1.
BASIC NUCLEAR PROPERTIES (2001 2023)
2001
Discuss 4 independent arguments against electrons existing inside the
nucleus.
(Columbia)
Solution:
First argument  Statistics. The statistical nature of nuclei can be de
duced from the rotational spectra of diatomic molecules. If a nucleus (A,Z)
were to consist of A protons and (AZ) electrons, the spin of an oddodd
nucleus or an oddeven nucleus would not agree with experimental results,
Take the oddodd nucleus
14
N as example. An even number of protons
produce an integer spin while an odd number of electrons produce a half
integer spin, so the total spin of the
14
N nucleus would be a halfinteger,
and so it is a fermion. But this result does not agree with experiments.
Hence, nuclei cannot be composed of protons and electrons.
Second argument  Binding energy. The electron is a lepton and cannot
take part in strong interactions which bind the nucleons together. If elec
trons existed in a nucleus, it would be in a bound state caused by Coulomb
interaction with the binding energy having an order of magnitude
E ≈ −
Ze
2
r
,
where r is the electromagnetic radius of the nucleus, r = 1.2A
1/3
fm. Thus
E ≈ −Z
e
2
c
c
r
= −
197Z
137 1.2A
1/3
≈ −1.20
Z
A
1/3
MeV.
Note that the ﬁne structure constant
α =
e
2
c
=
1
137
.
Suppose A ≈ 124, Z ≈ A/2. Then E ≈ −15 MeV, and the de Brogile
wavelength of the electron would be
λ = /p = c/cp = 197/15 = 13 fm.
As λ > r the electron cannot be bound in the nucleus.
207
208 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Third argument  Nuclear magnetic moment. If the nucleus consists of
neutrons and protons, the nuclear magnetic moment is the sum of the con
tributions of the two kinds of nucleons. While diﬀerent coupling methods
give somewhat diﬀerent results, the nuclear magnetic moment should be
of the same order of magnitude as that of a nucleon, µ
N
. On the other
hand, if the nucleus consisted of protons and electrons, the nuclear mag
netic moment should be of the order of magnitude of the magnetic moment
of an electron, µ
e
≈ 1800µ
N
. Experimental results agree with the former
assumption, and contradict the latter.
Fourth argument  βdecay. Nucleus emits electrons in βdecay, leaving
behind a daughter nucleus. So this is a twobody decay, and the electrons
emitted should have a monoenergetic spectrum. This conﬂicts with the
continuous β energy spectrum found in such decays. It means that, in a
βdecay, the electron is accompanied by some third, neutral particle. This
contracts the assumption that there were only protons and electrons in a
nucleus.
The four arguments above illustrate that electrons do not exist in the
nucleus.
2002
The size of the nucleus can be determined by (a) electron scattering, (b)
energy levels of muonic atoms, or (c) ground state energies of the isotopic
spin multiplet . Discuss what physical quantities are measured in two and
only two of these three experiments and how these quantities are related to
the radius of the nucleus.
(SUNY, Buﬀalo)
Solution:
(a) It is the nuclear form factor that is measured in electron scattering
experiments:
F(q
2
) =
(dσ)
exp
(dσ)
point
,
where (dσ)
exp
is the experimental value, (dσ)
point
is the theoretical value
obtained by considering the nucleus as a point. With ﬁrst order Born
approximation, we have
Nuclear Physics 209
F(q
2
) =
ρ(r)e
iq·r
d
3
r .
Assuming ρ(r) = ρ(r) and q r <1, we have
F(q
2
) ≈
ρ(r)
¸
1 +
1
2
(iq r)
2
d
3
r = 1 −
1
2
ρ(r)(q r)
2
d
3
r
= 1 −
1
c2
ρ(r)q
2
r
2
4πr
2
dr
π
0
1
2
cos
2
θ sinθdθ
= 1 −
1
6
q
2
'r
2
`
with 'r
2
` =
ρ(r)r
2
d
3
r.
By measuring the angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons,
we can deduce F(q
2
), and so obtain the charge distribution ρ(r) as a func
tion of r, which gives a measure of the nuclear size.
(b) We can measure the energy diﬀerences between the excited states
and the ground state of the muonic atom. As the mass of a muon is m
µ
≈
210m
e
, the ﬁrst radius of the muonic atom is a
µ
≈ (1/210)a
0
, where a
0
is the Bohr radius, so that the energy levels of muonic atom are more
sensitive to its nuclear radius. Consider for example the s state, for which
the Hamiltonian is
H = −
1
2m
µ
∇
2
+V (r) .
If the nucleus can be considered as a point charge, then V (r) = V
0
(r) =
−e
2
/r, r being the distance of the muon from the nucleus.
If on the other hand we consider the nuclear charge as being uniformly
distributed in a sphere of radius R, then
V (r) =
−
e
2
2R
3
(3R
2
−r
2
) , 0 < r ≤ R,
−
e
2
r
, r > R.
To obtain the energy shift of the ground state, ∆E, caused by the ﬁnite
size of the nucleus, we take
H
= H −H
0
= V (r) −V
0
(r) =
−
e
2
2R
3
(3R
2
−r
2
) +
e
2
r
, 0 < r ≤ R,
0, r > R,
as perturbation. Then
210 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
∆E = 'Φ
0
[H
[Φ
0
` = 4π
R
0
[Φ
0
[
2
H
r
2
dr ,
where Φ
0
=
1
πa
3
µ
1/2
e
−
r
a
µ
. As R ∼ 10
−12
cm, a
µ
∼ 10
−10
cm, we can
take
R
a
µ
< 1 and hence e
−2r/a
µ
≈
1 −
2r
a
µ
. Then ∆E =
2
5
e
2
2a
µ
R
a
µ
2
,
neglecting terms of order (
R
a
µ
)
3
and higher.
We can measure the energy of the Xrays emitted in the transition from
the ﬁrst excited state to the ground state,
E
X
= (E
1
−E
0
) −
2
5
e
2
a
µ
R
a
µ
2
,
where E
1
and E
0
are eigenvalues of H
0
, i.e. E
1
is the energy level of the ﬁrst
excited state and E
0
is the energy level of the ground state (for a point
charge nucleus). If the diﬀerence between E
X
and (E
1
−E
0
), is known, R
can be deduced.
(c) The nuclear structures of the same isotopic spin multiplet are the
same so that the mass diﬀerence in the multiplet arises from electromag
netic interactions and the protonneutron mass diﬀerence. Thus (Prob
lem 2009)
∆E ≡ [M(Z, A) −M(Z −1, A)]c
2
= ∆E
e
−(m
n
−m
p
)c
2
=
3e
2
5R
[Z
2
−(Z −1)
2
] −(m
n
−m
p
)c
2
,
from which R is deduced
It has been found that R ≈ R
0
A
1
3
with R
0
= 1.2 −1.4 fm.
2003
To study the nuclear size, shape and density distribution one employs
electrons, protons and neutrons as probes.
(a) What are the criteria in selecting the probe? Explain.
(b) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the probes men
tioned above.
Nuclear Physics 211
(c) What is your opinion about using photons for this purpose?
(SUNY, Buﬀalo)
Solution:
(a) The basic criterion for selecting probes is that the de Broglie wave
length of the probe is less than or equal to the size of the object being
studied. Thus λ = h/p ≤ d
n
, or p ≥ h/d
n
, where d
n
is the linear size of
the nucleus. For an eﬀective study of the nuclear density distribution we
require λ <d
n
.
(b) Electrons are a suitable probe to study the nuclear electromagnetic
radius and charge distribution because electrons do not take part in strong
interactions, only in electromagnetic interactions. The results are therefore
easy to analyze. In fact, many important results have been obtained from
electronnucleus scatterings, but usually a high energy electron beam is
needed. For example, take a medium nucleus. As d
n
≈ 10
−13
cm, we require
p
e
≈ /d
n
≈ 0.2 GeV/c, or E
e
≈ pc = 0.2 GeV.
Interactions between protons and nuclei can be used to study the nuclear
structure, shape and distribution. The advantage is that proton beams of
high ﬂux and suitable parameters are readily available. The disadvantage
is that both electromagnetic and strong interactions are present in proton
nucleus scatterings and the results are rather complex to analyse.
Neutrons as a probe are in principle much ‘neater’ than protons, How
ever, it is much more diﬃcult to generate neutron beams of high energy and
suitable parameters. Also detection and measurements are more diﬃcult
for neutrons.
(c) If photons are used as probe to study nuclear structure, the high
energy photons that must be used to interest with nuclei would show a
hadronlike character and complicate the problem.
2004
Consider a deformed nucleus (shape of an ellipsoid, long axis 10% longer
than short axis). If you compute the electric potential at the ﬁrst Bohr
radius, what accuracy can you expect if you treat the nucleus as a point
charge? Make reasonable estimate; do not get involved in integration.
(Wisconsin)
212 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
Assume the charge distribution in the nucleus is uniform, ellipsoidal and
axially symmetric. Then the electric dipole moment of the nucleus is zero,
and the potential can be written as
V = V
p
+V
q
,
where V
p
= Q/r is the potential produced by the nucleus as a point charge,
V
q
= MQ/r
3
, M being the electric quadrupole moment.
For the ellipsoid nucleus, let the long axis be a = (1 + ε)R, the short
axis be b = (1 − ε/2)R, where ε is the deformed parameter, and R is the
nuclear radius. As a : b = 1.1, we have
3ε
2
= 0.1, or ε = 0.2/3, and so
M =
2
5
(a
2
−b
2
) =
2
5
(a −b)(a +b) =
1.22
15
R
2
.
For a medium nucleus, take A ∼ 125, for which R = 1.2A
1/3
= 6 fm.
Then
∆V =
V
q
V
p
=
M
r
2
=
1.22
15
R
2
r
2
=
1.22
15
6 10
−13
0.53 10
−8
≈ 1 10
−9
,
at the ﬁrst Bohr radius r = 0.53 10
−8
cm. Thus the relative error in the
potential if we treat the nucleus as a point charge is about 10
−9
at the ﬁrst
Bohr orbit.
2005
The precession frequency of a nucleus in the magnetic ﬁeld of the earth
is 10
−1
, 10
1
, 10
3
, 10
5
sec
−1
.
(Columbia)
Solution:
The precession frequency is given by
ω =
geB
2m
N
c
.
With g = 1, e = 4.8 10
−10
esu, c = 3 10
10
cm/s, B ≈ 0.5 Gs, m
N
≈
10
−23
g for a light nucleus, ω =
4.8×0.5×10
−10
2×10
−23
×3×10
10
= 0.4 10
3
s
−1
.
Hence the answer is 10
3
s
−1
.
Nuclear Physics 213
2006
Given the following information for several light nuclei (1 amu =
931.5 MeV) in Table 2.1.
(a) What are the approximate magnetic moments of the neutron,
3
H
1
,
3
He
2
, and
6
Li
3
?
(b) What is the maximumenergy βparticle emitted when
3
H
1
decays
to
3
He
2
?
(c) Which reaction produces more energy, the fusion of
3
H
1
and
3
He
2
or
2
H
1
and
4
He
2
?
(Wisconsin)
Table 2.1
Nuclide J
π
Nuclide mass (amu) magnetic moment (µ
N
)
1
H
1
1/2
+
1.00783 +2.79
2
H
1
1
+
2.01410 +0.86
3
H
1
1/2
+
3.01605 —
3
He
2
1/2
+
3.01603 —
4
He
2
0
+
4.02603 0
6
Li
3
1
+
6.01512 —
Solution:
The nuclear magnetic moment is given by µ = gµ
N
J, where J is the
nuclear spin, g is the Land´e factor, µ
N
is the nuclear magneton. Then from
the table it is seen that
g(
1
H
1
) = 2 2.79 = 5.58, g(
2
H
1
) = 0.86, g(
4
He
2
) = 0 .
When two particles of Land´e factors g
1
and g
2
combine into a new
particle of Land´e factor g, (assuming the orbital angular momentum of
relative motion is zero), then
g =g
1
J(J + 1) +j
1
(j
1
+ 1) −j
2
(j
2
+ 1)
2J(J + 1)
+ g
2
J(J + 1) +j
2
(j
2
+ 1) −j
1
(j
1
+ 1)
2J(J + 1)
,
where J is the spin of the new particle, j
1
and j
2
are the spins of the
constituent particles.
214 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
2
H
1
is the combination of a neutron and
1
H
1
, with J = 1, j
1
= j
2
= 1/2.
Let g
1
= g(n), g
2
= g(
1
H
1
). Then
1
2
g
1
+
1
2
g
2
= g(
2
H
1
), or
g(n) = g
1
= 2(0.86 −2.79) = −3.86 .
According to the singleparticle shell model, the magnetic moment is due
to the last unpaired nucleon. For
3
H, j = 1/2, l = 0, s = 1/2, same as
for
1
H. Thus, g(
3
H) = g(
1
H). Similarly
3
He has an unpaired n so that
g(
3
He) = g(n). Hence
µ(
3
H) = 2.79µ
N
, µ(
3
He) = −1.93µ
N
.
6
Li
3
can be considered as the combination of
4
He
2
and
2
H
1
, with J = 1,
j
1
= 0, j
2
= 1. Hence
g =
2 −2
2 2
g
1
+
2 + 2
2 2
g
2
= g
2
,
or
g(
6
Li
3
) = g(
2
H
1
) = 0.86 .
(a) The approximate values of the magnetic moments of neutron,
3
H
1
,
3
He
2
,
6
Li
3
are therefore
µ(n) = g(n)µ
N
/2 = −1.93µ
N
,
µ(
3
H
1
) = 2.79µ
N
,
µ(
3
He
2
) = −1.93µ
N
,
µ(
6
Li) = g(
6
Li
3
)µ
N
1 = 0.86µ
N
.
(b) The βdecay from
3
H
1
to
3
He is by the interaction
3
H
1
→
3
He
2
+e
−
+ ¯ ν
e
,
where the decay energy is
Q = m(
3
H
1
) −m(
3
He
2
) = 3.01605 −3.01603 = 0.00002 amu
= 2 10
−5
938 10
3
keV = 18.7 keV.
Hence the maximum energy of the βparticle emitted is 18.7 keV.
Nuclear Physics 215
(c) The fusion reaction of
3
H
1
and
3
He
2
,
3
H
1
+
3
He
2
→
6
Li
3
,
releases an energy
Q = m(
3
H
1
) +m(
3
He
2
) −m(
6
Li
3
) = 0.01696 amu = 15.9 MeV.
The fusion reaction of
2
H
1
and
4
He
2
,
2
H
1
+
4
He
2
→
6
Li
3
,
releases an energy
Q
= m(
2
H
1
) +m(
4
He
2
) −m(
6
Li
3
) = 0.02501 amu = 23.5 MeV.
Thus the second fusion reaction produces more energy.
2007
To penetrate the Coulomb barrier of a light nucleus, a proton must have
a minimum energy of the order of
(a) 1 GeV.
(b) 1 MeV.
(c) 1 KeV.
(CCT)
Solution:
The Coulomb barrier of a light nucleus is V = Q
1
Q
2
/r. Let Q
1
≈ Q
2
≈
e, r ≈ 1 fm. Then
V = e
2
/r =
c
r
e
2
c
=
197
1
1
137
= 1.44 MeV.
Hence the answer is (b).
2008
What is the density of nuclear matter in ton/cm
3
?
(a) 0.004.
(b) 400.
(c) 10
9
.
(CCT)
216 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
The linear size of a nucleon is about 10
−13
cm, so the volume per nucleon
is about 10
−39
cm
3
. The mass of a nucleon is about 10
−27
kg = 10
−30
ton,
so the density of nuclear matter is ρ = m/V ≈ 10
−30
/10
−39
= 10
9
ton/cm
3
.
Hence the answer is (c).
2009
(a) Calculate the electrostatic energy of a charge Q distributed uni
formly throughout a sphere of radius R.
(b) Since
27
14
Si and
27
13
Al are “mirror nuclei”, their ground states are
identical except for charge. If their mass diﬀerence is 6 MeV, estimate
their radius (neglecting the protonneutron mass diﬀerence).
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The electric ﬁeld intensity at a point distance r from the center of
the uniformly charged sphere is
E(r) =
Qr
R
3
for r < R,
Q
r
2
for r > R.
The electrostatic energy is
W =
∞
0
1
8π
E
2
dτ
=
Q
2
8π
¸
R
0
r
R
3
2
4πr
2
dr +
∞
R
1
r
4
4πr
2
dr
=
Q
2
2
R
0
r
4
R
6
dr +
∞
R
1
r
2
dr
=
Q
2
2
1
5R
+
1
R
=
3Q
2
5R
.
Nuclear Physics 217
(b) The mass diﬀerence between the mirror nuclei
27
14
Si and
27
13
Al can be
considered as due to the diﬀerence in electrostatic energy:
∆W =
3e
2
5R
(Z
2
1
−Z
2
2
) .
Thus
R =
3e
2
5∆W
(14
2
−13
2
) =
3c
5∆W
e
2
c
(14
2
−13
2
)
=
3 1.97 10
−11
5 6
1
137
(14
2
−13
2
)
= 3.88 10
−11
cm
= 3.88 fm.
2010
The nucleus
27
14
Si decays to its “mirror” nucleus
27
13
Al by positron emis
sion. The maximum (kinetic energy+m
e
c
2
) energy of the positron is
3.48 MeV. Assume that the mass diﬀerence between the nuclei is due to
the Coulomb energy. Assume the nuclei to be uniformly charged spheres of
charge Ze and radius R. Assuming the radius is given by r
0
A
1/3
, use the
above data to estimate r
0
.
(Princeton)
Solution:
27
14
Si →
27
13
Al +β
+
+ν .
If the recoil energy of the nucleus is neglected, the maximum energy of
the positron equals roughly the mass diﬀerence between the nuclei minus
2m
e
c
2
. The Coulomb energy of a uniformly charged sphere is (Problem
2009)
E
e
=
3e
2
Z
2
5R
=
3e
2
5r
0
Z
2
A
−1/3
.
For
27
14
Si and
27
13
Al,
E
e
=
3e
2
5r
0
27
−
1
3
(14
2
−13
2
) =
27e
2
5r
0
= 3.48 + 1.02 = 4.5 MeV,
or
218 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
r
0
=
27e
2
5 4.5
=
27c
5 4.5
e
2
c
=
27 1.97 10
−11
5 4.5 137
= 1.73 10
−13
cm = 1.73 fm.
2011
The binding energy of
90
40
Zr
50
is 783.916 MeV. The binding energy of
90
39
Y
51
is 782.410 MeV. Estimate the excitation energy of the lowest T = 6
isospin state in
90
Zr.
(Princeton)
Solution:
The energy diﬀerence between two members of the same isospin multi
plet is determined by the Coulomb energies and the neutronproton mass
diﬀerence. Thus (Problem 2009)
∆E = E(A, Z + 1) −E(A, Z) = ∆E
e
−(m
n
−m
p
)c
2
=
3e
2
5R
(2Z + 1) −0.78 =
3(2Z + 1)cα
5R
−0.78
=
3(2 39 + 1) 197
5 1.2 90
1/3
137
−0.78
= 11.89 MeV
using R = 1.2A
1/3
fm.
Hence the excitation energy of the T = 6 state of
90
Zr is
E = −782.410 + 11.89 + 783.916 = 13.40 MeV.
2012
The masses of a set of isobars that are members of the same isospin
multiplet can be written as the expectation value of a mass operator with
the form
M = a +bT
z
+cT
2
z
,
Nuclear Physics 219
where a, b, c are constants and T
z
is the operator for the z component of
the isotopic spin.
(a) Derive this formula.
(b) How large must the isospin be in order to test it experimentally?
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) Members of the same isospin multiplet have the same spinparity
J
p
because of the similarity of their structures. Their mass diﬀerences are
determined by the Coulomb energies and the neutronproton mass diﬀer
ence. Let the nuclear mass number be A, neutron number be N, then
A = Z +N = 2Z −(Z −N) = 2Z −2T
z
. As (Problem 2009)
M =
3e
2
Z
2
5R
+ (m
p
−m
n
)T
z
+M
0
= B
A
2
+T
z
2
+CT
z
+M
0
=
BA
2
4
+BAT
z
+BT
2
z
+CT
z
+M
0
= M
0
+
BA
2
4
+ (C +BA)T
z
+BT
2
z
= a +bT
z
+cT
2
z
with a = M
0
+BA
2
/4, b = C +BA, c = B.
The linear terms in the formula arise from the neutronproton mass
diﬀerence and the Coulomb energy, while the quadratic term is mainly due
to the Coulomb energy.
(b) There are three constants a,b,c in the formula, so three independent
linear equations are needed for their determination. As there are (2T + 1)
multiplets of an isospin T, in order to test the formula experimentally we
require at least T = 1.
2013
Both nuclei
14
7
N and
12
6
C have isospin T = 0 for the ground state. The
lowest T = 1 state has an excitation energy of 2.3 MeV in the case of
220 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
14
7
N and about 15.0 MeV in the case of
12
6
C. Why is there such a marked
diﬀerence? Indicate also the basis on which a value of T is ascribed to such
nuclear states. (Consider other members of the T = 1 triplets and explain
their relationship in terms of systematic nuclear properties.)
(Columbia)
Solution:
The excited states with T = 1 of
12
6
C form an isospin triplet which
consists of
12
5
B,
12
6
C and
12
7
N.
12
5
B and
12
7
N have [T
3
[ = 1, so they are the
ground states of the triplet. Likewise,
14
6
C and
14
8
O are the ground states of
the isospin triplet of the T = 1 excited states of
14
7
N. The binding energies
M −A are given in the table below.
Elements MA (MeV)
12
6
C 0
12
5
B 13.370
14
7
N 2.864
14
6
C 3.020
The energy diﬀerence between two nuclei of an isospin multiplet is
∆E = [M(Z, A) −M(Z −1, A)]c
2
=
3e
2
5R
(2Z −1) −(m
n
−m
p
)c
2
=
3e
2
5R
0
A
1/3
(2Z −1) −0.78
=
3c
5R
0
A
1/3
e
2
c
(2Z −1) −0.78
=
3 197
5 137R
0
A
1/3
(2Z −1) −0.78 MeV.
Taking R
0
≈ 1.4 fm and so
M(
14
N, T = 1) −M(
14
C, T = 1) = 2.5 MeV/c
2
,
M(
12
C, T = 1) −M(
12
B, T = 1) = 2.2 MeV/c
2
,
we have
Nuclear Physics 221
M(
14
N, T = 1) −M(
14
N, T = 0)
= M(
14
N, T = 1) −M(
14
C, T = 1)
+M(
14
C, T = 1) −M(
14
N, T = 0)
= 2.5 + 3.02 −2.86
= 2.66 MeV/c
2
,
M(
12
C, T = 1) −M(
12
C, T = 0)
= M(
12
C, T = 1) −M(
12
B, T = 1)
+M(
12
B, T = 1) −M(
12
C, T = 0)
= 2.2 + 13.37
= 15.5 MeV/c
2
,
which are in agreement with the experiment values 2.3 MeV and 15.0 MeV.
The large diﬀerence between the excitation energies of
12
C and
14
N is due
to the fact that the ground state of
12
C is of an αgroup structure and so
has a very low energy.
The nuclei of an isospin multiplet have similar structures and the same
J
p
. The mass diﬀerence between two isospin multiplet members is de
termined by the diﬀerence in the Coulomb energy of the nuclei and the
neutronproton mass diﬀerence. Such data form the basis of isospin assign
ment. For example
14
O,
14
N
∗
and
14
C belong to the same isospin multiplet
with J
p
= 0
+
and ground states
14
C and
14
O,
14
N
∗
being an exciting state.
Similarly
12
C
∗
,
12
C and
12
B form an isospin multiplet with J
p
= 1
+
, of
which
14
N and
12
B are ground states while
12
C
∗
is an excited state.
2014
(a) Fill in the missing entries in the following table giving the properties
of the ground states of the indicated nuclei. The mass excess ∆M
Z,A
is
deﬁned so that
M
Z,A
= A(931.5 MeV) + ∆M
Z,A
,
222 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where M
Z,A
is the atomic mass, A is the mass member, T and T
z
are the
quantum members for the total isotopic spin and the third component of
isotopic spin. Deﬁne your convention for T
z
.
(b) The wave function of the isobaric analog state (IAS) in
81
Kr is
obtained by operating on the
81
Br ground state wave function with the
isospin upping operator T.
(i) What are J
π
, T, and T
z
for the IAS in
81
Kr?
(ii) Estimate the excitation energy of the IAS in
81
Kr.
(iii) Now estimate the decay energy available for decay of the IAS in
81
Kr by emission of a
neutron, γray, αparticle, β
+
ray.
(iv) Assuming suﬃcient decay energy is available for each decay mode
in (iii), indicate selection rules or other factors which might inhibit decay
by that mode.
(Princeton)
Isotopes Z T
z
T J
p
Mass excess (MeV)
n 0 8.07
1
H 1 7.29
4
He 2 2.43
77
Se 34 1/2
−
−74.61
77
Br 35 3/2
−
−73.24
77
Kr 36 7/2
+
−70.24
80
Br 35 1
+
−76.89
80
Kr 36 −77.90
81
Br 35 3/2
−
−77.98
81
Kr 36 7/2
+
−77.65
81
Rb 37 3/2
−
−77.39
Solution:
(a) The table is completed as shown in the next page.
(b) (i) The isobasic analog state (IAS) is a highly excited state of a
nucleus with the same mass number but with one higher atomic number,
i.e. a state with the same A, the same T, but with T
z
increased by 1. Thus
Nuclear Physics 223
for
81
Br, [T, T
z
` = [11/2, −11/2`, the quantum numbers of the IAS in
81
Kr
are T = 11/2, T
z
= −9/2, J
p
[
81
Kr(IAS)] = J
p
(
81
Br) = 3/2
−
.
Isotopes Z T
z
T J
p
Mass excess (MeV)
n 0 −1/2 1/2 1/2
+
8.07
1
H 1 1/2 1/2 1/2
+
7.29
4
He 2 0 0 0
+
2.43
77
Se 34 −9/2 9/2 1/2
−
−74.61
77
Br 35 −7/2 7/2 3/2
−
−73.24
77
Kr 36 −5/2 5/2 7/2
+
−70.24
80
Br 35 −5 5 1
+
−76.89
80
Kr 36 −4 4 0
+
−77.90
81
Br 35 −11/2 11/2 3/2
−
−77.98
81
Kr 36 −9/2 9/2 7/2
+
−77.65
81
Rb 37 −7/2 7/2 3/2
−
−77.39
(ii) The mass diﬀerence between
81
Br and
81
Kr(IAS) is due to the dif
ference between the Coulomb energies of the nuclei and the neutronproton
mass diﬀerence:
∆M81
Kr(IAS)
= ∆M81
Br
+
3
5
(2Z −1)e
2
R
0
A
1/3
−[m(n) −M(
1
H)]
= ∆M81
Br
+ 0.719
2Z −1
A
1
3
−0.78 MeV,
as R
0
= 1.2 fm, m
n
−m
p
= 0.78 MeV. With Z = 36, A = 81, ∆M81
Br
=
−77.98 MeV, we have ∆M81
Kr(IAS)
= −67.29 MeV.
Hence the excitation energy of
81
Kr(IAS) from the ground state of
81
Kr is
∆E = −67.29 −(−77.65) = 10.36 MeV.
(iii) For the neutrondecay
81
Kr(IAS)→n+
80
Kr,
Q
1
= ∆M81
Kr(IAS)
−∆(n) −∆M80
Kr
= −67.29 −8.07 + 77.90 = 2.54 MeV.
For the γdecay
81
Kr(IAS) →
81
Kr +γ,
Q
2
= ∆M81
Kr(IAS)
−∆M81
Kr
= −67.29 −(−77.65) = 10.36 MeV.
For the αdecay
81
Kr(IAS) →α+
77
Se,
224 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Q
3
=∆M81
Kr(IAS)
−∆M
α
−∆M77
Se
= −67.29 −2.43 −(−74.61) = 4.89 MeV.
For the β
+
decay
81
Kr(IAS) →
81
Br +β
+
+ν
e
,
Q
4
=∆M81
Kr(IAS)
−∆M81
Br
−2m
e
= −67.29 −(−77.98) −1.02 = 9.67 MeV.
(iv)
In the interaction
81
Kr(IAS) →
81
Kr + n
T : 11/2 4
1
2
∆T = 0. As strong interaction requires conservation of T and T
z
, the
interaction is inhibited.
In the interaction
81
Kr(IAS) →
81
Kr +γ
J
p
:
3
2
−
7
2
+
we have ∆J =
3
2
−
7
2
= 2, ∆P = −1; so it can take place through E3 or
M2 type transition.
The interaction
81
Kr(IAS) →
77
Se + α
T : 11/2 9/2 0
T
z
: −9/2 −9/2 0
is inhibited as isospin is not conserved.
The interaction
81
Kr(IAS) →
81
Br + β
+
+ν
e
J
p
: 3/2
−
3
2
−
is allowed, being a mixture of the Fermi type and Gamow–Teller type in
teractions.
2015
Isospin structure of magnetic dipole moment.
Nuclear Physics 225
The magnetic dipole moments of the free neutron and free proton are
−1.913µ
N
and +2.793µ
N
respectively. Consider the nucleus to be a collec
tion of neutrons and protons, having their free moments.
(a) Write down the magnetic moment operator for a nucleus of A nu
cleons.
(b) Introduce the concept of isospin and determine the isoscalar and
isovector operators. What are their relative sizes?
(c) Show that the sum of magnetic moments in nuclear magnetons of
two T = 1/2 mirror nuclei is
J + (µ
p
+µ
n
−1/2)
A
¸
i=l
σ
(i)
z
,
where J is the total nuclear spin and σ
(i)
z
is the Pauli spin operator for a
nucleon.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The magnetic moment operator for a nucleus of A nucleons is
µ =
A
¸
i=l
(g
i
l
l
i
+g
i
s
S
i
) ,
where for neutrons: g
l
= 0, g
s
= 2µ
n
; for protons: g
l
= 1, g
s
= 2µ
p
and S
is the spin operator
1
2
σ.
(b) Charge independence has been found to hold for protons and neu
trons such that, if Coulomb forces are ignored, the p−p, p−n, n−n forces
are identical provided the pair of nucleons are in the same spin and orbital
motions. To account for this, isospin T is introduced such that p and n
have the same T while the z component T
z
in isospin space is T
z
=
1
2
for p
and T
z
= −
1
2
for n. There are four independent operators in isospin space:
scalar operator: unit matrix I =
1 0
0 1
;
vector operators: Pauli matrices, τ
1
=
0 1
1 0
, τ
2
=
0 −i
i 0
,
τ
3
=
1 0
0 −1
.
226 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Let the wave functions of proton and neutron be ψ
p
=
1
0
, ψ
n
=
0
1
respectively, and deﬁne τ
±
= τ
1
±iτ
2
, T = τ/2. Then
T
3
Ψ
p
=
1
2
Ψ
p
, τ
3
Ψ
p
= Ψ
p
,
T
3
Ψ
n
= −
1
2
Ψ
n
, τ
3
Ψ
n
= −Ψ
n
,
T
+
Ψ
n
= Ψ
p
, T
−
Ψ
p
= Ψ
n
.
(c) The mirror nucleus is obtained by changing all the protons of a
nucleus into neutrons and all the neutrons into protons. Thus mirror nuclei
have the same T but opposite T
z
. In other words, for mirror nuclei, if the
isospin quantum numbers of the ﬁrst nucleus are
1
2
,
1
2
, then those of the
second are
1
2
, −
1
2
.
For the ﬁrst nucleus, the magnetic moment operator is
µ
1
=
A
¸
i=1
(g
i
l
l
i
1
+g
i
s
S
i
1
) .
We can write
g
l
=
1
2
(1 +τ
3
), g
s
= (1 +τ
3
)µ
p
+ (1 −τ
3
)µ
n
,
since g
l
ψ
p
= ψ
p
, g
l
ψ
n
= 0, etc. Then
µ
1
=
A
¸
i=1
(1 +τ
i
3
)
2
l
i
1
+
¸
A
¸
i=1
(1 +τ
i
3
)µ
p
+
A
¸
i=1
(1 −τ
i
3
)µ
n
¸
S
i
l
=
1
2
A
¸
i=1
(l
i
1
+S
i
1
) +
µ
p
+µ
n
−
1
2
A
¸
i=1
S
i
1
+
1
2
A
¸
i=1
τ
i
3
[l
i
1
+ 2(µ
p
−µ
n
)S
i
1
] .
Similarly for the other nucleus we have
µ
2
=
1
2
A
¸
i=1
(l
i
2
+S
i
2
) +
µ
p
+µ
n
−
1
2
A
¸
i=1
S
i
2
+
1
2
A
¸
i=1
τ
i
3
[l
i
2
+2(µ
p
−µ
n
)S
i
2
] .
Nuclear Physics 227
As J
i
=
¸
A
i=1
(l
i
+ S
i
), the mirror nuclei have J
1
= J
2
but opposite T
3
values, where T
3
=
1
2
¸
A
i=1
τ
i
3
, S =
1
2
σ.
The observed magnetic moment is µ = 'µ
z
` = 'JJ
z
TT
3
[µ
z
[JJ
z
TT
3
`.
Then for the ﬁrst nucleus:
µ
1
=
JJ
z
1
2
1
2
J
z
2
+
µ
p
+µ
n
−
1
2
1
2
A
¸
i=1
(σ
i
1
)
z
+
1
2
A
¸
i=1
τ
i
3
[l
i
1z
+ 2(µ
p
−µ
n
)S
i
1z
]
JJ
z
1
2
1
2
=
J
z
2
+
1
2
µ
p
+µ
n
−
1
2
A
¸
i=1
(σ
i
1
)
z
+
JJ
z
1
2
1
2
1
2
A
¸
i=1
τ
i
3
[l
i
1z
+ 2(µ
p
−µ
n
)S
i
1z
]
JJ
z
1
2
1
2
,
and for the second nucleus:
µ
2
=
J
z
2
+
1
2
µ
p
+µ
n
−
1
2
A
¸
i=1
(σ
i
1
)
z
+
JJ
z
1
2
−
1
2
1
2
A
¸
i=1
τ
i
3
[l
i
2z
+ 2(µ
p
−µ
n
)S
i
2z
]
JJ
z
1
2
−
1
2
.
The sum of the magnetic moments of the mirror nuclei is
µ
1
+µ
2
= J
z
+
µ
p
+µ
n
−
1
2
A
¸
i=1
σ
i
z
,
as the last terms in the expression for µ
1
and µ
2
cancel each other.
2016
Hard sphere scattering:
Show that the classical cross section for elastic scattering of point par
ticles from an inﬁnitely massive sphere of radius R is isotropic.
(MIT)
228 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
In classical mechanics, in elastic scattering of a point particle from a
ﬁxed surface, the emergent angle equals the incident angle. Thus if a parti
cle moving along the −z direction impinges on a hard sphere of radius R at
a surface point of polar angle θ, it is deﬂected by an angle α = 2θ. As the
impact parameter is b = Rsinθ, the diﬀerential scattering cross section is
dσ
dΩ
=
2πbdb
2π sinαdα
=
R
2
sinθ cos θdθ
4 sinθ cos θdθ
=
R
2
4
,
which is independent of θ, showing that the scattering is isotropic.
2017
A convenient model for the potential energy V of a particle of charge q
scattering from an atom of nuclear charge Q is V = qQe
−αr
/r. Where α
−1
represents the screening length of the atomic electrons.
(a) Use the Born approximation
f = −
1
4π
e
−i∆k·r
2m
2
V (r)d
3
r
to calculate the scattering cross section σ.
(b) How should α depend on the nuclear charge Z?
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) In Born approximation
f = −
m
2π
2
V (r)e
−iq.r
d
3
r ,
where q = k−k
0
is the momentum transferred from the incident particle to
the outgoing particle. We have [q[ = 2k
0
sin
θ
2
, where θ is the angle between
the incident and outgoing particles. As V (r) is spherically symmetric,
f(θ) = −
m
2π
2
∞
0
2π
0
π
0
V (r)e
−i∆kr cos θ
sinθr
2
drdϕdθ
= −
2m
2
∆k
∞
0
V (r) sin(∆kr)rdr
= −
2mQq
2
1
α
2
+ (∆k)
2
.
Nuclear Physics 229
The diﬀerential cross section is
dσ = [f(θ)[
2
dΩ =
4m
2
Q
2
q
2
4
dΩ
[α
2
+ (∆k
2
)]
2
=
m
2
Q
2
q
2
4
4
k
4
0
dΩ
α
2
4k
2
0
+ sin
2 θ
2
2
,
and the total crosssection is
σ =
dσ =
m
2
Q
2
q
2
4
4
k
4
0
2π
0
π
0
sinθdθdϕ
α
2
4k
2
0
+ sin
2 θ
2
2
=
16πm
2
Q
2
q
2
4
α
2
(4k
2
0
+α
2
)
.
(b) α
−1
gives a measure of the size of atoms. As Z increases, the number
of electrons outside of the nucleus as well as the probability of their being
near the nucleus will increase, enhancing the screening eﬀect. Hence α is
an increasing function of Z.
2018
Consider the scattering of a 1keV proton by a hydrogen atom.
(a) What do you expect the angular distribution to look like? (Sketch
a graph and comment on its shape).
(b) Estimate the total cross section. Give a numerical answer in cm
2
,
m
2
or barns, and a reason for your answer.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
The diﬀerential cross section for elastic scattering is (Problem 2017)
dσ
dΩ
=
m
2
q
2
Q
2
4
4
k
4
0
1
α
2
4k
4
0
+ sin
θ
2
2
.
For proton and hydrogen nuclues Q = q = e. The screening length can be
taken to be α
−1
≈ R
0
, R
0
being the Bohr radius of hydrogen atom. For an
incident proton of 1 keV; The wave length is
230 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
¯
λ
0
=
√
2µE
=
c
2µc
2
E
=
197
√
1 938 10
−3
= 203 fm.
With α
−1
≈ R
0
= 5.3 10
4
fm,
α
2
4k
2
0
=
¯
λ
0
2α
−1
2
<1 and so
dσ
dΩ
≈
m
2
e
4
4
2
k
2
0
1
sin
4 θ
2
,
which is the Rurthford scattering formula.
The scattering of 1keV protons from hydrogen atom occurs mainly at
small angles (see Fig. 2.1). The probability of large angle scattering (near
headon collision) is very small, showing that hydrogen atom has a very
small nucleus.
Fig. 2.1
(b) As given in Problem 2017,
σ =
16πm
2
e
4
4
α
2
(4k
2
0
+ α
3
)
≈
16πm
2
e
4
4
α
2
4k
2
0
= 4π
¸
mc
2
R
0 ¯
λ
0
c
e
2
c
2
= 4π
938 5.3 10
4
203
197 137
2
= 1.76 10
12
fm
2
= 1.76 10
−14
cm
2
.
Nuclear Physics 231
2019
(a) At a centerofmass energy of 5 MeV, the phase describing the elastic
scattering of a neutron by a certain nucleus has the following values: δ
0
=
30
0
, δ
1
= 10
0
. Assuming all other phase shifts to be negligible, plot dσ/dΩ
as a function of scattering angle. Explicitly calculate dσ/dΩ at 30
0
, 45
0
and 90
0
. What is the total cross section σ?
(b) What does the fact that all of the phase shifts δ
2
, δ
3
. . . are negligible
imply about the range of the potential? Be as quantitative as you can.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) The diﬀerential cross section is given by
dσ
dΩ
=
1
k
2
∞
¸
l=0
(2l + 1)e
iδ
l
sinδ
l
P
l
(cos θ)
2
.
Supposing only the ﬁrst and second terms are important, we have
dσ
dΩ
≈
1
k
2
[e
iδ
0
sinδ
0
+ 3e
iδ
1
sinδ
1
cos θ[
2
=
1
k
2
[(cos δ
0
sinδ
0
+ 3 cos δ
1
sinδ
1
cos θ) +i(sin
2
δ
0
+ 3 sin
2
δ
1
cos θ)[
2
=
1
k
2
[sin
2
δ
0
+ 9 sin
2
δ
1
cos
2
θ + 6 sinδ
0
sinδ
1
cos(δ
1
−δ
0
) cos θ]
=
1
k
2
[0.25 + 0.27 cos
2
θ + 0.49 cos θ] ,
where k is the wave number of the incident neutron in the centerofmass
frame. Assume that the mass of the nucleus is far larger than that of the
neutron m
n
. Then
k
2
≈
2m
n
E
2
=
2m
n
c
2
E
(c)
2
=
2 938 5
197
2
10
−30
= 2.4 10
29
m
−2
= 2.4 10
25
cm
−2
.
The diﬀerential cross section for other angles are given in the following
table. The data are plotted in Fig. 2.2 also.
232 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.2
θ 0
0
30
0
45
0
90
0
180
0
k
2
dσ
dΩ
1 0.88 0.73 0.25 0
dσ
dΩ
×10
26
(cm
2
) 4.2 3.7 3.0 1.0 0
The total cross section is
σ =
dσ
dΩ
dΩ =
2π
k
2
π
0
(0.25 + 0.49 cos θ + 0.27 cos
2
θ) sinθdθ
=
4π
k
2
0.25 +
1
3
0.27
= 1.78 10
−25
cm
2
≈ 0.18 b .
(b) The phase shift δ
l
is given by
δ
l
≈ −
2m
n
k
2
∞
0
V (r)J
2
l
(kr)r
2
dr ,
where J
l
is a spherical Bessel function. As the maximum of J
l
(x) occurs
nears x = l, for higher l values J
l
in the region of potential V (r) is rather
small and can be neglected. In other words, δ
2
, δ
3
. . . being negligible means
that the potential range is within R ≈ 1/k. Thus the range of the potential
is R ≈ (2.4 10
25
)
−1/2
= 2 10
−13
cm = 2 fm.
Nuclear Physics 233
2020
Neutrons of 1000 eV kinetic energy are incident on a target composed
of carbon. If the inelastic cross section is 40010
−24
cm
2
, what upper and
lower limits can you place on the elastic scattering cross section?
(Chicago)
Solution:
At 1 keV kinetic energy, only swave scattering is involved. The phase
shift δ must have a positive imaginary part for inelastic process to take
place. The elastic and inelastic cross sections are respectively given by
σ
e
= π
¯
λ
2
[e
2iδ
−1[
2
,
σ
in
= π
¯
λ
2
(1 −[e
2iδ
[
2
) .
The reduced mass of the system is
µ =
m
n
m
c
m
c
+m
n
≈
12
13
m
n
.
For E = 1000 eV,
¯
λ =
√
2µE
=
c
2µc
2
E
=
197
2
12
13
940 10
−3
= 150 fm,
π
¯
λ
2
= 707 10
−24
cm
2
.
As
1 −[e
2iδ
[
2
=
σ
in
π
¯
λ
2
=
400
707
= 0.566 ,
we have
[e
2iδ
[ =
√
1 −0.566 = 0.659 ,
or
e
2iδ
= ±0.659 .
Hence the elastic cross section
σ
e
= π
¯
λ
2
[e
2iδ
−1[
2
has maximum and minimum values
234 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(σ
e
)
max
= 707 10
−24
(−0.659 −1)
2
= 1946 10
−24
cm
2
,
(σ
e
)
min
= 707 10
−24
(0.659 −1)
2
= 82 10
−24
cm
2
.
2021
The study of the scattering of high energy electrons from nuclei has
yielded much interesting information about the charge distributions in nu
clei and nucleons. We shall here consider a simple version in which the
electrons are supposed to have zero spin. We also assume that the nucleus,
of charge Ze, remains ﬁxed in space (i.e., its mass is assumed inﬁnite). Let
ρ(x) denote the charge density in the nucleus. The charge distribution is
assumed to be spherically symmetric but otherwise arbitrary.
Let f
c
(p
i
, p
f
), where p
i
is the initial and p
f
the ﬁnal momentum, be
the scattering amplitude in the ﬁrst Born approximation for the scattering
of an electron from a pointnucleus of charge Ze. Let f(p
i
, p
f
) be the
scattering amplitude of an electron from a real nucleus of the same charge.
Let q = p
i
−p
f
denote the momentum transfer. The quantity F deﬁned by
f(p
i
, p
f
) = F(q
2
)f
c
(p
i
, p
f
)
is called the form factor. It is easily seen that F, in fact, depends on p
i
and
p
f
only through the quantity q
2
.
(a) The form factor F(q
2
) and the Fourier transform of the charge den
sity ρ(x) are related in a very simple manner. State and derive this re
lationship within the framework of the nonrelativistic Schr¨ odinger theory.
The assumption that the electrons are “nonrelativistic” is here made so
that the problem will be simpliﬁed. However, on careful consideration it
will probably be clear that the assumption is irrelevant: the same result
applies in the “relativistic” case of the actual experiment. It is also the case
that the neglect of the electron spin does not aﬀect the essence of what we
are here concerned with.
(b) Figure 2.3 shows some experimental results pertaining to the form
factor for the proton, and we shall regard our theory as applicable to these
data. On the basis of the data shown, compute the rootmeansquare
(charge) radius of the proton. Hint: Note that there is a simple rela
tionship between the rootmeansquare radius and the derivative of F(q
2
)
with respect to q
2
, at q
2
= 0. Find this relationship, and then compute.
(UC, Berkeley)
Nuclear Physics 235
Fig. 2.3
Solution:
(a) In the ﬁrst Born approximation, the scattering amplitude of a high
energy electron from a nucleus is
f(p
i
, p
f
) = −
m
2π
2
V (x)e
iq·x/
d
3
x.
For a nucleus of spherically symmetric charge distribution, the potential at
position x is
V (x) =
ρ(r)Ze
[x −r[
d
3
r .
Thus
f(p
i
, p
f
) = −
m
2π
2
d
3
xe
iq·x/
d
3
r
ρ(r)Ze
[x −r[
= −
m
2π
2
d
3
rρ(r)e
iq·r/
d
3
x
Ze
[x −r[
e
iq·(x−r)/
= −
m
2π
2
d
3
rρ(r)e
iq·r/
d
3
x
Ze
x
e
iq·x
/
.
On the other hand, for a point nucleus we have V (x) =
Ze
x
and so
f
c
(p
i
, p
f
) = −
m
2π
2
Ze
x
e
iq·x/
d
3
x.
Comparing the two equations above we obtain
236 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
f(p
i
, p
f
) = f
c
(p
i
, p
f
)
d
3
rρ(r)e
iq·r/
and hence
F(q
2
) =
d
3
rρ(r)e
iq·r/
.
(b) When q ≈ 0,
F(q
2
) =
ρ(r)e
iq·r/
d
3
r
≈
ρ(r)
¸
1 +iq r/ −
1
2
(q r)
2
/
2
d
3
r
=
ρ(r)d
3
r −
1
2
(ρ(r)q
2
r
2
cos
2
θ/
2
) r
2
sinθdrdθdϕ
= F(0) −
2π
3
q
2
2
r
4
ρ(r)dr ,
i.e.,
F(q
2
) −F(0) = −
2π
3
q
2
2
r
4
ρ(r)dr .
Note that
i
ρ(r)q rd
3
r = 0 as
π
0
cos θ sinθdθ = 0. The meansquare
radius 'r
2
` is by deﬁnition
'r
2
` =
d
3
rρ(r)r
2
= 4π
ρ(r)r
4
dr
= −6
2
F(q
2
) −F(0)
q
2
= −6
2
∂F
∂q
2
q
2
=0
.
From Fig. 2.3,
−
2
∂F
∂q
2
q
2
=0
≈ −
0.8 −1.0
2 −0
10
−26
= 0.1 10
−26
cm
2
Hence 'r
2
` = 0.6 10
−26
cm
2
, or
'r
2
` = 0.77 10
−13
cm, i.e., the root
meansquare proton radius is 0.77 fm.
2022
The total (elastic+inelastic) protonneutron cross section at centerof
mass momentum p = 10 GeV/c is σ = 40 mb.
Nuclear Physics 237
(a) Disregarding nucleon spin, set a lower bound on the elastic center
ofmass protonneutron forward diﬀerential crosssection.
(b) Assume experiments were to ﬁnd a violation of this bound. What
would this mean?
(Chicago)
Solution:
(a) The forward p −n diﬀerential cross section is given by
dσ
dΩ
0
0
= [f(0)[
2
≥ [Imf(0)[
2
=
k
4π
σ
t
2
,
where the relation between Imf(0) and σ
t
is given by the optical theorem.
As k = p/ we have
dσ
dΩ
0
0
≥
pc
4πc
σ
l
2
=
10
4
40 10
−27
4π 1.97 10
−11
2
= 2.6 10
−24
cm
2
= 2.6 b .
(b) Such a result would mean a violation of the optical theorem, hence of
the unitarity of the Smatrix, and hence of the probabilistic interpretation
of quantum theory.
2023
When a 300GeV proton beam strikes a hydrogen target (see Fig. 2.4),
the elastic cross section is maximum in the forward direction. Away from
the exact forward direction, the cross section is found to have a (ﬁrst)
minimum.
(a) What is the origin of this minimum? Estimate at what laboratory
angle it should be located.
(b) If the beam energy is increased to 600 GeV, what would be the
position of the minimum?
(c) If the target were lead instead of hydrogen, what would happen to
the position of the minimum (beam energy= 300 GeV)?
238 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(d) For lead, at what angle would you expect the second minimum to
occur?
(Chicago)
Fig. 2.4
Solution:
(a) The minimum in the elastic cross section arises from the destruc
tive interference of waves resulting from scattering at diﬀerent impact pa
rameters. The wavelength of the incident proton, λ =
h
p
=
2πc
pc
=
2π×1.97×10
−11
300×10
3
= 4.1 10
−16
cm, is much smaller than the size ∼ 10
−13
cm
of the target proton. The ﬁrst minimum of the diﬀraction pattern will oc
cur at an angle θ such that scattering from the center and scattering from
the edge of the target proton are onehalf wavelength out of phase, i.e.,
rθ
min
= λ/2 = 2.1 10
−16
cm.
Thus, if r = 1.0 10
−13
cm, the minimum occurs at 2.1 10
−3
rad.
(b) If E → 600 GeV/c, then λ → λ/2 and θ
min
→ θ
min
/2 i.e., the
minimum will occur at θ
min
= 1.05 10
−3
rad.
(c) For Pb : A = 208, r = 1.1 208
1
3
= 6.5 fm, and we may expect the
ﬁrst minimum to occur at θ
min
= 3.2 10
−4
rad.
(d) At the second minium, scattering from the center and scattering
from the edge are 3/2 wavelengths out of phase. Thus the second minimum
will occur at θ
min
= 3 3.2 10
−4
= 9.6 10
−4
rad.
Nuclear Physics 239
2. NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, FISSION AND FUSION
(2024 2047)
2024
The semiempirical mass formula relates the mass of a nucleus, M(A, Z),
to the atomic number Z and the atomic weight A. Explain and justify
each of the terms, giving approximate values for the magnitudes of the
coeﬃcients or constants in each term.
(Columbia)
Solution:
The mass of a nucleus, M(Z, A), is
M(Z, A) = ZM(
1
H) + (A−Z)m
n
−B(Z, A) ,
where B(Z, A) is the binding energy of the nucleus, given by the liquiddrop
model as
B(Z, A) =B
v
+B
s
+B
e
+B
a
+B
p
= a
v
A−a
s
A
2/3
−a
e
Z
2
A
−1/3
−a
a
A
2
−Z
2
A
−1
+a
p
δA
−1/2
,
where B
v
, B
s
, B
e
are respectively the volume and surface energies and the
electrostatic energy between the protons.
As the nuclear radius can be given as r
0
A
−1/3
, r
0
being a constant, B
v
,
which is proportional to the volume of the nucleus, is proportional to A.
Similarly the surface energy is proportional to A
2/3
. The Coulomb energy
is proportional to Z
2
/R, and so to Z
2
A
−1/3
.
Note that B
s
arises because nucleus has a surface, where the nucleons
interact with only, on the average, half as many nucleons as those in the
interior, and may be considered as a correction to B
v
.
B
a
arises from the symmetry eﬀect that for nuclides with mass number
A, nuclei with Z =
A
2
is most stable. A departure from this condition leads
to instability and a smaller binding energy.
Lastly, neutrons and protons in a nucleus each have a tendency to exist
in pairs. Thus nuclides with proton number and neutron number being
eveneven are the most stable; oddodd, the least stable; evenodd or odd
even, intermediate in stability. This eﬀect is accounted for by the pairing
energy B
p
= a
p
δA
−1/2
, where
240 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
δ =
1 for eveneven nucleus,
0 for oddeven or evenodd nucleus,
−1 for oddodd nucleus.
The values of the coeﬃcients can be determined by a combination of theo
retical calculations and adjustments to ﬁt the experimental binding energy
values. These have been determined to be
a
v
= 15.835 MeV, a
s
= 18.33 MeV, a
e
= 0.714 MeV,
a
a
= 92.80 MeV, a
p
= 11.20 MeV.
2025
The nuclear binding energy may be approximated by the empirical ex
pression
B.E. = a
1
A−a
2
A
2/3
−a
3
Z
2
A
−1/3
−a
4
(A−2Z)
2
A
−1
.
(a) Explain the various terms in this expression.
(b) Considering a set of isobaric nuclei, derive a relationship between A
and Z for naturally occurring nuclei.
(c) Use a Fermi gas model to estimate the magnitude of a
4
. You may
assume A = 2Z and that the nuclear radius is R = R
0
A
1/3
.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The terms in the expression represent volume, surface, Coulomb and
symmetry energies, as explained in Problem 2024 (where a
a
= 4a
4
).
(b) For isobaric nuclei of the same A and diﬀerent Z, the stable nuclides
should satisfy
∂(B.E.)
∂Z
= −2A
−1/3
a
3
Z + 4a
4
A
−1
(A−2Z) = 0 ,
giving
Z =
A
2 +
a
3
2a
4
A
2/3
.
With a
3
= 0.714 MeV, a
4
= 23.20 MeV,
Nuclear Physics 241
Z =
A
2 + 0.0154A
2/3
.
(c) A fermi gas of volume V at absolute temperature T = 0 has energy
E =
2V
h
3
4π
5
p
5
0
2m
and particle number
N =
2V
h
3
4π
3
p
3
0
,
where we have assumed that each phase cell can accommodate two particles
(neutrons or protons) of opposite spins. The limiting momentum is then
p
0
= h
3
8π
N
V
1
3
and the corresponding energy is
E =
3
40
3
π
2
3
h
2
m
V
−
2
3
N
5
3
.
For nucleus (A, Z) consider the neutrons and protons as independent gases
in the nuclear volume V . Then the energy of the lowest state is
E =
3
40
3
π
2/3
h
2
m
N
5/3
+Z
5/3
V
2/3
=
3
40
9
4π
2
2/3
h
2
mR
2
0
N
5/3
+Z
5/3
A
2/3
= C
N
5/3
+Z
5/3
A
2/3
,
where V =
4π
3
R
3
0
A, R
0
≈ 1.2 fm, C =
3
40
9
4π
2
2/3
1
mc
2
hc
R
0
2
=
3
40
9
4π
2
2
3
1
940
1238
1.2
2
= 31.7 MeV.
For stable nuclei, N + Z = A, N ≈ Z. Let N =
1
2
A(1 + ε/A), Z =
1
2
A(1 −ε/A), where
ε
A
<1. As
1 +
ε
A
5/3
= 1 +
5ε
3A
+
5ε
2
9A
2
+. . . ,
1 −
ε
A
5/3
= 1 −
5ε
3A
+
5ε
2
9A
2
−. . . ,
242 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
we have
N
5
3
+Z
5
3
≈ 2
A
2
5
3
1 +
5ε
2
9A
2
and
E ≈ 2
−2/3
CA
¸
1 +
5ε
2
9A
2
= 2
−2/3
CA+
5
9
2
−2/3
C
(N −Z)
2
A
.
The second term has the form a
4
(N−Z)
2
A
with
a
4
=
5
9
2
−2/3
C ≈ 11 MeV.
The result is smaller by a factor of 2 from that given in Problem 2024,
where a
4
= a
a
/4 = 23.20 MeV. This may be due to the crudeness of the
model.
2026
The greatest binding energy per nucleon occurs near
56
Fe and is much
less for
238
U. Explain this in terms of the semiempirical nuclear bind
ing theory. State the semiempirical binding energy formula (you need not
specify the values of the various coeﬃcients).
(Columbia)
Solution:
The semiempirical formula for the binding energy of nucleus (A, Z) is
B(Z, A) =B
v
+B
s
+B
e
+B
a
+B
p
= a
v
A−a
s
A
2/3
−a
e
Z
2
A
−1/3
−a
a
A
2
−Z
2
A
−1
+a
p
δA
−1/2
.
The mean binding energy per nucleon is then
ε = B/A = a
v
−a
s
A
−1/3
−a
e
Z
2
A
−4/3
−a
a
1
2
−
Z
A
2
+a
p
δA
−3/2
.
Nuclear Physics 243
Consider the ﬁve terms that contribute to ε. The contribution of the pair
ing energy (the last term) for the same A may be diﬀerent for diﬀerent
combinations of Z, N, though it generally decreases with increasing A.
The contribution of the volume energy, which is proportional to A, is a
constant. The surface energy makes a negative contribution whose abso
lute value decreases with increasing A. The Coulomb energy also makes
a negative contribution whose absolute value increases with A as Z and
A increase together. The symmetry energy makes a negative contribution
too, its absolute value increasing with A because Z/A decreases when A
increases. Adding together these terms, we see that the mean binding en
ergy increases with A at ﬁrst, reaching a ﬂat maximum at A ∼ 50 and then
decreases gradually, as shown in Fig. 2.5.
Fig. 2.5
2027
Draw a curve showing binding energy per nucleon as a function of nu
clear mass. Give values in MeV, as accurately as you can. Where is the
maximum of the curve? From the form of this curve explain nuclear ﬁs
sion and estimate the energy release per ﬁssion of
235
U. What force is
principally responsible for the form of the curve in the upper mass region?
(Wisconsin)
244 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
Figure 2.5 shows the mean binding energy per nucleon as a function of
nuclear mass number A. The maximum occurs at A ∼ 50. As A increases
from 0, the curve rises sharply for A < 30, but with considerable ﬂuctua
tions. Here the internucleon interactions have not reached saturation and
there are not too many nucleons present so that the mean binding energy
increases rapidly with the mass number. But because of the small number
of nucleons, the pairing and symmetry eﬀects signiﬁcantly aﬀect the mean
binding energy causing it to ﬂuctuate.
When A > 30, the mean binding energy goes beyond 8 MeV. As A
increases further, the curve falls gradually. Here, with suﬃcient number
of nucleons, internucleon forces become saturated and so the mean bind
ing energy tends to saturate too. As the number of nucleons increases
further, the mean binding energy decreases slowly because of the eﬀect of
Coulomb repulsion.
In nuclear ﬁssion a heavy nucleus dissociates into two medium nuclei.
From the curve, we see that the products have higher mean binding energy.
This excess energy is released. Suppose the ﬁssion of
235
U produces two
nuclei of A ∼ 117. The energy released is 235 (8.5 −7.6) = 210 MeV.
2028
Is the binding energy of nuclei more nearly proportional to A(= N +Z)
or to A
2
? What is the numerical value of the coeﬃcient involved (state
units). How can this A dependence be understood? This implies an im
portant property of nucleonnucleon forces. What is it called? Why is a
neutron bound in a nucleus stable against decay while a lambda particle in
a hypernucleus is not?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
The nuclear binding energy is more nearly proportional to A with a co
eﬃcient of 15.6 MeV. Because of the saturation property of nuclear forces,
a nucleon can only interact with its immediate neighbors and hence with
only a limited number of other nucleons. For this reason the binding en
ergy is proportional to A, rather than to A
2
, which would be the case if
Nuclear Physics 245
the nucleon interacts with all nucleons in the nuclues. Nuclear forces are
therefore shortrange forces.
The underlying cause of a decay is for a system to transit to a state of
lower energy which is, generally, also more stable. A free neutron decays
according to
n →p +e + ¯ ν
and releases an energy
Q = m
n
−m
p
−m
e
= 939.53 −938.23 −0.51 = 0.79 MeV.
The decay of a bound neutron in a nucleus
A
X
N
will result in a nucleus
A
X
N−1
. If the binding energy of
A
X
N−1
is lower than that of
A
X
N
and the
diﬀerence is larger than 0.79 MeV, the decay would increase the system’s en
ergy and so cannot take place. Hence neutrons in many nonβradioactive
nuclei are stable. On the other hand, the decay energy of a Λ
0
particle,
37.75 MeV, is higher than the diﬀerence of nuclear binding energies be
tween the initial and ﬁnal systems, and so the Λparticle in a hypernucleus
will decay.
2029
Figure 2.5 shows a plot of the average binding energy per nucleon E vs.
the mass number A. In the ﬁssion of a nucleus of mass number A
0
(mass
M
0
) into two nuclei A
1
and A
2
(masses M
1
and M
2
), the energy released is
Q = M
0
c
2
−M
1
c
2
−M
2
c
2
.
Express Q in terms of ε(A) and A. Estimate Q for symmetric ﬁssion of a
nucleus with A
0
= 240.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
The mass of a nucleus of mass number A is
M = Zm
p
+ (A−Z)m
n
−B/c
2
,
where Z is its charge number, m
p
and m
n
are the proton and neutron
masses respectively, B is the binding energy. As Z
0
= Z
1
+ Z
2
, A
0
=
A
1
+A
2
, and so M
0
= M
1
+M
2
+ (B
1
+B
2
)/c
2
−B
0
/c
2
, we have
Q = M
0
c
2
−M
1
c
2
−M
2
c
2
= B
1
+B
2
−B
0
.
246 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
The binding energy of a nucleus is the product of the average binding
energy and the mass number:
B = ε(A) A.
Hence
Q = B
1
+B
2
−B
0
= A
1
ε(A
1
) +A
2
ε(A
2
) −A
0
ε(A
0
) .
With A
0
= 240, A
1
= A
2
= 120 in a symmetric ﬁssion, we have from
Fig. 2.5
ε(120) ≈ 8.5 MeV, ε(240) ≈ 7.6 MeV.
So the energy released in the ﬁssion is
Q = 120ε(120) + 120ε(120) −240ε(240) ≈ 216 (MeV) .
2030
(a) Construct an energyversusseparation plot which can be used to
explain nuclear ﬁssion. Describe qualitatively the relation of the features
of this plot to the liquiddrop model.
(b) Where does the energy released in the ﬁssion of heavy elements come
from?
(c) What prevents the common elements heavier than iron but lighter
than lead from ﬁssioning spontaneously?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) Nuclear ﬁssion can be explained using the curve of speciﬁc binding
energy ε vs. nuclear mass number A (Fig. 2.5). As A increases from 0, the
binding energy per nucleon E, after reaching a broad maximium, decreases
gradually. Within a large range of A, ε ≈ 8 MeV/nucleon. The approximate
linear dependence of the binding energy on A, which shows the saturation
of nuclear forces (Problems 2028), agrees with the liquiddrop model.
(b) As a heavy nucleus dissociates into two medium nuclei in ﬁssion,
the speciﬁc binding energy increases. The nuclear energy released is the
diﬀerence between the binding energies before and after the ﬁssion:
Q = A
1
ε(A
1
) +A
2
ε(A
2
) −Aε(A) ,
Nuclear Physics 247
where A, A
1
and A
2
are respectively the mass numbers of the nuclei before
and after ﬁssion, ε(A
i
) being the speciﬁc binding energy of nucleus A
i
.
(c) Although the elements heavier than iron but lighter than lead can
release energy in ﬁssion if we consider speciﬁc binding energies alone, the
Coulomb barriers prevent them from ﬁssioning spontaneously. This is be
cause the ﬁssion barriers of these nuclei are so high that the probability of
penetration is very small.
2031
Stable nuclei have N and Z which lie close to the line shown roughly in
Fig. 2.6.
(a) Qualitatively, what features determine the shape of this curve.
(b) In heavy nuclei the number of protons is considerably less than the
number of neutrons. Explain.
(c)
14
O(Z = 8, N = 6) has a lifetime of 71 sec. Give the particles in the
ﬁnal state after its decay.
(Wisconsin)
Fig. 2.6
Solution:
(a) Qualitatively, Pauli’s exclusion principle allows four nucleons, 2 pro
tons of opposite spins and 2 neutrons of opposite spins, to occupy the same
energy level, forming a tightly bound system. If a nucleon is added, it
would have to go to the next level and would not be so lightly bound. Thus
the most stable nuclides are those with N = Z.
From binding energy considerations (Problem 2025), A and Z of a
stable nuclide satisfy
248 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Z =
A
2 + 0.0154A
2/3
,
or, as A = N +Z,
N = Z(1 + 0.0154A
2/3
) .
This shows that for light nuclei, N ≈ Z, while for heavy nuclei, N > Z, as
shown in Fig. 2.6.
(b) For heavy nuclei, the many protons in the nucleus cause greater
Coulomb repulsion. To form a stable nucleus, extra neutrons are needed
to counter the Coulomb repulsion. This competes with the protonneutron
symmetry eﬀect and causes the neutronproton ratio in stable nuclei to in
crease with A. Hence the number of protons in heavy nuclei is considerably
less than that of neutrons.
(c) As the number of protons in
14
O is greater than that of neutrons,
and its half life is 71 s, the decay is a β
+
decay
14
O →
14
N +e
+
+ν
e
,
the decay products being
14
N, e
+
, and electronneutrino. Another possible
decay process is by electron capture. However, as the decay energy of
14
O
is very large, (E
max
> 4 MeV), the branching ratio of electron capture is
very small.
2032
The numbers of protons and neutrons are roughly equal for stable lighter
nuclei; however, the number of neutrons is substantially greater than the
number of protons for stable heavy nuclei. For light nuclei, the energy
required to remove a proton or a neutron from the nucleus is roughly the
same; however, for heavy nuclei, more energy is required to remove a proton
than a neutron. Explain these facts, assuming that the speciﬁc nuclear
forces are exactly equal between all pairs of nucleons.
(Columbia)
Solution:
The energy required to remove a proton or a neutron from a stable
nucleus (Z, A) is
S
p
= B(Z, A) −B(Z −1, A−1) ,
or
Nuclear Physics 249
S
n
= B(Z, A) −B(Z, A−1) .
respectively, where B is the binding energy per nucleon of a nuclues. In the
liquiddrop model (Problem 2024), we have
B(Z, A) = a
v
A−a
s
A
2/3
−a
c
Z
2
A
−1/3
−a
a
A
2
−Z
2
A
−1
+a
p
δA
−1/2
.
Hence
S
p
−S
n
= −a
c
(2Z −1)(A−1)
−
1
3
+a
a
(A−2Z)(A−1)
−1
,
where a
c
= 0.714 MeV, a
a
= 92.8 MeV. For stable nuclei (Problem
2025),
Z =
A
2 +
2a
c
a
a
A
2/3
≈
A
2
1 −
a
c
a
a
A
2/3
,
and so
S
p
−S
n
≈
a
c
A−1
¸
A
5/3
−(A−1)
5/3
+
a
c
a
a
A
5/3
(A−1)
2/3
.
For heavy nuclei, A 1 and S
p
− S
n
≈ 5.5 10
−3
A
4/3
. Thus S
p
− S
n
increases with A, i.e., to dissociate a proton from a heavy nucleus needs
more energy than to dissociate a neutron.
2033
All of the heaviest naturallyoccurring radioactive nuclei are basically
unstable because of the Coulomb repulsion of their protons. The mech
anism by which they decrease their size is alphadecay. Why is alpha
decay favored over other modes of disintegration (like proton, deuteron,
or tritonemission, or ﬁssion)? Discuss brieﬂy in terms of
(a) energy release, and
(b) Coulomb barrier to be penetrated.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) A basic condition for a nucleus to decay is that the decay energy is
larger than zero. For heavy nuclei however, the decay energy of proton,
250 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
deuteron or tritonemission is normally less than zero. Take the isotopes
and isotones of
238
95
Am as an example. Consider the ten isotopes of Am. The
protondecay energies are between −3.9 MeV and −5.6 MeV, the deuteron
decay energies are between −7.7 MeV and −9.1 MeV, the tritondecay en
ergies are between −7.6 MeV and −8.7 MeV, while the αdecay energies
are between 5.2 MeV and 6.1 MeV. For the three isotones of
238
95
Am, the
proton, deuteron and tritondecay energies are less than zero while their
αdecay energies are larger than zero. The probability for ﬁssion of a heavy
nucleus is less than that for αdecay also because of its much lower prob
ability of penetrating the Coulomb barrier. Therefore αdecay is favored
over other modes of disintegration for a heavy nucleus.
(b) Figure 2.7 shows the Coulomb potential energy of a nucleus of charge
Z
1
e and a fragment of charge Z
2
e.
Fig. 2.7
Suppose a nucleus is to break up into two fragments of charges Z
1
e and
Z
2
e. The probability of penetrating the Coulomb barrier by a fragment of
energy E
d
is
exp
−
2
R
c
R
¸
2µ
Z
1
Z
2
e
2
r
−E
d
1/2
dr
= exp(−G) ,
where µ is the reduced mass of the system,
R
c
=
Z
1
Z
2
e
2
E
d
,
and
G =
2
√
2µE
d
R
c
R
R
c
r
−1
1/2
dr .
Nuclear Physics 251
Integrating we have
R
c
R
R
c
r
−1dr =R
c
R
c
/R
1
1
p
2
p −1dp
=R
c
¸
−
1
p
p −1 + tan
−1
p −1
R
c
/R
1
≈R
c
¸
π
2
−
R
R
c
1
2
¸
taking
R
c
R
1, and hence
G ≈
2R
c
√
2µE
d
¸
π
2
−
R
R
c
1/2
¸
≈
2Z
1
Z
2
e
2
√
2µ
√
E
d
¸
π
2
−
R
R
c
1/2
¸
.
For ﬁssion, though the energy release is some 50 times larger than that
of αdecay, the reduced mass is 20 times larger and Z
1
Z
2
is 5 times larger.
Then the value of G is 4 times larger and so the barrier penetrating prob
ability is much lower than that for αdecay.
2034
Instability (‘radioactivity’) of atomic nuclei with respect to αparticle
emission is a comparatively common phenomenon among the very heavy
nuclei but protonradioactivity is virtually nonexistent. Explain, with such
relevant quantitative arguments as you can muster, this striking diﬀerence.
(Columbia)
Solution:
An explanation can be readily given in terms of the disintegration en
ergies. In the αdecay of a heavy nucleus (A, Z) the energy release given
by the liquiddrop model (Problem 2024) is
E
d
=M(A, Z) −M(A−4, Z −2) −M(4, 2)
= −B(A, Z) +B(A −4, Z −2) +B(4, 2)
= −a
s
[A
2/3
−(A−4)
2/3
] −a
c
[Z
2
A
−
1
3
−(Z −2)
2
(A−4)
−
1
3
]
252 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
−a
a
¸
A
2
−Z
2
A
−1
−
A−4
2
−Z + 2
2
(A−4)
−1
¸
+B(4, 2) −4a
v
.
For heavy nuclei,
2
Z
<1,
4
A
<1, and the above becomes
E
d
≈
8
3
a
s
A
−1/3
+ 4a
c
ZA
−
1
3
1 −
Z
3A
−a
a
1 −
2Z
A
2
+ 28.3 −4a
v
=48.88A
−1/3
+ 2.856ZA
−1/3
1 −
Z
3A
−92.80
1 −
2Z
A
2
−35.04 MeV.
For stable nuclei we have (Problem 2025)
Z =
A
2 + 0.0154A
2/3
.
E
d
is calculated for such nuclei and plotted as the dashed wave in Fig. 2.8.
Fig. 2.8
For αdecay to take place, we require E
d
> 0. It is seen that E
d
increases
generally with A and is positve when A ≥ 150. Thus only heavy nuclei have
αdecays. The actual values of E
d
for naturally occurring nuclei are shown
as the solid curve in the ﬁgure. It intersects the E
d
= 0 line at A ≈ 140,
where αradioactive isotopes
147
62
Sm,
144
60
Nd are actually observed. For the
protondecay of a heavy nucleus, we have
Nuclear Physics 253
M(A, Z) −M(A−1, Z −1) −M(0, 1)
= −B(A, Z) +B(A−1, Z −1) +B(0, 1)
≈ −B(A, Z) +B(A−1, Z −1) = −ε < 0 ,
where ε is the speciﬁc binding energy and is about 7 MeV for heavy nuclei.
As the decay energy is negative, protondecay cannot take place. How
ever, this consideration is for stable heavy nuclei. For those nuclei far from
stability curve, the neutronproton ratio may be much smaller so that the
binding energy of the last proton may be negative and protonemission
may occur. Quite diﬀerent from neutronemission, protonemission is not a
transient process but similar to αdecay; it has a ﬁnite halflife due to the
Coulomb barrier. As the proton mass is less than the αparticle mass and
the height of the Coulomb barrier it has to penetrate is only half that for
the αparticle, the halflife against pdecay should be much less than that
against αdecay. All protonemitters should also have β
+
radioactivity and
orbitalelectron capture, and their halflives are related to the probabili
ties of such competing proceses. Instances of protonradioactivity in some
isomeric states have been observed experimentally.
2035
(a) Derive argument for why heavy nuclei are αradioactive but stable
against neutronemission.
(b) What methods and arguments are used to determine nuclear radii?
(c) What are the properties that identify a system of nucleons in its
lowest energy state? Discuss the nonclassical properties.
(d) The ﬁssion cross sections of the following uranium (Z = 92) isotopes
for thermal neutrons are shown in the table below.
Isotope σ (barns)
230
U 20
231
U 300
232
U 76
233
U 530
234
U 0
235
U 580
236
U 0
254 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
The fastneutron ﬁssion cross sections of the same isotopes are all of the
order of a few barns, and the evenodd periodicity is much less pronounced.
Explain these facts.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) The reason why heavy nuclei only are αradioactive has been dis
cussed in Problems 2033 and 2034. For ordinary nuclei near the β
stability curve, the binding energy of the last neutron is positive so that no
neutronradioactivity exists naturally. However, for neutronrich isotopes
far from the βstability curve, the binding energy may be negative for the
last neutron, and so neutronemission may occur spontaneously. As there
is no Coulomb barrier for neutrons, emission is a transient process. Also,
certain excited states arising from βdecays may emit neutrons. In such
cases, as the neutronemission follows a βdecay the emitted neutrons are
called delayed neutrons. The halflife against delayedneutron emission is
the same as that against the related βdecay.
(b) There are two categories of methods for measuring nuclear radii.
The ﬁrst category makes use of the range of the strong interaction of nu
clear forces by studying the scattering by nuclei of neutrons, protons or α
particles, particularly by measuring the total crosssection of intermediate
energy neutrons. Such methods give the nuclear radius as
R = R
0
A
1/3
, R
0
≈ (1.4 ∼ 1.5) fm.
The other category of methods makes use of the Coulomb interaction
between charged particles and atomic nuclei or that among particles within
a nucleus to get the electromagnetic nuclear radius. By studying the scat
tering between high energy electrons and atomic nuclei, the form factors of
the nuclei may be deduced which gives the electromagnetic nuclear radius.
Assuming mirror nuclei to be of the same structure, their mass diﬀerence
is caused by Coulomb energy diﬀerence and the mass diﬀerence between
neutron and proton. We have (Problem 2010)
∆E =
3
5
e
2
R
(2Z −1) −(m
n
−m
p
)c
2
for the energy diﬀerence between the ground states of the mirror nuclei,
which then gives the electromagnetic nuclear radius R. A more precise
Nuclear Physics 255
method is to study the deviation of µmesic atom from Bohr’s model of
hydrogen atom (problem 1062). Because the Bohr radius of the mesic
atom is much smaller than that of the hydrogen atom, the former is more
sensitive to the value of the electromagnetic nuclear radius, which, by this
method, is
R = R
0
A
1/3
, R
0
≈ 1.1 fm.
Highenergy electron scattering experiments show that charge distribution
within a nucleus is nonuniform.
(c) The ground state of a system of nucleons is identiﬁed by its spin,
parity and isospin quantum numbers.
Spin and parity are determined by those of the last one or two unpaired
nucleons. For the ground state of an eveneven nucleus, J
p
= 0
+
. For an
evenodd nucleus, the nuclear spin and parity are determined by the last
nucleon, and for an oddodd nucleus, by the spinorbit coupling of the last
two nucleons.
The isospin of the nuclear ground state is I =
1
2
[N −Z[.
(d) There is a ﬁssion barrier of about 6 MeV for uranium so that spon
taneous ﬁssion is unlikely and external inducement is required. At the same
time, there is a tendency for neutrons in a nucleus to pair up so that isotopes
with even numbers of neutrons, N, have higher binding energies. When an
uranium isotope with an odd number of neutrons captures a neutron and
becomes an isotope of even N, the excitation energy of the compound nu
cleus is large, suﬃcient to overcome the ﬁssion barrier, and ﬁssion occurs.
On the other hand, when an evenN uranium isotope captures a neutron to
become an isotope of odd N, the excitation energy of the compound nucleus
is small, not suﬃcient to overcome the ﬁssion barrier, and ﬁssion does not
take place. For example, in
235
U +n →
236
U
∗
the excitation energy of the
compound nucleus
236
U
∗
is 6.4 MeV, higher than the ﬁssion barrier of
236
U
of 5.9 MeV, so the probability of this reaction results in a ﬁssion is large.
In
238
U +n →
239
U
∗
, the excitation energy is only 4.8 MeV, lower than the
ﬁssion barrier of 6.2 MeV of
239
U, and so the probability for ﬁssion is low.
Such nuclides require neutrons of higher energies to achieve ﬁssion. When
the neutron energy is higher than a certain threshold, ﬁssion cross section
becomes large and ﬁssion may occur.
Thermal neutrons, which can cause ﬁssion when captured by oddN
uranium isotopes, have long wavelengths and hence large capture cross
sections. Thus the cross sections for ﬁssion induced by thermal neutrons
256 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
are large, in hundreds of barns, for uranium isotopes of odd N. They are
small for isotope of even N.
If a fast neutron is captured by an uranium isotope the excitation energy
of the compound nucleus is larger than the ﬁssion barrier and ﬁssion occurs
irrespective of whether the isotope has an even or an odd number of neu
trons. While fast neutrons have smaller probability of being captured their
ﬁssion cross section, which is of the order of a few barns, do not change with
the evenodd periodicity of the neutron number of the uranium isotope.
2036
The semiempirical mass formula modiﬁed for nuclearshape eccentricity
suggests a binding energy for the nucleus
A
Z
X:
B = αA−βA
2/3
1 +
2
5
ε
2
−γZ
2
A
−
1
3
1 −
1
5
ε
2
,
where α, β, γ = 14, 13, 0.6 MeV and ε is the eccentricity.
(a) Brieﬂy interpret this equation and ﬁnd a limiting condition involving
Z and A such that a nucleus can undergo prompt (unhindered) spontaneous
ﬁssion. Consider
240
94
Pu as a speciﬁc example.
(b) The discovery of ﬁssion shape isomers and the detection of spon
taneous ﬁssion of heavy isotopes from their ground state suggest a more
complicated nuclear potential energy function V (ε). What simple nuclear
excitations can account for the two sets of states of
240
94
Pu shown below
(Fig. 2.9). Discuss similarities and diﬀerences between the two. What are
the implications for V (ε)? Draw a rough sketch of V (ε).
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) In the mass formula, the ﬁrst term represents volume energy, the
second term surface energy, in which the correction
2
5
ε
2
is for deformation
from spherical shape of the nucleus, the third term, the Coulomb energy, in
which the correction
1
5
ε
2
is also for nucleus deformation. Consequent to nu
clear shape deformation, the binding energy is a function of the eccentricity
ε. The limiting condition for stability is
dB
dε
= 0. We have
dB
dε
= −
4β
5
A
2/3
ε +γ
Z
2
A
1/3
2
5
ε =
2
5
εA
2/3
γZ
2
A
−2β
.
Nuclear Physics 257
Fig. 2.9
If
dB
dε
> 0, nuclear binding energy increases with ε so the deformation will
keep on increasing and the nucleus becomes unstable. If
dB
dε
< 0, binding
energy decreases as ε increases so the nuclear shape will tend to that with a
lower ε and the nucleus is stable. So the limiting condition for the nucleus
to undergo prompt spontaneous ﬁssion is
dβ
dε
> 0, or
Z
2
A
≥
2β
γ
= 43.3 .
For
240
Pu,
Z
2
A
= 36.8 < 43.3 and so it cannot undergo prompt sponta
neous ﬁssion; it has a ﬁnite lifetime against spontaneous ﬁssion.
(b) The two sets of energy levels of
240
Pu (see Fig. 2.9) can be inter
preted in terms of collective rotational excitation of the deformed nucleus,
as each set satisﬁes the rotational spectrum relation for the K = 0 rota
tional band
E
I
=
2
2M
[I(I + 1)] .
Both sets of states show characteristics of the rotational spectrums of
eveneven nuclei; they diﬀer in that the two rotational bands correspond to
diﬀerent rotational moments of inertia M. The given data correspond to
258 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
h
2
2J
≈ 7 MeV for the ﬁrst set,
2
2J
≈ 3.3 MeV for the second set. The diﬀerent
moments of inertia suggest diﬀerent deformations. Use of a liquiddrop shell
model gives a potential V (ε) in the form of a twopeak barrier, as shown
in Fig. 2.10. The set of states with the longer lifetime corresponds to the
groundstate rotational band at the ﬁrst minimum of the twopeak potential
barrier. This state has a thicker ﬁssion barrier to penetrate and hence a
longer lifetime (T
1/2
= 1.4 10
11
yr for
240
Pu). The set of rotational band
with the shorter lifetime occurs at the second minimum of the potential
barrier. In this state the ﬁssion barrier to penetrate is thinner, hence the
shorter lifetime (T
1/2
= 4 10
−9
s for
240
Pu). The diﬀerence between
the two rotational bands arises from the diﬀerent deformations; hence the
phenomenon is referred to as nuclear shape isomerism.
Fig. 2.10
2037
Assume a uranium nucleus breaks up spontaneously into two roughly
equal parts. Estimate the reduction in electrostatic energy of the nuclei.
What is the relationship of this to the total change in energy? (Assume
uniform charge distribution; nuclear radius= 1.2 10
−13
A
1/3
cm)
(Columbia)
Solution:
Uranium nucleus has Z
0
= 92, A
0
= 236, and radius R
0
= 1.2
10
−13
A
1/3
0
cm. When it breaks up into to two roughly equal parts, each
part has
Nuclear Physics 259
Z =
1
2
Z
0
, A =
1
2
A
0
, R = 1.2 10
−13
A
1/3
cm.
The electrostatic energy of a sphere of a uniformly distributed charge Q
is
3
5
Q
2
/R, where R is the radius. Then for uranium ﬁssion, the electrostatic
energy reduction is
∆E =
3
5
¸
(Z
0
e)
2
R
0
−2
(Ze)
2
R
=
3 Z
2
0
e
2
5
1
R
0
¸
1 −
1
2
2/3
= 0.222
Z
2
0
R
0
e
2
c
c
=
0.222 92
2
1.2 10
−13
236
1
3
1
137
1.97 10
−11
= 364 MeV.
This reduction is the source of the energy released in uranium ﬁssion.
However, to calculate the actual energy release, some other factors should
also be considered such as the increase of surface energy on ﬁssion.
2038
Estimate (order of magnitude) the ratio of the energy released when
1 g of uranium undergoes ﬁssion to the energy released when 1 g of TNT
explodes.
(Columbia)
Solution:
Fission is related to nuclear forces whose interaction energy is about
1 MeV/nucleon. TNT explosion is related to electromagnetic forces whose
interaction energy is about 1 eV/molecule. As the number of nucleons in
1 g of uranium is of the same order of magnitude as the number of molecules
in 1 g of TNT, the ratio of energy releases should be about 10
6
.
A more precise estimate is as follows. The energy released in the ex
plosion of 1 g of TNT is about 2.6 10
22
eV. The energy released in the
ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus is about 210 MeV. Then the ﬁssion of 1 g of
uranium releases an energy
6.023×10
23
238
210 = 5.3 10
23
MeV. Hence the
ratio is about 2 10
7
.
260 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
2039
The neutron density ρ(x, t) inside a block of U
235
obeys the diﬀerential
equation
∂ρ(x, t)
∂t
= A∇
2
ρ(x, t) +Bρ(x, t) ,
where A and B are positive constants. Consider a block of U
235
in the
shape of a cube of side L. Assume that those neutrons reaching the cube’s
surface leave the cube immediately so that the neutron density at the U
235
surface is always zero.
(a) Brieﬂy describe the physical processes which give rise to the A∇
2
ρ
and the Bρ terms. In particular, explain why A and B are both positive.
(b) There is a critical length L
0
for the sides of the U
235
cube. For
L > L
0
, the neutron density in the cube is unstable and increases exponen
tially with time — an explosion results. For L < L
0
, the neutron density
decreases with time — there is no explosion. Find the critical length L
0
in
terms of A and B.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) The term Bρ(x, t), which is proportional to the neutron density,
accounts for the increase of neutron density during nuclear ﬁssion. Bρ(x, t)
represents the rate of increase of the number of neutrons, in a unit volume
at location x and at time t, caused by nuclear ﬁssion. It is proportional
to the number density of neutrons which induce the ﬁssion. As the ﬁssion
of U
235
increases the neutron number, B is positive. The term A∇
2
ρ(x, t)
describes the macroscopic motion of neutrons caused by the nonuniformity
of neutron distribution. As the neutrons generally move from locations of
higher density to locations of lower density, A is positive too.
(b) Take a vertex of the cube as the origin, and its three sides as the x,
y and zaxes. Let ρ(x, t) = f(x, y, z)e
−αt
. Then the diﬀerential equation
becomes
A∇
2
f(x, y, z) + (α +B)f(x, y, z) = 0
with boundary condition
f(x, y, z)[
i=0,L
= 0 , i = x, y, z .
Nuclear Physics 261
Try a solution of the form f = X(x)Y (y)Z(z). Substitution gives
1
X
d
2
X
dx
2
+
1
Y
d
2
Y
dy
2
+
1
Z
d
2
Z
dz
2
+k
2
x
+k
2
y
+k
2
z
= 0 ,
where we have rewritten
α+B
A
= k
2
x
+ k
2
y
+ k
2
z
. The boundary condition
becomes
X(x) = 0 at x = 0, L; Y (y) = 0 at y = 0, L; Z(z) = 0 at z = 0, L.
The last diﬀerentiation equation can be separated into 3 equations:
d
2
X
dx
2
+k
2
x
X = 0 , etc.
The solutions of these equations are
X = C
xi
sin
n
xi
π
L
x
,
Y = C
yj
sin
n
yj
π
L
y
,
Z = C
zk
sin
n
zk
π
L
x
,
with n
xi
, n
yj
, n
zk
= ±1, ±2, ±3 . . . and C
xi
, C
yj
, C
zk
being arbitrary con
stants. Thus
f(x, y, z) =
¸
ijk
C
ijk
sin
n
xi
π
L
x
sin
n
yj
π
L
y
sin
n
zk
π
L
z
,
with
α +B
A
=
π
L
2
(n
2
xi
+n
2
yj
+n
2
zk
) , C
ijk
= C
zi
C
yi
C
zk
.
If α < 0, the neutron density will increase exponentially with time,
leading to instability and possible explosion. Hence the critial length L
0
is
given by
α =
Aπ
2
L
2
0
(n
2
xi
+n
2
yj
+n
2
zk
) −B = 0 ,
or
L
0
= π
A
B
(n
2
xi
+n
2
yj
+n
2
zk
) .
262 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
In particular, for n
xi
= n
yj
= n
zk
= 1,
L
0
= π
3A
B
.
2040
The halflife of U
235
is 10
3
, 10
6
, 10
9
, 10
12
years.
(Columbia)
Solution:
10
9
years. (Halflife of U
235
is 7 10
8
years)
2041
Number of ﬁssion per second in a 100MW reactor is: 10
6
, 10
12
, 10
18
,
10
24
, 10
30
.
(Columbia)
Solution:
Each ﬁssion of uranium nucleus releases about 200 MeV = 32010
−13
J.
So the number of ﬁssions per second in a 100MW reactor is
N =
100 10
6
320 10
−13
= 3 10
18
.
Hence the answer is 10
18
.
2042
Explain brieﬂy the operation of a “breeder” reactor. What physical
constant of the ﬁssion process is a prerequisite to the possibility of “breed
ing”? What important constraint is placed on the choice of materials in
the reactor? In particular, could water be used as a moderator?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
A breeder reactor contains a ﬁssionable material and a nonﬁssionable
one that can be made ﬁssionable by absorbing a neutron. For example,
Nuclear Physics 263
235
U and
238
U. Suppose 3 neutrons are emitted per ﬁssion. One is needed
to induce a ﬁssion in another fuel atom and keep the chain reaction going. If
the other two neutrons can be used to convert two nonﬁssionable atoms into
ﬁssionable ones, then two fuel atoms are produced when one is consumed,
and the reactor is said to be a breeder.
In the example, neutrons from the ﬁssion of
235
U may be used to convert
238
U to ﬁssionable
239
Pu:
n +
238
U →
239
U +γ
[
−→
β
−
239
Np →
β
−
239
Pu
A prerequisite to breeding is that η, the number of neutrons produced per
neutron absorbed in the fuel, should be larger than 2. In the example, this
is achieved by the use of fast neutrons and so no moderator is needed.
2043
(a) Describe brieﬂy the type of reaction on which a nuclear ﬁssion reactor
operates.
(b) Why is energy released, and roughly how much per reaction?
(c) Why are the reaction products radioactive?
(d) Why is a “moderator” necessary? Are light or heavy elements pre
ferred for moderators, and why?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) In nuclear ﬁssion a heavy nucleus disassociates into two medium
nuclei. In a reactor the ﬁssion is induced. It takes place after a heavy
nucleus captures a neutron. For example
n +
235
U →X +Y +n + .
(b) The speciﬁc binding energy of a heavy nucleus is about 7.6 MeV
per nucleon, while that of a medium nucleus is about 8.5 MeV per nucleon.
Hence when a ﬁssion occurs, some binding energies will be released. The
energy released per ﬁssion is about 210 MeV.
(c) Fission releases a large quantity of energy, some of which is in
the form of excitation energies of the fragments. Hence ﬁssion fragments
are in general highly excited and decay through γ emission. In addition,
264 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
the neutrontoproton ratios of the fragments, which are similar to that of
the original heavy nucleus, are much larger than those of stable nuclei of
the same mass. So the fragments are mostly unstable neutronrich isotopes
having strong β
−
radioactivity.
(d) For reactors using
235
U, ﬁssion is caused mainly by thermal neu
trons. However, ﬁssion reaction emits fast neutrons; so some moderator is
needed to reduce the speed of the neutrons. Lighter nuclei are more suit
able as moderator because the energy lost by a neutron per neutronnucleus
collision is larger if the nucleus is lighter.
2044
Give the three nuclear reactions currently considered for controlled ther
monuclear fusion. Which has the largest cross section? Give the approxi
mate energies released in the reactions. How would any resulting neutrons
be used?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
Reactions often considered for controlled thermonuclear fusion are
D +D →
3
He +n + 3.25 MeV,
D +D →T +p + 4.0 MeV,
D +T →
4
He +n + 17.6 MeV.
The cross section of the last reaction is the largest.
Neutrons resulting from the reactions can be used to induce ﬁssion in a
ﬁssionfusion reactor, or to take part in reactions like
6
Li + n →
4
He + T
to release more energy.
2045
Discuss thermonuclear reactions. Give examples of reactions of impor
tance in the sun, the H bomb and in controlled fusion attempts. Estimate
roughly in electron volts the energy release per reaction and give the char
acteristic of nuclear forces most important in these reactions.
(Wisconsin)
Nuclear Physics 265
Solution:
The most important thermonuclear reactions in the sun are the proton
proton chain
p +p →d +e
+
+ν
e
,
d +p →
3
He +γ ,
3
He +
3
He →
4
He + 2p ,
the resulting reaction being
4p + 2d + 2p + 2
3
He →2d + 2e
+
+ 2ν
e
+ 2
3
He +
4
He + 2p ,
or
4p →
4
He + 2e
+
+ 2ν
e
.
The energy released in this reaction is roughly
Q =[4M(
1
H) −M(
4
He)]c
2
= 4 1.008142 −4.003860
=0.02871 amu = 26.9 MeV.
The explosive in a H bomb is a mixture of deuterium, tritium and
lithium in some condensed form. H bomb explosion is an uncontrolled
thermonuclear reaction which releases a great quantity of energy at the
instant of explosion. The reaction chain is
6
Li +n →
4
He +t ,
D +t →
4
He +n,
with the resulting reaction
6
Li +d →2
4
He .
The energy released per reaction is
Q = [M(
6
Li) +M(
2
H) −2M(
4
He)]c
2
= 6.01690 + 2.01471 −2 4.00388
= 0.02385 amu = 22.4 MeV.
266 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
An example of possible controlled fusion is
t +d →
4
He +n,
where the energy released is
Q = [M(
3
H) +M(
2
H) −M(
4
He) −M(n)]c
2
= 3.01695 + 2.01471 −4.00388 −1.00896
= 0.01882 amu = 17.65 MeV.
The most important characteristic of nuclear forces in these reactions
is saturation, which means that a nucleon interacts only with nucleons in
its immediate neighborhood. So while the nuclear interactions of a nucleon
in the interior of a nucleus are saturated, the interactions of a nucleon on
the surface of the nucleus are not. Then as the ratio of the number of
nucleons on the nucleus surface to that of those in the interior is larger for
lighter nuclei, the mean binding energy per nucleon for a lighter nucleus is
smaller than for a heavier nucleus. In other words nucleons in lighter nuclei
are combined more loosely. However, because of the eﬀect of the Coulomb
energy of the protons, the mean binding energies of very heavy nuclei are
less than those of medium nuclei.
2046
For some years now, R. Davis and collaborators have been searching for
solar neutrinos, in a celebrated experiment that employs as detector a large
tank of C
2
Cl
4
located below ground in the Homestake mine. The idea is
to look for argon atoms (A
37
) produced by the inverse βdecay reaction
Cl
37
(ν, e
−
)Ar
37
. This reaction, owing to threshold eﬀects, is relatively
insensitive to low energy neutrinos, which constitute the expected principal
component of neutrinos from the sun. It is supposed to respond to a smaller
component of higher energy neutrinos expected from the sun. The solar
constant (radiant energy ﬂux at the earth) is ∼ 1 kW/m
2
.
(a) Outline the principal sequence of nuclear processes presumed to
account for energy generation in the sun. What is the slow link in the
chain? Estimate the mean energy of the neutrinos produced in this chain.
Nuclear Physics 267
What is the expected number ﬂux at the earth of the principal component
of solar neutrinos?
(b) Outline the sequence of minor nuclear reactions that is supposed
to generate the higher energy component of the neutrino spectrum, the
component being looked for in the above experiment. Brieﬂy discuss the
experiment itself, and the ﬁndings to date.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The principal sequence of nuclear processes presumed to generate
solar energy is
(1) p +p →d +e
+
+ν
e
, E
ν
= 0 −0.42 MeV,
(2) d +p →
3
He +γ ,
(3)
3
He +
3
He →
4
He + 2p ,
The resulting reaction being 4p →
4
He + 2e
+
+ 2ν
e
+ 26.7 MeV.
The reaction (1) is the slow link. About 25 MeV of the energy changes
into thermal energy in the sequence, the rest being taken up by the neutri
nos. So the mean energy of a neutrino is
E
ν
≈ (26.7 −25)/2 ≈ 0.85 MeV.
As each 25 MeV of solar energy arriving on earth is accompanied by 2
neutrions, the number ﬂux of solar neutrinos at the earth is
I = 2
1 10
3
25 1.6 10
−13
= 5 10
14
m
−2
s
−1
.
(b) The minor processes in the sequence are
(1)
3
He +
4
He →
7
Be +γ ,
(2)
7
Be +e
−
→
7
Li +ν
e
, E
ν
= 0.478 MeV(12%) and 0.861 MeV (88%),
(3)
7
Li +p →2
4
He,
(4)
7
Be +p →
8
B +γ,
(5)
8
B →2
4
He +e
+
+ν
e
, E
ν
≈ 0 ∼ 17 MeV.
The high energy neutrinos produced in the
8
B decay are those being
measured in the experiment
In the experiment of Davis et al, a tank of 390000 liters of C
2
Cl
4
was
placed in a mine 1.5 kilometers below ground, to reduce the cosmicray
background. The threshold energy for the reaction between solar neutrino
268 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
and Cl, ν
e
+
37
Cl →e
−
+
37
Ar, is 0.814 MeV. The Ar gas produced then
decays by electron capture, e
−
+
37
Ar → ν
e
+
37
Cl, the energy of the
Auger electron emitted following this process being 2.8 keV. The halflife
of Ar against the decay is 35 days. When the Ar gas produced, which
had accumulated in the tank for several months, was taken out and its
radioactivity measured with a proportional counter, the result was only
onethird of what had been theoretically expected. This was the celebrated
case of the “missing solar neutrinos”. Many possible explanations have
been proposed, such as experimental errors, faulty theories, or “neutrinos
oscillation”, etc.
2047
In a crude, but not unreasonable, approximation, a neutron star is a
sphere which consists almost entirely of neutrons which form a nonrelativis
tic degenerate Fermi gas. The pressure of the Fermi gas is counterbalanced
by gravitational attraction.
(a) Estimate the radius of such a star to within an order of magnitude if
the mass is 10
33
g. Since only a rough numerical estimate is required, you
need to make only reasonable simplifying assumptions like taking a uniform
density, and estimate integrals you cannot easily evaluate, etc. (Knowing
the answer is not enough here; you must derive it.)
(b) In the laboratory, neutrons are unstable, decaying according to n →
p+e+ν+1 MeV with a lifetime of 1000 s. Explain brieﬂy and qualitatively,
but precisely, why we can consider the neutron star to be made up almost
entirely of neutrons, rather than neutrons, protons, and electrons.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) Let R be the radius of the neutron star. The gravitational potential
energy is
V
g
= −
R
0
4
3
πr
3
ρ
G
r
4πr
2
ρdr = −
3
5
GM
2
R
,
where ρ =
3M
4πR
3
is the density of the gas, M being its total mass, G is
the gravitational constant. When R increases by ∆R, the pressure P of
the gas does an external work ∆W = P∆V = 4πPR
2
∆R. As ∆W =
−∆V
g
, we have
Nuclear Physics 269
P =
3GM
2
20πR
4
.
The pressure of a completely degenerate Fermi gas is
P =
2
5
NE
f
,
where N =
ρ
M
n
is the neutron number density, M
n
being the neutron mass,
E
f
=
2
2M
n
9π
4
M
M
n
R
3
2/3
is the limiting energy. Equating the expressions for P gives
R =
9π
4
2
3
2
GM
3
n
M
n
M
1
3
=
9π
4
2
3
(1.05 10
−34
)
2
6.67 10
−11
(1.67 10
−27
)
3
1.67 10
−27
10
30
1
3
= 1.6 10
4
m.
(b) Let d be the distance between neighboring neutrons. As
M
M
n
≈
2R
d
3
, d ≈ 2R
M
n
M
1
3
= 4 10
−15
m. If electrons existed in the star,
the magnitude of their mean free path would be of the order of d, and
so the order of magnitude of the kinetic energy of an electron would be
E ≈ cp ∼ c/d ∼ 50 MeV. Since each neutron decay only gives out 1 MeV,
and the neutron’s kinetic energy is less than E
f
≈ 21 MeV, it is unlikely
that there could be electrons in the neutron star originating from the decay
of neutrons, if energy conservation is to hold. Furthermore, because the
neutrons are so close together, e and p from a decay would immediately
recombine. Thus there would be no protons in the star also.
3. THE DEUTERON AND NUCLEAR FORCES
(2048 2058)
2048
If the nuclear force is charge independent and a neutron and a proton
form a bound state, then why is there no bound state for two neutrons?
What information does this provide on the nucleonnucleon force?
(Wisconsin)
270 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
A system of a neutron and a proton can form either singlet or triplet
spin state. The bound state is the triplet state because the energy level
of the singlet state is higher. A system of two neutrons which are in the
same energy level can form only singlet spin state, and no bound state is
possible. This shows the spin dependency of the nuclear force.
2049
A deuteron of mass M and binding energy B(B <Mc
2
) is disintegrated
into a neutron and a proton by a gamma ray of energy E
γ
. Find, to lowest
order in B/Mc
2
, the minimum value of (E
γ
− B) for which the reaction
can occur.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
In the disintegration of the deuteron, E
γ
−B is smallest when E
γ
is at
threshold, at which the ﬁnal particles are stationary in the centerofmass
system. In this case the energy of the incident photon in the centerofmass
system of the deuteron is E
∗
= (m
n
+ m
p
)c
2
.
Let M be the mass of the deuteron. As E
2
−p
2
c
2
is Lorentzinvariant
and B = (m
n
+m
p
−M)c
2
, we have
(E
γ
+Mc
2
) −E
2
γ
= (m
n
+m
p
)
2
c
4
,
i.e.,
2E
γ
Mc
2
= [(m
n
+m
p
)
2
−M
2
]c
4
= (B + 2Mc
2
)B,
or
E
γ
−B =
B
2
2Mc
2
,
which is the minimum value of E
γ
−B for the reaction to occur.
2050
According to a simpleminded picture, the neutron and proton in a
deuteron interact through a square well potential of width b = 1.910
−15
m
and depth V
0
= 40 MeV in an l = 0 state.
Nuclear Physics 271
(a) Calculate the probability that the proton moves within the range of
the neutron. Use the approximation that m
n
= m
p
= M, kb =
π
2
, where
k =
M(V
0
−ε)
2
and ε is the binding energy of the deuteron.
(b) Find the meansquare radius of the deuteron.
(SUNY, Buﬀalo)
Solution:
The interaction may be considered as between two particles of mass M,
so the reduced mass is µ =
1
2
M. The potential energy is
V (r) =
−V
0
, r < b,
0, r > b,
where r is the distance between the proton and the neutron. The system’s
energy is E = −ε.
For l = 0 states, let the wave function be Ψ = u(r)/r. The radial
Schr¨odinger equation
u
+
2µ
2
(E −V )u = 0
can be written as
u
+k
2
u = 0 , r ≤ b ,
u
−k
2
1
u = 0 , r > b ,
where
k =
M(V
0
−ε)
2
,
k
1
=
Mε
2
.
With the boundary condition ψ = 0 at r = 0 and ψ =ﬁnite at r = ∞, we
get u(r) = Asin(kr), r ≤ b; Be
−k
1
(r−b)
, r > b.
The continuity of ψ(r) and that of ψ
(r) at r = b require
Asin(kb) = B,
kAcos(kb) = −k
1
B,
272 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
which give
cot(kb) = −
k
1
k
= −
ε
V
0
−ε
.
If we take the approximation kb =
π
2
, then A ≈ B and cot(kb) ≈ 0. The
latter is equivalent to assuming V
0
ε, which means there is only one
found state.
To normalize, consider
1 =
∞
0
[ψ(r)[
2
4πr
2
dr
= 4πA
2
b
0
sin
2
(kr)dr + 4πB
2
∞
b
e
−2k
1
(r−b)
dγ
≈ 2πA
2
b
1 +
1
bk
1
.
Thus
A ≈ B ≈
¸
2πb
1 +
1
bk
1
−
1
2
.
(a) The probability of the proton moving within the range of the force
of the neutron is
P = 4πA
2
b
0
sin
2
(kr)dr =
1 +
1
k
1
b
−1
.
As
k =
M(V
0
−ε)
≈
π
2b
,
i.e.
ε ≈ V
0
−
1
Mc
2
πc
2b
2
= 40 −
1
940
π 1.97 10
−13
2 1.9 10
−15
2
= 11.8 MeV,
and
k
1
=
√
Mc
2
ε
c
=
√
940 11.8
1.97 10
−13
= 5.3 10
14
m
−1
,
Nuclear Physics 273
we have
P =
1 +
1
5.3 10
14
1.9 10
−15
−1
= 0.50 .
(b) The meansquare radius of the deuteron is
r
2
= 'Ψ[r
2
[Ψ`
r<b
+'Ψ[r
2
[Ψ`
r>b
= 4πA
2
¸
b
0
sin
2
(kr)r
2
dr +
∞
b
e
−2k
1
(r−b)
r
2
dr
¸
=
b
2
1 +
1
k
1
b
¸
1
3
+
4
π
2
+
1
k
1
b
+
1
(k
1
b)
2
+
1
2(k
1
b)
3
≈
b
2
2
1
3
+
4
π
2
+ 2.5
= 5.8 10
−30
m
2
.
Hence
(r
2
)
1
2
= 2.4 10
−15
m.
2051
(a) A neutron and a proton can undergo radioactive capture at rest:
p + n → d + γ. Find the energy of the photon emitted in this capture. Is
the recoil of the deuteron important?
(b) Estimate the energy a neutron incident on a proton at rest must
have if the radioactive capture is to take place with reasonable probability
from a pstate (l = 1). The radius of the deuteron is ∼ 4 10
−13
cm.
m
p
= 1.00783 amu, m
n
= 1.00867 amu, m
d
= 2.01410 amu, 1 amu =
1.66 10
−24
g = 931 MeV, 1 MeV = 1.6 10
−13
joule = 1.6 10
−6
erg,
= 1.05 10
−25
erg.s.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The energy released in the radioactive capture is
Q = [m
p
+m
n
−m
d
]c
2
= 1.00783 + 1.00867 −2.01410 amu = 2.234 MeV.
274 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
This energy appears as the kinetic energies of the photon and recoil
deuteron. Let their respective momenta be p and −p. Then
Q = pc +
p
2
2m
d
,
or
(pc)
2
+ 2m
d
c
2
(pc) −2m
d
c
2
Q = 0 .
Solving for pc we have
pc = m
d
c
2
−1 +
1 +
2Q
m
d
c
2
.
As Q/m
d
c
2
<1, we can take the approximation
p ≈ m
d
c
−1 + 1 +
Q
m
d
c
2
≈
Q
c
.
Thus the kinetic energy of the recoiling deuteron is
E
recoil
=
p
2
2m
d
=
Q
2
2m
d
c
2
=
2.234
2
2 2.0141 931
= 1.33 10
−3
MeV.
Since
∆E
recoil
E
γ
=
1.34 10
−3
2.234
= 6.0 10
−4
,
the recoiling of the deuteron does not signiﬁcantly aﬀect the energy of the
emitted photon, its eﬀect being of the order 10
−4
.
(b) Let the position vectors of the neutron and proton be r
1
, r
2
respec
tively. The motion of the system can be treated as that of a particle of
mass µ =
m
p
m
n
m
p
+m
n
, position vector r = r
1
−r
2
, having momentum p
= µ˙ r
and kinetic energy T
=
p
2
2µ
in the centerofmass frame. The laboratory
energy is
T = T
+
1
2
(m
p
+m
n
)
˙
R
2
,
where
˙
R = (m
n
˙ r
1
+m
p
˙ r
2
)/(m
n
+m
p
).
To a good approximation we can take m
p
· m
n
. Initially ˙ r
2
= 0, so
that
˙
R =
1
2
˙ r
1
, T =
m
n
2
˙ r
2
1
=
p
2
2m
n
, where p = m
n
˙ r
1
is the momentum of the
neutron in the laboratory. Substitution in the energy equation gives
p
2
2m
n
=
p
2
m
n
+
p
2
4m
n
,
Nuclear Physics 275
or
p
2
= 4p
2
.
The neutron is captured into the pstate, which has angular momentum
eigenvalue
1(1 + 1). Using the deuteron radius a as the radius of the
orbit, we have p
a ≈
√
2 and hence the kinetic energy of the neutron in
the laboratory
T =
p
2
2m
n
=
2p
2
m
n
=
4
m
n
c
2
c
a
2
=
4
940
1.97 10
−11
4 10
−13
2
= 10.32 MeV.
2052
Consider the neutronproton capture reaction leading to a deuteron and
photon, n + p → d + γ. Suppose the initial nucleons are unpolarized and
that the center of mass kinetic energy T in the initial state is very small
(thermal). Experimental study of this process provides information on
swave protonneutron scattering, in particular on the singlet scattering
length a
s
. Recall the deﬁnition of scattering length in the terms of phase
shift: k cot δ → −1/a
s
, as k → 0. Treat the deuteron as being a pure
sstate .
(a) Characterize the leading multipolarity of the reaction (electric
dipole? magnetic dipole? etc.?). Give your reason.
(b) Show that the capture at low energies occurs from a spin singlet
rather than spin triplet initial state.
(c) Let B be the deuteron binding energy and let m = m
p
= m
n
be
the nucleon mass. How does the deuteron spatial wave function vary with
neutronproton separation r for large r?
(d) In the approximation where the neutronproton force is treated as
being of very short range, the cross section σ depends on T, B, a
s
, m
and universal parameters in the form σ = σ
0
(T, B, m)f(a
s
, B, m), where f
would equal unity if a
s
= 0. Compute the factor f for a
s
= 0.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) As the centerofmass kinetic energy of the n − p system is very
small, the only reaction possible is swave capture with l = 0. The possible
276 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
initial states are
1
S
0
state: s
p
+s
n
= 0. As P(
1
S
0
) = 1, we have J
p
= 0
+
;
3
S
1
state: s
p
+s
n
= 1. As P(
3
S
1
) = 1, we have J
p
= 1
+
. The ﬁnal state is
a deuteron, with J
p
= 1
+
, and thus S = 1, l = 0, 2 (Problem 2058(b)).
The initial states have l = 0. Hence there are two possible transitions
with ∆l = 0, 2 and no change of parity. Therefore the reactions are of the
M1, E2 types.
(b) Consider the two transitions above:
1
S
0
→
3
S
1
, and
3
S
1
→
3
S
1
.
As both the initial and ﬁnal states of each case have l = 0, only those
interaction terms involving spin in the Hamiltonian can cause the transition.
For such operators, in order that the transition matrix elements do not
vanish the spin of one of the nucleons must change during the process.
Since
for
3
S
1
→
3
S
1
, ∆l = 0, ∆S = 0 ,
for
1
S
0
→
3
S
1
, ∆l = 0, ∆S = 0 ,
the initial state which satisﬁes the transition requirement is the spinsinglet
1
S
0
state of the n −p system.
(c) Let the range of neutronproton force be a. The radial part of the
Schr¨odinger equation for the system for s waves is
d
2
u
dr
2
+
2µ
2
(T −V )u = 0 ,
where u = rR(r), R(r) being the radial spatial wave function, µ =
m
2
, and
V can be approximated by a rectangular potential well of depth B and
width a:
V =
−B for 0 ≤ r ≤ a ,
0 for a < r .
The solution for large r gives the deuteron spatial wave function as
R(r) =
A
r
sin(kr +δ)
where k =
√
mT
, A and δ are constants.
(d) The solutions of the radial Schr¨odinger equation for s waves are
u =
Asin(kr +δ), with k =
√
mT
, for r ≥ a ,
A
sinKr, with K =
m(T +B)
, for r ≤ a .
Nuclear Physics 277
The continuity of the wave function and its ﬁrst derivative at r = a gives
tan(ka +δ) =
k
K
tanKa , (1)
and hence
δ = arctan
k
K
tanKa
−ka . (2)
The scattering cross section is then
σ =
4π
k
2
sin
2
δ .
Consider the case of k → 0. We have δ → δ
0
, K → K
0
=
√
mB
, and, by
deﬁnition, a
s
= −
tan δ
0
k
.
With k →0, Eq. (1) gives
ka + tanδ
0
≈
k
K
0
tanK
0
a(1 −ka tanδ
0
) ≈
k
K
0
tanK
0
a ,
or
ka −ka
s
≈
k
K
0
tanK
0
a ,
i.e.,
a
s
≈ −a
tanK
0
a
K
0
a
−1
.
If a
s
= −
tanδ
0
k
→ 0, then δ
0
→ 0 also (k is small but ﬁnite). The
corresponding scattering cross section is
σ
0
=
4π
k
2
sin
2
δ
0
≈
4π
k
2
δ
2
0
=
4π
k
2
k
2
a
2
s
= 4πa
2
tanK
0
a
K
0
a
−1
2
.
Hence
f(a
s
, B, m) =
σ
σ
0
≈
sin
2
[arctan(
k
K
tanKa) −ka]
k
2
a
2
(
tan K
0
a
K
0
a
−1)
2
≈
sin
2
[arctan(
k
K
tanKa) −ka]
k
2
a
2
s
.
278 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
2053
The only bound twonucleon conﬁguration that occurs in nature is
the deuteron with total angular momentum J = 1 and binding energy
−2.22 MeV.
(a) From the above information alone, show that the n − p force must
be spin dependent.
(b) Write down the possible angular momentum states for the deuteron
in an LS coupling scheme. What general liner combinations of these states
are possible? Explain.
(c) Which of the states in (b) are ruled out by the existence of the
quadrupole moment of the deuteron? Explain. Which states, in addition,
are ruled out if the deuteron has pure isospin T = 0?
(d) Calculate the magnetic moment of the deuteron in each of the al
lowed states in part (c), and compare with the observed magnetic moment
µ
d
= 0.875µ
N
, µ
N
being the nuclear magneton.
(NOTE: µ
p
= 2.793µ
N
and µ
n
= −1.913µ
N
)
The following Clebsch–Gordan coeﬃcients may be of use:
[Notation; 'J
1
J
2
M
1
M
2
[J
TOT
M
TOT
`]
'2, 1; 2, −1[1, 1` = (3/5)
1/2
,
'2, 1; 1, 0[1, 1` = −(3/10)
1/2
,
'2, 1; 0, 1[1, 1` = (1/10)
1/2
.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The spin of naturally occurring deuteron is J = 1. As J = s
n
+s
p
+l
p
,
we can have
for [s
n
+s
p
[ = 1 , l = 0, 1, 2, possible states
3
S
1
3
P
1
,
3
D
1
,
for [s
n
+s
p
[ = 0 , l = 1, possible state
1
P
1
.
However, as no stable singlet state
1
S
0
, where n, p have antiparallel spins
and l = 0, is found, this means that when n, p interact to form S = 1 and
S = 0 states, one is stable and one is not, indicating the spin dependence
of nuclear force.
Nuclear Physics 279
(b) As shown above, in LS coupling the possible conﬁgurations are
3
S
1
,
3
D
1
of even party and
3
P
1
,
1
P
1
of odd parity.
As the deuteron has a deﬁnite parity, only states of the same parity can
be combined. Thus
Ψ(n, p) = a
3
S
1
+b
3
D
1
or c
3
P
1
+ d
1
P
1
,
where a, b, c, d are constants, are the general linear combinations possible.
(c) l = 1 in the P state corresponds to a translation of the center of mass
of the system, and does not give rise to an electric quadrupole moment. So
the existence of an electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron rules out the
combination of P states. Also, in accordance with the generalized Pauli’s
principle, the total wave function of the n−p system must be antisymmetric.
Thus, in
Ψ(n, p) = Ψ
l
(n, p)Ψ
s
(n, p)Ψ
T
(n, p) ,
where l, s, T label the space, spin and isospin wave functions, as T = 0
and so the isospin wave function is exchange antisymmetric, the combined
space and spin wave function must be exchange symmetric. It follows that
if l = 1, then S = 0, if l = 0, 2 then S = 1. This rules out the
3
P
1
state.
Hence, considering the electric quadrupole moment and the isospin, the
deuteron can only be a mixed state of
3
S
1
and
3
D
1
.
(d) For the
3
S
1
state, l = 0, and the orbital part of the wave function
has no eﬀect on the magnetic moment; only the spin part does. As S = 1,
the n and p have parallel spins, and so
µ(
3
S
1
) = µ
p
+µ
n
= (2.793 −1.913)µ
N
= 0.88µ
N
.
For the
3
D
1
state, when m = 1, the projection of the magnetic moment
on the z direction gives the value of the magnetic moment. Expanding the
total angular momentum [1, 1` in terms of the D states we have
[1, 1` =
3
5
[2, 2, 1, −1` −
3
10
[2, 1, 1, 0` +
1
10
[2, 0, 1, 1` .
280 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
The contribution of the D state to the magnetic moment is therefore
µ(
3
D
1
) =
¸
3
5
(g
l
m
l1
+g
s
m
s1
) +
3
10
(g
l
m
l2
+g
s
m
s2
)
+
1
10
(g
l
m
l3
+g
s
m
s3
)
µ
N
=
¸
3
5
m
l1
+
3
10
m
l2
+
1
10
m
l3
1
2
+
3
5
m
s1
+
3
10
m
s2
+
1
10
m
s3
0.88
µ
N
=0.31µ
N
.
Note that g
l
is 1 for p and 0 for n, g
s
is 5.5855 for p and −3.8256 for n,
and so g
l
is
1
2
and g
s
is 0.88 for the system (Problem 2056).
As experimentally µ
d
= 0.857µ
N
, the deuteron must be a mixed state
of S and D. Let the proportion of D state be x, and that of S state be
1 −x. Then
0.88(1 −x) + 0.31x = 0.857 ,
giving x ≈ 0.04, showing that the deuteron consists of 4%
3
D
1
state and
96%
3
S
1
state.
2054
Consider a nonrelativistic twonucleon system. Assume the interaction
is charge independent and conserves parity.
(a) By using the above assumptions and the Pauli principle, show that
S
2
, the square of the twonucleon spin, is a good quantum number.
(b) What is the isotopic spin of the deuteron? Justify your answer!
(c) Specify all states of a twoneutron system with total angular mo
mentum J ≤ 2. Use the notation
2S+1
X
J
where X gives the orbital angular
momentum.
(SUNY Buﬀalo)
Solution:
(a) Let the total exchange operator of the system be P = P
P
12
, where
P
is the space reﬂection, or parity, operator, P
12
is the spin exchange
Nuclear Physics 281
operator
P
12
=
1
2
(1 +σ
1
σ
2
) = S
2
−1 ,
where σ
i
= 2s
i
(i = 1, 2), S = s
1
+ s
2
, using units where = 1. Pauli’s
principle gives [P, H] = 0, and conservation of parity gives [P
, H] = 0. As
0 =[P, H] = [P
P
12
, H] = P
[P
12
, H] + [P
, H]P
12
=P
[P
12
, H] = P
[S
2
−1, H] = P
[S
2
, H] ,
we have [S
2
, H] = 0, and so S
2
is a good quantum number.
(b) The isospin of the nuclear ground state always takes the smallest
possible value. For deuteron,
T = T
p
+T
n
, T
z
= T
pz
+T
nz
=
1
2
−
1
2
= 0 .
For ground state T = 0.
(c) As S = s
1
+s
2
and s
1
= s
2
=
1
2
the quantum number S can be 1 or
0. The possible states with J ≤ 2 are
S = 0 , l = 0 :
1
S
0
,
S = 0 , l = 1 :
1
P
1
,
S = 0 , l = 2 :
1
D
2
,
S = 1 , l = 0 :
3
S
1
,
S = 1 , l = 1 :
3
P
2
,
3
P
1
,
3
P
0
,
S = 1 , l = 2 :
3
D
2
,
3
D
1
,
S = 1 , l = 3 :
3
F
2
,
However, a twoneutron systemis required to be antisymmetric with respect
to particle exchange. Thus (−1)
l+S+1
= −1, or l + S = even. Hence the
possible states are
1
S
0
,
1
D
2
,
3
P
2
,
3
P
1
,
3
P
0
,
3
F
2
.
2055
Consider the potential between two nucleons. Ignoring velocity
dependent terms, derive the most general form of the potential which is
282 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
consistent with applicable conservation laws including that of isotopic spin.
Please list each conservation law and indicate its consequences for the
potential.
(Chicago)
Solution:
(a) Momentum conservation – invariance in space translation.
This law means that the potential function depends only on the relative
position between the two nucleons x = x
1
−x
2
.
(b) Angular momentum conservation – invariance in continuous space
rotation: x
=
ˆ
Rx, J
(i)
=
ˆ
RJ
(i)
, i = 1, 2, where
ˆ
R is the rotational
operator.
The invariants in the rotational transformation are 1, x
2
J
(i)
x, J
(1)
J
(2)
and [J
(1)
J
(2)
] x. Terms higher than ﬁrst order in J
(1)
or in J
(2)
can be reduced as J
i
J
j
= δ
ij
+ iε
ijk
J
k
. Also (J
(1)
x) (J
(2)
x) =
(J
(1)
x) J
(2)
x = (J
(1)
J
(2)
)x
2
−(J
(1)
x)(J
(2)
x).
(c) Parity conservation – invariance in space reﬂection: x
= −x, J
(i)
=
J
(i)
, i = 1, 2.
Since x is the only polar vector, in the potential function only terms
of even power in x are possible. Other invariants are 1, x
2
, J
(1)
J
(2)
,
(J
(1)
x)(J
(2)
x).
(d) Isotopic spin conservation – rotational invariance in isotopic spin
space:
I
(i)
= R
J
I
(i)
, i = 1, 2 .
The invariants are 1 and I
(1)
I
(2)
.
(e) Conservation of probability – Hamiltonian is hermitian: V
+
= V .
This implies the realness of the coeﬃcient of the potential function,
i.e., V
sk
(r), where r = [x[, is real. Thus in
V (x
1
, x
2
, J
(1)
, J
(2)
, I
(1)
, I
(2)
) = V
a
+J
(1)
J
(2)
V
b
,
where V
a
and V
b
are of the form
V
0
(r) +V
1
(r)J
(1)
J
(2)
+V
2
(r)
(J
(1)
x)(J
(2)
x)
x
2
,
as the coeﬃcients V
sk
(r) (s = a, b; k = 0, 1, 2) are real functions.
Nuclear Physics 283
(f) Time reversal (inversion of motion) invariance:
V = U
−1
V
∗
U, U
−1
J
∗
U = −J .
This imposes no new restriction on V .
Note that V is symmetric under the interchange 1 ↔ 2 between two
nucleons.
2056
The deuteron is a bound state of a proton and a neutron of total angular
momentum J = 1. It is known to be principally an S(l = 0) state with a
small admixture of a D(l = 2) state.
(a) Explain why a P state cannot contribute.
(b) Explain why a G state cannot contribute.
(c) Calculate the magnetic moment of the pure D state n − p system
with J = 1. Assume that the n and p spins are to be coupled to make
the total spin S which is then coupled to the orbital angular momentum
L to give the total angular momentum J. Express your result in nuclear
magnetons. The proton and neutron magnetic moments are 2.79 and −1.91
nuclear magnetons respectively.
(CUSPEA)
Solution:
(a) The P state has a parity opposite to that of S and D states. As
parity is conserved in strong interactions states of opposite parities cannot
be mixed. Hence the P state cannot contribute to a state involving S and
D states
(b) The orbital angular momentum quantum number of G state is l = 4.
It cannot be coupled with two 1/2 spins to give J = 1. Hence the G state
cannot contribute to a state of J = 1.
(c) We have J = L +S,
µ =
[(g
L
L +g
s
S) J]
J(J + 1)
Jµ
0
,
284 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where µ
0
is the nuclear magneton. By deﬁnition,
S = s
p
+s
n
,
µ
s
=
[(g
p
s
p
+g
n
s
n
) S]
S(S + 1)
Sµ
0
≡ g
s
Sµ
0
,
or
g
s
=
g
p
s
p
S +g
n
s
n
S
S(S + 1)
.
Consider s
n
= S −s
p
. As s
2
n
= S
2
+s
2
p
−2S s
p
, we have
S s
p
=
S(S + 1) +s
p
(s
p
+ 1) −s
n
(s
n
+ 1)
2
= 1 ,
since s
p
= s
n
=
1
2
, S = 1 (for J = 1, l = 2). Similarly S s
n
= 1. Hence
g
s
=
1
2
(g
p
+g
n
) .
As the neutron, which is uncharged, makes no contribution to the orbital
magnetic moment, the proton produces the entire orbital magnetic moment,
but half the orbital angular momentum. Hence g
L
=
1
2
.
Substitution of g
s
and g
L
in the expression for µ gives
µ
µ
0
=
1
2
(L J) +
1
2
(g
p
+g
n
)(S J)
J(J + 1)
J.
As
L J =
1
2
[J(J + 1) +L(L + 1) −S(S + 1)]
=
1
2
(1 2 + 2 3 −1 2) = 3 ,
S J =
1
2
[J(J + 1) +S(S + 1) −L(L + 1)]
=
1
2
(1 2 + 1 2 −2 3) = −1 ,
µ
µ
0
=
1
2
3
2
−
g
p
+g
n
2
J.
Nuclear Physics 285
with µ
p
= g
p
s
p
µ
0
=
1
2
g
p
µ
0
, µ
n
= g
n
s
n
µ
0
=
1
2
g
n
µ
0
, we have
µ =
3
4
−
µ
p
+µ
n
2
µ
0
=
3
4
−
2.79 −1.91
2
µ
0
= 0.31µ
0
.
2057
(a) The deuteron (
2
1
H) has J = 1 and a magnetic moment (µ =
0.857µ
N
) which is approximately the sum of proton and neutron magnetic
moments (µ
p
= 2.793µ
N
, and µ
n
= −1.913µ
N
). From these facts what can
one infer concerning the orbital motion and spin alignment of the neutron
and proton in the deuteron?
(b) How might one interpret the lack of exact equality of µ and µ
n
+µ
p
?
(c) How can the neutron have a nonzero magnetic moment?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) As µ ≈ µ
n
+ µ
p
, the orbital motions of proton and neutron make
no contribution to the magnetic moment of the deuteron. This means that
the orbital motion quantum number is l = 0. As J = 1 the spin of the
deuteron is 1 and it is in the
3
S
1
state formed by proton and neutron of
parallelspin alignment.
(b) The diﬀerence between µ and µ
n
+µ
p
cannot be explained away by
experimental errors. It is interpreted as due to the fact that the neutron
and proton are not in a pure
3
S
1
state, but in a mixture of
3
S
1
and
3
D
1
states. If a proportion of the latter of about 4% is assumed, agreement with
the experimental value can be achieved.
(c) While the neutron has net zero charge, it has an inner structure.
The current view is that the neutron consists of three quarks of fractional
charges. The charge distribution inside the neutron is thus not symmetrical,
resulting in a nonzero magnetic moment.
2058
The deuteron is a bound state of a proton and a neutron. The Hamil
tonian in the centerofmass system has the form
H =
p
2
2µ
+V
1
(r) +σ
p
σ
n
V
2
(r) +
¸
σ
p
x
r
σ
n
x
r
−
1
3
(σ
p
σ
n
)
V
3
(r) ,
286 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where x = x
n
−x
p
, r = [x[, σ
p
and σ
n
are the Pauli matrices for the spins
of the proton and neutron, µ is the reduced mass, and p is conjugate to x.
(a) Total angular momentum (J
2
= J(J + 1)) and parity are good
quantum numbers. Show that if V
3
= 0, total orbital angular momentum
(L
2
= L(L+1)) and total spin (S
2
= S(S+1)) are good quantum numbers,
where S =
1
2
(σ
p
+ σ
n
). Show that if V
3
= 0, S is still a good quantum
number. [It may help to consider interchange of proton and neutron spins.]
(b) The deuteron has J = 1 and positive parity. What are the possible
values of L? What is the value of S?
(c) Assume that V
3
can be treated as a small perturbation. Show that
in zeroth order (V
3
= 0) the wave function of the state with J
z
= +1 is of
the form Ψ
0
(r)[α, α`, where [α, α` is the spin state with s
pz
= s
nz
= 1/2.
What is the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by Ψ
0
(r)?
(d) What is the ﬁrst order shift in energy due to the term in V
3
? Suppose
that to ﬁrst order the wave function is
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α` + Ψ
1
(x)[α, α` + Ψ
2
(x)([α, β` +[β, α`) + Ψ
3
(x)[β, β` ,
where [β` is a state with s
z
= −
1
2
and Ψ
0
is as deﬁned in part (c). By
selecting out the part of the Sch¨ordinger equation that is ﬁrst order in V
3
and proportional to [α, α`, ﬁnd the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by Ψ
1
(x).
Separate out the angular dependence of Ψ
1
(x) and write down a diﬀerential
equation for its radial dependence.
(MIT)
Solution:
(a) We have [L
2
, σ
p
σ
n
] = 0, [L
2
, V
i
(r)] = 0, [S
2
, V
i
(r)] = 0, [S
2
, p
2
] =
0; [S
2
, σ
p
σ
n
] = [S
2
, 2S
2
−3] = 0 as S
2
= s
2
p
+s
2
n
+2s
p
s
n
=
3
4
+
3
4
+
1
2
σ
p
σ
n
;
S
2
, 3
σ
p
x
r
σ
n
x
r
−σ
p
σ
n
=
¸
S
2
,
12(s x)
2
r
2
−2S
2
+ 3
=
¸
S
2
,
12(s x)
2
r
2
=
12(s x)
r
2
[S
2
, s x] + [S
2
, s x]
12(s x)
r
2
= 0
as
(σ
p
x)
r
(σ
n
x)
r
=
4
r
2
(s
p
x)(s
n
x) =
4
r
2
(s x)
2
;
[L
2
, p
2
] = L[L, p
2
] + [L, p
2
]L = 0 as [l
α
, p
2
] = 0.
Nuclear Physics 287
Hence if V
3
= 0, [L
2
, H] = 0, [S
2
, H] = 0, and the total orbital angu
lar momentum and total spin are good quantum numbers. If V
3
= 0, as
[S
2
, H] = 0, S is still a good quantum number.
(b) The possible values of L are 0,2 for positive parity, and so the value
of S is 1.
(c) If V
3
= 0, the Hamiltonian is centrally symmetric. Such a symmetric
interaction potential between the proton and neutron gives rise to an S state
(L = 0). The S state of deuteron would have an admixture of Dstate if
the perturbation V
3
is included.
In the case of V
3
= 0, L = 0, S = 1 and S
z
= 1, so J
z
= +1 and the
wave function has a form Ψ
0
(r)[α, α`. Consider
HΨ
0
(r)[α, α` =
¸
−
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
(r) + (2S
2
−3)V
2
(r)
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α`
=
¸
−
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
(r) +V
2
(r)
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α`
= E
c
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α`
noting that 2S
2
−3 = 2.1.2 −3 = 1. Thus Ψ
0
(r) satisﬁes
¸
−
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
(r) +V
2
(r) −E
c
Ψ
0
(r) = 0 ,
or
−
1
2µ
1
r
2
d
dr
[r
2
Ψ
0
(r)] + [V
1
(r) +V
2
(r) −E
c
]Ψ
0
(r) = 0 ,
i.e.,
−
1
2µ
Ψ
0
(r) −
1
µr
Ψ
0
(r) + [V
1
(r) +V
2
(r) −E
c
]Ψ
0
(r) = 0 .
(d) Now, writing S
12
for the coeﬃcient of V
3
(r),
H = −
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
(r) + (2S
2
−3)V
2
(r) +S
12
V
3
(r)
= −
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
(r) +V
2
(r) +S
12
V
3
(r) ,
288 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
so
HΨ =
−
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
+V
2
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α` +
−
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
+V
2
[Ψ
1
[α, α`
+ Ψ
2
([α, β` +[β, α`) + Ψ
3
[β, β`] +S
12
V
3
Ψ
0
[α, α`
=E
c
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α` +E
c
[Ψ
1
[α, α` + Ψ
2
([α, β`
+[β, α`) + Ψ
3
[β, β`] + ∆EΨ
0
(r)[α, α` ,
where
S
12
V
3
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α` = [(σ
pz
cos θ σ
nz
cos θ)[α, α` −
1
3
[α, α`]V
3
Ψ
0
(r) +
=
cos
2
θ −
1
3
V
3
Ψ
0
(r)[α, α` + ,
terms not proportional to [α, α` having been neglected.
Selecting out the part of the Schr¨odinger equation that is ﬁrst order in
V
3
and proportional to [α, α`, we get
−
∇
2
2µ
+V
1
+V
2
Ψ
1
(x) +
cos
2
θ −
1
3
V
3
Ψ
0
(r) = E
c
Ψ
1
(x) +∆EΨ
0
(r) .
Thus the angulardependent part of Ψ
1
(x) is
Y
20
= 3
5
16π
1
2
cos
2
θ −
1
3
,
since for the state [α, α`, S
z
= 1 and so L
z
= 0, i.e. the angular part of the
wave function is Y
20
. Therefore we have
−
1
2µ
1
r
2
d
dr
r
2
dΨ
1
(r)
dr
+V
1
(r)Ψ
1
(r) +V
2
(r)Ψ
2
(r)
+
l(l + 1)
r
2
Ψ
1
(r) +
1
3
16π
5
V
3
Ψ
0
(r)
= E
c
Ψ
1
(r) + ∆EΨ
0
(r)
Nuclear Physics 289
with Ψ
1
(x) = Ψ
1
(r)Y
20
, l = 2, or
−
1
2µ
Ψ
1
(r) −
1
µr
Ψ
1
(r) +
¸
V
1
(r) +V
2
(r) +
6
r
2
−E
c
Ψ
1
(r)
+
1
3
16π
5
V
3
−∆E
Ψ
0
(r) = 0
with
∆E =
cos
2
θ −
1
3
V
3
.
4. NUCLEAR MODELS (2059 2075)
2059
What are the essential features of the liquiddrop, shell, and collective
models of the nucleus? Indicate what properties of the nucleus are well
predicted by each model, and how the model is applied.
(Columbia)
Solution:
It is an empirical fact that the binding energy per nucleon, B, of a
nucleus and the density of nuclear matter are almost independent of the
mass number A. This is similar to a liquiddrop whose heat of evaporation
and density are independent of the drop size. Add in the correction terms of
surface energy, Coulomb repulsion energy, pairing energy, symmetry energy
and we get the liquiddrop model. This model gives a relationship between
A and Z of stable nuclei, i.e., the βstability curve, in agreement with
experiment. Moreover, the model explains why the elements
43
Te,
61
Pm
have no βstable isobars. If we treat the nucleus’s radius as a variable
parameter in the massformula coeﬃcients a
surface
and a
volume
and ﬁt the
mass to the experimental value, we ﬁnd that the nuclear radius so deduced
is in good agreement with those obtained by all other methods. So the
speciﬁc binding energy curve is well explained by the liquiddrop model.
The existence of magic numbers indicates that nuclei have internal struc
ture. This led to the nuclear shell model similar to the atomic model, which
could explain the special stability of the magicnumber nuclei. The shell
model requires:
290 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(1) the existence of an average ﬁeld, which for a spherical nucleus is a
central ﬁeld,
(2) that each nucleon in the nucleus moves independently,
(3) that the number of nucleons on an energy level is limited by Pauli’s
principle,
(4) that spinorbit coupling determines the order of energy levels.
The spin and parity of the ground state can be predicted using the shell
model. For eveneven nuclei the predicted spin and parity of the ground
state, 0
+
, have been conﬁrmed by experiment in all cases. The prediction is
based on the fact that normally the spin and parity are 0
+
when neutrons
and protons separately pair up. The predictions of the spin and parity of
the ground state of oddA nuclei are mostly in agreement with experiment.
Certain aspects of oddodd nuclei can also be predicted. In particular it
attributes the existence of magic numbers to full shells.
The shell model however cannot solve all the nuclear problems. It is
quite successfull in explaining the formation of a nucleus by adding one
or several nucleons to a full shell (spherical nucleus), because the nucleus
at this stage is still approximately spherical. But for a nucleus between
two closed shells, it is not spherical and the collective motion of a number
of nucleons become much more important. For example, the experimental
values of nuclear quadrupole moment are many times larger than the values
calculated from a single particle moving in a central ﬁeld for a nucleus
between full shells. This led to the collective model, which, by considering
the collective motion of nucleons, gives rise to vibrational and rotational
energy levels for nuclides in the ranges of 60 < A < 150 and 190 < A < 220,
150 < A < 190 and A > 220 respectively:
2060
Discuss brieﬂy the chief experimental systematics which led to the shell
model description for nuclear states. Give several examples of nuclei which
correspond to closed shells and indicate which shells are closed.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
The main experimental evidence in support of the nuclear shell model is
the existence of magic numbers. When the number of the neutrons or of the
protons in a nucleus is 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126 (for neutrons only), the
Nuclear Physics 291
nucleus is very stable. In nature the abundance of nuclides with such magic
numbers are larger than those of the nearby numbers. Among all the stable
nuclides, those of neutron numbers 20, 28, 50 and 82 have more isotones,
those of proton numbers 8, 20, 28, 50 and 82 have more stable isotopes, than
the nearby nuclides. When the number of neutrons or protons in a nuclide
is equal to a magic number, the binding energy measured experimentally is
quite diﬀerent from that given by the liquiddrop model. The existence of
such magic numbers implies the existence of shell structure inside a nucleus
similar to the electron energy levels in an atom.
4
He is a doublemagic nucleus; its protons and neutrons each ﬁll up the
ﬁrst main shell.
16
O is also a doublemagic nucleus, whose protons and neu
trons each ﬁll up the ﬁrst and second main shells.
208
Pb is a doublemagic
nucleus, whose protons ﬁll up to the sixth main shell, while whose neutrons
ﬁll up to the seventh main shell. Thus these nuclides all have closed shells.
2061
(a) Discuss the standard nuclear shell model. In particular, characterize
the successive shells according to the singleparticle terms that describe the
shell, i.e., the principal quantum number n, the orbital angular momentum
quantum number l, and the total angular momentum quantum number
j (spectroscopic notation is useful here, e.g., 2s
1/2
, 1p
3/2
, etc..). Discuss
brieﬂy some of the basic evidence in support of the shell model.
(b) Consider a nuclear level corresponding to a closed shell plus a single
proton in a state with the angular momentum quantum numbers l and j.
Of course j = l ± 1/2. Let g
p
be the empirical gyromagnetic ratio of the
free proton. Compute the gyromagnetic ratio for the level in question, for
each of the two cases j = l + 1/2 and j = l −1/2.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The basic ideas of the nuclear shell model are the following. Firstly
we assume each nucleon moves in an average ﬁeld which is the sum of the
actions of the other nucleons on it. For a nucleus nearly spherically in
shape, the average ﬁeld is closely represented by a central ﬁeld. Second, we
assume that the lowlying levels of a nucleus are ﬁlled up with nucleons in
accordance with Pauli’s principle. As collisions between nucleons cannot
cause a transition and change their states, all the nucleons can maintain
292 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.11
their states of motion, i.e., they move independently in the nucleus. We can
take for the average central ﬁeld a Woods–Saxon potential well compatible
with the characteristics of the interaction between nucleons, and obtain the
energy levels by quantum mechanical methods. Considering the spinorbital
interaction, we get the singleparticle energy levels (Fig. 2.11), which can
be ﬁlled up with nucleons one by one. Note that each level has a degeneracy
2j +1. So up to the ﬁrst 5 shells as shown, the total number of protons or
neutrons accommodated are 2, 8, 20, 28 and 50.
The main experimental evidence for the shell model is the existence of
magic numbers. Just like the electrons outside a nucleus in an atom, if
the numbers of neutrons on protons in a nucleus is equal to some ‘magic
number’ (8,20,28,50 or 82), the nucleus has greater stability, larger binding
energy and abundance, and many more stable isotopes.
(b) According to the shell model, the total angular momentum of the
nucleons in a closed shell is zero, so is the magnetic moment. This means
that the magnetic moment and angular momentum of the nucleus are de
termined by the single proton outside the closed shell.
As
µ
j
= µ
l
+µ
s
,
i.e.,
g
j
j = g
l
l +g
s
s ,
we have
g
j
j j = g
l
l j +g
s
s j .
With
l j =
1
2
(j
2
+l
2
−s
2
) =
1
2
[j(j + 1) +l(l + 1) −s(s + 1)] ,
s j =
1
2
(j
2
+s
2
−l
2
) =
1
2
[j(j + 1) +s(s + 1) −l(l + 1)] ,
Nuclear Physics 293
we have
g
j
= g
l
j(j + 1) +l(l + 1) −s(s + 1)
2j(j + 1)
+g
s
j(j + 1) +s(s + 1) −l(l + 1)
2j(j + 1)
.
For proton, g
l
= 1, g
s
= g
p
, the gyromagnetic ratio for free proton (l =
0, j = s), s =
1
2
. Hence we have
g
j
=
2j −1
2j
+
g
p
2j
for j = l + 1/2 ,
1
j + 1
j +
3
2
−
g
p
2
for j = l −1/2 .
2062
The energy levels of the threedimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator
are given by
E = (2n +l + 3/2)ω =
N +
3
2
ω .
In application to the singleparticle nuclear model ω is ﬁtted as
44A
−
1
3
MeV.
(a) By considering corrections to the oscillator energy levels relate the
levels for N ≤ 3 to the shell model singleparticle level scheme. Draw an en
ergy level diagram relating the shell model energy levels to the unperturbed
oscillator levels.
(b) Predict the ground state spins and parities of the following nuclei
using the shell model:
3
2
He,
17
8
O,
34
19
K,
41
20
Ca .
(c) Strong electric dipole transitions are not generally observed to con
nect the ground state of a nucleus to excited levels lying in the ﬁrst 5 MeV
of excitation. Using the singleparticle model, explain this observation and
predict the excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) Using LS coupling, we have the splitting of the energy levels of a
harmonic oscillator as shown in Fig. 2.12.
294 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.12
(b) According to Fig. 2.12 we have the following:
3
2
He: The last unpaired nucleon is a neutron of state 1s1
2
, so J
π
= (1/2)
+
.
17
8
O: The last unpaired nucleon is a neutron of state 1d
5/2
, so J
π
= (5/2)
+
.
34
19
K: The last two unpaired nucleons are a proton of state 2s1
2
and a neutron
of state 1d
3/2
, so J
π
= 1
+
.
41
20
Ca: The last unpaired nucleon is a neutron of state 1f
7/2
, so J
π
= (7/2)
−
.
(c) The selection rules for electric dipole transition are
∆J = J
f
−J
i
= 0, 1, ∆π = −1 ,
where J is the nuclear spin, π is the nuclear parity. As ω = 44A
−
1
3
MeV,
ω > 5 MeV for a nucleus. When N increases by 1, the energy level
increases by ∆E = ω > 5 MeV. This means that excited states higher than
the ground state by less than 5 MeV have the same N and parity as the
latter. As electric dipole transition requires ∆π = −1, such excited states
cannot connect to the ground state through an electric dipole transition.
However, in LS coupling the energy diﬀerence between levels of diﬀerent
N can be smaller than 5 MeV, especially for heavy nuclei, so that electric
dipole transition may still be possible.
The giant dipole nuclear resonance can be thought of as a phenomenon
in which the incoming photon separates the protons and neutrons in the
nucleus, increasing the potential energy, and causing the nucleus to vibrate.
Nuclear Physics 295
Resonant absorption occurs when the photon frequency equals resonance
frequency of the nucleus.
2063
To some approximation, a medium weight nucleus can be regarded as
a ﬂatbottomed potential with rigid walls. To simplify this picture still
further, model a nucleus as a cubical box of length equal to the nuclear
diameter. Consider a nucleus of iron56 which has 28 protons and 28 neu
trons. Estimate the kinetic energy of the highest energy nucleon. Assume
a nuclear diameter of 10
−12
cm.
(Columbia)
Solution:
The potential of a nucleon can be written as
V (x, y, z) =
∞, [x[, [y[, [z[ >
a
2
,
0, [x[, [y[, [z[ <
a
2
,
where a is the nuclear diameter. Assume the Schr¨ odinger equation
−
2
2m
∇
2
Ψ(x, y, z) +V (x, y, z)Ψ(x, y, z) = EΨ(x, y, z)
can be separated in the variables by letting Ψ(x, y, z) = Ψ(x)Ψ(y)Ψ(z).
Substitution gives
−
2
2m
d
2
dx
2
i
Ψ(x
i
) +V (x
i
)Ψ(x
i
) = E
i
Ψ(x
i
) ,
with
V (x
i
) =
∞, [x
i
[ >
a
2
,
0, [x
i
[ <
a
2
,
i = 1, 2, 3; x
1
= x, x
2
= y, x
3
= z, E = E
1
+E
2
+E
3
.
Solving the equations we have
Ψ(x
i
) = A
i
sin(k
i
x
i
) +B
i
cos(k
i
x
i
)
296 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
with k
i
=
√
2mE
i
. The boundary condition Ψ(x
i
)[
x
i
=±
a
2
= 0 gives
Ψ(x
i
) =
A
i
sin
nπ
a
x
i
, with n even,
B
i
cos
nπ
a
x
i
, with n odd,
and hence
E
xi
=
k
2
xi
2
2m
=
π
2
n
2
xi
2
2ma
2
, n
x
= 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
E = E
0
(n
2
x
+n
2
y
+ n
2
z
) ,
where
E
0
=
π
2
2
2ma
2
=
π
2
(c)
2
2mc
2
a
2
=
π
2
(1.97 10
−11
)
2
2 939 10
−24
= 2.04 MeV.
(n
x
, n
y
, n
z
)Number Number E
of states of nucleons
(111) 1 4 3E
0
(211)
(121) 3 12 6E
0
(112)
(221)
(122) 3 12 9E
0
(212)
(311)
(131) 3 12 11E
0
(113)
(222) 1 4 12E
0
(123)
(132)
(231) 6 24 14E
0
(213)
(312)
(321)
Nuclear Physics 297
According to Pauli’s principle, each state can accommodate one pair of
neutrons and one pair of protons, as shown in the table.
For
56
Fe, E
max
= 14E
0
= 2.04 14 = 28.6 MeV.
2064
Light nuclei in the shell model.
(a) Using the harmonicoscillator shell model, describe the expected
conﬁgurations for the ground states of the light stable nuclei with A ≤ 4,
specifying also their total L, S, J and T quantum numbers and parity.
(b) For
4
He, what states do you expect to ﬁnd at about one oscillator
quantum of excitation energy?
(c) What radioactive decay modes are possible for each of these states?
(d) Which of these states do you expect to ﬁnd in
4
H? Which do you
expect to ﬁnd in
4
Be?
(e) Which of the excited states of
4
He do you expect to excite in α
particle inelastic scattering? Which would you expect to be excited by
proton inelastic scattering?
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) According to Fig. 2.11 we have
A = 1: The stable nucleus
1
H has conﬁguration: p(1s
1/2
)
1
,
L = 0, S = 1/2, J
p
= 1/2
+
, T = 1/2 .
A = 2: The stable nucleus
2
H has conﬁguration: p(1s
1/2
)
1
, n(1s
1/2
)
1
,
L = 0, S = 1, J
p
= 1
+
, T = 0 .
A = 3: The stable nucleus
3
He has conﬁguration: p(1s
1/2
)
2
, n(1s
1/2
)
1
,
L = 0, S = 1/2, J
p
= 1/2
+
, T = 1/2 .
A = 4: The stable nucleus
4
He has conﬁguration: p(1s
1/2
)
2
, n(1s
1/2
)
2
,
L = 0, S = 0, J
p
= 0
+
, T = 0 .
298 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(b) Near the ﬁrst excited state of the harmonic oscillator, the energy
level is split into two levels 1p
3/2
and 1p
1/2
because of the LS coupling of
the p state. The isospin of
4
He is T
z
= 0, T = 0 for the ground state. So
the possible excitated states are the following:
(i) When a proton (or neutron) is of 1p
3/2
state, the other of 1s
1/2
state,
the possible coupled states are 1
−
, 2
−
(T = 0 or T = 1).
(ii) When a proton (or neutron) is of 1p
1/2
state, the other of 1s
1/2
state, the possible coupled states are 0
−
, 1
−
(T = 0 or 1).
(iii) When two protons (or two neutrons) are of 1p
1/2
(or 1p
3/2
) state,
the possible coupled state is 0
+
(T = 0).
(c) The decay modes of the possible states of
4
He are:
J
p
T Decay modes
Ground state: 0
+
0 Stable
Excited states: 0
+
0 p
0
−
0 p, n
2
−
0 p, n
2
−
1 p, n
1
−
1 p, nγ
0
−
1 p, n
1
−
1 p, nγ
1
−
0 p, n, d
(d)
4
H has isospin T = 1, so it can have all the states above with T = 1,
namely 2
−
, 1
−
, 0
−
.
The isospin of
4
Be is T ≥ 2, and hence cannot have any of the states
above.
(e) α − α scattering is between two identical nuclei, so the total wave
function of the ﬁnal state is exchange symmetric and the total angular
momentum is conserved
In the initial state, the two αparticles have L = 0, 2, . . .
In the ﬁnal state, the two αparticles are each of 0
−
state, L = 0, 2 . . .
Thus an αparticle can excite
4
He to 0
−
state while a proton can excite
it to 2
−
, or 0
−
states.
Nuclear Physics 299
2065
Explain the following statements on the basis of physical principles:
(a) The motion of individual nucleons inside a nucleus may be regarded
as independent from each other even though they interact very strongly.
(b) All the eveneven nuclei have 0
+
ground state.
(c) Nuclei with outer shells partially ﬁlled by odd number of nucleons
tend to have permanent deformation.
(SUNY, Buﬀalo)
Solution:
(a) The usual treatment is based on the assumption that the interaction
among nucleons can be replaced by the action on a nucleon of the mean
ﬁeld produced by the other nucleons. The nucleons are considered to move
independently of one another. Despite the high nucleon density inside a
nucleus it is assumed that the individual interactions between nucleons
do not manifest macroscopically. Since nucleons are fermions, all the low
energy levels of the ground state are ﬁlled up and the interactions among
nucleons cannot excite a nucleon to a higher level. We can then employ a
model of moderately weak interaction to describe the strong interactions
among nucleons.
(b) According to the nuclear shell model, the protons and neutrons in
an eveneven nucleus tend to pair oﬀ separately, i.e., each pair of neutrons
or protons are in the same orbit and have opposite spins, so that the total
angular momentum and total spin of each pair of nucleons are zero. It
follows that the total angular momentum of the nucleus is zero. The parity
of each pair of nucleons is (−1)
2l
= +1, and so the total parity of the
nucleus is positive. Hence for an eveneven nucleus, J
p
= 0
+
.
(c) Nucleons in the outermost partiallyﬁlled shell can be considered as
moving around a nuclear system of zero spin. For nucleons with l = 0, the
orbits are ellipses. Because such odd nucleons have ﬁnite spins and magnetic
moments, which can polarize the nuclear system, the nucleus tends to have
permanent deformation.
2066
Explain the following:
300 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(a) The binding energy of adding an extra neutron to a
3
He nucleus
(or of adding an extra proton to a
3
H nucleus) to form
4
He is greater than
20 MeV. However neither a neutron nor a proton will bind stably to
4
He.
(b) Natural radioactive nuclei such as
232
Th and
238
U decay in stages,
by α and βemissions, to isotopes of Pb. The halflives of
232
Th and
238
U
are greater than 10
9
years and the ﬁnal Pbisotopes are stable; yet the
intermediate αdecay stages have much shorter halflives – some less than
1 hour or even 1 second – and successive stages show generally a decrease
in halflife and an increase in αdecay energy as the ﬁnal Pbisotope is
approached.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a)
4
He is a doublemagic nucleus in which the shells of neutrons and
protons are all full. So it is very stable and cannot absorb more neutrons or
protons. Also, when a
3
He captures a neutron, or a
3
H captures a proton
to form
4
He, the energy emitted is very high because of the high binding
energy.
(b) The reason that successive stages of the decay of
232
Th and
238
U
show a decrease in halflife and an increase in αdecay energy as the ﬁnal
Pbisotopes are approached is that the Coulomb barrier formed between the
αparticle and the daughter nucleus during αemission obstructs the decay.
When the energy of the αparticle increases, the probability of its pene
trating the barrier increases, and so the halflife of the nucleus decreases.
From the Geiger–Nuttall formula for αdecays
log λ = A−BE
−1/2
d
,
where A and B are constants with A diﬀerent for diﬀerent radioactivity
series, λ is the αdecay constant and E
d
is the decay energy, we see that a
small change in decay energy corresponds to a large change in halflife.
We can deduce from the liquiddrop model that the αdecay energy
E
d
increases with A. However, experiments show that for the radioactive
family
232
Th and
238
U, E
d
decreases as A increases. This shows that the
liquiddrop model can only describe the general trend of binding energy
change with A and Z, but not the ﬂuctuation of the change, which can be
explained only by the nuclear shell model.
Nuclear Physics 301
2067
(a) What spinparity and isospin would the shell model predict for the
ground states of
13
5
B,
13
6
C, and
13
7
N? (Recall that the p
3/2
shell lies below
the p
1/2
.)
(b) Order the above isobaric triad according to mass with the lowest
mass ﬁrst. Brieﬂy justify your order.
(c) Indicate how you could estimate rather closely the energy diﬀerence
between the two lowestmass members of the above triad.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The isospin of the ground state of a nucleus is I = [Z − N[/2,
where N, Z are the numbers of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus
respectively. The spinparity of the ground state of a nucleus is decided by
that of the last unpaired nucleon. Thus (Fig. 2.11)
13
5
B : J
p
=
3
2
−
, as the unpaired proton is in 1p3
2
state ,
I =
3
2
;
13
6
C : J
p
=
1
2
−
, as the unpaired neutron is in 1p
1/2
state ,
I =
1
2
;
13
7
N : J
p
=
1
2
−
, as the unpaired proton is in 1p
1/2
state ,
I =
1
2
.
(b) Ordering the nuclei with the lowestmass ﬁrst gives
13
6
C,
13
7
N,
13
5
B.
13
6
C and
13
7
N belong to the same isospin doublet. Their mass diﬀerence
arises from the diﬀerence in Coulomb energy and the mass diﬀerence be
tween neutron and proton, with the former being the chieﬂy cause.
13
7
N has
one more proton than
13
6
C, and so has greater Coulomb energy and hence
larger mass. Whereas
13
5
B has fewer protons, it has more neutrons and is
302 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
far from the line of stable nuclei and so is less tightly formed. Hence it has
the largest mass.
(c) Consider the two lowestmass members of the above triad,
13
6
C and
13
6
N. If the nuclei are approximated by spheres of uniform charge, each will
have electrostatic (Coulomb) energy W = 3Q
2
/5R, R being the nuclear
radius R ≈ 1.4A
1/2
fm. Hence the mass diﬀerence is
[M(
13
7
N) −M(
13
6
C)]c
2
=
3
5R
(Q
2
N
−Q
2
C
) −[M
n
−M(
1
H)]c
2
=
3c
5R
e
2
c
(7
2
−6
2
) −0.78
= 0.6
197
137
49 −36
1.4 13
1/3
−0.78
= 2.62 MeV.
2068
In the nuclear shell model, orbitals are ﬁlled in the order
1s
1/2
, 1p
3/2
, 1p
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2s
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, etc.
(a) What is responsible for the splitting between the p
3/2
and p
1/2
or
bitals?
(b) In the model,
16
O (Z = 8) is a good closedshell nucleus and has
spin and parity J
π
= 0
+
. What are the predicted J
π
values for
15
O and
17
O?
(c) For oddodd nuclei a range of J
π
values is allowed. What are the
allowed values for
18
F (Z = 9)?
(d) For eveneven nuclei (e.g. for
18
O) J
π
is always 0
+
. How is this
observation explained?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The splitting between p
3/2
and p
1/2
is caused by the spinorbit
coupling of the nucleons.
(b) Each orbital can accommodate 2j +1 protons and 2j +1 neutrons.
Thus the proton conﬁguration of
15
O is (1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
2
, and its
Nuclear Physics 303
neutron conﬁguration is (1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
1
. As the protons all pair
up but the neutrons do not, the spinparity of
15
O is determined by the
angular momentum and parity of the unpaired neutron in the 1p1
2
state.
Hence the spinparity of
15
O of J
p
= 1/2
−
.
The proton conﬁguration of
17
O is the same as that of
15
O, but its neu
tron conﬁguration is (1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
2
(1d
5/2
)
1
. So the spinparity of
17
O is that of the neutron in the 1d
5/2
state, J
p
= 5/2
+
.
(c) The neutron conﬁguration of
18
F is (1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
2
(1d
5/2
)
1
,
its proton conﬁguration is (1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
2
(1d
5/2
)
1
. As there are
two unpaired nucleons, a range of J
p
values are allowed, being decided by
the neutron and proton in the 1d
5/2
states. As l
n
= 2, l
p
= 2, the parity
is π = (−1)
l
n
+l
p
= +1. As j
n
= 5/2, j
p
= 5/2, the possible spins are
J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Thus the possible values of the spinparity of
18
F are
0
+
, 1
+
, 2
+
, 3
+
, 4
+
, 5
+
. (It is in fact 1
+
.)
(d) For an eveneven nucleus, as an even number of nucleons are in
the lowest energy levels, the number of nucleons in every energy level is
even. As an even number of nucleons in the same energy level have an
gular momenta of the same absolute value, and the angular momenta of
paired nucleons are aligned oppositely because of the pairing force, the to
tal angular momentum of the nucleons in an energy level is zero. Since
all the proton shells and neutron shells have zero angular momentum, the
spin of an eveneven nucleus is zero. As the number of nucleons in every
energy level of an eveneven nucleus is even, the parity of the nucleus is
positive.
2069
The singleparticle energies for neutrons and protons in the vicinity of
208
82
Pb
126
are given in Fig. 2.13. Using this ﬁgure as a guide, estimate or
evaluate the following.
(a) The spins and parities of the ground state and the ﬁrst two excited
states of
207
Pb.
(b) The ground state quadrupole moment of
207
Pb.
(c) The magnetic moment of the ground state of
209
Pb.
(d) The spins and parities of the lowest states of
208
83
Bi (nearly degener
ate). What is the energy of the ground state of
208
Bi relative to
208
Pb?
304 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.13
(e) The isobaric analog state in
208
Bi of the ground state of
208
Pb is deﬁned
as
T
+
[
208
Pb (ground state)`
with T
+
=
¸
i
t
+
(i), where t
+
changes a neutron into a proton. What
are the quantum numbers (spin, parity, isospin, z component of isospin) of
the isobaric analog state? Estimate the energy of the isobaric analog state
above the ground state of
208
Pb due to the Coulomb interaction.
(f) Explain why one does not observe superallowed Fermi electron or
positron emission in heavy nuclei.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a)
207
82
Pb consists of full shells with a vacancy for a neutron in p
1/2
level.
The spinparity of the ground state is determined by that of the unpaired
neutron in p
1/2
and so is (1/2)
−
. The ﬁrst excited state is formed by a
f
5/2
neutron transiting to p
1/2
. Its J
p
is determined by the single neutron
vacancy left in f
5/2
level and is (5/2)
−
. The second excited state is formed
Nuclear Physics 305
by a p
3/2
neutron reﬁlling the f
5/2
vacancy (that is to say a p
3/2
neutron
goes to p
1/2
directly). J
p
of the nucleus in the second excited state is then
determined by the single neutron vacancy in p
3/2
level and is
3
2
−
. Hence
the ground and ﬁrst two excited states of
207
Pb have J
p
= (
1
2
)
−
, (
5
2
)
−
, (
3
2
)
−
.
(b) The nucleon shells of
207
82
Pb are full except there is one neutron short
in p
1/2
levels. An electric quadrupole moment can arise from polarization
at the nuclear center caused by motion of neutrons. But as J = 1/2, the
electric quadrupole moment of
207
Pb is zero.
(c)
209
82
Pb has a neutron in g
9/2
outside the full shells. As the orbital
motion of a neutron makes no contribution to the nuclear magnetic moment,
the total magnetic moment equals to that of the neutron itself:
µ(
209
Pb) = −1.91µ
N
, µ
N
being the nuclear magneton.
(d) For
208
83
Bi, the ground state has an unpaired proton and an unpaired
neutron, the proton being in h
9/2
, the neutron being in p
1/2
. As J =
1/2+9/2 = 5 (since both nucleon spins are antiparallel to l), l
p
= 5, l
n
= 1
and so the parity is (−1)
l
p
+l
n
= +, the states has J
p
= 5
+
. The ﬁrst
excited state is formed by a neutron in f
5/2
transiting to p
1/2
and its spin
parity is determined by the unpaired f
5/2
neutron and h
9/2
proton. Hence
J = 5/2 +9/2 = 7, parity is (−1)
1+5
= +, and so J
p
= 7
+
. Therefore, the
two lowest states have spinparity 5
+
and 7
+
.
The energy diﬀerence between the ground states of
208
Bi and
208
Pb can
be obtained roughly from Fig. 2.13. As compared with
208
Pb,
208
Bi has
one more proton at h
9/2
and one less neutron at p
1/2
we have
∆E = E(Bi) −E(Pb) ≈ 7.2 −3.5 + 2∆ ≈ 3.7 + 1.5 = 5.2 MeV,
where ∆ = m
n
−m
p
, i.e., the ground state of
208
Bi is 5.2 MeV higher than
that of
208
Pb.
(e) As T
+
only changes the third component of the isospin,
T
+
[T, T
3
` = A[T, T
3
+ 1` .
Thus the isobaric analog state should have the same spin, parity and isospin,
but a diﬀerent third component of the isospin of the original nucleus.
As
208
Pb has J
p
= 0
+
, T = 22, T
3
= −22,
208
Bi, the isobaric analog
state of
208
Pb, has the same J
p
and T but a diﬀerent T
3
= −21. The
306 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
energy diﬀerence between the two isobaric analog states is
∆E ≈
6
5
Ze
2
R
+ (m
H
−m
n
)c
2
=
6
5
Zc
R
e
2
c
−0.78
=
6 82 197
5 1.2 208
1/3
137
−0.78 = 19.1 MeV.
(f) The selection rules for superallowed Fermi transition are ∆J = 0,
∆P = +, ∆T = 0, so the wave function of the daughter nucleus is very
similar to that of the parent. As the isospin is a good quantum number
superallowed transitions occur generally between isospin multiplets. For a
heavy nucleus, however, the diﬀerence in Coulomb energy between isobaric
analog states can be 10 MeV or higher, and so the isobaric analogy state
is highly excited. As such, they can emit nucleons rather than undergo
βdecay.
2070
The simplest model for lowlying states of nuclei with N and Z between
20 and 28 involves only f
7/2
nucleons.
(a) Using this model predict the magnetic dipole moments of
41
20
Ca
21
and
41
21
Sc
20
. Estimate crudely the electric quadrupole moments for these
two cases as well.
(b) What states are expected in
42
20
Ca according to an application of this
model? Calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments for
these states. Sketch the complete decay sequence expected experimentally
for the highest spin state.
(c) The ﬁrst excited state in
43
21
Ca
23
is shown below in Fig. 2.14 with
a halflife of 34 picoseconds for decay to the ground state. Estimate the
lifetime expected for this state on the basis of a singleparticle model. The
Fig. 2.14
Nuclear Physics 307
experimental values are
µ
n
= −1.91µ
N
, µ(
41
Ca) = −1.59µ
N
µ
p
= 2.79µ
N
, µ(
41
Sc) = 5.43µ
N
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a)
41
Ca has a neutron and
41
Sc has a proton outside closed shells in
state 1f
7/2
. As closed shells do not contribute to the nuclear magnetic
moment, the latter is determined by the extrashell nucleons. The nuclear
magnetic moment is given by
µ = gjµ
N
,
where j is the total angular momentum, µ
N
is the nuclear magneton. For
a single nucleon in a central ﬁeld, the gfactor is (Problem 2061)
g =
(2j −1)g
l
+g
s
2j
for j = l +
1
2
,
g =
(2j + 3)g
l
−g
s
2(j + 1)
for j = l −
1
2
.
For neutron, g
l
= 0, g
s
= g
n
= −
1.91
1
2
= −3.82. As l = 3 and j =
7
2
= 3+
1
2
,
we have for
41
Ca
µ(
41
Ca) = −
3.82
2j
jµ
N
= −1.91µ
N
.
For proton, g
l
= 1, g
s
= g
p
=
2.79
1/2
= 5.58. As j =
7
2
= 3 +
1
2
, we have
for
41
Sc
µ(
41
Sc) =
(7 −1) + 5.58
7
7
2
µ
N
= 5.79µ
N
.
Note that these values are only in rough agreement with the given experi
mental values.
The electric quadrupole moment of
41
Sc, which has a single proton
outside closed shells, is given by
Q(
41
Sc) = −e
2
'r
2
`
2j −1
2(j + 1)
= −'r
2
`
2j −1
2(j + 1)
,
308 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where 'r
2
` is the meansquare distance from the center and the proton
charge is taken to be one. For an orderofmagnitude estimate take 'r
2
` =
(1.2 A
1/3
)
2
fm
2
. Then
Q(
41
Sc) = −
6
9
(1.2 41
1
3
)
2
= −1.14 10
−25
cm
2
.
41
Ca has a neutron outside the full shells. Its electric quadrupole moment
is caused by the polarization of the neutron relative to the nucleus center
and is
Q(
41
Ca) ≈
Z
(A−1)
2
[Q(
41
Sc)[ = 1.43 10
−27
cm
2
.
(b) As shown in Fig. 2.15 the ground state of
42
Ca nucleus is 0
+
. The
two last neutrons, which are in f
7/2
can be coupled to form levels of J =
7, 6, 5 . . . , 0 and positive parity. Taking into account the antisymmetry for
identical particles, the possible levels are those with J = 6, 4, 2, 0. (We
require L +S = even, see Problem 2054. As S = 0, J = even.)
Fig. 2.15
The magnetic dipole moment µ of a twonucleon system is given by
µ = gJµ
N
= (g
1
j
1
+g
2
j
2
)µ
N
with J = j
1
+j
2
. As
Nuclear Physics 309
gJ
2
= g
1
j
1
J +g
2
j
2
J,
j
1
J =
1
2
(J
2
+j
2
1
−j
2
2
) ,
j
2
J =
1
2
(J
2
+j
2
2
−j
2
1
) ,
we have
gJ
2
=
1
2
(g
1
+g
2
)J
2
+
1
2
(g
1
−g
2
)(j
2
1
−j
2
2
) .
or
g =
1
2
(g
1
+g
2
) +
1
2
(g
1
−g
2
)
j
1
(j
1
+ 1) −j
2
(j
2
+ 1)
J(J + 1)
.
For
42
Ca, the two nucleons outside full shells each has j = 7/2. As
g
1
= g
2
=
−3.82
j
1
, j
1
=
7
2
,
we have µ(
42
Ca) = g
1
Jµ
N
= −1.09Jµ
N
with J = 0, 2, 4, 6.
The groundstate quadrupole moment of
42
Ca is Q = 0. One can get
the excited state quadrupole moment using the reduced transition rate for
γtransition
B(E2, 2
+
→0
+
) =
e
2
Q
2
0
16π
where Q
0
is the intrinsic electric quadrupole moment. The ﬁrst excited
state 2
+
of
42
Ca has excitation energy 1.524 MeV and
B(E2 : 2
+
→0
+
) = 81.5e
2
fm
4
,
or
Q
0
=
√
16π 81.5 = 64 fm
2
.
For other states the quadrupole moments are given by
Q =
K
2
−J(J + 1)
(J + 1)(2J + 3)
Q
0
= −
J(J + 1)Q
0
(J + 1)(2J + 3)
=
−J
2J + 3
Q
0
as K = 0. Thus Q = 18.3 fm
2
for J = 2, 23.3 fm
2
for J = 4, and 25.6 fm
2
for J = 6.
(c) The selection rule for the γtransition (
5
2
)
−
→ (
7
2
)
−
is (
5
2
−
7
2
) ≤
L ≤
5
2
+
7
2
, i.e. L = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, with the lowest order having the highest
310 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
probability, for which parity is conserved. Then the most probable are
magnetic dipole transition M
1
for which ∆P = −(−1)
1+1
= +, or electric
quadrupole transition E2 for which ∆P = (−1)
2
= +. According to the
singleparticle model (Problem 2093),
λ
M1
=
1.9(L + 1)
L[(2L + 1)!!]
2
3
L + 3
2
E
γ
197
2L+1
(1.4 A
1/3
)
2L−2
10
21
=
1.9 2
3
2
3
4
2
0.37
197
3
(1.4 43
1/3
)
0
10
21
= 1.57 10
12
s
−1
,
λ
E2
=
4.4(L + 1)
L[(2L + 1)!!]
2
¸
3
L + 3
2
E
γ
197
2L+1
(1.4 A
1/3
)
2L
10
21
=
4.4 3
2 (5 3)
2
3
L + 3
2
0.37
197
5
(1.4 43
1/3
)
4
10
21
= 1.4 10
8
s
−1
.
As λ
E2
<λ
M1
, E2 could be neglected, and so
T
1/2
≈
ln2
λ
M1
=
ln2
1.57 10
12
= 4.4 10
−13
s .
This result from the singleparticle model is some 20 times smaller than
the experimental value. The discrepancy is probably due to γtransition
caused by change of the collective motion of the nucleons.
2071
The variation of the binding energy of a single neutron in a “realistic”
potential model of the neutronnucleus interaction is shown in Fig. 2.16.
(a) What are the neutron separation energies for
40
20
Ca and
208
82
Pb?
(b) What is the best neutron magic number between those for
40
Ca and
208
Pb?
(c) Draw the spectrum including spins, parities and approximate relative
energy levels for the lowest ﬁve states you would expected in
210
Pb and
explain.
Nuclear Physics 311
Fig. 2.16
Fig. 2.17
312 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(d) The swave neutron strength function S
0
is deﬁned as the ratio of
the average neutron width 'Γ
n
` to the average local energy spacing 'D`:
S
0
= 'Γ
n
`/'D` .
Figure 2.17 shows the variation of the thermal neutron strength function
S
0
with mass number A. Explain the location of the single peak around
A ≈ 50, and the split peak around A ≈ 160. Why is the second peak split?
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The outermost neutron of
40
Ca is the twentieth one. Figure 2.16
gives for A = 40 that the last neutron is in 1d
3/2
shell with separation
energy of about 13 MeV.
208
Pb has full shells, the last pair of neutrons being in 3p
1/2
shell. From
Fig. 2.16 we note that for A = 208, the separation energy of each neutron
is about 3 MeV.
(b) The neutron magic numbers between
40
Ca and
208
Pb are 28, 50
and 82. For nuclei of N = Z, at the neutron magic number N = 28
the separation energies are about 13 MeV. At neutron number N = 50,
the separation energies are also about 13 MeV. At N=82, the separation
energies are about 12 MeV. However, for heavy nuclei, there are more
neutrons than protons, so A < 2N. On account of this, for the nuclei
of magic numbers 50 and 82, the separation energies are somewhat less
than those given above. At the magic number 28 the separation energy is
highest, and so this is the best neutron magic number.
(c) The last two neutrons of
210
Pb are in 2g
9/2
shell, outside of the
doublefull shells. As the two nucleons are in the same orbit and will nor
mally pair up to J = 0, the eveneven nucleus has ground state 0
+
.
The two outermost neutrons in 2g
9/2
of
210
Pb can couple to form states
of J = 9, 8, 7 . . . . However a twoneutron system has isospin T = 1. As the
antisymmetry of the total wave function requires J +T = odd, the allowed
J are 8, 6, 4, 2, 0 and the parity is positive. Thus the spinparities of the
lowest ﬁve states are 8
+
, 6
+
, 4
+
, 2
+
, 0
+
. Because of the residual interaction,
the ﬁve states are of diﬀerent energy levels as shown in Fig. 2.18.
(d) Near A = 50 the swave strength function has a peak. This is
because when A = 50 the excitation energy of 3s energy level roughly equals
the neutron binding energy. A calculation using the optical model gives the
Nuclear Physics 313
Fig. 2.18
shape of the peak as shown in Fig. 2.17 (solid curve). When 150 < A < 190,
the swave strength function again peaks due to the equality of excitation
energy of 4s neutron and its binding energy. However, nuclear deformation
in this region is greater, particularly near A = 160 to 170, where the nuclei
have a tendency to deform permanently. Here the binding energies diﬀer
appreciably from those given by the singleparticle model: the peak of the
swave strength function becomes lower and splits into two smaller peaks.
2072
Figure 2.19 gives the lowlying states of
18
O with their spinparity as
signments and energies (in MeV) relative to the 0
+
ground state.
Fig. 2.19
(a) Explain why these J
p
values are just what one would expect in the
standard shell model.
(b) What J
p
values are expected for the lowlying states of
19
O?
(c) Given the energies (relative to the ground state) of these
18
O levels, it
is possible within the shell model, ignoring interconﬁguration interactions,
314 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
to compute the energy separations of the
19
O levels. However, this requires
familiarity with complicated Clebsch–Gordon coeﬃcients. To simplify mat
ters, consider a ﬁctitious situation where the 2
+
and 4
+
levels of
18
O have
the energies 2 MeV and 6
2
3
MeV respectively. For this ﬁctitious world,
compute the energies of the lowlying
19
O levels.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) In a simple shell model, ignoring the residual interactions between
nucleons and considering only the spinorbit coupling, we have for a system
of A nucleons,
H = ΣH
i
,
with
H
i
= T
i
+V
i
,
V
i
= V
i
0
(r) +f(r)S
i
l
i
,
H
i
Ψ
i
= E
i
Ψ
i
,
Ψ =
A
¸
i=1
ψ
i
.
When considering residual interactions, the diﬀerence of energy between
diﬀerent interconﬁgurations of the nucleons in the same level must be taken
into account.
For
18
O nucleus, the two neutrons outside the full shells can ﬁll the
1d
5/2
, 2s
1/2
and 1d
3/2
levels (see Fig. 2.16). When the two nucleons are
in the same orbit, the antisymmetry of the system’s total wave function
requires T + J = odd. As T = 1, J is even. Then the possible ground and
excited states of
18
O are:
(1d
5/2
)
2
: J = 0
+
, 2
+
, 4
+
, T = 1 ,
(1d
5/2
2s
1/2
) : J = 2
+
, T = 1 ,
(2s
1/2
)
2
: J = 0
+
, T = 1 ,
(1d
3/2
)
2
: J = 0
+
, 2
+
, T = 1 .
Nuclear Physics 315
The three lowlying states of
18
O as given in Fig. 2.19, 0
+
, 2
+
, 4
+
, should
then correspond to the conﬁguration (1d
5/2
)
2
. However, when considering
the energies of the levels, using only the (d
5/2
)
2
conﬁguration does not
agree well with experiment. One must also allow mixing the conﬁgurations
1d
5/1
, 2s
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, which gives fairly good agreement with the experimental
values, as shown in Fig. 2.20.
Fig. 2.20
(b) To calculate the lowest levels of
19
O using the simple shell model
and ignoring interconﬁguration interactions, we consider the last unpaired
neutron. According to Fig. 2.16, it can go to 1d
5/2
, 2s
1/2
, or 1d
3/2
. So the
ground state is
5
2
+
, the ﬁrst excited state
1
2
+
, and the second excited
state
3
2
+
.
If interconﬁguration interactions are taken into account, the three neu
trons outside the full shells can go into the 1d
5/2
and 2s
1/2
orbits to form
the following conﬁgurations:
316 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
[(d
5/2
)
3
]
5/2,m
, [(d
5/2
)
2
s
1/2
]
5/2,m
, [d
5/2
(s
1/2
)
2
0
]
5/2,m
, J
p
=
5
2
+
,
[(d
5/2
)
2
0
s
1/2
]
1/2,m
, J
p
=
1
2
+
,
[(d
5/2
)
3
]
3/2,m
, [(d
5/2
)
2
2
s
1/2
]
3/2,m
, J
p
=
3
2
+
.
Moreover, states with J
p
=
7
+
2
,
9
+
2
are also possible.
(c) In the ﬁctitious case the lowest excited states of
18
O are 0
+
, 2
+
, 4
+
with energies 0, 2, 6
2
3
MeV as shown in Fig. 2.21.
Fig. 2.21
This ﬁctitious energy level structure corresponds to the rotational spec
trum of an eveneven nucleus, for in the latter we have
E
2
E
1
=
J
2
(J
2
+ 1)
J
1
(J
1
+ 1)
=
4(4 + 1)
2(2 + 1)
=
6
2
3
2
.
Taking this assumption as valid, one can deduce the moment of inertia I of
18
O. If this assumption can be applied to
19
O also, and if the moments of
inertia of
19
O,
18
O can be taken to be roughly equal, then one can estimate
the energy levels of
19
O. As E
J
=
2
2I
J(J + 1), we have for
18
O
2
2I
=
E
J
J(J + 1)
=
2
2(2 + 1)
=
1
3
MeV.
Nuclear Physics 317
Assume that I is the same for
19
O. From (b) we see that the three lowest
rotational levels of
19
O correspond to J =
5
2
,
7
2
,
9
2
. Hence
E
5/2
= 0, being the ground state of
19
O,
E
7/2
=
1
3
¸
7
2
7
2
+ 1
−
5
2
5
2
+ 1
= 2
1
3
MeV,
E
9/2
=
1
3
1
4
(9 11 −5 7) = 5
1
3
MeV.
Fig. 2.22
2073
The following nonrelativistic Hamiltonians can be used to describe a
system of nucleons:
H
0
=
¸
i
p
2
i
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
0
r
2
i
,
H
1
= H
0
−
¸
i
β
ˆ
l
i
s
i
,
H
2
= H
1
−
¸
i
1
2
mω
2
(2z
2
i
−x
2
i
−y
2
i
) ,
where ω
0
β ω.
318 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(a) For each Hamiltonian H
0
, H
1
, H
2
, identify the exactly and approx
imately conserved quantities of the system. For the ground state of each
model, give the appropriate quantum numbers for the last ﬁlled single
particle orbital when the number n of identical nucleons is 11, 13 and 15.
(b) What important additional features should be included when the
lowlying states of either spherical or deformed nucleons are to be described?
(c) The known levels of Aluminum 27,
27
13
Al
14
, below 5 MeV are shown
in Fig. 2.23. Which states correspond to the predictions of the spherical
and of the deformed models?
(Princeton)
Fig. 2.23
Solution:
(a) For H
0
the exactly conserved quantities are energy E, orbital angular
momentum L, total spin S, total angular momentum J, and parity.
For H
1
the exactly conserved quantities are E, J and parity, the ap
proximately conserved ones are L and S.
For H
2
the exactly conserved quantities are E, the third component of
the total angular momentum J
z
, and parity, the approximately conserved
ones are J, L, S.
As H
0
is an isotropic harmonic oscillator ﬁeld, E
N
=
N +
3
2
ω. The
lowlying states are as follows (Figs. 2.12 and 2.16):
N = 0 gives the ground state 1s
1/2
.
N = 1 gives the p states, 1p
3/2
and 1p
1/2
which are degenerate.
N = 2 gives 2s and 1d states, 1d
5/2
, 2s
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, which are degenerate.
Nuclear Physics 319
When the number of identical nucleons is n = 11, 13, 15, the last ﬁlled
nucleons all have N = 2.
H
1
can be rewritten as
H
1
= H
0
−
¸
i
β(l
i
s
i
) = H
0
−
¸
i
1
2
β[j
i
(j
i
+ 1) −l
i
(l
i
+ 1) −s
i
(s
i
+ 1)] .
The greater is j
i
, the lower is the energy. For this Hamiltonian, some
of the degeneracy is lost: 1p
3/2
and 1p
1/2
are separated, so are 1d
3/2
and
1d
5/2
. 11 or 13 identical nucleons can ﬁll up to the 1d
5/2
state, while for
n = 15, the last nucleon well go into the 2s
1/2
state.
H
2
can be rewritten as
H
2
= H
1
−
¸
i
1
2
mω
2
r
2
i
(3 cos
2
θ −1) ,
which corresponds to a deformed nucleus. For the Hamiltonain, 1p
3/2
,
1d
3/2
, and 1d
5/2
energy levels are split further:
1d
5/2
level is split into
1
2
+
,
3
2
+
,
5
2
+
,
1d
3/2
level is split into
1
2
+
,
3
2
+
,
1p
3/2
level is split into
1
2
−
,
3
2
−
,
Let the deformation parameter be ε. The order of the split energy levels
well depend on ε. According to the singleparticle model of deformed nuclei,
when ε ≈ 0.3 (such as for
27
Al), the orbit of the last nucleon is
3
2
+
of the 1d
5/2
level if n = 11,
5
2
+
of the 1d
5/2
level if n = 13,
1
2
+
of the 2s
1/2
level if n = 15.
(b) For a spherical nucleus, when considering the ground and low excited
states, pairing eﬀect and interconﬁguration interactions are to be included.
For a deformed nucleus, besides the above, the eﬀect of the deforming ﬁeld
on the singleparticle energy levels as well as the collective vibration and
rotation are to be taken into account also.
(c)
27
Al is a deformed nucleus with ε ≈ 0.3. The conﬁgurations of the
14 neutrons and 13 protons in a spherical nucleus are
n :(1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
2
(1d
5/2
)
6
,
n :(1s
1/2
)
2
(1p
3/2
)
4
(1p
1/2
)
2
(1d
5/2
)
5
.
320 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
The ground state is given by the state of the last unpaired nucleon (1d
5/2
) :
J
p
=
5
2
+
.
If the nucleus is deformed, not only are energy levels like 1p
3/2
, 1d
5/2
,
1d
3/2
split, the levels become more crowded and the order changes. Strictly
speaking, the energy levels of
27
Al are ﬁlled up in the order of singleparticle
energy levels of a deformed nucleus. In addition, there is also collective
motion, which makes the energy levels very complicated. Comparing the
energy levels with theory, we have, corresponding to the levels of a spherical
nucleus of the same J
p
, the levels,
ground state : J
p
=
5
2
+
, E = 0 ,
excited states : J
p
=
1
2
+
, E = 2.463 MeV,
J
p
=
3
2
+
, E = 4.156 MeV;
corresponding to the singleparticle energy levels of a deformed nucleus the
levels
ground state : K
p
=
5
2
+
, E = 0 ,
excited states : K
p
=
1
2
+
, E = 0.452 MeV,
K
p
=
1
2
+
, E = 2.463 MeV,
K
p
=
1
2
−
, E = 3.623 MeV,
K
p
=
3
2
+
, E = 4.196 MeV,
Also, every K
p
corresponds to a collectiverotation energy band of the
nucleus given by
Nuclear Physics 321
E
J
=
2
2I
[J(J + 1) −K(K + 1)] ,
where K =1/2, J = K, K + 1, . . . .
E
J
=
2
2I
¸
J(J + 1) −
3
4
+a −a(−1)
J+1/2
J +
1
2
,
where K =1/2, J = K, K + 1, . . . .
For example, for rotational bands
5
2
+
(0),
7
2
+
(1.613),
9
2
+
(3.425), we
have K =
5
2
,
2
2I
[(K + 1)(K + 2) −K(K + 1)] = 1.613 MeV,
2
2I
[(K + 2)(K + 3) −K(K + 1)] = 3.425 MeV.
giving
2
2I
≈ 0.222 MeV. For rotational bands
1
2
+
(0.452),
3
2
+
(0.944),
5
2
+
(1.790),
7
2
+
(2.719),
9
2
+
(4.027), we have
2
2I
≈ 0.150 MeV, a ≈ −3.175 10
2
.
Similarly for
1
2
−
(3.623),
7
2
−
(3.497) and
3
2
−
(3.042) we have
2
2I
≈ 0.278 MeV, a ≈ 5.092 .
2074
A recent model for collective nuclear states treats them in terms of
interacting bosons. For a series of states that can be described as symmetric
superposition of S and D bosons (i.e. of spins 0 and 2 respectively), what
are the spins of the states having N
d
= 0, 1, 2 and 3 bosons? If the energy
of the S bosons is E
s
and the energy of the D bosons is E
d
, and there is
a residual interaction between pairs of D bosons of constant strength α,
what is the spectrum of the states with N
s
+N
d
= 3 bosons?
(Princeton)
322 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
When N
d
= 0, spin is 0,
N
d
= 1, spin is 2,
N
d
= 2, spin is 4,2,0,
N
d
= 3, spin is 6, 4, 2, 0.
For states of N
s
+N
d
= 3, when
N
d
= 0 : N
s
= 3, E = 3E
s
,
N
d
= 1 : N
s
= 2, E = E
d
+ 2E
s
,
N
d
= 2 : N
s
= 1, E = 2E
d
+E
s
+α,
N
d
= 3 : N
s
= 0, E = 3E
d
+ 3α.
2075
A simpliﬁed model of the complex nuclear interaction is the pairing
force, speciﬁed by a Hamiltonian of the form
H = −g
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
¸
,
in the twoidenticalparticle space for a single j orbit, with the basic states
given by (−1)
j−m
[jm`[j − m`. This interaction has a single outstanding
eigenstate. What is its spin? What is its energy? What are the spins and
energies of the rest of the twoparticle states?
(Princeton)
Solution:
Suppose H is a (j +
1
2
) (j +
1
2
) matrix. The eigenstate can be written
in the form
Nuclear Physics 323
Ψ
N=2
=
j +
1
2
−1/2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
1
:
1
1
¸
,
where the column matrix has rank (j +
1
2
) 1. Then
ˆ
HΨ
N=2
= −g
j +
1
2
Ψ
N=2
.
Thus the energy eigenvalue of Ψ
N=2
is −g
j +
1
2
. As the pairing force
acts on states of J = 0 only, the spin is zero.
As the sum of the energy eigenvalues equals the trace of the
ˆ
H matrix,
−g
j +
1
2
, and H is a negative quantity, all the eigenstates orthogonal to
Ψ
N=2
have energy eigenvalues zero, the corresponding angular momenta
being J = 2, 4, 6 . . . , etc.
5. NUCLEAR DECAYS (2076 2107)
2076
In its original (1911) form the Geiger–Nuttall law expresses the gen
eral relationship between αparticle range (R
α
) and decay constant (λ) in
natural αradioactivity as a linear relation between log λ and log R. Sub
sequently this was modiﬁed to an approximate linear relationship between
log λ and some power of the αparticle energy, E
x
(α).
Explain how this relationship between decay constant and energy is ex
plained quantummechanically. Show also how the known general features
of the atomic nucleus make it possible to explain the extremely rapid de
pendence of λ on E(α). (For example, from E(α) = 5.3 MeV for Po
210
to
E(α) = 7.7 MeV for Po
214
, λ increases by a factor of some 10
10
, from a
halflife of about 140 days to one of 1.6 10
−4
sec.)
(Columbia)
Solution:
αdecay can be considered as the transmission of an αparticle through
the potential barrier of the daughter nucleus. Similar to that shown in
324 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.7, where R is the nuclear radius, r
1
is the point where the Coulomb
repulsive potential V (r) = Zze
2
/r equals the αparticle energy E. Using
a threedimensional potential and neglecting angular momentum, we can
obtain the transmission coeﬃcient T by the W.K.B. method:
T = e
−2G
,
where
G =
1
r
1
R
(2m[E −V [)
1/2
dr ,
with V = zZe
2
/r, E = zZe
2
/r
1
, z = 2, Ze being the charge of the daughter
nucleus. Integration gives
G =
1
(2mzZe
2
r
1
)
1/2
¸
arccos
R
r
1
−
R
r
1
−
R
2
r
2
1
1/2
¸
R
r
1
→0
→
1
(2mzZe
2
r
1
)
1/2
¸
π
2
−
R
r
1
1/2
¸
.
Suppose the αparticle has velocity v
0
in the potential well. Then it collides
with the walls
v
0
R
times per unit time and the probability of decay per unit
time is λ = v
0
T/R. Hence
lnλ = −
√
2mBRπ
E
−
1
2
−
2
π
B
−
1
2
+ ln
v
0
R
,
where B = zZe
2
/R. This is a linear relationship between log λ and E
−1/2
for αemitters of the same radioactive series.
For
84
Po,
log
10
T(
210
Po)
T(
214
Po)
=0.434[lnλ(
214
Po) −lnλ(
210
Po)]
=0.434
√
2mc
2
zZ
e
2
c
1
√
E
210
−
1
√
E
214
=
0.434
√
8 940 2 (84 −2)
137
1
√
5 3
−
1
√
7 7
≈10.
Thus the lifetimes diﬀer by 10 orders of magnitude.
Nuclear Physics 325
2077
The halflife of a radioactive isotope is strongly dependent on the energy
liberated in the decay. The energy dependence of the halflife, however,
follows quite diﬀerent laws for α and βemitters.
(a) Derive the speciﬁc law for αemitters.
(b) Indicate why the law for βemitters is diﬀerent by discussing in detail
the diﬀerence between the two processes.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) For a quantummechanical derivation of the Geiger–Nuttall law for
αdecays see Problem 2076.
(b) Whereas αdecay may be considered as the transmission of an α
particle through a Coulomb potential barrier to exit the daughter nucleus,
βdecay is the result of the disintegration of a neutron in the nucleus into
a proton, which remains in the nucleus, an electron and an antineutrino,
which are emitted. Fermi has obtained the βparticle spectrum using a
method similar to that for γemission. Basically the transition probability
per unit time is given by Fermi’s golden rule No. 2,
ω =
2π
[H
fi
[
2
ρ(E) ,
where E is the decay energy, H
fi
is the transition matrix element and
ρ(E) =
dN
dE
is the number of ﬁnal states per unit energy interval.
For decay energy E, the number of states of the electron in the momen
tum interval p
e
and p
e
+dp
e
is
dN
e
=
V 4πp
2
e
dp
e
(2π)
3
,
where V is the volume of normalization. Similarly for the antineutrino we
have
dN
ν
=
4πp
2
ν
dp
ν
(2π)
3
,
and so dN = dN
e
dN
ν
. However p
e
and p
ν
are not independent. They are
related through E
e
=
p
2
e
c
2
+m
2
e
c
4
, E
ν
= p
ν
c by E = E
e
+ E
ν
. We can
write p
ν
=
E−E
e
c
, and for a given E
e
, dp
ν
=
dE
ν
c
=
dE
c
. Thus
dN
dE
=
dN
e
dN
ν
dE
=
V
2
4π
4
6
c
3
p
max
0
(E −E
e
)
2
p
2
e
dp
e
,
326 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where p
max
corresponds to the endpoint energy of the βparticle spectrum
E
0
≈ E, and hence
λ =
2π
[H
fi
[
2
dN
dE
=
g
2
[M
fi
[
2
2π
3
7
c
3
p
max
0
(E −
p
2
e
c
2
+m
2
e
c
4
)
2
p
2
e
dp
e
,
where M
fi
=
V H
fi
g
and g is the coupling constant.
In terms of the kinetic energy T, as
E
e
= T +m
e
c
2
=
p
2
e
c
2
+m
2
e
c
4
, E = T
0
+m
e
c
2
,
the above integral can be written in the form
T
0
0
(T +m
e
c
2
)(T
2
+ 2m
e
c
2
T)
1
2
(T
0
−T)
2
dT .
This shows that for βdecays
λ ∼ T
5
0
,
which is the basis of the Sargent curve.
This relation is quite diﬀerent from that for αdecays,
λ ∼ exp
−
c
√
E
,
where E is the decay energy and C is a constant.
2078
Natural gold
197
79
Au is radioactive since it is unstable against αdecay
with an energy of 3.3 MeV. Estimate the lifetime of
197
79
Au to explain why
gold does not burn a hole in your pocket.
(Princeton)
Solution:
The Geiger–Nuttall law
log
10
λ = C −DE
−1/2
α
,
Nuclear Physics 327
where C, D are constants depending on Z, which can be calculated using
quantum theory, E
α
is the αparticle energy, can be used to estimate the
lifetime of
197
Au. For a rough estimate, use the values of C, D for Pb,
C ≈ 52, D ≈ 140 (MeV)
1
2
. Thus
λ ≈ 10
(52−140E
−1/2
)
≈ 10
−25
s
−1
and so
T
1/2
=
1
λ
ln2 ≈ 6.9 10
24
s ≈ 2.2 10
17
yr .
Thus the number of decays in a human’s lifetime is too small to worry
about.
2079
The halflife of
239
Pu has been determined by immersing a sphere of
239
Pu of mass 120.1 gm in liquid nitrogen of a volume enough to stop
all αparticles and measuring the rate of evaporation of the liquid. The
evaporation rate corresponded to a power of 0.231 W. Calculate, to the
nearest hundred years, the halflife of
239
Pu, given that the energy of its
decay alphaparticles is 5.144 MeV. (Take into account the recoil energy of
the product nucleus.) Given conversion factors:
1 MeV = 1.60206 10
−13
joule ,
1 atomic mass unit = 1.66 10
−24
gm.
(SUNY, Buﬀalo)
Solution:
The decay takes place according to
239
Pu →α +
235
U.
The recoil energy of
235
U is
E
u
=
p
2
u
2M
u
=
p
2
α
2M
u
=
2M
α
E
α
2M
u
=
4
235
E
α
.
The energy released per αdecay is
E = E
u
+E
α
=
239
235
E
α
= 5.232 MeV.
328 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
The decay rate is
dN
dt
=
0.231
5.232 1.60206 10
−13
= 2.756 10
11
s
−1
.
The number of
239
Pu is
N =
120.1 5.61 10
26
239 939
= 3.002 10
23
.
The halflife is
T
1/2
=
ln2
λ
=
N ln 2
dN
dt
=
3.002 10
23
ln2
2.756 10
11
= 7.5510
11
s = 2.3910
4
yr .
2080
8
Li is an example of a βdelayed particle emitter. The
8
Li ground state
has a halflife of 0.85 s and decays to the 2.9 MeV level in Be as shown
in Fig. 2.24. The 2.9 MeV level then decays into 2 alphaparticles with a
halflife of 10
−22
s.
Fig. 2.24
(a) What is the parity of the 2.9 MeV level in
8
Be? Give your reasoning.
(b) Why is the halflife of the
8
Be 2.9 MeV level so much smaller than
the half life of the
8
Li ground state?
(c) Where in energy, with respect to the
8
Be ground state, would you
expect the threshold for
7
Li neutron capture? Why?
(Wisconsin)
Nuclear Physics 329
Solution:
(a) The spinparity of αparticle is J
p
= 0
+
. In
8
Be → α + α, as
the decay ﬁnal state is that of two identical bosons, the wave function is
required to be exchangesymmetric. This means that the relative orbital
quantum number l of the αparticles is even, and so the parity of the ﬁnal
state of the two αparticle system is
π
f
= (+1)
2
(−1)
l
= +1 .
As the αdecay is a stronginteraction process, (extremely short halflife),
parity is conserved. Hence the parity of the 2.9 MeV excited state of
8
Be
is positive.
(b) The βdecay of the
8
Li ground state is a weakinteraction process.
However, the αdecay of the 2.9 MeV excited state of
8
Be is a strong
interaction process with a low Coulomb barrier. The diﬀerence in the two
interaction intensities leads to the vast diﬀerence in the lifetimes.
(c) The threshold energy for
7
Li neutron capture is higher than the
8
Be
ground state by
M(
7
Li) +m(n) −M(
8
Be) =M(
7
Li) +m(n) −M(
8
Li)
+M(
8
Li) −M(
8
Be) = S
n
(
8
Li) + 16 MeV.
where S
n
(
8
Li) is the energy of dissociation of
8
Li into
7
Li and a neutron. As
S
n
(
8
Li) =M(
7
Li) +M
n
(n) −M(
8
Li) = 7.018223 + 1.00892 −8.025018
=0.002187 amu = 2.0 MeV,
the threshold of neutron capture by
7
Li is about 18 MeV higher than the
ground state of
8
Be. Note that as
8
Li is outside the stability curve against
βdecay, the energy required for removal of a neutron from it in rather small.
2081
The following atomic masses have been determined (in amu):
(1)
7
3
Li 7.0182
7
4
Be 7.0192
330 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(2)
13
6
C 13.0076
13
7
N 13.0100
(3)
19
9
F 19.0045
19
10
Ne 19.0080
(4)
34
15
P 33.9983
34
16
S 33.9978
(5)
35
16
S 34.9791
35
17
Cl 34.9789
Remembering that the mass of the electron is 0.00055 amu, indicate
which nuclide of each pair is unstable, its mode(s) of decay, and the ap
proximate energy released in the disintegration. Derive the conditions for
stability which you used.
(Columbia)
Solution:
As for each pair of isobars the atomic numbers diﬀer by one, only β
decay or orbital electron capture is possible between them.
Consider βdecay. Let M
x
, M
y
, m
e
represent the masses of the original
nucleus, the daughter nucleus, and the electron respectively. Then the
energy release in the βdecay is E
d
(β
−
) = [M
x
(Z, A)−M
y
(Z+1, A)−m
e
]c
2
.
Expressing this relation in amu and neglecting the variation of the binding
energy of the electrons in diﬀerent atoms and shells, we have
E
d
(β
−
) =[M
x
(Z, A) −Zm
e
−M
y
(Z + 1, A) + (Z + 1)m
e
−m
e
]c
2
=[M
x
(Z, A) −M
y
(Z + 1, A)]c
2
,
where M indicates atomic mass. Thus βdecay can take place only if M
x
>
M
y
. Similarly for β
+
decay, we have
E
d
(β
+
) = [M
x
(Z, A) −M
y
(Z −1, A) −2m
e
]c
2
,
and so β
+
decay can take place only if M
x
− M
y
> 2m
e
= 0.0011 amu.
In the same way we have for orbital electron capture (usually from the K
shell)
E
d
(i) = [M
x
(Z, A) −M
y
(Z −1, A)]c
2
−W
i
.
where W
i
is the binding energy of an electron in the ith shell, ∼ 10 eV or
1.1 10
−8
amu for Kshell, and so we require M
x
−M
y
> W
i
/c
2
Nuclear Physics 331
Let ∆ = M(Z + 1, A) −M(Z, A).
Pair (1), ∆ = 0.001 amu < 0.0011 amu,
7
4
Be is unstable against K
electron capture.
Pair (2), ∆ = 0.0024 amu > 0.0011 amu,
13
7
N is unstable against βdecay
and Kelectron capture.
Pair (3), ∆ = 0.0035 amu > 0.0011 amu,
19
10
Ne is unstable against β
+

decay and Kelectron capture.
Pair (4), ∆ = −0.0005 amu,
34
15
P is unstable against β
−
decay.
Pair (5), ∆ = −0.0002 amu,
35
16
S is unstable against β
−
decay.
2082
34
Cl positrondecays to
34
S. Plot a spectrum of the number of positrons
emitted with momentum p as a function of p. If the diﬀerence in the masses
of the neutral atoms of
34
Cl and
34
S is 5.52 MeV/c
2
, what is the maximum
positron energy?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
34
Cl decays according to
34
Cl →
34
S +e
+
+ν .
The process is similar to β
−
decay and the same theory applies. The num
ber of decays per unit time that emit a positron of momentum between p
and p +dp is (Problem 2077(b))
I(p)dp =
g
2
[M
fi
[
2
2π
3
7
c
3
(E
m
−E)
2
p
2
dp ,
where E
m
is the endpoint (total) energy of the β
+
spectrum. Thus I(p)
is proportional to (E
m
− E)
2
p
2
, as shown in Fig. 2.25. The maximum
β
+
particle energy is
E
max β
+ =[M(
34
Cl) −M(
34
S) −2m
e
]c
2
= 5.52 MeV−1.022 MeV
=4.50 MeV.
332 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.25
2083
Both
161
Ho and
163
Ho decay by allowed electron capture to Dy isotopes,
but the Q
EC
values are about 850 keV and about 2.5 keV respectively.
(Q
EC
is the mass diﬀerence between the ﬁnal ground state of nucleus plus
atomic electrons and the initial ground state of nucleus plus atomic elec
trons.) The Dy orbital electron binding energies are listed in the table
bellow. The capture rate for 3p
1/2
electrons in
161
Ho is about 5% of the
3s capture rate. Calculate the 3p
1/2
to 3s relative capture rate in
161
Ho.
How much do the 3p
1/2
and 3s capture rates change for both
161
Ho and
163
Ho if the Q
EC
values remain the same, but the neutrino, instead of being
massless, is assumed to have a mass of 50 eV?
Orbital Binding Energy (keV)
1s 54
2s 9
2p
1/2
8.6
3s 2.0
3p
1/2
1.8
(Princeton)
Solution:
As
161
Ho and
163
Ho have the same nuclear charge Z, their orbital
electron wave functions are the same, their 3s and 3p
1/2
waves diﬀering
Nuclear Physics 333
only in phase. So the transition matrix elements for electron capture are
also the same.
The decay constant is given by
λ ≈ A[M
if
[
2
ρ(E) ,
where M
if
is the transition matrix element, ρ(E) is the density of states,
and A is a constant. For electron capture, the nucleus emits only a neutrino,
and so the process is a twobody one. We have
ρ(E) ∝ E
2
ν
≈ (Q
EC
−B)
2
,
where B is the binding energy of an electron in s or p state. As
λ(3p
1/2
)
λ(3s)
=
[M(3p
1/2
)[
2
(Q
EC
−B
p
)
2
[M(3s)[
2
(Q
EC
−B
s
)
2
= 0.05,
[M(3p
1/2
)
2
[M(3s)[
2
= 0.05
850 −2.0
850 −1.8
2
= 0.04998 .
Hence for
163
Ho,
λ(3p
1/2
)
λ(3s)
=
[M(3p
1/2
)[
2
(Q
EC
−B
p
)
2
[M(3s)[
2
(Q
EC
−B
s
)
2
= 0.04998
2.5 −1.8
2.5 −2.0
2
≈ 9.8%.
If m
ν
= 50 eV, then, as E
2
ν
= p
2
ν
+ m
2
ν
, the phasespace factor in P(E)
changes:
p
2
ν
dp
ν
dE
ν
= (E
2
ν
−m
2
ν
)
E
ν
p
ν
= E
ν
E
2
ν
−m
2
ν
≈ E
2
ν
1 −
m
2
ν
2E
2
ν
.
Hence the decay constant for every channel for
161
Ho and
163
Ho changes
from λ
0
to λ:
λ ≈ λ
0
1 −
1
2
m
2
ν
E
2
ν
,
or
λ
0
−λ
λ
0
≈
1
2
m
2
ν
E
2
ν
.
334 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Thus for
161
Ho, 3s state:
λ
0
−λ
λ
0
=
1
2
50
2
848
2
10
6
= 1.74 10
−9
,
3p
1/2
state:
λ
0
−λ
λ
0
=
1
2
50
2
848.2
2
10
6
= 1.74 10
−9
;
for
163
Ho, 3s state:
λ
0
−λ
λ
0
=
1
2
50
2
0.5 10
6
= 5 10
−3
,
3p
1/2
state:
λ
0
−λ
λ
0
=
1
2
50
2
0.7
2
10
6
= 2.25 10
−3
.
2084
An element of low atomic number Z can undergo allowed positron β
decay. Let p
0
be the maximum possible momentum of the positron, suppos
ing p
0
< mc (m =positron mass); and let Γ
β
be the betadecay rate. An
alternative process is Kcapture, the nucleus capturing a Kshell electron
and undergoing the same nuclear transition with emission of a neutrino.
Let Γ
K
be the decay rate for this process. Compute the ratio Γ
K
/Γ
β
. You
can treat the wave function of the Kshell electron as hydrogenic, and can
ignore the electron binding energy.
(Princeton)
Solution:
The quantum perturbation theory gives the probability of a β
+
decay
per unit time with decay energy E as
ω =
2π
ψ
∗
f
Hψ
i
dτ
2
dn
dE
,
where ψ
i
is the initial wave function, ψ
f
is the ﬁnal wave function and
dn
dE
is the number of ﬁnal states per unit interval of E. As the ﬁnal state has
Nuclear Physics 335
three particles (nucleus, β
+
and ν), ψ
f
= u
f
φ
β
φ
ν
(assuming no interaction
among the ﬁnal particles or, if there is, the interaction is very weak), where
u
f
is the wave function of the ﬁnal nucleus, φ
β
, φ
ν
are respectively the wave
functions of the positron and neutrino.
In Fermi’s theory of βdecay, H is taken to be a constant. Let it be
g. Furthermore, the β
+
particle and neutrino are considered free particles
and represented by plane waves:
φ
∗
β
=
1
√
V
e
−ik
β
·r
, φ
∗
ν
=
1
√
V
e
−ik
ν
·r
,
where V is the volume of normalization, k
β
and k
ν
are respectively the
wave vectors of the β
+
particle and neutrino. Let
ψ
i
u
∗
f
e
−i(k
β
+k
ν
)·r
dτ = M
fi
.
The ﬁnal state is a threeparticle state, and so dn is the product of the
numbers of state of the ﬁnal nucleus, the β
+
particle and neutrino. For
β
+
decay, the number of states of the ﬁnal nucleus is 1, while the number
of states of β
+
particle with momentum between p and p +dp is
dn
β
=
4πp
2
dp
(2π)
3
V ,
and that of the neutrino is
dn
ν
=
4πp
2
ν
dp
ν
(2π)
3
V .
Hence
dn
dE
=
dn
β
dn
ν
dE
=
p
2
p
2
ν
dpdp
ν
4π
4
6
dE
V
2
.
The sum of the β
+
particle and neutrino energies equals the decay en
ergy E (neglecting nuclear recoil):
E
e
+E
ν
≈ E,
and so for a given positron energy E
e
, dE
ν
= dE. Then as the rest mass
of neutrino is zero or very small, E
ν
= cp
ν
, and
p
ν
= (E −E
e
)/c, dp
ν
=
dE
c
.
336 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Therefore
dn
dE
=
(E −E
e
)
2
p
2
dp
4π
4
6
c
3
V
2
.
On writing
ω =
I(p)dp ,
the above gives
I(p)dp =
g
2
[M
fi
[
2
2π
3
7
c
3
(E −E
e
)
2
p
2
dp .
The β
+
decay rate Γ
β
is
Γ
β
=
p
0
0
I(p)dp = B
p
0
0
(E −E
e
)
2
p
2
dp
where
B =
g
2
[M
fi
[
2
2π
3
7
c
3
and p
0
is the maximum momentum of the positron, corresponding to a
maximum kinetic energy E
0
≈ E. As E
0
< m
e
c
2
, and so E
0
=
p
2
0
2m
e
,
E
e
≈
p
2
2m
e
, we have
Γ
β
= B
p
0
0
1
(2m
e
)
2
(p
4
0
+p
4
−2p
2
0
p
2
)p
2
dp
=
Bp
7
0
4m
2
e
1
3
+
1
7
−
2
5
≈ 1.9 10
−2
Bp
7
0
m
2
e
.
In Kcapture, the ﬁnal state is a twobody system, and so monoenergetic
neutrinos are emitted. Consider
Γ
K
=
2π
ψ
∗
f
Hψ
i
dτ
2
dn
dE
.
The ﬁnal state wave function ψ
∗
f
is the product of the daughter nucleus
wave function u
∗
f
and the neutrino wave function φ
∗
ν
. The neutrino can be
considered a free particle and its wave a plane wave
φ
∗
ν
=
1
√
V
e
−ik
ν
·r
.
Nuclear Physics 337
The initial wave function can be taken to be approximately the product of
the wave functions of the parent nucleus and Kshell electron:
φ
K
=
1
√
π
Zm
e
e
2
2
3/2
e
−Zm
e
e
2
r/
2
.
Then as
ψ
∗
f
Hψ
i
dτ
=
g
√
V π
Zm
e
e
2
2
3
2
u
∗
f
u
i
e
−ik
ν
·r
e
−
Zm
e
e
2
2
r
dτ
≈
g
√
V π
Zm
e
e
2
2
3/2
[M
fi
[,
dn
dE
=
4πV p
2
ν
dp
ν
(2π)
3
dE
=
4πV
(2π)
3
E
2
ν
c
3
,
taking E
ν
≈ E and neglecting nuclear recoil, we have
Γ
K
=
m
3
e
g
2
[M
fi
[
2
π
2
7
e
3
Ze
2
3
E
2
ν
= 2πm
3
e
B
Ze
2
3
E
2
ν
.
Ignoring the electron binding energy, we can take E
ν
≈ E
0
+ 2m
e
c
2
≈
2m
e
c
2
, and hence
Γ
K
Γ
β
=
8πZ
3
1.9 10
−2
e
2
c
3
m
e
c
p
0
7
= 5.1 10
−4
Z
3
m
e
c
p
0
7
.
Thus
Γ
k
Γ
β
∝
1
p
7
0
. It increases rapidly with decreasing p
0
.
2085
Tritium, the isotope
3
H, undergoes betadecay with a halflife of 12.5
years. An enriched sample of hydrogen gas containing 0.1 gram of tritium
produces 21 calories of heat per hour.
(a) For these data calculate the average energy of the βparticles emit
ted.
(b) What speciﬁc measurements on the beta spectrum (including the
decay nucleus) indicate that there is an additional decay product and specif
ically that it is light and neutral.
338 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(c) Give a critical, quantitative analysis of how a careful measurement
of the beta spectrum of tritium can be used to determine (or put an upper
limit on) the mass of the electron’s neutrino.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) The decay constant is
λ =
ln2
T1
2
=
ln2
12.5 365 24
= 6.33 10
−6
hr
−1
.
Hence
−
dN
dt
= λN =
0.1 6.023 10
23
3
6.33 10
−6
= 1.27 10
17
decay per hour and the average energy of the βparticles is
¯
E =
21 4.18
1.27 10
17
= 6.91 10
−16
J = 4.3 keV.
(b) Both α and βdecays represent transitions between two states of
deﬁnite energies. However, the former is a twobody decay (daughter nu
cleus +αparticle) and the conservation laws of energy and momentum
require the αparticles to be emitted monoenergetic, whereas βtransition
is a threebody decay (daughter nucleus + electron or position + neutrino)
and so the electrons emitted have a continuous energy distribution with
a deﬁnite maximum approximately equal to the transition energy. Thus
the αspectrum consists of a vertical line (or peak) while the βspectrum
is continuous from zero to a deﬁnite endpoint energy. Thus a measure
ment of the β spectrum indicates the emission of a third, neutral particle.
Conservation of energy indicates that it is very light.
(c) Pauli suggested that βdecay takes place according to
A
Z
X →
A
Z+1
Y +β
−
+ ¯ ν
e
.
As shown in Fig. 2.25, β
−
has a continuous energy spectrum with a maxi
mum energy E
m
. When the kinetic energy of ¯ ν
e
trends to zero, the energy
of β
−
trends to E
m
. Energy conservation requires
M(
A
Z
X) = M(
A
Z+1
Y ) +
E
m
c
2
+m
ν
,
Nuclear Physics 339
or, for the process under consideration,
m
ν
= M(
3
1
H) −M(
3
2
He) −E
m
/c
2
.
If E
m
is precisely measured, the neutrino mass can be calculated. It has
been found to be so small that only an upper limit can be given.
2086
(a) Describe brieﬂy the energy spectra of alpha and betaparticles emit
ted by radioactive nuclei. Emphasize the diﬀerences and qualitatively ex
plain the reasons for them.
(b) Draw a schematic diagram of an instrument which can measure
one of these spectra. Give numerical estimates of essential parameters and
explain how they are chosen.
(UC, Berkeley)
Fig. 2.26
Solution:
(a) αparticles from a radioactive nuclide are monoenergetic; the spec
trum consists of vertical lines. βparticles have a continuous energy spec
trum with a deﬁnite endpoint energy. This is because emission of a β
particle is accompanied by a neutrino which takes away some decay energy.
(b) Figure 2.26 is a schematic sketch of a semiconductor αspectrometer.
The energy of an αparticle emitted in αdecay is several MeV in most
cases, so a thinwindow, goldsilicon surfacebarrier semiconductor detec
tor is used which has an energy resolution of about 1 percent at room
temperature. As the αparticle energy is rather low, a thick, sensitive layer
340 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
is not needed and a bias voltage from several tens to 100 V is suﬃcient.
For good measurements the multichannel analyzer should have more than
1024 channels, using about 10 channels for the full width at half maximum
of a peak.
2087
The two lowest states of scandium42,
42
21
Sc
21
, are known to have spins
0
+
and 7
+
. They respectively undergo positrondecay to the ﬁrst 0
+
and 6
+
states of calcium42,
42
20
Ca
22
, with the positron reduced halflives (ft)
0
+ =
3.2 10
3
seconds, (ft)
7
+ = 1.6 10
4
seconds. No positron decay has been
detected to the 0
+
state at 1.84 MeV. (See Fig. 2.27.)
Fig. 2.27
(a) The two states of
42
Sc can be simply accounted for by assuming two
valence nucleons with the conﬁguration (f
7/2
)
2
. Determine which of the
indicated states of
42
Ca are compatible with this conﬁguration. Brieﬂy out
line your reasoning. Assuming charge independence, assign isospin quan
tum numbers [T, T
Z
` for all (f
7/2
)
2
states. Classify the nature of the two
betatransitions and explain your reasoning.
(b) With suitable wave functions for the [J, M
J
` = [7, 7` state of
scandium42 and the [6, 6` state of calcium42, calculate the ratio (ft)
7
+/
(ft)
0
+ expected for the two positrondecays.
For j = l +
1
2
:
ˆ
S
−
[j, j` =
1
(2j)
1/2
[j, j −1` +
2j −1
2j
1/2
[j −1, j −1` ,
Nuclear Physics 341
ˆ
S
z
[j, j` =
1
2
[j, j` ,
G
v
= 1.4 10
−49
ergcm
3
,
G
A
= 1.6 10
−49
ergcm
3
.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) For
42
S, T
z
=
1
2
(Z − N) = 0. As the angular momenta of the two
nucleons are 7/2 each and the isospins are 1/2 each, vector addition gives
for the nuclear spin an integer from 0 to 7, and for the nuclear isospin
0 or 1. The generalized Pauli’s principle requires the total wave function
to be antisymmetric, and so J + T = odd. Hence the states compatible
with the conﬁguration (f
7/2
)
2
are J = 0
+
, 2
+
, 4
+
, 6
+
when T = 1, and
J = 1
+
, 3
+
, 5
+
, 7
+
when T = 0.
The transition 7
+
→6
+
is a Gamow–Teller transition as for such tran
sitions ∆J = 0 or 1 (J
i
= 0 to J
f
= 0 is forbidden), ∆T = 0 or 1, π
i
= π
f
.
The transition 0
+
→ 0
+
is a Fermi transition as for such transitions
∆J = 0, ∆T = 0, π
i
= π
f
.
(b) The probability per unit time of βtransition is Γ(β) ∝ G
2
v
'M
F
`
2
+
G
2
A
'M
GT
`
2
, where 'M
F
`
2
and 'M
GT
`
2
are the squares of the spinaveraged
weak interaction matrix elements:
'M
F
`
2
=
1
2J
i
+ 1
¸
M
i
,M
f
'J
f
M
f
T
f
T
fz
[1
A
¸
k=1
t
±
(k)[J
i
M
i
T
i
T
iz
`
2
= 'J
f
MT
f
T
fz
[1
A
¸
k=1
t
±
(k)[J
i
MT
i
T
iz
`
2
,
'M
GT
`
2
=
1
2J
i
+ 1
¸
m,M
i
,M
f
['J
f
M
f
T
f
T
fz
[
A
¸
k=1
σ
m
(k)t
±
(k)[J
i
M
i
T
i
T
iz
`[
2
,
where m takes the values +1, 0, −1, for which
σ
+1
= σ
x
+iσ
y
, σ
0
= σ
z
, σ
−1
= σ
x
−iσ
y
.
Then the halflife is
ft =
K
G
2
v
'M
F
`
2
+G
2
A
'M
GT
`
2
,
342 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where K = 2π
3
7
ln2/m
5
c
4
, a constant. Hence
ft(7
+
→6
+
)
ft(0
+
→0
+
)
=
G
2
v
'M
F
`
2
0
+
G
2
A
'M
GT
`
2
7
+
.
Consider
'M
F
` ='JMTT
fz
[1
A
¸
k=1
t
±
(k)[JMTT
iz
` = 'JMTT
fz
[T
±
[JMTT
iz
`
=
T(T + 1) −T
iz
T
fz
,
replacing the sum of the z components of the isospins of the nucleons by
the zcomponent of the total isospin. Taking T = 1, T
iz
= 0, we have
'M
F
`
2
= 2 .
Consider
'M
GT
`
2
=
¸
m
['6, 6, 1, −1[¦σ
m
(1)t
±
(1) +σ
m
(2)t
±
(2)¦[7, 7, 1, 0`[
2
,
where only the two nucleons outside full shells, which are identical, are
taken into account. Then
'M
GT
`
2
= 4
¸
m
['6, 6, 1, −1[σ
m
(1)t
±
(1)[7, 7, 1, 0`[
2
.
Writing the wave functions as combinations of nucleon wave functions:
[7, 7` =
7
2
,
7
2
;
7
2
,
7
2
,
[7, 6` =
1
√
2
7
2
,
6
2
;
7
2
,
7
2
+
7
2
,
7
2
;
7
2
,
6
2
,
[6, 6` =
1
√
2
7
2
,
6
2
;
7
2
,
7
2
−
7
2
,
7
2
;
7
2
,
6
2
,
we have
'M
GT
`
2
= 4
7
2
,
6
2
;
7
2
,
7
2
, ; 1, −1
σ
−
(1)t
±
(1)
2
7
2
,
7
2
;
7
2
,
7
2
; 1, 0
2
= 2 .
Nuclear Physics 343
Thus
(ft)
7
+
(ft)
0
+
=
G
2
v
G
2
A
≈
1.4
1.6
2
≈ 0.77 .
2088
The stillundetected isotope copper57 (
57
29
Cu
28
) is expected to decay by
positron emission to nickel57 (
57
28
Ni
29
).
(a) Suggest shellmodel spinparity assignments for the ground and ﬁrst
excited states of these nuclei.
(b) Estimate the positron endpoint energy for decay from the ground
state of copper57 to the ground state of nickel57. Estimate the halflife
for this decay (order of magnitude).
(c) Discuss what one means by Fermi and by Gamow–Teller contri
butions to allowed βdecays, and indicate the corresponding spinparity
selection rules. For the above decay process, estimate the ratio Γ
F
/Γ
GT
of
the two contributions to the decay rate. Does one expect appreciable β
+

decay from the copper57 ground state to the ﬁrst excited state of nickel57?
Explain.
(d) Nickel58 occurs naturally. Brieﬂy sketch an experimental arrange
ment for study of copper57 positrondecay.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a)
57
Cu and
57
Ni are mirror nuclei with the same energylevel structure
of a single nucleon outside of doublefull shells. The valence nucleon is
proton for
57
Cu and neutron for
57
Ni, the two nuclei having the same
features of ground and ﬁrst excited states.
For the ground state, the last nucleon is in state 2p
3/2
(Fig. 2.11), and
so J
π
= (
3
2
)
−
; for the ﬁrst excited state, the nucleon is in state 1f
5/2
, and
so J
π
= (
5
2
)
−
(E
1
= 0.76 MeV).
(b) As
57
Cu and
57
Ni are mirror nuclei, their mass diﬀerence is (Prob
lem 2067(c))
∆E = M(Z + 1, A)c
2
−M(Z, A)c
2
=
3e
2
5R
[(Z + 1)
2
−Z
2
] −(m
n
−M
H
)c
2
344 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
=
3c
5R
e
2
c
(2Z + 1) −(m
n
−M
H
)c
2
=
3 197 (2 28 + 1)
5 1.2 57
1/3
137
−0.78
= 9.87 MeV.
Thus the ground state of
57
Cu is 9.87 MeV higher than that of
57
Ni. The
positron endpoint energy for decay from the ground state of
57
Cu to that
of
57
Ni is
E
0
= ∆E −2m
e
c
2
≈ 9.87 −1.02 ≈ 8.85 MeV.
As the β
+
decay is from (
3
2
)
−
to (
3
2
)
−
, ∆J = 0, ∆π = +, ∆T = 0,
∆T
z
= −1, the decay is of a superallowed type. To simplify calculation
take F(Z, E) = 1. Then (Problem 2084)
λ
β
≈
p
0
0
I(p)dp ≈ B
E
0
0
(E
0
−E)
2
E
2
dE
= BE
5
0
1
3
+
1
5
−
1
2
=
1
30
BE
5
0
,
where
B =
g
2
[M
fi
[
2
2π
3
c
6
7
= 3.36 10
−3
MeV
−5
s
−1
,
with [M
fi
[
2
≈ 1, g = 8.95 10
−44
MeV cm
3
(experimental value). Hence
τ
1/2
= ln2/λ =
30 ln2
BE
5
0
= 0.114 s .
(c) In β
+
decay between mirror nuclei ground states
3
−
2
→
3
−
2
, as the
nuclear structures of the initial and ﬁnal states are similar, the transition
is of a superallowed type. Such transitions can be classiﬁed into Fermi and
Gamow–Teller types. For the Fermi type, the selection rules are ∆J = 0,
∆π = +, the emitted neutrino and electron have antiparallel spins. For
the Gamow–Teller type, the selection rules are ∆J = 0, ±1, ∆π = +, the
emitted neutrino and electron have parallel spins.
For transition
3
−
2
→
3
−
2
of the Fermi type,
[M
F
[
2
= T(T + 1) −T
iz
T
fz
=
1
2
1
2
+ 1
+
1
2
1
2
= 1 .
Nuclear Physics 345
For transition
3
−
2
→
3
−
2
of the Gamow–Teller type,
[M
GT
[
2
=
J
f
+ 1
J
f
=
3/2 + 1
3/2
=
5
3
.
The coupling constants for the two types are related roughly by [g
GT
[ ≈
1.24[g
F
[. So the ratio of the transition probabilities is
λ
F
λ
GT
=
g
2
F
[M
F
[
2
g
2
GT
[M
GT
[
2
=
1
1.24
2
5/3
= 0.39 .
The transition from
57
Cu to the ﬁrst excited state of
57
Ni is a normal
allowed transition because ∆J = 1, ∆π = +. As the initial and ﬁnal states
are 2p
3/2
and 1f
5/2
, and so the diﬀerence in nuclear structure is greater,
the fT of this transition is larger than that of the superallowed one by
2 to 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, there is the space phase factor
8.85−0.76
8.85
5
= 0.64. Hence the branching ratio is very small, rendering
such a transition diﬃcult to detect.
(d) When we bombard
58
Ni target with protons, the following reaction
may occur:
58
Ni +p →
57
Cu + 2n
As the massexcess ∆ = (M −A) values (in MeV) are
∆(n) ≈ 8.071, ∆(
1
H) = 7.289 ,
∆(
58
Ni) = −60.235, ∆(
57
Cu) ≈ −46.234 .
We have
Q =∆(
58
Ni) + ∆(
1
H) −∆(
57
Cu) −2∆(n)
= −60.235 + 7.289 + 46.234 −2 8.071 = −22.854 MeV.
Hence the reaction is endoergic and protons of suﬃcient energy are
needed. The neutrons can be used to monitor the formation of
57
Cu, and
measuring the delay in β
+
emission relative to n emission provides a means
to study β
+
decay of
57
Cu.
2089
Suppose a search for solar neutrinos is to be mounted using a large sam
ple of lithium enriched in the isotope
7
3
Li. Detection depends on production,
346 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
separation and detection of the electroncapturing isotope
7
4
Be with a half
life of 53 days. The low lying levels of these two nuclei are shown below in
Fig. 2.28. The atomic mass of
7
4
Be in its ground state lies 0.86 MeV above
the atomic mass of
7
3
Li in its ground state.
Fig. 2.28
(a) Discuss the electroncapture modes of the ground state of beryllium
7 by providing estimates for the branching ratios and relative decay prob
abilities (ft ratios).
(b) To calibrate this detector, a point source emitting 10
17
monochro
matic neutrinos/sec with energy 1.5 MeV is placed in the center of a one
metric ton sphere of lithium7. Estimate the total equilibrium disintegra
tion rate of the beryllium7, given
G
V
= 1.42 10
−49
erg cm
3
,
G
A
= 1.60 10
−49
erg cm
3
,
ρ
Li
= 0.53 gm/cm
3
.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) Two modes of electron capture are possible:
3
−
2
−
→
3
2
−
: ∆J = 0, ∆P = +,
Nuclear Physics 347
which is a combination of F and GT type transitions;
3
2
−
→
1
2
−
: ∆J = 1, ∆P = +,
which is a pure GT type transition.
7
3
Li and
7
4
Be are mirror nuclei with T =
1
2
, and T
z
=
1
2
and −
1
2
respec
tively.
For the Ftype transition
3
2
−
→
3
2
−
the initial and ﬁnal wave func
tions are similar and so
'M
F
`
2
= T(T + 1) −T
zi
T
zf
=
1
2
3
2
+
1
2
1
2
=
3
4
+
1
4
= 1 .
For the GTtype transition
3
−
2
→
3
−
2
, the singleparticle model gives
'M
G−T
`
2
=
J
f
+ 1
J
f
=
3/2 + 1
3/2
=
5
3
.
For the GTtype transition
3
2
−
→
1
2
−
, the transition is form l +
1
2
to
l −
1
2
with l = 1, and the singleparticle model gives
'M
G−T
`
2
=
4l
2l + 1
=
4
3
.
As λ
K
(M
2
, W
ν
) = [M[
2
W
2
ν
, where W
ν
is the decay energy,
λ
K
3
−
2
→
3
−
2
λ
K
3
−
2
→
1
−
2
=
'M
G−T
`
2
3/2
+
G
2
V
G
2
A
'M
F
`
2
'M
G−T
`
2
1/2
W
2
ν
1
W
2
ν
2
=
5
3
+
1.42
1.60
2
4
3
0.86
0.86 −0.48
2
=
(5 + 0.79 3) 0.86
2
4 (0.86 −0.48)
2
= 9.43 .
Hence the branching ratios are B(
3
−
2
→
3
−
2
) =
9.43
10.43
= 90.4%,
B
3
−
2
→
1
−
2
=
1
10.43
= 9.6%.
348 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
The fT ratio of the two transitions is
(fT)
3/2
−
(fT)
1/2
−
=
'M
G−T
`
2
1/2
'M
G−T
`
2
3/2
+
G
2
V
G
2
A
'M
F
`
2
=
4
3 0.79 + 5
= 0.543 .
(b) When irradiating
7
Li with neutrinos,
7
Li captures neutrino and
becomes
7
Be. On the other hand,
7
Be undergoes decay to
7
Li. Let the
number of
7
Be formed per unit time in the irradiation be ∆N
1
. Consider
a shell of
7
Li of radius r and thickness dr. It contains
4πr
2
ρndr
A
7
Li nuclei, where n =Avogadro’s number, A =mass number of
7
Li. The
neutrino ﬂux at r is
I
0
4πr
2
. If σ =cross section for electroncapture by
7
Li,
a =activity ratio of
7
Li for forming
7
Be, R =radius of the sphere of
7
Li,
the number of
7
Be nuclei produced per unit time is
∆N
1
=
I
0
4πr
2
ρnσa 4πr
2
dr/A = I
0
ρnσaR/A.
With a = 0.925, ρ = 0.53 g cm
−3
, A = 7, n = 6.023 10
23
, R =
3×10
6
4πρ
1
3
= 76.7 cm, I
0
= 10
17
s
−1
, σ ≈ 10
−43
cm
2
, we have
∆N
1
=
10
17
0.53 6.023 10
23
10
−43
0.925 76.7
7
= 3.2 10
−2
s
−1
.
At equilibrium this is also the number of
7
Be that decay to
7
Li.
Hence the rate of disintegration of
7
Be at equilibrium is 3.2 10
−2
s
−1
.
Note that the number of
7
Li produced in
7
Be decays is negligible compared
with the total number present.
2090
It is believed that nucleons (N) interact directly through the weak inter
action and that the latter violates parity conservation. One way to study
the nature of the NN weak interaction is by means of αdecay, as typiﬁed
by the decays of the 3
+
, T = 1 and 3
−
, T = 0 states of
20
Ne (Fig. 2.29).
Nuclear Physics 349
Fig. 2.29
In the following you will be asked to explain the principles of an experi
ment to measure the weakinteraction matrix element between these states,
'3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
`.
(a) The NN weak interaction has isoscalar, isovector, and isotensor
components (i.e., ranks 0,1, and 2 in isospin). Which components contribute
to the matrix element '3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
`?
(b) Explain the parity and isospin selection rules for αdecay. In partic
ular, explain which of the two
20
Ne states would decay to the ground state
of
16
O +α if there were no parityviolating NN interaction.
(c) Allowing for a parityviolating matrix element '3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
` of
1 eV, estimate the α width of the parityforbidden transition, Γ
α
(forbid
den), in terms of the α width of the parityallowed transition, Γ
α
(allowed).
Assume Γ
α
(allowed) is small compared with the separation energy between
the 3
+
, 3
−
states.
(d) The α width of the parityallowed transition is Γ
α
(allowed) =
45 keV, which is not small compared with the separation energy. Do you
expect the ﬁnite width of this state to modify your result of part (c) above?
Discuss.
(e) The direct reaction
19
F(
3
He,d)
20
Ne
∗
populates one of the excited
states strongly. Which one do you expect this to be and why?
(f) There is also a 1
+
/1
−
parity doublet at ∼ 11.23 MeV. Both states
have T = 1.
(i) In this case which state is parityforbidden to αdecay?
350 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(ii) As in part(a), which isospin components of the weak NN interaction
contribute to the mixing matrix element? (Note that
20
Ne is selfconjugate)
Which would be determined by a measurement of the parityforbidden α
width?
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) As T = 1 for the 3
+
state and T = 0 for the 3
−
state, only the
isovector component with ∆T = 1 contributes to '3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
`.
(b) αdecay is a strong interaction for which isospin is conserved. Hence
∆T = 0. As the isospin of αparticle is zero, the isospin of the daughter
nucleus should equal that of the parent. As
16
O has T = 0, only the 3
−
,
T = 0 state can undergo αdecay to
16
O + α. As both the spins of
16
O
and α are zero, and the total angular momentum does not change in α
decay, the ﬁnal state orbital angular momentum is l = 3 and so the parity
is (−1)
3
= −1. As it is the same as for the initial state, the transition is
parityallowed.
(c) Fermi’s golden rule gives the ﬁrst order transition probability per
unit time as
λ =
2π
[V
fi
[
2
ρ(E
f
) ,
where V
fi
is the transition matrix element and ρ(E
f
) is the ﬁnal state
density. Then the width of the parityallowed transition (3
−
, T = 0 to
16
O +α) is
Γ
α
=
2π
[V
3
−
→
16
O
[
2
ρ(E
f
) .
The parityforbidden transition (3
+
, T = 1 to
16
O + α) is a second order
process, for which
λ =
2π
¸
n=i
V
fn
V
ni
E
i
−E
n
+iε
2
ρ(E
f
) ,
where 2ε is the width of the intermediate state, and the summation is to
include all intermediate states. In this case, the only intermediate state is
that with 3
−
, T = 0. Hence
Γ
α
=
2π
[V
3
−
→
16
O
[
2
1
(E
i
−E
n
)
2
+ε
2
['3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
`[
2
ρ(E
f
)
= Γ
α
['3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
`[
2
(∆E)
2
+ (Γ
α
/2)
2
,
Nuclear Physics 351
where ∆E is the energy spacing between the 3
+
, 3
−
states, Γ
α
is the width
of the parityallowed transition. If Γ
α
< ∆E, as when '3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
` =
1 eV, ∆E = 0.052 MeV = 52 10
3
eV, we have
Γ
α
≈
['3
+
[H
weak
[3
−
`[
2
(∆E)
2
Γ
α
=
Γ
α
52
2
10
6
= 3.7 10
−10
Γ
α
.
(d) As Γ
α
= 45 keV, (Γ
α
/2)
2
cannot be ignored when compared with
(∆E)
2
. Hence
Γ
α
=
10
−6
52
2
+
45
6
4
Γ
α
= 3.1 10
−10
Γ
α
= 1.4 10
−5
eV.
(e) Consider the reaction
19
F(
3
He, d)
20
Ne
∗
. Let the spins of
19
F,
3
He,
d,
20
Ne, and the captured proton be J
A
, J
a
, J
b
, J
B
, J
p
, the orbital angular
momenta of
3
He, d and the captured proton be l
a
, l
b
, l
p
, respectively. Then
J
A
+J
a
+l
a
= J
B
+J
b
+l
b
.
As
J
A
= J
p
+ l
b
, l
a
= l
p
+l
b
, J
A
+s
p
+l
p
= J
B
,
and J
A
=
1
2
, J
B
= 3, J
b
= 1, l
b
= 0, s
p
=
1
2
, we have J
p
=
1
2
, l
p
= 2, 3, 4.
Parity conservation requires P(
19
F)P(p)(−1)
l
p
= P(
20
Ne
∗
), P(
20
Ne
∗
) =
(−1)
l
p
.
Experimentally l
p
is found from the angular distribution to be l
p
= 2.
Then P(
20
Ne
∗
) = +, and so the reaction should populate the 3
+
state of
Ne
∗
, not the 3
−
state.
(f) (i) The 1
+
state is parityforbidden to αdecay. On the other hand, in
the αdecay of the 1
−
state, l
f
+J
α
+J16
O
= 1, P
f
= P(α)P(
16
O)(−1)
l
f
=
−1, so that its αdecay is parityallowed
(ii) As
20
Ne is a selfconjugate nucleus, T
3
= 0 because '1, 0[1, 0; 1, 0` =
0. So only the components of T = 0, 2 can contribute. However in weak
interaction, [∆T[ ≤ 1, and so only the component with ∆T = 0 can con
tribute to the experiment result.
2091
Consider the following energy level structure (Fig. 2.30):
352 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.30
The ground states form an isotriplet as do the excited states (all states
have a spinparity of 0
+
). The ground state of
42
21
Sc can βdecay to the
ground state of
42
20
Ca with a kinetic endpoint energy of 5.4 MeV (transition
II in Fig. 2.30).
(a) Using phase space considerations only, calculate the ratio of rates
for transitions I and II.
(b) Suppose that the nuclear states were, in fact, pure (i.e. unmixed)
eigenstates of isospin. Why would the fact that the Fermi matrix element
is an isospin ladder operator forbid transition I from occurring?
(c) Consider isospin mixing due to electromagnetic interactions. In gen
eral
H
EM
= H
0
+H
1
+H
2
,
where the subscripts refer to the isospin tensor rank of each term. Write
the branching ratio
Γ
I
Γ
II
in terms of the reduced matrix elements of each
part of H
EM
which mixes the states.
(d) Using the results of parts (a) and (c), ignoring H
2
, and given that
Γ
I
Γ
II
= 6 10
−5
, calculate the value of the reduced matrix element which
mixes the ground and excited states of
42
20
Ca.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) From phase space consideration only, for βdecay of E
0
m
e
c
2
,
Γ ≈ E
5
0
(Problem 2077). Thus
Γ
I
Γ
II
=
(5.4 −1.8)
5
(5.4 −0)
5
≈ 0.13 .
Nuclear Physics 353
(b) For Fermi transitions within the same isospin multiplet, because the
structures of the initial and ﬁnal states are similar, the transition proba
bility is large. Such transitions are generally said to be superallowed. For
0
+
→0
+
(T = 1), there is only the Fermi type transition, for which
'M
F
`
2
= 'α, T
f
, T
f3
[
A
¸
K=1
t
±
(K)[α
, T
i
, T
i3
`
2
=
δ
αα
δ
T
i
T
f
T(T + 1) −T
i3
T
f3
2
=
T(T + 1) −T
i3
T
f3
, if α = α
, T
f
= T
i
,
0, otherwise,
ignoring higher order corrections to the Fermi matrix element. Here α is any
nuclear state quantum number other than isospin. From this we see that
channel II is a transition within the same isospin multiplet, i.e., a super
allowed one, channel I is a transition between diﬀerent isospin multiplets,
i.e., a Fermiforbidden transition.
(c) We make use of the perturbation theory. Let the ground and excited
states of
42
Ca be [1` and [2` respectively. Because of the eﬀect of H
EM
,
the states become mixed. Let the mixed states be [1`
and [2`
, noting that
the mixing due to H
EM
is very small. We have
H
0
[1` = E
1
[1` ,
H
0
[2` = E
2
[2` ,
where E
1
and E
2
are the energies of the two states (E
1
≈ E
0
, E
2
−E
1
=
1.8 MeV).
Consider
H = H
0
+H
EM
,
where H
EM
= H
0
+ H
1
+ H
2
. As the index refers to isospin tensor rank,
we write H
0
, H
1
H
2
as P
0,0
, P
1,0
, P
2,0
and deﬁne
'J
1
m
1
[P
µν
[J
2
m
2
` = C
J
1
m
1
µνJ
2
m
2
'J
1
[[P
µν
[[J
2
` .
354 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Then
H
EM
=P
0,0
+P
1,0
+P
2,0
,
'1[H
EM
[2` ='α, 1, −1[(P
0,0
+P
1,0
+P
2,0
)[α
, 1, −1`
=
'α, 1[[P
0
[[α
, 1` −
1
2
'α, 1[[P
1
[[α
, 1`
+
1
10
'α, 1[[P
2
[[α
, 1`
,
'1[H
EM
[1` = '2[H
EM
[2` = 'α, 1, −1[(P
0,0
+P
1,0
+P
2,0
)[α, 1, −1`
='α, 1[[P
0
[[α, 1` −
1
2
'α, 1[[P
1
[[α, 1` +
1
10
'α, 1[[P
2
[[α, 1` .
In the above equations, α and α
denote the quantum numbers of [1`
and [2` other than the isospin, and 'α, 1[[P[[α, 1` denote the relevant part
of the reduced matrix element. Thus
Γ
I
Γ
II
=
E
5
1
[M
1
[
2
E
5
2
[M
2
[
2
=
(5.4 −1.8 −'2[H
EM
[2`)
5
(5.4 −'1[H
EM
[1`)
5
'1[H
EM
[2`
2
(E
2
−E
1
)
2
.
If energy level corrections can be ignored, then '1[H
EM
[1` <E
1
, E
2
, and
Γ
I
Γ
II
=
E
5
10
E
5
20
(E
2
−E
1
)
2
['1[H
EM
[2`[
2
=
(5.4 −1.8)
5
5.4
5
1.8
2
'1[[P
0
[[2` −
1
2
'1[[P
1
[[2` +
1
10
'1[[P
2
[[2`
2
.
If we ignore the contribution of H
2
and assume '1[[P
0
[[2` = 0, then the
isoscalar H does not mix the two isospin states and we have
Γ
I
Γ
II
=
E
5
10
E
5
20
(E
2
−E
1
)
2
['α, 1[[P
1
[[α
, 1`[
2
.
(d) In the simpliﬁed case above,
Γ
I
Γ
II
=
(5.4 −1.8)
5
5.4
5
1.8
2
['α, 1[[P
1
[[α
, 1`[
2
= 6 10
−5
Nuclear Physics 355
gives
['α, 1[[P
1
[[α
, 1`[
2
= 24.6 6 10
−5
= 1.48 10
−3
MeV
2
,
or
['α, 1[[P
1
[[α
, 1`[ = 38 keV.
2092
“Unlike atomic spectroscopy, electric dipole (E1) transitions are not
usually observed between the ﬁrst few nuclear states”.
(a) For light nuclei, give arguments that support this statement on the
basis of the shell model. Indicate situations where exceptions might be
expected.
(b) Make an orderofmagnitude “guesstimate” for the energy and ra
dioactive lifetime of the lowestenergy electric dipole transition expected
for
17
9
F
8
, outlining your choice of input parameters.
(c) Show that for nuclei containing an equal number of neutrons and
protons (N = Z), no electric dipole transitions are expected between two
states with the same isospin T.
The following Clebch–Gordan coeﬃcient may be of use:
Using notation 'J
1
J
2
M
1
M
2
[J
TOT
M
TOT
`, 'J100[J0` = 0.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) Based on singleparticle energy levels given by shell model, we see
that levels in the same shell generally have the same parity, especially the
lowestlying levels like 1s, 1p, 1d, 2s shells, etc. For light nuclei, γtransition
occurs mainly between diﬀerent singlenucleon levels. In transitions be
tween diﬀerent energy levels of the same shell, parity does not change. On
the other hand, electric dipole transition E1 follows selection rules ∆J = 0
or 1, ∆P = −1. Transitions that conserve parity cannot be electric dipole
in nature. However if the ground and excited states are not in the same
shell, parity may change in a transition. For example in the transition
1p
3/2
→1s
1/2
, ∆J = 1, ∆P = −1. This is an electric dipole transition.
(b) In the singleparticle model, the lowestenergy electric dipole tran
sition E1 of
17
F is 2s
1/2
→1p
1/2
. The transition probability per unit time
can be estimated by (Problem 2093 with L = 1)
356 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
λ ≈
c
4
e
2
c
E
γ
c
3
'r`
2
,
where E
γ
is the transition energy and 'r` ∼ R = 1.4 10
−13
A
1/3
cm.
Thus
λ ≈
3 10
10
(1.4 10
−13
)
2
4 137 (197 10
−13
)
3
A
2/3
E
3
γ
= 1.4 10
14
A
2/3
E
3
γ
,
where E
γ
is in MeV. For
17
F we may take E
γ
≈ 5 MeV, A = 17, and so
λ = 1.2 10
17
s ,
or
τ = λ
−1
= 9 10
−18
s .
(c) For light or medium nuclei, the isospin is a good quantum number.
A nucleus state can be written as [JmTT
z
`, where J, m refer to angular mo
mentum, T, T
z
refer to isospin. The electric multipole transition operator
between two states is
O
E
(L, E) =
A
¸
K=1
¸
1
2
(1 +τ
z
(K))e
p
+
1
2
(1 −τ
z
(K))e
n
r
L
(K)Y
LM
(r(K))
=
A
¸
K=1
S(L, M, K) 1 +
A
¸
K=1
V (L, M, K)τ
z
(K)
with
S(L, M, K) =
1
2
(e
p
+e
n
)r
L
(K)Y
LM
(r(K)) ,
V (L, M, K) =
1
2
(e
p
−e
n
)r
L
(K)Y
LM
(r(K)) ,
where τ
z
is the z component of the isospin matrix, for which τ
z
φ
n
= −φ
n
,
τ
z
φ
p
= +φ
p
.
The ﬁrst term is related to isospin scalar, the second term to isospin
vector. An electric multipole transition from J, T, T
z
to J
, T
, T
z
can be
written as
Nuclear Physics 357
B
E
(L : J
i
T
i
T
z
→J
f
T
f
T
z
) = 'J
f
T
f
T
z
[O
E
(L)[J
i
T
i
T
z
`
2
/(2J
i
+ 1)
=
1
(2J
i
+ 1)(2T
f
+ 1)
[δ
T
i
T
f
'J
f
T
f
[
A
¸
K=1
S(L, K) 1[J
i
T
i
`
+'T
i
T
z
10[T
f
T
z
`'J
f
T
f
[
A
¸
K=1
V (L, K)τ
z
(K)[J
i
T
i
`]
2
.
From the above equation, we see that for electric multipole transitions
between two states the isospin selection rule is ∆T ≤ 1. When ∆T = 0,
δ
TT
= 0, there is an isospin scalar component; when ∆T = 1, the scalar
component is zero.
For electric dipole transition,
A
¸
K=1
S(L, K) 1 =
A
¸
K=1
1
2
(e
p
+e
n
)r(K)Y
LM
(r(K))
=
1
2
(e
p
+e
n
)
A
¸
K=1
r(K)Y
LM
(r(K)) ,
r being nucleon coordinate relative to the center of mass of the nucleus.
For spherically or axially symmetric nuclei, as
¸
A
K=1
rY
LM
(r(K)) is
zero, the isospin scalar term makes no contribution to electric dipole tran
sition. For the isospin vector term, when T
i
= T
f
= T,
'T
i
T
z
10[T
f
T
z
` =
T
z
T(T + 1)
.
Then for nuclei with Z = N, in transitions between two levels of ∆T = 0,
as T
z
= 0,
'T
i
T
z
10[T
f
T
z
` = 0 .
and so both the isospin scalar and vector terms make no contribution. Thus
for selfconjugate nuclei, states with T
i
= T
f
cannot undergo electric dipole
transition.
2093
(a) Explain why electromagnetic E
λ
radiation is emitted predominantly
with the lowest allowed multipolarity L. Give an estimate for the ratios E
1
:
E
2
: E
3
: E
4
: E
5
for the indicated transitions in
16
O (as shown in Fig. 2.31).
358 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.31
(b) Estimate the lifetime of the 7.1 MeV state. Justify your approxi
mations.
(c) List the possible decay modes of the 6.0 MeV state.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) In nuclear shell theory, γray emission represents transition between
nucleon energy states in a nucleus. For a proton moving in a central ﬁeld
radiation is emitted when it transits from a higher energy state to a lower
one in the nucleus. If L is the degree of the electric multipole radiation,
the transition probability per unit time is given by
λ
E
(L) ≈
2(L + 1)
L[(2L + 1)!!]
2
3
L + 3
2
e
2
k
2L+1
'r
L
`
2
,
where k =
w
c
=
E
γ
c
is the wave number of the radiation, E
γ
being the
transition energy, and 'γ
L
`
2
≈ R
2L
, R = 1.4 10
−13
A
1/3
cm being the
nuclear radius. Thus
λ
E
(L) ≈
2(L + 1)
L[(2L + 1)!!]
2
3
L + 3
2
e
2
Rc
E
γ
c
c
E
γ
R
c
2L
=
2(L + 1)
L[(2L + 1)!!]
2
3
L + 3
2
1
137
3 10
10
E
γ
197 10
−13
Nuclear Physics 359
E
γ
1.4 10
−13
A
1/3
197 10
−13
2L
=
4.4(L + 1)
L[(2L + 1)!!]
2
3
L + 3
2
E
γ
197
2L+1
(1.4A
1/3
)
2L
10
21
s
−1
with E
γ
in MeV. Consider
16
O. If E
γ
∼ 1 MeV, we have
λ
E
(L + 1)
λ
E
(L)
∼ (kR)
2
=
E
γ
R
c
2
=
1.4 10
−13
16
1/3
197 10
−13
2
≈ 3 10
−4
.
Hence λ
E
(L) decreases by a factor 10
−4
as L increases by 1. This means
that E
L
radiation is emitted predominantly with the lowest allowed multi
polarity L.
The tranistions of
16
O indicated in Fig. 2.31 can be summarized in the
table below.
Transition ∆π ∆l Type L E
γ
(MeV)
E
1
yes 3 octopole 3 6.1
E
2
yes 1 dipole 1 0.9
E
3
no 2 quadrupole 2 1.0
E
4
no 2 quadrupole 2 1.0
E
5
yes 1 dipole 1 7.1
Thus we have
λ
E
1
: λ
E
2
: λ
E
3
: λ
E
4
: λ
E
5
=
4
3(7!!)
2
1
2
2
6.1
197
7
(1.4A
1/3
)
6
:
2
(3!!)
2
3
4
2
0.9
197
3
(1.4A
1/3
)
2
:
3
2(5!!)
2
3
5
2
1
197
5
(1.4A
1/3
)
4
:
3
2(5!!)
2
3
5
2
1
197
5
(1.4A
1/3
)
4
360 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
:
2
(3!!)
2
3
4
2
7.1
197
3
(1.4A
1/3
)
2
=1.59 10
−12
: 1.48 10
−7
: 1.25 10
−12
: 1.25 10
−12
: 7.28 10
−5
=2.18 10
−8
: 2.03 10
−3
: 1.72 10
−8
: 1.72 10
−8
: 1
Thus the transition probability of E
5
is the largest, that of E
2
is the
second, those of E
3
, E
4
and E
1
are the smallest.
(b) The halflife of the 7.1 MeV level can be determined from λ
E
5
:
λ
E
5
=
4.4 2
(3!!)
2
3
4
2
7.1
197
3
(1.4 16
1/3
)
2
10
21
= 3.2 10
17
s
−1
,
giving
T
1/2
(7.1 MeV) = ln2/λ
E
5
= 2.2 10
−18
s .
Neglecting transitions to other levels is justiﬁed as their probabilities are
much smaller, e.g.,
λ
E
3
: λ
E
5
= 1.7 10
−8
: 1 .
In addition, use of the singleparticle model is reasonable as it assumes
the nucleus to be spherically symmetric, the initial and ﬁnal state wave
functions to be constant inside the nucleus and zero outside which are
plausible for
16
O.
(c) The γtransition 0
+
→ 0
+
from the 6.0 MeV states to the ground
state of
16
O is forbidden. However, the nucleus can still go to the ground
state by internal conversion.
2094
The γray total nuclear cross section σ
total
(excluding e
+
e
−
pair pro
duction) on neodymium 142 is given in Fig. 2.32
Nuclear Physics 361
Fig. 2.32
(a) Which electric or magnetic multipole is expected to dominate the
cross section and why?
(b) Considering the nucleus simply as two ﬂuids of nucleons (protons
and neutrons), explain qualitatively the origin of the resonance shown in
the ﬁgure.
(c) Using a simple model of the nucleus as A particles bound in an
harmonic oscillator potential, estimate the resonance energy as a function
of A. Does this agree with the observed value in the ﬁgure for A = 142?
(d) Discuss the role of residual twobody interactions in modifying the
estimate in (c).
(e) What are the physical processes responsible for the width of the
resonance? Make rough estimates of the width due to diﬀerent mechanisms.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The excitation curves of reactions (γ, n) and (γ, p) show a broad
resonance of several MeV width from E
γ
= 10 to 20 MeV. This can be
explained as follows. When the nuclear excitation energy increases, the
density of states increases and the level widths become broader. When
the level spacing and level width become comparable, separate levels join
together, so that γrays of a wide range of energy can excite the nucleus,
thus producing a broad resonance. If E
γ
≈ 15 MeV, greater than the
nucleon harmonic oscillator energy ω ≈ 44/A
1/3
MeV, dipole transition
can occur. The singleparticle model gives (Problem 2093(a))
362 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Γ(E2orM1)
Γ(E1)
≈ (kR)
2
=
15 1.4 10
−13
142
1/3
197 10
−13
2
= 0.3 .
Hence the nuclear cross section is due mainly to electric dipole absorp
tion. We can also consider the collective absorption of the nucleus. We see
that absorption of γrays causes the nucleus to deform and when the γ
ray energy equals the nuclear collective vibrational energy levels, resonant
absorption can take place. As E
γ
≈ 15 MeV, for
142
Nd nucleus, electric
dipole, quadrupole, octopole vibrations are all possible. However as the
energy is nearest to the electric dipole energy level, E1 resonant absorption
predominates.
(b) Consider the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus as liquids
that can seep into each other but cannot be compressed. Upon impact of
the incoming photon, the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus tend to
move to diﬀerent sides, and their centers of mass become separated. Con
sequently, the potential energy of the nucleus increases, which generates
restoring forces resulting in dipole vibration. Resonant absorption occurs
if the photon frequency equals the resonant frequency of the harmonic os
cillator.
(c) In a simple harmonicoscillator model we consider a particle of mass
M = Am
N
, m
N
being the nucleon mass, moving in a potential V =
1
2
Kx
2
,
where K, the force constant, is proportional to the nuclear crosssectional
area. The resonant frequency is f ≈
K/M. As K ∝ R
2
∝ A
2/3
, M ∝ A,
we have
f ∝ A
−1/6
≈ A
−0.17
.
This agrees with the experimental result E
γ
∝ A
−0.19
fairly well.
(d) The residual twobody force is noncentric. It can cause the nucleus
to deform and so vibrate more easily. The disparity between the rough
theoretical derivation and experimental results can be explained in terms
of the residual force. In particular, for a much deformed nucleus double
resonance peaks may occur. This has been observed experimently.
(e) The broadening of the width of the giant resonance is due mainly to
nuclear deformation and resonance under the action of the incident photons.
First, the deformation and restoring force are related to many factors and
so the hypothetical harmonic oscillator does not have a “good” quality (Q
value is small), correspondingly the resonance width is broad. Second, the
photon energy can pass on to other nucleons, forming a compound nucleus
Nuclear Physics 363
and redistribution of energy according to the degree of freedom. This may
generate a broad resonance of width from several to 10 MeV. In addition
there are other broadening eﬀects like the Doppler eﬀect of an order of
magnitude of several keV. For a nucleus of A = 142, the broadening due to
Doppler eﬀect is
∆E
D
≈
E
2
γ
Mc
2
≈
15
2
142 940
= 1.7 10
−3
MeV = 1.7 keV.
2095
The total cross section for the absorption of γrays by
208
Pb (whose
ground state has spinparity J
π
= 0
+
) is shown in Fig. 2.33. The peak at
2.6 MeV corresponds to a J
π
= 3
−
level in
208
Pb which γdecays to a 1
−
level at 1.2 MeV (see Fig. 2.34).
Fig. 2.33
Fig. 2.34
(a) What are the possible electric and/or magnetic multipolarities of the
γrays emitted in the transition between the 2.6 MeV and 1.2 MeV levels?
Which one do you expect to dominate?
364 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(b) The width of the 2.6 MeV level is less than 1 eV, whereas the width
of the level seen at 14 MeV is 1 MeV. Can you suggest a plausible reason
for this large diﬀerence? What experiment might be done to test your
conjecture?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) In the transition 3
−
→ 1
−
, the emitted photon can carry away an
angular momentum l = 4, 3, 2. As there is no parity change, l = 4, 2. Hence
the possible multipolarities of the transition are E4, M3 or E2. The electric
quadrupole transition E2 is expected to dominate.
(b) The width of the 2.6 MeV level, which is less than 1 eV, is typical of
an electromagnetic decay, whereas the 14 MeV obsorption peak is a giant
dipole resonance (Problem 2094). As the resonance energy is high, the
processes are mostly strong interactions with emission of nucleons, where
the singlelevel widths are broader and many levels merge to form a broad,
giant resonance. Thus the diﬀerence in decay mode leads to the large
diﬀerence in level width.
Experimentally, only γrays should be found to be emitted from the
2.6 MeV level while nucleons should also be observed to be emitted from
the 14 MeV level.
2096
Gammarays that are emitted from an excited nuclear state frequently
have nonisotropic angular distribution with respect to the spin direction of
the excited nucleus. Since generally the nuclear spins are not aligned, but
their directions distributed at random, this anisotropy cannot be measured.
However, for nuclides which undergo a cascade of γemissions (e.g.,
60
Ni
which is used for this problemsee Fig. 2.35), the direction of one of the
cascading γrays can be used as a reference for the orientation of a speciﬁc
nucleus. Thus, assuming a negligible halflife for the intermediate state, a
measurement of the coincidence rate between the two γrays can give the
angular correlation which may be used to determine the nuclear spins.
In the case of
60
Ni we ﬁnd such a cascade, namely J
p
= 4
+
→ J
p
=
2
+
→ J
p
= 0
+
. The angular correlation function is of the form W(θ) ∼
1 + 0.1248 cos
2
θ + 0.0418 cos
4
θ.
Nuclear Physics 365
Fig. 2.35
(a) Of what types are the transitions?
(b) Why are the odd powers of cos θ missing? Why is cos
4
θ the highest
power?
(c) Draw a schematic diagram of an experimental setup showing how
you would make the measurements. Identify all components. (Give block
diagram.)
(d) Describe the γray detectors.
(e) How do you determine the coeﬃcients in the correlation function
which would prove that
60
Ni undergoes the transition 4 →2 →0?
(f) Accidental coincidences will occur between the two γray detectors.
How can you take account of them?
(g) How would a source of
22
Na be used to calibrate the detectors and
electronics? (
22
Na emits 0.511 MeV gammas from β
+
annihilation.)
(h) How would Compton scattering of γrays within the
60
Co source
modify the measurements?
(Chicago)
Solution:
(a) Each of the two gammaray cascading emissions subtracts 2 from
the angular momentum of the excited nucleus, but does not change the
parity. Hence the two emissions are of electricquadrupole E2 type.
(b) The angular correlation function for cascading emission can be writ
ten as
366 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
W(θ) =
K
max
¸
K=0
A
2K
P
2K
(cos θ) ,
where 0 ≤ K
max
≤ min(J
b
, L
1
, L
2
),
A
2K
= F
2K
(L
1
, J
a
, J
b
)F
2K
(L
2
, J
c
, J
b
) ,
L
1
, L
2
being the angular momenta of the two γrays, J
a
, J
b
, J
c
being re
spectively the initial, intermediate and ﬁnal nuclear spins, P
2K
(cos θ) are
Legendre polynomials.
Since W(θ) depends on P
2K
(cos θ) only, it consists of even powers of
cos θ. For the 4
+
→ 2
+
→ 0
+
transition of
60
Ni, K
max
is 2. Hence the
highest power of cos θ in P
4
(cos θ) is 4, and so is in W(θ).
(c) Figure 2.36 shows a block diagram of the experimental apparatus to
measure the angular correlation of the γrays. With probe 1 ﬁxed, rotate
probe 2 in the plane of the source and probe 1 about the source to change
the angle θ between the two probes, while keeping the distance between the
probes constant. A fastslowcoincidence method may be used to reduce
spurious coincidences and multiscattering.
Fig. 2.36
(d) A γray detector usually consists of a scintillator, a photomultiplier,
and a signalamplifying highvoltage circuit for the photomultiplier. When
Nuclear Physics 367
the scintillator absorbs a γray, it ﬂuoresces. The ﬂuorescent photons hit the
cathode of the photomultiplier, causing emission of primary photoelectrons,
which are multiplied under the high voltage, giving a signal on the anode.
The signal is then ampliﬁed and processed.
(e) The coincidence counting rate W(θ) is measured for various θ. Fit
ting the experimental data to the angular correlation function we can de
duce the coeﬃcients.
(f) We can link a delay line to one of the γdetectors. If the delay time is
long compared to the lifetime of the intermediate state the signals from the
two detectors can be considered independent, and the coincidence counting
rate accidental. This may then be used to correct the observed data.
(g) The two γphotons of 0.511 MeV produced in the annihilation of
β
+
from
22
Na are emitted at the same time and in opposite directions.
They can be used as a basis for adjusting the relative time delay between
the two detectors to compensate for any inherent delays of the probes and
electronic circuits to get the best result.
(h) The Compton scattering of γrays in the
60
Co source will increase the
irregularity of the γemission and reduce its anisotropy, thereby reducing
the deduced coeﬃcients in the angular correlation function.
2097
A nucleus of mass M is initially in an excited state whose energy is ∆E
above the ground state of the nucleus. The nucleus emits a gammaray of
energy hν and makes a transition to its ground state.
Explain why the gammaray hν is not equal to the energy level diﬀerence
∆E and determine the fractional change
hν−∆E
∆E
. (You may assume ∆E <
Mc
2
)
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
The nucleus will recoil when it emits a γray because of the conservation
of momentum. It will thereby acquire some recoil energy fromthe excitation
energy and make hν less than ∆E.
Let the total energy of the nucleus be E and its recoil momentum be p.
The conservation of energy and of momentum give
p = p
γ
, E +E
γ
= Mc
2
+ ∆E .
368 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
As
E
γ
= P
γ
c = hν, E =
p
2
c
2
+M
2
c
4
,
we have
E
γ
=
1
2Mc
2
(∆E)
2
+ 2Mc
2
∆E
1 +
∆E
Mc
2
≈ ∆E −
(∆E)
2
2Mc
2
,
or
hν −∆E
∆E
= −
∆E
2Mc
2
.
2098
A (hypothetical) particle of rest mass m has an excited state of excita
tion energy ∆E, which can be reached by γray absorption. It is assumed
that ∆E/c
2
is not small compared to m.
Find the resonant γray energy, E
γ
, to excite the particle which is ini
tially at rest.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
Denote the particle by A. The reactions is γ + A → A
∗
. Let E
γ
and
p
γ
be the energy and momentum of the γray, p be the momentum of A,
initially at rest, after it absorbs the γray. Conservation of energy requires
E
γ
+mc
2
=
m+
∆E
c
2
2
c
4
+p
2
c
2
.
Momentum conservation requires
p = p
γ
,
or
pc = p
γ
c = E
γ
.
Its substitution in the energy equation gives
E
γ
= ∆E +
(∆E)
2
2mc
2
.
Nuclear Physics 369
Thus the required γray energy is higher than ∆E by
∆E
2
2mc
2
, which provides
for the recoil energy of the particle.
2099
(a) Use the equivalence principle and special relativity to calculate, to
ﬁrst order in y, the frequency shift of a photon which falls straight down
through a distance y at the surface of the earth. (Be sure to specify the
sign.)
(b) It is possible to measure this frequency shift in the laboratory using
the M¨ossbauer eﬀect.
Describe such an experiment — speciﬁcally:
What is the M¨ ossbauer eﬀect and why is it useful here?
What energy would you require the photons to have?
How would you generate such photons?
How would you measure such a small frequency shift?
Estimate the number of photons you would need to detect in order to
have a meaningful measurement.
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) Let the original frequency of the photon be ν
0
, and the frequency it
has after falling a distance y in the earth’s gravitational ﬁeld be ν. Then
the equivalent masses of the photon are respectively hν
0
/c
2
and hν/c
2
.
Suppose the earth has mass M and radius R. Conservation of energy
requires
hν
0
−G
M
hν
0
c
2
R+y
= hν −G
M
hν
c
2
R
,
where G is the gravitational constant, or, to ﬁrst order in y,
ν −ν
0
ν
0
=
GM
c
2
1
R
−
1
R+y
≈
gy
c
2
= 1.09 10
−16
y ,
where g is the acceleration due to gravity and y is in meters. For example,
taking y = 20 m we have
ν −ν
0
ν
0
= 2.2 10
−15
.
370 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(b) In principle, photons emitted by a nucleus should have energy E
γ
equal to the excitation energy E
0
of the nucleus. However, on account of
the recoil of the nucleus which takes away some energy, E
γ
< E
0
, or more
precisely (Problem 2097),
E
γ
= E
0
−
E
2
0
2Mc
2
,
where M is the mass of the nucleus. Likewise, when the nucleus absorbs
a photon by resonant absorption the latter must have energy (Problem
2098)
E
γ
= E
0
+
E
2
0
2Mc
2
.
As
E
2
0
2Mc
2
is usually larger than the natural width of the excited state,
γrays emitted by a nucleus cannot be absorbed by resonant absorption by
the same kind of nucleus.
However, when both the γ source and the absorber are ﬁxed in crystals,
the whole crystal recoils in either process, M → ∞,
E
2
0
2Mc
2
→ 0. Resonant
absorption can now occur for absorber nuclei which are the same as the
source nuclei. This is known as the M¨ossbauer eﬀect. It allows accurate
measurement of γray energy, the precision being limited only by the natural
width of the level.
To measure the frequency shift
∆ν
ν
0
= 2.210
−15
, the γ source used must
have a level of natural width Γ/E
γ
less than ∆ν/ν
0
. A possible choice is
67
Zn which has E
γ
= 93 keV, Γ/E
γ
= 5.0 10
−16
. Crystals of
67
Zn are
used both as source and absorber. At y = 0, both are kept ﬁxed in the
same horizontal plane and the resonant aborption curve is measured. Then
move the source crystal to 20 m above the absorber. The frequency of the
photons arriving at the ﬁxed absorber is ν
0
+ ∆ν and resonant absorption
does not occur. If the absorber is given a downward velocity of v such
that by the Doppler eﬀect the photons have frequency ν
0
as seen by the
absorber, resonant absorption can take place. As
ν
0
= (ν
0
+ ∆ν)
1 −
v
c
≈ ν
0
+ ∆ν −ν
0
v
c
,
v ≈ c
∆ν
ν
0
= 3 10
10
2.2 10
−15
= 6.6 10
−5
cm s
−1
,
which is the velocity required for the absorber.
Nuclear Physics 371
Because the natural width for γemission of
67
Zn is much smaller than
∆ν/ν
0
, there is no need for a high counting rate. A statistical error of
5% at the spectrum peak is suﬃcient for establishing the frequency shift,
corresponding to a photon count of 400.
2100
A parent isotope has a halflife τ
1/2
= 10
4
yr= 3.15 10
11
s. It decays
through a series of radioactive daughters to a ﬁnal stable isotope. Among
the daughters the greatest halflife is 20 yr. Others are less than a year. At
t = 0 one has 10
20
parent nuclei but no daughters.
(a) At t = 0 what is the activity (decays/sec) of the parent isotope?
(b) How long does it take for the population of the 20 yr isotope to
reach approximately 97% of its equilibrium value?
(c) At t = 10
4
yr how many nuclei of the 20 yr isotope are present?
Assume that none of the decays leading to the 20 yr isotope is branched.
(d) The 20 yr isotope has two competing decay modes: α, 99.5%; β,
0.5%. At t = 10
4
yr, what is the activity of the isotope which results from
the βdecay?
(e) Among the radioactive daughters, could any reach their equilib
rium populations much more quickly (or much more slowly) than the 20 yr
isotope?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The decay constant of the parent isotope is
λ
1
=
ln2
τ
1/2
= 6.93 10
−5
yr
−1
= 2.2 10
−12
s
−1
.
When t = 0, the activity of the parent isotope is
A
1
(0) = λ
1
N
1
(t = 0) =
2.2 10
−12
10
20
3.7 10
7
= 5.95 millicurie .
(b) Suppose the 20 yr isotope is the nthgeneration daughter in a ra
dioactive series. Then its population is a function of time:
N
n
(t) = N
1
(0)(h
1
e
−λ
1
t
+h
2
e
−λ
2
t
+ +h
n
e
−λ
n
t
) ,
372 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where
h
1
=
λ
1
λ
2
λ
n−1
(λ
2
−λ
1
)(λ
3
−λ
1
) (λ
n
−λ
1
)
,
h
2
=
λ
1
λ
2
λ
n−1
(λ
1
−λ
2
)(λ
3
−λ
2
) (λ
n
−λ
2
)
,
.
.
.
h
n
=
λ
1
λ
2
λ
n−1
(λ
1
−λ
n
)(λ
2
−λ
n
) (λ
n−1
−λ
n
)
,
where N
1
(0) is the number of the parent nuclei at t = 0, λ
i
is the decay
constant of the ithgeneration daughter. For secular equilibrium we require
λ
1
<λ
j
, j = 2, 3, . . . , n, . . . . As the nth daugther has the largest halflife
of 10
20
yr, we also have λ
n
< λ
j
, j = 2, 3, . . . , (j = n), λ
n
= ln2/τ
1/2
=
3.466 10
−2
yr
−1
. Thus
h
1
≈
λ
1
λ
n
, h
n
≈ −
λ
1
λ
n
.
After a suﬃciently long time the system will reach an equilibrium at which
λ
n
N
e
n
(t) = λ
1
N
e
1
(t), the superscript e denoting equilibrium values, or
N
e
n
(t) =
λ
1
λ
n
N
e
1
(t) =
λ
1
λ
n
N
1
(0)e
−λ
1
t
.
At time t before equilibrium is reached we have
N
n
(t) ≈ N
1
(0)
λ
1
λ
n
e
−λ
1
t
−
λ
1
λ
n
e
−λ
n
t
.
When N
n
(t) = 0.97N
e
n
(t), or
0.97
λ
1
λ
n
N
1
(0)e
−λ
1
t
≈ N
1
(0)
λ
1
λ
n
e
−λ
1
t
−
λ
1
λ
n
e
−λ
n
t
,
the time is t = t
0
given by
t
0
=
ln0.03
λ
1
−λ
n
≈ 101 yr .
Hence after about 101 years the population of the 20 yr isotope will reach
97% of its equilibrium value.
Nuclear Physics 373
(c) At t = 10
4
yr, the system can be considered as in equilibrium. Hence
the population of the 20 yr isotope at that time is
N
n
(10
4
) =
λ
1
λ
n
N
1
(0)e
−λ
1
t
= 10
17
.
(d) After the system has reached equilibrium, all the isotopes will have
the same activity. At t = 10
4
years, the activity of the parent isotope is
A
1
(10
4
) =λ
1
N(0)e
−λ
1
t
= 6.93 10
−5
10
20
exp(−6.93 10
−5
10
4
)
=3.47 10
15
yr
−1
= 3.0 mc .
The activity of the βdecay product of the 20 yr isotope is
A
β
= 3 0.05 = 0.15 mc .
(e) The daughter nuclei ahead of the 20 yr isotope will reach their equi
librium populations more quickly than the 20 yr isotope, while the daughter
nuclei after the 20 yr isotope will reach their equilibrium populations ap
proximately as fast as the 20 yr isotope.
2101
A gold foil 0.02 cm thick is irradiated by a beam of thermal neutrons
with a ﬂux of 10
12
neutrons/cm
2
/s. The nuclide
198
Au with a halflife of 2.7
days is produced by the reaction
197
Au(n, γ)
198
Au. The density of gold is
19.3 gm/cm
3
and the cross section for the above reaction is 97.810
−24
cm
2
.
197
Au is 100% naturally abundant.
(a) If the foil is irradiated for 5 minutes, what is the
198
Au activity of
the foil in decays/cm
2
/s?
(b) What is the maximum amount of
198
Au/cm
2
that can be produced
in the foil?
(c) How long must the foil be irradiated if it is to have 2/3 of its maxi
mum activity?
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) Initially the number of
197
Au nuclei per unit area of foil is
N
1
(0) =
0.02 19.3
197
6.023 10
23
= 1.18 10
21
cm
−2
.
374 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Let the numbers of
197
Au and
198
Au nuclei at time t be N
1
, N
2
respectively,
σ be the cross section of the (n, γ) reaction, I be ﬂux of the incident neutron
beam, and λ be the decay constant of
198
Au. Then
dN
1
dt
= −σIN
1
,
dN
2
dt
=σIN
1
−λN
2
.
Integrating we have
N
1
= N
1
(0)e
−σIt,
,
N
2
=
σI
λ −σI
N
1
(0)(¯ e
σIt
−e
−λt
) .
As
λ =
ln2
2.7 24 3600
= 2.97 10
−6
s
−1
,
σI = 9.78 10
−23
10
12
= 9.78 10
−11
s
−1
<λ,
at t = 5 min = 300 s the activity of
198
Au is
A(300s) = λN
2
(t) =
λσIN
1
(0)
λ −σI
(e
−σIt
−e
−λt
) ≈ σIN
1
(0)(1 −e
−λt
)
= 9.78 10
−11
1.18 10
21
[1 −exp(−2.97 10
−6
300)]
= 1.03 10
8
cm
−2
s
−1
.
(b) After equilibrium is attained, the activity of a nuclide, and hence
the number of its nuclei, remain constant. This is the maximum amount of
198
Au that can be produced. As
dN
2
dt
= 0 ,
we have
λN
2
= σIN
1
≈ σIN
1
(0)
Nuclear Physics 375
giving
N
2
=
σI
λ
N
1
(0) =
9.78 10
−11
2.97 10
−6
1.18 10
21
= 3.89 10
16
cm
−2
.
(c) As
A =
2
3
A
max
≈ σIN
1
(0)(1 −e
−λt
) ,
t = −
1
λ
ln
1 −
2
3
A
max
σIN
1
(0)
= −
1
λ
ln
1 −
2
3
= 3.70 10
5
s = 4.28 day.
2102
In the ﬁssion of
235
U, 4.5% of the ﬁssion lead to
133
Sb. This isotope is
unstable and is the parent of a chain of βemitters ending in stable
133
Cs:
133
Sb
10min
−→
133
Te
60min
−→
133
I
22hours
−→
133
Xe
5.3days
−→
133
Cs .
(a) A sample of 1 gram of uranium is irradiated in a pile for 60 minutes.
During this time it is exposed to a uniform ﬂux of 10
11
neutrons/cm
2
sec.
Calculate the number of atoms of Sb, Te, and I present upon removal from
the pile. Note that uranium consists of 99.3%
238
U and 0.7%
235
U, and the
neutron ﬁssion cross section of
235
U is 500 barns. (You may neglect the
shadowing of one part of the sample by another.)
(b) Twelve hours after removal from the pile the iodine present is re
moved by chemical separation. How many atoms of iodine would be ob
tained if the separation process was 75% eﬃcient?
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) The number of Sb atoms produced in the pile per second is
C =N
0
f σ 4.5%
=
1 0.007
235
6.023 10
23
10
11
500 10
−24
0.045
=4.04 10
7
s
−1
.
376 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Let the numbers of atoms of Sb, Te, I present upon removal from the pile
be N
1
, N
2
, N
3
and their decay constants be λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
respectively. Then
λ
1
=
ln 2
600
= 1.16 10
−3
s
−1
, λ
2
= 1.93 10
−4
s
−1
, λ
3
= 8.75 10
−6
s
−1
,
and
dN
1
dt
= C −λ
1
N
1
, with N
1
= 0 at t = 0, giving for T = 3600 s,
N
1
(T) =
C
λ
1
(1 −e
−λ
1
T
) = 3.43 10
10
,
dN
2
dt
= λ
1
N
1
−λ
2
N
2
, with N
2
= 0, at t = 0, giving
N
2
(T) =
C
λ
2
1 +
λ
2
λ
1
−λ
2
e
−λ
1
T
−
λ
1
λ
1
−λ
2
e
−λ
2
T
= 8.38 10
10
,
dN
3
dt
= λ
2
N
2
−λ
3
N
3
, with N
3
= 0, at t = 0, giving
N
3
(T) =
C
λ
3
¸
1 −
λ
2
λ
3
e
−λ
1
T
(λ
1
−λ
2
)(λ
1
−λ
3
)
−
λ
3
λ
1
e
−λ
2
T
(λ
2
−λ
3
)(λ
2
−λ
1
)
+
C
λ
3
¸
λ
2
λ
3
(λ
1
−λ
2
)(λ
1
−λ
3
)
−
λ
1
λ
3
(λ
1
−λ
2
)(λ
2
−λ
3
)
−1
e
−λ
3
T
=
C
λ
3
¸
1 −
λ
2
λ
3
e
−λ
1
T
(λ
1
−λ
2
)(λ
1
−λ
3
)
−
λ
3
λ
1
e
−λ
2
T
(λ
2
−λ
3
)(λ
2
−λ
1
)
−
λ
1
λ
2
e
−λ
3
T
(λ
3
−λ
1
)(λ
3
−λ
2
)
≈
C
λ
3
(1 −e
−λ
3
T
)
=
C
λ
3
(1 −0.969) = 2.77 10
10
.
(b) After the sample is removed from the pile, no more Sb is produced,
but the number of Sb atoms will decrease with time. Also, at the initial
time t = T, N
1
, N
2
, N
3
are not zero. We now have
N
1
(t) =N
1
(T)e
−λ
1
t
,
N
2
(t) =
λ
1
λ
2
−λ
1
N
1
(T)e
−λ
1
t
+
¸
N
2
(T) +
λ
1
N
1
(T)
λ
1
−λ
2
e
−λ
2
t
,
N
3
(t) =
λ
1
λ
2
N
1
(T)
(λ
2
−λ
1
)(λ
3
−λ
1
)
e
−λ
1
t
+
λ
2
λ
3
−λ
2
¸
N
2
(T) +
λ
1
N
1
(T)
λ
1
−λ
2
e
−λ
2
t
+
¸
N
3
(T) +
λ
2
λ
2
−λ
3
N
2
(T) +
λ
1
λ
2
N
1
(T)
(λ
1
−λ
3
)(λ
2
−λ
3
)
e
−λ
3
t
.
Nuclear Physics 377
For t = 12 hours, as t τ
1
, τ
2
,
N
3
(12 hours) ≈
¸
N
3
(T) +
λ
2
λ
2
−λ
3
N
2
(T) +
λ
1
λ
2
N
1
(T)
(λ
1
−λ
3
)(λ
2
−λ
3
)
e
−λ
3
t
=10
10
[2.77 + 8.80 + 3.62]
exp(−8.75 10
−6
12 3600)
=1.04 10
11
.
The number of atoms of I isotope obtained is
N = 0.75 N
3
= 7.81 10
10
.
2103
A foil of
7
Li of mass 0.05 gram is irradiated with thermal neutrons
(capture cross section 37 milllibars) and forms
8
Li, which decays by β
−

decay with a halflife of 0.85 sec. Find the equilibrium activity (number of
βdecays per second) when the foil is exposed to a steady neutron ﬂux of
3 10
12
neutrons/seccm
2
.
(Columbia)
Solution:
Let the
7
Li population be N
1
(t), the
8
Li population be N
2
(t). Initially
N
1
(0) =
0.05
7
6.023 10
23
= 4.3 10
21
, N
2
(0) = 0 .
During the neutron irradiation, N
1
(t) changes according to
dN
1
dt
= −σφN
1
,
where σ is the neutron capture cross section and φ is the neutron ﬂux, or
N
1
(t) = N
1
(0)e
−σφt
.
N
2
(t) changes according to
dN
2
dt
= −
dN
1
dt
−λN
2
(t) = N
1
(0)σφe
−σφt
−λN
2
(t) ,
378 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
where λ is the βdecay constant of
8
Li. Integration gives
N
2
(t) =
σφ
λ −σφ
(e
−σφt
−e
−λt
)N
1
(0) .
At equilibrium,
dN
2
dt
= 0, which gives the time t it takes to reach equilib
rium:
t =
1
λ −σφ
ln
λ
σφ
.
As λ =
ln 2
0.85
= 0.816 s
−1
, σφ = 3.7 10
−26
3 10
12
= 1.11 10
−13
s
−1
,
t ≈
1
λ
ln
λ
σφ
= 3.63 s .
The equilibrium activity is
A = λN
2
≈
λσφN
1
(0)
λ −σφ
≈ σφN
1
(0) = 4.77 10
8
Bq = 12.9 mc .
2104
In a neutronactivation experiment, a ﬂux of 10
8
neutrons/cm
2
sec is
incident normally on a foil of area 1 cm
2
, density 10
22
atoms/cm
3
, and
thickness 10
−2
cm (Fig. 2.37). The target nuclei have a total cross section
for neutron capture of 1 barn (10
−24
cm
2
), and the capture leads uniquely
to a nuclear state which βdecays with a lifetime of 10
4
sec. At the end of
100 sec of neutron irradiation, at what rate will the foil be emitting βrays?
(Wisconsin)
Fig. 2.37
Solution:
Let the number of target nuclei be N(t), and that of the unstable nuclei
resulting from neutron irradiation be N
β
(t). As the thickness of the target
is 10
−2
cm, it can be considered thin so that
Nuclear Physics 379
dN(t)
dt
= −σφN(t) ,
where φ is the neutron ﬂux, σ is the total neutron capture cross section of
the target nuclei. Integration gives N(t) = N(0)e
−σφt
. As σφ = 10
−24
10
8
= 10
−16
s
−1
, σφt = 10
−14
<1 and we can take N(t) ≈ N(0), then
dN
dt
≈ −σφN(0) ,
indicating that the rate of production is approximately constant.
Consider the unstable nuclide. We have
dN
β
(t)
dt
≈ σφN(0) −λN
β
(t) ,
where λ is the βdecay constant. Integrating we have
N
β
(t) =
σφN(0)
λ
(1 −e
−λt
) ,
and so
A = N
β
(t)λ = σφN(0)(1 −e
−λt
) .
At t = 100 s, the activity of the foil is
A = 10
−16
10
22
1 10
−2
(1 −e
−10
−2
) = 99.5 s
−1
as
λ =
1
10
4
= 10
−4
s .
2105
Radioactive dating is done using the isotope
(a)
238
U.
(b)
12
C.
(c)
14
C.
(CCT)
Solution:
14
C. The radioactive isotope
14
C maintains a small but ﬁxed proportion
in the carbon of the atomsphere as it is continually produced by bombard
ment of cosmic rays. A living entity, by exchanging carbon with the atmo
sphere, also maintains the same isotopic proportion of
14
C. After it dies,
380 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
the exchange ceases and the isotopic proportion attenuates, thus providing
a means of dating the time of death.
12
C is stable and cannot be used for
this purpose.
238
U has a halflife of 4.5 10
9
years, too long for dating.
2106
14
C decays with a halflife of about 5500 years.
(a) What would you guess to be the nature of the decay, and what are
the ﬁnal products? Very brieﬂy explain.
(b) If no more
14
C enters biological systems after their death, estimate
the age of the remains of a tree whose radioactivity (decays/sec) of the type
given in (a) is 1/3 of that of a comparable but relatively young tree.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a)
14
C is a nuclide with excess neutrons, and so it will β
−
decay to
14
N
according to
14
C →
14
N +e
−
+ ¯ v
e
.
(b) The number of
14
C of a biological system attenuates with time after
death according to N(t) = N(0)e
−λt
, which gives the activity of
14
C as
A(t) = λN(t) = A(0)e
−λt
.
Thus the age of the dead tree is
t =
1
λ
ln
A(0)
A(t)
=
τ
1/2
ln2
ln
A(0)
A(t)
=
5500
ln2
ln
3
1
= 8717 years .
2107
Plutonium (
238
Pu, Z = 94) has been used as power source in space
ﬂights.
238
Pu has an αdecay halflife of 90 years (2.7 10
9
sec).
(a) What are the Z and N of the nucleus which remains after αdecay?
Nuclear Physics 381
(b) Why is
238
Pu more likely to emit α’s than deuterons as radiation?
(c) Each of the αparticles is emitted with 5.5 MeV. What is the power
released if there are 238 gms of
238
Pu (610
23
atoms)? (Use any units you
wish but specify.)
(d) If the power source in (c) produces 8 times the minimum required to
run a piece of apparatus, for what period will the source produce suﬃcient
power for that function.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The daughter nucleus has N = 142, Z = 92.
(b) This is because the binding energy of αparticle is higher than that
of deuteron and so more energy will be released in an αdecay. For
238
Pu,
238
94
Pu →
234
92
U +α, Q = 46.186 −38.168 −2.645 ≈ 5.4 MeV,
238
94
Pu →
236
93
Np +d, Q = 46.186 −43.437 −13.136 ≈ −10.4 MeV.
Deuterondecay is not possible as Q < 0.
(c) Because of the recoil of
234
U, the decay energy per
238
Pu is
E
d
= E
α
+E
U
=
p
2
α
2m
α
+
p
2
α
2m
U
= E
α
1 +
m
α
m
U
= 5.5
238
234
= 5.6 MeV.
As the halflife of
238
Pu is T
1/2
= 90 yr = 2.710
9
s, the decay constant is
λ = ln 2/T
1/2
= 2.57 10
−10
s
−1
.
For 238 g of
238
Pu, the energy released per second at the beginning is
dE
dt
= E
d
dN
dt
= E
d
λN
0
= 5.62.5710
−10
610
23
= 8.610
14
MeV/s .
(d) As the amount of
238
Pu nuclei attenuates, so does the power output:
W(t) = W(0)e
−λt
.
When W(t
0
) = W(0)/8,
t
0
= ln8/λ = 3 ln2/λ = 3T
1/2
= 270 yr.
Thus the apparatus can run normally for 270 years.
382 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
6. NUCLEAR REACTIONS (2108 2120)
2108
Typical nuclear excitation energies are about 10
−2
, 10
1
, 10
3
, 10
5
MeV.
(Columbia)
Solution:
10
1
MeV.
2109
The following are atomic masses in units of u (1 u = 932 MeV/c
2
).
Electron 0.000549
152
62
Sm 151.919756
Neutron 1.008665
152
63
Eu 151.921749
1
1
H 1.007825
152
64
Gd 151.919794
(a) What is the Qvalue of the reaction
152
Eu(n,p)?
(b) What types of weakinteraction decay can occur for
152
Eu?
(c) What is the maximum energy of the particles emitted in each of the
processes given in (b)?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The reaction
152
Eu +n →
152
Sm+p has Qvalue
Q =[m(
152
Eu) +m(n) −m(
152
Sm) −m(p)]c
2
=[M(
152
Eu) +m(n) −M(
152
Sm) −M(
1
H)]c
2
=0.002833 u = 2.64 MeV,
where m denotes nuclear masses, M denotes atomic masses. The eﬀects
of the binding energy of the orbiting electrons have been neglected in the
calculation.
(b) The possible weakinteraction decays for
152
Eu are βdecays and
electron capture:
Nuclear Physics 383
β
−
decay :
152
Eu →
152
Gd +e
−
+ ¯ ν
e
,
β
+
decay :
152
Eu →
152
Sm+e
+
+ν
e
,
orbital electron capture :
152
Eu +e
−
→
152
Sm+ν
e
.
Consider the respective Qvalues:
β
−
decay : E
d
(β
−
) = [M(
152
Eu) −M(
152
Gd)]c
2
= 1.822 MeV > 0 ,
energetically possible.
β
+
decay : E
d
(β
+
) =[M(
152
Eu) −M(
152
Sm) −2m(e)]c
2
=0.831 MeV > 0 ,
energetically possible.
Orbital electron capture:
E
d
(EC) = [M(
152
Eu) −M(
152
Sm)]c
2
−W
j
= 1.858 MeV−W
j
,
where W
j
is the electron binding energy in atomic orbits, the subscript j
indicating the shell K, L, M, etc., of the electron. Generally W
j
<1 MeV,
and orbital electron capture is also energetically possible for
152
Eu.
(c) As the mass of electron is much smaller than that of the daughter
nucleus, the latter’s recoil can be neglected. Then the maximum energies
of the particles emitted in the processes given in (b) are just the decay
energies. Thus
for β
−
decay, the maximum energy of electron is 1.822 MeV,
for β
+
decay, the maximum energy of positron is 0.831 MeV.
For orbital electron capture, the neutrinos are monoenergetic, their ener
gies depending on the binding energies of the electron shells from which they
are captured. For example, for K capture, W
k
≈ 50 keV, E
ν
≈ 1.8 MeV.
2110
(a) Consider the nuclear reaction
1
H +
A
X →
2
H +
A−1
X .
384 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
For which of the following target nuclei
A
X do you expect the reaction to
be the strongest, and why?
A
X =
39
Ca,
40
Ca,
41
Ca .
(b) Use whatever general information you have about nuclei to estimate
the temperature necessary in a fusion reactor to support the reaction
2
H +
2
H →
3
He +n.
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) The reaction is strongest with a target of
41
Ca. In the reaction the
proton combines with a neutron in
41
Ca to form a deuteron. The isotope
41
Ca has an excess neutron outside of a doublefull shell, which means that
the binding energy of the last neutron is lower than those of
40
Ca,
39
Ca,
and so it is easier to pick up.
(b) To facilitate the reaction
2
H+
2
H →
3
H+n, the two deuterons must
be able to overcome the Coulomb barrier V (r) =
1
4πε
0
e
2
r
, where r is the
distance between the deuterons. Take the radius of deuteron as 2 fm. Then
r
min
= 4 10
−15
m, and V
max
=
1
4πε
0
e
2
r
min
. The temperature required is
T
V
max
k
=
1
4πε
0
e
2
r
min
1
k
=
1
4πε
0
e
2
c
c
r
min
1
k
=
1
137
197 10
−15
4 10
−15
1
8.6 10
−11
= 4 10
9
K .
In the above k is Boltzmann’s constant. Thus the temperature must be
higher than 410
9
K for the fusion reaction
2
H+
2
H →
3
He +n to occur.
2111
(a) Describe one possible experiment to determine the positions (exci
tation energies) of the excited states (energy levels) of a nucleus such as
13
C. State the target, reaction process, and detector used.
(b) In the proposed experiment, what type of observation relates to the
angular momentum of the excited state?
(Wisconsin)
Nuclear Physics 385
Solution:
(a) Bombard a target of
12
C with deuterons and detect the energy spec
trum of the protons emitted in the reaction
12
C(d,p)
13
C with a goldsilicon
surfacebarrier semiconductor detector. This, combined with the known
energy of the incident deuterons, then gives the energy levels of the excited
states of
13
C. One can also use a Ge detector to measure the energy of the
γrays emitted in the deexcitation of
13
C
∗
and deduce the excited energy
levels.
(b) From the known spinparity of
12
C and the measured angular dis
tribution of the reaction product p we can deduced the spinparity of the
resultant nucleus
13
C.
2112
Given the atomic mass excess (M −A) in keV:
1
n = 8071 keV,
1
H = 7289 keV,
7
Li = 14907 keV,
7
Be = 15769 keV,
and for an electron m
0
c
2
= 511 keV.
(a) Under what circumstances will the reaction
7
Li(p,n)
7
Be occur?
(b) What will be the laboratory energy of the neutrons at threshold for
neutron emission?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
(a) In
7
Li +p →
7
Be + n +Q the reaction energy Q is
Q =∆M(
7
Li) + ∆M(
1
H) −∆M(
7
Be) −∆M(n)
=14907 + 7289 −15769 −8071 = −1644 keV.
This means that in the centerofmass system, the total kinetic energy
of
7
Li and p must reach 1644 keV for the reaction to occur. Let E, P be
the total energy and momentum of the proton in the laboratory system.
We require
(E +m
Li
c
2
)
2
−P
2
c
2
= ([Q[ +m
Li
c
2
+m
p
c
2
)
2
.
386 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
As E
2
= m
2
p
c
4
+ P
2
c
2
, E ≈ T + m
p
c
2
, [Q[ < m
Li
, m
p
, we have
2(E −m
p
c
2
)m
Li
c
2
≈ 2[Q[(m
Li
+m
p
)c
2
, or
T =
m
p
+m
Li
m
Li
[Q[ ≈
1 + 7
7
1644 = 1879 keV.
Thus the kinetic energy T of the incident proton must be higher than
1879 keV.
(b) The velocity of the center of mass in the laboratory is
V
c
=
m
p
m
p
+m
Li
V
p
.
As at threshold the neutron is produced at rest in the centerofmass system,
its velocity the laboratory is V
c
. Its laboratory kinetic energy is therefore
1
2
m
n
V
2
c
=
1
2
m
n
m
2
p
(m
p
+m
Li
)
2
2T
m
p
=
m
n
m
p
T
(m
p
+m
Li
)
2
≈
T
64
= 29.4 keV.
2113
The nucleus
8
Be is unstable with respect to dissociation into two α
particles, but experiments on nuclear reactions characterize the two lowest
unstable levels as
J = 0, even parity, ∼95 keV above the dissociation level,
J = 2, even parity, ∼3 MeV above the dissociation level.
Consider how the existence of these levels inﬂuence the scattering of
αparticles from helium gas. Speciﬁcally:
(a) Write the wave function for the elastic scattering in its partial wave
expansion for r →∞.
(b) Describe qualitatively how the relevant phase shifts vary as functions
of energy in the proximity of each level.
(c) Describe how the variation aﬀects the angular distribution of α
particles.
(Chicago)
Solution:
(a) The wave function for elastic scattering of αparticle (He
++
) by
a helium nucleus involves two additive phase shifts arising from Coulomb
Nuclear Physics 387
interaction (δ
l
) and nuclear forces (η
l
). To account for the identity of the
two (spinless) particles, the spatial wave function must be symmetric with
an even value of l. Its partial wave at r →∞ is
∞
¸
l=0
1 + (−1)
l
2
(2l + 1)i
l
e
i(δ
l
+η
l
)
1
kr
sin
¸
kr −
lπ
2
−γ ln(2kr) +δ
l
+η
l
P
l
(cos θ) ,
where k is the wave number in the centerofmass system and γ = (2e)
2
/v,
v being the relative velocity of the αparticles.
(b) The attractive nuclear forces cause each η
l
to rise from zero as
the centerofmass energy increases to moderately high values. Speciﬁcally
each η
l
rises rather rapidly, by nearly π radians at each resonance, as the
energy approaches and then surpasses any unstable level of a deﬁnite l of
the compound nucleus, e.g., near 95 keV for l = 0 and near 3 MeV for l = 2
in the case of
8
Be.
However, the eﬀect of nuclear forces remains generally negligible at en
ergies lower than the Coulomb barrier, or whenever the combination of
Coulomb repulsion and centrifugal forces reduces the amplitude of the rel
evant partial wave at values of r within the range of nuclear forces. Thus
η
l
remains ∼ 0 (or ∼ nπ) except when very near a resonance, where η
l
,
rises by π anyhow. Taking R ∼ 1.5 fm as the radius of each He
++
nucleus,
the height of the Coulomb barrier when two such nuclei touch each other
is B ∼ (2e)
2
/2R ∼ 2 MeV. Therefore the width of the l = 0 resonance
at 95 keV is greatly suppressed by the Coulomb barrier, while the l = 2
resonance remains broad.
(c) To show the eﬀect of nuclear forces on the angular distribution one
may rewrite the partial wave expansion as
∞
¸
l=0
1 + (−1)
l
2
(2l + 1)i
l
e
iδ
l
1
kr
sin
kr −
lπ
2
−γ ln(2kr) +δ
l
+
e
2iη
l
−1
2i
exp
¸
i
kr −
lπ
2
−γ ln(2kr) +δ
l
¸
P
l
(cos θ) .
Here the ﬁrst term inside the brackets represents the Coulomb scattering
wave function unaﬀected by nuclear forces. The contribution of this term
can be summed over l to give
388 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
expi¦kr cos θ −γ ln[kr(1 −cos θ)] +δ
0
¦ −γ(kr)
−1
expi¦kr cos θ
−γ ln(kr) +δ
0
¦
1
√
2
¸
e
−iγ ln(1−cos θ)
1 −cos θ
+
e
−iγ ln(1+cos θ)
1 + cos θ
.
The second term represents the scattering wave due to nuclear forces, which
interferes with the Coulomb scattering wave in each direction. However,
it is extremely small for η
l
very close to nπ, as for energies below the
Coulomb barrier. Accordingly, detection of such interference may signal
the occurence of a resonance at some lower energy.
An experiment in 1956 showed no signiﬁcant interference from nuclear
scattering below 300 keV centerofmass energy, at which energy it was
found η
0
= (178 ±1) degrees.
2114
A 3MV Van de Graaﬀ generator is equipped to accelerate protons,
deuterons, doubly ionized
3
He particles, and alphaparticles.
(a) What are the maximum energies of the various particles available
from this machine?
(b) List the reactions by which the isotope
15
O can be prepared with
this equipment.
(c) List at least six reactions in which
15
N is the compound nucleus.
Fig. 2.38
(d) Describe two types of reaction experiment which can be carried out
with this accelerator to determine energy levels in
15
N. Derive any equations
Nuclear Physics 389
needed. (Assume all masses are known. Figure 2.38 shows the isotopes of
light nuclei.)
(Columbia)
Solution:
(a) The available maximum energies of the various particles are: 3 MeV
for proton, 3 MeV for deuteron, 6 MeV for doubly ionized
3
He, 6 MeV for
αparticle.
(b) Based energy consideration, the reactions that can produce
15
O are
p +
14
N →
15
O +γ, Q = 7.292 MeV,
d +
14
N →
15
O +n, Q = 5.067 MeV,
3
He +
13
C →
15
O +n, Q = 6.476 MeV.
15
O cannot be produced with αparticles because of their high binding
energy and small mass, which result in Q = −8.35 MeV.
(c) The reactions in which
15
N is the compound nucleus are
α +
11
B →
15
N
∗
→
14
N +n, Q = 0.158 MeV,
→
15
N
∗
→
14
C +p, Q = 0.874 MeV,
→
15
N
∗
→
15
N +γ, Q = 10.991 MeV,
d +
13
C →
15
N
∗
→
14
N +n, Q = 5.325 MeV,
→
15
N
∗
→
11
B +α, Q = 5.168 MeV,
→
15
N
∗
→
14
C +p, Q = 5.952 MeV.
(d) (1) For the reaction α+
11
B →
15
N
∗
→
15
N +γ, measure the γray
yield curve as a function of the energy E
α
of the incoming αparticles. A
resonance peak corresponds to an energy level of the compound nucleus
15
N
∗
, which can be calculated:
E
∗
=
11
15
E
α
+m(
4
He)c
2
+m(
11
B)c
2
−m(
15
N)c
2
.
(2) With incoming particles of known energy, measuring the energy
spectrums of the produced particles enables one to determine the energy
levels of
15
N
∗
. For instance, the reaction
390 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
3
He +
14
N →
15
N +d
has Q = 4.558 MeV for ground state
15
N. If the incoming
3
He has en
ergy E
0
, the outgoing deuteron has energy E
and angle of emission θ, the
excitation energy E
∗
is given by
E
∗
= Q−Q
,
where
Q
=
¸
1 +
m(d)
m(
15
N)
E
−
¸
1 −
m(
3
He)
m(
15
N)
E
0
−
2
m(
3
He)m(d)E
0
E
m(
15
N)
cos θ
=
1 +
2
15
E
−
1 −
3
15
E
0
−2
√
3 2E
0
E
15
cos θ
=
1
15
(17E
−12E
0
−2
6E
0
E
cos θ) .
2115
When Li
6
(whose ground state has J = 1, even parity) is bombarded
by deuterons, the reaction rate in the reaction Li
6
+ d → α + α shows
a resonance peak at E (deuteron)= 0.6 MeV. The angular distribution of
the αparticle produced shows a (1 + Acos
2
θ) dependence where θ is the
emission angle relative to the direction of incidence of the deuterons. The
ground state of the deuteron consists of a proton and a neutron in
3
S
1
conﬁguration. The masses of the relevant nuclides are
m
d
=2.0147 amu, m
α
= 4.003 amu,
m
Li
=6.0170 amu, m
Be
= 8.0079 amu,
where 1 amu = 938.2 MeV.
From this information alone, determine the energy, angular momentum,
and parity of the excited level in the compound nucleus. What partial
wave deuterons (s,p,d, etc.) are eﬀective in producing this excited level?
(explain)
(Columbia)
Nuclear Physics 391
Solution:
The excitation energy of the compound nucleus
8
Be
∗
in the reaction
d +
6
Li →
8
Be
∗
is
E(
8
Be
∗
) = [m(
2
H) +m(
6
Li) −m(
8
Be)] +E
d
m(
6
Li)
m(
6
Li) +m(
2
H)
= (2.0147 + 6.0170 −8.0079) 938.2 + 0.6
6
8
= 22.779 MeV.
In the decay
8
Be
∗
→α+α, as J
π
of α is 0
+
, the symmetry of the total
wave function of the ﬁnal state requires that l
f
, the relative orbital angular
momentum of the two αparticles, be even and the decay, being a strong
interaction, conserve parity, the parity of
8
Be
∗
is π(
8
Be
∗
) = (−1)
l
f
(+1)
2
=
+1.
As the angular distribution of the ﬁnal state αparticles is not spherically
symmetric but corresponds to l
f
= 2, we have
J
π
(
8
Be
∗
) = 2
+
.
Then the total angular momentum of the initial state d+
6
Li is also J
i
= 2.
As J
i
= J
d
+J
Li
+l
i
= 1 +1 +l
i
and as
1 +1 =
0
1, the possible values of l
i
are 0,1,2,3,4.
2
However, the ground state parities of
6
Li and d are both positive, l
i
must
be even. As the angular distribution of the ﬁnal state is not isotropic, l
i
= 0
and the possible values of l
i
are 2,4. So dwaves produce the main eﬀect.
2116
Fast neutrons impinge on a 10cm thick sample containing 10
21 53
Cr
atoms/cm
3
. Onetenth of one percent of the neutrons are captured into a
spinparity J
π
= 0
+
excited state in
54
Cr. What is the neutron capture
cross section for this state? The excited
54
Cr sometimes γdecays as shown
in Fig. 2.39. What is the most likely J
π
for the excited state at 9.2 MeV?
What are the multipolarities of the γrays?
(Wisconsin)
392 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution:
Let the number of neutrons impinging on the sample be n and the
neutron capture cross section for forming the 0
+
state be σ. Then 10
10
21
nσ = 10
−3
n, or
σ = 10
−25
cm
2
= 0.1 b .
Let the spinparity of the 9.2 MeV level be J
p
. As
54
Cr only occasionally
γdecays, the transitions are probably not of the E1 type, but correspond to
the next lowest order. Consider 0
+
→J
p
. If ∆J = 2, the electric multipole
ﬁeld has parity (−1)
∆J
= +, i.e. J
p
= 2
+
, and the transition is of the E2
type. The transitions γ
2
, γ
3
are also between 0
+
and 2
+
states, so they are
probably of the E2 type too. For γ
4
: 2
+
→2
+
, we have ∆L = 1, 2, 3 or 4.
For no parity change between the initial and ﬁnal states, γ
4
must be E2,
E4 or M1, M3. Hence most probably γ
4
= E2, or M1, or both.
Fig. 2.39
2117
The surface of a detector is coated with a thin layer of a naturally
ﬁssioning heavy nuclei. The detector area is 2 cm
2
and the mean life of the
ﬁssioning isotope is
1
3
10
9
years (1 yr = 3 10
7
sec.). Twenty ﬁssions are
detected per second. The detector is then placed in a uniform neutron ﬂux
Nuclear Physics 393
of 10
11
neutrons/cm
2
/sec. The number of ﬁssions detected in the neutron
ﬂux is 120 per second. What is the cross section for neutroninduced ﬁssion?
(Wisconsin)
Solution:
Let the number of the heavy nuclei be N. Then the number of natural
ﬁssions taking place per second is
dN
dt
= −λN ≈ −λN
0
,
where N
0
= N[
t=0
, as λ =
1
1
3
×10
9
×3×10
7
= 10
−16
<1.
The number of induced ﬁssions per second is σNφ ≈ σN
0
φ, where φ is
the neutron ﬂux, σ is the cross section for neutroninduced ﬁssion. As
σN
0
φ +λN
0
λN
0
=
120
20
,
or
σφ
λ
=
100
20
= 5 ,
we have
σ =
5λ
φ
=
5 10
−16
10
11
= 5 10
−27
cm
2
= 5 mb.
2118
(a) How do you expect the neutron elastic scattering cross section to
depend on energy for very low energy neutrons?
(b) Assuming nonresonant scattering, estimate the thermal neutron
elastic cross section for
3
He.
(c) Use the information in the partial level scheme for A = 4 shown in
Fig. 2.40 to estimate the thermal neutron absorption cross section for
3
He.
Resonant scattering may be important here.
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) For thermal neutrons of very low energies, the elastic scattering cross
section of light nuclei does not depend on the neutron energy, but is constant
394 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.40
for a large range of energy. But for heavier nuclei, resonant scattering can
occur in some cases at very low neutron energies. For instance, resonant
scattering with
157
Gd occurs at E
n
= 0.044 eV.
(b) The thermal neutron nonresonant scattering cross section for nuclei
is about 4πR
2
0
, where R
0
is the channel radius, which is equal to the sum
of the radii of the incoming particle and the target nucleus. Taking the
nuclear radius as
R ≈ 1.5 10
−13
A
1/3
,
the elastic scattering cross section of
3
He for thermal neutron is
σ = 4πR
2
0
≈ 4π[1.5 10
−13
(3
1/3
+ 1)]
2
= 1.7 10
−24
cm
2
= 1.7 b .
(c) The Breit–Wigner formula
σ
nb
= π
¯
λ
2
Γ
n
Γ
b
(E
−E
0
)
2
+ Γ
2
/4
can be used to calculate the neutron capture cross section for
3
He in the
neighborhood of a single resonance. Here
¯
λ is the reduced wavelength of the
incident particle, E
is the energy and E
0
is the energy at resonance peak
of the compound nucleus A = 4, Γ
n
and Γ
b
are the partial widths of the
resonant state for absorption of neutron and for emission of b respectively,
and Γ is the total level width.
Nuclear Physics 395
For laboratory thermal neutrons, E
n
≈ 0.025 eV ,
¯
λ =
√
2µE
n
=
2m
n
m
He
m
n
+m
He
E
n
=
c
3
2
E
n
m
n
c
2
=
197 10
−13
3
2
2.5 10
−8
940
= 3.3 10
−9
cm.
As both the ﬁrst excited and ground states of
4
He have 0
+
, Γ
γ
= 0, and
the only outgoing channel is for the excited state of
4
He to emit a proton.
The total width is Γ = Γ
n
+ Γ
p
. With Γ
n
≈ 150 eV , Γ ≈ Γ
p
= 1.2 MeV,
E
= 20.6 MeV, E = 20.1 MeV, we obtain
σ = π
¯
λ
2
Γ
n
Γ
p
(E
−E
0
)
2
+ Γ
2
/4
= 1 10
−20
cm
2
= 1 10
4
b .
2119
Typical cross section for low energy neutronnucleus scattering is 10
−16
,
10
−24
, 10
−32
, 10
−40
cm
2
.
(Columbia)
Solution:
10
−24
cm
2
. The radius of the sphere of action of nuclear forces is ∼
10
−12
− 10
−13
cm, and a typical scattering crosssection can be expected
to be of the same order of magnitude as its crosssectional area.
2120
In experiments on the reaction
21
Ne(d,
3
He)
20
F with 26 MeV deuterons,
many states in
20
F are excited. The angular distributions are characteristic
of the direct reaction mechanism and therefore are easily sorted into those
for which the angular momentum of the transferred proton is l
p
= 0 or 1
or 2.
The lowest energy levels of
21
Ne and the known negativeparity states
of
20
F below 4 MeV are as shown in Fig. 2.41 (the many positiveparity
excited states of
20
F are omitted).
396 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.41
The relative l
p
= 1 strengths S(J
π
) observed in the (d,
3
He) reaction
are approximately
S(1
−
) =0.84 ,
S(2
−
1
) =0.78 ,
S(2
−
2
) =0.79 ,
S(3
−
) =0.00 .
(a) If the
21
Ne target and a
20
F state both have (1s0d) conﬁguration,
they both have positive parity and therefore some l
p
= 0 or l
p
= 2 transi
tions are expected. On the other hand, the ﬁnal states of
20
F with negative
parity are excited with l
p
= 1. Explain.
(b) In order to explain the observed negativeparity states in
20
F, one
can try a coupling model of a hole weakly coupled to states of
21
Ne. With
this model of a
21
Ne nucleus with an appropriate missing proton and level
diagrams as given above, show how one can account for the negativeparity
states in
20
F.
(c) In the limit of weak coupling; i.e., with no residual interaction be
tween the hole and the particles, what would be the (relative) energies of
the 4 negativeparity states?
(d) What would be the eﬀect if now a weak particlehole interaction
were turned on? Do the appropriate centroids of the reported energies of
the 1
−
, 2
−
, 2
−
, 3
−
states conform to this new situation?
Nuclear Physics 397
(e) The weak coupling model and the theory of direct reactions lead
to speciﬁc predictions about the relative cross sections (strengths) for the
various ﬁnal states. Compare these predictions with the observed Sfactors
given above. Show how the latter can be used to obtain better agreement
with the prediction in part (d).
(Princeton)
Solution:
(a) The reactions are strong interactions, in which parity is conserved.
So the parity change from initial to ﬁnal state must equal the parity of the
proton that is emitted as part of
3
He:
P(
21
Ne) = P(
20
F)P(p) = P(
20
F)(−1)
l
p
.
When both
20
F and
21
Ne have even parity, (−1)
l
p
= 1 and so l
p
= 0, 2 .
As conservation of the total angular momentum requires that l
p
be 0, 1,
2, we have l
p
= 0, 2. Similarly, for the negativeparity states of
20
F, the
angular momentum that the proton takes away can only be 1, 3 . In
particular for 1
−
and 2
−
states of
20
F, l
p
= 1.
(b) In the weak coupling model,
20
F can be considered as consisting of
21
Ne and a proton hole (p
−
). J
p
of
20
F is then determined by a neutron
in 1d
3/2
, 1d
5/2
, or 2s
1/2
and a proton hole in 1p
1/2
, 1p
3/2
or 2s
1/2
, etc.,
outside of full shells (Fig. 2.16). For example, the 1
−
state of
20
F can be
denoted as
[1M` =[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
; 1, M`
=
¸
m
1
,m
2
1
2
,
3
2
, m
1
, m
2
1, M
ψ
1/2m
ψ
3/2m
.
where
1
p
−1
1/2
means a proton hole in 1p
1/2
state, 1d
3/2
means a neutron in
1d
3/2
state. In the same way, the 2
−
can be denoted as
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
; 2, M` and [1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
; 2, M` ,
the 3
−
state can be denoted as
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
; 3, M` .
398 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(c) We have H = H
p
+H
h
+V
ph
, where H
p
and H
h
are respectively the
Hamiltonian of the nuclear center and the hole, and V
ph
is the potential
due to the interaction of the hole and the nuclear center. In the limit of
weak coupling,
V
ph
= 0 ,
H
p
ψ(a
1
, j
1
, m
1
) = E
a
1
,j
1
,m
1
ψ(a
1
, j
1
, m
1
) ,
H
h
φ(a
2
, j
2
, m
2
) = E
a
2
,j
2
,m
2
φ(a
2
, j
2
, m
2
) .
Then for the four negativeparity states we have
3
−
: E
3
− = E
p
(1d
5/2
) +E
h
(1p
1/2
) ,
2
−
1
: E
2
−
1
= E
p
(1d
5/2
) +E
h
(1p
1/2
) ,
2
−
2
: E
2
−
2
= E
p
(1d
3/2
) +E
h
(1p
1/2
) ,
1
−
: E
1
− = E
p
(1d
3/2
) +E
h
(1p
1/2
) .
Thus E
3
− = E
2
−
1
, E
2
−
2
= E
1
−, as shown in Fig. 2.42, with values
E
3
− = E
2
−
1
= 1230 keV, E
2
−
2
= E
1
− = 890 keV.
Fig. 2.42
(d) If V
ph
= 0, i.e., coupling exists, then
E
3
− = H
p
(1d
5/2
) +H
h
(1p
1/2
) +'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 3[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 3` ,
E
1
− = H
p
(1d
3/2
) +H
h
(1p
1/2
) +'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 1[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 1` .
Nuclear Physics 399
As
'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 3
−
[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 3
−
` ≈ 0.7 MeV,
'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 1
−
[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 1
−
` ≈ 0.1 MeV,
'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2
−
[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2
−
` = 0.45 MeV,
'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 2
−
[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 2
−
` = 0.25 MeV,
'1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2
−
[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 2
−
`
= '1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 2
−
[V
ph
[1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2
−
`
= 0.3 MeV.
the above gives
E
3
−
= 0.9 + 0.35 + 0.7 = 1.95 MeV
E
1
−
= 0.9 + 0.1 = 1.0 MeV.
E
2
−
1
and E
2
−
2
are the eigenvalues of the matrix
1p
−1
1/2
; 1d
5/2
, 2
−
H1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2
−
1p
−1
1/2
; 1d
5/2
, 2
−
H1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 2
−
1p
−1
1/2
; 1d
3/2
, 2
−
H1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
5/2
, 2
−
1p
−1
1/2
; 1d
3/2
, 2
−
H1p
−1
1/2
, 1d
3/2
, 2
−
.
The secular equation
λ −1.95 −0.3
−0.3 λ −1.1
= 0
gives E
2
−
1
= λ
1
= 1.80 MeV, E
2
−
2
= λ
2
= 1.26 MeV.
The energy levels are shown in Fig. 2.43.
400 Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.43
(e) The relative strengths of the various ﬁnal states as given by diﬀerent
theories are compared in the table below:
Nilson model PHF Shell model Experimental
S(1
−
) 0.70 0.76 0.59 0.84
S(2
−
1
) 0.93 0.20 0.72 0.78
S(2
−
2
) 0.28 0.20 0.23 0.79
S(3
−
) 0.002 0.00
It is noted in particular that for S(2
−
2
), the theoretical values are much
smaller than the experimental values.
208
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Third argument  Nuclear magnetic moment. If the nucleus consists of neutrons and protons, the nuclear magnetic moment is the sum of the contributions of the two kinds of nucleons. While diﬀerent coupling methods give somewhat diﬀerent results, the nuclear magnetic moment should be of the same order of magnitude as that of a nucleon, µN . On the other hand, if the nucleus consisted of protons and electrons, the nuclear magnetic moment should be of the order of magnitude of the magnetic moment of an electron, µe ≈ 1800µN . Experimental results agree with the former assumption, and contradict the latter. Fourth argument  βdecay. Nucleus emits electrons in βdecay, leaving behind a daughter nucleus. So this is a twobody decay, and the electrons emitted should have a monoenergetic spectrum. This conﬂicts with the continuous β energy spectrum found in such decays. It means that, in a βdecay, the electron is accompanied by some third, neutral particle. This contracts the assumption that there were only protons and electrons in a nucleus. The four arguments above illustrate that electrons do not exist in the nucleus.
2002 The size of the nucleus can be determined by (a) electron scattering, (b) energy levels of muonic atoms, or (c) ground state energies of the isotopic spin multiplet . Discuss what physical quantities are measured in two and only two of these three experiments and how these quantities are related to the radius of the nucleus. (SUNY, Buﬀalo) Solution: (a) It is the nuclear form factor that is measured in electron scattering experiments: (dσ)exp F (q 2 ) = , (dσ)point where (dσ)exp is the experimental value, (dσ)point is the theoretical value obtained by considering the nucleus as a point. With ﬁrst order Born approximation, we have
Nuclear Physics
209
F (q 2 ) = Assuming ρ(r) = ρ(r) and q · r F (q 2 ) ≈
ρ(r)eiq·r d3 r . 1, we have ρ(r)(q · r)2 d3 r
1 1 ρ(r) 1 + (iq · r)2 d3 r = 1 − 2 2 1 c2
π
=1−
ρ(r)q 2 r2 · 4πr2 dr
0
1 cos2 θ sin θdθ 2
1 = 1 − q 2 r2 6 with r2 = ρ(r)r2 d3 r. By measuring the angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons, we can deduce F (q 2 ), and so obtain the charge distribution ρ(r) as a function of r, which gives a measure of the nuclear size. (b) We can measure the energy diﬀerences between the excited states and the ground state of the muonic atom. As the mass of a muon is mµ ≈ 210me, the ﬁrst radius of the muonic atom is aµ ≈ (1/210)a0, where a0 is the Bohr radius, so that the energy levels of muonic atom are more sensitive to its nuclear radius. Consider for example the s state, for which the Hamiltonian is 1 H=− ∇2 + V (r) . 2mµ If the nucleus can be considered as a point charge, then V (r) = V0 (r) = −e2 /r, r being the distance of the muon from the nucleus. If on the other hand we consider the nuclear charge as being uniformly distributed in a sphere of radius R, then 2 − e (3R2 − r2 ) , 0 < r ≤ R , 2R3 V (r) = e2 − , r > R. r To obtain the energy shift of the ground state, ∆E, caused by the ﬁnite size of the nucleus, we take 2 2 − e (3R2 − r2 ) + e , 0 < r ≤ R , 3 2R r H = H − H0 = V (r) − V0 (r) = 0, r > R, as perturbation. Then
As R ∼ 10−12 cm. We can measure the energy of the Xrays emitted in the transition from the ﬁrst excited state to the ground state. protons and neutrons as probes. Then ∆E =
2 5
e2 2aµ
R aµ
2
.4 fm. A) − M (Z − 1.e. (a) What are the criteria in selecting the probe? Explain. shape and density distribution one employs electrons. i. 5R
from which R is deduced 1 It has been found that R ≈ R0 A 3 with R0 = 1. aµ ∼ 10−10 cm. (b) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the probes mentioned above. EX = (E1 − E0 ) − 2 5 e2 aµ R aµ
2
. (c) The nuclear structures of the same isotopic spin multiplet are the same so that the mass diﬀerence in the multiplet arises from electromagnetic interactions and the protonneutron mass diﬀerence. is known.
neglecting terms of order and higher. Thus (Problem 2009) ∆E ≡ [M (Z.
2003 To study the nuclear size.
where Φ0 = take
R aµ
1 πa3 µ
1/2 − r aµ
e
. we can
2r aµ
1 and hence e−2r/aµ ≈ 1 −
R ( aµ )3
. E1 is the energy level of the ﬁrst excited state and E0 is the energy level of the ground state (for a pointcharge nucleus).210
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Nuclear and Particle Physics
R
∆E = Φ0 H Φ0 = 4π
0
Φ0 2 H r2 dr . If the diﬀerence between EX and (E1 − E0 ). A)]c2 = ∆Ee − (mn − mp )c2 = 3e2 2 [Z − (Z − 1)2 ] − (mn − mp )c2 .2 − 1.
where E1 and E0 are eigenvalues of H0 . R can be deduced.
.
In fact. For example. (Wisconsin)
. or Ee ≈ pc = 0. but usually a high energy electron beam is needed. Thus λ = h/p ≤ dn .
Interactions between protons and nuclei can be used to study the nuclear structure. long axis 10% longer than short axis). Neutrons as a probe are in principle much ‘neater’ than protons. or p ≥ h/dn .2 GeV/c. many important results have been obtained from electronnucleus scatterings. The results are therefore easy to analyze. Buﬀalo) Solution: (a) The basic criterion for selecting probes is that the de Broglie wavelength of the probe is less than or equal to the size of the object being studied. the high energy photons that must be used to interest with nuclei would show a hadronlike character and complicate the problem. (c) If photons are used as probe to study nuclear structure. only in electromagnetic interactions. where dn is the linear size of the nucleus. The advantage is that proton beams of high ﬂux and suitable parameters are readily available. we require pe ≈ /dn ≈ 0.Nuclear Physics
211
(c) What is your opinion about using photons for this purpose? (SUNY. what accuracy can you expect if you treat the nucleus as a point charge? Make reasonable estimate. Also detection and measurements are more diﬃcult for neutrons. As dn ≈ 10−13 cm. For an eﬀective study of the nuclear density distribution we require λ dn . it is much more diﬃcult to generate neutron beams of high energy and suitable parameters. (b) Electrons are a suitable probe to study the nuclear electromagnetic radius and charge distribution because electrons do not take part in strong interactions. If you compute the electric potential at the ﬁrst Bohr radius. take a medium nucleus. However. The disadvantage is that both electromagnetic and strong interactions are present in protonnucleus scatterings and the results are rather complex to analyse.
2004 Consider a deformed nucleus (shape of an ellipsoid. do not get involved in integration. shape and distribution.2 GeV .
53 × 10−8 cm. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: Assume the charge distribution in the nucleus is uniform. (Columbia) Solution: The precession frequency is given by ω= geB .
.1.
2005 The precession frequency of a nucleus in the magnetic ﬁeld of the earth is 10−1 . let the long axis be a = (1 + ε)R. 101 .22 2 2 2 2 (a − b2 ) = (a − b)(a + b) = R .4 × 103 s−1 .
at the ﬁrst Bohr radius r = 0. Thus the relative error in the potential if we treat the nucleus as a point charge is about 10−9 at the ﬁrst Bohr orbit. where ε is the deformed parameter. Hence the answer is 103 s−1 . 5 5 15
For a medium nucleus. ellipsoidal and axially symmetric. mN ≈ 4.1.2/3.5 Gs. where Vp = Q/r is the potential produced by the nucleus as a point charge. take A ∼ 125.8 × 10−10 esu. Then ∆V = Vq M 1. we have 3ε = 0.22 R2 1. and so 2 M= 1. 103 . Vq = M Q/r3 . or ε = 0. As a : b = 1.5×10−10 10−23 g for a light nucleus.212
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. for which R = 1. 2mN c
With g = 1. Then the electric dipole moment of the nucleus is zero. B ≈ 0. c = 3 × 1010 cm/s. and the potential can be written as V = Vp + Vq .53 × 10−8 ≈ 1 × 10−9 .22 = 2 = = × 2 Vp r 15 r 15 6 × 10−13 0. 105 sec−1 .2A1/3 = 6 fm. M being the electric quadrupole moment. ω = 2×10−23 ×3×1010 = 0. the short axis be b = (1 − ε/2)R. and R is the nuclear radius. e = 4.8×0. For the ellipsoid nucleus.
02603 6. 3 He2 .01605 3.01603 4. g(4 He2 ) = 0 .79 = 5. (a) What are the approximate magnetic moments of the neutron. µN is the nuclear magneton.1
Nuclide J π
1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 6 Li 3
Nuclide mass (amu) 1. 2J(J + 1)
+ g2
where J is the spin of the new particle.01410 3. and 6 Li3 ? (b) What is the maximumenergy βparticle emitted when 3 H1 decays to 3 He2 ? (c) Which reaction produces more energy.
When two particles of Land´ factors g1 and g2 combine into a new e particle of Land´ factor g.1. j1 and j2 are the spins of the constituent particles. where J is the nuclear spin.01512
magnetic moment (µN ) +2.5 MeV) in Table 2.86 — — 0 —
1/2+ 1+ 1/2+ 1/2+ 0+ 1+
Solution: The nuclear magnetic moment is given by µ = gµN J.79 +0. (assuming the orbital angular momentum of e relative motion is zero).58.86. Then from e the table it is seen that g(1 H1 ) = 2 × 2.Nuclear Physics
213
2006 Given the following information for several light nuclei (1 amu = 931.00783 2. the fusion of 3 H1 and 3 He2 2 or H1 and 4 He2 ? (Wisconsin) Table 2. then g = g1 J(J + 1) + j1 (j1 + 1) − j2 (j2 + 1) 2J(J + 1) J(J + 1) + j2 (j2 + 1) − j1 (j1 + 1) . g(2 H1 ) = 0.
. g is the Land´ factor. 3 H1 .
214
2
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. s = 1/2. j = 1/2.
Li3 can be considered as the combination of 4 He2 and 2 H1 . Let g1 = g(n). j1 = j2 = 1/2. For 3 H. µ(6 Li) = g(6 Li3 )µN × 1 = 0.86 . µ(3 He2 ) = −1.7 keV .79) = −3. Thus. Similarly 3 He has an unpaired n so that g(3 He) = g(n). with J = 1. l = 0.93µN .
6
µ(3 He) = −1.01603 = 0. j1 = 0. the magnetic moment is due to the last unpaired nucleon.79µN . g2 = g(1 H1 ). j2 = 1. or 2 2 g(n) = g1 = 2(0. 6 Li3 are therefore µ(n) = g(n)µN /2 = −1. Then 1 g1 + 1 g2 = g(2 H1 ). (b) The βdecay from 3 H1 to 3 He is by the interaction
3
H1 → 3 He2 + e− + νe . µ(3 H1 ) = 2. 3 H1 .79µN .
or g(6 Li3 ) = g(2 H1 ) = 0. According to the singleparticle shell model. g(3 H) = g(1 H).7 keV.93µN . Hence µ(3 H) = 2.86 − 2.93µN . with J = 1.
.86 . same as for 1 H.01605 − 3.
3
(a) The approximate values of the magnetic moments of neutron.00002 amu = 2 × 10−5 × 938 × 103 keV = 18. Hence the maximum energy of the βparticle emitted is 18. Hence g= 2−2 2×2 g1 + 2+2 2×2 g2 = g2 .86µN . ¯
where the decay energy is Q = m(3 H1 ) − m(3 He2 ) = 3. Nuclear and Particle Physics
H1 is the combination of a neutron and 1 H1 . He2 .
Nuclear Physics
215
(c) The fusion reaction of 3 H1 and 3 He2 ,
3
H1 + 3 He2 → 6 Li3 ,
releases an energy Q = m(3 H1 ) + m(3 He2 ) − m(6 Li3 ) = 0.01696 amu = 15.9 MeV . The fusion reaction of 2 H1 and 4 He2 ,
2
H1 + 4 He2 → 6 Li3 ,
releases an energy Q = m(2 H1 ) + m(4 He2 ) − m(6 Li3 ) = 0.02501 amu = 23.5 MeV . Thus the second fusion reaction produces more energy.
2007 To penetrate the Coulomb barrier of a light nucleus, a proton must have a minimum energy of the order of (a) 1 GeV. (b) 1 MeV. (c) 1 KeV. (CCT) Solution: The Coulomb barrier of a light nucleus is V = Q1 Q2 /r. Let Q1 ≈ Q2 ≈ e, r ≈ 1 fm. Then V = e2 /r = Hence the answer is (b). c r e2 c = 197 1 · = 1.44 MeV . 1 137
2008 What is the density of nuclear matter in ton/cm3 ? (a) 0.004. (b) 400. (c) 109 . (CCT)
216
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: The linear size of a nucleon is about 10−13 cm, so the volume per nucleon is about 10−39 cm3 . The mass of a nucleon is about 10−27 kg = 10−30 ton, so the density of nuclear matter is ρ = m/V ≈ 10−30 /10−39 = 109 ton/cm3 . Hence the answer is (c).
2009 (a) Calculate the electrostatic energy of a charge Q distributed uniformly throughout a sphere of radius R. (b) Since 27 Si and 27 Al are “mirror nuclei”, their ground states are 14 13 identical except for charge. If their mass diﬀerence is 6 MeV, estimate their radius (neglecting the protonneutron mass diﬀerence). (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The electric ﬁeld intensity the uniformly charged sphere is E(r) = The electrostatic energy is
∞
at a point distance r from the center of Qr R3 Q r2
for r < R , for r > R .
W =
0
1 2 E dτ 8π
R 0 R 0
=
Q2 8π Q2 2 Q 2
2
r R3
2
4πr2 dr +
∞ R
∞ R
1 4πr2 dr r4
= = =
r4 dr + R6
1 dr r2
1 1 + 5R R
3Q2 . 5R
Nuclear Physics
217
(b) The mass diﬀerence between the mirror nuclei 27 Si and 27 Al can be 14 13 considered as due to the diﬀerence in electrostatic energy: ∆W = Thus R= = 3e2 3 c (142 − 132 ) = 5∆W 5∆W e2 (142 − 132 ) c 3e2 2 2 (Z − Z2 ) . 5R 1
3 × 1.97 × 10−11 1 × × (142 − 132 ) 5×6 137
= 3.88 × 10−11 cm = 3.88 fm .
2010 The nucleus decays to its “mirror” nucleus 27 Al by positron emis13 sion. The maximum (kinetic energy+mec2 ) energy of the positron is 3.48 MeV. Assume that the mass diﬀerence between the nuclei is due to the Coulomb energy. Assume the nuclei to be uniformly charged spheres of charge Ze and radius R. Assuming the radius is given by r0 A1/3 , use the above data to estimate r0 . (Princeton) Solution:
27 14 Si 27 14 Si
→ 27 Al + β + + ν . 13
If the recoil energy of the nucleus is neglected, the maximum energy of the positron equals roughly the mass diﬀerence between the nuclei minus 2me c2 . The Coulomb energy of a uniformly charged sphere is (Problem 2009) 3e2 2 −1/3 3e2 Z 2 Ee = = Z A . 5R 5r0 For 27 Si and 27 Al, 14 13 Ee = or 3e2 − 1 27e2 27 3 (142 − 132 ) = = 3.48 + 1.02 = 4.5 MeV , 5r0 5r0
(Princeton)
90 39 Y51 90 40 Zr50
Solution: The energy diﬀerence between two members of the same isospin multiplet is determined by the Coulomb energies and the neutronproton mass diﬀerence.410 + 11. Nuclear and Particle Physics
r0 =
27e2 27 c = 5 × 4.5 5 × 4.218
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
2012 The masses of a set of isobars that are members of the same isospin multiplet can be written as the expectation value of a mass operator with the form 2 M = a + bTz + cTz .5
e2 c
=
27 × 1.89 + 783.916 = 13. Hence the excitation energy of the T = 6 state of
90
Zr is
E = −782.78 5 × 1.2A1/3 fm.73 × 10−13 cm = 1.
2011 The binding energy of is 783.
. Z + 1) − E(A.916 MeV.97 × 10−11 5 × 4. Z) = ∆Ee − (mn − mp )c2 = = 3e2 3(2Z + 1)c α (2Z + 1) − 0.2 × 901/3 × 137
= 11. Thus (Problem 2009) ∆E = E(A.5 × 137
= 1. The binding energy of is 782. Estimate the excitation energy of the lowest T = 6 isospin state in 90 Zr.89 MeV using R = 1.40 MeV .78 5R 5R 3(2 × 39 + 1) × 197 − 0.78 = − 0.410 MeV.73 fm .
c are constants and Tz is the operator for the z component of the isotopic spin. in order to test the formula experimentally we require at least T = 1. c = B. so three independent linear equations are needed for their determination.
2013 Both nuclei and have isospin T = 0 for the ground state. Their mass diﬀerences are determined by the Coulomb energies and the neutronproton mass diﬀerence. As there are (2T + 1) multiplets of an isospin T. Let the nuclear mass number be A. The lowest T = 1 state has an excitation energy of 2. b = C + BA. while the quadratic term is mainly due to the Coulomb energy.Nuclear Physics
219
where a. (b) There are three constants a.3 MeV in the case of
14 7N 12 6C
. (b) How large must the isospin be in order to test it experimentally? (Princeton) Solution: (a) Members of the same isospin multiplet have the same spinparity J p because of the similarity of their structures.c in the formula.b. then A = Z + N = 2Z − (Z − N ) = 2Z − 2Tz . As (Problem 2009) M= 3e2 Z 2 + (mp − mn )Tz + M0 5R A + Tz 2
2
=B =
+ CTz + M0
BA2 2 + BATz + BTz + CTz + M0 4 BA2 2 + (C + BA)Tz + BTz 4
= M0 +
2 = a + bTz + cTz
with a = M0 + BA2 /4. The linear terms in the formula arise from the neutronproton mass diﬀerence and the Coulomb energy. b. neutron number be N . (a) Derive this formula.
so they are the 5 6 7 5 7 ground states of the triplet. T = 1) = 2. we have
. Likewise.78 c
3 × 197 (2Z − 1) − 0. 12 B and 12 N have T3  = 1.4 fm and so M (14 N. 14 C and 14 O are the ground states of 6 8 the isospin triplet of the T = 1 excited states of 14 N.370 2.864 3.020
The energy diﬀerence between two nuclei of an isospin multiplet is ∆E = [M (Z. T = 1) − M (14 C. 12 C and 12 N. The binding energies 7 M − A are given in the table below. T = 1) − M (12 B.0 MeV in the case of 12 C.220
14 7N
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.78 MeV .2 MeV/c2 .) (Columbia) Solution:
The excited states with T = 1 of 12 C form an isospin triplet which 6 consists of 12 B. M (12 C. 5 × 137R0A1/3
Taking R0 ≈ 1. A) − M (Z − 1. Why is there such a marked 6 diﬀerence? Indicate also the basis on which a value of T is ascribed to such nuclear states. Nuclear and Particle Physics
and about 15.78 5R0 A1/3 3 c 5R0 A1/3 e2 (2Z − 1) − 0. T = 1) = 2. (Consider other members of the T = 1 triplets and explain their relationship in terms of systematic nuclear properties.
Elements
12 C 6 12 B 5 14 N 7 14 C 6
MA (MeV) 0 13. A)]c2 = = = = 3e2 (2Z − 1) − (mn − mp )c2 5R 3e2 (2Z − 1) − 0.5 MeV/c2 .
2 + 13. The mass diﬀerence between two isospin multiplet members is determined by the diﬀerence in the Coulomb energy of the nuclei and the neutronproton mass diﬀerence. M (12 C. which are in agreement with the experiment values 2. For example 14 O. Such data form the basis of isospin assignment. T = 1) − M (14 N.5 MeV) + ∆MZ.0 MeV.37 = 15.5 MeV/c2 . The large diﬀerence between the excitation energies of 12 C and 14 N is due to the fact that the ground state of 12 C is of an αgroup structure and so has a very low energy.5 + 3.
.A . T = 1) + M (14 C. T = 1) − M (12 C. T = 0) = M (12 C. The nuclei of an isospin multiplet have similar structures and the same J p .02 − 2. 14 N∗ and 14 C belong to the same isospin multiplet with J p = 0+ and ground states 14 C and 14 O. Similarly 12 C∗ .86 = 2. of which 14 N and 12 B are ground states while 12 C∗ is an excited state.A = A(931. T = 1) − M (14 N. T = 1) − M (12 C. T = 1) + M (12 B. 14 N∗ being an exciting state. T = 1) − M (14 C. The mass excess ∆MZ.A is deﬁned so that MZ.3 MeV and 15.Nuclear Physics
221
M (14 N.
2014 (a) Fill in the missing entries in the following table giving the properties of the ground states of the indicated nuclei. 12 C and 12 B form an isospin multiplet with J p = 1+ . T = 0) = 2. T = 0) = 2.66 MeV/c2 . T = 0) = M (14 N. T = 1) − M (12 B.
39
0 1 2 34 35 36 35 36 35 36 37
1/2− 3/2− 7/2+ 1+ 3/2− 7/2+ 3/2−
Solution: (a) The table is completed as shown in the next page.89 −77. indicate selection rules or other factors which might inhibit decay by that mode.43 −74.65 −77. (iii) Now estimate the decay energy available for decay of the IAS in 81 Kr by emission of a neutron. the same T . i. A is the mass member. but with Tz increased by 1. (b) (i) The isobasic analog state (IAS) is a highly excited state of a nucleus with the same mass number but with one higher atomic number. β + ray .A is the atomic mass.61 −73. and Tz for the IAS in 81 Kr? (ii) Estimate the excitation energy of the IAS in 81 Kr.29 2.90 −77. T . a state with the same A.24 −76. Thus
.
(iv) Assuming suﬃcient decay energy is available for each decay mode in (iii).e. T and Tz are the quantum members for the total isotopic spin and the third component of isotopic spin. αparticle. Nuclear and Particle Physics
where MZ. (Princeton)
Isotopes Z n
1H 4 He 77 Se 77 Br 77 Kr 80 Br 80 Kr 81 Br 81 Kr 81 Rb
Tz
T
Jp
Mass excess (MeV) 8. (i) What are J π .222
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.07 7. (b) The wave function of the isobaric analog state (IAS) in 81 Kr is obtained by operating on the 81 Br ground state wave function with the isospin upping operator T .98 −77. γray .24 −70. Deﬁne your convention for Tz .
Hence the excitation energy of 81 Kr(IAS) from the ground state of 81 Kr is ∆E = −67. With Z = 36.98 MeV. = ∆M81 Br + 0.Nuclear Physics
223
81
for 81 Br. Tz = 11/2. ∆M81 Br = −77.54 MeV . A = 81. For the γdecay
81
Kr(IAS) → 81 Kr + γ.43 −74.65 −77.24 −76.98 −77. For the αdecay
81
.
Isotopes Z n
1H 4 He 77 Se 77 Br 77 Kr 80 Br 80 Kr 81 Br 81 Kr 81 Rb
Kr
Tz −1/2 1/2 0 −9/2 −7/2 −5/2 −5 −4 −11/2 −9/2 −7/2
T 1/2 1/2 0 9/2 7/2 5/2 5 4 11/2 9/2 7/2
Jp 1/2+ 1/2+ 0+ 1/2− 3/2− 7/2+ 1+ 0+ 3/2− 7/2+ 3/2−
Mass excess (MeV) 8. T. mn − mp = 0.
Q1 = ∆M81 Kr(IAS) − ∆(n) − ∆M80 Kr = −67.29 2.29 − 8.07 + 77. Tz = −9/2.29 − (−77.719 (iii) For the neutrondecay
81
Kr(IAS)→ n+80 Kr.78 MeV.78 MeV .07 7.65) = 10. −11/2 .36 MeV .29 MeV.39
0 1 2 34 35 36 35 36 35 36 37
(ii) The mass diﬀerence between 81 Br and 81 Kr(IAS) is due to the difference between the Coulomb energies of the nuclei and the neutronproton mass diﬀerence: 3 (2Z − 1)e2 − [m(n) − M (1 H)] ∆M81 Kr(IAS) = ∆M81 Br + × 5 R0 A1/3 2Z − 1 − 0.2 fm. the quantum numbers of the IAS in are T = 11/2.36 MeV .61 −73.
Q2 = ∆M81 Kr(IAS) − ∆M81 Kr = −67. J p [81 Kr(IAS)] = J p (81 Br) = 3/2−.90 −77. we have ∆M81 Kr(IAS) = −67.24 −70.65) = 10.89 −77.29 − (−77. 1 A3 as R0 = 1. Kr(IAS) → α+77 Se.90 = 2.
67 MeV . For the β + decay
81
Kr(IAS) →81 Br + β + + νe . (iv) In the interaction
81
n 1 T : 11/2 4 2 ∆T = 0. being a mixture of the Fermi type and Gamow–Teller type interactions.
.
Q4 = ∆M81 Kr(IAS) − ∆M81 Br − 2me = − 67. ∆P = −1.29 − (−77.98) − 1. the interaction is inhibited.29 − 2. In the interaction Jp : we have ∆J = 3 − 2 M 2 type transition. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Q3 = ∆M81 Kr(IAS) − ∆Mα − ∆M77 Se = − 67.43 − (−74. so it can take place through E3 or
81
The interaction T : Tz :
Kr(IAS) → 11/2 −9/2
77
Se
+ α 0 0
9/2 −9/2
is inhibited as isospin is not conserved.
7 2 81
Kr(IAS) →
81
Kr +
Kr(IAS) →
3− 2
81
Kr + γ
7+ 2
= 2.89 MeV . As strong interaction requires conservation of T and Tz .61) = 4. The interaction Jp :
81
Kr(IAS) → 3/2−
81
Br + β + + νe
3− 2
is allowed.02 = 9.
2015 Isospin structure of magnetic dipole moment.224
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
793µN respectively. 0 −1
.Nuclear Physics
225
The magnetic dipole moments of the free neutron and free proton are −1. p − n. gs = 2µp and S is the spin operator 1 σ. To account for this. having their free moments. τ2 = . if Coulomb forces are ignored. gs = 2µn . (Princeton) Solution: (a) The magnetic moment operator for a nucleus of A nucleons is
A i i (gl li + gs Si ) . 1 0 i 0 1 0 τ3 = . 0 1 0 1 0 −i vector operators: Pauli matrices. 2 (b) Charge independence has been found to hold for protons and neutrons such that. i=l
µ=
where for neutrons: gl = 0. for protons: gl = 1. There are four independent operators in isospin space: 2 1 0 scalar operator: unit matrix I = . the p − p. What are their relative sizes? (c) Show that the sum of magnetic moments in nuclear magnetons of two T = 1/2 mirror nuclei is
A
J + (µp + µn − 1/2)
i=l (i)
(i) σz . n − n forces are identical provided the pair of nucleons are in the same spin and orbital motions.913µN and +2. (b) Introduce the concept of isospin and determine the isoscalar and isovector operators. τ1 = . isospin T is introduced such that p and n have the same T while the z component Tz in isospin space is Tz = 1 for p 2 and Tz = − 1 for n.
where J is the total nuclear spin and σz is the Pauli spin operator for a nucleon. (a) Write down the magnetic moment operator for a nucleus of A nucleons. Consider the nucleus to be a collection of neutrons and protons.
Thus mirror nuclei have the same T but opposite Tz . 2 T + Ψn = Ψp . T − Ψp = Ψn .
since gl ψp = ψp .
1 . i=1
. etc. 1 . In other words. 2 τ3 Ψp = Ψp .226
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. and deﬁne τ± = τ1 ± iτ2 . i=1
Similarly for the other nucleus we have µ2 = 1 2
A i i (l2 + S2 ) + µp + µn − i=1
1 2
A i S2 + i=1
1 2
A i i i τ3 [l2 + 2(µp − µn )S2 ] . τ3 Ψn = −Ψn . Then
A
µ1 =
i=1
i (1 + τ3 ) i l1 + 2
A i (1 + τ3 )µp + i=1
A i i (1 − τ3 )µn Sl i=1
=
1 2 +
A i i (l1 + S1 ) + µp + µn − i=1
1 2
A i S1 i=1
1 2
A i i i τ3 [l1 + 2(µp − µn )S1 ] . the magnetic moment operator is
A
µ1 =
i=1
i i i i (gl l1 + gs S1 ) . − 2 . 2 For the ﬁrst nucleus. ψn = 0
0 1
1 T 3 Ψn = − Ψn . for mirror nuclei. Then T 3 Ψp = 1 Ψp . gl ψn = 0. if the isospin quantum numbers of the ﬁrst nucleus are 1 .
We can write gl = 1 (1 + τ3 ). 2 gs = (1 + τ3 )µp + (1 − τ3 )µn .
(c) The mirror nucleus is obtained by changing all the protons of a nucleus into neutrons and all the neutrons into protons. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Let the wave functions of proton and neutron be ψp = respectively. T = τ /2. then those of the 2 2 1 second are 1 .
2016 Hard sphere scattering: Show that the classical cross section for elastic scattering of point particles from an inﬁnitely massive sphere of radius R is isotropic.Nuclear Physics
A
227
As J i = i=1 (li + S i ). the mirror nuclei have J 1 = J 2 but opposite T3 A i values. Then for the ﬁrst nucleus: µ1 = JJz 1 2 1 1 Jz 1 + µp + µn − 22 2 2
A i i i τ3 [l1z + 2(µp − µn )S1z ] JJz i=1 A i (σ1 )z i=1
×
1 2
A i (σ1 )z i=1
+
11 22
=
Jz 1 1 + µp + µn − 2 2 2 + JJz 11 1 22 2
A
i i i τ3 [l1z + 2(µp − µn )S1z ] JJz i=1
11 22
.
The sum of the magnetic moments of the mirror nuclei is µ1 + µ2 = Jz + µp + µn − 1 2
A i σz . S = 1 σ. i=1
as the last terms in the expression for µ1 and µ2 cancel each other. where T3 = 1 i=1 τ3 . (MIT)
.
and for the second nucleus: µ2 = Jz 1 1 + µp + µn − 2 2 2 + JJz 1 1 1 − 2 2 2
A i i i τ3 [l2z + 2(µp − µn )S2z ] JJz i=1 A i (σ1 )z i=1
1 1 − 2 2
. 2 2 The observed magnetic moment is µ = µz = JJz T T3µz JJz T T3 .
in elastic scattering of a point particle from a ﬁxed surface. Thus if a particle moving along the −z direction impinges on a hard sphere of radius R at a surface point of polar angle θ. (b) How should α depend on the nuclear charge Z? (Columbia) Solution: (a) In Born approximation m V (r)e−iq. where θ is the angle between 2 the incident and outgoing particles. + (∆k)2
. f =− f (θ) = − =− =− m 2π 2 2m 2 ∆k 2mQq
2 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 2π 0 π
V (r)e−i∆kr cos θ sin θr2 drdϕdθ
V (r) sin(∆kr)rdr
0
·
α2
1 . (a) Use the Born approximation 1 2m f =− e−i∆k·r 2 V (r)d3 r 4π to calculate the scattering cross section σ. the emergent angle equals the incident angle.r d3 r . showing that the scattering is isotropic. 2π 2 where q = k−k0 is the momentum transferred from the incident particle to the outgoing particle. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: In classical mechanics. As V (r) is spherically symmetric. dΩ 2π sin αdα 4 sin θ cos θdθ 4 which is independent of θ. We have q = 2k0 sin θ . Where α−1 represents the screening length of the atomic electrons. the diﬀerential scattering cross section is 2πbdb R2 sin θ cos θdθ R2 dσ = = = . As the impact parameter is b = R sin θ. it is deﬂected by an angle α = 2θ.228
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
2017 A convenient model for the potential energy V of a particle of charge q scattering from an atom of nuclear charge Q is V = qQe−αr /r.
2018 Consider the scattering of a 1keV proton by a hydrogen atom. and a reason for your answer. (Wisconsin) Solution: The diﬀerential cross section for elastic scattering is (Problem 2017) dσ m2 q 2 Q2 = 4 dΩ 4 4 k0 1
2 α2 4 4k0
. + α2 )
(b) α−1 gives a measure of the size of atoms. The wave length is
. (b) Estimate the total cross section.
+ sin2
θ 2
and the total crosssection is σ= dσ = m2 Q2 q 2 4 4 4 k0
2π 0 0 π
sin θdθdϕ
α2 2 4k0
+ sin2
θ 2
2
=
4 α2 (4k 2 0
16πm2 Q2 q 2 . R0 being the Bohr radius of hydrogen atom.Nuclear Physics
229
The diﬀerential cross section is dσ = f (θ)2 dΩ = = m2 Q2 q 2 4 · 4 4 k0 4m2 Q2 q 2
4
·
[α2
2
dΩ + (∆k 2 )]2
dΩ
α2 2 4k0
. Give a numerical answer in cm2 . enhancing the screening eﬀect. (a) What do you expect the angular distribution to look like? (Sketch a graph and comment on its shape). 2 m or barns. Hence α is an increasing function of Z. the number of electrons outside of the nucleus as well as the probability of their being near the nucleus will increase.
+ sin θ 2
For proton and hydrogen nuclues Q = q = e. The screening length can be taken to be α−1 ≈ R0 . As Z increases. For an incident proton of 1 keV.
. The probability of large angle scattering (near headon collision) is very small.1
(b) As given in Problem 2017. σ= 16πm2 e4 16πm2 e4 ≈ 4 2 2 3) +α α 4k0 mc2 R0 λ 0 ¯ c e2 c
2
4 α2 (4k 2 0
= 4π
= 4π
938 × 5.
which is the Rurthford scattering formula.76 × 1012 fm2 = 1. 2. showing that hydrogen atom has a very small nucleus.3 × 104 fm.
α2 2 4k0
1 and so
dσ m2 e4 1 ≈ 2 2 dΩ 4 k0 sin4
θ 2
.230
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.76 × 10−14 cm2 . The scattering of 1keV protons from hydrogen atom occurs mainly at small angles (see Fig. Nuclear and Particle Physics
= λ0 = √ ¯ 2µE
c 2µc2 E
197 = 203 fm .
Fig. 2.3 × 104 × 203 197 × 137
2
= 1. =√ 1 × 938 × 10−3 =
2 λ0 ¯ 2α−1
With α−1 ≈ R0 = 5.1).
. Explicitly calculate dσ/dΩ at 300 .2 also. we have dσ 1 ≈ 2 eiδ0 sin δ0 + 3eiδ1 sin δ1 cos θ2 dΩ k = = = 1 (cos δ0 sin δ0 + 3 cos δ1 sin δ1 cos θ) + i(sin2 δ0 + 3 sin2 δ1 cos θ)2 k2 1 [sin2 δ0 + 9 sin2 δ1 cos2 θ + 6 sin δ0 sin δ1 cos(δ1 − δ0 ) cos θ] k2 1 [0.49 cos θ] . The data are plotted in Fig. What is the total cross section σ? (b) What does the fact that all of the phase shifts δ2 . .
. (Columbia) Solution: (a) The diﬀerential cross section is given by 1 dσ = 2 dΩ k
∞ l=0 2
(2l + 1)eiδl sin δl Pl (cos θ) . 2.4 × 1029 m−2 = 2. Assuming all other phase shifts to be negligible. 450 and 900 . δ3 . the phase describing the elastic scattering of a neutron by a certain nucleus has the following values: δ0 = 300 .27 cos2 θ + 0. k2
where k is the wave number of the incident neutron in the centerofmass frame. Then k2 ≈ 2mn E
2
=
2mn c2 E 2 × 938 × 5 = 2 ( c) 1972 × 10−30
= 2.
Supposing only the ﬁrst and second terms are important. Assume that the mass of the nucleus is far larger than that of the neutron mn .4 × 1025 cm−2 . are negligible imply about the range of the potential? Be as quantitative as you can.Nuclear Physics
231
2019 (a) At a centerofmass energy of 5 MeV. The diﬀerential cross section for other angles are given in the following table.25 + 0. plot dσ/dΩ as a function of scattering angle. δ1 = 100 .
73 3.232
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.27 3
= 1.25 +
π
(0.27 cos2 θ) sin θdθ
0
1 × 0.0
1800 0 0
The total cross section is σ= = 4π k2 2π dσ dΩ = 2 dΩ k 0.25 1.
where Jl is a spherical Bessel function.25 + 0.2
300 0.18 b .2
θ 2 dσ k dΩ dσ × 1026 (cm2 ) dΩ
00 1 4. for higher l values Jl in the region of potential V (r) is rather small and can be neglected. 2. In other words. being negligible means that the potential range is within R ≈ 1/k.4 × 1025 )−1/2 = 2 × 10−13 cm = 2 fm.0
900 0.
.7
450 0. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. δ3 . δ2 . Thus the range of the potential is R ≈ (2. . .
(b) The phase shift δl is given by δl ≈ − 2mn k
2 0 ∞
V (r)Jl2 (kr)r2 dr .78 × 10−25 cm2 ≈ 0. As the maximum of Jl (x) occurs nears x = l.88 3.49 cos θ + 0.
¯ The reduced mass of the system is µ= For E = 1000 eV.
. ¯ As 1 − e2iδ 2 = we have e2iδ  = or e2iδ = ±0.
πλ 2 = 707 × 10−24 cm2 . Hence the elastic cross section σe = π λ 2 e2iδ − 12 ¯ has maximum and minimum values √ σin 400 = 0.659 . only swave scattering is involved. λ =√ ¯ = 2µE = c 2µc2 E 197 2×
12 13
12 mn mc mn . what upper and lower limits can you place on the elastic scattering cross section? (Chicago) Solution: At 1 keV kinetic energy.566 . The elastic and inelastic cross sections are respectively given by σe = π λ 2 e2iδ − 12 .Nuclear Physics
233
2020 Neutrons of 1000 eV kinetic energy are incident on a target composed of carbon.659 . The phase shift δ must have a positive imaginary part for inelastic process to take place. If the inelastic cross section is 400 × 10−24 cm2 . ≈ mc + mn 13
× 940 × 10−3
= 150 fm .566 = 0. ¯ σin = π λ 2 (1 − e2iδ 2 ) . = πλ 2 707 ¯ 1 − 0.
Nuclear and Particle Physics
(σe )max = 707 × 10−24 (−0. Berkeley)
. Let fc (pi . (σe )min = 707 × 10−24 (0. Let ρ(x) denote the charge density in the nucleus. and then compute. Find this relationship.3 shows some experimental results pertaining to the form factor for the proton. of charge Ze. On the basis of the data shown..e. The charge distribution is assumed to be spherically symmetric but otherwise arbitrary. depends on pi and pf only through the quantity q 2 .659 − 1)2 = 1946 × 10−24 cm2 . at q 2 = 0. Hint: Note that there is a simple relationship between the rootmeansquare radius and the derivative of F (q 2 ) with respect to q 2 . pf ). its mass is assumed inﬁnite). where pi is the initial and pf the ﬁnal momentum. (a) The form factor F (q 2 ) and the Fourier transform of the charge density ρ(x) are related in a very simple manner. compute the rootmeansquare (charge) radius of the proton.659 − 1)2 = 82 × 10−24 cm2 . pf ) is called the form factor. It is easily seen that F. remains ﬁxed in space (i. on careful consideration it will probably be clear that the assumption is irrelevant: the same result applies in the “relativistic” case of the actual experiment. We also assume that the nucleus. State and derive this relationship within the framework of the nonrelativistic Schr¨dinger theory. (UC. Let q = pi −pf denote the momentum transfer. and we shall regard our theory as applicable to these data.234
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. pf ) = F (q 2 )fc (pi . in fact. be the scattering amplitude in the ﬁrst Born approximation for the scattering of an electron from a pointnucleus of charge Ze. (b) Figure 2. The quantity F deﬁned by f (pi . o The assumption that the electrons are “nonrelativistic” is here made so that the problem will be simpliﬁed. We shall here consider a simple version in which the electrons are supposed to have zero spin. It is also the case that the neglect of the electron spin does not aﬀect the essence of what we are here concerned with. However. Let f (pi .
2021 The study of the scattering of high energy electrons from nuclei has yielded much interesting information about the charge distributions in nuclei and nucleons. pf ) be the scattering amplitude of an electron from a real nucleus of the same charge.
V (x) = x − r Thus m ρ(r)Ze f (pi .Nuclear Physics
235
Fig. the potential at position x is ρ(r)Ze 3 d r. 2π 2 For a nucleus of spherically symmetric charge distribution. 2. pf ) = − V (x)eiq·x/ d3 x .3
Solution: (a) In the ﬁrst Born approximation. x
Ze x
On the other hand. pf ) = −
and so
. e 2π 2 x Comparing the two equations above we obtain fc (pi . the scattering amplitude of a high energy electron from a nucleus is m f (pi . pf ) = − d3 xeiq·x/ d3 r 2 2π x − r =− =− m 2π 2 m 2π 2 d3 rρ(r)eiq·r/ d3 rρ(r)eiq·r/ d3 x d3 x Ze iq·(x−r)/ e x − r Ze iq·x / e . for a point nucleus we have V (x) = m Ze iq·x/ 3 d x.
236
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.e.77 fm. F (q 2 ) = ≈ = ρ(r)eiq·r/ d3 r
d3 rρ(r)eiq·r/
d3 rρ(r)eiq·r/ . pf ) = fc (pi .1 × 10−26 cm2 2−0
Hence r2 = 0.3.. 2π q 2 3 2
= F (0) − i.
1 ρ(r) 1 + iq · r/ − (q · r)2 / 2 ρ(r)d3 r − 2π q 2 3 2 1 2
2
d3 r
(ρ(r)q 2 r2 cos2 θ/ 2 ) · r2 sin θdrdθdϕ r4 ρ(r)dr . 2.0 × 10−26 = 0. pf ) and hence F (q 2 ) = (b) When q ≈ 0. The meansquare
d3 rρ(r)r2 = 4π
2 F (q 2
ρ(r)r4 dr
2
= −6 From Fig. or r2 = 0. the rootmeansquare proton radius is 0. −
2
) − F (0) = −6 q2
∂F ∂q 2
.e. i.
q2 =0
∂F ∂q 2
≈−
q2 =0
0.
F (q 2 ) − F (0) = − Note that i ρ(r)q · rd3 r = 0 as radius r2 is by deﬁnition r2 =
r4 ρ(r)dr .
2022 The total (elastic+inelastic) protonneutron cross section at centerofmass momentum p = 10 GeV/c is σ = 40 mb.
..6 × 10−26 cm2 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
f (pi .8 − 1.77 × 10−13 cm.
π 0
cos θ sin θdθ = 0.
2023 When a 300GeV proton beam strikes a hydrogen target (see Fig. (a) What is the origin of this minimum? Estimate at what laboratory angle it should be located. and hence of the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory. what would be the position of the minimum? (c) If the target were lead instead of hydrogen.4). As k = p/ we have dσ dΩ pc ≥ σl 4π c
2
=
00
104 × 40 × 10−27 4π × 1. the cross section is found to have a (ﬁrst) minimum.97 × 10−11
2
= 2.Nuclear Physics
237
(a) Disregarding nucleon spin.6 b . Away from the exact forward direction.
where the relation between Imf (0) and σt is given by the optical theorem. (b) If the beam energy is increased to 600 GeV. what would happen to the position of the minimum (beam energy= 300 GeV)?
.6 × 10−24 cm2 = 2. 2. (b) Assume experiments were to ﬁnd a violation of this bound. set a lower bound on the elastic centerofmass protonneutron forward diﬀerential crosssection. the elastic cross section is maximum in the forward direction. hence of the unitarity of the Smatrix. What would this mean? (Chicago) Solution: (a) The forward p − n diﬀerential cross section is given by dσ dΩ = f (0)2 ≥ Imf (0)2 =
00
k σt 4π
2
. (b) Such a result would mean a violation of the optical theorem.
λ = h = 2π c = p pc = 4.238
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.1 × 10−16 cm. The ﬁrst minimum of the diﬀraction pattern will occur at an angle θ such that scattering from the center and scattering from the edge of the target proton are onehalf wavelength out of phase.
2π×1.. 1 (c) For P b : A = 208. if r = 1. 2.97×10−11 300×103
. scattering from the center and scattering from the edge are 3/2 wavelengths out of phase.0 × 10−13 cm. then λ → λ/2 and θmin → θmin /2 i.1 × 208 3 = 6. (b) If E → 600 GeV/c.05 × 10−3 rad. Thus the second minimum will occur at θmin = 3 × 3. the minimum occurs at 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(d) For lead. and we may expect the ﬁrst minimum to occur at θmin = 3. (d) At the second minium.1 × 10−16 cm .. i. Thus.e. is much smaller than the size ∼ 10−13 cm of the target proton.1 × 10−3 rad.6 × 10−4 rad. The wavelength of the incident proton.4
Solution: (a) The minimum in the elastic cross section arises from the destructive interference of waves resulting from scattering at diﬀerent impact parameters.e.2 × 10−4 rad. rθmin = λ/2 = 2.5 fm. the minimum will occur at θmin = 1.2 × 10−4 = 9. r = 1. at what angle would you expect the second minimum to occur? (Chicago)
Fig.
A). and may be considered as a correction to Bv . Be are respectively the volume and surface energies and the electrostatic energy between the protons. The Coulomb energy is proportional to Z 2 /R. r0 being a constant. which is proportional to the volume of the nucleus. the least stable. and so to Z 2 A−1/3 . M (A. Bs . Thus nuclides with proton number and neutron number being eveneven are the most stable. to the atomic number Z and the atomic weight A. oddodd. A departure from this condition leads 2 to instability and a smaller binding energy. A) . A) = Bv + Bs + Be + Ba + Bp = av A − as A2/3 − ae Z 2 A−1/3 − aa A −Z 2
2
A−1 + ap δA−1/2 . half as many nucleons as those in the interior. on the average. intermediate in stability. M (Z.
where Bv . Explain and justify each of the terms. neutrons and protons in a nucleus each have a tendency to exist in pairs. nuclei with Z = A is most stable. This eﬀect is accounted for by the pairing energy Bp = ap δA−1/2 . giving approximate values for the magnitudes of the coeﬃcients or constants in each term. (Columbia) Solution: The mass of a nucleus. given by the liquiddrop model as B(Z. is proportional to A.Nuclear Physics
239
2. Z). where the nucleons interact with only. NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY. A) = ZM (1 H) + (A − Z)mn − B(Z. Ba arises from the symmetry eﬀect that for nuclides with mass number A. is M (Z. As the nuclear radius can be given as r0 A−1/3 . Note that Bs arises because nucleus has a surface. Lastly. evenodd or oddeven. where B(Z. Similarly the surface energy is proportional to A2/3 . Bv . FISSION AND FUSION (2024 2047) 2024 The semiempirical mass formula relates the mass of a nucleus. where
. A) is the binding energy of the nucleus.
E. a4 = 23. These have been determined to be av = 15. surface. (c) Use a Fermi gas model to estimate the magnitude of a4 . the stable nuclides should satisfy ∂(B. You may assume A = 2Z and that the nuclear radius is R = R0 A1/3 .E. ∂Z giving Z= A 2+
a3 2/3 2a4 A
. as explained in Problem 2024 (where aa = 4a4 ). (a) Explain the various terms in this expression.714 MeV.
With a3 = 0. = a1 A − a2 A2/3 − a3 Z 2 A−1/3 − a4 (A − 2Z)2 A−1 .835 MeV. aa = 92.240
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. (Princeton) Solution: (a) The terms in the expression represent volume.
2025 The nuclear binding energy may be approximated by the empirical expression B. −1 for oddodd nucleus.33 MeV.20 MeV .80 MeV.20 MeV. as = 18. (b) Considering a set of isobaric nuclei.714 MeV . Coulomb and symmetry energies.
. Nuclear and Particle Physics
for eveneven nucleus. 1 δ= 0 for oddeven or evenodd nucleus. The values of the coeﬃcients can be determined by a combination of theoretical calculations and adjustments to ﬁt the experimental binding energy values. (b) For isobaric nuclei of the same A and diﬀerent Z. ae = 0. derive a relationship between A and Z for naturally occurring nuclei.) = −2A−1/3 a3 Z + 4a4 A−1 (A − 2Z) = 0 . ap = 11.
..2
=
3 40
9 4π 2
2 3
1 2 A(1
+ ε/A). m
For nucleus (A. R0 ≈ 1. As 1+ 1− ε A ε A
5/3
4π 3 3 R0 A. where A 1. Z) consider the neutrons and protons as independent gases in the nuclear volume V . Let N = ε − ε/A).. . h3 3 where we have assumed that each phase cell can accommodate two particles (neutrons or protons) of opposite spins.Nuclear Physics
241
A . 3A 9A2
=1−
. A2/3 C=
3 40 9 2/3 1 4π 2 mc2 hc R0 2
1 2 A(1
For stable nuclei. N ≈ Z. 1. The limiting momentum is then N= p0 = h and the corresponding energy is E= 3 40 3 π
2 3
2V 4π p5 · · 0 h3 5 2m
3 N · 8π V
1 3
h2 − 2 5 V 3N3 .0154A2/3 (c) A fermi gas of volume V at absolute temperature T = 0 has energy Z= E= and particle number 2V 4π 3 · · p0 . 1238 2 = 31.. Z =
=1+
5/3
5ε 5ε2 + + .2 fm.7 MeV .. 2 + 0. N + Z = A. 3A 9A2 5ε 5ε2 + − . Then the energy of the lowest state is E= 3 40 3 40 3 π
2/3
h2 N 5/3 + Z 5/3 m V 2/3 h2 N 5/3 + Z 5/3 2 mR0 A2/3
=
9 4π 2
2/3
=C where V = ×
1 940
N 5/3 + Z 5/3 .
2026 The greatest binding energy per nucleon occurs near 56 F e and is much less for 238 U .
. This may be due to the crudeness of the model. Nuclear and Particle Physics
we have N +Z ≈2 and E ≈ 2−2/3 CA 1 +
5 3 5 3
A 2
5 3
1+
5ε2 9A2
5ε2 5 (N − Z)2 = 2−2/3 CA + × 2−2/3 C . (Columbia) Solution: The semiempirical formula for the binding energy of nucleus (A.
The mean binding energy per nucleon is then ε = B/A = av − as A−1/3 − ae Z 2 A−4/3 − aa 1 Z − 2 A
2
+ ap δA−3/2 . Z) is B(Z. Explain this in terms of the semiempirical nuclear binding theory. A) = Bv + Bs + Be + Ba + Bp = av A − as A2/3 − ae Z 2 A−1/3 − aa A −Z 2
2
A−1 + ap δA−1/2 . State the semiempirical binding energy formula (you need not specify the values of the various coeﬃcients). where a4 = aa /4 = 23. 9A2 9 A
2
The second term has the form a4 (N −Z) with A a4 = 5 × 2−2/3 C ≈ 11 MeV . 9
The result is smaller by a factor of 2 from that given in Problem 2024.20 MeV.242
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
The contribution of the pairing energy (the last term) for the same A may be diﬀerent for diﬀerent combinations of Z. Adding together these terms. 2. as shown in Fig. 2. Where is the maximum of the curve? From the form of this curve explain nuclear ﬁssion and estimate the energy release per ﬁssion of 235 U . The surface energy makes a negative contribution whose absolute value decreases with increasing A.Nuclear Physics
243
Consider the ﬁve terms that contribute to ε. Give values in MeV. The symmetry energy makes a negative contribution too. reaching a ﬂat maximum at A ∼ 50 and then decreases gradually. its absolute value increasing with A because Z/A decreases when A increases. as accurately as you can.
Fig. N . is a constant. we see that the mean binding energy increases with A at ﬁrst.5. The contribution of the volume energy.5
2027 Draw a curve showing binding energy per nucleon as a function of nuclear mass. What force is principally responsible for the form of the curve in the upper mass region? (Wisconsin)
. The Coulomb energy also makes a negative contribution whose absolute value increases with A as Z and A increase together. though it generally decreases with increasing A. which is proportional to A.
244
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.5 − 7. How can this A dependence be understood? This implies an important property of nucleonnucleon forces. In nuclear ﬁssion a heavy nucleus dissociates into two medium nuclei. the mean binding energy goes beyond 8 MeV.5 shows the mean binding energy per nucleon as a function of nuclear mass number A. What is it called? Why is a neutron bound in a nucleus stable against decay while a lambda particle in a hypernucleus is not? (Wisconsin) Solution: The nuclear binding energy is more nearly proportional to A with a coeﬃcient of 15. For this reason the binding energy is proportional to A. the curve rises sharply for A < 30. but with considerable ﬂuctuations. As the number of nucleons increases further. the curve falls gradually. Here. a nucleon can only interact with its immediate neighbors and hence with only a limited number of other nucleons. which would be the case if
. we see that the products have higher mean binding energy.
2028 Is the binding energy of nuclei more nearly proportional to A(= N + Z) or to A2 ? What is the numerical value of the coeﬃcient involved (state units). Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: Figure 2. Here the internucleon interactions have not reached saturation and there are not too many nucleons present so that the mean binding energy increases rapidly with the mass number. As A increases further. the mean binding energy decreases slowly because of the eﬀect of Coulomb repulsion. The maximum occurs at A ∼ 50. As A increases from 0. rather than to A2 . with suﬃcient number of nucleons. the pairing and symmetry eﬀects signiﬁcantly aﬀect the mean binding energy causing it to ﬂuctuate. But because of the small number of nucleons. This excess energy is released. Because of the saturation property of nuclear forces. When A > 30.6 MeV. internucleon forces become saturated and so the mean binding energy tends to saturate too. Suppose the ﬁssion of 235 U produces two nuclei of A ∼ 117.6) = 210 MeV. From the curve. The energy released is 235 × (8.
Estimate Q for symmetric ﬁssion of a nucleus with A0 = 240.
. On the other hand. we have Q = M0 c2 − M1 c2 − M2 c2 = B1 + B2 − B0 . (Wisconsin) Solution: The mass of a nucleus of mass number A is M = Zmp + (A − Z)mn − B/c2 . the decay energy of a Λ 0 particle. where Z is its charge number.79 MeV. the decay would increase the system’s energy and so cannot take place. If the binding energy of A XN −1 is lower than that of A XN and the diﬀerence is larger than 0.Nuclear Physics
245
the nucleon interacts with all nucleons in the nuclues. Express Q in terms of ε(A) and A.5 shows a plot of the average binding energy per nucleon E vs. also more stable. The underlying cause of a decay is for a system to transit to a state of lower energy which is.75 MeV. As Z0 = Z1 + Z2 .
A
2029 Figure 2.53 − 938. Nuclear forces are therefore shortrange forces. In the ﬁssion of a nucleus of mass number A0 (mass M0 ) into two nuclei A1 and A2 (masses M1 and M2 ). mp and mn are the proton and neutron masses respectively. and so the Λparticle in a hypernucleus will decay. generally. 37. The decay of a bound neutron in a nucleus A XN will result in a nucleus XN −1 . is higher than the diﬀerence of nuclear binding energies between the initial and ﬁnal systems.23 − 0. and so M0 = M1 + M2 + (B1 + B2 )/c2 − B0 /c2 . A free neutron decays according to n→p+e+ν ¯ and releases an energy Q = mn − mp − me = 939. B is the binding energy. A0 = A1 + A2 .51 = 0. Hence neutrons in many nonβradioactive nuclei are stable. the energy released is Q = M0 c2 − M1 c2 − M2 c2 .79 MeV . the mass number A.
ε(240) ≈ 7. (b) As a heavy nucleus dissociates into two medium nuclei in ﬁssion. we have from Fig. decreases gradually. Nuclear and Particle Physics
The binding energy of a nucleus is the product of the average binding energy and the mass number: B = ε(A) × A .5 ε(120) ≈ 8.
. Within a large range of A.5 MeV . The approximate linear dependence of the binding energy on A. ε ≈ 8 MeV/nucleon.6 MeV . nuclear mass number A (Fig. 2. As A increases from 0.5). the binding energy per nucleon E. which shows the saturation of nuclear forces (Problems 2028).
2030 (a) Construct an energyversusseparation plot which can be used to explain nuclear ﬁssion. (b) Where does the energy released in the ﬁssion of heavy elements come from? (c) What prevents the common elements heavier than iron but lighter than lead from ﬁssioning spontaneously? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) Nuclear ﬁssion can be explained using the curve of speciﬁc binding energy ε vs. With A0 = 240. A1 = A2 = 120 in a symmetric ﬁssion.246
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 2. after reaching a broad maximium. agrees with the liquiddrop model. So the energy released in the ﬁssion is Q = 120ε(120) + 120ε(120) − 240ε(240) ≈ 216 (MeV) . the speciﬁc binding energy increases. Hence Q = B1 + B2 − B0 = A1 ε(A1 ) + A2 ε(A2 ) − A0 ε(A0 ) . Describe qualitatively the relation of the features of this plot to the liquiddrop model. The nuclear energy released is the diﬀerence between the binding energies before and after the ﬁssion: Q = A1 ε(A1 ) + A2 ε(A2 ) − Aε(A) .
6. If a nucleon is added. 2.Nuclear Physics
247
where A.
2031 Stable nuclei have N and Z which lie close to the line shown roughly in Fig. ε(Ai ) being the speciﬁc binding energy of nucleus Ai . forming a tightly bound system. N = 6) has a lifetime of 71 sec. (c) 14 O(Z = 8. (c) Although the elements heavier than iron but lighter than lead can release energy in ﬁssion if we consider speciﬁc binding energies alone. what features determine the shape of this curve. A1 and A2 are respectively the mass numbers of the nuclei before and after ﬁssion. it would have to go to the next level and would not be so lightly bound. Thus the most stable nuclides are those with N = Z.6
Solution: (a) Qualitatively. From binding energy considerations (Problem 2025). to occupy the same energy level. This is because the ﬁssion barriers of these nuclei are so high that the probability of penetration is very small. (b) In heavy nuclei the number of protons is considerably less than the number of neutrons. Explain. (a) Qualitatively. 2. Give the particles in the ﬁnal state after its decay. A and Z of a stable nuclide satisfy
. the Coulomb barriers prevent them from ﬁssioning spontaneously. Pauli’s exclusion principle allows four nucleons. 2 protons of opposite spins and 2 neutrons of opposite spins. (Wisconsin)
Fig.
extra neutrons are needed to counter the Coulomb repulsion.0154A2/3) . This competes with the protonneutron symmetry eﬀect and causes the neutronproton ratio in stable nuclei to increase with A. (Columbia) Solution: The energy required to remove a proton or a neutron from a stable nucleus (Z. while for heavy nuclei. This shows that for light nuclei. the many protons in the nucleus cause greater Coulomb repulsion. 2. (b) For heavy nuclei. assuming that the speciﬁc nuclear forces are exactly equal between all pairs of nucleons.248
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. A) − B(Z − 1.
the decay products being 14 N . the decay is a β + decay
14
O →14 N + e+ + νe . N ≈ Z. A − 1) .
A . however. the energy required to remove a proton or a neutron from the nucleus is roughly the same. however. and electronneutrino.0154A2/3
N = Z(1 + 0. e+ . To form a stable nucleus. However. (c) As the number of protons in 14 O is greater than that of neutrons.6. for heavy nuclei. For light nuclei. A) is Sp = B(Z. as the decay energy of 14 O is very large. Explain these facts. (Emax > 4 MeV). or
. as shown in Fig. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Z= or. Hence the number of protons in heavy nuclei is considerably less than that of neutrons. as A = N + Z. more energy is required to remove a proton than a neutron. and its half life is 71 s. the number of neutrons is substantially greater than the number of protons for stable heavy nuclei. 2 + 0. N > Z. the branching ratio of electron capture is very small. Another possible decay process is by electron capture.
2032 The numbers of protons and neutrons are roughly equal for stable lighter nuclei.
. In the liquiddrop model (Problem 2024). or tritonemission. Z= 2ac 2/3 ≈ 2 aa 2 + aa A and so Sp − Sn ≈ ac ac A5/3 − (A − 1)5/3 + A5/3 (A − 1)2/3 . A) = av A − as A2/3 − ac Z 2 A−1/3 − aa Hence Sp − Sn = −ac (2Z − 1)(A − 1)− 3 + aa (A − 2Z)(A − 1)−1 .5 × 10−3 A4/3 .Nuclear Physics
249
Sn = B(Z. ac A A 1 − A2/3 . we have B(Z. For stable nuclei (Problem 2025). A 1 and Sp − Sn ≈ 5.
1
A −Z 2
2
A−1 + ap δA−1/2 . respectively.
where ac = 0. Thus Sp − Sn increases with A.e. aa = 92. A−1 aa
For heavy nuclei. or ﬁssion)? Discuss brieﬂy in terms of (a) energy release.. For heavy nuclei however.
2033 All of the heaviest naturallyoccurring radioactive nuclei are basically unstable because of the Coulomb repulsion of their protons. (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) A basic condition for a nucleus to decay is that the decay energy is larger than zero. where B is the binding energy per nucleon of a nuclues. and (b) Coulomb barrier to be penetrated. i. to dissociate a proton from a heavy nucleus needs more energy than to dissociate a neutron. deuteron. The mechanism by which they decrease their size is alphadecay.714 MeV. Why is alphadecay favored over other modes of disintegration (like proton. A) − B(Z. A − 1) . the decay energy of proton.8 MeV.
Nuclear and Particle Physics
deuteron. The probability for ﬁssion of a heavy nucleus is less than that for αdecay also because of its much lower probability of penetrating the Coulomb barrier. For the three isotones of 238 Am.7
Suppose a nucleus is to break up into two fragments of charges Z1 e and Z2 e.9 MeV and −5.6 MeV and −8. The probability of penetrating the Coulomb barrier by a fragment of energy Ed is exp − 2
Rc
2µ
R
Z1 Z2 e 2 − Ed r
1/2
dr
= exp(−G) .7 MeV and −9.
Fig.or tritonemission is normally less than zero. Consider the ten isotopes of Am. Z1 Z2 e 2 Rc = . while the αdecay energies are between 5. (b) Figure 2. the 95 proton.2 MeV and 6.6 MeV.7 shows the Coulomb potential energy of a nucleus of charge Z1 e and a fragment of charge Z2 e.7 MeV.250
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.and tritondecay energies are less than zero while their αdecay energies are larger than zero. Therefore αdecay is favored over other modes of disintegration for a heavy nucleus. Take the isotopes and isotones of 238 Am as an example. The 95 protondecay energies are between −3.
. the deuterondecay energies are between −7.
where µ is the reduced mass of the system. the tritondecay energies are between −7. deuteron.1 MeV. 2.1 MeV. Ed and √ 2 2µEd Rc Rc G= −1 r R
1/2
dr .
For ﬁssion. Then the value of G is 4 times larger and so the barrier penetrating probability is much lower than that for αdecay. (Columbia) Solution: An explanation can be readily given in terms of the disintegration energies. In the αdecay of a heavy nucleus (A. though the energy release is some 50 times larger than that of αdecay. Explain. Z) − M (A − 4. and hence π − 2 R Rc
1/2
√ 2Rc 2µEd
√ 2Z1 Z2 e2 2µ π √ ≈ − 2 Ed
R Rc
1/2
. Z − 2) + B(4. Z − 2) − M (4. Z) + B(A − 4. this striking diﬀerence. Z) the energy release given by the liquiddrop model (Problem 2024) is Ed = M (A. the reduced mass is 20 times larger and Z1 Z2 is 5 times larger. 2) = − B(A. with such relevant quantitative arguments as you can muster. 2) = − as [A2/3 − (A − 4)2/3 ] − ac [Z 2 A− 3 − (Z − 2)2 (A − 4)− 3 ]
1 1
.
2034 Instability (‘radioactivity’) of atomic nuclei with respect to αparticle emission is a comparatively common phenomenon among the very heavy nuclei but protonradioactivity is virtually nonexistent.Nuclear Physics
251
Integrating we have
Rc R
Rc − 1dr = Rc r
Rc /R 1
1 p2
p − 1dp
Rc /R
= Rc − ≈Rc taking G≈
Rc R
1 p
p − 1 + tan−1 R Rc
1 2
p−1
1
π − 2
1.
8
For αdecay to take place. 2) − 4av . 2. 2. For the 62 60 protondecay of a heavy nucleus. It is seen that Ed increases generally with A and is positve when A ≥ 150. where αradioactive isotopes 147 Sm. For heavy nuclei. we require Ed > 0. we have
.80 1 − 2Z A
2
− 35.3 − 4av
= 48.88A−1/3 + 2.04 MeV . The actual values of Ed for naturally occurring nuclei are shown as the solid curve in the ﬁgure. 144 N d are actually observed. and the above becomes 1− Z 3A − aa 1 − Z 3A 2Z A
2
8 1 Ed ≈ as A−1/3 + 4ac ZA− 3 3
+ 28.
2 Z
1.252
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 2 + 0. Thus only heavy nuclei have αdecays. Nuclear and Particle Physics
− aa
A −Z 2
2
A−1 −
A−4 −Z +2 2
2
(A − 4)−1
+ B(4.0154A2/3
Ed is calculated for such nuclei and plotted as the dashed wave in Fig. It intersects the Ed = 0 line at A ≈ 140.8.
For stable nuclei we have (Problem 2025) Z= A .856ZA−1/3 1 − − 92.
4 A
1.
Fig.
For those nuclei far from stability curve. Z − 1) = −ε < 0 . All protonemitters should also have β + radioactivity and orbitalelectron capture. Z − 1) − M (0. (d) The ﬁssion cross sections of the following uranium (Z = 92) isotopes for thermal neutrons are shown in the table below. protonemission is not a transient process but similar to αdecay. and their halflives are related to the probabilities of such competing proceses. this consideration is for stable heavy nuclei. 1) ≈ −B(A. As the decay energy is negative. As the proton mass is less than the αparticle mass and the height of the Coulomb barrier it has to penetrate is only half that for the αparticle. Z) − M (A − 1. Instances of protonradioactivity in some isomeric states have been observed experimentally.
2035 (a) Derive argument for why heavy nuclei are αradioactive but stable against neutronemission. protondecay cannot take place. the halflife against pdecay should be much less than that against αdecay.
Isotope
230 U 231 U 232 U 233 U 234 U 235 U 236 U
σ (barns) 20 300 76 530 0 580 0
. Z) + B(A − 1. it has a ﬁnite halflife due to the Coulomb barrier. 1) = −B(A. Quite diﬀerent from neutronemission. Z − 1) + B(0. the neutronproton ratio may be much smaller so that the binding energy of the last proton may be negative and protonemission may occur. (b) What methods and arguments are used to determine nuclear radii? (c) What are the properties that identify a system of nucleons in its lowest energy state? Discuss the nonclassical properties.Nuclear Physics
253
M (A. Z) + B(A − 1. However. where ε is the speciﬁc binding energy and is about 7 MeV for heavy nuclei.
particularly by measuring the total crosssection of intermediateenergy neutrons.
The other category of methods makes use of the Coulomb interaction between charged particles and atomic nuclei or that among particles within a nucleus to get the electromagnetic nuclear radius. (b) There are two categories of methods for measuring nuclear radii. By studying the scattering between high energy electrons and atomic nuclei. The ﬁrst category makes use of the range of the strong interaction of nuclear forces by studying the scattering by nuclei of neutrons. protons or αparticles. and the evenodd periodicity is much less pronounced. The halflife against delayedneutron emission is the same as that against the related βdecay. their mass diﬀerence is caused by Coulomb energy diﬀerence and the mass diﬀerence between neutron and proton. As there is no Coulomb barrier for neutrons. A more precise
. For ordinary nuclei near the βstability curve. Also. the binding energy may be negative for the last neutron.254
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Explain these facts.5) fm . However. We have (Problem 2010) ∆E = 3 e2 (2Z − 1) − (mn − mp )c2 5R
for the energy diﬀerence between the ground states of the mirror nuclei. Such methods give the nuclear radius as R = R0 A1/3 . Assuming mirror nuclei to be of the same structure. emission is a transient process. as the neutronemission follows a βdecay the emitted neutrons are called delayed neutrons. which then gives the electromagnetic nuclear radius R.4 ∼ 1. In such cases. certain excited states arising from βdecays may emit neutrons. R0 ≈ (1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
The fastneutron ﬁssion cross sections of the same isotopes are all of the order of a few barns. the form factors of the nuclei may be deduced which gives the electromagnetic nuclear radius. for neutronrich isotopes far from the βstability curve. (Columbia) Solution: (a) The reason why heavy nuclei only are αradioactive has been discussed in Problems 2033 and 2034. and so neutronemission may occur spontaneously. the binding energy of the last neutron is positive so that no neutronradioactivity exists naturally.
by the spinorbit coupling of the last two nucleons.8 MeV. the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is small.Nuclear Physics
255
method is to study the deviation of µmesic atom from Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom (problem 1062). have higher binding energies. The isospin of the nuclear ground state is I = 1 N − Z. the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is large. by this method. lower than the ﬁssion barrier of 6. In 238 U + n →239 U ∗ .1 fm . and so the probability for ﬁssion is low. which can cause ﬁssion when captured by oddN uranium isotopes. On the other hand.2 MeV of 239 U . For an evenodd nucleus. At the same time. when an evenN uranium isotope captures a neutron to become an isotope of odd N . so the probability of this reaction results in a ﬁssion is large. and ﬁssion occurs. there is a tendency for neutrons in a nucleus to pair up so that isotopes with even numbers of neutrons. Spin and parity are determined by those of the last one or two unpaired nucleons. the nuclear spin and parity are determined by the last nucleon. which. parity and isospin quantum numbers. When the neutron energy is higher than a certain threshold. Thermal neutrons.4 MeV. For the ground state of an eveneven nucleus. ﬁssion cross section becomes large and ﬁssion may occur. Because the Bohr radius of the mesic atom is much smaller than that of the hydrogen atom. Highenergy electron scattering experiments show that charge distribution within a nucleus is nonuniform. When an uranium isotope with an odd number of neutrons captures a neutron and becomes an isotope of even N . Thus the cross sections for ﬁssion induced by thermal neutrons
. J p = 0+ . have long wavelengths and hence large capture cross sections. and for an oddodd nucleus. the former is more sensitive to the value of the electromagnetic nuclear radius. suﬃcient to overcome the ﬁssion barrier. N . 2 (d) There is a ﬁssion barrier of about 6 MeV for uranium so that spontaneous ﬁssion is unlikely and external inducement is required. R0 ≈ 1. For example.9 MeV. the excitation energy is only 4. and ﬁssion does not take place. (c) The ground state of a system of nucleons is identiﬁed by its spin. is R = R0 A1/3 . in 235 U + n →236 U ∗ the excitation energy of the compound nucleus 236 U∗ is 6. not suﬃcient to overcome the ﬁssion barrier. higher than the ﬁssion barrier of 236 U of 5. Such nuclides require neutrons of higher energies to achieve ﬁssion.
Nuclear and Particle Physics
are large. the third term. What are the implications for V (ε)? Draw a rough sketch of V (ε). β. While fast neutrons have smaller probability of being captured their ﬁssion cross section. for uranium isotopes of odd N . We have dε Z2 2 dB 4β 2 = − A2/3 ε + γ 1/3 · ε = εA2/3 dε 5 5 5 A γZ 2 − 2β A . 0. do not change with the evenodd periodicity of the neutron number of the uranium isotope. Consider 240 P u as a speciﬁc example. the second term surface energy. If a fast neutron is captured by an uranium isotope the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the ﬁssion barrier and ﬁssion occurs irrespective of whether the isotope has an even or an odd number of neutrons. the Coulomb energy. (a) Brieﬂy interpret this equation and ﬁnd a limiting condition involving Z and A such that a nucleus can undergo prompt (unhindered) spontaneous ﬁssion. Consequent to nu5 clear shape deformation.9). What simple nuclear excitations can account for the two sets of states of 240 P u shown below 94 (Fig. (Princeton)
Solution: (a) In the mass formula. 13. Discuss similarities and diﬀerences between the two.
. the ﬁrst term represents volume energy. which is of the order of a few barns.
2036 The semiempirical mass formula modiﬁed for nuclearshape eccentricity suggests a binding energy for the nucleus A X: Z
1 2 1 B = αA − βA2/3 1 + ε2 − γZ 2 A− 3 1 − ε2 . the binding energy is a function of the eccentricity ε. γ = 14. 5 5 where α.6 MeV and ε is the eccentricity. They are small for isotope of even N . 94 (b) The discovery of ﬁssion shape isomers and the detection of spontaneous ﬁssion of heavy isotopes from their ground state suggest a more complicated nuclear potential energy function V (ε). 2. The limiting condition for stability is dB = 0.256
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. in which the correction 1 ε2 is also for nucleus deformation. in hundreds of barns. in which the correction 2 ε2 is for deformation 5 from spherical shape of the nucleus.
binding dε energy decreases as ε increases so the nuclear shape will tend to that with a lower ε and the nucleus is stable. or dε Z2 2β ≥ = 43. Z = 36. 2.9
If dB > 0. it has a ﬁnite lifetime against spontaneous ﬁssion.
Both sets of states show characteristics of the rotational spectrums of eveneven nuclei. The given data correspond to
.Nuclear Physics
257
Fig. 2.3 and so it cannot undergo prompt spontaA neous ﬁssion. they diﬀer in that the two rotational bands correspond to diﬀerent rotational moments of inertia M . So the limiting condition for the nucleus to undergo prompt spontaneous ﬁssion is dβ > 0.8 < 43. nuclear binding energy increases with ε so the deformation will dε keep on increasing and the nucleus becomes unstable. (b) The two sets of energy levels of 240 P u (see Fig. as each set satisﬁes the rotational spectrum relation for the K = 0 rotational band
2
2
EI =
2M
[I(I + 1)] .9) can be interpreted in terms of collective rotational excitation of the deformed nucleus. If dB < 0. A γ For 240 P u.3 .
hence the shorter lifetime (T1/2 = 4 × 10−9 s for 240 P u). When it breaks up into to two roughly equal parts. In this state the ﬁssion barrier to penetrate is thinner. What is the relationship of this to the total change in energy? (Assume uniform charge distribution. 2. hence the phenomenon is referred to as nuclear shape isomerism. nuclear radius= 1. A0 = 236. The set of states with the longer lifetime corresponds to the groundstate rotational band at the ﬁrst minimum of the twopeak potential barrier.258
h2 2J
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. and radius R0 = 1. The set of rotational band with the shorter lifetime occurs at the second minimum of the potential barrier.3 MeV for the second set. The diﬀerence between the two rotational bands arises from the diﬀerent deformations. as shown in Fig. each part has
.10. Use of a liquiddrop shell model gives a potential V (ε) in the form of a twopeak barrier. The diﬀerent moments of inertia suggest diﬀerent deformations.4 × 1011 yr for 240 Pu). This state has a thicker ﬁssion barrier to penetrate and hence a longer lifetime (T1/2 = 1.2 × 1/3 10−13 A0 cm. Estimate the reduction in electrostatic energy of the nuclei. Nuclear and Particle Physics
2
≈ 7 MeV for the ﬁrst set. 2J ≈ 3. 2.10
2037 Assume a uranium nucleus breaks up spontaneously into two roughly equal parts.2 × 10−13 A1/3 cm) (Columbia) Solution: Uranium nucleus has Z0 = 92.
Fig.
R = 1. Hence the 238 ratio is about 2 × 107 . A more precise estimate is as follows.6 × 1022 eV. the ratio of energy releases should be about 106 .023×10 × 210 = 5.
.222 × 0 5 R0 R0 2
e2 c
c
0. 2 2 The electrostatic energy of a sphere of a uniformly distributed charge Q is 3 Q2 /R.222 × 922 1 × 1. However. some other factors should also be considered such as the increase of surface energy on ﬁssion. A = A0 .97 × 10−11 1 × −13 × 236 3 137 1. to calculate the actual energy release. As the number of nucleons in 1 g of uranium is of the same order of magnitude as the number of molecules in 1 g of TNT. the electrostatic 5 energy reduction is Z= ∆E = = = 3 (Z0 e)2 (Ze)2 −2× 5 R0 R
2 3 × Z0 e 2 1 1 Z2 1 − 2/3 = 0. where R is the radius. This reduction is the source of the energy released in uranium ﬁssion.2 × 10−13 A1/3 cm .2 × 10
= 364 MeV .
2038 Estimate (order of magnitude) the ratio of the energy released when 1 g of uranium undergoes ﬁssion to the energy released when 1 g of TNT explodes.Nuclear Physics
259
1 1 Z0 . (Columbia) Solution: Fission is related to nuclear forces whose interaction energy is about 1 MeV/nucleon. Then the ﬁssion of 1 g of 23 uranium releases an energy 6.3 × 1023 MeV. The energy released in the explosion of 1 g of TNT is about 2. TNT explosion is related to electromagnetic forces whose interaction energy is about 1 eV/molecule. Then for uranium ﬁssion. The energy released in the ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus is about 210 MeV.
(b) Take a vertex of the cube as the origin. y. t) inside a block of U 235 obeys the diﬀerential equation ∂ρ(x. explain why A and B are both positive. The term A∇2 ρ(x. (Columbia) Solution: (a) The term Bρ(x. Let ρ(x. the neutron density decreases with time — there is no explosion. In particular.and zaxes. B is positive. t). As the neutrons generally move from locations of higher density to locations of lower density.L = 0 . the neutron density in the cube is unstable and increases exponentially with time — an explosion results. which is proportional to the neutron density. t) + Bρ(x. Find the critical length L0 in terms of A and B. (a) Brieﬂy describe the physical processes which give rise to the A∇2 ρ and the Bρ terms. Assume that those neutrons reaching the cube’s surface leave the cube immediately so that the neutron density at the U 235 surface is always zero. For L > L0 . y. t) = f (x. (b) There is a critical length L0 for the sides of the U 235 cube. t) = A∇2 ρ(x. It is proportional to the number density of neutrons which induce the ﬁssion. caused by nuclear ﬁssion. y. ∂t where A and B are positive constants.
. z) = 0 with boundary condition f (x. t) represents the rate of increase of the number of neutrons. Consider a block of U 235 in the shape of a cube of side L. y. in a unit volume at location x and at time t. y. z) + (α + B)f (x. As the ﬁssion of U 235 increases the neutron number. Bρ(x. z . For L < L0 . A is positive too. and its three sides as the x. z)e−αt . y. t) describes the macroscopic motion of neutrons caused by the nonuniformity of neutron distribution. Nuclear and Particle Physics
2039 The neutron density ρ(x. Then the diﬀerential equation becomes A∇2 f (x. accounts for the increase of neutron density during nuclear ﬁssion. t) . i = x. z)i=0.260
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
L nzk π Z = Czk sin x . ±3 . Hence the critial length L0 is given by Aπ 2 α = 2 (n2 + n2 + n2 ) − B = 0 . Czk being arbitrary constants. L. Thus f (x. L nyj π Y = Cyj sin y .
with nxi . L etc. Substitution gives 1 d2 X 1 d2 Y 1 d2 Z 2 2 2 + + + kx + ky + kz = 0 . nyj . Z(z) = 0 at z = 0. leading to instability and possible explosion. the neutron density will increase exponentially with time. L. nzk = ±1. Cyj . z) =
ijk
Cijk sin
nxi π nyj π nzk π x sin y sin z . dx2 The solutions of these equations are X = Cxi sin nxi π x . L . . y. . xi yj zk
Cijk = Czi Cyi Czk . X dx2 Y dy 2 Z dz 2 where we have rewritten becomes
α+B A 2 2 2 = kx + ky + kz . L L L
with α+B π = A L
2
(n2 + n2 + n2 ) .Nuclear Physics
261
Try a solution of the form f = X(x)Y (y)Z(z). yj zk B xi
. yj zk L0 xi or A 2 L0 = π (n + n2 + n2 ) . and Cxi . ±2. Y (y) = 0 at y = 0. The boundary condition
X(x) = 0 at x = 0. The last diﬀerentiation equation can be separated into 3 equations: d2 X 2 + kx X = 0 .
If α < 0.
. (Columbia) Solution: 109 years. (Halflife of U 235 is 7 × 108 years)
2041 Number of ﬁssion per second in a 100MW reactor is: 106 . 1024 . 100 × 106 = 3 × 1018 . L0 = π 3A . B
2040 The halflife of U 235 is 103 . 1012 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
In particular. 106 . So the number of ﬁssions per second in a 100MW reactor is N= Hence the answer is 1018 . 320 × 10−13
2042 Explain brieﬂy the operation of a “breeder” reactor.262
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. What physical constant of the ﬁssion process is a prerequisite to the possibility of “breeding”? What important constraint is placed on the choice of materials in the reactor? In particular. for nxi = nyj = nzk = 1. 109 . 1030 . (Columbia) Solution: Each ﬁssion of uranium nucleus releases about 200 MeV = 320×10−13 J. 1018 . 1012 years. For example. could water be used as a moderator? (Wisconsin) Solution: A breeder reactor contains a ﬁssionable material and a nonﬁssionable one that can be made ﬁssionable by absorbing a neutron.
One is needed to induce a ﬁssion in another fuel atom and keep the chain reaction going. while that of a medium nucleus is about 8.
2043 (a) Describe brieﬂy the type of reaction on which a nuclear ﬁssion reactor operates. should be larger than 2. If the other two neutrons can be used to convert two nonﬁssionable atoms into ﬁssionable ones. and why? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) In nuclear ﬁssion a heavy nucleus disassociates into two medium nuclei. the number of neutrons produced per neutron absorbed in the fuel. Hence ﬁssion fragments are in general highly excited and decay through γ emission. In the example. (b) The speciﬁc binding energy of a heavy nucleus is about 7. and roughly how much per reaction? (c) Why are the reaction products radioactive? (d) Why is a “moderator” necessary? Are light or heavy elements preferred for moderators. In addition. this is achieved by the use of fast neutrons and so no moderator is needed. neutrons from the ﬁssion of 235 U may be used to convert 238 U to ﬁssionable 239 P u: n + 238 U → 239 U + γ  −→ β−
239
Np →
β−
239
Pu
A prerequisite to breeding is that η. Hence when a ﬁssion occurs.6 MeV per nucleon. For example n +235 U → X + Y + n + · · · . In the example. and the reactor is said to be a breeder. some of which is in the form of excitation energies of the fragments. (b) Why is energy released. The energy released per ﬁssion is about 210 MeV. then two fuel atoms are produced when one is consumed.5 MeV per nucleon. Suppose 3 neutrons are emitted per ﬁssion.Nuclear Physics
235
263
U and 238 U . It takes place after a heavy nucleus captures a neutron. In a reactor the ﬁssion is induced. some binding energies will be released.
. (c) Fission releases a large quantity of energy.
2045 Discuss thermonuclear reactions. However.6 MeV . (d) For reactors using 235 U .
2044 Give the three nuclear reactions currently considered for controlled thermonuclear fusion. are much larger than those of stable nuclei of the same mass. D + D → T + p + 4.0 MeV . Nuclear and Particle Physics
the neutrontoproton ratios of the fragments. D + T → 4 He + n + 17. (Wisconsin)
. the H bomb and in controlled fusion attempts. or to take part in reactions like 6 Li + n → 4 He + T to release more energy. ﬁssion is caused mainly by thermal neutrons. Which has the largest cross section? Give the approximate energies released in the reactions. The cross section of the last reaction is the largest. which are similar to that of the original heavy nucleus.264
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Lighter nuclei are more suitable as moderator because the energy lost by a neutron per neutronnucleus collision is larger if the nucleus is lighter.25 MeV . Neutrons resulting from the reactions can be used to induce ﬁssion in a ﬁssionfusion reactor. Give examples of reactions of importance in the sun. So the fragments are mostly unstable neutronrich isotopes having strong β − radioactivity. so some moderator is needed to reduce the speed of the neutrons. ﬁssion reaction emits fast neutrons. How would any resulting neutrons be used? (Wisconsin) Solution: Reactions often considered for controlled thermonuclear fusion are D + D → 3 He + n + 3. Estimate roughly in electron volts the energy release per reaction and give the characteristic of nuclear forces most important in these reactions.
The explosive in a H bomb is a mixture of deuterium.4 MeV .
3
He + 3 He → 4 He + 2p . The energy released in this reaction is roughly Q = [4M (1 H) − M (4 He)]c2 = 4 × 1.
.
the resulting reaction being 4p + 2d + 2p + 23 He → 2d + 2e+ + 2νe + 23 He + 4 He + 2p .01690 + 2. tritium and lithium in some condensed form.02385 amu = 22.02871 amu = 26. or 4p → 4 He + 2e+ + 2νe .Nuclear Physics
265
Solution: The most important thermonuclear reactions in the sun are the protonproton chain p + p → d + e+ + νe .00388 = 0. The reaction chain is
6
Li + n → 4 He + t . D + t → 4 He + n . H bomb explosion is an uncontrolled thermonuclear reaction which releases a great quantity of energy at the instant of explosion.
with the resulting reaction
6
Li + d → 24 He .008142 − 4.
The energy released per reaction is Q = [M (6 Li) + M (2 H) − 2M (4 He)]c2 = 6. d + p → 3 He + γ .01471 − 2 × 4.9 MeV .003860 = 0.
00388 − 1.
.65 MeV .01471 − 4. which constitute the expected principal component of neutrinos from the sun. where the energy released is Q = [M (3 H) + M (2 H) − M (4 He) − M (n)]c2 = 3. e− )Ar37 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
An example of possible controlled fusion is t + d → 4 He + n . Davis and collaborators have been searching for solar neutrinos. The solar constant (radiant energy ﬂux at the earth) is ∼ 1 kW/m2 .01695 + 2. the mean binding energy per nucleon for a lighter nucleus is smaller than for a heavier nucleus.
2046 For some years now. the mean binding energies of very heavy nuclei are less than those of medium nuclei. owing to threshold eﬀects. the interactions of a nucleon on the surface of the nucleus are not.266
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. which means that a nucleon interacts only with nucleons in its immediate neighborhood. Then as the ratio of the number of nucleons on the nucleus surface to that of those in the interior is larger for lighter nuclei. R. is relatively insensitive to low energy neutrinos. It is supposed to respond to a smaller component of higher energy neutrinos expected from the sun. in a celebrated experiment that employs as detector a large tank of C2 Cl4 located below ground in the Homestake mine. (a) Outline the principal sequence of nuclear processes presumed to account for energy generation in the sun. What is the slow link in the chain? Estimate the mean energy of the neutrinos produced in this chain.00896 = 0. This reaction. In other words nucleons in lighter nuclei are combined more loosely. The idea is to look for argon atoms (A37 ) produced by the inverse βdecay reaction Cl37 (ν. So while the nuclear interactions of a nucleon in the interior of a nucleus are saturated.01882 amu = 17. However. because of the eﬀect of the Coulomb energy of the protons. The most important characteristic of nuclear forces in these reactions is saturation.
the component being looked for in the above experiment. The threshold energy for the reaction between solar neutrino
. the number ﬂux of solar neutrinos at the earth is I=2 1 × 103 25 × 1. (3) 3 He + 3 He → 4 He + 2p . (2) 7 Be + e− → 7 Li + νe . As each 25 MeV of solar energy arriving on earth is accompanied by 2 neutrions. So the mean energy of a neutrino is Eν ≈ (26.478 MeV(12%) and 0. Eν = 0 − 0.85 MeV .
(b) The minor processes in the sequence are (1) 3 He + 4 He → 7 Be + γ .42 MeV .861 MeV (88%). Eν = 0.Nuclear Physics
267
What is the expected number ﬂux at the earth of the principal component of solar neutrinos? (b) Outline the sequence of minor nuclear reactions that is supposed to generate the higher energy component of the neutrino spectrum.7 MeV. Brieﬂy discuss the experiment itself.6 × 10−13 = 5 × 1014 m−2 s−1 . the rest being taken up by the neutrinos. Eν ≈ 0 ∼ 17 MeV. a tank of 390000 liters of C2 Cl4 was placed in a mine 1. The resulting reaction being 4p → 4 He + 2e+ + 2νe + 26. The reaction (1) is the slow link. to reduce the cosmicray background.7 − 25)/2 ≈ 0. (3) 7 Li + p → 24 He. (5) 8 B → 24 He + e+ + νe . The high energy neutrinos produced in the 8 B decay are those being measured in the experiment In the experiment of Davis et al. (4) 7 Be + p → 8 B + γ. and the ﬁndings to date. (2) d + p → 3 He + γ . (Princeton) Solution: (a) The principal sequence of nuclear processes presumed to generate solar energy is (1) p + p → d + e+ + νe . About 25 MeV of the energy changes into thermal energy in the sequence.5 kilometers below ground.
rather than neutrons. G is the gravitational constant.
2047 In a crude. is 0.8 keV. a neutron star is a sphere which consists almost entirely of neutrons which form a nonrelativistic degenerate Fermi gas. neutrons are unstable. Explain brieﬂy and qualitatively. but not unreasonable. The gravitational potential energy is R 4 3 3 GM 2 G Vg = − πr ρ 4πr2 ρdr = − . (Knowing the answer is not enough here. which had accumulated in the tank for several months. protons. When the Ar gas produced. r 5 R 0 3
3M where ρ = 4πR3 is the density of the gas. M being its total mass. the result was only onethird of what had been theoretically expected. etc. and estimate integrals you cannot easily evaluate.814 MeV. was taken out and its radioactivity measured with a proportional counter. (a) Estimate the radius of such a star to within an order of magnitude if the mass is 1033 g. such as experimental errors. the energy of the Auger electron emitted following this process being 2. Since only a rough numerical estimate is required. e− + 37 Ar → νe + 37 Cl. we have
. why we can consider the neutron star to be made up almost entirely of neutrons. Nuclear and Particle Physics
and Cl. The halflife of Ar against the decay is 35 days. When R increases by ∆R. (Columbia) Solution: (a) Let R be the radius of the neutron star. As ∆W = −∆Vg . but precisely. decaying according to n → p+e+ν +1 MeV with a lifetime of 1000 s. νe + 37 Cl → e− + 37 Ar.268
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. The pressure of the Fermi gas is counterbalanced by gravitational attraction. or “neutrinos oscillation”. and electrons. This was the celebrated case of the “missing solar neutrinos”. etc. Many possible explanations have been proposed. faulty theories. approximation. the pressure P of the gas does an external work ∆W = P ∆V = 4πP R2 ∆R. you need to make only reasonable simplifying assumptions like taking a uniform density.) (b) In the laboratory. you must derive it. The Ar gas produced then decays by electron capture.
Mn being the neutron mass. then why is there no bound state for two neutrons? What information does this provide on the nucleonnucleon force? (Wisconsin)
. Thus there would be no protons in the star also. Equating the expressions for P gives R= 9π 4 9π 4
2 3
2 3 GMn
Mn M
2 3
=
×
(1. As
2R 3 .05 × 10−34 )2 × 6. it is unlikely that there could be electrons in the neutron star originating from the decay of neutrons. and the neutron’s kinetic energy is less than Ef ≈ 21 MeV. and so the order of magnitude of the kinetic energy of an electron would be E ≈ cp ∼ c /d ∼ 50 MeV. Since each neutron decay only gives out 1 MeV. d Mn M
1 3
M Mn
≈
d ≈ 2R = 4 × 10 m.Nuclear Physics
269
3GM 2 . THE DEUTERON AND NUCLEAR FORCES (2048 2058) 2048 If the nuclear force is charge independent and a neutron and a proton form a bound state. the magnitude of their mean free path would be of the order of d.6 × 104 m .67 × 10−27 )3
1. Furthermore. e and p from a decay would immediately recombine.
−15
3. (b) Let d be the distance between neighboring neutrons.67 × 10−27 1030
1 3
= 1. P =
2
where N =
ρ Mn
Ef =
2Mn
1 3
9π M 4 Mn R 3
2/3
is the limiting energy. If electrons existed in the star. 20πR4 The pressure of a completely degenerate Fermi gas is P = 2 N Ef . 5 is the neutron number density. if energy conservation is to hold. because the neutrons are so close together.67 × 10−11 × (1.
at which the ﬁnal particles are stationary in the centerofmass system.
2049 A deuteron of mass M and binding energy B(B M c2 ) is disintegrated into a neutron and a proton by a gamma ray of energy Eγ . 2Eγ M c2 = [(mn + mp )2 − M 2 ]c4 = (B + 2M c2 )B . 2M c2 which is the minimum value of Eγ − B for the reaction to occur.
i. Eγ − B is smallest when Eγ is at threshold.
. As E 2 − p2 c2 is Lorentzinvariant and B = (mn + mp − M )c2 . Let M be the mass of the deuteron. to lowest order in B/M c2 . or B2 .e. Find. The bound state is the triplet state because the energy level of the singlet state is higher. (Wisconsin) Solution: In the disintegration of the deuteron.. and no bound state is possible. Eγ − B =
2050 According to a simpleminded picture. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: A system of a neutron and a proton can form either singlet or triplet spin state. the minimum value of (Eγ − B) for which the reaction can occur. A system of two neutrons which are in the same energy level can form only singlet spin state.9×10−15 m and depth V0 = 40 MeV in an l = 0 state. the neutron and proton in a deuteron interact through a square well potential of width b = 1. In this case the energy of the incident photon in the centerofmass system of the deuteron is E ∗ = (mn + mp )c2 .270
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. This shows the spin dependency of the nuclear force. we have
2 (Eγ + M c2 ) − Eγ = (mn + mp )2 c4 .
let the wave function be Ψ = u(r)/r. r ≤ b. r > b.Nuclear Physics
271
(a) Calculate the probability that the proton moves within the range of the neutron. r > b.
r ≤ b. For l = 0 states.
With the boundary condition ψ = 0 at r = 0 and ψ = ﬁnite at r = ∞. 0.
2 u − k1 u = 0 . we get u(r) = A sin(kr).
where k= k1 = M (V0 − ε)
2
. r > b. where 2 k = M(V0 −ε) and ε is the binding energy of the deuteron. The continuity of ψ(r) and that of ψ (r) at r = b require A sin(kb) = B . kA cos(kb) = −k1 B . Be−k1 (r−b) . r < b.
Mε
2
. Buﬀalo) Solution: The interaction may be considered as between two particles of mass M .
where r is the distance between the proton and the neutron. The potential energy is 2 V (r) = −V0 . 2 (b) Find the meansquare radius of the deuteron. (SUNY.
. The system’s energy is E = −ε. kb = π . The radial Schr¨dinger equation o 2µ u + 2 (E − V )u = 0 can be written as u + k2 u = 0 . so the reduced mass is µ = 1 M . Use the approximation that mn = mp = M .
2b
π c 2b
2
π × 1.
As k= i.
A ≈ B ≈ 2πb 1 +
1 bk1
−1 2
. then A ≈ B and cot(kb) ≈ 0.8 MeV .
(a) The probability of the proton moving within the range of the force of the neutron is
b
P = 4πA2
0
sin2 (kr)dr =
1+
1 k1 b
−1
.8 = = 5.e. Nuclear and Particle Physics
which give cot(kb) = − k1 =− k ε .9 × 10−15
2
= 11. consider
∞
1=
0
ψ(r)2 4πr2 dr
b
= 4πA2
0
sin2 (kr)dr + 4πB 2
b
∞
e−2k1 (r−b) dγ
≈ 2πA2 b 1 + Thus
1 bk1
. k1 = c 1.97 × 10−13 2 × 1. V0 − ε
If we take the approximation kb = π .97 × 10−13
.3 × 1014 m−1 . which means there is only one found state. ε ≈ V0 − = 40 − and 1 M c2 1 940
M (V0 − ε)
≈
π . To normalize.272
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. The 2 latter is equivalent to assuming V0 ε.
√ √ M c2 ε 940 × 11.
Nuclear Physics
273
we have P = 1+ 1 14 × 1. mp = 1.6 × 10−6 erg. Is the recoil of the deuteron important? (b) Estimate the energy a neutron incident on a proton at rest must have if the radioactive capture is to take place with reasonable probability from a pstate (l = 1).00783 amu.
(r2 ) 2 = 2.00783 + 1.6 × 10−13 joule = 1.00867 − 2.5 3 π2
= 5.
(b) The meansquare radius of the deuteron is r2 = Ψr2 Ψ = 4πA2
0 r<b b
+ Ψr2 Ψ
r>b ∞ b
sin2 (kr)r2 dr + 4 1 + 3 π2
e−2k1 (r−b) r2 dr
= ≈ Hence
b2 1 + k1 b 1 b2 2
+
1 1 1 + + k1 b (k1 b)2 2(k1 b)3
4 1 + + 2. Find the energy of the photon emitted in this capture.01410 amu = 2.9 × 10−15 5. The radius of the deuteron is ∼ 4 × 10−13 cm.05 × 10−25 erg.
.234 MeV . (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The energy released in the radioactive capture is Q = [mp + mn − md ]c2 = 1.01410 amu. 1 amu = 1. = 1.66 × 10−24 g = 931 MeV.s.
1
2051 (a) A neutron and a proton can undergo radioactive capture at rest: p + n → d + γ.50 . md = 2. 1 MeV = 1.8 × 10−30 m2 .00867 amu. mn = 1.4 × 10−15 m .3 × 10
−1
= 0.
Eγ 2. position vector r = r1 − r2 . Solving for pc we have pc = md c2 As Q/md c2 −1 + 1+ 2Q md c2 .0 × 10−4 .2342 = 1. 2mn mn 4mn
. so p2 ˙ ˙ ˙1 ˙ that R = 1 r1 . Then Q = pc + or (pc)2 + 2md c2 (pc) − 2md c2 Q = 0 .33 × 10−3 MeV . The laboratory
1 ˙ T = T + (mp + mn )R2 . where p = mn r1 is the momentum of the 2 2 neutron in the laboratory. having momentum p = µ˙ r +m and kinetic energy T = energy is
p2 2µ
in the centerofmass frame.274
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.0141 × 931 1. ˙ To a good approximation we can take mp mn . T = mn r2 = 2mn . c
Thus the kinetic energy of the recoiling deuteron is Erecoil = Since p2 Q2 2. Let their respective momenta be p and −p. = = 2 2md 2md c 2 × 2.34 × 10−3 ∆Erecoil = = 6. its eﬀect being of the order 10−4 . Initially r2 = 0. 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ where R = (mn r1 + mp r2 )/(mn + mp ). (b) Let the position vectors of the neutron and proton be r1 . p2 . we can take the approximation p ≈ md c −1 + 1 + Q md c2 ≈ Q . r2 respectively. 2md
1. The motion of the system can be treated as that of a particle of m m mass µ = mpp nn .234
the recoiling of the deuteron does not signiﬁcantly aﬀect the energy of the emitted photon. Substitution in the energy equation gives p2 p2 p2 = + . Nuclear and Particle Physics
This energy appears as the kinetic energies of the photon and recoil deuteron.
which has angular momentum eigenvalue 1(1 + 1) √ Using the deuteron radius a as the radius of the . Compute the factor f for as = 0. The neutron is captured into the pstate. B. Recall the deﬁnition of scattering length in the terms of phase shift: k cot δ → −1/as .Nuclear Physics
275
or p2 = 4p 2 . orbit. as . The possible
. n + p → d + γ. (c) Let B be the deuteron binding energy and let m = mp = mn be the nucleon mass.
2052 Consider the neutronproton capture reaction leading to a deuteron and photon. Give your reason. B.32 MeV . m).97 × 10−11 4 × 10−13
2
= 10. Treat the deuteron as being a pure sstate . How does the deuteron spatial wave function vary with neutronproton separation r for large r? (d) In the approximation where the neutronproton force is treated as being of very short range.?). we have p a ≈ 2 and hence the kinetic energy of the neutron in the laboratory T = p2 2p 2 4 = = 2mn mn mn c2 c a
2
=
4 940
1. (Princeton) Solution: (a) As the centerofmass kinetic energy of the n − p system is very small. B. Suppose the initial nucleons are unpolarized and that the center of mass kinetic energy T in the initial state is very small (thermal). the only reaction possible is swave capture with l = 0. Experimental study of this process provides information on swave protonneutron scattering. as k → 0. in particular on the singlet scattering length as . (b) Show that the capture at low energies occurs from a spin singlet rather than spin triplet initial state. m)f (as . where f would equal unity if as = 0. (a) Characterize the leading multipolarity of the reaction (electric dipole? magnetic dipole? etc. m and universal parameters in the form σ = σ0 (T. the cross section σ depends on T .
u= m(T + B) A sin Kr. ∆S = 0 . with K =
√
. V = 0 for a < r . (c) Let the range of neutronproton force be a. 2 and no change of parity. in order that the transition matrix elements do not vanish the spin of one of the nucleons must change during the process. and thus S = 1.
∆S = 0 . (b) Consider the two transitions above: 1 S0 → 3 S1 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
initial states are 1 S0 state: sp + sn = 0. The initial states have l = 0. we have J p = 1+ . l = 0. . As both the initial and ﬁnal states of each case have l = 0. Hence there are two possible transitions with ∆l = 0. for r ≥ a . with k = mT . As P (1 S0 ) = 1. only those interaction terms involving spin in the Hamiltonian can cause the transition. and 3 S1 → 3 S1 . and 2 V can be approximated by a rectangular potential well of depth B and width a: −B for 0 ≤ r ≤ a . A and δ are constants. for r ≤ a . As P (3 S1 ) = 1.
∆l = 0. Since for for
3 1
S1 → 3 S1 . 2 (Problem 2058(b)). The solution for large r gives the deuteron spatial wave function as A R(r) = sin(kr + δ) r where k = mT .
the initial state which satisﬁes the transition requirement is the spinsinglet 1 S0 state of the n − p system. S0 → 3 S1 . we have J p = 0+ . with J p = 1+ . E2 types. For such operators. ∆l = 0. The ﬁnal state is a deuteron. The radial part of the Schr¨dinger equation for the system for s waves is o d2 u 2µ + 2 (T − V )u = 0 . 3 S1 state: sp + sn = 1. µ = m . Therefore the reactions are of the M 1. dr2 where u = rR(r).276
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. (d) The solutions of the radial Schr¨dinger equation for s waves are o √ A sin(kr + δ). R(r) being the radial spatial wave function.
m) = ≈
k sin2 [arctan( K tan Ka) − ka] σ ≈ tan K0 a σ0 k 2 a2 ( K0 a − 1)2 k sin2 [arctan( K tan Ka) − ka] . K0 K0 k tan K0 a . (1) gives ka + tan δ0 ≈ or ka − kas ≈ i. as ≈ −a tan K0 a −1 K0 a .Nuclear Physics
277
The continuity of the wave function and its ﬁrst derivative at r = a gives tan(ka + δ) = and hence δ = arctan k tan Ka . B. k 2 a2 s
4π 4π 2 4π sin2 δ0 ≈ 2 δ0 = 2 k 2 a2 = 4πa2 s 2 k k k
tan K0 a −1 K0 a
2
.e. and. then δ0 → 0 also (k is small but ﬁnite). by
k k tan K0 a(1 − ka tan δ0 ) ≈ tan K0 a . K
(2)
The scattering cross section is then σ= 4π sin2 δ . as = − tan δ0 .
. Eq.. k2
√ mB
Consider the case of k → 0. k With k → 0. K (1)
k tan Ka − ka . K → K0 = deﬁnition. The k corresponding scattering cross section is σ0 = Hence f (as . K0
If as = − tan δ0 → 0. We have δ → δ0 .
.
l = 0.22 MeV. As J = sn +sp +lp . l = 1. 1. p interact to form S = 1 and S = 0 states. 01.793µN and µn = −1. 1. indicating the spin dependence of nuclear force. possible states 3 S1 · 3 P1 . (Princeton) Solution: (a) The spin of naturally occurring deuteron is J = 1. as no stable singlet state 1 S0 . is found. p have antiparallel spins and l = 0. in addition. 3 D1 . are ruled out if the deuteron has pure isospin T = 0? (d) Calculate the magnetic moment of the deuteron in each of the allowed states in part (c). Which states. possible state 1 P1 . where n. 2. 1. 11. What general liner combinations of these states are possible? Explain. 2.
.278
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.913µN ) The following Clebsch–Gordan coeﬃcients may be of use: [Notation. 0.875µN . 2. J1 J2 M1 M2 JTOT MTOT ] 2. 1 = −(3/10)1/2 . 1 = (3/5)1/2 . −11. one is stable and one is not. 1 = (1/10)1/2 .
However. for sn + sp  = 0 . show that the n − p force must be spin dependent. (a) From the above information alone. this means that when n. µN being the nuclear magneton. Nuclear and Particle Physics
2053 The only bound twonucleon conﬁguration that occurs in nature is the deuteron with total angular momentum J = 1 and binding energy −2. 1. and compare with the observed magnetic moment µd = 0. (b) Write down the possible angular momentum states for the deuteron in an LS coupling scheme. we can have for sn + sp  = 1 . 1. 2. (NOTE: µp = 2. (c) Which of the states in (b) are ruled out by the existence of the quadrupole moment of the deuteron? Explain.
and the orbital part of the wave function has no eﬀect on the magnetic moment. Thus
3
Ψ(n.913)µN = 0.Nuclear Physics
279
(b) As shown above. 1 . where a. (c) l = 1 in the P state corresponds to a translation of the center of mass of the system. as T = 0 and so the isospin wave function is exchange antisymmetric. spin and isospin wave functions. 1. in accordance with the generalized Pauli’s principle. 1. So the existence of an electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron rules out the combination of P states. then S = 0. As S = 1. It follows that if l = 1. only the spin part does. 1 in terms of the D states we have 1. 1. c. D1 of even party and 3 P1 . in Ψ(n. b. 2 then S = 1. Hence. s. p)Ψs (n. are the general linear combinations possible. T label the space. This rules out the 3 P1 state. in LS coupling the possible conﬁgurations are 3 S1 . only states of the same parity can be combined. the n and p have parallel spins. the total wave function of the n−p system must be antisymmetric.793 − 1. the deuteron can only be a mixed state of 3 S1 and 3 D1 . p) = a3 S1 + b3 D1 or c3 P1 + d1 P1 . p)ΨT (n. 0 + 10 1 2. Thus. 2. Also. 1 P1 of odd parity. (d) For the 3 S1 state. when m = 1. Expanding the total angular momentum 1. As the deuteron has a deﬁnite parity. 1 = 3 2. d are constants. and so µ(3 S1 ) = µp + µn = (2. p) .88µN . where l. 1. considering the electric quadrupole moment and the isospin. the combined space and spin wave function must be exchange symmetric. p) = Ψl (n. the projection of the magnetic moment on the z direction gives the value of the magnetic moment. l = 0. For the 3 D1 state. and does not give rise to an electric quadrupole moment. 10
. −1 − 5 3 2. 0. if l = 0.
88 µN
= 0.5855 for p and −3. showing that the deuteron consists of 4% 3 D1 state and 96% 3 S1 state. and so gl is 1 and gs is 0.31µN . the square of the twonucleon spin.
2054 Consider a nonrelativistic twonucleon system. 2 As experimentally µd = 0. (b) What is the isotopic spin of the deuteron? Justify your answer! (c) Specify all states of a twoneutron system with total angular momentum J ≤ 2. is a good quantum number. operator. show that S2 . gs is 5.857µN . P12 is the spin exchange
. Assume the interaction is charge independent and conserves parity. and that of S state be 1 − x. or parity. the deuteron must be a mixed state of S and D. giving x ≈ 0. where P is the space reﬂection. Nuclear and Particle Physics
The contribution of the D state to the magnetic moment is therefore µ(3 D1 ) = 3 3 (gl ml1 + gs ms1 ) + (gl ml2 + gs ms2 ) 5 10 + = + 1 (gl ml3 + gs ms3 ) µN 10 3 3 1 ml1 + ml2 + ml3 5 10 10 3 1 3 ms1 + ms2 + ms3 5 10 10 × 1 2
× 0. Use the notation 2S+1 XJ where X gives the orbital angular momentum.280
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Then 0.88 for the system (Problem 2056). (a) By using the above assumptions and the Pauli principle.31x = 0.04. Let the proportion of D state be x.88(1 − x) + 0. Note that gl is 1 for p and 0 for n.8256 for n.857 . (SUNY Buﬀalo) Solution: (a) Let the total exchange operator of the system be P = P P12 .
H] = P [P12 . S = 0. 2). For deuteron. 3 P0 .
2055 Consider the potential between two nucleons. (b) The isospin of the nuclear ground state always takes the smallest possible value. H]P12 = P [P12 . and conservation of parity gives [P . H] = [P P12 . S1 . D2 . Ignoring velocitydependent terms. Tz = Tpz + Tnz = 1 1 − = 0. using units where = 1.
D2 . H] . The possible states with J ≤ 2 are S = 0. H] = P [S2 − 1. or l + S = even. 2 where σi = 2si (i = 1. S = 1. F2 . S = s1 + s2 . and so S2 is a good quantum number. 1 D2 . S = 1. Thus (−1)l+S+1 = −1. Pauli’s principle gives [P. H] + [P .Nuclear Physics
281
operator 1 (1 + σ1 · σ2 ) = S2 − 1 .
However. 2 2
For ground state T = 0. 3 D1 . 3 P1 . derive the most general form of the potential which is
. H] = 0. 3 P1 . S = 1. a twoneutron system is required to be antisymmetric with respect to particle exchange. S = 1. P2 . H] = 0. (c) As S = s1 + s2 and s1 = s2 = 1 the quantum number S can be 1 or 2 0. S = 0. H] = P [S2 . H] = 0. Hence the possible states are 1 S0 . 3 F2 . T = Tp + Tn . we have [S2 . As P12 = 0 = [P. 3 P2 . l=0: l=1: l=2: l=0: l=1: l=2: l=3:
1 3 3 3 3 1 1
S0 . P1 . 3 P0 .
This implies the realness of the coeﬃcient of the potential function. J (i) = J (i) . Nuclear and Particle Physics
consistent with applicable conservation laws including that of isotopic spin. x2
as the coeﬃcients Vsk (r) (s = a. 2. (b) Angular momentum conservation – invariance in continuous space ˆ ˆ ˆ rotation: x = Rx. where r = x. Since x is the only polar vector. I (i) = RJ I (i) . in the potential function only terms of even power in x are possible.. (e) Conservation of probability – Hamiltonian is hermitian: V + = V . where R is the rotational operator. Also (J (1) × x) · (J (2) × x) = (J (1) × x) × J (2) · x = (J (1) · J (2) )x2 − (J (1) · x)(J (2) · x).
. (Chicago) Solution: (a) Momentum conservation – invariance in space translation. J (1) · J (2) and [J (1) × J (2) ] · x. Please list each conservation law and indicate its consequences for the potential. 1. where Va and Vb are of the form V0 (r) + V1 (r)J (1) · J (2) + V2 (r) (J (1) · x)(J (2) · x) . I (1) . Terms higher than ﬁrst order in J (1) or in J (2) can be reduced as Ji Jj = δij + iεijk Jk . 2. i = 1. Thus in V (x1 . b.e. J (1) . k = 0. J (2) . The invariants in the rotational transformation are 1. x2 . (d) Isotopic spin conservation – rotational invariance in isotopic spin space: i = 1. This law means that the potential function depends only on the relative position between the two nucleons x = x1 − x2 . The invariants are 1 and I (1) · I (2) . (c) Parity conservation – invariance in space reﬂection: x = −x. J (1) · J (2) . is real.282
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. I (2) ) = Va + J (1) · J (2) Vb . Other invariants are 1. 2) are real functions. x2 J (i) · x. Vsk (r). i. i = 1. x2 . 2 . (J (1) · x)(J (2) · x). J (i) = RJ (i) .
J(J + 1)
. Hence the P state cannot contribute to a state involving S and D states (b) The orbital angular momentum quantum number of G state is l = 4. As parity is conserved in strong interactions states of opposite parities cannot be mixed.Nuclear Physics
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(f) Time reversal (inversion of motion) invariance: V = U −1 V ∗ U. U −1 J ∗ U = −J . (a) Explain why a P state cannot contribute. (b) Explain why a G state cannot contribute. µ= [(gL L + gs S) · J] Jµ0 . It is known to be principally an S(l = 0) state with a small admixture of a D(l = 2) state. (CUSPEA) Solution: (a) The P state has a parity opposite to that of S and D states. Assume that the n and p spins are to be coupled to make the total spin S which is then coupled to the orbital angular momentum L to give the total angular momentum J.
2056 The deuteron is a bound state of a proton and a neutron of total angular momentum J = 1. Hence the G state cannot contribute to a state of J = 1. (c) We have J = L + S. The proton and neutron magnetic moments are 2.91 nuclear magnetons respectively.79 and −1.
This imposes no new restriction on V . (c) Calculate the magnetic moment of the pure D state n − p system with J = 1. Express your result in nuclear magnetons. It cannot be coupled with two 1/2 spins to give J = 1. Note that V is symmetric under the interchange 1 ↔ 2 between two nucleons.
l = 2). 2 1 [J(J + 1) + S(S + 1) − L(L + 1)] 2 1 (1 × 2 + 1 × 2 − 2 × 3) = −1 . Hence gL = 1 . µs = or gs = [(gp sp + gn sn ) · S] Sµ0 ≡ gs Sµ0 . By deﬁnition. 2
since sp = sn = 1 .284
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. S = sp + sn . we have n p S · sp = S(S + 1) + sp (sp + 1) − sn (sn + 1) = 1. As s2 = S2 + s2 − 2S · sp . S(S + 1)
Consider sn = S − sp . makes no contribution to the orbital magnetic moment. 2
As the neutron. Nuclear and Particle Physics
where µ0 is the nuclear magneton. Similarly S · sn = 1. but half the orbital angular momentum. the proton produces the entire orbital magnetic moment. which is uncharged. J(J + 1)
µ 1 = µ0 2
. S(S + 1) g p sp · S + g n sn · S .
1 2 (L
· J) + 1 (gp + gn )(S · J) 2 J. Hence 2 gs = 1 (gp + gn ) . 2 3 gp + gn − 2 2 J. S = 1 (for J = 1. 2 Substitution of gs and gL in the expression for µ gives µ = µ0 As L·J= = S·J= = 1 [J(J + 1) + L(L + 1) − S(S + 1)] 2 1 (1 × 2 + 2 × 3 − 1 × 2) = 3 .
(c) While the neutron has net zero charge. µn = gn sn µ0 = 1 gn µ0 . The Hamiltonian in the centerofmass system has the form p2 x x 1 H= + V1 (r) + σp · σn V2 (r) + σp · σn · − (σp · σn ) V3 (r) . This means that the orbital motion quantum number is l = 0.31µ0 . As J = 1 the spin of the deuteron is 1 and it is in the 3 S1 state formed by proton and neutron of parallelspin alignment.91 − 4 2 µ0 = 0.857µN ) which is approximately the sum of proton and neutron magnetic moments (µp = 2. the orbital motions of proton and neutron make no contribution to the magnetic moment of the deuteron. The charge distribution inside the neutron is thus not symmetrical. From these facts what can one infer concerning the orbital motion and spin alignment of the neutron and proton in the deuteron? (b) How might one interpret the lack of exact equality of µ and µn +µp ? (c) How can the neutron have a nonzero magnetic moment? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) As µ ≈ µn + µp .
2057 (a) The deuteron has J = 1 and a magnetic moment (µ = 0. (b) The diﬀerence between µ and µn + µp cannot be explained away by experimental errors. resulting in a nonzero magnetic moment. 2µ r r 3
. agreement with the experimental value can be achieved. it has an inner structure. and µn = −1. but in a mixture of 3 S1 and 3 D1 states. we have 2 2 µ= 3 µp + µn − 4 2 µ0 = 3 2.Nuclear Physics
285
with µp = gp sp µ0 = 1 gp µ0 . If a proportion of the latter of about 4% is assumed. The current view is that the neutron consists of three quarks of fractional charges.793µN . It is interpreted as due to the fact that the neutron and proton are not in a pure 3 S1 state.79 − 1.913µN ). (2 H) 1
2058 The deuteron is a bound state of a proton and a neutron.
Show that if V3 = 0. 3 σp · σn · − σp · σn r r = S2 . s · x] =0 2 r r2
4 4 (σp · x) (σn · x) = 2 (sp · x)(sn · x) = 2 (s · x)2 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
where x = xn − xp . s · x] + [S2 . p2 ] = 0. α ) + Ψ3 (x)β. p n 4 4 2 x x 2 S . µ is the reduced mass. Separate out the angular dependence of Ψ1 (x) and write down a diﬀerential equation for its radial dependence. Vi (r)] = 0. where α. β . α . Show that if V3 = 0. What are the possible values of L? What is the value of S? (c) Assume that V3 can be treated as a small perturbation. = as 12(s · x)2 12(s · x)2 − 2S2 + 3 = S2 . α . [S2 . where S = 1 (σp + σn ).] (b) The deuteron has J = 1 and positive parity. σp and σn are the Pauli matrices for the spins of the proton and neutron. σp ·σn ] = [S2 . α + Ψ2 (x)(α. r r r r [L2 . [S2 . [L2 . p2 ] = L[L. p2 ] = 0. Vi (r)] = 0. Show that in zeroth order (V3 = 0) the wave function of the state with Jz = +1 is of the form Ψ0 (r)α.
1 where β is a state with sz = − 2 and Ψ0 is as deﬁned in part (c).286
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. r = x. total orbital angular momentum (L2 = L(L+1)) and total spin (S2 = S(S +1)) are good quantum numbers. [It may help to consider interchange of proton and neutron spins. (MIT )
Solution: (a) We have [L2 . [S2 . α + Ψ1 (x)α. 2S2 −3] = 0 as S2 = s2 +s2 +2sp ·sn = 3 + 3 + 1 σp ·σn . σp · σn ] = 0. (a) Total angular momentum (J2 = J(J + 1)) and parity are good quantum numbers. p2 ] + [L. and p is conjugate to x. ﬁnd the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by Ψ1 (x). What is the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by Ψ0 (r)? (d) What is the ﬁrst order shift in energy due to the term in V3 ? Suppose that to ﬁrst order the wave function is Ψ0 (r)α. p2 ]L = 0 as [lα . α is the spin state with spz = snz = 1/2. By selecting out the part of the Sch¨rdinger equation that is ﬁrst order in V3 o and proportional to α. r2 r2
12(s · x) 2 12(s · x) [S .
. β + β. S is still a good quantum 2 number.
Consider HΨ0 (r)α. − 1 1 Ψ (r) − Ψ (r) + [V1 (r) + V2 (r) − Ec ]Ψ0 (r) = 0 . α = − = − ∇2 + V1 (r) + (2S2 − 3)V2 (r) Ψ0 (r)α. α 2µ ∇2 + V1 (r) + V2 (r) Ψ0 (r)α. L = 0.2 − 3 = 1.2 for positive parity. In the case of V3 = 0. Such a symmetric interaction potential between the proton and neutron gives rise to an S state (L = 0). writing S12 for the coeﬃcient of V3 (r). α 2µ
= Ec Ψ0 (r)α. and the total orbital angular momentum and total spin are good quantum numbers. (c) If V3 = 0.1. H] = 0. S = 1 and Sz = 1. 2µ
1 1 d 2 [r Ψ0 (r)] + [V1 (r) + V2 (r) − Ec ]Ψ0 (r) = 0 . 2µ 0 µr 0 ∇2 + V1 (r) + V2 (r) − Ec Ψ0 (r) = 0 . H =− =− ∇2 + V1 (r) + (2S2 − 3)V2 (r) + S12 V3 (r) 2µ ∇2 + V1 (r) + V2 (r) + S12 V3 (r) . [L2 . and so the value of S is 1. If V3 = 0. [S2 .Nuclear Physics
287
Hence if V3 = 0. Thus Ψ0 (r) satisﬁes − or − i.e. The S state of deuteron would have an admixture of Dstate if the perturbation V3 is included. 2µ r2 dr
(d) Now. α noting that 2S 2 − 3 = 2. α . S is still a good quantum number. so Jz = +1 and the wave function has a form Ψ0 (r)α. 2µ
. H] = 0. H] = 0. (b) The possible values of L are 0. as [S2 .. the Hamiltonian is centrally symmetric.
the angular part of the wave function is Y20 .288
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. β + β. α . where 1 S12 V3 Ψ0 (r)α. α + − + V1 + V2 [Ψ1 α. β + β.
Thus the angulardependent part of Ψ1 (x) is Y20 = 3 5 16π
1 2
cos2 θ −
1 3
. Selecting out the part of the Schr¨dinger equation that is ﬁrst order in o V3 and proportional to α. α ) + Ψ3 β. α + Ec [Ψ1 α. α + · · · .
since for the state α. α ) + Ψ3 β. Sz = 1 and so Lz = 0. β ] + S12 V3 Ψ0 α. i. β ] + ∆EΨ0 (r)α. α = Ec Ψ0 (r)α. α .e. we get − 1 ∇2 + V1 + V2 Ψ1 (x) + cos2 θ − 2µ 3 V3 Ψ0 (r) = Ec Ψ1 (x) + ∆EΨ0 (r) . α + Ψ2 (α. Therefore we have − 1 1 d 2µ r2 dr + r2 dΨ1 (r) dr + V1 (r)Ψ1 (r) + V2 (r)Ψ2 (r)
l(l + 1) 1 16π Ψ1 (r) + V3 Ψ0 (r) r2 3 5 = Ec Ψ1 (r) + ∆EΨ0 (r)
. Nuclear and Particle Physics
so HΨ = − ∇2 ∇2 + V1 + V2 Ψ0 (r)α. α 2µ 2µ
+ Ψ2 (α.
terms not proportional to α. α − α. α having been neglected. α = [(σpz cos θ · σnz cos θ)α. α ]V3 Ψ0 (r) + · · · 3 = cos2 θ − 1 3 V3 Ψ0 (r)α. α .
e. and collective models of the nucleus? Indicate what properties of the nucleus are well predicted by each model. The shell model requires:
. in agreement with experiment.. The existence of magic numbers indicates that nuclei have internal structure. shell. If we treat the nucleus’s radius as a variable parameter in the massformula coeﬃcients asurface and avolume and ﬁt the mass to the experimental value.
4. the model explains why the elements 43 T e. (Columbia) Solution: It is an empirical fact that the binding energy per nucleon. Moreover. pairing energy. 61 P m have no βstable isobars. or 1 1 6 − Ψ (r) − Ψ (r) + V1 (r) + V2 (r) + 2 − Ec Ψ1 (r) 2µ 1 µr 1 r + with ∆E = cos2 θ − 1 3 16π V3 − ∆E 5 Ψ0 (r) = 0 1 3
V3 . symmetry energy and we get the liquiddrop model. Add in the correction terms of surface energy. i. of a nucleus and the density of nuclear matter are almost independent of the mass number A. l = 2. and how the model is applied. the βstability curve. B. This is similar to a liquiddrop whose heat of evaporation and density are independent of the drop size.Nuclear Physics
289
with Ψ1 (x) = Ψ1 (r)Y20 . which could explain the special stability of the magicnumber nuclei. This model gives a relationship between A and Z of stable nuclei. So the speciﬁc binding energy curve is well explained by the liquiddrop model. This led to the nuclear shell model similar to the atomic model. Coulomb repulsion energy. NUCLEAR MODELS (2059 2075) 2059 What are the essential features of the liquiddrop. we ﬁnd that the nuclear radius so deduced is in good agreement with those obtained by all other methods.
150 < A < 190 and A > 220 respectively:
2060 Discuss brieﬂy the chief experimental systematics which led to the shell model description for nuclear states. This led to the collective model. which for a spherical nucleus is a central ﬁeld. because the nucleus at this stage is still approximately spherical. 20. 28.290
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. (2) that each nucleon in the nucleus moves independently. 8. The prediction is based on the fact that normally the spin and parity are 0+ when neutrons and protons separately pair up. it is not spherical and the collective motion of a number of nucleons become much more important. (3) that the number of nucleons on an energy level is limited by Pauli’s principle. have been conﬁrmed by experiment in all cases. by considering the collective motion of nucleons. When the number of the neutrons or of the protons in a nucleus is 2. the
. But for a nucleus between two closed shells. 0+ . The shell model however cannot solve all the nuclear problems. For eveneven nuclei the predicted spin and parity of the ground state. 50. In particular it attributes the existence of magic numbers to full shells. The predictions of the spin and parity of the ground state of oddA nuclei are mostly in agreement with experiment. gives rise to vibrational and rotational energy levels for nuclides in the ranges of 60 < A < 150 and 190 < A < 220. It is quite successfull in explaining the formation of a nucleus by adding one or several nucleons to a full shell (spherical nucleus). which. For example. (4) that spinorbit coupling determines the order of energy levels. 82 and 126 (for neutrons only). Nuclear and Particle Physics
(1) the existence of an average ﬁeld. Certain aspects of oddodd nuclei can also be predicted. the experimental values of nuclear quadrupole moment are many times larger than the values calculated from a single particle moving in a central ﬁeld for a nucleus between full shells. The spin and parity of the ground state can be predicted using the shell model. (Wisconsin) Solution: The main experimental evidence in support of the nuclear shell model is the existence of magic numbers. Give several examples of nuclei which correspond to closed shells and indicate which shells are closed.
g. whose protons and neutrons each ﬁll up the ﬁrst and second main shells. than the nearby nuclides. Among all the stable nuclides. The existence of such magic numbers implies the existence of shell structure inside a nucleus similar to the electron energy levels in an atom. Second. and the total angular momentum quantum number j (spectroscopic notation is useful here. (b) Consider a nuclear level corresponding to a closed shell plus a single proton in a state with the angular momentum quantum numbers l and j. 4 He is a doublemagic nucleus. 208 Pb is a doublemagic nucleus. Of course j = l ± 1/2. Compute the gyromagnetic ratio for the level in question. all the nucleons can maintain
. the principal quantum number n. those of neutron numbers 20. Firstly we assume each nucleon moves in an average ﬁeld which is the sum of the actions of the other nucleons on it. i. etc. characterize the successive shells according to the singleparticle terms that describe the shell. 20. In nature the abundance of nuclides with such magic numbers are larger than those of the nearby numbers. When the number of neutrons or protons in a nuclide is equal to a magic number.e. we assume that the lowlying levels of a nucleus are ﬁlled up with nucleons in accordance with Pauli’s principle. For a nucleus nearly spherically in shape. 1p3/2 . Discuss brieﬂy some of the basic evidence in support of the shell model. 50 and 82 have more isotones.. those of proton numbers 8. 2s1/2 .Nuclear Physics
291
nucleus is very stable. the average ﬁeld is closely represented by a central ﬁeld. Thus these nuclides all have closed shells... while whose neutrons ﬁll up to the seventh main shell.). 28. its protons and neutrons each ﬁll up the ﬁrst main shell. e. (Princeton) Solution: (a) The basic ideas of the nuclear shell model are the following. Let gp be the empirical gyromagnetic ratio of the free proton. As collisions between nucleons cannot cause a transition and change their states.
2061 (a) Discuss the standard nuclear shell model. 16 O is also a doublemagic nucleus. 50 and 82 have more stable isotopes. the orbital angular momentum quantum number l. In particular. the binding energy measured experimentally is quite diﬀerent from that given by the liquiddrop model. 28. for each of the two cases j = l + 1/2 and j = l − 1/2. whose protons ﬁll up to the sixth main shell.
(b) According to the shell model. Considering the spinorbital interaction.20. This means that the magnetic moment and angular momentum of the nucleus are determined by the single proton outside the closed shell. which can be ﬁlled up with nucleons one by one. they move independently in the nucleus. 2
. 8. 2. so is the magnetic moment.28. larger binding energy and abundance. we get the singleparticle energy levels (Fig. As µj = µl + µs . 28 and 50. 2 1 [j(j + 1) + s(s + 1) − l(l + 1)] . the total number of protons or neutrons accommodated are 2.e..292
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. With 1 2 (j + l2 − s2 ) = 2 1 s · j = (j2 + s2 − l2 ) = 2 l·j = 1 [j(j + 1) + l(l + 1) − s(s + 1)] .11
their states of motion. 20. and obtain the energy levels by quantum mechanical methods. 2.e.11). gj j = gl l + gs s . Just like the electrons outside a nucleus in an atom. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. i. we have gj j · j = gl l · j + gs s · j .50 or 82). Note that each level has a degeneracy 2j + 1. i. We can take for the average central ﬁeld a Woods–Saxon potential well compatible with the characteristics of the interaction between nucleons. The main experimental evidence for the shell model is the existence of magic numbers. the total angular momentum of the nucleons in a closed shell is zero. if the numbers of neutrons on protons in a nucleus is equal to some ‘magic number’ (8. So up to the ﬁrst 5 shells as shown.. the nucleus has greater stability. and many more stable isotopes.
Draw an energy level diagram relating the shell model energy levels to the unperturbed oscillator levels. for j = l − 1/2 . Using the singleparticle model. 20 Ca . E = (2n + l + 3/2) ω = N + 2 In application to the singleparticle nuclear model ω is ﬁtted as 1 44A− 3 MeV. (Princeton) Solution: (a) Using LS coupling. gs = gp . gl = 1. we have the splitting of the energy levels of a harmonic oscillator as shown in Fig. Hence we have 2 2j − 1 g p 2j + 2j 1 j+1 j+ 3 gp − 2 2 for j = l + 1/2 . j = s).
gj =
2062 The energy levels of the threedimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator are given by 3 ω. explain this observation and predict the excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance.
. (a) By considering corrections to the oscillator energy levels relate the levels for N ≤ 3 to the shell model singleparticle level scheme. s = 1 . 2. 19 K. (b) Predict the ground state spins and parities of the following nuclei using the shell model:
3 17 34 41 2 He. 8 O.12.
(c) Strong electric dipole transitions are not generally observed to connect the ground state of a nucleus to excited levels lying in the ﬁrst 5 MeV of excitation. 2j(j + 1) 2j(j + 1)
For proton.Nuclear Physics
293
we have gj = gl j(j + 1) + l(l + 1) − s(s + 1) j(j + 1) + s(s + 1) − l(l + 1) + gs . the gyromagnetic ratio for free proton (l = 0.
and causing the nucleus to vibrate.12
(b) According to Fig. 1. so J π = (7/2)− .
The last two unpaired nucleons are a proton of state 2s 1 and a neutron 2 of state 1d3/2 . increasing the potential energy. so J π = (5/2)+ . 2. π is the nuclear parity. 2. When N increases by 1.12 we have the following:
3 2 He: 17 8 O: 34 19 K:
1 The last unpaired nucleon is a neutron of state 1s 2 . ω > 5 MeV for a nucleus.
1
where J is the nuclear spin.
41 20 Ca:
The last unpaired nucleon is a neutron of state 1f7/2 . However. so J π = (1/2)+ . in LS coupling the energy diﬀerence between levels of diﬀerent N can be smaller than 5 MeV. ∆π = −1 .
(c) The selection rules for electric dipole transition are ∆J = Jf − Ji = 0.
The last unpaired nucleon is a neutron of state 1d5/2 .
. especially for heavy nuclei. The giant dipole nuclear resonance can be thought of as a phenomenon in which the incoming photon separates the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. such excited states cannot connect to the ground state through an electric dipole transition. This means that excited states higher than the ground state by less than 5 MeV have the same N and parity as the latter. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. so that electric dipole transition may still be possible. so J π = 1+ . the energy level increases by ∆E = ω > 5 MeV. As electric dipole transition requires ∆π = −1.294
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. As ω = 44A− 3 MeV.
x. i 2 i = 1. z) = a 0. Substitution gives − with d2 Ψ(xi ) + V (xi )Ψ(xi ) = Ei Ψ(xi ) . z) = EΨ(x. a medium weight nucleus can be regarded as a ﬂatbottomed potential with rigid walls. Solving the equations we have Ψ(xi ) = Ai sin(ki xi ) + Bi cos(ki xi )
. x2 = y. (Columbia) Solution: The potential of a nucleon can be written as a ∞. model a nucleus as a cubical box of length equal to the nuclear diameter. x  < . y. y. Estimate the kinetic energy of the highest energy nucleon. y. x. y. z)
can be separated in the variables by letting Ψ(x. z > . z) + V (x. x1 = x. x3 = z. 2 V (xi ) = a 0. 2m dx2 i
2
a ∞. y.Nuclear Physics
295
Resonant absorption occurs when the photon frequency equals resonance frequency of the nucleus. z) = Ψ(x)Ψ(y)Ψ(z). 2 V (x. 2 where a is the nuclear diameter. xi  > . Assume the Schr¨dinger equation o −
2
2m
∇2 Ψ(x.
2063 To some approximation. 2. y. z)Ψ(x. y. y. Assume a nuclear diameter of 10−12 cm. To simplify this picture still further. E = E1 + E2 + E3 . 3. Consider a nucleus of iron56 which has 28 protons and 28 neutrons. z < .
with n even . 2m 2ma2
nx = 1.
E = E0 (n2 + n2 + n2 ) . . .97 × 10−11 )2 = = = 2. 3.04 MeV . with n odd . . i i a and hence Exi =
2 kxi 2 π 2 n2 2 xi = . a Ψ(xi ) = B cos nπ x . 2ma2 2mc2 · a2 2 × 939 × 10−24
(nx . 2. . The boundary condition Ψ(xi )xi =± a = 0 gives 2
nπ Ai sin xi .296
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. x y z where E0 = π2 2 π 2 (c )2 π 2 (1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
√ 2mEi
with ki =
. ny . nz )Number of states (111) (211) (121) (112) (221) (122) (212) (311) (131) (113) (222) (123) (132) (231) (213) (312) (321) 1 4 12E0 3 12 11E0 1 3 Number of nucleons 4 12 E
3E0 6E0
3
12
9E0
6
24
14E0
.
2064 Light nuclei in the shell model. A = 4: The stable nucleus 4 He has conﬁguration: p(1s1/2 )2 . T = 0 .04 × 14 = 28. J p = 0+ .11 we have A = 1: The stable nucleus 1 H has conﬁguration: p(1s1/2 )1 .Nuclear Physics
297
According to Pauli’s principle. For 56 Fe. J and T quantum numbers and parity. T = 0 . S = 1/2. Emax = 14E0 = 2. L = 0. S. 2. what states do you expect to ﬁnd at about one oscillator quantum of excitation energy? (c) What radioactive decay modes are possible for each of these states? (d) Which of these states do you expect to ﬁnd in 4 H? Which do you expect to ﬁnd in 4 Be? (e) Which of the excited states of 4 He do you expect to excite in αparticle inelastic scattering? Which would you expect to be excited by proton inelastic scattering? (Princeton) Solution: (a) According to Fig. T = 1/2 . A = 3: The stable nucleus 3 He has conﬁguration: p(1s1/2 )2 . specifying also their total L. L = 0. S = 1.6 MeV. A = 2: The stable nucleus 2 H has conﬁguration: p(1s1/2 )1 . n(1s1/2 )1 . S = 0. n(1s1/2 )1 . (a) Using the harmonicoscillator shell model. each state can accommodate one pair of neutrons and one pair of protons. n(1s1/2 )2 .
. L = 0. S = 1/2. (b) For 4 He. J p = 1+ . L = 0. J p = 1/2+ . describe the expected conﬁgurations for the ground states of the light stable nuclei with A ≤ 4. as shown in the table. T = 1/2 . J p = 1/2+ .
nγ p. and hence cannot have any of the states above. . . The isospin of 4 He is Tz = 0. the possible coupled state is 0+ (T = 0). (ii) When a proton (or neutron) is of 1p1/2 state.298
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. d
(d) 4 H has isospin T = 1. L = 0. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(b) Near the ﬁrst excited state of the harmonic oscillator. 2 . 1− . (e) α − α scattering is between two identical nuclei. 0− .
. namely 2− . n p. the other of 1s1/2 state. (iii) When two protons (or two neutrons) are of 1p1/2 (or 1p3/2 ) state. 2− (T = 0 or T = 1). the possible coupled states are 1− . the two αparticles have L = 0. n p. 1− (T = 0 or 1). (c) The decay modes of the possible states of 4 He are:
Jp Ground state: Excited states: 0+ 0+ 0− 2− 2− 1− 0− 1− 1−
T 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Decay modes Stable p p. The isospin of 4 Be is T ≥ 2. . n p. n p. nγ p. so the total wave function of the ﬁnal state is exchange symmetric and the total angular momentum is conserved In the initial state. the other of 1s1/2 state. . So the possible excitated states are the following: (i) When a proton (or neutron) is of 1p3/2 state. In the ﬁnal state. . or 0− states. the two αparticles are each of 0− state. n. the energy level is split into two levels 1p3/2 and 1p1/2 because of the LS coupling of the p state. 2. T = 0 for the ground state. so it can have all the states above with T = 1. Thus an αparticle can excite 4 He to 0− state while a proton can excite it to 2− . the possible coupled states are 0− .
We can then employ a model of moderately weak interaction to describe the strong interactions among nucleons. Since nucleons are fermions. the protons and neutrons in an eveneven nucleus tend to pair oﬀ separately. so that the total angular momentum and total spin of each pair of nucleons are zero. The parity of each pair of nucleons is (−1)2l = +1. (SUNY. J p = 0+ . Hence for an eveneven nucleus..e. all the low energy levels of the ground state are ﬁlled up and the interactions among nucleons cannot excite a nucleon to a higher level. the nucleus tends to have permanent deformation. which can polarize the nuclear system. For nucleons with l = 0. Buﬀalo) Solution: (a) The usual treatment is based on the assumption that the interaction among nucleons can be replaced by the action on a nucleon of the mean ﬁeld produced by the other nucleons. Despite the high nucleon density inside a nucleus it is assumed that the individual interactions between nucleons do not manifest macroscopically. The nucleons are considered to move independently of one another. (b) According to the nuclear shell model. (c) Nuclei with outer shells partially ﬁlled by odd number of nucleons tend to have permanent deformation. (c) Nucleons in the outermost partiallyﬁlled shell can be considered as moving around a nuclear system of zero spin.Nuclear Physics
299
2065 Explain the following statements on the basis of physical principles: (a) The motion of individual nucleons inside a nucleus may be regarded as independent from each other even though they interact very strongly. each pair of neutrons or protons are in the same orbit and have opposite spins. Because such odd nucleons have ﬁnite spins and magnetic moments. It follows that the total angular momentum of the nucleus is zero. and so the total parity of the nucleus is positive. the orbits are ellipses.
2066 Explain the following:
. (b) All the eveneven nuclei have 0+ ground state. i.
However neither a neutron nor a proton will bind stably to 4 He. to isotopes of Pb. When the energy of the αparticle increases. Also. The halflives of 232 Th and 238 U are greater than 109 years and the ﬁnal Pbisotopes are stable. and so the halflife of the nucleus decreases. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(a) The binding energy of adding an extra neutron to a 3 He nucleus (or of adding an extra proton to a 3 H nucleus) to form 4 He is greater than 20 MeV. From the Geiger–Nuttall formula for αdecays log λ = A − BEd
−1/2
.
where A and B are constants with A diﬀerent for diﬀerent radioactivity series. the probability of its penetrating the barrier increases. (Columbia) Solution: (a) 4 He is a doublemagic nucleus in which the shells of neutrons and protons are all full.300
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. experiments show that for the radioactive family 232 Th and 238 U. but not the ﬂuctuation of the change. we see that a small change in decay energy corresponds to a large change in halflife. or a 3 H captures a proton to form 4 He. when a 3 He captures a neutron. So it is very stable and cannot absorb more neutrons or protons. λ is the αdecay constant and Ed is the decay energy. (b) The reason that successive stages of the decay of 232 Th and 238 U show a decrease in halflife and an increase in αdecay energy as the ﬁnal Pbisotopes are approached is that the Coulomb barrier formed between the αparticle and the daughter nucleus during αemission obstructs the decay. by α. the energy emitted is very high because of the high binding energy. yet the intermediate αdecay stages have much shorter halflives – some less than 1 hour or even 1 second – and successive stages show generally a decrease in halflife and an increase in αdecay energy as the ﬁnal Pbisotope is approached. However.
. We can deduce from the liquiddrop model that the αdecay energy Ed increases with A. which can be explained only by the nuclear shell model. Ed decreases as A increases. This shows that the liquiddrop model can only describe the general trend of binding energy change with A and Z.and βemissions. (b) Natural radioactive nuclei such as 232 Th and 238 U decay in stages.
where N. (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The isospin of the ground state of a nucleus is I = Z − N /2. 2
. 13 N has 7 one more proton than 13 C. Brieﬂy justify your order. and 13 N? (Recall that the p3/2 shell lies below 5 6 7 the p1/2 . 2.
as the unpaired proton is in 1p1/2 state .
I=
13 7 N
−
: Jp = I= 1 . Z are the numbers of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus respectively. Thus (Fig. 13 B. 2 1 2
−
.
3 as the unpaired proton is in 1p 2 state . with the former being the chieﬂy cause. 6 7 5 13 13 6 C and 7 N belong to the same isospin doublet. 2
3 2
−
. 13 N. 13 C. and so has greater Coulomb energy and hence 6 larger mass.
(b) Ordering the nuclei with the lowestmass ﬁrst gives 13 C.) (b) Order the above isobaric triad according to mass with the lowestmass ﬁrst.
as the unpaired neutron is in 1p1/2 state . Whereas 13 B has fewer protons. Their mass diﬀerence arises from the diﬀerence in Coulomb energy and the mass diﬀerence between neutron and proton. The spinparity of the ground state of a nucleus is decided by that of the last unpaired nucleon. (c) Indicate how you could estimate rather closely the energy diﬀerence between the two lowestmass members of the above triad.Nuclear Physics
301
2067 (a) What spinparity and isospin would the shell model predict for the ground states of 13 B.
13 6 C
: Jp =
1 2 1 . it has more neutrons and is 5
.11)
13 5 B
: Jp = I= 3 .
Hence it has the largest mass.4A1/2 fm. R being the nuclear radius R ≈ 1. How is this observation explained? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The splitting between p3/2 and p1/2 is caused by the spinorbit coupling of the nucleons.6 ×
49 − 36 197 × − 0. orbitals are ﬁlled in the order 1s1/2 . (a) What is responsible for the splitting between the p3/2 and p1/2 orbitals? (b) In the model. each will have electrostatic (Coulomb) energy W = 3Q2 /5R.4 × 131/3
= 2. for 18 O) J π is always 0+ .302
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 1p1/2 . etc.g. If the nuclei are approximated by spheres of uniform charge. 13 C and 6 13 6 N.
2068 In the nuclear shell model. What are the predicted J π values for 15 O and 17 O? (c) For oddodd nuclei a range of J π values is allowed. Hence the mass diﬀerence is [M (13 N ) − M (13 C)]c2 = 7 6 = 3 (Q2 − Q2 ) − [Mn − M (1 H)]c2 C 5R N 3 c 5R e2 c (72 − 62 ) − 0.78
= 0. (c) Consider the two lowestmass members of the above triad. 2s1/2 . Thus the proton conﬁguration of 15 O is (1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )2 . (b) Each orbital can accommodate 2j + 1 protons and 2j + 1 neutrons. 1p3/2 . 1d3/2 . What are the allowed values for 18 F (Z = 9)? (d) For eveneven nuclei (e.62 MeV . 16 O (Z = 8) is a good closedshell nucleus and has spin and parity J π = 0+ .78 137 1. 1d5/2 . and its
. Nuclear and Particle Physics
far from the line of stable nuclei and so is less tightly formed.
2+ . the total angular momentum of the nucleons in an energy level is zero. the parity is π = (−1)ln +lp = +1.) (d) For an eveneven nucleus. (c) The magnetic moment of the ground state of 209 Pb. 5+ . 3+ . Thus the possible values of the spinparity of 18 F are 0+ . As an even number of nucleons in the same energy level have angular momenta of the same absolute value. but its neutron conﬁguration is (1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )2 (1d5/2 )1 . as an even number of nucleons are in the lowest energy levels. So the spinparity of 17 O is that of the neutron in the 1d5/2 state. 4+ . its proton conﬁguration is (1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )2 (1d5/2 )1 . 1+ . The proton conﬁguration of 17 O is the same as that of 15 O. the parity of the nucleus is positive. As the number of nucleons in every energy level of an eveneven nucleus is even. the possible spins are J = 0. 2. J p = 5/2+ . 2. the number of nucleons in every energy level is even. (a) The spins and parities of the ground state and the ﬁrst two excited states of 207 Pb. As jn = 5/2. 3. a range of J p values are allowed. (b) The ground state quadrupole moment of 207 Pb.13. 1. (c) The neutron conﬁguration of 18 F is (1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )2 (1d5/2 )1 . (It is in fact 1+ . Since all the proton shells and neutron shells have zero angular momentum. being decided by the neutron and proton in the 1d5/2 states.Nuclear Physics
303
neutron conﬁguration is (1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )1 . (d) The spins and parities of the lowest states of 208 Bi (nearly degener83 ate). and the angular momenta of paired nucleons are aligned oppositely because of the pairing force. 4. As ln = 2. jp = 5/2. 2 Hence the spinparity of 15 O of J p = 1/2− .
2069 The singleparticle energies for neutrons and protons in the vicinity of are given in Fig. Using this ﬁgure as a guide. the spinparity of 15 O is determined by the angular momentum and parity of the unpaired neutron in the 1p 1 state. What is the energy of the ground state of 208 Bi relative to 208 Pb?
208 82 Pb126
. As the protons all pair up but the neutrons do not. the spin of an eveneven nucleus is zero. estimate or evaluate the following. lp = 2. As there are two unpaired nucleons. 5.
Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. (f) Explain why one does not observe superallowed Fermi electron or positron emission in heavy nuclei. The second excited state is formed
.304
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. z component of isospin) of the isobaric analog state? Estimate the energy of the isobaric analog state above the ground state of 208 Pb due to the Coulomb interaction. (Princeton) Solution: (a) 207 Pb consists of full shells with a vacancy for a neutron in p1/2 level. parity.13
(e) The isobaric analog state in 208 Bi of the ground state of 208 Pb is deﬁned as T+ 208 Pb (ground state) with T+ = i t+ (i). where t+ changes a neutron into a proton. isospin. 82 The spinparity of the ground state is determined by that of the unpaired neutron in p1/2 and so is (1/2)− . 2. The ﬁrst excited state is formed by a f5/2 neutron transiting to p1/2 . Its J p is determined by the single neutron vacancy left in f5/2 level and is (5/2)− . What are the quantum numbers (spin.
T3 + 1 . The ﬁrst excited state is formed by a neutron in f5/2 transiting to p1/2 and its spinparity is determined by the unpaired f5/2 neutron and h9/2 proton. T+ T. T = 22. the two lowest states have spinparity 5+ and 7+ . the states has J p = 5+ .5 = 5. ( 3 )− .91µN .2 − 3.. ( 5 )− .13. T3 = −22. 208 Bi has one more proton at h9/2 and one less neutron at p1/2 we have ∆E = E(Bi) − E(P b) ≈ 7. the isobaric analog state of 208 Pb.Nuclear Physics
305
by a p3/2 neutron reﬁlling the f5/2 vacancy (that is to say a p3/2 neutron goes to p1/2 directly). 2. the total magnetic moment equals to that of the neutron itself: µ(209 P b) = −1. As J = 1/2 + 9/2 = 5 (since both nucleon spins are antiparallel to l).e. Thus the isobaric analog state should have the same spin. The
. Therefore. Hence J = 5/2 + 9/2 = 7. 2 2 2 (b) The nucleon shells of 207 Pb are full except there is one neutron short 82 in p1/2 levels. ln = 1 and so the parity is (−1)lp +ln = +. the electric quadrupole moment of 207 Pb is zero. parity and isospin. and so J p = 7+ . The energy diﬀerence between the ground states of 208 Bi and 208 Pb can be obtained roughly from Fig. has the same J p and T but a diﬀerent T3 = −21. the ground state has an unpaired proton and an unpaired 83 neutron.2 MeV higher than that of 208 Pb. As the orbital 82 motion of a neutron makes no contribution to the nuclear magnetic moment. (c) 209 Pb has a neutron in g9/2 outside the full shells. (e) As T+ only changes the third component of the isospin. As 208 Pb has J p = 0+ . Hence 2 the ground and ﬁrst two excited states of 207 Pb have J p = ( 1 )− . J p of the nucleus in the second excited state is then − determined by the single neutron vacancy in p3/2 level and is 3 . But as J = 1/2. µN being the nuclear magneton. where ∆ = mn − mp . (d) For 208 Bi. As compared with 208 Pb.7 + 1. An electric quadrupole moment can arise from polarization at the nuclear center caused by motion of neutrons.2 MeV . T3 = AT. but a diﬀerent third component of the isospin of the original nucleus. 208 Bi. the proton being in h9/2 . lp = 5. the ground state of 208 Bi is 5. parity is (−1)1+5 = +.5 + 2∆ ≈ 3. i. the neutron being in p1/2 .
Nuclear and Particle Physics
energy diﬀerence between the two isobaric analog states is 6 Ze2 6 Z c e2 ∆E ≈ + (mH − mn )c2 = − 0.78 = 19. Sketch the complete decay sequence expected experimentally for the highest spin state.14
. Estimate the lifetime expected for this state on the basis of a singleparticle model. For a heavy nucleus. (a) Using this model predict the magnetic dipole moments of 41 Ca21 20 and 41 Sc20 . (c) The ﬁrst excited state in 43 Ca23 is shown below in Fig. Estimate crudely the electric quadrupole moments for these 21 two cases as well. =
2070 The simplest model for lowlying states of nuclei with N and Z between 20 and 28 involves only f7/2 nucleons.2 × 2081/3 × 137 (f) The selection rules for superallowed Fermi transition are ∆J = 0. they can emit nucleons rather than undergo βdecay. so the wave function of the daughter nucleus is very similar to that of the parent.14 with 21 a halflife of 34 picoseconds for decay to the ground state.306
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. As the isospin is a good quantum number superallowed transitions occur generally between isospin multiplets. and so the isobaric analogy state is highly excited.1 MeV . 5 × 1. ∆P = +. ∆T = 0. As such. the diﬀerence in Coulomb energy between isobaric analog states can be 10 MeV or higher. however. 2. The
Fig. 2.78 5 R 5 R c 6 × 82 × 197 − 0. (b) What states are expected in 42 Ca according to an application of this 20 model? Calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments for these states.
43µN (Princeton) Solution: (a) 41 Ca has a neutron and 41 Sc has a proton outside closed shells in state 1f7/2 .79µN .58. 2 1 . gs = gn = − 1. gs = gp = 2.91µN . For a single nucleon in a central ﬁeld. the gfactor is (Problem 2061) g= g= (2j − 1)gl + gs 2j (2j + 3)gl − gs 2(j + 1)
2
for j = l + for j = l −
1 . As j = 7 = 3 + 1 .82.91µN . which has a single proton outside closed shells.91 = −3.79µN . As l = 3 and j = 1 we have for
41
= 3+ 1. 7 2 Note that these values are only in rough agreement with the given experimental values. µp = 2. 2
Ca µ(41 Ca) = − 3. gl = 0. gl = 1. The electric quadrupole moment of 41 Sc.59µN µ(41 Sc) = 5. 2j
For proton.82 × jµN = −1. The nuclear magnetic moment is given by µ = gjµN . µN is the nuclear magneton. As closed shells do not contribute to the nuclear magnetic moment.79 = 5. the latter is determined by the extrashell nucleons. 2(j + 1) 2(j + 1)
. is given by Q(41 Sc) = −e2 r2 2j − 1 2j − 1 = − r2 . we have 1/2 2 2 for 41 Sc (7 − 1) + 5.58 7 µ(41 Sc) = × µN = 5. µ(41 Ca) = −1.Nuclear Physics
307
experimental values are µn = −1. where j is the total angular momentum. 2
7 2
For neutron.
see Problem 2054. 6. As
. The two last neutrons. .15 the ground state of 42 Ca nucleus is 0+ . J = even. . Then 6 1 Q(41 Sc) = − × (1. 2. 0 and positive parity. which are in f7/2 can be coupled to form levels of J = 7. As S = 0. (A − 1)2 (b) As shown in Fig.)
Fig. For an orderofmagnitude estimate take r2 = (1.43 × 10−27 cm2 .308
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. the possible levels are those with J = 6. Its electric quadrupole moment is caused by the polarization of the neutron relative to the nucleus center and is Z Q(41 Ca) ≈ Q(41 Sc) = 1. 2. .14 × 10−25 cm2 . 9
41
Ca has a neutron outside the full shells. Taking into account the antisymmetry for identical particles. (We require L + S = even. 2. 0. 5 .2 × A1/3 )2 f m2 .2 × 41 3 )2 = −1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
where r2 is the meansquare distance from the center and the proton charge is taken to be one. 4.15
The magnetic dipole moment µ of a twonucleon system is given by µ = gJµN = (g1 j1 + g2 j2 )µN with J = j1 + j2 .
6 f m2 for J = 6. 2. 4.3 f m2 for J = 4. One can get the excited state quadrupole moment using the reduced transition rate for γtransition e 2 Q2 0 B(E2.524 MeV and B(E2 : 2+ → 0+ ) = 81. j1 j1 = 7 . and 25.Nuclear Physics
309
gJ2 = g1 j1 · J + g2 j2 · J . j1 · J = j2 · J = we have gJ2 = or g= For
42
1 2 (J + j2 − j2 ) . 1 2 2 1 2 (J + j2 − j2 ) . 2 1 2
1 1 (g1 + g2 )J2 + (g1 − g2 )(j2 − j2 ) . 6. 2.
For other states the quadrupole moments are given by Q= K 2 − J(J + 1) J(J + 1)Q0 −J Q0 = − = Q0 (J + 1)(2J + 3) (J + 1)(2J + 3) 2J + 3
as K = 0.3 f m2 for J = 2. 23.5 = 64 f m2 .e. 4. 1 2 2 2
1 1 j1 (j1 + 1) − j2 (j2 + 1) (g1 + g2 ) + (g1 − g2 ) . Thus Q = 18.5e2 f m4 . 5. 3. The ﬁrst excited state 2+ of 42 Ca has excitation energy 1. The groundstate quadrupole moment of 42 Ca is Q = 0. L = 1. As g1 = g2 = −3. the two nucleons outside full shells each has j = 7/2. 2+ → 0+ ) = 16π where Q0 is the intrinsic electric quadrupole moment. i. 2 2 J(J + 1)
Ca. or Q0 = √ 16π × 81. with the lowest order having the highest 2 2
.82 . 2
we have µ(42 Ca) = g1 JµN = −1. (c) The selection rule for the γtransition ( 5 )− → ( 7 )− is ( 5 − 7 ) ≤ 2 2 2 2 L ≤ 5 + 7 . 6.09JµN with J = 0.
The discrepancy is probably due to γtransition caused by change of the collective motion of the nucleons.4 × 10−13 s .4 × 3 2 × (5 × 3)2 3 L+3
2
Eγ 197 0. λE2 = = 4.4 × 108 s−1 .37 197
2L+1
× (1.4 × A1/3 )2L × 1021
5
2
(1.4 × 431/3 )4 × 1021
= 1.4 × A1/3 )2L−2 × 1021
(1. λM1 = = 1. and so T1/2 ≈ ln 2 ln 2 = = 4. Nuclear and Particle Physics
probability. λM1 1.9 × 2 32 3 4
2
3 L+3 0.4(L + 1) 3 2 L+3 L[(2L + 1)!!] 4. E2 could be neglected. parities and approximate relative energy levels for the lowest ﬁve states you would expected in 210 Pb and explain.57 × 1012 s−1 . Then the most probable are magnetic dipole transition M1 for which ∆P = −(−1)1+1 = +. According to the singleparticle model (Problem 2093). As λE2 λM1 .57 × 1012
This result from the singleparticle model is some 20 times smaller than the experimental value.310
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
.37 197
3
2
Eγ 197
2L+1
× (1. or electric quadrupole transition E2 for which ∆P = (−1)2 = +. (a) What are the neutron separation energies for 40 Ca and 208 Pb? 20 82 (b) What is the best neutron magic number between those for 40 Ca and 208 Pb? (c) Draw the spectrum including spins.4 × 431/3 )0 × 1021
= 1.9(L + 1) L[(2L + 1)!!]2 1. 2. for which parity is conserved.
2071 The variation of the binding energy of a single neutron in a “realistic” potential model of the neutronnucleus interaction is shown in Fig.16.
Nuclear Physics
311
Fig.16
Fig. 2. 2.17
.
For nuclei of N = Z.312
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. At N=82. the last pair of neutrons being in 3p1/2 shell.16 gives for A = 40 that the last neutron is in 1d3/2 shell with separation energy of about 13 MeV. for heavy nuclei. (c) The last two neutrons of 210 Pb are in 2g9/2 shell. Figure 2.17 shows the variation of the thermal neutron strength function S0 with mass number A.18. there are more neutrons than protons. (b) The neutron magic numbers between 40 Ca and 208 Pb are 28. . and so this is the best neutron magic number. the separation energies are about 12 MeV. 7 . However. At neutron number N = 50. Thus the spinparities of the lowest ﬁve states are 8+ . However a twoneutron system has isospin T = 1. the separation energies are also about 13 MeV. the allowed J are 8. outside of the doublefull shells. 2. 2. (d) Near A = 50 the swave strength function has a peak. . 4+ . Because of the residual interaction. the eveneven nucleus has ground state 0+ . and the split peak around A ≈ 160. 8. At the magic number 28 the separation energy is highest. 6. 208 Pb has full shells. Explain the location of the single peak around A ≈ 50. so A < 2N . the ﬁve states are of diﬀerent energy levels as shown in Fig. The two outermost neutrons in 2g9/2 of 210 Pb can couple to form states of J = 9. A calculation using the optical model gives the
. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(d) The swave neutron strength function S0 is deﬁned as the ratio of the average neutron width Γn to the average local energy spacing D : S0 = Γn / D . As the antisymmetry of the total wave function requires J + T = odd. 2+ . As the two nucleons are in the same orbit and will normally pair up to J = 0. 50 and 82. 0 and the parity is positive. Why is the second peak split? (Princeton) Solution: (a) The outermost neutron of 40 Ca is the twentieth one. for the nuclei of magic numbers 50 and 82. Figure 2. 2.16 we note that for A = 208. the separation energies are somewhat less than those given above. 0+ . 4. 6+ . at the neutron magic number N = 28 the separation energies are about 13 MeV. . From Fig. This is because when A = 50 the excitation energy of 3s energy level roughly equals the neutron binding energy. On account of this. the separation energy of each neutron is about 3 MeV.
the swave strength function again peaks due to the equality of excitation energy of 4s neutron and its binding energy. it is possible within the shell model. ignoring interconﬁguration interactions.19
(a) Explain why these J p values are just what one would expect in the standard shell model. nuclear deformation in this region is greater.Nuclear Physics
313
Fig.
Fig.18
shape of the peak as shown in Fig. particularly near A = 160 to 170.19 gives the lowlying states of 18 O with their spinparity assignments and energies (in MeV) relative to the 0+ ground state. When 150 < A < 190. However. 2.
.17 (solid curve). Here the binding energies diﬀer appreciably from those given by the singleparticle model: the peak of the swave strength function becomes lower and splits into two smaller peaks. 2. where the nuclei have a tendency to deform permanently. 2.
2072 Figure 2. (b) What J p values are expected for the lowlying states of 19 O? (c) Given the energies (relative to the ground state) of these 18 O levels.
Hi Ψi = Ei Ψi . To simplify matters. For this ﬁctitious world. compute the energies of the lowlying 19 O levels.16). consider a ﬁctitious situation where the 2+ and 4+ levels of 18 O have 2 the energies 2 MeV and 6 3 MeV respectively.
A
Ψ=
i=1
ψi .
When considering residual interactions. the antisymmetry of the system’s total wave function requires T + J = odd. Then the possible ground and excited states of 18 O are: (1d5/2 )2 : J = 0+ . Vi = V0i (r) + f (r)Si · li . H = ΣHi . T = 1. the diﬀerence of energy between diﬀerent interconﬁgurations of the nucleons in the same level must be taken into account.
(1d3/2 )2 : J = 0+ . with Hi = Ti + Vi . When the two nucleons are in the same orbit. However. the two neutrons outside the full shells can ﬁll the 1d5/2 . T = 1. 2+ . (2s1/2 )2 : J = 0+ . (1d5/2 2s1/2 ) : J = 2+ . Nuclear and Particle Physics
to compute the energy separations of the 19 O levels. this requires familiarity with complicated Clebsch–Gordon coeﬃcients. 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 levels (see Fig.314
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. As T = 1. (Princeton) Solution: (a) In a simple shell model. ignoring the residual interactions between nucleons and considering only the spinorbit coupling. we have for a system of A nucleons.
. T = 1. 2. T = 1. 4+ . J is even. 2+ . For 18 O nucleus.
20. the ﬁrst excited state 1 . 2 If interconﬁguration interactions are taken into account. 2. or 1d3/2 . 1d3/2 . which gives fairly good agreement with the experimental values. it can go to 1d5/2 . using only the (d5/2 )2 conﬁguration does not agree well with experiment. we consider the last unpaired neutron. According to Fig.Nuclear Physics
315
The three lowlying states of 18 O as given in Fig.19. 0+ . as shown in Fig. and the second excited 2 2 + state 3 . when considering the energies of the levels. 4+ . So the + + ground state is 5 . should then correspond to the conﬁguration (1d5/2 )2 . However. the three neutrons outside the full shells can go into the 1d5/2 and 2s1/2 orbits to form the following conﬁgurations:
.20
(b) To calculate the lowest levels of 19 O using the simple shell model and ignoring interconﬁguration interactions. One must also allow mixing the conﬁgurations 1d5/1 . 2+ .16. 2s1/2 . 2s1/2 .
Fig. 2. 2. 2.
m . (c) In the ﬁctitious case the lowest excited states of 2 with energies 0. 4+
Fig.m .
O are 0+ .21
This ﬁctitious energy level structure corresponds to the rotational spectrum of an eveneven nucleus. Nuclear and Particle Physics
[(d5/2 )3 ]5/2. we have for 18 O
2
2I
=
EJ 2 1 = = MeV . 2. 18 O can be taken to be roughly equal. J p = 0 [(d5/2 )2 s1/2 ]1/2. one can deduce the moment of inertia I of 18 O. and if the moments of inertia of 19 O.
+ +
[(d5/2 )2 s1/2 ]3/2.m . 2.
+
[(d5/2 )3 ]3/2. If this assumption can be applied to 19 O also. As EJ = 2I J(J + 1). 2+ . J(J + 1) 2(2 + 1) 3
. 6 3 MeV as shown in Fig. states with J p = 72 .m . J p = 0
5 2 1 2 3 2
+
.
[(d5/2 )2 s1/2 ]5/2.316
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. E1 J1 (J1 + 1) 2(2 + 1) 2 Taking this assumption as valid. 2.m .21.m .
Moreover. for in the latter we have 62 E2 J2 (J2 + 1) 4(4 + 1) = = = 3.
+
. 92 are also possible.
[d5/2 (s1/2 )2 ]5/2. J p = 2
18
. then one can estimate 2 the energy levels of 19 O.
being the ground state of E7/2 = E9/2 = 1 7 3 2 5 7 +1 − 2 2 5 +1 2
19
O. 2. 9 . Hence 2 2 2 E5/2 = 0. 3 4 3
Fig.
.22
2073 The following nonrelativistic Hamiltonians can be used to describe a system of nucleons: H0 =
i
p2 1 i 2 + mω0 r2 . i 2m 2 βˆi · si . 3
1 1 1 × (9 × 11 − 5 × 7) = 5 MeV .
=2
1 MeV . i 2
where ω0
β
ω. l
i
H1 = H0 − H2 = H1 −
i
1 2 2 mω 2 (2zi − x2 − yi ) .Nuclear Physics
317
Assume that I is the same for 19 O. From (b) we see that the three lowest rotational levels of 19 O correspond to J = 5 . 7 .
EN = N + 3 ω.23
Solution: (a) For H0 the exactly conserved quantities are energy E.23. which are degenerate. 1d3/2 . the approximately conserved ones are J. H1 . For H2 the exactly conserved quantities are E. For the ground state of each model. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(a) For each Hamiltonian H0 . For H1 the exactly conserved quantities are E. 1p3/2 and 1p1/2 which are degenerate. The 2 lowlying states are as follows (Figs.16): N = 0 gives the ground state 1s1/2 . S. and parity. N = 1 gives the p states. 13 and 15. the approximately conserved ones are L and S. 2. 2. J and parity. N = 2 gives 2s and 1d states. orbital angular momentum L. total angular momentum J.
. below 5 MeV are shown 13 in Fig. the third component of the total angular momentum Jz . give the appropriate quantum numbers for the last ﬁlled singleparticle orbital when the number n of identical nucleons is 11. (b) What important additional features should be included when the lowlying states of either spherical or deformed nucleons are to be described? (c) The known levels of Aluminum 27. 1d5/2 . 2s1/2 . identify the exactly and approximately conserved quantities of the system.12 and 2. total spin S.318
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. L. 27 Al14 . Which states correspond to the predictions of the spherical and of the deformed models? (Princeton)
Fig. As H0 is an isotropic harmonic oscillator ﬁeld. and parity. 2. H2 .
n :(1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )2 (1d5/2 )5 . the last ﬁlled nucleons all have N = 2. so are 1d3/2 and 1d5/2 .
. 13. the eﬀect of the deforming ﬁeld on the singleparticle energy levels as well as the collective vibration and rotation are to be taken into account also. when ε ≈ 0. 11 or 13 identical nucleons can ﬁll up to the 1d5/2 state. The order of the split energy levels well depend on ε. 2
The greater is ji .
(b) For a spherical nucleus. 3 . For the Hamiltonain. 2 2 − − 1p3/2 level is split into 1 .3. when considering the ground and low excited states. 3 .3 (such as for 27 Al). For this Hamiltonian. According to the singleparticle model of deformed nuclei. H2 can be rewritten as H2 = H1 −
i
1 2 mω 2 ri (3 cos2 θ − 1) . the lower is the energy. The conﬁgurations of the 14 neutrons and 13 protons in a spherical nucleus are n :(1s1/2 )2 (1p3/2 )4 (1p1/2 )2 (1d5/2 )6 . 5 . (c) 27 Al is a deformed nucleus with ε ≈ 0. 2 2 Let the deformation parameter be ε. the last nucleon well go into the 2s1/2 state. besides the above. 15. of the 2s1/2 level if n = 15. 2
which corresponds to a deformed nucleus. H1 can be rewritten as H1 = H0 −
i
β(li · si ) = H0 −
i
1 β[ji (ji + 1) − li (li + 1) − si (si + 1)] . 2 2 2 + + 1d3/2 level is split into 1 . pairing eﬀect and interconﬁguration interactions are to be included.Nuclear Physics
319
When the number of identical nucleons is n = 11. 3 . the orbit of the last nucleon is
3 + 2 5 + 2 1 + 2
of the 1d5/2 level if n = 11. while for n = 15. of the 1d5/2 level if n = 13. For a deformed nucleus. 1p3/2 . and 1d5/2 energy levels are split further: + + + 1d5/2 level is split into 1 . some of the degeneracy is lost: 1p3/2 and 1p1/2 are separated. 1d3/2 .
+
.623 MeV .452 MeV .E = 0.463 MeV . Jp = Jp = Jp = 5 2 1 2 3 2
+
ground state :
. E = 4.463 MeV .
−
. there is also collective motion. E = 2. every K p corresponds to a collectiverotation energy band of the nucleus given by
. 2 If the nucleus is deformed.196 MeV . E = 0. In addition. Strictly speaking.156 MeV . corresponding to the levels of a spherical nucleus of the same J p . which makes the energy levels very complicated. Nuclear and Particle Physics
The ground state is given by the state of the last unpaired nucleon (1d5/2 ) : + Jp = 5 . not only are energy levels like 1p3/2 .
Also.E = 0.
corresponding to the singleparticle energy levels of a deformed nucleus the levels ground state : Kp = Kp = Kp = Kp = Kp = 5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2
+
.
+
excited states :
.320
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. the levels become more crowded and the order changes. E = 4. the energy levels of 27 Al are ﬁlled up in the order of singleparticle energy levels of a deformed nucleus.
+
.
+
excited states :
.
+
. Comparing the energy levels with theory. we have. the levels. E = 3. 1d3/2 split. E = 2. 1d5/2 .
7 + 2
(1.944).
a ≈ 5. .Nuclear Physics
2
321
EJ = where
2I
[J(J + 1) − K(K + 1)] .
K = 1/2. .790). .719). For a series of states that can be described as symmetric superposition of S and D bosons (i. .623).497) 2
(3. 2
2
(0). .613).150 MeV.175 × 102 . 1. what is the spectrum of the states with Ns + Nd = 3 bosons? (Princeton)
. [(K + 2)(K + 3) − K(K + 1)] = 3.452). K + 1. .027). for rotational bands have K = 5 .
+
2I
2
giving 2I ≈ 0.e. of spins 0 and 2 respectively). 2 and 3 bosons? If the energy of the S bosons is Es and the energy of the D bosons is Ed . .
2
a ≈ −3. and there is a residual interaction between pairs of D bosons of constant strength α. J = K. and
3 − 2
1 − 2
7 − (3.278 MeV.
3 + (0. 9 (4. (3.613 MeV . 7 (2.
2
EJ = where
2I
J(J + 1) −
3 1 + a − a(−1)J+1/2 J + 4 2
.425).222 MeV. 2
2I Similarly for
≈ 0. we have 2 2 2
2
(0.425 MeV . K + 1.
9 + 2
(3.
5 + 2
For example. .042) we have
2I
≈ 0.
2074 A recent model for collective nuclear states treats them in terms of interacting bosons.
K = 1/2.092 . For rotational bands 1 2 + + 5 + (1. J = K. we
2I
2
[(K + 1)(K + 2) − K(K + 1)] = 1. what are the spins of the states having Nd = 0.
spin is 2. Nd = 1 : Ns = 2. spin is 4. spin is 6. For states of Ns + Nd = 3. Nd = 3. E = 3Ed + 3α . with the basic states given by (−1)j−m jm j − m . Nd = 1. This interaction has a single outstanding eigenstate. Nd = 3 : Ns = 0. 4. speciﬁed by a Hamiltonian of the form 1 1 · · 1 H = −g · · · · · .322
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
2075 A simpliﬁed model of the complex nuclear interaction is the pairing force. Nd = 2. Nd = 2 : Ns = 1. E = Ed + 2Es . when Nd = 0 : Ns = 3. spin is 0. E = 3Es .2. 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: When Nd = 0. 0. What is its spin? What is its energy? What are the spins and energies of the rest of the twoparticle states? (Princeton) Solution: Suppose H is a (j + 1 ) × (j + 1 ) matrix. · · · · · 1 1 · · 1 in the twoidenticalparticle space for a single j orbit. The eigenstate can be written 2 2 in the form 1 1 · · 1
.0. E = 2Ed + Es + α .
NUCLEAR DECAYS (2076 2107) 2076 In its original (1911) form the Geiger–Nuttall law expresses the general relationship between αparticle range (Rα ) and decay constant (λ) in natural αradioactivity as a linear relation between log λ and log R. Explain how this relationship between decay constant and energy is explained quantummechanically.
Thus the energy eigenvalue of ΨN =2 is −g j + 1 . . 2 1 1
where the column matrix has rank (j + 1 ) × 1. λ increases by a factor of some 1010 . the corresponding angular momenta being J = 2. Show also how the known general features of the atomic nucleus make it possible to explain the extremely rapid dependence of λ on E(α). . 4. 1 −g j + 2 . (For example. etc.3 MeV for Po210 to E(α) = 7.Nuclear Physics
323
ΨN =2 =
1 1 −1/2 1 j+ :. E x (α). the spin is zero. Subsequently this was modiﬁed to an approximate linear relationship between log λ and some power of the αparticle energy. 6 . . ˆ As the sum of the energy eigenvalues equals the trace of the H matrix.6 × 10−4 sec. from a halflife of about 140 days to one of 1. Then 2 1 ˆ HΨN =2 = −g j + 2 ΨN =2 .7 MeV for Po214 . As the pairing force 2 acts on states of J = 0 only. all the eigenstates orthogonal to ΨN =2 have energy eigenvalues zero. and H is a negative quantity. from E(α) = 5.) (Columbia) Solution: αdecay can be considered as the transmission of an αparticle through the potential barrier of the daughter nucleus.
5. Similar to that shown in
.
B.
with V = zZe2 /r. we can obtain the transmission coeﬃcient T by the W.324
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Then it collides with the walls v0 times per unit time and the probability of decay per unit R time is λ = v0 T /R.
. Integration gives 1 G = (2mzZe2 r1 )1/2 arccos
R r1
R r1
− π − 2
R2 R − 2 r1 r1 R r1
1/2
1/2
→0
→
1
(2mzZe2 r1 )1/2
. z = 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. log10 T (210 P o) = 0.434 × = 0.7.
Suppose the αparticle has velocity v0 in the potential well. This is a linear relationship between log λ and E −1/2 for αemitters of the same radioactive series. Hence √ 1 1 2 2mBRπ v0 ln λ = − E − 2 − B − 2 + ln . method: T = e−2G . Using a threedimensional potential and neglecting angular momentum. E = zZe2 /r1 .K. Thus the lifetimes diﬀer by 10 orders of magnitude. Ze being the charge of the daughter nucleus. where R is the nuclear radius. 2. where G= 1
r1 R
(2mE − V )1/2 dr . r1 is the point where the Coulomb repulsive potential V (r) = Zze2/r equals the αparticle energy E.434[ln λ(214 P o) − ln λ(210 P o)] T (214 P o) = 0. For 84 Po. π R where B = zZe2/R.434 × √ 2mc2 zZ e2 c 1 1 √ −√ E210 E214 √ 1 1 −√ 5·3 7·7
√ 8 × 940 × 2 × (84 − 2) 137
≈10.
βdecay is the result of the disintegration of a neutron in the nucleus into a proton. (b) Indicate why the law for βemitters is diﬀerent by discussing in detail the diﬀerence between the two processes. However pe and pν are not independent. e
.Nuclear Physics
325
2077 The halflife of a radioactive isotope is strongly dependent on the energy liberated in the decay. ω= 2π Hf i 2 ρ(E) . The energy dependence of the halflife. follows quite diﬀerent laws for α. which remains in the nucleus. an electron and an antineutrino. (a) Derive the speciﬁc law for αemitters. dpν = dEν = dE . They are related through Ee = p2 c2 + m2 c4 . 2. Thus c c c dN = dE dNe dNν V2 = 4 6 3 dE 4π c
pmax 0
(E − Ee )2 p2 dpe . (2π )3 and so dN = dNe dNν . (2π )3
where V is the volume of normalization.
where E is the decay energy. the number of states of the electron in the momentum interval pe and pe + dpe is dNe = V 4πp2 dpe e . dE For decay energy E.and βemitters. Hf i is the transition matrix element and ρ(E) = dN is the number of ﬁnal states per unit energy interval. (b) Whereas αdecay may be considered as the transmission of an αparticle through a Coulomb potential barrier to exit the daughter nucleus. Eν = pν c by E = Ee + Eν . which are emitted. Fermi has obtained the βparticle spectrum using a method similar to that for γemission. Similarly for the antineutrino we have 4πp2 dpν ν dNν = . Basically the transition probability per unit time is given by Fermi’s golden rule No. and for a given Ee . We can e e write pν = E−Ee . (Columbia) Solution: (a) For a quantummechanical derivation of the Geiger–Nuttall law for αdecays see Problem 2076. however.
This relation is quite diﬀerent from that for αdecays.
.
where E is the decay energy and C is a constant. (Princeton) Solution: The Geiger–Nuttall law
−1/2 log10 λ = C − DEα .
the above integral can be written in the form
T0 0
(T + me c2 )(T 2 + 2me c2 T ) 2 (T0 − T )2 dT . e e E = T0 + me c2 . c λ ∼ exp − √ E . e e e
where Mf i = g f i and g is the coupling constant. as Ee = T + me c2 = p2 c2 + m2 c4 . In terms of the kinetic energy T .
which is the basis of the Sargent curve.
1
This shows that for βdecays
5 λ ∼ T0 .
2078 Natural gold 197 Au is radioactive since it is unstable against αdecay 79 with an energy of 3. and hence λ= 2π Hf i 2
VH
g 2 Mf i 2 dN = dE 2π 3 7 c3
pmax 0
(E −
p2 c2 + m2 c4 )2 p2 dpe .326
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Nuclear and Particle Physics
where pmax corresponds to the endpoint energy of the βparticle spectrum E0 ≈ E. Estimate the lifetime of 197 Au to explain why 79 gold does not burn a hole in your pocket.3 MeV.
which can be calculated using quantum theory. λ Thus the number of decays in a human’s lifetime is too small to worry about. D ≈ 140 (MeV) 2 . D are constants depending on Z. Buﬀalo) Solution: The decay takes place according to The recoil energy of 235 U is Eu =
239
P u → α +235 U .
p2 p2 2Mα Eα 4 u = α = = Eα .66 × 10−24 gm . 1 C ≈ 52. use the values of C. 1 atomic mass unit = 1.144 MeV.60206 × 10−13 joule . the halflife of 239 Pu.) Given conversion factors:
239
1 MeV = 1. 2Mu 2Mu 2Mu 235
The energy released per αdecay is E = Eu + Eα = 239 Eα = 5.2 × 1017 yr . to the nearest hundred years. Thus λ ≈ 10(52−140E and so
−1/2
)
≈ 10−25 s−1
1 ln 2 ≈ 6. (SUNY.232 MeV . T1/2 =
2079 The halflife of 239 Pu has been determined by immersing a sphere of Pu of mass 120. (Take into account the recoil energy of the product nucleus.9 × 1024 s ≈ 2. can be used to estimate the lifetime of 197 Au. For a rough estimate. The evaporation rate corresponded to a power of 0.231 W. given that the energy of its decay alphaparticles is 5.1 gm in liquid nitrogen of a volume enough to stop all αparticles and measuring the rate of evaporation of the liquid. D for Pb.Nuclear Physics
327
where C. 235
. Calculate. Eα is the αparticle energy.
The 2.61 × 1026 = 3. Nuclear and Particle Physics
The decay rate is dN 0.002 × 1023 × ln 2 = dN = = 7.
8
Fig.9 MeV level in 8 Be? Give your reasoning.9 MeV level in Be as shown in Fig.9 MeV level so much smaller than the half life of the 8 Li ground state? (c) Where in energy. 2.85 s and decays to the 2. The 8 Li ground state has a halflife of 0.55×1011 s = 2.39×104 yr . 239 × 939
N= The halflife is T1/2 =
ln 2 N ln 2 3.9 MeV level then decays into 2 alphaparticles with a halflife of 10−22 s.24.232 × 1. with respect to the 8 Be ground state. would you expect the threshold for 7 Li neutron capture? Why? (Wisconsin)
.756 × 1011 dt
2080 Li is an example of a βdelayed particle emitter. λ 2.24
(a) What is the parity of the 2.231 = 2. 2.756 × 1011 s−1 .1 × 5.60206 × 10−13 The number of
239
Pu is 120. (b) Why is the halflife of the 8 Be 2.002 × 1023 . = dt 5.328
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
the wave function is required to be exchangesymmetric. as the decay ﬁnal state is that of two identical bosons. However.0192
. where Sn (8 Li) is the energy of dissociation of 8 Li into 7 Li and a neutron.018223 + 1. The diﬀerence in the two interaction intensities leads to the vast diﬀerence in the lifetimes. the threshold of neutron capture by 7 Li is about 18 MeV higher than the ground state of 8 Be. and so the parity of the ﬁnal state of the two αparticle system is πf = (+1)2 (−1)l = +1 . (extremely short halflife). Hence the parity of the 2.00892 − 8. Note that as 8 Li is outside the stability curve against βdecay.0182 7. This means that the relative orbital quantum number l of the αparticles is even.9 MeV excited state of 8 Be is positive.0 MeV .9 MeV excited state of 8 Be is a stronginteraction process with a low Coulomb barrier. As Sn (8 Li) = M (7 Li) + Mn (n) − M (8 Li) = 7.002187 amu = 2. (c) The threshold energy for 7 Li neutron capture is higher than the 8 Be ground state by M (7 Li) + m(n) − M (8 Be) = M (7 Li) + m(n) − M (8 Li) + M (8 Li) − M (8 Be) = Sn (8 Li) + 16 MeV . the αdecay of the 2. the energy required for removal of a neutron from it in rather small. As the αdecay is a stronginteraction process. In 8 Be → α + α.Nuclear Physics
329
Solution: (a) The spinparity of αparticle is J p = 0+ .
2081 The following atomic masses have been determined (in amu): (1)
7 3 Li 7 4 Be
7.025018 = 0. parity is conserved. (b) The βdecay of the 8 Li ground state is a weakinteraction process.
where M indicates atomic mass. we have Ed (β + ) = [Mx (Z. me represent the masses of the original nucleus. A)−My (Z +1. A) − 2me ]c2 . A) − My (Z − 1.9983 33.00055 amu.0100 19. A)]c2 . A)−me ]c2 . and so we require Mx − My > Wi /c2
. A) − Zme − My (Z + 1. Let Mx . Consider βdecay. and the electron respectively. its mode(s) of decay.0080 33.1 × 10−8 amu for Kshell. Then the energy release in the βdecay is Ed (β − ) = [Mx (Z. A) − My (Z − 1. we have Ed (β − ) = [Mx (Z. Expressing this relation in amu and neglecting the variation of the binding energy of the electrons in diﬀerent atoms and shells. indicate which nuclide of each pair is unstable. A) − My (Z + 1. (Columbia) Solution: As for each pair of isobars the atomic numbers diﬀer by one. Thus βdecay can take place only if Mx > My . and so β + decay can take place only if Mx − My > 2me = 0. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(2) (3) (4) (5)
13 6 C 13 7 N 19 9 F 19 10 N e 34 15 P 34 16 S 35 16 S 35 17 Cl
13. My .9791 34.0045 19. ∼ 10 eV or 1. Derive the conditions for stability which you used. and the approximate energy released in the disintegration. only βdecay or orbital electron capture is possible between them.330
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.0011 amu. Similarly for β + decay. A)]c2 − Wi .9978 34. A) + (Z + 1)me − me ]c2 = [Mx (Z. where Wi is the binding energy of an electron in the ith shell. In the same way we have for orbital electron capture (usually from the K shell) Ed (i) = [Mx (Z.0076 13. the daughter nucleus.9789
Remembering that the mass of the electron is 0.
Pair (2).
. ∆ = 0. If the diﬀerence in the masses of the neutral atoms of 34 Cl and 34 S is 5. 35 S is unstable against β − decay.52 MeV − 1.0024 amu > 0. Thus I(p) is proportional to (Em − E)2 p2 .0011 amu. Pair (1). 16
2082 Cl positrondecays to 34 S. Pair (4).52 MeV/c2 . The maximum β + particle energy is Emax β + = [M (34 Cl) − M (34 S) − 2me ]c2 = 5. 15 Pair (5). Pair (3). 13 N is unstable against βdecay 7 and Kelectron capture.0002 amu. ∆ = 0.50 MeV . 34 P is unstable against β − decay.0035 amu > 0. ∆ = −0.001 amu < 0.0011 amu. 2. ∆ = 0.022 MeV = 4. Plot a spectrum of the number of positrons emitted with momentum p as a function of p.25. what is the maximum positron energy? (Wisconsin) Solution:
34 34
Cl decays according to
34
Cl → 34 S + e+ + ν . 2π 3 7 c3
where Em is the endpoint (total) energy of the β + spectrum. ∆ = −0. A) − M (Z. as shown in Fig.0011 amu. 7 Be is unstable against K4 electron capture.0005 amu.Nuclear Physics
331
Let ∆ = M (Z + 1. A).
The process is similar to β − decay and the same theory applies. 19 Ne is unstable against β + 10 decay and Kelectron capture. The number of decays per unit time that emit a positron of momentum between p and p + dp is (Problem 2077(b)) I(p)dp = g 2 Mf i 2 (Em − E)2 p2 dp .
6 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. their orbitalelectron wave functions are the same.0 1. The capture rate for 3p1/2 electrons in 161 Ho is about 5% of the 3s capture rate. their 3s and 3p1/2 waves diﬀering
. but the neutrino. (QEC is the mass diﬀerence between the ﬁnal ground state of nucleus plus atomic electrons and the initial ground state of nucleus plus atomic electrons. How much do the 3p1/2 and 3s capture rates change for both 161 Ho and 163 Ho if the QEC values remain the same. instead of being massless. is assumed to have a mass of 50 eV?
Orbital 1s 2s 2p1/2 3s 3p1/2 Binding Energy (keV) 54 9 8.) The Dy orbital electron binding energies are listed in the table bellow.8
161 163
(Princeton) Solution: As 161 Ho and 163 Ho have the same nuclear charge Z.5 keV respectively.332
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.25
2083 Both Ho and Ho decay by allowed electron capture to Dy isotopes. but the QEC values are about 850 keV and about 2. 2. Calculate the 3p1/2 to 3s relative capture rate in 161 Ho.
8% .Nuclear Physics
333
only in phase. the phasespace factor in P (E) ν ν changes:
p2 ν
dpν Eν 2 = (Eν − m2 ) = Eν ν dEν pν
2 2 Eν − m2 ≈ Eν 1 − ν 161
m2 ν 2 2Eν
163
. For electron capture. We have
2 ρ(E) ∝ Eν ≈ (QEC − B)2 . as Eν = p2 + m2 .5 − 2.
where B is the binding energy of an electron in s or p state.0
2
≈ 9. ρ(E) is the density of states.0 850 − 1. the nucleus emits only a neutrino.5 − 1. The decay constant is given by λ ≈ AMif 2 ρ(E) .
Hence the decay constant for every channel for from λ0 to λ: 1 m2 ν λ ≈ λ0 1 − . As λ(3p1/2 ) M (3p1/2 )2 (QEC − Bp )2 = = 0.
2 If mν = 50 eV.04998 .04998 × 2.
Ho. So the transition matrix elements for electron capture are also the same.8 2. where Mif is the transition matrix element. then. λ(3s) M (3s)2 (QEC − Bs )2 M (3p1/2 )2 = 0.05 × M (3s)2 Hence for
163
850 − 2. and A is a constant. λ(3p1/2 ) M (3p1/2 )2 (QEC − Bp )2 = λ(3s) M (3s)2 (QEC − Bs )2 = 0.05. and so the process is a twobody one.8
2
= 0. 2 2 Eν or 1 m2 λ0 − λ ν ≈ . 2 λ0 2 Eν
Ho and
Ho changes
.
λ0 2 848.334
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.22 × 106 for
163
Ho. and can ignore the electron binding energy. λ0 2 0. As the ﬁnal state has
. dE
dn where ψi is the initial wave function. the nucleus capturing a Kshell electron and undergoing the same nuclear transition with emission of a neutrino.72 × 106
2084 An element of low atomic number Z can undergo allowed positron βdecay. Let ΓK be the decay rate for this process. λ0 2 0. 3s state: λ0 − λ 1 502 = × = 1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
161
Thus for
Ho. Compute the ratio ΓK /Γβ . and let Γβ be the betadecay rate. ψf is the ﬁnal wave function and dE is the number of ﬁnal states per unit interval of E. You can treat the wave function of the Kshell electron as hydrogenic. Let p0 be the maximum possible momentum of the positron.5 × 106
3p1/2 state: λ0 − λ 1 502 = × = 2. supposing p0 mc (m =positron mass). An alternative process is Kcapture. 3s state: 502 λ0 − λ 1 = × = 5 × 10−3 .74 × 10−9 .74 × 10−9 . λ0 2 8482 × 106
3p1/2 state: 1 502 λ0 − λ = × = 1.25 × 10−3 . (Princeton) Solution: The quantum perturbation theory gives the probability of a β + decay per unit time with decay energy E as ω= 2π
∗ ψf Hψi dτ 2
dn .
Let ψi u∗ e−i(kβ +kν )·r dτ = Mf i . ν V
where V is the volume of normalization. For β + decay. dpν = dE . and so dn is the product of the numbers of state of the ﬁnal nucleus. (2π )3 4πp2 dp V. the number of states of the ﬁnal nucleus is 1. if there is. (2π )3
dnβ dnν p2 p2 dpdpν 2 dn ν = = V . where uf is the wave function of the ﬁnal nucleus. f The ﬁnal state is a threeparticle state. the β + particle and neutrino. In Fermi’s theory of βdecay. β V 1 φ∗ = √ e−ikν ·r . the β + particle and neutrino are considered free particles and represented by plane waves: 1 φ∗ = √ e−ikβ ·r . and pν = (E − Ee )/c. φβ . dE dE 4π4 6 dE The sum of the β + particle and neutrino energies equals the decay energy E (neglecting nuclear recoil): Ee + Eν ≈ E . c
. φν are respectively the wave functions of the positron and neutrino. and so for a given positron energy Ee . Eν = cpν . Then as the rest mass of neutrino is zero or very small. H is taken to be a constant. kβ and kν are respectively the wave vectors of the β + particle and neutrino. while the number of states of β + particle with momentum between p and p + dp is dnβ = and that of the neutrino is dnν = Hence 4πp2 dpν ν V. Let it be g. β + and ν). the interaction is very weak). ψf = uf φβ φν (assuming no interaction among the ﬁnal particles or. Furthermore.Nuclear Physics
335
three particles (nucleus. dEν = dE.
336
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. and so monoenergetic neutrinos are emitted. As E0 me c2 . m2 e
=
Bp7 0 4m2 e
≈ 1. B= Ee ≈
p2 2me . Nuclear and Particle Physics
Therefore
dn (E − Ee )2 p2 dp 2 = V . corresponding to a p2 0 maximum kinetic energy E0 ≈ E.9 × 10−2
In Kcapture. dE 4π 4 6 c3 ω= I(p)dp . dE
∗ The ﬁnal state wave function ψf is the product of the daughter nucleus wave function u∗ and the neutrino wave function φ∗ . ν V
. Consider ΓK = 2π
∗ ψf Hψi dτ 2
dn .
On writing
the above gives I(p)dp = The β + decay rate Γβ is
p0
g 2 Mf i 2 (E − Ee )2 p2 dp . The neutrino can be ν f considered a free particle and its wave a plane wave
1 φ∗ = √ e−ikν ·r .
we have
p0
Γβ = B
0
1 (p4 + p4 − 2p2 p2 )p2 dp 0 (2me )2 0 1 1 2 + − 3 7 5 Bp7 0 . 2π 3 7 c3
p0
Γβ =
0
I(p)dp = B
0
(E − Ee )2 p2 dp
where
g 2 Mf i 2 2π 3 7 c3 and p0 is the maximum momentum of the positron. and so E0 = 2me . the ﬁnal state is a twobody system.
Nuclear Physics
337
The initial wave function can be taken to be approximately the product of the wave functions of the parent nucleus and Kshell electron: 1 φK = √ π Then as
∗ ψf Hψi dτ
Zme e2
2
3/2
e−Zme e
2
r/
2
. An enriched sample of hydrogen gas containing 0. (a) For these data calculate the average energy of the βparticles emitted.
Ignoring the electron binding energy. we have ΓK = m3 g 2 Mf i 2 e π 2 7 e3 Ze2
3 2 Eν = 2πm3 B e
Ze2
3 2 Eν . (b) What speciﬁc measurements on the beta spectrum (including the decay nucleus) indicate that there is an additional decay product and specifically that it is light and neutral. we can take Eν ≈ E0 + 2me c2 ≈ 2me c2 . and hence ΓK 8πZ 3 = Γβ 1.1 gram of tritium produces 21 calories of heat per hour.5 years.
∝
1 .9 × 10−2 Thus
Γk Γβ
e2 c
3
me c p0
7
= 5.
.1 × 10−4 Z 3
me c p0
7
.
2085 Tritium. p7 0
It increases rapidly with decreasing p0 . the isotope 3 H.
Zme e2 2
r
dτ
Zme e2
2
3/2
2 dn 4πV p2 dpν 4πV Eν ν = = .
g =√ Vπ g ≈√ Vπ
Zme e2
2
3 2
u∗ ui e−ikν ·r e− f Mf i . undergoes betadecay with a halflife of 12. dE (2π )3 dE (2π )3 c3
taking Eν ≈ E and neglecting nuclear recoil.
(Columbia) Solution: (a) The decay constant is λ= Hence − dN 0. whereas βtransition is a threebody decay (daughter nucleus + electron or position + neutrino) and so the electrons emitted have a continuous energy distribution with a deﬁnite maximum approximately equal to the transition energy. Conservation of energy indicates that it is very light.33 × 10−6 hr−1 . neutral particle.27 × 1017 dt 3 21 × 4.27 × 1017 (b) Both α. Energy conservation requires M (A X) = M (A Y ) + Z Z+1 Em + mν . the energy ¯ of β − trends to Em . T1 12.25.and βdecays represent transitions between two states of deﬁnite energies.338
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. c2
.33 × 10−6 = 1. quantitative analysis of how a careful measurement of the beta spectrum of tritium can be used to determine (or put an upper limit on) the mass of the electron’s neutrino.91 × 10−16 J = 4. Thus the αspectrum consists of a vertical line (or peak) while the βspectrum is continuous from zero to a deﬁnite endpoint energy. 2. the former is a twobody decay (daughter nucleus +αparticle) and the conservation laws of energy and momentum require the αparticles to be emitted monoenergetic. β − has a continuous energy spectrum with a maximum energy Em .3 keV .18 ¯ = 6.023 × 1023 = λN = × 6. (c) Pauli suggested that βdecay takes place according to
A ZX
ln 2 ln 2 = = 6. Thus a measurement of the β spectrum indicates the emission of a third.5 × 365 × 24 2
decay per hour and the average energy of the βparticles is
→ A Y + β − + νe .1 × 6. E= 1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(c) Give a critical. When the kinetic energy of νe trends to zero. However. ¯ Z+1
As shown in Fig.
a thick. so a thinwindow. (b) Figure 2. the spectrum consists of vertical lines. The energy of an αparticle emitted in αdecay is several MeV in most cases. (b) Draw a schematic diagram of an instrument which can measure one of these spectra.
2086 (a) Describe brieﬂy the energy spectra of alpha. 1 2 If Em is precisely measured.and betaparticles emitted by radioactive nuclei. βparticles have a continuous energy spectrum with a deﬁnite endpoint energy. goldsilicon surfacebarrier semiconductor detector is used which has an energy resolution of about 1 percent at roomtemperature. Berkeley)
Fig. Emphasize the diﬀerences and qualitatively explain the reasons for them. for the process under consideration. Give numerical estimates of essential parameters and explain how they are chosen. It has been found to be so small that only an upper limit can be given. This is because emission of a βparticle is accompanied by a neutrino which takes away some decay energy.Nuclear Physics
339
or. sensitive layer
.26 is a schematic sketch of a semiconductor αspectrometer. the neutrino mass can be calculated. mν = M (3 H) − M (3 He) − Em /c2 . (UC.26
Solution: (a) αparticles from a radioactive nuclide are monoenergetic. 2. As the αparticle energy is rather low.
calculate the ratio (f t)7+ / (f t)0+ expected for the two positrondecays. Nuclear and Particle Physics
is not needed and a bias voltage from several tens to 100 V is suﬃcient.27. 42 Ca22 . Brieﬂy outline your reasoning. Determine which of the indicated states of 42 Ca are compatible with this conﬁguration. (ft)7+ = 1. For good measurements the multichannel analyzer should have more than 1024 channels. are known to have spins 21 0 and 7+ .)
+
Fig.2 × 103 seconds. 42 Sc21 . MJ = 7.6 × 104 seconds. using about 10 channels for the full width at half maximum of a peak. Assuming charge independence.340
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 7 state of scandium42 and the 6. assign isospin quantum numbers T. j = 1 j. (b) With suitable wave functions for the J. with the positron reduced halflives (ft)0+ = 20 3.84 MeV. 2. TZ for all (f7/2 )2 states. 6 state of calcium42.
. They respectively undergo positrondecay to the ﬁrst 0+ and 6+ states of calcium42. 2.27
(a) The two states of 42 Sc can be simply accounted for by assuming two valence nucleons with the conﬁguration (f7/2 )2 . j − 1 + (2j)1/2 2j − 1 2j
1/2
j − 1.
2087 The two lowest states of scandium42. j − 1 . No positron decay has been detected to the 0+ state at 1. Classify the nature of the two betatransitions and explain your reasoning. For j = l + 1 : 2 ˆ S− j. (See Fig.
The generalized Pauli’s principle requires the total wave function to be antisymmetric.Mf A k=1
t± (k)Ji Mi Ti Tiz
2
= Jf M Tf Tf z 1 ·
k=1
t± (k)Ji M TiTiz
A
2
. −1. ∆T = 0. (b) The probability per unit time of βtransition is Γ(β) ∝ G2 MF 2 + v 2 GA MGT 2 . Then the halflife is ft = G2 MF v
2
σ0 = σz . GA = 1.
where m takes the values +1. 2 Gv = 1. 5+ . 4+ . As the angular momenta of the two 2 nucleons are 7/2 each and the isospins are 1/2 each. j .
.
MGT
2
=
1 2Ji + 1
 Jf Mf Tf Tf z 
m. for which σ+1 = σx + iσy .4 × 10−49 erg cm3 . 0. and so J + T = odd.
K + G2 MGT A
2
. 2+ . ∆T = 0 or 1.Nuclear Physics
341
1 ˆ Sz j. πi = πf . and for the nuclear isospin 0 or 1. vector addition gives for the nuclear spin an integer from 0 to 7. The transition 0+ → 0+ is a Fermi transition as for such transitions ∆J = 0. The transition 7+ → 6+ is a Gamow–Teller transition as for such transitions ∆J = 0 or 1 (Ji = 0 to Jf = 0 is forbidden). 3+ . 7+ when T = 0. 6+ when T = 1. and J = 1+ .Mi . Hence the states compatible with the conﬁguration (f7/2 )2 are J = 0+ .
σ−1 = σx − iσy .Mf k=1
σm (k)t± (k)Ji Mi Ti Tiz 2 . j = j. Tz = 1 (Z − N ) = 0.6 × 10−49 erg cm3 . where MF 2 and MGT 2 are the squares of the spinaveraged weak interaction matrix elements: MF
2
=
1 2Ji + 1
A
Jf Mf Tf Tf z 1 ·
Mi . (Princeton) Solution: (a) For 42 S. πi = πf .
2 2 2 2 . 6. . we have MF Consider MGT
2 2
= 2. 1. 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
= 2.
1 7.
Writing the wave functions as combinations of nucleon wave functions: 7. . 2 2 2 2 7 6 7 7 . . 7. . . 1. 1. . . 6 = √ 2 1 6. 6. . . 2 2 2 2 . 7.
replacing the sum of the z components of the isospins of the nucleons by the zcomponent of the total isospin. −1{σm(1)t± (1) + σm (2)t± (2)}7. Hence G2 MF 2+ f t(7+ → 6+ ) 0 = 2v . f t(0+ → 0+ ) GA MGT 2+ 7
Consider
A
MF = JM T Tf z 1 ·
k=1
t± (k)JM T Tiz = JM T Tf z T± JM T Tiz
=
T (T + 1) − Tiz Tf z . Taking T = 1. 6 = √ 2 we have MGT
2
7 6 7 7 . . are taken into account. 2 2 2 2
=4
σ− (1)t± (1) 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 . . Then MGT
2
=4
m
 6. . 0 2 .342
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 0 2 . which are identical. 1. 1. + − 7 7 7 6 .
. . . . 7 = 7 7 7 7 . . −1 . 2 2 2 2 7 7 7 6 .
where only the two nucleons outside full shells.
=
m
 6. 1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
7
where K = 2π3
ln 2/m5 c4 . . −1σm (1)t± (1)7. Tiz = 0. . a constant.
Does one expect appreciable β + decay from the copper57 ground state to the ﬁrst excited state of nickel57? Explain. (c) Discuss what one means by Fermi and by Gamow–Teller contributions to allowed βdecays. and indicate the corresponding spinparity selection rules.11).6
2
≈ 0.76 MeV). The valence nucleon is proton for 57 Cu and neutron for 57 Ni.77 . For the above decay process. (b) Estimate the positron endpoint energy for decay from the ground state of copper57 to the ground state of nickel57. for the ﬁrst excited state. and 2 so J π = ( 5 )− (E1 = 0. 28 (a) Suggest shellmodel spinparity assignments for the ground and ﬁrst excited states of these nuclei. 2. Estimate the halflife for this decay (order of magnitude).4 1.
2088 The stillundetected isotope copper57 (57 Cu28 ) is expected to decay by 29 positron emission to nickel57 (57 Ni29 ). and so J π = ( 3 )− . the two nuclei having the same features of ground and ﬁrst excited states. Brieﬂy sketch an experimental arrangement for study of copper57 positrondecay. the last nucleon is in state 2p3/2 (Fig. 2 (b) As 57 Cu and 57 Ni are mirror nuclei. A)c2 − M (Z. their mass diﬀerence is (Problem 2067(c)) ∆E = M (Z + 1. the nucleon is in state 1f5/2 . For the ground state. (d) Nickel58 occurs naturally. estimate the ratio ΓF /ΓGT of the two contributions to the decay rate. (Princeton) Solution: (a) 57 Cu and 57 Ni are mirror nuclei with the same energylevel structure of a single nucleon outside of doublefull shells.Nuclear Physics
343
Thus (f t)7+ G2 v = 2 ≈ (f t)0+ GA 1. A)c2 = 3e2 [(Z + 1)2 − Z 2 ] − (mn − MH )c2 5R
.
Then (Problem 2084) λβ ≈
0 5 = BE0 p0
I(p)dp ≈ B
0
E0
(E0 − E)2 E 2 dE 1 5 BE0 . the transition is of a superallowed type. ∆T = 0. Nuclear and Particle Physics
= =
3c 5R
e2 c
(2Z + 1) − (mn − MH )c2
3 × 197 × (2 × 28 + 1) − 0. Thus the ground state of 57 Cu is 9.2 × 571/3 × 137
= 9. 2 2 ∆Tz = −1.87 MeV higher than that of 57 Ni. To simplify calculation take F (Z. the emitted neutrino and electron have antiparallel spins.87 − 1. the selection rules are ∆J = 0. Hence B= τ1/2 = ln 2/λ = 30 ln 2 5 = 0. the emitted neutrino and electron have parallel spins. For the Gamow–Teller type. ∆π = +.114 s . ∆J = 0. − − For transition 32 → 32 of the Fermi type. E) = 1. ±1.02 ≈ 8.36 × 10−3 MeV−5 s−1 . ∆π = +. as the nuclear structures of the initial and ﬁnal states are similar.78 5 × 1. BE0
− −
(c) In β + decay between mirror nuclei ground states 32 → 32 . MF 2 = T (T + 1) − Tiz Tf z = 1 2 1 1 1 +1 + × = 1. g = 8. For the Fermi type. 2 2 2
. the decay is of a superallowed type.87 MeV . ∆π = +. 2π 3 c6 7 with Mf i 2 ≈ 1. As the β + decay is from ( 3 )− to ( 3 )− .95 × 10−44 MeV · cm3 (experimental value). Such transitions can be classiﬁed into Fermi and Gamow–Teller types.85 MeV . 30
1 1 1 + − 3 5 2
=
where
g 2 Mf i 2 = 3. The positron endpoint energy for decay from the ground state of 57 Cu to that of 57 Ni is E0 = ∆E − 2me c2 ≈ 9. the selection rules are ∆J = 0.344
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
85 such a transition diﬃcult to detect.234 − 2 × 8.071 = −22. 2 2 × 5/3 λGT gGT MGT  1. The neutrons can be used to monitor the formation of 57 Cu.234 . Hence the reaction is endoergic and protons of suﬃcient energy are needed.854 MeV .071. ∆π = +.235 + 7. Detection depends on production.39 .76 5 = 0. the following reaction may occur: 58 N i + p →57 Cu + 2n As the massexcess ∆ = (M − A) values (in MeV) are ∆(n) ≈ 8.
2089 Suppose a search for solar neutrinos is to be mounted using a large sample of lithium enriched in the isotope 7 Li. So the ratio of the transition probabilities is g 2 MF 2 1 λF = 2F = = 0. rendering 8.64. 3
.289 + 46.85−0.235. (d) When we bombard 58 Ni target with protons. Jf + 1 3/2 + 1 5 = = .Nuclear Physics
345
For transition
3− 2
→
3− 2
of the Gamow–Teller type. and so the diﬀerence in nuclear structure is greater. Hence the branching ratio is very small. ∆(1 H) = 7.24gF . ∆(58 N i) = −60. there is the space phase factor 8. ∆(57 Cu) ≈ −46. the f T of this transition is larger than that of the superallowed one by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Jf 3/2 3
MGT 2 =
The coupling constants for the two types are related roughly by gGT  ≈ 1.289 . and measuring the delay in β + emission relative to n emission provides a means to study β + decay of 57 Cu. We have Q = ∆(58 N i) + ∆(1 H) − ∆(57 Cu) − 2∆(n) = − 60. In addition.24 The transition from 57 Cu to the ﬁrst excited state of 57 Ni is a normalallowed transition because ∆J = 1. As the initial and ﬁnal states are 2p3/2 and 1f5/2 .
3
Fig.42 × 10−49 erg cm3 . (b) To calibrate this detector. ∆P = + . a point source emitting 1017 monochromatic neutrinos/sec with energy 1. GA = 1. The low lying levels of these two nuclei are shown below in Fig.346
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.60 × 10−49 erg cm3 . given GV = 1.
.5 MeV is placed in the center of a one metric ton sphere of lithium7. Estimate the total equilibrium disintegration rate of the beryllium7. (Princeton) Solution: (a) Two modes of electron capture are possible: 3− 2
−
→
3 2
−
:
∆J = 0. ρLi = 0.28
(a) Discuss the electroncapture modes of the ground state of beryllium7 by providing estimates for the branching ratios and relative decay probabilities (ft ratios). The atomic mass of 7 Be in its ground state lies 0. 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics
separation and detection of the electroncapturing isotope 7 Be with a half4 life of 53 days.53 gm/cm3 .28. 2.86 MeV above 4 the atomic mass of 7 Li in its ground state.
48
=
(5 + 0.43 10. − − For the Ftype transition 3 → 3 the initial and ﬁnal wave func2 2 tions are similar and so MF
2
= T (T + 1) − Tzi Tzf =
3− 2
3 1 1 3 1 1 · + · = + = 1. the transition is form l + 2 2 1 l − 2 with l = 1. 1 1 1 7 7 3 Li and 4 Be are mirror nuclei with T = 2 .6% .79 × 3) × 0.
λK λK
3− 2 3− 2
→ →
3− 2 1− 2
MG−T =
G2 V G2 A MG−T 2 1/2 2 3/2
+
MF
2
·
2 Wν1 2 Wν2 2
=
5 3
+
1. 10.
=
Jf + 1 3/2 + 1 5 = = .
1 = 9. 3 2
−
→
1 2
−
: ∆J = 1.43
= 90.48)2
−
Hence the branching ratios are B( 32 → B 1− 3− → 2 2 =
3− 2 )
=
9.Nuclear Physics
347
which is a combination of F and GT type transitions.862 = 9.43
. 2l + 1 3
2 As λK (M 2 .
which is a pure GT type transition. 2 2 2 2 4 4 the singleparticle model gives
For the GTtype transition MG−T
2
→
3− 2 .86 − 0.60 4 3
×
0. Wν ) = M 2 Wν . Jf 3/2 3
− − 1 2
For the GTtype transition 3 → 1 . and Tz = 2 and − 2 respectively.42 2 1.4%. where Wν is the decay energy. ∆P = + .86 0. 4 × (0.86 − 0.43 . and the singleparticle model gives MG−T
2
to
=
4l 4 = .
R = radius of the sphere of 7 Li. 7 Li captures neutrino and becomes 7 Be. The I0 neutrino ﬂux at r is 4πr2 .7 cm. A = mass number of 7 Li. the number of 7 Be nuclei produced per unit time is ∆N1 = I0 ρnσa · 4πr2 dr/A = I0 ρnσaR/A . On the other hand.53 × 6. 7 a = activity ratio of Li for forming 7 Be. I0 = 1017 s−1 . Hence the rate of disintegration of 7 Be at equilibrium is 3. At equilibrium this is also the number of 7 Be that decay to 7 Li. 3 × 0. Nuclear and Particle Physics
The fT ratio of the two transitions is MG−T (f T )3/2− = (f T )1/2− MG−T 2 + 3/2
2 1/2 G2 V G2 A
= MF
2
4 = 0.2 × 10−2 s−1 . 7 Be undergoes decay to 7 Li. we have 1017 × 0. Consider a shell of 7 Li of radius r and thickness dr. T = 0 states of 20 Ne (Fig.023 × 1023 . It contains 4πr2 ρndr A Li nuclei.2 × 10−2 s−1 . ρ = 0.925.79 + 5
(b) When irradiating 7 Li with neutrinos. where n = Avogadro’s number. Note that the number of 7 Li produced in 7 Be decays is negligible compared with the total number present.
.
2090 It is believed that nucleons (N) interact directly through the weak interaction and that the latter violates parity conservation. σ ≈ 10−43 cm2 . A = 7.023 × 1023 × 10−43 × 0. 4πr2
7
With a = 0.925 × 76. R =
3×106 4πρ
1 3
= 76. One way to study the nature of the NN weak interaction is by means of αdecay. 2. Let the number of 7 Be formed per unit time in the irradiation be ∆N1 . If σ = cross section for electroncapture by 7 Li.348
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. n = 6. as typiﬁed by the decays of the 3+ . T = 1 and 3− .543 .29).7 7
∆N1 =
= 3.53 g cm−3 .
(a) The NN weak interaction has isoscalar.. Do you expect the ﬁnite width of this state to modify your result of part (c) above? Discuss. which is not small compared with the separation energy. 3+ Hweak 3− . (i) In this case which state is parityforbidden to αdecay?
. Γα (allowed).29
In the following you will be asked to explain the principles of an experiment to measure the weakinteraction matrix element between these states. Both states have T = 1. (e) The direct reaction 19 F(3 He. 3− states. estimate the α width of the parityforbidden transition. and 2 in isospin). In particular. and isotensor components (i. Assume Γα (allowed) is small compared with the separation energy between the 3+ . (c) Allowing for a parityviolating matrix element 3+ Hweak 3− of 1 eV. Γα (forbidden).23 MeV. isovector. 2.d)20 Ne∗ populates one of the excited states strongly. ranks 0. Which components contribute to the matrix element 3+ Hweak 3− ? (b) Explain the parity and isospin selection rules for αdecay. (d) The α width of the parityallowed transition is Γα (allowed) = 45 keV. Which one do you expect this to be and why? (f) There is also a 1+ /1− parity doublet at ∼ 11. in terms of the α width of the parityallowed transition.Nuclear Physics
349
Fig.1. explain which of the two 20 Ne states would decay to the ground state of 16 O + α if there were no parityviolating NN interaction.e.
(∆E)2 + (Γα /2)2
. Hence 2π 1 Γα =  3+ Hweak 3− 2 ρ(Ef ) V3− →16 O 2 (Ei − En )2 + ε2 = Γα  3+ Hweak 3− 2 . Ei − En + iε
2
where 2ε is the width of the intermediate state. T = 0 to 16 O + α) is 2π Γα = V3− →16 O 2 ρ(Ef ) . T = 0 state can undergo αdecay to 16 O + α. the ﬁnal state orbital angular momentum is l = 3 and so the parity is (−1)3 = −1. and the summation is to include all intermediate states. the only intermediate state is that with 3− . which isospin components of the weak NN interaction contribute to the mixing matrix element? (Note that 20 Ne is selfconjugate) Which would be determined by a measurement of the parityforbidden α width? (Princeton) Solution: (a) As T = 1 for the 3+ state and T = 0 for the 3− state. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(ii) As in part(a). where Vf i is the transition matrix element and ρ(Ef ) is the ﬁnal state density. In this case. (b) αdecay is a strong interaction for which isospin is conserved. T = 0. Then the width of the parityallowed transition (3− . As both the spins of 16 O and α are zero. and the total angular momentum does not change in αdecay.350
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Hence ∆T = 0. As 16 O has T = 0. As the isospin of αparticle is zero. (c) Fermi’s golden rule gives the ﬁrst order transition probability per unit time as 2π λ= Vf i 2 ρ(Ef ) . the isospin of the daughter nucleus should equal that of the parent. for which λ= 2π
n=i 16
O + α) is a second order
Vf n Vni ρ(Ef ) . As it is the same as for the initial state. only the 3− . The parityforbidden transition (3+ . T = 1 to process. the transition is parityallowed. only the isovector component with ∆T = 1 contributes to 3+ Hweak 3− .
On the other hand. Ja . 3. Let the spins of 19 F .30):
. If Γα ∆E. Jp . d and the captured proton be la . 6 Γα = 3.052 MeV = 52 × 103 eV. 2 can contribute. and so only the component with ∆T = 0 can contribute to the experiment result. Jb . and so the reaction should populate the 3+ state of N e∗ . As JA = Jp + lb . So only the components of T = 0. T3 = 0 because 1. Then P (20 N e∗ ) = +. 4. JA + sp + lp = JB . we have Γα ≈  3+ Hweak 3− 2 Γα Γα = 2 = 3. (Γα /2)2 cannot be ignored when compared with (∆E)2 . 0.7 × 10−10 Γα . ∆T  ≤ 1.1 × 10 522 + 45 4
(e) Consider the reaction 19 F (3 He. the orbital angular momenta of 3 He. Experimentally lp is found from the angular distribution to be lp = 2. lb . as when 3+ Hweak 3− = 1 eV. sp = 1 . (∆E)2 52 × 106
(d) As Γα = 45 keV. in the αdecay of the 1− state. (f) (i) The 1+ state is parityforbidden to αdecay. d)20 N e∗ . JB . respectively. Hence Γα = 10−6 −10 Γα = 1. Pf = P (α)P (16 O)(−1)lf = −1. Then
20
JA + Ja + la = JB + Jb + lb . 3− states. 2. and the captured proton be JA .4 × 10−5 eV . d. and JA = 1 . JB = 3. we have Jp = 1 . Jb = 1. la = lp + lb .Nuclear Physics
351
where ∆E is the energy spacing between the 3+ . 01. 0 = 0. ∆E = 0. lf + Jα + J16 O = 1. However in weak interaction. lb = 0. 3 He. lp = 2. 1. lp . 2 2 2 Parity conservation requires P (19 F )P (p)(−1)lp = P (20 N e∗ ). P (20 N e∗ ) = (−1)lp . Γα is the width of the parityallowed transition.
2091 Consider the following energy level structure (Fig. so that its αdecay is parityallowed (ii) As 20 Ne is a selfconjugate nucleus. not the 3− state. N e.
unmixed) eigenstates of isospin.e. for βdecay of E0 5 Γ ≈ E0 (Problem 2077).
. ignoring H2 . 2. The ground state of 42 Sc can βdecay to the 21 ground state of 42 Ca with a kinetic endpoint energy of 5. pure (i. calculate the value of the reduced matrix element which ΓII = 6 × 10 mixes the ground and excited states of 42 Ca.8)5 = ≈ 0. Thus ΓI (5. 20 (Princeton) Solution: (a) From phase space consideration only. (b) Suppose that the nuclear states were. Write ΓI the branching ratio ΓII in terms of the reduced matrix elements of each part of HEM which mixes the states.4 − 1. where the subscripts refer to the isospin tensor rank of each term.30
The ground states form an isotriplet as do the excited states (all states have a spinparity of 0+ ).352
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.4 MeV (transition 20 II in Fig.30). (a) Using phase space considerations only. In general HEM = H0 + H1 + H2 . ΓII (5. Why would the fact that the Fermi matrix element is an isospin ladder operator forbid transition I from occurring? (c) Consider isospin mixing due to electromagnetic interactions. 2. and given that ΓI −5 . calculate the ratio of rates for transitions I and II. (d) Using the results of parts (a) and (c). in fact.4 − 0)5 me c2 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig.13 .
For 0+ → 0+ (T = 1).Nuclear Physics
353
(b) For Fermi transitions within the same isospin multiplet. Let the ground and excited states of 42 Ca be 1 and 2 respectively. for which
A
MF
2
= α. there is only the Fermi type transition.0 . i. We have H 0 1 = E1 1 . Ti . the states become mixed. Because of the eﬀect of HEM . the transition probability is large. H1 H2 as P0. where E1 and E2 are the energies of the two states (E1 ≈ E0 . otherwise. (c) We make use of the perturbation theory. a Fermiforbidden transition. E2 − E1 = 1.e. Here α is any nuclear state quantum number other than isospin. noting that the mixing due to HEM is very small.. where HEM = H0 + H1 + H2 .0 . we write H0 . Consider H = H 0 + HEM . P1. because the structures of the initial and ﬁnal states are similar.
. i. a superallowed one. Tf . channel I is a transition between diﬀerent isospin multiplets. Tf 3 
K=1
t± (K)α . P2. H 0 2 = E2 2 .
ignoring higher order corrections to the Fermi matrix element. Such transitions are generally said to be superallowed. if α = α .e. Ti3
2
2
= δαα δTi Tf
T (T + 1) − Ti3 Tf 3
=
T (T + 1) − Ti3 Tf 3 .. 0. As the index refers to isospin tensor rank. Let the mixed states be 1 and 2 .8 MeV). From this we see that channel II is a transition within the same isospin multiplet.0 and deﬁne
J1 m J1 m1 Pµν J2 m2 = CµνJ21m2 J1 Pµν J2 . Tf = Ti .
then 1HEM 1
5 E10 ΓI = 5  1HEM 2 2 ΓII E20 (E2 − E1 )2
E1 .8)5 = 5.4 − 1. and
(5. 1P2 α .4 − 1HEM 1 )5 (E2 − E1 )2 If energy level corrections can be ignored.354
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Thus E 5 M1 2 (5. 1P0 α. −1 = α.0 + P2.4 − 1.0 )α. and α. 1 + 2 1 α. ΓII E20 (E2 − E1 )2
(d) In the simpliﬁed case above. 1 2 .
If we ignore the contribution of H2 and assume 1P0 2 = 0.4 − 1.0 + P1. 5 M 2 = ΓII E2 2 (5. 1 10 1 α.0 + P1.82
1P0 2 −
1 1P1 2 + 2
1 1P2 2 10
2
. −1(P0. −1 = α.0 .0 )α .0 + P1. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Then HEM = P0. 1 2 = 6 × 10−5 ΓII 5. 1P1 α .45 × 1.82
. 1P2 α. −1(P0. 1P α. 1P1 α . 1. (5. α and α denote the quantum numbers of 1 and 2 other than the isospin. then the isoscalar H does not mix the two isospin states and we have
5 ΓI E10 = 5  α. 1 . 1HEM 2 = α.0 + P2.
1HEM 1 = 2HEM 2 = α. 1. 1. 1P1 α . 1 denote the relevant part of the reduced matrix element. 1 2 .45 × 1. 1 − + 1 α. 1.8 − 2HEM 2 )5 1HEM 2 2 ΓI = 1 .8)5 ΓI =  α.0 + P2. E2 . 10
In the above equations. 1P1 α. 1P0 α . 1 − 1 α.
2s shells. 1 2 = 24. The transition probability per unit time can be estimated by (Problem 2093 with L = 1)
. 1P1 α . 1p. or  α. especially the lowestlying levels like 1s. (b) In the singleparticle model. the lowestenergy electric dipole transition E1 of 17 F is 2s1/2 → 1p1/2 . ∆P = −1. For example in the transition 1p3/2 → 1s1/2 .Nuclear Physics
355
gives  α. This is an electric dipole transition. (b) Make an orderofmagnitude “guesstimate” for the energy and radioactive lifetime of the lowestenergy electric dipole transition expected for 17 F8 . 1  = 38 keV . The following Clebch–Gordan coeﬃcient may be of use: Using notation J1 J2 M1 M2 JT OT MT OT . 1d. For light nuclei. ∆J = 1. On the other hand. no electric dipole transitions are expected between two states with the same isospin T . parity may change in a transition. etc. Transitions that conserve parity cannot be electric dipole in nature. we see that levels in the same shell generally have the same parity. 1P1 α . In transitions between diﬀerent energy levels of the same shell. electric dipole transition E1 follows selection rules ∆J = 0 or 1. 9 (c) Show that for nuclei containing an equal number of neutrons and protons (N = Z).
2092 “Unlike atomic spectroscopy. electric dipole (E1) transitions are not usually observed between the ﬁrst few nuclear states”.6 × 6 × 10−5 = 1. give arguments that support this statement on the basis of the shell model.48 × 10−3 MeV2 . outlining your choice of input parameters. (Princeton) Solution: (a) Based on singleparticle energy levels given by shell model. parity does not change. Indicate situations where exceptions might be expected. ∆P = −1. J100J0 = 0. However if the ground and excited states are not in the same shell. (a) For light nuclei. γtransition occurs mainly between diﬀerent singlenucleon levels.
356
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
λ≈
c 4
e2 c
Eγ c
3
r
2
,
where Eγ is the transition energy and r ∼ R = 1.4 × 10−13 A1/3 cm. Thus λ≈ 3 × 1010 × (1.4 × 10−13 )2 2/3 3 3 A Eγ = 1.4 × 1014 A2/3 Eγ , 4 × 137 × (197 × 10−13 )3
17
where Eγ is in MeV. For
F we may take Eγ ≈ 5 MeV, A = 17, and so λ = 1.2 × 1017 s ,
or τ = λ−1 = 9 × 10−18 s . (c) For light or medium nuclei, the isospin is a good quantum number. A nucleus state can be written as JmT Tz , where J, m refer to angular momentum, T , Tz refer to isospin. The electric multipole transition operator between two states is
A
OE (L, E) =
K=1 A
1 1 (1 + τz (K))ep + (1 − τz (K))en rL (K)YLM (r(K)) 2 2
A
=
K=1
S(L, M, K) · 1 +
K=1
V (L, M, K)τz (K)
with S(L, M, K) = V (L, M, K) = 1 (ep + en )rL (K)YLM (r(K)) , 2 1 (ep − en )rL (K)YLM (r(K)) , 2
where τz is the z component of the isospin matrix, for which τz φn = −φn , τz φp = +φp . The ﬁrst term is related to isospin scalar, the second term to isospin vector. An electric multipole transition from J, T, Tz to J , T , Tz can be written as
Nuclear Physics
357
BE (L : Ji Ti Tz → Jf Tf Tz ) = Jf Tf Tz OE (L)Ji Ti Tz 2 /(2Ji + 1) = 1 [δT T Jf Tf  (2Ji + 1)(2Tf + 1) i f
A A
S(L, K) · 1Ji Ti
K=1
+ Ti Tz 10Tf Tz Jf Tf 
K=1
V (L, K)τz (K)Ji Ti ]2 .
From the above equation, we see that for electric multipole transitions between two states the isospin selection rule is ∆T ≤ 1. When ∆T = 0, δT T = 0, there is an isospin scalar component; when ∆T = 1, the scalar component is zero. For electric dipole transition,
A A
S(L, K) · 1 =
K=1 K=1
1 (ep + en )r(K)YLM (r(K)) 2
A
=
1 (ep + en ) 2
r(K)YLM (r(K)) ,
K=1
r being nucleon coordinate relative to the center of mass of the nucleus. A For spherically or axially symmetric nuclei, as K=1 rYLM (r(K)) is zero, the isospin scalar term makes no contribution to electric dipole transition. For the isospin vector term, when Ti = Tf = T , Ti Tz 10Tf Tz = Tz . T (T + 1)
Then for nuclei with Z = N , in transitions between two levels of ∆T = 0, as Tz = 0, Ti Tz 10Tf Tz = 0 . and so both the isospin scalar and vector terms make no contribution. Thus for selfconjugate nuclei, states with Ti = Tf cannot undergo electric dipole transition.
2093 (a) Explain why electromagnetic Eλ radiation is emitted predominantly with the lowest allowed multipolarity L. Give an estimate for the ratios E1 : E2 : E3 : E4 : E5 for the indicated transitions in 16 O (as shown in Fig. 2.31).
358
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. 2.31
(b) Estimate the lifetime of the 7.1 MeV state. Justify your approximations. (c) List the possible decay modes of the 6.0 MeV state. (Princeton) Solution: (a) In nuclear shell theory, γray emission represents transition between nucleon energy states in a nucleus. For a proton moving in a central ﬁeld radiation is emitted when it transits from a higher energy state to a lower one in the nucleus. If L is the degree of the electric multipole radiation, the transition probability per unit time is given by λE (L) ≈
E
2(L + 1) L[(2L + 1)!!]2
3 L+3
2
e2
k 2L+1 rL
2
,
γ where k = w = c is the wave number of the radiation, Eγ being the c transition energy, and γ L 2 ≈ R2L , R = 1.4 × 10−13 A1/3 cm being the nuclear radius. Thus
λE (L) ≈ =
2(L + 1) L[(2L + 1)!!]2 2(L + 1) L[(2L + 1)!!]2
3 L+3 3 L+3
2
e2 R c 1 137
Eγ c c
Eγ R c
2L
2
3 × 1010 Eγ 197 × 10−13
4 × 10−13 × 161/3 197 × 10−13
2
≈ 3 × 10−4 .31 can be summarized in the table below.
Hence λE (L) decreases by a factor 10−4 as L increases by 1. The tranistions of 16 O indicated in Fig.
Transition E1 E2 E3 E4 E5
∆π yes yes no no yes
∆l 3 1 2 2 1
Type octopole dipole quadrupole quadrupole dipole
L 3 1 2 2 1
Eγ (MeV) 6.9 197
2
7
(1.1 197 0. 2.1 0.4 × 10−13 A1/3 197 × 10−13 3 L+3
16 2
2L
4.4A1/3 )2
5
:
1 197 1 197
(1.0 1.0 7. If Eγ ∼ 1 MeV.4A1/3 )4
.4A1/3 )6
3
2
(1.1
Thus we have λE1 : λE2 : λE3 : λE4 : λE5 = 4 3(7!!)2 : 2 (3!!)2 3 2(5!!)2 3 2(5!!)2 1 2 3 4 3 5 3 5
2
6. we have
2
Eγ R c
=
1.4A1/3 )2L × 1021 s−1
with Eγ in MeV.4(L + 1) L[(2L + 1)!!]2
Eγ 197
2L+1
(1. This means that EL radiation is emitted predominantly with the lowest allowed multipolarity L. Consider λE (L + 1) ∼ (kR)2 = λE (L)
O.9 1.Nuclear Physics
359
× =
Eγ × 1.4A1/3 )4
5
2
:
(1.
360
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
:
2 (3!!)2
3 4
2
7.1 197
3
(1.4A1/3 )2
= 1.59 × 10−12 : 1.48 × 10−7 : 1.25 × 10−12 : 1.25 × 10−12 : 7.28 × 10−5 = 2.18 × 10−8 : 2.03 × 10−3 : 1.72 × 10−8 : 1.72 × 10−8 : 1 Thus the transition probability of E5 is the largest, that of E2 is the second, those of E3 , E4 and E1 are the smallest. (b) The halflife of the 7.1 MeV level can be determined from λE5 : 4.4 × 2 (3!!)2 3 4
2
λE5 = giving
7.1 197
3
(1.4 × 161/3 )2 × 1021 = 3.2 × 1017 s−1 ,
T1/2 (7.1 MeV) = ln 2/λE5 = 2.2 × 10−18 s . Neglecting transitions to other levels is justiﬁed as their probabilities are much smaller, e.g., λE3 : λE5 = 1.7 × 10−8 : 1 . In addition, use of the singleparticle model is reasonable as it assumes the nucleus to be spherically symmetric, the initial and ﬁnal state wave functions to be constant inside the nucleus and zero outside which are plausible for 16 O. (c) The γtransition 0+ → 0+ from the 6.0 MeV states to the ground state of 16 O is forbidden. However, the nucleus can still go to the ground state by internal conversion.
2094 The γray total nuclear cross section σtotal (excluding e+ e− pair production) on neodymium 142 is given in Fig. 2.32
Nuclear Physics
361
Fig. 2.32
(a) Which electric or magnetic multipole is expected to dominate the cross section and why? (b) Considering the nucleus simply as two ﬂuids of nucleons (protons and neutrons), explain qualitatively the origin of the resonance shown in the ﬁgure. (c) Using a simple model of the nucleus as A particles bound in an harmonic oscillator potential, estimate the resonance energy as a function of A. Does this agree with the observed value in the ﬁgure for A = 142? (d) Discuss the role of residual twobody interactions in modifying the estimate in (c). (e) What are the physical processes responsible for the width of the resonance? Make rough estimates of the width due to diﬀerent mechanisms. (Princeton) Solution: (a) The excitation curves of reactions (γ, n) and (γ, p) show a broad resonance of several MeV width from Eγ = 10 to 20 MeV. This can be explained as follows. When the nuclear excitation energy increases, the density of states increases and the level widths become broader. When the level spacing and level width become comparable, separate levels join together, so that γrays of a wide range of energy can excite the nucleus, thus producing a broad resonance. If Eγ ≈ 15 MeV, greater than the nucleon harmonic oscillator energy ω ≈ 44/A1/3 MeV, dipole transition can occur. The singleparticle model gives (Problem 2093(a))
362
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Γ(E2orM 1) ≈ (kR)2 = Γ(E1)
15 × 1.4 × 10−13 × 1421/3 197 × 10−13
2
= 0.3 .
Hence the nuclear cross section is due mainly to electric dipole absorption. We can also consider the collective absorption of the nucleus. We see that absorption of γrays causes the nucleus to deform and when the γray energy equals the nuclear collective vibrational energy levels, resonant absorption can take place. As Eγ ≈ 15 MeV, for 142 Nd nucleus, electric dipole, quadrupole, octopole vibrations are all possible. However as the energy is nearest to the electric dipole energy level, E1 resonant absorption predominates. (b) Consider the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus as liquids that can seep into each other but cannot be compressed. Upon impact of the incoming photon, the protons and neutrons inside the nucleus tend to move to diﬀerent sides, and their centers of mass become separated. Consequently, the potential energy of the nucleus increases, which generates restoring forces resulting in dipole vibration. Resonant absorption occurs if the photon frequency equals the resonant frequency of the harmonic oscillator. (c) In a simple harmonicoscillator model we consider a particle of mass M = AmN , mN being the nucleon mass, moving in a potential V = 1 Kx2 , 2 where K, the force constant, is proportional to the nuclear crosssectional area. The resonant frequency is f ≈ K/M. As K ∝ R2 ∝ A2/3 , M ∝ A, we have f ∝ A−1/6 ≈ A−0.17 . This agrees with the experimental result Eγ ∝ A−0.19 fairly well. (d) The residual twobody force is noncentric. It can cause the nucleus to deform and so vibrate more easily. The disparity between the rough theoretical derivation and experimental results can be explained in terms of the residual force. In particular, for a much deformed nucleus double resonance peaks may occur. This has been observed experimently. (e) The broadening of the width of the giant resonance is due mainly to nuclear deformation and resonance under the action of the incident photons. First, the deformation and restoring force are related to many factors and so the hypothetical harmonic oscillator does not have a “good” quality (Q value is small), correspondingly the resonance width is broad. Second, the photon energy can pass on to other nucleons, forming a compound nucleus
2. 2. This may generate a broad resonance of width from several to 10 MeV.34
(a) What are the possible electric and/or magnetic multipolarities of the γrays emitted in the transition between the 2. For a nucleus of A = 142. 2.33
Fig. The peak at 2.
Fig. 2.7 × 10−3 M eV = 1.Nuclear Physics
363
and redistribution of energy according to the degree of freedom.34).6 MeV and 1. M c2 142 × 940
2095 The total cross section for the absorption of γrays by 208 Pb (whose ground state has spinparity J π = 0+ ) is shown in Fig.7 keV . In addition there are other broadening eﬀects like the Doppler eﬀect of an order of magnitude of several keV.6 MeV corresponds to a J π = 3− level in 208 Pb which γdecays to a 1− level at 1.2 MeV levels? Which one do you expect to dominate?
. the broadening due to Doppler eﬀect is ∆ED ≈
2 Eγ 152 ≈ = 1.2 MeV (see Fig.33.
In the case of 60 Ni we ﬁnd such a cascade. assuming a negligible halflife for the intermediate state. where the singlelevel widths are broader and many levels merge to form a broad. As there is no parity change. namely J p = 4+ → J p = + 2 → J p = 0+ .g. 2. Hence the possible multipolarities of the transition are E4. only γrays should be found to be emitted from the 2. Since generally the nuclear spins are not aligned.0418 cos4 θ. However.1248 cos2 θ + 0.6 MeV level. Experimentally. Thus the diﬀerence in decay mode leads to the large diﬀerence in level width.
.
2096 Gammarays that are emitted from an excited nuclear state frequently have nonisotropic angular distribution with respect to the spin direction of the excited nucleus. As the resonance energy is high. whereas the width of the level seen at 14 MeV is 1 MeV. 60 Ni which is used for this problemsee Fig. for nuclides which undergo a cascade of γemissions (e. Nuclear and Particle Physics
(b) The width of the 2. Thus.6 MeV level while nucleons should also be observed to be emitted from the 14 MeV level. whereas the 14 MeV obsorption peak is a giant dipole resonance (Problem 2094). l = 4. The electric quadrupole transition E2 is expected to dominate. M 3 or E2. giant resonance.35)..364
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. (b) The width of the 2. the direction of one of the cascading γrays can be used as a reference for the orientation of a speciﬁc nucleus. a measurement of the coincidence rate between the two γrays can give the angular correlation which may be used to determine the nuclear spins. 3.6 MeV level is less than 1 eV. The angular correlation function is of the form W (θ) ∼ 1 + 0. 2. the processes are mostly strong interactions with emission of nucleons. but their directions distributed at random. Can you suggest a plausible reason for this large diﬀerence? What experiment might be done to test your conjecture? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) In the transition 3− → 1− . which is less than 1 eV. is typical of an electromagnetic decay. this anisotropy cannot be measured. 2. the emitted photon can carry away an angular momentum l = 4.
(b) The angular correlation function for cascading emission can be written as
. Identify all components.Nuclear Physics
365
Fig. but does not change the parity.35
(a) Of what types are the transitions? (b) Why are the odd powers of cos θ missing? Why is cos4 θ the highest power? (c) Draw a schematic diagram of an experimental setup showing how you would make the measurements.) (h) How would Compton scattering of γrays within the 60 Co source modify the measurements? (Chicago) Solution: (a) Each of the two gammaray cascading emissions subtracts 2 from the angular momentum of the excited nucleus. 2.) (d) Describe the γray detectors. (Give block diagram. How can you take account of them? (g) How would a source of 22 Na be used to calibrate the detectors and electronics? (22 Na emits 0.511 MeV gammas from β + annihilation. (e) How do you determine the coeﬃcients in the correlation function which would prove that 60 Ni undergoes the transition 4 → 2 → 0? (f) Accidental coincidences will occur between the two γray detectors. Hence the two emissions are of electricquadrupole E2 type.
Jc . Ja . 2.36 shows a block diagram of the experimental apparatus to measure the angular correlation of the γrays. Jb )F2K (L2 . Since W (θ) depends on P2K (cos θ) only. L2 being the angular momenta of the two γrays. For the 4+ → 2+ → 0+ transition of 60 Ni. When
. Hence the highest power of cos θ in P4 (cos θ) is 4.
Fig. while keeping the distance between the probes constant. and so is in W (θ). A2K = F2K (L1 . rotate probe 2 in the plane of the source and probe 1 about the source to change the angle θ between the two probes. Ja .366
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. it consists of even powers of cos θ. A fastslowcoincidence method may be used to reduce spurious coincidences and multiscattering. With probe 1 ﬁxed.36
(d) A γray detector usually consists of a scintillator. L2 ). L1 . and a signalamplifying highvoltage circuit for the photomultiplier. Kmax is 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Kmax
W (θ) =
K=0
A2K P2K (cos θ) . (c) Figure 2.
where 0 ≤ Kmax ≤ min(Jb . Jc being respectively the initial. Jb ) . intermediate and ﬁnal nuclear spins. a photomultiplier. Jb . L1 . P2K (cos θ) are Legendre polynomials.
They can be used as a basis for adjusting the relative time delay between the two detectors to compensate for any inherent delays of the probes and electronic circuits to get the best result.
. (f) We can link a delay line to one of the γdetectors. Fitting the experimental data to the angular correlation function we can deduce the coeﬃcients. (You may assume ∆E < ∆E M c2 ) (Wisconsin) Solution: The nucleus will recoil when it emits a γray because of the conservation of momentum. (e) The coincidence counting rate W (θ) is measured for various θ.
2097 A nucleus of mass M is initially in an excited state whose energy is ∆E above the ground state of the nucleus. causing emission of primary photoelectrons. and the coincidence counting rate accidental. E + Eγ = M c2 + ∆E . thereby reducing the deduced coeﬃcients in the angular correlation function.Nuclear Physics
367
the scintillator absorbs a γray. (g) The two γphotons of 0. The nucleus emits a gammaray of energy hν and makes a transition to its ground state. Explain why the gammaray hν is not equal to the energy level diﬀerence ∆E and determine the fractional change hν−∆E . The signal is then ampliﬁed and processed. If the delay time is long compared to the lifetime of the intermediate state the signals from the two detectors can be considered independent. The conservation of energy and of momentum give p = pγ . This may then be used to correct the observed data. it ﬂuoresces. The ﬂuorescent photons hit the cathode of the photomultiplier. Let the total energy of the nucleus be E and its recoil momentum be p. which are multiplied under the high voltage. It will thereby acquire some recoil energy from the excitation energy and make hν less than ∆E. (h) The Compton scattering of γrays in the 60 Co source will increase the irregularity of the γemission and reduce its anisotropy. giving a signal on the anode.511 MeV produced in the annihilation of β + from 22 Na are emitted at the same time and in opposite directions.
Eγ . Let Eγ and pγ be the energy and momentum of the γray. ∆E 2M c2 E= p2 c2 + M 2 c4 . 2mc2 ∆E c2
2
m+
c4 + p2 c2 . initially at rest. which can be reached by γray absorption. (Wisconsin) Solution: Denote the particle by A. The reactions is γ + A → A∗ . p be the momentum of A. after it absorbs the γray. It is assumed that ∆E/c2 is not small compared to m.368
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
2098 A (hypothetical) particle of rest mass m has an excited state of excitation energy ∆E. we have Eγ = or (∆E)2 1 (∆E)2 + 2M c2 ∆E ≈ ∆E − · . Its substitution in the energy equation gives Eγ = ∆E + (∆E)2 . Find the resonant γray energy. ∆E 2M c2 2M c2 1 + Mc2 ∆E hν − ∆E =− . Nuclear and Particle Physics
As Eγ = Pγ c = hν.
. to excite the particle which is initially at rest. or pc = pγ c = Eγ . Conservation of energy requires Eγ + mc2 = Momentum conservation requires p = pγ .
Nuclear Physics
369
∆E 2 2mc2 ,
Thus the required γray energy is higher than ∆E by for the recoil energy of the particle.
which provides
2099 (a) Use the equivalence principle and special relativity to calculate, to ﬁrst order in y, the frequency shift of a photon which falls straight down through a distance y at the surface of the earth. (Be sure to specify the sign.) (b) It is possible to measure this frequency shift in the laboratory using the M¨ssbauer eﬀect. o Describe such an experiment — speciﬁcally: What is the M¨ssbauer eﬀect and why is it useful here? o What energy would you require the photons to have? How would you generate such photons? How would you measure such a small frequency shift? Estimate the number of photons you would need to detect in order to have a meaningful measurement. (Columbia) Solution: (a) Let the original frequency of the photon be ν0 , and the frequency it has after falling a distance y in the earth’s gravitational ﬁeld be ν. Then the equivalent masses of the photon are respectively hν0 /c2 and hν/c2 . Suppose the earth has mass M and radius R. Conservation of energy requires M · hν0 M · hν c2 c2 hν0 − G = hν − G , R+y R where G is the gravitational constant, or, to ﬁrst order in y, GM ν − ν0 = 2 ν0 c 1 1 − R R+y ≈ gy = 1.09 × 10−16 y , c2
where g is the acceleration due to gravity and y is in meters. For example, taking y = 20 m we have ν − ν0 = 2.2 × 10−15 . ν0
370
Problems and Solutions in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics
(b) In principle, photons emitted by a nucleus should have energy Eγ equal to the excitation energy E0 of the nucleus. However, on account of the recoil of the nucleus which takes away some energy, Eγ < E0 , or more precisely (Problem 2097),
2 E0 , 2M c2 where M is the mass of the nucleus. Likewise, when the nucleus absorbs a photon by resonant absorption the latter must have energy (Problem 2098) 2 E0 Eγ = E0 + . 2M c2
Eγ = E0 −
0 As 2Mc2 is usually larger than the natural width of the excited state, γrays emitted by a nucleus cannot be absorbed by resonant absorption by the same kind of nucleus. However, when both the γ source and the absorber are ﬁxed in crystals, 2 E0 the whole crystal recoils in either process, M → ∞, 2Mc2 → 0. Resonant absorption can now occur for absorber nuclei which are the same as the source nuclei. This is known as the M¨ssbauer eﬀect. It allows accurate o measurement of γray energy, the precision being limited only by the natural width of the level. To measure the frequency shift ∆ν = 2.2×10−15, the γ source used must ν0 have a level of natural width Γ/Eγ less than ∆ν/ν0 . A possible choice is 67 Zn which has Eγ = 93 keV, Γ/Eγ = 5.0 × 10−16 . Crystals of 67 Zn are used both as source and absorber. At y = 0, both are kept ﬁxed in the same horizontal plane and the resonant aborption curve is measured. Then move the source crystal to 20 m above the absorber. The frequency of the photons arriving at the ﬁxed absorber is ν0 + ∆ν and resonant absorption does not occur. If the absorber is given a downward velocity of v such that by the Doppler eﬀect the photons have frequency ν0 as seen by the absorber, resonant absorption can take place. As v v ν0 = (ν0 + ∆ν) 1 − ≈ ν0 + ∆ν − ν0 , c c
E2
v≈c
∆ν ν0
= 3 × 1010 × 2.2 × 10−15
= 6.6 × 10−5 cm s−1 , which is the velocity required for the absorber.
Nuclear Physics
371
Because the natural width for γemission of 67 Zn is much smaller than ∆ν/ν0 , there is no need for a high counting rate. A statistical error of 5% at the spectrum peak is suﬃcient for establishing the frequency shift, corresponding to a photon count of 400.
2100 A parent isotope has a halflife τ1/2 = 104 yr= 3.15 × 1011 s. It decays through a series of radioactive daughters to a ﬁnal stable isotope. Among the daughters the greatest halflife is 20 yr. Others are less than a year. At t = 0 one has 1020 parent nuclei but no daughters. (a) At t = 0 what is the activity (decays/sec) of the parent isotope? (b) How long does it take for the population of the 20 yr isotope to reach approximately 97% of its equilibrium value? (c) At t = 104 yr how many nuclei of the 20 yr isotope are present? Assume that none of the decays leading to the 20 yr isotope is branched. (d) The 20 yr isotope has two competing decay modes: α, 99.5%; β, 0.5%. At t = 104 yr, what is the activity of the isotope which results from the βdecay? (e) Among the radioactive daughters, could any reach their equilibrium populations much more quickly (or much more slowly) than the 20 yr isotope? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The decay constant of the parent isotope is λ1 = ln 2 = 6.93 × 10−5 yr−1 = 2.2 × 10−12 s−1 . τ1/2 2.2 × 10−12 × 1020 = 5.95 millicurie . 3.7 × 107
When t = 0, the activity of the parent isotope is A1 (0) = λ1 N1 (t = 0) =
(b) Suppose the 20 yr isotope is the nthgeneration daughter in a radioactive series. Then its population is a function of time: Nn (t) = N1 (0)(h1 e−λ1 t + h2 e−λ2 t + · · · + hn e−λn t ) ,
. λn = ln 2/τ1/2 = 3.97Nn (t). λn
After a suﬃciently long time the system will reach an equilibrium at which e e λn Nn (t) = λ1 N1 (t). (j = n).
0.466 × 10−2 yr−1 . (λ1 − λn )(λ2 − λn ) · · · (λn−1 − λn ) h1 = where N1 (0) is the number of the parent nuclei at t = 0. λ1 − λn
Hence after about 101 years the population of the 20 yr isotope will reach 97% of its equilibrium value. or
e Nn (t) =
λ1 e λ1 N1 (t) = N1 (0)e−λ1 t . λn hn ≈ − λ1 . λn λn
At time t before equilibrium is reached we have Nn (t) ≈ N1 (0)
e When Nn (t) = 0. n. . . . λi is the decay constant of the ithgeneration daughter. Nuclear and Particle Physics
where λ1 λ2 · · · λn−1 . . . j = 2. . As the nth daugther has the largest halflife 20 of 10 yr. For secular equilibrium we require λ1 λj . j = 2. .372
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.
the time is t = t0 given by t0 = ln 0. Thus h1 ≈ λ1 . . or
λ1 −λ1 t λ1 −λn t e − e λn λn
. the superscript e denoting equilibrium values. 3. 3. λ1 λ2 · · · λn−1 hn = . (λ2 − λ1 )(λ3 − λ1 ) · · · (λn − λ1 ) λ1 λ2 · · · λn−1 h2 = .
. . . (λ1 − λ2 )(λ3 − λ2 ) · · · (λn − λ2 ) . .03 ≈ 101 yr .97
λ1 N1 (0)e−λ1 t ≈ N1 (0) λn
λ1 −λ1 t λ1 −λn t e − e λn λn
. . we also have λn λj . .
15 mc .3 × 6. Hence the population of the 20 yr isotope at that time is Nn (104 ) = λ1 N1 (0)e−λ1 t = 1017 . (a) If the foil is irradiated for 5 minutes. At t = 104 years.023 × 1023 = 1. The activity of the βdecay product of the 20 yr isotope is Aβ = 3 × 0.7 days is produced by the reaction 197 Au(n.93 × 10−5 × 1020 × exp(−6. (e) The daughter nuclei ahead of the 20 yr isotope will reach their equilibrium populations more quickly than the 20 yr isotope. γ)198 Au. the activity of the parent isotope is A1 (104 ) = λ1 N (0)e−λ1 t = 6. The density of gold is 19. The nuclide 198 Au with a halflife of 2.Nuclear Physics
373
(c) At t = 104 yr. 197 Au is 100% naturally abundant.05 = 0.0 mc . all the isotopes will have the same activity. what is the 198 Au activity of the foil in decays/cm2/s? (b) What is the maximum amount of 198 Au/cm2 that can be produced in the foil? (c) How long must the foil be irradiated if it is to have 2/3 of its maximum activity? (Columbia) Solution: (a) Initially the number of N1 (0) =
197
Au nuclei per unit area of foil is
0.3 gm/cm3 and the cross section for the above reaction is 97. λn
(d) After the system has reached equilibrium.47 × 1015 yr−1 = 3. the system can be considered as in equilibrium.02 × 19. 197
.02 cm thick is irradiated by a beam of thermal neutrons with a ﬂux of 1012 neutrons/cm2 /s. while the daughter nuclei after the 20 yr isotope will reach their equilibrium populations approximately as fast as the 20 yr isotope.8×10−24 cm2 .18 × 1021 cm−2 .93 × 10−5 × 104 ) = 3.
2101 A gold foil 0.
σI N1 (0)(¯σIt − e−λt ) . the activity of a nuclide.03 × 108 cm−2 s−1 . γ) reaction. σ be the cross section of the (n.78 × 10−11 × 1.18 × 1021 × [1 − exp(−2. 2. dt we have λN2 = σIN1 ≈ σIN1 (0)
.97 × 10−6 s−1 . .78 × 10−11 s−1 at t = 5 min = 300 s the activity of A(300s) = λN2 (t) =
198
Au is
λσIN1 (0) −σIt (e − e−λt ) ≈ σIN1 (0)(1 − e−λt ) λ − σI
= 9.78 × 10−23 × 1012 = 9. e λ − σI
σI = 9. (b) After equilibrium is attained. N2 respectively. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Let the numbers of 197 Au and 198 Au nuclei at time t be N1 .7 × 24 × 3600 λ. dt Integrating we have N1 = N1 (0)e−σIt. Then dN1 = − σIN1 . As dN2 = 0. and λ be the decay constant of 198 Au. dt dN2 = σIN1 − λN2 .374
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. and hence the number of its nuclei. I be ﬂux of the incident neutron beam. N2 = As λ= ln 2 = 2. This is the maximum amount of 198 Au that can be produced. remain constant.97 × 10−6 × 300)] = 1.
3 2 Amax 1 2 1 = − ln 1 − = 3. Note that uranium consists of 99.Nuclear Physics
375
giving N2 = σI 9. and the neutron ﬁssion cross section of 235 U is 500 barns. Te. (c) As 2 Amax ≈ σIN1 (0)(1 − e−λt ) .5% = 1 × 0.007 × 6.7% 235 U.89 × 1016 cm−2 .04 × 107 s−1 .023 × 1023 × 1011 × 500 × 10−24 × 0.
. This isotope is unstable and is the parent of a chain of βemitters ending in stable 133 Cs:
133 235
Sb −→
10 min133
T e −→
60 min133 22hours133
I −→
Xe −→
5.70 × 105 s = 4.28 day . and I present upon removal from the pile.78 × 10−11 N1 (0) = × 1. (You may neglect the shadowing of one part of the sample by another.97 × 10−6
= 3. During this time it is exposed to a uniform ﬂux of 1011 neutrons/cm2 sec. t = − ln 1 − λ 3 σIN1 (0) λ 3 A=
2102 In the ﬁssion of U.3% 238 U and 0. 4.3days133
Cs .) (b) Twelve hours after removal from the pile the iodine present is removed by chemical separation. How many atoms of iodine would be obtained if the separation process was 75% eﬃcient? (Columbia) Solution: (a) The number of Sb atoms produced in the pile per second is C = N0 · f · σ · 4.18 × 1021 λ 2.5% of the ﬁssion lead to 133 Sb. Calculate the number of atoms of Sb.
(a) A sample of 1 gram of uranium is irradiated in a pile for 60 minutes.045 235
= 4.
with N2 = 0. giving C λ3 λ1 e−λ2 T λ2 λ3 e−λ1 T 1− − λ3 (λ1 − λ2 )(λ1 − λ3 ) (λ2 − λ3 )(λ2 − λ1 ) + = C λ1 λ3 λ2 λ3 − − 1 e−λ3 T λ3 (λ1 − λ2 )(λ1 − λ3 ) (λ1 − λ2 )(λ2 − λ3 )
N3 (T ) =
C λ3 λ1 e−λ2 T λ2 λ3 e−λ1 T − 1− λ3 (λ1 − λ2 )(λ1 − λ3 ) (λ2 − λ3 )(λ2 − λ1 ) − = λ1 λ2 e−λ3 T C ≈ (1 − e−λ3 T ) (λ3 − λ1 )(λ3 − λ2 ) λ3
C (1 − 0.75 × 10−6 s−1 .969) = 2. N2 . N3 are not zero. at the initial time t = T. N2 (t) = N3 (t) = λ1 λ1 N1 (T ) −λ2 t N1 (T )e−λ1 t + N2 (T ) + e . but the number of Sb atoms will decrease with time.
dN3 dt
= λ2 N2 − λ3 N3 . λ2 = 1.38 × 1010 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
Let the numbers of atoms of Sb. λ3 = 8. N1 . λ1
= λ1 N1 − λ2 N2 . N2 . I present upon removal from the pile be N1 . with N1 = 0 at t = 0. at t = 0. λ2 . Te. no more Sb is produced. N3 and their decay constants be λ1 . λ3
(b) After the sample is removed from the pile. λ3 respectively.376
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. λ2 − λ3 (λ1 − λ3 )(λ2 − λ3 )
. λ2 − λ1 λ1 − λ2 λ1 λ2 N1 (T ) λ2 λ1 N1 (T ) −λ2 t e−λ1 t + N2 (T ) + e (λ2 − λ1 )(λ3 − λ1 ) λ3 − λ2 λ1 − λ2 + N3 (T ) + λ2 λ1 λ2 N1 (T ) N2 (T ) + e−λ3 t . dt N1 (T ) =
dN2 dt
C (1 − e−λ1 T ) = 3. at t = 0.77 × 1010 . We now have N1 (t) = N1 (T )e−λ1 t . giving N2 (T ) = C λ2 1+ λ1 λ2 e−λ1 T − e−λ2 T λ1 − λ2 λ1 − λ2 = 8.16 × 10−3 s−1 . 600 and dN1 = C − λ1 N1 .43 × 1010 . with N3 = 0. Also. Then λ1 = ln 2 = 1. giving for T = 3600 s.93 × 10−4 s−1 .
75 × 10−6 × 12 × 3600) = 1.05 × 6.81 × 1010 . N2 (t) changes according to dN2 dN1 =− − λN2 (t) = N1 (0)σφe−σφt − λN2 (t) .
2103 A foil of Li of mass 0.77 + 8.3 × 1021 . which decays by β − decay with a halflife of 0. λ2 λ1 λ2 N1 (T ) N2 (T ) + e−λ3 t λ2 − λ3 (λ1 − λ3 )(λ2 − λ3 )
N3 (12 hours) ≈ N3 (T ) +
= 1010 × [2.04 × 1011 .
7
During the neutron irradiation.023 × 1023 = 4. The number of atoms of I isotope obtained is N = 0.85 sec. τ2 .80 + 3.62] × exp(−8.Nuclear Physics
377
For t = 12 hours. the 8 Li population be N2 (t). as t
τ1 . Find the equilibrium activity (number of βdecays per second) when the foil is exposed to a steady neutron ﬂux of 3 × 1012 neutrons/sec·cm2 .05 gram is irradiated with thermal neutrons (capture cross section 37 milllibars) and forms 8 Li. or N1 (t) = N1 (0)e−σφt . dt where σ is the neutron capture cross section and φ is the neutron ﬂux. (Columbia) Solution: Let the 7 Li population be N1 (t).75 × N3 = 7. Initially N1 (0) = 0. N1 (t) changes according to
. 7 dN1 = −σφN1 . dt dt N2 (0) = 0 .
Integration gives σφ N2 (t) = (e−σφt − e−λt )N1 (0) .37
Solution: Let the number of target nuclei be N (t).
As λ =
ln 2 0. and the capture leads uniquely to a nuclear state which βdecays with a lifetime of 104 sec. λ − σφ At equilibrium.816 s−1 . density 1022 atoms/cm3 .7 × 10−26 × 3 × 1012 = 1.
The equilibrium activity is λσφN1 (0) A = λN2 ≈ ≈ σφN1 (0) = 4.63 s .378
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 2. t≈ 1 ln λ = 3. it can be considered thin so that
. at what rate will the foil be emitting βrays? (Wisconsin)
Fig.85
= 0.11 × 10−13 s−1 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
where λ is the βdecay constant of 8 Li. σφ = 3. The target nuclei have a total cross section for neutron capture of 1 barn (10−24 cm2 ). As the thickness of the target is 10−2 cm. 2.37). λ − σφ 2104 In a neutronactivation experiment. and thickness 10−2 cm (Fig.77 × 108 Bq = 12.9 mc . which gives the time t it takes to reach equilibt= 1 ln λ − σφ λ σφ λ σφ . a ﬂux of 108 neutrons/cm2 ·sec is incident normally on a foil of area 1 cm2 . At the end of 100 sec of neutron irradiation. rium:
dN2 dt
= 0. and that of the unstable nuclei resulting from neutron irradiation be Nβ (t).
dt indicating that the rate of production is approximately constant. A living entity. σφt = 10−14 1 and we can take N (t) ≈ N (0). (b) 12 C.5 s−1 as λ= 1 = 10−4 s .Nuclear Physics
379
dN (t) = −σφN (t) . We have dNβ (t) ≈ σφN (0) − λNβ (t) . then dN ≈ −σφN (0) . Integration gives N (t) = N (0)e−σφt . Integrating we have Nβ (t) = and so A = Nβ (t)λ = σφN (0)(1 − e−λt ) . 104
−2
σφN (0) (1 − e−λt ) . dt where φ is the neutron ﬂux. Consider the unstable nuclide. also maintains the same isotopic proportion of 14 C. by exchanging carbon with the atmosphere. At t = 100 s. As σφ = 10−24 × 108 = 10−16 s−1 . After it dies. σ is the total neutron capture cross section of the target nuclei. dt where λ is the βdecay constant. the activity of the foil is A = 10−16 × 1022 × 1 × 10−2 × (1 − e−10 ) = 99. The radioactive isotope 14 C maintains a small but ﬁxed proportion in the carbon of the atomsphere as it is continually produced by bombardment of cosmic rays. (c) 14 C. λ
2105 Radioactive dating is done using the isotope (a) 238 U.
14
. (CCT) Solution: C.
(Wisconsin) Solution: (a) 14 C is a nuclide with excess neutrons.7 × 109 sec).
14
2107 Plutonium (238 Pu. thus providing a means of dating the time of death. Thus the age of the dead tree is t= = τ1/2 A(0) 1 A(0) ln = ln λ A(t) ln 2 A(t) 5500 ln ln 2 3 1 = 8717 years .5 × 109 years. (a) What are the Z and N of the nucleus which remains after αdecay?
. which gives the activity of 14 C as A(t) = λN (t) = A(0)e−λt .380
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. and so it will β − decay to 14 N according to 14 C →14 N + e− + ve . and what are the ﬁnal products? Very brieﬂy explain. estimate the age of the remains of a tree whose radioactivity (decays/sec) of the type given in (a) is 1/3 of that of a comparable but relatively young tree.
2106 C decays with a halflife of about 5500 years. 238 Pu has an αdecay halflife of 90 years (2. too long for dating. 238 U has a halflife of 4. (b) If no more 14 C enters biological systems after their death. 12 C is stable and cannot be used for this purpose. ¯ (b) The number of 14 C of a biological system attenuates with time after death according to N (t) = N (0)e−λt . Nuclear and Particle Physics
the exchange ceases and the isotopic proportion attenuates. Z = 94) has been used as power source in space ﬂights. (a) What would you guess to be the nature of the decay.
5
Pu is = 5. dt dt (d) As the amount of 238 Pu nuclei attenuates.645 ≈ 5.136 ≈ −10.186 − 38. the decay energy per Ed = Eα + EU = p2 p2 mα α + α = Eα 1 + 2mα 2mU mU = 5. so does the power output: W (t) = W (0)e−λt .6 × 1014 MeV/s . When W (t0 ) = W (0)/8. (c) Because of the recoil of 234 U.186 − 43.) (d) If the power source in (c) produces 8 times the minimum required to run a piece of apparatus. (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The daughter nucleus has N = 142.57 × 10−10 s−1 . What is the power released if there are 238 gms of 238 Pu (6 × 1023 atoms)? (Use any units you wish but specify. Thus the apparatus can run normally for 270 years.168 − 2.437 − 13.Nuclear Physics
381
(b) Why is 238 Pu more likely to emit α’s than deuterons as radiation? (c) Each of the αparticles is emitted with 5.4 MeV . the decay constant is λ = ln 2/T1/2 = 2. For 238 Pu. the energy released per second at the beginning is
dE dN = Ed = Ed λN0 = 5. 92 →236 N p + d. (b) This is because the binding energy of αparticle is higher than that of deuteron and so more energy will be released in an αdecay.
238 94 P u 238 94 P u
→ 234 U + α.
238 234
As the halflife of 238 Pu is T1/2 = 90 yr = 2.57 × 10−10 × 6 × 1023 = 8.4 MeV . Q = 46. Z = 92. 93
Q = 46.6 MeV .7 × 109 s.5 MeV.
. For 238 g of
238
Pu.6 × 2.
238
Deuterondecay is not possible as Q < 0. t0 = ln 8/λ = 3 ln 2/λ = 3T1/2 = 270 yr. for what period will the source produce suﬃcient power for that function.
002833 u = 2.008665 1.
Electron Neutron
1H 1
0.000549 1.919794
(a) What is the Qvalue of the reaction 152 Eu(n. 101 .382
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.64 MeV . NUCLEAR REACTIONS (2108 2120) 2108 Typical nuclear excitation energies are about 10−2 .921749 151.919756 151. 103 . where m denotes nuclear masses.
2109 The following are atomic masses in units of u (1 u = 932 MeV/c2 ). The eﬀects of the binding energy of the orbiting electrons have been neglected in the calculation. Nuclear and Particle Physics
6.007825
152 Sm 62 152 Eu 63 152 Gd 64
151. (b) The possible weakinteraction decays for 152 Eu are βdecays and electron capture:
. (Columbia) Solution: 101 MeV. M denotes atomic masses.p)? (b) What types of weakinteraction decay can occur for 152 Eu? (c) What is the maximum energy of the particles emitted in each of the processes given in (b)? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) The reaction
152
Eu + n → 152 Sm + p has Qvalue
Q = [m(152 Eu) + m(n) − m(152 Sm) − m(p)]c2 = [M (152 Eu) + m(n) − M (152 Sm) − M (1 H)]c2 = 0. 105 MeV.
where Wj is the electron binding energy in atomic orbits. and orbital electron capture is also energetically possible for 152 Eu.831 MeV.
. for β + decay.
2110 (a) Consider the nuclear reaction
1
H +A X →2 H +A−1 X . the maximum energy of positron is 0. For orbital electron capture. ¯ β + decay :152 Eu →152 Sm + e+ + νe . Eν ≈ 1.831 MeV > 0 . for K capture. Wk ≈ 50 keV. of the electron. energetically possible. the maximum energy of electron is 1.Nuclear Physics
383
β − decay :152 Eu →152 Gd + e− + νe . β + decay : Ed (β + ) = [M (152 Eu) − M (152 Sm) − 2m(e)]c2 = 0. their energies depending on the binding energies of the electron shells from which they are captured. the latter’s recoil can be neglected. etc. Orbital electron capture: Ed (EC) = [M (152 Eu) − M (152 Sm)]c2 − Wj = 1. (c) As the mass of electron is much smaller than that of the daughter nucleus.858 MeV − Wj . energetically possible. L. Thus for β − decay. Consider the respective Qvalues: β − decay : Ed (β − ) = [M (152 Eu) − M (152 Gd)]c2 = 1. Then the maximum energies of the particles emitted in the processes given in (b) are just the decay energies. M . Generally Wj 1 MeV. orbital electron capture :152 Eu + e− →152 Sm + νe .822 MeV. For example.8 MeV. the neutrinos are monoenergetic.822 MeV > 0 .. the subscript j indicating the shell K.
Nuclear and Particle Physics
A
For which of the following target nuclei be the strongest. The isotope 41 Ca has an excess neutron outside of a doublefull shell. (b) To facilitate the reaction 2 H +2 H →3 H +n. which means that the binding energy of the last neutron is lower than those of 40 Ca. In the reaction the proton combines with a neutron in 41 Ca to form a deuteron. and why?
A
X do you expect the reaction to
41
X =39 Ca.384
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 39 Ca. 8. the two deuterons must 2 1 be able to overcome the Coulomb barrier V (r) = 4πε0 er .
2111 (a) Describe one possible experiment to determine the positions (excitation energies) of the excited states (energy levels) of a nucleus such as 13 C. State the target. (b) In the proposed experiment. (Wisconsin)
Solution: (a) The reaction is strongest with a target of 41 Ca.6 × 10−11
In the above k is Boltzmann’s constant.
(b) Use whatever general information you have about nuclei to estimate the temperature necessary in a fusion reactor to support the reaction
2
H +2 H → 3 He + n . and so it is easier to pick up. Take the radius of deuteron as 2 fm. reaction process. and detector used. Thus the temperature must be higher than 4 × 109 K for the fusion reaction 2 H +2 H → 3 He + n to occur. where r is the distance between the deuterons. The temperature required is T = Vmax 1 e2 1 = = k 4πε0 rmin k 1 × 137 197 × 10−15 4 × 10−15 1 e2 4πε0 c c rmin 1 k
1 = 4 × 109 K .
Ca . and Vmax = 4πε0 rmin .
40
Ca. what type of observation relates to the angular momentum of the excited state? (Wisconsin)
. Then 1 e2 rmin = 4 × 10−15 m.
p)13 C with a goldsilicon surfacebarrier semiconductor detector. 7 Be = 15769 keV . the total kinetic energy of 7 Li and p must reach 1644 keV for the reaction to occur. 1 H = 7289 keV.n)7 Be occur? (b) What will be the laboratory energy of the neutrons at threshold for neutron emission? (Wisconsin) Solution: (a) In 7 Li + p →7 Be + n + Q the reaction energy Q is Q = ∆M (7 Li) + ∆M (1 H) − ∆M (7 Be) − ∆M (n) = 14907 + 7289 − 15769 − 8071 = −1644 keV . 7 Li = 14907 keV . One can also use a Ge detector to measure the energy of the γrays emitted in the deexcitation of 13 C ∗ and deduce the excited energy levels. then gives the energy levels of the excited states of 13 C.
and for an electron m0 c2 = 511 keV. We require (E + mLi c2 )2 − P 2 c2 = (Q + mLi c2 + mp c2 )2 . combined with the known energy of the incident deuterons. (b) From the known spinparity of 12 C and the measured angular distribution of the reaction product p we can deduced the spinparity of the resultant nucleus 13 C. This. This means that in the centerofmass system. (a) Under what circumstances will the reaction 7 Li(p. P be the total energy and momentum of the proton in the laboratory system.Nuclear Physics
385
Solution: (a) Bombard a target of 12 C with deuterons and detect the energy spectrum of the protons emitted in the reaction 12 C(d. Let E.
.
2112 Given the atomic mass excess (M − A) in keV:
1
n = 8071 keV.
even parity. but experiments on nuclear reactions characterize the two lowest unstable levels as J = 0. mLi 7
Thus the kinetic energy T of the incident proton must be higher than 1879 keV. mp + mLi
As at threshold the neutron is produced at rest in the centerofmass system. Q p 2(E − mp c2 )mLi c2 ≈ 2Q(mLi + mp )c2 . its velocity the laboratory is Vc . Consider how the existence of these levels inﬂuence the scattering of αparticles from helium gas. or T =
mLi . we have
mp + mLi 1+7 × Q ≈ × 1644 = 1879 keV . Nuclear and Particle Physics
As E 2 = m2 c4 + P 2 c2 .386
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. ∼95 keV above the dissociation level. ∼3 MeV above the dissociation level. (b) Describe qualitatively how the relevant phase shifts vary as functions of energy in the proximity of each level. even parity. mp . J = 2. (Chicago) Solution: (a) The wave function for elastic scattering of αparticle (He++ ) by a helium nucleus involves two additive phase shifts arising from Coulomb
8
. Its laboratory kinetic energy is therefore mn m2 1 1 2T mn mp T T p mn Vc2 = · = ≈ = 29. (c) Describe how the variation aﬀects the angular distribution of αparticles. Speciﬁcally: (a) Write the wave function for the elastic scattering in its partial wave expansion for r → ∞. (b) The velocity of the center of mass in the laboratory is Vc = mp Vp . 2 m 2 2 2 (mp + mLi ) (mp + mLi ) 64 p
2113 The nucleus Be is unstable with respect to dissociation into two αparticles. E ≈ T + mp c2 .4 keV .
(b) The attractive nuclear forces cause each ηl to rise from zero as the centerofmass energy increases to moderately high values. The contribution of this term can be summed over l to give
.5 fm as the radius of each He++ nucleus. the height of the Coulomb barrier when two such nuclei touch each other is B ∼ (2e)2 /2R ∼ 2 MeV. Therefore the width of the l = 0 resonance at 95 keV is greatly suppressed by the Coulomb barrier. as the energy approaches and then surpasses any unstable level of a deﬁnite l of the compound nucleus. or whenever the combination of Coulomb repulsion and centrifugal forces reduces the amplitude of the relevant partial wave at values of r within the range of nuclear forces. the eﬀect of nuclear forces remains generally negligible at energies lower than the Coulomb barrier. rises by π anyhow.Nuclear Physics
387
interaction (δl ) and nuclear forces (ηl ). 2
where k is the wave number in the centerofmass system and γ = (2e)2 / v. by nearly π radians at each resonance. while the l = 2 resonance remains broad. (c) To show the eﬀect of nuclear forces on the angular distribution one may rewrite the partial wave expansion as
∞ l=0
1 + (−1)l 1 (2l + 1)il eiδl 2 kr + e2iηl − 1 2i
sin kr −
lπ − γ ln(2kr) + δl 2 Pl (cos θ) . the spatial wave function must be symmetric with an even value of l.
exp i kr −
lπ − γ ln(2kr) + δl 2
Here the ﬁrst term inside the brackets represents the Coulomb scattering wave function unaﬀected by nuclear forces. Speciﬁcally each ηl rises rather rapidly.. e.g. near 95 keV for l = 0 and near 3 MeV for l = 2 in the case of 8 Be. Its partial wave at r → ∞ is
∞ l=0
1 + (−1)l 1 (2l + 1)il ei(δl +ηl ) 2 kr × sin kr − lπ − γ ln(2kr) + δl + ηl Pl (cos θ) . v being the relative velocity of the αparticles. To account for the identity of the two (spinless) particles. Taking R ∼ 1. Thus ηl remains ∼ 0 (or ∼ nπ) except when very near a resonance. where ηl . However.
(c) List at least six reactions in which 15 N is the compound nucleus. doubly ionized 3 He particles. which interferes with the Coulomb scattering wave in each direction. 2. deuterons. Derive any equations
. and alphaparticles. Nuclear and Particle Physics
exp i{kr cos θ − γ ln[kr(1 − cos θ)] + δ0 } − γ(kr)−1 exp i{kr cos θ 1 e−iγ ln(1−cos θ) e−iγ ln(1+cos θ) − γ ln(kr) + δ0 } · √ + 1 − cos θ 1 + cos θ 2 . (a) What are the maximum energies of the various particles available from this machine? (b) List the reactions by which the isotope 15 O can be prepared with this equipment.
2114 A 3MV Van de Graaﬀ generator is equipped to accelerate protons. it is extremely small for ηl very close to nπ.388
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. An experiment in 1956 showed no signiﬁcant interference from nuclear scattering below 300 keV centerofmass energy.
The second term represents the scattering wave due to nuclear forces.
Fig.38
(d) Describe two types of reaction experiment which can be carried out with this accelerator to determine energy levels in 15 N. However. detection of such interference may signal the occurence of a resonance at some lower energy. Accordingly. at which energy it was found η0 = (178 ± 1) degrees. as for energies below the Coulomb barrier.
874 MeV .
(d) (1) For the reaction α +11 B →15 N ∗ →15 N + γ. Q = 5.952 MeV . 6 MeV for doubly ionized 3 He. measure the γray yield curve as a function of the energy Eα of the incoming αparticles. Q = 5.067 MeV . Figure 2. (b) Based energy consideration. →15 N ∗ →11 B + α. which result in Q = −8. 6 MeV for αparticle.
3 15
Q = 7. d +14 N →15 O + n.476 MeV .158 MeV . →15 N ∗ →14 C + p.292 MeV .
O cannot be produced with αparticles because of their high binding energy and small mass. Q = 0.
He +13 C →15 O + n. Q = 10. Q = 5.35 MeV. d +13 C →15 N ∗ →14 N + n. the reactions that can produce 15 O are p +14 N →15 O + γ. →15 N ∗ →14 C + p. Q = 0. the reaction
.38 shows the isotopes of light nuclei. 15
(2) With incoming particles of known energy.) (Columbia) Solution: (a) The available maximum energies of the various particles are: 3 MeV for proton. which can be calculated: E∗ = 11 Eα + m(4 He)c2 + m(11 B)c2 − m(15 N )c2 . A resonance peak corresponds to an energy level of the compound nucleus 15 ∗ N .991 MeV . (Assume all masses are known. 3 MeV for deuteron. measuring the energy spectrums of the produced particles enables one to determine the energy levels of 15 N ∗ .Nuclear Physics
389
needed. (c) The reactions in which 15 N is the compound nucleus are α +11 B →15 N ∗ →14 N + n. Q = 5. For instance. Q = 6.325 MeV .168 MeV . →15 N ∗ →15 N + γ.
) are eﬀective in producing this excited level? (explain) (Columbia)
6
. mα = 4. From this information alone. determine the energy. the outgoing deuteron has energy E and angle of emission θ.6 MeV.0079 amu . where 1 amu = 938. and parity of the excited level in the compound nucleus. 15
2115 When Li (whose ground state has J = 1.558 MeV for ground state 15 N . the excitation energy E ∗ is given by E∗ = Q − Q .390
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Nuclear and Particle Physics
3
He +14 N →15 N + d
has Q = 4. where Q = 1+ = = 2 m(3 He)m(d)E0 E m(d) m(3 He) E − 1− E0 − cos θ m(15 N ) m(15 N ) m(15 N ) √ 2 3 3 × 2E0 E 1+ E − 1− E0 − 2 cos θ 15 15 15
1 (17E − 12E0 − 2 6E0 E cos θ) .003 amu .p. even parity) is bombarded by deuterons. What partial wave deuterons (s. mBe = 8. The ground state of the deuteron consists of a proton and a neutron in 3 S1 conﬁguration.0147 amu. The masses of the relevant nuclides are md = 2. mLi = 6.d. the reaction rate in the reaction Li6 + d → α + α shows a resonance peak at E (deuteron)= 0. etc.0170 amu. The angular distribution of the αparticle produced shows a (1 + A cos2 θ) dependence where θ is the emission angle relative to the direction of incidence of the deuterons. If the incoming 3 He has energy E0 . angular momentum.2 MeV.
being a strong interaction. 2.4.4.0147 + 6.6 ×
In the decay 8 Be∗ → α + α.
2116 Fast neutrons impinge on a 10cm thick sample containing 1021 53 Cr atoms/cm3 . So dwaves produce the main eﬀect. conserve parity. Onetenth of one percent of the neutrons are captured into a spinparity J π = 0+ excited state in 54 Cr.3.39. the relative orbital angular momentum of the two αparticles.0170 − 8. As the angular distribution of the ﬁnal state is not isotropic. the possible values of li are 0.Nuclear Physics
391
Solution: The excitation energy of the compound nucleus 8 Be∗ in the reaction d +6 Li →8 Be∗ is E(8 Be∗ ) = [m(2 H) + m(6 Li) − m(8 Be)] + Ed m(6 Li) m(6 Li) + m(2 H) 6 = 22. What is the most likely J π for the excited state at 9.779 MeV . li must be even. the ground state parities of 6 Li and d are both positive. As the angular distribution of the ﬁnal state αparticles is not spherically symmetric but corresponds to lf = 2. What is the neutron capture cross section for this state? The excited 54 Cr sometimes γdecays as shown in Fig.2 + 0. we have J π (8 Be∗ ) = 2+ . 2 However.2 MeV? What are the multipolarities of the γrays? (Wisconsin)
. be even and the decay. As Ji = Jd + JLi + li = 1 + 1 + li and as 0 1 + 1 = 1. li = 0 and the possible values of li are 2. as J π of α is 0+ .2.0079) × 938. 8
= (2. the symmetry of the total wave function of the ﬁnal state requires that lf . the parity of 8 Be∗ is π(8 Be∗ ) = (−1)lf (+1)2 = +1.1. Then the total angular momentum of the initial state d +6 Li is also Ji = 2.
the transitions are probably not of the E1 type. and the transition is of the E2 type. γ4 must be E2. we have ∆L = 1. M 3. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Solution: Let the number of neutrons impinging on the sample be n and the neutron capture cross section for forming the 0+ state be σ. but correspond to the next lowest order. Consider 0+ → J p . The detector is then placed in a uniform neutron ﬂux
. Let the spinparity of the 9.). E4 or M 1. Then 10 × 1021 nσ = 10−3 n. For γ4 : 2+ → 2+ .2 MeV level be J p . so they are probably of the E2 type too. or σ = 10−25 cm2 = 0.
Fig. 2.1 b . Hence most probably γ4 = E2. The detector area is 2 cm2 and the mean life of the ﬁssioning isotope is 1 × 109 years (1 yr = 3 × 107 sec. i. Twenty ﬁssions are 3 detected per second.392
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. or both. As 54 Cr only occasionally γdecays. If ∆J = 2. the electric multipole ﬁeld has parity (−1)∆J = +. J p = 2+ . or M 1. 2. For no parity change between the initial and ﬁnal states.e. The transitions γ2 . 3 or 4. γ3 are also between 0+ and 2+ states.39
2117 The surface of a detector is coated with a thin layer of a naturally ﬁssioning heavy nuclei.
λ 20 σ= 5λ 5 × 10−16 = 5 × 10−27 cm2 = 5 mb . (Princeton) Solution: (a) For thermal neutrons of very low energies. dt
1 1. (c) Use the information in the partial level scheme for A = 4 shown in Fig. 2. where N0 = N t=0 . Then the number of natural ﬁssions taking place per second is dN = −λN ≈ −λN0 .40 to estimate the thermal neutron absorption cross section for 3 He. estimate the thermal neutron elastic cross section for 3 He. as λ = 1 ×109 ×3×107 = 10−16 3 The number of induced ﬁssions per second is σN φ ≈ σN0 φ. the elastic scattering cross section of light nuclei does not depend on the neutron energy.Nuclear Physics
393
of 1011 neutrons/cm2 /sec. As
σN0 φ + λN0 120 = . = φ 1011
we have
2118 (a) How do you expect the neutron elastic scattering cross section to depend on energy for very low energy neutrons? (b) Assuming nonresonant scattering. Resonant scattering may be important here. σ is the cross section for neutroninduced ﬁssion. λN0 20 or σφ 100 = = 5. What is the cross section for neutroninduced ﬁssion? (Wisconsin) Solution: Let the number of the heavy nuclei be N . The number of ﬁssions detected in the neutron ﬂux is 120 per second. where φ is the neutron ﬂux. but is constant
.
the elastic scattering cross section of 3 He for thermal neutron is
2 σ = 4πR0 ≈ 4π[1.7 b . where R0 is the channel radius. resonant scattering can occur in some cases at very low neutron energies. Taking the nuclear radius as R ≈ 1.40
for a large range of energy.394
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.044 eV. (b) The thermal neutron nonresonant scattering cross section for nuclei 2 is about 4πR0 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig.7 × 10−24 cm2 = 1. But for heavier nuclei. Here λ is the reduced wavelength of the ¯ incident particle. which is equal to the sum of the radii of the incoming particle and the target nucleus. 2. E is the energy and E0 is the energy at resonance peak of the compound nucleus A = 4. Γn and Γb are the partial widths of the resonant state for absorption of neutron and for emission of b respectively. For instance. and Γ is the total level width.5 × 10−13 A1/3 .
(c) The Breit–Wigner formula σnb = π λ 2 ¯ Γn Γb (E − E0 )2 + Γ2 /4
can be used to calculate the neutron capture cross section for 3 He in the neighborhood of a single resonance.
.5 × 10−13 (31/3 + 1)]2 = 1. resonant scattering with 157 Gd occurs at En = 0.
10 . The total width is Γ = Γn + Γp .5 × 10−8 × 940
= 3. 2.025 eV . E = 20. E = 20. Γ ≈ Γp = 1.
.6 MeV.1 MeV. The radius of the sphere of action of nuclear forces is ∼ 10 − 10−13 cm. many states in 20 F are excited.Nuclear Physics
395
For laboratory thermal neutrons. 3 He)20 F with 26 MeV deuterons.
As both the ﬁrst excited and ground states of 4 He have 0+ . The lowest energy levels of 21 Ne and the known negativeparity states 20 of F below 4 MeV are as shown in Fig. The angular distributions are characteristic of the direct reaction mechanism and therefore are easily sorted into those for which the angular momentum of the transferred proton is lp = 0 or 1 or 2. (Columbia)
−24
Solution: 10−24 cm2 . (E − E0 )2 + Γ2 /4
2119 Typical cross section for low energy neutronnucleus scattering is 10−16 . With Γn ≈ 150 eV .
−12
2120 In experiments on the reaction 21 Ne(d. 10−40 cm2 . we obtain σ = πλ 2 ¯ Γn Γp = 1 × 10−20 cm2 = 1 × 104 b . λ =√ = ¯ 2µEn =
3 2
2mn mHe mn +mHe En
=
c
3 2 2 En mn c
197 × 10−13 × 2. Γγ = 0. 10−32 . En ≈ 0.3 × 10−9 cm .41 (the many positiveparity excited states of 20 F are omitted).2 MeV. and a typical scattering crosssection can be expected to be of the same order of magnitude as its crosssectional area. and the only outgoing channel is for the excited state of 4 He to emit a proton.
With this model of a 21 Ne nucleus with an appropriate missing proton and level diagrams as given above.79 . Explain. they both have positive parity and therefore some lp = 0 or lp = 2 transitions are expected. S(2− ) = 0.78 .. (b) In order to explain the observed negativeparity states in 20 F.00 . 2.84 . 1 S(2− ) = 0. show how one can account for the negativeparity states in 20 F. with no residual interaction between the hole and the particles. i.41
The relative lp = 1 strengths S(J π ) observed in the (d.e. (a) If the 21 Ne target and a 20 F state both have (1s0d) conﬁguration. 3 He) reaction are approximately S(1− ) = 0. what would be the (relative) energies of the 4 negativeparity states? (d) What would be the eﬀect if now a weak particlehole interaction were turned on? Do the appropriate centroids of the reported energies of the 1− . the ﬁnal states of 20 F with negative parity are excited with lp = 1. On the other hand. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig. one can try a coupling model of a hole weakly coupled to states of 21 Ne. (c) In the limit of weak coupling. 2− . 2− .396
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. 3− states conform to this new situation?
. 2 S(3− ) = 0.
1d3/2 . 3. As conservation of the total angular momentum requires that lp be 0. 1d5/2 . (−1)lp = 1 and so lp = 0. (Princeton) Solution: (a) The reactions are strong interactions. . the 1− state of 20 F can be denoted as 1M = 1p−1 .m2
1 3 . 1p3/2 or 2s1/2 . or 2s1/2 and a proton hole in 1p1/2 . In particular for 1− and 2− states of 20 F. 20 F can be considered as consisting of 21 Ne and a proton hole (p− ). M . 2. So the parity change from initial to ﬁnal state must equal the parity of the proton that is emitted as part of 3 He: P (21 N e) = P (20 F )P (p) = P (20 F )(−1)lp . 1d3/2 means a neutron in 1/2 1d3/2 state. J p of 20 F is then determined by a neutron in 1d3/2 .16). 2. When both 20 F and 21 Ne have even parity. 1/2
. Similarly. 1d5/2 . In the same way. 1d5/2 . outside of full shells (Fig. 1/2 and 1p−1 . M 1/2 =
m1 . Show how the latter can be used to obtain better agreement with the prediction in part (d). (b) In the weak coupling model. etc. 1. m1 . 2 · · · . lp = 1. 1. M . 2. Compare these predictions with the observed Sfactors given above. the angular momentum that the proton takes away can only be 1. 2 2
where 1 p−1 means a proton hole in 1p1/2 state. M ψ1/2m ψ3/2m . for the negativeparity states of 20 F. For example. 3 · · · . 2. in which parity is conserved. 1d3/2 ..Nuclear Physics
397
(e) The weak coupling model and the theory of direct reactions lead to speciﬁc predictions about the relative cross sections (strengths) for the various ﬁnal states. we have lp = 0. M 1/2 the 3− state can be denoted as 1p−1 . 2. the 2− can be denoted as 1p−1 . m2 1.
2− : E2− = Ep (1d5/2 ) + Eh (1p1/2 ) . 1d5/2 . j1 . j2 . Nuclear and Particle Physics
(c) We have H = Hp + Hh + Vph . i. j2 .j1 .
2
Fig. m1 ) = Ea1 . 3 . with values
1 2
E3− = E2− = 1230 keV. then E3− = Hp (1d5/2 ) + Hh (1p1/2 ) + 1p−1 . 1/2 1/2
. 1
1
2− 2
−
: E2− = Ep (1d3/2 ) + Eh (1p1/2 ) . 1d3/2 . E2− = E1− .m2 φ(a2 . m2 ) = Ea2 . Vph = 0 .m1 ψ(a1 . where Hp and Hh are respectively the Hamiltonian of the nuclear center and the hole. 2. 3Vph 1p−1 . Then for the four negativeparity states we have 3− : E3− = Ep (1d5/2 ) + Eh (1p1/2 ) . m2 ) . Hh φ(a2 . Thus E3− = E2− . and Vph is the potential due to the interaction of the hole and the nuclear center.. 1d5/2 . 1 . as shown in Fig.42
(d) If Vph = 0. coupling exists.j2 . 1Vph 1p−1 . j1 . 1d3/2 .42.
2
1 : E1− = Ep (1d3/2 ) + Eh (1p1/2 ) . In the limit of weak coupling.
1
E2− = E1− = 890 keV .e. 1/2 1/2 E1− = Hp (1d3/2 ) + Hh (1p1/2 ) + 1p−1 . m1 ) . 2.398
Problems and Solutions in Atomic. Hp ψ(a1 .
E2− and E2− are the eigenvalues of the matrix
1 2
1p−1 . 1d3/2 . 1/2 1/2 1p−1 . 1d5/2 . 1− Vph 1p−1 .
. 2− 1/2 1/2
1p−1 . 2− = 0. the above gives E3− = 0.35 + 0. 2− Vph 1p−1 .95 MeV E1− = 0. 3− Vph 1p−1 . 1d3/2 .26 MeV. 1d3/2 .
1 2
The energy levels are shown in Fig.1 MeV .3 MeV .9 + 0. 1d5/2 . 1/2 1/2 1p−1 . 2− 1/2 1/2
. 1d5/2 .95 −0. 2− 1/2 1/2 = 1p−1 . 1/2 1/2 1p−1 . 2− 1/2 1/2 1p−1 . 1d5/2 .Nuclear Physics
399
As 1p−1 .80 MeV. 1d3/2 . 1d3/2 .
The secular equation λ − 1. 2− H1p−1 . 2− H1p−1 . 2− = 0. 2− 1/2 1/2 = 0.1 = 1. 1/2 1/2 1p−1 .3 −0. 1d3/2 . 2− H1p−1 .3 λ − 1.0 MeV .25 MeV . 3− ≈ 0. E2− = λ2 = 1. 2− Vph 1p−1 . 2− 1/2 1/2 1p−1 . 1d3/2 .1
=0
gives E2− = λ1 = 1. 1d5/2 . 1− ≈ 0. 1d5/2 .7 MeV . 1d5/2 . 1d3/2 .45 MeV . 1d5/2 . 1d3/2 .43. 1d5/2 . 2− Vph 1p−1 .9 + 0. 2. 2− H1p−1 . 1d5/2 . 2− Vph 1p−1 . 1d3/2 .7 = 1.
76 0.20
Shell model 0.72 0.93 0.78 0.59 0.43
(e) The relative strengths of the various ﬁnal states as given by diﬀerent theories are compared in the table below:
Nilson model S(1− ) S(2− ) 1 S(2− ) 2 S(3− ) 0. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Fig.23 0.00
It is noted in particular that for S(2− ).79 0. 2.28
PHF 0.002
Experimental 0.20 0.84 0.400
Problems and Solutions in Atomic.70 0. the theoretical values are much 2 smaller than the experimental values.
.