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Recent Titles in Reference Guides to National Architecture
Architecture of Greece Janina K. Darling Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales Nigel R. Jones Architecture of Spain Alejandro Lapunzina Architecture of France David A. Hanser
Architecture of Italy
Reference Guides to National Architecture David A. Hanser, Series Adviser
Greenwood Press Westport, Connecticut • London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Castex, Jean. Architecture of Italy / Jean Castex. p. cm.—(Reference guides to national architecture, ISSN 1550–8315) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–0–313–32086–6 (alk. paper) 1. Architecture—Italy. I. Title. NA1111.C275 2008 720.945—dc22 2007035355 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 2008 by Jean Castex All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007035355 ISBN-13: 978–0–313–32086–6 ISSN: 1550–8315 First published in 2008 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.greenwood.com Printed in the United States of America
The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Entries by Location Entries by Architectural Style and Period Preface Acknowledgments Introduction
ix xiii xvii xxv xxvii
ARCHITECTURE OF ITALY
Augustus Gate, Perugia Baths of Caracalla, Rome Ca d’Oro, Venice Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi), Padua Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill), Rome Casa Rustici, 36 Corso Sempione, Milan Casa Torre, San Gimignano Castel del Monte, Puglia Castelvecchio Museum of Art, Verona Cathedral, Campanile, Babtistery, and Campo Santo, Pisa Church of the Autostrada, San Giovanni Battista, Campi Bisenzio Collegio del Colle and Extensions, Urbino Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica, Rome Colosseum, Rome Confraternity of San Bernardino, Chieri Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome Ducal Palace, Urbino Fiat Lingotto Plant, Turin 1 4 7 9 12 15 17 20 22 25 27 30 32 35 38 42 45 47
Ravenna San Zeno Maggiore. Perugia Palazzo del Te. Pompeii Isola Bella Gardens. Rome Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). Turin Palatine Chapel. Rome San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica). Venice Saint Mark’s Square. Rome Milan Cathedral. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). Lake Maggiore Laurentian Library. Rome Pazzi Chapel. Norman Palace. Turin Renovation of the Old Harbor. Milan Garzoni Gardens. Selinunte Saffa Area Public Housing. Florence Forum Romanum. Palermo Palazzo dei Priori.vi Contents 50 53 56 58 61 63 66 69 72 74 77 80 82 86 89 91 94 97 99 101 104 107 110 112 115 118 121 123 125 127 130 132 135 138 141 144 148 151 154 156 Florence Cathedral Dome. Milan Monreale Cathedral and Cloister. Florence Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Tivoli Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Caprarola Palazzo Sanfelice. Franciscan Convent of Santa Croce. Roman Forum. Venice San Vitale. Palermo Monte Amiata Housing. Mantua Palazzo Farnese. Naples Palazzo Vecchio. Florence Piazza del Campo. Pienza Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). Siena Piazza Ducale. Collodi Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana). Ostia House of the Faun. Stupinigi Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. Verona Sant’ Andrea. Orvieto Palace of Labor. Gallaratese. Venice Saint Peter’s Dome. Novara San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica). Genoa Royal Hunting Lodge. Milan Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary). Florence Pantheon. Assisi San Gaudenzio Dome. Rome San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Mantua . Vigevano Piazza Pio II. Palazzo Pubblico. Canareggio.
Naples Trevi Fountain. Paestum Theater. Venice Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel). Taormina Theater of San Carlo. Rome Santa Maria della Salute. Rome Velasca Tower. Vicenza Glossary Bibliography Index vii 160 163 165 169 172 175 177 180 183 186 189 191 193 195 198 200 203 206 209 217 223 . Rome Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Turin Spanish Steps. Rome Temple of Poseidon.Contents Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. Alberobello Tuscolano II Public Housing. Milan Viaduct of the Polcevera. Capri Villa Rotonda. Rome Trulli. Ravenna Santa Maria della Consolazione. Todi Santa Maria della Pace Cloister. Bagnaia Villa Malaparte. Genoa Villa Lante Gardens.
Turin . Turin Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). NORTHERN ITALY Liguria Genoa Renovation of the Old Harbor. Milan Monte Amiata Housing. Milan Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). Stupinigi Turin Fiat Lingotto Plant. Milan Milan Cathedral. Mantua Milan Casa Rustici. Genoa Lombardy Mantua Palazzo del Te. Chieri Lake Maggiore Isola Bella Gardens. Gallaratese. 36 Corso Sempione. Novara Stupinigi Royal Hunting Lodge. Milan Velasca Tower. Milan Vigevano Piazza Ducale. Mantua Sant’ Andrea. Turin Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel). Genoa Viaduct of the Polcevera. Turin Palace of Labor.Entries by Location E ntries are listed below by region and then by city or town within each region. Vigevano Piedmont Chieri Confraternity of San Bernardino. Lake Maggiore Novara San Gaudenzio Dome.
Perugia Todi Santa Maria della Consolazione. Todi Urbino Collegio del Colle and Extensions. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). Rome Pantheon. Venice San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica). Rome Santa Maria della Pace Cloister. Roman Forum. Rome Saint Peter’s Dome. Rome San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome Padua Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi). Rome Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill). Rome Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. Rome Forum Romanum. Urbino Rome Rome Baths of Caracalla. Rome Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Caprarola Ostia Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Verona Vicenza Villa Rotonda. Venice Verona Castelvecchio Museum of Art. Rome Cornaro Chapel. Urbino Ducal Palace. Assisi Orvieto Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary).x Entries by Location Veneto Marche. Perugia Palazzo dei Priori. Ravenna Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Venice Saffa Area Public Housing. Orvieto Perugia Augustus Gate. Venice Santa Maria della Salute. Bagnaia Caprarola Palazzo Farnese. Rome Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Canareggio. Venice Saint Mark’s Square. Padua Ravenna San Vitale. Tivoli . Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome Colosseum. Ravenna Venice Ca d’Oro. Ostia Tivoli Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana). Umbria Assisi San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica). Vicenza CENTRAL ITALY Latium Bagnaia Villa Lante Gardens. Verona San Zeno Maggiore.
Naples Paestum Temple of Poseidon. Pienza Pisa Cathedral. Florence Palazzo Vecchio. Florence Pazzi Chapel. Collodi Florence Florence Cathedral Dome. Baptistery. Pompeii Puglia Alberobello Trulli. Selinunte Taormina Theater. and Campo Santo. Rome Trevi Fountain. Florence Pienza Piazza Pio II. Paestum Pompeii House of the Faun. Alberobello Puglia Castel del Monte. Puglia Sicily Palermo Monreale Cathedral and Cloister. Campanile. Naples Theater of San Carlo. San Gimignano Siena Piazza del Campo. Palazzo Pubblico. Capri . Florence Laurentian Library. Palermo Selinunte Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. San Giovanni Battista. Palermo Palatine Chapel. Rome Tuscolano II Public Housing. Norman Palace. Rome Tuscany Campi Bisenzio Church of the Autostrada. Campi Bisenzio Collodi Garzoni Gardens. Siena Naples Palazzo Sanfelice. Pisa San Gimignano Casa Torre. Taormina xi SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY Campania Capri Villa Malaparte.Entries by Location Spanish Steps. Franciscan Convent of Santa Croce.
Selinunte Temple of Poseidon. Pisa Monreale Cathedral and Cloister. ANTIQUITY Greek Colonies in Italy Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. Norman Palace. Venice . Ostia House of the Faun. and Campo Santo. Rome Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Baptistery. Verona Gothic Ca d’Oro. Campanile. Venice San Vitale. Rome Early Christian Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Roman Forum. Palermo Palatine Chapel. Paestum Theater.Entries by Architectural Style and Period E ntries are listed alphabetically within styles and periods. Ravenna Romanesque Cathedral. Perugia Roman Architecture Baths of Caracalla. Pompeii Pantheon. Taormina Etruscan and Italic Architecture Augustus Gate. Ravenna MIDDLE AGES Byzantine San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica). Rome Colosseum. Rome Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana). Palermo San Zeno Maggiore. Rome Forum Romanum. Tivoli Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana.
Stupinigi San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Florence Piazza del Campo. Urbino . Orvieto Palazzo dei Priori. Lake Maggiore Palazzo Sanfelice. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). Florence Milan Cathedral. Perugia Palazzo Vecchio. Novara Theater of San Carlo. Florence Palazzo del Te. Naples Trulli.xiv Entries by Architectural Style and Period Baroque Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica. San Gimignano Castel del Monte. Rome Trevi Fountain. Padua Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). Campi Bisenzio Collegio del Colle and Extensions. Rome Santa Maria della Salute. Milan Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary). Florence Pazzi Chapel. Rome Casa Torre. Bagnaia Villa Rotonda. Turin Spanish Steps. Assisi RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE Renaissance Ducal Palace. Turin San Gaudenzio Dome. Vigevano Piazza Pio II. Mantua Santa Maria della Consolazione. Alberobello Contemporary Casa Rustici. Florence Piazza Ducale. Caprarola Palazzo Vecchio. Collodi Isola Bella Gardens. Vicenza NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES Neoclassical and Eclectic Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi). Chieri Cornaro Chapel. Florence Saint Peter’s Dome. 36 Corso Sempione. Milan Castelvecchio Museum of Art. Rome Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. Urbino Florence Cathedral Dome. Pienza Saint Peter’s Dome. Venice Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel). Palazzo Pubblico. Naples Royal Hunting Lodge. Mantua Palazzo Farnese. Venice San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica). Siena Saint Mark’s Square. Verona Church of the Autostrada. Rome Mannerism Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill). Todi Santa Maria della Pace Cloister. Rome Confraternity of San Bernardino. Rome Villa Lante Gardens. Puglia Florence Cathedral Dome. Franciscan Convent of Santa Croce. San Giovanni Battista. Rome Garzoni Gardens. Milan Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). Rome Laurentian Library. Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome Sant’ Andrea.
Venice Tuscolano II Public Housing. Gallaratese. Milan Viaduct of the Polcevera. Capri .Entries by Architectural Style and Period Fiat Lingotto Plant. Turin Monte Amiata Housing. Milan Palace of Labor. Rome Velasca Tower. Genoa xv Saffa Area Public Housing. Turin Renovation of the Old Harbor. Canareggio. Genoa Villa Malaparte.
Preface W hen David A. an understanding of which should be full of rewards. Limitations of space meant that two well-known buildings of the same kind and of the same period could not both be presented. A certain French logic and French ways of explaining would not totally ﬁt an American or English reader. the latest criticism helped me in the selection. and there are so many superb buildings. I tried to be fair with regions and chronological periods in Italy. I had to avoid being too passionate about certain periods. although. How could I reduce such a mass of information to simple and straightforward descriptions and to such a limited number of examples? Should I just comment on the best-known landmarks and ignore more ordinary but no less fascinating buildings. It is a world in itself. I felt both pleasure and uneasiness. The latest information. I feel grateful for the help she provided. I had to rely not only on American and English books and essays but also on the most recent opinions presented by Italian researchers. Architecture in Greece. Hanser. Much can be said about Italian architecture. but I also had to refuse a too broad distribution because buildings. When all the research was done and most of the writing completed. author of another book in this series. Of course. . in history. asked me to write a book covering seventy-ﬁve of the most important architectural monuments in Italy as part of the series. structures that often play a great role in the pleasure given by Italian architecture? An important decision. then. group themselves into a series of connected works of art. series editor for the Greenwood Guides to National Architecture. The need to rely on recent debates to give a clear explanation of a building had often been the reason for choosing it. David Hanser proposed Janina Darling. I felt I needed some corrections from a native English-speaking writer. I confess I found the greatest delight in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. was the selection of buildings. and for the overall improvements she suggested. I had to make a choice.
They should be a key for American readers to grasp my selection criteria and to discover a certain order of ideas. the late evolution of the basilica into an Early Christian church. can be freely rearranged to make the book their own. Ravenna. Where such a reference is made. the name of the building is indicated with boldface type when it appears for the ﬁrst time. Because I had to explain the characteristics of Baroque architecture. and Campo Santo at Pisa.xviii Preface Because architecture has a specialized vocabulary that is used to describe structures. the Baths of Caracalla. I felt I had. 1290–1330 and Milan Cathedral. typical of Roman building methods. ﬁrst century bce. the Pantheon. 2. Frequently. a theater. Rome. with the famous Leaning Tower. in any case. Because Italy is in itself a world in architecture. 526– 548. to select with great care periods more difﬁcult for the American reader to understand. It contains deﬁnitions for important terms that may. consecrated in 549. ANTIQUITY. Baptistry. 1386 (its main altar consecrated in 1418). MIDDLE-AGES: A Byzantine basilica.” or complex of buildings. Also such things as the notion of proportions typical of the Renaissance. be fully explained in the entries. the entry for a building includes comparison or reference to another structure included in this book. an entertainment complex. while mine. Orvieto Cathedral. a Glossary is included at the end of this book. Words included in the Glossary are placed in italics the ﬁrst time they appear in an entry. Paestum. 212–235. which a country like France (at least partially) ignores. I notice that eight items had played an invisible part in my comments. GREEK. and two domed structures of the late Roman period. 1064–1277. If I had a chance to open eyes and minds. Cathedral churches. the Roman Forum. Rome. Contemporary structural techniques also needed to be described. the Colosseum. a basilica (a multipurpose hall). 70–80. 1064–1094. which. my own reward would be greater. a large domed structure. details. 118–125. Architectural Landmarks These architectural landmarks could be classiﬁed by the following periods and types: 1. Venice. 480–470 bce. Cathedral. . or may not. needed to be clariﬁed. later Roman. ETRUSCAN. and their goals explained. and materials. the Temple of Poseidon. the Theater of Taormina. ROMAN: The entries under this heading include a Greek Doric temple. When I sum up what I did during my own editing. originally Greek. 337–350 and San Vitale. a well-known “precinct. Rome. third century bce. Rome. I was pushed to greater efforts. which saw an image of the cosmos in a building’s mathematics and geometry. an arena. the Mausoleum of Constantina. Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Ravenna. Saint Mark’s.
and the Palazzo Farnese. and in Republican Rome (the Roman Forum). 1915–1923. which can also provide some elements for the history of the house. Ostia). 1957–1964. the Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus (Selinunte). a skyscraper. of Orvieto (Orvieto Cathedral. 1420–1436. 1524–1534. NINETEENTH CENTURY: A large iron and glass gallery. an exhibition hall. and political changes they cause or reﬂect are ignored. 1863–1877. The power of Renaissance princes played a decisive role in Urbino (Ducal Palace. and a museum of art. Components of the Antique City Among the entries in this volume are a fortiﬁed city of the Etruscan period. certain buildings were selected because they offer a clear picture of the society around them. Ducal Palace.” 651–250 bce. 1530–1575. and the densiﬁcation of the city during the second century ce through social stratiﬁcation and mixed building uses (Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. the entries can illustrate the differences between a large aristocratic residence in Pompeii (House of the Faun. Perugia. with decoration from around 1580. . as well as the Palazzo del Te. Campidoglio. Perugia). For the Roman period. Florence. Palace of Labor. in the period of the Greek colony and rival of Carthage (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus). Turin. Castelvecchio Museum of Art. Thus. Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. Verona. The Catholic Reformation was the period of self-reform for the Roman Catholic Church. Milan. 1505–1590. 1505–1590. Milan. Rome. Turin. The crisis of the Protestant Reformation obliged the Roman Catholic Church to reconsider its interior politics and its cultural goals (Saint Peter’s Dome. the Villa Rotonda. Rome. 1538–1655). Cultural and Political Changes Buildings cannot be understood if the cultural. Piazza Grande.Preface xix 3. 1567– 1569. 1300–1443). Velasca Tower. 1290–1330). 1956–1958. 1444–1482. Fiat Lingotto Plant. 180 bce–79 ce). Urbino. 1444–1482). 1960–1961. and Perugia (Palazzo dei Priori. Urban planning and the meaning of Roman government can be derived from the entry on the Forum of Republican Rome from the ﬁrst century bce. social. Augustus Gate. and villas. and a good example of a Greek town. 4. RENAISSANCE: Famous domes. 2nd century bce. The prosperity and the growth of the city had a powerful inﬂuence in the Etruscan period (Augustus Gate. Mantua. 5. Vicenza. Caprarola. princely palaces (palazzi). Perugia. the “queen of colonies in Sicily. TWENTIETH CENTURY: An automobile plant. Strong internal and social oppositions threatened the peace of San Gimignano (Casa Torre). Saint Peter’s Dome.
and. In scale. 1863–1877). which he could only realize by moving to Florence. The birth of a new profession—architect—could be traced in the construction of the dome in Florence (Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. In designing the Basilica of Saint Francis. a work of Filippo Brunelleschi. a strong debate occurred between those who wanted to express the spirit of humility of the Franciscan order and those who wanted to communicate the sense of modernity brought by French Gothic builders. a “caffè” (Caffè Pedrocchi. 480–470 bce. Designers of Orvieto Cathedral. 1659–1670). this “brick Eiffel Tower” had been anticipated by a gallery in Milan. 1290–1330. 118–125. Assisi. on modern interviews in architectural magazines. Combining a classical Greek temple with a more Roman-appearing rotunda was the aim of Hadrian’s architect for the Pantheon in Rome. in surprisingly huge monuments to celebrate the economic and ﬁnancial success of a city like Novara (San Gaudenzio. Because Renaissance architecture is sometimes difﬁcult for the nonscholar to understand. could not follow the bishop’s choice of the Gothic style. for the Renaissance . Paestum.xx Preface whose propaganda was expressed in the most advanced creations of the Baroque age (Cornaro Chapel. This medieval system of building was based on the collaboration of different crafts. Rome. and on elaborate research to know their decision-making process. or of the Doric Temples of Selinunte (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) were a great challenge for the architects. 1420–1436). on debates. but this designation disappeared and the designer gradually took on the title of “master-mason” or cleric of the work. 1429–1459. proved a failure of the traditional methods of the Gothic masters. Milan Cathedral. 1647–1652. time must be devoted to such three-dimensional architectural manifestos as the Pazzi Chapel of Florence. “architects” may have been known by name. 1386 through the ﬁfteenth century. 1826–1842). It opened to the vast middle-class crowds and contained a dome as big as the Renaissance dome of Saint Peter (Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. Rome. ten years before it was ﬁnished. Contemporary architectural movements expressed the political conﬂicts and social rivalries of the twentieth century. Decision Making by the Architect Is it possible to penetrate the hidden side of architectural conception? Great attention should be paid to how the profession names the designers. In any case. in charge of the main building decisions. In antiquity. architects must achieve precise goals in a building. Most succeeding architects have so protected their talent that the historian must rely on isolated papers. Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. 1841–1878). for example. or. The uniﬁcation of Italy (the Risorgimento movement) of the nineteenth century created a new kind of public space treated on a monumental scale. The proportions of the Temple of Poseidon. Padua. and these may orient the research.
the Cornaro Chapel. Giancarlo de Carlo maintained an open-minded discussion with the future inhabitants in preparing his project for the Collegio del Colle in Urbino. as it was opposed to the “traditional” city. As engineers also create new forms. 1659–1670. their Monte Amiata Housing in Milan. was typical of post–World War II attitudes. 1863–1877). 1444–1482. 1960–1961. Domestic Architecture The history of the house is begins with a Greek house of the fourth or third centuries bce (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) and an aristocratic home in Pompeii (House of the Faun). 1962–1983. Giovanni Michelucci (Church of the Autostrada. or the sense of ﬂuidity developed by Riccardo Morandi (Viaduct of the Polcevera. For the Middle Ages. both in Rome. 1957–1964. Three generations of housing estates were selected: Tuscolano II Public Housing in Rome. Milan. Genoa. Carlo Scarpa’s Castelvecchio Museum of Art in Verona. The creation of a new type of urban residence (Casa Rustici. 1950– 1954. 1961–1971) was an expressionist architect. representing a modern design full of reminiscences of the primitive past of Greek Mediterranean architecture. a work by Donato Bramante. The Renaissance arrangement of a large urban palazzo (palace) around a central courtyard can be grasped in the entry of the Ducal Palace of Urbino. 1967–1972. arranged around an immense staircase.” the Palace of Labor in Turin. Aymonino and Aldo Rossi’s interest in the history of the city could not prevent them from expressing their belief in the “modern” project. explains clearly how he conceived of his creative method. indicates the tough debates of the late 1960s about the city . 1647–1652. 1424–1437). twelfth century) is contrasted with a more welcoming merchant’s house in Venice (Ca d’Oro. domestic architecture for the middle and lower classes became a characteristic activity for architects. Contemporary architects belong to various movements or ideologies. Milan. 1938–1942. 1933–1936) illustrates the broad research for unprecedented solutions. During the twentieth century. A Neapolitan example of a large palace. shows the eighteenth-century evolution of the residence (Palazzo Sanfelice. the Cloisters of Santa Maria della Pace in Rome.Preface xxi system of proportions. M. San Gimignano. Giuseppe Mengoni’s conception of an iron and glass gallery (Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. a house in a tower (Casa Torre. 1961–1964) needed a detailed study. and that of large villas (Villa Rotonda of Vicenza. 1500–1504. with the Villa Malaparte on Capri. A warehouse in the ancient port of Ostia is an example of Roman utilitarian design (Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana). and Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. Monte Amiata Housing in Milan. 1725–1728). was a countermodel for the city of the future. Nervi’s use of steel and concrete in the “modern Parthenon. Baroque design strategies are discussed in two of Bernini’s creations. 1567–1580). 1967–1972.
Even in Rome. conceived as a link along the Ligurian coast of the Mediterranean. shows the intelligent integration of a new housing development into an old urban fabric that respected Venetian traditions. 1560–1600. were erected on a steep slope. 1938–1942. Andrea Palladio. who was fascinated by nature. and a type of concrete (Pantheon. Landscape and Gardens Landscape and architecture sometimes combine into a single unit. entertained the people within splendidly designed gardens. 1729–1733. the Collegio del Colle. imposed his powerful design on the hills around Vicenza. 1961–1964. In commissioning the town square in Pienza. 1631–1671. with its gardens and its “palazzina. 1530–1575. The skeleton of a Greek temple. and the Saffa Area Public Housing in Venice. For example. in the vicinity of Turin offered an unusual dialogue between architecture and a rearranged landscape of regional dimensions. Pope Pius II. 1962–1983. Twentieth-century works tend to increase the importance of the landscape: the Villa Malaparte on Capri. in his Villa Rotonda. kept at a distance from the old city. The Palazzo Farnese in Caprarola. Rome. 1650–1690. Construction Techniques Technical methods and innovations in construction and materials can play a great role in shaping a building. 1984–1987. using brick. plays with the sunny stretches of the Mediterranean Sea. were created as an artiﬁcial mountain on an island in the Lake Maggiore.xxii Preface and its history. is a freeway. was based on the weight carried by the columns and the strength of the stone (Temple of Poseidon. Construction techniques evolved from the Early Christian period to the Middle Ages from reinforcement of walls by transverse arches connected to . A similar Renaissance love for gardens justiﬁes the Villa Lante Gardens in Bagnaia. the Acropolis of Selinus was positioned on a peninsula that offered a vast view of the sea (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) and the Theater at Taormina opened onto a symbolic landscape. 1567–1580. 1459–1462. provides a unique view of its silhouette against the mountains and hills of the Apennines. Romans developed audacious new techniques of wall building and vaulting.” imposes its order on a disrupted area and creates its own landscape. made of columns and lintels (horizontal spanning elements). The Royal Hunting Lodge at Stupinigi. ended the medieval tradition of a walled-in city by opening the square to wide vistas of distant mountains. and the Isola Bella Gardens. Paestum). The Baroque period was rich in garden designs. 212–235. 121– 138). arches. the Baths of Caracalla. In Urbino. the Viaduct of the Polcevera. the Garzoni Gardens in Collodi. A sense of landscape was a fundamental element in creating a Greek city. In Genoa.
Renzo Piano used tent structures to give a new sense of ﬂuidity. 1556–1575. four periods: the earliest organization begins at the end of the ninth century. in its apparent unity. 1732–1762. the Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) in Rome. was the Piazza Vittorio Veneto. 1511–1640. 1988–1992. by studying antique Roman and Byzantine precedents. which was ﬁrst built during the (limited) democracy of the Middle Ages but added to during the period of absolute power of the Medici princes. the largest of which. 1470–1485. The famous Saint Mark’s Square in Venice contains. The Renaissance architect Alberti introduced an economical system to cover the vast pilgrimage church of Sant’ Andrea in Mantua. There follow a Byzantine square (1172–1178). a Mannerist square (1511–1640). the splendid Spanish Steps. was based . 1841–1878) pushed brick building technique to unknown limits. 1284–1310. and Morandi used the dynamic forms possible with prestressed concrete in the Viaduct of the Polcevera. and the theatrical space of the Trevi Fountain. Renzo Piano’s solution for the Renovation of the Old Harbor of Genoa. 1492–1494. Baroque Rome adds a long sequence of squares.Preface xxiii thickening of the walls to the erection of vaults. which was inspired by an old Etruscan model described by Vitruvius. 1298–1572. Renaissance squares follow in the Pienza town square. 1538–1655. led to a safer construction at San Zeno in Verona. 1123–1135. Antonelli’s dome in Novara (San Gaudenzio Dome. In the nineteenth century. Nervi believed in the possibilities of large systems of vaulting in concrete and steel (Palace of Labor. and Saint Mark’s Square in Venice. Sant Apollinare in Classe in Ravenna. For the Renovation of the Old Harbor of Genoa. 1420–1436. Engineers had been working with new materials as Mengoni did with iron and glass (Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. Urban Design A history of urban squares begins with San Gimignano (Casa Torre. Urban design typically develops over time and with different scales. 1228–1253. Turin presents large urban squares as part of the Baroque extension of the city. and the Palazzo dei Priori and Piazza Grande in Perugia. Brunelleschi found the solution to building the Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. for example. built in the ﬁrst third of the nineteenth century. Turin). before 547. 1300–1443. and to Gothic constructions such as the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. both in past historical contexts and contemporary ones. The same was true also for the urban role played by the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. such as the Colonnade of Saint Peter’s. 1723–1726. Planners’ decisions can be discussed. twelfth century) and continues with the Piazza del Campo in Siena. the Piazza Ducale in Vigevano. attempts to reconnect the city with the harbor by a festive piazza. 1656–1667. 1988–1992. Milan). and ﬁnally the Napoleonic additions of the 1800s. The reconstructed Caprarola Palazzo Farnese. 1459–1462. the new picturesque vision of the eighteenth century.
1967–1972. and the architect was obliged to design a countermodel for the future. . The plan of Tuscolano II in Rome. while the plan of Monte Amiata Housing in Milan. History therefore is concerned with large-scale projects. to a neighborhood. 1950–1954. and even a region.xxiv Preface on the imposition of a new regular order on the disorder of the ﬁrst settlement. The scale of a project can vary from a lot for a single house. retained an optimistic conception of the city as a model. to an entire city. Renovation of the Old Harbor). both in the past (the Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) and the present—the recent projects for the Ligurian Coast around Genoa (Viaduct of the Polcevera. came from an opposite view.
Alejandro Lapunzina. author of Architecture in Greece (2004). David Hanser oversaw all this work and coordinated our efforts. most of them based on my own photographs. and translated into Dutch and Spanish. the artist Luc Régis. Originally published in French in 1990. Baroque. She prepared the Glossary and added works in English to the Bibliography. over half of which deals with Italy. I can scarcely count the number of trips to Italy. which allowed me to visit Palladian houses. Hanser. and his previously published book in this same series. Writing in English was not an easy task for me and Dr. A large part of the text was typed by Marie Françoise Reuillon. served as a model for me. due to my tasks as president of the Executive Council of the École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Versailles (the National School of Architecture at Versailles). David A. Dr. knew both about my interest in Italy and about some of my previous publications. nor will I forget the hospitality of my host in Naples. who is associated with the Research Laboratory at Versailles. the present director of the Exchange Program of the University of Illinois with the Versailles School of Architecture. it was republished in 2004. enlarged. The School of Architecture at Versailles’ photographer Hélène Orlatti did a magniﬁcent job preparing the illustrations for the book. brought order to my work with a keen intelligence in presentation. Janina Darling. Progress on the present work has been slow.Acknowledgments A long and intimate relation with Italy is the background for this book. the editor of the present Greenwood series and a teaching colleague for more than thirty-ﬁve years. who took me to Pompeii and introduced me to the Palazzo . Classicisme. was always helpful and supportive. Architecture in Spain (2005). Catherine Blain. including Renaissance. offered to give me the ﬁnal help I needed. and I appreciate the great tolerance of Greenwood Press in this regard. She corrected a French tendency to abstraction and simpliﬁed and emended the text so that it could be more easily understood by English-speaking people and the general public.
Giancarlo Cataldi and Gian Luigi Maffei. to refer to the latest research and publications. Historical discussions that bore fruit in this book took place in international meetings and in informal encounters with my colleagues on the history faculty of the School of Versailles. A greater understanding of the value of the traditional urban fabric was given to me by two professors of the University of Florence. . I have tried my best to follow this method of teaching the history of architecture: to have no preconceived ideas.xxvi Acknowledgments Sanfelice in the Sanita district of Naples. and to consider and distinguish contradictory positions of historians. followers of Saverio Muratori’s teaching.
sculptors. a most brilliant and bold period of creativity. Libya. It seems to provide a complete history of architecture. Early Christian architecture was at its best in Rome and Ravenna. painters. Italy’s ﬁght for political unity and economic change in the nineteenth century did not deter architects from going to Italy for their education. with its spectacular urban “living room. in the seventeenth century. Some of the best-preserved Greek temples anywhere are those built by Greek colonies in Sicily and Campania (Segesta and Paestum). established Italy as the conceptual center of art and architecture for almost four centuries. Travelers. BeauxArts education in the United States and the opportunity for leisurely visits brought Americans in signiﬁcant numbers to Italy. The Renaissance. such as Siena. where they sketched. to the late twentieth-century (1988–1992) Renovation of the Old Harbor in Genoa. Ancient Roman culture in Italy developed an architecture of which the Hellenistic cities of Turkey. Leading the Western world. F . and architects were. at one point. Italy was developing a new sense of vision (central linear perspective) that led to new spatial conceptions in architecture. Italy was writing the architectural history of the Western world. obliged to visit Italy and to take part in the Italian artistic debate to achieve artistic maturity. and Tunisia were jealous. These conceptions were reacted to by the “Mannerists” after 1527 and developed.Introduction rom the ﬁfth-century bce temples at Paestum (Temple of Poseidon). south of Naples.” the Piazza del Campo. Prints and books on architectural theory and practice enhanced Italian inﬂuence from the sixteenth century on. Italy is a treasure house of architectural landmarks. Who can resist the light reﬂected by the Byzantine mosaics covering the vaults of San Marco in Venice? Those who believe that “Gothic architecture” is a French or German art form should look at the prosperous medieval Italian towns. into Baroque art and architecture. starting in Florence by 1420.
is an excellent example. but the Italian architects’ sense of history in a nation that highly prizes culture encouraged positive attitudes in urban expansion. In Italy from October 1928 to March 5. and Venice demonstrate the strength of his architectural compositions. in which Italy continues to play a leadership role. Corinthian colonists took over the . occupied the areas around Genoa and Venice. and on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy as far north as Naples and Cuma. The American visitors strongly inﬂuenced the debate on modernity in Italy. stayed at the American Academy in Rome from 1932 to 1934. although politically contentious. Spoleto. and other groups. A plurality of independent peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula. One of the colonial cities. from the ninth to the third centuries bce. Charcoal and pastel sketches of Tivoli. while the Latins settled in Rome and its surrounding countryside. religious. were culturally and economically more organized than the indigenous Italian societies. This stay helped to restore Italian design production after 1955. such as the Ligurians and Veneti. Umbria. Greek Colonies in Italy (Seventh to Third Centuries BCE) In the period called pre-Roman. the Greek city-states began sending settlers west to establish colonies along the Gulf of Tarento. After having developed for more than a century. bringing back to the United States the optimism Nelson missed in Milan. Louis Kahn (1901–1974). Italic peoples. vast ethnic and cultural changes inﬂuenced the development of civilization and the slow passage from agricultural villages to the rise of cities. and the Amalﬁ coast (south of Naples). was protected by a seventeen-and-a-half-mile-long wall. Especially in Rome. and artistic heritage. Texas. he sketched Venice. linguistic. and as a result of the economic and political superiority that resulted from Greek victories against the Persians and Carthaginians. an incredible creator of modern furniture and graphics. George Nelson (1908–1986). the colonies shared a common cultural. and northern Latium. which was founded in 734 bce and became a conurbation collecting several nearby settlements. Siena. he discovered the severity of the architectural masses typical of his later work. Syracuse in Sicily.xxviii Introduction painted. The Etruscans occupied the modern regions of Tuscany. 1929. and of the capital city of Dacca in Bangladesh. speaking an Umbrian-Sabellic language. inhabited the central spine of Italy. in Sicily. and wrote books and articles for newspapers showing how Italian architecture had affected them. In the eighth century bce. Florence. He started his career with a classic “Grand Tour” in the eighteenth-century English tradition. He returned to Rome in 1950–1951 as a resident of the American Academy. architect of the Salk Institute in San Diego. Although not tied politically to the communities in mainland Greece. The mainland Greek city-states. of the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth. the Greek colonies had a brilliant Classical Age (480–323 bce). The Sicels were the original inhabitants of the island of Sicily.
the temple of Zeus in Olympia (468–456 bce). The Greek colonial cities in Italy were no more a political unity than the mainland city-states and should be treated individually. was founded by Greeks in two successive periods. The principal structure. Except for the acropolis. To exert its power as the major Greek colony in Sicily. Syracuse had to ﬁght not only against its main opponent Carthage but also against Athens. Excavations and a few written documents suggest that the Lucanians had begun a long process of inﬁltration at least three decades before this and that the ﬁnal battle just conﬁrmed the process. Clearly. is a splendid example of Greek military work. ﬁfty miles to the south of Naples. and his successor Hieron. the two cultures had begun to merge. The greatest period of prosperity was during the reigns of the tyrants Gelon. to protect them.000 inhabitants with another 130. the main political center. or Poseidonia. Syracuse’s theater was among the ﬁrst in the colonies to adapt to performances coming from Attic Greece and to build in stone those elements originally constructed of wood. who chose naturally defensive sites for their cities—cliffs or summits of hills—also rapidly developed remarkable defensive works. Internal political struggles resulted in periods of tyranny alternating with periods of democracy. by the Lucanians. Its regular plan contained an agora. designed by the best architects. Paestum’s fate was to be conquered about 420 bce. anticipating the process of “Romanization” around 272 bce. raised on top of a ridge. Parthenope was set up on a peninsula facing the Castel dell’Ovo. The Greeks. is a relatively well-preserved Greek colonial city that contains three temples. may have had as many as 70. which strongly inﬂuenced the indigenous Italians.Introduction xxix island of Ortygia. the . from 491 to 478 bce. It seems likely that the architect took his inspiration from one of the most important Doric works in continental Greece. Its honey-colored stone and its archaic boldness but subtle proportions make it a pleasure for the eye. which had formerly been occupied by Sicels or Phoenicians. including the Romans. or “high city.” within the fabric of the city. The city of Akgragas. The hard-won battle against Athens in 414 bce marked the beginning of a period of expansion for the city. modern Agrigento. Greek colonists used a strict rectilinear organization for their city plans. 450 bce). is an outstanding example of a Greek Doric temple. which was developed a mile and a half to the east. built by the tyrant Dionysius I to defend the city against the Carthaginians in 402–397 bce. known as the Temple of Poseidon (c. The plan of the Greek city can still be seen underlying the street pattern in the area of modern Naples called Spaccanapoli. The “Castello Eurialo” in Syracuse. When the Romans invaded. Naples. Paestum. The Theater at Taormina in Sicily is an excellent example of a Greek theater from the Classical period.000 in the surrounding countryside. founded in the sixth century bce. their different culture meant signiﬁcant transformations to the Greek theater. for example. and the acropolis. in the seventh and sixth centuries before the Christian era and then abandoned in favor of Neapolis (New City).
was . Etruscans favored forms not characteristic of classical Greece.and third-century houses.500-foot-long fortiﬁcation wall with eight gates. The entry on Selinus in this volume will help to explain what a Greek colonial city was like. the necropolis of Cerveteri. Its regular plan. which destroyed it in 409 bce. but one that the Romans recognized.xxx Introduction plan of the city. The Augustus Gate at Perugia (Umbria). its urban fabric with fourth. cities of the dead. brick. Etruscans had prepared the basis for Roman architecture. which reproduced their main characteristics and cultural values. with its bold forms. Roman Architecture It was only after 191 bce that most of the Italian peninsula. Sardinia. made Selinus a threat to Carthage. Selinus survived under Roman rule only as a small “vicus” (village) around its famous temples. on the southern coast of Sicily). were built of perishable material such as wood and brick. its increasing territory and the annexation of Segesta. The city of Selinus (Selinunte. like the others. Only the foundations and elements of rich terra-cotta decorations remain. deserve a long study. they started to erect arches in masonry and to combine them into domes. Some of the tombs were also hollowed out of tufa cliffs. including the Po Valley up to the Alps and the islands of Sicily. Like the Temple of Poseidon in Paestum. the Temple of Concord (430–420 bce) shows Classical inﬂuence. The quality of its execution and the coherency of its proportions demonstrate how Greek architects repeated conventional forms rather than inventing new ones. Etruscan and Italic Architecture (900 to 50 BCE) Most of our knowledge of pre-Roman Italy is based on Etruscan or Italic necropolises. inspired by their circular huts. founded around 650 bce. Perugia. Instead of copying the classical Greek temple. was built of round or conical tumuli (mounds) of earth. and these are used to speculatively restore the temples’ appearance. was known as the queen of Greek colonies. opening the potentialities of rich solutions in concrete. onto which was attached an architectural façade. and Corsica. Selinus’s prestige was its downfall. built next to cities of the living. not one of the canonical Greek orders. was laid out according to the strict rules of orthogonal regularity. inside of which was a tomb that recreated the main elements of an Etruscan house. its fortiﬁcations. The Augusts Gate is one of two that remain in good condition. which was never damaged by earthquakes. Most of the Etruscan religious buildings. For example. even as late as 300–50 bce. still famous for its temple. twenty-ﬁve miles west of Rome. is a good expression of Etruscan architecture. they used Tuscan columns. its seven temples from the Classical period of Greek architecture. and stone vaulting. a kind of “pre-Doric” design. was defended by a 9. For example. a city in an area of interesting rural and urban development.
During the two centuries before the Christian era. at the same time. Rome’s major adversary. Romans were “apt and docile pupils” (Brown 1967. several large colonies of Phoenicians (from Carthage. There was. 12) but also better than the surrounding cultures at organization in all its aspects: community. the barrel vault. . from 149 to 146 bce. or Corinthian. which they had come to admire. the second from 218 to 201 bce. a neighboring. and forms of construction. Sardinia. and it permitted the creation of large. which had been based on the post-and-lintel system (a system of vertical columns and horizontal beams). as Frank Brown has said. by the time the Romans had subdued Greece and the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea. gradually assimilated the techniques and forms of the Etruscans. a local power. These centers of Greek culture spread that culture into “barbarian lands”—Greeks called anyone not Greek a barbarian—but also started to incorporate indigenous societies. Rome fought three wars. Etruscans as well as Romans. and a type of concrete—brought them limitless architectural possibilities. Romans mixed stone with layers of brick and cemented them with large quantities of mortar. could also make better use of unskilled labor. and parts of Sicily. had to face. which had only tenuous ties with the Greek cities in Italy. against Carthage. and self awareness” in which the temple acquired new forms. not the mainland Greek city-states. 19) but. who had established thriving cities in Sicily and southern Italy. which reduced the size of the stones needed for construction and thus the difﬁculty of transporting materials. dominant culture. developed construction techniques known but hardly used by Hellenistic architects. in present day Tunisia) and Greeks from the Greek mainland. It had subjugated much of North Africa by the third century bce. much of the coast of the Gulf of Tarento and the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea up to Naples as well as most of Sicily had been turned into rich and prosperous lands by the Greek settlements. and the third. This practice made walls and vaults more uniform and solid. bold vaults that could cover large spans and consequently offered incredible possibilities for the size and forms of buildings. By the beginning of the ﬁfth century bce. native Italian cultures. Rome now used Greece as “an inspiring teacher” (Brown 1967.Introduction xxxi united under the political domination of Rome. From their city’s legendary founding by Romulus in 753 bce. was Carthage. Carthage’s expansion threatened Rome. the Romans. and the Geek colonists. Before 133 bce. These techniques—the arch. The rectangular mass of the older Roman temples achieved a new lightness by adopting the orders used in the Greek temples—the Doric. the ﬁrst lasting from 265 to 241 bce. Roman architecture found a revolutionary inspiration in Hellenistic Greek architecture. administration. however. an initial period of “selfdiscovery. Ionic. they had adopted the Greek systems of architecture. known as the Punic Wars. which resulted in the ﬁnal destruction of Carthage. Indeed. The new system of arches and vaulting. ritual. Roman architects’ understanding of the constructive possibilities of the arch and the barrel vault radically changed architecture (such as temples and large porticoes called “stoas”). and Spain were Carthaginian dependencies. but could also proﬁt from.
Most of the Roman buildings selected for this volume were built during the so-called High Empire. basilicas. Four large buildings can represent the different Roman building types in Italy. during this period. Emperor Nero (54–68) used the talents of Severus and Celer. In their splendor. Divided into a central space (a nave) and two side aisles and connected by porticoes. the Roman world expanded to encompass the lands around the Mediterranean Sea. who were perhaps landscape designers. security. for his formidable urban residence in Rome. Roman architects preferred large timber trusses. They (e. However. and her architects had to prove a corresponding superiority and virtuosity in building and planning.xxxii Introduction Romans used these technological advances above all for huge entertainment buildings. During this period. which was central to any Roman city and which expressed the strength of the Roman government and law. the Romans rebuilt and expanded the Forum in the capital city. Decrianus or Apollodorus are supposed to have carried out the wishes of the Emperor Hadrian (117–138) in the construction of Hadrian’s Villa (125–135 ce). the Baths of Caracalla) could be immense. and debating rooms for senators—were eventually crowded into the area. and west to England. often used as a law court (see Forum Romanum). with colossal vaulted rooms. The Forum was an “inaugural” space. During the second and the ﬁrst centuries before the Christian era. The lavish decoration better demonstrated the superiority of Roman civilization. dedicated to public assembly. the years from 50 to 250 ce. Romans usually considered the massive concrete construction too unreﬁned to leave exposed and consequently covered walls with painted plaster or marble veneers. north to Germany. to roof large rectangular spaces such as the basilica. Rome had fulﬁlled its ambitions. Because so many buildings and open spaces for assembly—temples. Emperor Domitian (80–96) had Raberius design the stateroom where he received homage from his subjects. and a sense of spiritual and physical order. arenas for gladiators’ games. Most of the four were taken as models and reproduced elsewhere in the Roman provinces. Rome was capable of bringing to all citizens of the Empire peace. Apollodorus of Damascus came from the eastern Mediterranean and worked for the Emperor Trajan (98–117) in his forum and markets during the period 106–113. the buildings of ancient Rome continue to fascinate. the Domus Aurea (Golden House). The names of some of the architects are known. places for commerce. which had been built in late Republican times before Rome became capital of an empire.g. The Colosseum (72–80 ce). Absolute regularity of the interiors of buildings was balanced by a surprising adaptation of their exteriors to a scattered arrangement of buildings and open areas. basilicas were typically found in the government and public celebration area. Astonishingly.. an area surprising in its homogeneity under the Roman Empire. especially the public baths used for public hygiene but also for recreation. the Forum became a dense urban pattern. although the nickname was . but also a consecrated area and a place to predict the future by the observation of birds’ movements and other ritualistic practices.
Christians believed that God the Father could only be contained in the minds of baptized Christians. at the back of a shop. were a proud symbol for the Romans. Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity. sometimes ﬁlling an entire block. Christians had no speciﬁc buildings constructed for their rites. With Christianity came a total rupture with the Roman pagan tradition of numerous gods “residing” in a temple. along with Milan and a few other cities. and the Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Its stability and pure geometrical proportions. services were held in modest rooms. which were all surrounded by a splendid garden setting. a building type that provided a large meeting room and was speciﬁcally associated with none of the pagan religions. This volume includes three examples of urban architecture: a Greek thirdcentury house from Selinus was selected to show the pre-Roman dwelling.” based on the Roman basilica. The Baths of Caracalla demonstrate. an image of the cosmos. the largest such building constructed by the Romans for their “games” and is as remarkable for the ﬁnancial organization behind it as it is for the solution of its technical requirements. saw the construction of a great number of early Christian monuments. and in 392 the emperor Theodosius adopted Christianity as the ofﬁcial religion for the Roman Empire. in part to be less conspicuous and avoid persecution. Rome and Ravenna. but as the religion grew. typical of both Rome and Ostia. the Corinthian temple façade leads to a huge dome whose volume is so large it could contain a sphere fourteen stories tall.Introduction xxxiii derived from a ﬁfteen-story statue near the amphitheater. a large house. was indeed “colossal” in its dimensions. Early Christian Architecture (300–800 CE) In 313. from Pompeii represents an upper-class Roman house with two courtyards and a garden in a city of one. In third-century Rome. Hadrian’s Villa (125–135 ce) was the development of an imperial villa on an immense scale that was inspired by reminiscences of places he had seen in his travels as emperor.and twostory buildings. with sports ﬁelds surrounding the mass of the bathing establishment. as previously noted. sometimes on the same site.” a multistory warehouse building in Ostia. for example. “aulae ecclesiae. these house churches were replaced. the House of the Faun. is an example of high-density building design. Rome’s port city. The “house church” (“Domus Ecclesiae”) gradually increased in size. With Constantine giving Christianity ofﬁcial standing. an “insula. whose bodies became “the temple of God. Before this period. Saint Paul’s Basilica. the formidable importance of entertainment in ancient Rome. South of the walls of Rome.” A basilica was Christianized in two different ways: it could be named a church-monument (ecclesia-basilica) or a basilica for the Church (basilica-ecclesia). Christians began to meet in private homes. which was founded in 386 by Emperor Valentinian II . by dedicated buildings. The Pantheon (118–125 ce) explains the creativity of the Romans in mixing elements of architecture.
Large bays open onto an ambulatory around an octagonal space from which opens a choir splendidly decorated with mosaics that cover all surfaces and comprise a unique decorative scheme. The church of Santa Sabina. wood trusses supporting a roof and a wood ceiling. 519. 425. and there was a tendency toward a more rational division into bays (units of building. and the Arian Baptistery (c. These mosaics are related to the art of Byzantium (Constantinople. Resistance to that modiﬁcation was strong.. a circular building that was constructed around the tomb of the daughter of Constantine (although she was never a martyr) is characteristic of these martyria. the cathedral baptistery (ﬁrst quarter of the ﬁfth century). A cruciform mausoleum was built for Galla Placidia. Baptisteries were also built on a central plan: the Baptistery of the Orthodox. present-day Istanbul). slowly. Ravenna) and the centralized rotunda (Mausoleum of Constantina. Ravenna. To memorialize martyrs and important religious ﬁgures and events. They represent the court of the Eastern Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. The Mausoleum of Constantina (337–350) in Rome. Some of the basilican churches there (the cathedral). became the model of the Christian basilica: a central nave with two aisles on each side. and a vaulted apse terminating the nave. typically demarcated by vertical supports). but these developments were partial and incomplete. like Saint Paul’s in Rome. buildings became more stable. centrally planned buildings (buildings symmetrical around at least two axes and focused on the center of the plan) were erected. played a great role in the sixth century.xxxiv Introduction and ﬁnished around 440.g. . San Giovanni Evangelista. and the harbor church of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. erected after the sack of Rome by Aleric in 414. This typology became standard for Christian architecture and was modiﬁed mostly through foreign inﬂuences. remains as a well-proportioned and carefully decorated example from the ﬁfth century. San Vitale’s mosaics are especially interesting since so much of the mosaic decoration in Constantinople was destroyed during the so-called Iconoclastic Controversy (the war against images). A kind of regionalism distinguished Italian churches of one area from those of another during the Romanesque period. Architectural creativity in Ravenna was expanded in the construction of the church of San Vitale. Rome). started in 526. Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo. mother of Emperor Valentinian III and a circular one for Theodoric. who died in 526. 549). had ﬁve aisles (a central nave and two aisles and each side of it) while others had only three (e. Romanesque Architecture (800–1250) Early Christian architecture is characterized by two main building types: the rectangular basilica (Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. which became the capital of the Western Roman Empire when it was divided in two. 500).
“the two Sicilies. Trained by a guild in Como. became a place of conﬂicting interests and inﬂuences.” which included Naples and Apulia. and the celebrant ofﬁciates facing the worshippers. Byzantine architects and craftsmen were largely responsible for the Basilica of San Marco in Venice (1064–1094). in the vicinity of Palermo (1174–1182). from 1089 to 1098 with later embellishment after 1132) along the coastline to Molfetta. Byzantine. canals. the rebuilding of San Clemente (ﬁnished in 1130) repeats the Constantinian character of the ﬁfth-century church. Muslims supplied the conventions for court architecture. was inserted between the choir and the place reserved for . A “schola cantorum. which was begun nearly two centuries later (1231) and contains a cross of six domes—the nave is longer than the transepts (the side arms of the cross) and so has two domes instead of one. In southern Italy. they were responsible for the signiﬁcance of the several churches they built between 815 and 1000 in Milan. must be the “climax of Sicilian Romanesque architecture” (Conant 1974. and Como. All the architecture of Sicily bathes in the brilliant sunshine. Muslim. in effect proto-architects called Maestri Comacini (or Magistri Comacini) were able to introduce and spread a speciﬁc style of architecture. In the Palatine Chapel.Introduction xxxv In Lombardy. Strong maritime and trade connections with the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire explain why and how the Venetians could borrow from Byzantine churches such as Saint John the Evangelist at Ephesus (now in Turkey). A region that had been dominated by the Eastern Roman Empire and by Muslims was conquered by bands of soldiers from Normandy (in France) at the same time the Normans crossed the channel to conquer England (1046–1066). and Barletta. 354). and Norman architecture mixed in a surprising and fruitful complexity. typical of the Eastern taste for gardens. Monreale Cathedral. which is successful for the decoration but contributes little to structural innovation. The “cross of domes” (ﬁve domes on a Greek cross plan) of San Marco had no successors in Italy except the church of Saint Anthony in Padua (Il Santo). A baldacchino (a canopy-like structure) covers the altar. In Rome. stalactite ceilings are paired with Byzantine mosaics in a spatial arrangement typical of the Normans. and basins.” with desks for scriptural readings and seats for the canonical ofﬁce (dating from 872). Early Christian architecture continued to exert a powerful inﬂuence and to limit the spatial imagination of architects to simple basilicas. in northern Italy. exist in Apulia in large numbers. In Sicily. therefore. These “Gallic” masons excelled in wall construction but were less able in vaulting. Churches such as the cathedral of Cefalù (1131–1148 and later) or the Palatine Chapel in the Norman Palace at Palermo (1130–1140) express a total synthesis of the Byzantine and Fatimid with the Western (Norman and Cluniac). but here the styles are in pure juxtaposition. Norman churches. Verona. Trani. Lavish residences like la Zisa and la Cuba in Palermo (built before 1180). combined bold vaulting techniques with a splendid arrangement of fountains. “glowing with warmth” (Conant 1974. extending from Bari (San Nicolas. types of contractors or master builders. 359).
are groinvaulted. With the addition of the great Pisan belfry (the Leaning Tower). The aisles. An example of this new type of Gothic church is Saint Francesco. The Parmese sculptor Antelami expressed the pride for such monumental baptisteries by recalling the time when the bishop used to baptize numerous catechumens there at Easter. Parma (1196) positioned its baptistery to the southwest of its cathedral.xxxvi Introduction worshippers in the nave. and San Ambrogio was vaulted only around 1117. Pisa Cathedral combined three basilicas. Regular bay division was unlikely to have been planned in Verona. the group of three buildings in Pisa revived the classical theme of the Roman Forum in a sort of sanctiﬁed landscape. but a wooden ceiling covers the main central vessel of the nave. The great circular Pisa Baptistry (1152–1265) next to the cathedral supports a conical central vault with a double ring of galleries. However. In Florence. but it was consistent in Modena and even more consistent in Milan. whose foundations were erected on a Late Antique building. the arms of the cross plan. Previously. This strong tradition of moving the altar forward explains the splendid Romanesque church of San Miniato in Florence (ﬁnished in 1062). monasteries like Fossanova or Casamari (both south of Rome) borrowed the French way of building with pointed arches from the Cistercian order between 1187 and 1203. at the beginning at least. Dividing the nave into square bays and the side aisles into squares a quarter as large offered a decisive advance in regularity. doubled in the nave. The vaulting of these churches came later. The new mendicant orders—those that relied on charity and whose members had. which retains its religious consecration. there is no vault in Verona. which was raised on a crypt. two of them forming the transepts. this process of rationalizing the plan did not proceed in chronological order. They were also open to liturgical changes and thus to a form of church inspired by French Gothic builders. A confusing process of dividing a basilica into bays had been started in northern Italy in the Po Valley. no personal belongings—such as the Grey Friars (Franciscans) and Black Friars (Dominicans). The victory of the Pisans over the Saracens brought a period of prosperity to Pisa. desired a more public-oriented worship than the older orders. which resembles the early Christian prototypes except for the choir. It mixes genuine . San Zeno Maggiore in Verona (main parts built 1123–1135) was less progressive in that respect than the cathedral of Modena (started 1099) or even the church of San Ambrogio in Milan (started in 1080). The centralized type of plan ﬂourished in baptisteries. Gothic Architecture (1200–1480) Italians developed their own national Gothic styles in the fourteenth century. ﬁnished around 1253). in Assisi (1228. Vaults were added in Modena much later in 1437–1446. the baptistery of San Giovanni (consecrated in 1059) is a strict octagonal building.
Talenti’s decision had led. The sense of independence that free. They could borrow individual elements. held important positions in the area around Naples. but revised them according to local values and styles that were based on Roman and Early Christian traditions. with its typical ambulatory (a corridor around the choir) and seven chapels. 213).Introduction xxxvii French Gothic features with essentially solid walls that look Romanesque and were ready to be covered by frescoes.000 worshippers. Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore) typiﬁes Italians’ hesitations about the Gothic style. Milan Cathedral. French mastermasons. The church would defer to Roman antiquity. or Siena had was based on the celebration of political virtue and on a civic ﬁght for self-government. An intense debate that took place in 1366–1367 altered the cathedral’s future. but the proportions of the church were classical. were Gothic as were the overall dimensions. Ribbed groin vaults in Florence Cathedral. and local designers argued about every aspect of the church. Brunelleschi’s dome was designed ﬁfty years before he took command of its construction. a group of the best-trained German (or Czech) master builders. Some of them lacked . They also added the choir to San Lorenzo Maggiore. In effect. which was begun in 1386. such as the one for the Clarissan order (1313–1340). creating large square bays sixty-three feet long. are only twenty-ﬁve feet long. a large brick model was made that all future builders had to respect.” but to the Brunelleschian Renaissance (Frankl and Crossley 2000. The façade of Orvieto’s cathedral gave an open expression to religious faith that was instructive and interesting for the majority of the population. He started the building in 1296. until Brunelleschi completed its dome.. communal states such as Orvieto. whose origins were French. one of the largest Gothic churches in France. in 1355. Using every possible means of expression. and in 1368. As Frankl and Crossley wrote. with two pointed arches crossing in the middle of a bay. it achieved its splendor by a revetment of mosaics. The Anjou dynasty. This resulted in a most “ungothic” church. Florence. they tended to commission overly large churches that took centuries to ﬁnish because of the expense. “Gothic”) ideas as opposed to continuing a tradition inﬂuenced by Roman antiquity. the bays of Amiens Cathedral.e. was still incomplete in 1572. Francesco Talenti. where French builders erected important churches. beginning a construction period that would last 150 years. all of which were designed in the French Gothic manner. increased the size of Arnolfo’s plan. the architect Arnolfo di Cambio wanted to build a cathedral large enough for 30. Parallels can be drawn between the cathedral façade of Orvieto and Siena (constructed at the beginning of the fourteenth century). Orvieto after 1279 was typical of these states in its strong opposition to “modern” (i. When cities such as Bologna and Milan were the patrons of cathedrals. As an expression of civic pride. “not to purer Gothic style. For comparison. The debates surrounding its construction offer good insights into the way Gothic builders planned their churches.
The concept of progress could also be applied to other periods. These towers and those of Perugia created a sort of skyscraper skyline. about 1420. The Ca d’Oro shows the evolution of the merchant’s house from San Gimignano to Venice. which overlooks the Piazza del Campo. this change had a long preparation. Groups of merchants in prosperous cities demonstrated their ﬁnancial success with tower houses (Casa Torre. in part the result of the reﬂection of colors from the surface of the canal water. San Francesco at Siena. 1410–1492). the New Architectural Manner (1420–1520) Implicit in their choice of the word Renaissance (French for “rebirth”) by nineteenth-century scholars is their conviction of the idea of progress in art. Taking its inspiration from the Doge’s Palace.xxxviii Introduction experience. Although they never called it the Renaissance. It helps us to understand the visual miracle of Venice. but all the Renaissance artists participated in a revolution in vision. for example.” . in urban planning schemes in Perugia. The case of Venice. or in Florence. such as the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence and the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena. is unusual. a city literally married to the sea. for example. There were precedents for the new architecture of Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446). As at Siena. from the twelfth to the ﬁfteenth centuries. with Saint Mark’s Basilica giving it a Byzantine look before 1500. starting in the twelfth century. and daring municipal seats of government were built. the Grand Canal façade of the Ca d’Oro (1424–1437) gives a sense of ﬂuctuating chromaticism. rather than aristocratic privilege. Civil rights. Saint Mark’s Square. a Grey Friars’ church (1326–1475). but its mass towers above the city and indicates disarray in the Franciscans’ precepts of modesty and poverty. which pushed the debates to an abstract level of theory. the new painting approach of Masaccio (1401– 1427/1429) or Piero della Francesca (c. Siena. artists in Florence between 1420 and 1440 felt that a great change was taking place in art. Its civic piazza. San Gimignano). it is simple. a new way of representing depth in art called “central linear perspective. Battles for a relatively democratic government versus aristocratic power endangered these towers. was conceived as a protest against such a luxury. 1386–1466). the origin of which they found in Florence. some of them of outstanding beauty. and the kinds of sculpture being created by Donatello (c. was progressively planned. The Renaissance. Of course. the overall geometric form and the structure of the cathedral were covered by superﬁcial decoration. In form. Studying Italian medieval cities gives new insights into the changing concepts of the city. the “Carolingian renaissance” (ninth century) and the Italian trecento (fourteenth century) renaissance that revolved around Giotto and Petrarch. making reasonable (and practical) choices difﬁcult. had to be defended by the commune as.
as was the case with medieval art in which relative size indicated importance. a situation clearly visible in the debates about Milan Cathedral. a Belgian chapel-master (March 25. by an anthem composed by Guillaume Dufay. but they lacked the technical experiments and mathematical background of Brunelleschi and his colleagues. a group of sculptors and painters in Florence. Florentines were convinced that a radical renewal of all forms of art was taking place. Brunelleschi’s triumph in constructing the Florence Cathedral Dome was celebrated. Late medieval painters had been experimenting with this “accurate” visual representation. bricks. 1436). for example. the mason. and he thought that architectural clarity and renewal could come only from a careful study of classical antiquity. but rather their location in space as perceived by the human eye. Similar changes occurred in all ﬁelds of expression.Introduction xxxix Perspective drawings do not express the symbolic importance of bodies. Faced by a difﬁcult situation caused by the decisions described earlier in the Introduction. Renaissance people in Florence between 1420 and 1440 had to face the same problems of seeing things in a new way that we face with art after the Cubist painters. and the builder had no choice but to execute that design. the church of Santo Spirito. architectural concepts had to change with new ways of seeing. Brunelleschi emerged from a group of artists as the assured technical master for the construction of one of the largest domes ever built. but rather looked at. In both cases. The “rebirth” of architecture was accompanied in Florence by the birth of a new profession. including music. and the . he was inspired by the careful study of ancient domes. the Renaissance and the Cubist periods. and under it at the same time. The Cubists no longer looked at an object from one stationary point of view like the Renaissance artists. but rather the one who designed a project and was able to communicate his intentions through a detailed description in drawings on paper. above. around. Rather. or the carpenter. He saw Late Gothic builders as confused. and domes and other vaults—he built early examples of the new architecture in Florence from 1419 to the end of his life in 1446. The sacristy and church of San Lorenzo. He had to develop new machines and kinds of elevators and cranes to carry the stone. there was no medieval precedent for Brunelleschi to examine. The erection of the dome of Florence Cathedral (1420–1436) tells the story of the rising prestige and personality of the architect. Their change of vision can be compared with that of the Cubist painters in the early twentieth century. pediments. Brunelleschi was involved in the quest to develop central linear perspective. Spanning 138 feet and rising to 285 feet above the ground (about the height of a twenty-ﬁve-story skyscraper). and mortar to the dome. The architect’s only responsibility became the design of the building. Strong opposition to his ideas and techniques pushed him to battle forcefully and to exert his preeminence as an architect. The architect was no longer the builder. Encouraged by his colleagues. Using the perspective techniques he developed to document antique references— columns.
Urbino (a hill city. Prince Frederico di Montefeltro. But he was also a political leader. Alberti experimented with these concepts. . In addition to Brunelleschi. The new architectural manner spread to different humanist centers such as Pienza (in southern Tuscany). celebration of the city. and wanting to expound the ideas of architecture and perspective. Alberti died in 1472. He decided ﬁrst to comment on a book that had been found in 1414 in the abbey of Saint Gall. Ferrara (on the Po River).” a mercenary commander. was involved in a double task of renewing antiquity. between 1460 and 1550. started 1459 and never ﬁnished). who ruled Urbino. Architecture should bring harmony (called “concinnitas”) and rely on proper building techniques. but he cared more for the ideas behind the design than for their execution with which he was impatient. how it should be considered. a city within the city. was written between 1447 and 1452 and presented to the humanist pope Nicolas V. and two churches based on ancient Roman buildings (Sant’ Andrea in Mantua and the rotunda of Santissima Annunziata in Florence. based on this ancient work. started in 1471 and never ﬁnished). De Re Aediﬁcatoria. The outstanding examples of Alberti’s ideas are the Malatesta Temple in Rimini (1450–1468). The ancient orders were based on those formal proportions and offered a means to achieve beauty. not far from the Adriatic coast). Switzerland. Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472). a man of incredible talents and capacities. and a lover of art. and intellectual brilliance. His Ducal Palace (1444–1482). a central-plan church in Mantua (San Sebastiano. Mantua was. on accommodating social uses and functions (called “commoditas”). His activity as a “condotierre. is the main example of urban design based on the new building types already deﬁned in Florence for the palazzo and churches. a competent scholar. the plan of Piazza Pio II in Pienza (1459–1462) for Pope Pius II. what we call architectural theory today. For the next ﬁve centuries. and how they are to be achieved. Alberti then decided to write a book giving his own “model of thinking” on architecture. Both Vitruvius and Alberti’s books explain what is meant by architecture. demonstrated not only more care for the interiors than the exterior but also an amazing sense of relation with the mountainous landscape all around. Good proportions reﬂect the basic order of the universe. they would be central to discussions of architectural thought and practice. and above all communicate a sense of beauty based on good proportions. Federico was able to transform his small capital city of Urbino into a sort of ideal city that represented his goals for government. It was written by the ancient Roman Vitruvius during the ﬁrst century bce and its contents had been largely forgotten outside of monasteries.xl Introduction Pazzi Chapel were demonstrations of a three-dimensional application of his theories and set new standards of church design. Ferrara’s expansion (1492–1516). He often abandoned supervision of construction to assistants. and Mantua. Alberti’s book. was the archetypal humanist leader of the period. which tripled the surface of the medieval city. responded to the military demands in a period of instability throughout Italy. what its goals are.
” a theater. and later. who was fond of art and antiques. Bramante took refuge in Rome where. For this building. in northern Italy. pilasters. Bramante created a “studio” of his former assistants in Milan and gifted young Roman architects. Milan. Bramante’s greatest opportunity came from Pope Julius II (1503–1513). His design for the Piazza Ducale in Vigevano and the plan of antique . including Peruzzi. using the strictest proportional rules accepted by Renaissance theorists. was slowing the spread of this new architecture. building types. the Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. he built for Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. In the two levels of the square cloister. the basilica. who used his painting to open the walls and vault in the Camera degli Sposi (1471–1476). Between 1500 and 1504. Sansovino. the painter Mantegna (1431–1506). A period of perfect works of art and architecture known as the High Renaissance suddenly came into existence. changed the future of architecture. It was to combine a “forum. an enormous octagonal dome was combined with a basilican church deriving from Brunelleschi’s Santo Spirito in Florence. and his favorite and successor. treated as a forum prepared the way for the second part of Renaissance architecture. which was considered to be too intellectual and sometimes too difﬁcult to understand. as it had been in antiquity. centered in Rome from 1500 to 1525. from 1492). or piazza. A sense of space and an accurate archaeological basis for details. who had selected the name of Julius to be compared to Julius Cesar. he used his early experiments in Lombardy around Milan as the basis from which he developed his mature. the talented Mannerist Giulio Romano (from 1525 to 1550). Bramante experimented with the connection between a dome and a barrel-vaulted nave in Santa Maria delle Grazie. The discussions and intense arguments that developed within the studio raised the level of the architecture it produced. and painted decoration were all included in a comprehensive manner. 1490). and with a large forum-like piazza in Vigevano (Piazza Ducale. or “grand. Along with Bramante and other architects. for the remainder of his life (until 1514). Their tremendous work on the central-plan church. and the urban square. ornament.” manner. people such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Donato Bramante (1444–1514) were strong advocates. for example in Lombardy. with activity by Alberti. However. he was involved in the immense cathedral of Pavia (started in 1488 but largely incomplete).Introduction xli the leading center of humanist design. and a garden. he combined four orders in a composition of columns. 1499. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. even there. Julius commissioned Bramante to design a new Saint Peter’s Basilica to be the largest church in the world (1505–1514) and to expand the Vatican palace through the 900-footlong Belvedere Courtyard. The French army’s occupation of Milan on September 6. Raphael (1483–1520). Leonardo da Vinci explored the central-plan church in his manuscripts (c. and entablatures in one of the most splendid Renaissance achievements. after 1492. He thought of himself as the heir of the Roman emperors and wanted to reestablish Rome as a world capital. Giulio Romano. Local resistance. arches.
The capacity to imagine and build. Bramante perhaps attempted too much.” Mannerism (called “maniera” in Italian) aimed at difﬁculty. In its simplicity.xlii Introduction Roman circuses (places to run horses) helped Bramante and his studio to formulate its design. and the creativity in Bramante and Raphael’s studio. The lives and goals of artists were endangered. Although they were two different and distinct personalities. but also the aristocrat as described by Castiglione in his book Cortegiano (The Courtier. A rage to create (called “terribilita”) transformed their mentality. 1528).” or for what seemed stylish. more than he could achieve. Architects during the most brilliant Roman architectural period of the Renaissance had to confront difﬁcult questions. especially in the studios of Bramante and Raphael. For the church of Santa Maria della Consolazione (begun in 1508–1509) at Todi. architects at the turn of the sixteenth century in Rome became so self-assertive. as a new behavior. Financial and political problems were not in Julius’s favor. they responded to individual inspiration and began to trust their imagination. Bramante was able to realize a centralized plan. that a time of crisis was not far ahead. the papacy was confronted with the beginnings of Martin Luther’s Reformation and the political uncertainty following it. they had to face isolation. and instead of working together and debating in a collective studio. ruined all hopes of artistic supremacy in a city that shortly before was convinced it was to be the leader of the world. This was a violent setback for the power of the popes. it refers to designs by da Vinci. or passion. the Sack of Rome by the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. The Reformation demanded their dismissal. contrasted sharply with the political disillusionment of the period. They stopped trusting the rules adopted by Renaissance architects and felt that all aspects of art should be open for discussion. but at the same time. Gulio Pippi (1482–1546) and Michelangelo (1475–1564) are typical of the Mannerist approach. thus a “manner. however. and Bramante’s projects for Saint Peter’s and the Belvedere Court (which was much altered by Pope Sixtus V) had to wait ninety years to be ﬁnished. They were looking for a “style. and the heavy destruction in Rome showed the illusoriness of the foundations of the previous optimism. Most of the Roman architects had to ﬁnd refuge elsewhere. Mannerism or the Crisis of the Renaissance (1520–1630) After the period of intense architectural renewal called the High Renaissance. In May 1527. self-control was required as well as a sense of nonchalance conceived as a special quality that was called in Italian “sprezattura. Abandoning working as a group.” These attitudes deﬁne the Mannerist artist. ostentation. They wanted to get to basics: What is a window? What is a column? Is there any need for regularity? What does spontaneity mean? Giulio Pippi was called Giulio . All of them had to develop a new manner of working. In 1517. Most of them had to confront rebellion.
and a 2.500-foot-long straight street carried on bridges to organize the town. 1538–1655). which was started in 1547 but only ﬁnished by Giacomo della Porta in 1590. many of his works remain unﬁnished. As an architect. Responding to great artistic demands. Florence. He was the ﬁrst to escape Rome in 1524 when he went to Mantua. or garden. For a cynical and libertine court. believing in the plastic qualities of masses and on powerful gestures. city. His bureaucracy required new ofﬁces—the Ufﬁzi— which were created on both sides of a new street that opened onto the Arno River. He used Bramante’s architectural principles in a provocative way. landscape. squares in the gardens. The strictness of the plan offered a base for the imaginative play of water features. With his antinatural strategy. incorporating triangles for the piazza.Introduction xliii Romano because he was born and educated in Rome. which Vignola created around 1560–1600. In Florence. He was always questioning. and added a grotto to the famous Boboli gardens in Florence. One fought against the other as if neither could win. sometimes stressing disharmony and unbalanced combinations. Michelangelo acted as a sculptor. he reorganized the court theater. he destroyed his sketches to eliminate evidence of the pain of creation. by contrast. the cathedral. performing “intermezzi” that used a system of stage . he recreated a studio there to work mainly on the duke’s urban palace. he affected occult and bizarre attitudes. His language could be compared with the open creativity of Elizabethan poetry in England by its intemperance and its grammatical errors. and even the dome of Saint Peter’s. Court ceremonies in honor of the Medici princes afﬁrmed the grand duke’s absolutist power. Inspired by Michelangelo. Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) brought order to the medieval Palazzo Vecchio. impossible to complete. Vignola (1507– 1573) changed the plan of the town and villa at Caprarola for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese the Younger. and the suburban Palazzo del Te. None of his buildings was ﬁnished at his death: the Laurentian Library in Florence (1524–1559). The arrangement of the gardens and the palazzina above the palace showed the same formal rigidity in the gardens of Villa Lante in Bagnaia. The scope of these three monuments expresses the unusual capacities of Michelangelo and to understand them will require a discussion of their constituent elements: the problem of column and wall in the Laurentian Library. the connection between the dome and the body of the church at Saint Peter’s. As a sculptor. the trapezoidal shape of the piazza in the Campidoglio. Architects like Bernardo Buontalenti (1523–1608) were also involved in Medici gloriﬁcation. He rebuilt villas (villa Petraia). the Capitoline Hill (Piazza del Campidoglio. Buontalenti provided a ﬂexible staircase to reach the altar of Santa Trinita (today in Santo Stefano). an opportunity to express the difﬁculty of bringing order to a disorganized building. in Bramante and Raphael’s studio. As a stage designer. improved gardens. He transformed a rugged site by his obsession with the geometry of a pentagonal palace. Michelangelo’s destiny was a continuous battle between two opposed elements: self-doubt and a strong desire to create. Relations with political or ecclesiastical powers offered.
Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) would appear to have been only a provincial architect since he built only in Venice and the Vicenza area. Palladio’s world reputation is ultimately based on his The Four Books of Architecture. Organizing the villa and “barchesse” (dependencies) became a simple exercise in varying schematic building arrangements. He was also imitated in eastern Europe. In 1556. He also designed about eighteen palaces in the cities of Vicenza and Verona and in smaller towns as well as major churches in Venice. the famous home of Thomas Jefferson. He accompanied Trissino to Rome. the openness of the villa toward the landscape. The main interest for Vicenza’s aristocrats was to improve their domination over both the city. was of strict Palladian ancestry. In eighteenth-century England. Monticello. and over the country. He also copied some of Bramante’s original documents. . Palladio’s designs inspired many aristocratic villas scattered on a new landscape of picturesque gardens. Musical rules of proportion. a cultivated amateur architect who became president of the United States in 1801. both in Poland and Russia. The estate was designed to facilitate irrigation of the croplands and transportation of goods by canals with a comprehensive organization of poplar hedges and vineyards. He came from modest origins. With the help of Benjamin Latrobe. Starting with the knowledge he had developed through the study of ancient principles and buildings.xliv Introduction mechanics that had a strong inﬂuence on the British architect Inigo Jones (1573–1652) who designed sets for King Charles I. Palladio designed more than thirty villas. Giangiorgio Trissino. which was well developed in Venice. where they had their own palaces. originally a simple mason called Andrea di Pietro della Gondola. and his book convinced American settlers to build Palladian villas surrounded by the ﬂourishing nature of the New World. discovered him and renamed him Palladio in 1538 because of his architectural talent. Palladio was involved in all the important problems of Renaissance architecture. Here the landscape became the dominant feature of the columned pavilions facing the Rotunda. he provided the illustrations for Daniele Barbaro’s translation of and commentary on Vitruvius’s ﬁrst-century-bce book on architecture. An aristocrat. Jefferson used Palladian principles to incorporate a large “villa” and dependencies in his design for the University of Virginia at Charlottesville (1817–1826). Jefferson was also remembering the elusive charm of the seventeenth-century landscape paintings of Claude Lorrain. he presented a selection of his own works to show how they could be models to be imitated or adapted to different cultural areas. but he was a man of worldwide importance. scattered on the mainland across from Venice. and the use of columned temple-front porches clearly identify Palladio’s villa architecture. A process of “variation on a theme” connected Palladio’s villa designs with music theory. discussing intellectual matters with him and making measured drawings of ancient buildings. especially around Vicenza. In the end. Rural residences combined a villa for the owner with all the facilities necessary for working a large agricultural estate and storing the produce. which was ﬁrst published in 1570.
the head of the civilized world. The high point of the renewed power of the popes in Rome.Introduction xlv Baroque Architecture (1630–1770) The term “baroque” was originally used to describe a period considered to be artistically decadent. has a “soft” Baroque in comparison to Italy. Around them. an age to be thought of with disgust. the Baroque can only be understood as an expression of the Catholic Reformation. it is the only way to grasp more profoundly the mental attitudes of the time. was the reigns of Urban VIII (1623– 1644) and Alexander VII (1655–1667). Baroque was a frame of mind. with the help of others. was considered timid behavior when compared with the creative boldness and artistic contestation called Baroque. and scholars reached the point where antipathy toward the seventeenth century became weaker. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598–1680). However. and England (Wren’s churches) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. which became the model for all capital cities. when artistic decay set in. an evolution of art from a formative period of great classical beauty to Baroque decadence seemed oversimpliﬁed. Although this sort of historical process can be difﬁcult. a group of fascinating creators happened to be born at the very end of sixteenth century: the painter and architect Pietro da Cortona (1594–1669). France. on the contrary. the sculptor who combined all sorts of talents. and artistic goals. If the capital city of Baroque is taken to be Rome. it helps to reveal all the potential of the city. “Baroque” could be used to describe parts of all sorts of historical periods: Roman Imperial architecture was baroque as was Perpendicular Gothic in England and Flamboyant Gothic in France. morals. Rome. Most scholars before 1930 did not hesitate to consider the period a childish caricature of an exhausted art form that was focused on artistic ugliness. as had been the case in the Renaissance. It was generally accepted that Renaissance art lost its strength in the seventeenth century. whether in its totality or in hidden.” the image of the city of Rome. the Netherlands. connected to political attitudes. Italian Baroque art and architecture is sometimes difﬁcult for American Protestants to grasp. being itself the caput mundi. personal opinions should be temporarily left behind in an attempt to understand the thinking of seventeenth-century opinion makers. Bernini’s designs for Saint Peter’s Colonnade and Piazza in Rome (1656–1667) . Baroque urban design conveys a thorough sympathy for the city in its monumental or residential areas. Francesco Borromini (1599–1667). To obey certain artistic rules. which led them to artistic domination. A Baroque design never destroys. For a deeper understanding of the Baroque world. Baroque architects transformed the image of the city. Baroque spread to Protestant countries such as northern Germany (Dresden). and the most imaginative architect of them all. All of them. especially around Naples. and Turin. both of them known for their powerful grasp of their ofﬁce and as architectural dilettanti. for instance. renewed the “imago urbis. However. that was more or less convincing in different countries. intimate parts.
looking as if they were a long boat at anchor in Lake Maggiore (1631–1671) in northern Italy. squares. Psychological and spiritual reactions of Baroque worshippers must be taken into account. Turin.” a synthesis of the arts. Vittone led the way. Behind the capacity to change the city.” The interior of Borromini’s San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638–1641) introduces certain aspects. All the intermediate positions are stressed. but Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa in the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria (1647–1652). was the work of a gifted mathematician. sculpture. “Eyes” of light and little cells of space between structural ribs brought luminescence to a church as if blind matter had been removed. the façade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1664–1667). Nicolo Salvi’s world-famous Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732–1751. Gardens. In Naples. and the extensive religious propaganda organized by the Roman Catholic Church needs to be explained. playing with intricacies and surprises (Palazzo Sanfelice. residences. 1841–1878). is “urbanely active. and architecture. As the Baroque style spread northward to Piedmont. The same scenography explains the charm of the ten steep terraces of the Isola Bella Gardens (1650–1690). followed by Alessandro Antonelli a century later in Novara. ﬁnished in 1762) uses Bernini’s sculptural conceptions to create a huge fountain in an opera-like plaza. Ferdinando Sanfelice (1675–1748) used a new sense of scenography— theatrical set design—in his own residence. which was ﬁnished by his nephew in 1676. Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale (1659–1670). Bernardo Vittone (1702–1770). as in the Garzoni Gardens in Collodi. it revealed more connections not only with perspective but also with discoveries in seventeenth-century optics and mathematics. was able to lighten—in two senses—the structure of a building. as he did in the Confraternity of San Bernardino in Chieri (1740–1744). a more complex attitude deﬁnes the Roman Baroque. Borromini’s last work.” it is based on the shifting among three arts: painting disappears into sculpture and sculpture disappears into architecture to produce a “montage. Guarini’s admirer and follower. behind scientiﬁc approaches to change art. Guarino Guarini’s (1624–1680) Santissima Sindone.” creating a characteristically Baroque undulating movement. demonstrate the outstanding complexity of the term.” Incorrectly translated as “a beautiful whole. the Chapel of the Holy Shroud. Baroque artists such as Bernini started a process called “bel composto. Three examples have been selected for this book to discuss “bel composto. and his church of Jesuit novitiates in Rome. .xlvi Introduction celebrate the union of the city with the church of Saint Peter. Refusing to separate painting. is an intermediate space that links a monument (the church) to the public space (the borgo and streets surrounding it). Naples). a reader of Sir Isaac Newton and his concept of integral calculus. where he started what would become a “brick Eiffel Tower” of 327 feet (the dome of the church of San Gaudenzio. surrounded by its great colonnade. Remodeling a city also meant a capacity to transform the urban fabric. and monuments all could be touched by Baroque imagination and sparkle with beauty. The large oval piazza.
sound. He was inspired by Palladio’s neighboring churches of Il Redentore and San Giorgio Maggiore from the previous century. In 1789. Venice and Turin embraced new attitudes and developed a novel sense of urban or landscape scenery. The same sense of illusion applies.000 inhabitants. Working on two other royal residences. Baroque architecture combines all works of art. but the return to the rules of classical art and a new aesthetic sense that involved both simpliﬁcation and economy opened a period called Neoclassicism after 1770. Large cities suggest the strength of Italy. for the Royal Hunting Lodge. Longhena (1598–1682) created the double-dome silhouette of the church of Santa Maria della Salute on the edge of the Grand Canal. as well as on the basilica of the Superga. Italy was partly uniﬁed for nine years (1805–1814) through the Napoleonic conquest. not just Bernini. Changes in taste in the second part of the eighteenth century reduced the dominance of the Baroque but could not suppress it. Prosperity in the late eighteenth century reinforced the power of the middle class and reduced that of the church. to an unusually advanced position in art. including movements of laicization. Italy had six cities with more than 100. more than a place of physical presence. Like Baroque opera. and poetry. A discussion of the rise of opera in the seventeenth century would help to explain Baroque strategies. with an extensive organization of the landscape. the Neoclassical and Eclectic period that follows requires a different approach to understand its importance. with its capital in Milan. the Roman Catholic Church suffered a series of setbacks. Neoclassical and Eclectic (1770–1900) After the architectural excitement of Italian Baroque. especially during the French Revolution at the end of the eighteenth century and in Italy during the Napoleonic occupation at the beginning of the nineteenth century. and innovation in domestic architecture took precedence over monuments and monumental urban compositions. which combines scenography. A Kingdom of Italy.000 to 100. and a Kingdom . on a hill towering above Turin. after 1715. whether one was Protestant or Catholic.000 inhabitants and six others with 50. he was constantly involved. In Italy. Philippo Juvarra (1678–1736) was able to combine a variety of Baroque inventions with the sense of the beauty of French geometrical gardens in offering a dialogue between architecture and rearranged nature. the creation of new urban circulation patterns. During this period.Introduction xlvii The church became a place to see the invisible and spiritual. The drive to combine the arts to represent a spiritual state pushed all the Baroque architects. In Stupinigi. both Baroque and Enlightenment architecture can be associated with great creativity. Except for Sardinia and Sicily. The French Empire extended as far as Rome. Urban growth meant that the creation of new buildings to house contemporary activities. the castle of Rivoli and the castle and stables of Venaria Reale.
Situated at a main crossroads of the city. a grand plan for the Piazza del Popolo. partly Neoclassical. Antolini (1753–1841) designed the Foro Buonaparte at the scale of ancient Roman precedents. who controlled all the architecture in Milan. Pietro Camporese. In Milan. his plans were begun only in 1820 and included ramps and carriageways leading to the Pincio Gardens on top of the hill above the square. a brilliant creator. Along with the changes in society came new types of buildings. that is. The Theater of San Carlo in Naples was extended with a new façade in 1810 and entirely rebuilt after it burned 1816 by Antonio Niccolini (1772–1850). theaters. di Nobile’s church resembling the Pantheon. designed the most famous of lyric theaters in Italy. the Teatro alla Scala (1776–1778). so that the Neoclassical period extended without interruption into the late 1850s. Trieste improved its Grand Canal in 1756 with P. It was ﬁnished in 1831. administrative seats. entertainments. Approved in 1813. Developments in urban design included the insertion of regular monumental piazzas. 1819–1833). and leisure promenades came from decisions handed down by the French administration. In Rome. and Raffaello Stern designed impressive new neoclassical galleries to house the Vatican’s collection of antiquities. architects Michelangelo Simonetti. With the change in aesthetic sense and scholarly analysis of ancient Roman architecture. the Foro Murat (named for a French general who was king of Naples) was established in 1808.xlviii Introduction of Naples advanced the ideals of liberty against the conservative feudal tradition. the Pantheon of Rome became a fashionable prototype. The process of changing the preference for the kind of place for holding social activities. and places for public entertainment. Giuseppe Valadier proposed. Giuseppe Jappelli (1783–1852). His Caffè Pedrocchi in Padua (1826– 1842) was a place of social intercourse and entertainment that took the place of monuments (churches. Sant’ Antonio Nuovo (1825–1849). The reestablishment of former monarchies after 1814 did not interrupt a long process of architectural evolution. a mixture of styles: partly Egyptian. From 1755 to 1822. by the Roman Pantheon. inspired. in 1793. When the Bourbon king returned. In the center of a vast elliptical colonnade. including museums. as might be expected. mostly on the edge of the ancient cities. a dynastic chapel was built. public-spirited projects were planned in 1801. laid out between 1805 and 1807 and completed late in 1824 by Luigi Canonica (1764–1844) still survives. . libraries. the Arena. see Piazza Vittorio Veneto) and for the mausoleum of the famous sculptor Antonio Canova in Possagno (Veneto. Giuseppe Piermarini (1734–1808). In Naples. next to the royal palace and opening to the grand view of the Gulf of Naples. changed the spirit and the traditional meaning of a monument. its impressive interiors were eclectic. King of the Two Sicilies. the Foro was renamed Ferdinando for Ferdinand I. A rotunda preceded by a Roman temple front was the ultimate reference both for Fernando Bonsignore’s Church of the Gran Madre de Dio in Turin (planned in 1818 and begun in 1827. palaces) in a country involved in its ﬁght for political uniﬁcation. and partly Gothic.
Included in a renewal project of Milan’s city center. the Porto Palazzo. According to Henry-Russell Hitchcock. by the architect Bollati. which. 1887–1890). easily comparable (although it is made of bricks) to the metallic Eiffel Tower of 1889. The turn toward Eclecticism was contemporary with a strong interest in advanced structures. Two of them were Neoclassical: on the north side. (The capital was transferred to Florence in 1865 and ﬁnally to Rome in 1870. Frizzi (1825–1830).Introduction xlix Turin. Beginning with the idea of a commercial arcade that would be monumental enough to house social activities. with a thin steeple. developed a frame of arches. the Piazza Vittorio Veneto (or Piazza Po) by the architect G. reached 400. on average). nine months before Antonelli’s death. What was produced since 1914. In Turin. was established in front of the railway station (1850–1851). The second. with the addition of a lantern. faced the Alps and was built by the Englishﬁnanced Italian Building Society (1864–1865). when its walls were demolished to provide space for a ring of boulevards. counterweights. the overdesigned Piazza Statuto on the west side. and disconnected brick walls to push the dome of San Gaudenzio in Novara to the height of 327 feet. the Piazza Carlo Felice by the architect Promis. Contemporary Debates: The Goals of Recent Architecture (1900–2000) When. about as tall as a ﬁfty-story skyscraper! A ﬁgure of a winged genius was installed at the top in February 1888. rivals the greatest railway stations in England. the pretentious Monument to Victor–Emmanuel II on the Piazza Venezia in . on the east side. Two were Eclectic.) The ﬁrst of the Eclectic piazzas. although “impressively monumental. and. built by Giuseppe Mengoni (1829– 1877). Alessandro Antonelli (1798–1888). both materials used in buildings from previous generations. Iron and “vitriﬁed” bricks. it reached a height of 345 feet in 1888. the city of the popes grew rapidly. the Galleria Umberto I (Emmanuelle Rocco. which also reorganizes the central point of the city of Naples in front of the Theater of San Carlo and opposite the Foro Ferdinando. the Vittorio Emmanuele Gallery in Milan. but the age of iron surpassed Antonelli’s capabilities. opening onto the road to Milan (the plan of the architect. was designed in 1818 and realized in 1826–1830).” is of relatively slight interest. opening to the Po River and the magniﬁcent landscape of the Monferatto Hills. created four entrance-squares of large dimensions (over 1.000 feet long. The Mole Antonelliana—originally a Jewish temple—is a double-skin envelope of great beauty enclosing an enormous space. it towers 535 feet above the pavement. Lombardi. it found a rival in Naples. in 1870. were improved to give incomparable possibilities. Rome became the capital of Italy. Construction of the Mole was started in 1862. he was even bolder. built in 1861 before or at the time Turin became the capital of Italy. an accomplished exponent of neoclassical architecture.
with the historian Manfredo Tafuri. Solving the problem of the house without using industrial techniques was the aim of Libera and Saverio Muratori at Tuscolano II in a suburb of Rome (1950–1954). the Milanese Giuseppe Sommaruga (1867–1917) favored rich interiors and spatial intricacies. and architecture needed much fresh air. he designed a huge arch for the Fascist exhibition E 42 in Rome. “Constructing with words” opened a period of extensive discussions. Art Nouveau bloomed late in Italy. in which he rejected all links with the past. Contropiano. L’Architettura-cronaca e storia (Architecture. He designed the plan of the cliff-top Villa Malaparte on the island of Capri for Curzio Malaparte. In the meantime. Their creed contained four coherences: coherency in function. It inspired Eero Saarinen’s Gateway Arch in Saint Louis. coherency for hygiene. was a brilliant exponent of the Rationalist School. Its leading architect was Antonio Sant’Elia (1888–1916). Postwar debates could not avoid strong criticism of the link between the Rationalist School and the Fascist Movement. The twentieth century began with a necessary period of rethinking architectural principles. N. Lotus. Some of the Milanese students in architecture—Terragni. Urbanistica (on town planning). under the guidance of E. The task of producing decent houses for the Italians was the main concern of the Fanfani Law of 1949. Rassegna. and History).l Introduction Rome (1884–1911) illustrated “the ﬁnal breakdown of the old standards of Romantic Classicism” (Hitchcock 1977. Missouri. and the Sant’Elia School in Como (1936–1937). Libera for a while. more radical. and Pollini—made up the Group of Seven (“Gruppo 7”) and followed the French Modernist Le Corbusier. As an open-minded creator. which had fallen into the . the reconstruction of the medieval bridge. and Raimondo d’Aronco (1857–1932) was inﬂuenced by late Baroque. the Casa Rustici in Milan (1933–1935). Futurism opened the way to a movement called “Architettura razionale” (Rationalist Architecture). Rebuilding areas damaged by the war needed much competency. a typical expression of “Mediterraneita” in its rigorous abstraction. he was inspired by Moroccan houses when he designed the horizontal residential unit of Tuscolano II in Rome (1950–1954). directed by Bruno Zevi. an Italian version of the International Style. “Gruppo 7” believed in a new aesthetic inspired by the machine. designed in 1948. and Zodiac all demonstrate how tough the debate was in Italy after 1950. Domus. Terragni’s master works include the Casa del Fascio in Como (1932–1936). in which Terragni went beyond modern requirements in approaching a “lyrical functionalism. An unusual number of architectural magazines involved all the important architects: Casabella directed for a time by Gregotti. moving from Milan to Rome. spanning 660 feet. Next to the Castelvecchio Museum in Verona. recalling the “perilous design” favored by Terragni. Futurism was more radical. Chronicles. Rogers. Italy was breathing a new air of freedom. which created the INA-Casa that lasted until 1963. Their goal was to reconstruct the architectural culture of Italy. Figini. who is known from his splendid drawings.” Adalberto Libera (1903–1963). and coherency in environmental control. coherency in building. 209).
Japan (1988–1994). and sharp oppositions. Engineering skills are not far behind those of contemporary Italian architecture. Rogers took part. discussions. Working mainly. To build inside an old city has been a major task of Italian architects. which received the name of Team X in 1956. He has designed many art galleries in the United States. Renzo Piano is a world-famous architect. have become more broadly creative. dov’era” (the way it was. in Urbino. in a country of such a highly cultured past.Introduction li River Adige. they showed their inventiveness. An inﬂuential movement in Milan. Rogers was able to translate tradition in terms of modernity in the Velasca Tower in Milan (1956–1958). The church is a gesture in space of great ﬂuidity and is considered a summit in postwar Italian architecture. the way it should be). in which E. its expressiveness. he favored a village-like concrete residential complex as his main tool for expressing his ideals (Collegio del Colle. strangely enough. and. the sense of the city and the presence of history obliged certain architects to be skilled interpreters of the past. They fought for new forms. In Italy. the architecture of the second half of the twentieth century could hardly be summarized by only two attitudes. Since Italy was so full of debates. Pier Luigi Nervi (1891–1979) was an engineer of worldwide reputation. 1988–2001). and the extension of the Art Institute of Chicago (1999– 2004). Building both within and without the city. N. and have begun to express themselves at the scale of the landscape. Vittorio Gregotti has been interested in large regional plans of strict geometry. initiated an interest in the symbolic value of memory and its social importance as well as in functional requirements. turning it gallantly into a festive piazza (Renovation of the Old Harbor. followed the methods of postwar rebuilding: “com’era. Accused of revisionism because he was not a strict functionalist. or at least of the region around the site. in 2000–2002. Giovanni Michelucci selected an organic version of modernity for the Church of the Autostrada (1961–1971) west of Florence. which meant that traditional ways of building were to be used. and the social life it contained. However. favored the “brutalist” quality of his postwar architecture. Giancarlo di Carlo (1919–2004) was a member of Team X. 1962–1972). A ﬁeld of criticism. His main works are the National Centre of Art and Culture. He changed the relation between the city of Genoa and its old harbor. the Centre Pompidou in Paris (1971–1978). and they rediscovered the sense of memory. . and the International Airport of Kansai in Osaka. he remodeled the 1915–1923 Fiat Lingotto Plant in Turin. but not only. Recent architectural developments have expanded and widened references. Italian architects were leaders in rejecting the International Style. he realized the handsome auditoriums of the Music Park in Rome (1994–2002). opposed some aspects of Le Corbusier’s architecture and theory but. he praised the complexity of the old city. It is a skyscraper 330 feet tall and looks much like a medieval tower above the roofs of the city. among which are the Menil Collection Museum in Houston (1982–1986). the Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas (1999–2003).
was their reference.lii Introduction he designed the Bus Station in Manhattan. His work is typical of the construction of the freeway network that modernized Italy. a project should also be inﬂuenced by modern precedents. after much debate. especially the Unité d’Habitation (1946–1952) in Marseilles. His approach was based on an “absolute historicism.600-foot-long freeway Viaduct of the Polcevera in Genoa (1961–1964) using a subtle sense of dynamism and trusting the lightness of an isostatic scheme. Gregotti.” Ricardo Morandi (1902–1989) erected the 3. according to the positions of Team X. building in old cities offered many more challenges. he revealed his approach: He was both contemporary and respectful of the past and based his decisions on profound historical knowledge and slow. Le Corbusier’s Radiant City. although many architects faithfully used his urban form studies. a model of houses totally integrated into the traditional urban fabric. However. . Total agreement with Muratori’s positions could not be reached. near the George Washington Bridge (1960–1962). produced for Venice. To take history as a tool for creation was Carlo Scarpa’s ambition when he renovated the Castelvecchio Museum of Art in Verona (1957–1964). he identiﬁed history as a continuous process. The group called “La Tendenza. they transformed it to develop better spaces for social life. The study of urban form started anew when Saverio Muratori (1910–1973) published his books on Venice (1960) and Rome (1963). did not follow Muratori all the way. for the Monte Amiata Housing Scheme of Gallaratese Milan (1967–1972). careful execution. For them. In a process of superposed layering.” that is. After him.” led by the urban historian and architect Aldo Rossi and the architect Carlo Aymonino. in the Saffa Area in Canareggio (1984–1987). He was prudent and bold—and deeply human. His Palace of Labor in Turin took the nickname “Concrete Parthenon.
Architecture of Italy .
a second wall was built sometime in the thirteenth century ce to incorporate the suburbs that had sprung up on the neighboring hills. such as neighboring Chiusi. and are built of large blocks of travertine.500 feet long.AUGUSTUS GATE. The surveillance afforded by the site. As the town expanded in the Middle Ages. took refuge in Perusia. Following the famous siege and eventual victory of their enemy Augustus Caesar in 40. were being overrun by their Roman enemies. The walls provided a strong defense for the center of the ancient settlement that covered approximately one quarter of a square mile spread out over three hills. the Etruscans built their town in a strategic position overlooking the Tiber River and the surrounding plain from an elevation of more than 1. The agricultural bounty of the land on the shores of Lake Trasimeno. Known today as Perugia. that formed the Etruscan League. But signiﬁcant urban development did not occur until the arrival of the Etruscans in the sixth century bce. Prehistoric remains indicate an early settlement of Umbrian people.000 feet. During the civil wars of the ﬁrst century. or city-states. the T . was a major factor in the prosperity of Perusia. the huge surrounding wall. the brother and the wife of Mark Antony. and the exploitation of other lines of natural defense ensured security at a time when the other Etruscan city-states. 9. who moved up from the valleys to the more easily defended hilltops. many measuring more than 4 feet by 2 feet. below the fortiﬁed city. which dominated much of Italy from the sixth to the third centuries bce. PERUGIA Style: Etruscan Date: Second Century BCE Architect: Unknown he hill town of Perusia was one of the twelve lucumonies. it is still girdled by a massive circuit of ancient Etruscan walls that are 30 feet tall. Lucius Antonius and Fulvia. A defensive rampart as large as the Etruscan wall is evidence for the origin and prosperity of Perusia in antiquity. that are set without mortar. Taking advantage of the intersection of two roads—oriented in the directions of the compass—to facilitate transportation and communication.
or horizontal design. Only two of the Etruscan gates survive: the Porta Marzia. Remove the keystone and the arch will collapse. Two large towers of trapezoidal shape ﬂank the arch. Above the lower arch is a second. which is extended into a semicircular barrel vault. the voussoir at the very top of the arch. Augustus rebuilt the city and made it a Roman colony called AUGUSTA PERUSIA. with its massive cut stone construction and simple geometric forms is impressive even today and provides a perfect example of Etruscan engineering and design. especially the Renaissance loggia on the left. The arch springs from vertical supports. and an unidentiﬁed deity) survived. that may indicate the inﬂuence of Greek architecture on Etruscan designs. The voussoirs are held in a state of compression and are locked in by the keystone. Although somewhat obscured by later additions. Six vertical bands alternate with ﬁve large round forms that most likely represent shields. With the addition of this second story. The vertical bands have grooves cut into them so that they resemble the triglyphs in the Doric frieze. Its architectural and archaeological importance is tremendous because it is one of the few surviving examples of Etruscan building practice and represents one of the earliest uses in Italy of an arch constructed with voussoirs. built of large rectangular stone blocks on either side of the passage. Above the arch is an ornamental frieze.2 Augustus Gate city was destroyed. The shields are centered in nearly square panels that correspond to the metopes of a Greek temple frieze. to the south. The powerful aspect of this city gate. Vulcan. The Etruscan walls that survived Augustus contained eight large gates and three small openings. to the north. Four of the gates marked the intersections where the four main streets of the town join the four hillcrest roads. called jambs. a name that appears in an inscription over an entrance to the city. Both gates are very impressive entries into the city because of their large dimensions and their positions at the top of steep roads. the Augustus Gate remains as a testament to the power and wealth of the Etruscan culture before it was absorbed and nearly obliterated by Rome. form the semicircular shape of the arch. Only its massive circuit walls and three temples (dedicated to Juno. which is divided into a pattern loosely resembling the division of the frieze on a Doric temple. Horizontal moldings frame the frieze. smaller voussoir arch. more than 30 feet high. precisely cut wedge-shaped stone blocks placed next to one another without mortar. now ﬁlled in. Two courses of voussoirs. that is ﬂanked by pilasters (ﬂat column-like strips). which will become so characteristic of Roman architecture. that covers the interior passage way into the city. The Augustus Gate is the better preserved and shows the Etruscan style of building quite clearly. . which is now known as the Augustus Gate. now incorporated into the base of a fortress built by Antonio da Sangallo the Elder in the sixteenth century and the Augustus Gate (Porta Augusta). the Augustus Gate reaches a height of more than 60 feet.
Augustus Gate. Perugia. An Etruscan double voussoir arch (2nd century bce). .
and the outer precinct was not completed until the reign of Alexander Severus (222– 235). covering about ﬁfty acres that included swimming pools. and Maria Cristina Targia.000 and 8. ROME Style: Roman Imperial Dates: 212–235 Architect: Unknown arge public bathing establishments were typical expressions of the Roman practice of building and organizing complex areas for both social and necessary activities in a large densely populated city. Because they were located on the outskirts of the city. for example. The soldier emperor Aurelian (270–275) rebuilt one of the porticoes. the North African emperor. Axel. A partial inauguration took place in 216. CT: Yale University Press. They were designed for the use of large numbers of people. Although popularly named for the emperor Caracalla. a stadium. the baths were probably planned by his father. The Baths of Caracalla were recorded in the ﬁfth century as one of the marvels of Rome. when the population withdrew into the center of the city. All of the comforts associated with the luxury villas of the elite were brought together in the public baths and made available to every citizen. Septemius Severus. exercise yards. meeting rooms. Edited by Stefano Peccatori and Stefano Zufﬁ. Hartmann. Many columns and their capitals were removed and reused in famous churches. the ruins were used as a vast quarry of building materials. rich and poor alike. Construction of the main block of the complex was initiated at the beginning of Caracalla’s reign in 211. Le città nella storia d’Italia. 1981. Grohmann. fountains. Translated by Thomas M. steam rooms. London: Getty Trust Publications. Borrelli. who engaged in many projects to monumentalize the southern part of Rome. the baths were abandoned in 537 during the siege of Rome by Vitiges the Goth. 1992. libraries. Caracalla could accommodate 1. and other amenities—all enclosed in formal gardens. 2nd ed. which had been destroyed by ﬁre. in Santa L . perhaps in 271. Beginning in the twelfth century. Etruscan and Early Roman Architecture. BATHS OF CARACALLA. Rome and Bari: Laterza. New Haven.600 bathers at a time. Alberto. Perugia. Federica.000 Romans could take advantage of the facilities. The Etruscans: Art. This means that every day between 6. Architecture and History. the last member of the dynasty. The Baths of Caracalla were enormous. 2004.4 Baths of Caracalla Further Reading Boethius.
Baths of Caracalla 5 Baths of Caracalla.000 workers who labored during the ﬁve years of construction. Many architects recorded their admiration for the design of the baths and the movement of its masses. Serlio praised the coherency of its plan. drew plans and sections of the building along with reconstructions and studies of the decorative details. published in 1540. Digging done in the sixteenth century by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese recovered many famous works of sculpture that are now in the Naples Museum. Rome. The massive ruins of the caldarium (the hot bath) inspired even modern architects like Louis Kahn. during his stay in Rome in 1546–1547. brought water to sixty-four cisterns from which it was distributed via lead pipes to the large swimming pool (nautatio). the cold-water baths (frigidaria). measuring 1. the hot bath (caldarium). A new aqueduct. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. the Belvedere Torso. Most important of all. The French restorer of medieval churches. that was partially dug out of the side of the Aventine hill. and the latrines.059 feet. After the baths were . was found in the Baths of Caracalla. In book III of On Antiquities.076 by 1. the Aqua Nova Antoniniana. Maria in Trastevere. The Pisans took away capitals to decorate their cathedral. numerous fountains. sketched the baths in November1863 and enthusiastically praised the ability of the Romans to manage a building of such complexity. Palladio. which so inspired Michelangelo. The Bath complex stands on a vast rectangular platform. A large thoroughfare approaching the site facilitated the movement of huge amounts of cement and bricks by the 9.
half-domes. the principal rooms were lined up on the short central axis of the bath block in the ritual order in which the Romans would use them. The bathing block has a perfectly symmetrical rectangular plan. reading in the libraries. having a mid-afternoon snack. Surrounding the bathing block was a formal garden. rather. created dynamic spaces arranged in artful sequences. and observing their fellow citizens. that covered rooms of many different shapes and sizes. The Baths of Caracalla were typical of the venues built by the state to fulﬁll the leisurely habits of the inhabitants of Rome in antiquity. that was nearly as large as the Pantheon. a stadium with seating for spectators. All of these were necessary for the efﬁcient operation of a bath complex on such a huge scale. This was followed by the immense groin-vaulted frigidarium. also constructed of concrete. Added to this were numerous statues by the most famous sculptors of the day and imaginative water displays.500 feet long. and a profusion of columns in a variety of colored marbles created a sumptuous interior. . this same roadway was used to deliver the ten tons of wood used every day to heat the water. meeting halls. colonnades. while the changing rooms. even a watermill. service rooms. gilded stucco and glass mosaics on the ceilings. Arranged to either side of this ﬁle of rooms were ofﬁces.6 Baths of Caracalla opened. large enough for vehicular trafﬁc. The block is not centered in the garden precinct. great furnaces and boilers. Thick concrete masonry was used to build massive walls to support various rooﬁng structures. lavish ornamentation concealed it. and shops. and exercise courts. Its plan was carefully organized to move people efﬁciently in and out of the various rooms and halls. Following the traditional plan of Roman baths. ofﬁces. or cold bath area. A great wall. or xystus. about 4. including large expanses of garden. Mosaics on the ﬂoors. and latrines were located on the opposite shady side. that included fountains. and staircases. Under the terrace were corridors. The rough concrete construction was not visible to the bathers. some of them of daring design. and ﬁnally came the circular domed caldarium. or hot room. colorful marble veneers on the walls. and groin vaults. The baths provided a place for large crowds of people to take care of their bodies while at the same time enjoying social encounters. and subsidiary structures such as libraries. Next on axis was the tepidarium. barrel vaults. measuring 360 by 700 feet. surrounds the precinct of the bathing block. and other amenities. First was the large swimming pool open to the sky. Heat for the warm rooms and sweat rooms was provided by double walls and spaces under the ﬂoors into which hot air was introduced. whose waters were slightly warm. Natural light and heat were exploited by the designers: the hot rooms were aligned across the southwest side of the bathing block and had large arched windows to catch the heat of the afternoon sun (Roman baths did not open until after the noon hour). Domes. it is located in the northeastern half on axis with the main entrance that pierces the outer wall. Men and women could use different parts of the facilities or were allotted separate times for bathing.
. Ward-Perkins. Marino Contarini. which he planned to replace with a “Golden House. Reprint ed. Cambridge. it has interlaced Gothic arches on the left. he married Soramador Zeno. B. Contarini kept. Procurator (public prosecutor) of Saint Mark. MA: The MIT Press. or slightly remodeled. Baths and Bathing in Classical Antiquity. and a mostly plain wall adorned with precious marble revetments on the right.” Contarini was inspired by myths of the original Domus Aurea (Golden House) built by the emperor Nero in Rome during the ﬁrst century.Ca d’Oro Further Reading 7 Boethius. Etruscan and Roman Architecture. giving detailed instructions to the builders and masons. This portico for the ground ﬂoor. 1996. Contarini guided the work on the palazzo. Milan: Electa. the portico of ﬁve bays of roundheaded arches from the old Palazzo Zeno. exempliﬁes the fantasy of Venice. and many historians name him as the architect of the building. dancing sense of movement of singular beauty. Fikret K. Translated by Sandra Ciufﬁni. 1970. the House of Gold. Formerly gilded. the façade of the Ca d’Oro. The resultant asymmetrical façade has three superimposed loggias. Axel. CA D’ORO. belonged to a patrician family and held one of the most important posts in the Republic of Venice. 1998. The Saracenic crenellation that crowns the building dissolves the façade into the hazy sky. Marina. Harmondsworth: Pufﬁn. and J. he purchased the Palazzo Zeno. Yegül. This sort of composition typiﬁes the visual miracle of Venice: an evanescence caused by humidity in the atmosphere and the glittering reﬂections off the water that create on the buildings a chromatic. their arcades topped by ogee-arches (ﬂame-like arches with S-shaped sides) and quatrefoil tracery (forms similar to a four-leafed clover) that contrast with the largely solid wall pierced only by two small square windows and four windows with ogee openings. much praised by Ruskin. stone cutters and sculptors Giovanni Bon and Mario Raverti F acing southwest onto the Grand Canal. Piranomonte. His lack of professional training is cited for certain discrepancies in the overall organization of the Ca D’Oro. The Baths of Caracalla. VENICE Style: Gothic Dates: 1424–1437 Architects: Marino Contarini?. In 1406. and in 1412.
Above the quatrefoils in the second story loggia of the Ca D’Oro the sculptor has added half-quatrefoils to dissolve the pattern of the tracery into a strange sinuosity that creates a surprising chiaroscuro. opened onto the canal entrance and extended the entire length of the house. and the kitchen. called the fontego. one from the Grand Canal. while on the other were storage rooms. The façade of the palazzo thus becomes animated by the play of light in a way that could be understood as a painting in two dimensions that incorporates all the charm of Venetian art. from a street that runs parallel to one long side of the house. was reserved for storage and business. Because all circulation of goods was by boat. Venice. Two groups of masons—one from Lombardy directed by Matteo Raverti and one from Venice led by Giovanni Bon—worked on the palazzo from 1424 to 1437. and it results in two entrances. in the case of the Ca d’Oro.8 Ca d’Oro Ca d’Oro. the Ca D’Oro remains a typical Venetian house that varies little from the traditional plan. the small entrance courtyard. created an impressive approach from the Grand Canal. the androne. The latter doorway opens into a small courtyard in the back quarter of the house that is furnished with a classically inspired wellhead and a dogleg staircase that gives access to the second level. with the short side facing the canal. thus the ogee arches. the ground ﬂoor. or fontego. . A long central hall. The narrow and rather deep site forces the house to assume a long rectangular shape. As imaginative as the façade may be. The tracery on the superimposed loggias is an imaginative variation on the upper gallery of the Doge’s Palace. On one side of the androne was a series of ofﬁces. View of the façade from the Grand Canal. the other. Venetians preferred to borrow motifs from the international Late Gothic style of architecture rather than motifs from Lombardy. or piano nobile.
1993. Richard J. The Caffè was famous during the period of the Risorgimento (1848–1871). Goy. which were located to either side. Even though.” If a monument were to be the symbol of the city in the nineteenth century. It features a gallery fronted by Corinthian columns on the upper level. 1972. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: Phaidon. Paul.Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi) 9 The residential part of the Ca D’Oro. Thus. 1842 Architect: Giuseppe Japelli iazza Cavour is a public square and center of activity in the city of Padua. Translated by Anne Engel. PADUA Style: Eclectic Dates: 1826–1831. Edoardo. called the piano nobile. Building a Palace in Medieval Venice. CT: Yale University Press. the Venetian house is extremely deep. 1380–1580. the new P . Further Reading Arslan. and P. David S. Gothic Architecture. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The philosophical changes of the Enlightenment and the political consequences of the French Revolution modiﬁed Europeans’ idea of the “monument. The Imperial Age of Venice. 1970. was superimposed on the ground ﬂoor and duplicated its plan. and it became a monument symbolizing Padua and a landmark of urban improvements of the nineteenth century. The House of Gold. Crosley. Two small pavilions using the Doric order ﬂank a large recessed entrance portico that is two stories tall. which functioned as a large reception hall and as an antechamber to the more private rooms of the palazzo. Gothic Architecture in Venice. when Italy was struggling toward uniﬁcation. CAFFÈ PEDROCCHI (CAFÉ PEDROCCHI). because of the limited frontage on the canals. Frankl. Chambers. the exterior loggias of the facade provide a remarkable amount of light to the interior rooms. Above the androne was the portego. a smaller piazza is ﬁlled with the tables and chairs of a café housed in a handsome neoclassical building. This is the Caffè Pedrocchi. 2000. or a governmental building like the Palazzo della Ragione (the basilican stronghold of the courts). or the seat of the famous university created in 1222. it could no longer be a church enclosed within its precinct. New Haven. On its southeast corner.
The famous cafés on the Boulevard des Italians in Paris that catered to the afﬂuent part of middle-class society in the ﬁrst third of the nineteenth century .10 Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi) Caffè Pedrocchi. Architect Japelli juxtaposed Neoclassical. the theater. Even so. and the university by creating a central place where all the citizens could gather. and Gothic styles in an eclectic mix. Padua. Egyptian. paid for by a successful businessman but open for the pleasure and conversation of the majority of his fellow citizens. monument for Padua became a privately owned coffeehouse. the circle of traditional monuments inherited from the past was within ﬁve minutes’ walk of the Caffè Pedrocchi. A guidebook published in 1842 explains that the coffeehouse uniﬁes the nearby courts of law.
Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi) 11 set the tone for the decoration in the Caffè Pedrocchi. The red room. each with a different theme and style. Carroll L. one has the feeling of wandering through a puzzle of artistic. modeled on a basilica. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. political. Pedrocchi’s café was planned as an analogy to a “machine. On the ground ﬂoor. and historical references. Japelli worked with illusion. surpassed these models. Giuseppe Japelli (1783–1852). the Caffè was originally. The second ﬂoor.” with the different rooms corresponding to handsome mechanics who cared for the apparatus. . an Egyptian room. 1966. an armory. It was open day and night and never closed. CT: Yale University Press. and green. stretching the dimensions of rooms and opening new perspectives everywhere. Café Pedrocchi. the colors of the ﬂag of the newly uniﬁed Italian state. The collaboration of Pedrocchi and Japelli created one of the masterpieces of Italian eclectic architecture in which styles and themes borrowed from an array of cultures and historical periods were brilliantly combined into a venue symbolizing the new Padua that was open to all of her citizens. It opened onto an exedra (a curved recessed space) that contained a counter carried on lion’s paws. The second ﬂoor of the café evoked a universal spirit of the cultures of mankind: an Etruscan room. Further Reading Meeks. The passage of time was symbolized by two relief sculptures executed from models by Thorvaldsen that showed Dawn and Night on either side of a clock. New Haven. a Renaissance room. the three rooms on the ground ﬂoor of the café were remodeled and upholstered in white. who became internationally famous for his eclectic fantasies. After 1866. Milan: Skira. which Japelli designed. and a Herculaneum room that led into the ballroom dedicated to Gioacchino Rossini. had been trained by Giannantonio Selva (1754–1819). in 1831. When walking through the elaborately decorated rooms. but its architect. an octagonal Greek room. a gifted neoclassical architect of outstanding competency who designed the Teatro della Fenice in Venice. 2000. Japelli. offered an array of rooms of various shapes and sizes. not opened until 1842. Japelli took part in the architectural development of Padua in the ﬁrst half of the nineteenth century. V. was in the center. Paolo. Moorish cloakrooms. red. connected to the Borsa. or stock-exchange room. Possamai.
if any physical plans ever existed. Michelangelo was opposed to moving the statue. Girolamo Rainaldi rom 1534 to 1549. For both tasks.12 Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) CAMPIDOGLIO (CAPITOLINE HILL). the senators built a fortress in the ruins of the ancient Tabularium. but he ﬁnally agreed to the pope’s wishes and began to develop a plan for the piazza atop the Campidoglio that would be the setting for the statue. the Roman state archives that were built into the side of the hill. as the Romans called it. Sixteenth-century Rome was much smaller in population and area than the ancient capital had been. but it represents Marcus Aurelius. Lack of funding and political unwillingness delayed the completion of Michelangelo’s scheme for more than 100 years. The statue was thought at the time to represent Constantine. the most important of all the Roman state cults. Giacomo della Porta. In a symbolic move. the philosopher-emperor who reigned from 161 to 180. that is. a distance of 1. Michelangelo’s plans. the Capitoline was the most important. as the site of both the arx.7 miles. ROME Style: Mannerist Dates: 1538–1655 Architects: Michelangelo. Paul III required the services of an artistarchitect of unquestionable ability so he turned to Michelangelo. the ancient fortress of Rome. one could read the relocation of the statue as symbolic of the transfer of power from the church to the city. The ﬁrst was the seat of Catholic religious authority. the Campidoglio or. and as the location of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Paul III agreed to separate the church from the city government and to renounce the claims. the Capitoline Hill. Vasari testiﬁed that in 1568 he saw a very F . In effect. were typical of his manner of working. the ﬁrst Christian emperor. the unﬁnished Basilica of Saint Peter. that the pope had the right to rule the city. Although it was the smallest of the seven hills of Rome. The reduced urban area stretched from Saint Peter’s to the Capitoline. the pope ordered that the equestrian statue of a Roman emperor that had stood in front of Saint John Lateran for centuries be moved to the Campidoglio. they were continuously changed as he modiﬁed his ideas and developed his designs. Responding to criticism leveled by Martin Luther and many others within the Catholic Church. During the upheavals and riots of the twelfth century when the Romans revolted against the Papacy and attempted to establish a commune free of church rule. the second was at the traditional political heart of Rome. Pope Paul III supported building projects in the two poles of power in Rome. made by numerous popes in the past.
Two ramps were constructed coming from the Piazza Aracoeli at the north. the other was gentler and led to the piazza in front of the Senators’ Palace. Giacomo della Porta (1533–1602) improved the latter ramp by transforming it into a series of inclined steps in 1581–1582. . Against the light. the piazza offers a chiaroscuro vision of the three masses of the buildings. column-like structures ﬂattened against the wall. which are crowned by heavy cornices that function like dark brows shading the façades below them.Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) 13 rich drawing for the Campidoglio but none is preserved. it was not built until the seventeenth century. The senatorial fortress at the back of the open space around the statue of Marcus Aurelius and the Palace of the Conservators. Because the Capitoline was a hill with two summits. extend through both stories of the building and are framed on the ground ﬂoor by two diminutive columns behind which is a covered portico. Michelangelo designed the piazza as a balcony opening onto the city. were in ruinous condition and in need of new façades. for the elected city magistrates. In front of the Senatorial palazzo. a double staircase inspired by Michelangelo’s design for the staircase of the Medici Library in Campidoglio. to the left. to complement the Conservators’ Palace. Michelangelo proposed a third building. he created a three-level plan. but because it had no speciﬁc purpose and also because it masked the Franciscan church of the Aracoeli. On the facades of the palaces giant pilasters. One was steep and led to the Church of the Aracoeli. View of the ramped stairs ascending to Michelangelo’s piazza with the Palazzo Nuovo (New Palace) at left and the Senators’ Palace visible behind the colossal statues of Castor and Pollux. Rome. with a view of Saint Peter’s in the distance.
a transitional element between the plastic body of the staircase at the entrance to the square and the space of the Forum at its back. The Architecture of Michelangelo. Further Reading Ackerman. See Campidoglio. created a third level for a platform from which public addresses could be given. it represented the movement of the planets around the earth and gave expression to the ideal of Rome as the caput mundi (the head of the world). architecte. the buildings on the sides of the Campidoglio are not at right angles to each other. A collection of antique sculptures. on the entrance side of the piazza opposite the Senators’ Palace. a long balustrade supporting antique statues. Paris: Gallimard. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See Baths of Caracalla. for contrasts of light and dark. Argan. The Senator’s Palace becomes. many of them acquired by previous popes. Gaps between the three buildings at their corners open onto impressive views of the Forum below. were offered in public celebration of the Campidoglio and were installed in the Conservators’ Palace. 560–636). Inspired by a manuscript of Isidor of Seville (c. In this process of visually connecting the spaces and memories of Rome. Michelangelo created. 1991. CARACALLA. his individualistic handling of geometry and space encouraged him to play with perspective in adapting the disposition of the preexisting buildings. CAPITOLINE HILL. Michel-Ange. consequently. and Bruno Contardi. Michelangelo’s strong feeling for chiaroscuro. 2nd ed. the angles of their façades converge toward the entry staircase. . James S. In 1940.14 Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) Florence. As in the Piazza Pio in Pienza. BATHS OF. Giulo Carlo. which opens onto the horizon of the city dominated by Saint Peter’s dome. Michelangelo’s paving in gray and white stone in the shape of a star with twelve rays was ﬁnally completed. 1986. reversing the normal expectation of parallel lines appearing to converge toward a distant point.
was to eliminate the traditional enclosed courtyard for both sanitary and aesthetic reasons. MILAN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1933–1936 Architects: Pietro Lingeri and GiuseppeTerragni D uring the 1930s.Casa Rustici 15 CASA RUSTICI. One of these. became a member of the Fascist Party. The Corso developed into a fashionable district of advanced modernity and a safe place for ﬁnancial investment. and two gifted architects Pietro Lingeri and Giuseppe Terragni. 36 CORSO SEMPIONE. in 1926. Lingeri and Terragni received commissions for several apartment buildings from members or friends of the Milione group. The Casa Rustici was originally intended to be a two-story private house but it became a building of luxury apartments with a penthouse on top where Rustici would live. Avant-garde architects. Conforming completely to modern ideals and showing his desire to equal Le Corbusier. espoused by Le Corbusier. . The charter laid out modernist concepts of rationalist urban planning and was heavily inﬂuenced by Le Corbusier. Terragni’s Novocomum in Como (1927–1929) was an apartment block with a façade that resembled the prow of an ocean liner facing onto the lake. a tree-lined avenue nearly 300 feet long. adhered to certain ideals advanced by the modern movement. The ﬁrst of these was designed for Victor Rustici for a site in the new urban plan of Milan. who took part in the international debate on modern architecture. As an Italian delegate to CIAM (the International Congress of Modern Architecture). a group of painters. which initially supported avant-garde architecture. He was already famous for his Casa del Fascio in Como (1932–1936) in which he celebrated the State guided by Fascist principles. it connected the Sforza Castle and the Foro Buonaparte (built during the French Revolution) with the recreational areas of the Lake Districts in the northwest. Terragni took part in the debate leading to the publication of the Athens Charter in 1933. a central feature of which was the Corso Sempione. Terragni was a member of the avant-garde and for that reason. A preference for abstraction was advanced by the art gallery of the Milione led by its owner Ghiringelly. Designed to be an expression of the new prestige of the city. the city of Milan was changed by the rise of an efﬁcient upper middle class that was modern in its way of life and was looking for new buildings without the heavy overlay of nineteenth-century ornament. Lingeri was a highly skilled technician.
would be structures containing ﬁve levels of apartments. the relation of the building with the space of the street (Corso Sempione). Since that façade was all but transparent. a small tower was inserted into the corner. slender balconies that traversed the front of the courtyard and created the vision of a façade when viewed from the Corso. Milan. A poetic approach to modern apartment building design on Corso Sempione by Lingeri and Terragni (1933–1936). The living rooms were on the outside of the units. The central unit would be at the rear of the courtyard. and the manner in which the apartment block addressed public space. Because the via Fratelli Induno on the left of the building did not align in a right angle with the street in front of the casa. and there was a passenger and a freight elevator in each unit. which expanded the space of some of the apartments. They had windows that overlooked three different avenues. the units seemed unusually spacious. Efﬁciency was paramount with easy access and a minimum area given over to corridors. The kitchens and some of the bedrooms opened onto the courtyard. called for dividing the site at 36 Corso Sempione into three sections measuring 40 feet by 80 feet. Each unit was accessible by a staircase. made by Terragni and supported by Lingeri. and because of this. on either side of it. Terragni linked the two wings containing the apartments with six long. which was combined with their sensibility to such advanced ideas as the creation of a new building type for the apartment block. The architects brought a rather poetic approach to the modern movement. its balconies projected a . Plans for the Casa Rustici. the other units.16 Casa Rustici Casa Rustici.
Henry-Russell. which is on the top ﬂoor. with formal anarchy. and access to the second-ﬂoor lobby. Lingeri and Terragni’s ﬁnal success proves that they were creating something new. Even though the architects knew all the building ordinances. The building soon had a popular nickname. 1995. Its skyscraper skyline on a hilltop C . Antonino. Their attitude predicted the Italian criticism of the modern movement after the end of World War II. Giuseppe Terragni. New Haven. Far from condemning rationalism.” Casa Rustici’s façade is very well ordered. they changed it by imagining new building types. However. Rome: Editori Laterza. As Gio Ponti has said. for them. however. Poetry and transparency were. Transparency meant exposing oneself to public view. the city of San Gimignano is famous for its thirteen remaining case torre (tower houses) built in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. a lyrical order deﬁned the Casa Rustici.Casa Torre 17 modern approach to ways of living. the garage. Further Reading Hitchcock. the “Blackbird’s Cage. Vita e Opere. SAN GIMIGNANO Style: Romanesque Dates: Twelfth to Thirteenth Centuries Architect: Unknown ompletely walled behind medieval fortiﬁcations. Above this are ﬁve levels of balconies under the owner’s penthouse. as Le Corbusier would do. and with the creation of an unknown building type. with a ground ﬂoor containing shops. This penthouse had large terraces on the roofs of the two side apartment blocks that were connected by a long gallery spanning the open central courtyard. CT: Yale University Press. The Town Planning Administration of Milan. 1977. in the 1950s. the building permit was refused nine times between 1933 and 1936. the administration charged them with total ignorance of building codes. demonstrations of a new attitude toward the city. was highly critical of the Casa Rustici. CASA TORRE. Saggio. Consequently. Lingeri’s and Terragni’s ﬂexibility of mind and their way of working against the difﬁculties they had to face are a good introduction to contemporary post war architecture in Italy. their approach to the modern movement in architecture shows that they were attempting to go beyond strict rationalism. Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
and bathing occurred in public facilities. Many daily activities took place out of doors. Civic policy forbade building any structure of equal or greater height. which was called a piazza. selling things or talking together with their children in tow. the region of Italy where San Gimignano is located. its power in the community. The Piazza della Cisterna (Cistern Square) was a triangular-shaped marketplace. Both squares were surrounded by the residences— and the towers—of the most afﬂuent citizens. and places to stock merchandise lined the street. a place to stay. or cistern. small churches. Strong civic regulations maintained order in these various activities. Water was collected at the public cistern. originally built in 1273 and enlarged and embellished in 1343 by the podesta (mayor) Guccio Malavotti. stables for horses. each one vertical and surprisingly narrow. which. or piazzas. It is located at the upper end of the Piazza della Cisterna. Around this square were located the Collegiate Church. Above the monumental arched entrance to a shop or a storeroom for merchandise. Afﬂuent merchants could afford to extend the basic structure of a “merchant house” (called a “casa-fondaco”) vertically to form a tower. Women. Connected to the corner of the Piazza della Cisterna was the second and more prestigious square. A large elm tree provided some shade in the piazza for many years. In the center of the piazza was a well. shops. the precious herb was collected and exported to Pisa. bread was cooked in a common oven. as well as in many other parts of Italy. Saffron cultivated in the surrounding countryside brought tremendous prosperity to the city.000 feet at an elevation of 900 feet from the San Giovanni Gate (1262) at one end of the city to the San Matteo Gate at the other. The casa torre of the Ardinghelli (thirteenth century) was typical. and its membership in the ruling class. reﬂected local customs that may seem unusual to us today.18 Casa Torre can be seen from all the surrounding roads. The main street followed a nearly horizontal course of 2. the Piazza del Duomo. and the Palazzo del Podesta (governor’s palace). washing was done at a public washhouse. Medieval streets and houses in Tuscany. Privacy was virtually unknown in the Middle Ages. close to the famous tower of the Commune called La Rognosa. and the Netherlands. which was also used for public feasts and tournaments. The Ardinghelli house had two separate parts. would gather for a long time on benches or seats on a street. the Palazzo Publico (the city hall). the walls rise upward to the level of a fourth or ﬁfth story that contained the family’s private rooms. A sequence of charitable hospitals for pilgrims. Simple houses included a shop on street level with two or three stories above. The shop was furnished with benches for the display of goods for sale called “banks”—the Italian language . making it look like a medieval ancestor of New York City. The center of the city was organized around two different squares. Genoa. was the tallest of the San Gimignano towers. France. at 165 feet (roughly the height of a modern ﬁfteen-story building). These establishments were typical of the services offered to the merchants and travelers on which the San Gimignanese families depended for their businesses and prosperity. These towers thus became symbols of a family’s ﬁnancial success.
Casa Torre. . Medieval tower houses that once reﬂected the wealth of their owners today create a skyscraper skyline. San Gimignano.
White. Florence: Sansoni Editore. However.800 feet above the hills of the Murge region. 1290–1320. and Francesco Trivisonno. Città antica in Toscana. 1250–1400.” More than seventy towers were built in San Gimignano during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Attached to the incredibly thin towers. Art and Architecture in Italy. NJ: Princeton University Press. and a network of gangways facilitated connections between the different buildings. only twenty-ﬁve remained. With no real adaptation to its site. the pure geometry of the Castel scarcely makes sense as a fortress. Legislation passed in the fourteenth century made the building of towers illegal and led to the demolition of most of the medieval structures. CASTEL DEL MONTE. New Haven. an enormous octagonal structure ﬂanked by eight octagonal towers is a surprising sight. C. it commands a vast view of the surrounding landscape. and “benches. 1998. Further Reading Campbell. The Guelphs demanded a (relatively) democratic form of government and supported the political power of the Pope. 2nd ed. in 1580. 1983. the corbels (projecting stones) and holes in the walls for the beams used to support them are still visible.” meaning ﬁnancial institutions. John. Princeton. The towers were used for security and protection during the constant riots and street battles that took place between the two dominant political factions in the city. At an elevation of 1. Jean. it is . CT: Yale University Press. Giovanni. 1993. This is the Castel del Monte built by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Fanelli. Lack of prosperity led to their diminishing number. The Game of Courting and the Art of the Commune of San Gimignano. the Ghibellines favored aristocratic rule and supported claims to Tuscany made by the Germanic Holy Roman Emperor. while today there are only thirteen. PUGLIA Style: Gothic Dates: 1240–1250 Architect: Unknown E merging from the top of a hill in barren solitude. Although the wooden structures have disappeared. These wooden structures provided a great deal of useable space. typically measuring only about 15 feet on a side and soaring up to 150 feet were wood balconies and other constructions.20 Castel del Monte does not distinguish between “banks.
is unlike any of the others. this is ﬂanked by barrel vaults . Skeptical of the Roman Catholic Church. Although it is only one of the numerous castles Frederick built in Puglia. the grandson of Frederick Barbarossa (1123–1190). he was a German. In the thirteenth century. All the marble columns and window frames were taken by the Bourbons and installed in the great garden park of the Royal Palace at Caserta. Frederick was committed to promoting the study of Greek and Arabic texts in the Christian West and was strongly inﬂuenced by the Arab philosopher Averroes. In addition. The interior octagonal courtyard is severe with only a row of eight arches on the ground-ﬂoor level. They appear to have been connected by a wooden gallery that ran around the walls above the top of the ground-ﬂoor arches. which was based on agricultural production and the consistent development of overseas trade with the Middle East. He had an unusual personality that deeply impressed his contemporaries. and architects. The interior of this very abstract building is divided into two stories of eight identical trapezoidal rooms. the location of the Castel was famous for its vegetation and abundant water resources. Five of these towers served utilitarian functions. The building is based on an octagonal solid hollowed out in the center into an octagonal courtyard. and in the eighteenth century. Eight towers. and developing materialist attitudes. artists. There were six doors on the upper story. The wall mass is only infrequently pierced by openings. which opened onto the courtyard. the region of Pugila experienced a period of great prosperity. Suspicion of Frederick’s Arabic knowledge. its ornamentation was plundered. are attached to the main body at the corners. which was condemned by Saint Thomas Aquinas. During the reign of Frederick II (1220–1250). One is an undecorated service entry. There are six windows on the ground ﬂoor and eight ogee-arched windows (windows with pointed arches that have reverse curved tops) on the upper level. with its sharp geometry and the absolute splendor of its details both inside and out. while the other three contained spiral staircases leading to the second ﬂoor rooms. the other is a splendid reinterpretation of an antique doorway with classicizing pilasters and a grand pediment that is indicative of Frederick’s interest in reviving the arts of antiquity and in collecting Greco-Roman artifacts. Though Frederick II was born in Italy in 1194.Castel del Monte 21 so far from any city or cultivated area that it has little military value and does not control any military or commercial routes. Unfortunately. he gathered about him a court of mathematicians. the total absence of defensive dispositions and lack of a moat prove that the Castel del Monte could not have been built as a military stronghold. all with vaulted ceilings. also octagonal. it was used as a prison. There are two entrances in the main block of the building. the emperor died before he and his court could inhabit the building. and his apparent lack of reverence for the power of the papacy caused two popes (Gregory IX and Innocent IV) to excommunicate him. The central square of each room is covered by a Gothic ribbed vault. the Castel del Monte. scholars. During centuries of neglect. including bathrooms.
Slabs of coral limestone lined the walls and framed the windows. Doors and windows facing the inner court allowed reﬂected light to enter.” As was typical of castle interiors. CASTELVECCHIO MUSEUM OF ART. On the ground level. but without direct sunlight. Such esoteric symbols would be appropriate to what is known of Frederick’s insatiable quest for knowledge. 1974. CT: Yale University Press. VERONA Style: Gothic and Contemporary Dates: 1354–1357. mosaics covered the ﬂoors. J. Further Reading Conant. 1998. the number eight being the fulﬁllment of Christ’s incarnation. The choice of an octagonal plan with subsidiary octagons at the corners is an unusual one for a castle. The decoration of the rooms suggests Byzantine or antique sources. It has been suggested that the Castello was actually a hunting lodge built for the accommodation of Frederick’s falcon hunts. Roman architects called this type of brick facing “opus mixtum.22 Castelvecchio Museum of Art with pointed. On the top ﬂoor. Castel del Monte: Geometric Marvel of the Middle Ages. Gotz. or the octagon as a mirror of the universe. 1957–1964 Architect: Carlo Scarpa for the modern additions and modiﬁcations . Frederick turned to the Cistercians because he wished to introduce Gothic style and technology into southern Italy. the perfection of the stonework indicates masons of incredible ability and suggests that they were recruited from the lay brothers of Cistercian monasteries such as Santa Maria di Ripalta sul Fortore in the northern part of Puglia. rather than semicircular. K. the interiors must have been rather dark. Everywhere. This has caused scholars to debate not only the function of the building but also the meaning of its form. cross sections. the wall surfaces are built using the antique Roman brickwork technique in which three horizontal layers of bricks are alternated with rows of square bricks set on the diagonal to form a net-like pattern. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. the rooms inside the Castel del Monte had limited light sources. Heinz. New Haven. and the Cistercian monasteries offered the best models. The meaning of the plan may also lie in the Christian symbolism of the octagon. New York: Prestel Publishing.
featuring his image as a knight on horseback. Cangrande’s tomb. After several centuries of exposure to the elements. Appropriately enough. or warlord). He was also renowned as the patron of a period of extraordinary artistic activity in Verona. the statue was moved into the museum of art in the Castelvecchio to protect it from further damage. The medieval statue of Cangrande I della Scala is the focal point of Carlo Scarpa’s installation. poised on a concrete balcony thrusting out from the upper parts of the dungeon of the medieval fortress of Verona. .Castelvecchio Museum of Art 23 he medieval equestrian statue of Cangrande I della Scala (1291–1329). T Castelvecchio Museum of Art. signals the mastery with which Carlo Scarpa treats an art museum installed in an old building. Cangrande I belonged to a Ghibelline family (Ghibellines supported the Holy Roman emperor) and was a famous condotierre (professional general. Verona. his family’s extensive burial grounds. was erected in the center of Verona in the Scaligar Arches. since his ancestor is the center of the museum. the Cangrande II built the Castelvecchio (old castle) as the family residence in 1354–1357.
Because of this. Carlo Scarpa was opposed to architectural renovation but not to the play of the new within the old. if we go downstairs to the ground level. that is. activating all of the space around it. the image is a dominating presence. as if provoked. dov’era. The wall behind the Cangrande statue is full of chronological intricacies and is part of the original fabric. It was damaged by bombing in World War II and has since been repaired. The della Scala family had built a bridge across the Adige River that was a rear entry to the castle. In 1923. or if we climb to the top of the wall. We are invited to play with the vision of the statue from around. The ﬁgure is isolated from the background of a wall with horizontal layers of brick and stone construction that evoke different periods of history. The whiteness of the statue contrasts with the subdued colors of the medieval stone and brick fabric. Thus. no nostalgia for an epic gesture. . the way it should be. Knowing how important the ﬁgure of the Cangrande was to Carlo Scarpa’s strategy. He immediately realized the value of the Cangrande’s statue as the initiating image for the exhibition. up. From the upper ﬂoor of the museum. and down should take place in relation to it. “come’era. His motto. it stands on the same level as we do. in a conﬁguration that simulates an individual encounter with the Cangrande. Cangrande’s smile seems ironic. but much of the main wing of the Castelvecchio was built during the Napoleonic era sometime before 1814. Scarpa decided that the statue should be the central point of the installation and that all movement around. below. The statue’s ﬁrst position. it is not compared to other works of art but is given a sort of sacred meaning by the movement around it and by the building it inhabits. we have to grasp our relation to the work of art and enter deeply into Scarpa’s museographic decisions. Scarpa has created a physical situation that allows the ﬁgure to address and speak to us. It was demolished by German troops in 1945. we directly confront the statue. on the ﬂoor of a balcony. the façade of the building was reconstructed in a false medieval style that incorporated fragments of ﬁfteenth. The work of art escapes positivism.and sixteenthcentury architectural sculpture that had been preserved in various venues in Verona.” which means “the way it was. raised on a stone pedestal. The Castelvecchio ofﬁcially became a museum in 1925. Given the role of Cangrande I as the patron of Verona’s ﬁrst period of artistic excellence. Cangrande can be seen from many vantage points as we move through the museum.” guided the work on the bridge. was changed between 1962 and 1964 to better display its artistic merits. we experience the Futurist idea of a total vision in movement that conveys movement to the statue itself.24 Castelvecchio Museum of Art Carlo Scarpa was asked in 1957 to organize an exhibition of medieval Veronese art in the castle and at the same time to begin renovating the old museum that had been previously installed there. a task that he undertook with utmost respect for the past. and above as we cross the courtyard on a diagonal bridge. Rather than being raised above us on a pedestal. it conveys no sense of heroism. as though we were involved in a scenographic drama. Scarpa was called on to oversee the rebuilding of this structure.
called the Piazza del Duomo. Crippa. A. This area expresses the religious power of a Christian city-state as it contrasted itself to the Islamic culture of the Middle East. Bonanno. the Pisans developed a maritime empire in the Middle East. planted with grass. between the religious buildings was deﬁned as an outgrowth of their interior sacred space. AND CAMPO SANTO. At the northwest corner of the city walls a vast area. A History of Verona. and splendid paving of cleanly cut stone. A careful reading of the museum allows us to follow his creative process and to understand how he arrives at his architectural decisions. Nicola Pisano. a campanile (bell tower). and later the Campo Santo or cemetery. 1910. It should also be compared and contrasted to the municipal Piazza del Campo in Siena. and the work was ﬁnished in 1967–1973. Cambridge. www.verona. CAMPANILE.it/Castelvecchio/cvsito/english/index1. was set aside for the building of a cathedral. BAPTISTERY. His integration of Cangrande’s statue explains better than anything else how Scarpa conceives of an art museum. Following the Crusades. The process of restoration and improvement. the open space. wooden beams. which began in 1957–1962. Diotisalvi. At Pisa.Cathedral 25 which made use of the original stones and bricks that were retrieved from the river and assembled with medieval techniques and without concrete. giving Scarpa time to think and react to what existed and what he added.htm CATHEDRAL. The position of the T . PISA Style: Romanesque Dates: 1064–1277 Architects: Buschetto and Rainaldus. MA: MIT Press.comune. Maria Antonietta. Carlo Scarpa. M. the Piazza del Duomo reveals an exceptional equilibrium between the buildings and open space. London: Methuen. While Carlo Scarpa respected the historic restoration of the Castello. a baptistery. he superimposed a modern layer on the old with steel and concrete constructions. in building the realm over which Cangrande presides. 1986. Further Reading Allen. between mass and void. proceeded slowly. Giovanni Di Simone he twelfth century was a period of great prosperity for Pisa. Looking more formal after the clearance of secondary buildings carried out in the nineteenth century. Cangrande’s sculpture was added in 1962–1964.
The minor basilicas act as transepts in a Latin cross plan. is the conjunction of three basilicas. and the campanile was based on the position of stars in the Aries constellation on March 21. the cathedral. The use of the same building materials in the three other buildings in the complex enhances the sense of irresistible unity and allows for considerable freedom in the introduction of various types of marble that reveal a poetic approach to the use of materials. the amount of limestone needed was so great that a canal was built to transport it from the quarries in Monte Pisano to the building site. There is total continuity in the groin-vaulted aisles and wood-covered galleries throughout. The architect Rainaldus added three more bays to the nave (1261– 1272). The main one extends from the entrance façade to the apse. begun in 1064 under the guidance of the architect Buschetto. It is intersected by two minor basilicas. baptistery. The cathedral. with aisles and its own apse. prolonging it in the direction of the baptistery. Sea merchants’ night navigation could thus be reﬂected by the respective locations of their religious monuments. . An oval dome towers above the crossing. each complete in itself. Because it was also used for the baptistery. Cathedral.26 Cathedral Baptistery. The façade of the cathedral probably reﬂects Lombard freestanding galleries and is made of a glittering white limestone of the best quality. Pisa. and Leaning Tower. An arrangement of buildings based on the mariners’ observation of the stars.
New York: Simon and Schuster. They are the basis for its nickname. Begun in 1185 under the supervision of Bonanno of Pisa. construction was reinitiated by Giovanni di Simone. A double ring of raised galleries wraps around the interior of the baptistery which is covered by a conical vault. Its ground is reputed to be sacred because the earth was brought from the Holy Land as ballast in the Pisan ships when they returned from Palestine. Further Reading Conant. Tilt: A Skewed History of the Tower of Pisa. New Haven. K. it had been used as a camp to house the Byzantine delegation to the General Council of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.” the medieval Latin term for cemeteries. The Campo Santo. inspired by the Early Christian belfries of Ravenna. The bell tower is eight stories tall and has six superimposed galleries that replicate those on the cathedral façade. SAN GIOVANNI BATTISTA. 2003. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. Today. a building of irregular volumes that matches the mood of the harried Italian driver. CT: Yale University Press. CAMPI BISENZIO Style: Contemporary Dates: 1961–1971 Architect: Giovanni Michelucci ight miles west of Florence on the Autostrada del Sole is a large industrial suburb called Campi Bisenzio. is a series of three courtyards or “atria. The campanile. E . J. the Italian superhighway. may stop for a few minutes at this site to contemplate the Church of the Autostrada.Church of the Autostrada 27 The baptistery was begun in 1152 by the builder Diotisalvi but was not completed until a second building campaign from 1250 to 1265 directed by Nicola Pisano. suffered from foundation problems almost from the beginning. instability of the foundations interrupted the work in 1185. who attempted to correct the inclination by giving the campanile an unexpected banana shape. in 1275. Nicola Pisano sculpted a pulpit that offers a display of Late Gothic sculpture and is the precedent for the cathedral pulpit (1302–1311) made by his son Giovanni. CHURCH OF THE AUTOSTRADA. 1974. just fourteen years before the fall of Constantinople to the Muslims. Nicholas. or cemetery. who based it on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Shrady. travelers on the Autostrada. In 1439. the Leaning Tower. A century later.
Michelucci’s concept for the church was based on processional movement that forms a continuum with the experience of driving a car on the motorway. brutally expressive ﬁgures in Picasso’s great painting Guernica. and resting places are carefully ordered so that they delay the revelation of the church at the end of the procession. and the playfulness of the rooﬂines dissolve the boundaries of the building and delay the perception of its exact shape. balconies. One stops to wonder: is this pure architecture or a gesture in space full of discrepancies that reveal its creator as a man of doubt. The processional pathways that lead to the church mix various spaces. a sense of evil that was compared by Paolo Portoghesi. The angular lines. a tormented believer? The tree-like pillars suggest desolation.28 Church of the Autostrada Church of the Autostrada. Inside. The church belongs to the design approach commonly called “organic architecture. another famous Italian architect. unpredictable forms. The harshness and austerity of aesthetics in the 1960s distorted the traditional relation of the building to the . the main room is covered by a concrete vault suspended like a tent on surprising branched pillars that condition the space and create a maze-like feeling of expressionist style. Thick massive walls of irregular stones contrast with a precious copper roof. the color of the stones redolent of sunlight. A memorial for workers killed during the construction of the Italian superhighways designed by Giovanni Michelucci (1961–1971). Campi Bisentio. is Michelucci’s reaction to the modernizing process that occurred in Italy in the 1960s. to the anguished.” Its curving roof establishes visual links both with the hills of Tuscany that surround it and with the Autostrada that passes by. passageways. The brutal cutting of the windows through the structure expands the plasticity of walls and space. in particular its clashing. The expressive freedom of the Church of the Autostrada. but it complicates the overall image.
modern architectural orthodoxy. the Church of the Autostrada constitutes an ephemeral birth of the new and a summit in postwar Italian architecture. 101 (1964). “Giovanni Michelucci: A Life a Century Long. Storia dell’Architettura Italiana. Giovanni Michelucci was opposed to the architectural conformism of the so-called modern architects in his country. F. both are major church-building landmarks of the second half of the twentieth century. no matter how unﬁt. a major Italian architect. or even a revolt against. Michelucci’s church is a powerful protest that resists rational argument. Milan. F. Dal Co. With roots in modern engineering. the Church of the Autostrada is a reaction to. “A Conversation with Giovanni Michelucci. reveals his experiments both with what he took from Perret’s practice and with his development of a concept of modern architecture that was truly heterodox. 1960s architects combined structural innovations with new architectural experiments. opposed to what he considered the oversimpliﬁcation posed by modernist “truths. il Secondo Novecento. See Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). As such. that is. creating a difﬁcult tension between an environmental approach and freedom of space.” L’Architetturra. Rome. Michelucci had an exceptional creative capacity that could turn any proposal.” The church design is rooted in a transformed tradition that memorializes a large shelter of ineffable space outside time. His later buildings show him working with contradiction and developing space starting from the essential supporting structure. Ludovico Quaroni.” Perspecta 27 (1992): 98–115. to which it has been compared.” Perspecta 27 (1992): 116–39. he was a major talent in Tuscany after World War II. Further Reading Dal Co.Church of the Autostrada 29 landscape. P. Portoghesi. Like Le Corbusier’s Ronchamp (1950–1955). “La Chiesa del’Autostrada del Sole. Michelucci’s Stock Exchange in Pistoia. With his irresistible charisma. . found Michelucci’s church to be “a strong and rare point of reference in Italian architecture” and “a grandiose celebration. Chronachi e Storia. Michelucci. an idea he learned from studying the French architect August Perret. G. More than its refusal to submit to the past and to an inherited construction tradition. CHURCH OF SANTA COSTANZA. 1997. Michelucci’s journal La nova città focused on a synthesis of urban design and architecture. a monument of surprising harmony. into beautiful architecture. As a conﬁrmed individualist and a Roman Catholic of tormented belief.” He exaggerated the enveloping wall and used structure illusionistically.
an architect of the twentieth century. each stage of the Collegio project received a speciﬁc and individual treatment that insured ﬂexibility. the Collegio del Colle is a university that is conceived as a city. The old city is walled in. Because of long debates over the construction of the school. which was also organized as an ideal Renaissance city. and he studied the site proposed for the Collegio in order to understand its potential. which was explored through participation in long dialogues. de Carlo’s thinking stressed both the idea of the individual and the idea of his/her social connections within the urban group. Fascinated by the old city and even more by the way of life of its inhabitants. The completed Collegio del Colle of 1966 spread over the slopes of the hill in a design that took advantage of the natural beauty of the site. It is famous for the Ducal Palace built for Federico de Montefeltro in the ﬁfteenth century and for the leading group of artists and architects who were associated with the city: Luciano Laurana. Below it. was born in a nearby community. the actual building did not begin until 1962. Francesco di Giorgio.000 students receive instruction in a community of 9. Urbino is the birthplace of the great Renaissance painter Raphael. As building progressed. He was asked by Mayor Mascioli of Urbino and Dean Carlo Bo of the university to take part in the development of a new campus in 1951. . His primary goal was diversity. opening onto the spectacular vista of the hills and mountains to the west. built on a hill and therefore invisible from it. Donato Bramante. This idea parallels that of the Ducal Palace. Two-thirds of a mile west of Urbino’s historic center. On top of the hill. De Carlo’s method was open: He listened to others. URBINO Style: Contemporary Dates: 1962–1983 Architect: Giancarlo di Carlo U rbino is a small university town where 20. he carefully examined the spaces they lived in. his colleague in working for Pope Julius II. Against this background of personalities of the highest prestige in the arts.000 people.30 Collegio del Colle and Extensions COLLEGIO DEL COLLE AND EXTENSIONS. and Piero della Francesca. and the ﬁnal extensions that completed the Collegio del Colle were not ﬁnished until 1983. emerged Giancarlo di Carlo. de Carlo imagined his city growing through different stages. The men decided that the university should be separated from the venerable city center and that the ﬁrst residential buildings and instructional areas should be built on a hillside. a former Capuchin convent was converted into the administrative center.
Always his own person.” which he borrowed from Roman architectural circles in 1951. From the ideas of Benedetto Croce. The Collegio del Tridente (Trident College) steps down the hillside. which was led by Le Corbusier. In the 1950s. Giancarlo di Carlo designed the school as a series of terraces stepping down the hillside (1962–1966). and teacher. urban planner. Milan) he believed in historical continuity. Walter Gropius. and the Collegio della Vela (the Sail) has eight buildings on a splendid stretch of planted terraces in which the construction disappears into the absolute presence of Nature.Collegio del Colle and Extensions 31 Collegio del Colle. Urbino. and Mies van der Rohe. . de Carlo represents Italian attitudes toward history. an association of young creators who wished to adapt (not to betray or totally reject) the ideals of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM). Giancarlo de Carlo is one of the most important architects in Italy today. Along with Ernesto Rogers (Velasca Tower. are also very tangible factors in his creation of the Collegio del Colle. Later extensions to the college built from 1973 to 1983 provided an additional 850 rooms and were simple variations on the original design concept. Growth and variation. he derived the concept of history as living material demanding contemporary use. ideas he derived from his admiration of Frank Lloyd Wright. he was loosely associated with an architectural group called Team X. As architect. the Collegio del Aquilone (North Wind) is organized as a small street between two wings of buildings. de Carlo’s idea of modern architecture was that it should have a certain modesty and a respect for simple everyday life and for local culture—all of these to be incorporated within the idea of “spontaneity. never deferring to the authority of any group.
Rarely in history have an architect and client been so extensively involved in religious and artistic discussions as were . Zucchi. Pope Alexander VII Chigi (1656–1667). The successful complement of college and historic city are ample evidence of de Carlo’s talent. was asked by Pope Urban VIII to create a canopy to mark the site of Saint Peter’s tomb under Michelangelo’s dome. Further Reading McKean. By conceiving the university as an extension of the old city. which was altered when Carlo Maderno added a huge nave in 1609–1626. The Architecture of Giancarlo de Carlo. Urban was accused of plundering the bronze decorations from the Pantheon to build this canopy. Gianlorenzo Bernini. Maderno was responding. was an amateur student of architecture. Paris: Editions du Centre Pompidou. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1656–1667 Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini I n 1590. during the reign of Pope Sixus V. although reluctantly. who contributed numerous sculptural decorations to the interior. a man of great moral integrity. a sculptural tour de force of huge dimensions that formed a transitional element between the ﬂoor of the church and the lantern of the huge dome 365 feet above. 2004. COLONNADE OF SAINT PETER’S BASILICA. for which he submitted a restoration plan in 1964 to the Historic Preservation Committee. to a century-long demand by the clergy for a more functional church that could accommodate liturgical processions and the vast number of pilgrims who came to worship at the site of Saint Peter’s burial place. Giancarlo de Carlo. Benedict. The Collegio del Colle expresses de Carlo’s aspirations for architecture. the architect Giacomo della Porta ﬁnished Michelangelo’s dome over the crossing of Saint Peter’s but not his plan for the church as a whole. Oxford and Boston: Butterworth Architecture. John. 1991. the famous Baldacchino (1624–1633).32 Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica For de Carlo. de Carlo used his university project to bring the old into harmony with the new. today’s behavior and social habits should be expressed by contemporary architecture so that tempered modernism becomes familiar.
Rome. As he had done at Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. The atrium. the obelisk marked a vantage point from which the dome was visible. and Alexander recorded their conversations in his personal journals. in front of Constantine’s basilica of Saint Peter had been destroyed to build Maderno’s new nave and façade. an idea that Bernini developed with great skill and imagination. that is. viewed from the top of Michelangelo’s dome.Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica 33 Colonnade and Piazza of Saint Peter’s. Bernini’s ﬁrst project for the piazza in 1656 was rejected because it was out of scale with Saint Peter’s. the pope and Bernini. with its long axis perpendicular to the church and its short axis in line with the processional axis of the church and Maderno’s nave. In March 1657. or entrance courtyard. It also marks the point where the longitudinal and transverse axes of the piazza intersect. . 195). Bernini set the oval transversely. The new position of the ancient monument on the transverse axis of the piazza recalls its location on the spina of the ancient oval racetrack. The two men met daily or weekly. which hid Michelangelo’s dome. At 600 feet from Maderno’s façade and nave. which abstractly represents the embracing arms of the Catholic Church. the pope suggested that Bernini create an oval piazza. and Alexander decided that it should be replaced with a monumental piazza to welcome large crowds of visitors. Bernini’s masterpiece. the piazza was to welcome “not only Roman Catholics whose faith would be conﬁrmed but also Protestants in order to reunite them to the church and non-believers to be illuminated by faith” (Wittkower 1973. In Bernini’s words. The transverse axis is in line with the Egyptian obelisk that had been brought from the ruins of the spina (central dividing line) of Nero’s circus (racetrack) in the Vatican area and erected in front of Saint Peter’s by Domenico Fontana in 1586.
has a trapezoidal shape with sides diverging from the façade. Pope Alexander requested this triple colonnade as a reference to antique examples. Between each pair of columns is a vaulted aisle. To improve sight lines. popes. function was also a key factor in the Saint Peter’s piazza. Bernini’s design turned the area in front of Saint Peter’s into a vast. Argan (1991) has observed. hollowed out toward the center. In a sense. The piazza is a great space where everyone could gather and be persuaded of the authority of the church. . By doing this. Propaganda and religious fervor are united in this display of the gloriﬁcation of saints and their intercession for the believers. and founders of monastic orders. Its unexpected openness in form and spirit is characteristic of Roman Baroque architecture. aligning the oval piazza with a second piazza in front of Saint Peter’s that.34 Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica Bernini used the piazza to create perspective devices that reduce the apparent size and proportions of Maderno’s façade. the Pope also demanded both a scale model and a full sized mock-up of a section of the colonnade. open urban gathering place that symbolically embraces all the people of the world. that is.” as Bernini described them. which was considered much too broad. that represent the Catholic saints. Beyond faith. The disposition of the oval permitted the vast crowds of worshippers to see the pope when he appeared in the Benediction Window in the upper level of the church’s façade and also when he gave his blessings from the balcony of the Papal Palace on the north side of the piazza. the two vaults between the side pairs being lower than the one in the center. recalls the outline of Michelangelo’s dome. like the Campidoglio. It is like the auditorium of a “teatrum mundi. the oval shape of the piazza. Bernini’s trapezoidal piazza is ﬂanked by two low. These were executed in a nearby house that would enable him to judge the actual dimensions and approve the proportions. As C. This creates a reverse-perspective system similar not only to Michelangelo’s but also to that used by Bernardo Rossellino in the Piazza Pio II in Pienza. He used a strict Palladian Doric order for the colonnade. which consequently surround the crowds in it “like embracing arms. enclosed corridors that frame the massive staircase up to the entrance porch of the church and continue the lines of the great colonnades of the much larger oval piazza. Bernini created a space that articulates a sacred monument and a city square whose space becomes sacred. he created a reference to Michelangelo’s designs for the Campidoglio. which is composed of four parallel rows of columns. martyrs. Bernini created a pavement for the piazza that is not a ﬂat surface but rather is bowl shaped. each about 10 feet tall. The shallow bowl shape of the piazza gives most of the 250. Standing on pedestals behind the balustrade over the columns are 140 statues.000 people who can congregate there a good view of the ceremonies and of the Pope. G. As he was very much involved in the planning and building of the piazza.” a world theater focused on the papal drama. The ground slopes gently upward from the obelisk in the center toward the edges of the oval where the colonnades stand some ﬁve to seven feet higher. Bernini believed.
was in Roman antiquity one of the most daring buildings ever constructed and demonstrated. after the year 1000. Harmondsworth: Penguin. shops. 617 feet long. It was this immense statue—colossus—that. Reissue ed. 524 feet wide. the plundering of building materials became common and continued until the eighteenth century. 1997. called the Colosseum.000 spectators who came to see the amazing (but sometimes cruel) spectacles called “ludi. Franco. To a remarkable degree. Genius of the Baroque. The Colosseum was the center of an entertainment complex that included baths. The ﬂat. after all. the largest amphitheater ever built by the Romans. required repairs. Bernini. Materials from the T . the arena. Fires caused by lightning in 217 and 250. takes its name from the Latin word for sand. Bernini. and David Finn. Howard Bernini. with which it was covered in order to soak up blood. New York: Rizzoli. oval wood ﬂoor in the center of the amphitheater. Beginning with an earthquake in 847. and 200 feet tall at the outside edge—“Colosseum” is really a nickname that refers to a statue. 1984. 1991. and the ﬁnal “venatione” (wild animal hunt) took place in 523. fountains. It could seat 50 to 73. a 150-foot-tall bronze statue of the emperor whose head was changed to that of Sol the sun god after Nero’s suicide.” Because of its oval shape. The last gladiatorial show was held in 404. and the training schools for the gladiators who fought in the amphitheater. Borsi. as well as earthquakes in 442 and 508. ROME Style: Roman Dates: 70–80 CE Architect: Unknown he Flavian Amphitheater.Colosseum Further Reading 35 Avery. COLOSSEUM. but the Colosseum functioned continuously until Christianity became the ofﬁcial religion of the Empire and condemned the bloody spectacles. Boston: Bulﬁnch Press. Charles. Although the name Colosseum is often mistakenly assumed to be a descriptive term for the building’s size—it is. Hibbard. the building has survived to the present despite natural disasters and human depredation. the amphitheater provided every seat with a thrilling view of the battles and contests performed in the arena. Next to the amphitheater stood the Colossus of Nero. gave its nickname to the Flavian Amphitheater. among other things. the skill of Roman architects at organizing the movement of huge crowds into and out of an enormous structure.
. Rome.Colosseum. The largest amphitheater in the Roman Empire.
called the cavea. Behind them. and selecting the gladiators who had been trained by a “lanista. the Chancellery. the storage and release of wild animals. allowed the spectators to ﬁnd their seats and exit with a minimum of confusion—the “tickets” given to the people had the entrance and seat number written on them. the poor. After it was consecrated to the memory of Christian martyrs in the eighteenth century. Spectators in the Colosseum sat on marble benches in a bowl-shaped seating area.” To the east of the Colosseum was the Ludus Magnus.” was in charge of ﬁnancing the shows. but they had to sit in the upper tier with the lower classes. made up of a series of tiers much like a modern football stadium. called the “editor. the imperial power controlled the gladiatorial schools and delegated the organization of the shows to public ofﬁcials. Gladiatorial games were originally entertainment provided for the people by the republican nobility—ﬁrst for public funerals but later as a means of attracting political support. Seventy-six entrances.000 spectators could leave the building within ﬁve minutes. The gladiators gave up their freedom—and their citizenship.” There was also a large storage facility for the scenic machines and other paraphernalia needed for the games. It contained dormitories for them and an oval arena of 206 by 138 feet surrounded by a double level of seats. and the slaves took their places. Dead bodies were received at the “spoliarium” and the wounded were treated at the “saniarum. A large area around the Colosseum was dedicated to practical concerns. In the arena. An organizer. and Saint Peter’s Basilica. the largest training facility for gladiators in Rome. The cavea was divided horizontally into ﬁve sections beginning at the bottom. When Rome became a monarchy. but successful gladiators became wealthy public celebrities. and ending at the top of the building. Inside the Colosseum the wood ﬂoor. a forest containing a hundred exotic animals could be created for the “venationes. where the freedmen. next to the arena. each one numbered. hid a complicated series of passageways and galleries used for the movement of gladiators. .Colosseum 37 Colosseum were used for the Palazzo Venezia.” or the entire space could be ﬂooded for the presentation of naval battles. The ﬁve sections were divided into wedge-shaped sections by ﬂights of stairs leading both down from the entrances and up to the top of the seating. Women were permitted to attend the spectacles in the Colosseum. procuring the animals. which was raised from underground on elevators moved by a series of counterweights. It is estimated that the entire 70. The senatorial class occupied the lowest tier of seats closest to the action. 100 feet above the ground. Seating in the amphitheater was hierarchical: each class of Roman society was assigned a speciﬁc location in relation to the arena. if they had it—when they entered the Ludus and received hard training and tough discipline while learning their ﬁghting skills. careful restoration was begun and continues today. the various ranks were disposed all the way to the upper tier. covered with sand. and the delivery of scenery. Combat in the area was often deadly.
Ward-Perkins. peperino and tufa. 1992. they were connected by numerous staircases. 2002. Building techniques were adapted to support the cavea. were used for the inner walls and the upper parts of the structure. L. the solid wall carries Composite pilasters (ﬂattened columns) that originally alternated with large bronze shields. Further Reading Gabucci. New Haven. CONFRATERNITY OF SAN BERNARDINO. a type of sedimentary stone found near Rome. J. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications. Roman Imperial Architecture. Ada. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. MA: Harvard University Press. Various types of materials were used according to their weight-bearing capacity in relation to the loads they had to carry.. encase the lower parts (the ﬁrst two stories) of the skeleton of the building. The Colosseum. The Colosseum. which was disguised by decorations made of stucco. Hopkins. 2005. and Mary Beard. Above these is a solid fourth story. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. The half-columns of the three arched stories are arranged vertically according to their relative simplicity: Doric on the ground ﬂoor. The Colosseum remains the most impressive example of architectural grandeur from Roman imperial times. Cambridge. or entablatures. The vaults supporting the seating were made of concrete and brick-faced concrete.” that could be unfurled to protect the audience from the midday sun. B. It is composed of three stories of handsome arches framed by half-columns that appear to carry horizontal bands. Keith. Jr. At the top of the fourth level are brackets that were used to support tall wood posts that supported the vast awning. Two lighter volcanic stones.38 Confraternity of San Bernardino Entering the cavea tiers and ﬁnding seats required a complex organization of circulation. CHIERI Style: Baroque Dates: 1740–1744 Architect: Bernardo Vittone . Ionic above that. Richardson. called a “velarium. Large blocks of a special travertine. CT: Yale University Press. This was accomplished by four levels of vaulted galleries that ran around the exterior of the oval seating area. that are continuous around the building. 1992. At the fourth level. What remains of the exterior of the Colosseum is impressive. and Corinthian on the third level. R.
so in 1694. “ingeniere” (literally engineer. but Chieri was really famous for its wines and for the linen produced in the local textile factories. after having studied in Rome. who worked primarily for the Duke of Piedmont in Turin. By the time the building was ﬁnally ﬁnished. illusionistic vision of the sky above within which saints or mythological C . Vittone’s dome at San Bernardino combines luminosity. and the Confraternity selected the most magniﬁcent one. Vittone then proposed that he design a lofty dome to replace the one that had collapsed. chapels. In fact. city halls. To understand his design process. The leaders of the Confraternity hurried to Bernardo Vittone (1702–1770) for advice. the rough brick construction of the dome was ﬁnished and soon covered by the delicate work of two stucco artists. 1741. Chieri was a prosperous city in the vicinity of Turin. to frame a painted. written in 1737. fourteen years after the conclusion of the Council of Trent to oppose the Protestant Reformation and to expand the Catholic Reformation or what historians once called the Counter-Reformation. hospitals. and churches in remote villages that are difﬁcult to ﬁnd today. the Confraternity commissioned the engineer Quadro to design a larger building. In 1675. they found a prominent site on the large Piazza del Piano where a small chapel was built by the Luganese architect Bettino. In Italian cities. though a diligent architect and engineer—he designed new canals to improve agriculture in Piedmont—failed to get major commissions from the court in Turin and designed chieﬂy small buildings. 1740. and clever architectural devices to create the effect of a dome hollowed out by light. The chapel proved too small for the meetings and storage of documents. He submitted three drawings on March 25. but “ingenious architect” would be more appropriate). an outline based on the cornice. when the dome collapsed leaving only the walls of the church standing. In the seventeenth century. the Confraternity counted the most prestigious traders. Quadro was dead and little attention had been paid to the details of construction. separated from the larger city by gentle hills. He convinced them that all that could be saved from the original building were the walls and that it would be most wise economically to use them in the rebuilding. consider Baroque vault paintings. but his scheme was not built for forty-six years. Vittone. It played a role in regional government. and the leaders of the city communal government among its members. The Confraternity of San Bernardino was founded in 1577. Defects in the building led to the disaster of August 30.Confraternity of San Bernardino 39 onfraternities are congregations of laypeople who meet together for worship and also for common support and good works. space. textile manufacturers. Most of them use a contour line. they could also be a force for transforming the urban setting since they ﬁnanced the building of meeting halls and chapels. was an architect from Piedmont who was admired by his Baroque contemporaries because of his extensive knowledge of the famous architect Guarino Guarini (1624–1683). Vittone convinced the Theatine Fathers to support the publication of Guarini’s Architettura civile (Civil Architecture). Bernardo Vittone. He proposed a church on a Greek cross plan with a dome over the central crossing. By 1744.
Confraternity of San Bernardino. Chieri. . The lofty system of Baroque arches and magical illumination is characteristic of the work of Vittone.
New Haven. In effect. et al. Rome: Edizioni dell’ Elefante. the openings in the lower vault becoming examples of what Vittone called an “occhio di lumiera. using the real cornices and architectural moldings to create openings in a lower vault through which a vault above it can be seen. CT: Yale University Press. He covered the neighboring shallow bays the same way. Light is the dominant feature of these constructions. The frames of the cells function like lenses. The space between the vaults became a “box of light. focusing the lighting effects in an architectural translation of contemporary scientiﬁc experiments. Portoghesi.Confraternity of San Bernardino 41 characters ﬂoat among clouds. changing the church into what some historians have called “a lofty system of arches” separated by light cells. Compared with Vittone’s dome. dismantled its physical structure. This duplication of building elements multiplied the openings of light. those lanterns were fairly simple. they were square in plan and their weight could be transferred directly to the four crossing piers and arches beneath them. Richard. Baroque architects did much the same thing. especially those used in churches where architects had created vast lanterns above the crossing of nave and transept. Paolo.” illuminated by well-positioned. Alﬁeri and Vittone. using the English scientist’s optical observations in creating these light cells by taking advantage of the reﬂections of light on their sides. In creating his dome. 4th ed. Eighteenth-Century Architecture in Piedmont.” Vittone became a talented interpreter of Newton (1642–1727). R. often concealed. Vittone. this Baroque scenographic approach (treating the interior as a set designer might) dematerializes the building and creates a total integration of light and space. Art and Architecture in Italy. Baroque painters created the impression that the physical vault had been opened up to the sky. 1966. he left a gap. un architetto tra illuminismo e recocò. the Open Structures of Juvarra. reducing the dome to a number of crossed ribs. windows. 1600–1750. . Bernardo Vittone. returned to Gothic building techniques.” an “eye of light.. 1967. Wittkower. 1999. like many other Baroque architects.” or “light cell. Further Reading Pommer. New York: New York University Press. But Vittone had to support a spherical dome within a square lantern. and instead of using pendentives (spherical triangles that are typically used to make the transition between a circular dome and a square supporting structure). creating the light cells that brought light down into the church and around the unusual dome. and.
the ecstasy is transient and can be understood as the reduction of an instant to impermanency. opens onto a niche ﬂooded by light descending along golden rays.42 Cornaro Chapel CORNARO CHAPEL. the frame contains the scintillating white marble statues of Saint Teresa and the angel who. son of Doge Giovanni Cornaro. the order that was founded by Saint Teresa. The monumental marble frame. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1647–1652 Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini ardinal Federico Cornaro. To ﬁx the ecstatic C . which increased in God’s love and gave her a feeling of overwhelming sweetness. Soon after his arrival in Rome. Carlo Maderno had designed the church in 1608 for the convent of the Discalced Carmelites. on the sidewalls of the chapel. Teresa called the angel ﬂame-like. and the saint’s experience was to be revealed not only to the Cornaro family but also to any believer who saw it. the gentlemen of the Cornaro family are shown seated in balconies that look like theater boxes discussing the vision of the saint. SANTA MARIA DELLA VITTORIA. He penetrated her heart. Bernini’s statue of the ecstasy of Saint Teresa is a complete and detailed visualization of her own account. which resembles the frame of an altarpiece. However. The whole structure of the chapel should be understood as a mental preparation for a spiritual experience. Instead of a painting. according to which an angel came to her carrying a golden arrow pointed with ﬁre. Bernini set up a uniﬁed vision of painting. To the right and left of the altar. and architecture beginning with a cloud-like ﬂow of painting and stucco on the vault overhead and descending to a frame of dark and mellow marble. In the western transept. like semiprecious gems that could inspire spirituality. Bernini’s aim was to visualize a human event that took place at the limits of the supernatural: the absolute intimacy of Saint Teresa in ecstasy. The chapel was to be developed around the ﬁgure of Saint Teresa of Avila who was canonized in 1622. he commissioned Bernini to build a sepulchral chapel in the western transept of the small church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. was the Patriarch of Venice. sculpture. and her garments move like ﬂames that ﬂicker ﬂeetingly in a breeze. Bernini sculpted the hard and resistant marble into reﬂective surfaces from which light ﬂashes and shimmers like elusive ﬂames. as if the colored marbles had curative qualities. she said. indicating God’s presence. The dense glow of the mixed marbles conveys a sense of religious awe. pierced her heart.
Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria. Bernini’s sculpture of Saint Teresa in ecstacy is the focus of the bel composto. . Rome. Photograph courtesy of Fabio Barry.
belong to the real world. Flights of Love. Bernini puts the ﬁgures of Saint Teresa and the Angel above the altar in a niche lit from above where one would expect to see a painting. an impermanent and instantaneous moment. 4th ed. Bernini exploited the beauty of their rich tints and patterns to create a state of wonder in the viewer that leads to religious devotion. . life. The ﬁgures and architecture are an indissoluble whole. 1600–1750. and David Finn. Genius of the Baroque. Charles. Wittkower. her eyes are half closed. 1: Early Baroque. Bernini knew and practiced. and artiﬁce. and “alabastro ﬁorito. organized into a montage where transitions between art forms that are governed by different rules and regimes are treated as a series of shifts from one level to another in continuous process. they and we are invited to glimpse the invisible. coalesce into a singular experience of the divine. the spiritual exercises described by Saint Ignatius Loyola. the Art of Devotion. In “bel composto. the metaphysical. Bernini. Bernini has fused all the major arts—painting. One of the many marvels of the Cornaro Chapel is the use of multicolored marbles.” Daidalos 56 (1995): 106–121. and her lips are parted as if in a sigh. Teresa’s head is thrown back. Although the Cornaro family members in their balconies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. the stones called “giallo antico” and “nero antico” are used to depict the fabric hung on the front of the Cornaro family’s balconies. A close inspection of the details reveals different colored marbles used to imitate other substances. Fabio. CT: Yale University Press. and we ourselves standing in front of the railing of the chapel. making it impossible to isolate only one of them. All the arts are combined. 1999. et al. Bernini’s inspiration was the mental procedure. Vol. The chapel walls become a canvas: on the columns next to Saint Teresa. which as a devout Jesuit. Art and Architecture in Italy.44 Cornaro Chapel instant. created ambiguities. the miraculous. B. 1995. is used for the doors below. some of whom descend from the painted surface as three-dimensional forms modeled in stucco. and the vault over the chapel is an illusionistic combination of painting and sculpture. sculpture. The cascade of light descending the golden rays behind the two ﬁgures represents a sudden ﬂash of light coming from the Holy Spirit. Bernini’s “bel composto” used marble as a new painting tool. Rudolf. Pelican History of Art. “I Marmi Loquaci: Painting in Stone. London: Bulﬁnch. Here the purpose is to connect a believer through Saint Teresa’s ecstasy to God.” which resembles walnut or olive tree roots. Careri. For example. veins of the “brescia polychroma” recall the cloud that carries her ﬁgure. Giovanni. New Haven. and appealed to a mixture of reality and imagination to create a convincing revelation of the invisible. It represents heaven and is populated by cherubs and angels.” the parts combine effectively into a single effect so that reality and illusion. Translated by Linda Lappin. called “bel composto. Bernini.” to create a convincing reality. and architecture—into a ﬂuid whole. Further Reading Avery. 1997. the eternal for a precarious.
and he reduced the taxes of his subjects to a minimum. and a shrewd political leader. Francesco di Giorgio Martini he beauty of the Ducal Palace at Urbino. after the death of his ﬁrst wife. Federico’s military success with Italian and foreign princes made him so famous that he was received in triumphal processions in many Italian cities. quick in his decisions. T . and there he encountered the new intellectual manners of the Renaissance. He also reformed the judicial courts to speed up their decisions. a disastrous ruler. Rome. the murder of his half-brother Oddantonio. As vicar of the church. in 1444. for the Malatesta princes of Rimini. In all these cities. This surprising mixture of war and peace explains a frantic life spent on the battleﬁeld and a sense of reasoned maturity that inﬂuenced his life. he was delegated to rule a part of the Church’s territory. Federico could rationalize his constant involvement in military activity (he was almost always painted in armor) by his belief that war would ﬁnance works of peace.Ducal Palace 45 DUCAL PALACE. he became the general captain of the Italian League. Federico was a warrior. he was struck by the beauty of early Renaissance buildings. after having approved of. At twenty-two. its skyline with the twin turrets on the crest of the hill. and Naples he was welcomed at the most sophisticated courts. As a political leader. a woman of excellent character who was fully able to govern Urbino in his absence. and at thirty-two. which supported his fame as an eminent patron of intellectuals and artists. a man of culture. or caused. He fought for the King of Naples. high-spirited. at twenty-ﬁve. Battista died in childbirth in 1472 but left to Federico an heir who was named Guidobaldo. deﬁnes both what a Renaissance prince was able to achieve and how a “condotierre” (warlord or professional general) could gather a leading group of artists to create a humanist retreat. and for the Sforza of Milan. Florence. In a time when a typical man’s life expectancy was less than forty years he lived to be sixty. In Milan. which was the typical goal of Renaissance thinkers. he was count of Urbino. Federico da Montefeltro (1422–1482) combined military accomplishments with outstanding cultural leadership. In 1460. for Florence. Pope Sixtus V gave Federico the title of Duke when he was thirty. At the age of sixteen Federico was captain of the Montefeltro army. URBINO Style: Renaissance Dates: 1444–1482 Architects: Luciano Laurana. he married Battista Sforza. and thoroughly lucky. he brought in a bureaucracy modeled on that of Florence to handle the ﬁnancing and remuneration of the military.
46 Ducal Palace Federico gathered around himself what might be thought of as a “school” of architects led by Luciano Laurana. However. they decided not to emulate it. the grammatical (the syntactical order of the courtyard) versus the arbitrary (the diagonal façade framed by twin towers that overlooks the steep ravine). . The gentle court of Urbino. Vittorino da Feltre taught all sorts of “sciences” including the development of a psychophysical harmony practiced by a society that desired a life of well-being. they worked with contrasts: the ordinary (the sequence of 250 rooms) versus the exceptional (the splendid courtyard at its center). the Ducal Palace should be understood as a laboratory. who was probably advised by Alberti. was organized in a palazzo based on the latest revolutionary principles. Laurana created for the Duke of Urbino “a city shaped like a palazzo. Instead. The architects who built the Ducal Palace knew the style of contemporary palazzi in Florence. One of the most beautiful of all Renaissance courtyards designed by Luciano Laurana for the humanist prince Federico da Montefeltro. Urbino. which was based on mathematical regularity and harmony of proportions. In all of the arts. Federico’s library reveals his passion for books while his “studiolo” (study) Ducal Palace. where young Italian princes ﬂocked to be educated.” or perhaps it is more accurate to say in reverse: a palazzo shaped like a city. the interior (the simple and ﬂat city façade) versus the exterior (the sculptural façade facing the landscape with its recessed loggias and projecting balconies).
600 workers in 1911. they are conceived as pure exercises in perspective as it had been developed in Florentine artistic circles. FIAT LINGOTTO PLANT. Urbino: The Story of a Renaissance City. L. After a crisis in car production in 1908–1909. 2003. Federico da Montefeltro and Sigismondo Malatesta: The Eagle and the Elephant.000 inhabitants. Baltimore).Fiat Lingotto Plant 47 incorporates an imaginative array of marquetry (wood inlay) doors that depict illusionistic views. T . Distant mountains and hills across the Po River provided a sort of limit to a constant urban sprawl. FIAT. As a result. beyond displaying perspective perfection. especially from the south. June. The textile industry grew more slowly than metallurgy and automobile manufacturing.000 people. Further Reading Adams. Turin grew rapidly. the Factory of Italian Automobiles of Turin. Their theme is mostly the city. was created in 1899. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003. Three of the panels from the “studiolo” focus directly on the ideal city: one is attributed to Laurana (still in Urbino). It had adequate electrical resources to provide energy and access to an open plane ready for the development of industries that transformed the city into a dream for the jobless people coming from all over Italy. S. All were hoping for both economic improvement and civil progress. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. and one is by an artist unknown (now in Berlin’s Bode Museum). However. ed. TURIN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1915–1923 Architect: Giacomo Matte Trucco urin was destined to become an industrial city by the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth. the marquetry panels also trained the eye and the mind to envision the ideal city that the palace was promoting. giving Turin a population of 500. Giovanni Agnelli was convinced that a concentration of modern means of production was required to ensure the future of his company. Osborne. between 1911 and 1921. which employed 14. Mass production became his guiding idea. He planned a new factory after he had paid a visit to Henry Ford in 1912. one is attributed to Fra’Carnevale (now in the Walters Art Gallery. the census indicated an increase of 85.
800 feet long and 264 feet wide—that contained ﬁve levels. Seventeen electrical elevators brought the car from ground level to the different ﬂoors where it was assembled in a sort of vertical version of Ford’s assembly line. Concrete ramps added after 1923 by Giacomo Matte Truco to improve the connection between the various levels of the factory. Turin. Concrete columns supporting average spans of 20 feet standardized this modern assembly plant. with the help of Giacomo Matte Trucco.48 Fiat Lingotto Plant Fiat Lingotto Plant. Two miles south of the Baroque core of the city. At . Agnelli designed a huge rectangular building—1.
when the car was complete. which were delivered by railroad at the lowest level.Fiat Lingotto Plant 49 the top of the factory. The process of assembling the cars was now adapted to six levels as the area reserved for the test track was absorbed into the building. V. This meant that every car had to go up and down in the elevators several times. The ramp was made of reinforced concrete and remains a testimony of the versatility of concrete construction. it was necessary ﬁrst to test the chassis and then later. By the time the raw materials. 2005. which limited the efﬁciency of assembly. NJ: Princeton Architectural Press. The test track was 79 feet wide and nearly 3. a test track was provided for testing the ﬁnished automobiles. such as the revision of the formerly monotonous skyline of the building. A horizontal. rather than vertical. the racecourse on top of the Fiat plant had little value. began to replace Fiat Lingotto. As a contemporary critic pointed out. Rome-Bari. and the turns at each end were given a steep slope so that testing at all speeds was possible. “The Role of Fiat in the Development of the Italian Car Industry in the 1950s. . Genoa) brought new life to this remarkable industrial landmark. When the building was completed in 1923. A beautiful ramp connecting all ﬁve levels was built to replace the elevators. Some work of transformation was necessary. Further Reading Comoli-Mandracci. Princeton. 1973. Architecture of Modern Italy. but today it has an essential role to play in the plan for Turin’s modernization. designed by Vittorio Bonade Bottino. During manufacture. the base matter had been elevated and spiritualized through the process of fabrication and assembly to produce a human tool called a car in a modern “ascension” parallel to that celebrated in the Baroque Chapel of the Holy Shroud. Torino. Agnelli realized that the elevators would have to be replaced. The remodeling of the unused Lingotto Plant into a commercial hall and exhibition center by Renzo Piano (Renovation of Old Harbor. Kirk. Fiat Miraﬁori. 2 vols. Fauri. F. and by 1939. It was protected by a 5-foot-high peripheral wall. The interior of the building received light from a central courtyard 103 feet long in which were three small structures containing the elevators. had reached the summit of their journey. there was a Baroque quality to Giovanni Agnelli’s Lingotto factory. it had to be tested again. T. La città nella storia dell’Italia.300 feet long. factory was proposed in the 1930s. Because the speed of the cars on the test track was limited and also because customers were not really interested in the test results. relating both factory and church through the same Baroque process.” The Business History Review 70 (1996): 167–206 (includes photo).
The bays (building units that extend from column to column) of the Italian nave tend to be wider than the bays in French Gothic buildings. the four bays in the nave of Santa Maria del Fiore are equivalent to eight bays in a French Gothic cathedral such as Rheims. the Florentine church could hold 30. Florentine textile and luxury goods production relied on trading associations located in numerous countries. the sculptor and architect Arnolfo di Cambio. and the bourgeoisie. it does not use ﬂying buttresses (exterior arches supporting the nave walls that connect the upper parts of walls with freestanding external buttresses). During this period. the “popolo grasso. The plan was dominated by a new cathedral that would replace the old church of Santa Reparata. The Black Death of 1348 reduced the population of Florence by half and revived the political competition between the “popolo minuto. who was born near Siena in Colle di Val’d’Elsa. but unlike French Gothic. which was demolished in 1285. the scale was monumental. The new church. For example. Filippo Brunelleschi I n the second half of the thirteenth century. from 1280 to 1300.” the workers. Political struggles deprived the noble families of their political power and led to the establishment of a government of the people. when they were ﬁnally ousted by the Free Commune.50 Florence Cathedral Dome FLORENCE CATHEDRAL DOME. Resistance by members of the original aristocracy continued until 1293. in 1250.000 inhabitants. The ﬁrst gold ﬂorin was minted in 1252 and became the most trusted monetary instrument in Europe for several centuries. The Florentine economy beneﬁted from the city’s status as a major banking center for all of Europe. made a comprehensive urban plan for Florence. FLORENCE Style: Gothic. was begun in 1296 and given a new name and dedication: Santa Maria del Fiore. Florence entered a period of great prosperity and its population increased to 100. Italian Gothic is quite distinctive.” A strong disagreement began between master masons who built in the Gothic fashion and those who were . It combines design elements from antique and Early Christian architecture with the use of French Gothic ribbed groin vaults (intersecting vaults with ribs on the ridges that spring from the corners and cross at the apex). As later in Bologna and Milan. mainly composed of leading merchants and craftsmen. in the Gothic style.000 worshippers. Renaissance Dates: 1420–1436 Architects: Arnolfo di Cambio.
Florence.Santa Maria del Fiore. hidden by houses today. are completely visible in Despouy’s sketch. . Collection of the ENSA Versailles. The dome and apse of the cathedral. dated May 1900.
1420. Equally important. To everyone’s surprise. His brick frame. Then. In this situation. it included a mockup of a huge dome covering the crossing. the impossibility of building a wooden framework (centering) to hold up such a large dome until it was ﬁnished. he was able to control the execution of the project he had deﬁned in the model of 1418 and in the “modellum.52 Florence Cathedral Dome inspired by antiquity. and the Florentine jeweler Filippo Brunelleschi. nearly the 140-foot dimension of the great Roman dome of the Pantheon. the Florentine sculptor of the famous Baptistery doors. Three men took part in the competition: the master mason Battista D’Antonio. From this time on. More classical than Gothic. all three competitors were appointed to supervise the construction program.” which was kept with the city notaries. In 1367. Lorenzo Ghiberti. This manner of thinking through the project as a whole and determining every aspect of its structure. but his creation of a new division of labor came into conﬂict with the medieval master builders who were traditionally in charge of design and construction. a large model at the scale of 1 to 16 was presented to the Florentine citizens. he had submitted drawings and an accurate description of his plan in a document. constructed of a herringbone pattern of interlocking bricks. resolved the greatest obstacle to the building of the dome. Complicating the design and the problem of construction was the height of the Florence dome. the architect had to prove his superiority and his competence. He had conducted experiments in the engineering problems necessary to construct the dome and had made a simple and bold model that showed how his proposals would work. Brunelleschi’s plan was to build a double-shelled dome strengthened by a brick frame that was inspired by his study of the ruins of the ancient buildings in Rome but not based directly on any previous model. Brunelleschi used innovative building techniques and guaranteed their success. He clearly and precisely speciﬁed all the building materials and their position in the structure. when the decision of the overseers was announced on April 16. a competition to renew work on the dome was announced by the overseers of the works. which no one knew how to build. The base for the dome was already in place and its octagonal shape determined the size and silhouette of the dome. which Brunelleschi quickly did. The workers went on strike from December 1430 until February 1431 because they resented being only the executants of Brunelleschi’s plans and orders. in 1418. and aesthetics was very different from the traditional ways of the masons and was to some extent the birth of the modern architectural profession.” . which had to span 138 feet. Brunelleschi’s plan required neither centering nor scaffolding. Brunelleschi was well prepared for the work. Fifty years passed without any serious work being done on the problem of rooﬁng the enormous crossing of the cathedral. which was projected to be 275 feet and was later increased to 285 feet. the “modellum. there was no winner. construction.
Frank. 2000. and Gustina Scaglia. Studies of His Technology and Inventions. Cambridge. ROME Style: Roman Date: First Century BCE Architect: Unknown I mbedded within the ruins of the large area of the Roman Forum as it exists today.) In 88 bce. Ross. sculptors. ROMAN FORUM. Beyond the Aemelia. All forms of art celebrated the rebirth of classical architecture—which we call the Renaissance—as the Florentines listened to the perfection of the music that created the effect of “songs descending from the heavens unto us below . the Curia was where the Roman senate met. is the 750-by450-foot rectangle of the much earlier Republican Forum. Prager. which ran parallel to the north side of the rectangle and was the route followed by Rome’s victorious troops on their way to the Capitoline sanctuary. most of which was built during the Roman Empire. and the Via Sacra (sacred road). King. later called the Basilica Julia. is the Curia Julia facing in the direction of the eight remaining columns of the Temple of Saturn and the three extant columns of the Temple of Vespasian in the southeast corner. (“Curia” was originally the name of a political and military division of the Roman people. and musicians like Guillaume Dufay (1400–1474) who composed an anthem “Nuper Rosarum Flores” for the consecration of the dome by Pope Eugenius IV in March1436. on the left. Harmonia Mundi. at the northeast corner. who had . murmur[ing] in our ears something of the ineffable and of the divine” (Giannozzo Manetti). Further Reading Dufay. 2003. It lies to the southeast of the Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill). New York: Penguin Books. 1970. FORUM ROMANUM. MA: MIT Press. the dictator Sulla. Guillaume.Forum Romanum 53 Brunelleschi became the leader of the modern manner that fascinated painters. O Gemma Lux. Brunelleschi. . . The size of the Republican Forum is not difﬁcult to grasp today if one stands in front of the Temple of Julius Caesar and looks eastward between the ruins of the grand Basilica Aemelia on the right and the Sempronia. One of the most important buildings in the forum. Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture.
he weakened the original symbolic association of the Curia with the Comitium. The senate met. which met inside the Curia) gathered to vote on legislation presented by the senate and to ratify the power of the consuls. “forum” meant an enclosed space.54 Forum Romanum Forum Romanum. and set policy in its “aula. However. debated. stepped amphitheater-like place in front of the Curia where the Roman people (in contrast to the senate. like the ﬂight of birds or the path of lightning. Julius Caesar began to rebuild that structure when he reorganized the forum before his death in 44 bce. sent by the gods. the forum was also used for business and commerce. private or public atriums (courtyards or halls with colonnades) were . with a larger building. guild meetings. Shops. increased the number of senators from 300 to 500. By reorienting the new Curia somewhat. were lined up on three sides of the Forum. Rome. also called an “inaugural space. The ruins of the heart of the Roman Empire with the Colosseum in the background. replaced the Curia Hostilia. one of the early kings of Rome. For these activities. even trials needed a convenient place for groups of people to gather. Caesar was assassinated before he could complete his rebuilding. but his adopted heir Augustus ﬁnished it and renamed it the Curia Julia. where they could engage in deliberation and vote.” that was separated from the fabric of the town as a place for the assembly of the people. commercial transactions. For the ancient Romans. named after Tullius Hostilius. mainly for moneychangers. In addition to functioning as a place for attracting society to participate in public affairs. “Inaugural” meant the place was consecrated as an area where the augurs could predict the future by reading signs. The Comitium was a circular.” an 84-by-58-foot room.
political meetings. respectively. parts of the forum. was used for public executions and the spectacle of gladiatorial combats. may once have been the site of the residence of Numa Pompilius. During the early Empire. This displacement of activities from the forum was not the only one. commercial activity. founded in 179 bce by the Aemelia family and considered to have been one of Rome’s most beautiful buildings. contained a ring of tribunes in the shape of an oval built of straight segments. celebrated. the Atrium Regium (Royal Atrium). At the end of the Republic. the temple was used as a sort of museum in which the Emperor Tiberius displayed his collection of Greek art. One of these. begun by Caesar and ﬁnished by Augustus in 12 ce. On the north side of the forum was the Basilica Aemelia. From the balconies above the ﬂoor level of the nave. and the Temple of Concord. the name was applied to halls that could be as large as 300 feet long. . When the small primitive atriums were replaced by large basilicas. which results in an emphasis on its transverse axis rather than the typical longitudinal axis. Between the basilicas was a rectangular open space that. that was replaced by the Basilica Julia. electoral meetings were moved to the Saepta Julia. and 100 feet tall.” the generic name for these meeting spaces. such as the Curia and the Comitium were consecrated spaces. beginning in the third century bce. and entertainment all took place in the Republican Forum. and “regium” translated into Greek is “basilica. were spectacular. the Temple of Saturn. or central space of the hall. founded in 497 bce. A wooden structure. 100 feet wide. Voting. Like the future Colosseum. On the south side of the forum was the Basilica Sempronia of 174 bce. there were hidden chambers dug into the ground below street level that were used as storage for stage shows and for the gladiatorial exhibitions that eventually found a more satisfactory location in the Colosseum. Below the state archives building that occupied the slope of the Capitoline Hill. but places dedicated to the gods did not have to be dedicated only to the gods or take the form of buildings. the second king of Rome. For example. Inside. large audiences could attend famous trials (a podium was provided for the judges). 75 feet above the ﬂoor of the nave. Saturn’s teaching of agriculture to the ﬁrst Romans and the power of Concordia to maintain good faith and harmony within the family and the state. most of which faced its eastern side. of 397 bce. The basilica was a multipurpose building. repaired by Caesar in 46 bce. convenient for small group discussions as well as for large audiences. trials. a large area of 900 by 360 feet. or commercial debates. enclosed by porticoes in the Campus Martius.Forum Romanum 55 available at the back of the shops. The great hall was surrounded by vaulted ambulatories (sheltered walkways) that gave access to galleries on the second ﬂoor. There were temples in the forum. The Temple of Concordia’s plan is unusual because the cella (cult room) is wide but not very deep. This disposition encourages the visitor to move about the cult room and not directly approach the statue of the god. the diversity of marble columns in many different colors and the huge wood ceiling.
to religious activities and its use for other activities: commercial. the dome is 145 feet above the ground. At its crown.. L. The Roman Forum. Pierre. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Further Reading Grant. The entire Galleria is covered by a splendid iron-and-glass vault that becomes. or consecration. Michael. But the Republican Forum remained the model used in Roman colonies all around the Mediterranean Sea and thus a point of identiﬁcation of Roman culture everywhere. the location of the most famous lyrical theater of Italy. the building was not completed. Just ten days after Mengoni fell from the scaffolding. 1867). many of its functions were moved to more suitable locations. at the crossing.56 Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele This abbreviated view of the Republican Forum in Rome has stressed both its dedication. L’architecture romaine. A . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Paris: A et J Picard. The six-story interior façades of the Galleria are overly decorated according to local Lombard tradition. the civil engineer from Bologna who designed the Galleria. a large dome carried on sixteen iron ribs. the triumphal arch entrance on the Piazza del Duomo was still under construction. 1992. Vol. 1: les monuments publics. fell from construction scaffolding on December 30. MILAN Style: Eclectic Dates: 1863–1877 Architect: Giuseppe Mengoni monumental gallery. whose entrances are celebrated by triumphal arches. At this time. GALLERIA VITTORIO EMMANUELE (VICTOR EMMANUEL GALLERY). Richardson. 1970. 1996. entertainment. Jr. connects the Piazza del Duomo (the square in front of the cathedral) in Milan with the Piazza della Scala. barely three months after King Vittorio Emmanuele had inaugurated the Galleria (September 15. Giuseppe Mengoni (1829–1877). the king died. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. As Rome grew and the forum was enlarged. and judicial as well as religious. Gros. The Galleria is about 600 feet long and is intersected at a vast octagonal central space by a second gallery to form a Latin cross plan (a cross with one arm longer than the other three).
many of its elements are French inspired. Although Milan’s building was constructed with the help of international ﬁnance. After the victory of Napoleon III and Vittorio Emmanuele at Magenta on June 4. . There were also problems with ﬁnance. Numerous designs for the new city center were suggested during the Restoration period when Milan was returned to the Austrian Empire. At this point. Milan’s Galleria followed the proliferation of French arcades. 1859. Iron and glass construction designed by Giuseppe Mengoni (1863–1867). and by June 1860. international ﬁnancing was required. but it failed to collect more than a million lire instead of the ﬁve million that were expected.Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele 57 Vittorio Emmanuele Gallery. by the end of July. commander of the liberated city. which had expanded to the length of city blocks in the nineteenth century. The Galleria was ultimately a monument to the gloriﬁcation of Italian Unity built when Milan had become part of Free Italy. Since the expense of the project was estimated at ﬁfteen million lire. it was also a logical extension of the decision to redesign the center of the city after Milan Cathedral ﬁnally received its façade in 1806. no winner could be agreed on. Milan. mainly by a British-owned company. it became urgently necessary to create a vast square in front of the church. decided on June 28 to connect the Piazza del Duomo to the Piazza della Scala by a street named for the Italian king. 220 projects were exhibited in the Brera Gallery. An international competition was organized. A lottery had been organized. However. However. Count Belgioioso.
T . At the bottom of the ridge is a seventeenth-century palazzo of 100 windows that belonged to the Garzoni family. He became highly respected by his contemporaries. demonstrate Mengoni’s personal ambition and. Arcades. New Haven. exactly the same size as the dome of Saint Peter’s. monumental fountains. Mengoni had strictly followed the guidelines of the competition and also included the best features from the ﬁrst stage. Social unrest and large demonstrations in the Galleria also showed how much the citizens of Milan recognized its public utility. 1865. L. None of this would be built except the gallery that was expanded into a Latin cross. a series of ramps provided access to the building. The site was difﬁcult. GARZONI GARDENS. Further Reading Geist. Johann F. Cambridge. After 1860. COLLODI Style: Baroque Dates: 1650–1690 Architect: Romano Garzoni he village of Collodi occupies a narrow ridge between two steep valleys. C. the Galleria included rooms for clubs and coffee shops. the History of a Building Type. Newspapers understood the value of the place. The complexity of the original plan and the dome in the Galleria. the famous Corriere della Sera opened ofﬁce space in the Galleria in March 1876. 1966. it took three years for all concerned to agree on the proposal. MA: MIT Press. and two more years passed before the ceremonial laying of the ﬁrst stone on March 7.58 Garzoni Gardens A commission of eleven members ﬁnally agreed to consider the proposal of Giuseppe Mengoni during a second-stage competition. V. such as the Galleria. In addition to the large independent public space. but it was impossible to create a garden in front of it because of the steepness of the ridge. 1983. he enjoyed the comparison to Bramante and Michelangelo. Mengoni’s plan of 1863 created a piazza in front of the cathedral and included all the features that had been proposed for the gloriﬁcation of Vittorio Emmanuele: a king’s loggia. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. The creation of a large communal building. Meeks. signiﬁed the accommodation of vast crowds of the rising middle class of Milanese society. of course. CT: Yale University Press. and two theaters opening on diagonals at the entrance to the gallery. an Independence Hall. and the Galleria provided a central space for secular activities that was equal to the religiously oriented Piazza del Duomo.
and water are combined with terraces. Plantings. Collodi.Garzoni Gardens. and mazes in this large and complex Baroque garden. grottos. sculpture. .
The walls of the Boboli Gardens in Florence inspired the walls of the grotto.60 Garzoni Gardens Romano Garzoni (d. The Archduke of Austria visited in 1662 and King Charles VII of Naples asked Diodati to design a similar project (never executed) for the park at Caserta. 1663) proposed to create a garden separate from the palazzo. offers a view over a watercourse that cascades down from the twin ﬁgures of Florence (with a lion) and Lucca (with a panther). Both walled in and opened to the distant landscape. and there are two small side-rooms for the preparation of refreshments. Garzoni Gardens use perspective tricks and the techniques of set design to play with the appearance of height and depth. At the bottom. Garzoni would not live to see his masterpiece totally realized in 1690. Out of a “precipitous horror of a rough slope” he manage to design and build a scenic garden independent of the palazzo. a ﬂat terrace contains two symmetrical basins with large water jets at their centers. located across the valley to the east. Two large terraces opened to the bottom level and a path ﬂanked by palm or orange trees. and inspiring scents. 600 feet long on the main axis and 430 feet on the transverse terrace. At the top of the park is a bathhouse containing three bathing rooms and a place for musicians. The slope of the ridge was divided into four sections.” Laurel hedges combined with the green oaks formed a type of arbor offering silence. Three superimposed bays in the center open onto fountains containing terra-cotta ﬁgures or to the grotto of Neptune. Simulated rock formations are combined luxuriously. with curved hedges. these levels are sometimes isolated by a double hedge at their edges but offer views of the lower parts of the garden from different places. even though it was not yet complete. Repairs and improvements of the spectacular water displays in the Garzoni Gardens were required in 1786–1787. a boat. A thick wood of green oaks (woods cover the slope) is divided by six narrow terrace-like walks in an arrangement called a “bassine. A description of 1652 gloriﬁes Garzoni’s work. On top of the bassine. a small outdoor theater remains. now in poor condition. at the top of the slope. A gentle ascent. a ﬁgure of Melpomene. Visitors could hide in the bassine where they could listen to the play of waters cascading down or listen to pastoral poems in other remote areas. isolation. or a beast. Yews are treated with fanciful topiary work in both abstract and representational shapes such as a tower. . The garden would be easily viewed from any one of the four stories of the palazzo that faced in its direction. a curved basin receives a long stream of water emitted by the tall ﬁgure of Fame. formerly adorned with colored stones and ﬂanked by orange or palm trees. It would require another forty years to ﬁnish the construction of the gardens. A Baroque garden like Collodi asserts itself through a stupendous arrangement of ﬂat levels imposed on a steep slope. The fame of Garzoni’s gardens was unsurpassed and famous people were struck by their beauty. which dominates the park. At the end of the Imperial walkway. The ﬁnal part of the gardens. and candelabra for night performances. a bird. reveals the full extent of both the height and breadth of the gardens.
A. Ponte. Laras. Hadrian greatly admired Greek culture and visited many cities in the Greek east. TIVOLI Style: Roman Dates: 125–135 Architect: Unknown elow the city of Tivoli. mainly. Genoa. he spent only eleven-and-a-half years of his reign in Rome and at his villa near Tivoli. 1998. NJ: Princeton University Press. twice the size of the city of Pompeii. See Renovation of the Old Harbor. Emperor Trajan. HADRIAN’S VILLA (VILLA ADRIANA). and especially Athens. P. Paris: Flammarion. 61–112) B . it was a place for relaxation. the villa was typical of the aristocratic country estates of the Imperial era.Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana) Further Reading 61 Hobhouse. OLD HARBOR RENOVATION. Political reorganization and participation in the life of the provinces of the vast Roman Empire obliged him to travel for nine-and-a-half years. Hadrian’s villa at Tivoli was a location for governmental activities but. eds. Hadrian (76–138) became Roman emperor in 117 at the age of forty-two. Princeton. His capacity for governing and his talent in conducting wars were balanced by a combination of the ethical philosophies of Epicurianism and Stoicism. a vast stretch of ruins. of remarkable landscapes. attracts scholars and large crowds of visitors fascinated by the ancient grandeur of Hadrian’s Villa. GENOA. including Ephesus. Gardens of Italy. The Garden Lover’s Guide to Italy. Histoire des jardins. but Hadrian was also intensely interested in literature and the arts and had a strong fascination for architecture. and he never hesitated to climb the highest peaks in the area. Ann. He had demonstrated his competence as a military leader under his predecessor. 2002. In this aspect.” In Monique Mosser and Georges Teyssot. Pliny the Younger (c. London: Frances Lincoln. He was an enthusiastic visitor of all the empire’s outstanding landmarks. “Le jardin de la villa Garzoni a Collodi. Antioch. 2006. Alexandria.
62 Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana) has left accurate descriptions of aristocratic villas and the serene landscapes. both natural and man-made. its Terrace of Tempe (named for a wooded area in Thessalia). hidden within a circular wall 15 feet tall and 150 feet in diameter. a souvenir of a canal in Alexandria. that surrounded them. The Canopus. and a Poikilos (“Stoa Poikile” is Greek for a loggia decorated with murals). a canal (Euripus). with its Poikilos. slightly larger than the Pantheon. Hadrian’s Villa thus took the traditional luxurious arrangements of a villa outside Rome to the acme of perfection and added new and spectacular effects. . It is located on the southern edge of Hadrian’s residence behind a huge terrace containing the Hippodrome. so-called because it is shaped like a racecourse. basins. and waterworks in which Hadrian’s architects (Decrianus? or Apollodorus?) were able to prove their mastery of design and building. recalling the loggia in Athens decorated with paintings. What is unique about Hadrian’s Villa is that it consisted of a series of reminiscences of memorable sites from all over the Roman world that Hadrian had visited. and even a grotto called Hades. had a little Nile River. Very subtle arrangements in the plan of the villa provided for the mixture of large vaulted buildings. imitating a canal leading to the Temple of Serapis in Alexandria. His villa. The large circular wall contains two concentric circular areas. its Canopus. Tivoli. Villa of Hadrian. is decorated with copies of the caryatids that support the porch of the Erechtheum in Athens. or Circular Casino. an Academy. Perhaps the single most inﬂuential feature for architects in later centuries was the misnamed Maritime Theater. one a peristyle carried on Ionic columns.” according to the late Roman biography of Hadrian in the Historia Augusta. for example. which Hadrian had also commissioned. The villa was built “as a marvel. galleries.
Baroque. 1992. on the island retreat. 1995. J.” Hadrian’s predilection for circular ground plans. They found it hidden in the memory of the Circular Casino. a 5-foot-deep canal surrounding and isolating a central structure on a sort of island from the surrounding villa—and the world. Roman Imperial Architecture. This inner structure provided a retreat for the emperor. Turin. all of whom were in search of a new and different architecture. must have been a challenge for his architects. which included a room for heating the bath. and John A. Their unexpected architectural solution. New Haven. 145–150 Architect: Unknown .Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana 63 the other. and a private bath on the west side. See Santissima Sindone. HORREA EPAGATHIANA AND EPAPHRODITIANA. New Haven. and even the Neoclassical architects. Ithaca. Hadrian’s Villa and Its Legacy. fascinated the Mannerist. Pinto. However. but it contained. The richness of the decoration—in red and yellow with black-and-red stuccowork and handsomely worked ﬂoor patterns—complemented the play of light reﬂecting on and from the water in the moat. a dining room (triclinium) on the south. which played such a major role in this isolated retreat of perfect equilibrium. it must also have stimulated their enthusiasm and creativity. Frank. reﬂections that created illusionistic effects on the spaces of the “theater. courtyard with a semicircular basin that was contained in an unexpected semicircular wall. 1982. OSTIA Style: Roman Dates: c. The Maritime Theater was not a structure to live in because it lacks necessary services and dependencies. NY: Cornell University Press. CT: Yale University Press. without precedent in the well-known examples of Roman architecture. CT: Yale University Press. These three diminutive apartments were connected by a strangely shaped. Sear. Ward-Perkins. B. HOLY SHROUD CHAPEL. Further Reading MacDonald. Roman Architecture. William. what is believed to be a library to the east.
like Pompeii and Herculaneum. Rome. Beyond the entry. Types of structures accommodating all these functions developed into multistoried buildings that differed signiﬁcantly from the traditional atrium houses of the Republican period. Sardinia. an open public space that is about 300 feet long. has been given to commercial and storage buildings using a nearly identical plan. shipping ofﬁces. major roads called the Decumanus Maximus and Cardo Maximus. therefore. a double vestibule opens onto a square courtyard surrounded by a two-storied portico with brick piers supporting arches. was the paradigm of this new type of city. Groin vaults cover most of the rooms in the two main storage levels. Before being transported to Rome. warehouses were essential features of the city. for example. Ostia. or more levels aboveground. was at least as densely settled because all travelers arriving by sea and all the goods going to Rome passed through it. ﬁve. The entry was restored in 1929 by assembling the fragments that had fallen to the ground. Staircases in the northwest and southwest parts of the building lead to the upper stories. This careful restoration has resulted in an ensemble of unusual grandeur. The warehouse type of building inspired many variations that accommodated new functions in the imperial city of Ostia. Rome’s port city at the mouth of the Tiber River. Imperial Roman cities became densely populated. and places for residential shopping were also necessary. large amounts of these imports had to be stored. ofﬁces for the .” although not used in Roman antiquity. Instead of plans with rooms of different sizes surrounding a central atrium (or large rectangular hall) a new plan was devised with repeated. The modular repetition of rooms is expressed by the brick arches whose severe forms resemble those of Renaissance palaces. A grid plan with all streets crossing at right angles was used to determine the shape and organization of the city. nearly identical. Excavations at Ostia were begun in the 1920s.or two-storied settlements typical of the Republican era. gave way to new styles of living and new housing designs characterized by three. and North Africa. rooms on the ground ﬂoors that were interchangeable (much like ofﬁce ﬂoors in modern speculative ofﬁce buildings). Their names were engraved in a marble plaque mounted above a monumental entrance framed by two columns made of brick that carried a pediment of noble proportions. Ostia’s plan follows the strict rules of Roman urban planning: two axes.64 Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana I ncreasingly. The rooms or shops in these buildings opened onto narrow elongated courtyards. Ostia’s main function was to receive products brought from the far parts of the empire to supply Rome. for example. The name “horrea. and what they revealed presents the clearest vision of an ancient Roman city of the second and early third centuries ce. Worker housing. wheat from Sicily. cross at the forum. a warehouse owned by two freedmen from the eastern part of the empire. The Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana was one of these commercial buildings. having achieved a population of one million or more inhabitants. with a population of one hundred thousand. One.
Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana 65 Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. builders. residences in the city could no longer follow the precedent of the “domus. “The Ancient Italian Town House Reconsidered. Meiggs. 4 (December 1972): 253–260.” Horrea were not designed to be houses. 1975. illumination came from an internal courtyard or a central room with windows onto the street called the “medianum. multifunctional rooms no longer received light and fresh air from an atrium. Ostia. ﬁremen’s barracks. These included buildings for commerce and storage as well as worker’s residences. A warehouse in the port of ancient Rome with central entrance reconstructed in 1929.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 31. Like the warehouses. Hermansen. apartments were stacked on top of each other for as many as four or ﬁve levels. instead. no. Russell. Roman Ostia.” or urban house. Ostia: Aspects of Roman City Life. Further Reading Boyle. Bernard M. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Ostia’s ancient dynamism presents many remarkable elements for the contemporary visitor. . The arrangements of the nearly identical. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. Ostia shows how Roman architects had to create new types of buildings for high-density living. but there were doubtless many exceptions with housing above the store rooms and shops. Gustav. Instead. 1981. and markets.
but it is likely that the original inhabitants were Oscan and. he suffocated from the sulfurous and corrosive fumes from the volcano. After 200 bce. the victory of Rome against Carthage resulted in all of southern Italy being under Roman control. brought progress. the same volcanic debris that destroyed the city. aged seventeen. see: http://www. The house occupies an entire city block (an insula) and covers more than 30. It is an extreme example of the residences of wealthy families.htm. This is reﬂected in the diversity of religious cults.000 square feet. For plans and reconstructions of Ostia. burying it under ashes and cinders. POMPEII Style: Roman Dates: 180 BCE–79 CE Architect: Unknown O n the afternoon of August 24. see: http://www. Cultural exchanges reduced the differences among these populations. little more than looting) begun in the mid-eighteenth century. preserved much of it. it was always a multicultural community.org/indexes. 79 ce.htm. Seafaring ships could berth there and exchange goods with barges traveling inland. We know of the eruption because Pliny the Younger was an eyewitness and wrote about it. which included traditional Roman and Greek gods as well as eastern imports such as Isis and Zeus Melichios. the famous writer Pliny the Elder did not.ostia-antica. Details of the original settlement are largely unknown. and the city sank into oblivion until it was rediscovered and excavations (at ﬁrst. The House of the Faun. Pompeii’s site at the mouth of the River Sarno offered many commercial advantages. and raised the reputation of the city. was the largest and one of the most luxurious houses in Pompeii. It was after this time that Pompeii became a prosperous city. followed by Etruscans in the sixth to mid-ﬁfth centuries who further developed trade. Italic Samnites in the late ﬁfth century.org/regio1/8/8-3. was visiting Naples with his mother when the volcano erupted. giving us a very good idea of how Romans lived during the ﬁrst century of the Christian era. The eruption lasted until August 26 and put an end to the city of Pompeii. Ironically. which were built from the second century bce until Pompeii’s destruction in 79. He. They survived but Pliny’s uncle. Although Romans were politically and socially dominant. and ﬁnally the Romans.66 House of the Faun For a plan and photographs of the excavation of the Horrea. the volcano Mount Vesuvius began to explode. HOUSE OF THE FAUN. because of Pompeii’s position as a port city. Even its name eventually disappeared.ostiaantica. . named for a statue found in it during excavation. during the sixth century Greeks.
The statue of the Faun stands in the impluvium (a shallow pool that collected rain water) and Mount Vesuvius is visible at the left beyond the peristyle. Pompeii.House of the Faun. .
and his subordinates and could symbolically represent the continuity and reputation of his “gens” (ancestral family). the tablinum positioned the head of the family in a dominant location from which he could survey the atrium. Each entrance opened onto a vestibule that led to an atrium. the tablinum. and social contacts as well as people who depended on him for basic needs—were received every morning at the public door. which in an organizational sense was the focal point of the house. On the ﬂoor of a beautifully decorated exedra that opened onto the ﬁrst peristyle. On the public side of the house. These roofs directed rainwater to a shallow pool in the center of the atrium. “Clients”—the owner’s business. On the public side was a Tuscan atrium. estate. reﬂecting patterns of growth and adaptation that corresponded to changing standards of beauty and fashion. added later to the original house. from which Mount Vesuvius could be glimpsed. excavators discovered a very large mosaic of great splendor. which drained into an underground cistern. where the clients and guests were received by the head of the household. Located on axis directly across the atrium from the entrance and raised up a step from the level of the atrium ﬂoor. relating ostentatiously to the richness of the owner. homage to Alexander the Great’s victory over the Persian king Darius at the Battle of Issus. that is. The ﬁrst peristyle was followed by a second larger one.68 House of the Faun replacing several smaller houses that had previously occupied the site. Most of the important rooms of the house opened onto the atrium and were relatively small except one. and business. The short roofs on all four sides of the opening sloped downward toward the interior. The House of the Faun had two atriums. the exedra. The tetrastyle atrium on the private side had four columns that supported the beams around the compluvium and created a more intimate environment. to a semienclosed room. his colleagues. from the vestibule across the atrium to the tablinum. The house had two entrances: a modest one opening into a suite of private spaces. called the impluvium. and a richly decorated. The tablinum was decorated with great care because it was a “frame” for the aristocratic owner of the house and represented his familial and social status. massive one that provided access to the public areas. political. The original is now in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples and a copy has recently been installed in the exedra. It was also the place where wax death masks of famous ancestors were hung on the wall to create a sort of visual genealogical tree. Perhaps copied from a painting of the fourth century bce by Philoxenus of Eretria. a large rectangular hall with a rectangular opening called a compluvium in the center of the roof. . The tablinum traditionally sheltered the marriage bed and provided storage for all the important documents that involved the family history. they were aligned from front to back. it represents a rush of horses and spears as Darius begins his retreat. These earlier houses were gradually absorbed sometime after 180 bce. which were treated differently. the major rooms were arranged on axis. a traditional design in which the roof was supported by huge wood beams leaving an uncluttered column-free space. and from the tabliium into an outdoor space surrounded by colonnaded covered walkways (a peristyle).
gave the impression of decoratively framed openings onto a garden or a landscape. they were famous bankers in Milan and Venice in the late fourteenth and ﬁfteenth centuries. Twothirds of the island contains a world-famous Baroque garden. Abrams. The Houses of Roman Italy. NJ: Princeton University Press. allow us to appreciate the luxury in which upper-class Romans lived. that is.” little paintings from the Hellenistic period that decorated private rooms. New York: Harry N. Further Reading Clarke. Wall paintings. distributed in the rooms around the atriums and in the gardens. 1991. Although the family was expelled from Florence in 1370. L. were replaced by large frescoes during the Roman period. The Day a City Died. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. an illusion of depth in mosaics and frescoes was represented by means of several kinds of perspective. More important is the name of the owners of Isola Bella: the Borromeo family of Florence. Andrea Bifﬁ I sola Bella is a little island in Lake Maggiore that resembles a longboat at anchor in a landscape of ravishing beauty. Space. Berkeley: University of California Press. An Architectural History. Sculptures of high quality. ISOLA BELLA GARDENS. Pompeii. Robert. such as the faun after which excavators named the house (found in the impluvium of the public atrium) were complemented by ornamental stucco.. crowded into the remaining third are a palace and a small village of almost identical size. Richardson. for example. 1992. Francesco Castelli. John R. The pavements were identical in quality to those in the most lavish public buildings. 100BC–AD250.Isola Bella Gardens 69 Every possible luxury was involved in furnishing and ornamenting the house. Etienne. . Jr. Wallace-Hadrill. “Emblema. mosaics and paintings were a must. Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Palmer. The name given to the island in 1636 is a phonetic reduction of Isola (island) Isabella. Translated by C. a piece of a lost paradise. A. Princeton. Pompeii’s ﬁne artistic furnishings. 1994. 1988. Pompeii. LAKE MAGGIORE Style: Baroque Dates: 1631–1671 Architects: Angelo Crivelli. the name of the wife of Charles II (1586–1652).
After the removal of a large part of the preexisting vegetable gardens. Its ﬁrst three terraces were built in 1632 to provide for the pleasure and comfort of the owner Charles III. Lake Maggiore. Vitaliano VI and his architect Francesco Castelli (1620–c. 120 feet above the lake. the Borromeo family quit banking and ﬁnance and lived as ruling aristocrats in their large “state. who ruled Milan. View of the gardens from an approaching boat showing the terrace at the summit. a vast garden surrounding a central pavilion was planned but never realized. their ﬁnancial position allowed them to control a vast region called the “Borromeo State” in the region of Lombardy. Because there was no water available on the island. After an interruption of ﬁfteen years. Like most Italian aristocrats of the period. Reﬂecting the family’s motto.” Two members of the family were important supporters of the Roman Catholic Church during the Counter-Reformation: Saint Charles Borromeo (1538– 1584) and his cousin Federico (1564–1631). They purchased a house on the northern end of the island and transformed it into a castle. and feeling the danger of the Habsburg and Spanish occupations in the sixteenth century. Rivals of the Medici.70 Isola Bella Gardens Isola Bella Gardens. 1691) transformed the castle into a . The Isola Bella was a rocky bit of land where only ﬁshermen lived when. about whom very little is known. the Borromeo family members were creators of gardens.” Saint Charles was immensely popular among simple believers. was involved in the ﬁrst stage of the planning of the existing gardens. The architect Angelo Crivelli. the Borromeo family began to buy up the land. an octagonal pumping tower was built to irrigate the garden with water from the mainland. beginning in 1630. Both were severe reformers when each one served as Archbishop of Milan. Competing with the Sforza. “Humilitas.
London: Frances Lincoln. Borromee Islands. At the top of two high terraces carried on the western side by colossal arches is a point from which paths in two directions are possible. which affords a view of the square Garden of Love ﬁve terraces below. they completed the main element of the garden. the Great Theater. Princeton. Ann. steps lead to the upper terrace. the view is framed by groups of statues or obelisks. The Great Theater facing north is a sturdy mass of black stones and limestone concretions symbolic of the forces of nature. The Isola Bella garden was organized around ten terraces. a heraldic symbol of the Borromeo family. one above the other. Most of the statues were sculpted by Carlo Simonetta (1662–1695). Each of its three levels of ﬁve bays is ornamented with ﬁgural sculpture and three colossal shells. 2006. Milan. Each level has a collection of plants and ﬁgures designed to enhance the enjoyment of a speciﬁc sight and that reveals in stages. but they also amplify their visibility from a distance. imitating a hill or mountainside rising up to a summit 120 feet above the level of the lake. large out-of-scale statues and obelisks suggest fantasies. The design was a convenient way of not only connecting the different levels of the palace to the garden—gardens and palace were remarkably uniﬁed—but also providing a variety of observation points focusing on local sights as well as distant views across the lake to snow-capped mountains and the villages scattered in the woods. The central statue depicts a unicorn carrying Honor. At the top.Isola Bella Gardens 71 palace and embellished the garden. The other descends via ﬁve terraces to the level of the lake. Behind the Great Theater. N. Gardens of Italy. They provide a contrast to the descent down ﬁve terraces to Lake Maggiore. Working frenetically. Mauro. Four formal parterres around a basin expand the scale of the design. NJ: Princeton University Press. In their varied concepts. The eastern part of the garden is more private and has large lawns and ornamental plantings. like a game. Castelli’s imagination and his love of placing sculpture and obelisks on balustrades were carried on by his successor Andrea Bifﬁ. The Garden Lover’s Guide to Italy. One leads to three more terraces that reach the summit. 2000. On each terrace. Further Reading Hobhouse. This was a vast heraldic creation that faced north and had three levels of niches. Laras. 1998. the profusion of the landscape seen from both above and below. the ten terraces suggest a connection of the Isola Bella garden with theatrical set design of the period. . P.
who was raised in the intellectual spirit of the Medici-supported Neo-Platonic Academy. Michelangelo. A Laurentian Library. was commissioned to design the library to house the Medici collection of books and manuscripts. In the vestibule. . Leo X Medici had suggested the idea to Clement in 1519. “imprisons” pairs of columns within the walls. beginning in 1517. FLORENCE Style: Mannerist Dates: 1524–1559 Architect: Michelangelo s soon as he was elected pope in 1523. Clement VII Medici decided to build a library for Greek and Latin manuscripts in Florence. Florence. Florence. These two Medici popes wanted to invest Florence with a cultural prestige equal to that of Rome by building a library that would rival the Vatican’s. deeply inﬂuenced by Platonic ideas that the Lutherans could understand. Michelangelo. was the living symbol of the heritage of Lorenzo de’ Medici. required intellectual resistance. working as a Neo-Platonist.72 Laurentian Library LAURENTIAN LIBRARY. and they also realized that the rise of the Protestant Reformation.
They are like Michelangelo’s famous statue of Moses for the tomb of Julius II. so it is not surprising that his ﬁnal design for the Laurentian Library staircase was submitted as a model only in 1558–1559. scroll-shaped brackets. they do not carry the load of the building. a master of playing with oppositions and paradox. Construction of the vestibule began in 1526. . He articulated the walls and ornamented the ceiling and ﬂoor in a subtle. strongly emotional emphasis to contrast with the horizontality and calm of the reading room. The pairs of columns are nonstructural. The vestibule. the staircase was constructed in stone by Ammanati in 1559 to mark the restored power of the Medici court. Despite the sculptor-architect’s desire. Eventually. that is. For twenty years. Useless consoles. C. left blank and without ornamentation. neutral fashion to create a sense of calmness that stressed no activity other than reading the books that were placed on the wood desks of equally reﬁned design. Michaelangelo proposed that the staircase be made of wood like the furniture in the reading room. For Michelangelo. The process of design cost him an enormous amount of energy that he did not want to be revealed in the ﬁnished work of art. with a nearly square cross section (35 by 27½ feet). created a vestibule with a vertical. James Ackerman described how the staircase descends into the tension ﬁlled space of the vestibule like an alien intruder that provokes an emotional and intellectual shock. Michelangelo designed the reading room as a simple box 152 feet long. not only because of its color but also for its form and the excessive amount of space it occupies.Laurentian Library 73 The library’s reading room was to be located on the third ﬂoor of the cloister attached to the Medici-sponsored basilica of San Lorenzo so that it would be ﬂooded with light from two sides. An entrance hall with a staircase was necessary to provide access to the reading room. which is their usual and expected function. This meant that the walls of the residences of the canons (the administrative clergy) on the ﬁrst two levels had to be strengthened. de Tolnay described the staircase as a ﬂow of lava from the reading room. attached to the outer surface of the wall at the bases of the columns defy the laws of stability. containing the staircase. Michelangelo. the viewer’s expectation of traditional structural roles is confounded. the staircase to the library reading room was missing. Hence. The columns appear to be “imprisoned” in niches in the walls and it is the walls. ambivalent between action and immobility. but the Sack of Rome by Imperial (and Lutheran) troops in 1527. the columns fail as supports and are compressed and impotent within the wall. that actually carry the load of the vestibule. Michelangelo often played with a sense of the unﬁnished in his work as he constantly critiqued and revised his compositions. and the impoverishment of the Medici for three years dashed any hope of ﬁnishing the work. A sense of frustration dominates the vestibule. Michelangelo left Florence and went to Rome in 1534. a republican revolution in Florence. active. regular. Instead of standing free surrounded by space. is structurally and aesthetically paradoxical. The library opened to the public in 1571. which resisted the creative will of the sculptor. work which began in 1524. sculpture was a ﬁerce battle with marble.
ROME Style: Early Christian Dates: 337–350 Architect: Unknown O n the via Nomentana. burnt at the stake. the ﬁrst Christian emperor.74 Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza) A central ﬂight of stairs with convex treads contrasts with the ﬂights of straight treads on either side. Although very little is known about her. Giuilo Carlo. Annabalianus. Agnes. Her bravery became legendary and her burial place attracted large crowds of worshippers including the emperor’s daughter. where she died in 354. struck by a spade. Constantina devoted herself to the cult of Saint Agnes and made use of imperial resources to build a grandiose basilica near Saint Agnes’s tomb. 1991. Paris: Pierre Tisné. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. whose name means “chastity. The Architecture of Michelangelo. Michel-Ange. Constantine. It is not certain how she was martyred because there are conﬂicting stories. During her stay in Rome. had a daughter named Constantina who lived in Rome from 337 to 351. James S. Michel-Ange Architecte. A few of these areas were burial grounds in antiquity that were sanctiﬁed by the bodies of the Christian martyrs of the third and fourth centuries. Charles. Her ﬁrst husband. 1986. Paris: Gallimard. perhaps twelve or thirteen years of age. local tradition added many legendary elements to her story. large tracts of wooded land still preserve something of the ancient landscape. 2nd ed. Argan. She may have been beheaded. who suffered martyrdom on the January 21 in a year that is only vaguely preserved by tradition as perhaps the fourth persecution of Diocletian in 305. MAUSOLEUM OF CONSTANTINA (CHURCH OF SANTA COSTANZA). 1951. Further Reading Ackerman.” was venerated as an example of purity and faith. was murdered in Asia in 337. de Tolnay. or strangled. she did not marry again until 351 when she became the wife of Gallus and left Rome for Bithynia. (This basilica should not be confused with the present . Among them was a young girl. on the northeast side of Rome. This intensely three-dimensional element characterizes Michelangelo as a sculptor as much as an architect. and Bruno Contardi.
Santa Costanza. . View into the central dome of the mausoleum of Constantine’s daughter. Rome.
and at 57 feet 5 inches. is one of the few remaining pieces of the fourth-century basilica. which increase in complexity of design as they approach the small dome above Constantina’s tomb. There. Constantina’s body was brought to her mausoleum in Rome from Bithynia. the original is now in the Vatican Museum. Legend made Constantina a saint. Constantina’s mausoleum has remained largely intact and was restored in 1938–1939. as wide as the grandest of the Roman basilicas. A heavy wall. The twentieth-century restoration of Santa Costanza removed all the damaged original decoration and inconsistent later ornamentation. It was not placed in the center of the circular building but instead stood in a niche opposite the entrance. The nave was ﬂanked by an aisle and an ambulatory. birds. are taller than the others. which was built in the seventh century. Her church was restored around the year 500 but fell into decay and had all but disappeared by the seventh century. by Pope Innocent III (1198–1216). sixteenth-century drawings preserve a record of the lavish mosaic decorations of the dome and of marble revetments on the lower levels of the walls. a series of coupled pilasters above the arches framing two levels of mosaics. the Roman . Although nothing remains of them. that once marked the apse. Constantina adorned her church with valuable works of art and then decided to build a mausoleum for herself next to the basilica as if she expected heavenly protection from Saint Agnes. animals. The niches have religious symbols while the ambulatory vaults are decorated by six mosaic panels on each side. which depict cupids and various ﬂowers.) The nave of Constantina’s church was 260 feet long. The ambulatory opens into the central space because its internal side is made up of a row of double columns of purple gray granite that carry lofty brick arches that support the drum of the dome. Renaissance Humanists understood the images as décor celebrating Bacchus. making the church so majestic that the Pope used it for important ceremonies in 358. It is one of the ﬁnest extant examples of late Roman architecture. The interior of the mausoleum is composed of two concentric elements: an ambulatory covered by a barrel vault decorated with sumptuous mosaics and a central circular space covered by a dome. Their correspondences recall the shape of a cross.76 Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza) church of Sant’ Agnese Fuori le Mura. and 419. 368. The mausoleum contains a replica of the fourth-century porphyry sarcophagus of Constantina. and her tomb was turned into a church dedicated to Santa Costanza. have no direct Christian connection and seem to reﬂect pleasurable aspects of the princess’s life. In 360. Two niches in the external wall and the vault of the ambulatory are testimony of the imperial rank of Constantina. arranged opposite one another on the longitudinal and transverse axes of the building. 55 feet tall. a symbolic reference to Constantina’s Christian faith. and marquetery panels that had been applied to the interior. a mosaic represents Christ among the Apostles. Four of the twelve arches. However. her Italianized name. Some of the mosaic scenes in the ambulatory. and ritual vessels. Large windows in the upper part of the central space provide illumination for the interior space of the mausoleum.
and part of Tuscany—was controlled by Milan. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. 1418. P. Because of this (mis)interpretation.000 inhabitants. To exceed the size of these. Piedmont. heavily decorated on their tops with sculpted capitals and spaced widely enough to permit views through the cathedral. A. Emilia. A tower would mark the crossing of nave and transepts on the exterior. Rome: Tipographia Poliglotta Vaticana. Five aisles—a central nave ﬂanked by two aisles. a Dutch artist in the sixteenth century was given a bizarre baptism in the Mausoleum. The outer two aisles would continue past the transept up to the apse and the inner aisles would continue beyond the transept and around the apse to form an ambulatory. The nave and aisles were to be separated by immense pillars. which gave the Visconti rulers considerable power.Milan Cathedral 77 wine god. numerous others he political and economic power of the Duchy of Milan was enormous from the beginning of the fourteenth century until the Wars of Italy at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Krautheimer. or even the grandiose cathedrals at Siena and Orvieto. MILAN Style: Gothic Dates: 1386. II complesso monumentale di’Sant’ Agnese e di Santa Costanza. 1858 Architects: Simone da Orsenigo. had concentrated prosperity in the city of 100. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. each half as wide as the nave—would lead to the crossing. 1975. T . city power in the Gothic era was expressed by huge churches. 1960. who were happy with the idea of peace because most of them were eager to accumulate wealth. He put Simone da Orsenigo in charge of design. Most of northern Italy—including Lombardy. After a night of debauchery. he and his friends served wine on Constantina’s sarcophagus. begun in the twelfth century. MILAN CATHEDRAL. As was the case with Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore). Gian Galeazzo Visconti took on the title of Duke of Milan in 1395. which they believed to be the sepulcher of Bacchus! Further Reading Frutaz. Dolcebono. or San Petronio in Bologna. this was the highest title of nobility given to any of the Italian rulers. Richard. Gian Galeazzo Visconti decided in 1386 to build a cathedral in Milan that would be 520 feet long and 305 feet wide at the transepts (the shorter arms of the cross-shaped plan). A vast system of irrigation and transportation canals. Amadeo.
.Milan Cathedral. Sharp pinnacles at the summit rise above the roofs of the city.
at least late in the Gothic period. Donato Bramante. In contrast to the typical French system with its high nave. In 1481. designed their churches. At the height of 152 feet 11 inches. Heinrich of Gmund. typical of French Gothic. and statues. Johannes Niesenberger came to Milan from the leading lodge of Strasburg with ﬁfteen artisans to work on the cathedral. there was a new debate between Gothic master-masons from Germany and Lombardy and some of the most gifted Italian Renaissance architects: the theoretician Francesco di Giorgio. many transverse sections were possible. the “ad triangulum” system restricts the size of windows so that the interior of Milan cathedral. 1490. Hans von Freiburg. The American architectural historian James Ackerman was convinced that the German master-builders lacked experience and that their abstract sense of theory. Meticulous records of these discussions were kept and they offer valuable insight into the way Gothic master-builders. Equally. remains dark. the nave is comparable to the most daring Gothic cathedrals anywhere. the present crossing tower and a spire that seems to shoot into the sky were missing because of unresolved structural problems. Each aisle braces the next in a way that creates an equilateral triangular section for the church. This traditional and massive masonry (as opposed to the light structure proposed by the Italians) was erected on four hidden arches at the bottom of the tower. the expansive interior spaces. the transept. and a group trained in Hans Parler’s “lodge. that allows large windows in its upper part. The debates. based on medieval Scholastic philosophy. and the French “architect” Jean Mignot argued for a nave much taller than the side aisles. while impressive. the German “ad triangulum” was eventually agreed on as the system to be used in Milan cathedral. Among the experts consulted were many famous foreign architects including Nicolas de Bonaventure from Paris. demonstrate the confusion in Gothic design around 1400. elaborated balustrades. This solution recreated the continuity of the sidewalls and guaranteed the stability of the heavily decorated spire. Later.” which was building another grand cathedral in Prague. was consulted about proportions. These create a “formal . subdivided windows. limited their imaginations to an elementary system of “ad triangulum” (using equilateral triangles) or “ad quadratum” (using squares). which attracted most of the best-trained masters from German lodges.Milan Cathedral 79 Debates ensued for decades concerning the height of the vaults in each of the ﬁve aisles and the proportions of the interior—from a single plan. The Renaissance architects’ elaborate proposals were ignored and the tower was built according to the recommendations of Amadeo and Dolcebono. as well as their exterior expression. Although ﬁve bays of the nave. Antonio di Vicenzo from Bologna. Nevertheless. and Leonardo da Vinci. are covered to excess (in many architects’ opinion) with ornament: pinnacles. which were adopted on June 27. and Wenzel (Hans Parler’s son) from Prague debated building techniques as well as aesthetics and architectural theory. Gabriele Stornacolo. A mathematician. and the choir were already vaulted by 1480. in 1438.
On the west end. The cloister of the monastery is a masterpiece of twelfth-century art. that ﬂank a portico that was not added until 1770. the entrance to the basilica is marked by two blocky tower bases. The east end is particularly ﬂorid. Built on the slope of a mountain behind Palermo overlooking the Conca is the Cathedral of Monreale that has been praised by architectural historians for its digniﬁed proportions. Monreale Cathedral itself shows a strong contrast between the restrained harmony of its interior and the extravagantly complex decoration of its exterior.” Art Bulletin 30 (1949): 84–111. its clarity of articulation.80 Monreale Cathedral and Cloister maximum” that expresses quite well the ambition of the Milanese people for their cathedral. and Muslim pointed arches over the windows. was occupied by a group of Cluniac monks and their abbot in 1176. with three stories of Norman interlaced arches crossed by horizontal friezes. New Haven. J. medallions ﬁlling in the spaces between. “Ars sine scienta nihil est. Frankl. In the T . and its golden mosaic decoration. Gothic Theory of Architecture at the Cathedral of Milan. 2000. New Haven. Nussbaum. and P. Founded in 1174 and quickly completed in 1182 by King William II. CT: Yale University Press. at William’s invitation. Preceding the cathedral on the site was a Benedictine monastery which. Monreale was intended to be a counterweight to the Cathedral of Palermo and a means of keeping its independent Archbishop Walter of the Mill (Gualterio Offamilio) in check. N. P. the Golden Conch. Crossley. German Gothic Church Architecture. The interior of the Cathedral combines a basilican nave ﬂanked by aisles. transepts. MONREALE CATHEDRAL AND CLOISTER. 2000.. Gothic Architecture. was celebrated in the twelfth century for the beauty of its landscape and the richness of its soil. Further Reading Ackerman. Cloister 1172–1189 Architect: Unknown he Conca d’Oro. PALERMO Style: Romanesque Dates: Cathedral 1174–1182. one unﬁnished. CT: Yale University Press. well-known for its elaborate columns and capitals. and a sanctuary in Romanesque style with an Early Christian superstructure and wooden trussed roof.
Interior (archival photograph from W. From author’s collection. Luebke. Monreale. Both the nave and transepts carry timber-framed roofs. A large cathedral like Notre Dame in Paris already had a vaulted choir in 1160. planned in 1174. The nave of Monreale. indicates no sign of architectural progress. retains the Early Christian tradition without any later reﬁnements. Large expanses of wall were presumably designed to carry the extensive mosaics that are purely Byzantine in style. 229. This is in contrast to Normandy and the French Royal Domain where church naves were vaulted in the new Gothic system by the twelfth century. Esslingen. the Normans had lost the . Die Kunst des Mittelalters. it would seem. The conjunction of multiple styles in the building was handsomely resolved. separated by only forty years. 1910). much as was done in the earlier Cathedral at Cefalù. In Sicily. only the three apses are vaulted.Monreale Cathedral and Cloister 81 Cathedral. p. nave antique columns in the Corinthian order support Muslim pointed arches. A comparison of the Cathedrals of Cefalù and Monreale.
Old Testament scenes are illustrated in two registers on the upper walls of the nave above a richly ornamental frieze of angel busts. A. S. 1974. The aisles and the ceiling show Muslim inﬂuence in the way they are painted. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Die Kunst der Mittelalters. ﬂuting. Messare . who cheerfully describes the columns’ “fanciful motifs— scroll-work. The intricacy of their ornamentation excited Kenneth J. MILAN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1967–1972 Architects: Carlo Aymonino. GALLARATESE. K. It was the destiny of Sicily to juxtapose. Above the image of the Virgin Mary. citizen of Pisa) created the beautiful central bronze door in 1186. The cloisters help to evoke the charms of Norman Sicily. Inside the church. David Talbot. Twenty-ﬁve Muslim pointed arches in each portico are carried by twin columns. and Max Semrau. chevrons. but the way in which they cover such huge expanses of wall surface raises them to the ﬁrst rank in their overall disposition. and compare the different forms of art—from the East (Byzantine). CT: Yale University Press. MONTE AMIATA HOUSING. and the North (Pisa)—that converged on the island. Rice. 1968. Aymonino. Esslingen am Neckar: P.82 Monte Amiata Housing architectural imagination and engineering discoveries evidenced in monuments built earlier in the century. the glittering. the South (Muslim). combine. Bonnanus civis pisanus (Bonnanus. Aldo Rossi. Wilhelm. J. The mosaics of Monreale are of a lesser quality than those of the Palatine Chapel in Palermo. Byzantine Art. a colossal half-ﬁgure of Christ. The aisles and crossing are dedicated to the life of Christ. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. Ruler of the Universe. Luebke. de Rossi. Neff. The cloister on the south side of the church fuses the numerous styles in a most brilliant manner. Further Reading Conant. 361). Conant. dominates the apse. reﬂective Byzantine-inspired mosaics that cover most of the upper surfaces subordinate three-dimensional ornament as well as the mass of the walls to the splendor of the spaces. New Haven. 1910. spiral bands and mosaics” (Conant 1974. M.
decks. but it now ﬂourishes with proud and satisﬁed inhabitants. recalled the experiments conducted in the ﬁfties by a group of modern architects called Team X. in 1974. For them. The apparent simplicity of arrangement is complemented by a series of events: passages. a slab block of apartments at Marseilles of bold concrete expression. and an outdoor theater to manifest its urban identity. its architects. “Red Dinosaur” describes both the color of the buildings—that Italian mixture of Bordeaux. and blue so fashionable in the seventies—and the oddity of its appearance. Team X included open-air decks. which they proposed as models for contemporary planning. a long three-story building. but its initial years were disastrous because Communist League groups forced homeless people to move in. covers a parking facility. and the blocks converge on a central core dominated by an outdoor theater painted yellow. a kind of alternative model for the city of the future. Subsequently. were well-known for their studies of urban morphology and earlier forms of urbanism. a two-story connecting structure. It began as a utopia. when the visitor ﬁrst enters. a building on its own had little interest unless it was part of an urban complex. the complex was deserted. They had accepted as a model Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation. and bridges. having become a collection of antagonistic fragments— industries. By providing a feeling of simplicity and points of reference. and the group of structures seems to converge into a single building of large shape standing on a long terrace that. It is a group of ﬁve buildings: two slabs of eight stories. Monte Amiata does not resemble any other housing in the area.Monte Amiata Housing 83 daring experiment in public housing. but they wanted to improve it. and terraces. introduced variety in details. and connected isolated buildings into a uniﬁed design in order to restore the social identity of an urban district. to patio houses and duplex apartments—was part of the utopian task. which provide variety in the pedestrian’s walk through the project. shops. and a ﬁnal threestory slab block. arising from the enormous size of the apartment blocks. shopping centers. Of course. which provided its own system of connections via decks. elevators. Simplicity also means unity. the contemporary city had long since lost its unity. two triangular piazzas help alleviate any confusion. terraces. grey. old core businesses and commercial buildings. intersections of freeways. The splendid ﬂexibility of shape given by Aymonino and his co-designers— 440 dwellings of various sizes ranging from studios. When it was designed. In fact. the “Red Dinosaur” of via Chilea in the recent northwest extension of Milan has had much international success among architects. The new concept of the city that emerged in Monte Amiata. the Monte Amiata project continues to project an air of well-organized living. in actuality. and housing. This grouping creates a varied skyline. bridges. Not only was the housing A . Carlo Aymonino and Aldo Rossi. Thirty years after it was built (between 1967 and 1972). Monte Amiata Housing is a sort of microcosm of a city. Monte Amiata had to be one of these fragments with some sort of mixed activities. communal facilities.
. A daring experiment in public housing that ﬂourishes with proud and satisﬁed inhabitants. Milan.Monte Amiata Housing Project.
Tokyo: ADA Edita. P. Aymonino relied on two main elements of modern architecture: from Le Corbusier’s housing in Marseilles he retained the balconies hollowed out from the mass of the building and from Chareau’s Maison de Verre in Paris he took the glass-block walls.Monte Amiata Housing 85 complex a fragment of the city of tomorrow. Rossi playfully rejoins the classical but austere idiom of Terragni. Nicolin. it was also conceived as a social place for modest inhabitants to live and interact with their neighbors. Rossi works against history by mixing industrial concrete construction with simple masonry: one wall section is made of concrete while six other intermediary sections are masonry. Occupied by the homeless as a protest as soon as it was ﬁnished. but in a sense he was inﬂuenced by the principles of historical realism. the architects minutely considered details characteristic of traditional Italian craftsmanship. But its social function remains. All the elements of the building (walls. modernized. and windows) are structural. . With a feeling of pure realism. but it was politically advanced in terms of land ownership and use of space and advanced with respect to 1970s building technology. way. Further Reading Housing Prototypes. The absolute repetition of identical windows and bays creates an unusual building that is both monumental and ordinary and which is tricky to categorize historically. and identiﬁes his architecture with the 1930s. primitive. Carlo Aymonino. but they are treated in an archetypal. Aymonino. The Architecture of the City. 1984. Rossi. Monte Amiata Housing in the Gallaratese District conceals behind its appealing aspects much of the bitter discussion about Italian architecture and its relation to history that took place in the seventies. 1977. Critics in Italian architecture magazines debated the qualities of Monte Amiata during the early seventies.org/project?File_No=ITA021. bringing them to life. MA: MIT Press. and C. that is.Org: http://housingprototypes. Monte Amiata was eventually turned into a middle-class condominium by the municipality. The most distinguished part of the complex was the smaller slab built to the side of one of the taller buildings by the architect-urban historian Aldo Rossi. indispensable for construction. Aldo Rossi: Housing Complex at the Gallaratese Quarter. in a sense. Cambridge. Avoiding prefabrication of elements. lintels.. It was thought by some to be too monumental and too disruptive of commonly held urban principles. Rossi confessed that in his design he was imitating de Chirico’s paintings of the thirties and. Aldo. which they contained within a modular structural frame with a bay size of 11 feet 10 inches.
in Orvieto. as the huge cathedrals at Siena. and Milan make clear. ORVIETO Style: Gothic Dates: 1290–1330. some sort of agreement had to be reached before the old church could be replaced. Meanwhile. The will of the chapter prevailed.and fourteenthcentury Italy because the size of a community’s major church was as much a matter of civic pride as religious devotion. Inﬂuenced by the mendicant orders. Francesco Monaldeschi was made Bishop of Florence in 1295. façade late sixteenth century Architects: Fra Benvegnate da Gubbio. Because the chapter was responsible for two-thirds of the new cathedral and the bishop for only one. In the meantime. the communal government instituted the magistracy of the Seven Lords (Signori Sette. In 1290. there he immediately demolished the old cathedral of Santa Reparata and started work on the huge Gothic cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore with Arnolfo di Cambio as architect. which he believed would allow his community to build a cathedral of grandiose proportions. Giovanni Uguizzonis. which included representatives of both the nobles and the common A .86 Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary) ORVIETO CATHEDRAL (CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION OF VIRGIN MARY). the foundations for the nave and aisles of a very large basilica were begun. 1295– 1313). Bishop Francesco’s plans were opposed by the Cathedral Chapter. Its members were conservative nobles who held traditional opinions about the appropriate form of the new church. Bishop Francesco Monaldeschi (elected 1279) was a member of one of the most powerful families of Orvieto and was the motivating power behind the decision to build the new church. They seem to have favored Early Christian precedents. speciﬁcally the Dominicans and Franciscans. They agreed to the total removal of all their buildings as well as the old church to make way for the construction of the new cathedral with the stipulation that the building be modeled on the basilican church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Competition among the communes of central Italy was ﬁerce. Florence. Bishop Francesco favored the “modern” Gothic style of architecture. the Umbrian hill town of Orvieto was so prosperous that it was able to replace its ruinous old cathedral with one of the marvels of medieval architecture. Lorenzo Maitani t the end of the thirteenth century. Scale was an important factor in thirteenth.
.Orvieto Cathedral. The vast ﬁelds of mosaic decoration on the highly ornamented façade were paid for by the proud citizens of the city.
In a “radically incarnational” movement (John Fleming). has frescoes by Fra Angelico. On the side of the north transept is the Capella del Corporale (1350–1356) that contains the relic of the Miracle of Bolsena. worked for more than a century to complete it. that biblical art should not be relegated to monastic cloisters but instead should be moved out into the heart of the city itself. The people of Orvieto revealed their public pride by being willing to pay for the vast ﬁelds of mosaic decoration on their church. which were roofed with Gothic cross-ribbed vaults. Mosaic work cost four times that of fresco decoration. used in mosaic fabrication and to dedicate a special room for assembling them. the Capella Nuova (1406–1425). the overall impression of the façade is one of absolute ﬂatness. Orvieto’s “open . much in the manner of modern mass media. it was taken as a sign of the validity of the Eucharist and of the Corpus Christi Celebration. expresses a new strategy of illustrating and revealing biblical narratives for a huge audience. but numerous sculptors. Although the portals are recessed. Traditional sculpture is limited to single ﬁgures of prophets from the ﬁfteenth century placed mainly around the rose window. also called the Capella di San Brizio. This is the linen cloth stained with the blood of the Host used by a priest who doubted transubstantiation in Bolsena in 1263. Benozzo Gozzoli.88 Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary) people. The city felt obliged to build a furnace for making the tesserae. The addition of two chapels and the choir lengthened the transepts. the small glass cubes. The ﬂatness of the Orvieto façade is typical of the Italian preference for two-dimensional church façades that was continuous from the Early Christian period. This new governmental body took control of the building of the cathedral. directed to the socially and psychologically concerned worshippers. the Life of Christ. a large circular window that dominates the façade. The planar surface of the façade is a backdrop for representations of religious revelations. and there is a ring of niches and a gallery. The triple gabled façade of the cathedral. put forward by the Franciscan Order. Financial documents from the years between 1321 and 1390 preserve a detailed picture of the fabrication and installation of the mosaics. some from the workshop of Giovanni Pisano. and Luca Signorelli. mosaics that are visible from a distance. When the host appeared to shed the blood of Christ during the mass. On the south side. They were restored in the sixteenth century and again in the twentieth. and the Last Judgment were given artistic form on the front of the church with the direct pedagogic intention of spreading the doctrines of the church. narratives from the Old and New Testaments. Its tools for this are mainly two: a vast expanse of panels sculpted in low relief with narrative subjects at the base and. The mosaics were fragile and needed constant maintenance. In contrast to this conservative element in the façade is the “modern” idea. The design of the façade is attributed to Lorenzo Maitani. Specialists from Venice were brought to Orvieto to carry out the work. The use of mosaic decoration on the façade of the church presented problems as well as great satisfaction for the cathedral builders. above these. which is topped by sharp Gothic pinnacles.
Antonio Nervi.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 53 (1994): 300–321. Lucio. He resisted conventional solutions. and mathematically advanced. Rosatelli. preliminary plan. TURIN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1960–1961 Architects: Pier Luigi Nervi. Gino Covre he Palace of Labor. The Cathedral of Orvieto: Faith. His sense of economy and desire to ﬁt the building to the very conditions of the program gave his practice a strong sense of moral integrity. he had to be involved in every detail from the beginning of the design until the moment of realization. was quickly nicknamed the “Concrete Parthenon. he was T . Mediaeval Orvieto: The Political History of an Italian City-State 1157– 1334. which is obvious in his primary works in Italy. an exhibition hall built in Turin by P. Rome and Bari: Laterza. he was inspired to give them the ﬂuidity of Gothic rib-and-panel vaulting.Palace of Labor 89 book façade” is an example of an original use of relief sculpture and colorful mosaic. 1988. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eraldo. D. Nervi (1891– 1979) and his son Antonio with the help of Gino Covre. even considered them a creative failure. which create a strong contrast to the severe black-and-white masonry of the rest of the cathedral. In designing the shapes of the ribs supporting the roof of the Palace of Labor. the Exhibition Hall B in Turin (1947–1949) and the two Palaces of Sport in Rome (1956–1957 and 1958–1959). Daniel P. Riccetti.000 square feet) and its absolute regularity—the 75-foot-tall concrete columns are spaced 130 feet apart—celebrate a return to classicism by an audacious engineer. Waley. for example. The church itself affords a startling view of the changing architectural concerns of fourteenth-century Italy. Literature. M.” Its size (580. Nervi’s ideas came from discussions with his clients. 2000. Nervi had to go beyond an architect’s or an engineer’s abstract. PALACE OF LABOR. Nervi had always expressed structure in a novel and imaginary way. L. From 1960 to 1962. Art. “The Evolution of the Design of Orvieto Cathedral. Further Reading Gillerman. Il duomo di Orvieto. clearly reasoned. Perugia: Quattroemme. but execution of those ideas demanded that he translate his sense of structure into such mundane things as formwork for the concrete. 1952. Nervi’s fame was based on his curiosity about structural engineering and his imaginative creations.
90 Palace of Labor involved in building the George Washington Bus Station in Manhattan that still serves more than 700 buses each day. Nervi believed that the building could be transformed into an industrial school after serving as an exhibition hall for the Turin exhibition.” Photo by Remy Rouyer. Nervi’s modern classicism is reﬂected in the nickname given to this building—the “Concrete Parthenon. The hall of the Palace of Labor required neutral. However. the time allotted for building the palace was extremely limited—only seventeen months. . Turin. he advocated a universal space not very different from Mies van der Rohe’s buildings such as Crown Hall at the The Palace of Labor. open spaces. Nervi reduced the program to its essentials.
Jr. The only connection between the small peripheral structures and the huge umbrella-like compartments of the roof is provided by huge glass wall panels. slightly curved vertical mullions. umbrella-like forms that spread to support an area 125 feet square and carry a roof that measures 520 feet by 520 feet.Palatine Chapel 91 Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago (1950–1956). Because they must deal with expansion and contraction in the roof. PALATINE CHAPEL. 75 feet above the ﬂoor. were necessary for functional reasons. and G. P. All the rooﬁng compartments (the umbrellas) are independent. Positano. Three months (30 July to October 30) were required for the construction of the roof and the two levels of mezzanines on the periphery of the hall. decoration 1140–1183 Architect: Unknown . it was too pure. Nervi’s return to classicism—or to Mies van der Rohe’s classicist modernism—was for him an indispensable premise because he believed that correct technique was the only basis for architectonic beauty. They leave the central space between the sixteen main columns free and make a ring around the periphery. Pier Luigi Nervi. Freedom of space—inspired by Mies van der Rohe—is enhanced. Zurich: Patmos Verlag. In the Palace of Labor. allowing the ribs supporting the concrete slab of the roof to give a sense of motion. Each square steel “umbrella” supported by the columns is composed of twenty ribs. 1982. Their rigidity is ensured by splendid. This change in the geometry of the columns expresses a constant modiﬁcation of two opposed forms. supported on independent columns. The cross section of the columns changes progressively from an X-shape at the bottom to a circle at the top.. Although it was a precedent for Nervi. These mezzanines. that was part Nervi’s structural sensitivity. sixteen gigantic columns support steel-ribbed. L. P. Nervi. a meandering movement of great reﬁnement. PALERMO Style: Romanesque Dates: 1130–1140. NORMAN PALACE. the glass sheets have sufﬁcient mobility so that they will not be broken. The Palace of Labor follows the rules of modern architecture in that it distinguishes small-scale elements from the large and monumental. Further Reading Desideri. separated by 6½ feet wide glass slots.. too simple to be as functional as Nervi wished. the cross and circle.
. the Normans expelled the Muslims and developed a magniﬁcent culture that was a mixture of Byzantine. There. Byzantine. 228. Palermo. “Northmen” (Norsemen) from Scandinavia who had settled in the part of France now called Normandy moved abroad. p. Palatine Chapel in the Norman Palace. They invaded southern Italy and took over as lords of Puglia and Sicily. The Norman lord called William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066. Esslingen. The interior shows the mixing of Muslim. Muslim. Norman. on the very edge of Christian civilization. and Norman styles (archival photograph from W. and Latin traditions. Luebke. Die Kunst des Mittelalters. 1910). the lesser lords belonging to the Hauteville family were even more adventurous than William.92 Palatine Chapel D uring the tenth century. From author’s collection.
The Zisa. The ﬂoor has an ornamental pattern of colored cut stone. Its decoration. Due west of the city. Facing the altar. well connected to the Royal Apartments. and basins. is the Palatine Chapel. a podium for a throne is accessible by ﬁve steps. is typical of the cultural inventiveness of Norman Sicily. In 1072. were the Royal Apartments (“Joharia”) joined to the dwelling quarters of the women. a marble veneer frame. The palace was a polygon.” or as representations of paradise on earth. The chapel was consecrated on April 28. facing the city. The coronation of Roger II in 1130 was marked by a royal donation for the chapel. where the marble altar is located. the palace was a mile away from the harbor but linked to it by the Cassaro. Scibene. which had been the Muslim capital city since 831. Norman culture developed in three stages. the Norman rulers built a number of pleasure pavilions referred to by contemporaries as “jewels embellishing a woman of splendid beauty. from the opposite end of the nave. and Cuba Soprano were inspired by Saracen residences with lavish interiors and gardens ornamented with fountains. 500 feet across. the chapel has a basilican plan with a nave separated from ﬂanking aisles by reused antique columns. to the north. The third stage was a late blooming during the reign of the two kings named William (1154–1195). performed the liturgy under a dome that covered the crossing of the church. that includes a burial chamber. 1140. It is a product of the cultural mixing characteristic of medieval Sicily and of the Norman court ritual. The Palatium Novum (the New Palace) was built between two inhabitable towers: the Torre Greca to the south and the Torre Pisana. and a strict court ritual required the arrangement of rooms of increasing luxury from south to north. The chapel is built over a lower church. The court was separated from the city. Cuba Sottana.Palatine Chapel 93 The Hautevilles had begun their conquest of Sicily in 1061. In the center of the Norman Palace. Eight canons. In the center. William I obtained a settlement from Pope Adrian IV in 1156 that led to the rapid Latinization of Sicilian culture. which contained the state treasury. a street conceived as the backbone of the city. The power of the Norman kings brought about major changes in Palermo. They moved the royal palace from the shore to a distant hillside inland from which they could control Palermo’s urban life and society. the Kemonnia and the Papireto. First (the Country of Sicily) was an experimental phase that combined elements of different origins. later increased to twelve. or crypt. Second (the Kingdom of Sicily. Outside Palermo in the countryside. called Cosmati work after a Roman family who . Accused of dictatorship and the abuse of authority. they made a triumphal entrance into Palermo. established in 1130) was a brilliant period of connections to Fatimid Egypt and the Maghreb (North Africa). a transept with dome at the crossing and a small raised cylindrical choir. which was built on a former fortress of the Islamic period called the Mo’ashar. It increased the prestige of the kings by its liturgical furnishings and the beauty of its decorations. A little more than 110 feet long. canals. reached by four steps. It stood between the valleys of two diverted streams.
The mixing of cultures in medieval Sicily was signiﬁcant of progress in art and architecture in the Middle Ages. T. PALAZZO DEI PRIORI. Dittelbach. and D. was a Byzantineinspired ﬁgure of the enthroned Christ between Saints Peter and Paul. under a stalactite ceiling of Muslim derivation. As a crossroads city. occupies numerous hilltops overlooking the Tiber River Valley. The Lower Church of the Palermo’s Palatine Chapel. Commercial facilities and its location made it an important community beginning in the eleventh century. which were more efﬁcient to build than northern vaults because of their thinness. Above the podium. the liturgical furnishings such as the pulpit and candlesticks and the Cosmati work combined to create a stupendously rich church interior. those in Sicily were able to give their churches a new sense of lightness. Kunselsau. While the Normans in France and England created the ribbed cross vault. K. New Haven. J. The eclecticism of the decoration. PERUGIA Style: Gothic Dates: 1300–1443 Architect: Unknown erugia. Further Reading Conant. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. There are also stucco panels. and leather products. The city attracted numbers of peasants who P . repetitive colorful mosaic patterns. They reused antique columns and they spanned distances with the light construction of the ogee (reverse-curve) arches. Sack. an ancient city founded by the Etruscans (see Augustus Gate). The thirteenth century was particularly prosperous as the citizens of Perugia produced artisanal goods and manufactured wool. 2005. it developed market and ﬁnancial facilities. and segmental arches of Moorish origin. The dome over the crossing of the Palatine Chapel was built according to Byzantine tradition.94 Palazzo dei Priori specialized in this type of decoration. PIAZZA GRANDE (PLATEA COMUNIS). CT: Yale University Press. It was a meeting point between Florence to the north and Rome to the south as well as between the Adriatic ports of Ancona and Grosseto on the Tyrrhenian Sea.. cotton. 1974. the shimmering light reﬂected by the mosaics. which was economical and ensured the safety of the church.
By 1315. is the main square between the cathedral and the city hall. Andrea and Giovanni Pisano. A system of triangles (as at Milan Cathedral) determined the ground pattern and the positions of the surrounding buildings. designed the fountain with two rings of sculpted panels to provide interest and attract viewers from all sides. combined in an unusual relationship that gave a sense of ﬂexibility to the urban space. By the middle of the fourteenth century. but rivalry between classes and organizations put an end to any hope of attaining democratic order. the most important of which was the formidable Palace of the Priors. built in 1278. or Prior’s Palace. Perugia was an independent commune until the fourteenth century when. Both classes built a great number of towers in the town that were like the tower houses in San Gimignano. Perugia may have counted more than 100 tower houses. after considerable warfare. or Franciscans. stood in the square where it symbolically reunited the rival seats of Church and municipal power. The cathedral offered the protection of the local Saint Ercolano to the people of Perugia and the mayor’s power quickly disappeared allowing the Priors to secure full political power. which gave the city a skyscraper skyline. the city’s guilds (organizations of artisans and craftsmen) participated in the municipal government. These monasteries were surrounded by large groups of the poor and a strong municipal government was required to bring order to the problems posed by these disparate social classes. It had both straight and curved façades. it was forced to recognize papal authority and was included in Saint Peter’s Patrimony. Water for the fountain was brought through an aqueduct from distant springs but it was polluted. with the help of Fra Benvignate. or mayor. with its crenellated rooﬂine and great meeting room. The space of the square around the fountain had all the key components of late medieval urban design. At ﬁrst. A fountain. now commonly called the Piazza Grande. which contained one bay of the former Notary’s Hall. These rural nobles were in conﬂict with the local rising bourgeoisie. Convents of the mendicant orders (the grey friars. a new wall around these areas doubled the length of the old Etruscan fortiﬁcations from two miles to four. whose members were required to live by begging for alms) grew up in a part of the city called “terra nova” (new land) as opposed to the “terra vecchia” (the old city center). The growing prosperity of Perugia caused the extension of the old city core into ﬁve suburbs that grew up on the surrounding hilltops. The Platea Comunis. enveloped the square with the . One faction in the commune tried to develop the symbolic power of the Roman Catholic Church by building a new cathedral and to create a rupture between the Priors in the town hall and the Podesta. Two sculptors. The wall of houses opposite the palace. the piazza was formed in the fourteenth century as a space that was to be used by the whole community.Palazzo dei Priori 95 sold their agricultural produce and was also a magnet for the small or intermediate rural nobility searching for a new urban lifestyle. and the Dominicans. As its name Comunis suggests.
The Fontana Maggiore (Great Fountain) stands in the Piazza between the cathedral and the Palazzo as a symbol of the reunited rival seats of the Church and the municipal power.Palazzo dei Priori. Perugia. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). .
Small elements. The villa would be square. or Te. In 1526. 1981. The. Raphael’s most respected student. Federico Gonzaga requested that Giulio provide a model of a villa based on ancient Roman precedent. The western façade of the villa block was only completed in 1530–1534. a designer of silverware and other courtly objects. with a central courtyard measuring 145 feet on each side. and an architect. PALAZZO DEL TE. to remodel the old stables on the island that housed the Gonzaga’s famous race horses. Raphael and Michelangelo. imagination. MANTUA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1524–1534 Architect: Giulio Romano F or a grassy island named Teieto. Ottorino. the duke asked Giulio Romano.” the Roman concept of relaxation away from the cares of duty. courtliness. provided access to the apartments as well as the courtyard. Rome and Bari: Laterza. Instead of unity and clarity. a combination of activities that was not unusual for ﬁfteenth and sixteenth century artists. Alberto. Giulio Pipi (1499–1546)—whose Roman origins motivated the change of his last name to Romano. Gurrieri. Further Reading Grohmann. provide a good idea of the consistency of medieval urban design. Perugia. 1985. II Palazzo dei Priori di Perugia. “the Roman”—was a painter. They sought to rival the Renaissance giants. it was necessary for the Mannerists to exhibit self-control. Le città nella storia d’Italia. Rather. and design. such as the Prior’s staircase and the tribune supplied for public oratory.” It was not an entirely new building. Three entrance halls. each one different from the others. Perugia’s Platea Comunis remains one of the most appreciated landmarks of urban Italy. However. in 1524. by mastering difﬁculty of invention. a style of art that convoluted and played with the Humanist values of the Renaissance. which the Romans called “negotium. at the same time.Palazzo del Te 97 same undulation. outside the city walls of Mantua. Giulio was one of the ﬁnest practitioners of Mannerism. Duke Federico Gonzaga II commissioned a villa designed around “otium. . Mannerist artists aimed at diversity and complexity. and a sense of humor that was typical of aristocratic behavior in the overreﬁned courts of the sixteenth century. and urban activities. business. Perugia: Benucci.
On one courtyard façade. Giulio introduced conﬂict. intellectually reﬁned. the Doric. Mantua. .98 Palazzo del Te Palazzo del Te. Various degrees of rustication—from Albertian delicacy in the north façade to the heavy. the courtyard. In some of the Doric friezes. unﬁnished-looking roughness in the courtyard—preclude any sense of unity among the wall elevations. Stables for the horses and a wall ﬂanked the garden esplanade and in a corner at the far end was a fantastic bathhouse decorated as a grotto. resembling a moat. and artiﬁciality into the designs of the façades. instability. in anticipation of a visit by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of the House of Habsburg. Although the plan of the Palazzo del Te is based on a Roman suburban villa and uses the simplest of the orders. A rectangular ﬁshpond. Here. the keystones over the windows are displaced upward and seem to break apart the cornices of the pediments over them. there are triglyphs that have slipped down leaving an empty space above—a detail perhaps suggested by the shifting of masonry in the ruins of Roman buildings that were familiar to Giulio from having been raised in the historic center of Rome. the Mannerist paradoxes are unmistakable. separated the main block of the building from the garden and was crossed by a bridge on the line of the axis. for its decoration. The villa opened to the east with a long axial view through loggias. This sense of provocative irregularity is found throughout the building and must have been a major factor in its originality and of the allure it exercised on the members of the highly stylized. and artiﬁcial courts of the sixteenth century. The west side of the courtyard shows Giulio Romano’s subversive play with classical rules and details. and the garden that terminated in a ﬁnal colonnaded loggia (replaced in the eighteenth century).
Pierluigi and several other children were born to Alessandro before he entered religious orders. and impressive wood ceilings. Further Reading Hartt. Tafuri. that some day the Palazzo del Te. called the “rocca. three preliminary designs have been preserved. or second. the drawings show a design that preserves the pentagonal shape of the fortress and its bastions at each of the ﬁve corners and creates a round multistoried courtyard. The architect has presented us with a difﬁcult work that provides a moment of stability in a world of impending disorder. Giulio Romano. The ruin expressed in this room and the details on the exterior suggest other possible interpretations: ﬁrst. stuccowork. The themes are Roman imperial and mythological. T . Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger. where every inch of wall. Most famous of all is the “Sala dei Giganti. with an aura of pagan sensuality and sexuality that is appropriate for this luxurious playground for Federico. Berry. Manfredo.) In 1530. his mistress. 1958. At this time. PALAZZO FARNESE. Il Vignola (Jacopo Barozzi) he hilltop village of Caprarola and its fortress became part of the extensive Farnese possessions in northern Lazio in 1504.” the Room of the Giants. and ﬂoor is incorporated into a single panorama that depicts Jupiter’s destruction of the Giants who tried to storm Mount Olympus and usurp his power. 1556–1575 Architects: Baldassare Peruzzi. and his honored guests. 1999.” was selected as the place where a grandiose residence for the Farnese family would be built. ed. that the instability of the architecture reveals both human ingenuity in building and the ultimate fate of history. Attributed to either Baldassare Peruzzi or Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger. when Alessandro was elected Pope. CAPRAROLA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1530–1534. will return to ruin. Cardinal Alessandro (1468–1549). ceiling. Frederick. Translated by F.Palazzo Farnese 99 The interior of the Palazzo del Te is ornately decorated with paintings. Construction of the building was halted in 1534. in fact. New Haven. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. too. had amassed great tracts of land north of Rome and passed them on to his son Pierluigi. Leading architects from Rome were engaged in the project. Giulio Romano. the site of the old fortress at Caprarola. who became Pope Paul III in 1534. CT: Yale University Press. (Although a pope is supposed to be celibate.
the palazzo was nearly complete. The foremost late-Renaissance architect in Rome. known as Vignola. Jacopo Barozzi. but ﬁnishing and decorating it took two more years. The palazzo. and its dominating position overlooking the town and countryside. At the top of the ascent. The approach to the Palazzo Farnese is a sequence of spaces of elaborate beauty. a vast triangular space—the “piazza avanti del palazzo”— opened to the view of the main façade and its bastions. The approach to the Palazzo is a sequence of spaces of elaborate beauty beginning in the town below and culminating in the grand entry. was favored by the Cardinal who engaged him to turn the earlier design into an elegant residence situated between a vast expanse of terraced park and a radical revision of the town plan of Caprarola (called “The Farnesian Plan of Caprarola Nova”). . where it joined the street. A pair of curving Palazzo Farnese. construction of the palazzo was resumed in 1556 on behalf of the nephew of Paul III. its lavish stucco and painted decoration. 400 feet in front of the palazzo. By Vignola’s death in 1573. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese the Younger. This necessitated the expropriation of many old houses that were rebuilt with façades adapted to late Renaissance designs.100 Palazzo Farnese only the ﬁrst story had been built but it was sufﬁcient to determine the design of the future palazzo. Vignola’s plan for Caprarola Nova included the construction of a straight street. with its commodious interior distribution. provided the entrance to the three-tiered piazza. After more than twenty years of inactivity.500 feet long that climbed 150 feet upward to the residence. would commemorate of the glory of the Farnese family. 2. whose levels are connected by staircases. A set of stairs at the apex of the triangle. Caprarola. which would retain the form of the pentagon with a circle inscribed into its center.
Geometry symbolized power and order. which had been built in 1508–1511 for the Chigi family but had been bought by Alessandro Farnese. 1996. Rome: MultiGraﬁca Editrice 1986. For the central part of this ﬂoor. and a pair of large square garden terraces behind. Vignola reduced the height of the bastions at the corners of the pentagonal palace so that their roofs are at the height of the piano nobile (the American second story. The interior of the palazzo demonstrates Vignola’s attention to commodious design as well as his concern for references to earlier architecture.Palazzo Sanfelice 101 staircases sweeps up to a ﬂat terrace accessible to carriages from which another pair of staircases with straight runs lead up to the entry to the palace. Caprarola. With its three tall. Architecture in Italy. CT: Yale University Press. but the main ﬂoor of an Italian palazzo) and turned them into terraces. probably inspired by Peruzzi’s design of 1530. Wolfgang. However. Paolo. A penchant for geometrical obsession governed the design of Caprarola with its pentagonal palace. and Giulia Petrucci. Portoghesi. but he replaced Bramante’s single Doric columns with pairs of them and included illusionistic paintings of landscape views that appear to penetrate the surrounding walls like windows. the rational order of the Palazzo Farnese is also indicative of the new capacity of sixteenth-century architecture to refashion a difﬁcult topography and exploit its aesthetic possibilities. triangular square in front. Further Reading Guidoni. Vignola was clearly referring to Bramante’s famous Belvedere “Lumaca” (snail shell) staircase built in 1512. NAPLES Style: Baroque Dates: 1725–1728 Architect: Ferdinando Sanfelice . the antinatural strategy of imposing order onto disorderly nature could very well be understood as a means of glorifying—and making visible— the power of the Farnese family. elaborately decorated stories. Rome: Graﬁche Manfredi. Lotz. 1500–1600. New Haven. and D. The round central courtyard. Caprarola. Vignola adapted the loggia Peruzzi had designed for the Villa Farnesina in Rome. above the entry to the palace. Howard. Thus. circular courtyard. An elegantly detailed spiral staircase connects the winter apartments on the ground ﬂoor with the reception rooms on the piano nobile. the palazzo dwarfs the neighboring houses below on the square. 1995. had two stories of galleries beautifully adapted to the formal geometry of the circle. Enrico. PALAZZO SANFELICE.
Servants and stables occupied the ground ﬂoor of a Neapolitan palazzo. were much in demand. but the Austrian administration was not interested in the problems of urban development. Naples. The scenographic open double staircase in the courtyard.000. the Neapolitan palazzo became a major feature of the labyrinthine city.000 to 400. . The Spanish monarchy lost control of the Kingdom of Naples under the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. which surrounded a central courtyard. or piano nobile). Scenographic effects supplied intricacies and surprises in moving through the palazzo. On the third ﬂoor. During this period of transformation. N Palazzo Sanfelice. such as Ferdinando Sanfelice (1675–1748). as one of the most important European capital cities. Between 1714 and 1755. the horses and numerous carriages kept there reﬂected the wealth of the owner and his continuous peregrination from city house to country estate.102 Palazzo Sanfelice aples’ mild climate and a strong and consistent Baroque tradition in the arts during the seventeenth century explain the ﬂowering of architectural inventiveness that occurred there at the beginning of the eighteenth century. whose sublime setting was one of its main attractions. Ostentation and luxury were major concerns of the Neapolitan nobility and creative architects. open balconies. which contrasted to the stupendous luxury and formality of the public reception rooms. and an Austrian viceroy installed at Naples supported the ﬂow of northern European inﬂuence between 1713 and 1734. Loggias. and spectacular staircases occupied as much as half the main ﬂoor (the second story. the Neapolitan population doubled from 200. a sense of intimacy was provided for the family in their private apartment.
On restricted sites. From the landing at the top of the central lower ﬂight of stairs. It occupies 280. which provided views. where. became typical of most Neapolitan palaces. near Linz. dividing the four levels into ﬁfteen space-units ﬂooded with light coming from the garden side. pairs of ﬂights lead up on either side to doorways in apartments across from each other. in 1738.000 cubic feet in the largest room in the palace. The eight-sided courtyard of number 2 has two spiral staircases that combine their unusual geometry into a uniﬁed mirror image labyrinth. On via Arena della Sanita. which measures only 64 by 48 feet. Sanfelice designed a huge double staircase that opens at its far end as a transparent element that frames views of the orange and palm trees growing in the back garden. From the landings in front of the doors further pairs of stairs inserted in the bay behind the ﬁrst set lead up to another landing and another central ﬂight. the Spanish king Charles III had created a suburban residence. In 1709. The inﬂuence of Austrian architecture provides an interesting background to the creation of the Neapolitan staircase. The grey tones of the walls play against the white of the marble steps to express the drama of the unexpected position of the ﬂight of stairs. Sanfelice was able to retain many of these innovative ideas even though at a much smaller scale. This complex double staircase expresses the ingenuity of Sanfelice’s design. The Palazzo Sanfelice is a good introduction to the sumptuous staircases of the Neapolitan palazzi of the eighteenth century. at numbers 2 and 6. wealthy traders. Jakob Prandtauer (1662– 1726) built an open staircase of grand design for the abbey of Sankt Florian. The new Vergini and Sanita districts offered easy access to the summit of Capodimonte. which gives access to the apartments on each side of it. In the main courtyard of number 6. A model of this type may have inﬂuenced Sanfelice. Heavy pillars support these sets of ascending and descending stairs. The Viennese architect Lukas von Hildebrandt also designed a scenographic staircase for the residence at Pommersfelden (1715–1719). the middle class and nobility abandoned the old city center and built new districts outside the walls on the hills to the north and to the west. and terraced hills. Here even the somewhat less afﬂuent homebuilders could organize residences in less congested areas than in the old city. The surprises it creates combine with a sense of the picturesque and an overall organization that recalls a stage set. The ﬁfteen-unit design of staircases in these buildings with their three layers of space created a sense of spatial expansion that gave the same illusion of . three to ﬁve levels of apartments were built over ﬁrst ﬂoor shops and storage areas. gardens.Palazzo Sanfelice 103 To escape the crowded living conditions inside the fortiﬁcations of the city. The Neapolitan architect Ferdinando Sanfelice was a successful set designer who also designed churches and the luxurious palazzi required by the rising middle class. he designed a double palazzo for his own family residence. This kind of double staircase. His inﬂuence can also be seen when. after an earthquake. some of noble extraction. were obliged to restore houses on urban lots near the main shopping districts in the center of Naples.
now called the Palazzo Vecchio or Old Palace. 1999. R. 1600–1750. The new government under the Medici was based on authoritarian principles and the supervision of economic life and its control by a centralized administration. the Palazzo Vecchio. CT: Yale University Press. 1999. All the wit of urban creation is expressed by the Neapolitan staircases. Giorgio Vasari he Prior’s Palace. Arnolfo di Cambio was a talented planner who helped to give form to municipal Florence in the fourteenth century.104 Palazzo Vecchio depth. Two centuries of political unrest. rooms were distributed around a courtyard. Inside. the Palazzo Vecchio. connect two different periods of Florentine history. and its sixteenth-century extension the Ufﬁzi. FLORENCE Style: Gothic. et al. Napoli. Wittkower. Art and Architecture in Italy. 4th ed. giving it a military appearance with battlements 140 feet above the ground. la Città nella Storia d’Italia. Cesare. literally the Ofﬁces. which remained a symbol of the communal achievement of the fourteenth century. New Haven. guilds. Further Reading De Seta. the same impression of increased dimensions. the building of the Ufﬁzi and the remodeling of the Palazzo Vecchio by Vasari expressed the great difference of government imposed by the absolutism of the sixteenth century. and religious orders and designed the seat of political life. were concluded by a change in government when absolute power was given to Cosimo de’ Medici in 1537. Mannerist Dates: 1298–1572 Architects: Arnolfo di Cambio. during which power alternated between the great merchants and the famous bankers. to the courtyard as the similar solution Sanfelice used in his own house. PALAZZO VECCHIO. He designed or remodeled the vital centers of the city on behalf of civic magistrates. or central T .. They are symbols of an ascending middle class rebelling against the remnants of feudalism and ecclesiastical power in the eighteenth century. The fortress-like crenellated Prior’s Palace was the center of political and civic life in a period of great prosperity from 1300 to 1348. A formidable tower 330 feet high—about as tall as a thirty-story skyscraper—dominates the building. when Florence monopolized industrial activity and international trade in Italy. Bureaucratic ofﬁces (ufﬁzi) that had formerly been located in the municipal palace had to be moved near to the Duke’s residence. Rome: Editore Laterza. However.
and building the tower had been a challenge for the entire city.000 tons. The “Old Palace. like a spine in its . atrium. Its weight.Palazzo Vecchio 105 Palazzo Vecchio. Equilibrium is achieved by a mass of stone.” the center of Florentine civic and political life. Florence. viewed from its 16th century addition. is carried by the crenellations. which project 4½ feet in front of the building’s façade. the Ufﬁzi. about 9. a plan inspired by that of a traditional monastic cloister. This arrogant building expressed the expertise and communal power of Florence.
center, which remains from part of an earlier tower built by the Foraboschi family. Vasari (1511–1574) played a role equivalent to Arnolfo’s as artistic consultant to Cosimo I in his renewal of Florence as the afﬁrmation of the paternalism of the Grand Duke. Vasari was a painter, an architect, and a man who traveled in high literary circles. His Lives of the Artists, published in 1550 and revised in 1568 remains the classic work on the artists of the Italian Renaissance. Vasari enlarged the Palazzo Vecchio to include an entire city block. Cosimo had demanded a new conﬁguration of the interior that would change the old council chambers into prestigious rooms for court ceremonies and that would include newly designed living quarters and a study, or “studiolo.” Because the Palazzo had many internal irregularities, Vasari had to regularize its disposition and he did so without disrupting important older elements. The new decoration, mostly executed by Vasari and Agnolo Bronzino, revolved around the new power structure and the family of Cosimo I. The Sala dei Cinquecento, which measures 170 feet by 74 feet, was originally the Great Room ordered by Savonorola, the Dominican preacher and reformer who led an anti-humanist political experiment from 1498 until 1512. Vasari turned the Sala into a grandiose celebration of the Medici family who are shown in allegorical paintings. The room was used for ceremonies and for theater performances that were characteristic of sixteenth-century court life. The ufﬁzi, or administrative ofﬁces, were moved to a new street created to join the Palazzo Vecchio to the Arno River. Three buildings deﬁned the sides of the street, and the open end offered a view (in Albertian perspective) of the river. The repetitive rhythm of the façade bays expressed the prince’s bureaucratic organization, which occupied the top ﬂoors, now transformed into the Ufﬁzi Museum, one of the ﬁnest art museums in the world. Like the Palazzo Vecchio, the statues in the Piazza della Signoria, the large city square in front of the palazzo, express the change in values and the move from the communal liberties of the fourteenth century to the absolute power of the sixteenth century. Michelangelo’s David, to the left of the main entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio (a copy now replaces the original) confronts Bandinelli’s powerful Hercules, while to the left of the façade, the political interest of Cosimo’s maritime commerce is represented allegorically by Ammanati’s Neptune Fountain. Giovanni da Bologna’s statue of Cosimo I on horseback introduces the power imagery of aristocratic values into the square that once expressed the republican freedom of Florence. Further Reading
Conforti, Claudia. Giorgio Vasari architetto. Milan: Electa, 1993. Muccini, Ugo. Palazzo Vecchio: Guide to the Building, Apartments, and the Collection. Florence, 1989. Najemy, John. A History of Florence 1200–1575. London: John M. Blackwell, 2006.
Style: Roman Dates: 118–125 Architect: Unknown
adrian’s temple, the Pantheon, dedicated to all the Roman gods, is along with the Colosseum one of the best known and certainly the best preserved of all the buildings of ancient Rome. Its interior presents a breathtaking view of a huge volume based on the pure geometry of a hemisphere resting on top of a cylinder of the same diameter. In fact, if the hemispherical dome is completed, a sphere, the Roman symbol for the universe, can be inscribed within the rotunda: the height and the diameter of the interior space are precisely the same, 142 feet 5 inches. This diameter exceeds the spans of the domes by the great Renaissance builders: Brunelleschi’s dome for Florence Cathedral is 140 feet, 5 inches across, and the dome Bramante proposed for Saint Peter’s Basilica was 139 feet 6 inches. In span, the Pantheon’s dome would not be superseded until the invention of metal and reinforced concrete structures in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Pantheon’s only source of light is a circular opening 30 feet in diameter at the top of the dome called an oculus, from the Latin word for eye. Light entering through the oculus immediately draws the visitor’s attention upward emphasizing the height of the dome giving drama to the space of the interior. Hadrian’s Pantheon is an ultimate expression of the extraordinary ability of Roman engineers and architects. The second century Pantheon replaces a temple dedicated to all the gods that Marcus Agrippa, the son-in-law and lifelong advisor of Augustus, built in 27 bce. It was restored by Domitian after a ﬁre in 80 ce and was later struck by lightning and burned during the reign of Trajan (98–117 ce). When he succeeded Trajan, Hadrian replaced the destroyed temple with his new, unique building; but with great modesty he retained the original inscription on the façade that proclaimed Agrippa had built it. The use of a dome to roof a temple was an innovation. Traditional temples were rectangular rooms surrounded by columns or with a colonnaded front porch. They had a gabled roof. Romans did use large domes to cover some rooms in the great baths, like the Baths of Caracalla, but domes were always used in a secular context. The porch in front of the Pantheon that resembled a conventional temple would have identiﬁed the building as sacred and would have hidden the dome in antiquity. Unlike today, when the Pantheon sits isolated behind a piazza, in ancient Rome it stood at the back of a long rectangular piazza and was framed by porticoes that shut out the view of the world beyond
Pantheon, Rome. Section diagram from the engraving by Antoine Desgodets in Ediﬁces antiques de Rome, Paris, 1682. From author’s collection.
the sacred precinct. From this piazza, only the traditional façade of the porch was visible. This temple façade was truly grand: 100 feet 8 inches wide. Eight monolithic grey granite columns, 45 feet tall, with white marble Corinthian capitals are ranged across the front. The columns, most likely imported from Egypt, are arranged in classical Greek fashion with a wider spacing between the columns in the center of the façade opposite the entrance door and narrower column spacings toward the outer ends. An ancient visitor, having seen what appeared to be a traditional rectangular temple, would have been utterly surprised on entering the huge, lightﬁlled domed space. It is still breathtaking to enter the Pantheon today, its interior essentially unchanged when it was transformed into a church in the seventh century by Pope Boniface IV. The thrilling space, the equilibrium of the height and diameter, is enhanced by the decoration of the walls with multicolored marbles from every corner of the Empire. Their highly polished surfaces reﬂect the shaft of light entering through the oculus, which moves during the day like a spotlight over the walls, ﬂoor, and early and late in the day, the underside of the dome. Behind the marble decoration, and therefore invisible, is the Pantheon’s structure, a 20-foot-thick drum and dome of brick set into thick mortar. All parts of the structure—dome, drum, and foundation—combine structurally to make a monolithic structure that functions much like a giant, thick, rotated arch set on a cylinder. The mass of the cylindrical drum is hollowed out with niches and passageways and contains a system of brick arches and vaults, so
that the enormous stresses exerted by the dome are resolved within the mass of the walls with no need of external buttressing. The cylindrical drum stands on a foundation ring of concrete 24 feet wide and 15 feet deep. Functioning much like the niches in the walls of the cylinder, which reduce its mass by half, sunken panels (coffers) are introduced in the dome to reduce its weight. The dome also becomes thinner toward the oculus and physically lighter since pieces of a lightweight volcanic stone replace brick in the mortar. The unexpected dimensions and simple geometry of the Pantheon, complemented by how the interior is subdivided and decorated, give the interior a quality of grandeur and unity. The interior is subdivided vertically into three parts. On the lowest level, a digniﬁed colonnade is suggested by the Corinthian order that frames the eight niches, six of which contained altars dedicated to different gods. (The other two niches are the entry and an apse directly across from it.) Above this is a middle level, modiﬁed in 1746–1748 by architect Paolo Posi for Pope Benedict XIV. The coffered dome ﬁgures as the uppermost level. Renaissance and Baroque architects thought the subdivision of the middle level awkward, but Hadrian’s architect seems to have simply decided he had to break the scale of the interior by introducing a decorative zone to set off the rise of the dome, making it resemble a celestial globe. In fact, the dome has twenty-eight ribs, a number which may have represented the moon’s orbit to the Romans. Combined with the movement of the sun, whose motion is expressed by the shaft of light through the oculus, the Pantheon may very well have been a diagram of celestial motion. Given the ideology of the Roman Empire, the Pantheon is appropriately known as the grandest building of the Romans. Further Reading
Gros, Pierre. L’Architecture romaine. Paris: Pocard, 1996. Loerke, William C. “A Rereading of the Interior Elevation of Hadrian’s Rotunda.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 49, no. 1 (March 1990): 22–43. MacDonald, William L. The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976. Sear, Frank. Roman Architecture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.
PAZZI CHAPEL, FRANCISCAN CONVENT OF SANTA CROCE, FLORENCE
Style: Renaissance Dates: 1429–1459 Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi
entrally planned churches, churches with a focus on the center of the building under a dome rather than on the end of a long axis, had become traditional in Florence by the ﬁfteenth century. Florentines thought that the Baptistery, situated in front of Florence Cathedral, was an important precedent for this type of building, believing it to have been a temple of Mars from Roman antiquity. (It is, however, a Romanesque structure from the eleventh and twelfth centuries.) Filippo Brunelleschi did not therefore hesitate to propose a centralized domed building when in 1429 Andrea Pazzi commissioned him to rebuild the chapter house (the room where the business of a monastery is carried on) for a Franciscan convent. He nonetheless did not entirely follow what he considered a traditional form, and complemented the central dome with a smaller one over the little room opposite the entry, called a scarcella, that contained the altar. Two barrel vaults cover the extensions of the volume under the dome to the left and right. Because Brunelleschi was interested in the visual procession from outside to inside, he preceded the interior with a porch with six columns. It has a central bay covered by a small dome identical to that over the scarcella and barrel vaults to each side. Four tall, round-arched windows to either side of the porch door, which let light into the chapter house and illuminate it, are similar to frames on either side of the scarcella. Brunelleschi’s approach is typical for a Renaissance architect: He explains spatial depth from an external vantage point to the interior, moving the visitor’s eye through space and identifying its progression with markers. The mathematical construction representing space is called perspective, from “per-” (through) and “specere” (to look), that is, seeing through the space from a single point. Brunelleschi’s approach to architecture helps to explain the meaning of “Renaissance” as a creative development of antiquity, though, as the misidentiﬁcation of the Baptistery as an ancient Roman building demonstrates, in Brunelleschi’s time relatively little was known about ancient architecture with archeological accuracy. Filippo Brunelleschi, born in 1377, had performed many experiments with perspective before designing the Pazzi Chapel, but the application of his ideas
But the main dome was erected only in 1459—thirteen years after Brunelleschi death—and the dome above the porch not until 1461. that the Pazzi Chapel. View into the dome designed by Brunelleschi but only completed after his death. designed with the utmost care. the (horizontal) bases . We know that Pope Eugene IV was housed in an apartment “above the Pazzi chapter-house” in 1442. is faithful to his original project. The main dome and the scarcella dome have the same form but their different dimensions are based on multiples of the same module. a module was also used for extending the space under the main dome and for the more difﬁcult threedimensional construction of space under it. although unﬁnished at Brunelleschi’s death. in the building took physical form slowly. and because of the smallness of the site. which is easily measured by Brunelleschi’s use of a module (a deﬁned unit of measure on which the building is based). however. The window-unit design is reproduced on all four walls of the main space. they could not be altered. Ludwig Heydenreich is convinced. except in a few details. even light in the chapel emphasizes the depth and geometrical quality of space. The mathematical multiplication and subdivision of the module is also easily visible to any visitor in the ornament and windows (or blind window frames) as well as the roundels. For example. implying that the building was probably nearly complete. He certainly produced the plans. circular decorative plaques created by the sculptor della Robbia. a square. The clear. Florence. bringing a sense of unity to the whole structure.Pazzi Chapel 111 Pazzi Chapel. Brunelleschi carried out this arrangement of vaults of different sizes and the unit design of the windows into space.
Decoration is reduced to the minimum. each semicircular. Further Reading Funari. New York: Rizzoli. originally a sculptor. L. the circles. squares. Lotz. they are ornamented with big conch shells and in the main space by roundels for which Brunelleschi. and its merchants traded with all of Europe. to only sculptures of apostles. PALAZZO PUBBLICO. even the seating bench at the base of the walls—are delineated with strips of dark-green limestone.. SIENA Style: Gothic Dates: 1169–Fourteenth Century. In the scarcella. Between the circular base of the two domes and the square plan of the arches carrying them are spherical triangles called pendentives that make the transition between the square of the plan and the circular base of the dome. called “pietra serena. 1995. 1284–1310. and W. M. Formal Design in Renaissance Architecture from Brunelleschi to Palladio. modeled ﬁgures of the four Evangelists. pilasters. Hottinger. and some small incrustations. Translated by M.112 Piazza del Campo of the domes over both the central space and the scarcella are circles carried by four vertical. Brunelleschi further “measured” the main dome by dividing it with eight ribs. 1974. In the twelfth century. Brunelleschi used the Pazzi Chapel to explain the clear connection of geometry and space. 1325–1348 Architect: Unknown D uring the Middle Ages. it was a banking center in competition with Florence. it became a self-governing commune and the noble families and bishops were held in check. to deﬁning the various unit structures that make up the composition of the building and deﬁne the lines that create its perspective depth. Light is essential to this explanatory task. semicircular arches of the same diameter. H. All the details in the walls—window frames.” which stand out against the white walls. Heydenreich. typical of his approach to Renaissance architecture. entablatures (over the pilasters). Architecture in Italy 1400–1600. the evangelists. Baltimore: Pufﬁn. All the visible elements of the chapter house have only one reason to be there: to help the eye to follow the spatial development of the building in three dimensions. This ensured political freedom for the citizens and autonomous jurisdiction and administration. . which emphasize the volume of the dome. Siena was a city-state of great ambitions. PIAZZA DEL CAMPO.
when the Black Death killed three-quarters of Siena’s population. The Piazza is self-contained. in 1347. although adjustments and construction in the area continued over a long period. In 1270. the city hall. The Pope excommunicated all of Siena. which damaged the merchants’ trade and the bankers’ credit. occupies the southeast side of the Piazza. and the most serene period of Sienese history began. It can be seen from many miles around and dominated the towers built by the rich Sienese merchants. and in 1355 outside powers seized control of it. approved by the republican government. The Piazza del Campo is hidden from these roads and is only accessible through eleven narrow lanes (there were once twelve) that are steep but offer breathtaking views of the Palazzo Pubblico and the Torre del Mangia.Piazza del Campo 113 Proportional taxes were collected by the government to ﬁnance public works such as fortiﬁcations. Siena is a hill town spread on a Y-shaped ridge that is connected to its surrounding territory by three main roads. in which all the districts (“contrade”) of the city compete. peace was restored with the Church. the Sienese came into conﬂict with the papal ally Florence and in 1260 roundly defeated the Florentines at the Battle of Montaperti. Its crenellated campanile. The Council of Nine presided over this prosperous time and. The commune never recovered from this serious loss. like a vast urban interior room. The seat of municipal power was located in the center of the city on a large square. and the road to the north connects Siena to the rival commune of Florence. thrusts 325 feet (about the height of a twenty-ﬁve-story modern ofﬁce building) into the sky. A fountain called the Fonte Gaia (1408–1420) was built in the Piazza by the sculptor . a horse race that takes place twice each summer. they built the Palazzo Pubblico and reorganized the Piazza del Campo. or “campo. ﬁxed the height of the buildings around the Piazza. the southern road goes to Rome. The vibrant colors of the pavement expressed both the concavity of the square and its role as a big urban theater. adopting new urban regulations. To maintain the visual dominance of the Palazzo. Those facing the Palazzo were to have low façades while those at the ends of the Piazza could be fairly tall. the road leads to the Maremma and the sea. eight white lines were inscribed that converged on the Palazzo Pubblico and divided the Piazza into nine wedge-shaped segments symbolizing the Council of Nine. One of the best examples of medieval urban planning in Italy. As the leader of the Tuscan Ghibellines. To the west. it is 650 feet long and 425 feet wide. The Palio. with the balconies on the surrounding buildings functioning like theater boxes during municipal celebrations such as the Palio. This period of stability endured until 1348. the Piazza was paved with brick. When. the municipal government was overturned. the Piazza del Campo was already organized.” By 1169. and the construction of a city hall. defense. or bell tower. an urban regulation of 1297. and in plan it has the beautiful shape of a fan or scallop shell that slopes down to the southeast side where the municipal buildings are located. the Torre del Mangia (1325–1348). The Palazzo Pubblico. who opposed the Pope and his claim to power in central Italy. is still celebrated today.
Siena. The Gothic seat of the governors of the republic with its spectacular Torre del Mangia viewed from the top of the 14th century cathedral. .Piazza del Campo and Palazzo Pubblico.
and also the legendary ancestors Rhea Sylvia and Acca Larentia. Further Reading Hastings. articulated by shallow arches within pointed arches on the ground ﬂoor. The interior of the Palazzo was elaborately decorated by some of the most important Sienese painters of the fourteenth century. Ferdinand. who symbolized the Roman origins of Siena. In the Room of Peace. Macadam. Tuscany. Alta. Schevill. London: The De La More Press. the protection of the Virgin Mary. Blue Guide. All of the towers. their height was increased to three stories in 1680. the Piazza del Campo provides a genuine vision of a medieval square functioning as a center of civic and social interaction—a medieval urban showroom. New York: W. The room where the Council of Nine met was adorned with two paintings by Simone Martini (c. He covered three of the walls with allegories of Good and Bad Government in which he depicted both political propaganda and scenes of Sienese society in a poetic treatment that imposes a freshness. VIGEVANO Style: Renaissance Dates: 1492–1494 Architect: Donato Bramante . and a large painting celebrating the military glory of Guidoviccio da Foligno who is shown in front of a radiant blue sky riding gallantly on horseback between the castles he had attacked. Addition of the wings extended the façade of the building into ten bays in the Gothic style. Scribner’s Sons 1909. were dismantled and balconies with rectangular openings replaced the pointed arches of the medieval windows. Ambrogio Lorenzetti had a great success based on the philosophical ideas he was developing. 1284–1344): a Madonna in Majesty. 1902.” Today. PIAZZA DUCALE. The History of a Medieval Commune. which was partially “re-gothicised. 1374–1438). except for ﬁve. Siena. W. 3rd ed. called the “Maesta” (1315). Siena. During the Baroque period. which became characteristic of fourteenth-century painting in Siena. Its Architectuer and Art. in its harmonious restoration. a desire to redeﬁne the city as medieval mobilized a large renovation project in the Piazza del Campo. It was a splendid work of art celebrating good government. New York. Wings of two stories were added to the three-story central block in 1310. Gilbert. 1999. Norton Company. The Palazzo Pubblico was originally a fortress.Piazza Ducale 115 Jacopo della Quercia (c. In the nineteenth century. mother and nurse of Romulus and Remus. the houses in front of the Palazzo Pubblico lost their medieval silhouette.
Lines of marble that cross a cobblestone background give an astonishing magniﬁcence to a square that looks like a “gran salon. which succeeded the Visconti as Dukes of Milan. in this case. or parts of houses. and architecture. According to the Renaissance theorist Alberti. a dynamic city twenty miles west of Milan on the banks of the torrential course of the Ticino River. To provide for an easy access. He took charge of the city and a big fortress that dominated the plane. Above the arches of the gallery. Its main precedent. The Sforza family. In a typical Baroque gesture. Bishop Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz (1606–1682). Bramante’s ground-ﬂoor arcade and the regular façade above it would be continuous around the square. an urban square should be encased by regular façades. decided to remodel the square so that it would face the cathedral at its western end. Before the Baroque period. Because Roman antique precedents were nearly unknown at the time. the square could have continuous arcaded galleries on the ground ﬂoor and above them. welcoming passersby with cafés for everyone’s pleasure.116 Piazza Ducale V igevano. turned the fortress into their main residence.” a grand living room. who was very active in mathematics. 155 feet wide and 453 feet long. the square was connected to the tall entrance tower of the castle by a large recess and a ramp that climbed 23 feet to the castle’s gate. overall design. was conceived as the forum of a city that would equal the political and commercial power of antique Roman cities. following the advice of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Bramante (1444–1514). theology. houses of the same height. To make the square regular. the work of Filarete (1457–1464). The original Quattrocento painting and two triumphal arches added in the seventeenth century were inaccurately restored at the end of the nineteenth century. decided to remodel the city and to connect the castle with a grand piazza. as was common during the Renaissance. while a narrow passage and a street came through on the left side. that were not in line with Bramante’s project. the prince had to exercise his power and pull down houses. . illusionistic and real decoration and ornamentation being considered equivalent. from 1492 to 1494. Ludovico il Moro (1451–1508). It should take the form of a great room. he built an elevated road 550 feet long and 20 feet wide that was carried above the streets and houses. was the Hospital in Milan. The square was paved to enhance the feeling that it was a great room. on which Bramante worked for two years. The piazza. He ﬁlled the gap and closed the recess so that the castle would not compete with the cathedral. Vigevano’s piazza resembled a big cloister or the elongated courtyard of a Renaissance palace such as the one in Urbino. however. painted decoration substituted for actual relief. the Renaissance cathedral was given a false front of four bays that ignored the real position of the nave. irregular existing houses the beauty and harmony of a uniﬁed. became the seat of Luchino Visconti’s power in 1337. hiding fragments of the old fabric and creating from the unconnected.
London: Thames and Hudson. Bramante. Arnaldo. the cathedral now has a Baroque façade added by Bishop Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz in the 17th century. . Although the Piazza was designed by Donato Bramante and mainly built between 1490 and1492. 1973. Further Reading Bruschi. Vigevano.Piazza Ducale 117 Piazza Ducale.
Rosselino treated the square. like those that would be used in constructing a perspective drawing of the square. which the same pair built in Florence. Leon Battista Alberti. and decided to change it into an ideal city to be called Pienza. or piazza. who had developed an interest in Late Gothic Austrian church design when he was apostolic secretary and ambassador. This sort of construction conformed to Alberti’s theories. took part in the visit and gave advice to the Pope. Rosselino was a distinguished architect in his own right and was also the architectural executant for Alberti on the Palazzo Rucellai in Florence (1447–1451). so that volumes of church and square are nearly comparable. The pope. organizing the pavement as a horizontal grid and the building façades as vertical grids. round arch at the top and two pilasters . divided in two by a central column and framed by a thick. called the Palazzo Piccolomini. but the task of designing and constructing the ideal city was given to Bernardo Rosselino (1409–1464). For Rosselino. 90 by 80 feet.118 Piazza Pio II PIAZZA PIO II. Within three years. the Pope’s Palace. is square. the piazza being an “open room” and the cathedral an enclosed room—a “covered square. To the right of the cathedral. Rosselino treated the façade of the cathedral like a Roman triumphal arch. The plan of the church. who was keenly interested in architecture. his native village. The façade is built of mellow ocher stone with all details organized by the dominant rectangular grid. the Piazza Pio II would be enclosed within a group of buildings that included the cathedral. one of the most famous architects of the period. at the end of a main street that measures just under 1. PIENZA Style: Renaissance Dates: 1459–1462 Architect: Bernardo Rosselino I n February 1459.” a church with nave and side aisles of the same height. as if it were an interior room with walls created by the façades of the cathedral and the three surrounding buildings. the Humanist Pope Pius II (Enea Silvio Piccolomini) paid a visit to Corsignano. the city of Pius. He designed the piazza/room as a strict exercise in perspective. a papal palace.” Pius. like that of the piazza.000 feet in length. that is. Windows in the upper stories are bipartite. engaged with Rosselino in a process of intense collaboration. It closely resembles the Palazzo Rucellai. In the center of the village. The pattern of the rectangles implied by the grid identify the mathematical rules used in creating the proportions for all aspects of the piazza. chose to build Pienza cathedral as a German “Hallenkirche. Rosselino created a town square such that the approaches from the intersecting side streets would be visually attractive. town design was simply an extension of architecture. a city hall. was designed by Alberti and built by Rosselino. and a bishop’s palace.
Piazza Pio II. . Pienza. View of the well and the Cathedral entrance facing onto the piazza.
the area of the terrace-garden is equal to the ground plan of the palazzo. The Bishop’s Palace and the town hall are simpler than the other two buildings and they follow Tuscan tradition. creating a similar case of open versus closed volumes. Pienza: The Creation of a Renaissance City. the palazzo. a highly educated man who was fond of art and deeply involved in the poetry of the natural environment. The module of the bifurcated window between pilasters is repeated on the walls. Michele. The effect is to make the façade of the cathedral seem larger than the façade of the papal palace. was so fascinated by the forest and the open-air landscape that he took Catholic cardinals to the mountain facing Pienza and gave audiences to ambassadors by a spring where water cascaded into a lake. See Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). PIAZZA PO. Pius II. Like the terrace-garden of Palazzo Piccolomini. and they oblige us to consider and to understand the way in which they were combined by Rosselino. . Formal Design in Renaissance Architecture from Brunelleschi to Palladio. it actually reﬂects the ﬂexibility of Renaissance design. a view of Mount Amiata covered with snow in the winter. Mack. Ithaca. in effect reversing the normal perspective sense of parallel lines appearing to converge. from which a gallery leads to a planted terrace that overlooks the immensity of the surrounding landscape.120 Piazza Pio II to the sides. NY: Cornell University Press. giving a visual density to the palace block. The façade of the town hall opens into a lovely Ionic gallery. the bishop’s palace opposite. Like Florentine palaces. reveal the countryside with a view of distant mountains. the cathedral. The Piazza Pio II demonstrates to how great a degree the new element of Renaissance design. A closer look at the space of the piazza reveals that the walls of the Palazzo Piccolomini. the landscape. the buildings create a trapezoidal plan for the piazza. Two openings between the palace and the cathedral. there is a square interior courtyard. As at Michelangelo’s much later Campidoglio in Rome. and the cathedral are not perpendicular to each other. To carry the open/built comparison further. 1995. Turin. R. inﬂuenced the planning of the city. Two strong horizontal stringcourses resembling classical entablatures divide the three stories and the palace is topped by a powerful cornice. New York: Rizzoli. and the terrace-garden are all comparable in size. and between the town hall and the cathedral. which is in fact the larger of the two buildings. the town hall. Analogous to the piazza-church pairing. the piazza. the cathedral choir sits on the very edge of the village’s platform above the valley. Although the mixture of different architectural styles may be surprising. C. One more element should be noted: the exterior landscape. Further Reading Furnari. 1987.
the foremost city in Piedmont and the capital of the newly created Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. became a model of seventeenth-century urban development. On the other side of the river. this was called the Imperial Square. When. opening onto the river. A series of new urban plans were drawn up focusing on early-nineteenth-century urban planning decisions. 300 feet wide and 1. The design for the church square in the suburbs should be simpler than the design for the Piazza Po (its name has changed several times) on the left bank in the city. after the removal of a small district inhabited by boat people. the Sabaudian Monarchy of Savoy was restored and a time of increasing prosperity was slowly beginning.000 feet long. its gentle slope should reveal the famous Po River and make it a T . This new bridge was designed by the French architect Joseph Ramée Pertinchamp and supervised by the French engineer Charles-François Mallet in 1809. The area of the Imperial Square would be reduced and replaced by a rectangular piazza. a double decision was made to improve the eastern access to the city. The ﬁrst stone was laid on November 22. Ferdinando Bonsignore urin. the galleries today still bustle with commercial activity. after Napoleon’s defeat in 1814. 1810. Cutting through active districts of the city. Charles-François Mallet. The old bridge crossing the Po was replaced by a long bridge with ﬁve arches to give a better connection to the right side of the river. A distance of 1200 feet was left open between the wall and the Po River for defensive reasons. TURIN Style: Neoclassical Dates: 1821–1831 Architects: Giuseppe Frizzi. A square was necessary to provide a setting for the church. Beginning at the central square of the old city.000 foot diameter. The Contrada Po (Po Street) was ﬂanked on both sides by identical façades above a monumental ﬁrst ﬂoor gallery. The Piazza Po should act as the entrance square to the capital city. Joseph Ramée Pertinchamp.Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po) 121 PIAZZA VITTORIO VENETO (PIAZZA PO). But. a new district was added that expanded in the direction of the Po River. a distance of about two-thirds of a mile. the architect Fernando Bonsignore designed a church dedicated to the Great Mother of God as a memorial for the return of the Sabaudian King. the Piazza Castello. The Contrada Po ended in an exedra (a semicircular space) just short of the city wall. The city of Turin was annexed to the French Republic and the French Empire from 1798 until 1814. at the same time. Between the bridge and the Contrada Po exedra. a vast open space was deﬁned by a huge semicircular row of trees on a 1.
The church of the Great Mother of God. designed by Ferdinando Bonsignore in 1818 and built 1827–1831. like the via Po. whose aristocratic villas. a typical device of neoclassical architecture. is a reproduction of the Pantheon in Rome. On each side huge galleries offer an expanse of urban space ﬁlled. executed in a manner typical of neoclassicism. whose plans were approved on May 20. View from the bridge over the Po River. The rotunda is raised on a crypt and is accessible from a long ﬂight of steps leading to a temple-like façade. Turin. but a bridge-like succession of large bays and heavy pillars opened by a circular window on top and a small arch underneath. The process of design ignores the division of the ground into plots (two or three in each block) to focus on a highly monumentalized block façade. an observer notices how the pavilions create a device for the change in slope. The success of the design is due to the ability of Frizzi to accommodate the gentle slope toward the river. 1825. And. part of the city. On top of the gallery. was designed by architect Giuseppe Frizzi.122 Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po) Piazza Vittorio Veneto. the Piazza della Gran Madre di Dio should open to a vision of the splendid wooded area of the Monferatto Hills. The Piazza Po. giving accurate expression to one of the grandest possible squares in the history of architecture. Following the level of the cornices (the horizontal moldings). and the work completed in 1830. three stories of apartments display alternating balconies that crisscross the façades and introduce a surprising rhythm to an . But the openings are no longer a series of identical bays. on the opposite bank of the river. offer relief from the densely built city. scattered in their parks. on the other side of the river. The central block on each side has a pavilion at each end topped by a pediment that is carried by two Doric columns without bases in the ground ﬂoor. A new connection was provided between the city and its surroundings when the city opened up to a vast landscape. with commercial activity.
Renovation of the Old Harbor
ensemble that deserves careful observation to express the restricted sense of its beauty.
Comoli-Mandracci, V. Torino, La città nella storia dell’Italia. Rome-Bari, 1973. Hitchcock, H. R. Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977. Meeks, C. L. V. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
RENOVATION OF THE OLD HARBOR, GENOA
Style: Contemporary Dates: 1988–1992 Architects: Renzo Piano Building Workshop; Ove Arup and Partners; Peter Rice
n August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus, who was born in Genoa in 1450, sailed from the harbor of Palos, sixty miles west of Seville, Spain. He selected a route that was the opposite of the one used by Portuguese sailors, which followed the African coast to the Cape of Good Hope and reached India by sailing eastward. Columbus sailed west across the ocean believing that he could reach India in that direction. On October 11 or 12, he discovered for Europe a new continent, the New World (later called America). Commercial routes opened all around the earth; the sixteenth century was, in fact, the ﬁrst period of globalization. Five centuries later, in 1992, Seville and Genoa celebrated the new global reality by holding the Columbus International Exhibition. To prepare, Genoa began to restore its old harbor by removing the disastrous additions that had accumulated since the beginning of the nineteenth century. The public authorities wanted once again to celebrate the union of the city with the sea as a symbol of Columbus’s brave discoveries. Renzo Piano, born in Genoa and already a famous designer, was put in charge of the harbor renovation. The coastline of the Ligurian Sea left little space for a city crowded onto the shore of a small bay. Large mountains at the back of the settlement offered little possibility of development. In the Middle Ages, in 1133, the city government managed to open the city toward the harbor thanks to a portico 3,000 feet
Renovation of the Old Harbor
Renovation of the Old Harbor, Genoa. View of Renzo Piano’s Big Bigo.
long, which created a nice frontage called the Palazzata. It contained merchant’s shops and houses, as well as storage areas ﬁlled with all the valuable goods shipped from Asia through the Mediterranean Sea. The industrial prosperity during the early nineteenth century in northern Italy compelled the government in Turin to build a large warehouse, 3,000 feet long, which hid the Palazzata. But the top of the warehouse was accessible and became an attractive promenade that afforded good views of the city and the harbor. In 1885, this warehouse was demolished and replaced by railroad tracks, and in 1965 by an elevated motorway, called the Sopraelevata, which ran in front of the Palazzata. Like a work of vandalism, this destroyed all connection between the city and the harbor. Renzo Piano’s plan considered two aspects of the exhibition-renovation. He wished to remove all the elements that separated the city from the harbor. So, a vast piazza was created and vehicular trafﬁc went underground but the Sopraelevata, unfortunately, could not be demolished. The second task was to bring new festive activities to the harbor itself and to the unused piers that projected out into the bay. Only ferries going to Sardinia and Sicily used the old harbor, the modern harbor having been moved to the west of Genoa where its huge development in front of the Sampierdarena and Sestri Ponente was designed by the engineer Albertazzi in 1933. As the old Palazzata could now be opened up onto the harbor, with a better view under the Sopraelevata, the Piazza delle Feste (festive plaza) could celebrate the sea with a structure of carnivalesque sails, tents, and aerial masts.
Royal Hunting Lodge
This would be joined to an undistinguished warehouse called Millo, restored and newly colored pink. Then, on the nearby pier, would be the surprising aquarium, shaped like a boat, which created the sense that it was sailing on the water. The Piazza delle Feste contains the most attractive architectural works. A huge derrick, anchored in the waters, projects hollow-shell booms that imitate the old cranes of the harbor. It provides a panoramic elevator that offers views of the exposition center called the Big Bigo. Tent-like roofs, connected with translucent elements, cover the multipurpose hall, creating an aerial appearance. Renzo Piano got his inspiration from Frei Otto’s work in Germany and from Archigram’s projects in England during the 1960s. Wind sculptures perched high above were designed by the Japanese artist Susumu Shingu to remind visitors of the fragility of Columbus’s ships. Across the basin from the Piazza, blocking the horizon, a large cotton warehouse, 1,200 feet long, built from 1895 to 1901, was restructured to house a large auditorium made up of twinned rooms containing 800 seats linked by a central stage. The Columbus exhibition of 1992 was the starting point of a comprehensive study for the development of the new twenty-ﬁrst-century harbor of Genoa that will extend more than ten miles to the west. Renzo Piano’s fascination with sustainable and ecological procedures gave him the opportunity to deﬁne the new landscape of the Ligurian coast for the future of the city of Genoa. Further Reading
Museum of Architecture: http://www.archmuseum.org/biyograﬁ.asp?id=10033. Piano, R., and G. Bianchi. Renzo Piano & Building Workshop. Genoa, 2004. Renzo Piano: http://www.renzopiano.com.
ROYAL HUNTING LODGE, STUPINIGI
Style: Baroque Dates: 1729–1733 Architect: Filippo Juvarra
tupinigi, a hunting lodge, is a work of Filippo Juvarra’s maturity, built just before his departure for the Court of Madrid in 1735 and his death on January 16, 1736, at the age of ﬁfty-eight. Juvarra (1678–1736) was a northern Italian Baroque architect of great talent who was strongly inﬂuenced by classical art. His handsome and reﬁned design for Stupinigi is the equal in quality
Royal Hunting Lodge
of some of the best Tuscan and Venetian villas of the sixteenth century, although the program he had to follow for the lodge was unusual for Italy. Indeed, Stupinigi establishes him as one of the most creative European architects of the eighteenth century. Stupinigi is six miles distant from the center of Turin. It was accessible by a straight axial avenue lined with elm trees. Juvarra believed strongly in the variety of invention, and he began by playing with forms in the approach to the hunting lodge. The avenue was framed by two rows of farm buildings but was interrupted by a large semicircle, called an exedra, containing stables that opened into a hexagonal courtyard in front of the X-shaped lodge. The central feature of the lodge is an oval rotunda from which wings containing rooms for the king and queen, for the royal family, and for the court and guests are extended. The large roof that now dominates the building is a late remodeling by Benedetto Alﬁeri (1764–1766). The rotunda opens onto four wings arranged in a Saint Andrew’s cross (an X-shape) and offers views in multiple directions on the main and secondary axes and through the wings that align with long alleys cut into the woods. Connected to distant views in six possible directions, the lodge provides for a splendid dialogue between architecture and the rearranged nature of the surrounding hunting forest. The central rotunda is two stories tall and is enlarged by four half-domes penetrating the main volume in a monumental Baroque manner. Juvarra reminds us of Bernini and Borromini in Rome but modernizes their spirit. The proximity to Venice explains a sense of “bel composto” (see Introduction)
Royal Hunting Lodge, Stupinigi. View upward into the central rotunda designed by Filippo Juvarra and painted by Domenico and Giuseppe Valeriani.
Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus
adapted to the Veneto. Juvarra carefully controlled the introduction of color in the fresco of The Triumph of Diana by Domenico and Giuseppe Valeriani (1731– 1733). The range of color was not very far from that of Tiepolo and suggests a sort of early impressionism. Subtly, cleverly, and very intelligently arranged, Stupinigi’s suites of rooms give the feeling of a reassuring and stable world. Can we imagine Vivaldi’s music played in these rooms? While Juvarra recalls aspects of the Baroque style of the previous century, he establishes the sense of everyday comfort characteristic of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. Filippo Juvarra prepared his sketches in 1728. After the Treaty of Utrecht, the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was created as a buffer state to protect Habsburg Austria from French hegemony. Looking at a plan of Turn in 1730, a double transformation, due to this change in status, was visible within a ﬁvemile radius around the city center. A number of magniﬁcent residences displaying the power of the King were built surrounding the city: Moncalieri to the south; the hunting lodge at Stupinigi to the southwest; the castle of Rivoli seven miles to the west; and Venaria Reale to the north. As the power of the king expanded, a new relationship was created between the city and its surroundings. The city was able to dominate the land around it and showed its domination by the opening of large straight streets joining Moncaliere, Stupinigi, and Venaria, and connecting Rivoli to a church erected on a tall hill twelve miles distant called La Superga. Agriculture was not ﬁnancially rewarding so most of the middle class and nobility, who lived in the city, began to develop commercial interests. Stupinigi presents an optimistic vision of this age of transformation as it joins architecture with a new sense of controlled nature. Further Reading
Boscarino, S. Juvarra Architetto. Rome, 1973. Pommer, Richard. Eighteenth-Century Architecture in Piedmont:The Open Structures of Juvarra, Alﬁeri, and Vittone. New York: New York University Press, 1967. Severo, D. Filippo Juvarra. Bologna, 1996. Wittkower, R., et al. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600–1750. 4th ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
RUINS OF THE GREEK CITY OF SELINUS, SELINUNTE
Style: Greek Dates: 651–250 BCE Architect: Unknown
To either side of the settlement the mouths of the rivers could be turned into harbors to facilitate export and trade. Wild B Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. Megara Hyblaea prospered. the oldest part of the settlement. the colony occupied two low-lying hills as well as the plain around and between them. The southern hill. It was the most westerly of all the Sicilian colonies. Between the rivers Belice and Modione. the mainland Greeks engaged in a wave of colonization that took settlers to lands situated both to the east and west of their homeland. The colonists went in search of agricultural land and pasturage as the increased population of the mainland city-states put pressure on the limited amount of farmable land in areas such as the Isthmus of Corinth and Euboea. Temple G sketched by the author in December 1986. .128 Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus eginning in the eighth century bce. to the fertile island of Sicily. the population of Megara Habylaea eventually outgrew the local resources and around 650 bce. became an acropolis (“high city”) where a number of impressive temples were built. and continuing well into the sixth century. Selinunte. Phoenician settlers (originally from the eastern Mediterranean littoral) who also established colonies on the island. A group of citizens from the isthmus city-state of Megara sailed west. its population increased. the settlement organizer Pammilus led a group of colonists to a new location in southwest Sicily where they founded the colony of Selinus. As on the mainland. where they founded Megara Hyblaea in 726 bce about ﬁfteen miles north of the Corinthian colony of Syracuse. and a new infusion of colonists from the Greek mother-city of Megara arrived. which led to its early contact with the Carthaginians.
Some of the temples were rebuilt. olive oil. During the sixth and ﬁfth centuries. At some time in their history. They exported agricultural products. In 409. The splendor of the temples at Selinus contrasted sharply with the simplicity of the houses. Single story or two story houses. Selinus. wine. and other produce. a sort of Sicilian California. at one time allying itself with Carthage. across the Gorge of the Cottone.” was located nearby. Thus. most of them built on narrow lots 15 to 30 feet wide.Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus 129 parsley grew along the rivers. had small rooms without any deﬁnite . was demolished by the Carthiginians in 250. which indicated rich water and agricultural resources. and a later Arab village. beans. Seven large temples were built. some columns still remain scattered on the ground waiting to be re-erected. the temples of Selinus were so totally demolished that archaeologists posit that a massive earthquake. The Carthaginians destroyed everything in Selinus except the temples and sold the entire population into slavery. and provided the name for the colony—the Greek word for parsley is “selinon. not human action. four on the acropolis and three. Selinus grew as fast as a modern American city. as G. called Rahal al Asnaam. Selinus was in an ambivalent position. The buildings were forgotten and not rediscovered until around 1550 and later on by travelers in the eighteenth century. ultimately self-destructive disputes and rivalries. during the third Carthaginian War. Roofs were covered with tiles and the inclusion of terraces could modify the silhouette of the building. Selinus was resettled by a Syracusan exile on a greatly reduced scale. was responsible for their destruction. wood. at times they were able to unite in the face of Carthaginian aggression. A small village (vicus) of the Byzantine period has been located under the collapsed columns of Temple C. The Greek inhabitants of Selinus lived on the border of Carthaginian territory and beneﬁted from this position as a center for trade between the western and eastern Mediterranean. Most of them had rudimentary foundations that consisted of a stone base carrying clay or brick walls. son of Gisco. which did not survive the decay of the city. The trip took only a day and a half by sea.” The colonists understood immediately that the land could produce cereals. The proﬁt from trade was transformed into outstanding works of art dedicated to the dignity of the gods. Although the Greek colonies involved themselves in competitive. called the East Temples. while allied with Syracuse. and the chalk used as a colorant for fortiﬁcations and buildings to the North African coast where Carthage was located. Shortly after this disaster. Because of its location on the Carthaginian frontier. These works challenged the artistic superiority of Athens under the great leaders Pisistratus and Pericles. occupying only the south hill. This smaller city. at others taking up the Greek cause. the histories of Selinus and Carthage were intertwined for better or worse. attacked its archenemy Segesta and was crushed by the army of Hannibal. Fougeres has remarked. “the village of the columns.
But could contemporary architecture ﬁt within this tradition? Could it harmonize with the traditional urban fabric. SAFFA AREA PUBLIC HOUSING. The distinction between spaces for men and women was hardly discernable. yet create new forms and improve social life? Few possibilities for building remained in Venice after 1980. Houses had very few openings onto the street. VENICE Style: Contemporary Dates: 1984–1987 Architects: Gregotti and Associates certain number of Italian architects. The Greek World. Woodhead. but some had storefronts. Further Reading Carratelli. near the railroad station.” such as the Ca D’Oro. an unused former industrial estate. G. Gregotti. A public housing project containing 192 apartments contributed to the regeneration of the Venetian urban fabric. to the Renaissance palazzo and to the larger blocks of the eighteenth century. The unused Dreher brewery on the eastern end of the Giudecca Island also presented a chance for development. The urban patterns in Venice were a historical development that explained the slow process of change from the Gothic “decorated house. Art and Civilization in Magna Graecia and Sicily. New York: Praeger. preserves strongly organized defensive features. a brilliant A . Pugliese.” which contained a church and a campanile. 1962. CANAREGGIO. However. A. Most of the excavated houses are late. partly destroyed by the Carthaginians. Inside the house was a courtyard where an oven in one corner could deﬁne the cooking area or a movable oven could be placed on a terrace. What remains of the fortiﬁcations of the city. The architect Gino Valle took charge of the Dreher residential estate (1981–1984) and Vittorio Gregotti of the Saffa estate (1984–1987). like Saverio Muratori (1910–1973). Social life had originally developed on small islands later connected by canals to form wards around central squares called “campi. The Greeks in the West. Milan: Rizzoli International Publications. 1996. believed so deeply in the quality of the urban fabric of Venice that they conceived it as a model that would be impossible to surpass. G.130 Saffa Area Public Housing function. offered possibilities. Saffa. dating to the fourth and third centuries bce rather than to the days when Silenus was as the height of its power and prosperity.
Saffa Area Public Housing 131 Saffa Area Public Housing. a palazzo.” and the courtyard) around it. The visual and social richness of Italian towns and the beauty of the landscape were the foundations of his ideas. were concerned with combining in a single process the building and the public or private spaces (the street. which he did on a grand scale in the Zen district of Palermo. The building and the adjacent area made up a single unit. and to improve the contemporary sense of comfort. For example.” connecting new buildings to the surrounding territory. He might introduce modern technological standards.” sometimes reduced to “campielli” because of their diminutive size. and the “landscape. to adapt it to ﬁnancial requirements. Their method was based on the study of the city as it is. architects and planners who study the growth and future of urban form. planted with trees. as the editor of the architectural magazine Casabella (nos. 509–510). When. A “campo” today could be a paved space.” connecting architecture with the existing urban fabric. the “campi. For them.” or a courtyard. with residential areas or housing deﬁned by certain types of buildings (a row house. Gregotti still uses the traditional Venetian tile roofs. View of the inside of the housing block designed by Gregotti and Associates (1984–1987). at the same time. he opened an exciting discussion on the perfect integration of architecture into the existing fabric. Gregotti respected the Venetian tradition of the “campi. Italian morphologists. a building could not exist alone. contemporary architect. but he would do so with care. began by following the Italian traditions of the “townscape. Venice. the Saffa project was already under construction. a “campo. an apartment house) and. in 1985. deﬁning a section of street. that contains community pavilions or . isolated. The designer’s task was to modernize tradition. Canareggio.
1511–1640. 1996. VENICE Style: Romanesque.132 Saint Mark’s Square rows of shops. 1172–1178. Gregotti modernized a series of typical Venetian row houses. either in the private gardens or in the public spaces with large old trees. SAINT MARK’S SQUARE. The pink coloration of the interior and in the court gave a visual density to the walls. a smaller extension of the main square. Gregotti’s Saffa residential area was a successful approach to the problem of bringing of modern design into traditional cities. Each apartment had its own private open space. it presents the paradox that the most important civic space in Venice has no view of the water in a city devoted to distant shipping with the eastern half of the Mediterranean Sea. As such. S . Duplex homes were given more space by means of porches. It became a built artiﬁce of great beauty imposed on a natural setting that offered few possibilities of development. Vincenzo Scamozzi aint Mark’s square is the symbol of Venice. bay windows on the street side. Translated by R. or roof terraces that mixed interior and exterior life. Manfredo. the strictly unnatural shape of the square was determined in the sixteenth century and gradually modiﬁed thereafter. One of the “campi” he built opened directly onto the canal Rio della Crea. 1982. Repetitive windows offered a neutral background and left the architect free to creatively develop such inventions as Venetian chimney stacks. gardens. Buildings and Projects. Except from the far end of the Piazzetta di San Marco. it typiﬁes the city of Venice. 1810 Architects: Various unknown architects. Joseph. Translated by R. increased the potential for social encounters and gave freshness to the estate. A sequence of spaces from private to public enhanced the signiﬁcance of social life. Gregotti Associati. Sadleir. Tannenbaum. Further Reading Rykwert. New York: Rizzloi. which remained ﬂat and were perfectly adapted to the neighborhood. or wooden roofed terraces that imitated “modernistic” architecture from the early twentieth century. Mixing activities in the “campi” and the plantations. Around these central cores. Tafuri. Bartolomeo Bono. making them linear or doubling the row to open the block to little gardens or to small courtyards. New York: Rizzoli. Although originally built on a half-emerged sandbank in the sixth century. Renaissance Dates: 888–912. Jacopo Sansovino. Vittorio Gregotti.
which became Venice. The Basilica of Saint Mark and its campanile are the focal point at the far end of the vast square. part of the population of the Venetian area found refuge on islands in the lagoon.Saint Mark’s Square 133 Saint Mark’s Square. This group of islands. Venice. His title was changed to duke and later. was ruled by an exarch from the Eastern Roman Empire called the Magister Militium (military commander). by election by a minority of important . During the period of the Lombard invasions in the sixth century.
the square began to take on a decidedly classical outline based on the designs of Jacopo Sansovino (1486–1570). In the sixteenth century. new lead-covered domes were added to San Marco. the desire to celebrate Venetian modernity changed the aspect of the Piazza. the large waterway that winds through the center of Venice. focused as it was on the Byzantine-inspired church of San Marco. it looked almost Byzantine. In the thirteenth century. on the Grand Canal 1536–1547). like a pivot. which was used every year for the symbolic marriage of the Doge to the sea. Before 1500. cut across the center of the present square and thus reduced its length. and who brought with him to Venice a mastery of the classical orders. In the early Middle Ages. which gave the church a more picturesque silhouette. The Doge’s Palace was rebuilt in the fourteenth century in a lavish Gothic style. who had been trained in Bramante’s studio in Rome. not unlike the many “campi” that existed on each island of Venice. and the Procuratie Vecchie were thoroughly rebuilt with three rows of arches instead of two (1514–1532) by the architects Bartolomeo Bono and Jacopo Sansovino. Two periods show how the space of the Piazza San Marco changed. The campanile was heightened. a celebration of Venetian domination of the waters. however.134 Saint Mark’s Square citizens. 1902. All this deﬁned the new grandeur of the Piazza San Marco. the large open space focused on Saint Mark’s façade and the smaller one. as mentioned above. Facing them. The Procuratie Vecchie (the old ofﬁces of the high-ranking magistrates of 1172–1178) on the northern side of the Piazza were purely Byzantine. A canal. Its height was increased in 1511–1513 by a tall pyramid that raised the crowning ﬁgure of Archangel Gabriel to more than 300 feet above the pavement. Today. Scamozzi replaced the Ospizio Orseolo and pushed it back to create a monumental wing inspired by Sansovino’s design for the extension of the . is framed by two tall columns carrying ﬁgures of the two protective saints of Venice. continued by the Libreria Marciana (the Marciana Library 1537–1588). From early in the sixteenth century. Around the corner from the Piazza. the view from the Piazzetta of the Grand Canal. The campanile crashed to the ground on July 14. the Ospizio (Hospital) Orseolo was aligned with a small campanile. one needs to imagine Venice’s ﬂeet. but was quickly rebuilt from 1903 to 1912. and the ﬁne design of the Loggetta at the base of the campanile (from 1537 on). the Rio Batavio. The ﬂeet included the enormous gilt galley called Bucentauro. Venice took advantage of its eastern connections and developed rich commercial activities with the Orient. that plays the important role of connecting. Saint Mark and Saint Theodore. The bell tower. sailing proudly on the Grand Canal. and partly ﬁnished in the twelfth century. the cause of its riches and of its grandeur. The Doge’s palace and a church dedicated to Saint Mark (832) became the roots of the future Saint Mark’s Square. to Doge. the public square that became Saint Mark’s was only a “campo” (a local square for a ward or neighborhood). or campanile. The western face of the Piazzetta was remodeled by Sansovino in a handsome classical style beginning with the Mint (la Cecca. the Piazzetta that opens at a right angle onto the Grand Canal was started in 888–912.
who worked on Saint Peter’s from 1520 until his death in 1546. To combat dissent against the Catholic Church in this period. la storia. Rev. a gigantic. religiously inactive. At the time of Bramante’s death in 1514. 1970. The Architectural History of Venice. SAINT PETER’S DOME. Piazza San Marco. which were ﬁnished by Longhena. The far end of Saint Mark’s Square contained a church that was demolished during the French occupation and replaced in 1810 by a two-story gallery inspired by the Procuratie Nuove. ed. the ancient church was in danger of collapsing. only the four main piers intended to support the dome were standing. New Haven. What would it mean to build such a great church for the Pope. Paul III (Pope from 1534 to 1549) unwillingly convened a . Deborah. Michelangelo. and how would its form inﬂuence future Catholic Church design? Martin Luther had criticized the Church as illegitimate. Napoleon was proud of completing “the most beautiful drawing room in the world. and Bramante and Pope Julius II wanted it replaced by a church worthy of the capital of the Christian world.Saint Peter’s Dome 135 Procuratie Nuove (the New Ofﬁces 1582–1640). two Popes and two architects decided to complete Saint Peter’s Basilica and to start a movement of Catholic resistance called the Counter-Reformation (or Catholic Reformation). CT: Yale University Press. Samona. Neither man lived to see his plans for the church fulﬁlled. slightly pointed hemisphere. inspired by the Pantheon. By 1505.” Further Reading Howard. By the time Sangallo took over. l’architettura. His decision to separate from it in 1517 and Calvin’s conversion to Protestantism in 1533 put an end to Christian unity and to the unique power of the Church of Rome. one of his former pupils. transformed and radically altered Bramante’s design into a colossal structure. During the subsequent decades. le funzioni. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. when the ﬁrst designs were made. 2004. ed. ROME Style: Renaissance Dates: 1505–1590 Architects: Donato Bramante. the Protestant Reformation had changed the conditions surrounding the church. Padua: Marsilio. and corrupt. Giuseppe. Giacomo della Porta I t took nearly a century to build Saint Peter’s dome. that Bramante designed to crown a centralized plan to replace the Constantinian (Early Christian) church of the fourth century.
Michelangelo objected to Sangallo’s colossal project. Looking back at his earlier convictions. he thought that Saint Peter’s should be a monument without obscurity. was subjected to criticism from Protestants. Using a revision of that model.136 Saint Peter’s Dome Dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica. darkness. Sixtus V (pope from 1585–1590) decided on January 19. he overcame the resistance of Michelangelo. The great architect had died before construction could begin but he had prepared a detailed model. to ﬁnish the dome that Michelangelo had designed. Giacomo della Porta was able to complete work on the dome by May 19. Rome. To return to . he dismissed them and. to serve as architect for a remodeled Saint Peter’s. or secrecy. A solemn mass celebrated the end of nearly a century of work on Saint Peter’s Basilica. the Council of Trent. meeting of church personages. In 1547. 1586. acknowledging his need for freedom. criticizing it as dark and confused. which clariﬁed and systematized the bases of the Catholic faith. 1590. He had to clarify his own position because he had been accused of Protestant sympathies and. Michelangelo had accepted his task with scrupulous faith. Michelangelo incorporated his ﬁnal thoughts about architecture in his design for the building (1547–1564). Offended by the corruption of Sangallo’s team of workers. at the same time. Begun by Michelangelo and ﬁnished by Giocomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana. he refused payment for his work. then seventy years old.
For the construction of the dome. To defend his ideas against the unduly expensive models commanded by Sangallo (one. express the impulsion given by the Church to a world infused with divine grace. Michelangelo demolished the uncontrolled growth of Sangallo’s church and returned Saint Peter’s to a Greek cross plan inscribed in a square. Peter’s. he carefully studied the church and ordered four models: in 1546. See also Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica. And Bernini’s colonnade in front of Saint Peter’s (1656–1667) created an ecumenical elliptical piazza that appeared as a splendid urban translation of Michelangelo’s argument for simplicity and attractiveness in his design of Saint Peter’s dome. that is. and a great wood model ﬁnished in November 1561. Michelangelo criticized Sangallo’s juxtaposing of receding and projecting masses and his use of numerous superimposed columns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. He put four subsidiary domes above the spaces in the corners. Four equal arms terminated by semicircular apses are arranged around the central space.000 scudi. This dynamism would. As a leader in sculpture and painting. Basilica.Saint Peter’s Dome 137 the simplicity of Bramante’s plan of 1505. New York: Viking. But. to which della Porta gave a pointed shape. He. for Michelangelo. the spaces between the arms and the outer square envelope. was begun in January 1554. 2006. Further Reading Ackerman.) The erection of the dome. strengthened by double columns. A. used a dome with a double shell. equaled the cost of some small churches). Scotti. This gave the dome a greater visual impact in the already famous Roman skyline by providing the decisive thrust. making it more than twenty-ﬁve feet higher than the interior shell. The Splendor and the Scandal: Building St. 1971. Bernini’s Baldacchino (1624–1633) restored the dome’s supremacy by turning the nave into a long vestibule leading to it. . the pilasters suggest tense forces in action. R. Michelangelo knew well how to exploit light reﬂected on the travertine vaults to emphasize the dominance of the dome inside Saint Peter’s. Michelangelo turned to Brunelleschi’s dome of Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore). Instead. Rome. he wrapped the church in closely spaced vertical elements—giant pilasters that extend the height of the building—capped with a strong horizontal element that turned the church into a uniﬁed sculptural body. which has become such a familiar sight to Roman citizens and visitors. like Brunelleschi. a clay model for twenty-ﬁve scudi. James S. inside. an interior hemispherical dome separated from a taller exterior one. The construction of Saint Peter’s nave by Maderno obscured Michelangelo’s simplicity. a third in 1557. costing 6. which is framed by powerful piers that support the dome. another in 1547 for eighty-seven scudi. Inside and out. who himself had respected Bramante’s much earlier design. The long connection of artists across 160 years surely explains Saint Peter’s unchallenged rank in world architecture. The Architecture of Michelangelo. (Baroque painting has obscured this effect. A Baroque artist could be faithful to Michelangelo.
T . work on the ﬁrst story of the façade was suspended until his nephew Bernardo. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane was the church of the Spanish Discalced Trinitarians. derived from Saint Peter’s. When he died in 1667. using Borromini’s original designs. “quattro fontane” in Italian. built the second story between 1674 and 1676. 1674–1676 Architect: Francesco Borromini he church and convent dedicated to Saint Charles Borromeo occupied Francesco Borromini (1599–1667) at both the beginning and the end of his productive life. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1638–1667. The statue of Saint Charles in the central niche over the door was the work of Antonio Raggi. was Borromini’s ﬁrst successful building. as the church is fondly called by Romans. he introduced a reduced version of a dome. positioned the two angels carrying the large medallion at the top of the façade in 1676. thus the name San Carlo at the Four Fountains. and a church.138 San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane SAN CARLO ALLE QUATTRO FONTANE. San Carlino. a monastic order to which Borromini was deeply attached. The body of the church was quickly erected between February 1638 and the spring of 1640 when its rough construction in brick was completed. two sculptors. The monk’s convent occupied a small but remarkable site at the hilltop crossroads of via Pia (now via XX Settembre) and the pilgrimage thoroughfare via Felice (now via Quattro Fontane) that connects the churches of Santissima Trinità dei Monti and Santa Maria Maggiore. the church is separated from the via Felice by the sacristy and the monk’s chapter room (a room where the administration of the monastery is carried out). ﬁnding a way to erect an ingenious church contained within the block that has only one wall (the entry façade and the entrance to the cloister) exposed to the via Pia. Its subtle façade was added between 1665 and 1667 with undulating concave and convex movements that clearly exemplify the architect’s highly imaginative creativity. but its rich stucco decoration was not ﬁnished until the spring of 1641. After several unsuccessful attempts. the library. mark the intersection. Dori and Antonio Fontana. For the restricted site owned by the convent—its frontage on via Pia was less than 80 feet long—Borromini had to design a compact block that contained the refectory (dining room). a tiny cloister only 28 feet long. Four fountains. the monks’ cells. We possess sufﬁcient numbers of drawings to be able to understand the way in which Borromini arrived at the church plan. a large cloister. He accomplished the plan with great mastery.
The undulating façade of Borromini’s small masterpiece. . Rome.San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.
At ﬁrst. View of the interior. To reduce the length of the transverse axis. The movement can be compared to San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. and octagons illuminated by the light coming down from the lantern and from hidden light sources at the base of the dome. hexagons. shallow partial ellipses at either end of the axis. he intended to complete the scheme by adding semicircular bays on the transverse axis. and proportionality. movement.” a subtle moment in architectural creativity. Borromini lengthened the two bays on the main axis. Borromini used a sort of crushing movement of the semicircles that left just small. Its primary motif was the sinusoidal entablature. he changed the shape of the dome from the original circular form to an elongated oval. the oval dome appears to be higher and lighter than it actually is because its mass is deemphasized by a decoration of recessed crosses. Next. contraction that was typical of Baroque attitudes toward space and mass. expansion. Above the strong uninterrupted cornice. making them semicircular. but he had to abandon this formulation to allow room for the sacristy. Rome. The arches connecting the ellipses to the dome are bent in torsion. The two-story columns set into the walls link the shallow and deep recesses on the axes and accentuate the movement of the walls. The signiﬁcance of San Carlino was understood as a “suspended difference. space. in a most original move. Borromini’s façade for San Carlino was the most urbanely active of his creative life. which employed a triple movement of contraction. a masterpiece of light. .140 San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane carried on its diagonal axes by strong piers. On the main longitudinal axis (from the door to the high altar) and the transverse axis Borromini opened small rectangular bays and then.
Francis brought into the religious outlook of his time a faith in the beauty of creation—of animals and nature as well as humans. 1979. 1967. As in the interior. Portoghesi. The second story plays against the ground ﬂoor: the ground ﬂoor’s concave-convex-concave articulation is countered by the second story’s concave-concave-concave articulation. Saint Francis was responsible for a great and fundamental change in medieval Christianity. his asceticism.” (at the contact between the balls) or “expansion. an action that people of the seventeenth century called “contraction. his hymn to the unity of the forces and elements of Nature. at least. The recession of the bays on either side.” when the balls bounce off each other. except for a small. MA: Belknap Press. the second story appears to be concave-convex-concave like the ground ﬂoor—until one looks carefully. Anthony. The sensuality of the sinusoidal curve was the translation of this idea into architectural form. and the façade simply reﬂects their competition. so that visually. is conditioned by the presence of the urban space of the street. Braziller. much as on Michelangelo’s Caampidoglio façades. but this time the columns frame smaller columns. Paolo. Further Reading Blunt. Although the façade barely touches the church volume behind it. oval “temple” that is set into the center bay. on the contrary. B . The Rome of Borromini. ASSISI Style: Gothic Dates: 1228–1253 Architect: Unknown orn in Assisi in 1181 or 1182. SAN FRANCESCO (SAINT FRANCIS BASILICA). and his sense of mortiﬁcation were tempered by a profound sense of humanity. Borromini. the expansion of the central bay reveals its presence. Cambridge. the columns on the façade are set in front of the plane of the façade. New York: G. they repulse each other. When the balls collide.San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica) 141 the actions of balls in a game of billiards. Both the mildness and sympathy with which he contemplated God’s Universe and his spiritual simplicity and humble joy permeate the Canticle of the Sun. His active mysticism. like the balls in a game of billiards. Urban space and architectural space are engaged in a game of rivalry.
As the numbers grew signiﬁcantly. “worldly” monastic orders. was not without controversy. even his clothing. Among the established clergy there was strong opposition to the Franciscan example of radical poverty and simplicity. Francis took part in a military expedition against Perugia and was captured. Francis and other reformers redirected the goals of Christian religion toward a more humanistic relationship with worshippers than had been the earlier practice. who expected his son (whom he indulged rather extravagantly) to take up the family trade. two years after his death. Francis was canonized in 1228. Congregations were spellbound by the Franciscan emphasis on preaching in understandable language as a major focus of their new reformed liturgy. The Franciscans practiced poverty and humility. During the year of his captivity. Many of the friars argued that a large and ornate church ran counter to Francis’s ideal of poverty and his spirit of humility. As the popularity of the order grew. by which the Saint is known. Elia’s project. the sick. the followers of Francis had so increased in number that he turned over the job of organizing and directing the Order to Brother Elia. He once met a beggar in the streets of Assisi and promptly gave all his money to the man. Scurrilous attacks and diatribes full of disdain were launched from church pulpits against the new order. He believed in social charity as a means of experiencing the Christian faith. he also had a deeply spiritual side. although sanctioned by Pope Gregory IX. Although the young Francis enjoyed writing poetry and carousing with his friends. Francis gave away all his wealth. which was recognized by Pope Innocent III in 1209. among the rich as well as the poor. and the needy. Giovanni Bernardone was the son of a rich cloth merchant in Assisi. was given to him by his father because his mother came from Frenchspeaking Provence. In 1201. In a period of doubt and anxiety that was characterized by the lack of secure papal authority. many young men began to follow him and to share his interpretation of the Christian life. This caused a rupture between father and son that was very bitter. and became a holy beggar who worked with the lepers and embraced apostolic poverty. As his reputation for holiness spread. They were not cloistered (separated from the outside world) as were earlier monastic communities. By 1224.142 San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica) Saint Francis was immensely popular with the “little people” because he detached himself from obscure theological debates and addressed himself directly to the hearts of the poor. who laid the foundation stone. and they favored itinerant preaching at crossroads or in barns—any informal place that had good acoustics and could accommodate large numbers of worshippers. the ﬁnal decision . and overcrowded cities. The name Franciscus (“Little Frenchman”). Nevertheless. the famous Franciscan preachers moved into parish churches and cathedrals. When. Francis founded the Franciscan Order. Elia authorized the beginning of work on a monastery and a basilica for Saint Francis to be located in Assisi. Francis began having religious visions that eventually caused him to abandon the military and reject the wealthy lifestyle of his father. It was Elia’s dream to build a magniﬁcent church that would eventually house a tomb for Francis.
. and an apse. View from the lower Piazza of the entrance to the lower church (at the left) and the façade of the upper church (at the right). the façade has a Gothic doorway on the lowest level. Assisi. But eventually. The upper church was originally planned to have a nave of only three bays to avoid covering the narthex. A new façade was built with a great simplicity that recalls Romanesque architecture. a transept. Each church has a simple plan of a nave made up of four bays. under the main altar. or bell tower. with its separate doorway in the narthex. the entrance to the lower church was in a vast narthex. or transverse entry hall. Until 1235.San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica) 143 was to build a large and imposing structure because the church was the motherhouse of the Franciscan Order and because it would become an important pilgrimage site. The basilica is actually two churches consisting of a lower level that is mysterious and dark and an upper basilica that shows the inﬂuence of the Gothic style of French cathedrals. where the body of Saint Francis was placed in 1230. The two-story church combines a lower burial church. it was decided that the upper basilica should have four bays in to emphasize its importance. with an elegant upper basilica inspired by French Gothic chapels and the Church of Basilica of San Francesco. Divided into three stories. The church contains the crypt. A Romanesquestyle campanile. a rose window above that. Both unusual cylindrical buttresses (constructions that brace the main wall) and ﬂying buttresses (freestanding arches) support the walls. reminiscent of Old Saint Peter’s in Rome. and an oculus in the third story directly below the simple gabled rooﬂine. was added at the left side of the façade.
Long stretches of walls in both the lower and upper churches were decorated by the most famous painters of the time. or even recreate. and heavily Byzantine-inﬂuenced painting of the Romanesque era toward a way of penetrating sacred history through the representation of daily life and natural settings. Art and Architecture in Italy. God could be understood in terms of the human image. New Haven. Gualtiero. Life in the religious communities encouraged the acceptance of these ideas and the understanding of religious mysteries as part of a more humanistic approach to both life and faith. New Haven. the plasticity of his ﬁgures and three-dimensionality of his paintings explain the new spirituality. The basis for Giotto’s new attitude toward painting was Saint Francis’s conviction that human beings could imitate. John. the Roman church symbolizing the supremacy of the Pope. 1983. Assisi: Edizioni Porziuncola. Giotto’s holy ﬁgures were constructed from mighty volumes. that moved away from the abstract. Crossley. by everyday life. 2000. and a sense of modernity that was associated with French Gothic architecture. For Giotto. By the time he was . Gothic Architecture. Between 1296 and 1304. 1993. Further Reading Bellucci..144 San Gaudenzio Dome the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. an “ecclesia specialis” (special church). a new way of representing the world. Alastair. Smart. The Assisi Problem and the Art of Giotto: A Study of the Legend of St. and by a sense of action. Frankl. Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) painted twenty-eight episodes from the life of Saint Francis in the upper church. CT: Yale University Press. Assisi. 2005. and P. Francis in the Upper Church of San Francesco. ﬂat. NOVARA Style: Neoclassical Dates: 1841–1878 Architect: Alessandro Antonelli T hirty-seven years were required for the conception and construction of the dome of the church of San Gaudenzio in Novara. the life of Jesus Christ. The young painter introduced a new style of painting. Heart of the World. Assisi. The Franciscan friars were attempting to develop a synthesis. that combined the pilgrimage church in Jerusalem. CT: Yale University Press. SAN GAUDENZIO DOME. Oxford: Clarendon Press. White. P. they conveyed the action of the story with gestures typical of central Italian society. 1250–1400. For Giotto.
which added the ﬁnal 73 feet to the total height of the dome. During the thirty-seven years of the dome’s construction the government at times changed and withheld funding. He had spent most of his life constantly improving and transforming a dome originally intended to be 159 feet tall into one 327 feet tall.000 lire a year. 400 feet above the ground. Half a million lire was spent by 1850. the huge dome is actually held up by an internal structure of brick arches and interior buttresses analogous to the steel skeleton in a modern skyscraper. had been a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Turin for ﬁve years. Alessandro Antonelli. Large cotton mills and blast furnaces were introduced during the ﬁrst industrial development. On the contrary. a city in the Piedmont district of northwest Italy. designed by Joseph Paxton. Gaudenzio. what were the creative visions and technical skills that allowed Antonelli to conceive such an extraordinary work of art? Between 1720 and 1880. Antonelli went through six different projects and an additional single late design for the lantern. Antonelli’s brick and glass dome contrasted with the new popular art of iron and glass construction epitomized by the Crystal Palace (1851) in London. the statue of Christ the Redeemer was installed on top of the lantern. was a ﬁtting way to celebrate the ﬁnancial success of Novara’s aristocracy. Novara not only housed administrative centers. its architect. . in 1878. To understand the phenomenon of the San Gaudenzio dome. a city of only 14. schools. First. Although a neoclassicist in spirit.San Gaudenzio Dome 145 forty-two. When. which had tripled to 38. west of Milan.000 by 1888. irrigation had caused the sixfold increase in cereal production around Novara. The commission to build the dome was his ﬁrst opportunity to capitalize on his technical virtuosity and to fulﬁll his architectural ambitions. Its vertical thrust is awesome. Building the dome twice as high as the ﬁrst design had not ruined the city’s ﬁnances. The church could not collect more than 6 percent of the city’s resources every year—compared to twenty percent before 1790—but the deﬁcit was easily made up by the communal government. two questions must be answered. built from 1875 to 1878.000 inhabitants in 1798. ﬁnance such a grand monument when the Roman Catholic Church had lost most of its power and disposable wealth after the Napoleonic Conquest of Italy? Second. and around a million by 1880. making it rise high above the roofs of the city of Novara. Although it was ﬁnished with stone and stucco. but overall the city spent an average of 15. how could Novara. it seemed a decent way of spending the local taxes. and hospitals but also became the seat of a big commercial market. and its stock exchange went through explosive growth in the middle of the nineteenth century. The city was quickly industrialized to provide the tools and clothing needed by the rural population. Building a dome on the long unﬁnished church that housed the silver sarcophagus containing the relics of the town’s patron saint. Antonelli was eighty-years-old. Alessandro Antonelli was involved in the construction of several daring brick structures of enormous dimensions and spent most of his life searching for the solutions necessary to build them.
San Gaudenzio, Novara. Eleven years before Eiffel built his iron tower in Paris, Alessandro Antonelli had ﬁnished his brick version in Novara.
San Gaudenzio Dome
The Sanctuary of the Cruciﬁx in Boca Novarese (1827–1918), the dome of San Gaudenzio in Novara, and the Mole Antonelliana, originally the Jewish Temple, in Turin (1862–1900) are examples of his work. The Sanctuary of the Cruciﬁx crashed to the ground in 1907, but was rebuilt in 1918, and the dome of San Gaudenzio required consolidation and reinforcement in 1882–1885 because the pillars that supported it were independent from, that is, not structurally part of the church crossing. Both the ﬂexibility and safety of the structure were proved when it did not sustain any damage in an earthquake that occurred after the repairs. Antonelli’s six projects for the dome developed from the potential inherent in the ﬁrst basic plan of 1841. He wanted to build a triple dome, inspired ﬁrst by Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London (1675–1711), the work of Sir Christopher Wren, and secondly by the Panthéon in Paris, designed by Soufﬂot (1757– 1777). Antonelli’s triple dome was composed of an interior dome at the scale of the church with a large opening at its crown; an intermediate conical dome, visible from below, with a painting illuminated by large windows; and an exterior dome, much taller than the others, with a silhouette that exalted the city’s skyline. In the second project (1844), Antonelli corrected an error found in the ﬁrst scheme. Because the layers of the dome were independent structures, it was necessary that the supporting pillars and the two rings of arches that supported the interior and exterior shells be independent of the preexisting sixteenthcentury church. Antonelli continued to improvise. In the third, fourth, ﬁfth, and sixth projects he added a second colonnade above the ﬁrst, doubling the height of the dome. He was pushing the possibilities offered by his brick construction system to their limit. The double curvature (in both the vertical and horizontal planes) of the arches at the bottom of the dome could resist huge thrusts. As long as he kept the structure light in weight, raising the summit of the dome to 327 feet was safe. Because the unusual conical structure was so technically stable, it was possible for Antonelli to add the 73 feet of the lantern to its summit. The complex brick structure with its buttresses, its rings of balconies, and its metal-looking reinforcements was as imaginative as Gaudi’s interiors in Barcelona. The awesome dome of Novara hid its most creative part above the visible interior dome where the brick structure and Antonelli’s imagination combined to create an appealing beauty. Eleven years before Eiffel built his iron tower in Paris, Antonelli had ﬁnished his brick version in Novara. Further Reading
Meeks, C. L. V. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966. Rosso, Franco. Alessandro Antonelli, 1798–1888. Milan: Electa, 1989.
San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica)
SAN MARCO (SAINT MARK’S BASILICA), VENICE
Style: Byzantine Dates: 1064–1094; Decoration Twelfth Century Architect: Unknown
major route of invasions in the ﬁfth century passed through the northeast of Italy, between the Alps and the shores of the Adriatic Sea. First came Aleric in 401 and then the Huns led by Attila in 452; ﬁnally the Goths swept into prosperous Roman regions. In a country ravaged by these barbarians, refugees from the metropolis of Aquileia, just north of Venice, found small islands in the Adriatic where they could feel safe and develop a new way of living. Their major settlement was on sandbars on the sites of what are today the Doge’s Palace and the Rialto. Originally, Venice was a community spread over a group of isolated islands; they coalesced in the ninth century into a single political entity. Because of its location on the eastern coast of Italy, Venice became a trading center and had established strong relations with the Byzantine Empire by the eleventh century. Since the Byzantines ruled much of the shoreline around the Adriatic Sea, the Venetians began playing a double game: as defender of the Western world from Byzantine expansion and as commercial partner in the lucrative Byzantine luxury market. The Byzantine emperor formally recognized the Doge (the elected head of the Venetian Republic), naming him the Duke of Venice and Dalmatia, and Venice became autonomous and sovereign. In 828, the relics of the Evangelist Mark were brought to Venice from Alexandria in Egypt. A ducal chapel that was built to house the shrine containing the relics was destroyed after a popular revolt in 976 and rebuilt two years later, probably using a Byzantine Greek cross (equal arm) plan. Domenico Contarini decided to rebuild and enlarge the chapel in 1063, and he looked to Byzantium for a prestigious design, to the Apostoleion (the Church of the Holy Apostles), which is universally considered to be the inspiration for his new basilica. The original Church of the Holy Apostles, which was built by the Roman emperor Constantine (285–337) in the fourth century, was rebuilt by the emperor Justinian in the sixth century using the architects of Hagia Sophia. Enlarged in the ninth century under Emperor Basil I, the Holy Apostles was one of the greatest churches in Constantinople and was also distinguished as the burial church of the Byzantine Emperors. To build a church that would rival such a magniﬁcent and culturally signiﬁcant building challenged the pride and abilities of the Venetians.
San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica)
San Marco is often called a “copy” on a reduced scale of the Church of the Holy Apostles. Like its model, each of the four equal-length arms of San Marco carries a dome as does the crossing (the area where the arms intersect at the center of the church). This, the largest dome, is 42 feet in diameter with small windows at its base and is supported on four square piers that are pierced by arched openings on two levels. A U-shaped narthex, or front porch, runs across the front of the nave and wraps around its sides. Although built in little more than thirty years, the craftsmanship at San Marco was outstanding. Combining the exotic architectural and decorative inﬂuences from Byzantium with the work of local Lombard craftsmen and, presumably, craftsmen imported from Byzantium itself, the church could not be easily imitated in other regions and cities. It has remained unique, a oneof-a-kind masterpiece. Its only European successor was probably the abbey church, now the cathedral, of Perigueux. This building, far from Venice in French Aquitania, was built in the twelfth century, and was almost certainly inspired by San Marco. The Venetians had to adapt the Byzantine plan, intended for Orthodox services, to the ceremonies of western Catholic rite. Second-story galleries reserved for women were suppressed, and the equal-armed centralized plan with its ﬁve domes was subtly altered to resemble aspects of a western basilica. The arm of the nave is slightly longer than the transverse arms, and the pierced piers on either side of the nave suggest aisles that terminate in chapels.
San Marco, Venice. Interior (after engraving in Planat, Encyclopedie de la Construction, vol. 5, p. 238, pl. XLIV, Paris, 1892). From author’s collection.
San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica)
The rough brickwork in the Lombard style, used for the fabric of the building, is only visible in the upper parts of the exterior. Inside San Marco, mosaics with predominantly gold grounds cover large expanses of brickwork. This decoration of the church was begun in the twelfth century by Byzantine craftsmen and continued for centuries. During the Renaissance, the famous Venetian painters Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese furnished designs for the mosaics. The shimmering mosaics dematerialize the walls and unify the lower level with the smooth luminosity of the domes, overwhelming worshippers with celestial visions pictured in tiny pieces of glass and stone. In Stones of Venice, John Ruskin remembered “the dark dusk” he left behind when he pushed the bronze door open to enter San Marco: “light penetrates through narrow openings . . . which looked like large stars.” (Ruskin 1906, 67) Glittering light on the irregular surfaces became brilliant reﬂections. Instead of mosaics, the lower parts of the walls are covered with marble veneer; with age, their white color has turned into the softness of a brown patina. To honor Saint Mark, the patron of their Republic, the Venetians adorned his church with treasures plundered from Constantinople when the Crusaders took over the city in 1204. The extraordinary Pala d’Oro is a gold altarpiece adorned with silver, jewels, and enamel work that was made in Constantinople in 976. Also looted from the east were the four bronze horses, Greek works of the fourth century bce, that were proudly exhibited above the entrance on the balcony of the second story. These magniﬁcent works, replaced by copies on the façade, are now housed in the museum located in the upper galleries of the church. The exterior of San Marco was thoroughly transformed in the thirteenth century. The Byzantine domes were replaced with lead-clad, oriental looking domes that add signiﬁcantly to the picturesque quality of the church. The recesses of the porches received brilliantly colored mosaics. Gothic pinnacles and a wealth of ornamentation were added and give San Marco an irresistible charm. San Marco demonstrates the sort of Venetian luminosity that destroys all sense of solid form and emphasizes the eclectic decoration. It mixes the tall crowning silhouette of the domes, the agitation of Gothic proﬁles, and the multitude of the supporting marble columns on the lower level of the porches in an abstract and subtle composition of light and color. Further Reading
Demus, Otto. Studies in Byzantium, Venice, and the West. 2 vols. London: Pindar Press, 1998. Ruskin, John. Les pierres de Venise. Translated by Mathilde P. Cremieux. Paris: Renouard and Laurens, 1906. Vio, Ettore, ed. The Basilica of St. Mark in Venice. Translated by H. Evans. New York: Riverside Book Company, 2000.
the chief administrator who had great power at his disposal. Justinian (482–565) became the Byzantine emperor. he founded an era of great prosperity and was determined to reintegrate North Africa and all of Italy into his empire. ﬂanked by two or more aisles. are basilicas. became king of Italy. ed. New Haven. which was located at Ravenna’s harbor. But. Ettore. Theodoric laid siege to Ravenna in 490 and after three years took the city and killed Odoacer. in the name of the Eastern emperor who ruled in Byzantium. After 15 years of warfare. In 476. New York: Riverside Book Company. the Ostrogoth Theodoric (454–526) to overthrow him. They belonged to two types. deposed the last emperor of the west. strong. RAVENNA Style: Early Byzantine Dates: 526–548 Architect: Unknown I n 402. Odoacer. Evans. Because the Eastern emperor distrusted Odoacer. SAN VITALE. the Mausoleum of Theodoric (520) is covered by a massive monolithic limestone dome 40 inches thick that spans 36 feet. he charged another barbarian. the Eastern. a barbarian of Turco-Mongolian origin. the Byzantine army occupied Ravenna in 540. a building type with a long central space (the nave). Theodoric governed northern Italy and the southern part of Yugoslavia for thirty-three years. Romulus Augustus. all of which terminate in apses. in Byzantium (modern Istanbul). An Exarch. and clever. CT: Yale University Press. St. There are two octagonal baptisteries. 1250–1400. illuminated by a clerestory. One of these. however. 1993. numerous churches were built in the city. Art and Architecture in Italy. The majority were basilicas. During the period of Ravenna’s prosperity in the ﬁfth and sixth centuries. located in the city. White. represented the emperor in most of Italy. the Roman Empire was divided into two parts in order to offer better resistance against the barbarian invasions. Energetic. The Western Empire had its capital at Ravenna. the Orthodox Baptistery of the mid-ﬁfth century and the Arian Baptistery from the beginning . Translated by H. Other churches and religious buildings were planned as centralized buildings of octagonal or circular form. 2003. Mark’s: The Art and Architecture of Church and State in Venice. John. Both Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo. and. in 568 the Lombards invaded Italy and reduced the territory governed by Ravenna to the area between the Adriatic coast and Rome. and Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. during which time he restored antique traditions and employed a large number of artists.San Vitale 151 Vio. In 527.
San Vitale was commissioned by Ecclesius. The most important of this building type is the octagonal church of San Vitale.152 San Vitale San Vitale. in 526 and consecrated by archbishop Maximian in 548. about 100 feet above the . of the sixth century. bishop of Ravenna. Stunning 6th century mosaics of Junstinian and Theodora decorate the choir of the church. Ravenna. It was planned as a rotunda with a central. covered by a great dome. octagonal space.
San Vitale is a product of Italian masons. The central space is surrounded by an ambulatory (a corridor) on the ground ﬂoor and by a “matroneium. It is even likely that the early Byzantine liturgy. On each side of the choir. two small martyria (chapels devoted to martyrs) function as annexes. The choir of San Vitale is completely encrusted with mosaics whose colors and reﬂections utterly transform its space. the ﬁgures of Justinian and his court and of Empress Theodora and her attendants represent the ﬁnest examples of Byzantine mosaic work of the sixth century. Cyril A. It is related to the Early Christian monuments in Milan. 1970. The dome. Krautheimer. 2nd rev. On the sidewalls. Further Reading Bovini. raised on small pendentives (spherical triangles) that connect its circular base to the eight-sided drum that supports it. New York: Rizzoli International Publications. The overall form of the church expresses a hierarchy of volumes in their progression toward the center. ed. Longo. on the second story. such as Santa Costanza (350). and the barrel vault covering the ambulatory. and the narthex are characteristics of Byzantine churches. Richard. was built using hollow clay vases in order to reduce its weight. Sacred Fortress: Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna. An Art City. 480). was celebrated in San Vitale. and in Rome.San Vitale 153 ﬂoor. and Abraham entertaining the three Angels under the Mamre oak tree. walls. they may be a form of propaganda for the Orthodox faith. Byzantine Architecture. An expressive lightness is visible on the exterior. matroneium. which was the state religion of Byzantium. Otto G. 1991. tympanum. such as San Lorenzo Maggiore (c. Since the martyria. 1975. von Simson. Ravenna is one of the rare remnants of sixth-century mosaic art that was once present throughout the Byzantine Empire but was destroyed by the iconoclasts (the religious groups who opposed ﬁgural representation in eastern churches) and by the later devastations of the Crusaders and the Ottoman Turks. In the half dome of the apse appears Christ in Glory seated on the orb of the Universe while lower on the walls are Moses. 1948. the result of decorative arcades and the pilaster strips. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ravenna: Edizioni A. Mango. Vault. . The lightness of the proportions of the columns and pillars allow a ﬂow of light that is reﬂected by the mosaics that cover the walls in the choir. Abel. Old and New Testament themes are incorporated into a complex program. rather than the Roman liturgy. Melchisedec. and even the pavement compose a unique decorative ensemble that was created by a single group of artists. the half domes over the niches. which is nicely buttressed by seven niches and a choir. In front of the entrance door a small narthex (transverse entry hall or porch). Isaac. Ravenna.” a gallery reserved for women. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. the last element remaining from a rectangular atrium (forecourt) completes the building. Though it may have been inﬂuenced by Byzantine architecture. Giuseppe. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Its façade was completed in 1138. which give more solidity to the structure. which are carried over a series of identical arches resting on columns. Brick construction is replaced in San Zeno with a heavier type of . The startling unity of the church today gives no indication of the delays in building and the various remodeling that took place over several centuries. If one compares San Zeno to the church of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe at Ravenna. It served as a landmark for a Benedictine monastery that became famous as the site of the tomb of Saint Zeno. The two buildings are the same type of basilica without transepts and both are covered by a wood ceiling. VERONA Style: Romanesque Dates: Ninth–Fourteenth Centuries Architects: Unknown. This was also the time when a beautiful new trefoil ceiling was added to the nave. each with four engaged columns. In San Zeno. the belfry of San Zeno Maggiore stands alone to the west of the city center. In the aisles. Giovanni and Nicolò de Ferrerra. The new horizontal rows of alternating materials and colors are visible mainly on the sides of the apse. which was begun in 1120. Thick compound pillars. a good location for him to oversee international and national political affairs. the eighth bishop of Verona and its patron saint. alternate with single slender columns. Sant’ Apollinare is fragile because of the absence of reinforcing of its long upper walls. The freestanding bell tower was built in 1045 and restored in 1120. The original church of San Zeno was built in the ninth century but an earthquake in 1117 made it necessary to build a new church.154 San Zeno Maggiore SAN ZENO MAGGIORE. The church as it exists today is the product of many modiﬁcations. the nave is broken up into a series of bays. In the ﬁrst decades of the thirteenth century. the upper nave wall is connected to the exterior wall by a series of arches or interior buttresses. Giovanni and Nicolò de Ferrara I n the silhouette of the city of Verona against the background of hills covered by villas and cypresses. which would later be included inside Verona’s city walls. its length was increased and the façade was reworked. and an alternate system of support carries the upper walls. In the ninth century. one can see how Italian building technique progressed in the Middle Ages. Two masters. Two upper ﬂoors of superimposed arcades and a pyramidal high-pitched roof are carried by alternating rows of white marble and red brick. A district of settlers quickly grew up around the emperor’s accommodations. the Ottonian German Emperor resided in the monastery. added a Gothic apse and choir that was raised 7 feet above the nave ﬂoor. which was built between 1386 and 1389.
Verona. .San Zeno Maggiore. A characteristic Lombard porch from 1140 marks the entrance.
156 Sant’ Andrea masonry with brick and white marble laid in alternating courses. dome. The interior of the church contains a profusion of twelfth. The “San Zeno Altarpiece” is a representation of the Madonna and Child with saints in a perspective system that continues the view of the church itself. 1733–1765 Architects: Leon Battista Alberti. These show ﬁgures from the Old and New Testaments and four scenes devoted to San Zeno. Further Reading Conant. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. Mantegna’s painting helps one to understand the church interior as a perspective space in the Renaissance manner (see Pazzi Chapel). The façade is typical of Italian design. This archaic tradition. It is raised above a crypt that contains Saint Zeno’s tomb. New Haven. Luca Fancelli. Fortuna. CT: Yale University Press. When the presbytery (the area around the altar) was rearranged between 1450 and 1459. A century of artistic development distinguishes work from the beginning of the twelfth century from that of a century later. Situated . includes a balustrade. K. J. The sculptures on the tympanum (over the door) and on either side of the door are examples of relief sculpture from the twelfth century made by Guglielmo. has a gabled roof supported by two columns that stand on the backs of lions. It is greatly admired for its harmonious proportions. with an inscription that reads. The only vaulted area of San Zeno is the Gothic choir. with its strict modular division into bays and the absolute control of the sculpted elements. which dates to the 1140s. The subjects are taken from the story of Genesis and from the Life of Christ and form a continuous pattern with the bronze doors. which goes back to Carolingian models of the ninth century. the enormous mass of Sant’ Andrea. MANTUA Style: Renaissance. The façade of San Zeno contains a collection of most impressive medieval artistic creations. decorated with thirteenth-century ﬁgures. 1974. The great thirteenth-century rose window represents the Wheel of Fortune. Filippo Juvarra T owering over the Piazza delle Erbe. “I. which occupies two bays. above the entrance to the crypt. determine the fate of mortals. a Renaissance triptych by Andrea Mantegna was installed there. vault ﬁnished in 1494.to fourteenthcentury frescoes distributed in an irregular pattern with a spontaneity that adds to their beauty. on the upper level of the choir. Mantua’s major church. evokes the spirit of a huge Roman ruin. SANT’ ANDREA. Baroque Dates: 1474–1485.” The porch by the artist Nicolò.
a quiet but powerful presence seen from city streets in all directions. a clock tower. the church dominates the core of Mantua’s urban life. architecture. Alberti’s splendidly proportioned façade resembles a Roman triumphal arch articulated with details in dark stone.Sant’ Andrea 157 across from the Palazzo della Ragione (the palace of justice). sculpture. Although he was engaged as architect by some of the most Sant’ Andrea. Its great dome rises above the surrounding rooftops. and (surprisingly enough) on the ideal Italian family. Alberti was a humanist and theoretician who wrote treatises on painting. and a number of religious structures. The building was Alberti’s last major work. and in close proximity to the central market. Mantua. created late in life when he was devoting all his energies to the restoration of ancient Roman buildings. . The Baroque architect Juvarra (1678–1736) ﬁnished the Renaissance building from 1733 to 1765 by adding the dome to a church designed in 1470 by Leon Battista Alberti.
The nave is 240 feet long and the vault. in 1470. Clearly a more contemporary and grandiose building was needed to house the Holy Blood and to accommodate the great number of pilgrims who came to worship at the site of the relic. the medieval church in which the relic was displayed was no longer adequate for its lofty religious function. and workmanship. the Holy Blood of Christ. with a span . Fancelli appears to have faithfully executed Alberti’s plans. He called it a “templum etruscum. covered by a continuous semicircular vault. the Second Marquis. The Saint had buried the relic to protect it. Ludovico was passionate and knowledgeable about architecture. Nearby were found the bones of Longinus. Alberti proposed a great hall that was large enough to accommodate crowds of pilgrims but also functional as a church and was economical to build. By the ﬁfteenth century. techniques. or nave. Ludovico Gonzaga. the Roman soldier who pierced the side of Jesus with his lance. According to tradition. twenty-two years after Alberti’s death. Irregular ﬁnancing of the construction caused delays so that the church was not yet roofed when Fancelli left Mantua in 1485. Alberti was more interested in ideas and conceptual design than in the actual process of building. So it was that Alberti always needed an architect or mason familiar with the building trades to carry out his projects. and there is no evidence of signiﬁcant problems or alterations during the period beginning in 1474 when Fancelli directed the work. which would be most appropriate for the city because the Mantuans traced their early history back to the ancient Etruscans. head of the dynasty that ruled Mantua from 1328 to 1707. Alberti sent a detailed model to the stone mason Luca Fancelli who was in Mantua working on Alberti’s design for the church of San Sebastiano. had collected earth that had been saturated with the Holy Blood during the cruciﬁxion from the base of the cross. He even owned a copy of the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius’s Ten Books on Architecture. The vault over the nave was ﬁnally built in 1494. In the case of Sant’ Andrea. which are now preserved in the church. Sant’ Andrea intervened yet again in 1048 and revealed to a German beggar the exact location of the relic. The Holy Blood attracted pilgrims from all over Europe who believed in its miracle-working power.158 Sant’ Andrea prestigious patrons of the Renaissance. When the Hungarians invaded Italy in 923. Sant’ Andrea was built to house Mantua’s most prized relic. Alberti designed an elongated rectangular hall. He disliked discussions about materials. and its whereabouts were unknown until 804 when Sant’ Andrea (Andrew the apostle) appeared to a Christian man and directed him to the place where the container holding the Holy Blood was hidden. Longinus settled in Mantua when his legion was disbanded and was martyred there in 37. Saint Longinus. Since Alberti was one of the leading architectural experts in Italy at the time and had already designed the sanctuary of San Sebastiano for Mantua. It was even believed to have cured Pope Pius II of gout. the relic was once again hidden and its location forgotten. the Duke accepted his unsolicited plan for the new church.” a building type described by Vitruvius. decided to build a new church. Therefore.
not only an echo of Roman building practice. Sant’ Andrea is similar to the great Roman basilicas. but it reduces the amount of sunlight that enters the nave.” are completely open to the nave and are covered with barrel vaults. with neither iron reinforcing nor wood structure. Its function and purpose are not understood. which. much of Alberti’s delicate detailing and proportional system is obscured by an accretion of Neoclassical ornament. Wilkins. Kate. NJ: Prentice Hall. 5th ed. in fact. Juvarra’s great dome was not added until the eighteenth century. The Latin cross plan building of today is a modiﬁcation of Alberti’s design that was constructed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.” that are closed off from the nave except for their low portals and are roofed with domes. a reference—like the contrasting colors—to the type of church façade that was popular with contemporary architects in Florence. Frederick. Peter. such as that of Constantine in Rome. Alberti prescribed the overall proportions for the nave at ﬁve to six (width to length). London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Italian Renaissance Architecture from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. Although it suggests the form of a Roman triumphal arch. A Renaissance Tapestry: The Gonzaga of Mantua. Simon. Large ones. Sant’ Andrea’s construction resembled that used in antiquity. The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. Millon. proportions that he claimed were used by the Etruscans. Murray. which would have had to have been imported. the façade also mirrors the internal arrangement of the nave with a large barrel vaulted opening in the center ﬂanked by a vertical arrangement of smaller openings based on the tribunalia-cella alternation of chapels on either side of the nave. according to Alberti’s theories. Upper Saddle River.. was the largest and heaviest to be constructed since Roman times. In plan. that is. more isolated chapels. Sculpture. Above the pediment is a small arched structure nicknamed the “ombrellone” (umbrella). Like its forms. but also a major ﬁnancial consideration because local brick was much cheaper than cut stone.Sant’ Andrea 159 of 70 feet. 2003. New York: HarperCollins. Six chapels ﬂank the nave on each side and set up a visual rhythm based on their design and relative openness. called “cellae. and David G. New York: Schocken. . A low triangular pediment crowns the porch. should be dimly lit to inspire awe and reverence in the worshipper. It appears that Alberti’s original design included only the nave enhanced by a monumental entrance and closed by an apse set in a straight wall. Only the façade of Sant’ Andrea preserves Alberti’s original design and beautifully executed ornament. called “tribunalia. Alternating with the tribunalia are smaller. Further Reading Hartt. 1997. The use of local brick rather than cut stone was. History of Italian Renaissance Art: Painting. Henry. 1996. The entire porch can be inscribed in a square and is subdivided vertically by exquisitely detailed Corinthian pilasters and horizontally by moldings of dark colored stone. 1989. Although the monumentality of the nave is still dramatic and awe-inspiring. Architecture.
He designed an oval rotunda. General of the order. a beautiful mixture) in which several visual media. Bernini played with contradictions of the viewer’s expectations. by chapels— ten of them in this case. Mattia de Rossi. a domed central space surrounded. and the travertine street façade was ﬁnished at the end of 1670. Bernini’s role was like a stage director. and distinguished architect—Bernini controlled every detail of the church. As a man of all the arts—outstanding sculptor. a Baroque paraphrase of the Pantheon. They had to face martyrdom and come to believe steadfastly that the pain leading to death would be transformed into a spiritual ascension into heaven. The altar chapel received its ornamentation in 1668. as in the ancient Roman model. Pope Alexander VII wanted to build a wall to separate the church from the street in front of it. The church was built for a Jesuit probationary convent as a place to train novices in privacy away from everyday society. Bernini engaged in a constant and profound dialogue with Giovanni Paolo Oliva. Bernini was put in charge of this exceptional church program. painter. for example. sculpture. This alignment accelerated the path from the entrance to the altar in an unexpected and dramatic manner. It played an important role in the educational process as the young Jesuits were being prepared to go to hostile parts of the world and convert people to the Christian faith. The site available on the convent grounds was very shallow. architecture. thus making it lead nowhere. Bernini’s ideal was to create a form he called “bel composto” (literally. Sant’ Andrea exempliﬁes this ideal. marble pilasters blocked the long axis of the oval. But. In this way. Moreover. not working on everything himself. the dome was built only after 1661. painting and sculpture. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1659–1670 Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini Baroque interior comprises a mixture of all the arts—architecture. but Bernini sidestepped this suggestion and instead designed his church to ﬁt into the comparatively broad but shallow space in front of the other convent buildings. Having been educated by the Jesuits. and painting. His favorite pupil and architectural assistant. A . instead of the traditional emphasis on the long axis of an antique building or a church. Bernini aligned the long dimension of his oval parallel to the street. collaborated on the designs and faithfully carried them out even after the master’s death. were intimately combined. The chapels were erected ﬁrst.160 Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale SANT’ ANDREA AL QUIRINALE. but checking the quality and aesthetic value of the work of all the participants. which made the short axis of the oval into the central axis of the church—and the focus on the main altar.
Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. . Four honey colored columns frame the altar while a white statue of Saint Andrew ascends into the white and gold dome. Rome.
emerges in a dramatic ascension. However. secular world and participates in a manifestation of heaven. is supported on walls that take on a honeyed tone. But Andrew’s vision of God in the sanctiﬁed space of the altar recess is not visible to the congregation in the main body of the church. Bernini. the exaggeration of the frame around the altar that expands the altar painting into a soaring ﬂow of angels. over the heads of the congregation. 1995. He is in a state of ecstasy and. R. a painting by the Jesuit father Guillaume Courtois. The intense technical and artistic thinking that transforms a church into a place to see the invisible more than merely to think about it is a process typical of Roman Baroque Catholicism. The “bel composto” of Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale creates an atmosphere. and David Finn. depicted as a powerful ﬁgure in white marble. Instead.162 Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale The white and gilt dome. He appears to be rising upward into the space of the large dome toward the crowning lantern. the creation of an overall honey-like color. Art and Architecture in Italy. The triumph of the martyrSaint is celebrated lower down where ﬁgures of men and angelotti hang lush garlands around the base of the dome. New Haven. The worshipper entering the church escapes from the physical. et al. reminiscent of Palladio’s in Venice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1997. The selection of marbles. Everything is based on Bernini’s concept and his control of the expression from ﬂat plane (the painting) to three dimensions (the sculpture) and into space (the architecture). there is no evidence of suffering in the saint’s death. an experience. Genius of the Baroque. Over the altar. depicts Saint Andrew’s martyrdom. Four large columns. 4th ed. A crowd of delightful angelotti (plump baby angels) ﬂutters around the base of the lantern watching the arrival of the Saint into Paradise. CT: Yale University Press. the Art of Devotion. London: Bulﬁnch. their attention is directed to the broken pediment above the columns framing the altar recess where the soul of Saint Andrew. reaching out toward Andrew and at the same time causing glistening rays of light to descend into the earthly level represented by the altar painting. God appears symbolically in the top of a lantern over the altar recess. the control of light. frame an altar recess lit from above. He proposed that the church be a “tableau vivant” showing the salvation of Saint Andrew. all these are components of Bernini’s method of expressing religious propaganda in a Baroque manner. which measures 66 by 47 feet at the base and rises to a height of 66 feet. Careri. where the Dove of the Holy Spirit awaits him. Bernini: Flights of Love. Further Reading Avery. 1600–1750. called Il Borgognone. Giovanni. 1999. the movement of angelotti and angels spotted in distinctive parts of the church. Charles. Translated by Linda Lappin. .. Wittkower. with the help of ﬂying angels he envisions his encounter with God the Father. a fusion of the arts where no single art form dominates the others. which is created by multicolored marbles and stucco revetments.
Sant’ Apollinare in Classe
SANT’ APOLLINARE IN CLASSE, RAVENNA
Style: Early Christian Date: 549 Architect: Unknown
avenna is famous for its basilican churches, all of which conform to a basic, rather conservative plan. Long arcades separate a tall central nave from two aisles on each side, as in the cathedral, or a single aisle can ﬂank each side of the nave as in Saint John the Evangelist (424–434), Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo (c. 493–526), and Sant’ Apollinare in Classe (consecrated in 549). In the latter two, the choir is a semicircular apse at the end of the nave. A clerestory high up in the nave walls and a wood roof complete the designs. No transept separates the nave from the choir, but a transverse entry hall, or porch, called the narthex, separated the church proper from the street. A freestanding cylindrical campanile of lofty design, isolated beside the church or adjacent to its façade, would complete the church complex. Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, three miles south of Ravenna’s city center, was built after the Byzantine conquest of the city by Bishop Ursicino or his successor Vittore. It was paid for by the banker Julian Argentario, who was put in charge of the renovation of the city and its harbor, which was decreed by the Byzantine emperor Justinian. The church was consecrated in 549 by Archbishop Maximian, who is visible to the right of Justinian in the choir mosaic in San Vitale. The area of Classe refers to the Latin word “classis,” meaning ﬂeet or harbor. In the ﬁrst century bce, the Roman emperor Augustus had created a military harbor outside Ravenna that was of great importance and could berth ﬁfty ships. At that time, a sandy beach separated the shore from lagoons and swamps inland. Halfway between the city and the site of the church, where a modern channel now cuts inland, was a port-canal defended by walls and barracks. To the south, the district called Classis developed; it contained warehouses, markets, shops, and houses for about 10,000 sailors, most of whom had immigrated the eastern part of the Empire. One suspects that Christianity developed ﬁrst in Classis around Saint Apollinare, who was the ﬁrst bishop of the area. The saint was buried south of Classe in a necropolis on a vast expanse of beach, which had been established during the reign of Augustus. The harbor was kept in good repair until the time of Justinian but lost its importance soon after. It had disappeared by the eighth century, perhaps as a result of the Lombard invasion. Sant’ Apollinare
Sant’ Apollinare in Classe
Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna. An Early Christian basilica with a tall nave, lit by clerestory windows and terminating in an apse, ﬂanked by an aisle on either side.
in Classe, now isolated in a forest of pines, was a monastic establishment that served the cemetery of the old community. In the Byzantine era, a Roman road ran right in front of the entrance portico (heavily repaired in 1909). On the side of the road opposite the church, a rectangular court decorated with fountains articulated its location. The interior of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe is a long rectangular room of handsome proportions divided into a nave and aisles by two rows of twelve columns each that terminates in a raised apse glittering with mosaics. The wood roof enhanced the clarity of the space. Entry was through a remarkable group of nine
Santa Maria della Consolazione
doors that opened on the front and sides of the building. To recreate the spirit of the original church, one must imagine the ﬂoor decorated in polychrome mosaic and the walls covered with marble veneer. These disappeared when it was necessary to raise the level of the columns and rebuild the walls because of ground subsidence during the Middle Ages. Perhaps the best way to recreate the original appearance of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe is to imagine its ﬂoor mosaics resembling those of the abbey church at Pomposa (just twenty miles north of Ravenna) and to picture the decoration of the nave in a style similar to Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo. The apse mosaic in Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, with its dominant green coloration, represents a heavenly landscape with an allegorical program showing the Transﬁguration of Christ above and the power of Sant’ Apollinare to lead souls to Christ below. Three sheep (symbols of Peter, James, and John) contemplate a cross inscribed in a disc containing ninety-nine stars ﬂanked by the prophets Moses and Elijah. Directly below the cross, Apollinare gathers twelve baptized believers, symbolically represented as sheep, within a rich green ﬁeld full of trees, ﬂowers, and birds. Sant’ Apollinare is represented according to the conventions of a funeral portrait, and below the apse mosaic images of four bishops of Ravenna commemorate the role of the church as their place of burial. The dignity of these ﬁgures accords well with the tradition of ofﬁcial portraits of the high prelates and emperors in the Byzantine Empire. The heavenly vision of Christ’s transﬁguration should be understood as an inspiration for the believer and the basis of his or her absolute trust in religious orthodoxy.
Bovini, Giuseppe. Ravenna, An Art City. Ravenna: Edizioni A. Longo, 1970. Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. 2nd rev. ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975. Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, the Sacred Arts. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1976.
SANTA MARIA DELLA CONSOLAZIONE, TODI
Style: Renaissance Dates: 1509–1607 Architects: Donato Bramante; Baldassare Peruzzi; Michele Sanmicheli
Santa Maria della Consolazione
he famous architectural theoretician Leon Battista Alberti believed that the perfection of the circle, design themes inspired by nature, and the purity and simplicity of Platonic forms were conﬁrmation that a church with a dome or a central plan would surpass any other possible form. Indeed, centralized plan churches, that is, churches based on plans derived from perfect Platonic shapes (circles, equilateral triangles, squares, hexagons, and octagons) were demonstrations of the perfection of God. Outside the western end of the medieval hilltop city of Todi, at the base of a fortress owned by the ruling Atti family, one of the ﬁnest examples of such a centralized plan church stands in isolation overlooking the vast landscape of Umbria. This is Santa Maria della Consolazione, built on the site where, on May 17, 1508, a ﬁgure of the Virgin Mary was discovered hidden in spiny bushes. The discovery prompted the arrival of large numbers of pilgrims who were given indulgences (forgiveness of sin) by the Bishop of Todi on June 13. On July 13, the Atti family ordered a society of nobles to build a church on the site. They laid a foundation stone for the project on March 17, 1509, and commissioned local builders with limited experience to build the church. A single apse was begun and then, in May 1509, a new contract was drawn up for the construction of three more apses resulting in a church made up of four apses built on the sides of a square central space whose corners supported a dome. Financial difﬁculties slowed construction of the building, so in May 1512 Pope Julius II put his “Architetto” Bramante in charge of revising the project. A model was built by Arnaldo Bruschi to deﬁne the new shape of the church, which was typical of Bramante’s design approach. It had a low dome inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, a shape he would use in the future for Saint Peter’s Dome. Bramante died in 1514, however, and work on Santa Maria della Consolazione progressed very slowly with a succession of architects taking charge of construction. Baldassare Peruzzi and Michele Sanmicheli, both former members of Bramante’s studio, were two of them. The design for the dome was changed in 1587, and the church was not ﬁnished until 1607, nearly a century after the miracle of 1508. The integrity of simple volumes explains clearly how the church was designed. A series of elementary volumes—a central cube, a cylinder, four half-cylinders (one circular, the others dodecagonal), a sphere, and four hemispheres—are beautifully orchestrated. The four apses structurally strengthen the base on which the central dome is built. The shapes of the interior are repeated precisely in the form of the exterior. At the corners of the central cube are pendentives, spherical triangles that make the transition from the square top of the cube to the round base of the circular drum that supports the dome. An even light typical of the Renaissance, both in art and architecture, suffuses the ﬂuid space of the interior. This light is “universal,” that is, its diffuse uniformity changes very little throughout the day and does not create shadows. So different from the dim glow in Gothic cathedrals, this “universal” light is indifferent to site, it is an abstract part of a “universal” architecture not based on peculiarities or on historical intricacies.
Santa Maria della Consolazione, Todi. A geometrically perfect centralized plan church of the High Renaissance.
A universal light illuminates the geometrically perfect High Renaissance church. .Santa Maria della Consolazione. Todi.
La chiesa a pianta centrale. outside the city. Bruschi. Greatly inﬂuenced by the study of Roman architecture that he conducted after his arrival in the city. Milan: Electa. where goods from all over the countryside were brought. Bramante had been forced to leave Milan. The city had ceased being closed off from the countryside by its walls. The cloister’s high reputation among later Beaux-Arts professionals in Paris. SANTA MARIA DELLA PACE CLOISTER. 1973. at ﬁfty-six years of age. Four hundred years earlier.Santa Maria della Pace Cloister 169 The location of the church. Wolf. Translated by R. New York: Harry N. He went directly to Rome and arrived there for the Holy Year of 1500. Keller. E. nongeometrical organization of the typical urban fabric of the time. it belongs to an ideal landscape that painters and architects of the Renaissance sought to model with perspective. Abrams. Bramante. Bruno. Architecture. where he had worked for Lodovico Sforza. Bramante was ready. to celebrate his architectural maturity in a rather grand manner. Arnaldo. But the location may also reﬂect changing political and economic conditions. The Renaissance in Italy: Painting. the ruling class demonstrated control over a large territory. 2002. commissioned Bramante’s ﬁrst Roman work. Further Reading Adorni. California. the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. such as Julia Morgan. Sculpture. Julia Morgan created a variation of this landmark in 1913–1915. 1974. London: Thames and Hudson. YMCA would ﬁnd a replica of Donato Bramante’s cloister of Santa Maria della Pace in Rome. when the French army deposed the duke and occupied the city. was the result of its complicated proportional A . Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. ROME Style: Renaissance Dates: 1500–1504 Architect: Donato Bramante visitor to the central court of the Oakland. it now ruled the region beyond. a lover of art and antiquities. Inﬂuenced by the French Beaux-Arts system of architectural education where she was the ﬁrst female graduate. in a vast and luminous landscape is typical of the Renaissance intolerance of the loose. Harald. Santa Maria della Consolazione does not belong to the city of Todi. By providing a gathering place for people outside the city tollhouses.
. a fortunate and unusual occurrence in the haphazardly planned central district of Rome. an octave in musical terms. Bramante subdivided the second story into eight bays (units marked off by the columns). repeating a solution he had previously experimented with in a two-storied cloister in Milan. columns. For example.170 Santa Maria della Pace Cloister system. Bramante used the proportion of one to two. Bramante was inﬂuenced by such theories. Renaissance architects considered proportions their main tool in disposing and sizing the spaces. Bramante’s method of designing for the cloister was fairly direct: he divided the site into sixteen equal. and columns of their buildings in a rational way. Rome. The cloister itself occupied nine of the squares. containing a gallery. opened by two arcades with windows. The site where the cloister was to be built was nearly square. or a musical third. and the third (three to four). has the proportion of three to four. also recommended by the theorists. a way that would enhance the beauty of each and all of these parts of a building. smaller squares with a small piece left over occasioned by the irregularity of the street on the west side. and cornices whose proportions Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. He based the vertical subdivision of the cloister on the octave (one to two). walls. openings. thus doubling the four arches of the lower story. Then. An abstract set of proportions governs Bramante’s ﬁrst Roman work. which Bramante subdivided into four parts to determine the width of the four arches that made up the lower story of the arcades surrounding the open court. for the back wall of the cloister. According to Vitruvius (a Roman architect and theorist writing in the ﬁrst century bce) the proportional system of a structure should be musical. This abstract grid was now ﬁlled in with piers. The exterior wall of the cloister.
he used the orders to express an idea related to the Virgin Mary. for example. Bramante employed the Ionic order because it was the “feminine” order that conventionally signiﬁed the maternal role of the Virgin. The corner piers could not be widened enough to allow for complete attached Ionic . she connected her courtyard to the city of Oakland in which the YMCA was located. The arches on the ground level are supported by piers in the Tuscan order.Santa Maria della Pace Cloister 171 were deﬁned by the same square module and regular subdivisions that governed the whole design. which was based on ancient Roman prototypes is. This much was traditional symbolism. but the cloister had two stories rather than the more conventional one. which meant that the orders of decoration had to be superimposed on two levels. the center of each side of the cloister is blocked by a pier that supports the arches. Bramante’s rather abstract manner of combining voids and bearing elements (columns and walls).) Bramante’s application of his abstract set of proportions is so subtle and delicate that it could only be the result of his personal judgment. thus the name of the cloister— and Mother of the People to whom both church and cloister are dedicated. The Tuscan order was a Roman variant of the Greek Doric and the Composite order was a Roman elaboration of the Greek Corinthian. in fact. There were strict canons of classical design for the vertical arrangement of the three orders. Attached to their front surfaces are pilasters (ﬂattened columns) raised up on pedestals and carrying Ionic capitals. Bramante’s maintaining of the proportions of the whole arcade causes the Ionic pilasters attached to the corner piers to become very slender compared to conventional proportions for the order. those found in the buildings of Mies van der Rohe during the 1950s and 1960s. According to these rules. freestanding Corinthian columns alternate with piers bearing Composite capitals. not very different from some modern arrangements of space and surfaces. But certain aspects of the design were developed and deﬁned by typical Renaissance practice. creating an inward focus and detaching the cloister from urban life. (In the United States. In a provocative decision. Mother of Peace—“Pace” in Italian. In the cloister. On the ground level. Bramante used the Tuscan and the Ionic together on the ground level and the Corinthian and Composite orders on the upper ﬂoor. For example. the slender Ionic order could not be on the bottom. this blocks or interrupts the view. Instead of relating the cloister to other spaces in the convent or to the city outside. especially the Renaissance sense of perspective and the use of the classical orders. Bramante solved the problem of distribution of the orders by using two Greek and two Roman orders. His choice of the classical orders and their deployment demonstrates how educated intuition could be involved in solving and working out a sort of intellectual game of design. the second ﬂoor columns are three-quarters the height of those in the lower story. In the second story. Julia Morgan had a different attitude. For example. by tradition it must be placed above the heavier Doric.
Arnaldo. artists from Venice played a leading role. or “vedute ideale” (ideal views). 1998. and Francesco Guardi (1712–1793) took great pleasure in painting the fantasy offered by the two domes of the church of Santa Maria della Salute that appeared high above the Grand Canal immediately opposite the Piazza San Marco. After a period during which Venice . Wittkower. 1973. a matter of individual taste that qualiﬁed him as a great architect. called Canaletto. VENICE Style: Baroque Dates: 1631–1681 Architect: Baldassare Longhena I n the period when travelers or amateurs bought. 1997. The domes seemed to embrace a rotational movement that was exaggerated by the large scrolls. This movement created the illusion that the domes were ﬂoating above a massive octagonal base. Dedicated as a votive temple to the Virgin Mary. February 1. Murray.172 Santa Maria della Salute pilasters without disturbing the equilibrium and proportionality of the whole abstract design. Rudolf. the foundation stone was laid on the day of the Annunciation. called volutes. London: Thames and Hudson. Bramante had to bend the rules in order to reach a harmonic balance. moldings that should conform to the orders by conventional rules needed to be suppressed or simpliﬁed. Santa Maria della Salute stands out in this urban scenery. Sculpture. Abrams. London: Academy Editions. The Renaissance in Italy: Painting. Keller. SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE. Venetians built the church to celebrate the end of a plague in 1630. Architecture. 1631. Bramante. Translated by R. Harald. Further Reading Bruschi. which was also the anniversary of the legendary foundation of Venice. or even “cappricci” (imaginary views). 1974. For similar reasons of geometry. as mementos of their voyages “vedute” (views). New York: Schocken. Wolf. Peter. New York: Harry N. at the base of the domes. The domes of the Salute and those of three other churches—Saint Mark’s Basilica and the two Palladian churches San Giorgio Maggiore and Il Redentore—are arranged in a circular pattern and appear to be equidistant from one another. Antonio Canal (1697–1768). The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. E.
which inspired the painters Guardi and Canaletto. The two domes create a picturesque sight from across the Grand Canal.Santa Maria della Salute. . Venice.
Longhena proposed to provide a variation on the system of a three-part church. The main rotunda was. which is hidden from direct view by the large main altarpiece. Also Palladian is the differing treatment given to the three parts of the church. For example. Longhena had to fulﬁll some very speciﬁc demands. 1972. R. San Vitale in Ravenna immediately comes to mind. in the chapels he used Palladian thermal windows. but nevertheless it must appear to be one of the leading monuments of Venice. To integrate it into the design of the other two parts of the building. 4th ed. Unlike Il Redentore. the new church would be built on a very restricted site. Further Reading Critinelli. semicircular windows divided into thirds by two rectangular pillars. Longhena’s sense of scenic design helped him to devise a design solution that was uniquely Venetian and independent of the development of Roman Baroque. CT: Yale University Press. he used a scenic progression of steps that lead up to the main altar and then to the columns that frame the retrochoir. 1600–1750. Instead of following the basilican plan.174 Santa Maria della Salute was at odds with Papal power and policy and was suspected of Protestant leanings. A poorly organized competition delayed the choice of an architect until June 18. Baldassare Longhena. Longhena’s church had to provide space for a distinguished crowd of senators and rich merchants for ceremonies of homage to the Virgin. he transformed the nave into a large octagonal rotunda covered by a dome. a nave for the public. Architetto del’600 a Venezia. there is. in Longhena’s conception. the Republic was now going to prove its strict adherence and renewed ﬁdelity to Catholicism with the new church. et al. 1631. because Longhena had been trained as a Renaissance architect. behind the choir. G. when the Senate selected Baldassare Longhena (1598–1682). he felt obliged to design all the subunits according to contemporary standards of proportion and shape and to enforce a strict regularity. The use of two domes of differing size—the larger one over the nave is 130 feet tall. Venice.. 1999. . erected in memory of the plague of 1576. and. However. which is covered by a dome and used by the clergy for ofﬁcial celebrations. a symbol of sublime mystery. rectangular nave. New Haven. With academic ﬁnesse. about as tall as a thirteen-story apartment building— introduces an unclassical or anticlassical element that provides an unexpected yet much appreciated dissonance. Longhena based his rotunda on Early Christian precedents. In front of it is the choir. Art and Architecture in Italy. with a long. Wittkower. Like the Palladian church Il Redentore (1577–1592). He responded to Palladio’s inﬂuence with formal details. In both Il Redentore and Santa Maria della Salute. But Longhena proposed a major change from Palladio’s plan. a retrochoir reserved for the clergy to say daily services. in front of that. Knowing perfectly well Palladio’s work at Il Redentore.
the exterior of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud looks like a Chinese pagoda. in which sunlight is given materiality and stone becomes luminescent. but his primary work was as an architect who focused all his attention on geometry and light in his buildings. The gifted mathematician and philosopher Guarino Guarini (1624–1683) took charge of designing the chapel in 1668. the city became the capital of a state ruled for nine centuries by the absolute monarchs of the House of Savoy. a vast chapel was planned to house it. The chapel was built at the eastern end of the cathedral of Turin and was elevated one story above the ﬂoor level of the church so as to be on the same level as the piano nobile (the main ﬂoor) of the Duke’s residence. no one could imagine the shape of the dome or of the room that it covers. From 1670 to 1674. An important element in their power was the Holy Shroud (Santissima Sindone). Seen from the west. The interior is a lofty space that rises into a construction that is almost transparent. Curved elements interlace to form a conical pile of openings surmounted by a spire of stacked. arched openings. This coincidence of levels was intended to symbolize the union of the church and state.Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel) 175 SANTISSIMA SINDONE (HOLY SHROUD CHAPEL). and in 1657. which the ruling dynasty owned. It was believed that this piece of linen was the actual cloth that wrapped the body of Christ after the cruciﬁxion and was then lost after the Resurrection. the shroud was exhibited in Turin in 1578. a structure in which light and stone are exchanged. He was a “cleric regular” in the Theatine Order. one has to imagine little shallow-arched stone bridges spanning the circle that forms the base of the dome to create a hexagon. First brought to the Champagne area of France in 1430. Guarini was very daring in his designs. which was located behind the cathedral. when it expanded in the direction of the Po River. TURIN Style: Baroque Dates: 1668–1690 Architect: Guarino Guarini he site of the ancient Roman camp at Turin grew into a capital city with a promising future in the seventeenth century. after the House of Savoy had moved the capital to that city. From this. from the courtyard of today’s Royal Palace. in which he combined a variety of intellectual approaches that were typical of Baroque architectural productions. In order to understand how the dome was designed. Light is introduced under the arch of each bridge and from the center T .
Interlacing bridges of stone alternating with glass lighten the dome of Guarini’s masterpiece. inﬂuenced architects to mix light and matter in their buildings. demonstrated how to take advantage of an immense scientiﬁc knowledge to transform space .176 Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel) Santissima Sindone. In addition to mathematics. The genius of Guarini can be analyzed in mathematical terms: how can the surface of a sphere be measured? One way is to divide it into small triangles and gradually to reduce the size of the triangles to an inﬁnitesimal minimum size. minute particles that collided and became transformed. continually decreasing in size. Guarini. Guarini was interested in the materiality of light and devoted seventy pages to this phenomenon in his treatise Placita Philosophica of 1665. until it ﬁnally reaches the opening of the ﬂamboyant lantern. The idea of a spherical dome disappears. expressed mainly through the chiaroscuro manner (contrasts of light and dark) exhibited in the work of painters who followed Caravaggio (1571–1610). This is the basic principle of integral calculus. which was being developed at that time by Newton and Leibniz: the total of all the surfaces of the triangles approaches the surface of the sphere. Matter and light could consequently exchange their properties. of each bridge springs a similar smaller bridge. an integral part of contemporary design. to be replaced by translucent bodies ﬂooded with light. This idea. This concept in Baroque architecture is a forerunner of modern architects’ ideas about transparency. Turin. made up of tiny corpuscles. Scientists of the seventeenth century believed that light was material. This pattern is repeated six times. following the lead of the Roman Baroque architect Borromini.
was an uninhabited plain between the Tiber River and a hill called the Pincio. R. New Haven. the church of San Lorenzo (1668–1687) in which he used “channels” of light and intersecting ribs to give loftiness to a graceful dome whose appearance is again impossible to divine from the exterior. New Haven. i. Aqueduct) or. at a right angle to the Corso. Guarino Guarini and His Architecture. and the via del Babuino—were called the Trident of the Piazza del Popolo.. Because the principal entry into the city from the north was the Porta del Popolo.e. Guarini also created. during the seventeenth century. 1600–1750. the northern part of Rome. it ran from the Corso eastward across the via del Babuino to the slope of a hill on top of which stood a church dedicated to the Holy Trinity.. 4. CT: Yale University Press. These streets—the via di Ripetta. 4th ed. Called the strada Condotti (Street of the Conduit. Gianlorenzo Bernini. the via Trinitatis (Street of the Trinity). The climb from the bottom to the top of the hill was 73½ feet. frequently. In the Baroque age. Bernini transformed . During the sixteenth century. Wittkower. et al. CT: Yale University Press. protected by the Aurelian Wall (270–275). a few hundred yards south of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud. below the Pincio. 1999. Roman ofﬁcials developed an interest in the scenic attributes of the site and began to perform theatrical celebrations there in honor of the children of the Spanish Kings.Spanish Steps 177 and light in a building. SPANISH STEPS. Further Reading Meek. A. Three straight streets. H. Intersecting the Trident. a street was built on the site of the former aqueduct that had brought water to the Baths of Agrippa. the most famous Roman Baroque artist and architect.000 feet long starting at the Piazza and running southward into the heart of the old city were built in between 1518 and 1549 by Popes Leo X and Paul III. the Corso. Art and Architecture in Italy. 1988. In 1651. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1723–1726 Architect: Francesco de Sanctis U ntil the sixteenth century. visitors to the city would enter there. the area inside the city gate was settled and became the Piazza del Popolo. created a celebration for the birth of the King’s daughter and son—the crown prince or dauphin (which also means dolphin).
Rome. . The stairway connects the Piazza di Spagna with the church of Trinità dei Monti.Spanish Steps. a run of more than 73 feet.
the French prime minister until he died in 1661. in Naples. Rome. Ferdinando Sanfelice (architect of Palazzo Sanfelice) designed and executed the steps leading to the church of San Giovanni a Carbonara. Finally. left 8. The ﬂights of stairs had to be arranged by subtle inﬂections and connected by a mixture of straight and curved lines. Releasing the money set aside for the project. In organizing the project. Spain also proposed a staircase. De Sanctis’s major purpose in his design was to offer viewers the freedom to discover the many views of the city as they move along the stairs. Pope Clement XI decided to organize a discussion among ﬁve architects. The staircase was built between 1723 and 1726. Wittkower. Francesco de Sanctis (1693–1740). Consumo di un Linguaggio. but with a statue of a Spanish king at the bottom. It exploded into ﬂames around a colossal ﬁgure of a dolphin that emerged from the ﬁre. The popes delayed a decision on what to do for half a century.000 scudi for the erection of a grand staircase with a ﬁgure of King Louis XIV at the top. 1966. 1600–1750. Paolo. which took place between 1717 and 1720. The Spanish Steps were made for people whose presence and movement added beauty to the built design.. 4th ed. with light and thunder at its summit. de Sanctis demonstrated a genial capacity to combine irregularity and symmetry into a narrative composition that included the church of Trinità dei Monte at the top of the hill. He was one of the leaders of an urban culture that matured at the beginning of the eighteenth century.Spanish Steps 179 the hill into a huge mountain or volcano. The Spanish Steps show how much progress in urban design had taken place since 1708 when. Roma Barocca. Cardinal Mazarin. By using convex and concave forms. they had to be done with all possible charm and with a playful spirit. de Sanctis demonstrated a great capacity for visual control. Each ﬂight of steps leads to terraces that offer benches for resting and enjoying the view. Though not on axis with the via dei Condotti. According to the architectural program for the stairs. . Art and Architecture in Italy. Contemplation is mixed in a subtle manner with the element of utility. Clement selected the architect who was already working for the French cloister of the Holy Trinity. 1999. the irregular contours of the stairs offer a very loose architectural frame for it. CT: Yale University Press. 2. New Haven. Political rivalry between France and Spain explains the numerous arguments about building a staircase up the hill connecting the two sites. et al. R. The French nation owned the top of the hill and the church of the Trinity while the Spanish nation had its embassy below on a triangular square called the Piazza di Spagna. Further Reading Portoghesi.
the drawings of Paestum immediately changed the scope of eighteenth century architecture. a group of French noblemen led by the future superintendent of works for King Louis XV and by the architect Soufﬂot. a comprehensive city plan had been organized and laid out. Although the French publication of the temples in 1764 was rather poorly produced. the Greek temple. He interpreted weight and load. were new to most architects (Greece was part of the Muslim Ottoman Empire at this time) and were interpreted as a new example of formal purity. without bases and with their archaizing appearance. for a thousand years—from the ninth century until the middle of the eighteenth century—when King Charles VII of Naples decided to open a new straight road to the south and discovered them? In 1750. or strength and resistance. Von Klenze included the image of a man throwing a stone at a serpent in the foreground of his drawing as a symbol of the new way of conceptualizing architecture. For him. made a remarkable sketch of the Poseidon Temple (also called the Neptune Temple) seen from the Temple of Hera (also called the Basilica) on May 15. The three temples that survive at the site were built between 530 and 470–460 bce. Leo von Klenze (1784–1864). The city of Poseidonia. composed of columns and lintels was the best and most beautiful form of architecture. PAESTUM Style: Greek Dates:Circa 480–470 BCE Architect: Unknown H ow could three enormous. called The Ruins of Paestum or of Poseidonia. the other feminine. well-preserved Greek temples have remained hidden. or at least unknown except locally. was an outstanding presentation. as being symbolic of a dualistic approach. Archaeologists in the eighteenth century. As architects who had been collecting illustrations of Greek temples began to have access to these publications. By the middle of the sixth century bce. 1855. the London publication by Thomas Major.180 Temple of Poseidon TEMPLE OF POSEIDON. named after the sea god. traveled to Paestum to measure the temples. Doric columns. was founded by Greek colonists who came from Ionia. like those in the temples. impressed by the dimensions and harmony of design of the largest temple. The clarity with which the parts that were carried were distinguished from the parts that carried them opened the eyes of architects to new formal possibilities and began the transformation that led to the twentieth-century post-and-beam (trabeated) construction in reinforced concrete structures. a well-known German architect. named it after Poseidon (Latin Neptune) the sea . the one masculine.
god. P. The Temple of Poseidon is an outstanding example of an Italian ﬁfthcentury Doric temple that creates an impression of airiness and eternal solidity. have proved that the building was built in honor of the goddess of fecundity. Paestum. which means that it has six columns across the front and rear façades. C. Sestieri claims it has “a quality never attained in any other period of the history of Greek architecture.” (Sestieri 1965. 15) Measuring 80 feet by 180 feet 10 inches. and fourteen columns on the ﬂanks. Later discoveries. the Argive Hera. the temple is hexastyle. They reasoned that a city named after Poseidon would dedicate its largest and best temple to the same god. however. View of the corner columns of the temple thought by 18th century archaeologists to be dedicated to the sea god.Temple of Poseidon 181 Temple of Poseidon. .
and metopes. On the front and rear façades. they cannot be. However. In principle. The columns and cult room. panels between the triglyphs. rectangular blocks with vertical grooves cut into their surfaces. 1983. Robertson.” The Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 13 (1950): 48–64. the triglyphs and metopes should be uniform in size. Long. To carry the weight of the timber ceiling. are raised above the ground on a base of three steps called the stereobate. A. S. The shape of the space between the columns. Instead. and a row of columns. also has a beauty of its own. Although it was built earlier than the Parthenon. was placed on either side of the interior of the cult room. the decorative band above the colonnade. Greek and Roman Architecture. Donald S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. each row was composed of two stories of superimposed columns. which narrows signiﬁcantly toward the top. Greek Architecture. For example.182 Temple of Poseidon The term used to describe a plan with freestanding columns all around is peripteral. Although only about half of the temple’s interior survives. . an appearance of regularity in the frieze was created with subtlety and skill. but because of the variation in the column spacing. and from the back porch. called the pronaos. Harmondsworth: Penguin. or naos. because shorter columns can be slimmer than a single story of taller columns. Greek for the residence room of the divinity. in the center from the vestibule in front. parallel to the wall. a distance called the intercolumniation. the columns are slightly wider than those on the sides and the ones placed on the corners are slightly elliptical. 1969. The ﬁgure of the god may have been a simple representation in terra cotta or an elegant marble statue. it was covered with white stucco to make it appear to be made of marble. the walls of the sekos are sturdy. All these adjustments complicate the design of the frieze. 2nd ed. “The Early Publications of the Temples at Paestum. sometimes ornamented. the Temple of Poseidon has similar optical corrections included in its design and execution to correct for how people perceive things. The stone from which the temple is made has a marvelous color that turns to mellow gold when the light is right and helps to enhance its formal perfection. the temple has very little sculptural ornament. enough remains to distinguish the sekos. Each one has a bulge at the midpoint of the shaft. the ﬂat. Further Reading Lawrence. W. called the opisthodomos. Its pediment shows no traces of the clamps and rods necessary to attach sculpted ﬁgures. the horizontal lines in the building are all slightly bowed upward a little less than an inch in 180 feet because long horizontal lines appear to sag in the middle. To give a lighter aspect to the interior. an adjustment in the shape of a column called entasis. Another adjustment was applied to the columns. which includes triglyphs. Except for the metopes on the western main façade.
wrote that the gigantic volcanic forms he observed brought to mind Homer’s story of the struggle between Ulysses and the monstrous. in its restored form. Catania 1804) Thirty-two years after Schinkel’s visit to Taormina. Schinkel discovered that a small bay nearby was linked by folk tradition to the ancient Greek hero and was even called the “Harbor of Ulysses.” After visiting the theater. the French architect Viollet-le-Duc included the theater in his tour of Sicily. Today. Rome: Instituto Poligraﬁco dello Stato. one-eyed Cyclops Polyphemus. TAORMINA Style: Hellenistic. Viollet-leDuc restricted his painting to the representation of the building itself. Roman Dates: Third Century BCE and Second Century CE Architect: Unknown ravelers making the Grand Tour in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were overwhelmed by the landscape and the mythological aura that surrounded the ancient city of Taormina on the northeast coast of Sicily. The siting of the theater is typical of Greek architectural practice: it is nestled into a hillside that provides the area for the “cavea”. the Heraion at the Mouth of the Sele. which. Paestum. For Viollet-le-Duc. The City. Viollet-le-Duc. slightly south of the Straits of Messina. visitors from all over the world ﬂock to Taormina to enjoy both the ruins of the Theater and its spectacular view of Etna and the sea. THEATER.” (Schinkel 1979. the Prehistoric Necropolis in Contrado Gaudo. who would later lead extensive restoration work on the major French medieval churches. Schinkel described the view from its ruins thus: “Etna rises high in its total majesty above the plains of Catania. the glory of Taormina was to be experienced through its architecture rather than its natural setting. blocked the panorama of Etna and the extensive stretch of iridescent water below.Theater 183 Sestieri. or semicircular auditorium. After making detailed sketches of the site in June 1836. T . 1965. visiting the site in 1804. could not resist his enthusiasm for the picturesque ruins of the theater and its impressive setting. The German Romantic architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. he painted a large watercolor showing the Theater restored to its ancient form. the sea closing the horizon. He depicted several thousand spectators totally focused on the action in front of the stage building. Pellegrino Claudio. In contrast to Schinkel’s Romantic ecstasy inspired by the awesomeness of Nature and the mythical associations of Taormina.
Taormina as reconstructed in the mid nineteenth century by Viollet-le-Duc. Photograph of drawing courtesy of Centre des Monuments Nationaux. .Theater.
By the second century. such as the very large one at Syracuse. The Taormina Theater does not resemble other Hellenistic theaters. The provision of public entertainments and the ﬁnancing of elaborate buildings in which to house them were important components of the Roman political tradition. This distinctive feature and the use of carefully squared (ashlar) masonry for the base of the scene building (“scaena”) are evidence for dating the construction of the building to the Hellenistic period. The cavea. The theater could also be roofed with fabric awnings on hot sunny days. Like every Roman theater. A rectangular niche in the center of the stage building contained three doors that opened onto the stage.Theater 185 with rows of seats cut from the living rock. . the one at Taormina has the following three primary parts and several secondary features: 1. A portico. Both of these emperors presided over the Empire when it was at its zenith and they made it a practice to donate buildings to communities in Italy as well as in the provinces. These divisions facilitated the entrance and exit of the crowd and also marked the location of blocks of seats for the various strata of the local society grouped in hierarchical order. or scaena. or covered colonnade. from some time during the third century bce. An inscription giving the date 108 has led some scholars to attribute the reconstruction to the reign of the emperor Trajan (98–117). or seating area. Scholars calculate that the cavea at Taormina accommodated about 5. The façade of the scaena was elaborately decorated with two stories of Corinthian columns. eight stairways from bottom to top further divide the seating area into nine wedge-shaped sections called cunei. At either end of the stage building was a large hall connected to the cavea that made the theater a self-contained enclosed space. 2. Small arched niches. scooped out of the front wall of the scaena—probably holding statues—were visible through the spaces between the columns.400 spectators. which was a long rectangular structure equal in height to the seating area. because it was remodeled and enlarged by the Romans in the second century ce. Walkways. while other specialists suggest that the work was done under his successor Hadrian (117–138). divide the cavea into ﬁve horizontal tiers. The interior of the scaena was a long. parallel to the seats. On either side of this was a semicircular niche containing a single door that was clearly subordinate to the triad of doors in the center. the people expected imperial donations as tokens of the Emperor’s beneﬁcence and generosity. once ran completely around the top of the cavea to provide shade for spectators (the lower classes and women) who occupied the highest seats. The three niches were linked by a row of Corinthian columns on a low podium. one above the other. is made up of semicircular steps. Connected to either end of the cavea was the stage building. narrow hall with a second series of doors in its back wall that opened outward to the area behind the theater. which were the seats.
htm. the space between the base of the cavea and the front of the stage. the “David di Donatello Award. 1809–1811. Antonio Nicollini I taly did not become a uniﬁed country until 1870 (see Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele). A new survey of the ruins has been undertaken by the Australian Roman Theater Project. Frank B. Bieber. Prior to that date. its results are scheduled to appear on the website listed below.” was borrowed from Greek practice. and 66 feet high. so admired by Schinkel. An area of about 33 feet is missing from the center of the scaena. 1961. Further Reading The Ancient Theater Archive: www. Although the word orchestra. Taormina is host each year to the most important Italian ﬁlm festival. THEATER OF SAN CARLO. NJ: Princeton University Press.” An international festival called “Taormina Art” runs continuously every summer.186 Theater of San Carlo 3. Sear. Although the loss of this part of the building is unfortunate. The opening allows the visitor a spectacular view of Mount Etna and the sea. the orchestra was rebuilt in a circular shape so that it could function as an arena where gladiatorial and wild beast shows were staged. Margarete. NAPLES Style: Baroque. Late in the history of the Taormina Theater. and the usefulness of the restored Theater. 1816–1817 Architects: Giovanni-Antonio Medrano. Princeton. This gap was either the result of damage inﬂicted during World War II or of constant looting of useable materials from the site over the centuries.edu/theatre/theatretour/taormina/taormina.whitman. most likely in the third century. Dimensions for the theater are only approximate: it is 164 feet wide. Because of the beauty of the environment. it has a positive side.” American Journal of Archaeology 97 (1993): 687–701. “The Scaenae Frons of the Theater of Pompey. in the eighteenth century when the country . The History of the Greek and Roman Theater. Neoclassical Dates: 1737. 394 feet long. A wood stage in front of the scaena overlooked the orchestra. meaning “dancing place. so well appreciated by Violletle-Duc. the Roman orchestra was semicircular in shape and used for seating important viewers whereas the Greek orchestra was round and was reserved for the use of the musicians and dancers.
although rebuilt after a ﬁre in 1816. Paisiello. The hall of the theater deﬁned a social hierarchy where brilliant formal attitudes required recognition. Don Carlos had to rely on a group of social leaders who. In 1809–1811. the architect Medrano (1703 to about 1750) juxtaposed two equivalent spaces. and the experience of sudden transformations occurring in the hall itself fascinated Neapolitan society. The French encyclopedia of Diderot and D’Alembert (1772) published its plan as a reference and a model. a row of fourteen Ionic columns on the second ﬂoor. Of the sum of 100. he became King of the Two Sicilies and reigned until 1759.000 ducats necessary to run the theater. but its vertical arrangement of the six rows. Alberobello) and the power of the Church. there were 16. the fees were higher if the buyers were distinguished and wished to be placed close to the King. The horseshoe plan provided good visibility of the stage.000 were obtained from the payments for the boxes. Don Calo’s ﬁrst concern was for the Theater of San Carlo that was built in just eight months after his arrival in Naples. After a serious economic crisis.000 were provided by the king and 68.500 men and women in Holy Orders. The King initiated a process of laicization with the main objective being recovering acres of land that had been conﬁscated by the convents. also reﬂected the social role that the theater played in Neapolitan life. a stage designer who belonged to the Neoclassical school in Naples. for example. In 1742. and Alessandro Scarlatti. Taking the best features from earlier theaters. Nicollini was aware of a rivalry between Naples’ San Carlo and Milan’s La Scala so strong that it included everything . At the same time. the culture of Naples was transformed by such urban attractions as organized festivals and theatrical productions. The interior. The musical and opera productions of Naples demanded a venue where audiences could listen to the compositions of Cimarosa. of a population of 350. 32. but they genuinely enjoyed the pleasures provided by the festivals.000. a vast stage convenient for the performance of operas and a horseshoe-shaped hall with six rows of 184 boxes. added a new façade to the theater. Social life was sometimes more important than the performance. Naples entered the Age of Enlightenment under Don Carlos of Bourbon (1716–1788). San Carlo was known as one of the best theaters according to European standards. He used Florentine rusticated masonry for the wall surfaces (Nicollini was a Florentine) and. Neapolitan nobility had to pay for the ﬁrst four rows of boxes. original stage sets designed by the young Bibiena. in a design inﬂuenced by the French architect Ledoux. New melodies. since Naples was now independent from Austria and Spain (although Don Carlos was eventually compelled to become King of Spain after 1759) shifted their concerns from a local to a more European focus. is famous for its red and gilt decoration.Theater of San Carlo 187 was divided into numerous independent areas. Nicollini (1772–1850). Some foreigners accused the local politicians of devoting too much attention to leisure as a way of hiding their conservative policies. graded according to status. But Don Carlos had great difﬁculties in combating feudalism (see Trulli. each able to hold up to ten people. In 1737. which endangered the royal ideology. incredible creativity.
Because La Scala had comfortable access for vehicles. Nicollini added a covered entrance for carriages to the façade of San Carlo. Naples. The greatly transformed Royal Palace. when the Galleria Umberto. The façade was modiﬁed in 1809–1811 by Antonio Niccolini. marked a prestigious mile long street at the edge of old Naples (Spaccanapoli). which imitated the Galleria Vittorio . Clearing the ground around the Palace was a task that lasted until 1890.188 Theater of San Carlo Theater of San Carlo. He also included a large number of meeting rooms inside the theater. associated with the theater—even questions of architecture. San Carlo Theater was part of an Enlightenment plan to improve the city of Naples. positioned at the beginning of via Toledo.
Nicolò Salvi’s success is due to a generosity of spirit and to the approachability of his design and its ability equally to touch anonymous passersby and delight urban visitors. Napoli. It was named Acqua Vergine (Aqua Virgo) after a young girl who had shown the spring to Roman soldiers. La città nella storia d’Italia. In Rome. Pope Urban VIII was convinced to enlarge the square in front of the fountain which was moved so that it faced south and could be seen from the summer residence of T . playful urban feature. Pietro da Cortona turned the church façade of Santa Maria della Pace (1656–1657) into the main and determining feature of a relatively small piazza. Il teatro di San Carlo. and Pius IV in 1561). for example. but rather it is a large structure that ﬁlls one side of a square in much the same way a stage with an elaborate set ﬁlls the focal side of an auditorium in a Baroque opera house. An ancient fountain at the site of the Trevi had been restored by different popes (Nicolas V in 1453. The soaring iron and glass Galleria is located just opposite the Theater of San Carlo. TREVI FOUNTAIN. The stability of the architecture provided a neutral background that contrasted with the irregularity of rocks and the motion of splashing waters. rocklike escarpments. architecture. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1640–1644. C. In 1629. reinterpreted an earlier (1629) scheme by Bernini that was never completed. 1998. Similarly. 1981. 1732–1762 Architects: Gianlorenzo Bernini. decorative triumphal arch out of which a statue representing the Ocean would release tumbling waters cascading down to a basin that occupies half the square. and a representation of nature frozen into stone combine to provide a most surprising. the Trevi Fountain is not just a fountain in an urban space. Sculptural ﬁgures. who added a basin designed by Leon Battista Alberti. The Trevi’s architect. the source of the spring near the via Tiburtina. The name Trevi is a distortion of Trebium. Naples. Nicolò Salvi he urban patterns established during the Baroque era completely changed the way we understand a city. The water delivered to the Trevi Fountain was brought from a spring twelve miles east of Rome by an aqueduct that Agrippa had built in 19 bce. Rome. the play of water. was ﬁnished. Nicolò Salvi. De Seta. Further Reading Ciapparelli. Salvi hid the side façade of the preexisting Palazzo Poli behind a huge. P.Trevi Fountain 189 Emmanuele of Milan.
Salvi showed a total sympathy with Bernini’s ideals both for the architectural background and for the display of the enormous waterfall and the basin it splashes into. when the crucial ﬁgure of the Ocean was installed. and water in an operatic ensemble that dominates the small piazza in the heart of the city. Two bays on each side are . but when the basin for the fountain was installed. The fountain was ﬁnally ﬁnished in 1762. Houses were torn down in order to double the size of the original square. In September 1732. from 1644 to 1732. in 1730 and 1732. the fountain was nearly ﬁnished in 1747. Nicolò Salvi combined sculpture. the Palazzo del Quirinale. on top of the Quirinal Hill. In a surprising decision. American second story) was supported on a tumbled rocky basement. lack of material and the pope’s death stopped the work for nearly ninety years. its backdrop. and Luigi Vanvitelli and Salvi to design the fountain. but forced to experience the jealousy of contemporary sculptors and artists. Salvi was given sole responsibility for the Trevi Fountain. architecture. Salvi died in 1751. He treated the wall behind the fountain. three entrants were awarded commissions: Alessandro Galilei to design a quarantine station at Ancona. as a false palazzo-like façade of nine bays framed by pilasters and columns whose piano nobile (Italian main ﬂoor. the popes. In his Late Baroque masterpiece. to choose the architect.190 Trevi Fountain Trevi Fountain. Each competitor was asked to provide both drawings and models. Totally devoted to his task. During the Late Baroque period. Construction was stopped in 1740 at Clement XII’s death but started again in 1742. Rome. Pope Clement XII (1730–1740) decided to ﬁnish the fountain and organized two competitions.
they number about 50. Salvi was inspired by Bernini’s ability to evoke nature from lifeless stone: The base of the palazzo façade seems to be carried by a crumbling mass of disorganized rocks. A ring of stones A . Also commonly called “casedde. A thick and simple cylindrical wall. their whirling ﬁsh tails evoking the depths of the Ocean from which they rush. The play of waters enlivens the rocky background to a surprising extent. 1977. Nina A. showing Salvi’s interest in sixteenth century architecture.” the more popular name “trullo” (plural “trulli”) is derived from the Latin words “turris. Pinto.000. ALBEROBELLO Style: Vernacular Date: Nineteenth Century Architect: Unknown cross the vast area of the Pugliese highlands. the large sculptural ﬁgure representing Ocean is carried above the waters by a carriage drawn by two hippocamps (creatures that are half horse and half ﬁsh) guided by two tritons (creatures that are half man and half ﬁsh). already familiar to Bernini. The Trevi Fountain.000 and a community like Alberobello contains 2. New York: Garland. TRULLI. Salvi turned the square into an urban opera house whose spectators enjoy the grandiose spectacle of waters splashing down from under the ﬁgure of Ocean and give life and a sense of humanity to a city piazza. about 3 feet thick and 6 to 10 feet high was a satisfactory base for the construction of the conical roof and offered total stability. a large number of rural houses are built in the form of a cluster of limestone domes. in the area around Martina Franca. from the city of Barletta to the southernmost Cape of Leuca.000. is used to demonstrate the power of the waters. Building a trullo required only the most primitive technology and no wooden scaffolding or formwork to erect the dome. 1986. Roman Rococo Architecture from Clement XI to Benedict XIV. Ultimately.Trulli 191 a simple repetition of Bernini’s façade for the palazzo Odescalchi. Further Reading Mallory. They frame a large Palladian-style triumphal arch. Emerging from the central niche. New Haven. John. The ferocious movement of the hippocamps.” transformed by the Byzantine rulers into “torullos.” “trulla. 1700–1758. out of which and around which sprout stone bushes and other plants. there are 14. CT: Yale University Press. In all.” meaning cupola or dome.” or the Greek “tholos.
The Counts allowed the peasants to clear the forest and cultivate the land. instead. a “selva. ﬂat slabs of limestone. and the houses are no longer built by peasants. The history of the town of Alberobello helps to explain the peculiarities of the trulli. without mortar. . Their houses had to be built of dry masonry. From its primitive beginning. Ring after ring the circles became smaller each time and at the very top. the count was obliged to demolish the houses and scatter the stones in 1644. dating mostly from the 19th century. because of complaints from surrounding feudal lords.192 Trulli Trulli. there are specialized “maestri-caseddari” (masters of “casedda” building). King Ferdinand IV of Spain freed the inhabitants of Alberobello in 1797. the place was a vast oak forest. which projected slightly (corbelled) over the row below. but gave them no property or civil rights. The conical roof is sometimes supported by pendentives connected to a square base. Ostensibly. so that they could be disassembled at any time should the Count or the King decide to clear the property and expel the inhabitants for whatever reason. that is. at which time the population of the community was only 3. the dome was closed by a large cylindrical stone. Alberobello. in Barcelona in 1665. are characteristic of several towns in Puglia. dying sick but free.500. the shape of the trullo has gone through several adaptations.” The King of Naples and Aragon gave the forest to the Counts of Conversano in 1481 as a grant for resisting Turkish troops who were threatening Italy. Local limestone from the highland was plentiful so there was no need to quarry it. He was taken to Madrid in 1648 and imprisoned for sixteen years. Domed houses of rustic masonry. was placed on the top of the cylinder wall and on top of them was set another ring. In the Middle Ages.
Public housing. the incapacity of Mussolini’s Fascist government to eliminate poverty convinced President Fanfani to launch a vast program of public housing. The dome may be hidden by an attic. Whitewashed walls and the ring of small limestone slabs covering the domes under the sunshine and the unpredictable plans of the trulli explain the beauty of this architecture without architects. and lasted for fourteen years. Southern Italy: South of Rome to Calabria. 1971. A visit to the area requires courage and stubbornness but anyone interested in the disastrous state of Italy after her defeat in World War II will be rewarded by the experience. The program. 1967. before reaching Frascati (the ancient city of Tusculum). The problems of social. P. 1949. La Storia della Città Attraverso I Secoli. as is frequently the case in Italy with cooking. Mariano. W. MA: MIT Press. All the houses have a bedchamber in a separate trullo. The historical ﬁght for the peasants’ freedom gave a sense of independence to the trulli villages. Norton Company. Further Reading Allen. accessible by a ladder. ROME Style: Contemporary Dates: 1950–1954 Architects: Adalberto Libera. Stone Shelters. An architect. until 1963.geocities. Mario Ridolﬁ. Blue Guide. the via Tuscolana meanders through nondescript suburbs. 2000. Trulli Houses: http://www. Cambridge. TUSCOLANO II PUBLIC HOUSING. Marraffa. newspapers. Saverio Muratori outh of Rome. or administration. Most of INA Casa was based on the clever use of nonindustrial techniques and materials and on the idea of restoring the culture of the inhabitants.com/trullihouses/. London: W. Blanchard. called INA Casa. where food and tools are kept. that is. After the war. I Trulli di Alberobello. Edward. had prepared the ground for enhancing local capacities when he published his Manuale dell’ S . Rome: Editrice Adriana.Tuscolano II Public Housing 193 Small ancillary domes help to reﬁne the interior distribution of space around the main trullo where the family gathers in winter in front of the ﬁreplace. was to express local approaches and a keen social control. was founded on February 18. public housing and the failure of the promises of modern architecture are very obvious here.
Rome.000 inhabitants. Façade detail. which had been allied with the Fascist movement. However.150 apartments and was to house 12. Two well-known architects from the 1930s worked with a new spirit. Architetto (The Architect’s Manual) in 1946. the Italian Modern Movement in architecture.000 inhabitants. The INA Casa housing project of Tuscolano II (1950–1954) contained 3.194 Tuscolano II Public Housing Tuscolano II Public Housing. faced criticism after the war and therefore had to search for new goals. Saverio Muratori (1910–1973) respected the urban fabric with a simpliﬁed version that addressed the poor solar orientation of modern buildings. An INA Casa project containing 3. With his design. which he combined with a bizarre skeleton that was used as the . In this book. he explained how to develop traditional technologies.150 apartments intended to house 12.
Because of the color of the walls. columns of subtle geometric shape.Velasca Tower 195 basic formal system for the plan. and Luca Veresane. This section. one of the ﬁrst skyscrapers in Italy (the Pirelli Building. is reminiscent of a medieval tower. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. also in Milan. Built between 1956 and the beginning of 1958 with a concrete structure. Francesco. He attached his buildings to the ground in an attempt to enhance social intercourse within the project. Further Reading Garofalo. He proposed a “horizontal town” of 200 houses as an alternative solution to Muratori’s housing project. was constructed at the same time). Candilis and Sadrach Woods) used it to develop new solutions for housing design. Libera designed patio-type houses connected by crisscrossing alleys and small piazzas. Adalberto Libera (1903–1963) was fascinated. Unfortunately. its form. envelop the tower and express its verticality. which looks so natural and roughhewn. Adalberto Libera. and the simplicity of the houses clearly proved that the Modern Movement was going through a careful reevaluation. But its machicolations—the projecting defensive galleries that crown most medieval fortiﬁcations—have been translated into huge diagonal concrete beams or struts that support the upper six stories. A trip to Morocco in 1951 had opened his eyes to the Muslim habitat and to the way that certain great young American architects (for example.500 feet from Milan’s Cathedral rises the Torre Velasca. Structural dynamism and forms that suggest a complete A . The use of concrete canopies. 330 feet high. and new trends in contemporary society have limited the promises of this urban settlement. Bearing elements. 1992. VELASCA TOWER. cantilevered beyond the twenty lower stories. MILAN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1956–1958 Architect: BBPR Ofﬁce bout 1. allows larger ﬂoor plans at the top of the tower. by the attitude of the body in a house and its functional counterparts. A tight urban fabric was replacing the loneliness of the isolated towers and slab buildings of the recent past. in the years from 1943 to 1946. Social concerns helped to reconcile the inhabitants with the traditional city and to propose its contemporary equivalent. the failure of shops. isolation and the absence of public transportation. the calmness of the exteriors. the building conforms to the traditional hue of Lombard architecture.
N. Enrico Peressutti. conducted a great number of tests before building commenced. Rogers) who had been involved in the postwar period of prosperity that turned Milan into a major industrial and business center. N. there began a kind of competition among the architects because they were all convinced that they had to create a new language that was based on the most advanced techniques and materials. The architects obviously did not want to rebuild the city the way it was before World War II but they paid distinguished homage to Milan and its traditional urban fabric. He argued for the translation of the historical heritage into modern terms. The position of the tower in a courtyardlike space within the block is quite surprising because the skyscraper does not have the usual open-air plaza facing a large avenue. N. The ground and second stories are commercial. validated the advanced technical ideas of Italian engineers. and eight stories of housing. The city had been damaged by military bombardments. and Casabella (1953–1964). and E. yet was fair to the local spirit of Milanese architecture. Lodovico Barbiano di Belgioso. which was connected to the lower part by the diagonal struts. the nine stories above them are devoted to ofﬁces.196 Velasca Tower integration into local building traditions make this skyscraper both an innovation and a respectful continuation of its historical context. E. Of course. the master-thinker of modern architects. the gifted Arturo Danusso. In response to all the building. Rogers. The Velasca tower is a mixed-use skyscraper that combines two underground storage facilities with twenty-seven aboveground stories. Domus. With widely spaced columns placed on the exterior surface of the building façade. hence a series of skyscrapers were built during the 1950s. They all wanted to revive the “old creative virtues” of the Milanese tradition. a member of the BBPR group. Believing in history and contextual climate. BBPR erected their surprising “Gothic” tower in a kind of virtual space hidden within an urban block. These top ﬂoors contain twenty-seven apartments. The decision to abandon steel and to use concrete was more in line with the goals deﬁned by E. Their lyrical approach and their translation of a traditional concept into modern form celebrate the BBPR group’s design ability. Their engineer. the BBPR group was charged with building a ring of eight-story buildings surrounding a large underground parking facility on top of which would be erected the skyscraper. The architects responsible for the Velasca Tower belonged to the respected group known as BBPR (Gianluigi Banﬁ.” like Siegfried Giedion. . those on the uppermost level being duplexes. Rogers was looking for an “eternal present. Rogers was accused of “revisionism” because the architecture he was deﬁning was not only functional but was also immersed in memory and local patriotism. and working studios. In a block heavily damaged by World War II bombardments. housing. was a charismatic leader who was also in charge of several architecture magazines: Style (1941–1947). Rogers. the plan allows freedom to adapt the interiors either to open-plan ofﬁces or well-designed apartments. The resulting vertical expression and cantilevered upper section. one ﬂoor of interchange.
Velasca Tower. . A skyscraper that looks like a medieval tower and incorporates traditional Lombard materials to preserve the local spirit of Milanese architecture in the 20th century. Milan.
One of these bridges carries the superhighway. GENOA Style: Contemporary Dates: 1961–1964 Architect: Riccardo Morandi rowded by mountains onto the shore of the Ligurian Sea. Morandi’s fame was based on his experiments with prestressed concrete structures. is densely ﬁlled with buildings.600 feet long and 180 feet (roughly eighteen stories) above the ground.198 Viaduct of the Polcevera Further Reading D’ Amia.arounder. working in areas affected by earthquakes. G. This bridge or viaduct. He earned his engineering degree at the Applications School for Engineers in Rome in 1927 and became immediately involved in Sicily. which crosses the valley of the Polcevera. reinforced concrete in which steel bars or cables are stretched. Creating the viaduct—one of the largest works of civil engineering in an industrial metropolis—required the talent of a gifted engineer named Riccardo Morandi (1902–1989). Nervi looked at structures that engineers refer to as “hyperstatic” and from his research developed forms with classical harmonious overtones. that is. Whereas Nervi used the continuity of undulating structures (for him.” Moniteur Architecture AMC 133 (2003): 100–104. Morandi favored a subtle sense of dynamism. Genoa was unable to develop fully without a tunnel system for its railroads or enormous bridges for its freeways. to counteract stresses the structure will have to resist. Morandi developed a method that was in sharp contrast to the sense of monolithic structures imagined by Pier Luigi Nevi (see Palace of Labor). The Polcevera valley. The viaduct is comprised of three large spans of 664. Morandi preferred light structures referred to as “isostatic. BBPR. Morandi had a feeling for abstract geometry that ﬁt into the ideals of the modern Italian architecture of the 1950s. VIADUCT OF THE POLCEVERA.com/city_tour/IT000005339. Milan: http://milano. two large freight yards. or tensioned. Milan 1958. C . “Tour Velasca. two railroad lines. called the autostrada. and 466 feet and six smaller spans of an average length of 240 feet.html. is 3. which connects Genoa and Savona and proceeds on to Turin.” tensile schemes that produced very sophisticated forms. the most direct connection from Milan to Genoa. and several factories. they were equivalent to vaults). 686.
Viaduct of the Polcevera. . Designed and built by Riccardo Morandi (1961–1964). near Genoa.
” in Storia dell’ architettura italiana. VICTOR EMMANUEL GALLERY. A Mannerist garden also meant nature submitting to all the powers of art. New York: Frederick A. Milan. This subtle structure of great beauty is connected to a second system by smaller slabs. The V-shaped structure carries the western end of the viaduct with the same system of smaller connecting slabs. measuring 118 feet. The Concrete Architecture of Riccardo Morandi. which create a feeling of slenderness. Further Reading Boaga.” or a garden could be walled in but be large enough to suggest a long promenade through mythology. Milan. Rome was also famous for remarkable gardens that were . Genoa’s viaduct uses the same components as the Venezuelan bridge. 1966. Three big pillars shaped like a double “A” carry the freeway on diagonal prestressed bars which are in turn carried by an independent double “V” from the ground up.4-mile-long bridge across the Sound of Maracaibo in Venezuela (1957– 1962). “La Costruzione. See Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). il secondo Novecento. Praeger. Florentine princes developed gardens around their villas. A garden could be enclosed. VILLA LANTE GARDENS. 1997. BAGNAIA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1560–1600 Architect: Vignola G arden architecture that required the work of famous architects deﬁned the luxury of an aristocratic retreat in the sixteenth century. Morandi was also ﬁnishing the 5. revealing both the intricacies of the industrial landscape and the natural beauty of the mountains above Genoa and the Ligurian Sea. Publishers.200 Villa Lante Gardens While he was designing the Polcevera viaduct. making it a secret garden or “hortus conclusus. Beginning in the late Renaissance. Giorgio and Benito Boni. S. Poretti. The Polcevera viaduct has a dynamic quality that makes it seem to jump across the valley.
The courtyard of the Belvedere in the Vatican. a theater. Bramante designed the Belvedere in 1505 with the intention of rivaling antique Roman grandeur and to provide an atmosphere for the fulﬁllment of ofﬁcial duties while also discussing the values of art among a collection of antiquities. It contained a “forum. was designed with skillfully arranged terraces joined by ramps or stairs. still exist. for example. and at the top of the terraces was a refreshing garden. Cardinal Raffaele Riario created a . for receptions. Although the Belvedere gardens are gone. Bagnaia. A water chain in the large gardens of the villa. mostly designed for popes and cardinals of the Catholic Church. the related gardens at the Villa Lante in Bagnaia.Villa Lante Gardens 201 Villa Lante. In the second decade of the sixteenth century.” or public square. They occupy a lovely site on the slope of an oak-covered mountain called Monte Cimino. sixty miles north of Rome.
His development of the courtyard of the Villa Lante garden is based on the plan of the Vatican Belvedere. Cardinal Gambarra (in ofﬁce from 1561 to 1587) and Cardinal Montalto developed the estate into a replica of Mount Parnassus. a group of ﬁgures attributed to Giambologna. The play of the waters through the shadows of the trees is astonishing. Sixteenth-century planning could improve an existing landscape by simple transformation. the waters ﬂow in an unreal manner down the center of the “Cardinal’s stone table. The ten acres of the Lante garden are divided into ﬁve terraces that follow the slope of the hill. a large parterre at the base of the hillside. Two casinos (small rectangular buildings) located above the parterre offer a pleasant retreat for visitors—as they surely did for the original owners of Villa Lante. the garden of the Muses. is connected to the garden by a lively piazza next to a fortress that is now its center. looking very modern when compared to the tortuous medieval streets. Elements characteristic of Vignola’s other designs and evidence of his involvement in the garden are: the formal rigidity of the plan. ﬂowing in the balustrades and in ornamental vases. This ﬁnal ﬂat area. in a natural landscape of nice coloration. At the top of a hill is the Deluge fountain that symbolizes the end of the Golden Age and also provides a sweeping view of the formal garden below. . the intervention of Vignola (1507–1573) in the design of the garden is unmistakable. Although there are no documents proving his presence. Three straight streets. stumbles. At the entrance to the garden. On the uppermost terrace. colonnades. splashes up. At the bottom are four basins encircling the Fountain of the Moors. which includes ﬁgures of the Muses. The garden is as large as the whole town of Bagnaia. was redesigned in the seventeenth or eighteenth century in formal French style. or cascades down in small jets or in a continuous ﬂow. Movement and time elapsing— the sense of time and destiny—profoundly permeate the garden. Later owners of the property. and loggias (covered rooms unenclosed on one side) that open onto the landscape. The medieval village. The ﬂow of trees on the slopes and down in the valleys. is the fountain of Pegasus. Water plays many games. at the base of a hillside. the clever perspective given to the stepped terraces. stairs. water emerges from the Fountain of the Deluge into a small open-air theater placed between the two Loggias of the Muses. the view of the distant landscape beyond Bagnaia provides a striking contrast to the closeness of the upper terraces of the garden. reminders that according to the Roman poet Ovid honey ﬂowed from oaks during the Golden Age. adds to the charm of the site. The “water chain” is a gliding slope in the center of a ﬂight of stairs. which is made up of volute-shaped interconnected basins that contain the ﬂow of the water as it rushes down the incline. It glides. From the parterre.202 Villa Lante Gardens hunting preserve here. built on a ridge. Next is a large labyrinth of oak trees. On the third terrace. run from the square to the garden.” across the surface of which it may have once spread like transparent crystal glass. and the equilibrium established by the ramps.
After this. Situated on the ﬂattened top of a cliff is the thin. which makes it look like the top of an ancient fortress. rectangular block of the Villa Malaparte. The site. red. There is no ornamentation on the terrace. on the narrow cape Ponta Massullo. accessible by an extremely long staircase that snakes up the side of the escarpment. the pure lines of the roof terrace recreate the aspect of a Greek theater and contrast with the ruggedness of the cliff. When the shore comes into view. offered few possibilities. Since very few trees grow near the house. To reach it today. one walks eastward from the city of Capri on the path leading to the Matromania Grotto. This staircase leads to a roof terrace with no railing. only a freestanding curved white wall. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. The Achievement of Western Gardens. Malaparte received the permit for a villa designed by the architect Adalberto Libera (1903–1963). Cambridge. a visitor proceeds a thousand feet toward the south and comes upon a view of overwhelming beauty. Penelope. Monique. The Garden Lover’s Guide to Italy. He had been a troublesome member of the Fascist Party and was put in jail in 1933 for threatening Mussolini’s power.Villa Malaparte Further Reading 203 Hobhouse. T . VILLA MALAPARTE. and Georges Teyssot. 1938. in 1937. These pictures helped to popularize Capri as “the city of leisure” and ultimately to inﬂuence the famous writer Curzio Malaparte (1898–1957) to build a retreat there. With the help of some high-ranking politicians. Mosser. Access to the top of the villa is via another great ﬂight of stairs in the shape of an inverted triangle that increases in width from the bottom to the top. 1998. The terrace provides spectacular views of the deep blue sea all around and the Amalﬁ Coast in the distance. 1991. his obsession was to ﬁnd a refuge on a cliff above the southern shores of Capri. only an hour by boat from Naples. He applied for a building permit on March 14. CAPRI Style: Contemporary Dates: 1938–1942 Architect: Adalberto Libera he island of Capri became fashionable when it was rediscovered by Fascist politicians. who. MA: MIT Press. celebrated the second millennial anniversary of the reign of the Emperor Augustus with pictures of the Villa Jovis built by his successor Tiberius. after which he was exiled to the volcanic island of Lipari and later (1934–1935) sent to the most hospitable island of Ischia.
The feeling projected by the villa is one of ancient architecture.204 Villa Malaparte Villa Malaparte. telling visitors that he had needed only to work on the landscape. The choice was clear. Malaparte made a joke of the ancient aura of his villa. of a building done long ago. Curzio Malaparte had asked Adalberto Libera to design the house in 1938. Malaparte did not want to engage in the picturesque imitation of . The spectacular site of the villa can be appreciated in this view from above. Capri. The Villa Malaparte raises a problem of attribution of authorship.
. Libera even omitted the villa in Capri from his résumé when he submitted documents for a paper by Gio Ponti in the journal Style (1942). In a large volume of severe emptiness. He characterized Malaparte’s ideas as a series of afterthoughts and suggested that there had been a close collaboration with Libera from early on in the design stage. Libera designed a “rectilinear villa. Behind the atrium. Adalberto Libera. Malaparte himself was not an easy client to work with. Francesco. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. The pyramidal staircase was known to Malaparte from his exile on the island of Lipari where it was used as the approach to a chapel of the Annunciation. In the face of such a fantastic natural setting. and Luca Veresane. cut gray sandstone evoked the birth of early Greece. Building in Italy both before and during World War II gave great authority to the constructor-builder—especially if he was a man of Capri who was more accustomed to building a house adapted to the peculiarities of the site. and a slow process of reﬁnement and trials was necessary to achieve them. ﬁrst through inspiration and then by working through a series of modiﬁcations in much the same way as a writer slowly improves his text.” a powerful gesture that commanded the difﬁcult site. suggesting that modernity should be linked to the permanence of Mediterranean standards. only modern design criteria would be appropriate for the retreat he dreamed of. Later. A few of the details of the ﬁnished villa could easily be traced to Malaparte’s preoccupations. The documents relating to the design of Villa Malaparte do not differentiate between rational decisions about how to build a house and the emotional desires and decisions of the owner. 1992. Marida Talamona has studied the indifference of the architect to Malaparte’s changing approach. Perhaps he interpreted the design process in architecture the way that a writer would. the domus (house) is divided into two rooms. a reference to ancient Roman house designs. The relationship between Malaparte and his architect quickly deteriorated. made of primitive. and Libera was a well-known modern architect. A wood sculpture. as a prison? The interior of the villa opens with a large atrium. The use of stone and of square windows conveyed a sense of primitivism. Escaping from Libera’s design. is a link to contemporary sculpture. Was the imitation of the staircase a way for him to imagine his house as a refuge or. the villa is a walk through the ideas of a man of letters. better yet. Further Reading Garofalo. Danza (the Dance) by Malaparte’s friend Pericle Fazzini. partly because in 1938 Libera was much more interested in the functionality of the house than Malaparte’s poetic intent.Villa Malaparte 205 the traditional architecture of Capri. the ﬂoor of the living room. The respected Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri argued for an intermediate position that acknowledged the roles of both architect and client. His desires for the villa were not stated initially.
In The Four Books of Architecture.” which actually means “house. a time of turmoil in the region around the city of Vicenza where he built the villa. 1580. When he retired. In that place. Paolo Almerico (1514–1589). Two centuries later. providing the American house with that extension into nature that would become typical of Frank Lloyd Wright and many other modern architects such as Peter Eisenman. was a count and a canon of the Cathedral chapter of Vicenza and Referendary to Pope Pius IV. but also because he believed that the Latin word “domus. he suggested schemes to be used or developed by amateur builders and this availability added to the success of his style. Charles Moore. Palladio adapted the scheme to the beauty of the site and. Thomas Jefferson. Paolo Almerico wished. Artisans and peasants had embraced Anabaptism as a protest against authority while the upper class adopted Erasmian ideals and some converted to Presbyterianism. Although Jefferson believed he was reuniting Man and Nature he was. published in 1570. unusual for him. built his residence and named it Monticello. Jefferson borrowed the Rotonda’s scheme of a central vertical domed space intersected by four wings that opened through colonnades or rows of windows to the four directions of the hilly landscape. William Turnbull. 1680–1689 Architect: Andrea Palladio I n a Virginia landscape that was still idyllic. For Paolo Almerico’s residence.206 Villa Rotonda VILLA ROTONDA. not only because Almerico was a churchman. in order to escape from this turmoil. As a cultivated amateur architect. He had studied literature and canon law at the university in Padua during the period of the Reformation. inspired by Palladio’s Villa Rotonda. First. incorporated the temple portico on all four sides of the central rectangular block of the villa. VICENZA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1567–1569. Jefferson was aware both of the vogue for Palladio in English and European architecture of the late eighteenth century and the possibilities for enlargement and modiﬁcation built into the villa designs by Palladio himself. to build a place for contemplation and entertainment on a property he owned. a half hour’s walk south of the walls of Vicenza. tamed by human improvement. and others. the gentle hills.” connected the ancient Roman house with the dome. a dome was selected. in fact. He aligned the porticos with the four directions that represented the main . The second of Palladio’s elements was the colonnaded templelike portico. offered views of richly cultivated land and of a little plain. who commissioned the Villa Rotonda. as four wings projecting from the central rotunda. Palladio combined two main elements of his architectural vocabulary.
View of one of the four porticos. .Villa Rotonda. Vicenza. From each of its four sides the villa offers extensive landscape views. Vicenza. Villa Rotonda.
when he went to the villa. These mathematical. From the house the view is of a vast theater of hilltops where other villas are scattered—a place of pure contemplation. 1998. some getting better light at certain times of the day. Palladio created a “musical” composition of rooms with him as composer.) was used. Bruce. London: John Murray. New York: Dover Publications. 41) As a belvedere. a small and a large one. In this case. Holberton. and others reaching the horizon (so that) loggias were made on each face. Inc. and—abstractly—music. proportions of rooms were carefully considered. the mathematical organization he gave to the plan created the most appealing variety inside and out. He combined numbers. Andrea Palladio: The Architect in His Time. Palladio.208 Villa Rotonda views of the surrounding landscape. others more distant. Almerico lived mainly in his urban residence and. Straight staircases lead from the gound to the loggias and the piano nobile (the main ﬂoor) atop the podium. 1965. are aligned in a planning technique known as enﬁlade. some positioned in the center or near the windows.” (Palladio 1965. explaining the lack of speciﬁc function for the rooms. . Andrea. some screened. the dome expresses its vertical direction. Further Reading Ackerman. The Four Books of Architecture. Harmondsworth: Penguin. As in Renaissance buildings (see Santa Maria della Pace Cloister). By carrying one dimension of a room on to the next. a system of proportions based on the harmonies of the musical scale (octaves. or what seems so to the modern person. As always in his architecture. rather. 1991. thirds. harmonic ratios of height to width to length deﬁne the variety of sizes of the rooms in the Villa Rotonda. Paul. as was conventional at the time. furniture was installed speciﬁcally for his visit. Rev. Four short corridors lead from the porticoes to the circular center of the house under the dome. New York: Abbeville. None were designed for a particular function. proportion. fourth. James S. a structure designed to command views. Almerico’s residence “enjoys the most lovely view on all sides. As Palladio wrote in The Four Books of Architecture. 1974. ed. Palladio. Although the four wings express the horizontal dimension of the villa. Boucher. to convey the idea of beauty. the house is raised on a podium. Doors. In the corners created between these corridors and the square body of the house are four pairs of rooms. as if space has been expanded upward. some of which (the small ones) were more convenient in winter. etc. the rooms provided a variety of spaces. Palladio’s Villas: Life in the Renaissance Countryside..
used to describe the aisle that curves around the central space of a centralized plan building (see central plan). pointed. who have taken religious vows. usually semicircular but sometimes rectangular or polygonal. the arch forms a vault. and an impluvium below to catch rainwater. In Early . or ambulatory. or even lobed and is usually made up of trapezoidal or wedge-shaped blocks called voussoirs. a segment of a circle. a priory is a monastery under the direction of a prior. or the east side of a transept. Extended horizontally. aisle: A passage or lateral division parallel to the nave. arch: A curved structure that is used to span an opening. arcade: A row of adjoining arches supported on columns or piers (see also colonnade). apse: A recess. ashlar masonry: Carefully cut blocks of masonry with smooth even facing. See order. It may be semicircular. usually separated from it by an arcade or colonnade. that contains an altar. rotated around its center. amphitheater: A “double theater” with an elliptical seating area around an arena used primarily for gladiatorial shows and animal hunts. a convent is a monastery under the direction of a superior. aisle. atrium: The central hall and reception area of a Roman house with a compluvium. ambulatory: An aisle used primarily for movement rather than worship. architrave. usually at the east end of a nave. open to the sky.Glossary Words in italics denote a term with its own entry in the glossary listing. abbey: An establishment for celibate persons. directed by an abbot or abbess. it forms a dome.
canons are not necessarily priests or monks. Byzantine architecture is characterized by domes. but in Gothic churches. central plan: A plan that is symmetrical about two or more axes. some buttresses are built at a distance from the wall they brace and are connected to its upper parts by arches. usually semicircular but sometimes pointed. the high altar in most Catholic churches was moved closer to the congregation. chiaroscuro: The arrangement of light and dark areas in a painting or a building. Also called a tunnel vault (see also groin vault). typically marked by structural elements such as columns. frequently ﬁve of them arranged on a Greek cross plan. and mosaic decoration. basilica: A building type characterized by a long central space (nave) ﬂanked by side aisles separated from it by rows of columns. campanile: A detached bell tower. Most buttresses are built directly against the wall or the columns that deﬁne it. abundant decoration. a belfry. in most cases past the choir. which then serves as a chapel. exaggerated proportions. basilicas have been used for churches from the Early Christian period to the present. an ancient Roman building type. usually built at right angles to it. usually either a circular. barrel vault: A simple continuous vault—essentially an arch. baldacchino: A canopy-like construction over an altar. During the 1960s. buttresses. especially monks. extended horizontally. called ﬂying buttresses. choir: The area of the church in front of the main altar originally reserved for the clergy and the ordained. Originally. and a balance of parts rather than a strictly symmetrical arrangement. irregular forms. Baroque: A style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early seventeenth to mid-eighteenth century. bay: A subdivision of a building. canon: A member of the clergy on the staff of a cathedral or collegiate church. cantilever: A horizontal structural member that projects past a vertical support without external bracing. Byzantine: A style of architecture associated with the Eastern Roman Empire that was contemporaneous with Early Christian through Gothic architecture in the West.210 Glossary Christian and medieval architecture. the courtyard enclosed by porticoes in front of a church. buttress: A short wall that braces a main bearing wall or other support. battlements: Parapets or fortiﬁcations with alternating openings called crenellations and raised portions called merlons. especially when it spans a door or window opening. or pilasters. Also called a lintel. beam: A horizontal structural member that spans between two vertical supports such as columns or bearing walls. octagonal. . Basilican naves usually end in an apse that contains the main altar. or Greek cross (equal-armed) shape. emphasizing a dramatic sequence of spaces. capital: The head or crowning feature at the top of a column (see order).
an arcade is a special type of colonnade in which arches replace the beams. cantilevered bracket supporting a balcony. Modern concrete combines cement. concrete: Roman building material made up of a mixture of lime mortar. a pier is a relatively thick square or rectangular column. and chancel intersect. coffer: A sunken panel. A pillar is a relatively thick round column. water. crenellations. The architects of Cluny were innovative builders whose common ideal was to create handsomely decorated vaulted churches with aisled naves. Composite order: An order used by the Romans that combined the design elements of the Ionic and Corinthian orders (see order for descriptions of the orders). small stones. See battlements. corbel: A projecting. the Abbey controlled about 1. Classicism refers to a style of later art and architecture that takes its inspiration from ancient Greece or Rome or from the classical theory and ideals of the Renaissance. . crossing: The part of a church where nave. transepts.450 daughter houses and thus spread its unique style and building technology throughout Western Europe. etc. Cornices are usually horizontal. and ambulatories with numerous radiating chapels. volcanic sand. At the height of its inﬂuence. water. which typically had no views of the outside world. tall transepts. crypt: The level under the main part of a church. reinforced concrete contains steel bars or cables to increase its strength in tension. crushed pottery). cloister: A covered passage surrounding an open court that was the center of circulation and meditation in a monastery or convent. compluvium: The rectangular opening in the roof of the atrium in a Roman house. cornice: An ornamental molding that projects from the top of a wall or part of a wall. Cluniac: A style of Romanesque and Early Gothic architecture associated with the Abbey at Cluny in southern Burgundy and its daughter houses. colonnade: A row of evenly spaced columns. The classical orders were invented by the Greeks and reintroduced in architecture during the Renaissance. and sand or gravel. Corinthian order. although the cornice on a pediment (called the raking cornice) is at an angle. Corbelling is used to build a conical dome. cornice. especially the part of an entablature above the frieze. Most of the rooms of the monastery or convent could be reached from the cloister. See order. convent. See abbey. usually in a ceiling or vault. column: A vertical structural element. which are connected with beams. frequently at least partially underground. and aggregate (pieces of brick. clerestory: Windows high in the exterior walls of a building.Glossary 211 classical: Refers to Greek and Roman antiquity.
an arch rotated about its center. frieze. a room for the exhibition and sale of artworks. 2. when Augustus Caesar defeated the last Hellenistic monarch. ﬂamboyant: A late-Gothic decorative style. 4. groin vault: A vault formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults of similar shape. In Italian Gothic architecture. A dome is. especially religious architecture. in contrast to northern Gothic. and cornice) supported by columns in a classical order. entablature: In classical architecture.212 Glossary cupola: The Italian term for a dome. ﬂying buttress. Greek cross plan: A plan based on a cross with arms of equal lengths (see also Latin cross plan). dome: A round. central to the new form of construction. the Hellenistic period lasted until the Battle of Actium in 31 bce. Cleopatra VII of Egypt and her ally Mark Antony. Gothic: Refers to much European architecture. The most characteristic detail of Gothic architecture is the pointed arch. corbelled arches) are used to make a transition from the corners of the square to create the circular base of the dome. in effect. either pendentives (spherical triangles) or squinches (a group of progressively larger. 3. typically hemispherical vault used to cover a structure or part of it. See order. . In Gothic architecture. ﬂying buttresses are rarely seen. It represents a dramatic change in the way large buildings were constructed and required a level of technical sophistication in construction not seen since the Roman Empire. its name derives from the ﬂamelike tracery in windows. a long passage. 5. often vaulted that connects multiple shops or rooms. fresco: Mural painting in which the colors are applied to wet plaster. Doric order. See order. In secular architecture. a horizontal element consisting of three subdivisions (architrave. which in the larger churches consisted of a stone skeleton with ribbed groin vaults and stained glass windows. during the period from the mid-twelfth century to the end of the ﬁfteenth century. frieze. a large room or space in which business is conducted. the second story above the side aisles that opens onto the nave. engaged column: A half-round column embedded in or attached to a wall. exedra: A semicircular or rectangular recessed area. gallery has many meanings depending on its context: 1. Hellenistic: The designation of the culture that developed following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce. a long narrow platform open in front except for a balustrade or colonnade constructed on the side of a building at some elevation above the ﬂoor. the galleries extend to the outer walls of the side aisles. gallery: In a medieval church. a balcony in a theater. See buttress. the gallery eventually becomes little more than a passageway. but in Romanesque and Early Gothic architecture. Since most domes cover square shapes.
Ionic. and the ﬁfth most-used order. alternately triglyphs. it is patterned on the usual Christian symbol with a long upright that is intersected near the top by a crossbar (see also Greek cross plan). the Tuscan. A small cylindrical or polygonal turret. Corinthian. loggia: A gallery with an open colonnade or arcade on one side. Latin cross plan: The most common plan shape for a medieval church in the West. from the Latin word for “eye. See abbey. Corinthian capitals are decorated with leaves of the acanthus plant. and cornice). and Composite capitals combine characteristics of the Ionic and Corinthian orders. and Composite—were deﬁned by the ancient Greeks and Romans. . which are decorated with three vertical grooves. usually the last to be put in place and without which an arch cannot stand. At one time. insula: A city block in a Roman town. and metopes. The Ionic order is slimmer and more elegant. spiral shapes that resemble rams’ horns. The composition. martyrium/martyria: A church or chapel built over the tomb of a martyr.Glossary 213 impluvium: The shallow rectangular catch basin under the compluvium in the center of a Roman atrium. thus the “key” to the arch or vault. frieze. which usually are ornamented with relief sculptures. with windows all around. Ionic order. pillow-shaped capital. Doric is the simplest of the ﬁve orders and the only one whose shaft has no base. also used to designate a multistory apartment house. oculus: A round opening at the top of a dome or a round window in a wall. metope. introduced atop the center of a dome or in a roof to provide light to the area below. it usually stretches across the entire front of the building. the nave was originally intended for worshippers that were neither ordained nor part of the clergy. was later developed by the Italians. it has a simple. See order. nave: The central vessel of a church up to the crossing.” ogee or ogival arch: A ﬂame-shaped arch whose sides are two reverse S curves that meet in a point. keystone: The center stone in an arch or vault. syntax. and the capital is decorated with volutes. only baptized Christians were allowed past the narthex into the church. Variations on the characteristics of the ﬁve orders remain within fairly strict limits for followers of the classical tradition. See order. lintel: A beam that spans an opening between two vertical supporting members such as columns. order: A combination of column or shaft (with its base and capital) and the entablature it supports (architrave. monastery. narthex: The vestibule or front porch of a church. lantern. The Doric frieze is immediately recognizable by series of squarish blocks. and proportions of the four most commonly used orders—Doric.
Ribs are characteristic of Gothic architecture. usually oblong and surrounded by buildings. usually a body part or piece of clothing. . It is characterized by relatively thick walls. quatrefoil: A Gothic tracery design composed of four lobe-shaped forms. The Tuscan order resembles the Doric. Because it was a period of experimentation and amateur building (in the best sense). rib: A projecting band at the edges where vaults intersect. the American second story. See vault. pier. It was a period of rediscovery of Roman building techniques. and a close connection to nature in feeling and decoration. until then. that belonged to a saint or other holy person. portico: A roofed colonnade. suggesting stone taken from the quarry and placed without the outer surface being smoothed (dressed). pilasters can be the shaft of any of the orders. and in its earliest stages has a folk quality. the reestablishment of cities. Relics were believed to have super-natural power. though late Romanesque buildings tend to be very sophisticated and demonstrate a shift to the use of highly trained architects and builders. been called Early Gothic. pendentive. and of a scale of architecture not seen for nearly seven centuries. See column. See dome. pilaster: A ﬂat column-like strip attached to a wall. regularly shaped ornamental beds framed by low hedges often containing objects such as urns or topiary work.214 Glossary The shafts of any of these orders may be decorated with vertical grooves called ﬂutes. relic: An object. ribbed groin vault. peristyle: A colonnaded courtyard in a Roman house or Christian abbey. piano nobile: The main ﬂoor of a house. it is used at various scales above porticoes and windows in classical buildings. pediment: A triangular element representing the gable end of the roof in temples. parterre: In formal gardens. piazza: An open space in a city. rose window: A round. and the general renascence of culture after 1000 ce. and were long thought to be an essential part of a Gothic skeleton. wheel-shaped window in the façade of a Gothic church. though it is no longer certain exactly what structural role they play. which require less expert construction than Gothic architecture. especially curative. rustication: Masonry in which the joints between stones are exaggerated and in which the surface is frequently rough. thus the name. and were enshrined in elaborate containers made of precious materials called reliquaries. above the ground ﬂoor. but rests on a base and its shaft is smooth. Romanesque: A relatively new term introduced by Henri Focillon in the 1930s to describe what had. Romanesque architecture is remarkably varied and vital. The Romanesque period was a result of a revived monied economy. relatively small windows and consequently dark interiors.
the use of triumphal arches was revived in architectural designs. a small. and other religious paraphernalia usually with a temple as its major focus. a sacred space containing shrines. and for honoriﬁc occasions such as the visits of royalty. especially of Gothic buildings. Tuscan order. located in the countryside. the marriage bed. triglyph. See arch. groin vault. a tall central opening is ﬂanked by two lower openings. vaults are related to arches and when built of stone. . voussoir. garden ornaments. political marriages. See order. Structurally. are made up of voussoirs (trapezoidal stones). family records. usually made up of stones or brick although concrete and tiles may also be employed. vault: An arched ceiling structure. scarcella: In the Pazzi Chapel. like stone arches. and ribbed groin vault). tracery: The ornamental and structural stone framework in windows. built to commemorate an event or person in ancient Rome. The shape of vaults depends on the shape of the arches that form their cross section (see barrel vault. villa: A detached dwelling. truss: A frame composed of numerous smaller pieces that substitutes for beams or other large structural members. and noble births. domed room opposite the entry.Glossary 215 sanctuary: The sacred part of a church corresponding to the area beyond the crossing around the main altar. it contained an altar. triumphal arch: A freestanding arch. and other important possessions were kept there. in some of the most famous arches. In pagan contexts. Beginning in the Renaissance. See order. transept: The parts of a church that correspond to the transverse arms of the cross-shaped plan. tetrastyle: Having four columns. tablinum: The open room at the back of the atrium in a Roman house from which the owner interviewed his friends and clients. offerings. usually adorned with sculpture. typically larger than a house but smaller than a manor.
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110. xlv. 49. xxxiv. xi. xxx. xix. xviii. 137. Perugia. 26. 71. xviii–xix “Architettura razionale” (Rationalist Architecture). 154. 39. xxi. 50. 189 acropolis. 206. 137. 115. 157. 1. xxxiv. 26. xxii. 128. 82 avant-garde. 81. 211. 153. 79. Gianluigi. xxiii. 186–89. 170. 210 Banﬁ. xli. xx. 81. 23. Carlo. l Ardinghelli house. 27. Pope. 215 Augustus Gate. 21. 165. xlv–xlvii. 56. 7. 164. 51. 137. 82. 121. xxvii. 27 Aymonino. 156–59. Leon Battista. 166. 134. 159. 143. 52. xiii. 38–41. 106 Antonelli. 64. 77. 42–44. 186. 149. xxiii.. 32–35. 76. 159. 196 Baptistery. 166. xlix. 157. 3. 153. 79. 209. 148 Alexander VII. 15 Baldacchino. 118. 98. 94. 205. 117 Baroque. M.Index “absolute historicism. 48. 33. xxviii Ammanati. 171. 107. 217 Acqua Vergine (Aqua Virgo). 6. San Gimignano. 144–47 apse. 101–4. 21. xxx. xli. 40. 58–61. xxiii. 125 architectural landmarks.” 79 Agnelli. 175. 38. 153. 145. 80. 63. 94 “aulae ecclesia. 77. 177–79. 212. 8. 109. xxxvii. 14. xlix. xlvi. 175–77. 137. 108. Giovanni. 105. xxiii. 129 Adrian IV. 77. 210. 189. 76. 209 arch. 177. 160–62. 46. 25. 189 Aleric. 209. xxxvi. 68–69. 209 American Academy in Rome. 54–55. 76. xxv. xxxv. lii. 112. 41. 143. Marcus. xxxvi. xxix. 116. xxi.” lii Ackerman. 215 . 82. 32. 163. 208 Amadeo. 189–91. 160 Almerico. 1–4. 154. 106. 151 Baron Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz. Bartolomeo. 73. 211. 212. xiii. 80. 79 ambulatory. 158. 213. 110. 191. 110. xxxiv. 2.” xxxiii Autostrada del Sole. 109. 85 Aymonino. l. 117. 153. 73. xxxiv. 32. 116. 213. x. 83. xxxi. 118. 210. 18 Art Nouveau in Italy. Pope. 64. xl–xli. 93 “ad triangulum. Paolo. 172–74. 65. l atrium. xxii. 76. 116. 115. xxxvii. xxxi. xvii. 138–40. 74. 151. Alessandro. 69–71. James. 82. 208. 122. 125–27. 147. 2. 189 Alberti. 47–49 Agrippa. 215 Archigram. 116. 210 barrel vault.
163. xlvii. 174. 190. 93. xix. 105 campanile. 134 Bonsignore. 113. xlvi. xxi. xliv. 162 Belgioso. 101. lii. 81. 25. 54. 25. xix. 27 Cangrande I della Scala. 210. xl. 58. 132. 154. 53. 82 Bono. xlii. 42–44. xxx. 5. Campi Besenzio. 34. 170–72 Collegio del Colle. 64 Carthage. Giovanni da. 141–44 Basilica of San Lorenzo. xxxiv. Gianlorenzo. xlviii. 212 . Verona Capitoline Hill. 147. xxx. 73 Basilica of San Marco. Bernardo. 55 Basilica Julia. 163–65. 210 Church of the Autostrada. 160–62. 165–66. Florence. 22. xxiii. Rome. l. 86. 69–71 Castelvecchio Museum of Art. 156. Pope. xlviii. 142 Bernini. 110–12 Buontalenti. 4–7 BBPR Ofﬁce. xviii. Giovanni. xxi. 135. Pope. xxi. 22. xxvii. 30. li. Pope. 82. See Campidoglio Carafa. 122 Borromeo. 215 Bronzino. xlvi. Francesco. Andrea. 8. xxviii. 181. 177. 79. xlix. 107. 154. Venice.224 Index Byzantine. x. 50–53. Francesco. 137. 23. 109 Bernardone. xxiii. See also Castelvecchio Museum of Art. 13. 7–9. 201 brick construction. xxix. 94. 27–29 Church of the Holy Apostles. 26. xiv. 86. 27. xxii. xix. Rome. xxiii. 134. 177. 144. 209. 176 Bramante. 76. xliii. Donato. Filippo. xxi. 145. 138. 166. Cardinal Oliviero. 210 Campidoglio. 55. 80. xxxviii. 151. xli. xxxviii. xxix. 50. 12–14. 142 Brunelleschi. 138–41. 55 Basilica of San Francesco. xxi. Rome. 137. 153. 196 “bel composto. 109. xxxviii. 113 Bologna. 150. xli. 39. Julius. 160. Urbino. Pope. San Gimignano. 55 Caffè Pedrocchi. xlvi. 143. 24. Ferdinando. xxxix. Milan. 9–11 Cambio. 32. Rome. 106. 149 Cistercian architecture. 149. xxxvii. xxxv. 130. Venice. xxi. xxxviii. xli. 191 Bifﬁ. 148. 126. 26. xx. 44. 179 Clement XII. 25. xxxv. 108 Bonnanus of Pisa. 159. 53. 190 Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. 210 Basilica Aemelia. 120 Campo Santo. xxi. Arnolfo di. xxxiii. xlvii. 24. xl. xxii. 32–35.” xlvi. 129 Casa Rustici. 134. Puglia. Saint Charles. xx. xxxvii. 70. 130 Caesar. 143. 116–17. xlii. 126. Assisi. xxxv. 25. xxxii. 134. 20–22 Castelli. 138 Borromini. xxxvi. 9. 22 Clement VII. 163 Bishop Vittore. xliii. xxxi. 17–20 Castel del Monte. 135. Pisa. xxxvii. xxiii. 126. 210 Ca d’Oro. 66. 74. Lodovico Barbiano di. 76. 52. 37. 208 Benedict XIV. 22–25 Cathedral and Cloister of Monreale. 195. 50. 133. 38. 30–32 basilica. 163 Black Death. Agnolo. 64. xix. 72 Clement XI. xxxi. 163. xlv. 113. xliii Buschetto. 53. 202 Boniface IV. xxiii. 147. 12. 104. 26 buttress. 145. 53. xx. xxxix. 154. 107. 172 Baths of Caracalla. xli. 151. 148–50. 196 Belvedere. 169–72. xviii. 25. Pope. 106 Brother Elia. 69. 80–82 Catholic Reformation. 148–50. 210 chiaroscuro. 153. Byzantium (Istanbul). 189. 159. 121. xli. 11. xxiii. 92. 108. xli. Verona. 71 Bishop Ursicino. Padua. xlv. 14. li. Rome. 33. 69. xxxviii. xx. 211. 50. l. See CounterReformation central plan xxxiv. 15–17 Casa Torre. 169 cardo. 53. 27. Bartolomeo.
211. 39. see xiv for a list of buildings Etruscan architecture. 55. xix. xxxix. 77. xix. Antonio. 213 Cornaro Chapel. xlvi. 116 Flavian Amphitheater. 50–53. 196 da Orsenigo. xx. 211. 136 Counter-Reformation (or Catholic Reformation). xxxiv. 20. 38–41 Constantine. 34. xviii. 70. 144–47. 195–98. 208. xx. 55 da Feltre. xxvii. 121 Conversano. 191. Chieri. 192. xlviii–xlix. 212 Ducal Palace. 58. 56. 112. 203 Fiat Lingotto Plant. 176. See Colosseum Florence Cathedral. 12. xxxv. Pietro da. 33. 213. 126. 53. 198–200. 79 decision making by architects. 12. Arturo. xviii. 13. 107 colored marbles.Index Colonnade of Saint Peter’s. xxxix cultural and political changes in architecture. Luca. xxii. 101. Rome. Giovanni de. 203–5 Contrada Po. xxiii. 15–17. xliii. 42–44 Cortona. 135–37. 94. 113 Crivelli. xlvii. 6. 47–49. See also Augustus Gate. 123–25. xxxix. 135–37 De Re Adiﬁcatoria. 50–53. 55 compluvium. xix–xx Curia. 7 Contemporary. 175. 53 Early Christian architecture. 153. 77 de Bonaventure. 89 crenellated/crenellation. 77. xviii. Genoa. 100. xxi Dominican Order. xxxiii–xxxiv. 154 Fascist Party. 209. xxx. Nicolas. 81. xlix. 32. xliii. 27 di Vicenzo. 5. 135–37. xlvi. 150. 109. 95. 41. Bishop. 79 Dolcebono. 58. xix Composite Order. 79 domes. 55. 70 Cubism. 209. 166 domestic architecture. li. xxxv. 41. 52 Danusso. 156. xxx. 159 construction techniques. 68. 210. xxi. 206. Angelo. 76. Turin. 160. Marino. 30–32. 135. xxxvii. 192 corbel. 149. 45 Confraternity of San Bernardino. 25. xlvii. 30–32 Diotisalvi. 22–25. 86. 186 Doric Order. 93. 15. xxi. Rome. xli. 154 Ferrara. 46 D’Antonio. 101. 210 Ecclesius. xxii–xxiii Contarini. 81. xviii. 45–47 Dufay. 162 Colosseum. 150. xl di Carlo. 193–95. 54. xviii. 159. Pope. xlix–lii. Rome. Rome. xliii. xlvi. 158 Farnese family. 44. Gino. Giacomo. 95. 53 Fancelli. 172. 174. 14. 165–69. 211 “condotierre. 189 Cosimo I de’ Medici. 69. 163–65. 32. 27. 167 Columbus International Exhibition. Simone. 104. 101 Ferrara. 193. 33 . li. 135 Covre. xlvii. 177. 106 Donatello. xxxvii. 86. 171. 9. xxix. 50. 74. Rome. 211 components of antique cities. 107. Turin. xxxiii. xxxii. 157. xxiii. 54. Perugia Eugenius IV. 174. Vittorino. 35–38. xxxviii. xxxvi. 153. 212 Corinthian Order. 33. 122. 27–29. 180. 110. 215 Dome of Saint Peter’s. 99. 89–91. Rome. Nicolò de. 74–77. 151. 39. xlv. 137 Fontana. 192. 42. Battista. 152 Eclectic Style. 47–49 Filarete (Antonio di Pietro Averlino). 23. 93. 106 Cosmati family stone workers. Giancarlo. xxxvi. xx. xx–xxi 225 decumanus. 111. 88. 138. 162. 212. xxxvii. 80. 123 Comitium. 26. xliii. 130–32. xxxix. Count of. xxxii. 134. 94 Council of Trent. 107–9. 34. 108. 35–38. 148. 140. Urbino. Domenico. 64 della Porta. 6. 152. 82–85.” xl. 39. 104. 211. xxxiii. 14. Guillaume.
32. Paris. Cardinal Gianfrancesco. 188 Gambarra. Florence. 85 Leo X. 86. xli. xxviii Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. 145. xlvii. Filippo. 45. Giuseppe. 195. 189 Isola Bella Gardens. Guarino. 21 Frizzi. 162 Julian Argentario. xlv. 181 Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Collodi. xxiii. 172–74 Lorenzetti. xxxiii. 130 Gregotti and Associates. 86. 101. 208 Hauteville family. Milan. 203–5 “light cell. xxvii–xxx. 61–63. Carlo. xxi. 127. 60 geometry in design. 198 Ghiberti. 69–71 Japelli. Pietro. 143. 72 Loyola. 156. 47 Laurentian Library. li. xlvi. See Giovanni da Bologna Giorgio. 29. 122 Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. xxxviii. xli. xxxiii. 45. 133. xxii “La Tendenza. 88. xix. 39. xix. 34. 17 Lombardy/Lombard. 109. xix. 67. 88 Francesca.” 192 “Maestri Comacini”/“Magistri Comacini. Lorenzo. 33. 121. l. xxii. xxvii. 150. 93 Heinrich of Gmund. 137 “maestri-caseddari. xxii. 52 Giambologna. 156 Hadrian. 148. See central plan Gregotti. Giuseppi. xlvi. 20. 194 Innocent III. 14. xxi. 103. 130 Gruppo 7. 186. xliv. 69. 142 Insula. 185. 44 Ludovico il Moro. 56. xlvii. 109. 13. 31. xlvii. 44. 69. 66. 183. xxxviii. 88 Forum Romanum. Saint Ignatius. Louis. Duke Federico. 30 Franciscan Order. 112. 70. 209. Luciano. Ludovico. 46. xxxiii. 121.” lii Laurana. Lorenzo. 101. Ostia. 213 iron and glass construction. 166 Justinian. 17. l. xxi. 206 Jesuit Order. Holy Roman Emperor. 213 INA Casa. Rome. 30. 69. 11 Jefferson. Pope. xx. 8. xlvi. Pope. 79 Hellenistic period. 115 Lorenzo de’ Medici. xxxi. l Guarini. 91. xxxiv.226 Index illusionism/illusionistic. xix. 58–61 Garzoni. Ambrogio. li. 44. xviii. xlvi Garzoni Gardens. 185 harmonic musical ratios in architectural design. Romano. Piero della. 29. 56. 126. 20. l. 15. 116 Luther.” xxxv Maison de Verre. 56–58. 149. xxxii. 53–56 Fra Angelico. Pompeii. 177 Libera. 26. 153. Adalberto. 72–74 Leaning Tower of Pisa. 66–68 . lii. 39. 21. xxiii. 135 Maderno. 157. 76. 97 Gonzaga. Benozzo.” 41 Lingeri. 30. Lake Maggiore. 172 impluvium. 46. 68. 202 garden design. 170. xxi. 63–66 House of the Faun. 42. 12. 212 hexastyle temple plan. 83. 88 Gran Madre di Dio (Church of the Great Mother of God). xliii. 72. 122 Greek colonies. 15. 151. li. 77. 95. Baldassare. xviii. Thomas. xxxvi. Martin. xxxv. 195 Longhena. 163 Julius II. 144 Gonzaga. 107. 158 Gozzoli. xlvi. 172. 85 Maitani. 110. xxxiii. 193. xxii. xxxviii. xlii. 142. 135. 92. 129 Greek cross plan. 193. 159 Kahn. xliii. xxxvi. 144 Frederick II. 125. Vittorio. 9. 116. 27 Le Corbusier. 127 landscape and gardens. xix. Francesco di. Turin. 73. 175. Pope. 58. 175–77 Guglielmo. 11. 79. 163 Juvarra. 107. 63. 135. 160. 30. 79 Giotto di Bondone. 103. xx. xlix. 16. xxxii.
Baroque. Riccardo. 5. 62. 81. 99–101 Palazzo Rucellai. Florence. Francesco di Martini. 13 Maritime Theater. 66. 165. xlvii. 135–37 Michelucci. 152. 171. Julia. 82. xx.. 121 Narthex. 149. xlii. 72–74. xlviii. 92. 144. xxvii. xxi. 94. 5. sculptor at San Zeno. lii. 68 Muratori. 147 Monaldeschi. 104 Nelson. 89. Cardinal Peretti. 171 Mignot. 202 Monte Amiata Housing. xxiii. 143 optical corrections. 121. 86–89 Ostia/Ostia Antica. 156 Marcus Aurelius. 180–82 Palace of the Conservators. 11. 118 Palazzo Sanfelice. 182 Orvieto Cathedral. 121 Mannerism. xxxv Normans. xxxv. 156. 124 Palazzo dei Priori. 128 Mengoni. xxiii. 9. in Sicily. 174. xxi. 195 227 names of Roman architects. 81. xxi. 22. 153. Verona. 101–3. 168 Megara Hyblaea. xliii. 123 Paestum. 160. 12. xxiv. xxi. 179 Palazzo Vecchio. 150. xlix. Rome. xx. 89–91 Palatine Chapel in the Norman Palace. 163. 80. xli. 97–101. 95. Bishop Francesco. xlii–xliv. 210. 27–29 Mies van der Rohe. 206–8 Mantegna. xxi. xxix. 14 Palace of Labor. 193–95 Muslim architecture. See Giorgio. 82 Michelangelo. xlix. 94 Mount Vesuvius. 106. 45 Morandi. xxxviii Mausoleum of Constantina. xxxv. xix. 200–203. Andrea. Rome. li. 91. 64. xxxiii. 74–77 Maximian. 89–91. 189 Nicolò. xxiii. 122. 68. 113 Palladio. 164. 79 . xxxix. Palermo. 81. modular structure. xviii. S. Antonio. xxi. Andrea. 77–80. Romanesque. xxv. xliii. xl. 97–99 Palazzo Farnese. 169. Florence. 57. 92. xxxvii. 13. 76. 82. 79 Nicolas V. xviii. l. 91–94 “Palazzata. Byzantine. xix. xlvi. xli.Index Malaparte. xxiii. Jean. 130. xxiii. 94 Old Saint Peter’s. 203. 63 Martini. xxvii. inﬂuence of. Charles-François. Federico de. 153. xxxiii. 6. 85 Mole Antonelliana. xviii. 195 modular design. Hans. xxiii. xxxv. Giovanni. xxii. 94–97 Palazzo del Te. xix. xxii. xxi. 63. xxxvii. lii. xxii. 80. xiv. xxvii. 122. xxxvii. 34. Rome. 120. 64. 103. 82–85 Montefeltro. 159. 90. 156 Norman churches in Apulia. 111. lii. Pier Luigi. xxvii. xviii. 69. 30. 82. 213 Masaccio. xviii. 187 Nervi. xxx. Ludwig. 186. xlviii. xx. xxiii. 115 martyrium. 104–6 Palio. 12–14. 162. Pope. 86. Archbishop. lii. 104–6. xl. Curzio. xxxiv. xliii. xxii. 97. 56–58 Messare.” Genoa. li. l. 153. 69. 79 Milan Cathedral. xliv. 32. 163. Turin. xix. 89 Nervi. Saverio. George. Simone. 63. 52. 31. 135. xxiii. 107–9. 65 Ove Arup and Partners. xxi. 206–8 Pantheon. xx. Perugia. Mantua. 213 Neapolitan staircases. 145. Naples. xxxiv. xxxv. Turin. Francesco di Giorgio. xxviii Neoclassical. Early Christian. 120. 171 mosaic. 166 Parler. Caprarola. xix. Tivoli. Giuseppi. 86 Montalto. xix. 198–200 Morgan. xlvii. Siena. 198 Niesenberger. 143. 6. Milan. Rome. Contemporary. 63. 204 Mallet. xlvii–xlix. xxxviii. Roman. xxxii Napoleonic Conquest of Italy. 88. 62. Johannes. 72–74.
135. de. 25. xxii. lii. 110. 37. 174 public housing. xxiii. 170. 132. Girolamo. xxii. 132. 134 “pietra serena. Renzo. 26 . 171. 29 Quercia. xxi. 46. xxxviii–xl. 125 Piazza del Popolo. Genoa. 135. xxxiii. 7. 166 Piano. xxvii. 18. Aldo. Rome. 88. 120. Wenzel. 95 Piazza Pio II. xli. xlii. li. xxiii. xxii. 135–37. 39. 180. 106. Siena. 166 Salvi. E. Bernardo. 124. 30. xxiii. Mario. 50. xxiii. 9 Robbia. 118. 12. 110–12. 189. 14. xix. 69. 85 Rossi. xxvii. Turin. xxxii. xlv. xliii. Pope. 202 Pertinchamp. xxxviii. 211. 79 Paul III. 110 Pazzi Chapel. 58 Piazza delle Feste. 193 Risorgimento. August. Enrico. 46.228 Index Raphael. 115–17 Piazza Grande. 88. 143. 49. l. 212. xxii. 198. Jacopo della. xxxiv Saint Peter’s. 23. See also INA Casa Quaroni. 12 Rainaldus. 95 Pisano. Pope. 115 Piazza del Duomo. colonnade. xxiii. 32–35. 34. Pope. 101. Luca della. 99. A. 214 Rossellino. 25–27 Pisano. Peter. 118. 33. xxiii. Andrea. xlviii. 193–95. 132–35 Saint Paul’s Outside the Walls. xxxvi. 212. 93 Rogers. xlvi. 25. 76 Saint Mark’s Square. 111 Roger II of Sicily. xlv. 58. Nicola. 29 perspective. xl. 66 Portoghesi. Nicolo. Pienza. 28 Prandtauer. li. xlii. 112. xxxviii. xxiii. 80–82. xxxiv–xxxvi. xx. 34 Rossi. 57. 91–94. 34. 160 Royal Hunting Lodge. Baldassare. xxxvii. Genoa. 72. 29 rose window. 123–25 Piazza del Campo. 121 Sack of Rome. 61. 14. xl. Perugia. xli. 138. Giovanni. 21. Mattia de. 206 reinforced concrete. 196 Perret. 82. xlvi. Stupinigi. 83. 95 Pisano. 201 ribbed vault. 47. xlii. Venice. xxxv. 123–25 Renzo Piano Building Workshop. 12. 13. features of basilicas. xli. 118–20 Piazza Vittorio Veneto. xix. Vigevano. 156. 112. 156. 130–32 Saint Agnes. xlvii. John. 158 Riario. xxi. Joseph Ramèe. 208 Protestantism. 25–27. xx. 60. xix. li. 214. l Sabaudian Monarchy of Savoy. 103 Pre-Roman Italy. Rome. 27 Pius II. xxiv. 97 Ravenna. 39. 107. Jakob.N. 156. 215 Rice. 158 Pius IV. 151 Reformation. xxxiv. 88. 107. 74. 165. xli. 177 Pazzi. 118. 72.” 112 Pisa Cathedral. 121 Peruzzi. 211 Renovation of the Old Harbor. 56. xlii. Venice. xliii. Pisa. Andrea. xxvii. dome. 49. xxxvii. 97–99 Roman theater design. 169. xlix. 94. Ludovico. 206 Pliny the Younger. 99. Paolo. xviii. xlviii. 125–27 Ruskin. Venice. 82 Rossi. Giulio. lii. 110. 214 Romano. xxxvii.. 143. xl. 136. xxx profession of architect. 121–23 Piazzetta di San Marco. 115 Rainaldi. xviii. 154–56. 123 Relic of the Holy Blood. 130–32. 185–86 Ronchamp. 135. Cardinal Raffaele. Florence. xxiii. 73 Saffa Area Public Housing. 144. Eero. 100. 189–91 Parler. xxxix proportions in Renaissance architecture. 177 Piazza Ducale. 159. xli. Rome. 120. 17–20. xi. 150 Saarinen. xx. 215 Peressutti. xlvii. 123 Ridolﬁ. 196 Romanesque.
See Pazzi Chapel Santa Maria della Consolazione.” 156 San Zeno Maggiore. 127–30 Senators’ Palace. Karl Friedrich. 61. xxiii–xxiv. 195 “Sopraelevata. the Younger. 174 “San Zeno Altarpiece. 72. 95 slab building. 70. Florence. 165. Rome. 177 “studiolo. 163–65 Santa Croce. 68. xix. Todi. xlii. 175–77 Savonarola. xli. 83 Temple of Poseidon. 151 Trajan. Paestum. xxi. 79 strada Condotti. Carlo. 106 Uguizzonis. xlvi. xxiv. 86 Santissima Sindone. 201. 179 San Gaudenzio. xx. xliii. 189 urban design. Rome. 208 . Pope. 163. 153 Theodoric. 215 Trucco. Carlo. xxii. xviii. xxxii. 116 Shroud of Turin. xlii. Rome. 83 Valeriani. 156–59 Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. xxxviii. 151–53. 137 Sangallo. Greek colony. xxxix. xxii. Gabriele. xxxiv. Gino. xliii Team X. xli. 33. 130 Vasari. 144–47 San Vitale. 136. the Younger. 112. 191. Antonio da. xxxiv. 202. 71. 215 Theater. xxvii. Mantua. Pope. xviii. xxiii. 71 Sixtus V. 32. xlvi. 215 Tuscolano II. 189–91 triumphal arch. 31. 215 Talenti. 154. 14 Sforza family. Giacomo Matte. xli. xlvii. 177. 56. 76 Vatican Belvedere. 175 Theodora. 38 Tuscan Order. xix. Ravenna. 47. xx. 41. xxxiv. xxiii. Luca. xlvi. 2 Sangallo. 214. xl. 106 Vatican. xlvi. 95. 179 urbanism. Vincenzo. 132. 107. 128. 134 Sant’ Andrea. 127 Trevi Fountain. xlv. Verona. 15–17. 85 tetrastyle atrium. 126. xxx. 42–44 Terragni. xlix. 129. Naples. 159. 187. 12. 193–95 Ufﬁzi. 45. 134 scarcella. xx. xlvi. lii. 83 utopian housing. 177–79 229 stoa. 172–74 Santa Maria della Vittoria. 47–49 Trulli. 42 Santa Reparata. 154–56 Sangallo. xlviii. 189. 166 Sansovino. xxii. xxiv. Giovanni. 183–86 Theater of San Carlo. xxxvii. 46. Rome. Novara. xx. 110. l. 127 Valle. 50. 33.” 46. 183. xlvi. 151. 13. Giovanni di. 45. 160 Treaty of Utrect. Florence. xxi. Rome. xxxvi. xxviii. xlvi. xlviii. 1. xviii. 185 Travertine. xxx. xxix. 104. the Elder. Francesco. 102. 132. 138–41 Sanctis. Ravenna. Jacopo. l. Antonio da. Turin. xxix. li. 88 Simone. xlvi. xxx. Taormina. xlii. Alberobello. 38. 118. Giuseppe. Rome. 86 Urban VIII. 17. xlviii. 175 Signorelli. 160–62 Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. 186 Selinunte. 39. 186–89 Theatine Orde. 106 Scamozzi. 106 “studiolo” of Federico da Montefeltro. 47 Syracuse. Francesco de. xxiii. 99 Sanmicheli. Michele. xlix. 49. 180–82 Teresa of Avila. lii. 136 skyscraper skyline. 68. xviii. 135. 102. 29. Venice. Giuliano da. xxiii. Rome. xxi. xx. 165–69 Santa Maria della Salute. 104. xxxiii. 215 Scarpa. xxx. Domenico and Giuseppe. xiv. 27 Simonetta.Index San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. 22–25 scenographic design. xxxi Stornacolo. Giorgio. 191–93 Tufa. 127 Selinus. 103 Schinkel. 97. xxi. 137. 185 tablinum. xxxiv.” 124 Spanish Steps. 116. 25.
191 Viaduct of the Polcevera. xxxiii. 79. 183. 206–8 . 186 Visconti. xl. Luchino. 200–202 Villa Lante Gardens. 61–63 Villa Rotonda. xliv. 200–202 Villa Malaparte. 116 Viollet-le-Duc. 203–5 Villa of Hadrian. 198–200 Vignola (Jacopo Barozzi). li. 31. xxiv. 195–98 vernacular architecture. 215 Wright. 170 von Freiburg. Milan. 77 Visconti. 2. xliii. Bagnaia. 209. Hans. 79 von Hildebrandt. Leo. xxii. 31. 180 voussoir. xxxii. 206 Zevi. xxii. Vicenza. Gian Galeazzo. 158. xix. xxi. 99–101. Eugène. Bruno.230 Index Vinci. xxi. xxiii. xli. 116 Vitruvius. 5. xxi. 103 von Klenze. xliii. Leonardo da. Tivoli. Lukas. xix. l. lii. Capri. xxiii. Frank Lloyd. Genoa. l Velasca Tower. xxii. xxii.
He has published several books and articles on urban studies.About the Author JEAN CASTEX is an architect and professor of architectural history at the Versailles School of Architecture. where he has served as president of the faculty. Panerai and J. the Death and Life of the Urban Block (1977). Depaule. Ch. Professor Castex graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1968 and was awarded a doctorate from Paris VIII University in 1997 with a thesis on the seventeenth-century French architect François Mansart. . Baroque. Renaissance. which he authored with Ph. Classicisme. including Urban Forms. 1420–1720. His 1989 book on architecture of the ﬁfteenth through the nineteenth centuries. was re-edited in 2004 and has been translated into Dutch and Spanish.