International Directory of Medical Laboratory Science Education
Compiled by Britta Karlsson, Solveig Turner et al. in co-operation with National Associations
IFBLS is not responsible for the accuracy of information provided in this document. Please contact the individual National Association for the most current educational information.
of Medical Laboratory Science Education
Many individuals and associations have contributed time and information in this compilation and IFBLS wishes to express our thanks to all involved. It is hoped this guide will prove beneficial and assist educators as well as students. Ideally additional countries will wish to include specific Educational Training programs and those already listed will strive to keep information as current and correct as possible. Please note the IFBLS CAN NOT answer queries on any of the countries contained in the directory. Individual Associations and/or country contacts are listed at the end of each section.
IFBLS editorial staff and managment
AUSTRALIA (2004) BARBADOS (1996) CANADA (2000) CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (1996) CHILE (1996) PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1998) COLOMBIA (1996) DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1998) ECUADOR (1996) ETHIOPIA (1998) FIJI (1998) GHANA(1997) HONG KONG (SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION [SAR]) (2004) ICELAND (2000) IRAN (1996) JAMAICA (1997) KUWAIT (2000) LATVIA (1998) LIBYA (1998) LUXEMBOURG (2000) MALAYSIA (1997) MAURITIUS (1996) NEPAL (2003) NIGERIA (1996) NORWAY (2004) PANAMA (1998) PHILIPPINES (1997) SERBIA-YUGOSLAVIA (1997) SINGAPORE (1997) SLOVAK REPUBLIC (1996) REPUBLIC OF KOREA (2004) SWAZILAND (1998) SWEDEN (2000) SWITZERLAND (2000) TAIWAN (1996) THAILAND (1997) TRINIDAD & TOBAGO (1996) TUNISIA (1998) UGANDA (1998) USA (1996) ZIMBABWE (2000)
3 12 19 29 34 42 50 56 61 65 70 74 78 96 101 109 117 122 126 133 139 148 152 156 166 172 176 180 185 191 197 205 207 216 222 230 235 242 248 252 265
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 secondary school 1 2 3 Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Pathology Testing) (1 to 4 yr part time or full time) = Intermediate member of AIMS†
3 Bachelor of Science (Medical Science/Laboratory Medicine) (3 or 4 yr fulltime or 6 yr part time) ( = Graduate of AIMS) † 1* 2* ( = Member of AIMS) 1* 2* 3* (+ Examination = Fellow of AIMS)
3 Bachelor of Science 1* 2* (+ Membership Examination = Member of AIMS) 1* 2* 3* (+ Fellowship Examination = Fellow of AIMS) 1 2 Master of Science (in relevant discipline) Post Graduate Diploma in Medical Laboratory Science or Laboratory Medicine.
Note: * = Professional laboratory experience.
†AIMS = Australian Institute of Medical Scientists
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND
In the absence of formal governmental regulation of medical laboratory personnel in Australia, employment as a Medical Scientist would generally require the medical scientist to be eligible for professional membership of the Australian Institute of Medical Scientists. (AIMS). The professional categories of membership are Graduate members, Members, Fellows and Life Members. Holders of a Bachelor of Science in Medical Science or Laboratory Medicine from an accredited program qualify for Membership of AIMS at the Graduate level. Graduate members who have a minimum of two years postgraduate medical laboratory experience are classified as full Members. Persons with non-accredited Bachelor of Science degrees are required to sit for an examination before becoming Members. A Member of not less than three years standing, who has passed the Fellowship examinations may qualify as a Fellow of AIMS. The Institute encourages Members to study for the AIMS Fellowship which is the highest professional qualification members can obtain. The Fellowship has been available since 1964. Approximately 10% of the membership are Fellows and approximately 6-7% hold Masters degrees. The Institute also has about 1% of members who hold a Doctorate level qualification. Graduates of a general science degree who have worked for two years in a clinical laboratory are accepted into Associate or Intermediate member categories. Associates have to sit an examination to become a full Member. Students enrolled in an AIMS accredited course are entitled to become Student members. Prior to 1984 there were three year part-time Certificate programs for Medical Laboratory Technicians. These were upgraded to a four year part-time Associate Diploma (the time of implementation varied between states); subsequently (in 1995), this title was changed to a Diploma (dropping the prefix ‘Associate’). Persons holding Associate Diplomas (now Diplomas) in Medical Technology, Clinical Laboratory Techniques or Biological Techniques, or Pathology Technician Certificates are eligible to become ‘Intermediate’ members in the AIMS and are considered suitable for employment as medical laboratory technicians. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are two levels of Medical Laboratory Science training in Australia: 1) Post-secondary level: Diploma of Laboratory Technology one to four years, part time or full time, depending on the State in which the course is conducted Bachelor of Science (Medical Science or Laboratory Medicine) three or four years full time or the equivalent part-time. 2) Graduate level Post Graduate Diploma and Masters in Medical Science/Laboratory Medicine/Pathology. These courses may also be available on line or by distance education. Specialisation at Master of Science level - two years, post-baccalaureate. Relevant Doctorate of Philosophy. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Basic entrance requirement for all degree and diploma level courses is successful completion of 12 years of schooling. Admission to the postgraduate programs requires Bachelor of Science degree or an Honors
degree. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Diploma and bachelor level Medical Laboratory Science education is multi-disciplinary, including hematology, histopathology, microbiology, clinical biochemistry, pathology and immunology. This is a reflection of the need for some medical scientists in Australia to be responsible for small hospital laboratories where total staff may include only three medical scientists responsible for 24-hour coverage. Most continuing education of medical scientists is offered by the professional associations, although some tertiary institutions run postgraduate programs and short courses in both specialised and cross-discipline areas of medical science. The continuing education activities of AIMS are organised on a national, state, and regional basis. Such activities include the annual National Conference, publication of the Australian Journal of Medical Science, broadsheets, self-assessment programs, national newsletter, branch newsletters, organisation of the Immunohaematology Quality Assurance Program, state and national workshops, discussion groups and scientific meetings. 6. CURRICULUM A. DEGREE COURSES AIMS has accredited twelve medical laboratory science degree programs in Australian and New Zealand universities. AIMS publishes a minimum requirements document that forms the basis for AIMS accreditation process. To be accredited by AIMS, courses must comply with these requirements. AIMS MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCREDITED DEGREE COURSES (2004) Entry Requirements Normal entry requirements should include chemistry and mathematics, and two other subjects at matriculation level, following twelve years of schooling. Alternative entry, gained through the institution’s process for recognition of prior learning, may be accepted. Course Nomenclature It is important that the course titles of AIMS-accredited courses allow for easy distinction of these courses from other non-directed Biomedical Science and Medical Science courses. Course nomenclature of AIMS-accredited courses can be of two formats: Bachelor of Descriptor - for example, Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science Bachelor of Generic Title (Descriptor) – for example, Bachelor of Applied Science (Laboratory Medicine) The AIMS recommended course Descriptor is the term Laboratory Medicine, although the older term Medical Laboratory Science is also acceptable. Acceptable generic titles include Science, Applied Science and Medical Science – none of these generic titles should be used without an additional course descriptor. The use of the term Biomedical Science is not recommended, as either a generic title or a descriptor. The following nomenclature of current AIMS-accredited courses is also acceptable: Bachelor of Science (Medical Science)
Bachelor of Medical Science (Pathology) Staffing It is essential that these criteria be met for the course to be accredited. They have been established in recognition that courses preparing graduates to become members of the Medical Science profession are applied vocationally oriented courses. i) ii) iii) iv) v) the course shall be directed and administered by a person of recognised stature in the professional field of medical laboratory science. the level of appointment of the person directing the course shall be such as to confer the authority necessary to administer and direct the course subject to the academic policies and procedures of the educational institution. full-time academic staff shall be qualified above the basic degree level as evidenced by higher formal academic qualifications and/or professional qualifications. full-time academic staff responsible for teaching the clinically based medical laboratory science subjects shall have extensive professional laboratory experience in one or more of the clinical disciplines. the qualification of such staff shall normally be those that meet the requirements for a senior scientist as defined by the National Pathology Advisory Accreditation Committee, i.e., Fellowship of the Australian Institute of Medical Scientists, or the Australasian Association Clinical Biochemists or the Australian Society of Microbiologists or a PhD in a relevant discipline, plus ten years experience in a clinical laboratory insufficiencies in any particular area of full-time staffing in the clinical laboratory science area may be offset by the employment of professional scientists as part-time staff. Such staff should not exceed 20% of full-time staffing.
Course Structure and Content The course shall be an ordered, integrated study of medical laboratory science in two or more disciplines following a study of basic physical and biomedical sciences. There should be evidence of instruction in the pathological basis of disease processes, such that students will acquire an appreciation of how laboratory results in each of the clinical disciplines relates to the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and pathogenesis. The course shall be of a depth and intellectual demand which, in the opinion of the Institute, meets the professional requirements for a medical scientist. Basic Physical and Biomedical Sciences With the exception of the unit Communications in Science, the course must be structured to provide tuition (for all units), laboratory sessions (for most units) and final examinations (for all units). All approved courses must include: Chemistry - two semesters of tuition extending basic chemical concepts and mechanisms beyond the normal upper secondary study of the subject. The course should include particular reference to organic chemistry, physical chemistry and analytical chemistry. Communication in Science - one semester of tuition giving the student the ability to prepare and interpret tables and figures and also to understand statistical concepts applicable to quality assurance, analysis of data, reference ranges, and experimental design. Included should be instruction that gives students the ability to use the library, retrieve scientific information via electronic transfer, and to be proficient in the use of email and the Internet. Further, on completion of this subject unit, students should have
developed the skills needed to give oral and visual presentations, and to prepare scientific reports using correct scientific citation. NB: It is acceptable if the elements of this unit are provided in the first year of the program under a range of unit titles. Human anatomy and physiology - two semesters of tuition in anatomy including the histological organisation of the human body, the function of systems and cells, including abnormal structure and function, and the concepts of homeostasis and control. General Microbiology – one semester of tuition in the characteristics of microorganisms, their culture and identification and their interaction with human beings. Biochemistry/ Molecular Biology/ Cell Biology/Genetics – a minimum of three semesters including at least one semester of biochemistry (including biomolecule structure/function relationships, and mammalian metabolism), one semester of molecular biology (including its theoretical basis and the application of molecular biology techniques in disease diagnosis), and coverage of the structure, function and regulation of the cell including the genetics of the cell at a molecular level. Immunology – one semester of tuition in the organs and cells of the immune system and the normal and abnormal immune responses. This should include the pathological conditions associated with these. The unit must also provide a sound knowledge of the principles of immunological techniques and their diagnostic value. Computing – as most year twelve students now have a good understanding in the use of computers this is no longer a requirement. However, for those students with limited understanding or skills, opportunities must be provided to gain the necessary knowledge and skills required to succeed in a Medical Science degree. Professional Medical Science Component: Following the underpinning of basic units in the first year, the professional subjects should be structured to provide a logical sequence throughout the second and third years of the course. Irrespective of whether the course is structured with no choice or whether students have the choice of additional study in limited discipline areas, all courses must meet the following: i) include a minimum of two semesters in each of the following subjects: Clinical Chemistry/Clinical Biochemistry Clinical Microbiology Haematology include a minimum of one semester in each of the following subjects: Transfusion Science Histopathology/Histotechniques General Pathology There should also be a Cytology unit, however, we are mindful of the difficulty in obtaining suitable specimens and therefore, while this unit is strongly recommended, it is not mandatory. The third or fourth year must contain a general pathology type unit which may include Pathophysiology or Studies of Disease, including Cytogenetics, Oncology, Pharmacology, and/or a project.
The course must be structured to provide laboratory sessions, which should include a variety of clinical specimens, in addition to theory tuition and final examinations. .
Professional Practice Three months practical placement is desirable. This may be reduced to a minimum of six weeks depending on the quality and quantity of laboratory practice in the course. Physical Facilities The course shall be conducted in buildings with space and equipment sufficient to carry out all of the activities implied in the curriculum of the course and the activities of the staff. Library Facilities The library shall contain modern text books covering both basic and applied disciplines ranging from an elementary to an advanced level. Also required is a range of journals related to medical science; with access to full-text online journals complementing the hard-copy collection. A variety of non book material suitable for teaching and learning at a degree level should available, as well as adequate electronic access to both scientific and medical data bases. Support Staff and Services Adequate numbers of laboratory staff, shall be provided to support the teaching of the subjects contained in the course. Other student facilities should include adequate numbers of computers, printers etc. Professional Course Accreditation and Institutional Validation All courses should have a course advisory committee, 75% of the members of which should be experienced medical scientists employed in clinical laboratories. The chairperson should be a senior medical scientist. Meetings should be held at least annually; minutes of the meetings should be available for inspection by the course assessors. There should be regular written reports, and personal contacts with academic staff who teach the professional subjects. DIPLOMA COURSES Diploma of Laboratory Technology (Pathology Testing) courses are conducted at State institutes of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) and other Registered Training Organisations (RTO) throughout Australia. These are based on the national Laboratory Operations Training Package (LOTP). Within this single qualification, students may obtain either a generic qualification or a streamed qualification. There are four of these one of which is the Diploma of Laboratory Technology (Pathology Testing) Candidates are required to complete twenty units of competency, consisting of thirteen compulsory core units, with the balance of units made up from stream core units specified for each qualification, and electives that satisfy requirements.
Compulsory core units of competency for ALL Diplomas Achieve the following THIRTEEN compulsory core units PML COM 300 A PML COM 500 A PML DATA 300 A PML DATA 500 A PML DATA 501 A PML MAIN 300 A PML OHS 300 A PML ORG 300 A PML QUAL 401 A PML TEAM 300 A PML TEST 400 A PML TEST 402 A PML TEST 500 A Communicate with other people Provide information to customers Process and record data Analyse data and report results Use laboratory application software Maintain the laboratory fit for purpose Work safely in accordance with defined policies and procedures Follow established work plan Apply quality system and continuous improvement processes Work efficiently as part of a team Perform instrumental tests/procedures Prepare, standardise and use solutions Calibrate and maintain instruments
Diploma of Laboratory Technology (Pathology Testing) For the Diploma of Laboratory Technology (Pathology Testing), candidates must achieve a total of twenty (20) units of competency. In addition to achieving the thirteen (13) compulsory core units listed for all Diplomas, they must achieve a further seven (7) units as follows: Stream core units of competency Achieve all SIX of the following stream core units PML TEST 301 A PML TEST 305 A PML TEST 501 A PML TEST 502 A PML TEST 503 A PML TEST 504 A Perform biological laboratory procedures Perform aseptic techniques Perform microbiological tests Perform haematological tests Perform histological tests Perform chemical pathology tests
Elective units of competency Achieve ONE elective drawn from units listed below or from the Advanced Diploma in this Training Package, or from units imported from other Training Packages that satisfy the packaging rules defined earlier PML MAIN 500 A PML MAIN 501 A PML ORG 500 A PML SAMP 400 A PML TEST 506 A PML TEST 507 A PML TEST 509 A BSZ 404 A DEGREE PROGRAMS Nine directed medical laboratory science bachelor degree programs from Australian universities and three from New Zealand universities have been accredited by the Australian Institute of Medical Scientists (AIMS). Graduates of these courses are accepted for membership at Graduate level in AIMS. An applicant with this qualification and a minimum of two years postgraduate professional medical laboratory experience in an approved laboratory may join the Institute as a full Member. Maintain and control stocks Assist with the maintenance of reference material Schedule laboratory work for a small team Obtain representative samples in accordance with sampling plan Apply spectrometric techniques Apply chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques Perform immunohaematological tests Train small groups
Applicants who do not meet the criteria for professional Membership of AIMS may be eligible for Intermediate membership. AIMS DIRECTED DEGREE COURSES
QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITYOF TECHNOLOGY Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Science) School of Life Sciences (Level 5, Q Block) Qld University of Technology GPO Box 2434, BRISBANE QLD 4001 Tel: (07) 3864 2559 Fax: (07) 3864 1534 http://www.life.sci.qut.edu.au CHARLES STURT UNIVERSITY Bachelor of Medical Science (Pathology) Charles Sturt University PO Box 588, WAGGA WAGGA NSW 2678 Tel: (02) 6933 2541 (HM 69332195) Fax: (02) 6933 2587 http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/health/biomed/ UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA
UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA Bachelor of Medical Science) Faculty of Applied Science School of Biomedical Sciences University of Canberra CANBERRA ACT 2601 Tel: (02) 6201 2243 Fax: (02) 6201 5727 http://science.canberra.edu.au UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SYDNEY Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Science University of Technology, Sydney Westbourne Street, GORE HILL NSW 2065
Tel: (02) 9514 4103, Fax: (02) 9514 4026 http://www.uts.edu.au/study (This degree has been approved as an acceptable qualification Bachelor of Biomedical Science provided the medical laboratory science option is followed) University of Tasmania JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY OF Locked Bag 1320, LAUNCESTON TAS 7250 NORTH QUEENSLAND Tel: (03) 6324 5483 (BD 63243029) Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences http://www.healthsci.utas.edu.au/biomed/ James Cook University Biohome.html Douglas, TOWNSVILLE QLD 4814 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA Tel: (07) 4781 4449 Fax: (07) 4781 6174 http://www.jcu.edu.au Bachelor of Laboratory Medicine OTAGO UNIVERSITY School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences University of South Australia, City East Campus Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science ADELAIDE SA 5000 Pathology Department, Medical School Tel: (08) 8302 2410 Fax: (08) 8302 2389 University of Otago, PO Box 913 http://www.unisa.edu.au DUNEDIN NEW ZEALAND Tel: 0011 64 (3) 479 7845 Fax: 0011 64 (3) 479 7136 CURTIN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY http://www.otago.ac.nz Bachelor of Science (Medical Science) MASSEY UNIVERSITY School of Biomedical Sciences Curtin University of Technology Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science GPO Box U 1987, PERTH WA 6001 College of Sciences Tel: (08) 9266 7375 Fax: (08) 9266 2342 Massey University, Private Bag 11222 http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/biomed/ PALMERSTON NORTH NEW ZEALAND Tel: 0011 64 (6) 350 4021 Fax: 0011 64 (6) 350 5636 RMIT UNIVERSITY http://www.massey.ac.nz Bachelor of Applied Science(Laboratory Medicine) UNIVERSITY OF School of Medical Sciences/Division of Laboratory AUCKLAND TECHNOLOGY Medicine GPO Box 71, BUNDOORA VIC 3083 Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences Tel: (03) 9925 7082 Fax: 03 9925 7083 Private Bag 92019, AUCKLAND 1020 NEW ZEALAND 9973 www.rmit.edu.au/medical-sciences Tel: 0011 64 (9) 307 9999 Ext 8771 Fax: 0011 64 (9) 307 http://www.aut.ac.nz
OSTGRADUATE COURSES RMIT UNIVERSITY Degree of Master of Applied Science (Medical Science) – available online/distance learning Division of Laboratory Medicine School of Medical Sciences Bundoora Campus PO Box 71 Bundoora Vic 3083 Tel: (03) 9925 7075 Graduate Diploma (Laboratory Medicine) Division of Laboratory Medicine School of Medical Sciences Bundoora Campus PO Box 71 Bundoora Vic 3083 Tel: (03) 9925 7075 www.rmit.edu.au/medical-sciences QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Degree of Master of Science School of Life Sciences Qld University of Technology GPO Box 2434 BRISBANE QLD 4001 http://www.life.sci.qut.edu.au CHARLES STURT UNIVERSITY Master of Medical Science (Pathology) Graduate Diploma in Medical Science (Pathology) Charles Sturt University PO Box 588 WAGGA WAGGA NSW 2650 http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/health/biomed CURTIN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Postgraduate Diploma in Medical Laboratory Science GPO Box U1987 Perth WA 6001 http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/biomed 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The Australian Institute of Medical Scientists Academic Course Accreditation Committee accredits and reviews Australian and New Zealand degree courses in Medical Laboratory Science. Courses are normally accredited every five years; Australian courses are accredited against the AIMS minimum requirements document. The main references used to assess overseas courses are the Country Education Profiles produced by the Australian National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition.
l. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE
G.C.E. ‘O’ Level/ CXC General Proficiency** 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 primary and secondary school 8 9 10 11 Certificate 2 Medical Laboratory Technology (Phased out between 1988-89) Diploma 2* Medical Laboratory Technology (Phased out by 1991) 1* 2* 3* 4* Fellowship 1 Diploma in Microbiology 1 2 3 4 Bachelor of Science ← (Under Consideration)
Barbados Community College
Barbados Community College (C.A.S.M.E.T.) (C.A.S.M.E.T.) Barbados Community College
Barbados Community College
3 Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technology 1⁄2 Internship
Note: C.A.S.M.E.T. = Specialization via examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists. * = Part-time program. ** = General Certificate of Education ‘Ordinary’ Level/ Caribbean Examinations Council, General Proficiency Level. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Until 1990 Medical Technology education in Barbados was offered in two programs following the completion of secondary school. A 2-year full-time program at Barbados Community College led to the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate. This program consisted of six terms of study. On successful completion of the course the student was eligible to sit for the Barbados Community College certification examination. This certificate was phased out between 1988 - 1989. A l2-month full-time program for the Diploma in Microbiology was offered by the Barbados Community College for graduates of the Certificate program or equivalent education. In addition, specialization was offered in individual subjects through the examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists at two levels: the Diploma level and the Fellowship level. In 1990 a 3-year full-time program, followed by 6 months of internship, was introduced. In 1991 the part-time Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology was phased out, while the Diploma in Microbiology continued. The
Fellowship programs also continued but only by thesis with CASMET. Currently under consideration is a B.Sc. program offering. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Prior to 1990: (l) Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate - a 2-year (6-term) full-time program offered through Barbados Community College to secondary school graduates. (2) A l2-month program for the Diploma in Microbiology - offered at Barbados Community College to holders of the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology from Barbados Community College who have one year of work experience in a laboratory, and to Medical Laboratory Technology graduates of other institutions in the Caribbean region, or to holders of a B.Sc. in a related science subject who have a minimum of six months of laboratory experience in an approved clinical laboratory. (3) The Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology - a 2-year part-time program in a specialization achieved through the examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists, following two years of work experience in a laboratory and membership in the Association for at least one year. Specializations are in: Clinical Chemistry, Bacteriology and Parasitology, Immunology and Immunohematology, Hematology, Histology and Cytology, or Virology and Mycology. (4) Fellowship - a part-time program in a specialization achieved through the examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists, after six years of service in a laboratory following the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate or two years of work experience in a laboratory following the Diploma examination. After 1990: (1) Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technology - a 3-year full-time program at the Barbados Community College, followed by 6 months of internship. (2) A 12-month program for the Diploma in Microbiology - Same as #2 above. (3) Fellowship - only by thesis with CASMET. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1990: (1) Applicants to the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate Program had to fulfill the following: (a) Five passes either through the examinations of the General Certificate of Education, Ordinary level or the Caribbean Examinations Council, General Proficiency level, in English, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and one other subject; OR (b) Successful completion of the Pre-Health Services Course offered by the Barbados Community College. (2) Applicants to the Diploma in Microbiology program had to fulfill one of the following requirements:
(a) Successful completion of the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology at an institution in the Caribbean region; OR (b) The Barbados Community College Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate, followed by one year of work experience in a medical laboratory; OR (c) B.Sc. in a related science subject with a minimum of six months of work experience in an approved laboratory/laboratories, rotating through all areas of specialization. (3) Applicants to the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Specialization) program had to fulfill the following: (a) Success in the Certificate examination from a Medical Laboratory Technology program in the Caribbean region or equivalent; AND (b) Completion of at least two years of post-certificate training in the specialty of choice in a general medical laboratory or equivalent; AND (c) Membership in the MLT Association for at least one year prior to examination date. (4) Laboratorians could apply to the Fellowship examinations: (a) After six years of service in a laboratory following completion of the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate; OR (b) After two years of work experience in a laboratory following receipt of the Diploma in Medical Technology. After 1990: (1) Associate Degree in Medical Laboratory Science - Same as #1 above. (2) Diploma in Microbiology - Same as #2 above. (3) Fellowship - Same as #4 above. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Technology education in Barbados is polyvalent. It includes education and training in Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Blood Banking, Microbiology and Histopathology. At career entry the Certified Medical Laboratory Technician is to have capabilities in: performing analyses, problem solving, systems control, organization & communication, supervising 1 or 2 people, and in teaching others through demonstration. Active participation in continuing education and in-service programs is expected of the new graduates. Before 1990, work experience, independent study and examinations allowed practicing medical laboratorians to obtain the Diploma and the Fellowship of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists in one of the following specializations: Clinical Chemistry Hematology Virology and Mycology Immunology and Immunohematology Bacteriology and Parasitology Histology and Cytology
Currently, only the Fellowship is available by thesis, through the CASMET.
6. CURRICULUM Below are given the curricula of the Pre-Health Services Course, the Medical Laboratory Technology program, the Diploma in Microbiology program, and the Associate Degree in Medical Laboratory Technology program as offered at Barbados Community College. Curriculum of Pre-Health Services Course Barbados Community College, 1986 (Three 12-week terms)
Lectures/Discussion/Labs* l. Language for Health Workers 2. (a) Review of Basic Arithmetic (b) Elementary Mathematics 3. Biology 4. (a) Physics (b) Chemistry 5. Social Studies 6. Orientation to Being a Student 7. Orientation to Health and the Health Services Total Hours 75 45 90 108 108 108 90 15 45
* There are laboratory sessions for all the basic sciences.
The Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology program consists of two years or six terms of study. The content of the program is designed to integrate with other Medical Laboratory Technology programs throughout the Caribbean. Barbados Community College-Division of Health Sciences Diploma Medical Laboratory Technology Program, l986 Year 1 Term Courses l Hours T P 4.5 l.5 3 l.5 6 3 l.5 l.5 4.5 3 l l.5 4.5 5 Weeks Total hrs per term 12 72 12 54 12 12 12 5 12 3 5 12 12 108 12 72 54 12 12 24 12 12 114 24 36 Total hrs Practice per year
Chemistry Human anatomy & Physiology Introduction to MLT 3 Physics Chemistry 4.5 Human Anatomy & Physiology 3 Microbiology I Physics Computer Awareness l Instrumentation Chemical Pathology I Hematology I Lab. 4.5 Mathematics 2
108 144 108 24 114 72 72 114
114 36 72 114
114 24 Total 894
Summer School Practicum Microbiology Chemical Pathology Histopathology Blood Banking Hematology
40 40 40
Year 2 Term Courses l 2 3
Hours T P Hematology II 3 Histopathology 3 Microbiology II 3 Chemical Pathology II 3 Clinical experience MLT Seminar 2 Clinical experience 33
Weeks Total hrs per term 4 14 98 4 14 98 4 14 98 5 12 96 10 10 20 330
Total hrs Practice per year 98 98 98 210 288 20 330 Total 524 818
Total course hours: 2,236 Barbados Community College Diploma in Microbiology, 1986 Term Courses l Microbiology Pathophysiology Instrumentation Laboratory techniques Psychology Microbiology Speech& Communication Management Laboratory techniques Seminar Hours/week T P 3 5 4 l.5 l 3 3 5 4 4 l 2 No.of Weeks Total hours per course 12 96 12 48 l.5 12 l 12 12 36 12 96 12 48 12 48 l 12 12 24
Clinical experience: 24 weeks x 40 hours = 960 hours
Year 1 Subject Term 1 Orientation to MLT Urinalysis Anatomy & Physiology Chemistry 1 Laboratory Maths Medical Terminology English & Communication
Barbados Community College-Division of Health Sciences Associate Degree in Applied Science Medical Laboratory Technology Program, 1991
Credits 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 Credits 3 1 3 1 2 2 2 Credits 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 40 hours 40 hours 40 hours 40 hours 40 hours 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 Term 2 Immunohematology 2 (Theory) Immunohematology 2 (Practice) Coagulation Studies (Theory) Coagulation Studies (Practice) Sociology Speech & Communication 3 1 3 3 2 2 Subject Term 2 Clinical Chemistry 2 (Theory) Clinical Chemistry 2 (Practice) Immunology Hematology 1 (Theory) Hematology 1 (Practice) Histopathology 2 (Theory) Histopathology 2 (Practice) Subject Credits 3 1 1.5 3 1 3 1 Credits Subject Term 2 Anatomy & Physiology Chemistry 2 Physics 1 Computer Awareness English & Communication 2 Credits 2 3 2 2 2
Term 3 Physics 2 Clinical Bacteriology 1 (Theory) Clinical Bacteriology 1 (Practice) Biochemistry Caribbean Politics Year 2 Subject Term 1 Clinical Chemistry 1 (Theory) Clinical Chemistry 1 (Practice) Clinical Bacteriology 2 (Theory) Clinical Bacteriology 2 (Practice) Instrumentation Histopathology 1 (Theory) Histopathology 1 (Practice) Term 3 Subject Parasitology (Theory) Parasitology (Practice) Hematology 2 (Theory) Hematology 2 (Practice) Clinical Chemistry 3 (Theory) Clinical Chemistry 3 (Practice) Histopathology 3 (Theory) Histopathology 3 (Practice) Summer Practicum Microbiology Chemical Pathology Histopathology Blood Banking Hematology Term 1 Immunohematology 1 (Theory) Immunohematology 1 (Practice) Mycology (Theory) Mycology (Practice) Bio-Statistics Ethics & Citizenship Term 3 Research Methods Management Clinical Experience
Diploma and Fellowship Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists Before 1990, guidelines were set by the Association for the content to be tested in each specialty. The training was on-the job and there were no structured courses. The student was responsible for obtaining the necessary information for the CASMET examinations. Since 1991, students can complete the Fellowship by examination. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Barbados Community College Division of Health Sciences Howell’s Cross Road, St. Michael, Barbados
Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists Department of Pathology, University Hospital University of the West Indies, Mona Kingston 7, Jamaica 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation All programs are under the control of the Ministry of Education and Culture (b) Certification Barbados Community College Certification examination (c) Licensure None (d) Professional Association The professional association for Medical Laboratory Technologists in Barbados is: Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists (CASMET) (Prior to 1979 this Association was called the Society of Medical Technologists) Department of Pathology, University Hospital University of the West Indies Mona, Jamaica 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY In Barbados qualifications of foreign trained laboratorians are evaluated by the Ministry of Education and Paramedical Professions Council, and the following U.K. qualifications are recognized: (a) Associateship in the Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences. (b) Higher National Diploma/Higher National Certificate in Medical Laboratory Specialties. (c) Fellowship of I.M.L.S. For CASMET: Foreign graduates are evaluated by the Qualifications Evaluation Committee (QEC) of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists. The QEC, which was established in l985 and consists of four members, makes recommendations to the Regional Council of the CASMET, which must ratify the recommendations for them to be valid.
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1999 (a) 1 2 3
4 5 Primary
9 10 11 Secondary
High School Diploma 1 1 2 2* 3* Diploma Medical Laboratory Technologist Diploma Medical Laboratory Technologist (RT)
College or Institute of Technology College or Institute of Technology (b) 1
4 5 Primary
9 10 11 Secondary
High School Diploma
College or Institute of Technology
Diploma Medical Laboratory Technologist (RT)
B.Sc. in ** Medical Laboratory Science
4 5 Primary
9 10 11 Secondary
High School Diploma 1 2 3* RT and 4 B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Science
Note: (a) and (b) are the most common educational patterns * Clinical Training Year ** Since 1997 the 1/2-year in plan b has been eliminated. The degree completion program at the university now requires only 2 years after the Diploma program. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Because education is under provincial jurisdiction, educational systems in the different provinces vary significantly. There are two levels of high school diploma and this generally determines the length of medical laboratory technology training. Unfortunately, the number of years of schooling does not completely coincide with the level of high school diploma. In some provinces a senior diploma may take 12 years or 13 years; in other provinces only the lower level high school diploma is available, with the post-secondary system filling the gap. Because of these differences in provincial educational systems, the Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science (CSMLS) [until 1997, the Canadian Society of Laboratory Technologists (CSLS)], has concentrated on ensuring that students graduating from programs have reached an equivalent level and have a similar body of knowledge and skills in medical laboratory science and technology. Medical laboratory technology programs are generally offered at community colleges or institutes of technology. Programs are two or three years in length, depending on entry prerequisites. In three-year programs the first year focuses on core sciences and introductory studies. The second year (and the first year of two-year programs) is a concentrated year of didactic medical laboratory studies, 900
- 1200 hours in length, including both lectures and supervised laboratory exercises. The final year is spent in an accredited clinical laboratory and consists of 1600 - 1800 hours of supervised clinical training. The educational institution gives a diploma and the graduate is eligible to write national certification examinations. A number of universities offer degree-completion programs in medical laboratory science in which credit is given for the diploma program. Several universities offer a four-year degree, which leads to eligibility after the third year, and a bachelor’s degree in medical laboratory science after the fourth year. Additional post-RT degree programs are developing in response to the CSMLS requirement for a degree at the advanced (ART) level. In 1996 new regulations required a baccalaureate degree in medical laboratory science plus acceptable work experience for a candidate to qualify for advanced certification 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Canada’s only certifying agency, the Canadian Society of Medical Laboratory Science (CSMLS) oversees the curriculum and eligibility for certification. Before 1994, certification was via a three-tiered system comprised of registered technologists, and advanced registered technologists (ART), and Fellow of the CSLT (FCSLT). Since 1994, it has been a two-tiered system. Prior 1994 Initial certification (RT = registered technologist) Senior-level high school diploma students entered a 2-year MLT program, while junior-level diploma holders were eligible to enter the 3-year programs. Advanced certification (ART = advanced registered technologist) Advanced certificates required independent study in accordance with established of study, and a minimum period of work experience. The eligibility requirements for ART examination were: Applicants for ART examinations had to be certified at the Initial level (RT general/subject) and had to be members in good standing of the CSLT. Candidates had to be working in the discipline in which they sought certification, or must h a v e been working in that discipline within one year of the exam application deadline. Eligibility was achieved by obtaining 30 credits as follows: Post-RT work experience credits 6 credits per year of acceptable work experience (within the last four years) Literature review credits 3 credits are granted for an acceptable literature review Continuing education credits For post-RT educational activities (within the last four years) Minimum 12 Maximum 21
The first step was to submit a “Notice of Intention” form to the CSLT, to have the literature review topic approved. The literature review was then prepared and submitted for assessment. The second step was to submit an “Application for Credit Review”, with supporting documentation for all credits claimed. Finally, candidates who had accumulated the required 30 credits received the exam application form. ART was obtained in a single discipline, although a general ART was also available. It was possible to take a second ART. Preparation for ART was not supervised. The candidate directed his/her own study based on the syllabus provided by the CSLT. Up to 10% of the examination could have been based on current issues not included in the syllabus. The ART certification was a 1-hour written and oral exam given by two senior people appointed by the CSLT. Because many candidates had difficulty with self-directed learning changes were initiated in degree requirements. Fellowship (FCSLT) The FCSLT (Fellowship of the CSLT) was established in 1982 as the highest level in the CSLT certification system. This required the candidate to complete an independent research study and submit a thesis. This certification was suspended in 1992 because of lack of participation. Since 1994:
1) Initial certification (RT = registered technologist) Examinations for RT certification are taken after completion of the diploma program. 2) Advanced certification (ART = advanced registered technologist) Under new regulations instituted in May 1996, Advanced certification requires a baccalaureate degree in medical laboratory science plus acceptable work experience. Candidates with other relevant science degrees will qualify provided that they have taken additional courses in clinical laboratory science. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS A high school diploma is the entry prerequisite for medical laboratory technology programs, with credits in mathematics, chemistry, one other science, and either English or French. For programs that require a senior level diploma, first year college or university credits may be alternative prerequisites. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD General training in medical laboratory technology is polyvalent and incorporates: Clinical Chemistry Clinical Microbiology Hematology Histotechnology Immunohematology There are separate specialized training programs for cytotechnology and clinical genetics technology. Before regulation changes in 1996, graduates from the formal educational programs wrote national certification examinations conducted by the CSLT. The RT examination in general medical laboratory technology included the five disciplines listed above. In addition, certification was offered in individual disciplines: Clinical Chemistry Clinical Microbiology Hematology Histotechnology Immunohematology Cytogenetics Diagnostic Cytology Electron Microscopy Immunology Virology
Since 1996 graduates from the formal educational programs write national certification examinations. The RT examination in general medical laboratory technology includes the five disciplines listed above. 6. CURRICULUM Prior to 1996 The Canadian Society for Laboratory Technologists, the national certifying body, produced a Competency Profile for both the general certificate and each of the individual disciplines listed in Section 5, above. These profiles provided a basis for educational institutions to develop their program objectives. The following is an outline of the various sections of the general certificate syllabus: PART 1 TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION I. Techniques II. Instruments and Equipment
PART 2 CELL BIOLOGY I. The Cell II. General Genetics & Molecular Biology
III. Anatomy IV. Physiology V. Immunology VI. Basic Pathology PART 3 LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF DISEASE I. Clinical Chemistry II. Clinical Microbiology III. Hematology IV. Histological Techniques V. Immunohematology PART 4 QUALITY ASSURANCE I. Quality Assurance Concepts/Procedures II. Communication Skills III. Materials Management IV. Preventive Maintenance V. Laboratory Mathematics, Statistics and Quality Control VI. Legal Obligations and Professional Ethics VII. Problem Solving PART 5 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT I. Computers II. Requisitioning and Reporting III. Laboratory Management (The CSLT Competency Profiles provided additional information about each of the certifications.) Prerequisite knowledge for students of Medical Laboratory Technology which were not covered in the CSLT Examinations included: Fundamental Concepts of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Introductory Organic Chemistry, Basic Physics, Hydrogen Ion Activity, Titrations, Acid-Base and Redox Reactions. Courses in these prerequisites might be included in the program. Parts 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the above syllabus covered the core knowledge that was common to all areas of the laboratory. Part 3 contained all of the clinical discipline material. The RT subject syllabuses were structured in a similar format. (A) The 3-year General Certificate Program Diploma in Technology (Dipl. T.); Cabot Institute, Newfoundland, (1990-1992) Sample curriculum FIRST YEAR First Semester Communications Mathematics Physics Chemistry Biology Psychology Hours per Week Lecture Laboratory Credits 3 0 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 17 11
4 4 4 4 2 21
Second Semester Communications Statistics Physics
Chemistry Biology Psychology SECOND YEAR Third Semester Organic Chemistry/Biochemistry Histology Laboratory Instrumentation Clinical Microbiology Hematology Immunology Fourth Semester Clinical Microbiology Clinical Chemistry Introduction to Computers Hematology Immunohematology THIRD YEAR
3 3 2 17 Hours per Week Lecture Laboratory 4 0 3 2 3 3 2 17 3 4 1 3 13
3 3 0 11 Credits 4 2 4 4 0 14 4 2 2 2 12
4 4 2 21
4 3 4 4 2 21 4 5 2 4 18
The third year of the program was designed to train the student in the practical aspects of the Medical Laboratory Sciences program and discipline the student to the routine working atmosphere of the laboratory, to introduce the student to the hospital environment and provide opportunity for contact with patients and medical staff. Although examinations and lectures were given, the emphasis was on practical work in each discipline. Fifth Semester (May - August) Clinical Chemistry Hematology Histology Immunohematology Clinical Microbiology Sixth Semester (September - December) Clinical Chemistry Hematology Histology Immunohematology Clinical Microbiology Seventh Semester (January - June) Clinical Chemistry Hematology Histology Immunohematology Clinical Microbiology Weeks 3 3 2 2 2 12 3 3 3 3 3 15 6 5 2 3 5 21 Credits 3 3 2 2 2 12 pass/fail pass/fail pass/fail pass/fail pass/fail
6 5 2 3 5 21
Credit System Each course was assigned a Credit Value. A Semester Credit Hour was assigned to a course in proportion to the number of hours spent in lectures and laboratories as follows: One lecture hour per week = 1 Credit One laboratory period (2-4 hours) per week = 1 Credit
One laboratory period (5-7 hours) per week = 2 Credits One laboratory period (8-10 hours) per week = 3 Credits Grade Point Marking System The percentage mark in a course was converted to a Grade Point, according to the following table: 80% and over 4 70% - 75% 3 60% - 65% 2 50% - 55% 1 Below 50% 0 Qualifications for Diploma To qualify for a Diploma, the student had to: (1) Obtain a mark of not less than 50% in each course, i.e. have no Grade Point below 1; (2) Attain a minimum Grade Point Average of 2. The Grade Point Average was calculated by multiplying the Credit Value of each program by the Grade Point received in that course. The product was then divided by the total number of Credits attempted in the program. (3) Successfully complete the Occupational Health and Safety Course, including qualifying Certificate in First Aid. In internship periods, which did not have credit values assigned, 75% of the required internship period had to be completed under the supervision of the institute. (B) The 4-year B.Sc. Medical Laboratory Sciences program Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, (1990-1991) Sample curriculum FIRST YEAR Chemistry Organic Chemistry Heredity Elementary Physiology General Microbiology I Introduction to Lab. Medicine Humanities option 15 1 10 SECOND YEAR Pathogenic Bacteriology Hematology Clinical Biochemistry Introduction to Histopathology An approved Science option* Humanities option Total First Term Hours per week Lecture Seminar 3 1 3 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 18 1 Second Term Hours per week Lecture Seminar Lab 3 1 3 3 0 3 3 0 1 3 0 3 3 0 3 or 3 0 0 for the St. John Ambulance
Lab 3 3 1 0 13
0 3 3 3 3 15
3 0 0 0 0 0
6 3 3 0 15
0 3 3 3 3 15
3 0 0 0 0 0
6 3 3 0 15
THIRD YEAR General Biochemistry 3 0 0 3 0 0 Medical Laboratory Science I (= Hospital Practice): A twelve-month period of practical hospital laboratory training under the direct supervision of the Faculty of Medicine. Students received some remuneration from the University of Alberta Hospitals during this year. At the end of this year, they were eligible to take the initial certification examinations of the CSLT.
FOURTH YEAR Medical Laboratory Science II 3 0 6 3 0 Special Project 0 0 An approved MLS option 3 0 3 3 0 3 An approved Science option* 3 0 0 3 0 An approved option 3 0 0 or 3 0 An approved Humanities option 3 0 0 3 0 Total 15 0 9 15 0 • A list of approved Science options was made available to students prior to registration.
6 3 0 0 0 12
Since 1996 The CSMLS (previously the CSLT) the national certifying body, produces a competency profile for both the general certificate and each of the individual disciplines: Clinical Chemistry, Clinical Microbiology, Hematology, Histotechnology, Immunohematology These profiles provide a basis for educational institutions to develop their program objectives. The Competencies Expected of An Entry-Level medical Laboratory Technologist, August 1996 edition, Reissued May 1998, may be obtained from the http://: www.csmls.org/pdf/ gencompf.pdf B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Science University of Alberta 2000-2001 Lecture 6 3 3 3 (9) 3 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 (6) 0 0 Seminar 0 0 1 0 Lab 0 3 3 3
YEAR 1 Course English Organic Chemistry Intro Chemistry Intro. To Cell Biology 3 electives from: Biology Genetics Microbiology or Zoology Into to Statistics Options from any Faculty
YEAR 2 Physiology Hematology Hemostasis Human Histology & Human Histotechnology Clinical Biochemistry 1 Clinical Biochemistry 2 Transfusion Science Transfusion Medicine Art Option YEAR 3 Intro. To Biochemistry 1 Intro to Biochemistry 2 Analysis & Communication of Biomedical Information Clinical Hematology Clinical Microbiology Clinical Biochemistry Histopathology Transfusion Science YEAR 4 Med. Lab. Electives (Advanced Hematology, Clinical Bio. Chem., Applied Toxicology, Clinical Immunology, Techniques in Molecular Biology, or Fungi in the Human Environment, or Mechanisms of Pathogenicity 1 or 2) Molecular Genetic Approaches to the study & Diagnosis of Disease Interdisciplinary Health Team Development Project Course Arts Option Approved Option LIST OF PROGRAMS (As of 2000)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 4 3 3 0 6 0 0 2
2 term clinical rotation 2 term clinical rotation 2 term clinical rotation 2 term clinical rotation 2 term clinical rotation (12)
3 4 6 3 3
(a) Medical Laboratory Technology - General certificate programs PROGRAMS OFFERED IN ENGLISH
College of the North Atlantic (Formerly, Cabot Institute of Applied Arts and Technology) P.O. Box 1693 St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5P7 New Brunswick Community College P.O. Box 2270 Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 3V1 Dawson College 3040 Sherbrooke West Montreal, Quebec H3Z 1A4 St. Clair College 2000 Talbot Road West Windsor, Ontario N9A 6S4 Lawrence College King Street & Portsmouth Ave Kingston, Ontario K7L 5A6 The Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences 222 St. Patrick Street Toronto, Ontario M5T 1V4
Red River Community College 2055 Notre Dame Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3H 0J9 (program suspended until Fall 2001) Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (SIAST) Kelsey Institute, Idylwyld & 33rd streets P.O. Box 1520, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7K 5R5(accepts students in alternate years) Northern Alberta Institute of Technology 11762 - 106 Street Edmonton, Alberta T5G 2R1 Southern Alberta Institute of Tech. 1301 - 16th Ave. Calgary Alberta T2M 0L4 (reopening Fall 2000) University of Alberta B-117 Clinical Sciences Building Edmonton Alberta T6E 2G3 British Columbia Institute of Technology Burnaby, British Columbia V5F 3H2 PROGRAMS OFFERED IN FRENCH
Cégep de Chicoutimi 534 Jacques-Cartier est Chicoutimi, Québec G7H 1Z6 Cégep de Rimouski 60 ouest rue Évêché Rimouski, Québec G5L 4H6 Cégep de St-Jean-sur-Richelieu 30, boul. du Séminaire St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec J3B 7B1 Cégep de Saint-Jerôme 455, rue Fournier Saint Jérôme, Québec J7Z 4V2 (b) Cytotechnology Programs
Cégep de Rosemont 6400 - 16ième Avenue Montréal, Québec H1X 2S9 Cégep de Ste-Foy 2410, Chemin Ste-Foy Québec, Québec G1V 1T3 Cégep de Sherbrooke 475 Parc Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5M7 Collège Régional Bourgchemin Campus de Saint-Hyacinthe 3000, rue Boullé, CP 9000 Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C7
PROGRAMS OFFERED IN ENGLISH College of the North Atlantic (formerly: Pasqua Hospital
Cabot Inst. of Applied Arts & Tech) P.O. Box 1693 St. John’s, Newfoundland, A1C 5P7 (program temporarily closed) The Victoria General Hospital 1278 Tower Road Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 The Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences 222 St. Patrick Street Toronto, Ontario M5V 1T4
4101 Dewdney Avenue Regina, Saskatchewan S4T 1A5 North Alberta Institute of Technology 11762-106 Street Edmonton, Alberta T5G 2R1 Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia 600 West 10th Avenue Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6
Health Sciences Centre/Red River Community College 700 William Avenue Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0Z3 PROGRAMS OFFERED IN FRENCH Cégep de Rosemont/Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal 6400, 16e Avenue Montréal, Québec H1X 2S9 (c) Clinical Genetics technology programs British Columbia Institute of Technology 3700 Willingdon Avenue Burnaby, British Columbia V5F 3H2 The Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences 222 St. Patrick Street Toronto, Ontario M5V 1T4 Cégep de Ste-Foy/Hôpital du Saint-Sacrement 2410 Chemin Ste-Foy Québec, Québec G1V 1T3
(d) Baccalaureate degree programs in medical laboratory science University of British Columbia 2211 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5 University of Alberta* B-117 Clinical Sciences Building Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 * = Full four-year program. Athabasca University (Tel: Dr. Lisa Carter, toll free No. America Wide 1-800-788-9041 Ext 6281 Fax: (580) 675 6145 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Medical Laboratory Science Office of the Dean of Science University of New Brunswick PO Box 4400 Fredericton NB E3B 5A3 Office of the Dean of Science University of Windsor 401 Sunset Ave. Windsor ON N9B 3P4 Fisheries & Marine Institute Memorial University of Newfoundland P.O. Box 4920 St. John’s NF A1C 5R3
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Program Accreditation Program accreditation is by the Conjoint Committee on Accreditation of Educational programs in Medical Laboratory Technology. This committee has representation from each of the professional associations of laboratory physicians, scientists and technologists, plus representatives from the Canadian Hospital Association and the Association of Canadian Community Colleges. The Secretariat is sponsored by the Canadian Medical Association. (b) Certification, Registration or Licensure Certification is by The Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science Registration or licensure exists in Quebec, New Brunswick, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Ontario. Other provinces are at different stages of developing legislation to regulate the practice of the profession. (c) Professional Association The national professional association is: The Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science (Société Canadienne des technologistes de laboratoire) P.O.Box. 2830, LCD 1 Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3N8 Tel: (905) 528-8642 Fax: (905) 528-4968 www.csmls.org 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY There is no direct reciprocity between Canada and any other country. Technologists who were trained outside Canada may apply to the Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science to have their training and work experience evaluated for equivalency. Those who meet the requirements must write the CSMLS examinations in order to obtain certification. For further information please contact the Canadian Society directly at www.csmls.org or email@example.com
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1986: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Baccalauréat
Brevet élémentaire du premier cycle (BEPC)
Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bangui
4 Technicien supérieur de santé (Higher Health Technician)
Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bangui
1 2* 3 Diplôme d’Etat de Technicien de Laboratoire
Brevet élémentaire du premier cycle (BEPC) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Baccalauréat
2 3 4 5 6 Primary School
Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bangui
Diplôme d’Etat de Technicien 4** Supérieur de Laboratoire Bio-Médical
* = Practical Training (“Stages”) at the various laboratories for a total period of 10 months. ** = Practical Training at the National Laboratory 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The need for training of medical laboratorians in the Central African Republic became evident early in this century as laboratory assistants started to be trained by doctors and scientific officers to perform increasingly more important work of scientific analysis; however, the training remained on-the-job, until recently. In 1981 the work of laboratory technicians was formalized at the Faculty of Health Sciences, the University of Bangui. Laboratory technicians (Techniciens de Laboratoire) were trained in a 3-year program at the Faculty, with admission after grade 10 or the BEPC. The program consisted of approximately 30 hours per week: 10 hours of theoretical course work and 20 hours of practice. Practical work experience (“stage”) was organized at hospital laboratories. On completion of the program, graduates were awarded a State Diploma (Diplôme d’Etat). In 1985, a fourth year of practical work in the National Laboratory was added, and the title changed to Technicien Supérieur de Laboratoire Bio-Médical. In the past, the University of Bangui also offered a 4-year course of study for Higher Health Technicians (Technicien Supérieur de Santé), which required completion of secondary school, or the baccalauréat examination (which was not
mandatory) for entry. Higher Health Technicians did not study medical laboratory science, and their program was quite different from that of Laboratory Technicians.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Prior to 1986: Technicien de Laboratoire (Laboratory Technician): 3-year program at the Faculty of Health Sciences (Faculté des Sciences de la Santé = FACSS), University of Bangui, leading to the Diplôme d’Etat (State Diploma). Admission was granted after grade 10. After 1986: Technicien Supérieur de Laboratoire Bio-Médical (Higher Laboratory Technician): This is a 4-year program at the FACSS, also leading to the State Diploma. The first 3 years consist of both theory and practice. The fourth year is devoted to practical work at the National Laboratory.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Diplôme d’Etat (Technicien Supérieur de Laboratoire Bio-Médical): Entry into the program requires the baccalauréat or equivalent.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education for Higher Laboratory Technicians in the Central African Republic is polyvalent and includes blood banking, clinical chemistry (including urinalysis), hematology, histopathology (histotechnology), microbiology and parasitology. Medical higher laboratory technicians work at regional or national hospital centers (Centres hospitaliers). At the regional levels, higher laboratory technicians are able to participate in the organization and control of the laboratory. Higher laboratory technicians should be capable of performing all standard laboratory tests, making decisions for the verification and communication of these results in the required format, and taking initiative for complementary research as needed. Their superiors are medical and scientific personnel, and higher health technicians (Techniciens supérieur de santé).
6. CURRICULUM Higher Laboratory Technician (Technicien Supérieur de Laboratoire Bio-Médical) (State Diploma) Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bangui* YEAR 1* Subject Mathematics French General Chemistry Organic Chemistry Metabolic Biochemistry Electrochemistry Inorganic Chemistry Biophysics Physics Hematology Bacteriology Parasitology Professional ethics Nursing Care Organization of Public Health
Theory Hours Practicals Hours 60 -30 -40 -40 20 60 -20 20 40 -20 -30 -60 40 60 40 60 40 15 -25 -20 -Total 580 140 * In 1985 modifications to the program of studies were made and Courses were broadened to include Cellular Biology and Anatomy & Physiology in year 1. YEAR 2 (1) Practicals (“Stages”): (Morning classes; at Laboratories & at Monday/ Friday Clinics) Laboratory Clinical Biochemistry Hematology & Hemostasis Serology Bacteriology Parasitology Blood Transfusion & Blood Banking Histo-cytology Total Hrs/Day 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 “Stage” Duration 2 months 11⁄2 months 1 month 11⁄2 months 11⁄2 months 11⁄2 months 1 month 10 months Hrs/ “Stage” 160 120 80 120 120 120 80 800 hours
(2) Theory Courses: (Afternoon classes) Subject Metabolic Biochemistry (continuing from Year 1) Mathematics (continuing from Year 1) Hematology and Immunology Histology and Cytology(laboratory techniques) Serology (lecture & practicals) Bacteriology (lecture & practicals) Parasitology (lecture & practicals) Virology (theory) Entomology (theory) Epidemiology French (teaching skills) YEAR 3 Devoted to researching an original paper presented at the end of the university year and required for obtaining the final Diploma of “Technicien Supérieur de Laboratoire Bio-Médical”. Each student chooses one of the subjects under Biological or Biochemical Analysis, proposed by the professors. This work starts usually at the beginning of the year and lasts until the end of the academic year, during the mornings. Between 1981 and 1984 the thesis defense took place at the end of the third year.. In 1985 two new courses were added: Semiology (Symptomatology) 30 hours, and Research Methodology, 20 hours. YEAR 4 (after 1985) In 1985 modifications to the program of studies were made and the fourth year of studies was put in place to assure emergency service at the Laboratories of Biological Analysis & Biochemistry and the Center for Blood Transfusion. Preparation of original work is now presented at the end of the fourth year 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Faculté de Sciences de la Santé (Faculty of Health Sciences) FACSS Université de Bangui B.P. 1383, Bangui 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation Accreditation of the program is by the Ministry of Higher Education and the Ministry of Population. Ministére de la Santé Publique et de la Population Boite Postale 883 Barqui - République Centrafricaine FAX: 236-61-17-09 Public Health and Hours 40 10 40 20 30 30 45 15 30 30 10 300 hours
(b) Certification Yes. Higher Laboratory Technicians receive a State Diploma. (c) Licensure None (d) Professional Association Association Nationale de Biotechnologistes 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Applicants with the same educational background are considered as technicians. Degrees and Diplomas that are recognized are BTS Laboratoire Médical, Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur, Diplôme de Biologiste Médicale, Diplôme d’Ingenieur en Biologie Médical. For further information please contact the Association directly at: Head of the Department of Formation of TSL/AA B.P. 1383 (FACSS) University of Bangui Bangui Tel: 61 43 44/ 61 12 25/ 61 30 70
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Secondary School Certificate (Licencia de Educación Media) 9 10 11 12 second. school ( enseñ anza media) 1 2 3 4 5 Degree in Medical Technology Titulo de Tecnólogo Médico/ Licentiate Certificate of Laboratory Assistant (Auxiliar de Laboratorio)
2 3 4 5 primary school
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The first program for medical laboratory science education in Chile began in 1949, when the School for Hospital Technique and Management was established. In 1951, the first group of twelve medical laboratory technicians (técnicos laborante) received their qualification after 3 years of study. In 1955, the name of the school was changed to Medical Technology (Tecnología Médica), and in 1960 the school was incorporated into the University of Chile’s Faculty of Medicine. Medical technology had been exclusively a women’s career, but in 1960 men were first admitted into the program. In 1969, the program was extended from 3 to 4 years in length, and in 1995 it was extended to 5 years. To enter a medical technology program, students must have completed 12 years of schooling (8 years primary, 4 years secondary) and must sit for the national university entrance examination, (Prueba de Aptitud Académica), which is required by all Chilean universities. A separate examination in the natural sciences also is required. Training for the current professional title of “Tecnólogo Médico”, or Medical Technologist, takes place at one of six universities (see: Section 7, List of Programs). The first 4 semesters of the 5-year program consist of general training, followed by 6 semesters of specialization in one of the following areas: (1) Clinical laboratory, which includes clinical chemistry microbiology, blood banking and hematology (2) Radiology and medical physics (3) Morphopathophysiology and cytodiagnosis (4) Ophthalmology (5) Otorhinolaryngology The school year in Chile runs from March to December and is divided into two semesters. In addition to the 5-year, university-level training, there is a 6-month training course for laboratory assistants (Auxiliar de laboratorio), which is a program under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. The only private institution offering this program is Caritas Chile. This course is open to students who have completed a least 2 years of secondary schooling (10 years total)
. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Programs are available at two levels: (1) Laboratory Assistant: 6 month training course at the secondary school level. (2) Medical Technologist: 5 years of training at the university level. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS (1) For the 6-month training course for laboratory assistant, the entry requirement is: completion of at least 2 years of secondary schooling or a total of ten years of basic education. (2) Students who wish to enter a university medical technology program must have: - completed secondary schooling (enseñanza media) and received the Licencia de Educación Media (Secondary school certificate); - passed the national entrance examination (Prueba de Aptitud Académica); and - passed the national test of specific knowledge (Prueba de Conocimientos Específicos) in biology and chemistry. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD In Chile, medical laboratory technology education is polyvalent and includes clinical chemistry (clinical bioanalysis), blood banking, hematology, bacteriology and parasitology. As late as 1975, the education of technologists in hematology (including blood banking) was a separate speciality. The clinical laboratory specialization, which previously included clinical bioanalysis and microbiology, now also includes hematology and blood banking. Medical technologists in Chile practice at public, private and semi-public institutions, with approximately 40% at public institutions. Professionals, other than medical technologists, working at clinical laboratories include physicians, pharmacists, biochemists and auxiliary laboratory staff. Medical technologists may practice only in the area of their specialization(s). Aside from the functions of that specialization, medical technologists execute and supervise routine work assisted by auxiliary staff, and may participate either as author or collaborator in research, leading to the development and establishment of new techniques. Opportunities for further education and professional development are offered by the professional association (Colegio de Tecnólogos Medicos de Chile A.G., Santiago). Other post-graduate training may be obtained in on-the-job training, in the universities or abroad. Professionals also have opportunity to continue education toward masters and doctoral degrees; graduates have entered masters level programs in the Faculties of Medicine at the University of Chile (Santiago City), the University of Concepción (Concepción City) and the University Austral (Valdivia City). 6. CURRICULUM Medical Laboratory Assistant(l986) The program for medical auxiliaries lasts 6 months with focus on radiology, radiotherapy and laboratory. The program requires a total of 350 hours of instruction as follows: Course Organization, function and security norms of the service Management of equipment and patient care in radiology and radiotherapy Management of equipment and patient care in clinical laboratory and hematology Management of equipment, patient care and simple analysis in blood banking TOTAL Academic work 17 hours 55 hours 51 hours 38 hours 161 hours Practical work ] ] ] ] ] ] ] 189 hours 189 hours
Medical Technologist The program which leads to the professional title of Tecnólogo Médico requires a total of 5 years or 10 semesters. Each semester is 19 weeks long, with 28-30 contact hours per week. The first 4 semesters consist of basic instruction in the following areas: (1) Anatomy (3) Mathematics (5) Organic Chemistry (7) Histology and Embryology (9) Physics (11) Research Methodology (13) Microbiology (15) Bioethics (17) Basic Pharmacology (2) Biology (4) General Chemistry (6) Biostatistics (8) Genetics (10) Physiology (12) Biochemistry (14) Parasitology (16) Pathophysiology (18) Immunology
The last 6 semesters consist of training in one of five technical specializations: 1. Clinical Laboratory, Blood Banking and Hematology 2. Radiography and Medical Physics 3. Morphopathophysiology and Cytodiagnosis 4. Ophthalmology 5. Otorhinolaryngology
Medical Technology Program Prepared and used by the Faculty of Medicne, University of Chile through 1994 (As provided by Colegio de Tecnólogos Medicos de Chile in 1986)
COMMON CYCLE: First semester Anatomy Biology Mathematics I General Chemistry General training English, Computation, Demography TOTAL Second semester Biostatistics Histology Mathematics II Organic Chemistry Fundamentals of Nursing Physics General training TOTAL Theory 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 1 13 3 2 3 2 1 16 16 1 4 3 3 3 3 2 18
Total hours Lab. per week 6 5 9 6 5 2 3 29 4 6 6 5 4 34
per semester 114 171 114 95 57 551 76 114 114 95 76 646
Third Semester Pathophysiology Methods of Research Biochemistry Microbiology I Parasitology I General training Psychology Professional Orientation TOTAL 4 2 4 1 1 2 19 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 16 6 4 6 4 3 3 35 114 76 114 76 57 57 665
SPECIALIZATION: CLINICAL LABORATORY (CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, MICROBIOLOGY, BLOOD BANKING AND HEMATOLOGY): Fourth Semester Theory 4 5 2 2 1 2 2 18 9 27 Total hours Lab. per week 9 4 3 20 36 per semester 171 76 57 380 684
Pathophysiology Public Health Management Applied Biochemistry TOTAL Fifth Semester Clinical Bioanalysis Hematology I TOTAL Sixth Semester Hematology II Microbiology II
4 2 6
14 16 30
18 18 36
342 342 684
3 TOTAL 6
14 3 31
Seventh Semester Parasitology II Blood Banking 2 6 8 5 24 29 7 30 37 133 570 703
Eighth Semester - Practical Internship Hematology Bacteriology Clinical Bioanalysis Blood Banking Parasitology Elective TOTAL Medical Technology Program COMMON CYCLE: First Semester Anatomy Biology Mathematics I General Chemistry Elective Course (1) Bioethics of Health & Science Second Semester Histology and Embryology Organic Chemistry Mathematics II Genetic Physics I Bioethics of Health & Science Elective Course (1) Third Semester Physiology Biochemistry Microbiology I Parasitology I Fundamentals of Nursing Physic II Biostatistics Elective Course (1) 4 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks 20 weeks 160 hours per semester 160 hours per semester 160 hours per semester 160 hours per semester 80 hours per semester 80 hours per semester 800 hours
Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, 1995 Hours per Semester 95 114 76 114 38 40 477 Hours per Semester 114 95 76 76 95 57 38 551 Hours per Semester 114 95 76 57 57 57 57 38 551
Total (1) = Poetry, Swimming or Human Sexuality. Fourth Semester Pathophysiology Basic Pharmacology Immunology Biochemistry II
Hours per Semester 133 57 57 342 589
SPECIALIZATION: CLINICAL LABORATORY (CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, MICROBIOLOGY, BLOOD BANKING AND HEMATOLOGY): Fifth Semster Clinical Bioanalysis Parasitology II Biosafety Seminar in Biotechnology Sixth Semester Microbiology II Epidemiology and Public Health Applied Informatics Hours per Semester 380 133 38 38 589 Hours per Semester 475 76 57 608
Seventh Semester Hematology Management Methods of Research Eighth Semester Immunohematology and Blood Banking Medical Photography Professional Ethics Ninth Semester Molecular Biology Seminar Licenciate Thesis Tenth Semester Hospital Management Practical Internship in: Hematology Bacteriology Clinical Bioanalysis Blood Banking Parasitology
Hours per Semester 532 57 57 646 Hours per Semester 532 57 38 627 Hours per Semester 57 532 589 Hours per Semester 57 760
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS The following Universities offer programs leading to the degree of “Tecnólogo Médico”: 1) Universidad de Tarapaca, Gen. Velasquez 1775, Casilla 7-D, Arica. 2) Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda Angamos 601, Casilla 170, Antofagasta. 3) Universidad de Talca, 2 Norte 685, Casilla 22, Talca. 4) Universidad de la Frontera, Avda Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco. 5) Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 67, Valdivia. 6) Universidad de Chile, Casilla 9183, Santiago. 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The universities are under government authority. (b) Licensure A professional degree is required for practice as a Medical Technologist in Chile, and a Certificate of Laboratory Assistant is required for auxiliary staff. An earlier title for the Technologist was Tecnico Laborante (laboratory technician). When the program became university based holders of the laboratory technician title were allowed to take a validation examination at the university and receive the title Medical Technologist. (c) Certification and Registration Although there are no requirements for certification or registration in any professional association, 90% of Medical Technologists are registered in the Colegio de Tecnólogos Médicos de Chile A.G. (d) Professional associations (1) Colegio de Tecnólogos Médicos de Chile A.G. J.M. de la Barra 480, Dpto 405, Clasificador 303 Santiago (2) Sociedad Chilena de Química Clínica. Santa Filomena 91 Recoleta, Santiago (3) Sociedad Chilena de Microbiología. (Unidad de Virología) Avenida Independencia 1027 Sector F-1, ler Piso Santiago (4) Sociedad Chilena de Parasitología. Casilla 50470 Correo 1, Santiago (5) Sociedad Chilena de Hematología.
Bernarda Morin 488 Santiago
(6) Sociedad Chilena de Immunología. Casilla 67 Correo 58 Santiago (7) Sociedad Chilena de Genética. Casilla 1664 Correo 9 Santiago (8) Sociedad Chilena de Citopathología. (Att. Sra. Judith Verni) Casilla 114-D Santiago (9) Sociedad Chilena de Radiología. C. Silva Vildósola 1292 of. 22 Santiago 9. RECIPROCITY There are no agreements of reciprocity in Chile, with regard to the qualifications of Medical Technologists. Those professionals trained abroad must submit syllabi and curriculum for the purpose of establishing equivalency to Chilean training. The applicant usually takes an examination in his/her specialty, after which he/she must complete 20 weeks of hospital residency. After this period the applicant is eligible to take an examination for the degree of Medical Technologist. For academic equivalencies in the U.S., see: Foreign Educational Credentials Required for Consideration of Admission to Universities and Colleges in the United States.Washington, D.C. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, 1994. For further information please contact the Association directly at: Coordinadora, Departamento de Especialidades Colegio de Tecnologos Medicos de Chile J.M. de la Barra 480 - Depto. 405 Clasificador 303 Santiago, Chile
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Junior mid. school 10 11 12 Senior mid. school
6 7 Master’s
Prov. Educ. Comm. Exam
State Educ. Comm. National Exam
Medical Colleges & Universities
3 **Medical Laboratory Technologist (Diploma) 2 2 3* 3 4 5* Bachelor of Medicine, Medical Laboratory Technology Laboratory Technician Diploma Technician Diploma
Technical Secondary Medical Schools
5* 1 2
Medical Laboratory Technologist 3 (Diploma)
Professional Training Course (Adult Ed.)
* = work experience or internship **= plus 3 years work experience
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The People’s Republic of China, with over one million schools and more than 200 million students, has the world’s largest school system. Only a tiny percentage of the population has access to higher education, and although national programs established nine years of compulsory education as its goal in 1985, completion of junior middle school is still far from universal. Although overall responsibility for schools in China rests with the State Education Commission (SEDC), most schools are under the direction of Provincial or other local bureaus of education. Education for medical laboratorians in China takes place at both the secondary and post-secondary levels. Training takes place in Technical Secondary Medical Schools and in Medical Colleges and Universities which offer Medical Laboratory Science programs. Students completing junior middle school (9 years of schooling) are eligible to enter programs (by Provincial exam) in Technical Secondary Medical Schools. There are 560 Technical Secondary Medical Schools in China, of which 64 offer laboratory technology programs. These programs, which are for junior middle school graduates, are 3 years in duration plus -year work experience.
Students completing senior middle school may enter 2-year programs at Technical Secondary Medical Schools, or may sit for the National Entrance Examinations to enter: 1) a 5 -year university/college program, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Medicine Medical Laboratory Science. (4-year Bachelor’s programs also exist, although they are being phased out), or 2) a 3-year Diploma program (a “special course”) at the university level leading to the title Medical Technologist. Technicians trained at the secondary level may advance to the level of Technologist either through work experience (5 years), plus a 3-year adult education “professional training” program, or through extended work experience (of 10 years) alone. Technologists trained at the Bachelor’s level may sit for examinations to enter the 3-year master’s program at medical colleges and universities and upon completion may sit for further examinations to enter doctoral programs, also normally 3 years in duration. Specialization occurs only at these post-graduate levels. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING 1. Laboratory Technician -(Diploma) a. 3 years of training in a technical secondary medical school, following junior middle school, total of 12 years of school, plus 1 year work experience. b. 2 years of training in a specialized medical school or hospital, following senior middle or a total of 14 years of school, plus 1 year work experience. 2. Medical Laboratory Technologist - (Diploma) a. 3 years of training in college or university (special course class), following senior middle school, or a total of 15 years of school, plus 3 years work experience. b. Technician level training followed by 5 years of work experience and 3-year Professional Training Course (adult education). c. Technician level training followed by 10 years of work experience. or a school,
Medical Laboratory Technologist (Bachelor of Medicine Medical Laboratory Technology) 5 years of training in college or university (Bachelor’s level) following senior middle total of 17 years of school, with year work experience. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1. Laboratory Technician -(Diploma) a. Admission to Technical Secondary Medical School for the Technician diploma requires a minimum of 9 years schooling (completion of junior middle school) and is contingent upon success in the Provincial Education Commission examination. b. or requires 12 years of senior secondary school school, or a
2. Medical Laboratory Technologist - (Diploma) a. Admission to the 3-year Medical Laboratory Technologist (Diploma) at a Medical College or University program requires graduation from a senior middle school, and Education Commission National Examination , or b. Admission to the 3-year Professional Training Course (adult education) requires the Diploma followed by 5 years of work experience c. Technician level training followed by 10 years of work experience. passing a State Technician level
2. Medical Laboratory Technologist (Bachelor of Medicine Medical Laboratory Technology) Admission to one of the colleges or universities that have a Medical Laboratory Science program for a Bachelor’s level Medical Laboratory Technologist degree, requires a minimum of 12 years of schooling (completion of senior middle school) followed by attainment of an acceptable score on the National Examination (held by the State Education Commission) at the university admission level. A slightly lower score on this examination will qualify the candidate for admission to colleges and universities which offer the 3-year Medical Laboratory Technologist diploma (3-year special course). 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Programs for medical laboratorians are polyvalent with specialization occurring only at the Masters and Doctoral levels. All medical laboratorians from both Technical Secondary Schools and from colleges and universities are assigned work upon completion of studies at various hospitals and research institutions. Graduates from the adult education “professional training course” generally return to the laboratory in which they gained their previous work experience. Graduates of Technical Secondary Schools generally work as Technicians or as Technologists’ assistants in all grades of hospitals or in public health or scientific research institutions. Their work involves primarily routine laboratory testing. Graduates of the 3-year “special course” for the Medical Laboratory Technologists diploma are generally assigned to work at smaller, county-level or industrial hospitals. Graduates of the 5-year programs in Medical Colleges and Universities are primarily assigned to the laboratories at large hospitals. A number are also assigned to conduct research or to work in laboratories of public health institutions. The specialized professional with a post-graduate degree may be assigned to teach at the university level, to conduct research or to direct a division or department in one of the large hospitals. The working hierarchy of medical laboratorians is as follows: 1) Technician - primarily routine work 2) Technologist - primarily routine work; may also be a Technician with more than 10 years of working experience. 3) Senior Technologist - A Technologist with more than five years of working experience or a technician with more than 15 years of work experience and may be in charge of a division. Chief Technologist - A Technologist with a Bachelor’s degree and more than 10 years of work experience and may be in charge of a division or head of a department.
6.CURRICULUM Sample Curriculum Shanghai Medical University 4-Year Bachelor of Medicine Medical Laboratory Technology- 1989 Year 1 1st Term 2nd Term
Political Economics Physical Training English Advanced Mathematics Medical Physics Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Biology Histology & Embryology Parasitology Moral Education
Hours Theory Practical
4 4 3 2 2
1 2 2 1
4 3 3 2 1 3
4 4 2
Philosophy Physical Training English Medical Ethics Physiology Biochemistry Analysis of Instruments Medical Statistics Microbiology & Immunology Pathoanatomy Clinical Testing Immunochemistry
1st Term Hours Theory Practical
2nd Term Hours Theory Practical
2 3 2
2 2 3 1 3
2 2 4 4 3 2 4 4 2
1st Term Hours Theory Practical
Introduction to Clinical Medicine English Clinical Immunology Clinical Biochemistry Clinical Microbiology Hematology 4 Exfoliative Cytology 2 Pathophysiology Histological Slice & Technology of Electron Microscope Theory & Technology of Computer Biophysics 2 Quality Control of Lab, Mgmt. Experimental Zoology
6 3 4 2 1 4
2nd Term Hours Theory Practical
3 2 4 2
2 4 4 2 2
Technology of Histology Clinical Routine Testing* Blood Banking* Clinical Biochemical Testing* Clinical Immunological Testing* Clinical Microbiological Testing* Clinical Hematological Testing* Graduate Projects (Thesis)** * Practical Training for the 18 week semester
** The final semester is devoted to Thesis work
1st Term Hours Theory Practical
2 * * * * * *
2nd Term Hours Theory Practical
Huaxi University of Medical Sciences (West China University of Medical Science) 5-Year Bachelor of Medicine- Medical Laboratory Technology-1991
Year 1 Subject English Advanced Mathematics Biology Computer Language Physical Education Organic Chemistry Physics Inorganic Chemistry Year 3 Physical Chemistry Biochemistry Pathology Physical Diagnostics Medical English Mathematics Statistics Pathophysiology Internal Medicine Surgery Gynecology & Obstetrics Pediatrics Latin D.M.E Year 5 Internships: Clinical Laboratory Technology Clinical Hemotology Clinical Chemistry Clinical Microbiology Clinical Immunology Thesis
Hrs 136 64 102 72 68 108 108 144
Year 2 Subect English Ethics Histology & Embryology Analytical Chemistry Human Physiology Physical Education Biochemistry Microbiology Parasitology Law Year 4 Nuclear Medicine Clinical Laboratory Technology Indexes of Bibliography Analysis of Enzymatic Methods Hemotology & Its Lab. Technology Clinical Microbiology Clinical Biochemistry Clinical Immunology Pharmaceutical Analysis In-Vivo
170 17 108 198 144 68 72 72 72 17 36 108 32 108 119 170 234 108 54
90 72 108 72 68 72 72 108 72 54 54 34 18 Wks 6 4 6 4 2 2
Grading: A= 85-100; B= 75-84; C= 60-74; D= under 60; Pass = 60-100; F = Below 60
7.LIST OF PROGRAMS Five-year Medical Colleges or Universities: Beijing Medical Sciences University 38, Xue Yan Lu Beijing 100083 Chongqing University of Medical Sciences Shapingba District Chongqing, Sichuan Province 630046 Fujian Medical College 88, Jiaotong Rd Fuzhou Fujian Province 350004 Henan University of Medical Sciences University Road Zhang Zhou Henan Province Huaxi University of Medical Sciences (West China University of Medical Science) 17, Section 3, Renmin Nanlu Chengdu City Sichuan Province, 610044 Jilin Medical College Jilin City Jilin Province Bengbu Medical College 108, Zhi Huai Road Bengbu ,Anhui Province, 233003 Dalian Medical College Xinghai St Dalian ,Liaoning Province 116023 Guiyang Medical College J.C. Road Guang Zhou Henan Province Hunan University of Medical Sciences 22, Beizhung Rd Changsha, Hunan Province 410078 Jiangxi Medical College B.Y. Road Nanchang Jiangxi Province Nanjing Railway Medical College Khmer People’s Liberation Army 3rd University of Military Medicine Chongqing Sichuan Province Shanghai Medical University 138 Y.X.Y Road, Shanghai, 200032 Tianjin Second Medical College 1, Guangdong Rd Hexi District Tianjin Province 300203 Zhenjiang Medical College Liberation Road Zhenjian, Jiangsu Province 212001
Qingdao Medical College 10, Huangtai Rd Shandong Province 266012 Shanghai Second Medical University 280 South Chongqing Road Shanghai Zhangjiakou Medical College W.M. Road Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province
Three-year (“Special Course” in Medical Laboratory Technology) Schools, Colleges & Universities: Air Force Medical College 30, West Diaoyuai Beijing Beijing Workers’ Medical College 12, Wanshoulu Xijie Beijing
Bengbu Medical College 108, Zho Hua Rd. Bengbu , Anhui Province 233003 Dalian Medical College Xinghai sanzhan Shahekop, Dalian, Liaoning Province 1160023 North China Medical School of Coal Miners Tangshan Hebai Province Guangzhou Medical College Road Laboratory Science Guangzhou, Guangdong Province Hunan Medical School 22, Beizhang Rd Changsha , Hunan Province 410078 Jiamusi Medical College Jiamusi Heilongjiang Province 154002 Medical School of Dalian University Area Command Medical School of Lanzhou Military Area Command 7, Donggang Xilu Lanzhou City, Gansu Province Nanjing Medical College 140, Hanzhong Rd. Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 No. 3 Army Medical College Gaotanyan Shapingba Chongqing City, Sichuan Province Qingdao Medical College Shandong Province Shijiazhuang Medical School Shijiazhuang Hebei Province Tianjin Second Medical College Tianjin Youjiang Nationalities Medical College Bose Guangxi
Chongqing University of Medical Sciences Chongqing, Sichuan Province 630046 Dalian Military Medical School
Guangxi College for Health Workers B.H. Road Nanhing Guangxi Hubei School for Pharmacology and Second (West) East Wind
Jiangsxi Medical College 161,, Bayi Ave. Nanching, Jiangxi Rovince 330006 Jiujiang Medical School Jiujiang Jiangxi Province 343 000 Medical School of Chengdu Military Dalian, Liaoning Province Nanjing Railway Medical College 87 Dingjiaoqiao Jiangsu Province ,210009
Navy Medical School Maqun Nanjing City, Jiansu Province Shanghai Second Medical University 280 South Chongqing Road Shanghai Sichuan College for Health Administrators Wenzhou Medical College Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province Zhanjian Medical College W.M. Road, Zhanjiang Guangdong Province
Zhenjian Medical College Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
Jixi Medical College of Coal Miners Xishan Diqu Jixi City, Heilongjiang Province
a) Accreditation The Ministry of Public Health gives general guidelines for Medical Laboratory Science Education in China. There is no accreditation system or general body which controls education for medical laboratorians. b) Certification, Licensure, Registration There is no formal certification, licensure or registration system for practicing Medical Technologists. Corresponding diplomas or degrees, along with work experience are the requirements for professional recognition at the various levels. c) Associations The Chinese Laboratory Medicine Society (CLMS), a society of the Chinese Medical Association, functions as the sole professional association for Medical Laboratory Technology in China. There also six societies under the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) which relate to Medical Laboratory Technologists. Society of CMA* Society of Laboratory Medicine Society of Microbiology and Immunology Society of Medical Virology Society of Infections and Parasitic Diseases Society of Hematology Society of Nuclear Medicine 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Currently, no foreign degrees or diplomas are recognized for employment in the field of Medical Laboratory Technology in China. However, foreign experts or foreign teachers may be recruited by the Chinese government (The Foreign Experts Bureau) or directly by Chinese institutions for the purpose of advanced teaching and upgrading skill levels of employees. For further information please contact the Association directly at: President, Society of Laboratory Medicine Chinese Medical Association, c/o National Centre for Clinical Laboratory Beijing Hospital Compound, Dong Dan, Beijing 100730 Established 9/79 12/78 10/85 12/80 5/80 12/80
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Bachillerato (Secondary School Leaving Certificate) 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 secondary school State
Examination Bacteriólogo y Laboratorista Clinico 5* (Bacteriologist and Clinical Laboratorian) 1 Public Health Service leading to Certification 7 Master’s Degree
University or College
Universities of Pontifica Javeriana, de los Andes and del Valle University Pontifica Javeriana
→ Ph.D. Degree
Note: * = Practical Training: Supervised at an In-Hospital laboratory or Private Clinic during last two semesters. Duration of Programs vary between 8 to 10 Semesters at different Colleges/Universities. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Primary school educational sequence consists of 5 years (grades 1 - 5), children generally beginning their schooling at the age of five. This is followed by 6 years at the secondary level (grades 6 - 11), leading to the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (Bachillerato). University or college level education comprises 4 to 5 years, and may be followed by graduate studies (2 years) for the Master’s Degree, which may be followed by a Ph.D. degree (at Universidad Javeriana). To become a Medical Laboratory Scientist a student must have received the Bachillerato and successfully completed a program of eight to ten semesters at the University/College level, leading to certification as a Bacteriologist and Clinical Laboratorian. The student may then continue at one of five graduate programs which take 2 years and lead to the Master’s degree in Microbiology with a specialization in Microbiology, Immunology, Medical Microbiology or Clinical Chemistry. The need to train clinical laboratory personnel became evident in the early decades of the twentieth century as new technology became available and newer methods of scientific analyses were introduced. Initially, training took place in laboratories run by physicians who needed clinical assistance, but as demand for trained personnel increased, the universities began to assume the training responsibilities. In the 1940s, the National University opened a 3-year program leading to the degree of Bacteriologist with a major in Bacteriology. (The name of the degree shows the influence of the French educational system,
where the name of a degree is taken from the principal work that the graduate was trained to perform). In 1942, Universidad Javeriana opened a Women’s School with a 4-year program to prepare professionals in bacteriology. During the next 10 years several similar women’s programs opened in various institutions of higher education throughout the country: two more in Bogotá, one in Manizales, two in Medellin, one in Bucaramanga, one in Barranquilla, and one in Cali. As of 1968, all of these schools opened admissions to men as well as women, and in 1970 at the joint meeting of all of the universities, it was decided to raise the degree standard. Currently, undergraduate studies have a duration of 8 - 10 semesters depending on the university. Requirements for the Bacteriologist degree as well as other for professional certification are now covered by national law. Professional certification of all who are involved in Clinical Laboratory work is subject to the control and regulation of the Central Government, Ministry of Public Health. All Bacteriologist degree programs include two semesters of practical work in a hospital or private clinic. In addition, the State requires a year of Public Health Service, the candidate being assigned to work in a small village or in an officially designated area of a city. On completion of this training and service, the Bacteriologist obtains the professional certification card from the Ministry of Health, qualifying him/her to perform Hematological, Biochemical, Fungal, Parasitological or Immunological tests, with or without supervision in a hospital or clinical laboratory. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Training for Medical Laboratory Science takes place at the undergraduate level (Bacteriologist), and at the Master’s degree level as follows: City Barranquilla Bogotá University or College Bacteriologist* Universidad Metropolitana 10 semesters** Universidad Pontificia Javeriana 10semesters Universidad de los Andes 10 semesters Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca 10 semesters Bucaramanga Universidad Industrial de Santander 8 semesters Cali Universidad del Valle 8 semesters Manizales Universidad Católica de Manizales 8 semesters Medellin Universidad Antioquia 8 semesters Colegio Mayor de Antioquia 8 semesters * All these programs were of 8 semesters duration in 1994. ** Introduced in 1993 with first intake in 1994. Master’s not offered 2 years 2 years not offered 2 years not offered not offered
Master’s degree programs, with emphasis on Microbiology, Immunology, Medical Microbiology or Clinical Chemistry, require 2 years of study and a thesis. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Entrance requirements for applicants to the Bacteriologist programs are the Bachillerato and the State Examination with a minimum grade of 300 (on a 0 - 400 scale). Some programs also require an interview and conduct their own examinations. Admission to the Master’s degree program requires the Bacteriologist title and a passing grade in the entrance examination.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD In Colombia Bacteriologist programs are polyvalent and cover Hematology, Medical Bacteriology, Immunology, Immunohematology and Clinical Chemistry. Several specializations in medical laboratory science are also offered in the above-mentioned areas. All those who complete their studies and fulfill a year of public service are regulated by a National Law that requires them to register their degree in a Public Health Office. A Bacteriologist may apply for a position in a private hospital or Public Health laboratory. Here, under constant supervision, they do laboratory work, take responsibility for it, and make reports to their supervisors. A specialized professional may become the director of a specialized section in a hospital, or may take a better-paying job in a private laboratory, or may work in a research center or as a supervisor of other Medical Laboratory Scientists. Those who achieve the Master’s degree can apply for a position as a supervisor in the same laboratories. 6. CURRICULUM
Bacteriologist Universidad Pontificia Javeriana - Before 1994 . 126 126 72 36 54 72 72 126 54 90 . 108 90 126 72 72 . 144 108 54 108 126
Semester 1 Subject Introduction to Natural Sciences General Biology : Theory and Practice Basic Chemistry : Theory and Practice Mathematics Spanish First Aid Semester 1 Bacterial Cytology : Theory & Practicals - Structural & Morphological Bacteriology Human Histology : Theory and Practice - Oraganic & Systemic Tissue Structures Human Anatomy Genetics : Theory and Practice Analytical Chemistry : Theory and Practice Statistics Biophysics : Theory and Practice Semester 3 Subject Bacterial Metabolism : Theory and Practice - Bacterial Mechanisms of Synthesis Human Physiology Biochemistry : Theory and Practice Statistics Research Methodology Semester 4 Subject Systematic Bacteriology : Theory and Practice - Diagnosis Instrumental Analysis : Theory and Practice - Photometric Analytical Methods Physiopathology Hematology : Theory and Practice Immunology : Theory and Practice
Semester 5 Subject Hematology and Immunohematology : Theory and Practice Mycology : Theory and Practice Virology : Theory and Practice Clinical Chemistry - Analytical Methods for Biological Quantification Humanities Semester 6
. 108 108 126 54
. Subject Hours Toxicology : Theory and Practice - Principal Laboratory Methods for diagnosis of acute intoxications 144 Food Microbiology : Theory and Practice 126 Biotechnology : Theory and Practice 90 Parasitology : Theory and Practice 108 Clinical Correlation : Theory and Practice - Integration of knowledge of the medical lab. 90 Semester 7 Subject Hospital Practice - Practical rotating work in a medical laboratory at a hospital General Administration - The Business role of a laboratory Semester 8 Subject Specialized research training Biological Control of Products : Vaccines and Biological Therapeutics Health Administration . 720 54 . 600 54 36
Subject Hours Graduation Work Epidemiology and Public Health 54 Humanities 54 Electives (choose from: Veterinary Bacteriology, Forensic Laboratory, Soil Microbiology, Computers, Teacher Training) 108 ea. Examinations are given in each subject. The minimum passing grade is 3.0 on a scale of 0 - 5.0, but, to remain in the program, students must maintain a cumulative average of 3.3/5.0. Bacteriologist Universidad Pontificia Javeriana - After 1994 (In the new program, introduced in 1994, please note changes in the final 3 semesters) Subject Semester 8 Clinical Practice Credits 18
Semester 9 Clinical Practice Semester 10 Graduation Work Monitoring Elective 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Director, Bacteriology Universidad Metropolitana Barranquilla, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Universidad Pontificia Javeriana Carrera 70 # 43-82 Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Universidad de los Andes Bogotá, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca Bogotá, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Universidad Industrial de Santander Bucaramanga, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Universidad del Valle Cali, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Universidad Católica de Manizales Manizales, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Universidad de Antioquia Medellin, Colombia Director, Bacteriology Colegio Mayor de Antioquia Medellin, Colombia 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
18 6 6
(a) Accreditation, (b) Certification, (c) Licensure and (d) Registration While National Law still recognizes a National College of Bacteriologists, this institution is
no longer operative. Currently, requirements for professional recognition are: completion of studiesin a recognized institution, a year of public service, and registration & accreditation of the degree by a Public Health Office. (e) Professional Associations Federacion de Bacteiologos Colombianos’(FEBAC) Calle 132A No 30-65, APTO 401, Bogotá. Federacion Colombiana de Especialistas en Laboratorio (FECODEL) Transversal 5 No 49-00, Entrepiso 1- Hospital Militar, Bogotá. Asociacion de Bacteriologos Sindicalizados (ASBAS) Calle 52A No 27A-27, Apto 102, Bogotá. Asociacion de Bacteriologos Javerianos Calle 57 No 7-11, Oficina 504, Bogotá. 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Equivalence for foreign-trained medical laboratory technologists is evaluated by the Colombian Institution for the Development of Higher Education [Instituto Colombiano Para la Education Superior (ICFES)], which is affiliated with the Ministry of Education regarding the recognition of degrees and diplomas obtained abroad. This Institute collects the information about the applicant, such as type of degree, grades and certification. This information is then sent to a qualifying school where it is determined if the applicant needs further training/courses in order to secure equivalence. The degrees recognized are principally those from Latin American countries, the United States, Mexico, and Costa Rica at the first level. ICFES also handles the accreditation for applicants with a specialization. For further information please contact the Association directly at: Director, Bacteriology Universidad Pontificia Javeriana Carrera 70 # 43-82 Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia Tel: (571) 2-850503 Fax: (571) 2-850503
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE
1 2 3 primary
7 9 secondary
4* Licenciado en
Bioanálisis (Licentiate in Biological Analysis)
* Followed by 6 months internship in a laboratory
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Until 1960 clinical analysis in the country was provided by a small nucleus of professionals trained abroad or by persons without academic training who had practical experience. In 1960 the School of Clinical Analysis was inaugurated with a two-year program at the secondary school level, leading to the Técnico en Análisis Clínico. Three years later, in 1963, one year was added to the basic program. On March 15, 1967 the School of Medical Technology was substituted for the former and the length of the program increased to four years of study, leading to the Tecnólogo Médico (Medical Technologist). Ten years later, on July 7, 1977, having trained the majority of Medical Technologists working in the country, the professors and students of the School of Medical Technology with the advice of the Office of Education and Planning -ODEPLAN—undertook an evaluation of the training process and arrived at some conclusions: 1) That an implementation of a program for training Medical Technologists at the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo would be a positive development by providing a better possibility for the professionalization of the field and better health practice in all its dimensions; 2) That the philosophy, objectives, the program and the teaching methodology and evaluation being used at that time provided an adequate background in the field; 3) That the program in effect in 1977 incorporated some aspects of models from countries more economically developed and with a different social dynamics than that of the Dominican Republic; 4) That the individualistic, formal, linear and marginal model of training, as it was interpreted in the 1977 curriculum, did not provide an appropriate concept for the training needed in the Dominican Republic at the time and thus a program more suitable to the country should be developed. Subsequently the curricula underwent a number of changes. As of 1997, the curriculum in effect is PLAN 12, which is described in Section 6. The current qualification is a first degree-- that of Licentiate in Biological Analysis (Licenciado en Bioanálisis) which is a four-year program available at five universities in the Dominican Republic (see list of programs). 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Medical Technologist training at the moment is offered at the bachelor’s level and leads to the degree of Licenciate in Biological Analysis (Licenciado en Bioanálisis) following four years of study. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Admission to study for the qualification Licentiate in Biological Analysis is based on the 12-year elementary/secondary school sequence and successful completion of the examinations for the secondary school diploma—the title Bachiller. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The program of study for the Licentiate in Biological Analysis is polyvalent and includes Hematology, Immunology,
Serology, Clinical Chemistry, Urinanalysis, Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology, Parasitology, Mycology, Histology, Histocytology, among others. Graduates have excellent employment opportunities for work in areas, such as commercial sales (equipment and reagents); industry, private laboratories, health regional centers, clinics, and in hospitals, all with opportunity for promotion. 6. CURRICULUM The curriculum for the degree Licentiate in Biological Analysis consists of eight semesters of which the first two are the Basic Cycle common to all areas of health study: Biological Analysis, Nursing, Dentistry, Medicine and Pharmacy, followed by a 6 month supervised internship and preparation of a thesis. Licenciado en Bioanálisis (1994) Autonomous University of Santo Domingo Sample Curriculum Subject Theory Hours Practical Hours Credits Year 1
Basic biology Institutional guidance Introduction to philosophy Basic physics Introduction to social sciences Basic Spanish language I/II Basic mathematics Basic chemistry Morphological function Physical education Basics of Dominican history Health and human behavior Organic chemistry Health and society I Introduction to research methods in sciences TOTAL for year Subjects Year 2 Introduction to biological analysis Bioanalysis and technology Social bioanalysis Biochemical processes of organism I/II Histology Biostatistics Inorganic qualitative chemistry Health and society Biological fluids Genetics Pathophysiology Elementary English I General parasitology Quantitative analysis TOTAL Year 2
2 1 3 6 4 0 3 2 2 2
3 2 2 4
2 0 3 2 0 3 0 3 3 3
0 0 3 2
3 1 4 6 4 1 3 3 3 3
3 2 3 5
38 Theory hours 2 2 2 2 2
3 Credits 3 7 3 3 3 3
Practical hours 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 0 2 2 4 2 7 3 2 2 0 3 2 3 3 4
4 2 3 34
0 4 3 34
4 4 4 49
Year 3 Clinical laboratory administration Basic hematology Immunology Urinanalysis Deontology (Ethics) in bioanalysis General microbiology General and special parasitology Hematology I Clinical immunology Practice I Immunohematology Clinical chemistry I Special microbiology TOTAL Year 3
3 2 2
3 3 2 3 2 28
2 2 2 0
3 3 3
3 3 3 6 4 41
0 4 4 5
4 3 3
4 4 3 5 4 44
2 4 4 2
Year 4 Semester VII Methods of health research 2 Practice II 0 Special practice (Clinical chemistry and hematology) Hematology II Clinical chemistry II 3 Environmental and occupational toxicology Introduction to computers Mycology 2 TOTAL 16 Year 4-Semester VIII Supervised professional practice Degree thesis or equivalent course TOTAL Semester VIII TOTAL Credits: 184
3 2 4
0 5 0 6 2 27
6 3 0
2 2 5 5 3 26
5 3 4
LIST OF PROGRAMS
Department of Biological Analysis Faculty of Health Science Autonomous University of Santo Domingo Apartado Postal No. 1355 Ciudad Universitario Santo Domingo Tel. (809) 685 7597 FAX (809) 686-5768/687-0468 e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Universidad Central del Este (UCE) Avenida Circunvalación San Pedro de Macoris Tel. (809) 529-3562 FAX (809) 687-5036
Universidad Colegio Dominicana de Estudios Profesionales (CEDEP) Prol. Independencia, Km. 9 1⁄2 Carretera Sanchez Santo Domingo Tel. (809) 532-8385 FAX (809) 535-6424 Universidad Tecnologica del Cibao (UTECI) Aut. Duarte, Km 1 1⁄2 Avenida Universitaria Apartado Postal 401 La Vega Tel. (809) 573-3863 Instituto Tecnologico del Cibao Oriental (ITECO) Cotui Tel. (809) 585-2291 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a. Accreditation All universities offering the Licenciado qualification are accredited by the government through the National Council for Higher Education (Consejo Nacional para la Educacion Superior CONES). b. Certification Certificates are granted by State authority after students have passed the degree examinations. c. Licensing Professional licensing to practice in the area of medical technology is provided through the Secretary of State for Public Health and Social Assistance (SESPAS: Secretaria de Estado de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social ). d. Professional Association: Asociacion Domininicana de Profesionalesdel Laboratario Clinico c/Mercedes 371 Apto de Carreos 22235, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Foreign trained Medical Technologists seeking permission to work in the Dominican Republic must have their documents evaluated by the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UNAM) as follows: a. The Faculty of Medical Sciences of the University of Santo Domingo has a Commission for Revalidation and Convalidation which processes applications for licenses to work in the Dominican Republic. Applicants complete the appropriate forms and submit these together with residency information, appropriate original documents for the qualifications achieved and courses completed in the field. b. For additional reciprocity information, see reciprocity section for each individual county entry in the directory.
For further information please contact the Association directly at: Directora Nacional Departamento de Laboratorios y Bancos de Sangre Secretaria de Estado de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social (Secretary of State for Public Health and Social Assistance Santo Domingo or Directora Departamento de Bioanálisis Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo Ciudad Universitaria, Santo Domingo República Dominicana Tel: 685-7597 Fax: (809) 686-5768/687-0468 e-mail email@example.com
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE High School Diploma 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 secondary school College 1 2 Medical Technologist Degree 3 (Tecnóloge Médico/Técnico Laboratorio Clínico) 3 4 Bachelor’s Degree (Biologo) 5 6 Professional Degree (Medical/Engineering)
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Until 1995 the basic scheme of education in Ecuador was: Pre-school - 2 years starting at age four (optional); Primary school - 6 years, starting at age six, and Secondary school - 6 years, starting at age twelve. Since 1995 there has been an effort to change the pattern for basic schooling. The proposal is: Basic education - 10 years, starting at age 4; Intermediate - 4 years, starting at age 14. College or university studies vary in length, depending on the career that is chosen. For example, intermediate careers take 3 years at the college or post-secondary level. Careers requiring a Bachelor’s degree take 4 years. Professional careers such as Engineering or Medicine demand 5 to 6 years education after secondary school. Medical Technology programs are only at the intermediate level and take 3 years, following successful completion of 12 years of schooling. These are offered only at accredited universities such as the University of Pontificiá Universidad Católica del Ecuador (PUCE), which offers Medical Technology in Clinical and Histopathological Laboratory. As of 1995 there were no bachelor degree programs in the field of Medical Laboratory Science, although there is interest in introducing such programs. However, universities do offer a bachelor’s degree in Microbiology. Those who wish to earn a master’s or doctorate must go abroad. The first Medical Technology studies at the college level in Ecuador began in 1968 when Pontificiá Universidad Católica del Ecuador introduced a 2-year program, leading to certification in this area. In 1973 the program expanded to 3 years. Around this time other universities in the country such as in Guayaquil, Manabi, and Quito also began offering Medical Technology programs. Prior to obtaining the Medical Laboratory Technologist qualification, students must undertake practical training in private or hospital laboratories for at least 3 semesters (part-time during the academic year) and during the vacation period between semesters. On obtaining a Medical Technologist Degree, the student qualifies as General Technologist capable of: specimen collection (blood drawing) and performing routine analyses in Hematology, Urinalysis, Parasitology, Immunology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Cytotechnology and/or Quality Control.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING The 3-year Medical Technology program includes 6 academic semesters and practical training. The University of Pontificiá Universidad Católica del Ecuador (PUCE) also offers a course in Microbiology as it applies to food, agriculture and veterinary science. The course is open to Medical Technologists who wish to get a bachelor’s degree and specialization 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS The basic requirement for admission to the Medical Technology programs is a high school diploma. At PUCE a psychological test, which is administered by the university to determine the candidate’s interests and abilities, is also required. Other universities have their own entrance requirements. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical laboratory science training in Ecuador is polyvalent. This training includes Hematology, Urinalysis, Histological Techniques, Cytology, Microbiology (Bacteriology, Parasitology, Mycology, Virology), Clinical Chemistry, Serology and Immunology. Medical Laboratory Technologists work as part of a health team at different laboratories, in either private or state hospitals, or in research or pharmaceutical centers, and their levels of opportunity vary depending on the place of work: (1) General Technologist - After graduation, Medical Technologists qualify to be general technologists; (2) Supervisor - To qualify for this position a candidate must have several years of practice following the Medical Technologist degree, and/or continuing education or specialization courses. Some places require candidates to pass specific tests; and (3) Director - The Laboratory Director must be a medical doctor with a specialization in the area. 6. CURRICULUM In 1995, the program at PUCE consisted of humanistic or general subjects, basic subjects and specialization subjects such as Clinical Chemistry, Clinical Hematology, Microbiology, Virology, Urinalysis, Cytotechnology, Mycology, and Computerized Techniques. The academic semester consists of 17 weeks. One credit hour = 1 hour per week. Usually, each subject includes 2 or 3 credit hours theory, plus 2 hours per week in the practical laboratory. Students generally earn 30 credits per semester and obtain part-time practice at different laboratories. Students must earn a numeric grade of 35/50 in specialization subjects and 30/50 in other subjects. To obtain a degree, a student must complete the curriculum and successfully pass both written and practical examinations in specialized subjects. The exam value is 10. To pass, a student must get a 6/10 grade.
3 year - Medical Technology Degree Pontificiá Universidad Católica del Ecuador School of Medical Technology Credit Theory 3 1 3 3 4 1 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 2 Credit Theory 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 Theory 3 1 1 2 Credit Laboratory -1 1 -1 1 1 --1 1 1 1 1 --1 1 1 1 1 --1 1 1 1 1 --Credit Laboratory 1 1 -1 1 ---Laboratory 1 1 ---
First Semester Subject Basic Chemistry Instrumentation Physics General Biology Mathematics Anatomy and Physiology Basic Laboratory Techniques Hematology I Methods of Scientific Techniques Second Semester Statistics General Chemistry Urinalysis Hematology II Histology Histologic Techniques First Aid Christianity I Third Semester Analytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry Parasitology Basic Pathology Cytotechnology I Introduction to Computers Philosophy of Science Fourth Semester Biochemistry Clinical Chemistry I Microbiology Serology and Immunology Cytotechnology II General Psychology Hospital Practicum I Fifth Semester Subject Medical Bacteriology I Medical Mycology Virology Blood Banking Clinical Chemistry II Quality Control Christianity II Hospital Practicum II Subject Sixth Semester Medical Bacteriology II Clinical Chemistry III Clinical Case Studies - Seminar Nuclear Medicine Hospital Practicum III TOTAL CREDIT HOURS = 116 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Pontificiá Universidad Católica del Ecuador (PUCE) Av. 12 de Octobre, entre Av. Patria y Veintimilla Apartado 2184 Quito, Ecuador Universidad Central del Ecuador Av. da America y A. Perez Guerro Apartado 3291 Quito, Ecuador
Tel: 593-2-529-240/ 250/ 260 Fax: 593-2-567-117
Universidad de Guayaquil Casilla 471 Guayquil, Ecuador Universidad Tecnica de Manabí Casilla 82, Portoviejo Manabi, Ecuador 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Ecuador has no central body that controls Medical Technology education and training, but the institutions that offer these programs must have been approved by Conscjo Nacional de Universidades y Escuelas Politecnicas, CONUEP (= National Council of Universities and Polytechnical Schools). However, prior to getting a position, a Medical Technologist must become a member of the National Medical Technologists Federation and College of Medical Technologists: The College of Medical Technologists Av. America #1034 y Bolivia Sequndo pisa Quito, Ecuador National Medical Technologists Federation Av. America #1034 y Bolivia Sequndo pisa Quito, Ecuador 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Professionals trained abroad must comply with certain legal requirements to have their degree recognized by the country. They must present the curriculum and programs that they have taken in order for equivalency to be established. PUCE recognizes degrees of students who have achieved a grade of at least 80 percent in university programs that are similar to those offered at PUCE. For further information please contact the Association directly at: Director School of Medical Technology Pontificiá Universidad Católica del Ecuador Av. 12 de Octobre, entre Av. Patria y Veintimilla Apartado 2184 Quito, Ecuador Tel: 593-2-529-240/ 250/ 260 Fax: 593-2-567-117
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE* 1
School Leaving Certificate 2 Diploma Medical Laboratory Technician 1 2 3 4 B.Sc. in Med. Lab Technology**
Because information was not available as we went to press the outline does not take into account the recently introduced regional 1-year Junior Laboratory Technician program. ** Jimma Institute graduated the first class of 13 B.Sc. students in Medical Laboratory Technology in 1998
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Education in Ethiopia begins when a child is six to eight years of age. Primary education extends from Grade 1 through 6, followed by junior secondary school (Grades 7 and 8) and senior secondary school (Grades 9 through 12). Education in Medical Laboratory Science can be traced as far back as 1946 when the National Institute of Health introduced a program designed to provide some formal training for laboratorians, although intake standards were admittedly irregular. Between 1947 and 1989, the program trained 658 junior technicians and 138 senior technicians. In 1956 Gondar College of Medical Science established its own training program and in 1964 Minilik II Hospital Medical Laboratory Technician School was begun. These programs admitted students after 10 years of primary/ secondary schooling and lasted 2 years. In 1977, the entrance requirement for the programs was changed from Grade 10 to Grade 12. Today training for Medical Technicians begins after completion of Grade 12, lasts two years and leads to the Diploma Medical Laboratory Technician. In 1998 a 4-year B.Sc. program in Medical Laboratory Science at Jimma Institute of Health Sciences graduated its first group of 13 students. Another very recent development is a 1-year Junior Laboratory Technician program which awards a certificate upon graduation and is available in several regions. Unlike the Diploma and B.Sc. programs, which come under the central government, the Junior Laboratory Technician program is under the responsibility and authority of regional governments. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING 1) Two-year Diploma Medical Laboratory Technician Training as a Medical Laboratory Technician requires two years post-secondary study. On successful completion of the program the student is awarded a Diploma as a Medical Laboratory Technician and is eligible to work in hospitals, health centers, and clinics and in other research institutions. 2). Four-year B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Technology A 4-year B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Technology is provided at Jimma Institute of Health Science. 3) One-year Junior Laboratory Technician Certificate As of 1998 a 1-year Junior Laboratory Technician Certificate program under the authority of individual regional governments is available. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS The entrance requirement for the 2-year Medical Laboratory Technician and 4-year B.Sc. programs is the School Leaving Certificate, following 12 years of elementary/secondary education. Entrance requirements for the new 1-year Junior Laboratory Technician program are not yet available.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD 1) Two-year Diploma Medical Laboratory Technician The training program is polyvalent and covers all laboratory disciplines including Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Blood Banking, Immunology etc. Medical Laboratorians work in hospitals, health centers, and clinics as well as other research institutions. 2) Four-year B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Technology The 4-year B.Sc. program in Medical Laboratory Technology will provide staff for more complex methods and analyses performed at the regional health laboratories and the Central Laboratory. 3) One-year Junior Laboratory Technician Certificate Information on this program is not yet available. 6. CURRICULUM The educational strategy is to give emphasis to the practical aspects of laboratory skills. Hospitals, health centers, and other health institutions with laboratories are used for practical experience. Field practice under supervision is used when feasible. 2-year Medical Laboratory Technician Program Issued by the Ministry of Health 1995 Lect. Hrs Per Wk.
3 2 3 2 2 3 15 3 2 2 2 2 2 13 1 2 2 5 3 2 3 3 1 12 2
Year 1 Sem. I Subject
English Sociology G. Chemistry G. Biology Intro. to Med. Lab. Anatomy & Physiology Total Year 1 Sem. II Parasitology Bacteriology I Hematology I Biostatistics Health Educ. Epidemiology Total Year 1 Summer Session: Lab. Equip. Main. Urinalysis Immunology & Serology Total Year II Sem. I Parasitology II Bacteriology II Hematology II C. Chemistry Histological & Cytological Tech. Total Year II Sem. II Blood Banking
Lab. Hrs. per Wk*.
3 3 3 9 3 3 3 9 3 3 6 3 3 3 3 2 14 3
3 2 4 3 3 3 18 4 3 3 2 2 2 16 1 3 3 7 4 3 4 4 1 16 3
Lab. Mngmt. & Qual. 2 Control & Maint. C. Chemistry II 3 Lab. Practicum/ Professional Course Total 7 * 3 lab hours = 1 credit hour
3 12 18
2 4 4 13
Year 1 Sem. I Subject
4-year BSc. 1998 Jimma Institute of Health Sciences
3 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 2
English I Mathematics I Gen. Chemistry Gen. Biology Physics First Aid Physical Education Ethiopian History Total Year 1 Sem. II English II Mathematics II Ethiopian Geography Sociology Intro. To Psychology. Intro. To Med. Laboratory. Intro. To Organic Chem. Health Education Total
3 3 3 3 3 -
3 3 4 3 3 1 3 20 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 20
Year II Sem. I Anatomy Parasitology I Urinalysis Biochemistry Medical Entomology English III Total Year II Sem. II Parasitology II Hematology I Bacteriology I Biostatistics Immunology Physiology Total Year III Sem. I Hematology II Bacteriology II Cl. Chemistry I Blood Banking Serology
2 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 4 4 3 2 3 19 4 4 4 3 3 2 20 4 4 4 2
Intro. To Zoonotic Diseases Total Year III Sem. II Cl. Chemistry II Epidemiology Malacology Mycology Virology Ricketsiology Total Year IV Sem. I Cl. Chemistry III Quality Control Lab. Equipment Histological Techniques Laboratory Management Principles of Teaching Integrated Lab. Practice Total Year IV Sem. II Computer Literacy Research Methodology Clinical Practicum Graduation Paper Total
1 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 9 -
19 4 3 2 3 3 3 18 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 17 1 1 10 3 15
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Dilla Teachers Education and Health Science College P.O. Box 419 Dilla, Ethiopia Tel: 31-01-92 National Research Institute of Health and Nutrition School of Medical Laboratory Technology P.O.Box 1242 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Tel 75-34-70 (71-72-73-74) Jimma Institute of Health Science P.O. Box 378 Jimma, Ethiopia Tel: 07 11-14-57 Fax: 07 11 14 50 Gondar College of Health Science P.O. Box 196 Gondar, Ethiopia Tel: 08 11-01-74 Alemaya University of Agriculture P.O. Box 138 Dire Dawa, Harar, Ethiopia
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a. Licensing and Registration
Medical Laboratorians are registered and licensed by: The Ministry of Health Addis Ababa, Ethiopia b. Professional Association Ethiopian Medical Laboratory Technician Association P,O.Box 5657 Addis Ababa 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY All diplomas and degrees obtained from foreign institutions must be evaluated for equivalency by the Ministry of Education and considered for registration by the Ministry of Health before an applicant can practice.
For further information please contact the Association directly at: Dilla College of Teacher Education and Health Sciences P.O. Box 419 Dilla, Ethiopia or Department of Laboratory Technology Dilla College of Teacher Education and Health Sciences P.O. Box 407 Dilla, Ethiopia
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 sec. school 1 Fiji School of Medicine 1 2 1 Ψ
3 Diploma in Medical Technology ** Certificate in Medical technology*
2 Certificate in Medical Laboratory Science/ X-ray Technician ***
Note: Ψ Since 1989 13 years of education have been required for entry into the Diploma program
* 1960-1988 ** Introduced in 1988 *** Discontinued in 1992 (All programs combine formal education and on-the-job training)
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The basic educational pattern in Fiji follows the British system. Primary education begins when a student is 6 years of age and takes 8 years. It is followed by 5 years at the secondary level for a total of 13 years. Until 1989 the minimum requirement for admission to Medical Technology/Laboratory Science programs was a pass at the end of the 4th year of secondary school (12 years of education) with an emphasis on Chemistry and Biology. Since 1989 13 years 0f study are needed. Until 1988 students with a 3-year pass (11 years education) could enter a Certificate program There are no Bachelor’s, Master’s or Ph.D. programs offered. Medical Laboratory Training began in Fiji in 1946 with on-the-job training for laboratory assistants. In time a Laboratory Technician Certificate was awarded these assistants but there were no formal lectures or courses until 1960, when a 3-year Certificate program in Medical Technology was introduced. Over the years these lectures became increasingly formal and in 1988 the program was upgraded to a Diploma level including additional hours of lectures and formal training. A program leading to the Certificate in Medical Laboratory/ X-ray Technician trained health workers for the outlying islands, but was also discontinued and replaced by the Diploma program All the educational programs have been and are at the Fiji School of Medicine. On successful completion of the Diploma program a student qualifies as Technical Officer Class II and may go to New Zealand or Australia for further training. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There is one program currently available in Medical Technology: a 3-year Diploma program. There are no Bachelor’s, Master’s or Ph.D. programs offered.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1992 1) Certificate in Medical Laboratory/X-Ray Technician program Students with a 3rd year secondary school pass (11th grade) could take the 2-year program leading to a Certificate in Medical Laboratory/ X-ray Technician. This program was discontinued in 1992. All those holding this Certificate could be admitted into the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology program or into the Diploma in X-Ray Technology (according to their choice). 2) Certificate in Medical Technology Students with a 3rd year secondary school pass could take the 3-year program leading to a Certificate in Medical Technology. This program was phased out in 1988 when it was replaced by the Diploma program Since 1992 Diploma in Medical Technology program Until 1989 the minimum entrance requirement to enter a Medical Laboratory Diploma program was 4 years of secondary education(12th grade) with passes in science oriented courses. Since 1989 5 years of secondary education (13th grade) have been required. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education in Medical Laboratory Science is polyvalent and includes training in Clinical Chemistry, Immunohematology, Hematology, Microbiology and Histology/Cytology. There are 4 levels of Medical Laboratory personnel: (1) Technical Officer Class II. (2) Technical Officer Class I. (3) Technical Officer Higher Grade. (4) Laboratory Superintendent. The minimum requirement for any position in the field is a Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology from a recognized institution at which point the student qualifies as Technical Officer Class II. Those holding the discontinued Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology were allowed to do a research project of up to 60 hours and, following its successful presentation and satisfaction of the Fiji School of Medicine Examination Board, were awarded a Diploma in Medical Technology from the Fiji School of Medicine.
6. CURRICULUM Fiji School of Medicine Certificate Program (discontinued in 1988) compared to Diploma Programs introduced in 1988 Lecture Hours Subjects Year 1 Certificate
28 28 28 28 28 140 40 24 20 24 20 128 hrs 20 20 20 20 20 100 hrs
42 42 42 28 28 56 28 226 64 32 32 32 24 184 hrs 32 32 32 32 20 148 hrs
6 hrs 6 hrs 12 hrs 6 4 4 14 hrs 4 4 4
Practical Teaching Certificate
4 4 10 6 4 28 wks 8 6 6 6 6 32 wks 8 6 6 6 6 32 wks
6 6 9 5 3 28 wks 9 6 6 6 6 33 wks 9 6 6
Prac. CLS Diploma
24 28 20 56 20 148 56 24 20 12 12 124 hrs 56 40 20
6 10 6 12 12 hrs 33 wks 138 hrs + 5 wks Hospital Attachment TOTAL 368 hrs 598 hrs 38 hrs 92 wks 94 wks 410 hrs -All Diploma graduates are required to do a research project in their own time that is equal to 60 hrs altogether. -Students spend an average of 15 hrs per week in the laboratory in the Diploma program and 20 hrs per wk in the Certificate program . -Diploma students are “on call” once during the semester.
Anatomy Physiology Biochem. Lab.Tech. Hematology Microbio. ImmunoHematology Histo/Cyto TOTAL Year 2 Microbio. Hematology ImmunoHem. Biochem. Histo/Cyto. TOTAL Year 3 Microbio. Hematology ImmunoHem. Biochem. Histo/Cyto TOTAL
Grading It is mandatory that the student pass all subjects each year to go on to the next year. Passing grades are A+ through C. Failure is a D or E.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Fiji School of Medicine Private Mail Bag Suva, Fiji 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION There are no professional societies or associations to control, evaluate or license members of the profession. The Professional Association is: Fiji Medical Laboratory Technologist Association Fiji School of Medicine Private Mail Bag Suva, Fiji Islands 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY
Most foreign degrees are recognized by the Ministry of Health. Foreign students start at the same level as local qualified technologists unless they have some specialized training. For further information please contact the Association directly at: Fiji School of Medicine Private Mail Bag Suva, Fiji Islands Fax- 679 303469; 679 665423 (Lautoka Hosp.)
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 Primary 5 6 7 8 9 Jr. Sec. 10 Sec. 11 12 Sr. 3 2 Senior Secondary Certificate (from 1993)
Medical Lab. School, Korle-Bu Hospital University of Ghana *Admission requires 3 years work experience
Med. Lab Gen’l Competency Cert. Med. Lab. Tech. Diploma*
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND
Primary or basic education starts in Ghana when a child is 5 or 6. Until 1987, the system was largely based on the British model (6 years primary, 5 secondary, leading to the “O” level, followed by 2 years leading to the “A” level), but since 1987 a new structure has been adopted which is much closer to the United States’ model. Medical Laboratory Technology (Science) education takes place at the School of Medical Laboratory Technology, Korle-Bu Hospital and requires a secondary school education for admission. The roots of the MLT programs can be traced as far back as 1908 when a small laboratory was established in a classroom in Jamestown to help fight plague. Relocated to the KorleBu Hospital compound, the laboratory became the Medical Research Institute in the 1920s and in the ensuing years grew and was modernized. In 1952 a commission to study the health needs of the Gold Coast recommended the establishment of four new clinical laboratories and the training of medical laboratory technicians on a formal basis, which was implemented in 1956. Those who successfully passed the end of training examination at the school were awarded certificates recognized by the British Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology and were qualified to study Medical Laboratory Technology in Britain. Following independence in 1957, Ghana assumed more direct control of the medical laboratory technology training. The Ministry of Health, Ghana established the School of Medical Laboratory Technology. Today Medical Laboratory Technology programs last 3 years and lead to a Medical Laboratory Competency Certificate, which is awarded by the Ministry of Health. A review committee has recently recommended upgrading these certificate programs to the diploma level but this has yet to be acted on. In 1990, as a result of a collaborative agreement between the Ministry of Health and the University of Ghana, a 2-year Diploma program in Medical Laboratory Technology was established at the University. Applicants to this program must hold a Medical Laboratory Competency Certificate and have three years practical experience in an approved hospital or research institution. A degree program (B.S. Med. Tech.) to be run by the School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, is currently being planned 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are two levels of training in Ghana: 1) Medical Laboratory Technology-General Competency Certificate program. Medical Laboratory Technology-General Competency Certificate program is a 3-year program leading to a Medical Laboratory General Competency Certificate. There is no specialization at this stage of training. The first year consists of theory and practical classes and is followed by two years rotation at various diagnostic laboratories at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.
2) Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma program The Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma program at the University of Ghana is a 2-year program leading to a Diploma of Medical Laboratory Technology. The program focuses on two disciplines (major and minor) and Laboratory Management. Successful candidates are immediately employed by the Ministry of Health in state-controlled hospitals as Technical Officers and Technologists in the Civil Service. Opportunities for promotion in the service are poor. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Medical Laboratory Technology-General Competency Certificate Since 1993, applicants to the Medical Laboratory Technology General Competency Certificate program at Korle-Bu in Accra must have successfully completed 12 years schooling and have received the Secondary School Certificate. Prior to 1993 the student had to have the West African Certificate (WASC) or the West African General Certificate of Education with five science subjects at the Ordinary “O” level and/or passes in three science subjects at the “A” level or an aggregate of 24 credits for the Science Core and Elective subjects at the senior secondary level. 2) Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma program Applicants to the 2-year Diploma program in Medical Laboratory Technology at the University of Ghana must hold a Medical Laboratory General Competency Certificate and have three years practical experience in an approved hospital or research institution. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Technology (Technician) training at the General Competency Certificate level is polyvalent and includes Bacteriology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Histology, Parasitology and Transfusion Science. Training at the diploma level is focused on two disciplines (major and minor) and Laboratory Management.
3-Year Medical Laboratory Technician Curriculum General Competency Certificate- in 1987 Year 1 Subject Chemistry Parasitology Bacteriology Hematology Transfusion Science Histology Anatomy & Physiology Clinical Chemistry Parasitology Bacteriology Hematology Transfusion Science Histology 140 120 120 120 60 60 60 Weeks 8 8 8 8 8 8 Hour
Clinical Chemistry Bacteriology Hematology Transfusion Science Histology Urinalysis
Weeks 8 8 8 8 8 8
3-Year Medical Laboratory Technician Curriculum General Competency Certificate- Current Year 1 Subject Bacteriology Hematology Histology Parasitology Transfusion Science Urinalysis Clinical Chemistry Total semester units 4 4 2 6.5 2 4.5 7 30 Credits
The number of hours spent in theory and in practical classes varies according to the subject. For example, Bacteriology would be 80 hours of theory and 40 of practical. Years 2 and 3 are spent in rotation at various diagnostic laboratories of Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. No credits are given for these rotations. However trainees without the satisfactory rotation requirement may be required to repeat the year. 2-Year Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma program Year 1 Subject Physiology Cell Biology & Genetics Chemistry Introductory Mathematics Introductory Biology Total semester units Clinical work in: * Chemical Pathology Hematology Histology Microbiology Laboratory Management Total semester units 6 6 6 6 30 10 10 10 10 10 30 Credits 6
* The student will choose two of the first four subjects one of which will be considered a “major ”the other a “minor.” Lab. Mgt. is required
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Medical Laboratory Technician General Competency Certificate: School of Medical Laboratory Technology Health Laboratory Services, Korle-Bu Hospital P.O. Box 300 Korle-Bu, ACCRA-GHANA Tel: (233-21) 661046/661047/661048 Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma University of Ghana Medical School Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Korle Bu, ACCRA-GHANA 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a. Licensing /Certification /Accreditation There is no licensing authority in Ghana for Medical Laboratory practice. There is government recognition of the Laboratory School but no regulatory body to monitor the quality of personnel entering the profession. b. Professional Associations The Ghana Medical Laboratory Scientists Association (AGMLS), it is not currently active. 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY There are no formal procedures that allow foreign trained medical Laboratory personnel to practice in Ghana. There are no specific arrangements that allow Ghana Medical Laboratory personnel to practice abroad. For more information please contact the Association directly at: Public Health and Reference Laboratory P.O. Box 300 Korle-Bu ACCRA-GHANA Tel: (233-21) 661046 Fax: (233-21) 303963
HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION, CHINA
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 2004
HKCEE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 HKAL 12 13 Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. 1 HDBMS*** BSc(Hons)BMS*** 2 MScHC with PgDHC option* 1 2 1 2 3
HC* School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong 1 2 BScBIO* 1.5 MMedSc** Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong MScCMB* Division of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong 1 2 1 2
As of 2004 HKCEE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 HKAL 12 13 Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. BSc(Hons)MLS*** 1 2 1 3 BSc(Hons)BMS*** 2 MScHC with PgDHC option* 1 HC* School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong 1 2 BScBIO* 1.5 MMedSc** Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong MScCMB* Division of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong 1 2 1 2 2 3
Note: * = Part-time program. ** = Full-time or part-time program *** = Full-time program HC = Higher Certificate in Medical Laboratory Science HDBMS = Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science BSc(Hons)BMS = Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Biomedical Science BScBIO = Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences BSc(Hons)MLS = Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Medical Laboratory Science (subject to validation) MScHC = Master of Science in Health Care (Biomedical Science) PgDHC = Postgraduate Diploma in Health Care (Biomedical Science) MMedSc = Master of Medical Sciences MScCMB = Master of Science in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
The above programs contribute to medical laboratory science education in Hong Kong.2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Hong Kong has a 6-years primary school, 5-years secondary school (HKCEE level) and 2-years upper secondary school (HKAL level).
As of 2003 the education in Medical Laboratory Science is offered at the higher education level. There is only one institution providing full-time training in Medical Laboratory Science at Bachelor degree level, which is the Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
The other Medical Laboratory Science training courses in Hong Kong are offered by three institutions, the School of Professional and Continuing Education, the University of Hong Kong, the University of Hong Kong, and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Prior to 2004, The Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing (formerly known as Department of Health Sciences), Hong Kong Polytechnic University (formerly known as the Hong Kong Polytechnic) offered a Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science and a top-up degree program BSc(Hons) in Biomedical Science. The University also organized a Master of Science and Postgraduate Diploma program in Health Care in 1995. In 2004, the higher diploma program will be replaced by a three-years full time Bachelor of Science (with Honours) in Medical Laboratory Science. The School of Professional & Continuing Education at The University of Hong Kong offers the Higher Certification in Medical Laboratory Science and Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences. The Master of Medical Sciences programme in the University of Hong Kong provides structured training in basic medical and clinical disciplines to enable postgraduates to embark on specialist studies, practice or teaching, and for career and personal development. The modules organized by Pathology Department have been accredited by the Institute of Biomedical Science in U.K. The Chinese University of Hong Kong provides a post graduated program specialized in Clinical Biochemistry and clinical molecular biology. This program replaced the previous master program, which is the Master of Science in Clinical Biochemistry.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University i. Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science - (HDBMS) – the last student intake was in Sept 2003. This is a 2-year full-time post-secondary MLS course intended for students interested in pursuing a career in Medical Laboratory Science and registrable with Hong Kong Medical Laboratory Technologist Board, Council for Supplementary Medical Professions. The qualification is acceptable for employment as Medical Laboratory Technologist in local medical laboratories. Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Biomedical Science - (BSc(Hons)BMS) This is a 2-year full-time top-up degree program intended to further expand the knowledge, technical ability,
personal development and career prospects of the holders of the Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (or related disciplines).
Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Medical Laboratory Science - (BSc(Hons)MLS) (subject to validation) This is a 3-year full-time undergraduate MLS course intended for students interested in pursuing a career in Medical Laboratory Science and registrable with Hong Kong Medical Laboratory Technologist Board, Council for Supplementary Medical Professions. The qualification is acceptable for employment as Medical Laboratory Technologist in local medical laboratories. Postgraduate Diploma/Master of Science in Health Care (Biomedical Science) (MScHC)/(PgDHC) This is a 3-years part-time evening modular post-graduate course in Health Care with a major in Biomedical Science. The maximum registration period is 6 years.
Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong i. Master of Medical Science (MMedSc) This is a 2-years part-time or 1-year full time modular post-graduate program in medical science. School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong i. Higher Certificate Course in Medical Laboratory Science - (HC) This is a 2-year part-time program which furthers the professional education of the medical laboratory technicians who have already obtained basic training, e.g. HKU SPACE Ordinary Certificate in Medical Laboratory Science, or a Diploma in Medical Laboratory Science from the HK Polytechnic University. Students meet 3 evenings a week. Bachelor of Science Degree Course in Biological Science – (BScBIO) This is a 1.5-year part-time evening degree course which provides a link between academia and professionals for the graduates of higher diploma holders in various biological sciences or medical laboratory sciences.
Division of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong i. Master of Science in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (MScCMB) This is a 2-years part-time post-graduate course in clinical biochemistry and molecular biology. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University i. Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science (HDBMS) (a) A-level in either Chemistry or Biology and HKCE with Grade E or above in 6 subjects including English, Chinese Language or Chinese Literature, Mathematics, and either Chemistry or Biology if not passed at A level. (b) Diploma in Food Technology, Environmental Science or the equivalent.
Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree Course in Biomedical Science (BSc(Hons)BMS)
(a) Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science or related disciplines.
iii. Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree Course in Medical Laboratory Science (BSc(Hons)MLS) (subject to validation) For Entry with HKALE Qualifications: (a) E in HKALE Chinese Literature, or E in HKALE(AS-Level) Chinese Language & Culture, or (for applicants who have not taken Chinese since Secondary Five) D in a HKCEE language other than Chinese and English; AND (b) E in HKALE(AS-Level) Use of English; AND (c) E in two other HKALE subjects, or E in one other HKALE subject and two other HKALE(AS-Level) subjects (includes E in HKALE Biology and HKALE/HKALE (AS-Level) Chemistry); AND (d) E in five HKCEE subjects (includes Mathematics or Additional Mathematics) For those who are applying on the basis of other qualifications: (a) An appropriate Higher Certificate (as specified in the individual programme entries where appropriate) from PolyU or the Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education; OR (b) An appropriate Diploma (as specified in the individual programme entries where appropriate) from PolyU or the Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education, either with Credit or Pass at Merit Level in at least three Level III subjects. Other Information: Applicants should have normal colour vision, as this is required for employment in a medical laboratory. iv. Postgraduate Diploma/Master of Science in Health Care (Biomedical Sciences) (PgDHC)/(MScHC) (a) Bachelor’s degree in Biomedical Science from PolyU or a recognised institution. Relevant post-qualification working experience in Biomedical Science is preferred. Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong i. Master of Medical Science (Pathology) (MMedSc) (a) possess the relevant necessary requirements which comply with the General Regulations;
(b) hold a Bachelor degree with honours or the degrees of MBBS of this University, or another qualification of equivalent standard from this University or from another University or comparable institution accepted for this purpose; (c) obtain a score of 550 or above in the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), within two years before submission of the application, if seeking admission on the basis of a qualification from a University or comparable institution outside Hong Kong of which the language of teaching and/or examination is not English; and (d) satisfy the examiners in a qualifying examination if required. School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong i. Higher Certificate Course in Medical Laboratory Science (HC) Applicants should have any one of: (a) A UK Ordinary National Certificate or Ordinary Technical Education Council Certificate, or an HKU SPACE Ordinary Certificate in Medical Laboratory Science, or a Diploma in Medical Laboratory Science from the HK Polytechnic University. (b) HK “A” Level passes in 2 science subjects, one of which must be Chemistry, and 5 passes in HKCEE, including English and 2 science subjects. (c) A qualification deemed equivalent to (i) or (ii). Applicants should normally: be sponsored by their employers; have 2 years’ practical laboratory experience. Single Specialist Subject Enrolment: Applications are also accepted from Medical Laboratory Science graduates of the HTC and Hong Kong Polytechnic University’s Higher Diploma, who are interested in studying a second specialist subject. They will only attend lectures and practicals of the specialist subject during the course. Students will meet one evening per week depending on their choice of specialist subject. ii. Bachelor of Science Degree Course in Biological Science - (BScBIO) Applicants should have any one of: (a) a Higher Diploma in Food Science and Technology, Applied Biology / Biotechnology, Environmental Health, or Environment Technology, or Pharmaceutical Technology; and A Level passes in the Use of English and a Science subject (Higher Diploma holders who do not have the A Level passes are required to take the relevant bridging course(s)). (b) a Higher Certificate or Higher Diploma in Medical Laboratory Science.
Division of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong i. Master of Science in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (MScCMB) (a) graduated from a recognized university and obtained a Bachelor’s degree, normally with honours not lower than
Second Class in a field related to life sciences or the degree of M.B. Ch.B. or equivalent. or (b) graduated from an honours programme of a recognized university with a Bachelor’s degree in a field related to life sciences, normally achieving an average grade of not lower than “B” in undergraduate courses; or (c) completed a course of study in a tertiary educational institution and obtained professional or similar qualifications equivalent to an honours degree in a field related to life sciences. All students should fulfill the English Language Proficiency Requirement before they are admitted. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The programs of study for HDBMS and BSc(Hons)BMS are polyvalent and include Hematology and Serology, Histopathology and Cytology, Medical Microbiology and Clinical Chemistry. HC offer specialization in one of the above concentrations, in addition to enhancement in basic and applied science and healthcare 6. CURRICULUM Biomedical Science Section, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University i. Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science (HDBMS) – last student intake was in Sept 2003 Table 1: The Programme curriculum for HDBMS.
Subject Year one Semester one Physiology Laboratory Techniques English for Academic Purposes Cell Biology Foundation Biochemistry General Education Semester two Haematology and Transfusion Science Clinical Chemistry Human Biochemistry Statistics Year two Semester one College Chinese Immunology
3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 3 3
3 3 6 6 5x3= 15 Total 33
Semester two Clinical Training I - V
Each credit translates to one hour per week of lecture or tutorial, or one and a half-hours laboratory session, or 2.3 hours per week of clinical training.
ii. Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Biomedical Science - (BSc(Hons)BMS)
As students entering the programme have varying Biomedical Science background, two study patterns have been designed to better support students’ study. All students are required to enroll in all common core subjects (Table 2);, however, holders of BMS Higher Diploma would progress in the programme by selecting electives in path A and non-BMS graduates need to select electives in path B (Table 2). Study patterns are developed such that upon completion of the programme all students would have attained similar academic requirements. Study patterns for both path A and B students are shown in Tables 3 and 4.
Table 2: Common core subjects and electives (Path A and Path B)
Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science / related field Common Core Subjects Molecular Biology in Medicine Clinical Immunology Advanced Biomedical Science I Advanced Biomedical Science II Genetics English in the Work Place / English for Academic Purposes # Pathophysiology Research Methods and Protocol Preparation Honours Project A
Elective Subjects – Students are requires to complete 15 credits for BMS graduates General Education Chinese Applied Psychology Contemporary Issues and Trends in Health Care Aging and Disease Environment and Disease Biostatistics Virology Laboratory Informatics Management For non-PolyU HD graduates All subjects each carries 3 credits, except Cellular Pathology, Haematology & Transfusion Science each carries 6 credits. Path A � � � � � � � � for NON-BMS graduates Cellular Pathology * Diagnostic Microbiology Introduction to Clinical Chemistry Haematology & Transfusion Science * Path B � � � �
Semester 1, Year 1 (12 credits) Subject
Table 3: Content of Programme (Students are required to complete 48 credits) Study Pattern A (for BMS HD Graduates)
Total Contact hours
42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42
3 3 3 3 (4) (4) (3) (3)
Molecular Biology in Medicine Clinical Immunology Elective subject Elective subject Semester 2, Year 1 (12 credits) Advanced Biomedical Science I (Medical Microbiology) and (Cellular Pathology) English in the Work Place Genetics Pathophysiology Semester 1, Year 2 (12 credits) Advanced Biomedical Science II (Clinical Chemistry) and (Haematology & Transfusion Science) Research Methods & Protocol Preparation Elective subject Elective subject Semester 2, Year 2 (12 credits) Honours Project Elective Subject
3 (4) 3 (3) 3 (4) 3 (4) 3 (4)
42 42 42 126 42
3 (3) 3 (3) 3 (3) 9 (4) 3 (3)
Table 4: Study Pattern B (for NON-BMS HD Graduates)
Semester 1, Year 1 (15 credits) Subject
Total Contact hours
Elective Subject 42 3 (3) Elective Subject 42 3 (3) Elective Subject 98 6 (3) English for Academic Purposes 42 3 (3) Semester 2, Year 1 (12 credits) Advanced Biomedical Science I 42 3 (4) (Medical Microbiology) and (Cellular Pathology) Genetics 42 3 (4) Elective Subject 98 6 (3) Semester 1, Year 2 (12 credits) Advanced Biomedical Science II 42 3 (4) (Clinical Chemistry) and (Haematology & Transfusion Science) Research Methods & Protocol 42 3 (3) Preparation Molecular Biology in Medicine 42 3 (4) Clinical Immunology 42 3 (4) Semester 2, Year 2 (12 credits) Honours Project 126 9 (4) Pathophysiology 42 3 (4) ii. Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree Course in Medical Laboratory Science (BSc(Hons)MLS) (subject to validation in March 2004) The syllabus is summaries in Table 5 and Table 6.
1 Public Health Clinical Laboratory Instrumentation Cells in Health & Disease Laboratory Techniques & Safety Professional & Personal Development1
Table 5: Overview of the Programme and Progression Pattern Semester 1 Semester 2
Generic Anatomy Immunology Physiology General Education
No. credits Cumulative credits
2 Haematology: Concepts & Principles Microbiology: Concepts & Principles Interpretative and Practical Haematology Interpretative and Practical Microbiology Clinical Chemistry: Concepts and Principles Cellular Pathology: Concepts & Principles Interpretative and Practical Clinical Chemistry Interpretative and Practical Cellular Pathology Molecular Biology in Medicine h Elective No. credits Cumulative credits 15 15 60 Summer clinical attachment (12 weeks) 3 Laboratory Informatics & Management Pathophysiology Introduction to Clinical Research Human Genetics General Education or Elective 15 Research Project Elective Elective
No. credits Total credits:
15 90 (plus clinical attachment in summer between years 2 and 3)
The duration of a standard subject is fourteen weeks. Each subject has 3 credit value and 42 student contacts hours.
Table 6: Inter-relationships between academic subjects (Level) in Programme; 90 academic credits in total; all subjects are worth 3 credits except for Project [9 credits]
Foundation Subjects Cells in Health & Disease Physiology Clinical Laboratory Instrumentation Human Biochemistry Laboratory Techniques and Safety Fundamentals of Public Health Generic Anatomy General Education General Education x2 Core Subjects Cellular Pathology; Concepts & Principles Interpretative and Practical Cellular Pathology Clinical Chemistry; Concepts & Principles Interpretative and Practical Clinical Chemistry Haematology; Concepts & Principles Interpretative and Practical Haematology Microbiology; Concepts & Principles Interpretative and Practical Microbiology Pathophysiology Immunology Human Genetics Molecular Biology in Medicine Introduction to Clinical Research Professional & Personal Development Laboratory Informatics & Management Research Project* 54 credits *9 credits Electives (student takes 3) Health Protection and Disease Control Scientific Aspects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Ageing & Disease Molecular Diagnosis of Human Disease Virology Point-of Care-Testing & Telemedicine The Environment & Disease Diagnostic Cytology Ethical & Legal Aspects in Health Care
Note: Language Subjects
English and Chinese language subjects are non credit bearing and are not mandatory, but students are required to pass the exit language tests to graduate.
iv. Postgraduate Diploma/Master of Science in Health Care (Biomedical Science) (MScHC)/(PgDHC) It is a credit-accumulation scheme which can be completed within a maximum period of six years. A range of subjects specific to the biomedical science profession and a variety of subjects of common interest and value to all health care professionals are studied. The total effort required of student on a standard subject is 140 Student Hours of Effort (SHE). The duration of a standard subject is fourteen weeks. Each subject has 3 credit value and 42 student contacts hours. For MSc 2 Compulsory Subjects, 4 Core Biomedical Science Subjects, 1 Elective Subject and a researchbased Dissertation are required. For PgD 2 Compulsory Subjects, 3 Core Biomedical Science Subjects and 1 Elective Subject are required.
Compulsory Subjects i ii Core Subjects i ii iii iv v vi vii Electives Having selected the requisite number of subjects from the core list, students may choose as elective subjects the remaining core subjects or other subjects available in this PgS HC, or other postgraduate schemes from the PolyU. The recommended list of elective subjects from the Postgraduate Scheme in Business & Management to students of the PgS HC is: i ii iii iv v Dissertation The dissertation carries a weight equivalent to 3 subjects (9 credit value) and represents around 420 hours of student effort. The dissertation must demonstrate in depth study, independent thought and critical examination of the subject area chosen. Students are encouraged to select a dissertation subject topic relevant to their personal and professional interest.
Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong i. Master of Medical Science (MMedSc)
Concepts of Health & Health Care Research Methods & Data Analysis
Epidemiology Immunology Molecular Technology in Clinical Laboratory Laboratory Management Advanced Laboratory Medicine Human Ageing Contemporary Issues in Health & Health Care
Managing Organisations and People Human Resource Management Health Care Economics Health Services Management Health Services Planning & Evaluation
The curriculum shall extend over not less than one academic year of full-time study, or an equivalent period of part-time study, with a minimum of 400 hours of prescribed work.
All candidates will be required to attend the following induction course (10 hours): Biomedical Writing for Young Investigators Candidates will be required to take four modules (20 hours each) from the following 15 core modules. At least one module should be selected from either of the two main sections, i.e. Research Methods and Biological Systems.
RESEARCH METHODS (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (15) Laboratory Methods and Instrumentation Statistical Methods Epidemiology and Critical Appraisal Imaging and Clinical Electrophysiological Techniques Clinical Trials Research Methodology Practical Bioinformatics Evaluation of Health Programmes and Health Economics Evidence Based Practice Laboratory Animal Handling and Surgical Techniques
BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) Cell Biology Genes and Gene Functions Concepts of Human Physiology Principles of Drug Action Working with Genes and Proteins Biological Basis of Common Health Problems
In addition, each candidate will be required to take one of the following 39 specialised fields of study. DEPARTMENT OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY - Application of Basic Sciences in Anaesthesiology DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY - Current Topics in Morphological Sciences, Cell Biology and Neuroscience DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY* - Biochemistry and Molecular Biology CLINICAL TRIALS CENTRE - Clinical Trials Research Methodology DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE - Public Health - Administrative Medicine - Psycho-Oncology CLINICAL TRIALS CENTRE AND DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE - Medical Statistics DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE - Cancer Genetics - Clinical Allergy - Geriatric Medicine DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY* - Medical Microbiology DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY - Assisted Reproduction Technology (Laboratory)
- Obstetric and Gynaecological Ultrasonography DEPARTMENT OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY - Hand Surgery - Spine Surgery - Joint Replacement Surgery DEPARTMENT OF PAEDIATRICS - Child Neurology, Development and NeuroHabilitation - Paediatric Cardiology - Paediatric Endocrinology DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY* - Pathological Sciences or Histopathology or Haematology or Immunology or Molecular Pathology (A candidate is encouraged to select a major stream of study from one of the above subjects). DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY - Current Topics in Pharmacology DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY - Current Topics in Physiology DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY - Medical Psychology - Sleep Disorder DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY - Breast Surgery - Colorectal Surgery - Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery - Gastroduodenal Surgery - Head and Neck Surgery - Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery - Neurosurgery - Oesophageal Surgery - Paediatric Surgery - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Surgical Endocrinology - Surgery in General - Urology - Vascular Surgery / Non-Invasive Vascular Laboratory Imaging Techniques *related to medical laboratory science The dissertation shall comprise a record of substantial experimental or clinically-based work on the project, or a review of the existing literature on the subject of the project, presented in a form suitable for publication. A minimum of 200 hours is required for the project.
School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong i. Higher Certificate Course in Medical Laboratory Science - (HC) The course is divided into two parts, known as H1 (Year I) and H2 (Year II). Each part comprises 260 hours of coursework and laboratory practice. Two subjects, Biochemistry (80 hours) and Physiology (80 hours), are compulsory, while the third subject (100 hours) is elective. Students should choose from one of the four specialty subjects, namely Medical Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology & Serology and Histopathology & Cytology. At the H2 stage, students must study the same specialty subject as at H1. ii. Bachelor of Science Degree Course in Biological Science (BScBIO) It is a 1.5-years course which is composed of two core modules including Dissertation and Research Skills, and two optional modules from Applied Immunology, Basic and Applied Molecular Genetics, Microbes and Diseases and Food Microbiology and Biotechnology. The student workload is summarized in Table 7. Table 7: Student workload in different course. Course Dissertation Research Skills Applied Immunology Basic and Applied Molecular Genetics Microbes and Diseases Food Microbiology and Biotechnology Contact* 150 150 32 33 Flexible* 124 117 Credit 15 15 15 15 Modules Core Core optional optional
* Student Workload [in Notionally Efficient Student Hours (NESH)] Division of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong i. Master of Science in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (MScCMB) The programme is divided into 22 topics in 4 semesters and a research project: Clinical Biochemistry I (5 units) • Analytical Principles 1 (Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Nephelometry, and Turbidimetry) • Laboratory Management • Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring • Statistics and Research Methodology • Plasma Proteins, Immunoglobulin and Tumour Markers Clinical Biochemistry II (6 units) • Analytical Principles 2 (Chromatography, Electrophoresis, and Electrochemistry) • Hypothalamus and Pituitary / Thyroid
• The Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla • Reproductive Endocrinology, Pregnancy • Carbohydrate Metabolism, Diabetes, Hypoglycaemia • Clinical Enzymology; Central Nervous Systems & Muscle Disease Clinical Biochemistry III (5 units) • Analytical Principles III (Radioimmunoassay and Related Techniques) • Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis • Fluids, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis • Renal Function, Renal Calculi • Gastrointestinal, Liver, Biliary & Pancreatic Functions; Malabsorption Clinical Molecular Biology (6 units) • Analytical Principles (Molecular Biology Techniques) • Clinical Molecular Genetics • Investigation of Genetic Disorders • Paediatric Clinical Biochemistry & Inborn Errors of Metabolism • Plasma DNA as a New Tool for Molecular Diagnosis • Principle and Applications of Flow Cytometry in Clinical Laboratory Research Project (8 units) Students should complete a research project over 9 months resulting in submission of a thesis. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Biomedical Science Section School of Nursing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR. i Higher Diploma in Biomedical Science ii. Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Biomedical Science iii. Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Medical Laboratory Science iv. Postgraduate Diploma/Master of Science in Health Care (Biomedical Science) The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road Hong Kong SAR. i. Master of Medical Science (Pathology)
School of Professional and Continuing Education The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road Hong Kong SAR. i. ii. Higher Certificate Course in Medical Laboratory Science Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences* *Organized in cooperation with Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.
Division of Chemical Pathology The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Shatin, New Territories Hong Kong SAR.
Master of Science in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The courses, BSc(Hons)BMS and MMedSc (Pathology), are accredited by Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS). The BSc(Hons)MLS is pending approval for accreditation: Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS, UK) 12 Coldbath Square London EC1R 5HL, England, UK BSc(Hons)BMS has been accredited by IBMS for Associate Membership. MMedSc (Pathology) and MScHC has been accredited by IBMS for Fellowship. (b) Registration The qualifications, HDBMS and BSc(Hons)BMS, are recognized for Part II registration by the Hong Kong Council for Supplementary Medical Professions. The BSc(Hons)MLS is pending approval for registration. Holders of the HC with relevant experience are eligible to register in Part I of the Medical Laboratory Technologists in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Council for Supplementary Medical Professions Medical Laboratory Technologist Board 2/F Shun Feng International Centre 182, Queen Road East, Wan Chai, Hong Kong (c) Membership The qualifications, HC, HDBMS and BSc(Hons)BMS, have been recognized by Hong Kong Institute of Medical Laboratory Science Limited (formerly Hong Kong Medical Laboratory Association) for Ordinary Membership: Hong Kong Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences Limited OR GPO Box 2722 Central, Hong Kong c/o The Federation of Medical Societies of Hong Kong, 4th Floor Duke of Windsor Social Serv. Bldg 15 Hennessy Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong
(d) Professional Associations Hong Kong Institute of Medical Laboratory Science Limited (Formerly Hong Kong Medical Technology Association) (Founded 1966) c/o The Federation of Medical Societies of Hong Kong 4th Floor, Duke of Windsor Social Service Building 15 Hennessy Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel & Fax: (852) 2819 6204 URL: hkimls.org
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY BScBIO is validated by Napier University, UK.
For further inforamtion contact:. Mr. Arnold S.Y. Foo Hong Kong Medical Technology Association GPO Box 2722 Central, Hong Kong or Dr Daniel CC Tam Hong Kong Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences Limited (Formerly Hong Kong Medical Technology Association) Telephone and Fax: (852) 2819 6204 URL: http://hkimls.org Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 “Studentspróf” (Secondary school leaving Certificate) Upper Secondary School 1 2 3 6 mos Medical Technologist*
The Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology * Formerly referred to as Medical Laboratory Technologist As of 1999 1 2 3 4 5 6 Comprehensive School 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Upper Secondary School 14
“Studentspróf” (Secondary school leaving Certificate)
The Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND
Iceland has a 10-year comprehensive school including elementary education and lower secondary school. This is followed by a 4-year upper secondary school program, leading to the stúdentspróf, or secondary school leaving certificate. Education in Medical Technology is offered at the higher education level. There is only one institution providing training in Medical Laboratory Technology in Iceland, the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology (Taekniskoli Islands). Prior to 1999 the Technical College offered a 3-1/2-year program of theoretical and applied studies in its Division of Medical Laboratory Technology. As of 1999 The Department of Health Technology offers only 4-year studies in Medical Laboratory Technology and in Radiological Technology. Successful completion of the program leads to the Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Technology, which is the professional credential. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Medical laboratorians in Iceland are trained at the post-secondary level in one institution, the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology: Prior to 1999 1) Medical Technologist -- Prior to 1999 the 3 1/2-year program was offered at the University level, which took place at the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology (formerly referred to as the Technical College of Iceland) The program of study included practical experience in two of twelve electives at the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology and at two divisions of five laboratories.
As of 1999
As of 1999 the Department of Health Technology offers a 4-year program in Medical Laboratory Technology and one in Radiological Technology.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS The basic requirement for all applicants to enter the Division of Medical Laboratory Technology at the Technical College is the “stúdentspróf,” the secondary school leaving examination (matriculation examination), which may be taken after completing 4 years of upper-secondary studies. The student taking the “stúdentspróf,” has completed a total of 14 years of primary and secondary schooling.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Prior to 1996 the training for Medical Laboratory Technologists in Iceland was polyvalent, with specialization during the third year of study in two major areas of the twelve available specializations. As of 1996 the program began to change toward more general education. The aim is to assure that Medical Technologists are capable of working in all kinds of medical laboratories. The main fields that are covered are Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology and Histopathology. Currently students do their research projects and specialize in their field during one semester. Formerly specialization took place during the final three semesters. 6. CURRICULUM Prior to 1999 The 3 1/2-year course of study at the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology offered both the theoretical and practical aspects of Medical Laboratory Technology. The first 2 years were identical for all students, with no electives, whereas in the third year the students selected two fields of specialization. The first two school years were divided into 2 semesters and the third into three semesters. Each semester was approximately 15 weeks. The curriculum in the Division of Medical Laboratory was as follows. Division of Medical Laboratory Technology Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology (1991) First Year Anatomy Physiology General Chemistry Organic Chemistry Chemistry-Laboratory Course Biochemistry Physics-Instrumentation Mathematics Ethics Total Second Year Biochemistry Biochemistry-Laboratory course Pharmacology Pathology (morbid anatomy) Cytology-Cytogenetics Histopathology -Laboratory course Hematology -Blood Bank Serology Immunology Hematology- Laboratory course Bacteriology-Virology Microbiology - Laboratory course Clinical Chemistry Nuclear medicine Clinical chemistry- Laboratory course Medical Laboratory Technology Mathematics-Statistics Total Third year (3 semesters) 1. Sem 1. Sem. Credit hr/wk units 3 2 2 2 8 5 4 6 4 27 2 3 2 16 2. Sem. hr/wk 2 3 1 5 4 3 6 2 26 hr/wk 2 2 Credit units 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 16
Credit 2. Semester hr/wk units 3 2 4 2 3 l-2 4 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 3
4-5 4 4 2 4 6 4 30
4 3 3 2 3 2 2
Students selected two electives for the next three semesters. The three semesters were worth a total of 51 credit units, that is, 32 credit units for practical training and 14 credit units of theoretical study, plus 5 units for a final paper (project). Study hours are 40 hours/ week. Each elective is completed in 5 1/2 months. The following electives were offered: 1. Clinical Chemistry 2. Hematology 3. Blood Group Serology (not available since 1989) 4. Immunology 5. Virology 6. Bacteriology 7. Clinical Physiology 8. Radioisotopes in Biological Systems 9. Histopathology 10. Cytology (not available since 1989) 11. Cytogenetics 12. Electron microscopy (not available since 1989) The five Medical Laboratories approved for elective training in the last three semesters were: 1) The City Hospital in Reykjavik 2) The National Hospital in Reykjavik 3) The University of Iceland, Dept. of Pathology 4) The Blood Bank of Iceland in Reykjavik 5) The University of Iceland As of 1999 As of 1999, the first 3.5 years are identical for all students, providing them with a broad general education. The first three semesters concentrate on basic education courses. Gradually the courses become more specifically oriented toward medical technology until finally the student begins work on a research project with specialization taking place in the final semester. Each school year is divided into 2 semesters. Each semester comprises 15 weeks of study plus 2 weeks of examinations. Each school year provides 30 credits. Division of Medical Laboratory Technology Curriculum 1999 First Year Physics-Instrumentation Cell Biology Chemistry Biochemistry Anatomy - Physiology Credits 7 1 11 3 8 Second Year Biochemistry Medical Laboratory Technology Statistics Pharmacology Ethics Clinical Chemistry Immunology Credits 5 3 4 2 1 13 2 Credits 11 4 15
Third Year Credits Fourth Year Hematology 11 Pathology Genetic Analysis 4 Ethics-Administration Microbiology 11 Final Project Genes 4 GRADING: Prior to 1991 grading was based on the following grades: AExcellent BGood CSatisfactory DNot Satisfactory EFailing MTransfer of credit--from another school The lowest passing grade was C. After fall 1991 grades were awarded on a linear scale 1-10 with the following grade values:
9-10 7-8 6 5 0-4
A B C D F
Prior to 1996 the minimum for passing was 6, but a student could graduate with the grade 5 in no more than 4 modules (subjects) totaling no more than 8 credits. In 1996 the minimum passing was changed to 5.5. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Division of Medical Laboratory Technology Icelandic College of Engineering & Technology Hofdabakka 9 112 Reykjavik Iceland 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
Professional Recognition for the current 4-year B.Sc. is the same as previously given to the graduates of the 3.5-year program. Graduates receive a B.Sc. and the title “Medical Technologist” as defined by the Ministry of Health in Iceland. They are eligible for membership in the Icelandic Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists, which holds association membership in the Scandinavian Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists (NML), and the International Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists (IAMLT).
a. Accreditation The College is under the Control of the Government. b. Licensure The Ministry of Health grants licensure in Iceland to Medical Technologists who have graduated from the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology. Foreign graduates also are granted their licensure from the Ministry after consultation with the Technical College of Iceland and the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists regarding the equivalency of their education. c. Certification The Certificate as Medical Technologist is awarded by the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology. d. Professional Association The professional association for Medical Technologists is: Meinataeknafélag Íslands (Icelandic Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists) Lagmúl í 7 IS-108 Reykjavik Iceland Tel: 354-588 9770 Fax: 354-588 9239 e-mail: email@example.com
For professional reciprocity, see reciprocity section for each individual country. The Ministry of Health, following consideration of the equivalency of their education by the Icelandic College of Engineering and Technology and the Icelandic Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists, licenses foreign graduates in Iceland. For further information contact the Icelandic Association directly at: www.bhm.is/mti
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Pre - 1988: High School Diploma 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 middle school 8 9 10 11 12 high school university /college entry Technician 1 2.5* Medical Laboratory Science Technologist** 4* 4.5* B.S. in Medical Technology (BSMT) 5 6 Master of Science 7 Post - 1988: High School Diploma 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 middle school 8 9 10 11 12 high school university /college entry Technician 1 2* Medical Laboratory Science Technologist** 1 2 3 4* 4.5* B.S. in Medical Technology (BSMT) (Restarted from 1995) 5 6 Master of Science*** 7 8 Ph.D.*** 8 Ph.D.
Note: * = In-hospital training during final semesters (12 credits for Technician; 16 credits for Technologist). ** = The Technologist program was discontinued in 1988 but was reintroduced in 1995. ***= Master of Science and Ph.D. programs in some areas are still available for former B.S. Medical Technologists (eg. at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences).
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND In Iran the primary/secondary level education sequence, leading to high school graduation, takes 12 years (5 years in primary, 3 in secondary, and 4 in high school). To attend primary school, the student must be 6 years old (there is an optional pre-school for those who are 5 years of age). The first formal practice of Medical laboratory Science began with establishment of the Pasteur Institute in 1920, the Razi Institute in 1924 and the Institute of Health in 1936. The Institute of Health, however, was the first institution to formally organize the training of persons to do laboratory diagnoses of hospital patients or physician referrals. In 1939, following reform of the Tehran Medical School, workers from the Institute of Health were retained to staff laboratories in the Tehran Medical School. At this point the Institute was renamed the Central Laboratory of the Ministry of Health. Shortly thereafter, with the establishment of the Institute of Malariology at the Medical School, brief training courses (4 months) were introduced. Such courses were eventually expanded to a year. Initially, only doctors of medicine, pharmacy or veterinary medicine were admitted to the program, which prepared them to establish their own medical laboratories. By 1948, the specialized courses in Laboratory Science required 2 years training for physicians and 3 for pharmacists and veterinarians. At this time the Ministry of Health introduced a training program for assistant technicians that took one year and required only a high school diploma for admission. Some universities, like Tehran University, also conducted a 2-year course for training technicians that allowed students to take certain technology training courses leading to a Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology (B.S.M.T.). In 1968, Tabriz University, with the assistance of the Ministry of Health, introduced a program in Medical Laboratory Science. This education was offered at 3 levels: 4 years were required for a B.S., an additional year for an M.S. and an additional 3 years for a Ph.D. Shortly thereafter, educators decided that only students who had received basic Medical Laboratory Science training should continue into higher education in that field, and in 1971 Tehran University discontinued its special courses for doctors of medicine, pharmacy and veterinary science. In the meantime 5 other universities (Isfahan or Esfahan, Jondi-Shapoor, Mashad, Pahlavi University and Tabriz University) established a Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Science program, with some adding the Master’s level program in 1979. At this point, Medical Laboratory Science education was standardized to 3 levels: (1) Technician training, requiring 2 to 2.5 years after high school; (2) Medical Technologist training, requiring 4 to 4.5 years after high school and leading to the B.S. in Medical Technology (B.S.M.T.); followed by the (3) Master of Science or a Ph.D. program in a specialty such as Bacteriology, Parasitology or Biochemistry, and the Professional Doctorate in Clinical Laboratory Science. Following the Iranian revolution in 1979, however, universities were closed and did not open again for 2 to 4 years depending on the institution. Formal courses leading to the B.S.M.T. were reintroduced in 1985 when the Islamic Azad University, was established. The courses were modeled on those offered before the revolution and produced several hundred B.S. degrees in Medical Laboratory Science but were discontinued after 3 years, when the current programs were put in place. The current program in Medical Laboratory Science consists of a 2-year training course for technicians, offered by the Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science at the Medical School at the universities. Those who already hold the B.S. in Medical Laboratory Technology can take the Master of Science examinations in Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Immunology, Mycology, Parasitology, Toxicology, and Virology, and more recently Hematology. Early in the 1990s there was a hiatus in program offerings. As of 1991 Ph.D.’s in Medical Laboratory Science were not allowed to establish clinical laboratories and only pathologists (clinical and anatomical) could do so. These restrictions are currently under reconsideration.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Pre-1988 Before the cultural revolution in 1979, and for a brief period between 1984 and 1988, Iran provided Medical Laboratory Science training at three levels: (1) Technician 2 to 2.5 years at the tertiary level for a total of 90 credits including 12 credits of practical training. A technician could advance to a technologist level with an additional 2 to 2.5 years of study. (2) Technologist - B.S.M.T. 4 to 4.5 years at the tertiary level for a total of 146 credits including 16 credits of practical experience at a hospital laboratory. (3) Master’s and Doctoral Level 2 to 4 years after receiving the Technologist qualification. Post-1988 (1) Technician Only the 2-year Technician program was available, between 1991 - 1995. (2) Technologist - B.S.M.T. This program, which was phased out from 1985 and discontinued in 1988, was reintroduced in Fall 1995. (3) Master’s and Doctoral Level 2 to 4 years after receiving the Technologist qualification. Master of Science, a Professional Doctorate and even Ph.D. programs in some areas are still available for former B.S. Medical Technologists (eg. at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences). Directly following graduation, the male student must fulfill 2 years mandatory military service, and then must serve at least 1 year for the Ministry of Health. Thereafter, those who have successfully completed any of the Medical Laboratory Science programs, may work in a hospital or private laboratory, university laboratory or in the laboratories of equipment supply companies. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Admission to the Technician courses and the Technologist program requires a high school diploma and the university/ college entry examination. Admission to graduate programs requires success in examinations following the Technician/ Technologist programs. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Because of the many past educational programs there are still a variety of differently trained Medical Laboratory personnel in Iran. These personnel are: those trained as Technicians and Technologists, those holding the Masters or Doctorate, assistant technicians (those who took part many years ago in short courses offered at institutes) and experimental technicians (those with no formal training).; Technicians do most of the routine work under the supervision of a technologist or experienced technician. Technologists do specialized work or may function as Chief Technologist in a laboratory. Those with the Master’s degree do advanced tests in their specialty or work as supervisors and/or head of a department. Those with the Ph.D. serve as directors, administrators or managers of medical laboratories. Assistant technicians and experimental assistant technicians usually work as phlebotomists (or do simple tasks such as smear preparations, staining, culturing of specimens and assisting a colleague with higher qualifications).
Certification is based on credits for subjects (C.P.S.)
Subject General subjects (English, Persian Literature, Religious Studies, Sports) Basic subjects (Anatomy, Physiol., Physics, Gen. Chem.) Main subjects (Gen. Biochem., Lab. Physics, Basic Lab., Histology, Basic Pathology) Specialized subjects (Microbiol., Hemat., Clin. Chem., Blood Banking, Parasit.,Serology) Practical training ( in the above specialized subjects) Subject General subjects Islamic Text 1 Islamic Text 2 Islamic Behavior 1 Islamic Behavior 2 Quran Islamic History Islamic Revolution of Iran Literature 1 Literature 2 Foreign Language 1 Foreign Language 2 Sport 1 Sport 2 Total Credits for B.S. Program (B.S.M.T.) Credits Theory (36 hrs/sem.) 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21
Credits for Technicians (91 credits)
Credits 18 18 17 26 12
Credits Practicals (72 hrs/sem.)
1 1 2
Subject Basic subjects: General Physics Applicable Physics Biology Anatomy Physiology General Chemistry Bio-Statistics General Biochemistry Genetics Psychology Total Main Subjects: First Aid Epidemiology & Sanitation Food Chemistry & Sanitation Laboratory Pre-requisites Research Methods & Bibliography Total Specialized Subjects: Clinical Biochemistry 1 Clinical Biochemistry 2 Endocrinology Histology Pathology Nuclear Physics (Medicine) Parasitology Mycology Virology Immunology & Serology Blood Banking Pharmacology Forensic Medicine Laboratory Management General Medicine Advanced Foreign Language Photography & Typing Seminar Application of Computers in Lab Total
Credits Theory (36 hrs/sem.) 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 20 1 3 1 1 1 7 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 4 2 1 1 0.5 49.5
Credits Practicals (72 hrs/sem.) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1
1 0.5 22.5
Subject Clinical Training (in Hospitals): Clinical Training 1 Clinical Training 2 Clinical Training 3 Clinical Training 4 Practicing in Hospitals Total
Credits Theory (36 hrs/sem.)
Credits Practicals (72 hrs/sem.) 3 3 3 3 4 16
Subject General subjects (as in Technician’s program but more advanced) Basic subjects (Anatomy, Physiology, Statistics and Biochemistry) Main subjects (*Physiopathology, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Lab. Practice) Specialized subjects (Clin. Chem., Hemat.,Micro., Immun., Serol., BB, Parasit., Mycol.) Seminar & Thesis (selected by the student from specialized topics) Practical Training (Micro.,Hem., BB, Sero., Cl. Chem., Parasit., Immun., Myco., Cytol. Credits for Masters (from Technologist Degree) Subject General subjects (Physio., Anat., Sp. Eng., Religious Studies) Specialized subjects (*Physiopathology, Hemat., BB, Serology, Microbiology) Seminar & Thesis (selected by the student & approved by teachers and advisors) Practical Training (Microb., Hem., BB, Serol., Cl. Chem., Parasit., Mycol., Cytology)
Credits for Masters (from Technician’s Degree)
Credits 29 23 8 62 10 24 Credits 20 33 8 16
* Physiopathology includes Physiol. (Credits 4), Pathology (Credits 8), Infectious Dis., Pediatrics, Renal, Heart, GI, Neurology, Lung, Rheumatology & Blood Diseases ( as in the MD program) 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Ahwaz University of Medical Sciences Golestan Road Ahwaz, IRAN Tel: +98 (61) 833-936. Fax: +98 (61) 35200 Esfahan University of Medical Sciences Darvazeh Shiraz Esfahan, IRAN Tel: +98 (31) 685-141. Fax: +98 (31) 685-145 OR Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Hezar-Jerib Avenue Isfahan, IRAN Tel: +98 (31) 891-2505. Fax: +98 (31) 236014 Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Abbas Abad Boulevard Hamadan, IRAN Tel: +98 (81) 220-773. Fax: +98 (81) 220-683 Iran University of Medical Sciences
Corner of Gandhi and 20th Avenue P.O. Box 1587-6171 Tehran, 15179, IRAN Tel: +98 (21) 688-191. Fax: +98 (21) 801-7399 Islamic Azad University P.O. Box 19585-1466 9th Nayastan, Pasdaran Avenue Tehran, IRAN Tel: +98 (21) 2588168. Fax: 98 (21) 249606 Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Sorkheh Lizeh, Kermanshah, IRAN Tel: +98 (431) 58945. Fax: +98 (431) 708-094 Mashad University of Medical Sciences University Street P.O. Box 91735-588 Mashad, IRAN Tel: +98 (51) 8013-006. Fax: +98 (51) 8013-007 Shahid Behesti University of Medical Science Shahid Chamran Highway Evin, P.O. Box 4129 19395 Tehran, IRAN Tel: +98 (21) 299-691. Fax: +98 (21) 296-052 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences College Paramedical Sciences Zand Avenue Shiraz, IRAN Tel: +98 (71) 332-366. Fax: +98 (71) 59317 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences 29th Bahman Avenue, Poorsina Tabriz, IRAN Tel: +98 (41) 369-190. Fax: +98 (41) 342-761 Tehran University of Medical Sciences Enghelab St.Quds Street Tehran, IRAN Tel: +98 (21) 640-5666. Fax: +98 (21) 641-6537
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Higher education is regulated by written regulations and is supervised and controlled by the Ministry of Health. This Ministry however, does not re-evaluate degrees or certification, and successful passage of examinations in the universities is accepted as qualification for practicing as a Medical Laboratory Technician or Technologist. Recent information indicates that there is an Iranian Association of Medical Laboratory Science. We have not yet been able to confirm the address.
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY A board within the Ministry of Higher Education evaluates the degrees of all students trained abroad taking into account the university attended and the credits earned. If, for example, a student has a B.S. or M.S. from a qualified university with good grades, the degree may be considered as equivalent to a B.S. or M.S. in Iran (Factors taken into consideration in determining equivalency include length of study, credits earned and program content). For further information please contact: Shiraz University of Medical Science Tel: 98(71)335-023 College of Paramedical Sciences Meshkin Fem. Ave. Shiraz, IRAN or Clinical Laboratories Lemuel Shattuck Hospital Jamaica Plain, MA 02130 U.S.A. Tel: (617) 522-8110 Fax: (617) 524-9779
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1973-1982 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 secondary 10 11 School Leaving Certificate Caribbean Examination Council (CXC)/General Certificate in Education “O” Level (G.C.E.) 12 1 2 13 General Certificate in Education “A” Level (G.C.E.) Certificate in Medical Technology 1 Diploma in Medical Technology (Specialization)
secondary schools or community colleges
Since 1983 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 School Leaving Certificate Caribbean Examination Council (CXC)/ General Certificate in Education “O” Level (G.C.E.)
secondary schools or community colleges
General Certificate in Education “A” Level (G.C.E.) 1 2 3 B.Sc. in Health Science with Medical ↑ Medical Technology Option* ↑ General Diploma in Medical Technology 1.5 Diploma with Specialization in Cytology (CASMET) B.Sc. Med. Tech.**
West Indies College
* Modular program conducted in 3 modules (over 3 summers). ** Was a 3.5-year Diploma program until 1992
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Formal Medical Laboratory training programs began in Jamaica in 1973 when the College of Arts, Science and Technology ( renamed the University of Technology, Jamaica, in 1995) began offering 2-year certificate programs followed by a period of internship at the Government Medical Laboratory. Technologists who wished to specialize would then continue with one year of practical instruction, leading to a Diploma examination given by the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists and a Specialist Diploma. In 1983 the program was upgraded to a 3-year Diploma course leading to a General Diploma. However, because Cytology is taught only in the final year of the program, a specialized Diploma is still offered in this area. The Cytology specialization Diploma requires 18 months of study and is administered by the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists. During this same period the West Indies College was also offering a 3.5 year program leading to a Diploma in Medical Technology. A B.Sc. in Health Sciences with a Medical Technology option was introduced in 1988 at the College of Science and Technology (now U-Tech.) This is a modular program conducted in 3 modules over 3 consecutive summers and offers specialization in Hematology and Microbiology. In 1992 West Indies College upgraded its Diploma program to a B.Sc. in Medical Technology. A 2-year Certificate in Medical Laboratory course was also drafted at the Faculty of Pharmacology at the University of the West Indies, Mona Jamaica, but never instituted. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING 1) General Diploma in Medical Technology Since 1983 basic training for Medical Technologists has been provided by a 3-year Diploma program in Medical Technology, which is offered at the University of Technology (Formerly the College of Science and Technology.) Those with the Diploma perform routine bench work with some specialized techniques. 2) Diploma with Specialization in Cytology The Cytology specialization diploma requires 18 months of study after the General Diploma and is administered by the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists. 3) Modular B.Sc. in Health Science with Medical Technology option. A modular degree program conducted in 3 modules over 3 summers is provided by the University of Technology (U Tech). It is a modular program conducted in 3 modules (each approximately 12 weeks duration), delivered over 3 consecutive summers. During the inter-modular periods, students are given work assignments and a research project which forms part of the evaluation process. Personnel with the degree perform bench work but also assume supervisory functions. 4) Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology A 4-year full-time B.Sc. in Medical Technology is offered at the West Indies College, Manchester, Jamaica. The program, which replaced a 3.5-year Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology program, took in its first students in 19 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) General Diploma in Medical Technology Admission to the 3-year General Diploma in Medical Technology program requires five GCE “O” level or CXC passes in English Language, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and one other subject, preferably a science or technical subject or the equivalent. 2) Diploma with Specialization in Cytology Admission to the Diploma with Specialization in Cytology requires 18 months of study after the General Diploma and is administered by the Caribbean Association of medical Technologists.
3) B.Sc. in Health Science with Medical Technology Option a) Admission to the B.Sc. Health Science with Medical Technology Option program requires the General Certificate in Education (G.C.E) at “A” level. Students should have science subjects (This examination is U.K. based) ,or b) University of Technology, Jamaica, General Diploma in Medical Technology or a specialized Diploma from the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists (CASMET) plus 2 years work experience or c) Post-Diploma Certificate 4. B.Sc. Medical Technology at West Indies College Admission to the 4-year B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Technology program requires five GCE “O” level or CXC passes in English Language, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and one other subject preferably a science or technical subject or the equivalent. This B.Sc. program includes 3 years of pre-clinical and 1-year of clinical studies. Admission to the clinical year is conditional on acceptable professional, academic and practical performance.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Training at the Diploma level is polyvalent, covering Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Blood Banking, Immunology and Histology with an introduction to Cytology. The B.Sc. in Medical Technology at West Indies College is also polyvalent. The modular B.Sc. in Health Science with Medical Technology option gives the student the opportunity to specialize in 2 Medical Technology options, Hematology or Microbiology and is, therefore, not polyvalent.
6. CURRICULUM 3-year General Diploma program Medical Laboratory Technology University of Technology
Year 1 Subject Human Biology Inorganic & Physical Chemistry Organic Chemistry Communication 3 Laboratory Techniques* Medical Terminology Ethics Orientation to Medical Technology Physics Work Study**
60 75 25
Hours 50 90 25 50 50
Lab. hrs. 50 40 25 50 50 50
4 5 2
Credits 4 7 2 4 4 4
Year 2 Biochemistry Biostatistics & Research Methods Clinical Chemistry 1 Hematology 1 Histopathology 1 Immunology+ Immunohematology 1 Medical Laboratory Instrumentation Medical Microbiology 1
36 50 50 50 38 50 75 50
4 5 4
25 30 25 50
50 25 150
3 32 5 4 3
3 2 2 6
Year 3 Clinical Chemistry 2 50 Computer Fundamentals Hematology 2 50 Histopathology 2 Immunohematology 2 Laboratory Administration 25 Microbiology 2 Clinical Experience & Project term paper
*Lab-Lecture **Non-credit elective + Half-year course
50 50 25 25
50 50 50 150 150
5 4 3 6 -
Course Evaluation Most subjects are weighed on a 50/50 basis for course work and final examinations. The discipline subjects, however, carry a 45/55 weight for course work and final examinations respectively. Grading: Pass requires: -a minimum of 45% in final theoretical papers and 50% in final practical papers. -a satisfactory pass in course work (45%) -an overall grade of 50% minimum. -a satisfactory level of attendance during the year.
Summer 1 -Module -(12 weeks). Interdisciplinary Courses Subject Hours Principle and Organization of Management 45 Health and Health Care 45 Computer Fundamentals and Data Processing 45 Principles of Epidemiology 30 Research Methods and Statistics 45 Sociopsychology 40 Interdisciplinary Health Sciences Seminars 15 265
B.Sc. Health Science with Medical Technology Option 3 modules over 3 consecutive summers University of Technology
Summer 2 -Module II-(12 weeks). Optional Tracts/ Area of Concentration A. Health Management Option Human Resource Management 45 Health Planning 45 Health Economics 45 Financial Management 45 Informational, Operations & Supplies Management 60 Health Management Seminar 15 255 OR B. Education Option Education Psychology 45 Educational Planning 45 Instructional Presentation 90 Educational Measurement & Evaluation 45 Education Seminar 15 240 Summer 3- Module III (12 weeks) Advanced Specialty Option Medical Technology- Hematology Option Hematology Theory 75 Hematology- Clinical Practice 45 Transfusion Science-Theory 45 Transfusion Science- Clinical Practice 30 Hemostasis 45 Seminar 15 Research Project 255 Medical Technology- Microbiology Option Parasitology & Virology DNA Technology Food Microbiology & Mycology Immunodiagnostic Techniques Seminar Research project 90 65 45 15 -
Year 1 Credits Subject Semester 1 Freshman Seminar 1 Medical Terminology & 2 Intro to Health Prof. Intro to Med. Lab. Tech -Christians Beliefs I, II 2 Health and Physical Education -Freshman Composition I , II 3 General Chemistry I,II 4 Foundations of Biology I,II 4 Total 16 Year 2 Intro. to Computer Science 3 Music Elective -Math Elective 3 Oral Communication 3 Clinical Microscopy -Daniel or Revelation -Gift of Prophecy 2 Organic Chemistry I, II 4 Principles of Immunology/Serology -Medical Orientation & Phlebotomy 1 Genetics --_ Total 16 Year 3 Concepts of Christian Education 2 Caribbean Perspectives 3 Principles of Psychology 3 Life Teachings of Jesus 3 Fundamentals of Hematology & Hemostasis -Fundamentals of Microbiology -Fundamentals of Immunohematology 2 Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry & Instrumentation -Cytology/Histology -Cell Biology/ Histology 4 Laboratory Management -Medical Technology Seminar -17 Year 4 (Clinical Year) Hematology & Hemostasis 4 Clinical Immunology/Serology 1 Clinical Microbiology 4 Immnohematology 3 Chemistry 4 16
4-Year Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology West Indies College
Credits Semester 2. -1 2 2 4
3 4 16 ---1 2 3 16
-4 -4 -----
-1 1 ----
Clinical Rotation (six months) Hematology & Hemostasis Practicum Clinical Immunology/Serology Practicum Clinical Microbiology Practicum Immunohematology Practicum Clinical Chemistry Practicum Clinical Microscopy Practicum Cytology/Histology Practicum Independent Research Project
5 2 5 3 6 3 3 1-2
Of the above credits: Core Requirements = 65 - 66; Required Cognates and Electives = 32; General Education Requirements = 38 credits. Total of 135 - 136 semester credits.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS University of Technology, Jamaica (Science Department) 237 Old Hope Rd. Kingston 6 JAMAICA Tel: (809) 927-1680 (through 1688) West Indies College Mandeville, JAMAICA Tel: (809) 962-2204-6 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a) Licensure A license to practice Medical Technology is issued following registration with the Council for Professions Supplementary to Medicine. The license is renewable annually. b) Registration Registration with the Council for Professions Supplementary to Medicine permits entry into professional employment in government and private laboratories. Graduates of the B.Sc. program at the University of Technology must fulfill a 1-year internship program prior to registering. Students with the B.Sc. in Medical Technology at West Indies College are eligible to register with the Council for Professions Supplementary to Medicine. The Council of Professions Supplementary to Medicine Ministry of Health 10 Caledonia Ave. Kingston 5, Jamaica c) Accreditation Programs in MLS are accredited by the Council.
Fax: (809) 927-1925
Fax (809) 962-0075
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY To practice as a medical technologist in Jamaica a candidate must possess appropriate academic qualifications from an approved institution. The Council of Professions Supplementary to medicine in consultation with the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists and the University of Council of Jamaica decides if an institution is approved. For further information please contact: Science Department University of Technology, Jamaica 237 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6 JAMAICA Tel: (809) 927 1680-8 Fax: (809) 927 1699 or Chairperson Department Medical technology West Indies College Mandeville P.O. Manchester Jamaica, West Indies Tel: (809) 962-2204-7 8864-7 Fax: (809) 962- 0075
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 Elementary School 6 7 8 9 Secondary School Kuwait University Higher Secondary School Certificate 1 2 3 Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences ( M e d i c a l Technologist)
* = Clinical experience - Block Rotations in clinical laboratories 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The educational system in Kuwait is under the authority of the Ministry of Education. This Ministry controls curricula, examinations and the administration of public schools. It also inspects private schools that use curricula from Britain, the United States or other countries, to ensure satisfactory standards. The University is autonomous with respect to curriculum content and examinations. Medical Laboratory Sciences (previously Medical Laboratory Technology) education in Kuwait is carried out by the Department of Medical Laboratory Technology at the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences and Nursing at Kuwait University. The Department offers a 4-year program leading to the award of a Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences. The language of instruction is English. Admission to the program requires that students complete their higher secondary school certificate, or equivalent examinations accepted by Kuwait University. Graduates are eligible for employment as Medical Laboratory Technologists in the Ministry of Health, or as research assistants and research technicians in laboratories. Medical Technologists have been admitted to Master of Science programs in the Faculty of Medicine at the University. The Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences was totally ransacked during the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in 1990. The academic year 1990-1991 was lost, and teaching recommenced on 28th September 1991. In 1998 the curriculum of the Medical Laboratory Sciences department underwent an extensive review and the University Council approved a revised curriculum. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Medical Laboratory Technologists in Kuwait are trained at the university level in a 4-year program (the only program available) at the Dept. of Medical Laboratory Sciences of Kuwait Unive 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Entrance to the B.Sc. program in Medical Laboratory Sciences requires a higher secondary school certificate, or equivalent, with an examination mark of 70% or higher. Kuwait University at present does not accept students of other nationalities, except those on Government scholarships. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Sciences training is polyvalent: Hematology (including Coagulation); Blood Banking; Immunology & Serology; Clinical Microbiology (including Bacteriology, Mycology, & Parasitology); Clinical Chemistry (including Toxicology & Therapeutic Drug Monitoring); Histopathology & Cytology. Holders of the B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Sciences may work in hospital laboratories, medical schools, research institutes, public health agencies & related organizations. 6. CURRICULUM Prior to 1998
Prior to 1998 the B.Sc. program in Medical Laboratory Technology was a 4-year full-time study, and required completion of 124 credits (125 in 1985-86). A credit is a measure of curriculum work completed satisfactorily. One credit hour = 1 hour/week of lectures, for 15 weeks; for laboratory courses, 2 or 3 contact hours/week for 15 weeks = one credit hour. B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Technology Kuwait University (1985-86) Year I Courses English language Finite Mathematics Chemistry and laboratory Organic Chemistry Introduction to the profession Elective Semester I Hrs. per week 5 3 4 --3 Total 15 Semester II Hrs. per week 5 -4 4 3 -16
*Choice of Electives: Arab & Islamic History, Philosophy, Sociology, Anthropology, Pharmacology. Year II Courses English language Physics and laboratory Mathematics Anatomy I Introduction to Computing Biochemistry Physiology I Semester I Hrs. per week 3 3 4 3 --17 Semester II Hrs. per week 4 ---4 3 15
Year III Courses Histology Medical Biochemistry Medical Microbiology Clinical laboratory methods Medical Parasitology Histopathology and Cytology Hematology I Immunology and Serology
Semester I Hrs. per wk l 3 4 3 2 2 --Total 15
Semester II Hrs. per wk -2 3 3 -3 3 2 16
Year IV ** Semester I Semester II Courses Hrs. per week Hrs. per week Hematology 3 3 Clinical Chemistry 3 3 Clinical Microbiology 3 3 Clinical Parasitology 2 -Clinical Serology 2 -Histopathology and Cytology 3 -Immunohematology and Blood Banking -3 Student project -3 Total 16 15 ** Courses ran concurrently with block rotation in respective clinical laboratory departments. B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Sciences Kuwait University (1995-1996)
Year I Courses Chemistry & Lab Finite Mathematics English language Elective Total
Semester I Cr. Hrs 4 3 5 3 15
Courses Introduction to Profession Organic Chemistry & Lab Physics Physics laboratory English language Total
Semester II Cr. Hrs 3 4 3 1 5 16
*Choice of Electives: Arab & Islamic History, Philosophy, Sociology, Anthropology, Pharmacology. Year II Semester I Courses Cr. Hrs Psychology (A.H.) 3 Introduction to Computers 3 Anatomy I 4 Histology I 1 English language 3 Total 14 Year III Semester I Courses Cr. Hrs Medical Biochemistry 4 Medical Microbiology 4 Body Fluids and Urinalysis 2 Histology II 3 Immunology & Med. Genetics 3 Total 16 Courses Physics Physics Lab Physiology Biostatistics Microbiology Elective Semester II Cr. Hrs 3 1 3 3 3 3 Total 16
Semester II Courses Cr. Hrs Clinical Chemistry I 4 Medical Parasitology 3 Histopath. and Cytol. Methods 3 Hematology I 4 Clinical Micro. & Serology 2 Total 16
Year IV ** Semester I Semester II Courses Cr. Hrs Courses Cr. Hrs Immunohemat. & Practicum 2 Clinical Chemistry Practicum 2 Hematology II & Practicum 3 Clinical Hemat. & Practicum 2 Clinical Correlations I 1 Clinical Microbio. & Practicum 3 Clinical Microbio. & Practicum 3 Immuohemat. & Practicum 1 Clinical Parasit. & Practicum 2 Histop. & Cyto. Mthds.III Pract. 2 Clinical Chemistry II & Pract. 3 Student project 2 Total 17 Total 14 ** Courses run concurrently with block rotation in respective clinical laboratory departments. Since 1999 In 1998 the curriculum of the Medical Laboratory Sciences Department underwent an extensive review and the University Council approved the revised curriculum. An outline of the courses by year, semester and credit hours per week follows:
B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Sciences Kuwait University (1999)
FIRST YEAR Course
Chemistry Chemistry Lab. Finite Mathematics English Language Elective Total SECOND YEAR
Credit hrs. 3 1 3 5 3 15 3 4 1 3 11
Introduction to the Profs. Physics Physics Lab. English Language Biostatistics Total Physics Physics Lab. Physiology Psychology of Medical Care (AH) Microbiology Elective Total Semester 2 Course
Credit hrs. 3 3 1 5 3 15 3 1 3 3 3 3 16
Intro. to Computers Anatomy I Histology I English Language Total
THIRD YEAR Semester 1 Course
Credit hrs. Medical Biochemistry 4 Medical Microbiology 4 Body Fluids & Urinalysis 2 Histology II 3 Immunology & Medical 3 Genetics Total 16 FOURTH YEAR Semester 1 Immunohematol. & Prac. 2 Hem. II & Practicum 3 Clinical Correlations I 1 Clinical Micro. & Prac. 3 Clinical Parasit. & Prac. 2
Clinical Chemistry I Medical Parasitology Histopath. & Cyto Methods Hematology I Clinical Microbiology Serology Total Semester 2 Clinical Chemistry Prac. Clinical Hematology & Prac. Clinical Micro. & Prac. Immunohem. & Prac Histopathology & Cytology Methods III & Prac. Clinical Correlation II
Credit hrs. 4 3 3 4 & 2 16 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 14
Histology & Cytology Methods 3 II & Prac. Clinical Chem. II & Prac. 3 Student Project Total 17 Total As of 1998 the student must have 120 hours to graduate. Examinations and grading
The performance of the students is evaluated by examinations and laboratory exercises throughout the period of study. The computed scores of these assessments (in-course, mid-semester, final examination) are used to assign letter grades. However, in the fourth year, the performance evaluation of the clinical experience constitutes a part of the computed score for each course. Percentages / Letter grades: 95-100% A; 90-94% A-; 87-89% B+; 84-86% B; 80-83% B-; 70-79% C+; 60-69% C
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences Faculty of Allied Health Sciences and Nursing
Kuwait University P.O. Box 31470 Sulaibikhat, Code 90805, Kuwait 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The Medical Laboratory Sciences program at the University is under government control.
(b) Licensure At present there is no licensing examination for Medical Technologists in Kuwait. Directly after graduation, students may take positions in the Ministry of Public Health and other ministries as well as in private laboratories. (c) Certification Graduates of the Medical Laboratory Sciences program at the University receive the title “Medical Technologist”, which qualifies them to work in the profession. Since 1986, graduates have been taking the National Certification Examination (NCA) of the U.S.A. Since 1987 Kuwait has been an overseas center for this examination. (d) Registration None. (e) Professional Association There is currently no professional association. 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY For professional reciprocity, see reciprocity section for each individual country. Currently, graduates with the Kuwait B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Sciences are accepted for graduate study in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and other European countries, but there are no formal reciprocity agreements with individual countries or institutions. For further information please contact the Kuwait Association directly at: Dr. Makhdoom Ali Shah, Vice Dean, Academic Affairs Faculty of Allied Health Science and Nursing Kuwait University P.O. Box 31470 Sulaibikhat – 90805 Kuwait Phone (965) 4816579 Fax (965) 4830937
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1991 1 2 3 4 5 primary 6 7 School Leaving Certificate 8 9 10 11 (Atestats) secondary 1 2 3 1 4 2
P. Stradina Riga Secondary Vocational Medical School No.2
Feldsher/Laboratory Assistant Feldseris Laborant)
Since 1991 1 2 3 primary 4 5 6 7 8 Secondary School Leaving Certificate 9 10 11 12 (Atestats par videjo izglitibu) secondary 1 2 Laboratory Technician/Laboratory Assistant Diploma or Honors Diploma 1 2 3 Certificate*
P. Stradina Riga Medical School No.2
* = The certificate is awarded after 3 years practice and successful completion of the Laboratory Specialist Association examination of the Latvia Republic. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND At present the basic (primary) school education starts at the age of 6 or 7 and lasts 9 years. Secondary school education is 3 years. A Laboratory Assistant Diploma or Laboratory Assistant Diploma with Honors requires two years post-secondary education at P. Stradina Riga Medical School No. 2 followed by three years practice and successful passage of an examination given by the Laboratory Specialist Association (LSA) of the Latvia Republic. Medical laboratory education in Latvia started in 1940 at the Laboratory Assistant School of the Health Department at Hospital No. 2, now P. Stradina Riga Medical School No 2. Until independence in 1991, training was standardized for the entire U.S.S.R. Secondary-level vocational medical schools offered education for middle grade medical personnel including medical laboratory technicians (‘feldshers’). Since students could enter this type of education from the 9th grade, study was considered a specialized secondary school education. Students who entered training after completing grade 9 attended 4 years. Students who graduated from secondary school (11th grade) attended approximately 2 years. In 1988 the program and curriculum were revised and updated in accordance with new scientific discoveries and local needs. In 1991, following independence, the curriculum and programs were upgraded. The programs (entry now based on 12 years of secondary school education) require 2 years of study at the post-secondary level and lead to the Laboratory Assistant Diploma. A further 3 years practice and successful completion of the Laboratory Specialist Association examination of the Latvia Republic is required for certification. Subjects have also been changed to take into account environmental protection, immunology, and pathophysiology.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Prior to 1991 Feldsher/Laboratory Assistant (Feldseris laborant): To become a Feldsher/Laboratory Assistant (Feldseris laborant) required 2 to 4 years study depending on whether a student entered the program from the 9th or 11th grade. The 4-year program included both the 2 years of high school study and the specialization. Since 1991 Laboratory Assistant Diploma: To become a Laboratory Assistant a student must hold the Diploma or Diploma with Honors, which requires 2 years of post-secondary education. The Diploma with Honors requires grades of Excellent in all but 1 or 2 subjects. Certified Laboratorian: To become a Certified Laboratorian requires 3-years practice following the Diploma and a qualification examination of the Laboratory Specialist Association (LSA) of the Republic of Latvia. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1991 Feldsher/Laboratory Assistant (Feldseris laborant): Applicants to these programs were required to complete either 9 or 11 years of school education. Those who entered from the 9th grade undertook a 4-year program of study; those entering from the 11th grade undertook a 2-year program. Since 1991 Laboratory Assistant Diploma: Entrance to the 2-year Diploma program requires successful completion of 12 years primary/secondary school and a Secondary School Leaving Certificate (Atestats). Certified Laboratorian: To qualify for the examination of the Laboratory Specialist Association of the Latvia Republic leading to a Certificate, the student must have received the Diploma and have practiced for 3 years. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education for Medical Laboratory Assistants is polyvalent and includes Microbiology, Chemistry, Hematology, Immunology, Histology, Cytology, Hygiene, Clinical Biochemistry, Parastitology and Genetics. Laboratorians work at laboratories, clinical diagnostic centers, scientific research institutes, environmental institutes of the food industry and in production. 6. CURRICULUM Curricula are ratified by the Laboratory Specialist Association. The Ministry of Science and Education of the Latvia Republic has accredited the current curricula until the year 2001.
Prior to 1991 4-year Feldsher/Laboratory Assistant (Feldseris laborant) P. Stradina Riga Secondary Vocational Medical School No. 2 Subject Basic High School Subjects Basic Philosophy Principles History Social Studies Fundamentals of Scientific Atheism Latvian Language and Literature Russian Language and Literature Mathematics Physics Foreign Language (English) Professional Courses Beginners Latin Biology Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Fundamentals of Pharmacology Organization of Health Preservation Inorganic Chemistry Fundamentals of Genetics Analytical Chemistry Economic Geography Organic Chemistry Biological Chemistry Fundamentals of Internal Diseases with Pathological Physiology & Pathological Anatomy Epidemiology & Fundamentals of Infectious Diseases Microbiology and Techniques of Microbiological Research Techniques of Laboratory Work Methodology of Clinical Lab. Research Hygiene & Techniques of Hygiene Research Fund. of Histology & Histology Techniques Parasitology & Entomology First Aid Protection of Labor & Fire Safety Physical Education Fundamentals of Military Training Fundamentals of Medical Military Training Soviet Law Since 1991 2-year Laboratory Technician/Assistant Diploma/Diploma with Honors (after 12 years school education) P. Stradina Riga Medical School No. 2 Subject Humanities Block Philosophy Law Foreign Languages (English/German) Latin TOTAL Science Block Computers Psychology & Nursing Ethics Anatomy & Physiology Medical Genetics TOTAL Special Subjects Block Techniques of Practice in the Laboratory Analytical Chemistry & Basic Chemistry Introduction to Medical Practice Special Pathophysiology General Pathology (therapeutic & surgical diseases) Clinical Laboratory Methods Methods of Biochemical Examination Microbiology & Methods of Examination (Infectious Diseases. & Epidemiology & Immunology0 Hygiene Hygiene Examination Methods Theory 34 20 -30 84 -30 80 30 140 -18 148 34 50 70 70 100 84 50 Practice 4 -106 -110 76 -40 15 131 48 62 72 -20 264 228 274 186 76 Total Hours 38 20 106 30 194 76 30 120 45 271 48 80 220 34 70 334 298 374 270 126 Theory Practice Total Hours --192 74 (Pass) 18 334 210 304 250 98 38 60 107 30 115 6 53 52 82 80 24 32 6 62 78 62 92 44 250 57 62 30 42 188 54 30 38 84 139 36 -177 -84 57 115 144 126 108 330 57 290 250 84 72 50 36 208 76 76 30
Histology & Its Examination Methods Medical Parasitology Protection of Environment Pharmacology Intensive Care & Disaster Medicine Modern Techniques of Laboratories TOTAL Subjects Physical Training & Massage Foreign Language (English/German) History of Latvian Culture Mathematics TOTAL 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS P. Stradina Riga Medical School No. 2 Vidus prosp. 36 Jurmala, Bulduri Latvia 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Prior to 1991
22 20 20 24 -720 90 90 60 30 270
24 -32 16 1292 60 124 16 -200
46 20 20 56 16 2012 150 214 76 30 470
a. Accreditation Curricula requirements were established by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the State Committee for Public Education Since 1991 a. Accreditation. Curriculum is ratified by the Laboratory Specialist Association (LSA) and accredited by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Latvia Republic. b. Licensing and Certification Laboratory assistants are licensed by the Health Department of Riga as well as several local councils. Certification of Laboratory Assistants is done by the Laboratory Specialist Association of Latvia Republic (LSA). c. Professional Association Laboratory Specialist Association of Latvia Republic (LSA) 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Foreign-trained Medical Laboratory personnel are allowed to work only after approval of the Professional Education Center for Health Care Workers. Latvian Medical Laboratory personnel are allowed to practice abroad according to specific arrangements with the countries in which they wish to practice. For further information please contact: Director of Professional Education for Health Care Workers Latvijas Republikas Labklãjibas Ministrija Medicinas Profesionãlãs Zglitibas Centres Kapselu iela 23 LV-1046 Riga, Latvia Tel: 371 - 727-1713 Fax: 371-2-602-467
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 11 Secondary School Certificate Diploma as Medical Technician 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 B.Sc.in Med. Tech. (OMT Higher Diploma 4 B.Sc. in Med.Tech.(OMT) 4 B.Sc. Biology or Chemistry 1 ADLM 2 3 M.Sc. *** 5 6 M.B.Ch.B 1 ADLM
Health Institute Higher Institute of Technology (Brack)*, ** Heath Institute of Medical Technology (Tripoli) Faculty of Science
Faculty of Medicine,
2 3 * 1979-1987 3yrs; after 1988, 4 years were required for the B.Sc. ** The Institute has recently been renamed the Faculty of Engineering Technology ** M.Sc. in Laboratory Medicine (Clinical Biochemistry); (Clinical Microbiology); (Clinical Immunology); (Clinical Hematology) 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Education in Libya generally begins when a child reaches 6 years of age. Primary education lasts 6 years and is followed by 3 years middle school and 3 years secondary. Following completion of middle school (Grade 9) a student can enter a 3-year Health Institute program leading to a Diploma qualification as a Medical Technician. Following secondary school a student interested in a career in Medical Technology may enroll in one of four institutions: 1) The Higher Institute of Technology ( founded in Malta in 1976 then transferred to Brack in 1980 and recently renamed the Faculty of Engineering Technology.) Here, from 1979 to 1987 a student could earn a B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Technology in 3 years. Since 1988 the B.Sc. program has required 4 years of study; 2) The Higher Institute of Medical Technology (founded in Tripoli in 1987). Here a student may earn a Higher Diploma after 3 years study and a B.Sc. after 4 years study; 3) a Faculty of Science. Here a student may earn a B.Sc. in Biology (Zoology), or a B.Sc. in Chemistry which will qualify him to work as a Medical Laboratory Technologist; or 4) a Faculty of Medicine, where he may earn the Bachelor Medicine or Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.Ch.B) in 6 years. In response to a need for even more sophisticated training in Medical Laboratory Science, the Department of Laboratory Medicine , Faculty of Medicine at Al-Arab Medical University, Benghazi added two other programs: an M.Sc. in Laboratory Medicine in Clinical Biochemistry, or Clinical Microbiology, or Clinical Hematology or Clinical Immunology in 1990, and an Advanced Postgraduate Diploma in Laboratory Medicine was in 1995. The need to train medical laboratorians became evident some forty years ago as Laboratory Assistants began to receive training from Italian doctors and technicians to perform increasingly complex tasks of medical analysis. Around 1969 this training was formalized for Libya at the Health Institute in Benghazi. In 1976 the Libyan Higher Institute was established in Malta to train Medical Laboratorians. In 1980 the Institute transferred to Brack in Libya. It has recently changed its name to the Faculty of Engineering Technology. I n 1987 The Higher Institute of Medical Technology opened at al-Fatah University in Tripoli with a 3 year Diploma program and 4 year B.Sc. program. In 1990 and 1995 respectively the AlArab Medical University added the M.Sc. in Laboratory Medicine and the ADLM. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING 1) Medical Laboratory Technician In order to qualify as a Medical Laboratory Technician a student must complete the 3-year Diploma program at a
Health Institute. 2) Medical Laboratory Technologist (Scientist ): To qualify as a Medical Laboratory Technologist requires successful completion of : a) the 3-year Higher Diploma program or the 4-year B.Sc. at the Higher Institute of Medical Technology, OR b) the 4-year B.Sc.. from the Higher Institute of Technology (Faculty of Engineering Technology), OR c) the B.Sc.. from a University Faculty of Science in either Chemistry or Biology, OR d) the M.B.Ch.B from a faculty of Medicine, OR e) a 1-year Advanced Diploma in Laboratory Medicine(ADLM) f) an M.Sc. in Laboratory Medicine (Clinical Biochemistry), (Clinical Microbiology( Clinical Hematology) or (Clinical Immunology) All courses are designed in such a way that 40-50% practical training is provided to the students. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Diploma Program Applicants to the 3-year health institute program must complete the 9th grade. 2) Higher Diploma Programs or B.Sc. programs Students applying to any of the Higher Diploma or B.Sc. programs must have successfully completed secondary school. 3) Advanced Diploma in Laboratory Medicine(ADLM) A candidate for admission to the ADML program should hold the first the degree in Medicine (M.B.Ch.B. ) or a degree in Veterinary Medicine (B.V.Sc.) or the B.Sc. in Biological Sciences, or B.Sc. a degree in Medical Laboratory Technology (OMT) or other equivalent degree or diploma , must have a grade average of “Good,” pass an entrance examination and be approved by a committee. 4) M.Sc. in Laboratory Medicine (Clinical Biochemistry), (Clinical Microbiology), ( Clinical Hematology) or (Clinical Immunology) A candidate must have obtained the postgraduate diploma ÄDLM of the Department of Laboratory Medicine with a grade of “Very Good” in both general as well as the selected sub-specialty courses and must be approved by a departmental postgraduate committee. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Technology training at the Higher Diploma and B.Sc. level is polyvalent and includes Hematology, Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Parasitology, Histology and Blood Banking. The Advanced Diploma in Laboratory Medicine (ADLM)and M.Sc. level is specialized. Medical Laboratorians work in hospitals, clinics, and in university and research center laboratories 6. CURRICULUM Sample Curriculum3-year- B.Sc. Year 1 Higher Institute of Technology Brack, 1984
Practical 2 2 2 2 2 --Lecture 4 4 3 3 3 3 6
Subject General Chemistry Organic Chemistry Physics Zoology Botany Mathematics English
Semester 14 4 3 3 3 3 7
Practical 2 2 2 2 2 ---
Subject Lecture Anatomy (M) 2 Physiology (M) 2 Hematology (M) 3 Biochemistry (M) 4 Microbiology (M) 2 Biostatistics 2 English 2 Instrumentation/Anal. Chem. (M) 2 Subject Lecture
Practical --3 3 3 --3 Practical 3 3 3 3 -3 ---
Lecture 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 2 Lecture 3 3 3 -2 2 1 2
Practical --3 3 3 --3
3 3 5 2 -2 1 2
Practical 3 3 3 2 3 3 ---
Figures represent hours per week for 15 weeks per semester During the summer, 12 weeks were spent in the field in Medical and Clinical Laboratories Grading: Excellent
Microbiology (M) Hematology(M) Clinical Chemistry (M) Parasitology (M) Histology Instrumentation/Chem. Anal.(M) Blood/Banking/Lab Mgmt. English Language
Excellent 85-100% Pass 50 - 64% Very Good 75 - 84 Weak 35 -49 Good 65 - 74 Very Weak Below 35 M. represents Major subjects. In Major subjects, the pass mark is 60%; in Minor subjects it is 50% 3-year Higher Diploma Higher Institute of Medical Technology, Al-Fateh University of Medical Science, Tripoli -1993 Year 1
Subject Zoology Physics General Chemistry Intro. To Statistics Arabic Language Scientific terms Histology Organic Chemistry Intro to Public Health Jamahiriyan Culture Credit Laboratory 2 -3 ---2 3 2 -Credit Laboratory ---3 3 -2 3
Lecture 3 2 2 -2 2 2 2 2 2
Subject Vital Statistics Tissue Pathology Organic Chemistry Bio-Chemistry Hematology Physiology Pathology Apparatus & Instruments Community Health
Lecture 3 --3 2 4 2 2 2
Subject Social Psychology Microbiology & Immunology Parasitology Clinical Chemistry Hematology Laboratory Administration Islamic Culture Professional Ethics
Lecture 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 --
Credit Laboratory -2 2 2 4 ----
1-year Advanced Diploma in Laboratory Medicine Al-Arab Medical University Each course consists of 12 months: 9 months of theory, 3 months of hospital practice. Clinical Immunology
Theory Introduction to Immunology
4 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 3
Practice Diagnostic Immunology Lab
Immunoglobins Complete System Immune System Immunogenetics Immune Response Cytokines Hypersensitivity Reactions Immunity to Infections Autoimmunity Immunodeficiency Diseases Antigen-Antibody Interactions Tumor Immunology Transplantation Immunology 2 Immunization 2 Total
Immunodiagnostic Tests on Immunoprecipitation Electrophoretic Techniques Immunodiagnostic Tests based on Latex Agglunation Immunodiag. Tests based on Hemoaglutination & Hemo. Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) Tests Immunofluorescence Techniques Complement Fixation Test Immunoblotting Techniques Cellular Immunity Tests Total
16 12 16 16 16 12 4 4 12
3 18 2 2 2 64
Introduction to Hematology Normal Hematopoietic System Erythropoisis Leucopoisis Thrombosis Blood Group Serology & Blood Transfusion Red Blood Disorders Disorders of Hemostasis Non-Malignant Leucoctye Disorders Malignant Neoplastic Disorders of Hemotopoisis System Total Theory Intro. to Clinical Microbiology Types of Microorganism The Bacterial Cell Growth &Nutrition of Bacteria Microbial Metabolism Control of Microorganisms Chemotherapy of Infections Food Microbiology Water Microbiology Intro. To Molecular Biology Microbial Infections of the Human Body Applied Microbiology Diagnostic Parasitology Diagnostic Virology Clinical Mycology Total
2 4 2 4 2 4 16 10 6 14 64 2 4 6 4 2 6 6 2 2 6 4 6
Diagnostic Hematology Practice
Collection of Blood Samples Physiological Variations Basic Hematological Techniques Bone Marrow Examination Investigations of Hemolytic Anemias Blood Group Serology Blood Transfusion Techniques Tutorials, Slide Seminars Total
6 12 20 6 20 16 18 30 128
4 4 4 64
Practice Intro. To Diagnostic-Clinical Microbiology Lab. Gen’l Principles in Staining Procedure Cultivation of Bacteria Methods of Obtaining Pure Cultures Preservation of Lab. Cultures Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests Collection & Transport of Clinical Specimens for Microbiological Examination Control of Microorganisms Cultural & Biochem. Characterization of Some Gram+Ve & Gram-Ve Pathogenic Bacteria Microbiology Examination of Food Poisoning Laboratory Diagnoses Medical Diagnostic Parasitology Mycology & Virology Total
4 20 4 12 4 16 12 12 12 4 20 8 128
Theory Intro. To Clin. Biochem. & Basic Concepts Carbohydrates Lipids Amino Acids & Proteins Nucleic Acids Porphyrins Acid Base, Electrolyte & Water Balance Diagnostic Enzymology Liver Functions Tests Renal Function Tests Nutrition Endocrinology Neurochemistry Biochemical Genetics Clinical Toxicology Quality Control Total
4 7 6 7 2 2 4 7 2 2 4 7 2 2 4 2 64
Practice Basic of Clinical Biochemistry Carbohydrates Lipids Amino Acids and Proteins Nucleic Acids Porphyrins & Related Compounds Acid Base, Electrolyte & Water Balance Diagnostic Enzymology Liver Functions Tests Renal Function Tests Nutrition Endocrinology Neurochemistry Biochemical Genetics Clinical Toxicology Quality Control Total
8 12 12 12 4 4 8 12 8 8 8 16 4 8 8 8 128
Grading is given to the student according to marks obtained in the final examination. Excellent: 85-100% Good: 75-84% Pass: 65-74% 3-year M.Sc. Degree Al-Arab Medical University The curriculum for each of the four following M.Sc. degrees consists of 3 main elements: Theory lectures, practicals and research in the chosen sub-specialty. In addition, supporting courses on Medical Statistics, Computers and Medical Genetics are part of the curriculum.
Theory (1 x 4 x 30= 120 Hours) Carbohydrates Metabolism & its Disorders Lipid & Lipoprotein Metabolism & their Disorders Amino Acids & Protein Metab. & their Disorders Purine Metabolism & Its Disorders Diagnostic Enzymology Endricrinology Disorders of Water, Electrolytes & Acid Base Bal. Biochem.spects of Cancer, Inflammation & Trauma Nutrition Neurochemistry Biochemical Genetics & Molecular Biology Clinical Toxicology & Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Theory (1 x 4 x 30 = 120 Hours Intro. To Clinical Microbiology Virulence & Pathogenicity of Bacteria Microbes vs. Humans Bacterial Pathogens & Assoc. Diseases Specific Clinical Topics Medical Virology Protozoology Clinical Mycology Theory (1 x 4 x 30 = 120 Hours Intro. To hematology Normal Hemapoietic System Normal Hemapoitic Cells Red Cells Disorder Disorders of Leokocytes Disorders of Hemostasis Immuno-hematology Bone Marrow Spleen
Practical (4 x 4 x 30 =480) Carbohydrates Lipids and Lipoproteins Amino Acids, Protein & Nucleic Acids Practice of Quality Control Diagnostic Enzymology Hormones Water, Electrolytes & Acid Base Balance Biochemical Calculations Principles of Instrumentation Neurochemistry Biochemical Genetics & Molecular Biology Clinical Toxicology & Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Practical (4 x 4 x 30 = 480 Hours) Collection & Transport of Clinical Specimens Lab. Diagnosis of Syndromes and Interpretation of Results Detection of Toxin Production in certain Microorganisms In Vivo Pathogenicity testing Study of Morphol., Cultural & Biochem. Characters Determination of Drug-resistance among Clinical Bacterial Isolates Lab. Diagnosis of Fungal Infections Lab. Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections Lab. Diagnosis of Viral Infections
Practical (4 x 4 x 30 = 480 Hours) Basic Hematological Practices Preparation, staining & exam. of blood films Bone Marrow Examination Automated Blood Cell Analysis Laboratory Investigation of Anemias Investigation of Refractory Anemias Investigation of Leukocyte Disorders Investigation of Hemostatic Disorder Quality Control Techniques
Theory (1 x 4 x 30 = 120 Hours Intro. To Clinical Immunology Cellular Immunology Molecular Immunology Clinical Aspects of Immunology
Practical (4 x 4 x 30 = 480 Hours) Immunochemical Technique Immunoserodiagnistic tests for Infectious Diseases Immunohistochemical tests Qualitative and Quantitative tests for Lymphocyte & Leucocyte functions Tissue-typing for HLA-antigens Quality Control in Immunoassays
Examination and Grades Assessment (Theory) Assessment (Practical) Tutorials Seminars (departmental) Case/paper presentation
10 10 5 10 5
Final Examination: Theory-I (MCQs) 60 marks Theory !! (Essays) 90 Practicals 80 Orals 30 Total 260 Grand Total 300 marks (Those who fail the final examination of the theory and practical may be allowed to resit the examinations within 3 months. Those not succeeding the second time may be asked to drop out of the University.) Grades: Excellent: 85-100% Good: 75-84% Pass: 65-74% Research projects (Thesis) The thesis will be evaluated by external examiners, followed by presentation (seminar) and oral and will be either accepted or rejected. (It will not carry marks for grading). 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Al-Arab Medical University Faculty of Medicine P.O. Box 18251 Tel: 21152/22195 Benghazi Higher Institute of Technology (Faculty of Engineering Technology) Medical Laboratory Science Study PO Box 68 Brack Higher Institute of Medical Technology Al-Fateh University of Medical Science P.O. Box 13390 Tripoli examination
Faculty of Medicine University of Sebha P.O. Box 19838 Sebha University of Derna Faculty of Medical Technology Bas-Tubruk Derna Tel: 081 32865- 32868 Faculty of Technology & Medicine P.O. Box 17458 Misurata Tel: 051-619424, 616336 Fax: 051 616 672 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION In 1984 The Jala Medical Technologist Group was formed. 9. EQUIVALENCY / RECIPROCITY Applicants from foreign countries are not eligible to practice in Libya. However, they are usually employed as consultants and technicians in the laboratories of government hospitals and other organizations. For further information please contact: Chairman, Department of Laboratory Medicine Al-Arab medical University P.O. Box 18251 Benghazi
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 13 2 Baccalauréat 3 Baccalauréat Technique Diplôme d’Etat d’Assistant Technique Médical de Laboratoire (State Diploma of Medical Laboratory Assistant) 1 2 3 Studies abroad leading to the examination for Diplôme d’Etat de Laborantin (State Diploma of Laboratorian) 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg is a small country and has no university of its own. Therefore, medical laboratory science training above the secondary level must take place abroad. There are two basic levels of medical laboratory science training recognized in Luxembourg: 1) Medical technical laboratory assistants (Assistants Techniques Médicaux de Laboratoire) 2) Laboratorians (Laborantins) Only the training for medical technical laboratory assistants is offered within the country, at the Luxembourg State School for Medical Technical Laboratory Assistants (Lycée Technique pour Professions de Santé, previously offered at École d’Assistants Techniques Médicaux de Laboratoire). The program is 36 months in duration, and is open to students with a minimum of 11 years of previous schooling. The diploma is obtained by a national examination. At the next level, laboratory assistants must be trained in a specific program abroad lasting a minimum of three years. After these studies, the student returns to Luxembourg and has to submit his/her diploma to the Ministry of Education for national recognition. (Before recent changes in the regulations, the program had to have prior approval from the Ministry of Public Health. After these studies, the student returned to Luxembourg to sit for the national examination for the Diplôme d’ État de Laborantin.) Since November 18, l967 and passage of the “Loi reglementant l’exercise de certaines professions paramédicales” (Law regulating the exercise of certain paramedical professions), the Ministry of Health has registered all qualified laboratory workers. This law has been replaced by “Loi du 26 mars 1992 sur l’exercise et la revalorisation de certaines professions de santé.” 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are two levels of training for laboratory personnel in Luxembourg: 1) Medical technical laboratory assistant - 36 month training course at the secondary education level, followed by national diploma examination Baccalauréat Technique, Diplôme d`Etat d’assistant technique médical.
2) Laboratorian - 3-year program of studies abroad, generally in Belgium, where students attend training called “enseignement technique supérieur de type court” (short higher technical training), followed by national recognition and diploma examination (Diplôme d’Etat de laborantin)
in Luxembourg. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1998 For the Diploma of Medical Technical Laboratory Assistant candidates had to have completed: 1) A total of 11 years of schooling and received the Certificat de fin d’études moyennes, section of biology and social sciences OR 2) The state nursing diploma (Diplôme d’Etat d’infirmier) OR 3) The chemist’s aid certificate (Certificat d’aide chimiste) or a national or foreign education deemed equivalent to above. Applicants also had to have a certificate from a physician attesting to good health, including polio and tetanus vaccination and tuberculosis testing. For the laboratorian program (laborantin), the candidate had to have: 1) Completed a total of 13 years of schooling (Diplôme de fin d’études secondaires) or recognized foreign equivalent; 2) Been admitted into a foreign school where the conditions for admission and the training program itself are recognized by the Ministry of Public Health in Luxembourg. The only foreign schools recognized were those awarding the final diploma after three years of study, i.e. The Baccalauréat or secondary leaving diploma plus three years. This was only possible in Belgium As of 1998 For the Diploma of Medical Technical Laboratory Assistant candidates must have completed: A total of 11 years of schooling and received the Certificat de fin d’études moyennes, section of biology and social sciences, aide chimiste or a national or foreign education deemed equivalent to above. Applicants also should have a certificate from a physician attesting to good health, including polio and tetanus vaccination and tuberculosis testing. For the laboratorian program (laborantin), the candidate must have: Completed a total of 13 years of schooling (Diplôme de fin d’études secondaires) or recognized foreign equivalent, and 3 years of study abroad. The diploma must be recognized by the Ministry of Education 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The medical technical laboratory assistant works under the supervision of the head of the laboratory and the laboratorians. Training for medical technical laboratory is polyvalent, and includes clinical chemistry, microbiology, hematology as well as blood banking. The job description for medical technical laboratory assistants, besides techniques of analysis, includes, among other activities, venous and capillary blood collection, collection of gastric specimens, and eye, throat and cutaneous cultures. Medical laboratory assistants have the possibility of access to training for laboratorians (laborantins), which is obtained abroad, (usually Belgium), and must consist of at least three years of theory and practice in: 1) Biological chemistry. 2) Bacteriology 3) Parasitology. 4) Normal and pathological histology. . 5) Hematology 6) Serology. 7) Virology.
The “State Diploma of Medical Technical Laboratory Assistant” is equivalent to the so-called ‘Bac Technique,’ which is the entry to the Laborantin Diploma. The Laborantin training also must include one year of practical experience in Luxembourg or abroad, in a laboratory approved by the Ministry of Health. As of 2000 the laboratory need only be approved by the school. 6. CURRICULUM Since the training for laboratorians is completed abroad (generally in Belgium) there is no standardized curriculum available. We are describing below the training given for the State Diploma of Medical Technical Laboratory Assistant. Prior to 1999 State Diploma of Medical Technical Laboratory Assistant As of 1993, the program of study consisted of at least 1200 units of theoretical and technical training education (increased by 100 units) and 2350 units of practical experience (decreased from 2800 units). The practical experience required a 36-month training period. (Up to October 1991, practical training was 18 months.) This training had to be undertaken in medical laboratories that had been selected by the Director of the School of Medical Technical Laboratory Assistants. Certain specific training had to be undertaken in a special laboratory. For instance, bacteriology training was undertaken in one of two specific laboratories, the National Health Laboratory or in the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, which was the most important hospital in Luxembourg. After successful completion of the medical technical laboratory assistant program, a national examination for the State Diploma was required. This examination was usually given once each year at the end of each training program. It consisted of written, oral and practical tests on the material covered during the training. The examination was taken in front of an examinations committee named by the Minister of Health and composed of: Two medical doctors; two chemical engineers/Ph.D.’s in sciences; a laboratorian; a medical technical laboratory assistant The written examination consisted of at least 3 tests and the practical examination of at least 2 practical tests. A grade of “Great distinction” (grande distinction) was granted to a candidate who had received at least 85% of the total points; a candidate who received between 75% and 84% of the total points received a grade of “distinction”. Candidates who failed one or two examinations were allowed to repeat those examinations. If more than two examinations were failed, the candidate had to repeat all. Candidates who failed all examinations, or who did not show up for the examinations, were rejected.
Curriculum School for Medical Laboratory Assistants (École d’Assistant Technique Médicaux de Laboratoire) Subject THEORY Theory & Techniques of Clinical Practice Anatomy & Physiology Mathematics & Gen’l Chem. Inorganic & Organic Semiology & Pathology Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Applied Medical Physics Medical Imaging Hygenie Total units of lectures 235 66 96 27 22 22 10 12
Pharmacology Nutrition Professional & Hospital Legislation & Ethics Psychology & Sociology Pediatrics Gerontology Medical Chemistry Pharmacology & Toxicology Immunology & Serology Microbiology & Parasitology Hematology Blood Grouping & Transfusion Techniques in Biochemistry Techniques in Hematology Techniques in Immunology & Serology Techniques in Microbiology & Parasitology Techniques in Blood Grouping Professional visits Total
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10 10 12 20 10 16 226 24 60 50 100 60 90 38 1200 units & 500 70 540 540 200 200 200 100 2350 units
One unit= approximately 50 minutes The state examination for the laboratorian diploma, or “laborantin This examination takes place annually and is open to candidates who have successfully completed their foreign studies and practical work experience and have presented appropriate documentation to this effect. It consists of written, practical and oral tests on the following material: 1) Medical or clinical chemistry. 2) Microbiology: bacteriology, serology, parasitology, and virology. 3) Hematology, current histological technique, and blood groups.
Internal Medicine & Medical Specialties/Surgery Surgical Specialties Medical Imaging Laboratory Analysis in Medical Biology *Medical Chemistry *Hematology, Coagulation & Blood Grouping *Bacteriology *Serology *Anatomo-pathology *Objectives in pursuit of local opportunities Total
As of 1999 Division des professions de santé des professions sociales Cycle supérieur Section de la formation de l’assistant technique médical-laboratoire
Professional Subjects Medical Chemistry Professional Techniques Hematology
YEAR 1 Hrs. per week 2 8 1
* 4 4 3
YEAR 2 Hrs. per * week 4 4 16 4 1.5 4
YEAR 3 Hrs. per week 1.5 22.5 1.5
* 4 4 4
Microbiology Basic ideas Anatomo-pathology Professional Theory Knowledge of the Prof. World Humanities & Social Sciences General Subjects Chemistry English French Information Current Affairs Physics Sports Total * coefficient 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS
0.5 1.5 1 0.5 1 3 2 3 1 1 2.5 1 32
2 4 3 2 2 3 3 2 (2) 2 1 38
1.5 0.5 0.5 1 0.5
4 4 3 2 2
2 1 0.5 32
3 2 1 31
Training for laboratory assistants in Luxembourg may be obtained at the Luxembourg State School for Medical Technical Laboratory Assistants: Lycée technique pour Professions de Santé 27 Rue Barbié L-1211 Luxembourg 8.EQUIVALENCY/ RECIPROCITY In Luxembourg, foreign degrees and diplomas at all levels are quite common and thus are regularly evaluated and recognized by the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Public Health in Luxembourg according to government regulations. 9.PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a) Accreditation The one school for medical technical laboratory assistants is now under the control of the Ministry of Education (Ministère de l’Education Nationale). Previously it was under the Ministry of Public Health as well. b) Certification 1)For medical technical laboratory assistants -a national examination for the “Diplôme d`Etat d’Assistant Technique Médical de Laboratoire”. 2) For Laboratorians - a standardized examination given once per year by the Ministry of Education for the “Diplôme d’Etat de Laborantin”.
c) Registration Since passage of the November l8, l967, law on paramedical education, the Ministry of Health has maintained a registry of qualified laboratory workers. Between l967 and 1998 a total of 300 laboratory assistants were registered. d) Licensure -
As of July l984 “Medical Analysis Laboratories” are licensed. The examination for the Diplôme d’Etat d’Assistant Technique Médical de Laboratoire and the Diplôme d’Etat de Laborantin are licensing examinations.
e) Professional Associations Association Nationale des Laborantins Dipl. p.a. B.P. 1102
L-1011Luxembourg Tel: +352 491191 362 (at Laboratoire National de Santé) Fax: +352 491191 363 For further information please contact the National Association directly at: Marc Flies (President) Association Nationale des Laborantins Dipl A.S.B.L p.a. B.P.1102 L-1011 Luxembourg Tel: 352-491191 362 Fax: 352-491191 363
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1993: 1 Junior Medical Laboratory Technologist * 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 sec. school 1 Malaysian Certificate of Education
1 2 3 4 primary school
School of Medical Laboratory Technology (Institute for Medical Research)
3 Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology
2 Advanced Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology (on-the-job training)
University of Malaya Medical Centre National University of Malaysia University of Science Malaysia Note: * = Phased out from 1989; From 1993:
3 Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology 4 5 Advanced Certificate/Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology **
**= Part-time, (In-service training)
1 2 3 primary school
8 9 10 secondary school
Malaysian Certificate of Education (“Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia”) Higher School Cert. of Education 11 12 13 (“Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia”) 1 2 3 Degree in Biomedical. Science. (B.Sc.) >
Univ. of Malaya Medical. Centre University Putra Malaysia National Univ. of Malaysia Monash University Malaysia College of Medical Laboratory Tech (Institute for Medical Research) University of Malaya Med. Center University University of Science Malaysia MARA Institute of Technology 1 2
↑ ↑ ↑ 3 Diploma in Med. Lab.Technology
> As of 1996. Reduced to 3 years from original 4- year programs. No exemptions given. All students enter the first year.
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Traditionally, the education of personnel for medical laboratories in Malaysia was on-the-job training. However, in the mid1960s formal courses were introduced. In 1963, when the University of Malaya Medical Centre was established, it became clear that there was a serious shortage of Medical Laboratory Assistants (the title ‘Technologist’ was adopted in 1972). To counter this shortage and meet the immediate needs of a new teaching hospital, which was due to open in 1968, a 5-year in-service course in Medical Laboratory Technology began in 1966 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre. The course was designed in two parts: Part 1 consisted of a 3-year multi-disciplinary course leading to the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology; Part 2 consisted of 2-years of advanced training, leading to the Advanced Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology, the equivalent of the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology of other local universities. In 1967 the School of Medical and Health Laboratory Technology of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia established a 3year, full-time course leading to the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology and a 1-year full-time Certificate program for Junior Medical Laboratory Technologist was established. In 1974 the Advanced Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology was introduced. Medical Laboratory Technologists (MLTs) were also trained at the National University of Malaysia (UKM) and the University of Science, Malaysia (USM). The program of study in each of these two universities was similar to that of the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Since 1988, (when the original chapter on Malaysia was included in the first edition of this directory), there have been some significant changes in the field of education and training of Medical Laboratory Technologists. In 1989 the Junior Medical Laboratory Technologist (JLMT) program, which had been established as an interim measure to overcome the acute shortage of Medical Laboratory Technologists, was phased out. JMLTs with the necessary basic academic qualification began to be trained as regular students for an additional 3 years, being absorbed into the main stream of the Medical Laboratory profession as full fledged MLTs. Since 1988, the curriculum and duration of MLT education has also been reviewed and restructured. The 3-year, full-time Certificate course, followed by two years on the job for certification at advanced level, and the 5-year in-service/part-time course, leading to an Advanced Certificate or Diploma, were restructured in 1991 to a 3-year full-time Diploma course, thus eliminating the differences that existed among the various institutions within the country. In addition to Medical Laboratory Technology programs, two of the local universities (University of Malaya Medical Centre and the National University of Malaysia) also offer 4-year degree programs in Biomedical Sciences. All the degree courses in Biomedical Sciences in Malaysia started as 4-year programs. But they all have been converted to 3-year programs as of 1996. The University of Putra Malaysia was the latest institution to start a Biomedical Science course. It enrolled its first students in 1993 and they will graduate in 1997. The course is conducted in the Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Currently two levels of Medical Laboratory Science training are available in Malaysia. 1) A 3-year, full-time post-secondary program leading to a Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology: Offered at the College of Medical Laboratory Technology at the Institute for Medical Research, University of Malaya, the University of Science, Malaysia and MARA Institute of Technology. Graduates from these programs can proceed to the degree courses at local and foreign universities. 2) A 3-year, post-secondary Degree in Biomedical Sciences: Offered at the University of Malaya, the National University of Malaysia and the University of Putra Malaysia. .
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology: Applicants must have the Malaysian Certificate in Education or equivalent with a PASS in Bahasa Malaysia (Malay), English, and a CREDIT PASS in the following subjects: Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and Physics. 2) Degree in Biomedical Sciences: Candidates must have passed the Higher School Certificate (Sciences) matriculation program or equivalent) with a grade of C or better in 3 of the 4 science subjects (Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology). Candidates with a Diploma in Medical Laboratory Sciences will also be considered for entrance to Year 1 of the degree program. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The 3-year full-time Diploma course is offered in 6 semesters. Prior to 1994, the first part of the program, which consisted of 4 semesters, was polyvalent; the final 2 semesters offered bivalent specialization. Since 1993 the program has been generalized with no specialization in the 3rd year. Subjects covered are Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Parasitology, Histology, Immunology, Hematology, Blood Transfusion, Anatomic Pathology and Cytology. Students serve a full-time laboratory internship of 6 weeks each in Anatomic Pathology & Cytology Techniques, Basic Clinical Chemistry, Hematology and Blood Transfusion Techniques, and Diagnostic Microbiology & Parasitology. (See sample curriculum.) Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Sciences is also polyvalent. (See sample curriculum) 6. CURRICULUM 3-year Diploma program in Medical Laboratory Technology School of Medical Laboratory Technology Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur Prior to 1993
YEAR 1 Semester 1 (Basic Sciences) Subject Biological Chemistry Anatomy/Physiology Laboratory Instrumentation & Physics Statistics/Mathematics & Basic Computing I Genetics Immunology Introduction to Pathology YEAR 2 Semester 3 (Field I - Log Book) Chemical Pathology Medical Microbiology Medical Parasitology Hematology Blood Transfusion Cytology Anatomical Pathology Evaluation and Counseling YEAR 3 (Specialization Year) Semester 5 (Field II - Advanced) Subject In one of the following specialized bivalent modules: Module 1 - Chemical Pathology & Nutrition Module 2 - Medical Microbiology & Parasitology Module 3 - Hematology & Blood Transfusion Module 4 - Anatomical Pathology & Cytology Examination for the Diploma
Semester 2 (MLTI - Introduction) Subject Chemical Pathology Medical Microbiology Medical Parasitology Hematology Blood Transfusion Cytology Anatomical Pathology Semester 4 (MLTII - Advanced) Chemical Pathology Medical Microbiology Medical Parasitology Hematology Blood Transfusion Cytology Anatomical Pathology
Semester 6 (MLTIII - Specialization) Subject A. One of the specialization modules as in Sem. 5 B. Basic Computing II C. Management
Years 1 and 2 Semester 1/3 Activity Weeks Teaching and Laboratory Postings 18 18 Revision and Self Study 2 2 Examinations/Tests 2 2 Semester Break 2 6 24 28 52 (3-Year Diploma prior to 1993 cont.) Semester 1 Module Laboratory Techniques I Foundation Studies I Biological Chemistry I Anatomy and Physiology I Molecular Biology & Genetics I Cell Biology Laboratory Computering Laboratory Postings* Semester 2 Laboratory Techniques II Foundation Studies II Biological Chemistry II Anatomy and Physiology II Molecular Biology & Genetics II Immunology Statistics and Data Processing Laboratory Postings * Semester 3 Clinical Biochemistry I Histopathology and Cytology I Hematology I Blood Transfusion I Medical Microbiology I Laboratory Animal Sciences I Parasitology I Communication Skills Laboratory postings * 240 240 240 Hours
3-year Diploma program in Medical Laboratory Technology University of Malaya Medical Centre Prior to 1993
Semester 2/4 Weeks
40 4 2 6
Year 3 Semester 5 & 6 Weeks
Contact Hours Per Semester 70 90 70 50 30 50 50 Total 410
90 50 70 Total 410
70 70 30 30
60 60 50 Total 430
60 60 60 50 30
Semester 4 Module Clinical Biochemistry II Histopathology and Cytology II Hematology II Blood Transfusion II Medical Microbiology II Laboratory Animal Sciences II Parasitology II Laboratory Postings * 240
Contact Hours Per Semester 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 Total 400
* Laboratory posting starts with day one. The time table is arranged so that the students will attend lectures, tutorials and practicals in the morning and the laboratory postings in the afternoon.
Year 3- Semesters 5 & 6 Candidates must specialize in one of the following packages in Semester 5 and 6. The acceptance of candidates to study in any one of the package specializations is subject to the approval of the sponsoring institution/ body. The School reserves the right not to offer any of the package specializations in any given year.
Package 1. Anatomic Pathology
2. Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry 3. Experimental Physiology Physiology 40 and Pharmacology Pharmacology Animal Laboratory Sciences 28 4. Hematology and Hematology 54 Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion 54 5. Medical Microbiology Bacteriology 30 Virology 30 Mycology 18 Parasitology 30 6. Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Medicine 108 7. In-vivo Technology Cardiovascular & Respiratory Function Technology 27 Clinical Neurophysiology & Electroencephalography 27 Surgical Perfusion Technology 27 Renal Dialysis Technology 27
Subject Histopathology Cytology Electron Microscopy Clinical Biochemisrty
Theory ( Hours ) 45 36 27 108
Laboratory posting(weeks) 16 14 10 40 40 15 10 20 20 10 8 10 40 10 10 10 10 28
Year 1- Semester 1 Subject
3-year Diploma program in Medical Laboratory Technology University of Malaya Medical Centre 1994 to present
Basic Biochemistry 1 Basic Anatomy Cell Biol & Intro. Genetics Basic Lab. Techniques 1 Lab. Math. & Basic Stats. 1 Basic Computing Skills Total Special Lab Internship Semester 2 Basic Biochemistry II Basic Human Physiology Intro. Microbiology Intro. Parasitology Basic Lab. Techniques II Basic Histological Tech. Total Special Semester Year 2 Semester 3 Intro. Cellular Pathology Basic Immunology Intro. Anal. Biochem. Microbial Infection Bacterial Pathogens Lab. Math.& Basic Stats II Total Special Lab. Internship Semester 4 Basic Prac. Hematology Basic Histopathology & Cytology Techniques Basic Clinical Chemistry I Prac. Blood Transfusion Total Special Semester Year 3 -Semester 5 Anatomic Pathology & Cytology Techniques Basic Clinical Chem. II Hematology & Blood Transfusion Techniques Introductory Diagnostics Microbio. & Parasitology Total
Contact Hrs 30 30 30 15 15 15 135
Credit Hrs 2 2 2 1 1 1 9
Prac. ClassesInternship Contact Credit Hrs Hrs 45 1 45 1 45 1 45 1 180 4 4 weeks 45 45 45 45 45 225 8 weeks 45 45 45 45 45 225 4 weeks 45 45 45 45 180 4 weeks 45 90 45 90 270 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 2 6
30 30 15 15 15 15 120 !5 15 30 30 15 15 120 15 15 15 15 60 15 30 15 15 75
2 2 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 2 2 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 5
Semester 6 Core Lecture: Prin. of Lab. 15 1 30 1 Practice *Full-time lab. Internship 6 weeks in each 24 weeks 12 area *Course Components Laboratory Internship in each of the 4 disciplines Assigned Laboratory Exercises and Discussions Oral Presentations of assigned exercises. Laboratory Internships During the mid-semester breaks and special semesters, the students will be assigned to various laboratories for internships that are appropriate to the stage of their training program.
Level 1-Semester 1 Course Credits Foundational Anatomy: Intermediate Course 3 Intro. Human Physiology 3 Intro. Biochemistry I 3 Essential Medical Microbiology 3 General English I* 2 Total credits 14 Semester 2 Intro. Biochemistry II 3 Cell Biology & Genetics 3 Intro. Course in Biostatistics 2 Intro. Course in Computer Science* 2 Basic Parasitology 2 General English II * 2 Total credits 14 Electives Basic Laboratory Techniques and Procedures I 2 each & II Med. Laboratory Techniques I-Histological 2 Techniques Med. Laboratory Techniques II- Anal. 3 Biochem. Laboratory Mathematics and Statistics 2 University Courses 2-4 Co-curricular Course 2 Special Semester Elective Laboratory Posting (6 weeks) 3 * These courses will be offered on pass/fail basis Level 2- Semester 1 Core Courses Principles of Epidemiology & Research 1 Design Cellular & Molecular Genetics 3 Basic Course in General Pathology 3 Introductory Course in Immunology 2 Principles of Gen’l Pharmacology & 3 Toxicology Nuclear Medicine Technology: Basic Course 2 English for Specific Purposes I 2 Modular Course* Microbial Infection 2 Intro. Diagnostic Microbiology I 3 Total Credits from Core and Modular Courses 21 Semester 2 Core Courses English for Specific Purposes II 2 Modular Courses* Principles of Molecular Biology 3 Courses in Diagnostic Clinical Chemistry 3 Basic Course in Systems Pathology 1 Basic Course in Practical Anatomic Pathology 3 Basic Course in Practical Hematology & 5 Technology Introductory Diagnostic Microbiology II 3 Total Credits from Core Modular Courses 18 Elective Courses Medical Physiology & Pharmacology 3 Nuclear Medicine Technology: Intermediate 3 Course Parasites of Med. Importance & Diagnostic 3 Technique University Course 2 -4 Co-curricular Course 2
* Students are to select 4 of the modular subjects (200 level) or achieve minimum credit of 13.
B.Sc. in Biomedical Sciences University of Malaya Medical Centre - 1996
Special Semester Research Project in Biomedical Sciences Level 3 - Semester 1 Core Courses Principles and Practice of Management Modular Courses
Application and Advances in Molecular Biology Advanced in Prac. Hematology & Transfusion Technology. Advanced Medical Microbiology I Total Credits from core and modular courses Semester 2 Modular Courses Advanced Course in Practical Anatomic Pathology Diagnostic Clinical Chemistry II Advanced Medical Microbiology II Total credits from modular courses Elective Courses Advanced Diagnostic Microbiology I & 2 Applied Immunology Advances in Cellular Pathology Advanced Physiology & Pharmacology Nuclear Medicine Technology: Advanced Course Advanced Course in Diagnostic Parasitology Biochemical Toxicology Advanced Enzymology Applied and Industrial Biochemistry Human Resource Management Immunogenetics University Courses Co-curricular Course
3 3 2 4 4 2 10 3 each 10
3 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 2 2-4 2
Year 3 students are to select at least 4 of the above Modular courses: Minimum credit value of 10.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS The College of Medical Laboratory Technology Institute for Medical Research Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur Department of Allied Health Sciences University of Malaya Medical Centre. University of Malay 50603 Kuala Lumpur Faculty of Allied Health Sciences National University of Malaysia Jalan Raja Muda 50603 Kuala Lumpur Medical Laboratory Technology Program School of Medical Sciences University of Science, Malaysia Kubang Kerian 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan Dept. of Biomedical & Health Sciences University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor School of Arts and Science Monash University Malaysia 2 Jalan Kolej, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor D.E., Malaysia.
Dept. of Med. Lab. Tech. School of Allied Sciences MARA Institute of Technology 40450 Shah Alam Selangor 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The training of Medical Laboratory Technologists is carried out by the Ministry of Health and the local universities. The programs are tailored to the requirements of the universities and accreditation is accorded by these training institutions. The Ministry of Health will be tabling a bill in the Parliament to accredit allied health workers and also medical laboratories. When it is passed it will provide the guidelines for licensure, certification and registration. (b) Licensure/Certification/Registration None. (c) Professional Association President/Secretary Malaysian Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences c/o Institute for Medical Research 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 9. EQUIVALENCY/ RECIPROCITY Unlike other allied health personnel, Medical Laboratory Technologists have been trained in Malaysia for a long time. Although staff shortages have been reported, technologists have never been recruited from overseas. Foreign qualifications in Medical Laboratory Sciences have been accredited. Malaysian Medical Laboratory Technologists have been admitted to practice and to further their education in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. For further information contact: President/Secretary Malaysian Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences C/o Institute for Medical Research Jalan Pahang 50588 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Kuala Lumpur or R. Saminathan, F.M.I.M.L.S. Science Laboratory Monash University Malaysia 2 Jalan Kolej, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya Selangor D.E. Malaysia. Fax : 56360622 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 School Certificate 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Higher School Certificate/Baccalauréat secondary school 1 2* Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate** 3* 4* Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology/ Diplôme en Technologie Médicale Note: * = Part-time program ** = This program has been discontinued from 1983. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Students begin their school education at the age of five and attend six years of primary school followed by 7 years at the secondary level, which is divided into a 3-year junior secondary program, a 2-year program leading to the School Certificate and an additional 2 years for the Higher School Certificate. Prior to 1972, students interested in medical laboratory work were recruited by the Ministry of Health to undertake a 2year laboratory science training program in Great Britain. At the end of the 2 years, students who successfully passed an examination were awarded an Associate of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Science (AIMLS) or the Higher National Certificate. In 1972 the University of Mauritius instituted a program, modeled on the Institute of Medical Laboratory Science in London, which led to a Diploma of Medical Laboratory Technology at the end of 4 years part-time study. The program also led to a Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology, which was issued at the end of the second year examination at the University of Mauritius. The certificate enabled the trainee technicians to be promoted to the grade of Junior Laboratory Technician. This grade was abolished in 1983. Those technicians who pass either the second or third year but fail their Diploma examinations at the end of their fourth year, can be employed as Laboratory Assistants, which is basically the same as the older Junior Laboratory Technician position. Applicants to this program had to hold a Higher School Certificate as Student Laboratory Trainees. In the first year the program focussed on Biology, Chemistry, Physics and an Introduction to Medical Laboratory Techniques. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There is now only one educational level for Medical Technology personnel. It entails 4 years basically part-time study at the University of Mauritius, leading to the Diploma of Medical Laboratory Technology (Diplôme de Technologie). In the first year the students attend the university full-time except on Saturdays. In the following 3 years they attend the university 3 days per week. In the remaining 3 days of the week they do in-service training at different laboratories on the island designated by the University. To qualify for entry to this program the student must hold the Higher School Certificate following 13 years of schooling. The student is employed as a Student Laboratory Trainee (“Etudiant en technologie médicale”).
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Admission to the 4-year Medical Laboratory Technology program requires a pass on the Higher Secondary School Certificate/Baccalauréat, following 13 years of schooling, GCE ‘Advanced’ Level or equivalent qualification. Entrance is competitive. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Training in Medical Laboratory Technology is polyvalent and includes: Microbiology, Parasitology, Chemical Pathology, Hematology, Blood Transfusion, Histopathology. Students can specialize in the above subjects in their 3rd and 4th years. Successful completion of the Medical Laboratory Technology program allows a graduate to work as technologist. They may focus in their fields of specialization (Biochemistry, Microbiology, Hematology, or Serology). Depending on experience there are 4 levels of employment (not including the Student Laboratory Trainee): 1) Laboratory technician (Technologiste Médicale) 2) Senior Laboratory Technician (Technologiste Supérieur) 3) Principal Laboratory Technician (Principal Technicien) 4) Chief Technician (Le Chief Technicien) 6. CURRICULUM
University of Mauritius 4-year part-time Medical Laboratory Technology Program Hours lecture 120 120 180 120 90 105 60 105 60 Hours lecture Hours Practical 240 48 hrs minor + 72 if major 48 hrs minor + 72 if major 48 hrs minor + 72 if major 48 hrs minor + 72 if major 48 hrs minor + 72 if major 48 hrs minor + 72 if major Hours Practical 120 120 -120
Years 1 and 2 Biology (including Physiology) Chemistry (General, Organic & Physical) Biochemistry Physics & Instrumentation Mathematics Medical Laboratory Sciences: Hematology & Blood Group Serology Chemical Pathology Microbiology &Parasitology Histopathology Years 3 and 4 Cell Biology/Human Physiology *Microbiology *Parasitology *Chemical Pathology *Hematology *Blood Transfusion *Histopathology
* Specialization in principal subject plus an additional subject (For example: Biochemistry as Major subject, Histopathology as Minor subject). Students are required to pass examinations in the subjects studied each year before proceeding to the next year. At the end of 4 years they take examinations supervized by a member from the Institute of Medical Laboratory Science in London. The MLT Program is accredited by the University of Mauritius.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS University of Mauritius Réduit Mauritius Practical training is undertaken at: Major Laboratories The Pathology Laboratory S.S.R.N.H. Hospital Pamplemousses Mauritius The Pathology Laboratory Abdool Galfoar Jeetoo Hospital Port-Louis, Maritius The Pathology Laboratory Pandit J. Nehru Hospital Rose-Belle, Mauritius Central Health Laboratory Candos Mauritius 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Technicians who pass the 2nd or 3rd year of the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology can be employed as Laboratory Assistants. Those who complete the 4-year program and obtain the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology may practice as Medical Laboratory Technologists in government laboratories. Those who wish to run a private laboratory must obtain a permit from the Ministry of Health. (a) Accreditation Medical Laboratory Technology programs are accredited by the University of Mauritius and the Ministry of Health. (b) Professional Associations The Medical Laboratory Technicians Association Central Laboratory Candos, Mauritius Association Internationnel des Techniciens Biologistes Mauricien c/o Ramduth Teeluckdharry Calabasses Near Gov’t School, Mauritius 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY The U.K. Higher National Certificate, degrees in Sciences and diplomas in MLT from the United States and European countries are recognized qualifications to practice as a Medical Laboratory Technician in Mauritius. Graduates from the Mauritian Medical Laboratory Technology Program have had opportunities for further education at universities abroad. For example, until 1996, Diploma holders were eligible to obtain a Master of Science in Biomedical Science in the U.K. (British universities) after either a 1- or 2-year course. Minor Laboratories Pathology Laboratory Mahebourgh Hospital Mahebourg Mauritius Pathology Laboratory Souillac Hospital Souillac Pathology Laboratory E.N.T. Hospital Vacoas
For further information contact: Association Internationale des technicians Biologistes- Mauritius Calbasses, near Government School Mauritius Tel: 230 202 3000 230 212 5265
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1990 1 2 3 4 primary 5 6 7 8 9 Secondary Intermediate Level School Leaving Certificate 1 1 2 2.5 Certificate Intermediate Level (I.Sc.) Cert. Med. Lab Technology
Proficiency Certificate Level
Since 1990 1 2 3 Primary 4 5 6 Secondary 7 8 9
Bachelor in Med. Lab. Technology (BMLT)
10 School Leaving Certificate 11 12 Higher Sec. School Leaving Cert. Higher Sec. 1 2 ⁄ 1 Intermediate Cert. in Science (I.Sc.) .5 Proficiency Cert. Med. Lab Technology Bachelor Med. Lab. 2 3 Technology (BMLT)*
* Prior to 1996 the Bachelor’s degree required only 2 years. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Education in Nepal generally begins when a child reaches 6 years of age. Primary education lasts three years and until 1990, was followed by seven years of secondary education. Students who successfully completed this level and received the School Leaving Certificate could go on to the Proficiency Certificate Level (PCL), leading to a Certificate of Medical Laboratory Technology after 2.5 years. To receive a Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT), students with the PCL had to successfully complete another two years study at the University level. In 1990, educational policy changed. Previously admission to the Certificate level program had been the School Leaving Certificate (10 years schooling),and the program leading to the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology was 2 1/2 years. After 1990 when the 12 year program of primary/ secondary school was introduced, students admitted to the Proficiency Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology study needed only 1.5 years to complete the program. Medical laboratory training began around 1960 with training in laboratory procedures that would help pathologists. Certificate level academic programs in Health Laboratory Science were introduced at the Central Campus of Tribhuvan University in 1972 when the Institute of Medicine was established; the 2-year Bachelor’s degree in Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT) was introduced in 1987. In 1996 it became a 3-year program. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are two educational levels for Medical Technology personnel: 1) The Proficiency Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology Previous to 1990 this program lasted 2.5 years. Since 1990 it takes 1.5 years following the School Leaving Certificate or Intermediate Certificate in Science (I.Sc.) (10 + 2 or 12 years) . The Proficiency Certificate is divided into two parts : one year of academic study followed by 6 months practical experience. During the first year the student studies
basic concepts in Microbiology, Parasitology, Hematology, Histopathology and Biochemistry. Primary Health Care and Maternal and Child Health are also taught. An annual examination tests the knowledge and skill of each student. During the last 6 months students do Health Laboratory Technique Field Practice. A practical and oral examination at the end assesses competency to become a laboratory technician. 2) The Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT) Prior to 1996 the BMLT, which required the Proficiency Certificate for admission, took two years of study and working experience. Since 1996 the University program has required three years after the Proficiency Certificate or the Intermediate Certificate. During this time, students take classes and work in a laboratory to learn prescribed skills in the course and to run day to day laboratory experiments. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) The Proficiency Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology Until 1990 admission to the program leading to the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology required the School Leaving Certificate Since 1990 admission requires the Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate or Intermediate Certificate in Science (I.Sc.). There is a single entrance examination and admission is based on merit. 2) Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology Admission to the BMLT program requires: a) The Proficiency Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology , or b) The Higher Secondary School Certificate or the Intermediate Certificate in Science. A qualifying required and admission is on a merit basis. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Technology education is polyvalent. Those working for the Proficiency Certificate undertake courses in Microbiology, Parasitology, Hematology, Histopathology and Biochemistry. Studies at the BMLT level include: Medical-microbiology, Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, including Blood Banking, Histopathology and Cytology. There are two levels of employment in Medical Laboratory Science: 1) Technician. Those with the Proficiency Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology may work under supervision of the Chief Technician in a hospital laboratory. 2) Technologist. Those with the Bachelor in Medical Laboratory Technology may perform routine and special laboratory investigations on clinical and non-clinical subjects independently; interpret results and explain principles; assist and take part in research activities; participate in teaching/learning activities; set up zonal-level medical laboratories; perform managerial work. 6. CURRICULUM Proficiency Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology: During the first year the student studies basic concepts in Microbiology, Parasitology , Hematology, Histopathology and Biochemistry, Primary Health Care and Maternal and Child health. An annual examination tests the knowledge and skill of each student. During the last 6 months students do Health Laboratory Technique Field Practice. A practical and oral examination at the end assesses competency to become a laboratory technician.
Prior to 1996 Bachelor in Medical Technology (BMLT) The BMLT course is divided into 4 major subjects: Medical Microbiology, Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, Histopathology & Cytology. Each of the subjects has a 100 full mark in each academic year. 2-Year Med. Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT) Tribhuvan University 1995
Subject Medical Microbiology Clinical Biochemisrty Hematology Histopathology & Cytology
Evaluation methodology: Internal Assessment Final Examination
U.S. Equiv. Credits Year 1 Year 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Total 32 32
First Year 20 marks 80 marks
U.S. Equiv. Credits 8 8 8
Second Year 20 marks 80 marks
Grading Pass marks: Theory 50% and Practical 60% Since 1996 Bachelor in Medical Technology (BMLT) The BMLT course is divided into 4 major subjects: Medical Microbiology, Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, Histopathology & Cytology. Each of the subjects has a 100 full mark in each academic year. 3-Year Med. Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT) Tribhuvan University 1996
Year 1,2 &3 Subject
Theory √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
Practice √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
Microbiology Bacteriology & Immunology Parasitology Virology Mycology Clinical Biochemisrty Hematology Hematology Blood Banking Histopathology &Cytology Histopathology (including Histo-technology) Cytopathlogy Anatomy & Physiology
Total U.S. equivalent credits 4 2 1 1 8 6 2 4 2 2
Pass marks: Theory 50% and Practical 60%
Total each year 32
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS As of 1996 only one institution provides Medical Laboratory Technology programs: Institute of Medicine Tribhuvan University Maharajgung Kathmandu, Nepal 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a) Accreditation Tribuhavan University accredits the Medical Laboratory Technology programs . b) Licensing and Certification Nepal Health Professional Council has been formed since 2000. This council is licensing body in Nepal for the health laboratory professional. c) Professional Association Nepal Association for Medical Laboratory Science Department of Microbiology TU Teaching College P.O. Box 3578 Kathmandu, Nepal 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Foreign-trained medical Laboratory personnel can practice in Nepal, but are supposed to get permission from the Ministry of Health of the Government of Nepal. For further information contact: N.P. Thapaliya, Assistant Registrar Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine P.O. Box 1524 Maharajgunj, Kathmandu NEPAL Tel: 4 12040, 4-10911, 4-13729 Fax: 4 18186 or Prof. Nhuchhe Ratna Tuladhar Tribhuvan University, Micobiology Lab. P.O. Box 1524 Maharajgunj, Kathmandu NEPAL
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE G.C.E. ‘O’ Level/ W.A.S.C. S.S.S.C.E. G.C.E. ‘A’ Level/ 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 secondary school 13 (+ J.A.M.B. Exam) Universities 1 2 3 4
Bachelor of Medical 5 Laboratory Science Degree (B.M.L.S.) Associate of the I.M.L.T 6 (A.I.M.L.T.) Diploma *
Bachelor of Science Degree 4 (B.Sc.) Conversion Course /3 yrs Associate of the I.M.L.T. (A.I.M.L.T.) Diploma
Schools of Medical Laboratory Technology
Schools of Medical Laboratory Technology Schools of Medical Laboratory Technology
Associate of the I.M.L.T. 4 (A.I.M.L.T.) Diploma ** Fellow of the I.M.L.T. 2 (F.I.M.L.T.) Diploma
Note: G.C.E. ‘O’ Level = General Certificate of Education ‘Ordinary’ Level (Cambridge) G.C.E. ‘A’ Level = General Certificate of Education ‘Advanced’ Level (Cambridge) W.A.S.C. = West African School Certificate Examinations S.S.S.C.E. = Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations J.A.M.B. Exam = Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Examinations B.M.L.S. = Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science I.M.L.T. = Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology - Nigeria * = 1-year supervised internship ** = Plans are underway to phase out this program and introduce a 5-year direct A.I.M.L.T. program in 1997
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND In Nigeria, the training of Medical Laboratory Scientists is a 5-year Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science (B.M.L.S.) program which began in the mid-1980s, and is now available at four universities. Successful completion of this program plus one year of supervised internship leads to the qualification of Associate of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology (A.I.M.L.T). Admission requires completion of secondary school, success at the Nigeria Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) Examination, and a minimum of 5 credit passes in Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and English Language at the General Certificate of Education Examinations (G.C.E.) at ‘Ordinary’ level/ West African School Certificate Examinations (W.A.S.C.); OR the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (S.S.S.C.E.). This admission requirement is the same for other health professions such as Medicine and Pharmacy. There are also 10 Schools of Medical Laboratory Technology running a 4-year A.I.M.L.T. Diploma program. The admission requirement for these schools is the same as for the university programs. This pathway is currently being seriously considered for gradual phasing-out in line with the trend in other parts of the world. Plans are underway to commence a 5year program for the direct A.I.M.L.T. program by the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology in 1997. The Schools of Medical Laboratory Technology also run the 2-year Fellowship program (Fellow of the I.M.L.T.) which may be by written examinations or a thesis. They also provide a 24 or 36-month conversion program for B.Sc. applied science graduates desiring to become Medical Laboratory Scientists. Until 1968, when the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology of Nigeria (l.M.L.T.-Nigeria) was established, the training of Medical Laboratory Technologists in Nigeria followed the system in the United Kingdom. The training was both organized and supervised by the Institute of Medical Laboratory Science in London. This meant that the Nigerian Medical Technologists either took their full program of training in the United Kingdom or started their training program in Nigeria by taking the examinations of the I.M.L.S., London, up to the Intermediate level, after which the final training was undertaken in approved laboratories in the United Kingdom. Since the establishment of the I.M.L.T.-Nigeria, the full educational program is completed in Nigeria under the general supervision of the Institute, which awards the diplomas to successful candidates. The I.M.L.T. is a government statutory body established by Decree No. 56 of 1968, which is currently being processed for amendment. In conjunction with the Nigeria University Commission, the I.M.L.T.-Nigeria also accredits the degree program in Medical Laboratory Science. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are 4 levels of Medical Laboratory Science training: (i). Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Science - requires 5 years of undergraduate training. (ii). The Associate of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology - requires 4 years of undergraduate training or 2-3 years for holders of B.Sc. in fields related to Medical Laboratory Science at a School of Medical Technology. Graduates of Medical Laboratory Sciences from Nigerian Universities are required to undergo 1-year supervised internship prior to registration as Associate Members of the I.M.L.T. of Nigeria. (iii). Fellow of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology - requires a minimum of 2 years of study following the B.M.L.S./A.I.M.L.T. (iv). M.Sc., M.Phil. & Ph.D. in various fields of Medical Laboratory Science - requires 1-4 years of full-time studies following the B.M.L.S./A.I.M.L.T. Specific duration is dependent on degree in view. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS (i) Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science• Pass at the credit level in the following subjects: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and English Language at the Senior Secondary School Certificate, G.C.E. ‘O’ Level or
W.A.S.C. examination, AND • Pass at the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (J.A.M.B.) Examination, OR • Direct entry for B.Sc. holders or 3 passes at the ‘Advanced’ Level G.C.E. in Physics, Biology and Chemistry, with a credit pass in English at the ‘O’ Level. (ii) Associate of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology• Pass at the credit level in the following subjects: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and English Language at the Senior Secondary School Certificate, G.C.E. or W.A.S.C. examination. • Holders of B.Sc. in fields related to Medical Laboratory Science are admitted for 2-3 years of training and examination. (iii) Fellow of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology• Admission to the 2-year program for the Fellowship diploma requires at least 2 years post admittance as B.M.L.S. or A.I.M.L.T, and success in examination. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The training of Nigerian Medical Technologists is specialized and the respective degrees or diplomas are awarded in the following specialities: Histopathology, Chemical Pathology, Hematology and Blood Group Serology, Bacteriology, Parasitology and Virology. At both the degree and diploma levels, speciality training follows coursework and clinical postings in all laboratory concentrations. With this diploma/degree the Medical Laboratory Scientist can work in Medical and Veterinary Laboratories, Universities, Research Institutes or in any relevant industry. The Government, through the Ministry of Health, accords professional recognition to Medical Laboratory Science as a distinct health profession in its health delivery system. This places qualified Medical Laboratory Scientists on the same salary level as other university graduates on joining the govemment service. Special remunerations like call duty allowance, hazard, inducement, etc., gives the Medical Laboratory Scientist an edge over many other graduates. In addition to the Ministry of Health, other major employers of Medical Laboratory Scientists include the universities, Ministries of Science & Technology, Agriculture & Natural Resources, various research institutes and relevant areas in industries like the brewery etc. There is a large increase in the self-employment trend of Medical Laboratory Scientists in areas as diverse as private clinical diagnostic laboratories, manufacture of laboratory equipment, production and sales of laboratory supplies through management consulting to general business. This has been of tremendous benefit to the Nigerian populace, especially in the provision of better health care, since the governmental health institutions cannot always cope with demands. A large number of Medical Laboratory Scientists have acquired higher degrees (M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D.). This acquisition has not led to abandonment of normal duties. It has, rather, aided operational research. It is also now possible for a Medical Laboratory Scientist to become a director of a group without changing career. 6. CURRICULUM The broad philosophy of medical education in Nigeria as it affects Medical Laboratory Science is: (a) to provide an indepth scientific and professional background for the production of Medical Laboratory Scientists who would be capable of working anywhere in Nigeria, especially with reference to Primary Health Care; (b) to produce Medical Laboratory Scientists who would satisfy internationally recognizable standards and who could undertake further training towards full specialization; and (c) to produce Medical Laboratory Scientists with sufficient management ability to play leadership role in training and the practice of laboratory science. University education is important to the growth of any profession. Optimal professional Medical Laboratory Science education can best be achieved in the University with facilities to provide a foundation for general education in the various
sciences and humanities. Medical Laboratory Science is a very dynamic profession with continuous emergence of new procedures and instruments which justify adequate orientation for operational research by practitioners. The graduates are therefore expected to keep pace with changing trends. The Medical Laboratory Scientist is expected to: (a) perform effectively in Hospital Diagnostic Services, Preventive and Public Health Services, Research, Academics and in Quality Assurance in industries; (b) function independently or in collaboration with other members of the health team in the care of individuals and groups in the community in primary, secondary and tertiary health services; (c) produce biological and diagnostic reagents as well as fabricate and maintain laboratory equipment. Sample Curriculum (i) Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science (B.M.L.S.)* YEAR 1 Course Title 1st Semester Introductory Biology I Introductory Physics I Introductory Chemistry I General Mathematics Nigeria Heritage Use of English I Basic Psychology Total Course Title 2nd Semester Introductory Biology II Introductory Physics II Genetics and Cytology Use of English II Philosophy and Logic Introduction to Computer Sciences Introductory Chemistry II Total YEAR 2 Course Title 1st Semester Gross Anatomy I Gross Anatomy II Introduction to Biochemistry Chemistry of Biological Molecules Metabolism and Bioenergetics General Principles of Physiology, Blood and Body Fluids Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems Introduction to Medical Laboratory Science I Total Credit Units 3 3 3 3 3 2 20 Credit Units 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 20
3 YEAR 1
Credit Units 2 2 2 2 2
2nd Semester Histology and Gross Anatomy Nutritional Biochemistry Special Topics in Biochemistry Gastrointestinal and Reproductive Endocrinology Nerves & Autonomic Nervous Systems 3 Introduction to Medical Laboratory Science II Introduction to Medical Laboratory Science III Total YEAR 3 Course Title 1st Semester Biomedical Electronics General Microbiology Pharmacology Medical Laboratory Science Ethics Medical Physics Biometrics Laboratory Posting Total YEAR 3 Course Title 2nd Semester Computer Applications General Pathology Laboratory Posting Instrumentation Immunology I Laboratory Management & Organization Total
2 2 2 4 2 18
Credit Units 3 3 3 2 3 3 20 Credit Units 3 3 3 3 19
YEAR 4 Course Title Credit Units 1st Semester Basic Chemical Pathology 3 Basic Parasitology/Medical Entomology 3 Basic Hematology 3 Basic Blood Group Serology 3 Basic Histopathology 3 Virology 2 Basic Bacteriology/Mycology 3 Immunology II 2 Total 22 2nd Semester Clinical Posting in all Sections (Built-in Internship) 12 Total 12
YEAR 5 CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY (Specialty) Course Title Ist Semester Chemical Pathology I Chemical Pathology II Chemical Pathology III Research Methodology Enzymology Project Laboratory Posting Total
Credit Units 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 18
CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY (Specialty) Course Title Credit Units 2nd Semester Endocrinology 2 Toxicology 2 Advanced Chemical Pathology Techniques 3 Seminar 2 Project 3 Laboratory Posting 3 Total 15 HISTOPATHOLOGY (Specialty) 1st Semester Histopathology I 3 Histopathology II 2 Histopathology III 3 Exfoliative Cytology 2 Research Methodology 2 Laboratory Posting 3 Project 3 Total 18 YEAR 5 HISTOPATHOLOGY (Specialty) Course Title Credit Units 2nd Semester Seminar 2 Project 3 Cytogenetics 2 Advanced Histopathology Techniques & Embalment 3 Museum Laboratory Techniques 3 Laboratory Posting 3 Total 15 HEMATOLOGY/BLOOD GROUP SEROLOGY (Specialty) 1st Semester Hematology I 3 Hematology II 2 Blood Group Serology I 3 Blood Group Serology II 2 Research Methods 3 Project 3 Laboratory Posting 3 Total 18
2nd Semester Project Seminar Laboratory Posting Cytogenetics Advanced Hematological Techniques Advanced Blood Group Serology Techniques Total
3 2 3 2 3 2 15
MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY/PARASITOLOGY (Specialty) Course Title Credit Units 1st Semester Medical Microbiology I 3 Medical Microbiology II 2 Advanced Parasitology/Epidemiology 2 Public Health Microbiology 3 Project 3 Laboratory Posting 3 Research Methodology 2 Total 18 2nd Semester Medical Mycology 2 Pharmaceutical Micro. and Adv. Techniques 3 Seminar 2 Project 3 Microbial Genetics 2 Laboratory Posting 3 Total 15 * = The above curriculum is recommended I.A.M.L.T. curriculum, 1991, initiated at the University of Calabar 1995/96; Imo State University 1992/93; The University of Nigeria, and Rivers State University of Science and Technology 1993/94. (ii) Associate of the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology (A.I.M.L.T.) The 4-year, direct AIMLT program consists of lectures, seminars, practical classes/work, and a research project in the area of the specialty. The program is divided into 4 parts: Part 1 : 6 months full-time course in basic sciences after which there is an examination. Part 2 : 6 months full-time course at a university following success in Part 1. The subjects cover the basic sciences at an advanced level. Part 3 : 18 months in an approved medical laboratory with lectures and practical in all areas of Medical Laboratory Science. The practical experience is on a rotational basis to all the various disciplines in the laboratory. Part 4 : 18 months of theory and practice in the subject area of specialization. Subject Part 1 Use of English Language Introduction to Medical Sociology & Psychology Mathematics Statistics Chemistry Biology General Applied Science Physics Hours of Lecture 60 60 60 180 60
180 90 60
Subject Hours of Lecture Part 2 Anatomy 90 Histology 60 Biochemistry 150 Physical Chemistry 90 Pharmacology 90 General Microbiology 90 Introductory Computer Science 90 Physiology 150 Part 3 Bacteriology Lectures, practicals Chemical Pathology and laboratory Hematology postings for three Blood Group Serology terms of 6 months Parasitology each. Histopathology Part 4 Advanced lectures, practicals, seminars, laboratory postings and research project work and presentation/oral defense in the area of specialization (iii) Fellow of the I.M.L.T.(F.I.M.L.T.) The Fellowship of the Institute may be obtained by submission of an acceptable and successfully defended thesis by an Associate who has been a member for not less than 2 years at the time of enrollment, OR by examination. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS (i) B.M.L.S. Program Department of Medical Laboratory Science College of Medicine University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu Department of Medical Laboratory Science Rivers State University of Science and Technology P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt Department of Medical Laboratory Science College of Medical Sciences University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar Department of Medical Laboratory Science Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000, Owern Date 1982/83
Some other Universities in Nigeria have plans to commence degree programs in Medical Laboratory Science. (ii) A.I.M.L.T. Diploma Program School of Medical Laboratory Technology Lagos University Teaching Hospital Sumlere, Lagos
Federal School of Medical Laboratory Technology Jos, Plateau State School of Medical Laboratory Technology University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Edo State School of Medical Laboratory Technology University College Hospital Ibadan School of Medical Laboratory Technology Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife Federal College of Medical and Veterinary Laboratory Science National Veterinary Research Institute P.O. Box 19, Vom School of Medical Laboratory Technology Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria School of Medical Laboratory Technology University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu School of Medical Laboratory Technology University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital Port-Harcourt, Rivers State School of Medical Laboratory Technology University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation All the Departments of Medical Laboratory Science in the Universities and the Schools of Medical Laboratory Technology are run by the Government. The degree program is accredited by the Nigeria National Universities Commission in conjunction with the Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology (I.M.L.T.). The diploma program is accredited by the I.M.L.T (b)Certification Medical Laboratory Scientists are admitted, registered and licensed by the I.M.L.T.: The Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology of Nigeria 8 Harvey Road (Block D) P.M.B. 1048, Yaba-Lagos Tel: 01-863368
(c) Licensure Medical Laboratory Scientists are admitted, registered and licensed by the I.M.L.T. (d) Professional Association The Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria is legally recognized, following its registration by relevant Government agencies. After several collective bargaining negotiations with the Government, the new designation of ‘Medical Laboratory Scientist’ is now acceptable and plans are at advanced stages to rename the Institute (see above): Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria c/o Mr. A.O. Emeribe, KSM Department of Hematology College of Medical Sciences Tel: (087) 225814/222409 extn. 248 University of Calabar Fax: (010) 234-87-220143 Calabar 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY There is a government policy on reciprocity for foreign qualifications for eligibility to practice in Nigeria. The I.M.L.T Nigeria assesses the transcripts and qualifications of foreign-trained Medical Technologists before registering them. Qualifications from the United Kingdom and other countries are no longer accepted for direct registration in Nigeria. Each is evaluated on its merits and, when necessary, the applicant may be called upon to write the I.M.L.T. examination at the appropriate level. For further information please contact: The Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology of Nigeria 8 Harvey Road (Block D), P.M.B. 1048 Yaba-Lagos, Nigeria Tel: 01-863368
(District Medical Officer of Health) P.O. Box 8041 - Dep 0031 Oslo.
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 2003 1 2 3 Vitnemål (Certificate) 4 5 6 7 8 9 primary Høgskoleutdanning (College)------ 1 2 3 Bioingeniør (Medical Laboratory Technologist) Videreutdanning for Bioingeniør-----------------Further education for Med. Lab. Tech. Degree in Health/Hospital Administration------Degree in Health Sciences---------------------------Degree in Biochemistry and Cell Biology--------Since 2003
Leading to positions in labs or teaching ---Laboratory Director 1 ‘Høgskolekandidat i 1 1 1 2 2 Cand. San. 3 4 Cand. Scient.
5 6 7 8 9 primary Bachelor in Biomedical Laboratory Science-----
Vitnemål (Certificate) 1 Bioingeniør (Biomedical Laboratory Scientist) 1 2 Leading to positions in labs or teaching Laboratory Director 3 4
Master Degree in Biomedical Science/ applied sciences --------------------------------------------------Master Degree in Health/Hospital Administration ------------------------------------------Ph. Degree in applied sciences---------------------
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Medical Laboratory Technology studies in Norway dates back to 1949 when the first study program were established in Drammen Hospital. Several hospitals followed successively during the next years. From 1962 to 1985 Medical Laboratory Technology Education was divided in two main directions of specialization. In Clinical Chemistry and Blood Banking, so called “Fysiokjemiker”, and in Microbiology, Immunology & Cell Pathology, called “(MIP)- ingeniør”. In 1985 the study programs were unified into one by a national curriculum, the program was lengthened to three years and the professional title changed to “Bioingeniør”. As of August 1991 the program took place in 6 colleges in Norway. In 1998 the curriculum was changed in accordance with a decree issued by the Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs on January 15.1998 pursuant to Section 46 (2) of Act No. 22 of May 12.1995 relating to Universities and Colleges. During 2002-2003 study programs on higher level in Norway was changed according to the “Quality Reform” in higher education. Through this reform, the follow up of the Bologna Declaration has taken place. Legal changes have been made to fully implement the Bologna Declaration, such as new degree structure, The Diploma Supplement, implementing of European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and a new grading system. The current study program for the qualification of Bioingeniør (Biomedical Laboratory Scientist) is a 3-year program leading to a Bachelor Degree in Biomedical Laboratory Science. The program is available at 7 University Colleges in Norway. After successful completion of this training, the student has several options for professional development: l. Since 2003 master degree programs will be available to Biomedical Laboratory Scientists at almost all Universities and some of the University Colleges
2. Degrees in Biochemistry, Cell Biology or other subjects relevant to the field of Biomedical Laboratory Science have been offered since 1988. 3. The University Colleges will within due course offer special master degree programs in Biomedical Laboratory Science. 4. Those who wish to qualify for positions as laboratory managers may pursue degree programs in Health sciences and administration 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY 1. Bioingeniør (Medical Laboratory Technologist) A three-year, post-secondary theoretical and applied study program at one of 6 colleges (Bioingeniørhøgskoler). Of a total of 60 credits, practice must total 20 credits, and at least 7 credits must represent external practice in hospital laboratories. Examination project (thesis) equal to 4 credits is compulsory. 2. Post graduate education Two-year part time education course at Oslo University College (20 credits) Modules in Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Histopathology 3. Degree courses University degrees in Health sciences, Hospital Administration and in Biomedical Science related studies (given due to individual validation of the candidate’s basic education)
Prior to 2003
1. Bioingeniør (Biomedical Laboratory Scientist) Bachelor degree in Biomedical Laboratory Science, 3 years full time study program (180 ECTS) at one of 7 University Colleges. Of a total of 180 ECTS, practice must total 60 ECTS, and at least 20 ECTS must represent external practice in medical laboratories. Examination project (thesis) equal to 12 ECTS is compulsory. 2. Master degree Master degrees in Health Sciences, Hospital Administration and in Biomedical Laboratory Science related studies (given due to individual validation of the candidate’s basic education) 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1. Admission to the Bachelor Programme in Biomedical Science -Completion of the 3-year upper-secondary school, general area of study. (Studieretning for allmenne fag). A concentration in natural sciences is mandatory. Students may gain additional admissions points if they have relevant laboratory experience or have taken advanced courses in chemistry, physics or mathematics. 2. Admission to master degree programmes in Biomedical Science and related studies-Bachelor degree in Biomedical Science or related sciences. For those who are graduated earlier than 2003, the admission to master programmes will be individually assessed. 3. Admission to master degree programmes in health administration and health sciences--Bachelor degree in one of the health sciences or related sciences. For those who are graduated earlier than 2003, the admission to master programmes will be individual assessed. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The education of Biomedical Laboratory Scientists in Norway is structured as a unified program, preparing graduates to work in hospital laboratories, research laboratories, and the pharmaceutical field and giving them basic training in clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology, blood serology, microbiology and pathology. The program also is designed to give Biomedical Laboratory Scientists sufficient background so that they can evaluate and exercise control, participate in new methods, calibrate laboratory apparatus, and complete basic repairs to such apparatus. In addition, the program emphasizes the importance of contact and communication with patients. 6. CURRICULUM From 1990-1998: Medical Laboratory Technologist (Bioingeniør) Subjects Basics in mathematics and natural science Educational plan Mathematics, Statistics Computer programming, Principles of electronics, Optics, Instrumental chemical analysis, Chemistry Biochemistry & Cell Biology Anatomy/Physiology Clinical, social, administrative subjects General clinical studies, Social & administration subjects Points
Medical laboratory subjects
-Clinical chemistry, -Hematology, Nuclear medicine. -Medical microbiology. 36-40 -Immunohematology, Blood banking Immunology. - Pathology, Histology, Clinical cytology. 60 points (credits)* * 1 point or credit = approximately 47 hours of classroom attendance. Each year of study equals 20 points (or credits); the full 3-year study program equals 60 points (or credits). 1998- 2003: (Issued by the Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs on January 15, 1998 pursuant to Section 46 (2) of Act No. 22 of May 12 1995 relating to Universities and Colleges.) Mathematics, statistics and data processing Physics, including measuring techniques General & analytical chemistry Organic chemistry & biochemistry Cellular biology, include. molecular biology & genetics Anatomy, physiology and histology General immunology & microbiology Social science and humanistic subjects Communication, interaction and conflict solving Ethics Scientific work methods
Natural science subjects
25 credits 4 credits 3 credits 5 credits 5 credits 3 credits 3 credits 2 credits 5 credits 2 credits 2 credits 1
Medical laboratory subjects 30 credits Laboratory medicine 8 credits Medical laboratory Technology-principles & 18 credits methods Quality development & internal control 4 credits Total 60 credits Of a total of 60 credits, practice must total 20 credits, and at least 7 credits must represent external practice in hospital laboratories. Examination project (thesis) equal to 4 credits is compulsory. Since 2004: Bachelor degree in Biomedical Laboratory Science (Bioingeniør) The current curriculum was determined by July 1, 2004, with no significant changes since 2003. The Quality Reform in higher education introduced the Bachelor and Master degree and the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). (The former credit equals 3 ECTS) A B C D E General & analytical chemistry Statistics, mathematics and physics Organic chemistry & biology Cellular biology Physiology, anatomy and histology
1 Natural science subjects
75 ECTS 15 ECTS 20 ECTS 15 ECTS 15 ECTS 10 ECTS 15 ECTS 3 ECTS 6 ECTS 6 ECTS 90 ECTS 65 ECTS 25 ECTS 180 ECTS
2 Social science and humanistic subjects A Scientific work methods B Ethics C Communication, interaction and conflict solving 3 Biomedical Laboratory Science subjects A Biomedical Laboratory science - principles & methods B Laboratory medicine Total
Of a total of 180 ECTS, practice must total 60 ECTS, and at least 20 ECTS must represent external practice in medical laboratories. Examination project (thesis) equal to 12 ECTS is compulsory. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS 1991 list : l. Oslo Bioingeniørhøgskole, avd.Rikshospitalet } Pilestredet 32 } these schools were merged in 1990 Oslo 1 } as one but offer practical sessions OR } at two hospitals. The new name is Oslo Bioingeniørhøgskole, avd.Ullevaal } Oslo Bioingeniørhøgskole. Ullevaal sykehus } Oslo 1 } 2. Østfold Ingeniørhøgskole Avd. Bioingeniør, Postboks 10,Valaskjold, 1701 Sarpsborg 3. Bioingeniørhøgskolen, Bergen, Haukeland sykehus, 5021 Bergen 4. Bioingeniørhøgskolen i Tromsø Tromsø helsefaghøgskole Postboks 3049 Guleng 9001 Tromsø 5. Trondheim Ingeniørhøgskole, avd. Bioingeniør, E.C. Dahlsgt. 2, 7004 Trondheim Since 1999: Høgskolen i Oslo (Oslo University College) Faculty of Health Sciences Pilestredet 52 N-0167 Oslo
Høgskolen i Østfold (Østfold University College) Faculty of Health- and Social Studies P.O. Box 1409 N-1609 Fredrikstad
Høgskolen i Bergen (Bergen University College) The Faculty of Engineering P.O. Box 7030 N-5020 Bergen
Høgskolen i Tromsø (Tromsø University College) Faculty of Health Sciences N-9293 Tromsø
Høgskolen i Sør-Trøndelag (Sør-Trøndelag University College) The Faculty of Food Science and Medical Technology N-7004 Trondheim
Høgskolen i Ålesund (Aalesund University College) Medical Laboratory Science Education N-6025 Ålesund
Høgskolen i Agder (Agder University College) (since 2004) Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences Serviceboks 422 N-4604 Kristiansand
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a. Accreditation: Accreditation of programs comes through: Utdannings- og forskningsdepartementet (Ministry of Education and Research). Since January 2003 the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT) is the accreditation body
for Norwegian higher education.
b. Authorization: Graduates are authorized as health personnel due to the Act of 2 July 1999 No. 64 relating to Health Personnel etc. Authorization is given by the Norwegian Registration Authority for Health Personnel on successful completion of the examination for Bioingeniør. c. Certification: Membership in Norwegian Institute of Biomedical Science (BFI) requires the exam of Biomedical Scientist (Medical Laboratory Technologist). d. The professional association for Biomedical Scientists: In January 1998 NOBI merged with the Norwegian Engineer Organization (NITO) and the Norwegian Institute of Biomedical Science was established within NITO. The Norwegian Institute of Biomedical Science is responsible for all professional activity, including international commitments such as membership in IFBLS, EPBS and CLMA. NITO, Norwegian Institute of Biomedical Science P.O. Box 9100 Grønland N-0133 Oslo NORWAY
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY The equivalencies of foreign trained Biomedical Scientists are determined by: Statens autorisasjonskontor for helsepersonell (SAFH) (The Norwegian Registration Authority for Health Personnel) P.O. Box 8053 - Dep N-0031 Oslo NORWAY
Individual applications for general recognition of foreign qualifications are considered by:
The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education, NOKUT
PO Box. 1708 Vika, N- 0121 Oslo
(As the Norwegian ENIC-NARIC centre they are also responsible for providing foreign institutions and partners with information on the Norwegian educational system and the system for recognition of foreign higher education qualifications)
For further information contact the Norwegian Association directly at:
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE
9 11 secondary
High School Diploma (Bachiller) 1 1 2 2 Biologist with Med. Tech. Specialization (Biólogo ) 3 4 5 Licentiate in Med. Technology/ Licenciatura en Tecnología Médica
(1965-1985 School of Medical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Panama) (After 1986 School of Medical Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Panama)
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The primary-secondary school sequence in Panama takes 12 years with education beginning when the student is six years old. Before 1965, medical laboratory personnel received theoretical and practical training in 2-year non-university level programs provided by governmental institutions such as Health and Insurance Departments. Candidates received the qualification of Laboratorist (Laboratorian). Laboratorians worked at the governmental institutions and could also work in the university in the biology, chemistry and pharmacy laboratories as long as they had previous experience in a hospital. In 1965, the School of Medical Technology (Escuela de Tecnología Médica) was founded at the Faculty of Pharmacy at University of Panama. Training for medical laboratory technologists was provided in a 2-year program leading to the qualification Biologist (Biólogo) with a specialization in Medical Technology (Biólogo con Especialización en Tecnología Médica). The School closed but reopened in 1985. In 1986, the School of Medical Technology (Escuela de Tecnología Médica) became part of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Panama. The current program lasts five years (including practice and a thesis in the final year) and leads to a Licentiate in Medical Technology (Licenciatura en Tecnología Médica). 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Licentiate in Medical Technology Medical Technology personnel are trained in a 5-year program at the School of Medical Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Panama.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Admission to the School of Medical Technology requires 12 years of education and a high school diploma with a concentration in Sciences and at least three Natural Science subjects with the grade C or higher. It also requires an entrance examination which, in addition to examination in specific subjects, also includes psychological and professional guidance tests and a medical examination. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education for Medical Technologists is polyvalent and includes Clinical Chemistry, Urinalysis and Clinical Microscopy,
Microbiology, Histology, Cytology, Parasitology, Physiopathology, Immunology, Immunohematology, Hematology, Toxicology and an elective. Medical Technologists may work in governmental and private institutions, however, only those technologists who work in governmental institutions are protected by the law, which establishes salaries and periodic promotions. 6. CURRICULUM 5-Year Licentiate program in Medical Technology 1996 Escuela de Tecnología Médica (School of Medical Technology) University of Panama
Year 1-Semester 1 Subject Spanish General Chemistry & Analytical Chem. I General Biology Mathematics Cultural Elective* Year 2- Semester 1 Subject Biochemistry Human Anatomy General Microbiology Descriptive Statistics English I
Credits 4 4 3 Total 19 Credits 5 3 Total 20
4 5 3
Year 3- Semester 1 Subject Credits Clinical Chemistry I 4 Clinical Microbiology I 3 Gen’l & Clin. Parasitology I 3 Principles of Physiopathology Cultural Elective* 3 Total 17 Year 4-Semester 1 Subject Credits Immunology II Instrumentation for Medical Technology Hematology 5 Seminar: Med. Tech Research Science Elective** 4 Total 18
3 4 2
Semester 2 Subject Credits Spanish General Chemistry & 4 Analytical Chem. II Organic Chem. Biology (Genetics) 4 General Physics 4 Total 19 Semester 2 Subject Credits Histology & Cytology 5 Biostatistics 3 Human Physiology 4 Intro to Computers 3 English II 3 Total 18 Semester 2 Subject Credits Clinical Chemistry II 3 Clinical Microbiology II 3 Gen’l & Clin. Parasitology II3 Urinalysis & Clinical Microscopy 4 Immunology I 3 Total 16 Semester 2 Subject Credits Principles of Clinical Pathology 4 Intro. to Public Health & Epidemiology 3 Principles of Lab. Admin. Immunohematology & Blood Banking 4 Science Elective** 4 Cultural Elective* 3 Total 20
Year 5-Semester 1 Subject Hospital practice I Graduation Thesis Total 9
Total Credits 165
Credits 6 3
Semester 2 Subject Hospital practice II Graduation Thesis Total 9
*Cultural Electives Anthropology 3 Sociology 3 Psychology 3 Panama in the World of the Americas *Science Electives Human Genetics Pharmacology & Toxicology Microbiology of Nutrition
3 4 4
Each semester consists of 16 weeks of theoretical or practical training. Students must achieve a grade of C or higher in order to move into the next semester. It is possible to make up one course with a D grade. Two F’s automatically disqualify the student from attending.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS School of Medical Technology University of Panama Ciudad Universitaria, Dr. Octavio Méndez Pereira El Congrejo, Apdo Estafeta Universitaria, Panama City 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
a. Accreditation The university is accredited by the Ministry of Education b. License and Registration. The professional practice of Medical Technology is regulated by law. The practitioner must be a Panamanian and hold the License to practice which is granted by the Technical Council of Health (Consejo Tecnico de Salud), which is part of the Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health maintains a register of Medical Technologists licensed to practice. c. Professional Association Colegio Nacional de Laboratoristas Clínicos de Panamá Apartado 6-2371 El Dorado, Panama
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Currently there are no specific provisions for foreigners to practice as Medical Laboratory Technologists in Panama. Such regulations are now under consideration and are being worked out in conjunction with other Latin American countries. For further information contact: Directora de la División de Servicios de Apoyo Ministerio de Salud Panamá City, Panama Tel: 262 8198; 262-8819 Fax: 262-5931
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2
High School Diploma 1 2 3 4 B.Sc. Medical Technology (B.S.M.T)
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Primary-secondary education in the Philippines takes 10 years. Students enter the first grade at age 7. Those who go on to 4-year colleges after receiving the high school diploma must pass the National College Entrance Examination. Medical Laboratory Science programs were introduced in the Philippines by the 26th Medical Laboratory Division of the 6th United States Army at the end of World War II. The laboratory was established at Quiricada St., Santa Cruz, Manila where the Public Health Laboratory is currently located. In 1947 training of Medical Laboratory Technicians began. The trainees were largely high school and paramedical graduates. In 1954 a syllabus for training Medical Technicians was established. It included a six-month formal training period and led to a Certificate. That same year the Philippine Union College instituted a 4-year course in Medical Technology, leading to the degree of B.S. in Medical Technology. In 1957 the University of Santo Tomas, Faculty of Pharmacy, offered a Medical Laboratory course as an elective for Pharmacy graduates. In 1960 the first 3-year Medical Technology course at the University of Santo Tomas was approved by the Bureau of Education. The following year, a 4th year internship was added. Other universities and colleges soon added similar programs. According to the recently formed Commission on Higher Education, there are now 50 colleges and universities offering Medical Technology programs in the Philippines. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There is only one level of training for the Medical Laboratory Technologist: The Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology (B.S.M.T.) Students enter professional training institutions from high school for a 4-year program, leading to the B.S.M.T. The program includes practical training. There are 2 universities offering postgraduate courses leading to the Master of Science in Medical Technology: the University of Santo Tomas and the Philippine Women’s University. In order to practice graduates must take and pass the examination of Board of Medical Technology, earning a passing grade of 75 % and above. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS To be admitted to a program leading to the Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology (B.S.M.T) a students must have: 1) successfully completed a general secondary school program 2) passed the National College Entrance Examination with a score of at least 60% 3) complied with the admission requirements of the specific school 4) not been convicted or found guilty of any misconduct involving moral character 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Science education is polyvalent including: Blood Banking, Clinical Chemistry, Clinical Microscopy , Urinalysis and Body Fluids, Hematology, Histopathology, Parasitology , Serology & Immunology and Microbiology. Registered Medical Technologists may work as a laboratory manager and as a consultant in clinical laboratories, research, education, public health laboratories, diagnostic companies, veterinary laboratories, health maintenance institutions, blood banks, environmental laboratories and forensic laboratories.
6. CURRICULUM Standard 4-Year Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science Technology -1995
Year 1- Semester 1 Subject Communications Skills 1 Elementary Spanish College Algebra Gen’l & Inorganic Chem. General Botany Pilipino 1 Physical Education 1 Citizen Military Training Year 1-Semester 2 Communications Skills 2 Intermediate Spanish Trigonometry General Zoology Qualitative Chem Pilipino 2 Physical Education 2 Citizen Military Training Year 2 - -Semester 1 Speech & Oral Communication Advanced Spanish General Physics Organic Chem. Phil. Culture & Hist. General Psychology Physical Education 3 Citizen Military Training Year 2 - -Semester 2 Survey of Philippine Lit. Selected Writings Qualitative Chem. Biochemistry Taxation, Agrarian Reform & Social Problems Phil. Gov’t & Constitution Rizal’s Life Works & Writings* Physical Education 3 Citizen Military Training
Lecture 3 3 3 3 3 3
Units/Hrs 3 3 3 5 5 3 (1) (1.5) 22
3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6
3 3 3 5 5 3 (1) (1.5) 22
3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6
3 3 5 5 3 3 (1) (1.5) 22
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6
3 3 5 5 3 3 3 (1) (1.5) 25
Year 3 - -Semester 1 Clinical Chemistry 1 (Pure Blood Chemistry) Med. Technology Laws & Ethics with Lab. Mngmt. Microbiology Biostats. (Incl. Preventive & Community Medicine Human Anatomy Histology (Human) Physiology Year 3 - -Semester 2 Serology & Immunology Parasitology Gen’l Pathology & Histo-techniques Clinical Chem. II (Endro- crinology & Toxicology Hematology Blood Banking Clinical Microscopy
2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2
6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
5 3 2 3 3 22 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 23
Year 4 - -Semester 1 Internship (12 mos - 52 weeks Clinical Chemistry Medical Microbiology & Parasitology Hematology Clin. Microscopy Serology & Immunology Blood Banking Gen’l Path. & Histotech. Special Procedures (ECG, Nuclear Med. etc.) *Offered during the summer Optional Subjects Genetics Computer Science Intro. To Nuclear Med.
Grading varies from institution to institution but generally is as follows:
10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks 8 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks 2 weeks Total 52 weeks 3 units 3 units
1.0-1.5 1.6-2.0 2.1-2.5 2.6-3.0 3.1-5.0
92-100 85-91 80-84 75-79 0 - 74
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS See Appendix 1 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a) Accreditation Management of Medical Laboratory Science programs comes under the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture. b) Licensure, Certification, Registration In order to practice an applicant must achieve a numerical grade of 75 or more on the Board of Medical Technology Examination. The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) is the only government agency that registers Medical Technologists to practice after passing the Board Examination. Board of Medical Technology Professional Regulations Commission P. Parades St. Manila. Philippines c) Professional Association: The Philippine Association of Medical Technologists, Inc. (PAMET) Unit 1720 17th Floor Cityland 10, Tower 2 6817 Ayala Ave. North, City of Makati, Philippines Tel: 63 2 812 6819 Fax: 63 2 817-1487 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Foreign-trained Medical Technologists are allowed to practice in the Philippines provided they are registered by the Professional Regulations Commission. For further information please contact: President of PAMET Unit 1720 17th Floor Cityland 10, Tower 2 6817 Ayala Ave. North, City of Makati, Philippines
SERBIA - YUGOSLAVIA
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 elementary school 6 7 Diploma 8 9 10 11 12 Secondary School Diploma sec. school (gymnasium) 1* 2* 3* 4* Laboratory Technician Diploma 6m ** 1 2 3 4 5 Diploma in Medical Biochemistry 1 ** -- *** Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade 1 2† 3† Diploma of Specialization
programs in medical schools for laboratory technicians Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade
-- *** 1* Diploma of Subspecialization 2 Master’s Degree 1
Note: * = † = ** = *** =
practical work experience. organized, supervised work in soecialized biochemical laboratories post-diploma practical work experience at hospitals required for obtaining license. 3-year post-bachelor’s work experience, and long-term post-specialization work experience required, respectively.
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Yugoslavia dates from 1945, when the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry was established at the Pharmaceutical Faculty in Zagreb, and soon afterwards in Belgrade. Further development in the education of Medical Biochemists was made in 1955 with the introduction of a specialization in Medical Biochemistry at the Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1991 at the same faculty a special branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING 1) Laboratory Technician Diploma Laboratory Technicians have to complete a 4-year secondary-level program in a medical school for Laboratory Technicians. Their education includes practical work experience in clinical biochemical laboratories. On completion of the program, graduates are awarded a Laboratory Technician Diploma. In order to get a license to work permanently in biochemical laboratories, the applicant needs six months of practical work experience in a clinical biochemical laboratory. 2) Diploma in Medical Biochemistry Medical biochemists (also known as Clinical Chemists) are educated in a special program at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade. The studies last five years. In order to get a license to work in clinical chemistry laboratories, they must have one year practical work experience in hospital laboratories after graduation. 3) Diploma of Specialization (Clinical Chemistry) Specialists in clinical chemistry are educated in a special 3-year program at the Faculty of Pharmacy. During the first year, in addition to practical training in laboratories, they attend organized lectures in the following subjects: pathophysiology, hematology and coagulation, microbiology, general biochemistry, biostatistics, instrumentation analyses, immunochemistry, clinical chemistry, clinical enzymology, and organization of the clinical chemistry laboratory. After successfully passing examination in these subjects, the student can continue in a 2-year specialization program. These final 2 years comprise organized and supervised practical work in specialized clinical biochemical laboratories. During the last three months, candidates work on a practical problem, recording data on a written form which is presented at a final exam. This examination also requires an overall knowledge in medical biochemistry. 4) Diploma of Subspecialization (Clinical Chemistry ) There are four subspecializations in Clinical Chemistry: Laboratory Endocrinology Clinical Enzymology Laboratory Hematology Clinical Immunochemistry The program lasts one year. On completion of the program, a Diploma of Subspecialization in the field is awarded. 5) Master’s Degree in Clinical Chemistry Postgraduate studies in clinical chemistry and medical biochemistry last two years. During the first year a candidate has to attend lectures and pass examinations in the following subjects: organic chemistry, physical chemistry, instrumentation methods, biostatistics, methodology of scientific research, pathophysiology, general biochemistry, and medical biochemistry. After passing the examinations, the student is assigned an experimental project by the supervisor. Data obtained from experiments are presented in a written form and defended before a commission. 6) Doctoral Degree in Clinical Chemistry: Candidates for doctoral degree usually have a Master’s Degree. It is also possible for candidates who have a great deal of practical experience and a certain number of published papers to enroll for a doctoral degree, but these candidates have to pass an oral examination in front of a committee. All candidates are assigned a project by their supervisor, which they have to work out experimentally. They then write a thesis, which must be defended in front of a commission.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Laboratory Technician Diploma: Entry into the program, which is offered at a medical school for Laboratory Technicians (secondary level), is based on an entrance examination. Applicants should hold a Diploma of Elementary School, which is completed following 8 years of primary study. 2) Diploma in Medical Biochemistry For entrance to the university faculty, all candidates must successfully complete General Secondary School (Gymnasium) or hold a Laboratory Technician Diploma and successfully pass a qualification examination. 3) Diploma of Specialization (Clinical Chemistry) Candidates must have the Diploma in Medical Biochemistry and three years of post-Diploma work experience in clinical biochemical laboratories, under the supervision of a specialist with five years of post-specialization experience. 4) Diploma of Subspecialization(Clinical Chemistry) Applicants must have the Diploma of Specialization and long-term experience in the field of subspecialization. 5) Master’s Degree: Candidates must have the Diploma in Medical Biochemistry with average grades of 8 out of 10 6) Doctoral Degree: Candidates for entrance to the Doctoral program must hold a Master’s degree. Exceptions are candidates with considerable practical experience who have published papers and have passed an oral examination given by a committee. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education for Laboratory Technicians is polyvalent and includes Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology & Parasitology, Blood Banking, and Hematology. Laboratory Technicians work in local, regional or national hospital centers. Laboratory technicians should be capable of performing all standard laboratory tests. Their superiors are higher health technicians and medical biochemists. Medical biochemists are capable of performing all standard laboratory tests and also make decisions for verification of results and communicate the results in the required format. Specialists in Medical Biochemistry are also capable of taking initiative for complementary research as needed. 6. CURRICULUM Laboratory Technician Diploma
The curriculum for the 4-year training for laboratory technicians must include 16 hours of theory and 30 hours of practical work per week. Subjects General orientation: Mathematics Physics Chemistry Biology Anatomy & Physiology Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Techniques Subject - specific Toxicological Chemistry Pathology Medical Biochemistry Microbiology & Parasitology Hematology & Blood Banking
Changes were introduced in the education of clinical chemists at the first degree level in 1985 and 1987. Below is the plan in effect from 1991. General Subjects Physics Mathematics Inorganic Chemistry Biology & Human Genetics Analytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Anatomy & Histology Statistics General Biochemistry Specific Subjects Physiology Immunology Microbiology & Hygiene Clinical-chemical Laboratory Methods Human Genetics Immunochemistry Hematology Pathophysiology Medical Biochemistry Toxicological Chemistry Pharmacology General & Clinical Enzymology Clinical Toxicological Analyses Pharmacokinetics Clinical Chemistry Hours 165 105 185 75 300 285 120 60 120 120 Hours 120 60 90 105 60 60 90 60 255 235 135 105 60 90 300
Diploma in Medical Biochemistry (Clinical Chemistry)
Diploma of Specialization in Clinical Chemistry (Medical Biochemistry)
Subjects Pathophysiology Hematology & Coagulation Bacteriology Biostatistics Instrumentation Methods General Biochemistry Medical Biochemistry Clinical Enzymology Immunochemistry Clin. Pathophysiology Organization of Clin. Chem. Lab. Hours 60 40* 10* 15 40* 30 60 30 30 10 10
• Includes practical work up to 42 hours per week. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS
Laboratory Technician Diploma programs The number of Laboratory Technician’s Diploma programs is too large to include here individually. Please refer to: Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade Vojvode Stepe 450, P. O. Box 146 11000 Belgrade, Serbia Diploma, Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Programs The Faculty of Pharmacy at University of Belgrade also offers the Diploma and the Master’s and Doctoral degree as well as the Specialist and Subspecialist Diplomas in Clinical Chemistry (Medical Biochemistry): Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade Vojvode Stepe 450, P. Box 146 11000 Belgrade, Serbi
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a) Accreditation The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Public Health accredits programs. b) Certification Laboratory Technicians, Medical Biochemists and Specialists in Medical Biochemistry receive a State Diploma. c) Licensure Medical Laboratory Technicians and Medical Biochemists are licensed by: The Ministry of Health Nemarjina 22 11000 Belgrade, Serbia. d) Professional Association Society of Medical Biochemists of Yugoslavia. Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Pharmacy Vojvode Stepe 450, P.O. Box 146 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY The recognition of education outside the country depends on the specific programs which are evaluated by the university. For further information please contact: Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Pharmacy Vojvode Stepe 450, P. Box 146 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE G.C.E. ‘O’ Level 12 13 G.C.E. ‘A’ Level 1 2 3 Bachelor’s Degree
Bachelor’s Honors Degree
-Diploma in Biotechnology with Medical Technology Option (full-time) (Singapore Polytechnic) -Diploma in Biotechnology with Medical Technology option (Ngee Polytechnic) 4 5 5 Advanced Diploma Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (part-time)
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND A formal system for the training of Medical Laboratory Technicians began in Singapore in the mid-1950s. The Department of Pathology of the Ministry of Health, Singapore was solely responsible for conducting examinations and training laboratory technicians. The Department supplied the manpower needs of all the clinical laboratories in government hospitals, outpatient services and other government health institutions. During this time persons with Senior Cambridge Certificates with credit in a science subject were recruited for in-service on-the-job training in Clinical Biochemistry, Bacteriology, Histology (including Morbid Histology), Hematology, Blood Banking and Serology. At the end of the third year, they sat for the Intermediate Examination in Medical Laboratory Technology. A successful candidate then chose a specialization such as Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, Histopathology, Bacteriology etc. At the end of the fifth year, the candidate would then sit for a Final Examination in Medical Laboratory Technology. Both the Intermediate and Final Examinations were conducted by the Board of Examiners which consisted of a chairman, an external examiner, and the heads of the sections in each main discipline. The examinations were in 3 parts: i) a written examination ii) a practical examination iii) an oral examination In March 1975, training for Medical Laboratory Technicians was changed to serve the growing demand for trained technicians in many areas. Candidates with “O” or “A” level secondary school certificates were recruited as Assistant Medical Laboratory Technicians (ALTs) in a particular discipline. They were given on-the-job training and required to serve
a 2-year probationary period during which time they were required to pass a departmental examination. At the end of an additional 3 years,candidates sat for a Departmental Qualifying Examination. University graduates with a Pass degree were also eligible to become Assistant Medical Laboratory Assistants in a particular discipline, qualifying after a 2-year program, culminating in the Departmental Qualifying Examination (DQE). The last examinations for this educational pattern were given in 1990. In 1986 the Department of Chemical Process Technology (CPT) of Singapore Polytechnic jointly with the Ministry of Health, Singapore initiated a 3-year Diploma course in Chemical Process Technology with Medical Technology as a finalyear option. Entrance requirement for this course was a G.C.E. “O” level with credits in Mathematics, a science subject and preferably an English credit as well. Satisfactory completion of the course requires successful completion of course work, including practical work, and of written examinations. Students also undergo 14 weeks of industrial attachment at selected hospitals, medical laboratories, research laboratories and biotechnology related establishments during the long vacation at the end of the second year of study. In 1989 the Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore started a similar program leading to the Diploma in Biotechnology program with Medical Laboratory Technology option. In 1994 the Department of Chemical Process and Biotechnology introduced an Advanced Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Prior to 1975 Laboratory Technician Certificate Prior to 1975, Laboratory Technicians were trained in a 5-year on-the-job training program offered at the Department of Pathology of the Ministry of Health; at the end of the third year, there was an Intermediate examination; at the end of the 5th , there was a final examination. 1975-1990 1) Laboratory Technician Certificate In 1975 a new program was initiated at the Department of Pathology in the Ministry of Health. Candidates to become Laboratory Technicians were now given on-the-job training and required to serve a 2-year probationary period, during which time they were required to pass a departmental examination. At the end of an additional 3 years, candidates sat for a Departmental Qualifying Examination. University graduates with a Pass degree were also eligible to become Assistant Medical Laboratory Assistants in a particular discipline, qualifying after a 2-year program, culminating in the Departmental Qualifying Examination (DQE). The last examinations for this educational pattern were given in 1990. 2) Diploma in Biotechnology with Medical Technology option; In 1986 the Department of Chemical Process and Biotechnology Technology (CPT) of Singapore Polytechnic jointly with the Ministry of Health, Singapore initiated a 3-year Diploma course in Chemical Process Technology with Medical Technology as a final year option. In 1989 the Ngee Ann Polytechnic initiated a similar program (Candidates who did not have either Biology or Chemistry from their ‘O’ Levels, had to attend an 8-week course in these respective subjects before beginning the academic year. They were also required to undergo 8 weeks of a vocational training program at the end of their 2nd year.) A 5-year part-time Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology was also made available. 1990-present 1) Diploma in Biotechnology with Medical Technology option; As above 2) Advanced Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology A 2-year program offered by the Department of Pathology and Biotechnology of Singapore Polytechnic leading to an
Advanced Diploma in Medical technology was introduced in 1994. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Laboratory Technician Certificate (discontinued in 1990) Prior to 1975, admission to the Laboratory Technician program required a Senior Cambridge Certificate with a credit in science. After 1975, admission required the G.C.E. “O” or “A” level certificate. 2) Diploma in Biotechnology with Medical Technology Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore- requires G.C.E. “O” level with relevant science subjects in Biology, Chemistry Science (Chemistry/Botany), Science (Physics/Biology) Science (Physics/Chemistry)/Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology). 3) Diploma in Biotechnology with Medical Technology option Singapore Polytechnic- requires G.C.E. “O” level with credits in Mathematics, a science subject, and English. 4) Advanced Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology Admission to the Advanced Diploma program requires the Diploma in Medical Technology or equivalents 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The diploma level program at Singapore Polytechnic covers Animal Cell Biology, Biological Laboratory Techniques, Chemistry of the Life Sciences, Analytical Biochemistry 1 & II, Animal Tissue Culture, Molecular Genetics, Hybridoma Techniques, Introductory Recombinant DNA, Project, Topics in Biotechnology, and Scale-up processes in Biotechnology. The Medical Laboratory portion is polyvalent covering Blood Banking, Hematology, Immunology, Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology, and Histotechnology There are 4 professional levels for Medical Technology personnel: 1) Chief Laboratory Technician- Duties include supervision of all technical personnel, administrative duties and training. Confirmed Senior Laboratory Technicians are eligible for consideration for promotion to this grade. 2) Senior Laboratory Technician- Duties consist of supervision of technical personnel and laboratory attendants immediately under the Senior Laboratory Technician.; administrative duties; performing standard or special tests; assisting in teaching laboratory staff preparation of periodic reports of activities and maintenance of inventory stocks; participation in research as assigned. Confirmed Laboratory Technicians are eligible for consideration for promotion to this grade. 3. Laboratory Technician- Duties consist of performance of routine and some special laboratory procedures; assisting in the training and supervision of Assistant Laboratory Technicians; performance of night duty in routine 24-hour service laboratories. Confirmed Assistant Laboratory Technicians who have passed the Departmental Qualifying Examinations are eligible for promotion to this grade. Candidates for direct appointment must possess: a) a recognized university degree; or b) a recognized qualification in Medical Laboratory Science 4. Assistant Laboratory Technician- Duties consist of accurate repetition of well-established laboratory procedures; carrying out detailed instruction; operation and reading of recording instruments, accurate calculation of results, reporting of data; performance of necessary clinical work; performance of night duty; care of lab. equipment. Candidates for direct appointment to this position must possess: a) three G.C.E. “O” level passes including science subjects; or b) the School Certificate or equivalent preferably with science subjects; or c) Higher School Certificate or equivalent preferably with science subjects.
6. CURRICULUM Diploma in Biotechnology (Medical Technology Option) Singapore Polytechnic, 1997 3-year full-time program (The course curriculum for this program consists of 6 modules )
Stage 1A Subject Lecture Applied Electronics 2 Biosystems & Biomolecules 3 Analytical & Physical Chemistry 2 Productivity & Quality* 1⁄2 Effective Writing Skills* Mathematics A 3 Computer Studies (Biology)* 2 -Sub-total 12 1⁄2 Stage 1B Inorganic & Organic Chemistry Basic Microbiology Cell Biology Anatomy & Physiology I Report Writing & Presentation* Mathematics B Character Education* Sub-total 3 2 2 2 3 12 Hours per Week Theory 1 1 1 2 1 2 8 1 1 1 1⁄2 2 1 2 8 1⁄2
Practical 1 2 2 1⁄2 2 7 1⁄2 2 2 2 1 1⁄2 7 1⁄2
Total 15 wk credits 45 90 75 30 30 60 90 420 90 75 75 60 30 60 30 420
Stage 2A (Medical Tech. Option) Molecular Genetics Applied Microbiology Biochemical Techniques* Clinical Chemistry 1 Basic Immunology* Basic Instrumental Analysis
Industrial Training Program (8 wks)
2 2 2 2 2 2 12 3 2 3 2 2 3 15
1 1 1 1 2 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
75 75 75 60 75 60 420 90 75 60 60 60 75 420
7 2 1 1 1 1 1
9 1 2 1 1 1
Stage 2B (Medical Tech. Option) Metabolic Chemistry Molecular Biology Basic Pathology Hematology I Anatomy & Physiology II Environmental Studies A*
Industrial Training Program (8 wks)
Stage 3A (Medical Tech. Option) Project ** Blood Banking Histological Techniques Hematology II Medical Microbiology A Sub-total
Effective Interpersonal Communication*
2 3 2 3
1 1 1 1
4 2 2 2 2 12
60 75 90 75 90 420
Stage 3B (Medical Tech. Option) Project * ** Quality Control & Lab Mgmt.*
Good Lab. & Manufacturing Practice
Clinical Chemistry II Medical Microbiology B
Communications Skills for Work
*In-course assessment module; ** Module covered in 2 semesters
2 2 2 2 10
1 1 1 1 2 7
4 1 2 2 9
75 60 75 75 30 420
Advanced Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology Singapore Polytechnic, 1997
Year 1 Stage 1A Subject Human Health & Disease Hematology Regulation of Metabolism Stage 1 B Mammalian Physiology Immunology & Disease Molecular Cell Biology Sub-total Lecture 30 22 22 22 22 140 Hours per Week Tutorial 15 8 22 8 8 8 8 55
Lab. 0 15 15 15 15 75
Total 15 wk credits 45 45 15 45 45 45 45 270
Year 2 Stage 2A Subject Lecture Molecular Genetics 22 Data Handling & Interpretation 22 Clinical Chemistry 22 Project * Stage 1 B Medical Microbiology 22 Hybridoma Technology 22 Transfusion Science 22 Project* Sub-total 132 Total 272
* project covered in 2 semesters
Hours per Week Tutorial 8 8 8 8 8 8 48 103
Lab. 15 15 15 30 15 15 15 150 225
Total 15 wk credits 45 45 45 30 45 45 45 330 600
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Singapore Polytechnic 500 Dover Road Singapore 0513 Ngee Ann Polytechnic 535 Clement’s Road Singapore 2159 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION The Singapore Association for Medical Laboratory Sciences (SAMLS) % Housemen’s Quarters Singapore General Hospital 2 College Road Singapore 516985 ASEAN Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists (AAMLT) [ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) comprises Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, with some new countries, including Myanmar (previously Burma) and Vietnam recently added. The address of the Association changes constantly as the secretariat rotates between associations.] 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY For professional reciprocity, see reciprocity section in each relevant country entry in the various editions of the International Directories of Medical Laboratory Science Education. For further information please contact: Singapore Association of Medical Laboratory Science c/o Alumni Association (SB, Medical Center) 2 College Rd. Singapore 516985 Fax: 252 0064 or Vice President, The Singapore Association for Medical Laboratory Sciences (SAMLS) c/o Housemen’s Quarters Singapore General Hospital 2 College Road Singapore 516985 Tel: 657724114 Fax: 657794753
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 secondary sch. 1 2 3 4 Medical Laboratorian** 1* 2* Specialization Studies (1 year practice pre-requisite) 1* 2* Certified Medical Laboratorian** Certificate (Diploma) 1* 2* 3* Medical Laboratorian** Baccalaureate Degree Matriculation
Secondary Health Care School
Institute of Post-graduate Education of Health Care Providers Post-secondary (from Sept.1st 1997)
University (from Oct.1st 1996)
Note: * = part-time specialized courses. **= zdravotny laborant = Medical Laboratorian. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Until 1993, the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic co-existed as one state, the Czechoslovak Federative Republic (Czechoslovakia). The educational curricula were identical for both republics. On January 1, 1993, when an independent Slovak Republic was established, an independent curriculum was set up. Education of Medical Laboratorians (“zdravotny laborant”) in the Slovak Republic began before World War II. Since then, there have been many changes and innovations in accordance with changes in the general educational structure. In the former Czechoslovakia, and since 1993 in the independent Slovak Republic, education of medical laboratorians was in 4-year secondary courses attended by graduates of primary schools These secondary health care schools, as well as other specialized secondary schools, are part of the secondary educational structure of the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Health, however, is responsible for managing the secondary health care schools, general and specialized education. Both Ministries supervise the curriculum, admission & final examinations, textbooks, and fulfillment of general regulations & guidelines. After finishing the secondary school course for Medical Laboratorians there are 3 avenues for further education: (1) The Institute for Post-graduate Education of Health Care Providers organizes 2-year part-time courses that enable students to obtain specialization (such as in Biochemistry, Hematology, etc.). As this Institute does not have a statute of a school, finishing of such a course does not mean that the student attains a higher educational degree; (2) From 1997 a 2-year polyvalent part-time course that enables students to obtain a higher qualification will be available. On completion, graduates would receive a Certificate; (3) Since 1996 a 3-year polyvalent Baccalaureate part-time course is available at Universities. Currently, plans are underway to change the Slovak educational system to comply with standards of the European Union (EU). For health care education, including that of Medical Laboratorian, this will mean creation of a 4-tier educational system consisting of the following stages:
Secondary education, leading to successful passage of a final exam (Matriculation). Post-secondary specialized education, leading to a Certificate (Diploma). University Baccalaureate study, leading to final state examination and Bachelor’s degree. University Master’s degree, leading to final state examination. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY (a) Graduates of the 4-year Medical Laboratorian course at secondary health care schools are authorized to perform the basic activities of a medical laboratory technician in clinical biochemistry, hematology, transfusion technology, histology, immunology, toxicology, microbiology and hygiene under supervision of a specialized technician with higher qualification. (b) Beginning in 1997-1998, a part-time 2-year post-secondary specialized courses for Medical Laboratorian will be available. After successful completion, the graduate will have the title “Certified Laboratorian”. (c) During 1996-1997, a 3-year Bachelor’s level program will be opened for Medical Laboratorian, leading to a Bachelor’s degree in laboratory diagnostic methods. (d) Eventually, it is anticipated that the above-mentioned university course will be followed by a 2-year Master’s program, leading to a Master’s degree with a concentration in education and management. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS (a) Medical Laboratorian: To enter a secondary health care school, a candidate must be a graduate of a primary school and be at least 14 years of age. Entrance examinations consist of biology and chemistry. (b) Specialization Studies: A candidate must be a graduate of a secondary health care school with a concentration in Medical Technology with a minimum of one year of practice, have successfully passed the final exam (matriculation), and be at least 19 years of age. (c) Certified Medical Technical Assistant: A candidate must be a graduate of a secondary health care school - specialization in Medical Laboratory Technician with a minimum of one year of practice, have successfully passed the final exam (matriculation), and be at least 19 years of age. (d) Bachelor’s with Specialization as Medical Laboratorian: Entrance to this 3-year program requires success in the secondary school final examination with a concentration in Medical Laboratory Technology and age minimum of 18 years. (e) Master’s Degree in Laboratory Diagnostic Methods. The University of Trnava is currently preparing a graduate curriculum.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Educational preparation for medical laboratorians is polyvalent and includes clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunohematology, microbiology, and histology & histologic techniques. The Institute for Post-graduate Education of Health Care Providers organizes 2-year part-time courses that enable students to obtain specialization in Biochemistry, Hematology, etc. Medical Laboratorians do not perform research independently. They are members of research teams headed by a physician or a researcher with academic education.
6. CURRICULUM Education of Medical Laboratorians in the Slovak Republic provides basic secondary-level education in: (1) Clinical biochemistry (2) Hematology, immunology and transfusion technology (3) Histology, cytology and pathology (4) Microbiology, bacteriology, parasitology, (5) Genetics mycology, virology (6) Selected laboratory methods Specialization studies are provided by the Institute for Post-graduate Education include concentrations in areas (1) through (4) above. Grading Grading of students is as follows (at secondary schools only): 1 = Excellent 2 = Very good 3 = Good 4 = Sufficient 5 = Insufficient The total number of hours is about 4,352. Of this number, 1,870 are devoted to general subjects, i.e. 42.8%; 2,482 are specialized subjects, i.e. 57.2%. After finishing the third year of study, students must pass a compulsory 1 month practice at one of the health care laboratories. Examination - 4-years study: The final examination consists of written, oral and practical parts. After successful completion of 4 years of study, students pass final examinations in front of the Examination Committee. They must pass the written and oral part. The practical part of the final exam (matriculation) includes working out a protocol for the practical part and defending it in front of the Committee. The practical part of the examination is performed in school laboratories or in hospital laboratories and lasts 3 days. The oral part of the final examination includes major subjects: clinical biochemistry, hematology and transfusion technology, microbiology, histology and histologic technique. The Chairperson of the Examination Committee is nominated by the Ministry of Education. Sample Curriculum
Medical Laboratorian Secondary Health Care School Number of lessons taught weekly year: 1 2 3 30 30 32 34 2 3(3) 1 2 2(2) 1 2 2 2(2) 1 2 2(2) -
Categories and subjects Compulsory subjects General subjects Slovak language Foreign language(English or German) Civics History Natural Sciences
4 128 8 9(9) 3
Mathematics 2 2 2 6 Physics 3(1) 3(1) 6(2) Chemistry 4(1) 5(1)/3(1) 8(2) Biology 2(2) 2(2) Informatics 2(2) 2(2) Physical Training 2 2 2 2 8 Specialized Subjects Anatomy and Physiology 3 3 Pathology 2 2 Microbiology, Epidemiol. and Hygiene 2(1) 4(2) 5(2) 11(5) Health Care Management 2 2 First Aid 1(0.5) 1(0.5) Analytical Chemistry 4(4) 4(4) Biochemistry 2 2 1 4 Laboratory Technology 4(3) 4(3) Histology & Histologic Technology 2(1) 3(2) 3(2) 8(5) Clinical Biochemistry 6(4) 7(5) 13(9) Hematology & Transfusion technology 5(3) 5(3) 10(6) Selected Laboratory Methods 4(3) 3(2) 8(5) Physical Chemistry 2 2 Fundamentals of Genetics and Immunology 2 2 Non-Compulsory Subjects Latin Language 2(2) 2(2) Type-writing 2(2) 2(2) Foreign Language Conversation 2(2) 2(2) 2(2) 2(2) 8(8) Sports 2 2 2 2 8 Driving -(2) 2 2 The number of hours in brackets shows the proportion of practical lessons to the total number hours. Approved by the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic on June 17, 1992, after the agreement with the Ministry of Education, Youths and Sport of the Slovak Republic. Effective September 1, 1992. File Nr. Z-3186/1992-A 4982/1992-21
Certified Medical Laboratorian Anticipated for 1997-1998 (Part-time Post-secondary Courses for graduates of Medical Laboratorian Courses) Categories and Names of Subjects Compulsory subjects General subjects and languages Foreign language (English or German) Psychology and Ethics Management and Law Application of Informatics Number of Hours per Half of a Second Year 1 2 105 105 10(10) 10 15 20(20) 10(10) -
3 105 10(10) -
Total 315 30(30 10 15 20(20)
Specialized subjects Clinical Biochemistry 15 20(10) 15(5) 50(15) Hematology and Transfusion technology 15 20(10) 15(5) 50(15) Clinical Microbiology 10 25(10) 15(5) 50(15) Clinical Pathology 10 20(10) 20(5) 50(15) Methodology of Research 10(10) 10(10) Selected Seminar 30(30) 30(30) The number of hours in brackets shows the proportion of practical lessons to the total number of hours. The above course can only be studied by those applicants who are employed in a field directly related to the studied specialization. During the program students are obliged to pass practicals at health care settings at the following departments: Clinical biochemistry Hematology and transfusion technology Clinical microbiology Nuclear medicine 75 hours 75 hours 75 hours 75 hours
If a student is employed in one of these areas, the practice experience is waived for that department. Following completion of the program, a student must pass an official theoretical and practical examination in all areas in front of a committee. Successful passing of these examinations qualifies a student to take a final examination which includes a written thesis and defense. After this is successfully passed the student receives a Certificate (Diploma). Curricula for Baccalaureate and Master’s degree courses are currently under review 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS 4-year Medical Laboratorian Programs Training for Medical Laboratorian courses in the Slovak Republic can be obtained at the following secondary health care schools (SZŠ): SZŠ, J. Braneckého Trencin, 4, 911 67 Director H. Kobzová, Ph.D. SZŠ, Záhradnica 44, 821 08, Bratislava Director O. Bachratá, Ph.D. SZŠ, Tajovského 24, 974 29, Banská Director Vladimir Dianiska, MA. SZŠ, Moyzesova 17, 040 01, Kosice Director Olga Králová, RND. Tel/Fax: 0831/20057
Tel: 07/60598; Fax: 60598
Tel: 088/30434; Fax: 30434
Tel: 095/6221162; Fax: 6221162
Currently, legislation is being prepared that would enable those secondary schools providing post-secondary courses for Certified Medical Laboratorians, to become institutions of higher education.
Bachelor’s Program University-level courses are being planned at: University of Trnava (Trnavská Univerzita) Hornopotocná 23, 918 43 Trnava. Dean of the Faculty Prof. Vladimir Krcméry, M.D., Dr.Sc. Tel: 0805/252 83; Fax: 0805/214 83 Non-degree/non-title Continuing Education post-graduate specialized courses These courses of specialization studies are available at: Institút pre dalsie vzdelávanie zdravotnickych pracovnikov (Institute of Post-Graduate Education of Health Care Providers), Limbova 12, 833 03 Bratislava. Director: Mr. Májek, M.D., Csc. Deputy Director for Education: Dana Farkasová, Ph.D., CSc. These programs are not designed for transfer to a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree.
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation Programs are accredited by the Ministry of Health, the Slovak Republic. (b) Certification/Licensure Successful passage of the final examination (Maturita) at the end of the Secondary Health Care School program for Medical Laboratorians entitle graduates to practice in health care settings in the following departments: Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology and Transfusiology, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Pathology (Histology and Histological Technology). No special government permission (license/certification) is required. (c) Professional Association Sloveská komora stredných zdravotníckych pracovníkov (SKSZP) Strecnianska 12, 851 05 Bratislava Tel/Fax: (42) 07 820 088 [Laboratory Section of Slovak Chamber of Secondary School Educated Health Care Practioners] 9. EQUIVALENCY/ RECIPROCITY According to the law passed in 1994, a foreign citizen interested in working in the Republic of Slovakia Health Care (stateowned or private) needs confirmation from SKSZP. For further information please contact: President Sloveská komora stredných zdravotníckych pracovníkov (SKSZP) Strecnianska 12, 851 05 Bratislava Tel/Fax: 07 820 088
REPUBLIC OF KOREA
1. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OUTLINE Before 1991: 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 High school Diploma 7 8 9 10 11 12 secondary school Junior College 1 1 Post-Junior College Post-B.Sc. 1 2
2 Medical Technologist (Diploma) 2 1 Medical Technologist * 3 4 B.S. 1 Medical Technologist **
Hospital Training 4 -Year College Graduate School
3 Medical Technologist * 3 4 B.S. Medical Technologist 1 2 3 M.P.H. ***
Since 1991: Formal education system to be qualified as a Medical Technologist or Medical Laboratory Scientist: High school Diploma 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 middle sch. High school 1 1 2 2 3 Associated Degree(AD) in Medical Technology 3 4 B.S. in Medical Laboratory Science 1 2 + M.Sc. or M.P.H. ***
Junior College (Medical Technology) Undergraduate (Health Science)
Graduate (Health Science)
Note: All candidates for the medical technologist should take both written and practice tests of the National Licensure Examination. * These category programs are being phased out. ** A one-year training program for persons with 2 or more years of study towards the B.Sc. *** Master of Public Health.
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND AND LICENSURE PROGRAM Although the educational system in Republic of Korea is highly centralized, it has become more flexible under the Ministry of Education and Human Resources(MOEHR) lately. The Ministry is responsible for the management, development and supervision at all levels of education in both the public and private sectors. The academic year in South Korea generally lasts from March to February with a 2-semester system: spring semester (or first semester) lasts from March to August and fall semester (or second semester) runs from September to February. Most of Medical Laboratory Science education is offered in a Department of Clinical Laboratory Science of universities and junior colleges. Following the completion of primary and secondary education and the high school diploma, students may enter either the 4year programs or 3-year programs, majoring in medical laboratory science leading to the Bachelor of Science(B.S.) degree or Associate Degree(AD) in Medical Technology, respectively. Graduates of the 4-year programs with B.S. degree who wish to go on to advanced courses can enroll in graduate schools of health sciences at universities which offer 4 to 5-semester courses leading to the Master of Science or Master of Public Health. Those who completed educational training programs and became eligible to be Medical Technologists are entitled to sit for the National Licensure Examination. Those who pass the examination (both written and practice) are licensed as Medical Technologists by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The passing scores for the written test should be above 40% in each major subject area, above 60% for the practice test and above 60% in average total. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are several levels of training programs leading to the National Examination for Medical Technologist in Korea: 1. 3-year education and training for the AD in Medical Technology (20) 2. 4-year undergraduate program for the B.S. in Medical Laboratory Science(3) ( ): Number of educational programs For career advancement, graduates with the B.S. degree in Medical Laboratory Science(MLS) can enroll in Medical Laboratory Science or MLS-related graduate courses at colleges or universities. These courses have no correlation with the career advancement that means there is no vertical ladder for professional advancement or the specialist certification programs in the country. No advantages are given to students with MS or higher degrees either before or after the Licensure Examination. The system of grade classification and specialist certification is now under review. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Entrance to Medical Laboratory Science study at either the 3-year programs or the 4-year bachelor’s degree programs requires completion of the 12-year primary/secondary school sequence. Admission is based on the applicant’s high school transcript and scores of the National Scholastic Achievement Examination for College Entrance (SAECE). 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical Laboratory Science programs at both levels are multitute. Major subjects offered are: (1) (2) (3) Clinical Chemistry and Urinalysis Hematology and Blood Transfusion Microbiology and Parasitology
(4) Immunology and Serology (5) Cytology and Histology (6) Clinical Physiology (7) Molecular Biology (8) On-site Practical Lab. Training (9) Other basic sciences including Information Technology(IT), and humanities The Licensure Examination is given by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board(NHPLEB) the organization commissioned by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in two parts; written and practical tests. Subjects covered in the examinations are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Clinical Chemistry and Urinalysis (Radioisotopes included) Clinical Microbiology and Immunology Clinical Hematology and Blood Transfusion Parasitology Histopathology and Cytology Physiological Function Other tests covered: Anatomy, Physiology, Public Health and Health Related Laws and Regulations.
6. CURRICULUM The current academic year in Korea is 2 semesters, although some colleges may adopt a quarter system in the future. One semester hour is defined as a class period of one hour of lecture and two hours of laboratory work for a 16-week semester. Students are required to take 140 to 145 credit hours to finish the undergraduate courses and 120 to 125 credit hours to complete the AD program. Since 1991, when the MLS program was extended from the previous two years to the current three years, mandatory 10-credit hour hospital training was imposed. This 10-credit hour hospital training accounts for just half of a semester. Though designation and execution of the curriculum depend upon each college’s policy, most of the curricula are focused on the National Licensure Examination. Both the curricula of the 4-year program and that of the 3-year program are organized mainly into three areas: (1) Humanities (foreign languages included); (2) Basic sciences including information technology (3) Majoring in medical laboratory science: The subjects in major are classified as elective and compulsory courses. Grading system Most of the colleges in Korea use the following grading scale : Scores Grade 95 - 100% A+ 90 - 94% Ao 85 -89% B+ 80 - 84% Bo 75 - 79% C+ 70 - 74% Co 65 -69% D+ 60 - 64% Do Below 59% F Courses with grades of 59% and under must be repeated.
Sample curricula 4-Year Bachelor of Science Degree Program in Medical Laboratory Science (Students in the 4-year program complete 140-145 credits for the bachelor’s degree) Year I Subjects Korean English History Chapel Differential and Integral Calculus Analytical Geometry Chemistry-lecture & laboratory Biology-lecture & laboratory Physics-lecture & laboratory Subtotal Year II Subjects Social science Chapel Comprehension of Christianity Computer Science Inorganic chemistry Biochemistry Microbiology (1) Microbiology (2)-lecture & laboratory Parasitology-lecture & laboratory Anatomy Analytical Chemistry Instrumentation Pathology Introduction to Clinical Pathology Medical Electronics Subtotal Semester Hours First Semester credit hr/wk 3 3 P 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 Second Semester credit hr/wk P 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 3 4 Semester Hours First Semester credit hr/wk 2 2 3 4 3 3 P 1 3 4 3 3 17 4 4 22 Second Semester credit hr/wk 2 2 3 4 P 3 3 3 14 1 4 4 4 19
3 3 3 2 21
3 3 3 2 25
Year III Subjects Semester Hours First Semester Second Semester credit hr/wk credit hr/wk Enzymology 3 3 Clinical Microbiology-lecture & laboratory 3 4 3 4 Physiology 3 3 Hematology 3 3 Hematology-lecture & laboratory 3 4 Cytology-lecture & laboratory 3 4 Immunology 3 3 Immunohematology-lecture & laboratory 2 3 Health Statistics 2 2 Philosophy 3 3 Histology-lecture & laboratory 3 3 Clinical Chemistry-lecture & laboratory (1) 3 4 Radioisotopes 2 2 Virology 3 3 Subtotal 22 25 20 24 Year IV Subjects First Semester credit hr/wk Thesis 2 2 Laws & Regulations in Health Affairs 1 1 Serology 2 2 Molecular Biology 3 3 Diagnostic Cytology 3 3 Clinical Chemistry-lecture & laboratory (II) 3 4 Clinical Physiology 3 4 Animal Experiments 2 2 Seminar 1 1 Hospital on-site training Subtotal 20 22 Grand Total 78 93 Semester Hours Second Semester credit hr/wk
18 18 73
36 36 104
151 Credits (197 hours)
3-Year Associate Degree Program in Medical Laboratory Science (Students in the 3-year junior college program complete 120-125 credits for the diploma) Year I Subjects Philosophy Korean Physical Education English Psychology Computer Science Japanese Biology Chemistry Organic Chemistry Microbiology Microbiology-Laboratory Clinical Chemistry (I) Hematology Anatomy Pathology Parasitology-lecture & laboratory Subtotal Year II Computer Science-laboratory Statistical Package Japanese Medical English Public Health Health Statistics Physiological Chemistry Urinalysis-lecture & laboratory Clinical Microbiology Clinical Microbiology-laboratory Clinical Chemistry (II) Clinical Chemistry-laboratory (I) Hematology-laboratory Molecular Biology & Laboratory Clinical Physiology Clinical Physiology-laboratory Histopathology Histopathology-laboratory Serology-laboratory Subtotal Semester Hours First Semester Second Semester credit hr/wk credit hr/wk 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 21 22 21 22 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 23 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 30
2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 1 23
2 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 27
Year III Subjects Hospital on-site training Clinical Chemistry-laboratory (II) Hematology-laboratory Clinical Physiology Blood Banking & Transfusion Mycology Health Insurance-lecture & practice Cytology-lecture & laboratory Histology Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation Laws & Regulations in Health Affairs Immunology Pharmacology Subtotal Grand Total 7. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation Educational Institutes and hospitals for education and training of medical laboratory science are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and Human Resources and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW). (b) Licensure Those who completed education, and are eligible to be Medical Technologists are entitled to sit for the Licensure Examination. Although annual license renewal is not necessary, all medical technologists in active status should report to the Ministry of Health and Welfare no later than May 31 of every year. No fee is charged. Only these licensed medical technologists can perform diagnostic-related tests, and employment of non-licensed personnel in laboratories is legally prohibited. 10-credit hours/year of continuing education (CE) became mandatory from 1994. Those who failed to earn CE credits will be either fined or the license is suspended for a period of time depending upon the seriousness of the violation. (c) Certification . The International Association of Cytologists (IAC) offers a training program and certification examination for licensed cytotechnologists. (d) Professional Association There is only one professional association for medical technologists in Korea, the Korean Association of Medical Technologists (KAMT). Licensed medical technologists can join the KAMT on the voluntary basis. Members should pay annual dues. Members of the Association are eligible to be a member of branch divisions of specialties to promote his or her academic standards. KAMT has been an active member association of IFBLS(formerly IAMLT), since 1972: Semester Hours First Semester Second Semester credit hr/wk credit hr/wk 10 20 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21 35 14 18 65 87 50 67 124 credits
The Korean Association of Medical Technologists (KAMT) 201 Myung Sin Building, 165-15 Samsung-Dong Kangnam-Ku, Seoul, Korea 135-090 8. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY
Tel: (02) 508-5591 Fax: (02) 508-5592
Credit Transfer: Credits earned from either the 3-year or 4-year program are inter-transferable. Foreign Medical Technologists: The licensure system of Korea is an exclusive policy that all foreign-licensed or certified medical technologists should take both written and practical portions of the licensure examination required by the MOHW of Korea. This system applies to almost all the medical professions in Korea. For further information contact: Prof. Sun Chul Whang or Prof. Kyung-Jin Cho(Authors) School of Allied Health Sciences, Korea University Mt. 1 Jeongnung-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku Tel: (02) 914-4974 Seoul, Korea 136-703 Fax: (02) 917-2833 or Woon Heung Song(in communication with the authors) President The Korean Association of Medical Technologists (KAMT) 201 Myung Sin Building 165-15 Samsung-Dong, Kangnam-Ku Tel: (02) 508-5591 Seoul, Korea 135-090 Fax: (02) 508-5592
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Proposed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 School Leaving Certificate 1 2 Certificate, Laboratory Assistant Technician
As of 1997 Swaziland does not have any Laboratory Science programs. Candidates for training in Medical Laboratory Science generally receive their education outside the country after completion of the School Leaving Certificate. Minimum requirements for admission to programs vary from country to country. Generally these programs require a Pass with Credit in 2 Science subjects, Mathematics and English. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Swaziland does not and has not had a formal training program for laboratory personnel. Any existing training has been in the form of in-service training. Due to poor working conditions and low salaries in this area, school leavers generally find the profession unattractive. Candidates recruited for on-the-job training are those with a School Leaving Certificate, most of whom do not meet the entry requirements for laboratory programs outside the country, but qualify as good bench workers, under a supervisor. Over the years, school leaving students who have met entry requirements have been sent to neighboring countries and abroad for training as technicians or technologists. Because of lack of finances, only a few have managed to obtain degrees or further their qualifications. With population growth, and the establishment of more health facilities that has necessitated the continuing training and upgrading of laboratorians, consideration is being given to the establishment of a 2-year training program for Laboratory Assistant Technicians. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING (for proposed program.) Although still at the rudimentary planning stage, the proposed Level and Length of Training will be as follows: 1) The training program will take 2 years. 2) On successful completion of the 2-year program a student will be awarded a Certificate as a Laboratory Assistant Technician and be eligible to work in public and private laboratories and to pursue further training outside the country.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS (for proposed program) The program will accept students with the School Leaving Certificate with credits in English, Mathematics, Biology and Physical Science. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD (for proposed program) The training program will be polyvalent and cover all laboratory disciplines including Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Blood Banking, Immunology etc. Medical Laboratorians in Swaziland work in government hospital laboratories, veterinary government laboratories, private clinic laboratories, public health laboratories owned by local governments and food industries. The chance for promotion in the field is currently limited by financial restrictions. 6. CURRICULUM (for proposed program) The curriculum is not yet drafted. Assistance in the development of this curriculum is still needed from already established institutions. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS(For proposed program.) Not yet identified 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Questions on registration, licensing , certification and accreditation of programs can be sent to: Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 5, Mbabane, Swaziland. 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY 1. Foreign-trained Swazi nationals are required to produce authentic documents of their qualifications to qualify for work. In most cases their training program curriculum is known by the Swazi government. 2. Foreign-trained non-Swazi personnel are required to submit proof of registration in their country of origin and a certificate of good standing, plus academic and professional qualifications, before they can be allowed to apply for registration in Swaziland. 3. There are no special arrangements that allow our Medical Laboratory personnel to practice abroad. For further information contact: Edna AndradeP.O. Box 1255 Manzini, Swaziland Tel: (+268) 52481/3 (W) (+263) 54805 (H) Fax: (+268) 53992 (W) (+268) 54805 (H)
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Prior to 1999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Upper-secondary school 1 2 3m Medical Technologist (90 points) in the following specializations
+6 points blood banking 1 2 3m Clinical chemistry 1 2 3m Microbiology 1 2 3m Morphological cell biology +6 points blood banking +24 points clinical cytology **
1 2 3m Clinical physiology 1 2 3m Biochemistry-Molecular Biology 1 First degree in Molecular biology & Biotechniques (40 points) 1 2 Graduate degree (80 points) 1 Note 2 Doctorate degree (160 total points)
Numbers indicate academic years of 40 weeks; 3 m= 3 months * 5-6 weeks preparatory courses in sciences ** Specialization training in clinical cytology (24 points also available for majors in Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Since 1999 1 2 3 4 5 6 Comprehensive school 7 8 9 10 11 12 Upper secondary school 1 2 3 Medical Technologist* (120 points) 1 Master’s degree (40 points) 1 2 Licentiate degree (80 points) 3 * Kkandidatexamen I biomedinsk laboratorievetenskap = B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Science 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND 4 Doctor degree 80 additional points
Medical laboratory science education in Sweden dates to l883 when a clinical laboratory was established in Uppsala for clinical diagnostics and practical medicine. Five years later, this was followed by a bacteriological laboratory at the Institute of Pathology in Lund. In these early laboratories the physicians themselves performed the laboratory examinations and experiments. Over the years they took assistants who had to learn by experience, as no formal programs were available. As late as the l940s there was no uniform training in medical laboratory science. Various practical training programs extended from one to three years.
1942 is an important year in the history of Medical Laboratory Technology in Sweden. That year the medical laboratory technologists and the nurses were organized to work toward better and more unified training. Members of the medical laboratory organization now had to have two years of training in a laboratory. In l945 the first theoretical course in histopathology was held. It covered two years of practical training with theory lessons two nights a week. Subjects of study were: anatomy, histology, chemistry, photography, bacteriology, pathology and also included laboratory experiments. From l947, the government has allotted a budget for the training of medical laboratorians. The first medical laboratory school (Laborantskola) was established in l957 and the number had grown to 13 by the time Medical Laboratory education was reformed in l977 and brought into the higher education sector. By l982 the reform had been implemented. The 13 laboratory programs are now college/university-level programs offered in institutions variously referred to as Vardhogskolor (College of Health caring sciences) or Halsohogskolan (University of Health). The basic program for the title Medical Laboratory Technologist or “Laboratorie-assistent” lasts 2 l/4 years (or 90 “pöang” or points). According to the Swedish educational system, each week of study equals one point and the complete academic year consists of 40 points. Graduates of the Medical Laboratory Technology programs receive the College or University Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology. Up to 1993 The National Board of Universities and Colleges or “Universitet-högskole ambetet” (UHA) drew up nationally valid study programs and set general and specific goals and the main program contents. At the local level, study committees composed of representatives of the profession, teachers and students developed the training programs. Following an educational reform in 1993 all programs comprised 120 points. No nationally valid program syllabi were laid down but all decisions concerning the programs were taken at the local level. The quality control was the responsibility of the University Chancellor who granted the right to examination to the individual colleges/universities. Between 1994 (when the European version of the Directory was published) and 2000 the Swedish educational program changed dramatically. In 1999 a new law was enacted and a 3-year program of full-time study (120) points that leads to an examination as Biomedical Laboratory Scientist and a B.Sc. in Biomedical Laboratory Science has replaced earlier programs. (See below for details)
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Prior to 1999 a. Basic Medical Laboratory Education: Medical laboratory technologist – 2.25 years of training, including at least 20 weeks of laboratory practice. (1) Additional 6-week (point) course in blood banking (2) Additional 24-week (point) course in cytology (3) Additional 40-week (point) course leading to a first degree in Molecular Biology and Biotechniques (Biochemistry, theory and methods with gene technology, immunology theory and methods, cell biology, research methods and ethics). This program was available since January l987. b. Postgraduate Education: (4) Master’s degree requiring two years of study in a Faculty of Medicine or a Faculty of Social Science following the first degree (80 points). (5) Doctoral degree requiring 4 years of full-time or 8 years of part-time study following the first degree (160 points). Opportunities also existed for Medical Laboratory Technologists to train in Education (Teaching) in a 60-point (l 1/2 year) program of theory and practice as well as in Health Administration in programs of 20-60 points. As of 1999 a. Basic Biomedical laboratory education (120 points) Medical laboratory technologists complete 3 years of full-time education including at least 20 weeks of laboratory practice and examination project (thesis) covering 10 weeks studies (10 points). (Requirements: minimum total: total of 120 points; major subject of at least 60 points; degree project of 10 points) b. Master’s degree (40) The general requirements for a Masters degree are: - A minimum of 160 points in total (includes 120 in Basic Biomedical laboratory edu.) - A major subject of at least 80 points (includes 60 earned in Basic Bio. Med Lab.) - A degree project (thesis) of 20 points
c. Licentiate degree (80 points) This corresponds to 50% of the studies toward a doctorate. (2 years full-time study or 4 years part-time in a Faculty of Medicine or a Faculty of Social Science following the First degree, 80 points) d. Doctoral degree Requires 4 years full-time studies or 8 years part-time following the First degree
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1999 There was a central admissions committee for all the Medical Laboratory programs: The County Council Association’s Admissions Committee LFA (Landstings förbundets antagningsnämnd) Box 1054 S-551 Jönköping Entry Requirements The minimum basic entry requirement, as for all higher education, was successful completion of upper-secondary school or equivalent education. This meant completion of at least 2 years (grade 11) of the upper secondary school program including mathematics and natural sciences. Students with the background or in need of a refresher course were encouraged to complete a 5-6 week preparatory course in mathematics, physics and chemistry.
As of 1999 As of 1999 a central admission agency is responsible for all university programs: The National Agency for Higher Education VHF (Verket for hogskoleservice) SE-833 82 Strömsund (mailing address) Drottningholmvägen 37 (visiting address) Stockholm Tel: 46 8 545 515 40 Internet: www.vhs.se
The minimum basic entry requirements for all programs of higher education constitute successful completion of upper-secondary school or equivalent education. This means completion of at least 3 years (grade 12) of the upper secondary school program including mathematics and natural sciences.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education in medical laboratory science in Sweden prepares the graduate for the profession of Medical Laboratory Technologist in laboratories for health and medical care, in biomedical and veterinary research, in the pharmaceutical industry and in related aspects of the food industry. Prior to 1999 Education for medical laboratorians was divided into 5 specializations or tracks: 1. Clinical Chemistry (including hematology and blood banking) 2. Microbiology 3. Morphological cell biology (previously Histopathology) 4. Clinical Physiology 5. Biochemistry/Molecular biology In addition to the standardized education all medical laboratory technologists could train in cytotechnology (24 points) Clinical Chemists and microbiologists had an opportunity for specialized courses in blood banking (6 points) Since 1999 As of 1999 the basic university education for biomedical (medical) laboratory science is a general education. The student chooses a specialization during the latter part of the program. The examination project/thesis, covering 10 points, is a specialization within a subject area chosen by the student.
The basic education in biomedical laboratory science qualifies the student for further education leading to a higher degree qualification. The Master’s degree comprises 40 points. The Licentiate degree program (licentiatexamen) comprises 80 points and includes a degree thesis of 40 points. A Ph.D. comprises an additional 80 points and includes a written dissertation, which is defended in public. 6. CURRICULUM Prior to 1999 The curriculum for Biomedical laboratory science education was divided into two course segments. The first segment (A & B below) of at least 50 points offered the basic biomedical laboratory science, including basic level of natural science, technical and medical subjects. The second segment (C below) of about 40 points gave the required specialization in a 40-week program, which also included a period of laboratory practice (about 20 weeks) in diagnostic and research laboratories of a hospital, primary health care facility or other suitable location. During this period the students had to do a project, which was presented both orally and in writing. There was a five to six week voluntary preparatory course in natural sciences (mathematics, physics, chemistry). This course was recommended for any student entering without the 12th grade or who might need a refresher course STUDY PROGRAM 90 POINTS (For students starting - 1987 or after) Specific Laboratory Science; A through C segment most with 40 points: Clinical Physiology | Clinical Chemistry | including | Hematology & | Transfusion | Medicine | Microbiology | including | Transfusion | Medicine | | Biochemistry | Molecular | Biology | Morphological | Cell Biology
Basic biomedical laboratory science at least 50 points: Microbiological methods Biochemical methods Immunological methods Molecular biological methods
Natural Scientific subjects with laboratory methods A Medical subjects with laboratory methods ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Students progressed from course level A to B to C. Individual schools developed the detailed curricula. For a sample detailed curriculum see 1991 Medical Laboratory Technology “Study Programme” from Stockholm College of Health and Caring Sciences Colleges Appendix A. Preparatory courses of 5 points in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------STUDY PROGRAM 90 POINTS (1982-1987) Outline of program _______________________________________________________________ 40 points Special laboratory methods pertaining to each of the specializations _______________________________________________________________ 30 points General laboratory methods _______________________________________________________________ 10 points Natural sciences: mathematics, physics, and chemistry 10 points 10-point basic course in behavioral sciences, social studies _______________________________________________________________ Further studies were available in Medical Laboratory Technology for students with concentrations in:
Clinical Physiology Molecular biology and Biotechnology Nuclear Medicine Clinical Chemistry Blood group serology Molecular biology and Biotechnology Medical Computer Science
40 points 20 points
2+2+2 (totaling 6) points 40 points 10 points
Microbiology Blood group serology Molecular biology and Biotechnology Biochemistry Molecular Biology Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Morphological Cell biology Clinical cytology Molecular biology and Biotechnology
2+2+2 (totaling 6) points 40 points
24 points 40 points
Examinations and Grading All courses include written and oral examinations, but there is no overall examination. Grading is Pass/Fail. Since 1999 As of 1999 the curriculum for Biomedical Laboratory Technology education is organized in courses covering 5, 10 and 20 points each; 60 points in the principal subject, Biomedical Laboratory Science, and 60 points in natural science and medical subjects. An examination thesis, covering 10 points, must be included in the program leading to the Bachelor’s degree. Laboratory practice (about 20 weeks) in diagnostic and research laboratories of a hospital, primary health care facility or other suitable location is included in the third year. During this period the students have to complete a project (10 points=10 weeks) presented both orally and in writing. Only passing grades are registered. Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Laboratory Science 120 points Malmö University – 1999* Year 1 Course 1, 20 points Biomedical Laboratory Science, 5 points Basic Laboratory Methodology Natural Science, 15 points Chemistry Laboratory instruments Biochemistry Physics Nuclear physics Statistics Computer science Year 2 Course 3 Biomedicine, 20 points Anatomy & physiology Physiological & clinical chemistry Hematology Transfusion medicine Histology including morphological Methodology General pathology Year 3 Course 5 Biomedical Laboratory Science 10 points Advanced courses each comprising at least 5 points Course 2, 20 points Biomedical Laboratory Science, 5 points Biochemical methods Natural Science, 15 points Biochemistry and cell biology including Methodology Microbiology Immunology Molecular biology Genetics Course 4, 20 points Biomedical Laboratory Science, 10 points Cell culturing Cytology & morphological methodology Immunological methodology Biomedicine, 10 points * Nec. Skill handling experimental animals Cytology Pharmacology Molecular biology Statistics Course 6 Biomedical Laboratory Science, 20 points Courses in applied lab. methodology each comprising at least 10 points
Biomedical Lab Sci. Degree project, 10 pts Individually advanced work comprising 10 pts Clinical chemical methods Molecular biological methods Morphological methodology Microbiological methods Neurophysiological methods Nuclear medicine, ultrasound Transfusion medical methods
Biochemical methods Microbiological methods Clinical physiological methods Histology & pathological examination methods
*To illustrate the laboratory as a workplace the courses 1-4 include components within subject areas of work environment, ergonomics, management administration, economics, ethics, pedagogy, and quality assurance. Methodology in scientific research is included in all courses.
. LIST OF PROGRAMS 1. Göteborgs universitet Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning (Programmet för medicinsk laboratorievetenskap) Box 100 SE-405 30 Göteborg Tel: +46 31 773913 Website: http://www.gu.se (Formerly Vårdhögskolan i Göteborg)
Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping Institutionen för naturvetenskap och biomedicin (Programmet for medicinsk laboratorievetenskap) Box 1038 SE-551 11 Jönköping Tel: +46 36 32 48 30 website: http://www.hj.se/hhj Karlstads universitet Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning SE-651 88 Karlstad Tel: + 46 54 7001735 website: http://www.kau.se (Formerly Hälsohögskolan i Karlstad) Lunds universitet Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning Box 117 SE-221 00 Lund Tel: +46 46 2221815 website: http://www.bama.lu.se (Formerly Vårdhögskolan Lund – Helsingborg) Malmö Högskola Hälsa och samhälle Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning SE-205 06 Malmo Tel: +46 40 921244 http://www.hs.mah.se/Bma/English/index.html (Formerly Vårhögskolan i Malmö) Karolinska Institutet Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning SE-171 77 Stockholm Tel.:46 8 728 36 23 website: http://www.info.ki.se (Formerly: Hälsohögskolan i Stockholm) Mithögskolan Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning Box 860 SE-851 24 Sundsvall Tel: 46 60 148 526 website: http://www.mh.se (Formerly Vårdhögskolan Sundsvall/Örnsköldsvik) Umeå Universitet Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning SE-901 87 Umeå Tel: +46 90 7869149 website: http://umu.vardutb/bma.html (Formerly Hälsohögskolan i Umeå)
Uppsala universitet Enheten för laboratorievetenskap
Box 256 SE-751 05 Uppsala Tel: +46 18 4716655 website: http:// www.uu.se (Formerly: Vårdhögskolan i Umeå)) 10. Örebro universitet Biomedicinsk analytikerutbildning SE-701 82 Örebro Tel: +46 19 303671 website http://www.oru.se (Formerly: Vårdhögskolan i Örebro)
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Prior to 1999 a. Accreditation The Vårdhögskolor (Colleges of Health and caring sciences) are government institutions. The National Board of Universities or “Universitetshögskole ambelet” (UHA) set general and specific goals and specifies the main program content. b. Licensure There was no legal requirement for practice. c. Certification Professional recognition was graduation from the medical laboratory specialization (laboratorie-assistentlinjen) in a health care program at a Health Care College (Vårdhögskola). The certificate was “Högskoleexamen i biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap”, University Certificate in Biomedical Laboratory Science. d. The professional association for medical laboratory technologists in Sweden was the S.L.F.: Svenska Laboratorieassistentföreningen Other Associations. Swedish Association of Health Offices (vårdforbundet) Box 3260 S-10365 Stockholm As of 1999 a. Accreditation -
The Biomedical Laboratory Science program is conducted at national universities (within the education system). The National Agency for Higher Education VHS (Verket för högskoleservice) is the supervising authority for the program.
b. Licensure A successful completion of the basic educational program in Biomedical Laboratory Science is compulsory to obtain employment as a medical laboratory technologist. The title Biomedicinsk analytiker (biomedical scientist) is a protected professional title. c. Certification Graduation from Biomedical Laboratory Technologist education or a Biomedical Laboratory Science program gives professional recognition. The certificate is the Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Laboratory Science “Kandidatexamen i biomedicinsk laboratorieveteenskap.” Professional examination is Yrkesexamen i biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.” Candidates for certification take both the professional examination and the Bachelor examination d. The professional association for Medical Laboratory Technologists is: Institutet för biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap (IBL) Adolf Fredriks Kyrkogata 11 SE-111 37 Stockholm Tel: +46 8-24-01-30 Fax: +46 8-24-01-24 www.ibl-inst.se
Vårdförbundet (Swedish Association of Health Officers) Box 3260
SE-103 65 Stockholm
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY The National Board of Health SE-106 30 Stockholm SWEDEN Tel: +46 8 555 Fax + 46 8 555 532 53 Textphone: +46 8 555 532 48 e-mail: email@example.com <mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org>
The Board is designated Competent Authority under European Community directives on mutual recognition of diplomas concerning health profession.
For further information contact the Swedish Association directly at:
www.ibl-inst.se or email@example.com
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 12 2 13 3 Gymnasium (optional) Diploma Medical Laboratory Technolgist* 1* 2* 3* Work Experience 1 2 Higher Certificate M e d i c a l Laboratory Technology and Management/ Education 600 hrs. Part-time
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND By Federal Act of June 13, l95l and by an Agreement in l976 between the Swiss Red Cross and the Swiss Cantons (federal states), the Swiss Red Cross is in charge of the regulation, supervision, and promotion of medical-technical education as well as the education of nursing and medical-therapeutical personnel. Medical laboratory science education in Switzerland takes place at the upper secondary education level (in several schools the high school diploma is required) in higher vocational institutions for medical- technical training. The schools cooperate closely with hospitals and medical/scientific institutes. Education for the diploma of Graduate Medical Laboratory Technologist (German: Diplomierte medizinische Laborantin; French: Laborantine médicale diplomée; Italian: Laboratorista medica diplomata) lasts 3 years. The minimum annual vacation is 5 weeks, so that the academic year comprises 11 months. Both theoretical and practical educations are given at the school. In addition, clinical training is undertaken in approved medical laboratories. In accordance with the overall objectives of the Swiss Red Cross and in accordance with its guidelines, graduates in possession of a diploma of Medical Laboratory Technology must: - Be able to carry out the analytical techniques perfectly and independently, - Be aware of the importance of their work for the patients and for the running of the hospital or institute, for which they work, - Be capable of treating the material to be examined correctly, observing all essential security measures, - Be able to evaluate and guarantee the quality of the work performed in the laboratory, - Have the capability to develop analytical methods, and - Take responsibility for the results produced in the laboratory.
In each school the Director is in charge of organizing the theoretical and practical training according to directives from the Swiss Red Cross, including the examinations and the selection of Clinical training places for the students. The Director holds a Medical Laboratory Technology Diploma and/or has an appropriate university degree in a medical or scientific field and has acquired further training necessary to fulfill the duties.
The teaching staffs of the schools are holders of a University degree or other degrees such as the Medical Laboratory Technologist Diploma, with appropriate preparation for the work at the technical, methodological and pedagogical level.
In 1998 the Swiss Red Cross approved new guidelines for Medical Laboratory Technology. The schools will have until 2004 to adapt their programs. Furthermore, in 1999 the Ministers of Health agreed on a new system of education in the health professions at the tertiary level, the Diploma level. As a consequence curriculum and entrance requirements will change in the next two years, although these changes have not yet been implemented as the Directory goes to press. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING 1) Medical Laboratory Technologist -- 3 years of theoretical and practical training at the upper secondary school level, grades 11-13. 2) Higher certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology: after 3 years practice and 600 hours additional education in management/education and Medical Laboratory Technology. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1999 For admission to the 3-year diploma program: - Candidates must have a minimum of 10 years of basic education including science subjects [in some schools a high school diploma (baccalauréat/Maturitats Zeugnis) is required.) - Candidates are required to have intellectual and practical aptitude and character, determined by appropriate tests, interviews and examination of the application form. Since 1999 In 1999 the Ministers of Health agreed on a new system of education for all health professions at the tertiary level, the Diploma level. As a consequence entrance requirements will change in the next two years, although these changes have not yet been implemented as the Directory goes to press 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical technology in Switzerland is polyvalent and includes clinical chemistry, hematology (including immunohematology, hemostasis), immunology, histology, microbiology, cytology, parasitology, nuclear medicine and radiation precautions. Graduates in Medical Laboratory Technology can continue their training in any of the medical laboratory disciplines under the auspices of the Swiss Professional Association of Graduate Medical Laboratory Technologists (Schweizerischer Fachverband der diplomierten medizinischen Laborantinnen und Laboranten.)
They also have the choice of pursuing their studies at a higher technical college or at the university.
6. CURRICULUM In 1999 the Ministers of Health agreed on a new system of education for all health professions at the tertiary level, the Diploma level. As a consequence curricular requirements may change in the next two years, although, as noted above, these changes have not yet been implemented. The current program lasts three years and consists of both theoretical and practical training. The Swiss Red Cross does not specify the exact number of hours for each subject in order to permit a certain amount of flexibility. A total of 1200 hours of theoretical study is considered a minimum, however, each school may judge the best way of attaining instructional goals. In at least two of the compulsory subjects the education must be acquired in the form of clinical training in approved medical laboratories. For each of these subjects the training lasts a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 12 months. Practical education in the other compulsory subjects is through practical exercises organized by the school. This training requires at least 150 hours for the
third subject and 60 hours for the fourth subject. In addition, 30 hours of theoretical and practical education in radiation precautions are given at a specialized institute. Grading and examinations The school organizes the examinations for the diploma. These examinations are taken after having successfully completed at least 90% of both theoretical and practical training. The grading scale is from l to 6 with 4 the passing grade and grades l-3 unsatisfactory. For the diploma grade the areas of instruction are grouped in the following manner: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mathematics and physics Chemistry Anatomy, physiology, general pathology and physiopathology Biology and biochemistry Clinical chemistry Hematology/Immunohematology/Hemostasis Histology Microbiology
Instead of one of the fields 5-8, one of the following may be chosen: Cytology, Parasitology, Nuclear medicine, and Immunology. One diploma grade is given for the subjects numbered l-4. For each of the subjects numbered 5-8 two grades are given because of theoretical and practical examination. Thus, there are 12 grades listed on the diploma. To obtain the diploma, the average of the 12 grades must be at least 4.0. Only two of the theoretical and one of the practical grades can be below 4.0. The school organizes the (theoretical and practical) education in radiation precautions and the examinations for the certificate. The certificate grade must be at least 4.0.
Required Subjects for the Medical Laboratory Technologist Program Theoretical subjects at school Chemistry Mathematics Statistics/computing Physics/Radiation Precautions Biology Biochemistry Anatomy Physiology/Pathophysiology Immunology Clinical Chemistry Hematology/Hemostasis Immunohematology/Transfusion science Histology/Pathology Microbiology/Parasitology Others Practical courses at school Clinical Chemistry Hematology/Hemostasis Immunohematology/Transfusion science Histology/(cytology) Average hours 140 61 28 119 49 63 86 65 23 134 133 44 78 107 100 Average hours 162 180 51 93
Microbiology/(parasitology) Others 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Berufsschule im Gesundheitswesen Laborschule Basel Hebelstr. 20 CH-4031 Basel Tel: 061 256 21 64 Vereinigte Laborschulen Engeried/Feusi Bern Alpeneggstrasse 1 CH - 3012 Bern Tel: 31 301 7177 website: http://www.feusi.ch Schule für med. Laborantinnen und Laboranten Engeried Bern
(closed since 1990))
Ausbildungszentrum Insel (previously Schule für med-tech. Laborassistentinnen und -assistenten) Murtenstr, 10 CH - 3010 Bern Tel: 31 632 26 20 Website: http://www.azi.ch
Schule für med. Laborantinnen Kantonsspital CH-9007 St. Gallen Tel: 71 494 11 11
�cole de laborantines médicaux Chemin Thury CH-1206 Geneve Tel: 22 347 49 59 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
�cole cantonale vaudoise de laborantines médicaux Place du Tunnel 21 CH-1005 Lausanne Tel: 21 312 68 52 Scuola cantonale per laboristi mediche Palazzo delle Scuole del Centro Piazza Castello CH-6600 Locarno Tel: 91 751 58 71 Schule für med. Laborpersonal des Kantons Luzern Kantonsspital CH-6000 Luzern 16 Tel: 41 25 36 36 �cole cantonale de laborantines médicaux
9, rue de Gibraltar CH-2000 Neuchatel Tel: 32 724 25 12 Ausbildungsstätte für medizinische Laborantinnen des Kantons Zürich Allg. Berufsschule Ausstellungsstr. 90 CH - 8005 Zurich Tel: 1 446 97 30 Schule für medizinische Laborantinnen und Laboranten (not listed 1999) Minerva Zurich Ganztagesschule der AKAD Jungholzstr 43 CH - 8050 Zurich 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
a. Accreditation Through the Swiss Red Cross b. Licensure and Certification The diploma awarded after successful completion of the Medical Laboratory Technologist program is countersigned by the Swiss Red Cross and is recognized by the Swiss Federal Government as the principal qualification for practice of the profession of Graduate Medical Laboratory Technologist. c. Professional associations Schweizerischer Fachverband der diplom. med. Laborantinnen und Laboranten (lab med) Postgasse 17 Postfach 686 Ch-3000 Bern 8 Tel: 031 311 26 56 e-mail: email@example.com http://www.labmed.ch
9. EQUIVALENCY/ RECIPROCITY For professional reciprocity, see reciprocity section in each country entry. By registration with the Swiss Red Cross the Diploma of Medical Laboratory Technologist is granted the equivalent value of a State Diploma in other countries. The Swiss Red Cross under certain conditions also can register holders of diplomas and certificates obtained abroad. Swiss Red Cross Department of Vocational Education Werkstr. 10 CH-3084 Bern Tel: 031 -960 75 75 For further information contact the Swiss Association directly at: www.labmed.ch
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 lower sec. upper sec. 1 2 3 Bachelor of Science Degree 4 National Medical Technologist Exam Master of Science Degree ↑ Junior College 1 2 3 4 1 2 Medical Technology
Medical College or School of Medical Technology
↑ ↑ or
5 National Medical Technologist Exam
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND The educational system in Taiwan is highly centralized under the authority of the Ministry of Education. The Ministry is responsible for all educational policy, in both the public and private sectors. In addition to control over all curricula, degrees, and administration of all institutions of learning, this Ministry is officially responsible for research and improvement of Taiwanese medical education. The term “school/academic year” refers to the period of time from August 1 of one year to July 31 of the following year. The school year is divided into two semesters; the first semester extends from August 31st to January 17th, and the second from February 1st through July 1st. Medical laboratory science training in Taiwan is available at the undergraduate level in colleges and junior colleges, and at the graduate level in the University. After completion of upper-secondary school (12 years of schooling), students may enter one of the medical colleges and pursue a four-year program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology. Students who have completed lower-secondary school (9 years of schooling) may enter one of the junior colleges. After a five-year program in the junior college, graduates do not receive a degree, but are eligible to take the same national examination for medical technologist as taken by Bachelor of Science graduates of medical colleges. Examinees who pass this national examination receive a Certificate of Medical Technology from the National Health Administration. This certificate is required for setting up a private laboratory or for getting a position in a medical laboratory. It is possible for graduates of a five year junior college to continue their education by transfering into a four-year college. Each transfer is based on passing the Joint Entrance Examination for Universities and Colleges, which allows entrance as a freshman, or the College Transfer Examination, which allows entrance to the second level.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING (1) Medical Technologist (M.T.) -- 5-years training in junior college following completion of lower-secondary school, or a total of 14 years of study. (2) Medical Technologist (M.T.) -- 4-years of training in Medical College following completion of upper-secondary school, or a total of 16 years of study.
(3) Master’s program -- 2-years of training in Graduate Institute following completion of B.S. degree study. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS For Junior College: Admission is contingent upon success in the 5-year Joint Junior College Entrance Examination on completion of grade 9. For Medical College: Admission is on the basis of candidate’s scores on the Joint 4-year College and University Entrance Examination on completion of grade 12. For Master’s program: Admission is on the basis of candidate’s scores on the Graduate Institute Entrance Examination on completion of B.S. degree in Medical Technology. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Training of medical laboratorians in Taiwan is polyvalent and includes: (1) Clinical microscopy. (2) Clinical physiology (including cardiopulmonary function tests, EEG, sonography, e.t.c.). (3) Clinical chemistry (including drug monitoring). (4) Clinical microbiology (including bacteriology, virology, parasitology and usually mycology). (5) Hematology* (including blood banking). (6) Clinical serology and immunology*. (7) Histotechnology and Cytotechnology (in some Colleges). * Blood banking is included in hematology, immunology or serology, or may be taught as a separate course. Medical laboratory technology programs include also some basic study of radioactive isotopes and radiologic technology. Computer science may also be included in some programs. Holders of the license in medical technology may work in medical laboratories. 6. CURRICULUM One credit hour is defined as a class period meeting one hour per week for 20 weeks. This period of time includes vacations. The actual length of the semester thus averages about 18 weeks. One semester hour of laboratory study generally consists of three (3) contact hours but may vary from two (2) to four (4) contact hours. Five-year Junior College The curriculum may be divided into three categories: (a) Courses required by the Ministry of Education. (b) Courses required by the individual junior college, for example, introductory courses such as “Introduction to Public Health”. (c) Courses in the area of specialization.
Sample medical technology curriculum Chuntai Junior College, Taichung (l995): Course Year I Chinese (1) English (1) Geography of China Music Mathematics Biology Biology (Lab.) Chemistry Chemistry (Lab.) Physics Physics (Lab.) Introduction to Medicine Year II Chinese (2) English (2) Mathematics (2) Psychology Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry (Lab.) Qualitative Analysis Qualitative Analysis (Lab.) Quantitative Analysis Quantitative Analysis (Lab.) Physiology and Anatomy Physiology and Anatomy (Lab.) Law and Rule of Medicine Introduction to Computer Japanese Course Semester Credit Hours 1st semester 2nd semester 4 4 2 0.5 3 1 2 1 1 SUBTOTAL 23.5 4 4 3 2 2 1 2 1 --2 1 2 2 27 4 4 2 0.5 3 1 2 1 1 22.5 4 4 3 -2 1 --2 1 2
Year III Chinese (3) English (3) Biochemistry Biochemistry (Lab.) Pathology Parasitology Parasitology (Lab.) Microbiology Biostatistics Sectioning Techniques of Pathology Sectioning Techniques of Pathology (Lab) Japanese Microbiology (Lab) Histology
1 --2 22 Semester Credit Hours 1st semester 2nd semester 4 2 3 1 2 2 1 ----2 --4 2 3 1 ---2 2 1 1 2 1 2
Year IV Theory of Dr. Sun English (4) Microbiology Microbiology (Lab.) Clinical Microscopy Clinical Microscopy (Lab.) Genetics Clinical Hematology (Lab.) Clinical Physiology Clinical Physiology (Lab.) Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry (Lab.) Clinical Bacteriology Clinical Bacteriology (Lab.) Clinical Serology Clinical Serology (Lab.) Seminar of Medical Technology Blood Banking Immunology Course
17 2 2 2 1 ---2 1 1 2 2 3 --2 -21
21 2 2 --2 1 2 2 --2 2 -3 2
Year V Modern History of China Public Health Instrument Analysis (Exp.) Quality Assurance Clinical Virology Introduction to Molecular Biology Special Topics in Medical Technology Clinical Experience SUBTOTAL
-2 24 Semester Credit Hours 1st semester 2nd semester 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 -14
12 12 TOTAL
Bachelor’s Degree in Medical Technology Students enter the School of Medical Technology at one of Taiwan’s nine medical colleges for a four-year program. Until 1982, students had to complete 150 credits, or semester-hours, of required courses; this has now dropped to around 127 credits. Courses are offered at the medical college campus for the first three years (freshman, sophomore, junior). A clinical internship takes place in the fourth year (senior year) at an affiliated hospital. Areas of study include clinical microscopy, clinical physiology, clinical biochemistry, clinical microbiology, clinical serology and immunology, clinical hematology, research methods in medical technology, and advanced elective courses.
Sample medical technology curriculum: Chung Shan Medical & Dental College, Taichung, 1993 First Year / Freshman Semester Hours Chinese 8 English 8 The Thoughts of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen 4 General History of China 4 General Chemistry & Laboratory 4 General Biology & Laboratory 5 Calculus 4 General Physics & Laboratory 3 Organic Chemistry & Laboratory 6 Anatomy & Laboratory 3 Introduction to computer 2 Introduction to Medical Technology 1 SUBTOTAL 52 Second Year / Sophomore Semester Hours Psychology 2 Modern History of China 2 Constitution 2 Analytical Chemistry & Laboratory 4 Physiology & Laboratory 4 Biostatistics 2 Pharmaceutics 2 Radiotechnology 2 Histology 2 Parasitology & laboratory 2 Public Health 2 SUBTOTAL 26 Third Year / Junior Semester Hours Introduction to Pathology 2 Microbiology & Laboratory 6 Biochemistry & Laboratory 7 Clinical Hematology 5 Clinical Microscopy 3 Clinical Chemistry 3 Clinical Serology & Immunology 2 Clinical Physiology 1 Immunology 2 Introduction to Internal Medicine 2 SUBTOTAL 33 Fourth Year / Senior, Internship Semester Hours Clinical Microscopy Practice 2 Clinical Physiology Practice 1 Clinical Hematology Practice 2 Clinical Chemistry Practice 4 Clinical Microbiology Practice 4 Clinical Serology, Immunology Practice 2 Blood Banking Practice 2 SUBTOTAL 16 TOTAL *127 *The total number of semester credit hours in both the junior and bachelor of science programs
used to be higher, but were reduced by educational policy in 1982. Examinations Throughout both the college and junior college programs, students are given examinations which account for a large percentage of their grade in each course. These include, ordinary examinations at the discretion of the teacher, mid-term and final examinations. After completion of the four-year college or five-year junior college program, students are eligible to sit for the National Licensing Examination in Medical Technology offered by the Examination Yuan, #1 Shih-Yuan Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, one of the five branches of the Taiwanese government. Subjects covered in this examination are: (a) Clinical chemistry. (d) Clinical serology & immunology (b) Clinical hematology. (e) Clinical microscopy & clinical physiology. (c) Microbiology & clinical microbiology. Grading Colleges and junior colleges in Taiwan use both percentage grades and their letter equivalents which are as follows: 80 to 100% = A 70 to 79% = B 60 to 69% = C (60% is the lowest passing grade) 50 to 60% = make-up examination allowed Courses with grades below 50% must be repeated. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS A. Graduate School (Master’s programs): 1. Graduate Institute of Medical Technology College of Medicine, National Taiwan University No. 1, Chang-Te Street Taipei, Taiwan B. Four year programs (B.S. degree): 1. School of Medical Technology National Yang-Ming Medical College 155, Li-Nung Street, Section 2 Taipei, Taiwan 2. School of Medical Technology Taipei Medical College 100, Wu-Shing Street Taipei, Taiwan 3. School of Medical Technology Kaohsiung Medical College 100, Shih Chuan 1st Street Kaohsiung, Taiwan 4. School of Medical Technology China Medical College 91, Sheh Shih Road Taichung, Taiwan (6/91, 6/95)
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
5. School of Medical Technology Chungshan Medical College 113, Ta Ching Street Section 2 Taichung, Taiwan 6. School of Medical Technology College of Medicine National Taiwan University No.1, Chang-Te street, Taipei Taiwan 10016, R.O.C. 7. School of Medical Technology College of Medicine National Cheng-Kung University 138, Sheng-Li Road, Tainan Taiwan, R.O.C 8. School of Medical Technology Chang-Gung Medical College 259, Wen-Hwa I Road, Kweshan, Taoyuan Hsien Taiwan, R.O.C. 9. School of Medical Technology Tzu-Chi College of Medicine 8, Hsin-Sheng South Rd. Hualien, Taiwan ROC C. Five-year programs: 1. Chunghwa Jr. College of Medical Technology Jente, Tainan County Taiwan
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
(6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
2. Yuanpei Jr. College of Medical Technology - 6- year program (6/86, 6/91, 6/95) Hsiangshanku, Hsinch County Taiwan 3. Chuntai Jr. College of Medical Technology Takun, Taichung Taiwan 4. Fuying Junior College of Medical Technology and Nurse Kaohsiung Hsieh, Taiwan, R.O.C. (6/86, 6/91, 6/95)
*The designation of 6/86, 6/91, and 6/95 indicates the existence of programs at these said dates. 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation of programs Ministry of Education.
(b) Licensure Requirements for the license are graduation from a program in medical technology and pass in the National Licensing Examination. (c) Certification and registration Certification upon passing the above examination, by Department of Health, Executive Yuan. Licensed medical technologists are registered with the local Bureau of Health. (d) Professional Associations Chinese Society of Medical Technologists No. 35, Lane 618, Wan-Ta Rd. Taipei, Taiwan, ROC There are 19 county or city associations of medical technologists such as the Taipei Society for Medical Technologists. The Association of Laboratory Medicine No. 1 Chung - Te Street Taipei, Taiwan 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Graduates from comparable programs at a foreign university recognized by Ministry of Education, will be allowed to sit for the licensure examinations. For academic equivalencies in the U.S, see Kennedy, Republic of China, World Education Series, Washington, D.C.: AACRAO, 1977. For professional reciprocity, see reciprocity section for each individual country entry in this directory. For further information please contact: Dept. of Medical Technology Chung Shan Medical College, Taichung, Taiwan or School of Medical Technology College of Medicine, National Taiwan University No. 1, Chang-Te Street, Taipei 10016, Taiwan
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE
1 2 primary 3 4 5
B.Sc. Medical Technology
Certificate Med. Lab. Technician
2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Training in Medical Laboratory Technology began in Thailand in 1956 with the establishment of a School of Medical Laboratory Technology. The School, which provided a 3-year program following completion of upper secondary school, had two objectives: to produce Medical Laboratory personnel at the diploma level and to provide laboratory services for patients in Siriraj and Chulalongkorn hospitals. By 1972 this School had become the Faculty of Medical Technology at Mahidol University and the diploma program had been upgraded to the Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology. In the course of the next twenty-five years, as demand grew for trained Medical Laboratory personnel, other universities added degree programs until, as of 1997, six public universities and two private provide the B.Sc. Medical Technology. Also available through the College of Health Laboratory and Technology Institute of Phraboromchanok, Ministry of Public Health, Yodse, Bangkok, is a Certificate as a Medical Laboratory Technician. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are three levels of training for the Medical Laboratory Science profession: 1) Medical Laboratory Technician Certificate MLT programs This 2-year program leading to the National Certificate Medical Laboratory Technician without licensing qualifies students as Medical Laboratory Technicians. They may work as Medical Laboratory Technicians, Level II under supervision of a Medical Technologist. 2) Medical Laboratory Technologist- B.Sc. Medical Technology. The curriculum for the Medical Laboratory Technology degree programs are similar for all universities. The programs last 4 years. Usually the first two years consist of basic sciences--Calculus, Statistics, English, General Studies, Humanities, Sociology and free electives. The last two years are largely devoted to professional subjects and clinical laboratory practice. Recipients of the degree are automatically licensed and may work for a government service starting as Medical Technologists Level III. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Certificate Medical Laboratory Technician programs Entrance to this 2-year program, leading to the Certificate MLT without licensing, is 9 years primary/secondary education. Applicants must also pass an entrance -
2) B.Sc. Medical Technology programs. After completing the upper secondary school (12th grade), all students who wish to study in state-run universities must sit for a national entrance examination offered annually in May by the Ministry of University Affairs. The examination subjects include: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, English, Sociology and Thai. Students who choose the Medical Technology program and successfully pass the examination are then chosen by rank and must undergo an interview and physical examination. Students who are severely color-blind are excluded. Each university provides a
limited number of seats for the Medical Technology program. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD 1) Certificate Medical Laboratory Technician The Certificate MLT program is polyvalent but some disciplines may be emphasized. For example, Blood Banking, Cytology and Toxicology at the end of the second year. All Medical Laboratory Technicians must work for a government hospital laboratory for at least four years. 2) B.Sc. Medical Technology The Bachelor of Science Medical Laboratory Technology program is polyvalent covering four major disciplines: Clinical Chemistry; Hematology, Immuno-hematology (Blood Banking); and Microbiology. B.Sc. Med. Tech recipients may seek jobs in government or private areas and are eligible to study for the Master of Science or further studies in their field. They can be promoted to the head of a clinical laboratory department. Usually this post is permanent. 6. CURRICULUM. Bachelor of Science Medical Technology Program Chulalongkorn University 1996
General Studies (18 credits) 3 credits from each of the following groups: Sociology Humanities Science and Mathematics 6 Credits for Language Studies: Foundation English I Foundation Eng II Basic Sciences (51 credits) Stat. Bio Sciences Calculus I Gen. Chem I & II Chem. Lab. Org. Chem. Lab Phys. Chem. Org. Chem I & II Gen. Bio. Gen. Bio. Lab. Gen. Physics I & II Gen. Phys. Lab. I & II Bio-Chem. Med. Sci. Bio-Chem. Lab, Med. Sci. Gen. Microbio. Anatomy Anatomy Lab. Pro-law & Ethics Basic Pathology Physiology Comp. Allied Health Sci.. Comp. Lab. Credits 3 3 3 4 6 (3 credits/course) 1 1 2 4 (2 credits/course) 3 1 6 (3 credits/course) 2 (1 credit/course) 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
Professional Studies (67 credits) Med. Bact I, II, Med. Bact. III Immunology Med. Viro. Myco. Parasitology I Gastric Entomology Prac. Parasitology Community Med. I Bas. Admin. Clin. Lab. Clin. Lab. Prac. I & II Clin. Correla I & II Research Mtd Md. Sci. Lab Invest. Toxicology Health Sci. Res. Med. Tech. Sem. Fund. Prac. Clin. Chem. Anal. Tech. Instr. CC Clin. Chem I, II, Clin. Chem Lab I, II Fund. Prac. Hematology. Clin. Hematology. Clin. Hematology Lab. Blood Coagulation Blood Coagulation Lab. Anal. Body Fluids Anal. Body Fluids Lab. Adv. Clinical Hematology. Adv. Clinical Hematology Lab. Immunohematology Lab. I & II Immunohematology Lab.I & II Nutr. Analysis Electro. Clin. Lab. Guided Electives 6 credits 6 credits from the following: Intro. Envir. Toxicology Prob. Anal. CC Lab. Organization Mgt. Clin. Lab. Molec. Bio. Hematology. Cellular Biochemistry Hematology Abn AIDS Auto. Anal. Hemato. Theory & Case Diagnostics Molecular Biology. Nutrition/Health Blood Components Chemometrics
8 (4 credits/course) 2 4 2 2 3 1 1 2 4(2 credits /course) 2 (1 credit/course) 1 1 2 1 2 2 4 (2 credits/course) 4 (2 credits/course) 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 (1 credit/coourse) 2 (1 credit/coourse) 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Certificate of Medical Laboratory Technician Department of Medical Sciences Ministry of Public Health 693 Bumrungmuang Road, Yodse Bangkok 10100, Thailand Department of Clinical Pathology Ramathibhodi Hospital Mahidol University Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400
B.Sc. Medical Technology Faculty of Medical Technology Chiang Mai University Muang District Chiang Mai 50200 Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Chulalongkorn University, Phaya Thai Rd., Bangkok 10330 Faculty of Medical Technology Huachiew Chalermprakiet University 18/18 Bangna-Trad Road, Km 18 Bangplee, Samutprakarn 10540 Faculty of Associated Medical Science Khon Kaen University Muang District Khon Kaen 40002 Faculty of Medical Technology Mahidol University Bangkok-noi, Bangkok 10700 Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Naresuan University Pitsanulok 65000 Faculty of Medical Technology Rangsit University Muang Ake Patumthani 12000 Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Thammasat University Rangsit Campus Klongluang, Patumthani 12121 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION a) Registration and Licensing Medical Technology in Thailand comes under the Art of Healing Act. It is compulsory for Medical Technologists to register at the Division of Medical Registration, Ministry of Public Health, for a license to practice. All graduates from public universities obtain a life-long license automatically upon registration. B.Sc. Med. Tech. candidates from private universities (Rangsit, Huachiew Chalermprakiet) must apply for licenses to the Division of Medical Registration, Ministry of Public Health, who will run examination for license with the cooperation of the Association of Medical Technologists of Thailand. b) Professional Association: Association of Medical Technologists of Thailand c/o Faculty of Science and Technology Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus Pathumthani 12121 Thailand Tel: 516 0020 Ext.1305
9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Graduates of private or foreign universities must sit for an examination held twice a year by the Division of Medical Registration, Ministry of Public Health The examination includes professional subjects, both theory and practice, concepts and application of the Art of Healing Act. Those who successfully pass the examination obtain a life-long license. For further information please contact: Division of Laboratory Quality Standards Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health 693 Bumrungmuang Road, Yodse Bangkok 10400, Thailand
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1987 - 1993: GCE ‘O’ Level/ CXC-General Proficiency** 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 primary and secondary school 9 10 11 Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology
College of Allied Health Sciences Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists
Diploma in 2* Medical Laboratory Technology specialities Fellowship in 1* 2* 3* 4* the specialities
From 1993: GCE ‘O’ Level/ CXC-General Proficiency** 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 primary and secondary school 9 10 11 Associate Degree in Science 3* Medical Laboratory Technology Fellowship in 1* 2* 3* 4* the specialities
College of Health Sciences Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists
Note: * = part-time independent study while working in a clinical laboratory. ** = General Certificate of Education ‘Ordinary’ Level/ Caribbean Examinations Council, General Proficiency Level. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Before 1993, medical laboratory education in Trinidad and Tobago took place at the post-secondary level in the College of Allied Health Sciences (which is part of the National Institute of Higher Education Research, Science and Technology = NIHERST), in a 2-year, full-time program, which led to the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate. Between 1990 and 1991, the College of Health Sciences and the National Institute of Higher Education, conducted a review of the Medical Laboratory Technology Program with a view to implementing changes if necessary. As a result of this exercise, a decision was taken to change the program award from a Diploma to an Associate Degree in Science at the College of Health Sciences. Effective November 1994 all technicians desiring membership in the Caribbean Association of
Medical Technologists must hold the Associate in Science degree. The Associate Degree in Science in Medical Technology is awarded to students who have completed: (i) a minimum of sixty-five (65) to sixty-eight (68) credits at the College of Health Sciences with a 2.0 GPA or C average; (ii) thirty-one (31) credits of core Medical Laboratory Technology courses with an overall 2.5 GPA or C+ average, with no grade lower than C; (iii) all Medical Laboratory elective courses with an overall 2.0 GPA or C; and (iv) a program of laboratory internship at an approved facility comprising a minimum of 1000 hours scheduled over one academic period. This program will be reviewed annually and changes made as recommended. The profession was previously closely integrated with programs in the other Caribbean countries. Thus, students from Trinidad also studied at the College of Arts and Sciences in Jamaica or at one of the other existing Caribbean programs. Prior to 1993, holders of the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate from the College of Allied Health Sciences could continue their professional development through the examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists, which offered two levels of programs: the Diploma Program (designated the Associate Degree since 1993) and the Fellowship Program. Graduates who wish to continue their education at the degree level either go to the United Kingdom or the United States. The University of the West Indies does not give recognition for any of the coursework completed for the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Prior to 1993: There were three levels of education available to laboratorians in Trinidad and Tobago prior to 1993: (1) Medical Laboratory Certificate, a 2-year, full-time program offered at the then College of Allied Health Sciences at Portof-Spain, to secondary school graduates. This program trained the majority of laboratory personnel in the country. (2) The Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology in a specialization was achieved through the examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists, following two years of work experience in a recognized laboratory and membership in the Association for at least one year. Specializations were offered in: Clinical Chemistry, Bacteriology and Parasitology, Immunology and Immunohematology, Hematology, Histology and Cytology, Virology and Mycology. (3) Fellowship in another specialization was achieved after six years of service in a recognized laboratory, following receipt of the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate, or after four years of work experience in a recognized laboratory, following receipt of the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology. Since 1993: There are two levels of education now available: (1) The Associate in Science Degree in Medical Laboratory Technology which is a two-year full-time program at the College of Health Sciences followed by a year of Medical Laboratory Internship Program or a minimum of 31⁄2 years parttime academic study at the college plus an additional 12-18 month Medical Laboratory Technology Internship. (2) Fellowship with training in another specialization is achieved after six years of service in a recognized laboratory following receipt of the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate. Fellowship with training in a specialization is also achieved after four years of work experience in a recognized laboratory following receipt of the Associate in Science Degree.
4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1993: (1) For applicants to the Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate Program: (a) Five passes required either through the examinations of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) - Ordinary Level, or the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) Proficiency Level. The passes had to be in a minimum of five subjects, including English Language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and one other subject. (b) Applicants had to be between 17 and 35 years; currently applicants must be a minimum of 18 years of age. (c) Applicants had to succeed in an interview conducted by members of the relevant government agency. (2) For applicants to the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology(Specialization) Examinations: (a) Success in the Certificate Examination at a Medical Laboratory Technology Program in the Caribbean region or equivalent, AND (b) Completion of at least two years of post-Certificate training in the speciality of choice in a general medical laboratory, AND (c) Membership in the Caribbean Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists for at least one year prior to the date of examination. (3) For applicants to the Fellowship: (a) Success in the Diploma Program (or Associate in Science Program since 1993) of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists, or equivalent, AND (b) Completion of at least four years of post-Certificate experience and training in another speciality of choice in a recognized medical laboratory. Since 1993: (1) For applicants to the Associate in Science Program in Medical Laboratory Technology: (a) five (5) O-level subjects at CXC (Grades 1 or 2) or GCE (A,B, or C), including English, Mathematics, Chemistry, and Biology, OR (b) any combination of experience and qualifications deemed equivalent by NIHERST. (2) For applicants to the Fellowship: (a) Success in the Diploma Program (or Associate in Science Program; since 1993) of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists, or equivalent, AND (b) Completion of at least four years of post-Certificate experience and training in another speciality of choice in a recognized medical laboratory. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The Medical Laboratory Technology Program at the College of Health Sciences is polyvalent and includes Clinical Biochemistry, Hematology, Immunohematology, Microbiology (Bacteriology, Mycology, Virology and Parasitology) and Histology. Work experience and independent study for the examinations of the Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists allow practicing medical laboratorians in Trinidad and Tobago to obtain the Associate Degree (the Diploma, prior to 1993), and the Fellowship of the Association, which offer specializations in one of the following areas: Clinical Chemistry Immunology and Immunohematology Histology and Cytology Hematology Bacteriology and Parasitology Virology and Mycology
6. CURRICULUM Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate Program College of Allied Health Sciences (1986) The Medical Laboratory Technology Certificate Program consists of two years of study, divided into 3 trimesters per year. Trimester I Code BIO 100 CHEM 100 MLT 100 MLT 101 MLT 204 MLT 210 MLT 202 MLT 210 Code Trimester II MLT 205 MLT 206 MLT 207 MLT 208 MLT216 Trimester III MLT 209 PSYCH 100 MLT 205 MLT 215 Trimester IV MLT 211 MLT 103 MLT 225 Trimester V MLT 213 MLT 214 MLT 226 Trimester VI MLT 301 MLT 225 Subject Human Anatomy and Physiology General Chemistry Lab. Orientation Intro. to Lab. Instrumentation Basic Diagnostic Bacteriology Clinical Parasitology Lab. Maths and Quality Control Med. Lab. Practice Subject Hours/Week Theory Practice 2 3 2 3 2 -2 -4 6 3 3 1 --8 Hours/Week Theory Practice 3 3 2 2 -4 6 2 4 8 Total Weeks 15 15 15 15 15 15 15
Clinical Biochemistry Hematology Intro. to Immunology Immunohematology Med. Lab. Practice
15 15 7 8 15
Serology Social Psychology Clinical Biochemistry Med. Lab. Practice Histology Intro. to Lab. Management Med. Lab. Practice Intro. to Virology Intro. to Mycology Med. Lab. Practice Seminar Med. Lab. Practice
2 1 3 -2 1 -2 2 -2 --
4 -4 24 3 -35 -2 34 -38
15 15 15 15 15 15 15 7 8 15 15 15
Diploma (until 1993) and Fellowship Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists Guidelines were set by the Association for the content to be tested in each speciality. Associate in Science Degree Medical Laboratory Technology Program (1995-96) College of Health Sciences The Medical Laboratory Technology Program comprises two years full-time academic study and one year full-time internship which is conducted at an approved laboratory. The part-time Medical Laboratory Program is conducted over a three year period, plus a full-time year for the internship. TYPICAL SEMESTER SCHEDULES FOR FULL-TIME STUDENTS Year 1 Semester 1 Subject General Education Course 3 General Education Course 3 General Education Course 3 MLT 101 Medical Terminology 1 BIO 113 Human Anat. & Physio. 3 CHM 241 Sur. Org. & Biochem. 4 Total 17 Semester 2
Subject BIO 114 Human Anatomy & Physiology BIO 226 Microbiology General Education Course General Education Course MLT 229 Clinical Chemistry Total
5 3 3 3 -17
Summer Session Subject BIO 232 Genetics BIO 242 Cell Biology Total Year 2 Semester 3 Subject MLT 228 Histology 4 MLT 227 Immunology-Serology MLT 102 Laboratory Safety 2 General Education Course 3 General Education Course 3 Total 15
3 3 6
Subject MLT 230 Hematology General Education Course COM 222 Critical Thinking General Education Course MTH 201 Statistical Survey Total
4 3 3 3 16
Students are required to obtain a minimum grade of C+ in all MLT core courses and an overall program grade of C, to be accepted into the 1000-hour internship program. The Associate Degree is awarded upon successful completion of the internship program. Year 3 MLT 600 courses in the Internship Program of 1000 hours (non-credit). This Internship is equivalent to 33 credits:
Medical Laboratory Technology Internship Courses (1000 hours) Subject Hours MLT 601 Histopathology Internship 60 MLT 602 Immunology-Serology Internship 80 MLT 603 Biochemistry Internship 200 MLT 604 Bacteriology Internship 220 MLT 605 Parasitology Internship 80 MLT 606 Virology Internship * 20 MLT 607 Hematology Internship 340 * Where training in Virology is not available, students may complete these hours in Parasitology or in Bacteriology. The duration of the Internship program is usually 12 - 18 months. GRADING SCHEME Letter Grade A B+ B C+ C D+ D F Numerical Equivalent 90-100 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 Below 60 Notation Quality Points Excellent 4.0 Very Good 3.5 Good 3.0 Above Average 2.5 Average 2.0 Below Average 1.5 Minimum Passing 1.0 Failing 0.0
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS College of Health Sciences National Institute of Higher Education (NIHERST) Building 15, Eric Williams Medical Complex Mt. Hope, Trinidad. Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists Department of Pathology, University Hospital University of the West Indies Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The College of Allied Health Sciences is government-owned, and is under the aegis of the National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology (NIHERST), which is the national body responsible for professional recognition and institute accreditation: NIHERST 8 Serpentine Road, St. Clair, Trinidad (b) Certification The College of Health Sciences is the sole certifying body. Tel: 645-2658 Fax: 645-2659
(c) Licensure The Professions Supplementary to Medicine Act (1983) includes Medical Laboratory Technologists. Although the Act has been proclaimed, the various instruments are not yet in place. (d) Professional Association The professional association, the Medical Laboratory Technologist Association of Trinidad and Tobago (before 1979 known as the Society of Medical Laboratory Technologists), is affiliated with the: Caribbean Association of Medical Technologists Department of Pathology, University Hospital University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Foreign graduates are evaluated for equivalency of their training by the National Institute of Higher Education, Port of Spain, Trinidad, a government agency. The Certificate programs in Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados and Guyana have been considered equivalent, and these graduates are thus admitted to further their education on an equal basis.
For further information please contact:
Director, College of Health Sciences National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology (NIHERST) Building 42 Eric Williams Medical Complex, Mt. Hope, Trinidad
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE Pre-1993 1 2 3 4 5 Elementary School Secondary-level 6 7 8 9 10 11 Secondary School State Laboratory Technician Diploma/ 1* 2* Diplôme d’Etat de Laborantin (National Examination = ‘Concours’) Baccalauréat 12 13 (secondary-school leaving diploma) Diploma of Higher Technician 2 3* of Public Health in Biology/ Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé Publique en Biologie
Post-1993 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Baccalauréat (secondary-school leaving 9 10 11 12 13 diploma) Sec. School Diploma of Higher Technician 1* 2* 3* of Public Health/ Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé Publique
* = Practical training as Internships or “Stages” at a hospital laboratory. 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Until 1985 there were two levels of medical laboratory science training in Tunisia: (1) The basic level of training was offered at a Health Professional School (“Ecole Professionnelle”) and took place at the secondary education level after a total of 11 years of schooling. The duration of this basic training was two years, including 11 months of practical internships or “stages” in a hospital laboratory. After completion of this training, the student sat for a national examination (‘concours’), supervised by the Ministry of Health, in order to obtain the “Diplôme d’Etat de Laborantin” (State Laboratory Technician Diploma). 2) The second level, initiated in 1974, required 13 years of schooling and the Baccalauréat (secondary school leaving diploma). Students could be admitted to the Faculty of Medicine at the university level for a 3-year program leading to the Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé Publique en Biologie (Diploma of Higher Technician of Public Health in Biology), which included 8 months of practical internship during the third year.
In 1985 there was a change of the university-level program toward a focus on health technology. Four years later, in 1989, three new schools with paramedical programs were established (The Higher Technical Schools of Health at Tunis, Monastir and Sfax). In 1993, as a result of on-going reforms in health education, there was only one level of training for laboratorians, which was given at the university level. Only students having a total of 13 years of schooling and the secondary-school leaving diploma (the Baccalauréat) are now eligible to enter a program of Medical Laboratory Science at the University (see: Section 7. List of Programs). Acceptance to these programs depends on the number of available openings as set by the Ministry of Higher Education (Ministère de l`Enseignement Supérieur). This program, which lasts 3 years, includes 1480 hours (74 weeks over 3 years) of practical internships or “stages” in a hospital laboratory and leads to the Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé Publique (Diploma of Higher Technician of Public Health). Training in Medical Laboratory Science takes place in the French language. The academic year runs from September to July (10 months; three trimesters). 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING Prior to 1993 Before 1993 there were two levels of study: 1) Laboratory Technician The basic training to become a “Laborantin” or Laboratory Technician required 2 years in a full-time program at the secondary-school level (following 11 years of elementary/secondary education). The program included theoretical study, practical work in the school’s laboratories, as well as 3 months of practice in a hospital laboratory during the second semester of the first year, and 8 months of hospital practice during the second year. 2) Diploma of Higher Technician Also available was a 3-year program at the University, leading to the Diploma of Higher Technician of Public Health in Biology, which required the Baccalauréat for admission. Since 1993 There is only one level of education in Medical Laboratory Science. The training for the title “Technicien Supérieur” or Higher Technician lasts 3 years, full-time, and is given at the university level (after 13 years of total elementary/secondary education). The program includes theoretical instruction and a total of 1480 hours [120 hours (6 weeks) in the first year; 640 hours (32 weeks) in the second year; 720 hours (36 weeks) in the third year] of practical work in laboratories and hospital practice (“stage”/internship). 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Prior to 1993 1) Laboratory Technician Diploma program Admission to the Laboratory Technician Diploma program required successful completion of 11 years of primary/ secondary schooling and successful completion of an entrance examination. 2) Diploma of Higher Technician of Health Admission to the Diploma of Higher Technician of Health required 13 years of primary/secondary schooling. Since 1993 Diploma of Higher Technician program Admission to the Diploma of Higher Technician program demands successful completion of the science sections of the
Baccalauréat examination. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Medical laboratory science education is polyvalent. The training includes Bacteriology, Biochemistry (Clinical Chemistry), Hematology, Immunology, Parasitology, and Toxicology. 6. CURRICULUM Pre-1993 2-Year Diplôme d’Etat de Laborantin (State Laboratory Technician Diploma)
Theory Hours Laboratory Hours Physics 35 40 Chemistry General, Organic, Mineral , Biological 105 -Anatomy & Physiology 40 -Hygiene & Epidemiology 30 -Hospital Admin. 20 General Laboratory -50 Analytical Chemistry -100 Qualitative Urinalysis -20 Internships (‘stages’) beginning in 2nd semester Biochemistry & Bacteriology YEAR II Theory Hours Laboratory Hours Biochemistry 25 80 Bacteriology 50 80 Sero-Immunology 30 30 Hematology 30 50 Parasitology 30 30 Internships (‘stages’) Biochemistry & Bacteriology ] Hematology/Sero-Immunology ] Parasitology ]
40 30 20 20 3 months
Total Hours 105 130 60 80 60 8 months
3-Year Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé Publique en Biologie (Diploma of Higher Technician of Public Health in Biology)
Theory Hours Statistical Mathematics 50 Animal Biology 50 Plant Biology 25 General Chemistry 75 Physics 50
Laboratory Hours -45 20 98 50
Total Hours 50 95 45 173 100
Theory Hours Biochemistry 75 Parasitology 25 Hematology 25 Physiology 40 Bacteriology 50 General Immunology 25 Analytical Chemistry 50 Biophysics 25 YEAR III Theory Hours Biochemistry 50 Bacteriology 50 Hematology 15 Pharmacology 30 Toxicology 35 Parasitology -Since 1993 YEAR I
Laboratory Hours 55 24 30 -60 -98 25 Laboratory Hours -50 90 140 30 45 -12 47 ---
130 99 55 40 110 25 148 50
Total Hours 2 months 2 months 2 months 30 --2 months
3-Year Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé Publique (Diploma of Higher Technician of Public Health) Practical 20 100 40 -30 -60 20 40 36 50 80 50 60 60 50 48 100 Total Hrs
Theory Hrs Lab. Hrs Statistics & Computers 40 20 Physics & Instrumentation 50 15 35 Biophysics 30 -10 Gen. Chem. (Org./Inorg.) 50 -Analytical Chem. 30 -Anat., Histology & Physiology 50 10 Cellular Biology & Genetics 40 10 10 Structural Biochemistry 30 -Gen. Microbiology 20 -20 Basic First Aid (Diploma) 12 -Professional Legislative Aspects 50 -Beginning Internship (20 hours/week x 6 weeks) YEAR II Theory Hrs Lab. Hrs Systematic Microbiology 50 -Gen. & Metabolic Biochem. 70 30 Gen. Hematology 30 -Immunology 30 10 Parasitology 40 -Scientific English 50 -Internship (20 hours/week x 32 weeks) Parasitology Hematology Bacteriology
10 -30 --
Practical 40 110 30 40 70 50 160 160 160
Total Hrs 90 60
Immunology YEAR III* Theory Hrs Lab. Hr. Microbiologic Examination of Pathologic Organisms 30 -Clinical Biochemistry 80 -Hematology 30 -30 Pharmacology 30 -Toxicology 30 -10 Biological variables of man 24 --Internship (20 hours/week x 36 weeks) Beginning research & thesis Biochemistry 80 Hematology Parasitology
* A thesis is required at the end of the program. 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Université de Tunis Ecole Supérieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Santé de Tunis 1007 Jabbari B.P. 176 Bab Souika 1006 Tunis, Tunisia Université du Centre Ecole Supérieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Santé de Monastir Avenue Avicenne, 5010 - Monastir Monastir, Tunisia Université du Sud Ecole Supérieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Santé de Sfax Siège de la Faculté de Médecine 3029 - Sfax Sfax, Tunisia 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
160 Practical 50 40 -Total 80 20 30 Hrs.
60 40 24 (720) 160 320 80 80
a. Accreditation All programs are under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Higher Education. b. Certification - n.a. c. Licensure There is a government register of qualified medical laboratory personnel. d. Professional Associations L’Association Tunisienne des Techniciens Biologistes (founded Jan. 31, 1989) B.P. No. 320 Le Belvedére - 1002
Tunis, Tunisia. 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY A committee of the Ministry of Higher Education examines and determines the equivalency of academic qualifications of foreign students applying to practice in Tunisia. For further information please contact: Le Ministère de la Santé Publique Le Directeur de la Formation des Cadres Tunis, Tunisia
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 1 2 3 primary 4 5 6 7 8 9 secondary 10 11 12 1 Uganda Certificate of Education 13 2 3 Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education/ Higher School Certificate Certificate as Medical Laboratory Technician 4 Diploma in Medical Lab. Technology
Note: Students may also take 2 years in-service training leading to a Certificate as a Laboratory Assistant (Level C as graded by WHO) 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Primary education starts at 5-7 years of age and takes 7 years. Secondary education, leading to the Uganda Certificate of Education examinations takes 4 years with two more years required for the Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education/ Higher School Certificate. Plans for formal Medical Laboratory Science education in Uganda were initiated in 1959 in response to changing scientific and technological knowledge. In 1960 the Chief Secretary of the Colonial government authorized the Mulago Hospital to begin a program in the Mulago/Makerere Pathology Unit of the Hospital, which was recognized by the then Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology (I.M.L.T.) in the United Kingdom as a training and examination center for candidates in Medical Laboratory Technology in East and Central Africa. (I.M.L.T. is now the Institute of Medical Laboratory Science I.M.L.S.) In 1963 the first I.M.L.T. (U.K) certificate examination for East and Central Africa was held in Kampala, Uganda with 9 out of 12 candidates passing. (The only other I.M.L.T. examination center in Africa at this time was in Nigeria and was for West African candidates.) Successful candidates at the examination were awarded scholarships to the U.K. , where they pursued further studies, leading to an Associateship of the Institute (A.I.M.L.T.) In 1965, following a change in the United Kingdom I.M.L.T examination system, the Council for Medical Education in East Africa (C.M.E.) decided that there should be two levels of laboratory workers from East African countries: 1) a highly trained Laboratory Technologist and 2) a Laboratory Assistant with lower entry level requirements to training programs and shorter training period. The decision of the C.M. E. went into effect in 1967. In 1969 there was a change from the U.K. I.M.L.T. system to an equivalent East Africa (E.A.) examination system. Between 1971 and 1976 the training was in East Africa (Uganda, Tanzania & Kenya) and the qualification offered was the Diploma in MLT under the auspices of the Inter-University Committee for East Africa (Makerere, Nairobi, and Dares-Salaam Universities.) In 1977, following the collapse of the East African Community, the course for Ugandans came under the auspices of Makerere University. Today there are three levels of Laboratory workers: 1) holders of the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, which is granted after 4 years of training and successful completion of a qualifying examination; 2) holders of the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology, granted after 2 years of training and successful completion of a qualifying examination, and 3) Laboratory Assistants who have undergone a job-training program in recognized hospital laboratories under supervision of a Medical Laboratory Technologist, Level C as graded by the World Health Organization (WHO). 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING There are currently three levels of training for Medical Laboratory Science personnel:
1) Laboratory Technologist: To qualify as a Laboratory Technologist a student must have earned the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, which requires four years of study. 2) Laboratory Technician: To qualify as a Laboratory Technician a student must have earned the Certificate in Medical Laboratory Technology, which requires two years of study after the Uganda Certificate of Education. 3) Laboratory Assistant: To qualify as a Laboratory Assistant requires on the job training at level C as graded by the World Health Organization. The course is run without interruption for a period of 2 years. As a guide it covers 3200 hours. About 1200 hours are spent on practical work, in-service training, under the supervision of a Medical Laboratory Technologist in recognized hospital laboratories. After successful completion a Certificate is awarded by the Public Service Commission. 4 ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS 1) Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology: Admission to the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology program requires the Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education or the Certificate as Medical Laboratory Technician. 2) Certificate as Medical Laboratory Technician: Admission to the certificate program requires completion of 11 years primary /secondary education leading to the Uganda Certificate of Education (UCE) . 3) Certificate as a Laboratory Assistant awarded by the Public Service Commission. Participation in this certificate program requires acceptance as an employee in a recognized hospital laboratory. 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD Education for the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology is polyvalent in the first two years and specialized in the last two. Subjects covered include Laboratory Science, Principles of Immunology, Microbiology, Parasitology, Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Clinical Chemistry, Histopathology, and Cytology. Graduates are employed in medical or veterinary laboratories, research centers, teaching institutions and private medical institutions. The opportunity for promotion depends on where the candidate is employed. Generally the steps are Technologist to Senior, Principal and finally Chief Laboratory Technologist. 6. CURRICULUM Makerere University is currently updating the Diploma curriculum in Medical Laboratory Technology. Makerere University Year 1Subject Anatomy Physiology Instrumentation Primary Health Care Socio-Psychology First Aid Pathology Pharmacology Nursing Medical Ethics 4-Year Diploma Medical Laboratory Technology -1996 Lecture 53 42 41 40 36 30 20 40 20 13 Lab 20 14 10 22 11 10 10 Total Hrs Hours 73 56 51 62 36 41 20 50 30 13 432
Year 2Medical Microbiology 30 40 70 Public Health 30 20 50 Parasitology 30 40 70 Histopathology 20 60 80 Hematology & 20 60 80 Blood Transfusion Clinical Chemistry 50 60 110 Total 460 After the first two years the Candidate sits for the Certificate examination in Medical Laboratory Technology. After passing this examination he/she specializes for 2 years in one of five subjects: Years 3 and 4 Specialization in: 60 120 180 Medical Microbiology & Public Health Parasitology 40 52 92 Hematology & Blood 60 120 180 Transfusion Histopathology 60 120 180 Clinical Chemistry 60 120 180 Total Hrs. 812 7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology/Certificate as Medical Laboratory Technician Mulago Hospital P.O. Box 7051 Kampala Uganda Fax: 256 41 532591 Makerere University Medical School P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda Mulago Hospital is the training hospital for Makerere University and trains for the Diploma and Certificate. National Diploma Medical Laboratory programs A National Diploma qualification is offered by Technical Institutions other than the University and is equivalent to the Certificate program, granted by the University. This program is available at: Jinja Medical Laboratory Training School P.O. Box 1339 Jinja, Uganda Nsambya Hospital Medical Laboratory Training School P.O. Box 7146 Kampala, Uganda Tel: 267870 St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor Medical Training School, P.0 Box 200 Gulu, Uganda Laboratory Assistant leading to the Certificate offered by the Public Service Commission. These programs are run by Missionary (Non-Government Organization) Hospitals -Rubaga Hospital, P.O. Box 14130 Kampala, Uganda -Mengo Hospital, P.O.Box 7161, Kampala Uganda -Kitovu Hospital, P.O. Box 413, Masaka, Uganda -Kiwoko Hospital, P.O. Box Luwero Uganda.
8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Licensing and Registration In 1996 an Act was passed to register and license Medical Laboratory personnel wherever they are employed in Uganda— in either government or private organizations. The Act is not yet implemented, but it is planned that the Minister of Health will appoint officials to carry it out in 1997/98.
Professional Association Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists in Uganda P.O. Box 7051 Kampala, Uganda 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY Ugandan graduates from Medical Technology programs are marketable in many parts of the world, e.g. East, Central and Southern Africa, United Kingdom and the Middle East. Many have been admitted with Diploma qualifications to higher degrees in U.K. universities and even obtained qualifications such as the Master of Science (Biomedical Sciences) and Doctorate in U.K. and American institutions. Currently qualified Technologists from abroad are allowed to practice after they apply to the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Uganda, which scrutinizes their qualifications and makes appropriate recommendations to the employing body. For further information please contact the Association directly at: Association of Medical Technology P.O. Box 7051 Kampala, Uganda
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 primary school 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 secondary school 1 High School Diploma Associate of Science in Clinical Laboratory Technology 2 Clinical Laboratory Technician, CLT (NCA) Medical Laboratory Technician, MLT (ASCP) Bachelor of Science in 4 Clinical Laboratory Science or Medical Technology Clinical Laboratory Scientist, CLS (NCA) Medical Technologist, MT (ASCP) 1* 2* 3* 4* 5* Specialist (ASCP) 1 2 Master’s Degree (M.S.) 1* 2* 3* 1 2 + Ph.D. 1* Note: 2* Specialist (ASCP) 4* Specialist (ASCP)
* = work experience ASCP = American Society of Clinical Pathologists NCA = National Certification Agency for Medical Laboratory Personnel Alternative routes leading to examination eligibility are noted under Section 3. Levels and Length of Study. Further upward mobility in the field is possible via certification as Diplomate in Laboratory Management, DLM(ASCP), Clinical Laboratory Director, CLDir(NCA), or Clinical Laboratory Supervisor, CLSup(NCA). 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Clinical Laboratory Science (Medical Technology) education in the United States dates to the early 1900s. The first bachelor-level program was established at the University of Minnesota in 1922. Currently, there are approximately 340,000 laboratory personnel employed, of which 170,000 (50 %) are medical technologists, 68,000 (20%) are medical laboratory technicians, 9,000 (2.6%) cytotechnologists, 13,000 (3.8%) histological technicians, 27,000 (8%) phlebotomists, and 53,000 (15.6%) others [including nuclear medicine technologists, clinical chemists (PhDs), microbiologists (PhDs), specialists in blood banking, hematology, microbiology, immunology, and others].
In 1963 entrance requirements to the one-year hospital-based Medical Technology programs changed from 2 to 3 years of pre-professional college studies. By the late 1960s all accredited programs led to a Bachelor’s degree. During that decade 1-year post-high school clinical laboratory assistant (CLA) programs, and later, 2-year post-high school Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) programs were established, the latter mostly in Junior Colleges with hospital affiliations. The CLA programs became 15-month clinical laboratory certificate level programs and were often located at technical institutes. Certification examinations for the CLA program were discontinued in 1982 (August). At present in the United States, education and training for medical laboratorians takes place entirely at the post-secondary level, following completion of high school (12 years of schooling). Two years of college-level training in the U.S. generally leads to the Associate’s degree, and four years leads to the Bachelor’s degree. Training takes place in colleges, universities and hospital training schools, which are evaluated by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Science (NAACLS). Clinical laboratory scientists in the U.S. are employed in hospitals, clinics, research and development, management, sales, and clinical laboratories within the public and private sector. The medical laboratory is usually directed by a clinical pathologist or a scientist with a doctorate and appropriate experience. The clinical pathologist is a physician who has specialized in laboratory medicine and usually is certified by the American Board of Pathologists. In the U.S. a Bachelor’s degree is the usual minimum academic requirement for qualifying as a medical laboratory technologist (also called clinical laboratory scientist), with support level personnel, or laboratory technicians, at the associate degree level. Recent technological advances and expertise in management have placed demands on medical technologists that have resulted in the establishment of graduate programs in laboratory science in at least 40 colleges and universities. In the U.S. the Board of Registry of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) and the National Certification Agency for Medical Laboratory Personnel (NCA) certify laboratory technicians as MLT(ASCP) or CLT(NCA), respectively. From 1997 the Associate’s degree or equivalent will be the pre-requisite for personnel to be certified and perform highly complex testing. Medical technologists who have the requisite Bachelor’s degree, with education in the sciences and clinical training, are eligible for certification by the Board of Registry of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) as Medical Technologist(MT). Although different routes for eligibility now exist (see Section 3: Levels and Length of Training, below), from 1998 the Bachelor’s degree will be a pre-requisite for eligibility for certification by the National Certification Agency for Medical Laboratory Personnel (NCA) as a Clinical Laboratory Scientist,CLS(NCA). Successful completion of the certification examination is indicated by use of the initials MT(ASCP) or CLS (NCA), respectively. The Board of Registry of the ASCP certifies persons as technologists in single categories and specialists in the areas of blood banking, chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, nuclear medicine, histotechnology, and cytotechnology. Specialist Certification for Hemapheresis practitioners (HP) has recently been established. The NCA also offers categorical certification, or certification, in the following categories of laboratory sciences: clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology, microbiology, phlebotomy, specialist in hematology and cytogenetics. Also, from 1998 the Bachelor’s degree will be a pre-requisite for eligibility for categorical certification by the NCA, as it is for the ASCP certification. A Diplomate certification in Laboratory Management (DLM) is also available through ASCP Board of Registry. NCA certification examinations are also available for Clinical Laboratory Supervisor (CLS Sup) and Clinical Laboratory Director (CLDir). The NCA requires re-certification every 3 years with documented 36 hours of continuing education credits. Candidates may also recertify by re-examination. The 36 hours (a change from 40 hours) of continuing education credits reflects changes in NCA re-certification policy approved in April 1996, effective January 1st, 1997. The ASCP offers yearly re-registration. There are also a number of other certifying agencies in the U.S., including the American Medical Technologists (AMT), the National Registry in Clinical Chemistry (NRCC), the National Registry of Microbiologists (NRM), the American Board of Bioanalysts, and the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board. These are independent organizations which also certify laboratory technologists in their respective laboratory science disciplines.
3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF TRAINING (ELIGIBILITY FOR CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS) As of 1997 an associate’s degree or equivalent becomes required for personnel to perform highly complex laboratory testing. (1) (a) Clinical Laboratory Technician-CLT(NCA): To be eligible for the CLT examination applicants must satisfy the requirements of at least one of the following routes. Prior to year 2000 Route 1: Complete a clinical laboratory program (CLT or equivalent) accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Office of Education or approved by a state governmental agency. Route 2: Possess a certificate of an advanced military medical laboratory specialist program. Route 3: Complete an associate degree OR 60 semester hours of college course work including 36 hours in the biological and physical sciences, AND Complete a structured program in medical office assistance containing a course(s) in clinical laboratory sciences. The program must be accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Office of Education, AND Complete three years full-time laboratory experience within the last ten years including a minimum of four months in each of the four disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology and microbiology). At least two years of the laboratory work experience must be under the supervision of an individual who is appropriately certified as a clinical laboratory scientist, clinical laboratory scientist consultant, clinical laboratory technician or equivalent. Route 4: Possess credentials from a foreign country attesting to clinical laboratory training and experience consistent with or superior to requirements for Routes 1, 2, 3 or 5. Route 5: Complete four years of full-time work experience encompassing the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology and microbiology) within the last seven years. From January 2000 Route 1: Complete an associate degree from a regionally accredited college/ university, including successful completion of a clinical laboratory technician program accredited by an agency approved by the U.S. Office of Education or approved by a state governmental agency. Route 2: Complete an associate degree from a regionally accredited college/ university, AND successfully complete an advanced military specialist program Route 3: Complete an associate degree from a regionally accredited college/ university including 36 hours in the biological and physical sciences, AND Complete two years clinical laboratory experience within the past four years. This experience must have included a minimum of three months in each of the four major disciplines of clinical laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunohematology). Complete one year of the laboratory work experience under the supervision of a certified clinical laboratory scientist, certified clnical laboratory technician or clinical laboratory scientist consultant or equivalent. (1) (b) Medical Laboratory Technician-MLT(ASCP): To be eligible for this examination category an applicant must satisfy the requirements of at least one of the following routes. Route 1: Associate degree or at least 60 semester hours (90 quarter hours) of academic credit from a regionally accredited college/ university, AND successful completion of a NAACLS accredited MLT program and courses in biology and chemistry, OR Route 2: Associate degree or at least 60 semester hours (90 quarter hours) of academic credit from a regionally accredited college/ university, including 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) of chemistry and 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) of biology, AND CLA (ASCP) certification, OR Route 3: Associate degree or at least 60 semester hours (90 quarter hours) of academic credit from a regionally accredited college/ university, including 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) of chemistry and 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) of biology, AND successful completion of a 50 week U.S. military medical laboratory training course, OR
Route 4: Associate degree or at least 60 semester hours (90 quarter hours) of academic credit from a regionally accredited college/ university, including 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) of chemistry and 6 semester hours (9 quarter hours) of biology, AND three years full-time acceptable clinical laboratory experience in Blood Banking, Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology, Immunology, and Clinical Microscopy within the last ten years. At least two years must be under the supervision of a pathologist (certified by the American Board of Pathology or eligible) or an appropriately certified medical scientist and a certified medical technologist. (2) Clinical Laboratory Scientist-CLS(NCA) or Medical Technologist-MT(ASCP): (a) Clinical Laboratory Scientist: To be eligible for the CLS examination an applicant must satisfy the requirements of the following routes. Prior to year 1998 Route 1: Complete a bachelor’s degree-level structured educational program in clinical laboratory science (medical technology or equivalent) including clinical experience in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology). Route 2: Complete a bachelor’s degree-level program including a minimum of 36 hours in the biological and physical sciences, AND Complete a clinical laboratory program (medical technology or equivalent) program accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Office of Education or approved by a state government agency, OR Complete an advanced military medical laboratory specialist program. Route 3: Complete a bachelor’s degree level program, including 36 semester hours in the biological and physical sciences, AND Complete two years of full-time laboratory work experience including a minimum of four months in each of the major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology) within the last five years. The laboratory work experience must be under the supervision of an appropriately certified clinical laboratory scientist or equivalent. Route 4: Be certified as a Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT) or equivalent, AND Complete an associate degree program OR 60 semester hours of college course work including 36 semester hours in the biological or physical sciences, AND Complete four years of full-time laboratory work experience within the last six years, including a minimum of four months in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology). At least two years of the laboratory work experience must be under the supervision of an appropriately certified clinical laboratory scientist or equivalent. Route 5: Complete an associate degree OR 60 semester hours of college course work including 36 semester hours in the biological sciences and physical sciences, AND Complete six years of full-time laboratory work experience within the last eight years. This experience must include a minimum of six months in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology). At least two years of the laboratory work experience must be under the supervision of an appropriately certified clinical laboratory scientist or equivalent. Route 6: Be certified as a Registered Technologist (RT) by the Canadian Society of Laboratory Technologists, AND Complete six months of full-time laboratory work experience in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology). Route 7: Be certified as an Advanced Registered Technologist (ART) by the Canadian Society of Laboratory Technologists. After January 1998 Route 1: Graduate from a structured education program in clinical laboratory science (medical technology or equivalent) accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Office of Education, which culminates in a bachelor’slevel degree and includes clinical experience in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology). Route 2: Complete a bachelor’s-level degree program which includes 36 semester hours in the biological and physical sciences, AND
Complete a clinical laboratory science program (medical technology or equivalent) accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Office of Education or approved by a state governmental agency, OR Complete an advanced military medical laboratory specialist program. Route 3: Be certified as a Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT) or equivalent, AND Complete a bachelor’s-level degree program which includes 36 semester hours in the biological and physical sciences, AND Complete four years of full-time laboratory work experience within the last six years. This experience must have included a minimum of four months in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology). Route 4: Be certified as a Registered Technologist (RT) by the Canadian Society of Laboratory Technologists, AND Complete six months of full-time laboratory work experience in each of the four major disciplines of laboratory practice (clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology and immunohematology), OR Be certified as an Advanced Registered Technologist (ART) by the Canadian Society of Laboratory Technologists. (2) (b) Medical Technologist-MT(ASCP): To be eligible for this examination category an applicant must satisfy the requirements of at least one of the following routes. Route 1: Bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college/ university including courses in biological science, chemistry and mathematics, AND successful completion of a NAACLS accredited Medical Technology program, OR Route 2: MLT(ASCP) certification, AND a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college/ university, including 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours) of biological science (with one semester in microbiology), 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours) of chemistry (with one semester in organic or biochemistry), one semester (one quarter) of mathematics, AND three years of full-time acceptable clinical laboratory experience in Blood Banking, Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology, Immunology and Clinical Microscopy within the last ten years. At least two years must be under the supervision of a pathologist (certified by the American Board of Pathology or eligible) or an appropriately certified medical scientist and a certified medical technologist, OR Route 3: CLA*(ASCP) certification, AND a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college/ university, including 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours) of biological science (with one semester in microbiology), 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours) of chemistry (with one semester in organic or biochemistry), one semester (one quarter) of mathematics, AND four years of full-time acceptable clinical laboratory experience in Blood Banking, Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology, Immunology and Clinical Microscopy within the last ten years. At least two years must be under the supervision of a pathologist (certified by the American Board of Pathology or eligible) or an appropriately certified medical scientist and a certified medical technologist, OR Route 4: Bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college/ university, including 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours) of biological science (with one semester in microbiology), 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours) of chemistry (with one semester in organic or biochemistry), one semester (one quarter) of mathematics, AND five years of full-time acceptable clinical laboratory experience in Blood Banking, Chemistry, Hematology, Microbiology, Immunology and Clinical Microscopy within the last ten years. At least two years must be under the supervision of a pathologist (certified by the American Board of Pathology or eligible) or an appropriately certified medical scientist and a certified medical technologist. * CLA was a 1-year to 15-month post-high school Clinical Laboratory Assistant program. Cetification examinations for these programs were discontinued in August 1982. (3) Categorical Technologist (ASCP): Histotechnologist, HTL(ASCP) Bachelor’s degree with specified science requirement plus 1 year work experience Cytotechnologist, CT(ASCP) Bachelor’s degree including 1-year accredited cytotechnology program, OR Bachelor’s degree with specified science requirement plus 5 years work experience
Blood Banking, BB(ASCP), Hematology, H(ASCP) and Immunology, I(ASCP) Bachelor’s degree with specified science requirement and attendance at an accredited program,OR Bachelor’s degree with 2 years of of work experience Clinical Chemistry, C(ASCP) and Microbiology, M(ASCP) Bachelor’s degree in Clinical Chemistry or Microbiology or the equivalent, plus 1 year work experience (4) Categorical Technologist (NCA) Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Immunohematology, Microbiology: Associate’s degree or 2 years(60 semester hours) of specified course work plus 18 months work experience within the last 4 years, OR* Bachelor’s degree plus 6 months work experience. *As of 1998 a Bachelor’s degree becomes a prerequisite for eligibilty by all routes. (5) Specialist (ASCP) in Chemistry SC(ASCP), Hematology SH(ASCP), Immunology SI(ASCP),or Microbiology SM(ASCP): Master’s degree plus 4 years work experience, OR Doctorate plus 2 years work experience, OR MT(ASCP) or categorical certification plus 5 years work experience. (6) Specialist in Blood Banking SBB(ASCP): Master’s degree or doctorate plus 3 years work experience, OR MT(ASCP) or BB(ASCP) certification plus a bachelor’s degree and 5 years work experience, OR Bachelor’s degree plus completion of an accredited Specialist in Blood Bank Technology program (7) Specialist in Cytotechnology, SCT(ASCP): CT(ASCP) certification and Bachelor’s degree plus 5 years work experience, OR CT(ASCP) certification and Master’s degree plus 4 years work experience, OR CT(ASCP) certification and doctorate plus 3 years work experience. (8) Clinical Laboratory Specialist in Hematology CLSp(H)(NCA) Route 1: Master’s or higher degree in hematology or a related field, AND two years of full-time work experience as a clinical hematology practitioner or educator (generalist or hematology categorical) Route 2: License or Certification by a credentialing agency recognized by NCA as an equivalent designation, AND four years of full-time work experience as a clinical hematology practitioner or educator. (9) Diplomate in Laboratory Management, DLM(ASCP): MBA or MHA or equivalent plus ASCP Board of Registry technologist/specialist certification plus 2 years work experience as clinical laboratory supervisor or manager, OR MBA or MHA or equivalent plus 3 years work experience as supervisor or manager, OR Master’s degree plus ASCP Board of Registry technologist/specialist certification plus 3 years work experience as clinical laboratory supervisor or manager*, OR Bachelor’s degree plus ASCP Board of Registry technologist/specialist certification plus 5 years work experience as clinical laboratory supervisor or manager*, OR Doctorate in Medicine, Chemistry, Biology, Immunology, Microbiology, Allied Health, Clinical Laboratory Sciences or related field plus 3 years work experience as clinical laboratory supervisor or manager*, OR Bachelor’s degree plus 6 years work experience as clinical laboratory supervisor or manager*, OR Bachelor’s degree in management or business related field plus 6 years work experience as clinical laboratory supervisor or manager. * Course work must include management, statistics and computer science. (10) Clinical Laboratory Director, CLDir(NCA): Master’s degree in management, health care management, education, business administration or medical technology
plus NCA certification as generalist, categorical or specialist, or equivalent licensure, OR Master’s degree in biological, chemical, medical or physical sciences plus 2 years work experience in clinical laboratory management plus NCA certification as generalist, categorical or specialist, or equivalent licensure, OR NCA certification as generalist, categorical or specialist, or equivalent licensure plus 4 years work experience in clinical laboratory management. (11) Clinical Laboratory Supervisor, CLSup(NCA): NCA certification as generalist, categorical or specialist, or equivalent licensure plus 4 years work experience in clinical laboratory supervision. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS (a) Associate’s and Bachelor’s degree programs: Applicants for most programs in clinical laboratory science in the U.S. must have the high school diploma including: 1 year of biology 1 year of chemistry and 1 year of mathematics with. trigonometry and intermediate algebra.
Also desirable for a Bachelor’s degree are: 2-4 years of a foreign language, additional mathematics, computer science, physics, and advanced biology or chemistry. (b) Graduate (M.S. and Ph.D.) programs: Completion of a Bachelor’s degree and appropriate scientific background.
5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The generalist education for medical laboratorians in the U.S. includes education and clinical practice in: Clinical Chemistry (including Urinalysis); Clinical Microbiology (including Bacteriology, Parasitology, Mycology, Virology); Hematology (including Hemostasis); Immunohematology (Blood Banking); and Immunology Laboratorians may also concentrate in the following areas: Clinical Chemistry Clinical Microbiology Hematology Immunohematology Blood Banking Cytotechnology Cytogenetics Histotechnology Immunology Nuclear Medicine Molecular Genetics Hemapheresis
Medical laboratory science education is tied to the U.S. higher education system in a way that allows for upward and lateral mobility and cross-fertilization with other fields.. Fields that are particularly important to the growth of the profession include: Management and Administration Education Health Care Policy Engineering Public Health Scientific Research Computer Science Medicine
For example, the holder of a Bachelor’s degree in Biology who has taken the requisite number of science courses may apply to a 1-year hospital school clinical certificate program and then take the examination to become certified as a medical technologist or clinical laboratory scientist. Alternatively, the student may work in the field for 5 years in order to qualify to take the examination. Thus, the variety of available routes to certification results in laboratorians who are broadly educated and who can contribute to the growth of the profession through their knowledge in a variety of areas. For this reason and because of the upward mobility of the so-called “career ladder” programs offered in the U.S. for medical laboratorians, the scope of the field of medical laboratory science in the U.S. is an ever-widening one.
6. CURRICULUM Most U.S. colleges and universities use the semester-hour system to measure quantity of instruction. In this system one 50minute lecture per week for a 16-week semester equals 1 semester hour (S.H.). Therefore 30 semester hours are equivalent to 1 year of full-time work. For laboratory work, 2-4 hours per week is usually equal to 1 semester hour. Schools that divide the school year into quarters rather than semesters use the quarter hour system. In this system one 50-minute lecture for 11 weeks equals 1 quarter hour (Q.H.), with 45 quarter hours equaling 1 year full-time course work. Schools with variations of quantity measurements will usually have equivalency statements indicated on students’ transcripts. The minimum requirement for the Associate’s degree is 2 years--60 S.H. or 90 Q.H.. For the Bachelor’s degree, the minimum requirement is 4 years or 120 S.H. or 180 Q.H. An Associate’s degree which leads to MLT certification must include a minimum of 6 S.H. of Chemistry and 6 of Biology. Similarly the Bachelor’s degree must include 36 S.H. of Biology and Physical Sciences. Under the Federal guidelines for implementation of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA), an Associate degree in Medical Laboratory Technology or its equivalent is required to perform high complexity testing as of 1997. In some programs, Bachelor of Science level students attend a college or university for 3-4 years, fulfilling the above requirements in addition to introductory courses in medical laboratory science. In the fourth or fifth year, students attend an accredited hospital school affiliated with their academic institution (3 + 1 or 4 + 1; the latter being common in California). Other Bachelor’s educational schemes include: integration of science, professional courses and clinical practice during the last 2 years (2 + 2 programs) integration of professional courses and clinical practice concentrated throughout the 4 years with clinical practice concentrated in the third and/or fourth years. alternating work or “co-op” experience (work for pay) with an integrated curriculum. This usually requires 5 years for a Bachelor’s degree program. This kind of structure is available, for example, at Northeastern University in Massachusetts and at Hahneman University in Pennsylvania. Switching from a quarter to a semester system (or vice versa) is easy. To convert credits from the quarter to semester system, divide the number of quarter credits by two-thirds. Therefore, a quarter course of six credits is equivalent to a semester course of four credits (6 ÷ 2/3 = 4). To convert semester credits to quarter credits, multiply number of semester credits by one and one-half. Therefore, a two-credit semester course is equivalent to a three-credit quarter course (2 x 3/2 = 3). It can be seen in Curriculum A that students have preclinical courses (year four, fall, winter, spring quarters) prior to their clinical experience in hospital laboratories.
Grading The system for grading course work and school examination in the U.S. is as follows: A = Excellent 4.0 quality points B = Good 3.0 quality points C = Satisfactory 2.0 quality points D = Poor (Passing) 1.0 quality points E or F = Fail 0.0 quality points Certification examinations are given on pass/fail basis. They are usually taken shortly after the student completes clinical rotations. The NCA examination is 200 items, paper and pencil; the ASCP examination is 100 items, via the computer. SAMPLE CURRICULA 4-year Bachelor in Clinical Laboratory Science Integrated system using the quarter system (11 weeks = one quarter) Sample : University of Minnesota-1996
CURRICULUM A: CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE Fall (credits) Winter (credits) General Chem. (5) Gen. Chem. (5) English Comp. (5) Elective (4-5) Math (5) Elective (4-5) CLS Orientation (1) Year Two Genetics (4-5) Org. Chem. (5-6) Physics (5) Physics (5) Elective (4-5) Elective (4-5) Year Three Biochemistry (4) Biochemistry (4) Microbiology (4) Physiology (5) Elective (4) Writing in Sci. (5) Year Four Intro. to Lab. Sci. (2) Chemistry II (4) Chemistry I (4) Hematology I (3) Hemostasis/ Virology, Mycology Instrumentation (3) and Parasitology (3) Management/ Elective (4-5) Education (1) Total Credits needed to graduate = 180 quarter credits. Quarter Year One Spring (credits) General Biol.(5) Elective (4-5) Elective (4-5) Org. Chem. (5-6) Anatomy (5) Elective (4-5) Math(5)/ Stats. (4-5) Pathology (5) Elective (4) Chemistry III (4) Immunohemat., Immunology (5) Hematology/ Morphology (4) Summer (credits)
Clinical Rotations 23 weeks (16-18) (summer and fall)
4-year Bachelor in Clinical Laboratory Science 3 + 1 Program ; using the semester system CURRICULUM B: CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE Fall Semester (credits) Year One General Chemistry (4) English Composition (4) General Biology (4) Mathematics (4) Year Two Organic Chemistry (5) Physics (5) Elective (4-5) Year Three Biochemistry (5) General Microbiology (5) Histology (5) Spring Semester (credits) General Chemistry (4) Anatomy (4) Electives (7-8) Physiology (5) Physics/Instrumentation (5) Elective (4-5) Immunology (4) Computer Science (4) Genetics (4) Elective (4)
Year Four Clinical Rotations (30 credits) are achieved through an accredited hospital program, 50-52 weeks in length. They include hematology, coagulation, microbiology, chemistry, urinalysis, immunohematology, serology, management and education; some electives such as virology, cytogenetics, research etc., are also included. Total credits needed to graduate = 120 semester credits.
5-Year Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science Northeastern University Class of 2000
Quarter 1 Fall Math Gen Biology Gen Chemistry 1 English 1 Orientation 1 QH 4 4 5 4 1 18 Quarter 4 Renal Physiol. Urinalysis Lab Organic Chem. 1 Anatomy & Physiol. Elective 2 1 5 4 4 16 Quarter 6 Microbiol. Microbiol. Lab Genetics Anal Chemistry Elective QH Co-op Quarter 2 Winter Animal Biology Prof Dynamics Orientation 2 Physics I Physics I Lab(opt) Elective QH Co-op QH 4 4 1 4 4 17 Spring Gen Chemistry English 2 Lab Techniques Physics II Physics II Lab Quarter 3 QH Summer 5 4 3 4 1 17 Quarter 5 Immunology 2 Organic Chemistry 2 5 Anatomy & Physiol. 4 Elective (s) 4-8 15-19 QH 4 Co-op Quarter 7 Adv Microbiol. Cell Physiol. 4 Writ. for Hlth Prof 4 Parasit/Mycol. 3 Elective (opt) 4 15-19 Quarter 9 Adv.Blood Bank. 2 Advanced Hematol. 3 Advanced Chem 4 Hemostasis 1 Blood Banking Lab 1 Elective 4 + Elective (opt) 15-19 QH 4 1 2 14 Quarter 11 QH Clin. Applied Study Immunohematol. 4 7 Clin Chemistry Immunology 2 1 Seminar 2 14 173 NU QH * 4 QH QH Co-op
1 4 4 4 17
Quarter 8 Blood Banking (lect) Hematology Hematol. Lab Clin Chemistry Clin Chem Lab MLS Education + Elective (opt)
3 4 1 4 1 2 15-19
Quarter 10 Clin. Applied Study Hematology Microbiol. Immunology 1 Management
Electives: 3 Humanities; 2 Social Sciences; Computer; Statistics Grades: All MLS courses must be completed with a “C-” or better grade. Cum: A 2.5 cumulative grade average (75% or between B to C) is required for starting Clinical Applied Study and graduation. Co-op: Work or co-operative experience (generally work-for-pay) at hospitals, clinics biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. * A NU QH (Northeastern University Quarter Hour) is equal to 3⁄4 of a Semester Hour.
2 1⁄2-Year Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Program Northeastern University FIRST YEAR QUARTER 1 Fall Math Gen. Chem. 1 English 1 Orientation 1 Urinalysis Urinalysis Lab. Total SECOND YEAR QUARTER 4 Fall Anat. & Physiol. 1 Clinical Chem. Clin. Chem. Lab. Immunohematol. Hematology Hematol. Lab. Total THIRD YEAR Fall Co-op QUARTER 2 Winter Gen. Chem. 2 General Biology Orientation 2 Prof. Dynamics * Elective (optional) QUARTER 3 Spring Animal Biology English 2 Lab. Techniques * Elective
QH 4 5 4 1 2 1 17 QH 4 4 1 3 4 1 17
QH 5 4 1 4 4 14-18
QH 4 4 2 4 14
QUARTER 5 Spring Immunology Imm-hemat Lab. Anat & Physio 2 Para./Myc(Opt) * Elective QUARTER 7
QH 2 1 4 3 4 14
Total Grand Total
QUARTER 6 Winter Microbiol. Microbiol. Lab. Applied Hematol. Applied Immunol. Special Topics Applied Microbiol. Applied Clin. Chem. Seminar
QH 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 17
80 NU QH*
* Electives: 4 QH of humanities, 4 QH of computer science. Organic Chemistry: CHM1264/5 required for students who plan to enter MT program. Grades: All MLS courses must be completed with a grade of “C-” or better. Adv MLS: Students could take Advanced Hem or Advanced Clinical Chem. in Quarter 5 in elective slots. Cum: Students need a 2.0 cumulative grade average (70% or C) to start Clinical Applied Study and to graduate. Co-op : Work or co-operative experience (generally work-for-pay) at hospitals, clinics, biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. * A NU QH (Northeastern University Quarter Hour) is equal to 3⁄4 of a Semester Hour.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS A list of programs may be obtained from the: National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS) 8410 West Bryn Mawr, Suite 670 Tel: (312) 714-8880 Chicago, Illinois 60631 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation Accreditation of clinical laboratory educational programs is by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS). It is voluntary in nature but is required for student aid, e.g. loans and grants. (see Appendix 2). (b) Licensure In medical laboratory science, licensure is not the primary mode of gatekeeping, with the exception of several states. Successful passing of a separate state licensure examination is required for laboratory professionals to practice in California, Florida and Tennessee. Personnel licensure is also required in Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Montana, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island and West Virginia but may be granted for successful passing of a national certification examination rather than a separate state examination. (c) Certification In laboratory science most graduates take certification examinations. Certification is the process by which a nongovernmental agency or association grants recognition to an individual who has met predetermined qualifications--usually passing a certificate examination--specified by that agency or association. Certification is voluntary; Legally a certificate is not needed to practice, except as noted in (b) above. However, most graduates of laboratory science programs take certification examinations, since employers strongly recommend that employees hold a certificate, that usually infers competence to practice. Certification in laboratory science is complex since multiple agencies provide certification examinations. (See Appendix 1). (d) Professional Associations and Organizations (See Appendix 2) 9. EQUIVALENCY/RECIPROCITY The NCA recognizes equivalent or higher professional medical laboratory science education by allowing candidates with these qualifications to write the first level generalist Clinical Laboratory Technician examination (CLT). This examination tests knowledge in the areas of clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology and microbiology. However, the NCA does require that candidates for NCA examinations have appropriate clinical laboratory work experience in North America [see Section 3: Levels and Length of Training for eligibility for NCA examinations of Canadian Registered Technologists (RT) and Advanced Registered Technologists (ART)]. After 1999 applications will be reviewed on an individual basis by an Appeals Committee and the Board. The ASCP Board of Registry does not accept clinical laboratory work experience obtained in a foreign country. Foreign medical technology clinical training programs are recognized as equivalent to one year of full-time clinical laboratory work experience obtained in the U.S. and may be applied toward one of the five years or three years of work experience required for eligibility for the MT and MLT examinations, respectively, provided the training was completed within the last seven
years. The other years of acceptable clinical experience must be obtained in the U.S. Foreign academic credentials are evaluated for academic equivalencies by acceptable foreign credentials evaluation agencies. For further information please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or www.ascls.org
1. EDUCATIONAL OUTLINE (a) Since 1987: 1 2 3 4 5 Primary 6 7 8 9 Secondary 1 2 Part I General Diploma in Medical Lab. Technology Part II General Diploma in Medical Lab. Technology Part III Specialist Dip. Med. Lab. Technology (b): 1 2 3 4 5 Primary 6 7 8 9 Secondary GCE ‘O’ Level GCE ‘A’ Level 1 University of Zimbabwe (c) From 1996 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Secondary 1 2 3 4 2 3 General Diploma in Medical Lab. Technology Specialist Diploma in 1 2 Medical. Lab. Technology** GCE ‘O’ Level GCE ‘A’ Level
GCE ‘O’ Level GCE ‘A’ Level
Bachelor’s Degree Honors in Medical Laboratory Sciences Master’s Degree 1 2 3 4 Doctorate degree
* = part time while in employment ** = requires 1 year on attachment at an outstation laboratory prior to admission 2. COUNTRY BACKGROUND Education Prior to 1987: Training of Medical Laboratory Technologists in Zimbabwe began in 1954. The program was an in-service course, leading to the Diploma in General Medical Laboratory Technology (the former National Diploma in Medical Technology) and registration as a Medical Technologist. It lasted four years, during which time the student had to be in full-time employment at an approved laboratory. After the first two years of study the student received the National Intermediate Diploma. While employed, the student worked in all the disciplines of
Medical Laboratory Technology (Histopathology, Microbiology, Hematology/Blood Transfusion, Parasitology, Immunology and Clinical Biochemistry). After Zimbabwe’s independence, the training changed and the student had to attend lectures which were organized by the Harare Polytechnic and the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Zimbabwe (Parts I and II). Graduates of the Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology were allowed to proceed to a further two years of study to receive a Specialist Diploma in a Medical Laboratory Technology at the University of Zimbabwe. Education since 1987: In 1987 changes were made in this training. The training now consisted of a 2-year, full-time course for the General Diploma (Part I) in Medical Laboratory Technology. This was followed by a 2-year in-service course for the Part II of the Diploma. Part III of the course, which led to the Specialist Diploma (S. Dip. ML. Tech.), allowed for specialization in a particular medical laboratory science subject at a senior level. Parts II and III were on a block-release basis and students were placed in approved training laboratories. The full-time program was run by the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists and was supervised by the University of Zimbabwe. In 1987 the University of Zimbabwe also designed a new course specifically to comply with international standards but with particular attention to the requirements of Zimbabwe’s employers. The emphasis was on a sound theoretical foundation in Medical Laboratory Technology and competence in routine clinical technique. The course was on a full-time basis and led to the award of the General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, which was of 3 years duration, followed by the Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, which was of 2 years duration. In 1995 the above programs began to be phased out and a Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences - Honors Degree program was introduced. Master’s Degrees were introduced in Clinical Biochemistry in 1995 and in Medical Microbiology in 1997. Plans are being finalized for Master’s Degrees in Hematology, Cellular Pathology and Immunology. Doctoral programs in specialty areas are also available. 3. LEVELS AND LENGTH OF STUDY Programs leading to the General Diploma & the Specialist Diploma: Since 1987 there have been two 3-part programs and one 2-part program leading to the General Diploma & Specialist Diploma; as of 1995 these were being phased out. (1) The following part-time program run by Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Zimbabwe/ Harare Polytechnic and supervised by the University of Zimbabwe, was being phased out from 1995. (Not shown in Section 1 above) (a) Study for the Part I examinations required 2 years while in full-time employment. The theoretical study consisted of 6 weeks of block release in each of the three terms of the academic year. The maximum classroom time was 720 hours/year with a total of 1440 hours during the two-year period. (b) Study for the Part II examinations, which also required 2 years of study while employed and led to the National Diploma in Medical Technology, was structured as the Part I program with the same hourly requirements. A graduate with the National Diploma in Medical Technology was eligible to register as a Medical Technologist with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe.
(c) Study for the Part III examinations, which lasted a further 2 years and led to the Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, offered specialization in one of the following areas of study: Histopathology Virology Immunology Clinical Chemistry Bacteriology (including Mycology) Hematology and Blood Transfusion Parasitology
(2) The following program, which required full-time study in the first year, was run by the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Zimbabwe and supervised by the University of Zimbabwe. It was discontinued in 1995. (a) Part I, leading to the General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Part I) required 2 years of full-time study at the University of Zimbabwe. (b) Study for the Part II examinations, which required 2 years of part-time study while attached to an approved training laboratory, led to the General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology. A graduate with the General Diploma was eligible to register with the Health Professions Council in Zimbabwe. (c) Study for the Part III examinations, which lasted another 2 years part-time and led to the Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, offered specialization in one of the following areas of study: Histopathology Virology Immunology Clinical Chemistry Bacteriology (including Mycology) Hematology and Blood Transfusion Parasitology
(3) The 2-part program run by the University of Zimbabwe and leading to the General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, and the Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology began to be phased out in 1995.
(a) The General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology required 3 years full-time attendance at the University of Zimbabwe. A graduate with a General Diploma was eligible to register with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe. (b) The Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology required 2 years full-time attendance at the University of Zimbabwe after the candidate had spent one year on attachment at an outstation laboratory. Specialization in one of the following areas of study was offered: Histopathology Virology Immunology Parasitology Clinical Chemistry Bacteriology (including Mycology) Immunohematology and Hematology
Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences Honors Degree: This degree program requires full-time attendance over a minimum period of 4 years. The BMLS Honors Degree is divided into four parts. Part I, II, III & IV take place in the first, second, third and fourth years respectively. Part I begins at the beginning of the normal academic year. Parts II, III, & IV begin in the third week of January. Students are placed in a clinical laboratory for experience in all the clinical disciplines. Students who successfully complete the course and then undergo 1 year internship in an approved clinical laboratory are eligible to register with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe. Masters Degree: (a) Clinical Biochemistry (1995); Medical Microbiology (1997) These programs are offered by the University of Zimbabwe on a part-time basis and runs for two years. The programs consists of two parts. Part I is composed of course work and Part II is the research component carried out in approved laboratories.
(b) Other Disciplines As of 1999, plans are underway for the introduction of Master’s Degrees in the following disciplines: Hematology Cellular Pathology Immunology Doctorate Degree: The program is offered by the University of Zimbabwe on a full-time or part-time basis. Duration is normally a minimum of 3 years and maximum of 5 years full-time, or a minimum of 4 years and maximum of 8 years part-time study and research in the various disciplines of Medical Laboratory Sciences. 4. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS Pre-1996 General Diploma and Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology: Programs are run by the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists in Zimbabwe, Harare Polytechnic and University of Zimbabwe. Part I - General Diploma Medical Laboratory Technology The minimum entry qualification for Part I was a General Certificate of Education (GCE) at Ordinary level with grade C or better in English Language, Mathematics, two science subjects (Chemistry, Physics or Biology) and a minimum grade of C in another subject. Part II - General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology Applicants had to have passes in all the subjects of the General Diploma (Part I) or an equivalent qualification. Part III - Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology Applicants had to have a pass in all subjects of the Part II examinations or equivalent. They also had to be registered Medical Laboratory Technologists and had to be employed in an approved laboratory. General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (program with full-time first year): For potential entry into the first year of the course, minimum qualifications were: A General Certificate in Education at Ordinary level with passes in English Language and Mathematics AND An Advanced level or equivalent qualification with passes in any two of the following subjects: Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Physics. Entry for mature students was determined by the University of Zimbabwe. For entry into 2nd year, qualifications were determined by the University of Zimbabwe.
Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Program run by the University of Zimbabwe and being phased out from 1995): Any of the following was required: (a) General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology of the University of Zimbabwe and a current registration on the General Register for Medical Laboratory Technologists with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe; OR (b) An equivalent acceptable diploma or other qualification and experience deemed equivalent by the University of Zimbabwe, and a current registration on the General Register for Medical Laboratory Technologists with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe; OR (c) A diploma or other qualification deemed acceptable by the University of Zimbabwe and a current registration on the Limited Register for Medical Laboratory Technologists with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe in the specialty for which application is made. The Board of Studies of the Department of Medical Laboratory Technology was the body responsible for assessing qualifications for admission to the course. Post-1996 Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences Honors Degree: To qualify for consideration for admission, a prospective student must normally have: Passes at GCE Ordinary Level (or approved equivalent) in English Language and Mathematics. Passes at GCE Advanced Level (or approved equivalent) in Chemistry and any two of the following three subjects: Biology, Mathematics, Physics. The subject not offered at “A” Level must normally have been passed at the “O” level. Master’s Degree: Applicants should normally have an appropriate honors degree or Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology from the University of Zimbabwe or a recognized university, and must also be registered with the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe as Medical Laboratory Scientists. Doctorate Degree: Applicants must have obtained an appropriate Master’s Degree and must satisfy the University that they have an adequate command of the English Language 5. SCOPE OF THE FIELD The General Diploma studies have included Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Histology and Immunohematology, as do the Bachelor’s program. Registered Medical Laboratory Scientists holding the General Diploma or Bachelor’s Degree will be eligible to perform all the duties at the Junior level in hospitals, clinical and private medical laboratories. The specialization undertaken during the study for the Specialist Diplomas, Masters and Doctoral Programs, prepares the graduate for senior level positions in the field. The laboratory attachments require that the trainees spend an adequate period of rotation through all the disciplines under the supervision of an approved teacher in an approved teaching laboratory. The laboratories are assessed by a Board of Studies comprising members of the Zimbabwe Institute of Medical Laboratory Scientists and the Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences of the University of Zimbabwe to ensure that the trainee is fully experienced in the techniques laid down in the syllabus.
6. CURRICULUM 3-Part General Diploma & Specialist Diploma
in Medical Laboratory Technology program (run by the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Zimbabwe/Harare Polytechnic/University of Zimbabwe) Part I provided a foundation in the core science subjects (Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics) necessary to the underlying principles of Medical Laboratory Technology. It also provided an introduction to the specific disciplines (Hematology, Immunohematology, Histology, Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology) and their fundamental laboratory procedures as shown below. PART I - Diploma in General Medical Laboratory Technology Year 1
Biology I Mathematics I Physics I Laboratory Techniques Chemistry I Year 2
180 120 120 120
Microbiology I Clinical Chemistry I Immunohematology I Hematology
160 120 150
PART II - Diploma in General Medical Laboratory Technology Part II continued with the core subjects (Biology, Chemistry and Mathematics) in greater detail, especially Immunology and Biochemistry. It also gave a more comprehensive coverage of the Medical Laboratory Science subjects. General studies were introduced to broaden the student’s outlook and develop communications skills, although the latter was not examined. Below is an example of the Part II Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology.
Year 1 Subject
Biology Mathematics II Chemistry II General Studies Laboratory Techniques Year 2
120 120 120
Microbiology Clinical Chemistry II Hematology II Histology Immunohematology II
150 150 150
PART III - Diploma in General Medical Laboratory Technology Part III candidates studied one subject from among Histopathology, Virology, Immunology, Clinical Chemistry,
Bacteriology (including Mycology), Hematology and Blood Transfusion or Parasitology, under the supervision of an approved teacher while in full-time employment as a Medical Technologist. The program teachers were responsible for carrying out a course of tutorials under the auspices of the University of Zimbabwe and also ensured that the candidate was fully experienced in the techniques laid down in the syllabus. Following achievement of the General Diploma students went on to a Specialization; below is one example of a Specialist subject: Specialist Diploma in Bacteriology (including Mycology) General anatomy, physiology and metabolism of microbial cells Immunology and infectious diseases Environmental bacteriology and mycology Systemic bacteriology and mycology Clinical laboratory correlations Methodology 3-Part General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Former program as run by the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists and University of Zimbabwe and being discontinued as of 1995) Part I served as a general introduction to laboratory techniques in the specific disciplines of Immunohematology, Hematology, Histology, Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology. Part II gave a comprehensive coverage of the following Medical Laboratory Technology subjects: Bacteriology Hematology & Blood Transfusion Clinical Chemistry Parasitology Histopathology Virology
Part III candidates studied one subject under the supervision of an approved teacher from among: Bacteriology Clinical Chemistry Hematology & Blood Transfusion Histopathology Parasitology Virology
2-Part General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Programs being phased out as run by the University of Zimbabwe) First Year of Study The first year of study provided a foundation in the basic sciences subjects necessary for the underlying principles of Medical Laboratory Technology: This year also provided an introduction to the following specific disciplines of Medical Laboratory Technology and their fundamental procedures: Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Histology, Microbiology, Immunohematology and Immunology. Second Year of Study This year gave a further comprehensive coverage of the following Medical Laboratory Technology disciplines from the first year: Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Histology, Microbiology, Immunohematology and Immunology. This year also introduced the course of General Studies to broaden the student’s outlook and develop communication skills, though there was no examination in this subject. Third Year of Study During this year disciplines covered were Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Histology, Microbiology, Immunohematology and Immunology continued at an Advanced Level. There were sessional examinations in these subjects and formed part of Continuous Assessment. Another important aspect of the training during these 2 years was the requirement for the student to gain clinical laboratory experience in the various laboratory technology disciplines detailed above, in approved medical laboratories in Zimbabwe. Specialist Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology (Program being phased out as of 1996, as run by the University of Zimbabwe)
This part of the course could be taken in the following Medical Laboratory Technology Specialties: Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Histology, Microbiology, Immunohematology and Immunology, and had the following components:
(a) The theory, detailed in the syllabus for each particular specialty in which a student was registered. (b) A research project in the specialty chosen, which students were required to complete and submit to the examiners by September 1st of the fifth year of the program. (c) In-service training for a minimum of 12 months in an approved Specialist Training Laboratory. 4-Year Bachelor in Medical Laboratory Sciences Honors (University of Zimbabwe - projected)* Each part of the first year, second and fourth year is equivalent to about 896 hours of learning time. Of this 70% will be dedicated to lectures and tutorials, 15% to practical laboratory work and 15% to student-directed learning which will include directed reading (library) and assignments in the first year. For the second and fourth years the distribution is 75%/ 15%/ 10% and 70%/ 10%/ 20% respectively (refer to the table below). Some teaching and practical session time will be spent in routine laboratory work, to ensure that the student is familiar with its operation in terms of such procedures as safety, specimen preparation, specimen processing, techniques plus instrumentation used and data management. This will be done by utilizing small group teaching. A student shall proceed to a clinical laboratory in the third year to gain practical laboratory experience and also to acquire a wide range of interpersonal, communicational and managerial skills.
Cell Biology Molecular Biology/Genetics Laboratory Principles Clinical Chemistry Microbiology Histology Immunohematology/Immunology Hematology Biostatistics & Research Methodology Laboratory Management Systems Theory Total Hours
100 70 100 100 100 60 90 N/A N/A N/A 620
N/A N/A N/A 100 100 80 100 50 80 50 560
N/A N/A N/A 150 200 80 100 80 N/A N/A 610
100 70 100 350 400 220 290 130 80 50 1790
Practical 140 140 90 370 Student Directed Learning 136 95 196 427 • For the most current information contact University of Zimbabwe www.uz.ac.zw/medicine/medlab or Tel: 263-4-303211 Master’s Degree - Clinical Biochemistry (University of Zimbabwe) The program consists of two parts. Part I has a course component of 133 hours duration with continuous assessment. Part II is a research project. Students carry out the project under the supervision of an appropriate person approved by the Faculty of Medicine, Higher Degrees Committee.
7. LIST OF PROGRAMS Programs are offered through: The Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, and The Department of Chemical Pathology University of Zimbabwe
Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box A178 Avondale, Harare 8. PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION (a) Accreditation The University of Zimbabwe is a government institution. Programs are developed in cooperation between the University and the Zimbabwe Institute of Medical Laboratory Scientists. (b) Licensure A professional qualification is required for practice as a Medical Laboratory Scientist in Zimbabwe. (c) Certification and Registration Holders of the General Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences Honors degree and Master’s degree may be registered with the Health Professions Council as Medical Laboratory Scientists. (d) Professional Association Zimbabwe Institute for Medical Laboratory Scientists (formerly: Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists) P.O. Box CY 1467 Causeway Harare
Criteria for Membership to ZIMLS
Student Any person undertaking an approved course in Medical Laboratory Sciences leading to the General Diploma (Part II) of B.Sc. in Medical Laboratory Sciences or relevant subject.
Any person who: a) has passed the University of Zimbabwe Part II Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology b) possesses a B.Sc. degree in relevant subjects and has had subsequently at least 12 months of appropriate experience in an approved medical laboratory c. has an equivalent qualification acceptable to the Institute Member Any person who; a Possesses the University of Zimbabwe Part III Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology or acceptable equivalent, followed by at least 12 months of appropriate experience in a medical laboratory b) is an Associate Member and has had at least 6 years of appropriate experience in a medical laboratory c) possesses an M.Sc. or equivalent in relevant subjects followed by at least 12 months of continuous appropriate experience in a medical laboratory d) is a holder of an M.Phil./Ph.D. or equivalent qualification acceptable to the Institute
Fellow A person who must have been registered with the Institute for at least 2 years in the Grade of Member AND
a) has submitted a thesis in compliance with the Institute’s regulations on examinations by thesis, OR
b) possesses an M. Phil./Ph.D. or equivalent higher degree in a relevant subject. 9. RECIPROCITY/EQUIVALENCY
All applicants are considered for registration by the Health Professions Council of Zimbabwe in consultation with the Zimbabwe
Institute of Medical Laboratory Scientists on an individual basis.
For further information contact the Zimbabwe Association directly at: Dr. Obadiah Moyo, President Zimbabwe Institute of Medical Laboratory Scientists P.O. Box CY 1467, Causeway, Harare Tel: 263 705639 Fax: 263 -4-792 588 e-mail Phlab@samara.co.zw