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³PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF GRAPES´
Course No. : ABM-591
BIJWE YOGESH RAMBHAU MBA in Agri-Business Student (Reg. No. ± J4-00723-2010)
Mrs. J. D. Bhatt (Asst. Professor)
Prof. H. Y. Maheta (Seminar Convener, PGIABM) Date of Seminar: 18/03/2011
P G Institute of Agri-Business Management, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh- 362001.
TITLE: PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OF GRAPES
Introduction: Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) belong to family vitiaceae is considered as a sophisticated fruit from the very old times. It is cherished as fresh fruit. The fruits are rich in sugar and particularly in hexose and are easily digestible. India is the second largest producer of fruits and eleven ranks occupied in world grapes productions. It share 74, 23,727 ha area and 679, 09,287 MT of fruit production in the world and it¶s contribute 2.8 per cent of the world production of fruits and 2.7 per cent of fruit production in the India. According to FAO 71 per cent of world grape production is used for wine, 27 per cent as fresh fruit, and 2 per cent as dried fruits. Presently in India about 78 per cent of grapes are used for table purpose, nearly 17-20 per cent is dried for raisin production, while 1.5 per cent is used for juice and 0.5 per cent is used in manufacturing wine. (Anon., 2009). Botanical Name Family Origin Major producing states Latest production Area Produ ctivity Vitis vinefera Vitiaceae Western Asia and Europe Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu 15.46 lakh tones 105000 ha 8.16 tones /ha
In Maharashtra state Nasik, Sangli, Solapur, Pune, Ahmednagar, Satara, Osmanabad are the district were the grape production is taken, in Karnataka state Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Kolar, Bangalore are the district were the grape production is taken, in Tamil Nadu state Theni, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Dharampuri are the district were the grape production is taken, in Punjab state Bhatinda, Ferozpur, Muktsar, Sangrur are the district were the grape production is taken, in Andhra Pradesh state Rangareddy, Mehboobnagar are the district were the grape production is taken, in Haryana state Fatehabad, Sirsa, Hisar are the district were the grape production is taken and others state like Mizoram, M.P., Jammu and Kashamir, Nagaland, Chhattisgarh state also grapes production is taken. Economic Importance: At present, grape is the most important fruit crop grown commercially 1) For table purpose: It means fresh grapes are harvested from the plant and directly used for consumption purpose. 2) For making raisins: It means after harvest the grapes some value addition process is done after that raisins are prepared that also known as µkismis¶ or µmanuka¶
3) For making wines: It means after harvest the grape some value addition process is done after those wines is prepared. 4) For export purpose: In India 85 per cent of grapes are used for consumption purposed and remaining 15 per cent grapes is used for export purposed. India is exported the grapes nearly 78 countries. Agro-Climatic requirement: Soil: - It required sandy to clayey and loamy soil having 6.5 to 7.5 PH rang and also required above 1.0 per cent organic carbon, free of lime is most suitable of grapes production and also required good drainage and irrigation facility. Climate: It required dry and cool climate. Temperature: It required 15 to 350C temperature for better development and higher yield, above 400C causes cracking of berries and do not grow below 100C Rainfall: Grapes required up to 900 mm rainfall but more than 900 mm not suitable because attacked of fungal disease of grapes. Relative Humidity: Required 55 to 60 % R.H. Varieties: ON THE BASIS OF COLOUR AND SEEDS Colour seeded Coloured seedless White seeded White seedless Bangalore blue, Gulabi (Muscat) Beauty Seedless, Sharad Seedless Anab-e-Shahi, Dilkhush. (clone of AnabeShahi) Perlette, Pusa seedless, Thompson Seedless and its clones Tas-A-Ganesh, Sonaka, Manik Chaman.
ON THE BASIS OF SPECIFIC PURPOSE (CONSUMPTIONS) Anab-e-Shahi, Bangalore Blue, Beauty Seedless, Bhokri (Pachadrakshi), Cheema Sahebi, Delight, Gulabi (Panneer Drakshi, Muscat Hamburg), Himrod, Kali Sahebi,Kandhari, Khalili, Pandari Sahebi, Perlette, Selection 94, Pusa Seedless and Thompson Seedless. Thompson Seedless, Arkavati Bangalore Blue, Thompson Seedless and Arka Kanchan Early Muscat, Beauty Seedless, Champian, Pusa Urvashi, Arka Trishna.
Raisins Wines Juice
Varieties of grapes are mainly classifying two types such as on the basis of colour and seeds and on the basis of specific purpose (consumption). All the colour and seeds varieties are include in the table purpose grapes. Cost of cultivation of Grapes (1 ha): S. N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Particular land preparation Application of fertilizer and other organic manure Making ridges and furrow Planting Infilling Construction of Bower system intercultural operation Irrigation Harvesting Fabrication of bower system Sub total of operations Year 1 A. Operations 6460 1904 1496 4080 408 6800 9384 1768 0 6250 38550 B. Materials 13338 41250 20988 1250 4200 18496 9384 1768 6120 1224 Year 2 Total 6460 3128 1496 4080 408 6800 18768 3536 6120 6250 57046
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8
Planting Material FYM Biofertiliser Neem Cake Jeevamrut (Mixture of cowdung+cowurine+pulses powder+black jaggery) Vermiwash Plant protection materials Bower system Sub total of materials Certification cost Total Cost (A+B+C) Rounded off to
41250 20988 1250 4200
13338 82500 41975 2500 8400
6000 10000 194550 291575 C. Certification cost 1250 331375 331400
6000 10000 83688 1250 103434 103400
12000 20000 194550 375263 2500 434809 434800
Cost of cultivation of grapes includes three cost such as operation cost, material cost and certification cost. In operation cost all operation carried out in first year but in second
year land preparation, making ridges and furrow, planting, infilling, construction of bower system and fabrication of bower system cost are not required because these cost required only first year. In materials cost all operation carried out in first year but in second year planting material and bower system cost are not required because these cost required only first year. In certification cost, every year required because the every year renew the organic certificate. Round up two year cost required Rs. 4, 34,800. Harvesting and Yields: Variety Anab-e-Shahi Bangalore Blue Bhokri Gulabi Perlette Thompson Seedless and other seedless varieties Yield (T/Ha) Average 45 40 30 30 40 25 Potential 90 60 50 50 50 50 Period of Harvest February-May, July, November-December January-March, JuneDecember November-December, June-July January-March, JuneDecember June January-April
Anab-e-shahi variety average yield is 45 T/Ha and it goes up to 90 T/Ha. Thompson seedless and other seedless varieties average yield is 25 T/Ha and it goes to up to 50T/Ha. But the export purpose mostly used the Thompson seedless and other seedless varieties and its yield is very low as compare to above varieties. Major Grape producing Countries in the World (2008-09): AREA COUNTRY (HA) Italy China USA Spain France Turkey Iran 770000 438232 379360 1200000 813496 482789 315000 (MT) 7793301 7284656 6744840 6053000 5664195 3918440 2900000 (MT/HA) 10.1 16.6 17.8 5 7 8.1 9.2 PRODUCTION PRODUCTIVIY
Argentina Chile Australia India South Africa
220000 182000 166197 80000 130000
2900000 2350000 1956790 1878000 1791643
13.2 12.9 11.8 23.5 13.8
Italy is occupied the first rank of grapes production in the world after that Second and third rank occupied China, USA respectively. India is occupied the eleven rank in grapes production but as compare to area is very less to Italy, China, USA and productivity is very high in world i.e. 23.5 MT/HA. Production Trend of Grapes in India:
In year 1991-92 production of grapes in India was 668.2 thousand MT. In year 200102 production of grapes was 1184.2 thousand MT. in these ten years production of grapes was increased approximately 50 per cent and the production of grapes is continuously increase up to the year 2008-09 and these year production was 1878 thousand MT. and year 2009-10 production of grapes decrease approximately 50 per cent because of the heavy rainfall received in these year and directly affect quality and yield of grapes.
Export of Grapes from India: 2008-2009 Country Netherland United kingdom United Arab Emirates Bangladesh Saudi Arabia Others Total Qty in MT. 24,340.98 12,757.61 13,064.35 54,509.29 3,488.84 132,434.37 124,627.98 Value Rs. lacks 13,448.55 6,597.40 5,650.47 6,274.04 1,627.03 43,495.91 40,861.27 2009-2010 Qty in MT. 29,074.40 14,359.53 13,205.45 45,656.02 5,098.85 135,939.19 131,153.64 Value Rs. lacks 16,883.63 8,210.77 7,285.65 6,275.73 2,725.91 53,645.61 54,533.86
India export 131,153.64 MT of grapes which accounts for Rs.54, 533.86 lacks. India export grapes to 78 countries in which major portion of grapes are exported to Netherland, U.K., UAE, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Thailand etc. Domestic total supply of fresh table Grape¶s in India (2009-10): Market Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Supply (MT) 1002078 1008021 1007990 1008576 1008500 Change NA 0.59 % 0.00 % 0.06 % -0.01 %
Currently in India domestic total supply of fresh grape is 10, 08,500 MT. As shown in table in year 2006 no change because previous year data not available but in year 2007 and 2009 increase the supply 0.59 and 0.06 per cent respectively. In year 2008 no change in supply because in this year cloudy season appears and result the insect, pest attacked on plants and in year 2010 slightly decrease the supply i.e. -0.01 per cent. The main reason is the last year heavy rainfall received that¶s why damage the plant and directly affect the quality and yield. Fresh table Grape¶s domestic consumption in India (2009-10): Fresh Domestic Consumption (MT) 928916 889630 898658 878798 879500
Market Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Change NA -4.23 % 1.01 % -2.21 % 0.08 %
Currently in India domestic consumption of grapes is 8, 79,500 MT. As shown in table in year 2006 no change because previous year data not available but in year 2007 and 2009 decrease the consumption of grapes -4.23 and -2.21 per cent respectively. In year 2008 and 2010 increase the consumption of grapes are 1.01 and 0.08 per cent respectively. Mostly consumption of grapes is depending up on consumer demand that¶s why increase and decrease the consumption of grapes in India. Fresh table Grape¶s Exports by India (2009-10): Market Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Exports (MT) 73162 118391 109332 129778 129000 Change NA 61.82 % -7.65 % 18.70 % -0.60 %
Currently grapes exported by India is 1, 29,000 MT. As shown in table in year 2006 no change because previous year data not available but in year 2007 and 2009 increase the exports of grapes 61.82 and 18.70 per cent respectively. India stands at 24 rank in the year 2006 and tremendously increase the exports of grapes in year 2007 that¶s the reason in four year India reached the eleven positions. In year 2008 and 2010 decrease the exports of grapes are -7.65 and -0.60 per cent respectively. Because we send the consignment to the importing countries but we are unable to meet their quality standards and they reject our product that¶s why export of grapes decrease in the year 2008 and in year 2010, heavy rainfall received and these are directly affect quality and yield of grapes and damage the grapes berry that¶s result crack the berry and affect the quality. State wise Area, Production and Productivity of Grapes: 2008-09 State Maharashtra Karnataka Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Punjab Others Total Area (¶000HA) 55.7 14.9 3.1 3 0.8 2.2 79.6 Production Pdy. (µ000 MT) (MT/HA) 1415 25.4 269 18 91 29.8 62.2 22.1 19 1878.3 21 28.4 8.7 23.6 Area (¶000HA) 82 16.1 3.083 3 0.541 5.31 107.034 2009-10 Production (µ000 MT) 440 289.3 89.169 62.2 15.473 29.047 925.189 Pdy. (MT/HA) 5.366 17.969 28.923 20.733 28.601 5.470 8.644
In India Maharashtra is leading state of grapes production and after that Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Chhattisgarh is least state of grapes production and currently production is 0.098 thousand MT, productivity is 7 MT /Ha. In year 2008-09 area under grapes in Maharashtra state 55.7 thousand ha, production is 1415 thousand MT and productivity is 25.4 MT/Ha but in the last year 2009-10 also area increase but production and productivity decrease are 82 thousand Ha, 440 thousand MT, and 5.366 MT /Ha respectively because last year heavy rainfall received and that¶s result cracking of berries and affect quality and yield of grapes and no other state affect heavy rainfall and production is remain constant or slightly increase. Total area, production and productivity of grapes are 107.034 thousand Ha, 925.189 thousand MT, 8.644 MT /Ha respectively. As compare to year 2008-09 and 2009-10 area increases, production is approximately 1000 thousand MT. decrease and also productivity is approximately 15 MT/Ha decrease. Export Specifications for Grapes: Export specialization Variety Thompson Seedless Middle East Berry Size: 15mm Colour: amber Sharad Seedless Flame Seedless Packing Storage Temp. Berry Size: 15mm black --------1 Kg 0-1 °C Countries Holland/ Germany Berry Size: 16mm Colour: white/amber Berry Size: 16mm black Berry Size: 16mm Pink 4.5 Kg /9 kg 0-1 °C U.K. Berry Size: 18mm white Berry Size: 18mm black Berry Size: 18mm pink 4.5 Kg /9kg 0-1 °C
Only three variety is used for export purposed i.e. Thompson seedless, Sharad sheedless, Flame seedless. This variety is exported to Middle East, Holland/Germany and U.K. and different countries required different specification according to their berry siz e, colour, packing and storage temperature are required 0-1 °C to all countries. Currently areas under in Thompson seedless, Sharad seedless, and Flame seedless are 55, 5 and 1-2 per cent respectively. Last two year India exported other varieties such as Sonka, Jambu, H-3, H-5 etc. PRACTICES FOLLOWED FOR EXORT OF GRAPES: Pre-harvest strategies for Export Market: 1) Keep the orchard clean. Healthy crop production can be expected from healthy trees growing in healthy orchards only. Cleanliness is the key to good health. Therefore, keep the orchards under clean conditions by adopting clean cultivation system of orchards management. Undesirable for the
spread of insect pests, and pathological disorders and, therefore, the weeds should not be allowed to grow in the orchard. 2) Avoid intercropping in orchard. It is not desirable to do intercropping in such orchards, which are meant for exportable crop production. Intercrops need extra nutrition and water in the form of irrigation, which may unnecessarily interfere with the physiology of the main crop resulting in its loss of yield and quality. 3) Regular prunning and fruit thinning must be done. Regular pruning and thinning at the most appropriate time should be practised, not only for regulating crop load of the plant but also for fuller utilization of solar radiation and ensuring roper air circulation within the plant canopy, so necessary for quality improvement. In grapes production prunning is an important operation and April prunning is done for vegetative growth and October pruning is done for fruit production after that October prunning next month i.e. November start registration of export of grapes and filled the form and send to APEDA. Those are registered and filled the export form are allowed for exporting of grapes. 4) The pesticides which have been banned by the WHO/FAO/ WTO should never be used. There are certain chemicals and pesticides which are banned by the WHO/FAO/WTO which are not permissible to use for control of insect and pests. These pesticides have negative impact on human health. APEDA also recommended the pesticide for using grapes production to control of insect, pest etc. and not used above maximum residue limit then maintain quality of grapes. 5) Use of biofertilizer, biopesticides and organic manures should be preferred over inorganic fertilizer, fungicides and pesticides. The prices of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides are increasing day by day and it increases the cost of cultivation. So growers should use the biofertilizer, biopesticides and organic manures it will help to reduce the cost of cultivation and increases the quality of produce. Soil and plant tissue analysis of major and minor mineral nutrients should be taken as a guide for applying the quantity of manures and fertilizers. Organic manures like green manuring, FYM etc. Manures should be free from undesirable microorganisms, weed seeds, etc. as far as possible. 6) Harvesting should be done only at the appropriate maturity stage of the crop depending upon the purpose of fresh consumption and processing. It means that if we want to export the grapes by air ways than the plant should be harvested at 100 per cent maturity of plant. If we want to export the grapes by water ways and road ways than the plant should be harvested at 75 per cent maturity of plant. Harvesting and marketing immature fruits damages the future sales potential. The objective of harvesting is to get the crop without damage and to send it to the market in the best possible condition. Thus, the objective is to move the plant from field to buyer with the minimum number of handling operation compatible with the quality requirement of the buyer; and to minimize exposure of the crop to stresses such as extremes of temperature or of compression pressure caused by over loading.
Although the scale of production, availability of labour and type of produce may vary, certain basis factors must be taken into account in the planning of harvest operation. Equipment must be obtained, labour organized. Each of these tasks must be planned, managed and implemented efficiently if the value of the crop is to be fully realized. To achieve this following thing are needed:a) Good production planning
b) Continuous communication with buyers c) Forward planning d) Field supervision. Give proper training to workers: - Training and supervision of labour are critical to a successful harvesting operation. Constant supervision is necessary to maintain quality and reduce subsequent spoilage of produce. Training is required relating to maturity selection, detachment method, maintenance of equipment, field hygiene and division of labour. During pre-harvesting stage should be protected from all possible envionrnmental hazards such as flying insect, birds etc. are handle with gently care. Post-Harvest strategies for Export Market: The three main objectives of applying post-harvest strategies to harvested grapes are as: a) To maintain quality (appearance, texture, flavor, and nutritive value). b) To protect food safety. c) To reduce losses between harvest and consumption. Grapes are highly perishable commodities. These are affected by a number of factors leading to the postharvest spoilage and hence postharvest losses are the major source of human food loss i.e. 23 -30 per cent. Despite decades of educational efforts the most common causes of postharvest losses are rough handling and inadequate cooling and temperature maintenance. The lack of sorting to eliminate defects before storage and the use of inadequate packaging materials further add to the problems. So there is need to minimize the postharvest losses to maintain the quality. 1) After harvesting of grapes it should be handle with care. Means it should not be contaminate with other fruits, dirty place and any other contaminated object/substances. Labor should be maintaining hygienic condition of farm. Grapes produce in bulk then its needs mechanical handling but at time care of fruits must be done and avoid damage of fruits. Field fork lift and trailer system used for harvesting of grapes. 2) After harvesting of the grapes it is transported to packing house. In packing house various operations are carried out. In packing house sorting of grapes in done. Sorting helps to remove diseased fruits and prevent decay loss of other fresh fruits and vegetables. In packing house various
operations are carried out such as per-cooling, disinfection treatment, grading, packaging, palletization and storage of grapes. 1) Pack house: a) Pack house must be clean. Frequent and efficient disposal of waste should do. Staff should be maintaining cleanness and hand washing must be adopted. Hot air dryers or disposal paper towels should be used for hand drying. b) Protective clothing must be worn in the pack house. Head gear/caps must be cover hairs. c) Rest areas for workers should be away from pack house. d) Pack house to be solid construction. Not allowed to access to rodents and also window to be fly proofed with mesh screen. 2) Pre-cooling: a) Pre-cooling is aimed at reducing the field heat. Prompt removal of field heat of harvested grapes is best way to retaining the freshness of grapes for longer time. Pre-cooling helps to reduce water losses, protect to attack of microorganism and also slow down the activity of certain enzymes. b) The temperature of harvest grapes has to be brought down to less than 4°C within six hours of harvest. 3) Disinfestations treatment: Sulphur fumigation : For colour retention, prevention of browning, killing fungi Botryodiplodia, preventing rind brittleness. In grapes is an important operation to control the colour retention and also control fungi. 4) Grading standard: Grapes show variation in quality due to genetic, environmental and cultural factors. Therefore it is necessary to do grading to obtain better returns as per quality of the produce. It is a method of efficient marketing system. Grading is done on the basis of size, shape, colour, weight, soundness, appearance and maturity, freedom from disease, insect pest damage and mechanical injury. The export quality grapes are categories into four classes.
Class Extra class Class I
Weight in gram 150-300 100-250
Deviation Tolerance 5% 10%
Class II Class III
75-150 < 75
a) Extra quality: The table grapes in this class must be of superior quality. In shape, development and coloring, the bunches must be typical of variety, allowing for the distinct in which they are grown and have no defects. Berries must be firmly attached, evenly spaced along the stalk and have their bloom virtually intact. In extra class grapes, 5 per cent deviation tolerance allowed and weight required of grapes is 150-300 gm. b) Class I: The grapes in this class must be of good quality. In shape development and colouring, the bunches must be typical of the variety allowing for the distinct in which they are grown. Berries must be firmly attached and as far as possible, have their bloom intact. They may, however, be less evenly spaced along the stalk than in the Extra Class. The following slight defects, however, may be allowed provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce and the keeping quality of the package. y Slight defects of shape y Slight defects in colouring y Very slight sun scorch affecting the skin only In class I grapes, 10 per cent deviation tolerance allowed and weight required of grapes is 100-250 gm. c) Class II: This class includes table grapes which do not qualify for inclusion in a higher class but satisfy the minimum requirements laid down above. The bunches may show slight defects in shape, development and colouring provided these do not impair essential characters of the variety, allowing for the distinct in which they are grown. The berries must be sufficiently firm and sufficiently attached and where possible, still have their bloom. They may be less evenly spaced along the stalk than in Class -I. However, the following defects are allowed. y Defects of shape y Defects in colouring y Slight sun scorch affecting the skin only y Slight bruising In class II grapes, 5-10 per cent deviation tolerance allowed and weight required of grapes is 75-150 gm. d) Class III: This class includes table grapes which do not qualify for inclusion in a higher class but satisfy the minimum requirements of Class-II. The bunches may include some abnormally developed berries. These bunch, i.e. bunches in which the grapes are abnormally far apart on the stalk, and thick bunches in which grapes are too close together, shall fall in this class. In class III grapes, more than 15 per cent deviation tolerance allowed and weight required of grapes is more than 75 gm. The above four classes, only Extra class and Class-I are accepted by exporters subject to other qualities.
5) Packaging: a) The arrangement of boxes in the cold storage to ensure uniform cooling of all berries in a box. b) The carton size should be :Market Carton size 400 mm x 300 mm x 125 mm 600 mm x 300 mm x125 mm Europe Net weight 4.50 Kg. 2 kg / box 8.25 Kg Dubai Net weight
Export of grapes required different size of packing and carton size in different market are shown in above chart Europe market and Dubai market required carton size 400 mm x 300 mm x 125 mm, 600 mm x 300 mm x125 mm respectively. Also the size of packet or box required 4.50 kg, 8.25 kg in Europe market and 2 kg in Dubai market. Proper packaging helps in efficient marketing of fresh grapes as it protects from mechanical damage, moisture loss, and dirt. While packing of grapes, containers should not be filled either too loosely or too tightly for best results. Loose produce may vibrate against each other¶s and cause bruising, while over packing results in compression bruising. Numbers of packing materials are available in the market. Before selecting packaging material some points need to be considering such as product life cycle, system of storage, system of handling, system of transport, consumer attitude. The materials used in packaging are as follow: a) Pouch bags: i) It is used from food grade low density poly ethylene. ii) A minimum of 9 bags in a 4.50 kg. / 5.00 kg. Carton and 16 in an 8.25 kg. Carton should be used. iii) Bag weight should be between 400 and 700 gm with no more than 2 bunches per bag. iv) Loading capacity is 3600 cartons/container b) Liner bag: It should be of good quality clear polythene and large enough to cover the grapes and grape guard with a good overlap. c) Punnet packing: Mostly export of grapes used the punnet packing. Weight of each punnet is 5 gm, net weight of carton is 5 kg, each carton contains 10 punnet of 500 gm each and loading capacity is 2300 cartons/container. 6) Palletization: a) Boxes should be palletised on a 48" x 40" pallet with paper board corner posts and steel strapping. b) Different growers produce should be palletised separately. It is essential to minimize grapes damage from multiple handling. Used for to utilize the minimum space and stored the maximum grapes in storage.
7) Storage: a) Once pre-cooling and disinfection treatment is done, the dual releasing sulphur dioxide (Grape Guard) is to be placed with their coated surfaces downwards on the filled plastic pouches and are to be covered with the plastic sheet lining. b) The boxes are closed and then shifted to cold storage rooms.
Temperature Relative Humidity Storage period Freezing point
3-8 weeks -1°C
Proper storage increases the shelf life of fruits. Reducing the temperature slows down the rate of respiration. The grapes can be stored at 0 0.5°C with 93 2 % humidity for 3 to 8 weeks in good condition and freezing point is -1°C. 8) Transportation: a) It is an important link in the handling, storage and distribution of grapes. b) It should be covered under the cool-chain. c) Maintenance of uniform temperature and humidity throughout is important. It means the increase or decrease the temperature to damage the grapes berry that¶s result to affect the quality of grapes. d) Variation/fluctuations in temperature are harmful. a) Modes of transports: There are three types of modes of transport for export of fruits and vegetables. 1) Air ways 2) Water ways 3) Road ways In the case of transportation of goods to the European countries, transportation by ship is more convenient than by the transportation through air. The reason behind this that transportation by air is three times costlier than transportation by ship. i.e. cost of waterway (ship) required Rs. 95/ 5kg box and transportation time, loading capacity is 20-25 days and 1500 tones/ship respectively. Airway required 285/5kg box and transportation time, loading capacity is 15-20 hours and 15 tones/flight respectively. Roadways used Bangladesh and Pakistan. REQUIREMENT OF DOCUMENTATION: The orchards involved in the export programme have to be registered with a registered packing house facility. The registered orchards have to maintain documented record of all operations carried out at the orchard and adopt good agricultural practices for management of fruits orchards established by APEDA. Registration of orchards: a) The orchards have to be registered with a registered packing house facility. b) The orchard has to maintain documented record of all operations carried out.
That means the all operation carried out in orchard such as number of weeding operation, number of pesticides spraying etc. c) Orchard should adopt good agricultural practices for management of grape orchards established by APEDA. Registration of packing House a) The packing houses involved with the export shall be registered with the APEDA. b) The registered packing house has to document all the process in detail. It may be related to cleaning, grading, hygienic handling, packing and labeling of grapes. These documented operation under the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that are approved by the Dte of (PPQS) Plant Protection Quarantine System (NPPO) National Plant Protection Organization. Globalgap Certificate: The export of grapes required the Globalgap certificate and these procedure is the firstly send grapes sample the importer countries after that these country check the grapes standard and meet the requirement then they issued the Globalgap certificate and cost of certificate is Rs. 12000. The Globalgap standard is primarily designed to reassure consumers about how food is produced on the farm by minimizing detrimental environmental impacts of farming operations, reducing the use of chemical inputs and ensuring a responsible approach to worker health and safety as well as animal welfare. Certificate of Agmark Grading (CAG): The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection enforces the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937. Under this Act Grade standards are prescribed for agricultural and allied commodities. These are known as Agmark standards. This certificate gives the Regional Agmark Officer. The CAG certificate issue only after the receipt of the inspection report from the laboratory thorough e-mail. After the issued the CAG certificate then grapes sample send to NRL laboratory and check and meet the export standard of grapes then send the Phyto-Sanitary certificate through e-mail. Import Export Code: IEC code is unique 10 digit code issued by DGFT-Director General of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India to Indian companies. To import or export in India, IEC Code is mandatory. No person or entity shall make any Import or Export without IEC Code Number. Where an IEC Number is lost or misplaced, the issuing authority may consider requests for grant of a duplicate copy of IEC number if accompanied by an affidavit. Export License: An export license is a document issued by the appropriate licensing agency after which an exporter is allowed to transport his product in a foreign market. The license is only issued after a careful review of the facts surrounding the given export transaction. Export license depends on the nature of goods to be transported as well as the destination port. For every first time exporter, it is necessary to get registered with the DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade). Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Certificate: HACCP is a process control system designed to identify and prevent microbial and
other hazards in food production. It includes steps designed to prevent problems before they occur and to correct deviations as soon as they are detected. Such preventive control system with documentation and verification are widely recognized by scientific authorities and international organizations as the most effective approach available for producing safe food. The HACCP works on seven principles:1) Conduct a hazard analysis. 2) Identify critical control point. 3) Establish critical limit. 4) Establish a system to monitor the critical control points. 5) Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates the particular critical control point is not under control. 6) Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is under control. 7) Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application. Traceability System for Exporte to the European Market: The main aim of this system stakeholder avoids the data duplication and timely issued of necessary certificate. Traceability simple means tracking back the production up to the farm. Codex Alimentarius Commission: 1) µTraceability¶ as ³the ability to follow the movement of a food through specified stage(s) of production, processing and distribution.´ 2) It should provide a verifiable documentation for an effective food control system. It means the limiting the discontinuity of the information through food supply chain. It stands the system of record keeping documentation by operator. Grapenet: Grapenet is centralized National System for supply chain information exchange and certification. Grapenet was started in India 2003 and it has bagged National award for EGovernance in year 2007-08 and E-Asia award in year 2008-09. Grapenet system is for fresh grapes exported from India to EU. An internet based traceability softer system. Monitors fresh grapes exported to the E.U. up to the farm level. An end-to-end system for :1) Monitoring pesticide residue Grapenet systems automatically find out the test measurement entered whether the sample qualifies for export to specific country and generate their report. 2) Achieve product standardization 3) Facilitate tracing back from retail shelves to the farm of the Indian grower 4) Through the various stages of sampling, testing, certification and packing Any exporter is not document issued without going on this procedure.
Constraints and Solutions: => Constraints for Exports: 1) Supply chain constraints: 1) Lack of consistency in supply and quality. 2) Lack of cost competitiveness. 3) Inadequate and inappropriate storage and distribution infrastructure. In India only 5400 storage established but they are not fulfilled requirement of storage of fruits and vegetables and used for the all the fruits and commodity then it¶s the major problem to storage of perishable fruits i.e. grapes. 4) Lack of technical support for the agro industrial sector. In India already latest technology developed but not reaches to agro industrial sector. 2) Market access constraints: 1) Non-tariff barriers. a) Standards, testing, labeling and certification requirements. b) Export subsidies and domestic support. Aim to regulate their import trade to protect domestic industry and to effective combat this limitation, more and more county have adopting number of non-tariff barriers. Government procurement is an also include. 2) Short product life cycle. 3) Lack of brand image. a) Technological constraints: 1) Majority of holdings are small and un-irrigated. 2) Unproductive plantations needing replacement. Grapes plant gives continuous fruits up to the 15 year after that decrease production then that time needed replacement of plant 3) Lack of exportable varieties. India only three varieties are exported these varieties are Thompson seedless, Flame seedless and Sharad seedless these the problem of exporting but last two years another varieties are also exported such as H-2, H-3, Jambu, Sonaka. 4) Inadequate supply of quality planting materials of improved varieties. 5) High incidence of pests and diseases. 6) Heavy post harvest losses. i.e. 23-30 per cent. 7) Lack of pack houses from farm to port. 8) High cost of obtaining certification for export. => Proposed solutions by MOFPI, 2005: 1) Targeted products:a) India¶s production advantage (in aggregate terms or for specific varieties). b) Production should shift to demand driven rather than supply driven. c) Comparative cost advantage.
2) Improvement of market access:a) Market Intelligence:It means to study the major importing markets. Current status of quality standards and food regulations in target markets for export of defined products. b) Harmonization with international standards/practices, certification and testing:These is the major challenge for India but now a day¶s India coordination with 78 countries, as through the post arrival testing and pre shipment inspection taken by various agency and encourage the food testing laboratory to obtain accreditation from international agency. In order to focus on some key product and market it is critical to develop a strong database to enable current and potential exporter to take national decisions. 3) Supply chain alignment with I nternational requirements:a) Enable direct farmer-exporter linkages. b) Set-up independent world class food testing and inspection infrastructure. c) Devise an alternate system of processing grade products specifications based on internationally accepted norms. d) Encourage investment in infrastructure to improve product quality. Supply chain needs to be aligned with the requirements of importing country which required control and monitoring of quality standard of product. => Government Scheme and Incentives: 1) Integrate all schemes offered for export promotion through various Ministries and allied agencies. a) Grapes production:For installing drip irrigation system under PPS (Plasticulture promotion scheme). b) Post Harvest Schemes:Provide APEDA, NHB, MoFPI and MSEB APEDA:Subsidy ranging from 25-50 per cent for ceilings of development of infrastructures. NHB:i) For commercialization of horticulture. ii) For construction of cold storage facility through NABARD/NCDC iii) Available to the extent 25 per cent of capital cost, limit up to 50 lacks. SWOT Analysis: Strength: a) Agro climatic diversity for grape cultivation to sustain productivity. b) Technology available to achieve the highest productivity in the world. c) Scope to grow grapes almost throughout the year. d) Technology available to produce world class grapes. e) Technology to produce good quality raisins. Weakness:
a) Narrow range of varieties which include only Thompson Seedless, Anab-e-Shahi, Bangalore Blue. b) Production of export quality grape is low (only 15 per cent of the production). c) High air freight. d) Too many exporters. e) Susceptibility of the varieties to cracking, rotting, pink berry formation and mildew diseases. Opportunities: a) Improvement in North Indian varieties for expanding the season. b) Development of less expensive training system. c) Development of cultural practices for cropping in sub-tropical places of North India. d) Improvement of size, colour and packing. e) Exploring south-east Asian markets for exports. Threats: a) Rains during fruit ripening in North India. b) Increasing soil and water salinity. c) Heavy spray schedule. d) Chile and South Africa have extended their season by growing early and late varieties. e) Fluctuation in international price. Conclusion: 1) From this foregoing discussion it can be concluded that the productivity of grapes is high than other countries. 2) Export of grapes is complex process. 3) All pre and post harvest practices should be done according to prescribed international standards. 4) There is a great potential for export of grape in international market. 5) Government should provide more supportive policies for export. 6) Grapenet helps to farmer for export of grapes. Reference: Anonymous (2002). Agroclimetric requirement of grapes. Available at <http://www. biotechpark.org.in> accessed on 17th December, 2010.
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