relate to. Group of investors from North Spain are planning to have a landmark skyscraper in each of the continents. hotels.400m high with 155. and its design. The project is designed by Studio AMA. An emblematic building . India Forum Tower is not a conventional skyscraper. not to be missed by any international or national visitor and also the place where all international commercial ventures. India is my unique place to be in. Like temples and palaces of the past. and a long list of awards. The state-of-the-art technology used in its conception and in its construction shall also show the advanced political and economical mentality of Indians. Rajendra Kumar of India. It will be a new landmark.Arch from Politecnico Di Milano. It is scheduled for completion in June 2012. India Studio AMA: Ar. India Forum Tower will stimulate a revolution not only in the field of architecture and real estate but also act as a ladder for India in its development. He has worked in Spain. would want to have a place. did his M. Ar. New York. cultural centers. According to the architects. they help to define the city’s identity. it is my unique building and building says. This building is designed to become a national symbol. Since. In this series Europe’s skyscraper is Poznan Forum Tower in Poland which has been designed by Spanish architect Jesus Marco Llombart from Studio AMA in Zaragossa. Skyscrapers are rapidly transforming cityscapes as developers with lofty ambitions put up a growing number of high-rises to give shape the nation’s identity. The biggest challenge for the architects was to inculcate India in their design and portray its perception internationally. in Architecture & Urban Design from Columbia University. Italy on Italian Government fellowship. His profile includes a large number of hotels. In other words. Ar.” Architects believe that we look at buildings and buildings look at us. shape and form shall express the spirit. this building is going to mark another milestone for development in India. But they are built not just for economy of space. He is practicing from Zaragosa. . Jesus Marco llombart graduated from Slocum Hall School of Architecture. Many skyscrapers were catalysts for giving nations a world identity and witnessed rapid growth of real estate prices and other commercial aspects. skyscrapers are considered symbols of a city’s economic power. It is designed specifically for India. Not only do they define the skyline. Today.India Forum Tower INDIA’S NEW PEAK Studio AMA. 285m including the spire and will have 55 stories. The India Forum Tower project is next in the same series. Spain and is currently handing various scale projects in Europe and Africa. and a private club to accommodate more than 20.S. Apart form architectural qualifications. “User says. China and Italy and is doing projects of various scales in India. because they provide such a high ratio of rentable floor space per unit area of land. It will be one of the first of its kind of experiment in India. New York.S. Rajendra Kumar. Rajendra Kumar is gradutade from Chandigarh College of Architecture and did M. In today’s context skyscrapers are considered to give one of the fastest investment returns in real estate sectors. The sky deck will be the main attraction for the people. it will try to create a new icon for modern India.

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This will significantly improve the effectiveness of the existing public transport. This will also reduce the need to spend large sums on building large sewage plants and interceptor canals. This will dramatically improve public health in the city as well as help replenish aquifers. stadiums. including Commonwealth Games venues. Thus. theatres.Nullah Proposal Morphogenesis. For instance. museums. organic reedbeds and aerators to clean the sewage entering the nullahs at source. Since the nullah network is 350km long this would be a very important contribution to the lives of the common citizens. breed mosquitoes. urbanism and environmental design Overall Map . Alternative environmental Network Use a system of micro STP’s. to create a new walking network to drive next . many of the city’s famous archaeological sites are situated on the nullah network. contiguous and criss-crosses the national capital. a relatively small investment can turn the nullahs into a valuable asset for the common citizen. However. The nullah network is 350km long. pollute the Yamuna and so on. which were constructed 7 centuries ago by the Tughlaq dynasty. New Delhi Morphogenesis is a design practice founded in 1996 engaging in architecture. historical monuments. the nullahs are just unhygienic drains that are seen as a problem by the citizens of Delhi . Delhi has 18 main nullahs with over 15. Alternative Cultural Network The new network could be used to trigger a number of new urban activities ranging from tourism to sports.000 branches. Currently. people will be able to walk/ cycle for short distances (and it will be an enjoyable experience). etc. The necessary changes are: Alternative Transport Network Create walking/cycling paths on these nullahs to provide commuters with last mile connectivity to public transport (buses and metro). Furthermore.they smell.Nullah Proposal The Proposal To use Delhi’s neglected Nullah network to fundamentally transform the city. This is a well established system and it is both environment-friendly and cost effective. Most major cultural venues in the city can be interconnected through this network. some of the nullahs are 700 years old and were built to provide water to Delhi’s old cities.

The initiative aims to reuse the neglected water drainage system of Delhi. the condition would be set to weave an eco-sustainable system through this network. These nullahs can be transformed to enhance the social. The nullahs restoration project presents the hidden opportunity that lies within Delhi by establishing a green and sustainable network as an alternative and democratic source of engagement within the city of Delhi.org www.generation tourism. the ‘nullahs’ to progressively bring about sustainable change within the city.morphogenesis. www.delhinullahs.org . This can be done by using the existing waste and underutilized land to recycle and re-create. cultural and transport (pedestrian and cycling) networks of the city as well as restoring the River Yamuna. Water and green being natural attractors.

Architect’s vision As far as the planning was concerned. Ar. however. Sukhjeet Kumar. New Delhi. The entire house is a congregation of irregular geometric lines. since. it was preferred that the structure should look different from the ones already present in the vicinity. he exhibited his works on product designing especially furniture design. interiors. sitting area and study. 25 Lakhs Team: Ar. As our site was North facing. After completing his Bachelor’s in Architecture from Chandigarh College of Architecture in 1999. institutions. district Chamoli. Yet the main challenge was to attain an environment of peace in the interior spaces. The interior spaces have a dynamic quality that seems to stem from the way the interior elements have been placed. He established his professional practice as an architect with his own enterprise named ‘LINE OF FORCE’. Solid planes and masses were used to ensure a lively facade. Naresh Kumar. He is a national award winner in sculpture making by Lalit Kala Academy. it was required for the house to have a peaceful outlook. The project was made with the aim of giving the inhabitants so relaxed etmosphere that all their tensions get vanished. lobby. we decided to play with white in the exteriors as well as the interiors. . It was felt that a modern look could be incorporated and at the same time.Private Residence Line of Force Architects. light could not be made use of. But the clients. dining room and kitchen. Panchkula. This irregularity breaks the monotony of the facade. Uttrakhand. hotels and residences. He also won a national award for a Police Memorial in Jammu. needed 3 bedrooms. Bhanot’s Residence in Sec-2. This seems to be a dream but is a true experience in Mr. Harendra Singh was born and brought up in a small village called Chinnka. As the requirements were less according to the ground coverage that could be attained. So. The front door in timber serves as the visual focal point of the observer. Trainee Tawish Tayal White has always been the peace of mind a person wants. we decided to use masses and lines. it did not take much time to finalize the concept. Glass usage was avoided in the front facade. Site Area: 1 Kanal Built up Area: 2735 sq ft Cost of the project: Rs. He is a specialist in sculpture making. Sky lights have been provided for better lighting. Here is an architectural example proving the same. Client’s requirements: The ground floor initially accommodated a bedroom. drawing room. Panchkula Ar.

articles

Global India
Prof. Manu P. Sobti

Provoking Narratives on ‘Other’ Urbanities
Urban Design Studios (2008 – 10) School of Architecture & Urban Planning University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA

INTRODUCTION In his two classic meta-histories on the urban artifact, Spiro Kostof emphatically argues that urban form is read correctly only to the extent of our critical familiarity with the precise conditions that served as its generators. On similar lines, Clifford Geertz – the so-called purveyor of small things – in his prolific writings deliberately chose not to formulate grand, overarching theories, instead found meaning in the thick descriptions prevalent across culture, time and space. If Geertz’s definition of culture as “the stories we tell about ourselves” in fact resonates true with academics and intellectuals around the world, to what extent have we actually written the stories that patiently await recording and writing? How often have we stepped outside the comfortable confines of our own geographical settings to objectively view the settings of cultures that are far removed in intent and content? How critically have we viewed ‘unfamiliar’ architecture and cities through pedagogies that negate clichéd bipolar opposites, and instead employ methodologies emanating from thick descriptions? Even today in most architecture schools situated within the United States and Europe, few (if any) options exist for students to examine the non-West via specialized architectural and/or urban electives offered on a regular basis. The stock Architectural History Survey course predictably skims across Islamic, Hindu, Arab, and other exotics through the confines of a single session, leaving the design student seemingly perplexed. While the so-called non-Western world is already several steps removed from comfort zone of most students, their instructors’ perceived ‘unfamiliarity’ with the subject matter is no further encouragement. Rudofsky’s claim about chroniclers presenting us with a full-dress pageant of formal architecture, conveniently skipping several centuries and cultures, in his brilliantly provocative Architecture Without Architects, still rings true today. Schools beyond America and Europe are no different. While their curriculums arguably view architectural and urban history course content as the essential backbone to the design studio sequence, these courses still remain predominantly organized via chronological and dynastic categories, versus any

and served as residences for the extended recognition of ‘global events’ and thematic context. In continuation, the Western world is seldom viewed objectively, its star architects and signature buildings effectively show-cased as passing fads within the larger scheme of things. In bland terms indeed, most discourses in architecture schools today worldwide – both at the building and urban scales - simply do not engage thought-provoking scenarios beyond their own shores! Researchers have frequently pointed to the paucity of ‘appropriate’ and critically-conceived text-books as instrumental to this prevailing scenario – the West ill-equipped for the non-West, the East for the West. It seems more likely, however, that this is not so much a predicament owing to the unavailability of textbooks and source materials, as it is reflective of how this knowledge of the ‘other’ is still effectively ‘unconnected’ to an ongoing and mainstream discourse on design. Similarly, invigorating research on urbanism of the ‘other’ – cities, urban fabrics and legislative processes – has not fared any better. Few urban design studies in architecture schools encourage broad debates on the intrinsic nature of urbanities in Asia, the Middle East or the new, if entirely characterless cities of China. For all practical purposes, schools in America and Europe perceive Mumbai, New Delhi and Kolkata as urban conundrums, Dubai as an anomaly, and Chonqing alongside the Three Gorges Dam as the creation of an aggressive state. Meanwhile, at schools in Asia, particularly India, where visceral reaction to the pressing issues of urbanity would have been predictably expected, the usual scenario is either one of ‘impotent’ pragmatism, or ‘micro interventions’ which cunningly remove themselves from the grips of the larger context. Meanwhile, within this latter setting, any critical review of Western urbanism is virtually non-existent, although ‘opportunistic’ references to curtain-walls, morphed volumes and ‘embryologic’ space abound in student and professional work. THE GLOBAL INDIA URBAN DESIGN STUDIO SERIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSINMILWAUKEE This nature of discussion on the compelling issues in

global urbanity lies at the center of a new doctoral research concentration involving active collaboration and resource sharing between the faculties of the School of Architecture & Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the Art History Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison. In the first year since its formal inception in 2008, Buildings-LandscapesCultures (hence BLC) faculty have pushed students into thinking about buildings and space as inherently connected to social, political and economic networks that contain these constructs. Research thinking and design learning are emphasized within the BLC, as dual areas that reinforce and inform each other – in other words, the historian must develop the ability to read the physical attributes of the city and ‘map’ it out, while the designer must come to term with ‘seeing’ an artifact. On these lines, and given the interests of some of the current BLC faculty, the Asian (read ‘Global’) city has figured prominently as a tool to learn from, with and about. In fact, the physical structure and complexity of the quintessential Asian city has often presented an incomprehensible tabula rasa to the student researcher and designer. For one, its plethora of urban conditions seemingly defy ‘normative’ logic, especially traditional descriptions of so-called rational space making, At a second level, new forms of accelerated urbanization in such developing global contexts, frequently embody radical innovation and profound change, producing an unprecedented urban place where architecture is no longer high art, and is often produced beyond the singular control of the designer. Architecture and building interventions are then, merely the means to an end, positioning their designers as inconsequential components manipulated by a larger framework of politics and economics. Therefore, as cities modernize beyond professional control, no longer is the architect, urbanist or landscape architect able to sufficiently describe, let alone influence, large areas of the urban realm as even in the recent past. How must the designer then begin to engage with the urban artifact of the Asian world? It may be argued that this double crisis of disciplinary paralysis with respect to the Asian city warrants the urgent need to study the complexity of the urban

artifact on its own terms, through its multiplicity of evolving agents and actors, relationships and consequences of relentless urbanization. Most importantly, and to the dismay’ of the old-fashioned scholarship, no longer is architecture and city-building about conceiving ‘beautiful’ and ‘complete’ buildings – rather it is about ‘opportunistic assembly’ or ‘bricolage’ in the manner described by Levi Strauss. This myriad of issues have framed provocative student design and research investigations initiated within the GLOBAL INDIA Urban Design Studio Series held at the School of Architecture, University of WisconsinMilwaukee USA between Spring 2008 and 2010, problematizing how conflict, contestation, adjustment and reconciliation between the past and present are embodied in the making of architecture and urban form in the Indian city. In sharp contrast to the ‘static’ notions of architectural and urban artifacts presented in the History Survey, these design studios suggest that designers shall have to prepare for a future wherein the Asian city will challenge our prevalent notions of space with non-space, the specific with the ordinary and transient, memory with opportunity, and permanence with impermanence. Not all shall be as exotic as the beautiful Taj Mahal – for long the bench mark on how far the non-Western Survey would extend. Instead, students now consider how the Taj is but situated in close proximity to the intensely crowded city of Agra. What kind of design choices must then be considered? Within this prevailing scenario, the first of UWM’s exciting GLOBAL INDIA Studio Series (2008) examined the traditional marketplace at Madhavpura (Delhi Darwaza), located on the northern fringe of the traditional organic-accretive city of Ahmedabad in Western India. Established four centuries ago, and tenaciously surviving in the midst of urban legislation that cares precious little for history, memory or the elements of place making, this marketplace struggles to come to terms with the need for new infrastructure, and the subsequent loss of ‘familiar’ space. Yet the merchant guild and its mahajan (guild leader) see a future where they can reinvent themselves as successfully as in the past. How aggressively would

their aspirations then transform the urban space contained within the traditional commercial block? How radically would new storage blocks and trade infrastructure cut into residential urban fabric that has accommodated Madhavpura’s activities for centuries, and served as residences for the extended families of its many merchants? How casually shall traditions of the past be removed to make way for the future? Such was the nature of questions the students confronted in the process of thinking about Madhavpura’s transformation. While an intensely historical context, Madhavpura’s view into the future was never contemplated as a slavish imitation of the past. Instead, pre-existing building typologies were systematically ‘excavated’ for elements that would facilitate invention, recombination and enhancement. At a second level, the kind of urban space contained within the ‘ring’ of commercial establishments at Madhavpura was capitalized as a ‘commodity’ which lead students to devise diverse uses for it across their suggested time-lines. Even more so, the twin acts of demolition, building and re-building were envisaged as deliberate stages of growth and ‘un-growth’ wherein ‘historical change’ was enacted as an ‘urban spectacle’. When students realized how this had been similarly choreographed at the St. Peter’s Piazza under Bernini, the great fire of London, or the un-making and making of Haussmann’s Paris, Ahmedabad’s accretive urbanity seemed to suddenly fall into place within the framework of David Christian’s ‘Big-History.’ The GLOBAL INDIA Ahmedabad Urban Design Studio was done in close collaboration with students and faculty at the School of Architecture, CEPT Ahmedabad. Dialogue with CEPT students was initiated through a two-week elective workshop and an Urban Mapping charrette that looked at the artifacts and structure of the city in January 2008. Following upon this success, Spring 2009’s GLOBAL INDIA Chandigarh Urban Design Studio was yet another opportunity for SARUP-UWM students to closely work with their counterparts and faculty at the College of Architecture, Chandigarh. This focused study on the city of Chandigarh was initiated via an

intensive, two-week Urban Workshop, accompanied by a series of lectures. As one among the few ‘designed from scratch’ cities of the Indian sub-continent, Chandigarh held special significance for participating students as being the work of the iconic architect Le Corbusier, who endowed it with several important works of architecture. At another level, Chandigarh presented a unique tabula rasa viewed in radical contrast to Ahmedabad’s historical urbanity. If Ahmedabad was seemingly formed by the collective, Chandigarh was based on one man’s vision, and fed by the growing aspirations of a newly-forged Indian democracy. Fifty years after its inception and eventual inclusion among UNESCO’s World Heritage List of Cultural Icons, Chandigarh therefore remains a provocative enigma in its successes and failures. How does it connect to the past, present and future? How ‘Indian’ is it’s embedded Indian-ness? What shall the city become in the decades to follow? These were among the plethora of questions that the enrolled students encountered as they developed a series of interconnected design interventions in the heart of Chandigarh’s bustling urban core. Students first produced a common document that examined the city and detailed out its need for change. Individual design projects then engaged the urban fabric both within and without the site - one chunk at a time, or as critical appendages that extended the meaning of activity and place. The task at hand was to propose a public, commercial center for the city of Chandigarh positioned strategically within the precincts of the existing Sector 17 market. This center was in the vicinity of/along the footprint of Corbusier’s yet unrealized PTT building. Owned and built wholly by the Union Territory of Chandigarh and leased out selectively to commercial enterprises and retailers, this commercial center served to invigorate the City Center, exponentially expanding its current commercial and retail space needs, and creating a nexus for diverse activities that found expression in the heart of the city.

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especially given the fact that all of the buildings of Sector 17 are based on a consistent urban design code. economic and political content. and later developed into a complex. Also insightful was the realization that the Asian city is an iterative process creating a palimpsest. very personal system that encoded their many observations. cross-cultural influences.the grand framework where the theater of architectural history plays itself out. and setting the tone for important developments in each epoch. each participating student was encouraged to maintain a set of logbooks. these logbooks were not seen as albums or collections of images. employing an INDIA Winterim Project (as a preliminary threeweek visit to India) to introduce students who would later continue into each of the two mentioned courses. Jefferson’s University of Virginia. Gehry’s Bilbao and several more. the students within SARUP-UWM’s Building-Landscapes-Cultures Research Concentration – researching cities and enacting scenarios of change. and how its making could thereby critique the urban legislations. It is therefore critical to look at building and design traditions from both within and without. Stepping ‘outside’ the confines of ones own shores has therefore been a valuable learning experience for students within the BLC research concentration at UWM. as an environment literally created through building fronts (versus buildings) – identified as ‘soft edges’ elements adaptable through the vicissitudes of time. Versus the design studio. we attempted to make a modest foray in this direction. the knowledge of the Western and non-Western worlds that is imparted to the students. This project. It was also the sector positioned closest to Corbusier’s magical Leisure Valley – a ‘river’ of green stretching north-east to south-west through the urban fabric. At the second level of design language. in how it deliberately entered within and without the interventions? LEARNING In effect. makes the retrieval and re-combinations of ‘connecting stories’ particularly rewarding. examining the Asian city was an opportunity to come to terms with the limitations of normative approaches to urban layouts. in effect opportunities to devise other ways of looking at the urban fabric. In summary. Drew. experience and the sense of place.is examined alongside Marcus Agrippa’s Pantheon. often including the superlatives of scale. Meanwhile. ‘thick-descriptions’ of selected buildings conceived across time and space in every continent and culture. experimentation and design charretting. based on how commercial and public spaces would potentially transform in the decades to come – therefore entertaining design possibilities that recognized this continuous process of change (a prospect also examined in Ahmedabad). and average enrollments in the ‘Signature Buildings Course’ have doubled since its introduction two years ago. through the interconnectedness of its diverse parts? How would the complex public-private interactions work within the intervention ‘envelopes and cores’? Finally. are extremely popular. given their extensive travel. observed that the pedagogical value of both was greatly enhanced by a preliminary study/component that introduced students to self-discovered ways of looking at the non-Western world. how would the nature of the plaza itself change. serve to connect the momentous events of antiquity. this course sets the ‘big-picture’ of architectural production. This valley was located to the relative west of Sector 17. Finally. SARUP’s GLOBAL INDIA Ahmedabad and Chandigarh Urban Design Studios provided two kinds of critical lessons for participating students. their architects are often ascribed special status within the specifics of cultural contexts that vary greatly in their socio-cultural. fertilized by piece-meal additions. the City Center explored the specific possibility of vertically expanding upon the prevailing urban guidelines. for example. In ‘filling the spaces between the pebbles’ we are also concerned with how the meanings of terms such as monument. Given the high commercial value ascribed to property in all of Chandigarh. Would the proposed City Center’s possible proximity to the north-western edge of Sector 17 and its pronounced proximity to the Leisure Valley give it an opportunity for special character? Would its commanding position within the plaza of Sector 17 be communicated by its volumetric monumentality or alternatively. Most importantly. Through the successful avatars of these two design courses over the past semesters. Large scale or mammoth projects would therefore disrupt this process. In its detailed. who have viewed Corbusier and Chandigarh with kids gloves. how would the language of the Commercial Center critique the surrounding works Corbusier. Sector 17 was a unique urban space within the city of Chandigarh. The India Winterim Program is over-subscribed. artificially modifying the traditional typologies and structures. while the foundation of Byzantine Constantinople or Chingiz Khan’s Mongol onslaughts serve yet another. Likewise. Buildings conceived through time and space. from the ancient world until present-day. Sinan’s Sulaymaniye. While working closely with local Indian students in four architecture schools in India. In 2008 & 2009. lending readily to radical change. yet respectfully state variation and change? Finally.Most importantly. rather frameworks for later development. those successful built interventions within the Asian city were not monuments extraordinary. Presentations demonstrate provocative episodes within the longue duree of world history . this studio recognized that Corbusier’s original proposal for an eleven-storey PTT building was a suitable starting point for the design proposal. politics and style. and accessed via a street crossing. especially in terms of how architects and designers synthesize diverse. form and function. In its labeling of special buildings across time as ‘signature buildings’ it focuses on how these structures are seemingly endowed with pregnant symbolism and meaning. Zoser’s architect of legendary fame – Imhotep . Legends of Alexander’s expeditions and his meteoric rise to fame. At the first level of urban mapping. This was most critical to understanding the rigor yet indeterminism of urban typologies that have prevailed through history. was therefore viewed as demonstrative to the urban future of the city of Chandigarh. instead addressed difficult questions. Mies’ Farnworth House. in its unique set of requirements. It was highlighted that physical ‘measure’ gave way to Lynchian imageability. This nature of interventions within the structure of the Asian city also complemented looking at global architectural production via a second BLC course entitled “Signature Buildings in Geo-Political Context” – offered to students from UWM’s Milwaukee and Madison campuses. Much to the surprise of the local design professionals. Within the purview of this course. which initially served as a canvas of observations. conceptually linking to the Capitol Complex and the adjoining sectors. especially those that guide the elements of memory. Taking off from where a typical history survey ends. designer. rather as opportunities for self-dialogue and interrogation. this course evolves a comprehensive model that effectively transcends traditional categorizations of chronology. The GLOBAL INDIA studios. interpreted and fathomed through multiple cross sections that revealed activity patterns. producing a synthetic. Fry and Jeanneret. transforming in each epoch – frequently modifying the intrinsic nature of the building core embedded within these edges. and especially this part of the city. urban and the suburban constantly change with geographical and cultural shifts. It is time more schools begin to relish the idea of ‘unfamiliar’ terrain! . it posits that the history of world architecture should be viewed as the evolving product of catalytic interactions across and within cultural boundaries. The city center also enthusiastically embraced the scenarios of change. have seldom evolved from within the confines of a single culture. this commercial center was avowedly public and urban in its many manifestations – it provided unlimited accessibility and guided freedom to the public in terms of activities and the scales of usage (specifically within its ‘public-designated’ areas). and thereafter uniquely mapping this ‘new and unfamiliar’ world using discourse and methodologies particular to the discipline of architecture. interdisciplinary understanding of history within the rubric of an overarching architecture history survey. these did not seek to provide easy answers to negotiate cultural differences. this understanding leveraged itself into thinking of public place-making in the Indian context.

He anticipated the future needs of the urban people and suggested several model houses suitable for modern lifestyle. His fascination with ramp could be seen in many of his buildings where interior and exterior spatial events were linked using ramps. He changed himself from Charles Edouard Jeannerete to Le Corbusier. where he used vertical circulation to link all the spaces inside the building. Writers express their memories with pen. He was commissioned for urban houses in cramped site areas. . A walk in the curving. CCA He shared the memory of his fascinating walks in the meandering hilly roads of his native town La Caux de Fonds with all and. making the vertical journey an experience in relation to the surroundings. explored what he saw. wherever he got the opportunity. His concerns extended to the global context for the society as well as for the Architectural fraternity. Opportunities and aspirations brought him to the big city. absorbed the essence and experimented throughout in his long architectural journey. Pune Facing: The Getty Center. twisting roads of a small town in the midst of woods in the Alps region in Switzerland was an experience where nature revealed its surprises for him. He saw the world. Born and brought up in the sleepy Swiss watchmakers’ community. in different scales and proportions. He introduced ramp inside a concrete box where different levels swinging in and out were called “promenade architecturale”. It was there that he dedicated himself to find rational solutions to the problems of the emerging urban community of the Machine Age. He orchestrated the sequence of spaces for this inner journey from nature to nature or from the ground to the sky. artists with brushes and architects with their buildings.The Master’s Reminiscence Ar. Los Angeles. B. by Apoorv Kaushik. Final Year. away from nature. the picturesque nature could not offer the aspiring young man opportunities to explore his potentials. Banerjee Faculty SCOA. All four of his creations in Ahmedabad are composed using ramp in different ways.

Call it the RECESSION. One would be the Asset Component on the Land and the other would be the Present Booked Value of the Land i. defaults occurred on a massive scale and the land values dropped.e. That which is generated from the land can be a produce and added to the GDP but mere land transactions of land for Value cannot and should not form a part of the GDP of a nation. And yet the source of the problem is being over looked. but to make a complete turnaround. Stimulus packages worth Billions of dollars are being doled out to boost production and Banks are being encouraged to lend more only to boost consumption in order to curb layoffs as industry has no option but to cut production or simply close shop. With the amounts borrowed having become larger than the ability to pay. It has to be one that would not repeat the mistakes of the past. (as was the case until the recent past). call it what you may.The DO or DIe of the Financial Crisis Anil Laul CEO and Principal Architect . Much is being said about the need for change in the Banking System but the directions are targeted towards “Tweeking” the Interest rates and making for easier Credit only to once again feed the system that caused the collapse in the first place. The land did always belong to the people of the nation and not to the individual and the Government technically does not have a fundamental right to part with this in favour of an individual. The key word here is “Produce” and land value cannot be termed as Produce. There is an artificial market that comes into play and the unsuspecting borrower sees money and growth of his net worth in the future and ends up borrowing well beyond his means much as the banks have done from the financial system. Even if the lease amount were to be more than the dividend expected from the bank. are the order of the day. Land was never a tradable commodity and could not be bought or sold. We talk about the GDP (Gross Domestic Produce) of a Nation. get bail -out packages and come back for more. This is tax payer’s money and they were not responsible for the present crisis. One recalls a famous statement made at various Conferences on Sustainable Development which states that “We have not inherited the Earth from our forefathers. Pass this on to decision makers who you feel are ready for change and want to think outside the Box. The concept of “Mother earth” was based on this ideology. Often the monies borrowed were more than the value of the property inclusive of the interest factor. These are now termed as toxic assets. The choice now is between “the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea”. The Land Component would stand transferred to the state which would attract an annual lease amount directly payable by the homeowner to state. With defaults on payments by the borrowers. thus adding to rampant speculation in property. lost homes. as the case may be. here too the bubble of the ever increasing value of land had suddenly burst. But it is here that the problems originated in the first place. Problem 1 There are two basic components in the value of property.Albert Einstein. For those who may not have heard this before the quotation below may be of interest. The US today is the most “Debt Ridden Nation” so it is obvious that we are looking in the wrong direction. Toady even Governments are dependent on land transactions as a major source of revenue. This amounts to the bank admitting that the 25% margin money is fictitious and the valuation of the project has not been done accurately. This may be in fact be a huge earning that may be far higher than the state expects to get from the anticipated dividends from the monies being invested in the Banks. but hold it in custody for the future generations”. President OBAMA will. The bank only finances 75% of the value of the asset being built on the land and holds the land as an additional security or collateral. The Developer comes into the picture here and borrows considerable amounts for projects by using land as collateral. So the need for further Bail Out Packages. monies are lent for risky assets. The underlying assumption here is that land value will always increase and therefore the risk taking ability of the bank is enhanced. The asset built on the land could attract interest as is the usual practice. The source of the problem The root of the problem lies in the concept of treating “Land as a Resource and it being the main Driver of the Economy”. A false notion of wealth has been built around the concept of value of land as an indicator of ever increasing wealth. the lending capacity of the banks almost came to a standstill as the borrowing capacity of the bank and it’s net worth is based on the asset value held. with the lease amount being paid on a monthly basis. Banks post losses of Billions of Dollars. one may perceive the leasing policy as a huge loss of revenues for the state as Tax on property transactions are seen as one of the major revenue earners for the government. It would be a great idea to use the term “Custodian of Land” rather than the “Owner of Land” in all future documents. This in turn gives the bank additional leverage for borrowing more money from the open market and /or the Federal/Central Banks. If the land was leased by the state for a period of say 50 to 99 years. Major International Economists and Heads of State are talking about the need to revisit the Banking System but no tangible direction seems to be emerging. Most importantly the state would not have to dole out the huge packages for the failed economic institutions and the industry. The additional collateral is in turn is shown as an asset held by the bank thereby shoring up the on books net worth of the Bank artificially. wave the magic wand and America will help save the situation and all will be well in a year or so. Holding land as additional collateral fuels the tendency to forward trade land. Study the base of any traditional economy. call it the DEPRESSION. The question uppermost in most people’s mind is whether the Bail Out Packages being doled out would help turn the economy around. Other Heads of State have much the same problem but as usual we look to the perceived “Most Powerful Nation” to take the lead in these matters. Much the same holds good for other trades and revenue generating activities. industry closing down. President Obama may state that he has inherited the problem. Suddenly makes sense and could be practiced in spirit and deed. Possible solution 1 The solution therefore lies in not feeding the system that has failed. it’s just a matter of terminology. The change needs to be a Radical one. . It’s all the proverbial “dog running around the tree trying to catch it’s own tail”. In the present day practice the bank finances both the Land and the Asset on the land. then building expensive dreams to unsuspecting buyers who see profit in much like the builder seems to be floating in. the reduced value as per the prevailing market rates which are far lower than those during the boom period. If the banks continue to hold these properties any longer and with the continuing drop in property values. but it is here that the corrective actions would need our attention. This is the single largest reason for the Subprime Crisis and therefore the tumble down of the entire economy. 25% as cautionary holding should be considered more than adequate if honest valuation of the project was done in the first place. Even the thought of re-examining this concept is seemingly absurd. The two need to be delinked. The lease components would be paid to the state directly with the installment of the asset or the built form being paid to the bank or the developer. please read this over a few times with an open mind. The lease period could be say 50 to 99 years as was the case not so long ago. Job loss. However the asset built upon the land had a tangible value and could be traded and transferred. The willingness to lend is enhanced and in order to feed the viscous cycle that has come into play. One is the cost of the land and the other is the cost of the asset built on the land. but then he is now in the driver’s seat and must therefore provide the solution. one hopes.Anangpur Building Centre Much as the ideas expressed below may seem absurd and utopian. But this is not so. the losses that would be posted by banks would grow even larger. One such solution lies in breaking up the Toxic Assets into two distinct parts. As is the case with all bubbles. The banks suddenly found that the value of assets reflected in their balance sheets dropped dramatically. one of the main components of the installment or EMI would be reduced. Repercussion or Advantage No 1 On the face of it and at a first glance. The banks would be responsible for the recoveries on the Asset Component. Or so we would like to imagine. “We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them” .

It is the beginning of the same mistake as made by Zimbabwe. Repercussion or Advantage No3 UK is exploring the other option of simply printing more money. The speculative aspect of Land as a tradable commodity would be a History. Repercussion or Advantage No 8 What happens to the builder’s game? They would get properties from the state on lease. Efficient building systems and management would become the determining factors for a successful business enterprise. if when you open your eyes one finds that it was only a dream and one is standing at the end a precipice. the race for property would slow down and gradually find it’s even pace. But since property prices would drop dramatically. much like India had to pay a few decades ago. The funds required. is that you are left with nothing? It’s great to have a dream and chase it—but with feet firmly on the ground and the willingness to adapt to the need for change. com/videoplay?docid=4343898391323537541 Repercussion or Advantage No 4 In using land as a source of income by giving it on lease. Anyone can simulate this and tweek income as in this proposal vs the present day system of outright sale and the results would stun the diehards of economics. Repercussion or Advantage No 6 Many have stated that this would be against the “Great American Dream” and the “Free Market Slogan” now touted all over the world. build on it with business as usual and transfer to the homeowner as the asset value plus the lease value. Therefore in effect. This amounts to further debt only to fight the present debt ridden system. but we are looking for corrective action and is these sectors are the proverbial “Sacrificial Lambs” so be it. This perception has people pay large sums so as to protect their properties. One is the value of the asset built on the land and the other is the perceived market value of the land itself. As pointed out earlier there are two components in any property. Since many people would choose the more economical and affordable proposal. Daring to threaten the US$ or the British Pound? Iran is threatening to trade in any currency except the US$. since the differential purchase power would be the same. Business transactions would commence and the economy would get a boost. Terrible for the Insurance sector as also the Wall Street and other financial fantasies. and the likelihood of the land not catching fire or disappearing. Repercussion or Advantage No 7 So what happens to people who own their property and are not in debt against their property? Would they become poorer? On the face of it ---Yes. Borrowing from other countries by selling bonds is a very short term and myopic view and seen as a quick fix solution. A rather long explanation but a brilliant analysis may be seen at the link may be seen as below: video. Where did all the excess money come from? One believes that the Insurance business exists to protect one in the eventuality of natural or manmade calamities or distress. but the Insurance Sector seems to have managed to evade attention. it can be business as usual. he or she is also expected to pay a high insurance premium. The reality. Banks would be compelled to indulge in efficient banking transactions rather than those that they have been practicing. (One suspects that the economy will never recover to the levels of the recent past as it was based mainly on land values and not the tangible product of the Nation). This process would also bring down the unaffordable EMI payable by the home owner thus making his debt payable. have to come from some source and these are often being borrowed by selling bonds to the people or from other countries. the state has a continuous flow of funds for all times to come and can plan development projects accordingly. What good is the dream. It is the “produce” here that is the prime consideration and not the notional wealth of trading in land. Much is being made of the EMI’s that homeowners are finding impossible to pay. the rich person would still be as rich in comparison. Of late. The British Pound would fall in the International Market and they would have to pay more for the goods they import thereby coming a full circle without having moved forward. Continuous and balanced growth as opposed to sporadic development is infinitely better and more sustainable. Much the same is expected of the US. close to 75 Billion Pounds. Never in the history of man has so much artificial wealth been generated by trading on land. This in turn would reduce the EMI’s and making property and a decent roof over one’s head available to all. the amounts required to lease it (purchase as in the present sense) would be lower. When a property burns down or collapses as in the case of natural calamities. the main driver of an economy after agriculture since construction would be termed as the asset and not the land). the land is intact. though not at the same scale. Much the same allegation is being made for Iran as a dangerous Nuclear State. Banks would reduce the lending against Land Values and forward trading would gradually get phased out. This is a self regulatory process and would require no major law enforcement and we do know that the best laws are those that come from within rather than those that are enforced through a legislative process. Would the world declare the country that demands their money in Gold as a terrorist state like as was the case in Iraq when Saddam Hussein refused to trade in the US$ ? The excuse was “Weapons of Mass Destruction”. when you wake up. the Insurance premiums could be slashed. the situation would be equally dangerous. Their concept of passing on their wealth by way of Land can very well run alongside the proposed corrective action. China has more recently been making much the same threat even though put in a veiled and diplomatic manner. Problem 2 -The one that got away One set of businesses that seems to have got away is the Insurance sector. insist on the refund of their monies lent or invested. In such a situation should they fight a war to recover their dues and simply invade the borrowing country to recover their wealth? For the countries that may float their own bonds for the public. the government does not part with any money.not having to pay the huge installment plus interest on the principle land cost would enable people to move back into their homes. In fact the results would be quite the contrary. Repercussion or Advantage No 5 In taking over the value of land as a state asset. (This would not in any way affect the housing market. When and if the British Pound or the US$ diminishes in value and if their International Debt increases. Let us examine the basis of the premiums paid for protection of one’s property. Those who believe that value of land and it’s tradability makes for good sense. countries may begin to ask for their payments in Gold. Premiums paid are invested in bonds and businesses so as to generate further revenues so as to help generate more revenues so as to reduce premiums that people are expected to pay. With the state being the owner of the land. The Governments of today are more dependent on sale of land for their working rather than product or the produce of the Nation. Apart from the high EMI being paid by the homeowner. . How would they repay their debt to the people. should their policy fail? These countries would have a rebellion on their hands. Repercussion or Advantage No 2 The state does not have to part with considerable amounts of the so called bail-out packages. What happens if the economy does not recover as anticipated and the countries that have bought the bonds. Wealth is a comparative concept and is not a mere numbers game. On the other hand those who believe in the “Free Market” they could continue to do so. Why then is the value of the land taken in the determining value of the property and thereby the premium payable for the purpose of insurance? The land would be intact. But this is not so. A further Bonus for the state would be that the continuous rate cuts being made may also not be required. GDP is a term which measures the wealth of the Nation based on the Gross Domestic Product. It is this excess money that found it’s way into the Mutual Funds and the Wall Street fuelling the fire and inflating the balloon that has now burst. The present dream has turned sour and it is time to make a fresh start. This corrective action is for those who suffer this economic turbulence. It would not disappear.google. Iran has delayed this action and so has the US delayed it’s attack on Iran.

The Developing Nations The problem emanated from the US and has found it’s way into the other developed nations as a consequence of their Over Consumptive ways. At the state level. the farmer would be in a position to take loans from banks against the stocks he holds by way of the produce stored in the Silos. The government would lose the revenues generated through transfer of the properties when they change hands. With my expertise in Geodesics I was invited to design efficient Grain Silos. Stored at the local level. Utopian. It’s now DO or DIE. may be.NO. it is the farmer who would get the benefit of the produce. The water or the Air we breathe. The main problem facing Sudan was poverty and hunger even though it has both the Niles flowing right through this country. who make the most profits from the misery of the common man. Over years. hundreds of promises are made to the Rural poor and the dire need to increasing their income. One visited Sudan several years ago. But one would look at the upside. It is here that one has the largest amount of Flora and Fauna and it is here that you have the maximum produce from the land. With Sudan having made strides in oil exploration.On the one hand we have the AIG coming back for more after four bailout packages and on the other hand there are the over optimistic finance experts raving and ranting about the smallest upward trend in the market. At the central or state level. There would be more investment in tangible production. The purchase power of people would increase and demand would grow. One main aspect that needs immediate attention is the ability of the rural areas to store their produce and hold for better value at a later date. Less bailout packages which come from over taxing the people that the system was trying to save in the first place. This may be good for the industry but it is not true for the farmer who needs the most help and is the main economic driver. We now see much the same situation within countries at the State vs Farmer levels. Myths and Religions in these areas are woven intricately around respecting the Elements and every aspect that helps Human Survival is worshipped in one form or another. The few up trends are only hiccups before the final death knell unless some drastic actions of the nature as proposed above are put in place. that seems a pittance. every grain matters. A large amount is contaminated with pesticides and rodent droppings. As and when the prices rise. This land mark decision was taken after it was averred that the presence of mouse droppings had hit more than 10 %. Most developing Nations are located within the Tropics. The land is fertile and the produce of this country fed most of Europe. for their agricultural product. Even the so called Bail out is the tax payers money in the first place. Just prior to the elections. But US$2 per day is a comfortable income for that family in Cuba. The developing nations which produce and feed the voracious appetite can hardly afford to feed their own population that produces the product for export. However in the case of the state the produce is bought through agents or wholesale buyers who pay a pittance to the farmer. in today’s world. callousness creeps in and responsibility cannot be . The long and short of it that the problem identification was bang on and one did for the first time understand International Trade and Food Espionage. This was approved by the High Court some years ago and made it to the front page of a daily widely read newspaper. The Developers responsible for the bubble and the dreams they sell. It is in these regions of the world that you have the maximum dependence on Nature but it is also here that you have the most Environmental Degradation. being realistic . would seem are very high. And yet when the Sudanese had a bad harvest. to be done at the village level itself.YeS All of the above corrective actions and proposals sound too simple and common sensical and they are. would be threatened. the rentals would decrease. It is here that you have the most disease and it is also here that you have the maximum anti dotes to the disease. This then is the root of the problem and this should be our area of focus. Essential food products such as grain. pulses onions. Chances are that the wholesaler would want partial value addition. There would be stability. It is these regions that are considered the most backward. The solution for this imbalance would therefore require an additional perspective. So what went wrong? When this grain bowl had a bumper crop. If the state funded Grain Silos and storage systems at the village level. It is because we are fed information from institutions like the World Bank that the per capita income of a particular nation like Cuba is US$ 2 per day. Nature has designed that essential food products are available to man around the year so as to provide a continuing income to the tiller but the faulty market systems have it otherwise. may be not but worth a shot. The main reason for this imbalance is their inability to hold their produce for some time so as to get a better price for their product. The developing and more so the underdeveloped countries need to consume at the domestic level but work to produce for those who consume more than required. These are hard working people who end up getting the least for their toil. they had to buy back grain at several times the price. And yet. As and when they harvest their crop. This would add further to the economic growth of the village. In India 4 % mouse droppings in the food we eat is considered an acceptable standard. The wealth of the rich would grow because the productivity would increase with stability and deflation. (Whereas 100 US$ may mean nothing in the US but is a tidy fortune in some of the developing nations. Be it Fire or the Herbs and Plants that the Earth produces or the manner and Celebration of Life and the bounties of Nature. He does get his produce to the local wholesale market even now. They are all woven intricately into the daily lives of the people. strangely enough. At one point in time one Sudanese Pound fetched more than Two US$ and yet in the early 90’s One US$ gave one more than 450 Sudanese Pounds. This is more likely to succeed when compared to the huge bail out packages which are illusions of the present day. So how does one bridge this divide and abnormality? Most Government programs fall short of their objectives even though the good intent may exist. Why is the World Progress measured in US$ which has no bearing on the living cost index of the particular nation being commented upon?) With speculation on Land being contained. These are usually proposed by dole out which never reach the very poor or the marginalized. Be it the Sun God’s or the Moon. Inflation would be contained and so would the need for protests for increase in salaries and allowances. Pessimistic . Much is made of lack of infrastructure being the main reason for the disparity between the rural areas and the developing areas. may be this aspect is history but there is a lesson to be learnt here. Having designed a prototype and signed the required documents one had to forego this deal as no Bank was willing to honor their Letter of Credit and I was discouraged by many. And of course one more round of discussions at another venue. the produce is often badly stored and 10 to 18% is lost owing to this. If the grain and the produce is stored at the village level then the smaller wholesalers can come into the village and buy what they need. Much is being made of good infrastructure being the main driver of the economy by way of roads and connectivity. Yes there is the need for improvement of these roads but cannot be the main focus. The perceived risk. The G20 threw up no tangible direction but concluded with the need to make way for raising One Trillion US$ to feed a failed system. would be threatened. garlic and a whole lot of spices etc can be stores for long periods. they are under pressure to sell at the local Mandi’s (whole sale markets) to enable them to pay their debt for the seeds and fertilizer that they had bought on credit at high rates of interest. As it is the state is doing much the same in the grain silos that are built at the state level. the Europeans bought their harvest at low prices as they had the storage facilities. this country became impoverished. the farmer would ensure that this is contained as to him. alarms us. The Developing Nations on the other are caught up in this downturn because they are heavily dependent of exporting to these Consumptive Nations. This could be done at the level of groups of farmers or even at the village level. Wealth is a relative concept and is a comparative term. But then the stakes of the decision makers. it is here that we have the most hunger and Poverty. on the face of it. such as cleaning and small packaging.

These officers now report to the local government bodies for the convenience of revenue collection. I am not an economist.com URL: http://www. This is a British legacy left behind by the British and is cited as India Specific but this has a direct on how the Banking Industry as practiced Internationally wove this into their financial fabric. I hope this would stir up a debate and somewhere down the line some lateral thinking would emerge.com Anangpur Building Centre .121003 (India) Telefax: +91-129-2512364 Mobile: +91-98100-59691 email: anillaul@vsnl. The developing nations have one other corrective action that needs attention. the first rung of officers that report to him in confidence are the Land and Revenue officers. It’s a losing situation for all and more so for the farmer who gets a pittance. as we have it today. Often development plans go awry as the consideration is not the need of the influence area but the greed of the decision maker. The concept was that land values will and can never drop and therefore the risk taking ability of the bank amounted to No Risk. The economic order. With more wealth at the village level one would uses a newly coined term RUBURBANISATION. Until the recent past the Land and Revenue were from the village and maintained the records on behalf of the residents of the village. Development plans are drawn up at the highest levels for the convenience of the political bosses as Land as an asset is perceived to be the best form of a quick buck. It is here that all monies spent on the expensive electoral process that the money is to be retrieved and remade in anticipation of the next election. anillaul@rediffmail. but I do respect and study traditional wisdom and practices. It all boils down to conserving the produce of the land and getting wealth down to the man who Produces rather than the Trader (the Government being the largest culprit in this game in most cases). The advantages far outweigh the few losses to some vested interests. In the final analysis. The mania of speculation through property trading with the government being an accomplice in this lopsided perceived progress is still in the incubating stages and this disease and be nipped in the bud. New Delhi pinned and people are none the wiser. This cancer took root when developing nations were asked to Use Land as a Resource by the International Funding Agencies such as the World Bank etc. we must get back to using the Produce of the Land as a resource and measure our GDP on this basis. The first and most important information required from this level of officers is the potential land development areas and how these could be rearranged to suit the convenience of the Minister newly elected. The race to get to the Trade Centers where the perceived action is would cease and so would the pressure on the land in these urban centers. The moment a minister is elected to power. The officers such as the Collector etc from the Local bodies which are at the Town. requires a serious revisit.anangpur.com. (The ABC of holistic human settlement design) Faridabad. Haryana . District or State Level are beholden to the political bosses. Land was not and cannot be used as a tradable commodity and be an indicator of the wealth of an individual or nation. This is the root of the problem and the solution must therefore target a corrective action in this area of economics.Facing: Colour Riot at the Dilli Haat. Take the elections in any of these countries.

making the most significant contribution to the city’s extremely low average commuting times of 25 minutes. are traded for ease of access. trains arriving at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Churchgate Station inject 2. where the chronic shortage of office space promised far higher returns. Each family will be offered a 20 m2 apartment at no cost. about 55 per cent – walk to work. Most of them are able to reach their workplace within 15 minutes or less. In India ‘the poor need to live close to the rich. The enormous value attached to city access is expressed by the compromising living conditions. Personal living space of less than 3 m2 is accepted as long as it keeps the promise of employment despite residential densities – in some cases of just two-storey slum houses – higher than the vertical urbanization of Hong Kong or Manhattan.6-km BandraWorli Sea Link. The fine-grain topography of urban environments cater best for the enormous need for constant exchange. Access to the city is not a mere question of modal choice. London School of Economics and Political Science In Greater Mumbai. Two wheelers account for 3 per cent.Mumbai: The compact megacity NEWSPAPER ESSAY Philipp Rode. centrally located informal dwellers are often re-located to allow for new transport infrastructure. Ironically. the railway’s success has become its greatest enemy. retail and other activities will end up as the single most significant transport strategy. The distribution amongst other modes of transport is less surprising. And the long and expensive trips to the centres of urban activity have deprived them from city access. the equivalent of more than twice the population of Denmark shares 450 km2 of land. The most significant road expansion programme is a controversial multi-million dollar off-shore ring-road. With a total of 6 million cars. This US$350 million project boasts an eight-lane bridge. Each minute. The first segment. Between 1991 and 2005.3 million. the bay of Tokyo and Rio de Janeiro are prominent examples. City access further relies on a high degree of urban mix. mix-use urban legacy that has made Mumbai such a unique mega city. promoted as a new landmark for Mumbai. Mumbai has inherited the most extensive urban rail system on the Indian subcontinent. moving 6. Cities Programme. the length of the Mumbai’s road network only doubled. the largest group of commuters in Greater Mumbai. thus catering to the city’s 2 per cent of the population with private cars. The natural harbor of New York. and Associate. the city experiences a massive increase in motorized vehicles. About a third of Greater Mumbai’s population lives on the southern ‘finger’ of the island. The key driver of Mumbai’s compactness is its physical geography. The latest plans for the city assumes that the total population within the metropolitan region will increase to 34 million by 2031. By far. There are only a few places where the composition of land and water demands the creation of a city. jobs. So is the opening of Thane creek. Executive Director.000 commuters. with more than two-thirds of the jobs located there. Within 25 years. In one hour it will serve just about the same amount of people as two trains arriving at and leaving from Churchgate Station. Of similar importance will be the recognition of the fine grain. generally following the same pattern of most cities in developing economies. Twenty-two per cent use trains and 14 per cent use buses as their main means of travel. However. recent political pressure may require two dedicated lanes for buses. it is limited to four wheelers and above. Nine-car trains designed to hold 1. Implementing transport infrastructure and organizing mobility while sustaining a strategic vision for development of the city is one of the most critical pressure points of urban governance in Mumbai. Urban Age Programme. higher housing standards. Regardless of Mumbai’s density and compactness. motor rickshaws and private cars each for 2 per cent of the commutes. proximity and daily routines more than in most other cities.4 million people daily. Built exclusively for fast moving vehicles. the number of motorized vehicles more than doubled from 0. motorization in India is still relatively low and almost exclusively an urban phenomenon. About 300 km of suburban rail served by 95 stations make use of the city’s linear geography. the bay is now almost entirely urbanised by present-day Mumbai. the new housing units built at the fringes of the city do not reflect any of the cultural and professional requirements of those being resettled. Protected by a 650 km2 island extending into the Arabic sea. is currently under construction. not least due to physical proximity allowing for inexpensive and flexible non-motorized travel.000 people into the city’s historic core during rush hour. This is largely seen as a result of real estate speculation and greater interest in developing South Mumbai. further increasing the overall demand for mobility. the 5. However. the Sea Link. Mumbai’s dense urban environment proves particularly vulnerable to the flood of vehicles. Mumbai has the ne-time opportunity to merge a strategy that improves the standard of living while maintaining its valuable compact urban form. And while no city in India is prepared to accommodate this growth. about 70 per cent of private cars on the street are driven by chauffeurs. compared to 21 per cent in Delhi and 22 per cent in New York City. Attempts to shift jobs to more accessible areas of the region have initially failed.6 to 1. an additional 12 million people will need to navigate the city’s territory. Although not designed to accommodate mass transport. This article appeared in The urban Age India Newpaper . The city’s streets cover only about 11 per cent of its surface. Strategic planning for the location of homes. with an average of 13 people per day killed in rail related accidents. the largest natural harbour on India’s west coast. whether in terms of living space or amenities. Passengers suffer a degree of overcrowding unknown on any other rail system of similar size. a sharp contrast to the London average of 42 minutes. Congestion is severe and due to the high stress levels of driving.’ However. And while the number of vehicles multiplied 37 times over the last 50 years. The exceptional densities of the city result in similarly unusual transport patterns. it dictates location. In Mumbai. the lack of parking and the overall affluence of the owners of those cars. Navi Mumbai on the other side of Thane creek remains a ghost city and its vast amount of housing and office buildings are only slowly beginning to be occupied.700 passengers travel with up to 5. particularly for the urban poor.

they are not. and it will remain eternally shrouded by the politics of religion. University of Washington Seattle. there is the fact that the language of modern architecture is so closely aligned with the modern Indian nation state and its ideal of secularism. and indeed fascinating and persuasive. Their job is to keep tradition intact – that they do well. rather than trying to investigate what a contemporary Hindu temple should be. somehow there is a class of pundits who are maintaining the ancient canon of temple design and construction. new and modern interpretations of the Hindu temple are seriously lacking. Perhaps this is because the temple’s clients. of a self-confident player on the global stage. Vikramaditya Prakash Professor of Architecture. describes. that it has become anathema to take on an explicitly religious topic from within the canons of modern architecture. In addition. Temples are not repositories of dead tradition. likes to make sure that its expectations regarding what a temple must ‘look like’ is satisfied. and even the worshipping public. surely we should be able to dig into the heart and soul of Hinduism. concepts that go into the design of a Hindu temple. It rarely makes its way into schools of architecture. the space of religious architecture will continue to be dominated by a narrow minded vision of what a a Hindu temple is. In schools of architecture. There is a vast body of modern literature – and a vast amount of that is in English. in other words. shy away from broaching the topic of modern interpretations of the temple. most of this literature remains confined to religion studies.Fractals and the modern hindu temple Dr. in a new way. Yet. philosophy. and it has to done by the new 21st century generation of Indian architects and thinkers – all us student readers of this NASA magazine. or essays in Indian architecture. Ours is to invent the future. You cannot simply rest on the expectation that somewhere. I would submit. and other disciplines of humanities. In thinking about the architecture of the new India of the 21st century. Unfortunately. And given that issues of religion are considered to be so sensitive in India (you can’t even improve a road just because a small temple might be on it) most people. and having understood and digested them. advisedly. that the work of re-thinking the Hindu temple has to be done. If you don’t take on this task. USA While there is ample precedent in modern interpretations of churches and synagogues and mosques (by well famous modernists such as Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn). anthropology. analyses and critiques the very many complex. Such were the convictions of modern India of the 20th century. the Hindu temple is so completely trapped by expectations of an ‘iconic’ image – stereotypical shikharas and ornamentation built by rote -. This is much too serious a responsibility to be left unexamined in the hands of pundits. with new forms. for those of us who cannot read Sanskrit and other ancient Indian languages – that amply documents. of Hindu temple design principles and philosophical propositions. intact and secure.that it seems difficult to conceive what a modern Hindu temple might even begin to look like. places of superstition that are put together with ‘magical’ formulae that have no real rhyme or reason. re-interpret and re-express them in new light. we are largely . Unfortunately.

composed of a lot of mini-shikharas. I rarely look at the old colonial books on Indian architecture.still taught with colonial period textbooks that categorize temples simply according to their ‘style’. I can’t stand the discussion of ‘styles. Just to wit: faith is not the issue here. These kinds of questions motivated me recently to conduct a studio on the modern Hindu temple. infact. our understanding of the principles of the Hindu temple tend to remain confined to thin diagrammatic facsimiles such as ‘the nine-square mandala’ or ‘northern style temple vs. unfortunately. ‘prakrit’ and ‘purusha’. I ask myself: how is the plan organized? How does movement and circulation occur? What kind of light comes into the building? How do shade and shadow articulate the exterior? What materials are used? What are the formal principles that are used to organize all the elements? And so on. I was dismayed that they wanted to build yet another rather stereotypical conception of a Hindu temple. the universe is organized fractally!! This is an amazing and inspiring idea. decided to investigate how he could re-use the principals of fractal geometries to imagine a new contemporary temple. I hope they are self-explanatory. ‘moksha’ and the more Buddhist ‘parinirvan. I am presenting one of them. There are notions such as ‘bindu’ and ‘samsara’. Here. and lived and died for them. ‘maya’ and transubstantiation. and. This self-similar pattern of organization is what we call fractals. They have each produced a work that is as passionate as it is interpretive. turned them into the stones of architecture. I am currently writing a new History of the Architecture of India. And so many. Seven Masters level students signed up – none with any background Hinduism or the Hindu temple. whether you believe or not. When Nate saw the shikhara of the Kendariya Mahadeva Temple at Khajuraho. As I study these. I am not a scholar of religion. Setting aside ideas of astrology and superstition. that I could not point them towards any good new modern interpretations of temples. Nathaniel (Nate) Gilberts. ‘shunyata’ and ‘aakar’.’. And. the southern style temple’.prakash@gmail. The occasion was that the Hindu community of Seattle is organizing itself to build a grand new temple for themselves. The results are given in the accompanying graphics. in real life or in print. All this has to change. What this means is that no matter which scale you study the shikhara at. and of the people who supported those ideas. Now. and study them from an architect’s perspective. ‘atman’ and ‘Atman’. in the institution where I teach in Seattle. So I decided to teach the studio. we have made a publication that documents all the projects. I read books from every disciplinary background and I try and digest them as best as I can. he saw fractals. trying to sketch out the ‘story’ of the Indian architecture. many more. and although they put me on the planning committee of the temple. however. of course.washington. at the University of Washington. Separately. I would welcome questions. but I like to read. but all with great talent and insatiable curiosity. and. what this implies is that according the core principles of Hinduism. the point here is to understand the temple from the perspective of a professional. a shikhara is conceptually a model of the universe and so if the organizational pattern of the shikhara is fractal.edu/vprakash vikram. It is no different than any other building program. Dr. simply because this student’s interpretation gels with the topic of your publication: fractals. queries and comments on Nate’s project. There are many concepts that can be used as beginning points to investigate the Hindu temple. with little or no understanding of the conceptual basis of temple design. to at least open the topic academically. so. as the story of competing ideas in Indian architecture.com . it appears the same. I was even more dismayed. Vikramaditya Prakash http://faculty. my student Nate. without resorting to stereotypical Hindu temple imagery. If you look at it closely you will see that the shikhara is. I am an architect and an architectural historian.’ But I do look at the buildings themselves. of course.

myths. Availability of resources and human longevity would be combined factor in the realm of architecture in what forms it could generate to engage future generations. but not exclusive. . Buddhist serenity in form and expanse planning in various routes in the Deccan India and elsewhere in Central Asia created role of architecture more permanent one. Yet world over we have so many examples of architecture as form giver to religion that the role in itself was quite in abundance of variety. The process is ever progressing. The roles in universal leadership require more comprehensive approach. They registered themselves in folklores and day to day events of their people. Egyptian. whether it is shaped by climate change or any other issue which may come about in future. Whole galaxy of architectural forms from the past which people engage so well in so many ways and thoughts that it seemed there was some kind of freedom in architecture available to exercise in mind and action to fructify. more characteristic of its function through architecture. Whether architecture will be the force to suit that ideology it is for people to think. Their histories dating back thousands of years so were the doctrines. Architecture never had such a role as free from such clutches as most of the time architects imagined themselves to be. there could be innumerable icons coming into forms in every nook and corner of the world. People term architecture in relation to religion and then other socio-economic attributes to it would emerge in natural sequence. testament of early truth whatever form resulted in architectural manifestation. be it medieval times. Both these factors had so much depended on each other that they became imminent in talk of all the erstwhile civilizations. views of ultimate character to each of say mercy and benevolence in Buddhism. yet they reached out to universal truth of ethical tolerance toward others. Also emphasized are the religions that revealed the genesis of cultural icons and having decisively formed world civilizations order put on differing. The role of architecture in taking course to other functional derivation manifested in multiple forms each contributing to new beginning. obedience and perseverance in Judaism. more intelligible. Mesopotamian. It is the question that sets people in more creativity. People world over go to places and respect those sensibilities enshrined in authentic structural form. Architecture thus becomes more potent force as do the religion. Phenomena such as the great aura of monumental pyramids. Buddhist in Kyoto and many places in South Asia. Its creativity and technology sense to perpetuate the future cause in architecture would be engaging professional pursuits. devotion and mystical unity of divine Self in Hinduism. Idea of its becoming such is further sign of what direction people will move in. and submission to the will of Allah in Islam. in search. So religion gets freer picture. Mayan. morality and ethics in Confucianism. Egyptian and Japanese Architecture Architecture and religion has been at good terms with each other throughout the ages. CCA Images: Mayan. in motion. icons adding meaning to very existence.Architecture and Religion Karandev Singh Mankotia Senior Lecturer. It appeared religion was the moot point in architecture for inspiration and guidance in how it should go about. love for the Creator and one’s fellowman in Christianity. respect in Shinto’s. Architecture as a free vehicle in giving its form having de-linked from religion had very little role. It emerged as real focus of activity in all ages to come. classical period. Their creators were exemplary folk who attained a mastery of selfknowledge that bent them to kill evil and seek the highest examples of good. whether to negate it or digress from it or whatever. and methodologies in worship were so varied. sensibilities and whatever people could gather from it that architecture in itself became religion. Now these universalities on much profound basis.

Our traditional architectural education is still based on the philosophical. then it can be treated as merely a new tool and a welcome addition to the architect’s palette. The difficulty for young designers then is not in how to use these technologies but which to use and when to use it. social. warping and complicated curvatures of virtual space. A case in point is writing by hand or with a type writer. Villa Savoye. But today the problem is that every building wants to be that cathedral. We are increasingly being bombarded with apparently bizarre designs being generated with free-form computer modelling tools. The industrial revolution with its new possibilities of materials and building techniques paved the way for the Modern Architecture movement. and it’s good. underestimating the role of critical analysis of the building brief. What about the fabric of the city and the visual clutter it would create? As an imminent architect once said that in the ancient times each city had a consistent and distinct fabric with maybe one odd cathedral as a landmark. . Maybe we need to remember that the computer is just one tool in a large shed of creative devices. Soundcloud. B+U Architecture. Today we find ourselves at the crossroads again. There seems to be an increasing peer pressure in the profession to succumb to the morphing. society culture. and digital architecture. So before we foray into this fascinating world of possibilities we need get our priorities right and use this tool wisely to achieve the parameters that will form the basis of any architectural endeavour for years to come. The education system has hardly been able to keep up with the rapid change of the digital technology. The theory and practice of Digital architecture has spawned endless debates on the direction in which architecture is heading today. In a scenario where a bunch of numbers and statistics dictate the form and spaces of a built environment where is the scope for the architectural philosophy and theory that raised the profession from a trade to an artistic venture of high intellectual merit? Compounding the problem in a developing country like ours is the gap between architectural education. Before we blindly accept the notion of purely computer generated built environments there are a few pertinent issues that need to be addressed. On the Urban level think of the impact of each and every bulbous creation screaming for attention at every nook and corner. it will then be more than a theory. The first and foremost apprehension is that architects and engineers seem to be creating structures in an intellectual vacuum. Can the tool change the very fabric of your language? Will you still be able to communicate your intent either ways? Or will the ingenuity of the tool overtake and nudge you into expressing your creation in a form you did not even intend to? It takes a lot of maturity to be able to use any tool as a servant and not let it become your master. and the rise of ‘cool’ digital techniques and technologies . There are some reservations that most architects have while warming up to this new way of building. Innovation occurs to fill changing human needs. A choir sounds intriguing because everyone tries to blend in rather than shout out the loudest to get heard and seen And let’s not even get started about the socio economic impact of a tool that allows you to go straight form the creator to the manufacturer totally by passing the builder. design method and spatial theory. The emphasis on the practical methods and potential of digital fabrication and assemblage of the real is getting obscured in the pre occupation with the realm of the virtual world and its representation. This is called progress. Future Systems. This has given rise to generation of designers lacking enough exposure and maturity to discern the validity of their own creation. It is a tool for materialising ideas not for generating them in the first place.Good servant. Architecture needs reason. On the other hand. There is no place for pure aesthetic whimsy. CCA From Top (CW): Selfridges Birmingham. without any real world context. evolution is always a positive thing. Le Corbusier Change is the only constant and considering the ever expanding horizons of human endeavours. historical and psychological theory. One can only question the architectural and aesthetic merit of most of these proposals at the risk of being labelled conservative and regressive! Wherein lies the danger that the computer is supposed to spew out forms and spaces that are infallible and immune to criticism. Structures in steel and glass were decried by purists as aberrations that barely fitted into the realm of “real architecture”.If the digital technology does not influence the design thinking. As with every other field architecture will also change. bad master Deepika Gandhi Lecturer. Even if the immediate explorations may not be “desirable” they will pave the way for things not yet conceived. The challenge then for all of us is to analyse how architecture can continue to speak for itself and what risks are posed in forsaking architectural theory. What of the millions directly or indirectly dependent on the construction industry. if in the coming years all the above mentioned parameters are challenged and changed by digital architecture. This assumption marks the decline of theory.

Integrating this factor with the conscious planning of cities could dramatically reduce the need for public transport. India is an optimistic country. Today. The Western developed world too unwittingly ushered in technologies with adverse impacts to the environment. It also facilitates bio-diversity in conserving natural species. At a macro-level. a series of t coordinated actions may have to be initiated from the micro-scale of the household to the state and national levels and importantly in the international context. in her book “Hijacking Sustainability” explains the manner in which several multi-national companies have been forced to move their production facilities to Asia. equity and urbanity. At the culmination of the first decade of the twentyfirst century. Ironically. Like the Eurocentric industrial revolution. Most often squatter settlements emerge close to places that provide job opportunities. She also cites figures from a United Nations study showing that half of the multi-national companies in the Asia-Pacific region used lower environmental. which is socially determined by quality. Unlike the traditional Indian city. Srirangam and Jaipur epitomize the mystical traditional Indian city. Urban growth in India has been sustained by the enterprise of the urban poor. British administrators in India focused on the creation of New Colonial cities.Sustainable Urban ecology Durganand Balsavar SRM University. the Chandigarh master plan guided the course of other Indian cities. Town Halls. The form of the city impacts its way of life. cost. hijacking Sustainability Dr Adrian Parr. which calls for a paradigm shift in the notion of justice. The fast burgeoning urbanized populations in India and China has a consequent impact on the consumption of energy resources. . Many of the developing nations accepting this e-waste may not have the appropriate technology needed to safely recycle or dispose the same. While there is no specific quantification of the impact of climate change on urbanity. at Harvard University. Alongside such consumption has evolved the consumerist society of high technology with increased consumption of electricity and water supply. This paper is part of a larger research on Urbanity and Ecology. Climate change has posed complex challenges to the urban processes in India. The urban less-privileged survive despite being formally excluded from the institutional processes of the urban process. building energy consumption norms and affordable housing in appropriate technology and through better facilities for public transport. Cambridge. Nandan Nilakeni interestingly describes India as the “afflicted passive smoker when it comes to the emissions that the developed world has created over the last century”. a gradual consensus is evolving on its possible impact – (MEA 2005) – in terms of increased temperatures. in order to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on the urban poor. He has been involved in the CMDA Second Master Plan process and is a visiting Faculty in several Indian and International Universities. Chennai Nek Chand’s ecological urbanity Ar. However cities like Chennai and Bangalore need to actively explore a unified transport network of multiple modes. Jamshedpur and several other industrial towns. Durganand Balsavar is the Principal architect of ARTES-Human settlements development center. extreme weather conditions and sea level rise. Conserving Nature Another process of ameliorating the urban environment would be the conscious introduction of green parks and probably urban agriculture as well. Greater awareness of indigenous and traditional knowledge of energy efficient design could ameliorate the situation. Lutyen’s New Delhi fossilizes the desire of Colonial powers over the last two hundred years to indigenize. While recycling may at face value appear the most appropriate way to manage the environmental impacts. large railway stations in steel. this colonial development also involved indiscriminate deforestation in the promise of a new “civilized” world of industrial growth. It proposes to address these issues by evolving . For instance linear cities like Mumbai and Kolkotta can rely on the rapid transit corridors and the rail as their lifeline. museums and well established educational institutions. perhaps a more pragmatic initiative to discover a sustainable connection with the natural environment Much has been debated on Chandigarh as the symbolic post-independent modern city. reorganizing therelationship between the urbanized settlements and the neglected rural hinterland would be essential as part of the . What has been as relevant has been the gardens created by Nek Chand from recycled ceramic waste (see image). Urbanization in independent India unwittingly assimilated this “colonial” disregard for the environment. Besides exploring the symbolic and poetic realm of urban growth. On the other side. Chennai. The impact of stringent environmental regulations in developed countries could also have indirect bearing on developing countries still in the process of finalizing their blueprint of environmental protection. Participatory Urban Planning also needs to eschew an inclusive growth process. the outdated methodology could produce toxic wastes that are harmful to the environment. Sustainable habitat Mission The National Action Plan on Climate Change proposes a Sustainable Habitat Mission to give an impetus to energy efficiency in the urban planning process. The two debates of sustainability The two major issues that confront India’s postindependence urban process are the “Nature versus Development” and “Citizen’s Participation” debate. these cities had broad roads for cars and trams.urban waste management and recycling norms. Urban development in the present context of climate change needs to ensure a minimal adverse impact on the environment. unpredictable rainfall. The historic disregard for environment While Harrapa. Dr Parr cites examples of a report by the Basel Action Network that approximately eighty percent of North American electronic waste ends up in Asia. Even as the cardinal cities orient to address the future. the deliverance of a better quality of life for all sections of society needs to be addressed. during their transformation from traders to rulers. time and convenience. health and safety standards than those they adhered to in developed countries. The ancient reverence for Nature was forgotten. A scrutiny and establishment of standards for energy efficiency of buildings requires to be done indigenously with a better understanding of local climate and resources rather than callously adopting international standards. The imposition of the geometric plan became the unquestioned norm for Gandhi Nagar in Gujarat. In that sense India has to prudently deploy new energy efficient technologies and reorganize urban consumption of resources.

innovative and cost effective designs. a clear policy on urban dwellings. but sheer common sense to transform our urban development to respect and protect the ecology. assurance of basic amenities. education and healthcare systems. Community participation in the decision making process is critical for sustainable democratic urban development. Urban villages and Participatory Planning Several urban centers and towns are more a conglomerate of villages. Its not about idealistic manifestos or “green” slogans. unified transportation and infrastructure and the humane workplace. The resilience and innovativeness of the social and cultural institutions to assimilate the tenets of this mitigation process cannot be assessed at the present juncture. The resettlement of these slums would be an essential factor in future urban development – affordable housing. affordable and unified public transportation systems. employment opportunities. Key areas to be addressed would be land management and tenure. Egypt. In a broader context. To rediscover the foundations of the equitable and sustainable post-independent Indian City is a collective pragmatic choice. providing affordable and sustainable housing remains the most critical challenge to the urban process. This condition is fortunate and provides the needed space and time for reorganizing the nature of urban development. Chandigarh Facing: The Pyramids.com . artesindia@gmail.Below: Rock Garden. address affordable and dignified housing. security of tenure. by Gagandeep Singh. CCA climate change strategy. reduce harmful emissions. Studies reveal that probably half the population of Mumbai reside in shanty dwellings occupying fifteen percent of the cities total land area. rather than an urban expression of metropolis.

the biggest difference is in the pace of life on these streets. There are no street side restaurants and street bands and cafes that let you relax and spend a balmy summer evening. Clearly. Survival instincts take over and the entire urban experience provides scenes of various survival mechanisms – some legal. marshes and backwaters. It means a revamp of the existing urban fabric in the current cities to enable transit-oriented development and efficient resource utilization. it lies in the failure of our agricultural system that leads thousands of farmers to suicide. by 2050 50% of the Indian population will be urban – which means about 60 – 65 million which represents a 100% growth from the already overcrowded cities in its current state. some approved. It is all about fighting traffic to find a parking spot. the conundrum is because the community is not being developed in an inclusive manner. cities are back at the forefront of mainstream economics. Over the last half of the previous century. With this kind of a setup.AN Projects Below (L-R): Pondy Bazaar. The means of achieving this goal is not farfetched or utopian. Similar vision and commitment is called for from a policy stand point. Washington DC The numbers are mind boggling. Longworth in his book ‘Caught in the Middle’. With globalization. the increased need for collaboration and human interaction in leading business decisions and the lifestyle of the modern ‘knowledge worker’ has brought urban areas that have an attractive atmosphere for such interactions and lifestyles into the limelight. rather require more attention and investment to alter the cancerous urban fabric of today to make them truly ‘Global cities’ in the shadow of which the smaller centers can then prosper. We have had successful examples like Amul that have created a business model to emulate. and does not remain a pipe dream. some not. The infrastructure for a friendly urban atmosphere and pedestrian oriented neighborhoods which is the main draw of the ‘global cities’ is virtually non-existent. Comparing this urban district to another similar district in Washington DC – Georgetown. or their carrying capacity? What can be done? On the global front. some illegal. . This is exclusionary development and not inclusive growth. Today. some sustainable and sane while others are obscene and ludicrous in terms of a social and cultural fabric. Chennai Principal Architect . With a cooperative base and a capitalistic outreach. where access to education is not an issue. Every day 300 families migrate to Mumbai. While the laidback atmosphere in Georgetown allows you to have a wholesome experience of the urban fabric. Chennai. we face a larger conundrum. At the moment. shop and get out as fast as you can for there is nothing to let you enjoy the setting. not in Pondy Bazaar. Where does this survival instinct come from? What is the main driver behind such frenetic and feverish urban activity? Why is there a lack of quality in our urban experience? Partially. it looks like a mixture of confused glass containers waiting to be shipped out of an otherwise derelict village. redistribution of wealth acquired is also channelized and realizable. suburbanization combined with rapid disinvestment and degeneration of urban neighborhoods was rampant along with the automobile boom in leading the economic bandwagon. life in Pondy Bazaar is frenetic and the survival instinct is rampant in full splendor. this was a road flanked by farm lands. The aim should be to stop migration to cities and provide opportunities for a better life wherever there is an existing human settlement. Urbanization of the human population may be an irreversible phenomenon.700 people per sq km. the investment in education and science however farfetched it seemed at the time has been our savior in the last two decades.U2 and the Indian city Aparajithan Narasimhan Senior Lecturer. The blue collared workers find themselves out of favor due to lack of training in the ‘new’ industry and their acquired skill is of no use anymore. Whatever the merits and demerits of the Nehru era. It does not mean a return to Ebenezer Howard and his Garden Cities. the answer lies in the large migratory population that throng our cities in search of a livelihood and a better life for their future generations. apart from the worldwide recession. given the size of our population and the access to basic facilities outside the preferred urban/economic zones. they hold little attraction at a global level. short-distance rail and surface trams that enables development footprint to be low and allows men and materials to be transported in an efficient manner. However. interspersed by villages. Their skills and training do not render them useful to the new economy and the old industries where these communities were successful have also taken the Silk Route. SRM University. it lies in the lack of investment outside of ‘Economic Zones’ and ‘export oriented policies’ that came with our economic liberty. As a result. and how? Should they double their size. Similar setups with an organized retail sector at the helm can help bring prosperity to the grass roots of our country. is caught in the middle between the old economic setup where they were productive and the new economic policies of globalization where they are marginalized. however. we are ‘Caught in the Middle’ to use the term framed by Richard C. Chennai’s population density is 24. where he describes how the American Mid-West once the cradle of the US economy is now a derelict and abandoned region better known as the ‘Rust Belt’. Decentralized economic opportunity and a widespread investment and development portfolio is the call of the hour to provide for inclusive growth – the latest political mantra in India. No. with buildings flung far and few in between. The inhabitants of the glass containers are shipped in and shipped out on a daily basis and their money is also spent elsewhere. Where does this leave Indian cities? Apart from the historical fabric and cheap technical labor. It means that current cities should not be disinvested. Through decentralized development. And he is talking of America. but networked transit-oriented development with high density urban centers at transit hubs and a hierarchy of high-speed long distance rail. Are these cities ready to double their size in the next few decades. Our built environment also reflects this thought process at the policy level as can be clearly seen on ‘IT Highway’ in Chennai. it does not mean that existing cities have to bear the brunt of this phenomenon. Georgetown. newer urban regions can be created which will enable a better quality of life in every environment and render the possibility of an access to livelihood in one’s preferred environment. Delhi ships water from Ganga despite Yamuna’s presence. with no mechanism other than a Robin Hood story in place to redistribute wealth to foster ‘inclusive growth’. In the Indian context. we are pinging our hopes on ‘trickledown Reaganomics’ it seems. The best illustration that brings out this experience is that of Pondy Bazaar in Chennai. Amul has been able to channelize economic opportunity to the grass roots shown by the development of Anand in Gujrat. Not so long ago.

Think of a city. The house starts opening as one moves up from the street. Louis Khan wrote “The Street is a room by agreement. a route. But despite these reasons. used to carry wheeled traffic to some end or journey. Thus Streets. people know each other and there is little evidence of anonymity. houses or shops. ornamentation are the attributes that contribute to street character. these settlements still present us with visual identity. These streets have divided the city into rectangular blocks. Some are getting erased out of the fabric and some are getting trapped inside the invisible boundaries of upcoming estates. their projections. thereby. Intricately carved zharokhas (balconies) at upper floors are also a design feature. The city with vibrant street life is the key for making the works as a piece of design. make it an interactive public street. However. Pune Streets… When this word comes to mind. Its architectural personality is determined by the building facades that form boundaries of a space. street is looked upon as a commodity. conservation of historic streets and influence of socio-cultural change on their visual dimension needs to be paid serious attention to! . lack of advancements in technology. What comes to the mind? It is a street. occupation. color. are today being looked upon as modes of transportationpredominantly to be used for vehicular traffic or for commercial display. Façade widths. It was conceived as a path. which are commonly termed as ‘Padas’. an avenue. In this increasingly standardized. the word ‘Street’ has disappeared from the dictionary of urban planning. which shape the city fabric. Apart from the social dimension. Hence. The street is used by children to play and adults to socialize. today in the era of privatization and globalization. says the dictionary. but they also create a sense of enclosure and provide cool shade. heights. With compact organization. Street is one such social interactive public space. Medha Gokhale Faculty SCOA. Talking of Jaisalmer streets.Traditional Indian Streets . profile of ground plane and the sectional character of building facades that affront the street. These are basic factors. through their physical attributes present us with historic significance. Jodhpur that are presently uninfluenced by this wave of globalization and economic competition and still retain their original character and socio-cultural attachment. perceptual and visual dimension. thus slowly moving towards standardization. In the past this word was used interchangeably. Each house has a plinth projecting on to the street. a boulevard and so on. lower literacy rate and so on. Streets are the first to get noticed. The built form and the open spaces come later. transparency. it can be said that it has multifunctional attributes which not only serves as linking elements but also strengthen the legibility of the city. window patterns. economic and social backgrounds. in today’s fast pace of city expansion and transformation. these are more than mere paths. composition. Because of the pedestrian scale of the town. built form and the streetscapes. streets as social spaces are undergoing transformations. thereby responding to climatic conditions. stating the history of its evolution in terms of the period of construction. Ar. commonly used as verandah at ground floor with no openings on the street except the entrance door approached by steps. the scenario of transport road network occupied by vehicles & fast moving life suddenly flashes in the front of our eyes. functionally street is one of the most important elements. These are not only compact networks of two to three meter wide streets abutted by two to three storied dwellings creating cluster spaces. when I visited Rajasthan there were traditional settlements like Jaisalmer. While Street may have these attributes but more importantly it is a linear surface along which movement occurs between two lines. sociocultural trend and lifestyle of people of that era. However. the house and the street become very close to each other. Such variety along with the curved and meandering street patterns offer their unique experience as we move along the route. activity pattern and ambience. Today road is considered as an ordinary line of communication between different places predominantly. It is a true room of the city more than its ceremonial plazas and squares”. that once were informal -interactive places and important modes of visual communication. These blocks show continuous façades of exquisitely carved elements behind which there are open courts and terraces making them fairly porous in plan. It is a building block of urban design and extension of urban life. This is prominently highlighted by historic towns of Rajasthan like Jaisalmer and Jodhpur. enclaves & complexes.A socio-cultural expression Ar. Streets. Hence. recessions. which contributes to the physical. Consumerism is shaping new lifestyles of people thereby changing the meaning of ‘street as a interactive space’. The reasons may be varied… low population densities. a highway road. texture. material. Streetscape is the first and immediate element to highlight the character and tradition of the area at the time of evolution and represent the city. Physically. These aspects are eventually reflected in the settlement pattern. It not only links public and private realm but is a place where we mingle with people of diverse culture.they are public spaces too. Today in the world of technological advancement in fields of communication and transportation. almost all the dwellings are planned to open in court with few punctures on the street façade. which contribute to the social dimension of a street as public space and. All these have similar meaning. cross sections of the Indian street reveal the configuration of path space. These verandahs are used as informal interactive spaces where people do not have strong notion of privacy. consumer oriented and technology dominated world. Thinking of traditional Indian Street. but there exists a minor distinguishing line between the street and the road. legibility and expressionism. socio-cultural trends of the historic era at the time of evolution and are the dominant examples of imagibility. Human scale is maintained giving a sense of proportion.

student .

owing to a certain degree of disorder. we have incorporated this phenomena and have developed many more from this one. . We are all well versed with the Euclidean geometrylines. and our sensations are such that a slight disparity makes us edgy. In one form or the other. the following analogy can be considered. such as the perception of joy and sorrow. one can explore forever and never see everything it has to offer. The evolution of this concept has been slow and has taken place with different questions being answered by different people. which itself is as vast as space and as varied as this world. The structures that they created with complex mathematical equations have turned out to be inherent in familiar objects all around us.000 times. whether it be a pencil or a building. Described in algorithms. It might be argued that this is because we enjoy plants and trees as a ‘break’ from the simple. But there lies a very interesting fact among all the objects in this world. To get a fairer idea of what we are dealing with.Fractals An Introduction Apoorv Kaushik CCA. Mandelbrot exclaims that Nature played a joke on the mathematicians. Not that it is suggested that complete disorder has any appeal: untidiness appeals to no one. These new set of structures were also called a Gallery of Monsters. the beauty of fractals lies in their ‘order within disorder’. All these complement each other. The credit for compiling all the research and coining the name fractals goes to Benoit Mandelbrot. explanations to the new shapes being evolved. as to many other fields. Each of those points may require running a number through the fractal formula more than 1. ridges. Fractal geometry is very much at odds with the Euclidean geometry which we see around us in our man made environment. These are not in accordance with nature. a small fractal image—perhaps only 640x480—contains over 300. Extreme images can involve more than one trillion calculations. But as with marble or wood grain. It was concluded that even stocks exchange rates and growth rates. smooth surfaces. It’s the play of numbers. stability of the solar system. and each being a unique fractal. A smooth polished piece of marble or beautifully grained wood offers far greater attraction than a smooth polished surface. it has a selfsimilarity of smaller molecules resembling the basic shape of the object. If one is asked to list the things that one can remember. and Waclaw Sierpinski. when plotted on paper take the shape of a fractal and are hence repetitive. This is not only limited to the physical objects but also includes sensations and actions. The main characteristics of a fractal may be enlisted as: . Fractals are an expression of the essence of nature and are being applied to architecture. every form has developed from many such small units: fractals. No one wants to see a park or garden consisting of cones and triangle. The further we zoom. as was required. The same can be observed for trees. An overlook at this history answers some questions that have been enigmatic for a very long time like. but that isn’t where it ends. The images that one sees in everyday life may inspire the definition of fractals. clean curves. What makes fractal exploration so intriguing. which is truely enthralling in every sense.Non-integer dimensions . With just a single fractal shape. this new world did not necessarily fit in the pre-defined. however. Every structure does not fit into the concept of straight lines and symmetrical triangles reducing in progression as proposed by Karl Weierstrass. they have no aesthetic ‘depth’. the more likely we are seeing something that nobody has ever seen before. It’s hard for one to picture a fruit which is half an apple and half a banana. It’s a human tendency to be attracted towards a symmetrical and rather peaceful space. Looking over at the architectural aspect of fractals. It has been a long an eventful journey through the field of architecture with fractals. And that’s a mild example.each object has a complementary element to it. This complementary nature of things establishes a sense of balance amongst them all . but it really goes further than this. we are surrounded by a number of objects. There is a fractal mix of order and surprise which will put you in awe as we move further. tidy and monotonous geometry of everyday life. even unintentionally at times.Indistinguishability of most magnified images of fractals from the unmagnified version. They are always changing—teasing us with a little bit of familiarity. Chandigarh Every moment of the day. This diversity in nature is being explained on the basis of a mathematical study of similar shapes and their relationship to natural shapes known as Fractals. In order to deal with non-integer dimensions. living or created by us . it will become a never ending task. is the features which are detectable on zooming. A detailed study reveals that every object in nature is comprised of smaller parts which are in fact a duplication of the basic shape of the object. This means the formula has to be computed more than three hundred million times. involving several mathematical equations which concentrate on understanding the intricacy in nature and its organization. Indigenous architecture presents complex rhythm structures to the observer. While an object varies from another of the same kind. ellipses circles etc. They have given a new way to observe and study the various aspects of daily life. In a fern leaf for example. Nature embodies in itself a complex miscellany even in the symmetry of any object. each different in shapes and sizes. . They have innumerable possibilities. motion of object under defined circumstances etc.Irregularity .000 points. fractal geometry forms a set of instructions on how to form fractals. mountains and even clouds. Symmetry is another way of complimenting an object. Fractal geometry was defined. and tantalizing with new and unexpected twists. tranquillity and discord. hot and cold. A relative size of a fractal is such that.Self similarity Fractals go beyond normal imagination. Hence the extensive study done on forms and structures unveils a new world of several different units. there is a progression of a self similar form which forms the structure molecule. perfect parallels and perpendiculars.

such as the internal combustion engine has been the symbol of progress and mankind’s mastery over nature for the last hundred years. We have degraded almost every major ecosystem in the world thereby compromising on basic natural factors like air. the houses we live and the offices we work in. Wright brothers were avid bird watchers.. The concrete came into existence in the 18th century and this new building material changed the world. and their airplane wing design was modeled after birds. We need Biomimicry! . a bionic car inspired by box fish. which forms the dragline and web frame. For the designing of Crystal Palace Joseph Paxton used the structure of a lily pad as inspiration in 1852.g. Multiple inventions have been developed in the fields of medicine. It is not surprising that machines are the ultimate metaphor for the buildings of today. It is possible and within our reach to design innovative and creative designs which lead to sustainability. water and soil. specifically adapted to place and able to draw all of their requirements for energy and water from the surrounding. Hence we need to be bio-inspired. Water Lily INTRODUCTION Human being was always in search of shelter from the prehistoric period. In addition. After 3. e. one of the 20th century’s greatest architects even went so far as to say that “houses are machines for living in. Man is always the focal point for all design as he is the user of the space. In the future. a solar cell inspired by a leaf. Spider silk is one of the most sought after biomaterials. Also. self cleaning paint inspired by lotus leaves. BIOMIMICRY From the Greek word ‘bios’ meaning life and ‘mimesis’ meaning imitation.What works? What is appropriate? What lasts? Biomimicry is a new way of viewing and valuing nature. In simple words Biomimicry is the ‘Inventions inspired by the Nature’. and engineering. The machine. to traverse long distances in short amounts of time and has revolutionized everything from food production to the manufacture of clothing. The age of curtain walls for the internal cooling and heating system came into existence but the overall rigid form of the building remained same. Even when we understand these designing criteria the gap between understanding & application remains the same. Biomimicry is a new science that studies nature’s models and imitates or takes inspiration from these designs and processes to solve the human problems. We need change . nature has learned. One of the major advantages of biomaterials is that they are normally biodegradable. BIOMIMICRY AND ARChITeCTURe History of architecture in the 20th century can be looked upon as a history of buildings emulating machines and technology. has the advantage of being both light and flexible. The machine has allowed us to achieve comfort in any climate. This material.8 million years of evolution. The web is composed of two types of silk. construction technology and thinking. which forms the gluecovered catching spiral. The reinforced cement concrete frame structure with the rigid form of building can be seen very frequently till today. the major ampullate silk. commercial complex in Harare inspired by termite mound etc.” FUTURe PROJeCTION As architectural evolution took place. there is currently only a small amount of research within the architecture community that explores Biomimicry. There is an urgent need for the multifunctional space in the future where building will function by computer operated systems. Le Corbusier. The humans and the environment were finely tuned. but on what we can learn from it. material science. which involves synthesizing natural materials and applying this to practical design. APPLICATION One major application of Biomimicry is the field of Biomaterials. Biomimicry uses an ecological standard to judge the rightness of our innovations. we have seen different construction techniques which help in human’s comfort and protection from harsh climatic conditions. The ever-changing building skin was possible only because invention of new building material. More and more use of steel structure with tensile building material now helps in flexibility of the spaces. As he started his journey. Animal skin was used for protection against harsh weather conditions. Industry also imitates nature. East Gate Centre. The journey started with load bearing structures where vernacular building materials were used.Biomimicry: A New Way of Living Palash Deolankar IIT Roorkee Below: Bird’s Nest. and the viscid silk.154 Mpa while steel is 400 Mpa . A time will come when structure and skin will be combined together and more flexibility will be the prime concern. and pound for pound is roughly three times stronger than steel: the tensile strength of the radial threads of spider silk is 1. produced by special glands in a spider’s body. However. It introduces an era based not on what we can extract from the natural world. gaining a reputation as the “Holy Grail” of biomaterials. Connection between humans and environment got disconnected when poor quality design started.In terms of material. will be designed to function like living organisms. the invention of new materials for safe and comfortable shelter was the prime concern. robotics. the extreme temperatures and hazardous chemicals often used in manmade construction are usually unnecessary with natural alternatives.

And the structural element of Gothic magnifies itself as it moves back from Romanesque to the construction of Basilica. Mecca is a marvel..Bricked up dreams… Chhavi Arya CCA. But let us not limit it to the creation of patterns or a novel architecture.Chandigarh Fractals – Anti fractals & Its interpretation in Sacred Architecture Shaiwanti Gupta MNIT. is more efficacious than a thousand in other places” The fractal order in a natural holy mountain Arafat and man-made creation of Mecca may be quite similar but it is this fractal that defines the very nature of an organized complexity that not only is a repetitive pattern but also an organic interpretation. Chapel’s interior . Mecca. It’s a reciprocal relationship of form and volume that infuse certain emotions of wonder. hand etc is eliminated. But does architecture play a role in any way that can lead to such a strong emotional impact and a spiritual satisfaction? Architecturally speaking. Fractal here does not remain as a pattern to be scaled in the ratio of non-integral terms but an interpretation of what it does. of a scale much larger relates to something that cannot comprehend to a mere human scale. cutting Drawing.. Deconstructive style being characterized by unbalanced. Addressed differently. a minaret that stands beside. something that creates space. The ornamentation from a scale 2mm to 2m. change their scale and intensify their form? A pilgrim’s journey of faith to the Grand Mosque in Mecca vanquishes the worldly desire and leads to a spiritual evaluation. One day though There I was Wrinkled and bent And I stood At the end of the road Watching a loving couple Embraced beneath an arch I had bricked up Watching a couple o’ kids Playing in a backyard I had designed Ah! I thought Unexpected laughter Bubbled inside me The old man had been right after all Playing with lines And floors He’d said Building homes Spaces to interact Designing life Bricking up dreams With a smile I turned away To find a young boy looking up at me He seemed around five. Jaipur I was five When I met him An impressionable age The old man stood At the end of the road Staring at the huge Sprawling house ‘’I like to play with lines’’ he said “I designed that house “he said “My bricked up dreams “ he said I held him in awe Stupid me! I often cursed him Later in life Cursed him For igniting the spark Cursed him silently When i Fought with my parents I wanted to be an architect I wanted to brick up my dreams Cursed him volubly When I worked n worked at college Measuring. always drawing. It is the presence of a fractal in an architectural space that enhances its emotive sense. A minimalist building altogether defies the existence of fractals. is the perforated north wall that brings in the drama. arm.” In that voice Stupid old man! Cursed him most of all Because I loved Every minute of it. how it is relevant in a space and why it needs application in the real world. can these rays of colored light become a fractal of space that magnifies with kinesthetic movement. Chapel at Ronchamp. a way in which life exists. Apart from the abstract geometry it leaves nothing in detail on magnification. a typical attribute of anti-fractals. Can the concept of making a holy place for Christianity over the time of some 2000 years contain a fractal element in its space? The treatment of light that remains a more philosophical fractal here. In such a place. France by Le Corbusier. Cursed him When people sneered at me “Architect”? They’d ask ”ohhhhh…. cutting Measuring. Facing Page (L-R): The Grand Mosque. It is this realization that in a micro way infuses faith in that which lies above us all and is much grand than our existence. is not just composition of 2D – Element or a detailed plan of a building juxtaposed by a flamboyant elevation. which corresponds to the human scale of structuresSize of the eye.. But inside it. where the same pattern of very small detail scales a measurable human form. “One prayer in this-my mosque. finger. This can be defined as an ‘Anti-Fractal’ approach. Architecture. Does that leave the Chapel at Ronchamp a less emotive architecture? There is least detail as one approaches the building. Here the delicate details and intrinsic geometry in each element stands apart and is a gem of its own. It is an art that stimulates moment. chaotic forms can approach a statistical fractal but have no patterns on single scale or linked across different scales. peace or mystery. Fractals literally stand for the repetitive modules that reduce themselves by a certain scale. magnifies itself through the time-line. as we know it.

economic. River Cauvery flooded and flourished SOUTH INDIA and its considered holy. aesthetic. It dates from the PALEOLITHIC period. The Cholas were the most powerful among the other rulers. absolute truth. one among the mightiest kingdom among the world. These three dynasties were in constant struggle with each other vying for hegemony. EARLY. kingdoms with great power and dominance. Remains such as potteries. Kalabhras subjugated the Tamil country after defeating the ancient Chera. To cause a revival of usage and public participation as a community activity in restoration. social and even political and spiritual or symbolic values. documentary.D. Some of the ancient civilizations that prospered were Chera. The Chola period has been classified to three periods namely. saw the fall of the mighty Cholas and during this “Dark age “the Chola Empire almost completely disappeared from their native. Balaji. thus proving its ancient ethnicity. Man derives basic necessities of Food. A number of civilizations have had their births at the lap of this holy river. This Dark age of the Tamil history came to an end with the ascendancy of the Pandyas and the Pallavas thus reviving the Chola dynasty. Pandya ruled their respective The Chola dynasties were at the heights of their power continuously from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. Clothing. Cholas. Chola and Pandya Period were also known as the “GOLDEN AGE” of Tamil Nadu. evolved kingdoms with guilds and feuds. It is responsible for the fertility and robustness of Tamil Nadu. through its long life to the present day. for it is a symbol of our cultural identity and continuity – a part of our heritage. the Cholas set the first milestone of the medieval period by 846 A. and Shelter. The Vijiayanageras . The Chola King Vijayalaya Chola was one among its ancient kings and held Pazhaiyarai as their capital city for nearly 200 years. NeeD FOR CONSeRVATION To preserve historically valued buildings and their cultural features. Her territories are ruled by so many powerful men. but the first impact is always emotional. Evolution of mankind from ape to man has seen transformation through ages. From the first act of its creation. “One Man ruled and other man obeyed “ South India. the Hoysala and Chalukyas. It was during this time. To restore the derelict and decaying conditions to a newer and preservable state. Thus 300 A.Understanding historic Urban Settlements Hindustan University. Mankind has sustained over these ever changing ages through flourishing and desperation of the civilization. Man rose to power. Chennai (PAZHAYARAI – THE RUINED CITY) R. “The Post-Sangam period saw the rise and fall of the Chola Empire.“ Ref: ‘The Cholas’ – Neelakanda shasthri . Chola and Pandya Kings. A complexity of ideas and of cultures may be said to encircle an historic building and be reflected in it. Earlier the Chera. School of Architecture INTRODUCTION An historic building is one that gives us a sense of wonder and makes us want to know more about the people and culture that produced it. and Pandyas. Chola. “Civilizations flourished along the river “. archeological. a historic building has artistic and human ‘messages’ which will be revealed by a study of its history. Ref: ‘Pirkaala Cholar Saritharam’. The Chera. It has architectural. To add value to oldness by preserving it intact.D. MEDEIVAL and LATER. Man thrives on them for existence. historic. To enhance the importance of valuable history to the public age. one of the most ancient Empires ever seen in the Indian history. burial pots and cave paintings have been discovered by archaeological survey.Sadhasiva Pandithar Tamil Nadu.

Arasalaru. Suzhi.. The temple has been revered by the verses of Appar. This capital city with its vast fertile land is bordered by the four padai veedu Puthupadai veedu – in the North-west Manapadai veedu – in the South-west Pambapadai veedu – in the South-east Aariyapadai veedu – in the North-east The king beautified this plane by implanting over thousand Lingas as temples. which have flourished over time. artistic excellence attained by this place in the past. has been completely neglected from the canvas of history. All these panoramas made Pazhaiyarai a very authoritative capital in the Chola history. Veli. Padugai. Paalayum. Earth science: Soil is basically alluvial rich in minerals that promote the growth of plantation crops. Mutrum. Oor. defeating Pandyas and Pallavas. Theru. Katti. Savadi.2 ºc to 36. Rainfall: Some occasional rainfall from March to May. Aaru. Medu. Puram. Pettai. Nallur. This capital city enclosed numerous small villages: Veedu. 6km from Kumbakonam. Sambandar and Sundarar.23’E to 79. The scene of Ravaneswara holding Kailasanathar in his hands is beautifully carved in this temple. ChANGe OVeR TIMe Pazhaiyarai unlike many great civilizations. Location: Pazhaiyarai. Pazhaiyarai was believed to be the birth place of the Chola king who first invaded the kingdoms.Sethuraman Coordinates: It is ordinated in the latitude of 79. Maligai. thus became a place of desolation even till today. Kovil. Kulam. Thoopu. Araimetrali in the south and Thenthali in the south. Eecharum. cultural glory. Kai.38’E. a saint amongst the 63 nayanmars. This was framed as the first capital city after the invasion by the Cholas. The Somanatha Swami temple lies in the centre of the settlement surrounded by Pazhaiyarai Vadathali (Palace) in the north. Agragharam. North by Arasalaru and South by Kudamuruti river. Thidal. This ancient settlement has very little mentions in historical records and its presumed to be included under Kumbakonam. They have never been equalled.history of the ruined city. Pazhaiyarai A pure river side settlement. since then Pazhaiyarai lost its charm and shrinked into a hamlet village. annual rainfall – 1115mm Temperature: It has a mean temperature range of about 32. Settlements in this capital city were planned in accordance to the peoples’ line of work. etc. Thanjavur District. Seri. Maathi. Tamil Nadu India . Paadi. PReSeNT SCeNARIO A careful study of the finds of ‘Pazhaiyarai ‘ throws a flood of light on the social structure. on the west by the Suntharaperumal temple. The ancient Pazhaiyarai was bounded on the East by Marudhanallur. he shifted the capital to Tanjore. It is a gentle slope from North to South. Kottai. Climate: It has a moderate climate with hot summers and occasional rainfall. “Ever in the history of the world there has never been such a long period of reign as a supreme power for nearly 430 years. Later when Raja Raja Chola came to power. This is said to be the birth place of Mangayarkarasiyar. the temple city. religious. It has an elevation of about 24m from sea level. Vanum.8 ºc. Kudi. Thali.” Ref: ‘Earlier Cholas’ . Terrain: It is a low lying fertile delta plain flourished annually by numerous rivers like Cauvery.

. We can feel it everywhere. not strictly governed by rules and principles . Cultural: . This is what happened in case of Pazhaiyarai.Self modified Architecture gave rise to thinnai which was built for the relaxation of weary travellers.Culture and tradition has shaped architecture . . Singapore.The Somanatha Swami Temple is the focus but the village has developed around it.Rearing cows gave rise to cattle shed. later faded loosing its essence and now its yet another hamlet village in Kumbakonam with very limited developments.People here lead a simple life. This historic urban has thus carved its niche in the canvas of history. Religious context: . . Fianl Year. Its always necessary for a change to be of a positive degree. .No traces of historical social structure .Comprising mainly of Hindus .The settlement is located 6kms approximately from Kumbakonam.Its located.Cultural essence is lost . But in today’s world change of a particular subject leads to its extinction or conclusion. (Edited Photograph) by Apoorv Kaushik. 2kms from patteeswarum and nearly 3kms away from Dharasurum. . a term that is ethnic to Tamilians that talk about the society and people. .The dharasurum railway station is nearby. Transportation: . CCA Social structure / context: .Virundhombal.Village panchayats held .But festivals and ceremonies are always celebrated with the same pomp and posh . . . Physical: .The roads are parallel to each other. Blowing with the wind of change.Homogenous group of people. These are evident enough to frame Pazhaiyarai as an urban settlement in history.The physical aspects of the village are similar to any type of village in South India. Winds of change are necessary.The best mode is taking town buses or mini buses from Kumbakonam . CONCLUSION: The futures’ in the air.People live hand in hand with one another Human ecology: It has a total population of about 350 which turns up to be sparse.Facing: Construction Site. As the ancient theories rest on assumptions that makes no sense. .Worshippers of Lord Shiva known as Saivites .Worshippers of Lord Vishnu known as Vaishnavites The Cholas were strictly the followers of Lord Shiva There is a pointer in history especially during one of the Chola kings Karikal Cholan that a severe clash between saivites and vaishnavites happened.Open cooking gave rise to the construction of open kitchens.Hamlet village . the city which was once a mighty capital of a dynasty.

and reinforced with the strict alignment of buildings. again evenly along its length. Another point is the scale on which the fractal dimension is measured: great urban environments use fractals on the human scale. This folding arises spontaneously as a natural consequence of urban forces.e. whereas contemporary cities enhance the largest scale but suppress everything else. whereas dead environments deliberately remove them. Fractals have two related characteristics: they show complexity at every magnification. This creates a fractal line with fractal dimension less than one. These were replaced by long. it is convoluted. Take a wire and compress it longitudinally. Despite the obvious threat to public space. and lines that are only approximately straight on the large scale. like a crinkly meandering river or folded curtain. harmony. In contradiction modernist buildings have no fractal qualities i. whereas contemporary cities enhance the largest scale but suppress everything else. and lines that are only approximately straight on the large scale. Historical cities are richly structured at every magnification. and then it will break into aligned pieces so as to be able to extend its length. There.S. and their edges and interfaces are not smooth. i. A city has to do with the largest scale. it will first straighten. one finds gentle curves that are crinkled on the small scale. creating another type of fractal. portions of buildings that grow outwards onto the pavement. nourishing feelings of the greatest historical buildings . a curved structure such as the Circus and Royal Crescent at Bath arises from compression. not only there are very few scales but different scales are not linked in any way.Fractals In New Architecture Niyati Shetty L. Christopher Alexander a brilliant architectural theorist proposed that the basic laws for architecture and urbanism depends upon scientific rules rather than stylistic dictates which can create new buildings that duplicate the intensity positive. for example. one finds gentle curves that are crinkled on the small scale. going right down to the detail in the materials. whereas human beings connect to the human scales. A fractal has some connective structure at different scales. It will buckle and crinkle. a colonnade is useful when the intercolumn spaces are roughly between 1m and 3m. straight roads. comparable to the human scale of movement. Pull it to straighten it out. Fractals have two related characteristics: they show complexity at every magnification. The reason given was to clean up the perceived messiness of older cities. Raheja School of Architecture. fairly evenly along its entire length. Crescent at Bath arises from compression. There. creating a fractal boundary of dimension greater than one. it seems that this process represents a natural evolution of the built boundary into a more stable fractal form. truth and rightness are permanent and universal. A fractal has some connective structure at different scales.. Historical cities are richly structured at every magnification. A building edge couples by interweaving with its adjoining space.e. yet that messiness was really the organized complexity that made them alive. Generating an architectural fractal Generating mathematical fractal on different scales Fractal properties are seen mostly in traditional buildings as well as folk architecture Most of the cities are fractal right from the paths streets to the shape of the facades and placing of trees which is seen vividly in cities like Paris . The most important urban structures exist on much smaller scales. Fractal generated by tension and breaking Traditional villages show an infinite range of fractal interfaces between their building fronts and street. a curved structure such as the Circus and Royal Non-fractal structure suppresses the human scale A portico is a fractal on the human scale . One of the stated aims of modernism was to eliminate any architectural interface with fractal dimension. Even in formal planning.London and Venice which has been mathematically measured by people like Michael batty and Frankauster. Curvature arises from longitudinal compression. but are either perforated or crinkled. Even in formal planning. and so it is crinkled on the human scale. Traditional villages show an infinite range of fractal interfaces between their building fronts and street. Mumbai Traditional architecture and urbanism require a sense of modesty and humility from the individual creator towards the sacred creation of the universe as well as a basic institution that concepts of beauty. and so it is crinkled on the human scale. When an urban interface is not permeable. but are either perforated or crinkled. justice. without copying neither their form nor their style. A fractal structure is a structure in which there’s some observable structure at every level of magnification and different levels of scale are very tightly linked by the design. For example. and their edges and interfaces are not smooth.

The purpose of the project is to expose the visitor to spaces generated through abstract rules starting from a known familiar pattern. but the damage extends far deeper. Project developed by Daniela Sirbu.it fails miserably as an environment for children from infants to teenagers. The proposed interactive art project provides a basis for qualitative analysis synthesizing principles for virtual architecture design as a basis for the creation of spatialized information spaces. psychological. The new forms of digital architecture are explored from the perspective of their relation with thought. Environmentalists increasingly blame architects for damaging the natural environment. at a contemporary city -. and multiple dimensions of human existence in the information age. perception. University of Lethbridge Natural structures are fractal. developing along the historical line described by Siegfried Gideon. This philosophy does not respect a tree or an older building. The movie explores interactions between the inner and outer spaces of the Palladian digitally generated forms of architecture. and section drawings. This interactive art project (figure) investigates in experiential ways the generative power of Palladian architecture taking “La Rotonda” as the starting point of the digital journey. Screen shot.Interactive art. The interactive character of the digital space allows the visitor to experience La Rotonda both as pure geometrical abstraction starting from the plan. The investigation is meant to emphasize the idea of a new space conception related to the specifics of architectural space in an artificial changeable environment. and as anthropomorphic digital architecture allowing human orientation in the virtual space based on behaviours acquired through interaction with real architecture. whereas only traditional buildings are fractal. Modernism teaches us to eliminate fractal structures and to replace them with non-fractal built structures.Digital Reflections of Palladian Spaces . . and physical separation of human beings from their environment. The eradication of the fractal qualities of our cities and towns has lead to the philosophical. New directions of design and development for Internet portals are investigated based on the transfer of architectural composition and structures to the organization of the digital medium. The visitor’s actions generate new patterns of possible Palladian architecture representing the digital reflections of the real Palladian spaces.

available for exploration on multiple planes. shots staging emphasize the exposition of different artificial worlds. An accumulation of details is used as an operational device throughout the movie to provide references toward the coexisting different universes. The viewer is floating between emerging universes that can never be seen concretized. then it is investigated as a growing abstract construction evolving from a nucleus pattern provided by “La Rotonda. The development in time of the visual composition is operated through manipulation of visual perception shifts from one meaningful element to another. a counterexample of pictorial continuity in the sense it is performed in classical Hollywood style. Starting from architecture as abstract form.” The architectural space is first exposed as pure geometry.Imaginary Palladian Spaces . The movie investigates the poetics of the evolving architectural forms and how these are related to the original starting pattern. Screen shot. perception. . It explores a digital architectural space in development taking as a starting point Palladio’s villa “La Rotonda. This movie investigates the interplay between the evolving character of the digital architecture and the development of new patterns of human behaviour in interaction with the changeable virtual environment.” then it is explored through interactions between emerging inner and outer spaces. the movie attempts to link the beauty of pure geometry with human thought. The movie begins with abstract representations of architecture. Project developed by Daniela Sirbu. University of Lethbridge This image (figure) explores in experiential ways the idea of a fourth space conception rooted in the specifics of the digital medium. Change the relationships between the interior and the exterior of the virtual architecture and their coexistence in simultaneous shots are investigated in order to experiment with differences and similarities in the perception of represented and real spaces. The movie development is characterized by the coexistence of a number of parallel universes. Throughout the movie. Transitions in the movie are a very effective device.Movie. and then develops towards an exploration of evocative values of an active and changing digital architectural environment. and the multiple dimensions of human existence.

it is a sad fact that old buildings across the globe lack that privilege.they are all the same. Karan Grover. One such architect in India. palaces. Gujrat “Whatever is good in its kind ought to be preserved in respect for antiquity as well as for our present advantage for destruction can be profitable to none but such as live by it” -Nicholas Hawksmoor The oxford states that conservation is to prevent something from loss or wastage or damage-be it forest. water or old buildings. the traditional engineering and Knowledge are being rediscovered. It was at its time a prime example of colonial art and architecture. Today conservation of old buildings or rather historically important buildings presents a different ideology. many years after its construction. which include strengthening of the local economy due to increased tourist influx and consequent reduction in the labour migration to surrounding cities. The site includes. Originally the palace was built with intricately decorated cornices. With the decline of Maitraks in the 9th century. the latter being largely fuelled by Niraj Jain. is being drained along with its rivers and lakes. Pune Below: Jama Masjid. The royal palaces had elaborate systems of water channels running through the inner rooms for creating comfortable and cool environments for the inhabitants. if conserved has to be functional and a source of income. the anti-heritage lobby is complaining against the restrictions put on construction of commercial and residential structures in the protected zone. S SCOA. its historical significance is lost among the wild that grows beside it. Sustainable balance. which was recently cited among the World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. They say conservation does not guarantee immortality. in the rapid depletion of two national resources: water and ancient architecture. Recently I had visited a government office housed in a colonial palace.This region came under the Mughals in the year 1535 when it was plundered by Humayun. share a general dislike for all that is good and beautiful in this world. The city is dotted with thousands of wells which catered to the requirements of the individual households. like the Jami Masjid. yet Indian at their heart. as a measure for development. Perhaps the thoughts of delaying mortality are the reason behind Karan Grover’s efforts. but still water was being stored. The site’s Muslim period began with Sultan Mehmood Begada. ceilings and columns. residential precincts. a vast archive of accumulated technical knowhow and reason. The Champaner Pavagadh Archaeological park is a first living heritage site which house about 4000 people in it. Still undoubtedly. One such work of his is the old city of Champaner. . the various architectural features the reserved forest beside it and the Kalika Mata temple on topof the Pavagadh hill all together make this heritage site a fantastic tourist spot. making a monument a tourist centre is a better option than letting nature take its toll. when it was first inhabited by the Stone Age man. both Hindu and Muslim. The history of the Champaner-Pavagadh archaeological park dates back to pre-historic times. which pass through their hands. India’s architectural heritage. and Lila Gumbaj are typical of the Sultanate architecture with medieval Hindu influence. although a rare phenomenon. at times Futuristic in appearance. the practice attempts to conceive buildings and design projects that are very Contemporary. fortifications. With the idea that the traditional architecture of India was the most sustainable of all. The architecture here is a blend of Muslim and Hindu styles. The water was collected in large catchments by diverting it from small rivulets and stored at a higher plane to keep the ground water recharged. It is unfortunate how all fundamentalists. The fact that we find the question on conservation worth discussing marks the essential difference between the two views of conservation and underlines the fact that what we do is conditioned by our motives in doing anything at all. Secretary of the Heritage Thrust of Vadodara. Grover has always spread the urgently needed social commitment to the conservation of both endangered historical buildings and rapidly depleting water supplies. Grover’s architecture reflects his concerns with the heritage and built landscape of India. Karan Grover and Associates. Slowly. The landscape around the park. Due to this commercialization the citizens of this city will be highly benefited. Nagina Masjid. is Ar. presently battling to alvage the magnificent architectural history of our country. the main significance of this site lies in its understanding of the traditional water networks which is emerging as an area of scientific research. the latter complaint has obvious communal overtones.An apologist’s crusade Vani. early settlements were recorded in the 6th and 7th century AD when the site became part of the Maitrak dynasty. Though conservation of water and forest is of prime importance. In a very commercial world the historic importance of a building is valued only if it can generate back the funds invested in it. He believes that India demands something more than merely adopting the western norms of architecture. Currently a debate is raging among the pro-heritage and anti-heritage lobbies. The Muslim monuments. And for Grover who is constantly working to save the dwindling sources of water and historical buildings. Though the palace still stands. It then passed into the hands of Khichi Chauhans of Rajasthan. The challenges of the Pavagadh hill were substantial. He believes that Indians are oblivious to the role that they are playing. this was the cherry on the cake. Subsequently. In such situations conservation architects have to work within the current constraints and still be effective advocates for all the buildings. has emerged into a multi-disciplinary organization with an in-house engineering team which is seen as an integral part of architectural design activity. agricultural structures and water installations. attributed mainly to Hindu artisans. religious buildings. This site is the only complete and unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city in India. who shifted his capital from Ahmedabad to Champaner fort in 1484. among other vestiges. from the 8th to the 14th centuries. The long architectural history of this country and the development of its style to cater to climatic needs provided the framework for this search. These days the “in” thing is to revamp any structure of historical importance into a tourist centre where the guide narrates the history of all the people ever been there and the tourists ooh and aah after him. is being maintained here even today. The community has developed this very spontaneously. lack of local consultation. a BJP member from Vadodara. In spite of the obvious advantages to the local people from the world heritage site status of this area. Any historic building. Champaner. The efficient system of rain water harvesting is another source of knowledge which is an important landmark for the holistic development of the area. the region came under the influence of Gurajar Pratihar and Parmara rulers. and they feel that Muslim monuments are getting more attention than the Kalika Mata temple.

To put it in context. The Royal Shakespeare Theatre. I’m not remotely surprised to find that. the Odeon-like Royal Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-Upon-Avon by Elisabeth Scott was built during the same slump. But don’t run away with the idea that.016-foot “Shard” by his old chum Renzo Piano at London Bridge is powering ahead. That’s better known as the “Helter Skelter” because of its spiralling shape.nicknamed the Cheesegrater. London Below: The Shard (Proposed). 4th January 2009. always my favourite because it expands into a complete city district at its base. It’s getting cheaper. 1929 . as “All hail the New Puritans” Facing Page: The Emipre State Building. a wholly invented place that future historians and archaeologists will have a lot of trouble explaining. With less being built.but at least it’s there. but had raised only one-third of the money. Overblown stylings are out the window. London There’s nothing like a recession for bringing architecture back to its senses. In the Great Depression of early 1930s America. indoor ski slopes. In Britain. January).barring absolute economic Armageddon are too far along to stop now. Meanwhile in London. It will open in April. the incredibly ambitious building of Manhattan’s three great skyscrapers demonstrated a dogged confidence in the future that turned out to be fully justified. during another big recession. we can all breathe a sigh of relief that the bubble of speculative apartment building has burst. just across the road from his famous Lloyd’s of London building . courtesy of Belgian architects Robbrecht en Daem.1932. what with big lower-rise developments under way by the likes of France’s Jean Nouvel or London’s Nicholas Grimshaw. These.although there are perhaps fewer cranes than there used to be . New York. suddenly. By and large. it is now well advanced with its new 70m Museum of Liverpool (over leaf) on the revived Pierhead. however. the 945-foot “Pinnacle” on Bishopsgate. New Puritanism stalks the streets. who often had no interest in seeing them occupied. Richard Rogers’ proposed 737-foot Leadenhall tower . we shall shortly be seeing a 13m extension (into a former public library) of the Whitechapel Art Gallery. but by overseas investor clubs transfixed by capital gain. Which would be a shame.From empire State to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre How recessions produce fine architecture hugh Pearman An expanded version of the article published in The Sunday Times. But back to the City of London. were all begun long ago and . while Rogers is well advanced with his enormous ultraluxury apartment blocks for the Candy brothers in Knightsbridge. I find myself wondering about London’s biggest cultural project.within the shell of the old building. But the1. But what does this one herald? Less is definitely more when it comes to dumb shopping malls. For instance. Oddly enough its 100m successor by Bennetts Associates with theatre consultants Charcoalblue is being built right now . Thus we have the Chrysler and Empire State buildings and the Rockefeller Centre. Unless director Sir Nicholas Serota has some magic cash fountain. The much tighter new 1. They are. Despite everything people like to say about the alleged maladroitness of Liverpool. this is a good thing.000 seat theatre will open in 2010. nearly double its previous size. nondescript speculative office blocks. Given this precedent. others are not. Good riddance to them. Around the country.shades of the Sydney Opera House there . sprawling edge-of-town housing estates.you’d almost think there was a boom on. I’d expect some backpedalling soon. that’s half as tall again as the existing Tower 42 (previously the NatWest Tower) or Norman Foster’s newer Gherkin. So if a powerful city like Birmingham can find the wherewithal to build its proposed new cultural quarter (central library and Birmingham Rep . Most of those formulaic new blocks pepperpotting city centres were driven not by need. the 500-foot hooded cobra of Rafael Vinoly’s Fenchurch Street tower (the stop-or-go decision there is planned for March) things seem set fair for another supertall example. Lawson-boom era. Shame they sacked the original Danish architect . Take a stroll through the City today and . Tate Modern’s 215m extension into a brick-and-glass ziggurat behind the old power station of the original building. there’s time to think. nobody is building anything anymore.is to have its construction halted for the time being at foundation level. and is by American architects KPF. A new generation of cool modernists was born. Further west you’ll find Piano doing another of these big-but-not-skyscraperish commercial schemes right next to Centre Point at the end of Oxford Street. And while you can’t help wondering about an equally controversial project. and will open in 2010. Last time I checked. they were still hoping to get the thing done ultra-fast in time for the 2012 London Olympics (a revised planning application goes in this month. though some plans for new City of London skyscrapers are on hold. mass-market tourist developments and just about anything in Dubai. the last recession brought down the curtain on the unlamented ticky-tacky decadence of the postmodern. of course. some promising cultural projects have made it through the madness. On the plus side. as now is a great time to build.

CCA combined). Final Year. John McAslan. Even a surprising amount of private housing. One group of people who always look on the bright side during a recession is the conservation lobby. mark the end of the line? Only. Did the year that saw the death of Jorn Utzon. history tells us that the architecture will be different. for the time being.into the old East End . Big new inter-city railway stations. The work cannot stop. Stuff.well. It’s not dead yet . with overblown plans for Smithfield axed and a new architect.Below: Museum of Liverpool Facing: High School #9 by Coop Himmelb(l)au. for instance. until the money returns. by Apoorv Kaushik. and Birmingham New Street by rising stars Foreign Office Architects. And there’s always our Austerity Olympics. in expansion zones like Milton Keynes. The main stadium is now emerging. But when it does. appointed to come up with something more appropriate. But stylistically? Well. . For instance. is happening. Ashford and Didcot.but the end of its reign is perhaps in sight. we may be in for quite a bout of pattern-making in the next wave of buildings. such as London King’s Cross by John McAslan (again). Across the UK. you’ll find lots of schools being built . Every artistic movement has its decadent phase. into Smithfield. Many hospitals and clinics. followed by a clearing out of the aesthetic stables. Less good existing stuff gets knocked down. Those plans are now on hold.and west. are in hand. building itself a cultural history overnight . some awful. some at least of the New Puritans are getting very interested in ornament again. the City of London was making big plans to expand its office empire both east . This time round. Los Angeles. there are plenty of defenders of the existing Brutalist 1970s library. This time will be no different for architecture.Abu Dhabi is still collecting the things.some good. I think. but for one interesting detail. architect of the Sydney Opera House and thus the progenitor of the whole icon craze. Last time round saw a return to clean-cut modernism and the ruthless expunging of post-modern ornament. And if not . But they’re more likely to be a sensible shape. then. Odd though it may seem. now’s the time to get on with it. the New Puritans are triumphant at the thought of the death of the weird-shaped icon building.

which often fails to respond to demographic and environmental conditions. The screens act as partial rain. to overcome the resistance of people like you and me to steel houses. semi-private and private spaces that are designed to encourage engagement within the local context. extending the theory and practice of architecture in a way that demonstrates a profound understanding of its cultural and communicational possibilities presented their winning designs before the global steel industry. are supporting Piercy Conner’s efforts to finalize the design plans for build. their self-imposed challenge was to create an economically viable alternative that would be “expressive. The concept creates a hierarchy of community. medical facilities. The first steel residential building in India and construction will create a lot of interest in many spheres throughout the country and beyond. power supply and drainage A BUILDING WITH SKIN Folding steel trays with differing design cuts create a unique rain.” Their solution is based on a dwelling design Piercy Conner calls SYMHOUSEMK1. Gondia For the proponents of steel in construction. So in designing for the Indian location.Steel Structures SYMHOMES MK1. Sanon Sen & Associates. 10 typical screens were created in folding steel trays with differing laser or plasma cuts. WHICH IS AN ELEMENT ACCORDING TO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA. Piercy Conner believes that contemporary housing rarely deviates from the accepted model of sealed cellular spaces. Winners of the 1st International resource on sustainable and innovative use of steel in residential construction. and a secret garden creates a semi-private retreat. the real challenge lies in the residential sector. This project mainly for HIG’s in Rajarhat will provide homes for around 750. large public open spaces including water-bodies. Piercy Conner who has been lauded by the British Counsel as an firm that has emerged in the last five years as one of the most conceptually advanced architectural practices of its generation. which is located 10km to the North-east of Kolkata’s (formerly Calcutta) Central Business District and about 1km from Kolkata International Airport.000 people and cater for some 250. JALIS ARE USED IN THIS STRUCTURE FOR THE VENTILATION PURPOSE. The resulting façade is reminiscent of many screens and freezes found in Indo-Islamic architecture. Kolkata. KOLKATA: A NEW DIMENSION TO HOUSING IN INDIA Umesh Agrawal MIET. privacy and sun screens. conditioned contemporary living space enveloped by a permeable responsive outer skin. As the two “natures” permeate each other. educational institutions. sports and cultural facilities in addition to basic infrastructure like water supply. The landscape is used to reinforce the idea of event spaces. Based on the data. privacy and sun screen. the in-between spaces become an outdoor room and the internal spaces engage with the landscape. Will the Rajarhat project help to do that? October’07. Symhouse conceptualizes the symbiotic relationship of a sealed. bridges. The construction site for Living Steel’s Kolkata demonstration is to in Kolkata New Town.000 floating population will have high quality infrastructure including wide roads. The permeable outer skin is created from a series of steel panels that are positioned according to layered data from sun path studies. the International Iron and Steel Institute’s Annual Conference and Meetings in Buenos Aires added another dimensions in the Indian architecture. key views and privacy. . called Rajarhat. while also animating the building and effecting a dramatic day to night visual transition. while still providing secure and safe homes. joyful and responsive to the environment.

These buildings can be constructed by a relatively unskilled workforce. Steel houses may sound outlandish but they are quite common in many parts of the world. But these were primarily showpieces put up by the steel manufacturer to show that it was possible to make steel houses. utilizing the existing supply chain infrastructure. The structural frame is fabricated as individual elements within the steel fabrication shop and assembled on-site using bolted connections. but the Indian population which has mould themselves to live in brick and concrete structures. and community space. This standardization supports buildings that are predictable in construction. They are constructed using a simple fixing system. This approach will enable the “kit of parts” strategy with significant repeatability. such as the stairs. but most important. The structure has a steel frame with concrete floor slabs on profiled metal decking. “KIT OF PARTS” STRATeGY The SymHomes delivery strategy is based on a factory produced. unit-to-unit and floor-to-floor. floors. glazed and solid elements. lift. Tata Steel built a clubhouse and two bungalows in Jamshedpur entirely of steel. accuracy with precast elements & locally available semi-skilled labor can be employed to raise the building.Below: by Ankita Thakur. standard to all panels. which is very essential for the fast growing population of India. which can be assembled with minimal training. especially Finland and Australia. precise “kit of parts” and simple robust detailing. Similar principals apply to the frame. that allow builders to take advantage of India’s largest resource: its labor force. cost certainty and quality. and that people could live in them. SymHomes uses a series of identical rectangular units arranged around a central core to maximize the economies of repetition as well as shared core areas. The external steel screens are all of the same dimensions. The assembly process borrows from highspeed commercial office construction. can live in these steel homes? . while achieving an acceptable finish quality to attract potential purchasers. CCA. Chandigarh STANDARDIZeD AND PReDICTABLe SymHouse aims to standardize component sizes and assembly processes. Steel structure requires less time to construct.

Similarly. the states of Nevada. when a community decides to enforce or encourage water conservation or enforce requirements which address urban heat island issues. may be one way of reducing water intrusion. The USGBC is a not-for-profit organization which is not affiliated with the federal government.) and embodied energy (which seeks to evaluate criteria similar to LCA. may vary significantly from one green building rating system to another. two-family dwellings and townhouses (low-rise residential structures typically regulated under the International Residential Code). which is one way that maintenance may be reduced in accordance with the NAHB Model Green Home Building Guidelines. Jamia Millia Islamia. as well as to give further weight and definition to the term “green”. A major reason that the LEED program has become so popular and prominent may be that it is a system which can be administered and certified by USGBC staff. Colorado. The previous example of a covered entry is one way in which many homes could be considered green. but typically only for lowrise residential structures. are still in their early stages of development. A point system is often utilized. state and local levels. more and more government agencies are requiring that buildings utilized for government purposes (not privately or corporate owned buildings) be built to “green” standards. compared and evaluated. however. green building rating systems have been developed. which are green building principles. till date these programs have typically been voluntary.100 LEED-NC (LEED for new commercial construction) projects were registered in the year ending September. Why? Because such buildings typically cost significantly less when considered over their expected life span. While it is true that even ancient thatched huts could be considered green buildings. GReeN BUILDING RATING SYSTeMS FOR COMMeRCIAL STRUCTUReS Although similar green and sustainable building concepts can be applied to both commercial and residential structures. these may be considered “green” initiatives. or provided tax abatements or credits for LEED certified commercial buildings. may not cost prohibitively more initially. with points given for each environmentally friendly concept implemented. Green building rating systems typically grade a structure on a scale so that various levels of “green” may be verified or certified. sustainability. For commercial buildings in the United States. recycling and conservation (including the re-use of building materials and products) • Innovation Each of the above major concepts and systems may be broken down into many specific and detailed components. In the same time period. but for all products and materials in an entire building). for example. are in the early stages of their development GReeN BUILDING FOR ReSIDeNTIAL STRUCTUReS With regard to single-family dwellings.Green Buildings THEIR IMPORTANCE AND RATINGS IN PRESENT DAY SCENARIO Siddharth Khitoliya Faculty of Arch & Ekistics. Maryland and Michigan either mandated LEED projects for government buildings and projects. reclamation and conservation • Water efficiency. More prominently. mandatory for federal buildings) and Federal Energy Management and Planning Programs. corporations and designers have overwhelmingly looked to the aforementioned LEED Green building rating system as a basis for the assessment and certification of the anticipated performance of a building with respect to “green” attributes. and may vary significantly from one rating system to the next. for example. the concept of controlling and measuring the impact of the construction of modern buildings on the environment is quite new and revolutionary. developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has been utilized for a limited but fast growing number of “green” commercial structures. Federal government sponsored programs such as Energy Star (Energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new buildings. The determination of what are the proper applications of new concepts such as life cycle analysis (LCA. it is still very much in its infancy. it also has programs to train and certify LEED-accredited professionals. As alluded to previously. as well as all other green building evaluation systems. Even though green building continues to gain significant momentum. These rating systems seek to establish minimum criteria and methods by which green buildings can be measured. 2005. It is important to note. At the federal. Washington. even where jurisdictions have no green building program whatsoever. GReeN BUILDING RATINGS Most buildings. As of 2005. be very arbitrary and unscientific. rather than putting a significant burden on local building departments. which seeks to determine the overall environmental impact of and total energy consumed by building products. although there is an emerging trend toward mandatory green building. address energy and energy conservation. Should all these buildings be considered “green”? To answer this question. transportation. however. in themselves. than conventional structures. that being LEED certified does not mean a building has no negative impact on the environment. federal. a handful of local jurisdictions across the country have developed and are administering their own residential green building programs and rating systems. We hear of “the greening of America” regularly in the media. especially at the level of detail required by some green building rating systems. even where jurisdictions have adopted green building programs. there has been a divergence in the development of the rating systems for each. there is also an emerging trend toward mandatory requirements in communities which have . have less negative impact on the environment and may significantly reduce the huge amount of financial investment required for infrastructure (such as new water treatment and power plants). As noted earlier. Yet more and more such buildings are voluntarily built to “green” standards every year. may be considered “green” to some extent. The USGBC not only rates and certifies green buildings. Some of the criteria and methods used to evaluate green building systems can. The practice of green building typically includes attention to the following primary concepts and systems: • Sustainable/durable/low maintenance building design and operation • Energy efficiency and conservation • Site/land management. In the United States. how they are finally disposed of. as noted earlier. can be very subjective. with incentives given (such as shorter permit and plan review times) to generate interest in the programs. The CURReNT STATUS OF GReeN BUILDING The groundswell of interest in green building in the United States continues to grow and gain momentum. except in special cases as part of specific government sponsored projects. Rhode Island. A covered entry over an exterior entry door. Over 2. such as governed by the ICC International Residential Code. and the LEED program. The criteria analyzed and the relative score assigned to each criteria satisfied. corporate and commercial buildings are not typically required to be “green” (As defined by a green building rating system). etc. Arizona. And what value should be assigned to a materials effect on the ozone vs. its effect on water. from extraction of raw materials to manufacturing. twenty-two thousand professionals were LEED Accredited. the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system. New Delhi MeANING OF A GReeN BUILDING Green buildings can be characterized as those where a conscious effort to minimize the negative and encourage the positive impact of the buildings on both the indoor and outdoor environments has been made. state and local jurisdictions. While there are a fair and growing number of voluntary residential green building programs in the country. management and conservation • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) • Outdoor Air Quality • Material and resource management. The Federal Government and more and more state and local jurisdictions require that government owned buildings as well as government sponsored or funded projects be built to green standards or they may give some form of incentives to expedite private or corporate projects that are built green. a handful of local jurisdictions have developed their own green building criteria or rating systems. even existing buildings. for instance.

such as solar photo-voltaics could be designed and installed with minimal modifications to the structure). On a parallel note. to implement a green building program) recently announced plans to make “Zero-Energy Capable” homes mandatory by 2015. more and more “green” materials and methods will appear in the codes and have an effect on current code text. possibly requiring the creation of new legislation and/or entirely new government agencies. It is certain. Prepared by Allan M. however. The City of Austin contends that such homes could be approximately 60 percent more efficient than homes built to current codes.March 5. RA. Some green building concepts may become hotly contested political issues in the future. and will spill beyond the codes. The intent is that such homes will be energy efficient and adaptable to be net-zero energy efficient homes in the future (when on-site energy generation. although energy is only one component in the green building scenario. Chandigarh had previous experience with voluntary green building programs. 2007 . the greening process will continue to demand the time and effort of many individuals and organizations which safeguard the public health. Texas (which in 1991 became the first city in the U.S.Below: by Ankita Thakur. FINAL ThOUGhTS Over time. it may be of interest to note that the city of Austin. On the contrary. CCA. that the greening of the codes is inevitable. Senior Staff Architect. But the implications of green and sustainable building are so wide and far reaching that their effects will most certainly not be limited to one single code or standard. Bilka. safety and general welfare with regard to the built environment. REFRENCES: ICC Green Building White Paper . ICC Technical Services . they will affect virtually all codes.

CCA. New Delhi Below: by Abhishek Verma. Chandigarh .housing for the year 2050 Ritesh Redkar and Sai Satish Rao SPA.

I could not (and still haven’t) find a cheap tea/coffee stall. in fact. Pizza Hut. We’re allowed to listen to music on ear phones. I mean ‘habitable’ space for human beings as the rooms that were shown to us. But surprisingly. He’s 75+! Most of the projects are government projects in Srinagar…and so delayed by about 10yrs. They were about a kilometer apart. I virtually lost my independence as a student and got set for office life. I’ve also heard about his hot temper. As a new comer in a city. 4thJuly is celebrated as the American Independence Day. the route of the bus fascinates me the most. The month of June started with a journey that was very different from the regular study tours I had been to. To see him decode the drawings and think at various levels (structural. Mc Donald’s. post lunch. I once did try the Delhi metro. Enjoying a window seat for the entire journey is a ticket to a pleasant day. I reckon the phase two of metro will take at least two more years. Deepti had to leave half day and so. Morad Chowdhury the day before. Wimpy’s. “ata jaa ekdache” might have been in their minds. Pal Regency. I prayed that the driver stick to the shortest route. memory and alertness despite his age. As soon as we got out of the station. Architects working in the office slowly started coming and I was welcomed by Deepti. And for the same reason. Exactly a month before that. termed miraculously as “flats” were. I simply can’t wait so long to reach office! But all said. the train refused to move. they ridiculed us by saying. British Library. everyone in the office would fall asleep. I suppose that would come his age and seniority. in the firm of Kanvinde Rai Chowdhury. This fact was highlighted by the number of people who had come to see us off at the railway station. who would be guiding me. is quite lengthy too. There’s a person from Sangli too. other than the heat. the driver seems to be hell bent on testing all of Newton’s laws of motion that he might not have even heard of. Learning the subtleties and practicalities of architecture ‘directly from the horse’s mouth’ fascinated me. Those of you who know about my punctuality would consider this as a grave mistake on his part. To cut a long story short. First day yielded no fruitful results. I have realized that to restrict your state of motion irrespective of the multi directional state of motion of the bus is ‘n’ times more difficult than solving an equation of the same thing. All in all the motto of the people here seems to be ‘Work while work and play while play’… Traveling to office is quite a challenge and acquiring comfort in the process is entirely in the hands of lady luck.Ar. After enquiring about bus stops and schedules. (3rd June) we finally managed to hunt down two apartments. Well actually. illegal boxes stacked over each other with minimum possible light and ventilation. I left by auto. I finally decided to head to my office. He had given me the leave of coming late on first day by about half hour. However. We took the assistance of flat agents and property dealers to search for accommodation. Charles Correa’s LIC on the right and Palika Bazar in the center. To their relief. We had a nice chat on the situation of Jammu Kashmir and Srinagar after lunch on the first day. an architect under Chowdhury sir. First day at office was spent looking at portfolios of ongoing and past projects. did we settle down in our berths. “moongfali nahi bech rahe hai!” However. long enough for our parents to actually get bored and wanting desperately to get rid of the train and us. because even after everything was over. it’s only the three of us (Me. but realized it turns out to be double the money and hence is reserved as a luxury. he explained to me the importance of structural knowledge for designing toilets… for almost two hours. Deepti and Sir himself) who complete the ‘Chowdhury’ part of the firm. Sometimes it does take patience to understand his concept. At the time. Lunch time’s the time when we all relax together in a small lunch room. I had spoken with Ar. we went on smoothly till Hazrat Nizamuddin railway station. aesthetic) simultaneously is really an ‘out-of-the-college-studio’ experience. Without which. Since Karol Bagh (where the hotel was located) is close to Connaught Place (where my office is sited). on the second day. Indian railways have a funny sense of time. However. Raj Rewal’s STC on left and Ar. none of us speaks polished Hindi. spectacular. However. even at 3am! Other than immediate family members. we got a taste of the ‘Delhi attitude’ in the way of the taxi drivers. Apprehension. I reached office a full hour earlier and found it locked. while boys decided to stay at the hotel for another night. we finally managed a decent bargain and made our way to the hotel. Mumbai’s local train journey seems easier than my 45 minutes’ bus journey. The only analogous personality that comes to my mind is Ex PM A. reading the day’s newspaper. On one of the following days. To deal with them was a real tricky issue. The magnificence of both these colonial structures will always be awe inspiring for me. on 4th June. Girls moved in on the same day. I hope you have enough patience to go through this. offices of national and international airlines and “many beautiful people” were the first things I noticed around my office. I am bound to cross the ‘axis’ (connection of Rashtrapati Bhavan and India gate) everyday. His knowledge and information is really vast. Pune DISCLAIMER: This is not a travelogue but simply my way of saving money and effort that would have otherwise gone into narrating the same story all over again over numerous STD calls. with a ring road separating them.The Delhi Story…So Far…So Good Vedang Bagwe SCOA. I learnt this the hard way on the first day. a few fortunate ones had some relatives present at the station. . but presently they are laying the tracks in huge pits dug alongside roads. Listening to music and plunging into Chetan Bhagat’s ‘The Three Mistakes of my Life’ is the icing on the cake. Drawings and presentations of the various projects of the firm are all interesting to explore. tension and anxiety were not felt as I sat idly. it was just sir and I. trust me. the train started soon and. The way in which they negotiated the fare made a few of us shudder at the thought of spending the next months in such a place. some 14 architecture students searching for a decent accommodation. mostly chatting and gossiping about other office people and of course our dear bosses! Office has net access on a single computer (the place I mailed you this from). There is a direct metro from Lajpat Nagar (where we stay) to Connaught Place. First two days in the capital were spent by us. one for girls and the other for boys. once the train arrived. all I could see was the Sardarji in front of me and the lady beside me. design. And to make matters more difficult. Others in the office are almost of my age and are very helpful and friendly. I memorized the location of the building and then set out for exploring Connaught place. when on my bus journey back home. When we quoted an amount for the fare like in any bargain. the experience of metro journey was awesome. I realized that my decision to train under him was a wise one. By decent. It feels proud to see such advanced system operating in the country. I was really amazed at Chowdhury sir’s agility. 13th June ‘08 Architect Morad Chowdhury is the grand old man of Indian architecture. but fortunately. He’s amongst the few living architects from the first generation of Indian architecture. The train journey was of barely 18 hours. it being the most important criteria for designing any space according to our architecture teachers. But the true journey was a journey to a very different phase of my life that would last for at least 5 to 6 months. The bus was packed to its maximum possible capacity! And to add to it. There are about 7 architects and trainees under Kanvinde sir and some accountants and clerks sum up the rest of the office. we placed our luggage and only after every mother’s mandatory list of ‘do’s and don’ts’ was over. Other than that there are a lot of things over the LAN for a geeky guy like me to find out. The colonial buildings at the end of the street framed a view of two architectural masterpieces. My first glimpse of Connaught place was.B. Vajpayee. The mood for the day is set right from the morning bus journey. by changing bus routes. I’ve not been at the receiving end till now. architecturally speaking.

It’s on the second floor of a row house. Hope you enjoyed… . My average expenditure after all this is about Rs6500. one double bed. sofa. Other than that. These were ‘in short’ my experiences in the capital in the first thirteen days of my practical training. fridge. And so. The water problem persists. Aur kya chahiye? You’d ask… But we dint stop there. Delhi water authority has queer timings of releasing water. wardrobe in one bedroom and gas (with Faber chimney). which have to be filled at odd times like 3 or 4 am…! The problem.Facing: The Lotus Temple. CCD and small dhaba-like hotels are all there. This is a pinch on the pocket. especially because my stipend’s not yet disclosed. Domino’s. however. we have all the comforts in our 2 BHK apartment. Food here is cheap and there’s a variety to choose from. A budget meal costs around Rs20. we were greeted by dry taps for the first few days. all the buildings have typical black ‘sintex’ tanks on top. close to the ring road and we have completed the arrangement with a TV (with set top box). which is equivalent to the lunch most of us get in office. in terms of quality and quantity. A month’s suspense will hopefully make things clear. seems to have been solved as of now with the installation of an automatic pump. McD’s. But we have to buy drinking water in big cans. We also employed a maid to clean up the floor and our clothes every week. New Delhi After surviving the bus rush and reaching back home.

Renaissance architects started by creating proportional structures based on the principles of harmony in music established in Ancient Greece.” (Rudolf Wittkower. The “Stretto” form enabled Steven Holl to divide the space in such a way that each part was important for the next. Similarly. let our architect be educated. The flow of the space evolved in different ways: the floor surface overlaps the next level. parts of the space are very important. Architects have used music in their works and creations both literally and metaphorically. projected images and specially composed music. Ten Books of Architecture). The Stretto House. Architecture. can be though of as being inclusive in nature. Formula for music and architecture interpreted by Steven Holl: Material x sound/time = material x light/space Time has witnessed a long tradition of musical analogy with architecture. This has always led to an interest in the principles of various other filets of study. be it from the use of underlying principles or solutions through literal translations. There is a similarity of creative processes in aural composing and visual design--from both the psychological aspect of the process itself and from the aspect of formal organization. The concept of the Stretto House is the “Stretto” form of music where one musical phrase overlaps another. As for architecture. its polished concrete blocks and metal structure forming part of Texas’s vernacular architecture.the ‘horizontal’ and the ‘vertical’ aspects of music were given architectural equivalents – The Renaissance Palazzo and the Gothic Cathedral respectively. architecture and music. follow the philosophers with attention. In order to compose a piece of music one needs to establish relationships between the different tones. The most widely known example is Steven Holl’s Stretto House. instructed in geometry. have some knowledge of medicine. knowledge of music was in fact. the roof overlaps walls and the curvilinear walls pull the daylight down into the interior space. The intertwining of musical principles with architecture has continued in present times as well. If we regard the procedure of composing in a more abstract way we can observe that this music is a movement made in the musical space. understand music. Architectural Principles in the age of Humanism). levels. indispensable to an architect. most important being music. Architect Le Corbusier and composer Iannis Xenakis collaborated on the Philips Pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World Fair. the relationships between the various dimensions. . Man has found a variety of approaches for expressing this reciprocal relationship. Music and architecture are correlated because – “The numbers by means of which the agreement of sounds affects our ears with delight are the very serve which please our eyes and our minds. In those times. skillful with the pencil. They envisioned that the same principles of beauty and aesthetics manifest in art. the Stretto house built an aqueous space with traditional materials. “The architect should be equipped with the knowledge of many branches of study and varies kinds of learning for in the architectural judgment all of the work of other arts is brought into test. Counterpoint and Harmony.Architecture is the Music of Space Surbhi Bhardwaj CCA. as Bartók’s extraordinary compositions reverberated original melodies. Historical references state that it was in ancient home where architecture and music were earliest considered branches of mathematical science. particularly as both forms are experienced in time. when a space is designed. Steven Holl admired the connections between the traditional and the modern in Bartók’s music. knowledgeable in history. Chandigarh Facing Page (CW from left): View of the pavillion. Therefore. know the opinions of the jurists and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of heavens “(Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. as a science and as an art. Below (Top to bottom): Stretto House Elevation. The design of the pavilion referred to the principles and techniques of serial music and the interiors incorporated a multimedia show of lights. Ground Floor Plan.

CCA. Debasish Biswas Third Row: Shashank Gautam.Graphics Facing Page (L-R): First Row: Debasish Biswas. Arun Cherian Second Row: Arun Varghese. Ridhima Mehrotra. Dipayan Ghosh SPA. Below: by Nikita Kakkar. Chandigarh . New Delhi.

The demolition and construction process reused about 85% of the urban building.” As we know we are living in a highly polluted and populated world and that has created great challenges in front of us for better living. Hearst Tower garnered the coveted Emporia Skyscraper Award 2006. 90% of the 10. One more interesting feature of the structure is that no vertical steel columns are used above the base.A New excellence in high Rise Structures Jigar Patel Vadodara DesignAcademy Facing Page: The Hearst building. This has accelerated the construction speed of various structures as well. of land came up with a pre-eminent solution. The Hearst is just one of the green design ideas which are now becoming standard but were rare in the US early in the decade. positive effects on occupant health. Hearst tower at New York City is one of the finest examples of the style designed by Architect Norman Foster. The tower is supported by 12 raking mega-columns. With increasing pollution global warming has became one of the biggest challenges for us and building construction plays 70% role in increase of pollution. glass and first three stories with stone. The remaining water collected from rain gets saved in to the basement of the building. instead of directing it into the sewer system. harmony with whole” Thus increasing need of space and capable use . Hearst is using high efficiency heating and air-conditioning equipment that will utilize the air outside for cooling and ventilation for 75% of the year. The glass has a special “low-E” coating that allows for internal spaces to be flooded with natural light while keeping out invisible solar radiation which causes heat. uses it to water plants throughout the building and to replace moisture lost through air conditioning. In addition.480 tones of steel used in construction comes from recycled material. The entire building is made out of steel. man tries to facilitate him self in ways which rise the living standards of individuals but also increase the need of the soul. The optimization of natural light has been demonstrated in recent studies to have important. Locally sourced or recycled materials were the norm. quality of life and productivity. as time passes. Highreflectivity roofing pavers reduce heat-island effects.This is the first such case in any North American steel-framed skyscraper. Hearst is installing light sensors that will control the amount of artificial light on each floor based on the According to Rabindranath Tagore “The oldest task in human history is to live without spoiling the land. and helps in cooling the lobby through evaporative cooling. The triangulated steel frames uses 21% less steel than a traditionally framed building. this is the first office building in New York City to achieve the US Green Buildings Council’s “Gold Rating” for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). It is also an excellence of the design because of which less amount of natural light available at any given time. The volume receives brilliant natural light from 9m clerestory windows extending to the floor of the 10th storey and from the skirted ceiling of low-emission ceramic fritted glass. The sheet of flowing water is supplied by the rainwater collection system. The building is naturally ventilated for up to three quarters of the year. In combination with the glass. This is an excellent idea to keep the entire atmosphere at ambient temperature during the whole year. For New York City’s major corporations and building developers. Also. The limestone floor not only harmonies visually with urban materials but contains water-filled tubing to channel heat from upstairs in winter and aid cooling during summer. These various issues have forced us to think towards new visions and direction of construction industry. A system on the roof collects rainwater and. An innovative type of glass wraps around the exterior of the building. And need of reduced pollution made way for green sky scrapers.a skyscraper. The skyscraper contains 46 floors. A three-story water feature named “Icefall” courses through the grand atrium inside the entrance. the Hearst tower is estimated to be 22% more energy-efficient than a typical office building. The building consumes much less energy than an average office building. Exterior cladding on the Hearst. Hearst has set a higher standard for building green. and that can be included as brilliance of the design. Sustainable woods are used in everything from the Steel case workstations to the exercise-room. Overall. This automatically minimizes the usage of electric lighting inside. material is used. Below: Interior view of triangulated columns of steel “It’s a small step for man but a big leap for mankind.

The project’s green elements include a water-retention area. which SOM says will be one of the greenest buildings in the world. the sky gardens will also provide passive solar shielding to regulate the interior temperature and reduce the energy required to artificially heat or cool the building. In addition to providing an outdoor terrace. who also designed the Sears Tower in Chicago and World Trade Center in New York City. James Law Cybertecture International has proposed an “ecodome” for Dubai’s Techno Park. it is intended that the systems will The 1. Despite its overall curved glass shape. and keeping the lighting costs down. humidity and rainwater collectors. The building uses energy-saving methods which allow it to use half the power a similar tower would typically consume. Orientated to face these winds head-on. including wind turbines and solar. basement fuel cells. array of sky gardens for offices and a hotel. for the Guangdong Tobacco Company. which produce electricity by extracting hydrogen from natural gas.” The shafts create a giant double glazing effect. it is estimated the vertical turbines will produce up to 15 times more energy than they would if they were standalone units. The building’s unique curved design is intended to focus the strong prevailing southern winds that blow through the region. Because of this focusing of wind and higher speeds. Owings and Merrill. The Techno sphere will enable the building to create a self-breathing environment. It is 180 meters tall. Its erection symbolized the start of a new high-rise construction boom in London. generate more energy than operation of the building will use. These high rise structures started with a need but now they are becoming part of our life and creating better living spaces for us. A water recycling system will also be introduced that will minimize the use and wastage of water in this vast building. air is sandwiched between two layers of glazing and insulates the office space inside. The building is being designed with energy conservation in mind. façadeintegrated photovoltaic. the Pearl River Tower’s sculpted facade will increase the speed of these winds (by two-and-ahalf times) and channel them through two main slots in the building where wind turbines will be located. Indeed.a skyscraper in London’s main financial district. making the work environment more pleasing. . there is only one piece of curved glass on the building — the lens-shaped cap at the very top. which captures and uses heat caught between the building’s double-layered facades. with 40 floors. which will explore sustainable technologies and energy-saving systems to lower the building’s carbon footprint. among numerous other famous high-rises.000-foot-tall Pearl River Tower in Guangzhou. It arguably will be one of the most environment friendly buildings in the world. Some of the major accomplishments are in the nature of the formal and technological integration of form and function in a holistic approach to engineering and architectural aim. where the building will generate solar electricity to supplement the energy needs of the building and also integrate a distributed After Hearst tower another interesting design was given by architect Norman Foster and that was Swiss re building. The design of the Pearl River Tower is intended to set new standards for skyscrapers: a high-performance structure designed in such harmony with its environment that it extracts energy from the natural and passive forces surrounding the building. Gaps in each floor create six shafts that serve as a natural ventilation system for the entire building even though required firebreaks on every sixth floor interrupt the “chimney. The shafts also allow sunlight to pass through the building.Facing Page: The Swiss Re building. Pearl River tower has been designed by Skidmore. Below: The Pearl River tower. the eco friendly dome will mimic the state of earth in current and future times. These types of buildings will have great competition in rising of height and also saving of electricity. Dubbed Techno sphere. completed in December 2003. a condensate reclamation system that collects water and reuses it and stack ventilation. The shafts pull warm air out of the building during the summer and warm the building in the winter using passive solar heating. The Eco Dome Fully triangulated perimeter structure makes the building sufficiently stiff without any extra reinforcements.

There’s a choice we’re making. I build squares. it’s true. He summed up.C. doors are open. “Design a building such that it is part of the ecosystem. • Roofs could be used to grow food while at the same time providing the much-needed insulation for the building.It will be gradual and hopefully one day we can stand tall and give our future generation a little if not all of what Mother Nature gave us… “I build houses out of wood. “Sustainability is a means to minimize risk and maximize opportunity. “Inspiration can be sought from earlier traditions and designs but the resulting design needs to be one based on what the architect genuinely feels. All of us have fallen prey to it and then slowly some of us grew out of it or rather had that part of us killed.. The unique shapes used here are created for sustainability. former President. and then move to the outside. “Make a difference”. Law from Hong Kong..” Finally Cengis Bektas from Turkey mentioned that a space created should be stimulating. We must open our eyes and question everything we see around us. the continuing depletion of the ozone layer due to the increased pollution in the air caused by excessive carbon emission. . RIBA. for real! Like children. gradually…. we are the ones who make a brighter day so let’s start giving. According to him. We must face reality with rational behaviour in arranging our design response. development should be linked with environment. Surat “Going forward. ‘The Fountainhead’ actually talks about just that . Instead of admiring his heroic fight for right. Their windows are at peace.” The need to pool our resources and the knowledge to tackle the current environmental challenges was well addressed by him. “It is important to ensure that building style is flexible and compatible with external surroundings. as future architects have to take a bold stand and break free from these shackles of deterioration which we have brought upon ourselves and show the world the right way out … Ayn Rand in her critically acclaimed novel. such a small minority actually make a difference???” When will we realize that the world is not always changed by a majority but by a small voice which starts deep inside our hearts and the courage which follows that one voice into saying “NO” when the entire world is saying “YES”? We. we are the children. I build roads across hills and rivers for people to walk. exterior volumes must be handled like an inside space. I build. we must first be aware and that awareness doesn’t come from sitting in our studios in college. “Why…what…. Their hearths. we’re saving our own lives. • Use of grey water could be maximized. There should be a balanced relationship between open. There must be an absolute matching of inner and outer volumes.Not really knowing what we’re defying…. we’ll make a better day just you and me…” -Michael Jackson What about the bleeding Earth? Can’t we feel its wounds … What about nature’s worth? It’s our planet’s womb … -Michael Jackson These architects from all over the world have made courageous attempts . the built environment and nature. We must learn from these architects and slowly educate ourselves and those around us of the perils of our present lifestyles and slowly. said. however small in making a difference and not just keeping quiet about it but opening our eyes to the truth of the situation we have brought ourselves to…not because of ignorance but by our lackadaisical ‘I don’t care!’ attitude. He called for an integrated approach in creating eco cities that have zero carbon emissions. we’re turning a blind eye to it all and distancing ourselves by letting our future generation survive on its own.One Step at a Time Parth Patel S.” To make a difference. Mr. “The function of the space created should be structured not just for today’s needs but expectations for the future”. Fountains under the plane trees for birds to bathe and children. • Traffic congestion could be reduced by creating tunnels through which freight could be delivered at night. Gary Lawrence from ARUP said. we assume that somebody else will make that first step and now is when we all should make that first step. We all step up and voice out our suggestions and abstract what we can from everything we hear and gather and maybe that’ll make a difference…. It is important to respect life.E. happy houses. • Opting for 100 per cent on-site generation of renewable energy and leaving 40-60 per cent of the site area as green space.a man who goes against all odds to prove that what he had in store for the world was better than what the people could even fathom. For them to gather. with no help on our part. semi-open and closed spaces. stone. . The extensive use of glass in commercial buildings was termed ‘environmental terrorism’ because of their high energy usage and greenhouse effect. We are all longing to be different. we admire his defiance against rules .T. earth. who stressed the need to keep a symbiotic balance with nature. We are too busy squandering away earth’s gifts to us to notice that even Mother Earth has started bleeding dry… Pointing to the urgent need to create sustainable buildings.” -Nandan Nilekani The most frequently asked question of us. the confused youth of today is “How can we.” -Cengis Bektas “We are the world. George Ferguson. and not really make a change… With the rising problems of our shrinking world like the depleting resources. Not in my dreams. meeting the needs of the user while taking advantage of regional cultures even though the space may have contemporary dimensions.how…?” Its not that we don’t care. criticized the use of concepts and designs from the west and imposing it on an environment that is clearly not compatible with it.” This means that a shape or profile cannot be copied from one place to another or from one era to another. We should start designing from the interior bearing in mind the functions.

Sand dunes Oasis modern interpretation of courtyard Sustainable ideas eg. . commercial activities etc. Water channels in courtyard. It is a typical architectural feature in Jaisalmer. It helps to make a buffer space in temperature and controls temperature. help controlling the temperature. Site area: 60 acres (400m X 600m) ReQUIReMeNTS The apron on the airside Public concourse The parking facilities on the landside of the terminal. Baggage claim section Waiting hall for passengers and travelers Security hold area Restaurants and cafeteria Shops Airline counters Office space for airport staff Post office and banking facilities The Terminal building comprising of arrival. Circulation for an airport is the first preference. circular or organic shapes are the best solution. Passenger and baggage handling counters for booking etc. lounges. Chandigarh SITe The site is in the outskirts of the Jaisalmer city. to keep it obstruction free. basic amenities.Thesis: Jaisalmer Airport Sagar Prasad CCA. And it is 7km from the Jaisalmer fort. departure. baggage processing. Viewing deck CONCePT Courtyard planning is being widely used in Jaisalmer buildings.

Swift organization of different teams happened and the NASA mania was on!! The Sponsorship team got more brickbats than bouquets as they knocked many doors for the funding required to host the convention. frolic and togetherness. Right from supervision to execution. the organizing of the event. specially Ar. we were elated at the honor of forming the arena for the convention. There was also fun. These armies of creative souls are truly the visual designers of the convention.Under the light of guidance from our chief Advisor Ar. The enthusiasm of the student community coupled the able guidance and encouragement of the faculty members along with support from our Alumni . The gargantuan task of providing conveyance to thousands of delegates involves plotting. and aimed at providing a fresh outlook to the convention while maintaining the buoyant spirit ….. and argued. which would remain a treasured memory for ever. The suggestions. This being 52nd year of this rare tradition and the second NASA convention involving the SAARC Nations. Their hectic schedules never stopped their indomitable energy and vivacity. the energy that spread through the students was truly sensational. The slow emerging of the concept fuelled our enthusiasm and every day saw mushrooming of new ideas. Sleepless nights spent bent over their laptops and sketchbooks saw many eureka moments as ideas zoomed in at several odd hours. much hard-work and infinite energy. The members of the Public-relations Department could be found permanently on the phone. The concept of U2 along with the other necessary details of the convention was presented before selected representatives from the delegate colleges in the pre-convention held on 9th. The cultural committee brought together a talented bunch of students and strains of music could always be heard from their direction. NASA is also about fun! The many discussions which saw pooling in of ideas from the fraternity. 2009. But that didn’t stop the hugely motivated members of the food and accommodation Department to scour every nook and cranny of the huge campus for free hostels or scan the menu of over a hundred caterers. just to ensure a good stay and hygienic food for the delegates. the theme evolved from a study of the built environs today and their response to the individual. The task of providing Accommodation for the delegates is one of great responsibility and to provide food for a hungry energetic crowd of over 4000 is no mean job. A search for a better tomorrow led to the birth of U2. The spirit of U2 is the same energy that lurks in you and me and our need for a humane environment. We focused on making the convention a memorable and novel experience for all the participants. yet stimulating convention. another opened and much must be said for the tireless warriors who strove day in and day out in search for sponsors. culminated in focusing of energies to build a vibrant . U2 which is the backdrop of all activities in the convention is an attempt to turn the convention into a hub of thought . we set about the mammoth task of facilitating a fertile ground for NASA convention. The pre-cons gave us a glimpse of the level of organizational skills that would be required for a larger level convention and the spirit of the delegates also gave us an estimate of the amount of excitement that could be expected at the convention. and an occasion that many an architect cherishes as a fond memory from student life. The transportation committee must be credited for their untiring effort in this direction. every step has the effort of many an enthusiastic volunteer. . which coincides with the silver jubilee celebrations of the SRM University. They received constant inputs from the rest of the department and many cups of coffee. Endless phone calls.after all. Be it walking the ramp . 10th and 11th of October. signboards and just about everything required for the convention. Prof. arguments and discussions at the pre-cons helped us refine our objectives and gave us more focus. They were always full of energy. The Graphic design team was inseparable from their laptops as their creative energies flowed . the Events team were spending many a sleepless night. Subbaiah . The photocopy machine and the scanner were soon allotted for their exclusive usage and they always had a few million e-mails to reply to. After the pre-cons. from the first years right up to the final years lead to the evolution of the spirit of the convention able . The journey of U2 was a lesson on teamwork. relating to the very problems that we address today . planning and time management. The spirit of U2 was the common link providing focus and energy. logos .Thirumeni. numerous letters and unanswered mails only form a part of their story. Their Phones never stopped ringing. M. Endless hours of practice and much innovation are behind the colorful show on cultural nite. The concept of U2 revolves around the individual and his surrounding. Transportation Department members were heard discussing bonds. The many exhibitions and panel discussions that form the picture of NASA have many faces and much effort behind them. and they had a million queries to answer. Several all night conversations and brainstorming gave birth to many innovative and wacky ideas that was sure to add color to the convention. handling a detail there and an instruction here. and sleep weary eyes are accountable for the amazing variety of events in the convention. In an increasingly faceless world that we are facing today. With the initiative and encouragement of our Dean. discussed and pondered over the options before them. brochures . Armed with the experience of having hosted the zonal convention in the year 2001 & 2005. and formed Banners . commissions and companies as they explored the various options. There were many sleepless nights. While the Sponsorship team was on its chase. When a door closed. was taken up with much enthusiasm by the architectural fraternity of the University. increasing population and the proportional increase of the urban sprawl has led to reduced vitality of the individual and lack of quality of life.Journey of U2 Rini Rafi SRM University The NASA convention – four colorful days that see a wonderful culmination of architecture students from all over the country is definitely an event that leaves its imprint on all the participants. And most importantly the iron will to present a convention. 2009. Durganand Balsaver . and addresses the role of architects in creating better spaces that respect the dignity of the individual. or performing a dance number .

With the break of the new millennium. T. Adding crown to the this glory .Arch) and the Bachelor of Interior Design (B. The objective of Research in School of Architecture & Interior design is to create an institutional. The School of Architecture is represented by a panel of distinguished faculty of 20 members represents an unparalleled range of design philosophies and visions. Within Tamil Nadu . An upgraded syllabus and international teaching methods. The SRM family grew with the establishment of SRM Engineering college in 1985 which soon grew into numerous centers of learning. It has initiated many primary healthcare facilities throughout the city and in villages surrounding Chennai. . but the University believes in reaching out deprived through Medical care.Des) program. the SRM University believes that education is all about creating an environment of academic freedom. the SRM University is run and managed by the Valliammai Society which was set up by the famous educationist. The school advocates a design philosophy that draws inspiration from the rich cultural heritage of India while simultaneously embracing the developments in science and technology. people oriented research culture in areas such as Architectural conservation of heritage buildings..the SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Center along with the SRM hotel in its 240 acre . It joins the League of NIT’s and IIT’s and is ranked within the Top 5 Institutions in Tamil Nadu by the Outlook Magazine. the University has an international network of advisors. housing Engineering . the medical . joint research and student exchange programs where top ranking students are given the opportunity to spend a semester in institutions like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). It has received the accreditation by NAAC with a 5-star rating with the SRM Medical College occupying a place among the Top Ten institutes in the county. to produce architects of international competence. that contributes colourful days to the working calendar by organizing a series of design and recreational This academic year SRM University celebrates its the twenty fifth milestone on journey towards excellence . urban redevelopment and environmental planning for sustainability. launched SRM University way ahead of the rest. and it prepares graduates to meet the challenges thrown up by the ever changing needs of contemporary society. green campus which lies away from the hustle and bustle of the city. i. Mr. Medical science and Humanities.. technology. The path of the Growth of SRM university has been adorned with laurels and recognition for excellence in imparting quality education. the Kattankulathur Campus takes the lead housing the faculties of Engineering. The SRM Group of institutions owes its success to the vision and leadership of Mr T. They have given SRM an international dimension in terms of knowledge. Science and Humanities. Medicine & Health Sciences.Arch (Architectural Design) degree is one of the most innovative programs in India. SRM assures a sparkling future for its graduates and is placed at the number two position in Placement allotment. Research and Development is of paramount importance at SRM University and it boasts of an up-to-the-minute nanotechnology laboratory. designed by SRM’s International Advisory Board (IAB). Curriculum. in Modi Nagar . Education at SRM is all about creating an environment of academic freedom.SRM University & Department of Architecture Shireen Adeni SRM University UNIVeRSITY OF The FUTURe.e The Bachelor of Architecture (B. engineering and para medical colleges were brought under the ambit of SRM Deemed University.This momentous event is being celebrated on a huge scale . Working with an objective of providing high quality education in the field of Engineering. One such group of centers caters to 526 families in 3 villages around Maraimalai Nagar and 9 villages near Mamandur. Situated at Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Management and Science & Humanities . SChOOL OF ARChITeCTURe AND INTeRIOR DeSIGN The SRM School of Architecture and Interior Design was started in 1992. discover and learn. SRM university attained its full fledged glory in the year 2006 .. The University also has a campus in the Capital City of New Delhi . etc Not only in terms of providing education. A free and open minded approach that promotes interaction among students is seen from the working of the Architecture Association. under section 3 of the UGC Act 1956. and offers two degree programs for undergraduates. SRM University extends across four sprawling campuses. The M. where bright minds meet.1 Private University in India. discover and learn. Thiru. The Valliamai Society was also founded in the same year. Engineering . SRM University hosts ANNUAL NASA CONVENTION this year on its vast campus in the outskirts of Chennai. GFK Mode survey ranks SRM University as the No. Not too far away is the serene and charming campus in Ramapuram accommodating the SRM Dental College. with events being organized by every department and various ambitious projects being laid on track. It is a student body. R. The colorful event that will bring together the architectural fraternity from various parts of the country is indeed adds vibrancy to this momentous occasion. In addition to the IAB. dentistry . research and teaching methodology is assisted by SRM University’s International Advisory Board (IAB). Management and Teacher Education. The Education times (Times of India ) . Pachamuthu. The SRM fraternity has recently extended to the neighboring city of Tiruchirapalli offering quality education in Medicine. where bright minds meet.R Pachamuthu and made its beginning in 1968 with the establishment of Florence Nightingale Primary School.

The Library which is a focal point and a part of daily routine for the students is home to more than 3. called deep planning. the school is provided with a well equipped computer lab .com “The great architects and urban planners of the past found new solutions through problem-finding. Questions first about how we lived.000 volumes on various disciplines of art and architecture and subscribes to 5 international journals and 12 national journals. For today. The opportunity for change often came from questions: basic. and lecture halls see debates and discussions. we believe in an integral way of approaching the city.unstudio. from pattern-ground. provides them with the right atmosphere to design dream and unleash their creativity . Like the master Le Corbusier has said. SCOTT BROWN AND ASSOCIATES. the focus is to awake in every student.com . The School offers facilities to enhance the potential of the students and above all . The model making workshop houses exclusive and useful machinery for production of study models to aid in design and is compounded by the material museum. The morphological studies of the urban environment in the 20th century reflected this. just like the mono-directional record player has been replaced by the I-pod with its mysterious face and its infinite preference selection. urgent questions. The students are allowed a free reign to organise Conferences and symposia bringing together eminent architects and scholars who examine historical or contemporary issues and ideas concerning architecture and natural environments. PA 19127 TEL: 215-487-0400 FAX: 215-487-2520 www. “Be sensitive to what really turns you on rather than what should turn you on. and evolve from that via your own work” Sincerely. The lively design studios are a hub for thought. workshops and product presentations. In the School of architecture. INC.Short Messages for the Student Community SRM University activities apart from special lectures. to flux and mapping studies. The mechanistic models of the 20th century need to be replaced by a new way of thinking.vsba. 4236 Main Street Philadelphia.” Ben van Berkel & Caroline Bos. Robert Venturi VENTURI. Keeping in view the faced paced development. the campus life is unfettered and student exchange programmes facilitate exposure and provide new horizons to the students. and finally about how we experienced. then about how we moved. the mind and the soul. 2009 UN Studio Stadhouderskade 113 PO Box 75381 1070 AJ Amsterdam tel: +31 (20) 570 20 40 fax:+31 (20) 570 20 41 www.

com THAILAND Tel: +66.7128 Email: marketing@rockworthindia.WE CREATE SOLUTIONS THAT HELP PEOPLE HAVE A BETTER DAY AT WORK.2247.44.6567 Fax: +91.4210.44.2246.2498.com .8888 Fax: +66.8899 Email: intlsales@rockworth. INDIA Tel: +91.

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The Team SRM University NASA 2009 .

Chandigarh College of Architecture Chandigarh The Team Apoorv Kaushik indianARCH’09 Jaskaran Chauhan Shweta Sethi Surbhi Bharadwaj Varun Mahopatra Tawish Tayal Rajat Malik .

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