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Recent Titles in Reference Guides to National Architecture
Architecture of Greece Janina K. Darling Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales Nigel R. Jones Architecture of Spain Alejandro Lapunzina Architecture of France David A. Hanser
Architecture of Italy
Reference Guides to National Architecture David A. Hanser, Series Adviser
Greenwood Press Westport, Connecticut • London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Castex, Jean. Architecture of Italy / Jean Castex. p. cm.—(Reference guides to national architecture, ISSN 1550–8315) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–0–313–32086–6 (alk. paper) 1. Architecture—Italy. I. Title. NA1111.C275 2008 720.945—dc22 2007035355 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 2008 by Jean Castex All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007035355 ISBN-13: 978–0–313–32086–6 ISSN: 1550–8315 First published in 2008 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.greenwood.com Printed in the United States of America
The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Entries by Location Entries by Architectural Style and Period Preface Acknowledgments Introduction
ix xiii xvii xxv xxvii
ARCHITECTURE OF ITALY
Augustus Gate, Perugia Baths of Caracalla, Rome Ca d’Oro, Venice Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi), Padua Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill), Rome Casa Rustici, 36 Corso Sempione, Milan Casa Torre, San Gimignano Castel del Monte, Puglia Castelvecchio Museum of Art, Verona Cathedral, Campanile, Babtistery, and Campo Santo, Pisa Church of the Autostrada, San Giovanni Battista, Campi Bisenzio Collegio del Colle and Extensions, Urbino Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica, Rome Colosseum, Rome Confraternity of San Bernardino, Chieri Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome Ducal Palace, Urbino Fiat Lingotto Plant, Turin 1 4 7 9 12 15 17 20 22 25 27 30 32 35 38 42 45 47
Orvieto Palace of Labor. Norman Palace. Vigevano Piazza Pio II. Rome Pazzi Chapel. Stupinigi Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. Pompeii Isola Bella Gardens. Rome Milan Cathedral. Palazzo Pubblico. Novara San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica). Roman Forum. Rome San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). Collodi Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana). Mantua . Gallaratese. Selinunte Saffa Area Public Housing. Turin Renovation of the Old Harbor. Milan Garzoni Gardens. Mantua Palazzo Farnese. Turin Palatine Chapel. Franciscan Convent of Santa Croce. Venice Saint Peter’s Dome. Milan Monreale Cathedral and Cloister. Tivoli Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Perugia Palazzo del Te. Venice Saint Mark’s Square. Florence Piazza del Campo. Caprarola Palazzo Sanfelice. Palermo Monte Amiata Housing.vi Contents 50 53 56 58 61 63 66 69 72 74 77 80 82 86 89 91 94 97 99 101 104 107 110 112 115 118 121 123 125 127 130 132 135 138 141 144 148 151 154 156 Florence Cathedral Dome. Naples Palazzo Vecchio. Lake Maggiore Laurentian Library. Siena Piazza Ducale. Canareggio. Florence Forum Romanum. Rome San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica). Milan Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary). Verona Sant’ Andrea. Genoa Royal Hunting Lodge. Palermo Palazzo dei Priori. Pienza Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). Assisi San Gaudenzio Dome. Venice San Vitale. Ravenna San Zeno Maggiore. Florence Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Ostia House of the Faun. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). Florence Pantheon.
Vicenza Glossary Bibliography Index vii 160 163 165 169 172 175 177 180 183 186 189 191 193 195 198 200 203 206 209 217 223 . Alberobello Tuscolano II Public Housing. Taormina Theater of San Carlo. Ravenna Santa Maria della Consolazione. Rome Santa Maria della Salute. Rome Trulli. Bagnaia Villa Malaparte. Rome Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Naples Trevi Fountain. Rome Temple of Poseidon. Milan Viaduct of the Polcevera. Turin Spanish Steps. Venice Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel). Todi Santa Maria della Pace Cloister. Paestum Theater. Rome Velasca Tower. Genoa Villa Lante Gardens. Capri Villa Rotonda.Contents Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale.
36 Corso Sempione. Milan Velasca Tower. Stupinigi Turin Fiat Lingotto Plant. Milan Monte Amiata Housing. Turin Palace of Labor. Genoa Lombardy Mantua Palazzo del Te. Turin Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). Gallaratese. Chieri Lake Maggiore Isola Bella Gardens. Milan Milan Cathedral. Lake Maggiore Novara San Gaudenzio Dome. Vigevano Piedmont Chieri Confraternity of San Bernardino. Novara Stupinigi Royal Hunting Lodge. Mantua Sant’ Andrea. Milan Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). Turin Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel). Genoa Viaduct of the Polcevera. Milan Vigevano Piazza Ducale. Mantua Milan Casa Rustici. Turin . NORTHERN ITALY Liguria Genoa Renovation of the Old Harbor.Entries by Location E ntries are listed below by region and then by city or town within each region.
x Entries by Location Veneto Marche. Perugia Todi Santa Maria della Consolazione. Orvieto Perugia Augustus Gate. Venice San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica). Rome Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Umbria Assisi San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica). Bagnaia Caprarola Palazzo Farnese. Rome Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. Rome Forum Romanum. Rome San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Urbino Ducal Palace. Ostia Tivoli Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana). Todi Urbino Collegio del Colle and Extensions. Venice Santa Maria della Salute. Perugia Palazzo dei Priori. Rome Padua Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi). Rome Saint Peter’s Dome. Roman Forum. Verona Vicenza Villa Rotonda. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). Rome Cornaro Chapel. Rome Santa Maria della Pace Cloister. Venice Saint Mark’s Square. Santa Maria della Vittoria. Ravenna Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Assisi Orvieto Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary). Verona San Zeno Maggiore. Vicenza CENTRAL ITALY Latium Bagnaia Villa Lante Gardens. Tivoli . Venice Saffa Area Public Housing. Padua Ravenna San Vitale. Canareggio. Ravenna Venice Ca d’Oro. Rome Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill). Urbino Rome Rome Baths of Caracalla. Caprarola Ostia Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Venice Verona Castelvecchio Museum of Art. Rome Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Rome Pantheon. Rome Colosseum.
Palermo Selinunte Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. Campanile. Naples Theater of San Carlo. San Giovanni Battista. Naples Paestum Temple of Poseidon. Florence Pienza Piazza Pio II. Capri . Siena Naples Palazzo Sanfelice. Pompeii Puglia Alberobello Trulli. Franciscan Convent of Santa Croce. Palazzo Pubblico. Norman Palace. Collodi Florence Florence Cathedral Dome. Paestum Pompeii House of the Faun. Puglia Sicily Palermo Monreale Cathedral and Cloister. Taormina xi SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY Campania Capri Villa Malaparte. Florence Pazzi Chapel. and Campo Santo. Selinunte Taormina Theater. Rome Tuscany Campi Bisenzio Church of the Autostrada. Florence Laurentian Library. Pienza Pisa Cathedral. Alberobello Puglia Castel del Monte. Florence Palazzo Vecchio. San Gimignano Siena Piazza del Campo. Palermo Palatine Chapel. Pisa San Gimignano Casa Torre.Entries by Location Spanish Steps. Campi Bisenzio Collodi Garzoni Gardens. Rome Trevi Fountain. Rome Tuscolano II Public Housing. Baptistery.
Campanile. Rome Forum Romanum. Selinunte Temple of Poseidon. Verona Gothic Ca d’Oro. Roman Forum. Ravenna Romanesque Cathedral. Rome Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana). Ostia House of the Faun. Rome Early Christian Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Baptistery. Venice . Palermo San Zeno Maggiore. Paestum Theater. Perugia Roman Architecture Baths of Caracalla. Pompeii Pantheon. Pisa Monreale Cathedral and Cloister. Ravenna MIDDLE AGES Byzantine San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica). Taormina Etruscan and Italic Architecture Augustus Gate. Norman Palace. ANTIQUITY Greek Colonies in Italy Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus.Entries by Architectural Style and Period E ntries are listed alphabetically within styles and periods. Rome Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Tivoli Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Palermo Palatine Chapel. Venice San Vitale. and Campo Santo. Rome Colosseum.
Naples Royal Hunting Lodge. Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). Florence Pazzi Chapel. Rome Trevi Fountain. Rome Mannerism Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill). Lake Maggiore Palazzo Sanfelice. Urbino Florence Cathedral Dome. 36 Corso Sempione. Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome Casa Torre. San Giovanni Battista. Vicenza NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES Neoclassical and Eclectic Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi). Florence Milan Cathedral. Rome Confraternity of San Bernardino. Palazzo Pubblico. Bagnaia Villa Rotonda. Verona Church of the Autostrada. Naples Trulli. Rome Garzoni Gardens. San Gimignano Castel del Monte. Todi Santa Maria della Pace Cloister. Rome Villa Lante Gardens. Mantua Palazzo Farnese. Perugia Palazzo Vecchio. Assisi RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE Renaissance Ducal Palace. Puglia Florence Cathedral Dome. Turin Spanish Steps. Alberobello Contemporary Casa Rustici. Venice Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel). Florence Piazza del Campo. Stupinigi San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Mantua Santa Maria della Consolazione. Novara Theater of San Carlo. Campi Bisenzio Collegio del Colle and Extensions. Chieri Cornaro Chapel. Pienza Saint Peter’s Dome. Venice San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica). Rome Santa Maria della Salute. Franciscan Convent of Santa Croce. Florence Saint Peter’s Dome. Rome Sant’ Andrea. Milan Castelvecchio Museum of Art. Orvieto Palazzo dei Priori.xiv Entries by Architectural Style and Period Baroque Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Milan Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary). Vigevano Piazza Pio II. Padua Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). Milan Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). Caprarola Palazzo Vecchio. Turin San Gaudenzio Dome. Siena Saint Mark’s Square. Rome Laurentian Library. Florence Piazza Ducale. Collodi Isola Bella Gardens. Urbino . Florence Palazzo del Te. Rome Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale.
Genoa xv Saffa Area Public Housing. Milan Viaduct of the Polcevera. Canareggio. Turin Renovation of the Old Harbor. Milan Palace of Labor. Rome Velasca Tower.Entries by Architectural Style and Period Fiat Lingotto Plant. Genoa Villa Malaparte. Capri . Venice Tuscolano II Public Housing. Turin Monte Amiata Housing. Gallaratese.
I felt I needed some corrections from a native English-speaking writer. asked me to write a book covering seventy-ﬁve of the most important architectural monuments in Italy as part of the series. A certain French logic and French ways of explaining would not totally ﬁt an American or English reader. Limitations of space meant that two well-known buildings of the same kind and of the same period could not both be presented. David Hanser proposed Janina Darling. Hanser. then. group themselves into a series of connected works of art. and there are so many superb buildings.Preface W hen David A. I confess I found the greatest delight in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. It is a world in itself. I feel grateful for the help she provided. The need to rely on recent debates to give a clear explanation of a building had often been the reason for choosing it. although. Much can be said about Italian architecture. Architecture in Greece. The latest information. in history. structures that often play a great role in the pleasure given by Italian architecture? An important decision. an understanding of which should be full of rewards. I had to rely not only on American and English books and essays but also on the most recent opinions presented by Italian researchers. the latest criticism helped me in the selection. Of course. I felt both pleasure and uneasiness. How could I reduce such a mass of information to simple and straightforward descriptions and to such a limited number of examples? Should I just comment on the best-known landmarks and ignore more ordinary but no less fascinating buildings. I had to make a choice. was the selection of buildings. I had to avoid being too passionate about certain periods. and for the overall improvements she suggested. series editor for the Greenwood Guides to National Architecture. I tried to be fair with regions and chronological periods in Italy. but I also had to refuse a too broad distribution because buildings. author of another book in this series. . When all the research was done and most of the writing completed.
Ravenna. to select with great care periods more difﬁcult for the American reader to understand. Because I had to explain the characteristics of Baroque architecture. . the Baths of Caracalla. Orvieto Cathedral. 212–235. Because Italy is in itself a world in architecture. It contains deﬁnitions for important terms that may. the Temple of Poseidon. a Glossary is included at the end of this book. and their goals explained. and materials. third century bce. while mine.xviii Preface Because architecture has a specialized vocabulary that is used to describe structures. ETRUSCAN. 70–80. the late evolution of the basilica into an Early Christian church. the Roman Forum. a basilica (a multipurpose hall). in any case. Words included in the Glossary are placed in italics the ﬁrst time they appear in an entry. Rome. 526– 548. the Pantheon. and two domed structures of the late Roman period. needed to be clariﬁed. 1064–1094. with the famous Leaning Tower. I notice that eight items had played an invisible part in my comments. Rome. consecrated in 549. Cathedral churches. the Mausoleum of Constantina. GREEK. the name of the building is indicated with boldface type when it appears for the ﬁrst time. Also such things as the notion of proportions typical of the Renaissance.” or complex of buildings. which. ANTIQUITY. 2. a large domed structure. or may not. the Theater of Taormina. details. later Roman. the Colosseum. I was pushed to greater efforts. When I sum up what I did during my own editing. Architectural Landmarks These architectural landmarks could be classiﬁed by the following periods and types: 1. Frequently. Venice. 1064–1277. a theater. 1290–1330 and Milan Cathedral. 1386 (its main altar consecrated in 1418). be fully explained in the entries. Rome. typical of Roman building methods. Saint Mark’s. ﬁrst century bce. I felt I had. an entertainment complex. the entry for a building includes comparison or reference to another structure included in this book. They should be a key for American readers to grasp my selection criteria and to discover a certain order of ideas. 480–470 bce. Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. 118–125. 337–350 and San Vitale. If I had a chance to open eyes and minds. ROMAN: The entries under this heading include a Greek Doric temple. originally Greek. Cathedral. Where such a reference is made. Contemporary structural techniques also needed to be described. MIDDLE-AGES: A Byzantine basilica. a well-known “precinct. my own reward would be greater. an arena. Rome. Paestum. which saw an image of the cosmos in a building’s mathematics and geometry. which a country like France (at least partially) ignores. and Campo Santo at Pisa. Baptistry. Ravenna. can be freely rearranged to make the book their own.
and villas. The Catholic Reformation was the period of self-reform for the Roman Catholic Church. Strong internal and social oppositions threatened the peace of San Gimignano (Casa Torre). Ostia). 1420–1436. Piazza Grande. 2nd century bce. TWENTIETH CENTURY: An automobile plant. Turin. Rome. 1538–1655). Castelvecchio Museum of Art. 1915–1923. The power of Renaissance princes played a decisive role in Urbino (Ducal Palace. 1863–1877. Perugia). 1505–1590. and political changes they cause or reﬂect are ignored. 1957–1964. Saint Peter’s Dome. the entries can illustrate the differences between a large aristocratic residence in Pompeii (House of the Faun. 4. The prosperity and the growth of the city had a powerful inﬂuence in the Etruscan period (Augustus Gate. Fiat Lingotto Plant. and Perugia (Palazzo dei Priori. Caprarola. Turin. Palace of Labor. 1524–1534. 1567– 1569. a skyscraper. Milan. Mantua. 1300–1443). Urban planning and the meaning of Roman government can be derived from the entry on the Forum of Republican Rome from the ﬁrst century bce. The crisis of the Protestant Reformation obliged the Roman Catholic Church to reconsider its interior politics and its cultural goals (Saint Peter’s Dome. Ducal Palace. . the “queen of colonies in Sicily. 1444–1482). Milan. 1505–1590. 5. Cultural and Political Changes Buildings cannot be understood if the cultural. 1960–1961. which can also provide some elements for the history of the house. 180 bce–79 ce). with decoration from around 1580. and the Palazzo Farnese. the Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus (Selinunte). of Orvieto (Orvieto Cathedral. Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. princely palaces (palazzi). Verona. 1956–1958. Perugia. Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. the Villa Rotonda. Thus. RENAISSANCE: Famous domes. NINETEENTH CENTURY: A large iron and glass gallery. certain buildings were selected because they offer a clear picture of the society around them. Urbino. an exhibition hall. 1290–1330). and the densiﬁcation of the city during the second century ce through social stratiﬁcation and mixed building uses (Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. and a good example of a Greek town. 1444–1482. Campidoglio. 1530–1575.” 651–250 bce. Augustus Gate. Velasca Tower. Components of the Antique City Among the entries in this volume are a fortiﬁed city of the Etruscan period. Perugia. and in Republican Rome (the Roman Forum). and a museum of art. Rome. Vicenza. in the period of the Greek colony and rival of Carthage (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus). Florence. as well as the Palazzo del Te.Preface xix 3. For the Roman period. social.
a work of Filippo Brunelleschi. and these may orient the research. Milan Cathedral. In scale. on modern interviews in architectural magazines. 1863–1877). 1826–1842). 1659–1670). 1429–1459. The birth of a new profession—architect—could be traced in the construction of the dome in Florence (Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore. for the Renaissance . a “caffè” (Caffè Pedrocchi. this “brick Eiffel Tower” had been anticipated by a gallery in Milan. In any case. “architects” may have been known by name. Padua. Assisi. Most succeeding architects have so protected their talent that the historian must rely on isolated papers. in charge of the main building decisions. Designers of Orvieto Cathedral. The proportions of the Temple of Poseidon. Decision Making by the Architect Is it possible to penetrate the hidden side of architectural conception? Great attention should be paid to how the profession names the designers. Because Renaissance architecture is sometimes difﬁcult for the nonscholar to understand. It opened to the vast middle-class crowds and contained a dome as big as the Renaissance dome of Saint Peter (Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. 1647–1652. which he could only realize by moving to Florence. could not follow the bishop’s choice of the Gothic style. 1290–1330. In antiquity. 118–125. 480–470 bce. The uniﬁcation of Italy (the Risorgimento movement) of the nineteenth century created a new kind of public space treated on a monumental scale. Paestum. or of the Doric Temples of Selinunte (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) were a great challenge for the architects. 1841–1878). but this designation disappeared and the designer gradually took on the title of “master-mason” or cleric of the work. architects must achieve precise goals in a building. a strong debate occurred between those who wanted to express the spirit of humility of the Franciscan order and those who wanted to communicate the sense of modernity brought by French Gothic builders. Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. Contemporary architectural movements expressed the political conﬂicts and social rivalries of the twentieth century. This medieval system of building was based on the collaboration of different crafts. time must be devoted to such three-dimensional architectural manifestos as the Pazzi Chapel of Florence. Rome. for example.xx Preface whose propaganda was expressed in the most advanced creations of the Baroque age (Cornaro Chapel. in surprisingly huge monuments to celebrate the economic and ﬁnancial success of a city like Novara (San Gaudenzio. 1386 through the ﬁfteenth century. In designing the Basilica of Saint Francis. proved a failure of the traditional methods of the Gothic masters. Combining a classical Greek temple with a more Roman-appearing rotunda was the aim of Hadrian’s architect for the Pantheon in Rome. on debates. 1420–1436). Rome. and. or. ten years before it was ﬁnished. and on elaborate research to know their decision-making process.
was typical of post–World War II attitudes. 1659–1670. 1950– 1954.” the Palace of Labor in Turin. 1424–1437). indicates the tough debates of the late 1960s about the city . Milan. 1938–1942. 1962–1983. was a countermodel for the city of the future. For the Middle Ages. Carlo Scarpa’s Castelvecchio Museum of Art in Verona. Three generations of housing estates were selected: Tuscolano II Public Housing in Rome. Domestic Architecture The history of the house is begins with a Greek house of the fourth or third centuries bce (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) and an aristocratic home in Pompeii (House of the Faun). 1863–1877). Aymonino and Aldo Rossi’s interest in the history of the city could not prevent them from expressing their belief in the “modern” project. Baroque design strategies are discussed in two of Bernini’s creations. 1567–1580). and that of large villas (Villa Rotonda of Vicenza. as it was opposed to the “traditional” city. M. San Gimignano. The creation of a new type of urban residence (Casa Rustici. arranged around an immense staircase. A warehouse in the ancient port of Ostia is an example of Roman utilitarian design (Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana). both in Rome. the Cloisters of Santa Maria della Pace in Rome. Milan. domestic architecture for the middle and lower classes became a characteristic activity for architects. A Neapolitan example of a large palace. a work by Donato Bramante. The Renaissance arrangement of a large urban palazzo (palace) around a central courtyard can be grasped in the entry of the Ducal Palace of Urbino. 1960–1961. 1957–1964. explains clearly how he conceived of his creative method. 1444–1482. 1967–1972. 1500–1504. Giancarlo de Carlo maintained an open-minded discussion with the future inhabitants in preparing his project for the Collegio del Colle in Urbino. 1647–1652. a house in a tower (Casa Torre.Preface xxi system of proportions. During the twentieth century. 1933–1936) illustrates the broad research for unprecedented solutions. Contemporary architects belong to various movements or ideologies. 1961–1964) needed a detailed study. Monte Amiata Housing in Milan. 1725–1728). Giovanni Michelucci (Church of the Autostrada. with the Villa Malaparte on Capri. 1961–1971) was an expressionist architect. Giuseppe Mengoni’s conception of an iron and glass gallery (Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. and Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. As engineers also create new forms. their Monte Amiata Housing in Milan. Genoa. 1967–1972. shows the eighteenth-century evolution of the residence (Palazzo Sanfelice. representing a modern design full of reminiscences of the primitive past of Greek Mediterranean architecture. twelfth century) is contrasted with a more welcoming merchant’s house in Venice (Ca d’Oro. Nervi’s use of steel and concrete in the “modern Parthenon. the Cornaro Chapel. or the sense of ﬂuidity developed by Riccardo Morandi (Viaduct of the Polcevera.
entertained the people within splendidly designed gardens. were created as an artiﬁcial mountain on an island in the Lake Maggiore. Landscape and Gardens Landscape and architecture sometimes combine into a single unit. the Baths of Caracalla. In commissioning the town square in Pienza. The Royal Hunting Lodge at Stupinigi. plays with the sunny stretches of the Mediterranean Sea. Andrea Palladio. and the Isola Bella Gardens.xxii Preface and its history. the Viaduct of the Polcevera. is a freeway. Construction techniques evolved from the Early Christian period to the Middle Ages from reinforcement of walls by transverse arches connected to . was based on the weight carried by the columns and the strength of the stone (Temple of Poseidon. 1961–1964. For example. 1650–1690. 1560–1600. ended the medieval tradition of a walled-in city by opening the square to wide vistas of distant mountains. and the Saffa Area Public Housing in Venice. 1567–1580. 1530–1575. using brick. 1962–1983. shows the intelligent integration of a new housing development into an old urban fabric that respected Venetian traditions. In Genoa. 1631–1671. Paestum). Construction Techniques Technical methods and innovations in construction and materials can play a great role in shaping a building. 212–235. conceived as a link along the Ligurian coast of the Mediterranean. The Baroque period was rich in garden designs. Rome. imposed his powerful design on the hills around Vicenza. the Garzoni Gardens in Collodi. arches. 1459–1462. Even in Rome. Twentieth-century works tend to increase the importance of the landscape: the Villa Malaparte on Capri. 1938–1942. The skeleton of a Greek temple. A sense of landscape was a fundamental element in creating a Greek city. 1984–1987. made of columns and lintels (horizontal spanning elements). with its gardens and its “palazzina. Romans developed audacious new techniques of wall building and vaulting. provides a unique view of its silhouette against the mountains and hills of the Apennines. were erected on a steep slope. in his Villa Rotonda. the Acropolis of Selinus was positioned on a peninsula that offered a vast view of the sea (Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) and the Theater at Taormina opened onto a symbolic landscape. 121– 138).” imposes its order on a disrupted area and creates its own landscape. 1729–1733. in the vicinity of Turin offered an unusual dialogue between architecture and a rearranged landscape of regional dimensions. who was fascinated by nature. kept at a distance from the old city. Pope Pius II. In Urbino. and a type of concrete (Pantheon. the Collegio del Colle. The Palazzo Farnese in Caprarola. A similar Renaissance love for gardens justiﬁes the Villa Lante Gardens in Bagnaia.
and Saint Mark’s Square in Venice. a Mannerist square (1511–1640). the largest of which. 1538–1655. 1723–1726. built in the ﬁrst third of the nineteenth century. was the Piazza Vittorio Veneto. four periods: the earliest organization begins at the end of the ninth century. 1459–1462. Engineers had been working with new materials as Mengoni did with iron and glass (Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. 1300–1443. 1284–1310. and to Gothic constructions such as the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. and Morandi used the dynamic forms possible with prestressed concrete in the Viaduct of the Polcevera. Turin presents large urban squares as part of the Baroque extension of the city. Urban Design A history of urban squares begins with San Gimignano (Casa Torre. 1988–1992. Milan). 1228–1253. which was inspired by an old Etruscan model described by Vitruvius. the splendid Spanish Steps. The reconstructed Caprarola Palazzo Farnese. 1656–1667. and ﬁnally the Napoleonic additions of the 1800s. the Piazza Ducale in Vigevano. There follow a Byzantine square (1172–1178). which was ﬁrst built during the (limited) democracy of the Middle Ages but added to during the period of absolute power of the Medici princes. The same was true also for the urban role played by the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. such as the Colonnade of Saint Peter’s. Baroque Rome adds a long sequence of squares. For the Renovation of the Old Harbor of Genoa. 1470–1485. Renaissance squares follow in the Pienza town square. was based . the Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) in Rome. 1988–1992. by studying antique Roman and Byzantine precedents. and the Palazzo dei Priori and Piazza Grande in Perugia. before 547. led to a safer construction at San Zeno in Verona. 1298–1572. In the nineteenth century. The Renaissance architect Alberti introduced an economical system to cover the vast pilgrimage church of Sant’ Andrea in Mantua. 1841–1878) pushed brick building technique to unknown limits. Antonelli’s dome in Novara (San Gaudenzio Dome.Preface xxiii thickening of the walls to the erection of vaults. both in past historical contexts and contemporary ones. twelfth century) and continues with the Piazza del Campo in Siena. Renzo Piano’s solution for the Renovation of the Old Harbor of Genoa. for example. 1511–1640. The famous Saint Mark’s Square in Venice contains. Renzo Piano used tent structures to give a new sense of ﬂuidity. the new picturesque vision of the eighteenth century. 1732–1762. 1420–1436. Turin). 1492–1494. Urban design typically develops over time and with different scales. 1123–1135. 1556–1575. Sant Apollinare in Classe in Ravenna. in its apparent unity. Planners’ decisions can be discussed. Brunelleschi found the solution to building the Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. attempts to reconnect the city with the harbor by a festive piazza. and the theatrical space of the Trevi Fountain. Nervi believed in the possibilities of large systems of vaulting in concrete and steel (Palace of Labor.
retained an optimistic conception of the city as a model. Renovation of the Old Harbor). while the plan of Monte Amiata Housing in Milan. and even a region. 1967–1972. The scale of a project can vary from a lot for a single house. and the architect was obliged to design a countermodel for the future. 1950–1954. both in the past (the Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus) and the present—the recent projects for the Ligurian Coast around Genoa (Viaduct of the Polcevera.xxiv Preface on the imposition of a new regular order on the disorder of the ﬁrst settlement. came from an opposite view. . to an entire city. History therefore is concerned with large-scale projects. The plan of Tuscolano II in Rome. to a neighborhood.
A large part of the text was typed by Marie Françoise Reuillon. the editor of the present Greenwood series and a teaching colleague for more than thirty-ﬁve years. who took me to Pompeii and introduced me to the Palazzo . enlarged. Writing in English was not an easy task for me and Dr. Progress on the present work has been slow. offered to give me the ﬁnal help I needed. knew both about my interest in Italy and about some of my previous publications. and his previously published book in this same series. and translated into Dutch and Spanish. who is associated with the Research Laboratory at Versailles. David Hanser oversaw all this work and coordinated our efforts. Originally published in French in 1990. She corrected a French tendency to abstraction and simpliﬁed and emended the text so that it could be more easily understood by English-speaking people and the general public. I can scarcely count the number of trips to Italy. Catherine Blain. and I appreciate the great tolerance of Greenwood Press in this regard. She prepared the Glossary and added works in English to the Bibliography. it was republished in 2004. Janina Darling. The School of Architecture at Versailles’ photographer Hélène Orlatti did a magniﬁcent job preparing the illustrations for the book. Architecture in Spain (2005). author of Architecture in Greece (2004). Baroque. brought order to my work with a keen intelligence in presentation.Acknowledgments A long and intimate relation with Italy is the background for this book. most of them based on my own photographs. the present director of the Exchange Program of the University of Illinois with the Versailles School of Architecture. which allowed me to visit Palladian houses. over half of which deals with Italy. including Renaissance. Alejandro Lapunzina. nor will I forget the hospitality of my host in Naples. Dr. due to my tasks as president of the Executive Council of the École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Versailles (the National School of Architecture at Versailles). Classicisme. served as a model for me. Hanser. was always helpful and supportive. David A. the artist Luc Régis.
. and to consider and distinguish contradictory positions of historians. Historical discussions that bore fruit in this book took place in international meetings and in informal encounters with my colleagues on the history faculty of the School of Versailles. to refer to the latest research and publications.xxvi Acknowledgments Sanfelice in the Sanita district of Naples. Giancarlo Cataldi and Gian Luigi Maffei. A greater understanding of the value of the traditional urban fabric was given to me by two professors of the University of Florence. I have tried my best to follow this method of teaching the history of architecture: to have no preconceived ideas. followers of Saverio Muratori’s teaching.
Leading the Western world. into Baroque art and architecture. at one point. established Italy as the conceptual center of art and architecture for almost four centuries. Travelers. painters. starting in Florence by 1420.Introduction rom the ﬁfth-century bce temples at Paestum (Temple of Poseidon). and Tunisia were jealous. Libya. Prints and books on architectural theory and practice enhanced Italian inﬂuence from the sixteenth century on. These conceptions were reacted to by the “Mannerists” after 1527 and developed. obliged to visit Italy and to take part in the Italian artistic debate to achieve artistic maturity. Italy was developing a new sense of vision (central linear perspective) that led to new spatial conceptions in architecture. Ancient Roman culture in Italy developed an architecture of which the Hellenistic cities of Turkey. to the late twentieth-century (1988–1992) Renovation of the Old Harbor in Genoa. sculptors. F .” the Piazza del Campo. Early Christian architecture was at its best in Rome and Ravenna. The Renaissance. It seems to provide a complete history of architecture. BeauxArts education in the United States and the opportunity for leisurely visits brought Americans in signiﬁcant numbers to Italy. such as Siena. Italy is a treasure house of architectural landmarks. Italy’s ﬁght for political unity and economic change in the nineteenth century did not deter architects from going to Italy for their education. in the seventeenth century. a most brilliant and bold period of creativity. with its spectacular urban “living room. Who can resist the light reﬂected by the Byzantine mosaics covering the vaults of San Marco in Venice? Those who believe that “Gothic architecture” is a French or German art form should look at the prosperous medieval Italian towns. where they sketched. south of Naples. and architects were. Some of the best-preserved Greek temples anywhere are those built by Greek colonies in Sicily and Campania (Segesta and Paestum). Italy was writing the architectural history of the Western world.
After having developed for more than a century. linguistic. Spoleto. The Sicels were the original inhabitants of the island of Sicily. bringing back to the United States the optimism Nelson missed in Milan. and artistic heritage. architect of the Salk Institute in San Diego. occupied the areas around Genoa and Venice. an incredible creator of modern furniture and graphics. In Italy from October 1928 to March 5. Corinthian colonists took over the . Italic peoples. and the Amalﬁ coast (south of Naples). from the ninth to the third centuries bce. He started his career with a classic “Grand Tour” in the eighteenth-century English tradition. In the eighth century bce. but the Italian architects’ sense of history in a nation that highly prizes culture encouraged positive attitudes in urban expansion. were culturally and economically more organized than the indigenous Italian societies. in which Italy continues to play a leadership role. and wrote books and articles for newspapers showing how Italian architecture had affected them. he sketched Venice.xxviii Introduction painted. while the Latins settled in Rome and its surrounding countryside. Siena. Especially in Rome. is an excellent example. Syracuse in Sicily. religious. in Sicily. the Greek city-states began sending settlers west to establish colonies along the Gulf of Tarento. and northern Latium. Although not tied politically to the communities in mainland Greece. Florence. Greek Colonies in Italy (Seventh to Third Centuries BCE) In the period called pre-Roman. speaking an Umbrian-Sabellic language. One of the colonial cities. the colonies shared a common cultural. and Venice demonstrate the strength of his architectural compositions. and as a result of the economic and political superiority that resulted from Greek victories against the Persians and Carthaginians. and on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy as far north as Naples and Cuma. He returned to Rome in 1950–1951 as a resident of the American Academy. vast ethnic and cultural changes inﬂuenced the development of civilization and the slow passage from agricultural villages to the rise of cities. and other groups. he discovered the severity of the architectural masses typical of his later work. The mainland Greek city-states. stayed at the American Academy in Rome from 1932 to 1934. which was founded in 734 bce and became a conurbation collecting several nearby settlements. The Etruscans occupied the modern regions of Tuscany. Texas. 1929. The American visitors strongly inﬂuenced the debate on modernity in Italy. This stay helped to restore Italian design production after 1955. and of the capital city of Dacca in Bangladesh. Louis Kahn (1901–1974). A plurality of independent peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula. inhabited the central spine of Italy. Umbria. although politically contentious. such as the Ligurians and Veneti. George Nelson (1908–1986). the Greek colonies had a brilliant Classical Age (480–323 bce). Charcoal and pastel sketches of Tivoli. of the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth. was protected by a seventeen-and-a-half-mile-long wall.
The Theater at Taormina in Sicily is an excellent example of a Greek theater from the Classical period. designed by the best architects. The city of Akgragas. Excavations and a few written documents suggest that the Lucanians had begun a long process of inﬁltration at least three decades before this and that the ﬁnal battle just conﬁrmed the process. anticipating the process of “Romanization” around 272 bce. Internal political struggles resulted in periods of tyranny alternating with periods of democracy. The Greek colonial cities in Italy were no more a political unity than the mainland city-states and should be treated individually. which strongly inﬂuenced the indigenous Italians. Clearly. Parthenope was set up on a peninsula facing the Castel dell’Ovo. is a relatively well-preserved Greek colonial city that contains three temples. The Greeks. or “high city. Its honey-colored stone and its archaic boldness but subtle proportions make it a pleasure for the eye. Paestum. Naples. Syracuse had to ﬁght not only against its main opponent Carthage but also against Athens. or Poseidonia. including the Romans. known as the Temple of Poseidon (c.” within the fabric of the city. the . When the Romans invaded. modern Agrigento. Except for the acropolis. their different culture meant signiﬁcant transformations to the Greek theater. the two cultures had begun to merge. which had formerly been occupied by Sicels or Phoenicians. was founded by Greeks in two successive periods. To exert its power as the major Greek colony in Sicily. The hard-won battle against Athens in 414 bce marked the beginning of a period of expansion for the city. who chose naturally defensive sites for their cities—cliffs or summits of hills—also rapidly developed remarkable defensive works. The principal structure. for example. which was developed a mile and a half to the east.000 inhabitants with another 130. ﬁfty miles to the south of Naples. Paestum’s fate was to be conquered about 420 bce. to protect them. 450 bce). The greatest period of prosperity was during the reigns of the tyrants Gelon. and the acropolis. is an outstanding example of a Greek Doric temple. Syracuse’s theater was among the ﬁrst in the colonies to adapt to performances coming from Attic Greece and to build in stone those elements originally constructed of wood. founded in the sixth century bce.Introduction xxix island of Ortygia. may have had as many as 70. and his successor Hieron. The “Castello Eurialo” in Syracuse. the temple of Zeus in Olympia (468–456 bce). Its regular plan contained an agora. from 491 to 478 bce. in the seventh and sixth centuries before the Christian era and then abandoned in favor of Neapolis (New City). the main political center. The plan of the Greek city can still be seen underlying the street pattern in the area of modern Naples called Spaccanapoli. by the Lucanians. Greek colonists used a strict rectilinear organization for their city plans. built by the tyrant Dionysius I to defend the city against the Carthaginians in 402–397 bce.000 in the surrounding countryside. is a splendid example of Greek military work. raised on top of a ridge. It seems likely that the architect took his inspiration from one of the most important Doric works in continental Greece.
founded around 650 bce. the Temple of Concord (430–420 bce) shows Classical inﬂuence. on the southern coast of Sicily). inside of which was a tomb that recreated the main elements of an Etruscan house. The Augustus Gate at Perugia (Umbria). built next to cities of the living. was built of round or conical tumuli (mounds) of earth. The quality of its execution and the coherency of its proportions demonstrate how Greek architects repeated conventional forms rather than inventing new ones. Etruscans had prepared the basis for Roman architecture. but one that the Romans recognized. Most of the Etruscan religious buildings. opening the potentialities of rich solutions in concrete. brick. was known as the queen of Greek colonies.500-foot-long fortiﬁcation wall with eight gates. Like the Temple of Poseidon in Paestum. like the others. with its bold forms. its increasing territory and the annexation of Segesta. was . Etruscans favored forms not characteristic of classical Greece. The city of Selinus (Selinunte. and Corsica. made Selinus a threat to Carthage. Some of the tombs were also hollowed out of tufa cliffs. they used Tuscan columns. cities of the dead. For example. deserve a long study. twenty-ﬁve miles west of Rome. even as late as 300–50 bce. including the Po Valley up to the Alps and the islands of Sicily. and these are used to speculatively restore the temples’ appearance. the necropolis of Cerveteri. onto which was attached an architectural façade. Etruscan and Italic Architecture (900 to 50 BCE) Most of our knowledge of pre-Roman Italy is based on Etruscan or Italic necropolises. not one of the canonical Greek orders. For example. and stone vaulting. its seven temples from the Classical period of Greek architecture. is a good expression of Etruscan architecture. Selinus’s prestige was its downfall. Roman Architecture It was only after 191 bce that most of the Italian peninsula. Perugia. which destroyed it in 409 bce. The Augusts Gate is one of two that remain in good condition. which reproduced their main characteristics and cultural values.xxx Introduction plan of the city. its urban fabric with fourth. Sardinia. was laid out according to the strict rules of orthogonal regularity. they started to erect arches in masonry and to combine them into domes. inspired by their circular huts. Only the foundations and elements of rich terra-cotta decorations remain. a kind of “pre-Doric” design. still famous for its temple. were built of perishable material such as wood and brick. was defended by a 9. Its regular plan. a city in an area of interesting rural and urban development.and third-century houses. Instead of copying the classical Greek temple. Selinus survived under Roman rule only as a small “vicus” (village) around its famous temples. its fortiﬁcations. The entry on Selinus in this volume will help to explain what a Greek colonial city was like. which was never damaged by earthquakes.
. Roman architects’ understanding of the constructive possibilities of the arch and the barrel vault radically changed architecture (such as temples and large porticoes called “stoas”). however. and forms of construction. who had established thriving cities in Sicily and southern Italy. administration. had to face. By the beginning of the ﬁfth century bce. and the third. as Frank Brown has said. During the two centuries before the Christian era. 12) but also better than the surrounding cultures at organization in all its aspects: community. The new system of arches and vaulting. which reduced the size of the stones needed for construction and thus the difﬁculty of transporting materials. the second from 218 to 201 bce. the ﬁrst lasting from 265 to 241 bce. the Romans. Sardinia. Carthage’s expansion threatened Rome. and parts of Sicily. These techniques—the arch. was Carthage. much of the coast of the Gulf of Tarento and the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea up to Naples as well as most of Sicily had been turned into rich and prosperous lands by the Greek settlements. from 149 to 146 bce. and the Geek colonists. It had subjugated much of North Africa by the third century bce. Ionic. These centers of Greek culture spread that culture into “barbarian lands”—Greeks called anyone not Greek a barbarian—but also started to incorporate indigenous societies. the barrel vault. but could also proﬁt from. dominant culture. known as the Punic Wars. bold vaults that could cover large spans and consequently offered incredible possibilities for the size and forms of buildings. in present day Tunisia) and Greeks from the Greek mainland. which had only tenuous ties with the Greek cities in Italy. or Corinthian. Romans mixed stone with layers of brick and cemented them with large quantities of mortar. a local power. From their city’s legendary founding by Romulus in 753 bce. not the mainland Greek city-states. which resulted in the ﬁnal destruction of Carthage. and self awareness” in which the temple acquired new forms. Indeed. against Carthage. Rome’s major adversary. Rome fought three wars. they had adopted the Greek systems of architecture. There was. by the time the Romans had subdued Greece and the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea. and it permitted the creation of large. which they had come to admire. The rectangular mass of the older Roman temples achieved a new lightness by adopting the orders used in the Greek temples—the Doric. developed construction techniques known but hardly used by Hellenistic architects. Rome now used Greece as “an inspiring teacher” (Brown 1967. at the same time. gradually assimilated the techniques and forms of the Etruscans. an initial period of “selfdiscovery. Roman architecture found a revolutionary inspiration in Hellenistic Greek architecture. several large colonies of Phoenicians (from Carthage. and Spain were Carthaginian dependencies. a neighboring. Etruscans as well as Romans. which had been based on the post-and-lintel system (a system of vertical columns and horizontal beams). native Italian cultures. could also make better use of unskilled labor. Before 133 bce. Romans were “apt and docile pupils” (Brown 1967. and a type of concrete—brought them limitless architectural possibilities. ritual. This practice made walls and vaults more uniform and solid.Introduction xxxi united under the political domination of Rome. 19) but.
arenas for gladiators’ games. Divided into a central space (a nave) and two side aisles and connected by porticoes. and debating rooms for senators—were eventually crowded into the area. In their splendor. especially the public baths used for public hygiene but also for recreation. However. dedicated to public assembly. and a sense of spiritual and physical order. the years from 50 to 250 ce. Because so many buildings and open spaces for assembly—temples.xxxii Introduction Romans used these technological advances above all for huge entertainment buildings. the Romans rebuilt and expanded the Forum in the capital city. to roof large rectangular spaces such as the basilica. which was central to any Roman city and which expressed the strength of the Roman government and law. Apollodorus of Damascus came from the eastern Mediterranean and worked for the Emperor Trajan (98–117) in his forum and markets during the period 106–113. The lavish decoration better demonstrated the superiority of Roman civilization. basilicas were typically found in the government and public celebration area. Decrianus or Apollodorus are supposed to have carried out the wishes of the Emperor Hadrian (117–138) in the construction of Hadrian’s Villa (125–135 ce). Rome was capable of bringing to all citizens of the Empire peace. which had been built in late Republican times before Rome became capital of an empire. the buildings of ancient Rome continue to fascinate. Astonishingly. security. although the nickname was . and west to England. The names of some of the architects are known. and her architects had to prove a corresponding superiority and virtuosity in building and planning. The Forum was an “inaugural” space. Rome had fulﬁlled its ambitions. the Domus Aurea (Golden House). Absolute regularity of the interiors of buildings was balanced by a surprising adaptation of their exteriors to a scattered arrangement of buildings and open areas. basilicas. the Forum became a dense urban pattern. but also a consecrated area and a place to predict the future by the observation of birds’ movements and other ritualistic practices. The Colosseum (72–80 ce). the Roman world expanded to encompass the lands around the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the Roman buildings selected for this volume were built during the so-called High Empire. during this period. the Baths of Caracalla) could be immense. During this period. who were perhaps landscape designers. north to Germany. Roman architects preferred large timber trusses. places for commerce. Emperor Nero (54–68) used the talents of Severus and Celer.g.. Romans usually considered the massive concrete construction too unreﬁned to leave exposed and consequently covered walls with painted plaster or marble veneers. Emperor Domitian (80–96) had Raberius design the stateroom where he received homage from his subjects. They (e. During the second and the ﬁrst centuries before the Christian era. Most of the four were taken as models and reproduced elsewhere in the Roman provinces. an area surprising in its homogeneity under the Roman Empire. Four large buildings can represent the different Roman building types in Italy. for his formidable urban residence in Rome. often used as a law court (see Forum Romanum). with colossal vaulted rooms.
and in 392 the emperor Theodosius adopted Christianity as the ofﬁcial religion for the Roman Empire. for example. as previously noted. services were held in modest rooms. Christians believed that God the Father could only be contained in the minds of baptized Christians. Rome and Ravenna. at the back of a shop. which were all surrounded by a splendid garden setting. This volume includes three examples of urban architecture: a Greek thirdcentury house from Selinus was selected to show the pre-Roman dwelling.and twostory buildings. Early Christian Architecture (300–800 CE) In 313.” A basilica was Christianized in two different ways: it could be named a church-monument (ecclesia-basilica) or a basilica for the Church (basilica-ecclesia). the Corinthian temple façade leads to a huge dome whose volume is so large it could contain a sphere fourteen stories tall. by dedicated buildings. the largest such building constructed by the Romans for their “games” and is as remarkable for the ﬁnancial organization behind it as it is for the solution of its technical requirements. the formidable importance of entertainment in ancient Rome. was indeed “colossal” in its dimensions. is an example of high-density building design. a large house. whose bodies became “the temple of God. With Constantine giving Christianity ofﬁcial standing. these house churches were replaced. “aulae ecclesiae. The “house church” (“Domus Ecclesiae”) gradually increased in size. Its stability and pure geometrical proportions. and the Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana.” a multistory warehouse building in Ostia. The Baths of Caracalla demonstrate. but as the religion grew. an “insula. Before this period. a building type that provided a large meeting room and was speciﬁcally associated with none of the pagan religions. along with Milan and a few other cities. in part to be less conspicuous and avoid persecution. Rome’s port city. The Pantheon (118–125 ce) explains the creativity of the Romans in mixing elements of architecture. Christians began to meet in private homes. saw the construction of a great number of early Christian monuments. from Pompeii represents an upper-class Roman house with two courtyards and a garden in a city of one. an image of the cosmos.Introduction xxxiii derived from a ﬁfteen-story statue near the amphitheater. the House of the Faun. sometimes ﬁlling an entire block. Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity. with sports ﬁelds surrounding the mass of the bathing establishment. In third-century Rome. South of the walls of Rome. Hadrian’s Villa (125–135 ce) was the development of an imperial villa on an immense scale that was inspired by reminiscences of places he had seen in his travels as emperor. were a proud symbol for the Romans. With Christianity came a total rupture with the Roman pagan tradition of numerous gods “residing” in a temple. Saint Paul’s Basilica. which was founded in 386 by Emperor Valentinian II . Christians had no speciﬁc buildings constructed for their rites. typical of both Rome and Ostia.” based on the Roman basilica. sometimes on the same site.
typically demarcated by vertical supports). Architectural creativity in Ravenna was expanded in the construction of the church of San Vitale. To memorialize martyrs and important religious ﬁgures and events. and there was a tendency toward a more rational division into bays (units of building. erected after the sack of Rome by Aleric in 414.. This typology became standard for Christian architecture and was modiﬁed mostly through foreign inﬂuences. a circular building that was constructed around the tomb of the daughter of Constantine (although she was never a martyr) is characteristic of these martyria. Baptisteries were also built on a central plan: the Baptistery of the Orthodox. Resistance to that modiﬁcation was strong. and a vaulted apse terminating the nave. and the Arian Baptistery (c. present-day Istanbul). had ﬁve aisles (a central nave and two aisles and each side of it) while others had only three (e. played a great role in the sixth century. and the harbor church of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. They represent the court of the Eastern Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. buildings became more stable. slowly. Large bays open onto an ambulatory around an octagonal space from which opens a choir splendidly decorated with mosaics that cover all surfaces and comprise a unique decorative scheme. but these developments were partial and incomplete. The Mausoleum of Constantina (337–350) in Rome. Some of the basilican churches there (the cathedral). who died in 526. A kind of regionalism distinguished Italian churches of one area from those of another during the Romanesque period. like Saint Paul’s in Rome. San Giovanni Evangelista. 425. remains as a well-proportioned and carefully decorated example from the ﬁfth century. the cathedral baptistery (ﬁrst quarter of the ﬁfth century). mother of Emperor Valentinian III and a circular one for Theodoric. started in 526. wood trusses supporting a roof and a wood ceiling. Ravenna. 519. Rome). San Vitale’s mosaics are especially interesting since so much of the mosaic decoration in Constantinople was destroyed during the so-called Iconoclastic Controversy (the war against images).g. These mosaics are related to the art of Byzantium (Constantinople. centrally planned buildings (buildings symmetrical around at least two axes and focused on the center of the plan) were erected. 549). The church of Santa Sabina.xxxiv Introduction and ﬁnished around 440. Ravenna) and the centralized rotunda (Mausoleum of Constantina. 500). became the model of the Christian basilica: a central nave with two aisles on each side. which became the capital of the Western Roman Empire when it was divided in two. A cruciform mausoleum was built for Galla Placidia. . Romanesque Architecture (800–1250) Early Christian architecture is characterized by two main building types: the rectangular basilica (Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo.
All the architecture of Sicily bathes in the brilliant sunshine. types of contractors or master builders. canals. Trained by a guild in Como. in effect proto-architects called Maestri Comacini (or Magistri Comacini) were able to introduce and spread a speciﬁc style of architecture. typical of the Eastern taste for gardens. Strong maritime and trade connections with the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire explain why and how the Venetians could borrow from Byzantine churches such as Saint John the Evangelist at Ephesus (now in Turkey). Byzantine. Lavish residences like la Zisa and la Cuba in Palermo (built before 1180). from 1089 to 1098 with later embellishment after 1132) along the coastline to Molfetta. Churches such as the cathedral of Cefalù (1131–1148 and later) or the Palatine Chapel in the Norman Palace at Palermo (1130–1140) express a total synthesis of the Byzantine and Fatimid with the Western (Norman and Cluniac). In Sicily.” which included Naples and Apulia. in the vicinity of Palermo (1174–1182). extending from Bari (San Nicolas. and Como. exist in Apulia in large numbers. and Barletta. which was begun nearly two centuries later (1231) and contains a cross of six domes—the nave is longer than the transepts (the side arms of the cross) and so has two domes instead of one. was inserted between the choir and the place reserved for . A “schola cantorum. “the two Sicilies. but here the styles are in pure juxtaposition. therefore. became a place of conﬂicting interests and inﬂuences. and basins. These “Gallic” masons excelled in wall construction but were less able in vaulting.Introduction xxxv In Lombardy. and Norman architecture mixed in a surprising and fruitful complexity.” with desks for scriptural readings and seats for the canonical ofﬁce (dating from 872). 359). In Rome. Early Christian architecture continued to exert a powerful inﬂuence and to limit the spatial imagination of architects to simple basilicas. must be the “climax of Sicilian Romanesque architecture” (Conant 1974. and the celebrant ofﬁciates facing the worshippers. A region that had been dominated by the Eastern Roman Empire and by Muslims was conquered by bands of soldiers from Normandy (in France) at the same time the Normans crossed the channel to conquer England (1046–1066). Norman churches. Byzantine architects and craftsmen were largely responsible for the Basilica of San Marco in Venice (1064–1094). Muslims supplied the conventions for court architecture. which is successful for the decoration but contributes little to structural innovation. Muslim. In southern Italy. Verona. 354). combined bold vaulting techniques with a splendid arrangement of fountains. they were responsible for the signiﬁcance of the several churches they built between 815 and 1000 in Milan. The “cross of domes” (ﬁve domes on a Greek cross plan) of San Marco had no successors in Italy except the church of Saint Anthony in Padua (Il Santo). in northern Italy. stalactite ceilings are paired with Byzantine mosaics in a spatial arrangement typical of the Normans. “glowing with warmth” (Conant 1974. Monreale Cathedral. the rebuilding of San Clemente (ﬁnished in 1130) repeats the Constantinian character of the ﬁfth-century church. In the Palatine Chapel. A baldacchino (a canopy-like structure) covers the altar. Trani.
this process of rationalizing the plan did not proceed in chronological order. Gothic Architecture (1200–1480) Italians developed their own national Gothic styles in the fourteenth century. They were also open to liturgical changes and thus to a form of church inspired by French Gothic builders. In Florence. but a wooden ceiling covers the main central vessel of the nave. The centralized type of plan ﬂourished in baptisteries. Previously. the baptistery of San Giovanni (consecrated in 1059) is a strict octagonal building. Vaults were added in Modena much later in 1437–1446. San Zeno Maggiore in Verona (main parts built 1123–1135) was less progressive in that respect than the cathedral of Modena (started 1099) or even the church of San Ambrogio in Milan (started in 1080). monasteries like Fossanova or Casamari (both south of Rome) borrowed the French way of building with pointed arches from the Cistercian order between 1187 and 1203. in Assisi (1228. With the addition of the great Pisan belfry (the Leaning Tower). which resembles the early Christian prototypes except for the choir. It mixes genuine . the group of three buildings in Pisa revived the classical theme of the Roman Forum in a sort of sanctiﬁed landscape. Pisa Cathedral combined three basilicas. and San Ambrogio was vaulted only around 1117. no personal belongings—such as the Grey Friars (Franciscans) and Black Friars (Dominicans). Dividing the nave into square bays and the side aisles into squares a quarter as large offered a decisive advance in regularity. whose foundations were erected on a Late Antique building. two of them forming the transepts. are groinvaulted. A confusing process of dividing a basilica into bays had been started in northern Italy in the Po Valley. The great circular Pisa Baptistry (1152–1265) next to the cathedral supports a conical central vault with a double ring of galleries. An example of this new type of Gothic church is Saint Francesco. there is no vault in Verona. doubled in the nave. However. The vaulting of these churches came later. Regular bay division was unlikely to have been planned in Verona. at the beginning at least. which retains its religious consecration. The Parmese sculptor Antelami expressed the pride for such monumental baptisteries by recalling the time when the bishop used to baptize numerous catechumens there at Easter. desired a more public-oriented worship than the older orders. Parma (1196) positioned its baptistery to the southwest of its cathedral.xxxvi Introduction worshippers in the nave. the arms of the cross plan. ﬁnished around 1253). The new mendicant orders—those that relied on charity and whose members had. but it was consistent in Modena and even more consistent in Milan. which was raised on a crypt. The victory of the Pisans over the Saracens brought a period of prosperity to Pisa. The aisles. This strong tradition of moving the altar forward explains the splendid Romanesque church of San Miniato in Florence (ﬁnished in 1062).
increased the size of Arnolfo’s plan. “Gothic”) ideas as opposed to continuing a tradition inﬂuenced by Roman antiquity. Florence. French mastermasons. which was begun in 1386. beginning a construction period that would last 150 years. Ribbed groin vaults in Florence Cathedral. were Gothic as were the overall dimensions. The Anjou dynasty. For comparison. with its typical ambulatory (a corridor around the choir) and seven chapels. but revised them according to local values and styles that were based on Roman and Early Christian traditions. The façade of Orvieto’s cathedral gave an open expression to religious faith that was instructive and interesting for the majority of the population. 213). but the proportions of the church were classical. They could borrow individual elements. He started the building in 1296. a large brick model was made that all future builders had to respect. Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore) typiﬁes Italians’ hesitations about the Gothic style.Introduction xxxvii French Gothic features with essentially solid walls that look Romanesque and were ready to be covered by frescoes. The debates surrounding its construction offer good insights into the way Gothic builders planned their churches. Milan Cathedral. They also added the choir to San Lorenzo Maggiore. held important positions in the area around Naples. where French builders erected important churches. Orvieto after 1279 was typical of these states in its strong opposition to “modern” (i.e. “not to purer Gothic style. As Frankl and Crossley wrote. creating large square bays sixty-three feet long. Talenti’s decision had led. all of which were designed in the French Gothic manner. or Siena had was based on the celebration of political virtue and on a civic ﬁght for self-government. until Brunelleschi completed its dome. it achieved its splendor by a revetment of mosaics. a group of the best-trained German (or Czech) master builders. in 1355. Using every possible means of expression. and local designers argued about every aspect of the church. As an expression of civic pride. This resulted in a most “ungothic” church. the architect Arnolfo di Cambio wanted to build a cathedral large enough for 30. the bays of Amiens Cathedral.. When cities such as Bologna and Milan were the patrons of cathedrals. Francesco Talenti.000 worshippers. The sense of independence that free. are only twenty-ﬁve feet long. whose origins were French. they tended to commission overly large churches that took centuries to ﬁnish because of the expense. one of the largest Gothic churches in France.” but to the Brunelleschian Renaissance (Frankl and Crossley 2000. The church would defer to Roman antiquity. Parallels can be drawn between the cathedral façade of Orvieto and Siena (constructed at the beginning of the fourteenth century). Brunelleschi’s dome was designed ﬁfty years before he took command of its construction. communal states such as Orvieto. was still incomplete in 1572. Some of them lacked . and in 1368. with two pointed arches crossing in the middle of a bay. In effect. such as the one for the Clarissan order (1313–1340). An intense debate that took place in 1366–1367 altered the cathedral’s future.
The Renaissance. from the twelfth to the ﬁfteenth centuries. the new painting approach of Masaccio (1401– 1427/1429) or Piero della Francesca (c. with Saint Mark’s Basilica giving it a Byzantine look before 1500. but its mass towers above the city and indicates disarray in the Franciscans’ precepts of modesty and poverty. 1410–1492). As at Siena. a Grey Friars’ church (1326–1475). and the kinds of sculpture being created by Donatello (c. Taking its inspiration from the Doge’s Palace.xxxviii Introduction experience. The Ca d’Oro shows the evolution of the merchant’s house from San Gimignano to Venice. such as the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence and the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena. which overlooks the Piazza del Campo. Siena. Although they never called it the Renaissance. a new way of representing depth in art called “central linear perspective. starting in the twelfth century. San Francesco at Siena. is unusual. There were precedents for the new architecture of Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446). some of them of outstanding beauty. the overall geometric form and the structure of the cathedral were covered by superﬁcial decoration. in part the result of the reﬂection of colors from the surface of the canal water. the Grand Canal façade of the Ca d’Oro (1424–1437) gives a sense of ﬂuctuating chromaticism.” . it is simple. but all the Renaissance artists participated in a revolution in vision. making reasonable (and practical) choices difﬁcult. The case of Venice. Battles for a relatively democratic government versus aristocratic power endangered these towers. These towers and those of Perugia created a sort of skyscraper skyline. 1386–1466). It helps us to understand the visual miracle of Venice. Saint Mark’s Square. in urban planning schemes in Perugia. rather than aristocratic privilege. Its civic piazza. about 1420. In form. the “Carolingian renaissance” (ninth century) and the Italian trecento (fourteenth century) renaissance that revolved around Giotto and Petrarch. and daring municipal seats of government were built. Groups of merchants in prosperous cities demonstrated their ﬁnancial success with tower houses (Casa Torre. San Gimignano). Civil rights. or in Florence. Studying Italian medieval cities gives new insights into the changing concepts of the city. for example. artists in Florence between 1420 and 1440 felt that a great change was taking place in art. this change had a long preparation. which pushed the debates to an abstract level of theory. the origin of which they found in Florence. had to be defended by the commune as. The concept of progress could also be applied to other periods. was conceived as a protest against such a luxury. for example. a city literally married to the sea. was progressively planned. the New Architectural Manner (1420–1520) Implicit in their choice of the word Renaissance (French for “rebirth”) by nineteenth-century scholars is their conviction of the idea of progress in art. Of course.
Encouraged by his colleagues.Introduction xxxix Perspective drawings do not express the symbolic importance of bodies. but rather looked at. and domes and other vaults—he built early examples of the new architecture in Florence from 1419 to the end of his life in 1446. The architect was no longer the builder. Their change of vision can be compared with that of the Cubist painters in the early twentieth century. and the builder had no choice but to execute that design. Faced by a difﬁcult situation caused by the decisions described earlier in the Introduction. pediments. He saw Late Gothic builders as confused. Brunelleschi emerged from a group of artists as the assured technical master for the construction of one of the largest domes ever built. Rather. The sacristy and church of San Lorenzo. by an anthem composed by Guillaume Dufay. In both cases. but rather their location in space as perceived by the human eye. a group of sculptors and painters in Florence. and the . and he thought that architectural clarity and renewal could come only from a careful study of classical antiquity. Florentines were convinced that a radical renewal of all forms of art was taking place. Brunelleschi was involved in the quest to develop central linear perspective. and under it at the same time. The Cubists no longer looked at an object from one stationary point of view like the Renaissance artists. but they lacked the technical experiments and mathematical background of Brunelleschi and his colleagues. architectural concepts had to change with new ways of seeing. and mortar to the dome. Similar changes occurred in all ﬁelds of expression. a situation clearly visible in the debates about Milan Cathedral. or the carpenter. Using the perspective techniques he developed to document antique references— columns. He had to develop new machines and kinds of elevators and cranes to carry the stone. The architect’s only responsibility became the design of the building. bricks. but rather the one who designed a project and was able to communicate his intentions through a detailed description in drawings on paper. The “rebirth” of architecture was accompanied in Florence by the birth of a new profession. for example. as was the case with medieval art in which relative size indicated importance. there was no medieval precedent for Brunelleschi to examine. including music. Spanning 138 feet and rising to 285 feet above the ground (about the height of a twenty-ﬁve-story skyscraper). Late medieval painters had been experimenting with this “accurate” visual representation. the church of Santo Spirito. Strong opposition to his ideas and techniques pushed him to battle forcefully and to exert his preeminence as an architect. above. the Renaissance and the Cubist periods. 1436). Brunelleschi’s triumph in constructing the Florence Cathedral Dome was celebrated. The erection of the dome of Florence Cathedral (1420–1436) tells the story of the rising prestige and personality of the architect. a Belgian chapel-master (March 25. the mason. he was inspired by the careful study of ancient domes. around. Renaissance people in Florence between 1420 and 1440 had to face the same problems of seeing things in a new way that we face with art after the Cubist painters.
and wanting to expound the ideas of architecture and perspective. Both Vitruvius and Alberti’s books explain what is meant by architecture. He often abandoned supervision of construction to assistants. a competent scholar.” a mercenary commander. Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472). For the next ﬁve centuries. but he cared more for the ideas behind the design than for their execution with which he was impatient. was written between 1447 and 1452 and presented to the humanist pope Nicolas V. a man of incredible talents and capacities. Ferrara’s expansion (1492–1516). His Ducal Palace (1444–1482). they would be central to discussions of architectural thought and practice. a central-plan church in Mantua (San Sebastiano. what its goals are. Urbino (a hill city. on accommodating social uses and functions (called “commoditas”). Architecture should bring harmony (called “concinnitas”) and rely on proper building techniques. . which tripled the surface of the medieval city. Ferrara (on the Po River). Alberti’s book. celebration of the city. a city within the city. and intellectual brilliance. The ancient orders were based on those formal proportions and offered a means to achieve beauty. and how they are to be achieved. who ruled Urbino. Federico was able to transform his small capital city of Urbino into a sort of ideal city that represented his goals for government. between 1460 and 1550. It was written by the ancient Roman Vitruvius during the ﬁrst century bce and its contents had been largely forgotten outside of monasteries. not far from the Adriatic coast). responded to the military demands in a period of instability throughout Italy. Alberti died in 1472. He decided ﬁrst to comment on a book that had been found in 1414 in the abbey of Saint Gall. Alberti experimented with these concepts. was the archetypal humanist leader of the period. the plan of Piazza Pio II in Pienza (1459–1462) for Pope Pius II. is the main example of urban design based on the new building types already deﬁned in Florence for the palazzo and churches. started in 1471 and never ﬁnished). Alberti then decided to write a book giving his own “model of thinking” on architecture.xl Introduction Pazzi Chapel were demonstrations of a three-dimensional application of his theories and set new standards of church design. His activity as a “condotierre. and two churches based on ancient Roman buildings (Sant’ Andrea in Mantua and the rotunda of Santissima Annunziata in Florence. De Re Aediﬁcatoria. how it should be considered. and Mantua. Mantua was. started 1459 and never ﬁnished). Switzerland. was involved in a double task of renewing antiquity. and above all communicate a sense of beauty based on good proportions. demonstrated not only more care for the interiors than the exterior but also an amazing sense of relation with the mountainous landscape all around. Prince Frederico di Montefeltro. In addition to Brunelleschi. and a lover of art. But he was also a political leader. based on this ancient work. what we call architectural theory today. The outstanding examples of Alberti’s ideas are the Malatesta Temple in Rimini (1450–1468). Good proportions reﬂect the basic order of the universe. The new architectural manner spread to different humanist centers such as Pienza (in southern Tuscany).
or piazza. Julius commissioned Bramante to design a new Saint Peter’s Basilica to be the largest church in the world (1505–1514) and to expand the Vatican palace through the 900-footlong Belvedere Courtyard. he combined four orders in a composition of columns. The French army’s occupation of Milan on September 6. and entablatures in one of the most splendid Renaissance achievements. building types. the basilica. who had selected the name of Julius to be compared to Julius Cesar. For this building. Between 1500 and 1504. for example in Lombardy. 1490). Giulio Romano. changed the future of architecture. and with a large forum-like piazza in Vigevano (Piazza Ducale. However. in northern Italy. A period of perfect works of art and architecture known as the High Renaissance suddenly came into existence. A sense of space and an accurate archaeological basis for details. using the strictest proportional rules accepted by Renaissance theorists. Along with Bramante and other architects. Their tremendous work on the central-plan church. 1499. people such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Donato Bramante (1444–1514) were strong advocates. Raphael (1483–1520). Milan. including Peruzzi. Local resistance. Sansovino. he built for Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. he was involved in the immense cathedral of Pavia (started in 1488 but largely incomplete). centered in Rome from 1500 to 1525. was slowing the spread of this new architecture. and the urban square. arches. and his favorite and successor. treated as a forum prepared the way for the second part of Renaissance architecture. ornament. and later. It was to combine a “forum. The discussions and intense arguments that developed within the studio raised the level of the architecture it produced. which was considered to be too intellectual and sometimes too difﬁcult to understand. for the remainder of his life (until 1514). who used his painting to open the walls and vault in the Camera degli Sposi (1471–1476). He thought of himself as the heir of the Roman emperors and wanted to reestablish Rome as a world capital. pilasters. His design for the Piazza Ducale in Vigevano and the plan of antique . the Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. who was fond of art and antiques. Bramante took refuge in Rome where.” a theater. Bramante’s greatest opportunity came from Pope Julius II (1503–1513).Introduction xli the leading center of humanist design. and a garden. the talented Mannerist Giulio Romano (from 1525 to 1550). or “grand. Bramante experimented with the connection between a dome and a barrel-vaulted nave in Santa Maria delle Grazie. In the two levels of the square cloister. as it had been in antiquity. with activity by Alberti. Leonardo da Vinci explored the central-plan church in his manuscripts (c.” manner. the painter Mantegna (1431–1506). even there. Bramante created a “studio” of his former assistants in Milan and gifted young Roman architects. an enormous octagonal dome was combined with a basilican church deriving from Brunelleschi’s Santo Spirito in Florence. and painted decoration were all included in a comprehensive manner. from 1492). after 1492. he used his early experiments in Lombardy around Milan as the basis from which he developed his mature.
but at the same time. and Bramante’s projects for Saint Peter’s and the Belvedere Court (which was much altered by Pope Sixtus V) had to wait ninety years to be ﬁnished.” Mannerism (called “maniera” in Italian) aimed at difﬁculty. or passion. For the church of Santa Maria della Consolazione (begun in 1508–1509) at Todi. and the creativity in Bramante and Raphael’s studio. contrasted sharply with the political disillusionment of the period. All of them had to develop a new manner of working.” or for what seemed stylish. In 1517. as a new behavior. especially in the studios of Bramante and Raphael. They stopped trusting the rules adopted by Renaissance architects and felt that all aspects of art should be open for discussion. Architects during the most brilliant Roman architectural period of the Renaissance had to confront difﬁcult questions. they responded to individual inspiration and began to trust their imagination. In its simplicity. it refers to designs by da Vinci. ostentation. They wanted to get to basics: What is a window? What is a column? Is there any need for regularity? What does spontaneity mean? Giulio Pippi was called Giulio . thus a “manner. Bramante was able to realize a centralized plan. however. They were looking for a “style. Mannerism or the Crisis of the Renaissance (1520–1630) After the period of intense architectural renewal called the High Renaissance. self-control was required as well as a sense of nonchalance conceived as a special quality that was called in Italian “sprezattura. Most of them had to confront rebellion. that a time of crisis was not far ahead. Although they were two different and distinct personalities. ruined all hopes of artistic supremacy in a city that shortly before was convinced it was to be the leader of the world. The Reformation demanded their dismissal. The capacity to imagine and build. they had to face isolation. architects at the turn of the sixteenth century in Rome became so self-assertive. and instead of working together and debating in a collective studio. and the heavy destruction in Rome showed the illusoriness of the foundations of the previous optimism. the Sack of Rome by the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. more than he could achieve. Bramante perhaps attempted too much. Most of the Roman architects had to ﬁnd refuge elsewhere. 1528). but also the aristocrat as described by Castiglione in his book Cortegiano (The Courtier. Gulio Pippi (1482–1546) and Michelangelo (1475–1564) are typical of the Mannerist approach.xlii Introduction Roman circuses (places to run horses) helped Bramante and his studio to formulate its design. Financial and political problems were not in Julius’s favor. Abandoning working as a group.” These attitudes deﬁne the Mannerist artist. The lives and goals of artists were endangered. the papacy was confronted with the beginnings of Martin Luther’s Reformation and the political uncertainty following it. A rage to create (called “terribilita”) transformed their mentality. In May 1527. This was a violent setback for the power of the popes.
he reorganized the court theater. Court ceremonies in honor of the Medici princes afﬁrmed the grand duke’s absolutist power. Michelangelo’s destiny was a continuous battle between two opposed elements: self-doubt and a strong desire to create. The strictness of the plan offered a base for the imaginative play of water features. the trapezoidal shape of the piazza in the Campidoglio. and even the dome of Saint Peter’s. He was the ﬁrst to escape Rome in 1524 when he went to Mantua. which was started in 1547 but only ﬁnished by Giacomo della Porta in 1590. The arrangement of the gardens and the palazzina above the palace showed the same formal rigidity in the gardens of Villa Lante in Bagnaia. or garden. impossible to complete. Michelangelo acted as a sculptor. landscape. As an architect. which Vignola created around 1560–1600. an opportunity to express the difﬁculty of bringing order to a disorganized building. incorporating triangles for the piazza. he affected occult and bizarre attitudes. and the suburban Palazzo del Te. Relations with political or ecclesiastical powers offered. Responding to great artistic demands. He was always questioning. Inspired by Michelangelo. sometimes stressing disharmony and unbalanced combinations. Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) brought order to the medieval Palazzo Vecchio. Florence. Architects like Bernardo Buontalenti (1523–1608) were also involved in Medici gloriﬁcation. One fought against the other as if neither could win. The scope of these three monuments expresses the unusual capacities of Michelangelo and to understand them will require a discussion of their constituent elements: the problem of column and wall in the Laurentian Library. by contrast. With his antinatural strategy. Vignola (1507– 1573) changed the plan of the town and villa at Caprarola for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese the Younger. he destroyed his sketches to eliminate evidence of the pain of creation. improved gardens. the connection between the dome and the body of the church at Saint Peter’s. the cathedral. the Capitoline Hill (Piazza del Campidoglio. His language could be compared with the open creativity of Elizabethan poetry in England by its intemperance and its grammatical errors. 1538–1655). His bureaucracy required new ofﬁces—the Ufﬁzi— which were created on both sides of a new street that opened onto the Arno River. believing in the plastic qualities of masses and on powerful gestures. As a stage designer. He used Bramante’s architectural principles in a provocative way. He transformed a rugged site by his obsession with the geometry of a pentagonal palace. squares in the gardens. As a sculptor.500-foot-long straight street carried on bridges to organize the town. performing “intermezzi” that used a system of stage . and a 2. many of his works remain unﬁnished. For a cynical and libertine court. He rebuilt villas (villa Petraia). None of his buildings was ﬁnished at his death: the Laurentian Library in Florence (1524–1559). Buontalenti provided a ﬂexible staircase to reach the altar of Santa Trinita (today in Santo Stefano). city.Introduction xliii Romano because he was born and educated in Rome. he recreated a studio there to work mainly on the duke’s urban palace. and added a grotto to the famous Boboli gardens in Florence. in Bramante and Raphael’s studio. In Florence.
discovered him and renamed him Palladio in 1538 because of his architectural talent. he presented a selection of his own works to show how they could be models to be imitated or adapted to different cultural areas. Giangiorgio Trissino. scattered on the mainland across from Venice. but he was a man of worldwide importance.xliv Introduction mechanics that had a strong inﬂuence on the British architect Inigo Jones (1573–1652) who designed sets for King Charles I. the openness of the villa toward the landscape. Palladio’s world reputation is ultimately based on his The Four Books of Architecture. Monticello. both in Poland and Russia. and over the country. A process of “variation on a theme” connected Palladio’s villa designs with music theory. Rural residences combined a villa for the owner with all the facilities necessary for working a large agricultural estate and storing the produce. Jefferson was also remembering the elusive charm of the seventeenth-century landscape paintings of Claude Lorrain. Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) would appear to have been only a provincial architect since he built only in Venice and the Vicenza area. He accompanied Trissino to Rome. was of strict Palladian ancestry. In the end. a cultivated amateur architect who became president of the United States in 1801. Musical rules of proportion. . With the help of Benjamin Latrobe. He also designed about eighteen palaces in the cities of Vicenza and Verona and in smaller towns as well as major churches in Venice. Starting with the knowledge he had developed through the study of ancient principles and buildings. The main interest for Vicenza’s aristocrats was to improve their domination over both the city. Palladio was involved in all the important problems of Renaissance architecture. He was also imitated in eastern Europe. which was well developed in Venice. discussing intellectual matters with him and making measured drawings of ancient buildings. the famous home of Thomas Jefferson. Here the landscape became the dominant feature of the columned pavilions facing the Rotunda. In 1556. He came from modest origins. In eighteenth-century England. Palladio’s designs inspired many aristocratic villas scattered on a new landscape of picturesque gardens. He also copied some of Bramante’s original documents. An aristocrat. he provided the illustrations for Daniele Barbaro’s translation of and commentary on Vitruvius’s ﬁrst-century-bce book on architecture. and the use of columned temple-front porches clearly identify Palladio’s villa architecture. Organizing the villa and “barchesse” (dependencies) became a simple exercise in varying schematic building arrangements. and his book convinced American settlers to build Palladian villas surrounded by the ﬂourishing nature of the New World. where they had their own palaces. especially around Vicenza. which was ﬁrst published in 1570. The estate was designed to facilitate irrigation of the croplands and transportation of goods by canals with a comprehensive organization of poplar hedges and vineyards. originally a simple mason called Andrea di Pietro della Gondola. Jefferson used Palladian principles to incorporate a large “villa” and dependencies in his design for the University of Virginia at Charlottesville (1817–1826). Palladio designed more than thirty villas.
a group of fascinating creators happened to be born at the very end of sixteenth century: the painter and architect Pietro da Cortona (1594–1669). Rome. It was generally accepted that Renaissance art lost its strength in the seventeenth century.Introduction xlv Baroque Architecture (1630–1770) The term “baroque” was originally used to describe a period considered to be artistically decadent. and artistic goals.” the image of the city of Rome. Although this sort of historical process can be difﬁcult. Baroque was a frame of mind. Baroque architects transformed the image of the city. the Baroque can only be understood as an expression of the Catholic Reformation. and the most imaginative architect of them all. Francesco Borromini (1599–1667). which became the model for all capital cities. an age to be thought of with disgust. both of them known for their powerful grasp of their ofﬁce and as architectural dilettanti. renewed the “imago urbis. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598–1680). being itself the caput mundi. an evolution of art from a formative period of great classical beauty to Baroque decadence seemed oversimpliﬁed. Italian Baroque art and architecture is sometimes difﬁcult for American Protestants to grasp. especially around Naples. on the contrary. However. it is the only way to grasp more profoundly the mental attitudes of the time. with the help of others. and Turin. To obey certain artistic rules. Around them. “Baroque” could be used to describe parts of all sorts of historical periods: Roman Imperial architecture was baroque as was Perpendicular Gothic in England and Flamboyant Gothic in France. as had been the case in the Renaissance. has a “soft” Baroque in comparison to Italy. the sculptor who combined all sorts of talents. the head of the civilized world. Bernini’s designs for Saint Peter’s Colonnade and Piazza in Rome (1656–1667) . All of them. morals. For a deeper understanding of the Baroque world. was the reigns of Urban VIII (1623– 1644) and Alexander VII (1655–1667). A Baroque design never destroys. intimate parts. However. for instance. connected to political attitudes. that was more or less convincing in different countries. If the capital city of Baroque is taken to be Rome. whether in its totality or in hidden. Baroque urban design conveys a thorough sympathy for the city in its monumental or residential areas. personal opinions should be temporarily left behind in an attempt to understand the thinking of seventeenth-century opinion makers. Baroque spread to Protestant countries such as northern Germany (Dresden). Most scholars before 1930 did not hesitate to consider the period a childish caricature of an exhausted art form that was focused on artistic ugliness. The high point of the renewed power of the popes in Rome. the Netherlands. was considered timid behavior when compared with the creative boldness and artistic contestation called Baroque. France. when artistic decay set in. which led them to artistic domination. and scholars reached the point where antipathy toward the seventeenth century became weaker. it helps to reveal all the potential of the city. and England (Wren’s churches) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
which was ﬁnished by his nephew in 1676. Three examples have been selected for this book to discuss “bel composto. was able to lighten—in two senses—the structure of a building. demonstrate the outstanding complexity of the term. ﬁnished in 1762) uses Bernini’s sculptural conceptions to create a huge fountain in an opera-like plaza.” it is based on the shifting among three arts: painting disappears into sculpture and sculpture disappears into architecture to produce a “montage.” creating a characteristically Baroque undulating movement. Naples). Guarini’s admirer and follower. Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale (1659–1670). All the intermediate positions are stressed. Gardens. Behind the capacity to change the city. it revealed more connections not only with perspective but also with discoveries in seventeenth-century optics and mathematics. Ferdinando Sanfelice (1675–1748) used a new sense of scenography— theatrical set design—in his own residence. Refusing to separate painting. Turin. The same scenography explains the charm of the ten steep terraces of the Isola Bella Gardens (1650–1690). was the work of a gifted mathematician.xlvi Introduction celebrate the union of the city with the church of Saint Peter. and the extensive religious propaganda organized by the Roman Catholic Church needs to be explained. Nicolo Salvi’s world-famous Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732–1751. a more complex attitude deﬁnes the Roman Baroque. and architecture. Bernardo Vittone (1702–1770). the façade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1664–1667). Vittone led the way. and monuments all could be touched by Baroque imagination and sparkle with beauty.” a synthesis of the arts.” Incorrectly translated as “a beautiful whole. Psychological and spiritual reactions of Baroque worshippers must be taken into account. as he did in the Confraternity of San Bernardino in Chieri (1740–1744). followed by Alessandro Antonelli a century later in Novara. behind scientiﬁc approaches to change art. Borromini’s last work. is an intermediate space that links a monument (the church) to the public space (the borgo and streets surrounding it). As the Baroque style spread northward to Piedmont. is “urbanely active. Remodeling a city also meant a capacity to transform the urban fabric. a reader of Sir Isaac Newton and his concept of integral calculus. residences. the Chapel of the Holy Shroud. . surrounded by its great colonnade. sculpture. as in the Garzoni Gardens in Collodi. squares. 1841–1878).” The interior of Borromini’s San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638–1641) introduces certain aspects. and his church of Jesuit novitiates in Rome. The large oval piazza. playing with intricacies and surprises (Palazzo Sanfelice. but Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa in the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria (1647–1652). In Naples. Guarino Guarini’s (1624–1680) Santissima Sindone. “Eyes” of light and little cells of space between structural ribs brought luminescence to a church as if blind matter had been removed. looking as if they were a long boat at anchor in Lake Maggiore (1631–1671) in northern Italy. where he started what would become a “brick Eiffel Tower” of 327 feet (the dome of the church of San Gaudenzio. Baroque artists such as Bernini started a process called “bel composto.
Introduction xlvii The church became a place to see the invisible and spiritual. A discussion of the rise of opera in the seventeenth century would help to explain Baroque strategies. Longhena (1598–1682) created the double-dome silhouette of the church of Santa Maria della Salute on the edge of the Grand Canal. and poetry.000 inhabitants and six others with 50. Except for Sardinia and Sicily. In 1789. to an unusually advanced position in art. after 1715. Like Baroque opera. Baroque architecture combines all works of art. the Neoclassical and Eclectic period that follows requires a different approach to understand its importance. sound. and innovation in domestic architecture took precedence over monuments and monumental urban compositions. on a hill towering above Turin. Changes in taste in the second part of the eighteenth century reduced the dominance of the Baroque but could not suppress it. the creation of new urban circulation patterns. including movements of laicization. whether one was Protestant or Catholic. he was constantly involved. Neoclassical and Eclectic (1770–1900) After the architectural excitement of Italian Baroque.000 to 100. He was inspired by Palladio’s neighboring churches of Il Redentore and San Giorgio Maggiore from the previous century. both Baroque and Enlightenment architecture can be associated with great creativity. Urban growth meant that the creation of new buildings to house contemporary activities. Venice and Turin embraced new attitudes and developed a novel sense of urban or landscape scenery. Italy was partly uniﬁed for nine years (1805–1814) through the Napoleonic conquest. especially during the French Revolution at the end of the eighteenth century and in Italy during the Napoleonic occupation at the beginning of the nineteenth century. A Kingdom of Italy. Philippo Juvarra (1678–1736) was able to combine a variety of Baroque inventions with the sense of the beauty of French geometrical gardens in offering a dialogue between architecture and rearranged nature. In Italy. the Roman Catholic Church suffered a series of setbacks. Working on two other royal residences. During this period. as well as on the basilica of the Superga. for the Royal Hunting Lodge. Large cities suggest the strength of Italy. In Stupinigi. The French Empire extended as far as Rome. the castle of Rivoli and the castle and stables of Venaria Reale. The drive to combine the arts to represent a spiritual state pushed all the Baroque architects. with an extensive organization of the landscape. Italy had six cities with more than 100. which combines scenography. not just Bernini.000 inhabitants. more than a place of physical presence. Prosperity in the late eighteenth century reinforced the power of the middle class and reduced that of the church. with its capital in Milan. but the return to the rules of classical art and a new aesthetic sense that involved both simpliﬁcation and economy opened a period called Neoclassicism after 1770. The same sense of illusion applies. and a Kingdom .
designed the most famous of lyric theaters in Italy.xlviii Introduction of Naples advanced the ideals of liberty against the conservative feudal tradition. Situated at a main crossroads of the city. It was ﬁnished in 1831. in 1793. his plans were begun only in 1820 and included ramps and carriageways leading to the Pincio Gardens on top of the hill above the square. inspired. Developments in urban design included the insertion of regular monumental piazzas. libraries. di Nobile’s church resembling the Pantheon. theaters. Giuseppe Piermarini (1734–1808). laid out between 1805 and 1807 and completed late in 1824 by Luigi Canonica (1764–1844) still survives. mostly on the edge of the ancient cities. partly Neoclassical. as might be expected. a mixture of styles: partly Egyptian. the Foro was renamed Ferdinando for Ferdinand I. Pietro Camporese. entertainments. Sant’ Antonio Nuovo (1825–1849). In Milan. and Raffaello Stern designed impressive new neoclassical galleries to house the Vatican’s collection of antiquities. Approved in 1813. administrative seats. In Rome. The reestablishment of former monarchies after 1814 did not interrupt a long process of architectural evolution. King of the Two Sicilies. next to the royal palace and opening to the grand view of the Gulf of Naples. Antolini (1753–1841) designed the Foro Buonaparte at the scale of ancient Roman precedents. Along with the changes in society came new types of buildings. architects Michelangelo Simonetti. A rotunda preceded by a Roman temple front was the ultimate reference both for Fernando Bonsignore’s Church of the Gran Madre de Dio in Turin (planned in 1818 and begun in 1827. by the Roman Pantheon. With the change in aesthetic sense and scholarly analysis of ancient Roman architecture. see Piazza Vittorio Veneto) and for the mausoleum of the famous sculptor Antonio Canova in Possagno (Veneto. Trieste improved its Grand Canal in 1756 with P. 1819–1833). who controlled all the architecture in Milan. Giuseppe Valadier proposed. In Naples. the Teatro alla Scala (1776–1778). and places for public entertainment. Giuseppe Jappelli (1783–1852). . and leisure promenades came from decisions handed down by the French administration. a dynastic chapel was built. His Caffè Pedrocchi in Padua (1826– 1842) was a place of social intercourse and entertainment that took the place of monuments (churches. and partly Gothic. a grand plan for the Piazza del Popolo. a brilliant creator. so that the Neoclassical period extended without interruption into the late 1850s. the Arena. the Pantheon of Rome became a fashionable prototype. From 1755 to 1822. changed the spirit and the traditional meaning of a monument. that is. The process of changing the preference for the kind of place for holding social activities. palaces) in a country involved in its ﬁght for political uniﬁcation. The Theater of San Carlo in Naples was extended with a new façade in 1810 and entirely rebuilt after it burned 1816 by Antonio Niccolini (1772–1850). public-spirited projects were planned in 1801. including museums. When the Bourbon king returned. its impressive interiors were eclectic. In the center of a vast elliptical colonnade. the Foro Murat (named for a French general who was king of Naples) was established in 1808.
What was produced since 1914. the Galleria Umberto I (Emmanuelle Rocco. built by Giuseppe Mengoni (1829– 1877). nine months before Antonelli’s death. with a thin steeple. Lombardi. created four entrance-squares of large dimensions (over 1. The Mole Antonelliana—originally a Jewish temple—is a double-skin envelope of great beauty enclosing an enormous space. rivals the greatest railway stations in England. which also reorganizes the central point of the city of Naples in front of the Theater of San Carlo and opposite the Foro Ferdinando. in 1870. Included in a renewal project of Milan’s city center. developed a frame of arches. Construction of the Mole was started in 1862. opening to the Po River and the magniﬁcent landscape of the Monferatto Hills. it towers 535 feet above the pavement. Two were Eclectic. both materials used in buildings from previous generations. with the addition of a lantern. counterweights. the Piazza Vittorio Veneto (or Piazza Po) by the architect G. opening onto the road to Milan (the plan of the architect. the city of the popes grew rapidly. According to Henry-Russell Hitchcock. when its walls were demolished to provide space for a ring of boulevards. was established in front of the railway station (1850–1851). the Piazza Carlo Felice by the architect Promis. The second. built in 1861 before or at the time Turin became the capital of Italy. it reached a height of 345 feet in 1888. the Porto Palazzo. was designed in 1818 and realized in 1826–1830). it found a rival in Naples. Frizzi (1825–1830). about as tall as a ﬁfty-story skyscraper! A ﬁgure of a winged genius was installed at the top in February 1888. easily comparable (although it is made of bricks) to the metallic Eiffel Tower of 1889. Two of them were Neoclassical: on the north side. The turn toward Eclecticism was contemporary with a strong interest in advanced structures.) The ﬁrst of the Eclectic piazzas. an accomplished exponent of neoclassical architecture. on average). Rome became the capital of Italy. Iron and “vitriﬁed” bricks. (The capital was transferred to Florence in 1865 and ﬁnally to Rome in 1870. the overdesigned Piazza Statuto on the west side. Contemporary Debates: The Goals of Recent Architecture (1900–2000) When. faced the Alps and was built by the Englishﬁnanced Italian Building Society (1864–1865).” is of relatively slight interest. he was even bolder. reached 400. In Turin. Alessandro Antonelli (1798–1888). the pretentious Monument to Victor–Emmanuel II on the Piazza Venezia in . and disconnected brick walls to push the dome of San Gaudenzio in Novara to the height of 327 feet.000 feet long. on the east side. although “impressively monumental. the Vittorio Emmanuele Gallery in Milan. and. 1887–1890). by the architect Bollati. which.Introduction xlix Turin. were improved to give incomparable possibilities. but the age of iron surpassed Antonelli’s capabilities. Beginning with the idea of a commercial arcade that would be monumental enough to house social activities.
An unusual number of architectural magazines involved all the important architects: Casabella directed for a time by Gregotti. Terragni’s master works include the Casa del Fascio in Como (1932–1936). in which Terragni went beyond modern requirements in approaching a “lyrical functionalism. Some of the Milanese students in architecture—Terragni. was a brilliant exponent of the Rationalist School. the Milanese Giuseppe Sommaruga (1867–1917) favored rich interiors and spatial intricacies. Its leading architect was Antonio Sant’Elia (1888–1916). It inspired Eero Saarinen’s Gateway Arch in Saint Louis. Chronicles. recalling the “perilous design” favored by Terragni. Lotus.l Introduction Rome (1884–1911) illustrated “the ﬁnal breakdown of the old standards of Romantic Classicism” (Hitchcock 1977. Futurism was more radical. designed in 1948. spanning 660 feet. and Zodiac all demonstrate how tough the debate was in Italy after 1950. Solving the problem of the house without using industrial techniques was the aim of Libera and Saverio Muratori at Tuscolano II in a suburb of Rome (1950–1954). Art Nouveau bloomed late in Italy. and architecture needed much fresh air. which created the INA-Casa that lasted until 1963. He designed the plan of the cliff-top Villa Malaparte on the island of Capri for Curzio Malaparte. The task of producing decent houses for the Italians was the main concern of the Fanfani Law of 1949. a typical expression of “Mediterraneita” in its rigorous abstraction.” Adalberto Libera (1903–1963). which had fallen into the . and coherency in environmental control. and Pollini—made up the Group of Seven (“Gruppo 7”) and followed the French Modernist Le Corbusier. Domus. coherency in building. 209). Italy was breathing a new air of freedom. and Raimondo d’Aronco (1857–1932) was inﬂuenced by late Baroque. an Italian version of the International Style. Rassegna. Rogers. Rebuilding areas damaged by the war needed much competency. with the historian Manfredo Tafuri. the reconstruction of the medieval bridge. Contropiano. Missouri. Their creed contained four coherences: coherency in function. In the meantime. N. more radical. directed by Bruno Zevi. the Casa Rustici in Milan (1933–1935). Futurism opened the way to a movement called “Architettura razionale” (Rationalist Architecture). L’Architettura-cronaca e storia (Architecture. Postwar debates could not avoid strong criticism of the link between the Rationalist School and the Fascist Movement. he designed a huge arch for the Fascist exhibition E 42 in Rome. “Gruppo 7” believed in a new aesthetic inspired by the machine. and History). “Constructing with words” opened a period of extensive discussions. moving from Milan to Rome. in which he rejected all links with the past. Urbanistica (on town planning). under the guidance of E. coherency for hygiene. Next to the Castelvecchio Museum in Verona. who is known from his splendid drawings. Libera for a while. Figini. As an open-minded creator. Their goal was to reconstruct the architectural culture of Italy. The twentieth century began with a necessary period of rethinking architectural principles. he was inspired by Moroccan houses when he designed the horizontal residential unit of Tuscolano II in Rome (1950–1954). and the Sant’Elia School in Como (1936–1937).
which meant that traditional ways of building were to be used. His main works are the National Centre of Art and Culture. he praised the complexity of the old city. 1988–2001). He changed the relation between the city of Genoa and its old harbor. Japan (1988–1994). he favored a village-like concrete residential complex as his main tool for expressing his ideals (Collegio del Colle. and the extension of the Art Institute of Chicago (1999– 2004). He has designed many art galleries in the United States. strangely enough. An inﬂuential movement in Milan. he remodeled the 1915–1923 Fiat Lingotto Plant in Turin. followed the methods of postwar rebuilding: “com’era. Rogers took part. which received the name of Team X in 1956. dov’era” (the way it was. and. and the social life it contained. the Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas (1999–2003). initiated an interest in the symbolic value of memory and its social importance as well as in functional requirements. Working mainly. the way it should be). and they rediscovered the sense of memory. Rogers was able to translate tradition in terms of modernity in the Velasca Tower in Milan (1956–1958). To build inside an old city has been a major task of Italian architects. in Urbino. It is a skyscraper 330 feet tall and looks much like a medieval tower above the roofs of the city. or at least of the region around the site. Since Italy was so full of debates. among which are the Menil Collection Museum in Houston (1982–1986). Giovanni Michelucci selected an organic version of modernity for the Church of the Autostrada (1961–1971) west of Florence. Vittorio Gregotti has been interested in large regional plans of strict geometry. In Italy. Giancarlo di Carlo (1919–2004) was a member of Team X. opposed some aspects of Le Corbusier’s architecture and theory but. turning it gallantly into a festive piazza (Renovation of the Old Harbor. he realized the handsome auditoriums of the Music Park in Rome (1994–2002). they showed their inventiveness. 1962–1972). Recent architectural developments have expanded and widened references. A ﬁeld of criticism. in 2000–2002. but not only. the Centre Pompidou in Paris (1971–1978). favored the “brutalist” quality of his postwar architecture. Building both within and without the city. in which E.Introduction li River Adige. Accused of revisionism because he was not a strict functionalist. in a country of such a highly cultured past. They fought for new forms. the sense of the city and the presence of history obliged certain architects to be skilled interpreters of the past. its expressiveness. have become more broadly creative. Pier Luigi Nervi (1891–1979) was an engineer of worldwide reputation. . and the International Airport of Kansai in Osaka. and have begun to express themselves at the scale of the landscape. N. the architecture of the second half of the twentieth century could hardly be summarized by only two attitudes. The church is a gesture in space of great ﬂuidity and is considered a summit in postwar Italian architecture. Italian architects were leaders in rejecting the International Style. and sharp oppositions. Engineering skills are not far behind those of contemporary Italian architecture. However. Renzo Piano is a world-famous architect. discussions.
After him. near the George Washington Bridge (1960–1962). He was prudent and bold—and deeply human. a project should also be inﬂuenced by modern precedents. . a model of houses totally integrated into the traditional urban fabric. he revealed his approach: He was both contemporary and respectful of the past and based his decisions on profound historical knowledge and slow. For them. The group called “La Tendenza. he identiﬁed history as a continuous process. according to the positions of Team X. Gregotti. Le Corbusier’s Radiant City. they transformed it to develop better spaces for social life. His work is typical of the construction of the freeway network that modernized Italy.” led by the urban historian and architect Aldo Rossi and the architect Carlo Aymonino. produced for Venice. although many architects faithfully used his urban form studies. His Palace of Labor in Turin took the nickname “Concrete Parthenon. The study of urban form started anew when Saverio Muratori (1910–1973) published his books on Venice (1960) and Rome (1963). for the Monte Amiata Housing Scheme of Gallaratese Milan (1967–1972).lii Introduction he designed the Bus Station in Manhattan.” that is. Total agreement with Muratori’s positions could not be reached. was their reference. especially the Unité d’Habitation (1946–1952) in Marseilles. in the Saffa Area in Canareggio (1984–1987). To take history as a tool for creation was Carlo Scarpa’s ambition when he renovated the Castelvecchio Museum of Art in Verona (1957–1964).600-foot-long freeway Viaduct of the Polcevera in Genoa (1961–1964) using a subtle sense of dynamism and trusting the lightness of an isostatic scheme. In a process of superposed layering. However. careful execution. after much debate. building in old cities offered many more challenges.” Ricardo Morandi (1902–1989) erected the 3. His approach was based on an “absolute historicism. did not follow Muratori all the way.
Architecture of Italy .
The walls provided a strong defense for the center of the ancient settlement that covered approximately one quarter of a square mile spread out over three hills. that formed the Etruscan League. or city-states. The surveillance afforded by the site. and are built of large blocks of travertine. was a major factor in the prosperity of Perusia. PERUGIA Style: Etruscan Date: Second Century BCE Architect: Unknown he hill town of Perusia was one of the twelve lucumonies. who moved up from the valleys to the more easily defended hilltops. such as neighboring Chiusi. the Etruscans built their town in a strategic position overlooking the Tiber River and the surrounding plain from an elevation of more than 1. many measuring more than 4 feet by 2 feet. that are set without mortar.AUGUSTUS GATE. the huge surrounding wall.000 feet. took refuge in Perusia. which dominated much of Italy from the sixth to the third centuries bce.500 feet long. Taking advantage of the intersection of two roads—oriented in the directions of the compass—to facilitate transportation and communication. it is still girdled by a massive circuit of ancient Etruscan walls that are 30 feet tall. the T . Prehistoric remains indicate an early settlement of Umbrian people. But signiﬁcant urban development did not occur until the arrival of the Etruscans in the sixth century bce. During the civil wars of the ﬁrst century. Known today as Perugia. were being overrun by their Roman enemies. the brother and the wife of Mark Antony. The agricultural bounty of the land on the shores of Lake Trasimeno. and the exploitation of other lines of natural defense ensured security at a time when the other Etruscan city-states. a second wall was built sometime in the thirteenth century ce to incorporate the suburbs that had sprung up on the neighboring hills. 9. Lucius Antonius and Fulvia. below the fortiﬁed city. Following the famous siege and eventual victory of their enemy Augustus Caesar in 40. As the town expanded in the Middle Ages. A defensive rampart as large as the Etruscan wall is evidence for the origin and prosperity of Perusia in antiquity.
Six vertical bands alternate with ﬁve large round forms that most likely represent shields. The powerful aspect of this city gate.2 Augustus Gate city was destroyed. built of large rectangular stone blocks on either side of the passage. The voussoirs are held in a state of compression and are locked in by the keystone. Both gates are very impressive entries into the city because of their large dimensions and their positions at the top of steep roads. Vulcan. The shields are centered in nearly square panels that correspond to the metopes of a Greek temple frieze. that covers the interior passage way into the city. Two large towers of trapezoidal shape ﬂank the arch. Only its massive circuit walls and three temples (dedicated to Juno. the Augustus Gate remains as a testament to the power and wealth of the Etruscan culture before it was absorbed and nearly obliterated by Rome. which will become so characteristic of Roman architecture. especially the Renaissance loggia on the left. Four of the gates marked the intersections where the four main streets of the town join the four hillcrest roads. Above the arch is an ornamental frieze. called jambs. and an unidentiﬁed deity) survived. Its architectural and archaeological importance is tremendous because it is one of the few surviving examples of Etruscan building practice and represents one of the earliest uses in Italy of an arch constructed with voussoirs. smaller voussoir arch. that is ﬂanked by pilasters (ﬂat column-like strips). the Augustus Gate reaches a height of more than 60 feet. Horizontal moldings frame the frieze. with its massive cut stone construction and simple geometric forms is impressive even today and provides a perfect example of Etruscan engineering and design. Above the lower arch is a second. The Etruscan walls that survived Augustus contained eight large gates and three small openings. The arch springs from vertical supports. which is divided into a pattern loosely resembling the division of the frieze on a Doric temple. precisely cut wedge-shaped stone blocks placed next to one another without mortar. which is now known as the Augustus Gate. more than 30 feet high. Remove the keystone and the arch will collapse. that may indicate the inﬂuence of Greek architecture on Etruscan designs. to the north. With the addition of this second story. form the semicircular shape of the arch. now incorporated into the base of a fortress built by Antonio da Sangallo the Elder in the sixteenth century and the Augustus Gate (Porta Augusta). Although somewhat obscured by later additions. a name that appears in an inscription over an entrance to the city. The Augustus Gate is the better preserved and shows the Etruscan style of building quite clearly. Augustus rebuilt the city and made it a Roman colony called AUGUSTA PERUSIA. Only two of the Etruscan gates survive: the Porta Marzia. or horizontal design. now ﬁlled in. which is extended into a semicircular barrel vault. the voussoir at the very top of the arch. to the south. Two courses of voussoirs. The vertical bands have grooves cut into them so that they resemble the triglyphs in the Doric frieze. .
Perugia. An Etruscan double voussoir arch (2nd century bce). .Augustus Gate.
1992. ROME Style: Roman Imperial Dates: 212–235 Architect: Unknown arge public bathing establishments were typical expressions of the Roman practice of building and organizing complex areas for both social and necessary activities in a large densely populated city. the last member of the dynasty. Beginning in the twelfth century. Translated by Thomas M. Septemius Severus. 2004. Edited by Stefano Peccatori and Stefano Zufﬁ. the baths were probably planned by his father. Many columns and their capitals were removed and reused in famous churches. for example. perhaps in 271. Federica. fountains. Construction of the main block of the complex was initiated at the beginning of Caracalla’s reign in 211. rich and poor alike. meeting rooms. in Santa L . The soldier emperor Aurelian (270–275) rebuilt one of the porticoes. the ruins were used as a vast quarry of building materials. Etruscan and Early Roman Architecture. All of the comforts associated with the luxury villas of the elite were brought together in the public baths and made available to every citizen. Rome and Bari: Laterza. Because they were located on the outskirts of the city. when the population withdrew into the center of the city. steam rooms. Borrelli. CT: Yale University Press. The Baths of Caracalla were recorded in the ﬁfth century as one of the marvels of Rome. Axel.000 and 8. Hartmann. Perugia.000 Romans could take advantage of the facilities. 1981. the North African emperor. Alberto. Grohmann. covering about ﬁfty acres that included swimming pools. and the outer precinct was not completed until the reign of Alexander Severus (222– 235).4 Baths of Caracalla Further Reading Boethius.600 bathers at a time. They were designed for the use of large numbers of people. exercise yards. which had been destroyed by ﬁre. the baths were abandoned in 537 during the siege of Rome by Vitiges the Goth. and Maria Cristina Targia. who engaged in many projects to monumentalize the southern part of Rome. libraries. Architecture and History. This means that every day between 6. London: Getty Trust Publications. BATHS OF CARACALLA. and other amenities—all enclosed in formal gardens. Although popularly named for the emperor Caracalla. Caracalla could accommodate 1. 2nd ed. The Etruscans: Art. Le città nella storia d’Italia. A partial inauguration took place in 216. a stadium. New Haven. The Baths of Caracalla were enormous.
In book III of On Antiquities. The Bath complex stands on a vast rectangular platform.000 workers who labored during the ﬁve years of construction.059 feet. the Belvedere Torso.Baths of Caracalla 5 Baths of Caracalla. Palladio.076 by 1. published in 1540. The Pisans took away capitals to decorate their cathedral. sketched the baths in November1863 and enthusiastically praised the ability of the Romans to manage a building of such complexity. and the latrines. the Aqua Nova Antoniniana. A large thoroughfare approaching the site facilitated the movement of huge amounts of cement and bricks by the 9. during his stay in Rome in 1546–1547. was found in the Baths of Caracalla. numerous fountains. that was partially dug out of the side of the Aventine hill. Digging done in the sixteenth century by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese recovered many famous works of sculpture that are now in the Naples Museum. which so inspired Michelangelo. the hot bath (caldarium). After the baths were . measuring 1. the cold-water baths (frigidaria). Serlio praised the coherency of its plan. Maria in Trastevere. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Many architects recorded their admiration for the design of the baths and the movement of its masses. Most important of all. drew plans and sections of the building along with reconstructions and studies of the decorative details. brought water to sixty-four cisterns from which it was distributed via lead pipes to the large swimming pool (nautatio). A new aqueduct. The French restorer of medieval churches. The massive ruins of the caldarium (the hot bath) inspired even modern architects like Louis Kahn. Rome.
the principal rooms were lined up on the short central axis of the bath block in the ritual order in which the Romans would use them. having a mid-afternoon snack. Mosaics on the ﬂoors. A great wall. or cold bath area. and other amenities. rather. . whose waters were slightly warm. Next on axis was the tepidarium. meeting halls. service rooms. Thick concrete masonry was used to build massive walls to support various rooﬁng structures. or hot room. half-domes. Surrounding the bathing block was a formal garden. that included fountains. and observing their fellow citizens.6 Baths of Caracalla opened. also constructed of concrete. Heat for the warm rooms and sweat rooms was provided by double walls and spaces under the ﬂoors into which hot air was introduced. measuring 360 by 700 feet. Under the terrace were corridors. surrounds the precinct of the bathing block. reading in the libraries. about 4. great furnaces and boilers. some of them of daring design. barrel vaults. that covered rooms of many different shapes and sizes. and shops. including large expanses of garden. Natural light and heat were exploited by the designers: the hot rooms were aligned across the southwest side of the bathing block and had large arched windows to catch the heat of the afternoon sun (Roman baths did not open until after the noon hour). large enough for vehicular trafﬁc. Its plan was carefully organized to move people efﬁciently in and out of the various rooms and halls. The block is not centered in the garden precinct. The bathing block has a perfectly symmetrical rectangular plan. that was nearly as large as the Pantheon. Domes. The baths provided a place for large crowds of people to take care of their bodies while at the same time enjoying social encounters. or xystus. this same roadway was used to deliver the ten tons of wood used every day to heat the water. and subsidiary structures such as libraries. and ﬁnally came the circular domed caldarium. Men and women could use different parts of the facilities or were allotted separate times for bathing. and exercise courts. colorful marble veneers on the walls. This was followed by the immense groin-vaulted frigidarium. and staircases. Added to this were numerous statues by the most famous sculptors of the day and imaginative water displays. Arranged to either side of this ﬁle of rooms were ofﬁces. a stadium with seating for spectators. colonnades. gilded stucco and glass mosaics on the ceilings.500 feet long. it is located in the northeastern half on axis with the main entrance that pierces the outer wall. The rough concrete construction was not visible to the bathers. The Baths of Caracalla were typical of the venues built by the state to fulﬁll the leisurely habits of the inhabitants of Rome in antiquity. All of these were necessary for the efﬁcient operation of a bath complex on such a huge scale. created dynamic spaces arranged in artful sequences. even a watermill. lavish ornamentation concealed it. and a profusion of columns in a variety of colored marbles created a sumptuous interior. and groin vaults. and latrines were located on the opposite shady side. while the changing rooms. Following the traditional plan of Roman baths. First was the large swimming pool open to the sky. ofﬁces.
MA: The MIT Press.” Contarini was inspired by myths of the original Domus Aurea (Golden House) built by the emperor Nero in Rome during the ﬁrst century. Contarini guided the work on the palazzo. and a mostly plain wall adorned with precious marble revetments on the right. their arcades topped by ogee-arches (ﬂame-like arches with S-shaped sides) and quatrefoil tracery (forms similar to a four-leafed clover) that contrast with the largely solid wall pierced only by two small square windows and four windows with ogee openings. and J. . the House of Gold. Contarini kept. B. This sort of composition typiﬁes the visual miracle of Venice: an evanescence caused by humidity in the atmosphere and the glittering reﬂections off the water that create on the buildings a chromatic. Formerly gilded. Reprint ed. exempliﬁes the fantasy of Venice. the façade of the Ca d’Oro. much praised by Ruskin. The resultant asymmetrical façade has three superimposed loggias. Baths and Bathing in Classical Antiquity. This portico for the ground ﬂoor. which he planned to replace with a “Golden House. or slightly remodeled. Translated by Sandra Ciufﬁni. 1970. giving detailed instructions to the builders and masons. Piranomonte. Marina. Yegül. it has interlaced Gothic arches on the left.Ca d’Oro Further Reading 7 Boethius. 1998. VENICE Style: Gothic Dates: 1424–1437 Architects: Marino Contarini?. 1996. Harmondsworth: Pufﬁn. Etruscan and Roman Architecture. The Saracenic crenellation that crowns the building dissolves the façade into the hazy sky. belonged to a patrician family and held one of the most important posts in the Republic of Venice. Milan: Electa. Axel. In 1406. he purchased the Palazzo Zeno. Fikret K. the portico of ﬁve bays of roundheaded arches from the old Palazzo Zeno. and in 1412. Marino Contarini. Cambridge. stone cutters and sculptors Giovanni Bon and Mario Raverti F acing southwest onto the Grand Canal. and many historians name him as the architect of the building. Procurator (public prosecutor) of Saint Mark. Ward-Perkins. he married Soramador Zeno. The Baths of Caracalla. His lack of professional training is cited for certain discrepancies in the overall organization of the Ca D’Oro. dancing sense of movement of singular beauty. CA D’ORO.
Two groups of masons—one from Lombardy directed by Matteo Raverti and one from Venice led by Giovanni Bon—worked on the palazzo from 1424 to 1437. The tracery on the superimposed loggias is an imaginative variation on the upper gallery of the Doge’s Palace. was reserved for storage and business. the Ca D’Oro remains a typical Venetian house that varies little from the traditional plan. The latter doorway opens into a small courtyard in the back quarter of the house that is furnished with a classically inspired wellhead and a dogleg staircase that gives access to the second level. or piano nobile. The façade of the palazzo thus becomes animated by the play of light in a way that could be understood as a painting in two dimensions that incorporates all the charm of Venetian art. View of the façade from the Grand Canal. Because all circulation of goods was by boat. A long central hall. . On one side of the androne was a series of ofﬁces. the other.8 Ca d’Oro Ca d’Oro. the ground ﬂoor. while on the other were storage rooms. thus the ogee arches. one from the Grand Canal. and it results in two entrances. and the kitchen. Above the quatrefoils in the second story loggia of the Ca D’Oro the sculptor has added half-quatrefoils to dissolve the pattern of the tracery into a strange sinuosity that creates a surprising chiaroscuro. As imaginative as the façade may be. the small entrance courtyard. with the short side facing the canal. in the case of the Ca d’Oro. or fontego. the androne. opened onto the canal entrance and extended the entire length of the house. called the fontego. Venetians preferred to borrow motifs from the international Late Gothic style of architecture rather than motifs from Lombardy. from a street that runs parallel to one long side of the house. created an impressive approach from the Grand Canal. The narrow and rather deep site forces the house to assume a long rectangular shape. Venice.
Translated by Anne Engel. This is the Caffè Pedrocchi. CAFFÈ PEDROCCHI (CAFÉ PEDROCCHI). 1970. was superimposed on the ground ﬂoor and duplicated its plan. New Haven. 1380–1580. and it became a monument symbolizing Padua and a landmark of urban improvements of the nineteenth century. which were located to either side. Frankl. Further Reading Arslan. the Venetian house is extremely deep. David S. because of the limited frontage on the canals. called the piano nobile. Above the androne was the portego. It features a gallery fronted by Corinthian columns on the upper level. Even though.Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi) 9 The residential part of the Ca D’Oro. and P. or a governmental building like the Palazzo della Ragione (the basilican stronghold of the courts). which functioned as a large reception hall and as an antechamber to the more private rooms of the palazzo. Gothic Architecture. 1972. On its southeast corner. London: Phaidon. The philosophical changes of the Enlightenment and the political consequences of the French Revolution modiﬁed Europeans’ idea of the “monument. it could no longer be a church enclosed within its precinct. Goy. Two small pavilions using the Doric order ﬂank a large recessed entrance portico that is two stories tall. Paul. 1842 Architect: Giuseppe Japelli iazza Cavour is a public square and center of activity in the city of Padua. The Imperial Age of Venice. a smaller piazza is ﬁlled with the tables and chairs of a café housed in a handsome neoclassical building. CT: Yale University Press. 1993. Thus.” If a monument were to be the symbol of the city in the nineteenth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. or the seat of the famous university created in 1222. Gothic Architecture in Venice. 2000. Building a Palace in Medieval Venice. Edoardo. The Caffè was famous during the period of the Risorgimento (1848–1871). the exterior loggias of the facade provide a remarkable amount of light to the interior rooms. when Italy was struggling toward uniﬁcation. Crosley. Richard J. the new P . Chambers. The House of Gold. PADUA Style: Eclectic Dates: 1826–1831.
Even so. and the university by creating a central place where all the citizens could gather. and Gothic styles in an eclectic mix. Architect Japelli juxtaposed Neoclassical. Egyptian. Padua. The famous cafés on the Boulevard des Italians in Paris that catered to the afﬂuent part of middle-class society in the ﬁrst third of the nineteenth century . the circle of traditional monuments inherited from the past was within ﬁve minutes’ walk of the Caffè Pedrocchi. paid for by a successful businessman but open for the pleasure and conversation of the majority of his fellow citizens.10 Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi) Caffè Pedrocchi. A guidebook published in 1842 explains that the coffeehouse uniﬁes the nearby courts of law. the theater. monument for Padua became a privately owned coffeehouse.
The second ﬂoor. had been trained by Giannantonio Selva (1754–1819). Japelli. stretching the dimensions of rooms and opening new perspectives everywhere. . It opened onto an exedra (a curved recessed space) that contained a counter carried on lion’s paws. connected to the Borsa. The second ﬂoor of the café evoked a universal spirit of the cultures of mankind: an Etruscan room. the three rooms on the ground ﬂoor of the café were remodeled and upholstered in white. Carroll L. 2000. or stock-exchange room. Giuseppe Japelli (1783–1852). V. each with a different theme and style. Possamai. a gifted neoclassical architect of outstanding competency who designed the Teatro della Fenice in Venice. The collaboration of Pedrocchi and Japelli created one of the masterpieces of Italian eclectic architecture in which styles and themes borrowed from an array of cultures and historical periods were brilliantly combined into a venue symbolizing the new Padua that was open to all of her citizens. and green. and a Herculaneum room that led into the ballroom dedicated to Gioacchino Rossini. New Haven. When walking through the elaborately decorated rooms. but its architect. CT: Yale University Press. The red room. offered an array of rooms of various shapes and sizes.Caffè Pedrocchi (Café Pedrocchi) 11 set the tone for the decoration in the Caffè Pedrocchi. On the ground ﬂoor. Japelli worked with illusion. an armory.” with the different rooms corresponding to handsome mechanics who cared for the apparatus. a Renaissance room. modeled on a basilica. The passage of time was symbolized by two relief sculptures executed from models by Thorvaldsen that showed Dawn and Night on either side of a clock. After 1866. and historical references. It was open day and night and never closed. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. the colors of the ﬂag of the newly uniﬁed Italian state. in 1831. an octagonal Greek room. an Egyptian room. Japelli took part in the architectural development of Padua in the ﬁrst half of the nineteenth century. surpassed these models. Moorish cloakrooms. Further Reading Meeks. 1966. Pedrocchi’s café was planned as an analogy to a “machine. Paolo. political. Milan: Skira. not opened until 1842. Café Pedrocchi. one has the feeling of wandering through a puzzle of artistic. the Caffè was originally. who became internationally famous for his eclectic fantasies. was in the center. red. which Japelli designed.
the senators built a fortress in the ruins of the ancient Tabularium. Responding to criticism leveled by Martin Luther and many others within the Catholic Church. they were continuously changed as he modiﬁed his ideas and developed his designs. Lack of funding and political unwillingness delayed the completion of Michelangelo’s scheme for more than 100 years. the philosopher-emperor who reigned from 161 to 180. Michelangelo was opposed to moving the statue. the most important of all the Roman state cults. that the pope had the right to rule the city. if any physical plans ever existed. the Campidoglio or. Although it was the smallest of the seven hills of Rome. as the site of both the arx. the ancient fortress of Rome. Paul III required the services of an artistarchitect of unquestionable ability so he turned to Michelangelo. Giacomo della Porta. the Capitoline Hill. Sixteenth-century Rome was much smaller in population and area than the ancient capital had been. the pope ordered that the equestrian statue of a Roman emperor that had stood in front of Saint John Lateran for centuries be moved to the Campidoglio.7 miles. During the upheavals and riots of the twelfth century when the Romans revolted against the Papacy and attempted to establish a commune free of church rule. Vasari testiﬁed that in 1568 he saw a very F . The statue was thought at the time to represent Constantine. ROME Style: Mannerist Dates: 1538–1655 Architects: Michelangelo. made by numerous popes in the past. one could read the relocation of the statue as symbolic of the transfer of power from the church to the city. but he ﬁnally agreed to the pope’s wishes and began to develop a plan for the piazza atop the Campidoglio that would be the setting for the statue. the Capitoline was the most important. For both tasks. the Roman state archives that were built into the side of the hill. the unﬁnished Basilica of Saint Peter. that is. Girolamo Rainaldi rom 1534 to 1549. Pope Paul III supported building projects in the two poles of power in Rome. In a symbolic move. the ﬁrst Christian emperor. the second was at the traditional political heart of Rome. were typical of his manner of working. In effect. The ﬁrst was the seat of Catholic religious authority. as the Romans called it. The reduced urban area stretched from Saint Peter’s to the Capitoline. Michelangelo’s plans. Paul III agreed to separate the church from the city government and to renounce the claims.12 Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) CAMPIDOGLIO (CAPITOLINE HILL). and as the location of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. but it represents Marcus Aurelius. a distance of 1.
to complement the Conservators’ Palace. the piazza offers a chiaroscuro vision of the three masses of the buildings. for the elected city magistrates. Rome. it was not built until the seventeenth century. Michelangelo proposed a third building. the other was gentler and led to the piazza in front of the Senators’ Palace. Michelangelo designed the piazza as a balcony opening onto the city. . On the facades of the palaces giant pilasters.Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) 13 rich drawing for the Campidoglio but none is preserved. a double staircase inspired by Michelangelo’s design for the staircase of the Medici Library in Campidoglio. Because the Capitoline was a hill with two summits. Two ramps were constructed coming from the Piazza Aracoeli at the north. The senatorial fortress at the back of the open space around the statue of Marcus Aurelius and the Palace of the Conservators. but because it had no speciﬁc purpose and also because it masked the Franciscan church of the Aracoeli. In front of the Senatorial palazzo. Giacomo della Porta (1533–1602) improved the latter ramp by transforming it into a series of inclined steps in 1581–1582. were in ruinous condition and in need of new façades. column-like structures ﬂattened against the wall. Against the light. extend through both stories of the building and are framed on the ground ﬂoor by two diminutive columns behind which is a covered portico. to the left. which are crowned by heavy cornices that function like dark brows shading the façades below them. he created a three-level plan. One was steep and led to the Church of the Aracoeli. View of the ramped stairs ascending to Michelangelo’s piazza with the Palazzo Nuovo (New Palace) at left and the Senators’ Palace visible behind the colossal statues of Castor and Pollux. with a view of Saint Peter’s in the distance.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Architecture of Michelangelo. it represented the movement of the planets around the earth and gave expression to the ideal of Rome as the caput mundi (the head of the world). Michelangelo’s strong feeling for chiaroscuro. Inspired by a manuscript of Isidor of Seville (c. Michel-Ange. Michelangelo created. created a third level for a platform from which public addresses could be given. 1991. The Senator’s Palace becomes. Michelangelo’s paving in gray and white stone in the shape of a star with twelve rays was ﬁnally completed. CAPITOLINE HILL. As in the Piazza Pio in Pienza. a long balustrade supporting antique statues. many of them acquired by previous popes. were offered in public celebration of the Campidoglio and were installed in the Conservators’ Palace. Paris: Gallimard. which opens onto the horizon of the city dominated by Saint Peter’s dome. Gaps between the three buildings at their corners open onto impressive views of the Forum below. the angles of their façades converge toward the entry staircase. CARACALLA. See Baths of Caracalla. on the entrance side of the piazza opposite the Senators’ Palace. A collection of antique sculptures. reversing the normal expectation of parallel lines appearing to converge toward a distant point.14 Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill) Florence. BATHS OF. and Bruno Contardi. 1986. Further Reading Ackerman. consequently. In 1940. . architecte. a transitional element between the plastic body of the staircase at the entrance to the square and the space of the Forum at its back. 560–636). for contrasts of light and dark. his individualistic handling of geometry and space encouraged him to play with perspective in adapting the disposition of the preexisting buildings. 2nd ed. the buildings on the sides of the Campidoglio are not at right angles to each other. Giulo Carlo. In this process of visually connecting the spaces and memories of Rome. Argan. James S. See Campidoglio.
Lingeri was a highly skilled technician. became a member of the Fascist Party. One of these. The ﬁrst of these was designed for Victor Rustici for a site in the new urban plan of Milan. in 1926. a group of painters. As an Italian delegate to CIAM (the International Congress of Modern Architecture). . The Corso developed into a fashionable district of advanced modernity and a safe place for ﬁnancial investment.Casa Rustici 15 CASA RUSTICI. which initially supported avant-garde architecture. a tree-lined avenue nearly 300 feet long. Terragni was a member of the avant-garde and for that reason. A preference for abstraction was advanced by the art gallery of the Milione led by its owner Ghiringelly. adhered to certain ideals advanced by the modern movement. who took part in the international debate on modern architecture. and two gifted architects Pietro Lingeri and Giuseppe Terragni. Conforming completely to modern ideals and showing his desire to equal Le Corbusier. espoused by Le Corbusier. Avant-garde architects. the city of Milan was changed by the rise of an efﬁcient upper middle class that was modern in its way of life and was looking for new buildings without the heavy overlay of nineteenth-century ornament. Terragni’s Novocomum in Como (1927–1929) was an apartment block with a façade that resembled the prow of an ocean liner facing onto the lake. Lingeri and Terragni received commissions for several apartment buildings from members or friends of the Milione group. The charter laid out modernist concepts of rationalist urban planning and was heavily inﬂuenced by Le Corbusier. The Casa Rustici was originally intended to be a two-story private house but it became a building of luxury apartments with a penthouse on top where Rustici would live. it connected the Sforza Castle and the Foro Buonaparte (built during the French Revolution) with the recreational areas of the Lake Districts in the northwest. Designed to be an expression of the new prestige of the city. He was already famous for his Casa del Fascio in Como (1932–1936) in which he celebrated the State guided by Fascist principles. a central feature of which was the Corso Sempione. MILAN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1933–1936 Architects: Pietro Lingeri and GiuseppeTerragni D uring the 1930s. Terragni took part in the debate leading to the publication of the Athens Charter in 1933. was to eliminate the traditional enclosed courtyard for both sanitary and aesthetic reasons. 36 CORSO SEMPIONE.
which expanded the space of some of the apartments.16 Casa Rustici Casa Rustici. Each unit was accessible by a staircase. The central unit would be at the rear of the courtyard. the relation of the building with the space of the street (Corso Sempione). made by Terragni and supported by Lingeri. The kitchens and some of the bedrooms opened onto the courtyard. Since that façade was all but transparent. Because the via Fratelli Induno on the left of the building did not align in a right angle with the street in front of the casa. the units seemed unusually spacious. which was combined with their sensibility to such advanced ideas as the creation of a new building type for the apartment block. and there was a passenger and a freight elevator in each unit. The living rooms were on the outside of the units. Milan. called for dividing the site at 36 Corso Sempione into three sections measuring 40 feet by 80 feet. Plans for the Casa Rustici. They had windows that overlooked three different avenues. and because of this. The architects brought a rather poetic approach to the modern movement. slender balconies that traversed the front of the courtyard and created the vision of a façade when viewed from the Corso. A poetic approach to modern apartment building design on Corso Sempione by Lingeri and Terragni (1933–1936). Terragni linked the two wings containing the apartments with six long. would be structures containing ﬁve levels of apartments. its balconies projected a . a small tower was inserted into the corner. and the manner in which the apartment block addressed public space. on either side of it. Efﬁciency was paramount with easy access and a minimum area given over to corridors. the other units.
” Casa Rustici’s façade is very well ordered. Far from condemning rationalism. and with the creation of an unknown building type. Henry-Russell. Even though the architects knew all the building ordinances. The building soon had a popular nickname. As Gio Ponti has said. the “Blackbird’s Cage. Consequently. However. This penthouse had large terraces on the roofs of the two side apartment blocks that were connected by a long gallery spanning the open central courtyard. they changed it by imagining new building types. which is on the top ﬂoor. Giuseppe Terragni. demonstrations of a new attitude toward the city. as Le Corbusier would do. Further Reading Hitchcock. Antonino. for them. the garage. was highly critical of the Casa Rustici.Casa Torre 17 modern approach to ways of living. SAN GIMIGNANO Style: Romanesque Dates: Twelfth to Thirteenth Centuries Architect: Unknown ompletely walled behind medieval fortiﬁcations. a lyrical order deﬁned the Casa Rustici. in the 1950s. their approach to the modern movement in architecture shows that they were attempting to go beyond strict rationalism. the administration charged them with total ignorance of building codes. New Haven. Transparency meant exposing oneself to public view. Poetry and transparency were. the city of San Gimignano is famous for its thirteen remaining case torre (tower houses) built in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. however. Above this are ﬁve levels of balconies under the owner’s penthouse. Rome: Editori Laterza. Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Saggio. 1995. the building permit was refused nine times between 1933 and 1936. Their attitude predicted the Italian criticism of the modern movement after the end of World War II. The Town Planning Administration of Milan. CASA TORRE. Its skyscraper skyline on a hilltop C . Lingeri’s and Terragni’s ﬂexibility of mind and their way of working against the difﬁculties they had to face are a good introduction to contemporary post war architecture in Italy. and access to the second-ﬂoor lobby. 1977. CT: Yale University Press. with a ground ﬂoor containing shops. with formal anarchy. Lingeri and Terragni’s ﬁnal success proves that they were creating something new. Vita e Opere.
Saffron cultivated in the surrounding countryside brought tremendous prosperity to the city.000 feet at an elevation of 900 feet from the San Giovanni Gate (1262) at one end of the city to the San Matteo Gate at the other. was the tallest of the San Gimignano towers. bread was cooked in a common oven. selling things or talking together with their children in tow. washing was done at a public washhouse. Civic policy forbade building any structure of equal or greater height. The main street followed a nearly horizontal course of 2. and places to stock merchandise lined the street. the Piazza del Duomo. and its membership in the ruling class. Connected to the corner of the Piazza della Cisterna was the second and more prestigious square. The center of the city was organized around two different squares. In the center of the piazza was a well. originally built in 1273 and enlarged and embellished in 1343 by the podesta (mayor) Guccio Malavotti. its power in the community. small churches. These towers thus became symbols of a family’s ﬁnancial success. Many daily activities took place out of doors. the region of Italy where San Gimignano is located. Simple houses included a shop on street level with two or three stories above. which. which was called a piazza. close to the famous tower of the Commune called La Rognosa. or cistern. A large elm tree provided some shade in the piazza for many years. which was also used for public feasts and tournaments. Genoa.18 Casa Torre can be seen from all the surrounding roads. A sequence of charitable hospitals for pilgrims. the walls rise upward to the level of a fourth or ﬁfth story that contained the family’s private rooms. making it look like a medieval ancestor of New York City. Around this square were located the Collegiate Church. These establishments were typical of the services offered to the merchants and travelers on which the San Gimignanese families depended for their businesses and prosperity. the precious herb was collected and exported to Pisa. or piazzas. The Piazza della Cisterna (Cistern Square) was a triangular-shaped marketplace. Women. Both squares were surrounded by the residences— and the towers—of the most afﬂuent citizens. Medieval streets and houses in Tuscany. and the Palazzo del Podesta (governor’s palace). would gather for a long time on benches or seats on a street. and bathing occurred in public facilities. reﬂected local customs that may seem unusual to us today. the Palazzo Publico (the city hall). France. each one vertical and surprisingly narrow. It is located at the upper end of the Piazza della Cisterna. The Ardinghelli house had two separate parts. Above the monumental arched entrance to a shop or a storeroom for merchandise. a place to stay. and the Netherlands. at 165 feet (roughly the height of a modern ﬁfteen-story building). The shop was furnished with benches for the display of goods for sale called “banks”—the Italian language . stables for horses. Afﬂuent merchants could afford to extend the basic structure of a “merchant house” (called a “casa-fondaco”) vertically to form a tower. Privacy was virtually unknown in the Middle Ages. Strong civic regulations maintained order in these various activities. shops. Water was collected at the public cistern. The casa torre of the Ardinghelli (thirteenth century) was typical. as well as in many other parts of Italy.
Casa Torre. Medieval tower houses that once reﬂected the wealth of their owners today create a skyscraper skyline. San Gimignano. .
Further Reading Campbell. Florence: Sansoni Editore.” More than seventy towers were built in San Gimignano during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 1998. 1250–1400. These wooden structures provided a great deal of useable space.800 feet above the hills of the Murge region. CT: Yale University Press. White. Attached to the incredibly thin towers. John. and a network of gangways facilitated connections between the different buildings. NJ: Princeton University Press. it is . The towers were used for security and protection during the constant riots and street battles that took place between the two dominant political factions in the city.” meaning ﬁnancial institutions. Princeton. The Guelphs demanded a (relatively) democratic form of government and supported the political power of the Pope. in 1580. 2nd ed. Città antica in Toscana. Giovanni. However. it commands a vast view of the surrounding landscape. The Game of Courting and the Art of the Commune of San Gimignano. Although the wooden structures have disappeared. Jean. the corbels (projecting stones) and holes in the walls for the beams used to support them are still visible. This is the Castel del Monte built by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. and Francesco Trivisonno. the Ghibellines favored aristocratic rule and supported claims to Tuscany made by the Germanic Holy Roman Emperor. Legislation passed in the fourteenth century made the building of towers illegal and led to the demolition of most of the medieval structures. while today there are only thirteen. only twenty-ﬁve remained. an enormous octagonal structure ﬂanked by eight octagonal towers is a surprising sight. At an elevation of 1. Lack of prosperity led to their diminishing number. C. 1983. Fanelli. With no real adaptation to its site. 1290–1320. typically measuring only about 15 feet on a side and soaring up to 150 feet were wood balconies and other constructions. and “benches. PUGLIA Style: Gothic Dates: 1240–1250 Architect: Unknown E merging from the top of a hill in barren solitude. the pure geometry of the Castel scarcely makes sense as a fortress. CASTEL DEL MONTE.20 Castel del Monte does not distinguish between “banks. New Haven. Art and Architecture in Italy. 1993.
he was a German. Skeptical of the Roman Catholic Church. scholars. One is an undecorated service entry. The building is based on an octagonal solid hollowed out in the center into an octagonal courtyard. The interior of this very abstract building is divided into two stories of eight identical trapezoidal rooms. During centuries of neglect. its ornamentation was plundered. Five of these towers served utilitarian functions. In addition. Unfortunately.Castel del Monte 21 so far from any city or cultivated area that it has little military value and does not control any military or commercial routes. The interior octagonal courtyard is severe with only a row of eight arches on the ground-ﬂoor level. the total absence of defensive dispositions and lack of a moat prove that the Castel del Monte could not have been built as a military stronghold. also octagonal. the grandson of Frederick Barbarossa (1123–1190). They appear to have been connected by a wooden gallery that ran around the walls above the top of the ground-ﬂoor arches. The central square of each room is covered by a Gothic ribbed vault. are attached to the main body at the corners. the emperor died before he and his court could inhabit the building. and in the eighteenth century. artists. which opened onto the courtyard. this is ﬂanked by barrel vaults . There are six windows on the ground ﬂoor and eight ogee-arched windows (windows with pointed arches that have reverse curved tops) on the upper level. all with vaulted ceilings. which was condemned by Saint Thomas Aquinas. and architects. There are two entrances in the main block of the building. The wall mass is only infrequently pierced by openings. Although it is only one of the numerous castles Frederick built in Puglia. it was used as a prison. and developing materialist attitudes. including bathrooms. During the reign of Frederick II (1220–1250). the location of the Castel was famous for its vegetation and abundant water resources. There were six doors on the upper story. Suspicion of Frederick’s Arabic knowledge. He had an unusual personality that deeply impressed his contemporaries. and his apparent lack of reverence for the power of the papacy caused two popes (Gregory IX and Innocent IV) to excommunicate him. Eight towers. which was based on agricultural production and the consistent development of overseas trade with the Middle East. while the other three contained spiral staircases leading to the second ﬂoor rooms. Frederick was committed to promoting the study of Greek and Arabic texts in the Christian West and was strongly inﬂuenced by the Arab philosopher Averroes. In the thirteenth century. he gathered about him a court of mathematicians. All the marble columns and window frames were taken by the Bourbons and installed in the great garden park of the Royal Palace at Caserta. the Castel del Monte. is unlike any of the others. with its sharp geometry and the absolute splendor of its details both inside and out. Though Frederick II was born in Italy in 1194. the region of Pugila experienced a period of great prosperity. the other is a splendid reinterpretation of an antique doorway with classicizing pilasters and a grand pediment that is indicative of Frederick’s interest in reviving the arts of antiquity and in collecting Greco-Roman artifacts.
Slabs of coral limestone lined the walls and framed the windows. the wall surfaces are built using the antique Roman brickwork technique in which three horizontal layers of bricks are alternated with rows of square bricks set on the diagonal to form a net-like pattern. VERONA Style: Gothic and Contemporary Dates: 1354–1357. CT: Yale University Press. The choice of an octagonal plan with subsidiary octagons at the corners is an unusual one for a castle. 1974.” As was typical of castle interiors. K. rather than semicircular. Castel del Monte: Geometric Marvel of the Middle Ages. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. but without direct sunlight. 1957–1964 Architect: Carlo Scarpa for the modern additions and modiﬁcations . cross sections. On the top ﬂoor. New York: Prestel Publishing. The meaning of the plan may also lie in the Christian symbolism of the octagon. the perfection of the stonework indicates masons of incredible ability and suggests that they were recruited from the lay brothers of Cistercian monasteries such as Santa Maria di Ripalta sul Fortore in the northern part of Puglia. mosaics covered the ﬂoors. Further Reading Conant. Doors and windows facing the inner court allowed reﬂected light to enter. CASTELVECCHIO MUSEUM OF ART. It has been suggested that the Castello was actually a hunting lodge built for the accommodation of Frederick’s falcon hunts. or the octagon as a mirror of the universe. and the Cistercian monasteries offered the best models. the number eight being the fulﬁllment of Christ’s incarnation. the rooms inside the Castel del Monte had limited light sources. Gotz. On the ground level. the interiors must have been rather dark. Everywhere. The decoration of the rooms suggests Byzantine or antique sources. J.22 Castelvecchio Museum of Art with pointed. Roman architects called this type of brick facing “opus mixtum. Such esoteric symbols would be appropriate to what is known of Frederick’s insatiable quest for knowledge. This has caused scholars to debate not only the function of the building but also the meaning of its form. Frederick turned to the Cistercians because he wished to introduce Gothic style and technology into southern Italy. Heinz. 1998. New Haven.
the statue was moved into the museum of art in the Castelvecchio to protect it from further damage. or warlord). featuring his image as a knight on horseback. his family’s extensive burial grounds. The medieval statue of Cangrande I della Scala is the focal point of Carlo Scarpa’s installation. Cangrande I belonged to a Ghibelline family (Ghibellines supported the Holy Roman emperor) and was a famous condotierre (professional general. Cangrande’s tomb. the Cangrande II built the Castelvecchio (old castle) as the family residence in 1354–1357. signals the mastery with which Carlo Scarpa treats an art museum installed in an old building. Verona. poised on a concrete balcony thrusting out from the upper parts of the dungeon of the medieval fortress of Verona. After several centuries of exposure to the elements.Castelvecchio Museum of Art 23 he medieval equestrian statue of Cangrande I della Scala (1291–1329). He was also renowned as the patron of a period of extraordinary artistic activity in Verona. . since his ancestor is the center of the museum. T Castelvecchio Museum of Art. was erected in the center of Verona in the Scaligar Arches. Appropriately enough.
It was demolished by German troops in 1945. Given the role of Cangrande I as the patron of Verona’s ﬁrst period of artistic excellence. The statue’s ﬁrst position. and above as we cross the courtyard on a diagonal bridge. Rather than being raised above us on a pedestal. Cangrande can be seen from many vantage points as we move through the museum. Carlo Scarpa was opposed to architectural renovation but not to the play of the new within the old. The della Scala family had built a bridge across the Adige River that was a rear entry to the castle. no nostalgia for an epic gesture. below. in a conﬁguration that simulates an individual encounter with the Cangrande. We are invited to play with the vision of the statue from around. Scarpa decided that the statue should be the central point of the installation and that all movement around. In 1923. raised on a stone pedestal. Scarpa was called on to oversee the rebuilding of this structure. we directly confront the statue.” guided the work on the bridge. activating all of the space around it. The whiteness of the statue contrasts with the subdued colors of the medieval stone and brick fabric. we have to grasp our relation to the work of art and enter deeply into Scarpa’s museographic decisions. that is. on the ﬂoor of a balcony. and down should take place in relation to it. . the image is a dominating presence. Thus. His motto. the façade of the building was reconstructed in a false medieval style that incorporated fragments of ﬁfteenth. Cangrande’s smile seems ironic. or if we climb to the top of the wall. dov’era. a task that he undertook with utmost respect for the past. Scarpa has created a physical situation that allows the ﬁgure to address and speak to us. as though we were involved in a scenographic drama.24 Castelvecchio Museum of Art Carlo Scarpa was asked in 1957 to organize an exhibition of medieval Veronese art in the castle and at the same time to begin renovating the old museum that had been previously installed there. we experience the Futurist idea of a total vision in movement that conveys movement to the statue itself. up.” which means “the way it was. It was damaged by bombing in World War II and has since been repaired. The wall behind the Cangrande statue is full of chronological intricacies and is part of the original fabric. but much of the main wing of the Castelvecchio was built during the Napoleonic era sometime before 1814.and sixteenthcentury architectural sculpture that had been preserved in various venues in Verona. the way it should be. From the upper ﬂoor of the museum. it is not compared to other works of art but is given a sort of sacred meaning by the movement around it and by the building it inhabits. The Castelvecchio ofﬁcially became a museum in 1925. if we go downstairs to the ground level. was changed between 1962 and 1964 to better display its artistic merits. it stands on the same level as we do. “come’era. Knowing how important the ﬁgure of the Cangrande was to Carlo Scarpa’s strategy. The ﬁgure is isolated from the background of a wall with horizontal layers of brick and stone construction that evoke different periods of history. it conveys no sense of heroism. The work of art escapes positivism. Because of this. He immediately realized the value of the Cangrande’s statue as the initiating image for the exhibition. as if provoked.
A History of Verona. between the religious buildings was deﬁned as an outgrowth of their interior sacred space. was set aside for the building of a cathedral. wooden beams. His integration of Cangrande’s statue explains better than anything else how Scarpa conceives of an art museum. London: Methuen. a campanile (bell tower). It should also be compared and contrasted to the municipal Piazza del Campo in Siena. Following the Crusades. Further Reading Allen. Carlo Scarpa.comune. A careful reading of the museum allows us to follow his creative process and to understand how he arrives at his architectural decisions.Cathedral 25 which made use of the original stones and bricks that were retrieved from the river and assembled with medieval techniques and without concrete. and splendid paving of cleanly cut stone. Bonanno. PISA Style: Romanesque Dates: 1064–1277 Architects: Buschetto and Rainaldus. the Pisans developed a maritime empire in the Middle East. MA: MIT Press. and the work was ﬁnished in 1967–1973. the Piazza del Duomo reveals an exceptional equilibrium between the buildings and open space. AND CAMPO SANTO. which began in 1957–1962. Giovanni Di Simone he twelfth century was a period of great prosperity for Pisa. Maria Antonietta. 1910. Looking more formal after the clearance of secondary buildings carried out in the nineteenth century. giving Scarpa time to think and react to what existed and what he added. proceeded slowly. he superimposed a modern layer on the old with steel and concrete constructions.htm CATHEDRAL. 1986. planted with grass. CAMPANILE. www.it/Castelvecchio/cvsito/english/index1. Crippa. Nicola Pisano. the open space. A. Cambridge. Diotisalvi. between mass and void. At Pisa. The position of the T . Cangrande’s sculpture was added in 1962–1964. called the Piazza del Duomo. While Carlo Scarpa respected the historic restoration of the Castello. The process of restoration and improvement. in building the realm over which Cangrande presides. BAPTISTERY.verona. At the northwest corner of the city walls a vast area. a baptistery. This area expresses the religious power of a Christian city-state as it contrasted itself to the Islamic culture of the Middle East. and later the Campo Santo or cemetery. M.
26 Cathedral Baptistery. The architect Rainaldus added three more bays to the nave (1261– 1272). Because it was also used for the baptistery. Pisa. the cathedral. . The cathedral. and Leaning Tower. baptistery. The main one extends from the entrance façade to the apse. the amount of limestone needed was so great that a canal was built to transport it from the quarries in Monte Pisano to the building site. with aisles and its own apse. There is total continuity in the groin-vaulted aisles and wood-covered galleries throughout. Cathedral. The façade of the cathedral probably reﬂects Lombard freestanding galleries and is made of a glittering white limestone of the best quality. each complete in itself. The use of the same building materials in the three other buildings in the complex enhances the sense of irresistible unity and allows for considerable freedom in the introduction of various types of marble that reveal a poetic approach to the use of materials. prolonging it in the direction of the baptistery. and the campanile was based on the position of stars in the Aries constellation on March 21. is the conjunction of three basilicas. An oval dome towers above the crossing. An arrangement of buildings based on the mariners’ observation of the stars. begun in 1064 under the guidance of the architect Buschetto. Sea merchants’ night navigation could thus be reﬂected by the respective locations of their religious monuments. It is intersected by two minor basilicas. The minor basilicas act as transepts in a Latin cross plan.
They are the basis for its nickname. K. 2003. Further Reading Conant. SAN GIOVANNI BATTISTA. Its ground is reputed to be sacred because the earth was brought from the Holy Land as ballast in the Pisan ships when they returned from Palestine. suffered from foundation problems almost from the beginning. CHURCH OF THE AUTOSTRADA. Shrady. Begun in 1185 under the supervision of Bonanno of Pisa. CT: Yale University Press. Nicholas. The bell tower is eight stories tall and has six superimposed galleries that replicate those on the cathedral façade. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. 1974. CAMPI BISENZIO Style: Contemporary Dates: 1961–1971 Architect: Giovanni Michelucci ight miles west of Florence on the Autostrada del Sole is a large industrial suburb called Campi Bisenzio. In 1439. inspired by the Early Christian belfries of Ravenna. who attempted to correct the inclination by giving the campanile an unexpected banana shape.Church of the Autostrada 27 The baptistery was begun in 1152 by the builder Diotisalvi but was not completed until a second building campaign from 1250 to 1265 directed by Nicola Pisano. just fourteen years before the fall of Constantinople to the Muslims. New Haven. instability of the foundations interrupted the work in 1185. a building of irregular volumes that matches the mood of the harried Italian driver. or cemetery. in 1275. construction was reinitiated by Giovanni di Simone. The campanile.” the medieval Latin term for cemeteries. who based it on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. A double ring of raised galleries wraps around the interior of the baptistery which is covered by a conical vault. J. the Italian superhighway. may stop for a few minutes at this site to contemplate the Church of the Autostrada. The Campo Santo. the Leaning Tower. New York: Simon and Schuster. E . travelers on the Autostrada. is a series of three courtyards or “atria. it had been used as a camp to house the Byzantine delegation to the General Council of the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. Tilt: A Skewed History of the Tower of Pisa. Nicola Pisano sculpted a pulpit that offers a display of Late Gothic sculpture and is the precedent for the cathedral pulpit (1302–1311) made by his son Giovanni. A century later. Today.
to the anguished. brutally expressive ﬁgures in Picasso’s great painting Guernica. The brutal cutting of the windows through the structure expands the plasticity of walls and space.28 Church of the Autostrada Church of the Autostrada. is Michelucci’s reaction to the modernizing process that occurred in Italy in the 1960s. passageways. Thick massive walls of irregular stones contrast with a precious copper roof. The angular lines. and the playfulness of the rooﬂines dissolve the boundaries of the building and delay the perception of its exact shape. One stops to wonder: is this pure architecture or a gesture in space full of discrepancies that reveal its creator as a man of doubt.” Its curving roof establishes visual links both with the hills of Tuscany that surround it and with the Autostrada that passes by. but it complicates the overall image. unpredictable forms. the color of the stones redolent of sunlight. the main room is covered by a concrete vault suspended like a tent on surprising branched pillars that condition the space and create a maze-like feeling of expressionist style. Inside. The processional pathways that lead to the church mix various spaces. A memorial for workers killed during the construction of the Italian superhighways designed by Giovanni Michelucci (1961–1971). The church belongs to the design approach commonly called “organic architecture. Campi Bisentio. The expressive freedom of the Church of the Autostrada. and resting places are carefully ordered so that they delay the revelation of the church at the end of the procession. in particular its clashing. a tormented believer? The tree-like pillars suggest desolation. The harshness and austerity of aesthetics in the 1960s distorted the traditional relation of the building to the . a sense of evil that was compared by Paolo Portoghesi. another famous Italian architect. Michelucci’s concept for the church was based on processional movement that forms a continuum with the experience of driving a car on the motorway. balconies.
“La Chiesa del’Autostrada del Sole. See Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza). Storia dell’Architettura Italiana. an idea he learned from studying the French architect August Perret. no matter how unﬁt. Dal Co. modern architectural orthodoxy. His later buildings show him working with contradiction and developing space starting from the essential supporting structure. Milan. reveals his experiments both with what he took from Perret’s practice and with his development of a concept of modern architecture that was truly heterodox. Michelucci’s church is a powerful protest that resists rational argument. Michelucci. As a conﬁrmed individualist and a Roman Catholic of tormented belief. that is. creating a difﬁcult tension between an environmental approach and freedom of space. Chronachi e Storia. . the Church of the Autostrada constitutes an ephemeral birth of the new and a summit in postwar Italian architecture. Giovanni Michelucci was opposed to the architectural conformism of the so-called modern architects in his country. With his irresistible charisma. Michelucci had an exceptional creative capacity that could turn any proposal. F. Ludovico Quaroni. both are major church-building landmarks of the second half of the twentieth century. “A Conversation with Giovanni Michelucci. he was a major talent in Tuscany after World War II. or even a revolt against.” Perspecta 27 (1992): 98–115.” He exaggerated the enveloping wall and used structure illusionistically. With roots in modern engineering. CHURCH OF SANTA COSTANZA. Portoghesi. Rome.Church of the Autostrada 29 landscape. to which it has been compared. 1960s architects combined structural innovations with new architectural experiments. F. Further Reading Dal Co. As such. Michelucci’s journal La nova città focused on a synthesis of urban design and architecture. G. More than its refusal to submit to the past and to an inherited construction tradition.” The church design is rooted in a transformed tradition that memorializes a large shelter of ineffable space outside time. 1997. Michelucci’s Stock Exchange in Pistoia. “Giovanni Michelucci: A Life a Century Long. 101 (1964). il Secondo Novecento. into beautiful architecture. a major Italian architect. found Michelucci’s church to be “a strong and rare point of reference in Italian architecture” and “a grandiose celebration. Like Le Corbusier’s Ronchamp (1950–1955). opposed to what he considered the oversimpliﬁcation posed by modernist “truths. the Church of the Autostrada is a reaction to. P.” L’Architetturra. a monument of surprising harmony.” Perspecta 27 (1992): 116–39.
This idea parallels that of the Ducal Palace. emerged Giancarlo di Carlo. Because of long debates over the construction of the school. The completed Collegio del Colle of 1966 spread over the slopes of the hill in a design that took advantage of the natural beauty of the site. The old city is walled in. Two-thirds of a mile west of Urbino’s historic center. his colleague in working for Pope Julius II. built on a hill and therefore invisible from it. which was also organized as an ideal Renaissance city. an architect of the twentieth century. the actual building did not begin until 1962. The men decided that the university should be separated from the venerable city center and that the ﬁrst residential buildings and instructional areas should be built on a hillside. On top of the hill. De Carlo’s method was open: He listened to others. Against this background of personalities of the highest prestige in the arts. which was explored through participation in long dialogues. He was asked by Mayor Mascioli of Urbino and Dean Carlo Bo of the university to take part in the development of a new campus in 1951. de Carlo imagined his city growing through different stages. URBINO Style: Contemporary Dates: 1962–1983 Architect: Giancarlo di Carlo U rbino is a small university town where 20. .000 people.000 students receive instruction in a community of 9. he carefully examined the spaces they lived in. His primary goal was diversity. and Piero della Francesca. Urbino is the birthplace of the great Renaissance painter Raphael. Fascinated by the old city and even more by the way of life of its inhabitants. a former Capuchin convent was converted into the administrative center. It is famous for the Ducal Palace built for Federico de Montefeltro in the ﬁfteenth century and for the leading group of artists and architects who were associated with the city: Luciano Laurana. Donato Bramante. was born in a nearby community. and he studied the site proposed for the Collegio in order to understand its potential. opening onto the spectacular vista of the hills and mountains to the west. Below it. Francesco di Giorgio. the Collegio del Colle is a university that is conceived as a city. each stage of the Collegio project received a speciﬁc and individual treatment that insured ﬂexibility. de Carlo’s thinking stressed both the idea of the individual and the idea of his/her social connections within the urban group.30 Collegio del Colle and Extensions COLLEGIO DEL COLLE AND EXTENSIONS. As building progressed. and the ﬁnal extensions that completed the Collegio del Colle were not ﬁnished until 1983.
Walter Gropius. and teacher. Always his own person. Milan) he believed in historical continuity. In the 1950s. . Along with Ernesto Rogers (Velasca Tower. he derived the concept of history as living material demanding contemporary use. and Mies van der Rohe. are also very tangible factors in his creation of the Collegio del Colle. the Collegio del Aquilone (North Wind) is organized as a small street between two wings of buildings. The Collegio del Tridente (Trident College) steps down the hillside. From the ideas of Benedetto Croce. and the Collegio della Vela (the Sail) has eight buildings on a splendid stretch of planted terraces in which the construction disappears into the absolute presence of Nature. which was led by Le Corbusier. de Carlo represents Italian attitudes toward history. As architect. de Carlo’s idea of modern architecture was that it should have a certain modesty and a respect for simple everyday life and for local culture—all of these to be incorporated within the idea of “spontaneity. never deferring to the authority of any group. Giancarlo de Carlo is one of the most important architects in Italy today. Growth and variation. ideas he derived from his admiration of Frank Lloyd Wright. Giancarlo di Carlo designed the school as a series of terraces stepping down the hillside (1962–1966). Later extensions to the college built from 1973 to 1983 provided an additional 850 rooms and were simple variations on the original design concept. urban planner. an association of young creators who wished to adapt (not to betray or totally reject) the ideals of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM). he was loosely associated with an architectural group called Team X. Urbino.” which he borrowed from Roman architectural circles in 1951.Collegio del Colle and Extensions 31 Collegio del Colle.
Giancarlo de Carlo. Oxford and Boston: Butterworth Architecture. Benedict. Gianlorenzo Bernini. The successful complement of college and historic city are ample evidence of de Carlo’s talent. the famous Baldacchino (1624–1633). which was altered when Carlo Maderno added a huge nave in 1609–1626. Zucchi. was asked by Pope Urban VIII to create a canopy to mark the site of Saint Peter’s tomb under Michelangelo’s dome. 1991. Further Reading McKean. a sculptural tour de force of huge dimensions that formed a transitional element between the ﬂoor of the church and the lantern of the huge dome 365 feet above. John. The Collegio del Colle expresses de Carlo’s aspirations for architecture. 2004. COLONNADE OF SAINT PETER’S BASILICA. The Architecture of Giancarlo de Carlo. a man of great moral integrity. who contributed numerous sculptural decorations to the interior. for which he submitted a restoration plan in 1964 to the Historic Preservation Committee. de Carlo used his university project to bring the old into harmony with the new. Urban was accused of plundering the bronze decorations from the Pantheon to build this canopy. was an amateur student of architecture. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1656–1667 Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini I n 1590. to a century-long demand by the clergy for a more functional church that could accommodate liturgical processions and the vast number of pilgrims who came to worship at the site of Saint Peter’s burial place. Rarely in history have an architect and client been so extensively involved in religious and artistic discussions as were . during the reign of Pope Sixus V. the architect Giacomo della Porta ﬁnished Michelangelo’s dome over the crossing of Saint Peter’s but not his plan for the church as a whole. By conceiving the university as an extension of the old city. Maderno was responding. Pope Alexander VII Chigi (1656–1667).32 Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica For de Carlo. Paris: Editions du Centre Pompidou. today’s behavior and social habits should be expressed by contemporary architecture so that tempered modernism becomes familiar. although reluctantly.
195). As he had done at Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. the pope and Bernini. the pope suggested that Bernini create an oval piazza. The new position of the ancient monument on the transverse axis of the piazza recalls its location on the spina of the ancient oval racetrack. viewed from the top of Michelangelo’s dome. Rome. It also marks the point where the longitudinal and transverse axes of the piazza intersect. . which hid Michelangelo’s dome. the piazza was to welcome “not only Roman Catholics whose faith would be conﬁrmed but also Protestants in order to reunite them to the church and non-believers to be illuminated by faith” (Wittkower 1973.Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica 33 Colonnade and Piazza of Saint Peter’s. the obelisk marked a vantage point from which the dome was visible. At 600 feet from Maderno’s façade and nave. The transverse axis is in line with the Egyptian obelisk that had been brought from the ruins of the spina (central dividing line) of Nero’s circus (racetrack) in the Vatican area and erected in front of Saint Peter’s by Domenico Fontana in 1586. or entrance courtyard. in front of Constantine’s basilica of Saint Peter had been destroyed to build Maderno’s new nave and façade. with its long axis perpendicular to the church and its short axis in line with the processional axis of the church and Maderno’s nave. which abstractly represents the embracing arms of the Catholic Church. In March 1657. The two men met daily or weekly. In Bernini’s words. an idea that Bernini developed with great skill and imagination. that is. Bernini set the oval transversely. The atrium. and Alexander decided that it should be replaced with a monumental piazza to welcome large crowds of visitors. and Alexander recorded their conversations in his personal journals. Bernini’s masterpiece. Bernini’s ﬁrst project for the piazza in 1656 was rejected because it was out of scale with Saint Peter’s.
The ground slopes gently upward from the obelisk in the center toward the edges of the oval where the colonnades stand some ﬁve to seven feet higher. has a trapezoidal shape with sides diverging from the façade. Propaganda and religious fervor are united in this display of the gloriﬁcation of saints and their intercession for the believers. By doing this. As C. that is. popes. Bernini created a pavement for the piazza that is not a ﬂat surface but rather is bowl shaped. The shallow bowl shape of the piazza gives most of the 250. that represent the Catholic saints. which is composed of four parallel rows of columns. Its unexpected openness in form and spirit is characteristic of Roman Baroque architecture. It is like the auditorium of a “teatrum mundi. function was also a key factor in the Saint Peter’s piazza. Bernini’s trapezoidal piazza is ﬂanked by two low. As he was very much involved in the planning and building of the piazza. the oval shape of the piazza.” as Bernini described them. enclosed corridors that frame the massive staircase up to the entrance porch of the church and continue the lines of the great colonnades of the much larger oval piazza. Pope Alexander requested this triple colonnade as a reference to antique examples. . like the Campidoglio. To improve sight lines. the Pope also demanded both a scale model and a full sized mock-up of a section of the colonnade. Bernini created a space that articulates a sacred monument and a city square whose space becomes sacred. Bernini’s design turned the area in front of Saint Peter’s into a vast. G.” a world theater focused on the papal drama. Argan (1991) has observed. recalls the outline of Michelangelo’s dome. This creates a reverse-perspective system similar not only to Michelangelo’s but also to that used by Bernardo Rossellino in the Piazza Pio II in Pienza. aligning the oval piazza with a second piazza in front of Saint Peter’s that. the two vaults between the side pairs being lower than the one in the center. martyrs. He used a strict Palladian Doric order for the colonnade. The disposition of the oval permitted the vast crowds of worshippers to see the pope when he appeared in the Benediction Window in the upper level of the church’s façade and also when he gave his blessings from the balcony of the Papal Palace on the north side of the piazza. Bernini believed.34 Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica Bernini used the piazza to create perspective devices that reduce the apparent size and proportions of Maderno’s façade. open urban gathering place that symbolically embraces all the people of the world. In a sense. Standing on pedestals behind the balustrade over the columns are 140 statues. each about 10 feet tall. These were executed in a nearby house that would enable him to judge the actual dimensions and approve the proportions. which was considered much too broad. and founders of monastic orders. Between each pair of columns is a vaulted aisle. Beyond faith.000 people who can congregate there a good view of the ceremonies and of the Pope. hollowed out toward the center. he created a reference to Michelangelo’s designs for the Campidoglio. which consequently surround the crowds in it “like embracing arms. The piazza is a great space where everyone could gather and be persuaded of the authority of the church.
the plundering of building materials became common and continued until the eighteenth century. called the Colosseum. 1997. Bernini. Harmondsworth: Penguin.” Because of its oval shape. and David Finn. Boston: Bulﬁnch Press. among other things. after all. COLOSSEUM. with which it was covered in order to soak up blood. New York: Rizzoli. Bernini. Howard Bernini. was in Roman antiquity one of the most daring buildings ever constructed and demonstrated. 1984. the arena. the largest amphitheater ever built by the Romans. Next to the amphitheater stood the Colossus of Nero. Borsi. ROME Style: Roman Dates: 70–80 CE Architect: Unknown he Flavian Amphitheater. It was this immense statue—colossus—that. gave its nickname to the Flavian Amphitheater. as well as earthquakes in 442 and 508. To a remarkable degree. and the training schools for the gladiators who fought in the amphitheater. It could seat 50 to 73. The Colosseum was the center of an entertainment complex that included baths. and 200 feet tall at the outside edge—“Colosseum” is really a nickname that refers to a statue. but the Colosseum functioned continuously until Christianity became the ofﬁcial religion of the Empire and condemned the bloody spectacles. 1991. shops. oval wood ﬂoor in the center of the amphitheater. Charles. a 150-foot-tall bronze statue of the emperor whose head was changed to that of Sol the sun god after Nero’s suicide. the amphitheater provided every seat with a thrilling view of the battles and contests performed in the arena. the skill of Roman architects at organizing the movement of huge crowds into and out of an enormous structure. required repairs. and the ﬁnal “venatione” (wild animal hunt) took place in 523. Although the name Colosseum is often mistakenly assumed to be a descriptive term for the building’s size—it is. The last gladiatorial show was held in 404. 524 feet wide. fountains. Franco. Fires caused by lightning in 217 and 250. Materials from the T . Reissue ed. The ﬂat. Genius of the Baroque. the building has survived to the present despite natural disasters and human depredation. after the year 1000. Beginning with an earthquake in 847. 617 feet long. takes its name from the Latin word for sand.Colosseum Further Reading 35 Avery.000 spectators who came to see the amazing (but sometimes cruel) spectacles called “ludi. Hibbard.
Rome. The largest amphitheater in the Roman Empire. .Colosseum.
allowed the spectators to ﬁnd their seats and exit with a minimum of confusion—the “tickets” given to the people had the entrance and seat number written on them. which was raised from underground on elevators moved by a series of counterweights. if they had it—when they entered the Ludus and received hard training and tough discipline while learning their ﬁghting skills. the various ranks were disposed all the way to the upper tier. each one numbered. the Chancellery. The gladiators gave up their freedom—and their citizenship. Inside the Colosseum the wood ﬂoor.” To the east of the Colosseum was the Ludus Magnus.” There was also a large storage facility for the scenic machines and other paraphernalia needed for the games. called the “editor. Behind them. The cavea was divided horizontally into ﬁve sections beginning at the bottom. and the delivery of scenery. .Colosseum 37 Colosseum were used for the Palazzo Venezia.” was in charge of ﬁnancing the shows. procuring the animals. After it was consecrated to the memory of Christian martyrs in the eighteenth century. and selecting the gladiators who had been trained by a “lanista. a forest containing a hundred exotic animals could be created for the “venationes. An organizer. called the cavea. The senatorial class occupied the lowest tier of seats closest to the action. and Saint Peter’s Basilica.000 spectators could leave the building within ﬁve minutes. the imperial power controlled the gladiatorial schools and delegated the organization of the shows to public ofﬁcials. Spectators in the Colosseum sat on marble benches in a bowl-shaped seating area. Seating in the amphitheater was hierarchical: each class of Roman society was assigned a speciﬁc location in relation to the arena. and the slaves took their places. A large area around the Colosseum was dedicated to practical concerns. Women were permitted to attend the spectacles in the Colosseum. Combat in the area was often deadly. where the freedmen. the storage and release of wild animals. made up of a series of tiers much like a modern football stadium. the poor. When Rome became a monarchy.” or the entire space could be ﬂooded for the presentation of naval battles. It contained dormitories for them and an oval arena of 206 by 138 feet surrounded by a double level of seats. the largest training facility for gladiators in Rome. next to the arena. careful restoration was begun and continues today. and ending at the top of the building. covered with sand. hid a complicated series of passageways and galleries used for the movement of gladiators. but they had to sit in the upper tier with the lower classes. The ﬁve sections were divided into wedge-shaped sections by ﬂights of stairs leading both down from the entrances and up to the top of the seating. Seventy-six entrances. Gladiatorial games were originally entertainment provided for the people by the republican nobility—ﬁrst for public funerals but later as a means of attracting political support. 100 feet above the ground. It is estimated that the entire 70. In the arena. Dead bodies were received at the “spoliarium” and the wounded were treated at the “saniarum. but successful gladiators became wealthy public celebrities.
were used for the inner walls and the upper parts of the structure. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications. J. they were connected by numerous staircases. The half-columns of the three arched stories are arranged vertically according to their relative simplicity: Doric on the ground ﬂoor. 2005. Large blocks of a special travertine. L. Roman Imperial Architecture. called a “velarium. Further Reading Gabucci. New Haven. The Colosseum remains the most impressive example of architectural grandeur from Roman imperial times. CT: Yale University Press.. Building techniques were adapted to support the cavea. 1992. Cambridge. R. It is composed of three stories of handsome arches framed by half-columns that appear to carry horizontal bands. At the fourth level. The Colosseum. B. a type of sedimentary stone found near Rome. the solid wall carries Composite pilasters (ﬂattened columns) that originally alternated with large bronze shields. and Mary Beard.38 Confraternity of San Bernardino Entering the cavea tiers and ﬁnding seats required a complex organization of circulation. CHIERI Style: Baroque Dates: 1740–1744 Architect: Bernardo Vittone . Various types of materials were used according to their weight-bearing capacity in relation to the loads they had to carry. Richardson. Keith. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. 1992. MA: Harvard University Press. What remains of the exterior of the Colosseum is impressive. which was disguised by decorations made of stucco. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. The vaults supporting the seating were made of concrete and brick-faced concrete. 2002. encase the lower parts (the ﬁrst two stories) of the skeleton of the building. and Corinthian on the third level. Two lighter volcanic stones. peperino and tufa. At the top of the fourth level are brackets that were used to support tall wood posts that supported the vast awning. or entablatures. This was accomplished by four levels of vaulted galleries that ran around the exterior of the oval seating area. that are continuous around the building.” that could be unfurled to protect the audience from the midday sun. Above these is a solid fourth story. Ionic above that. Ward-Perkins. Hopkins. Jr. The Colosseum. Ada. CONFRATERNITY OF SAN BERNARDINO.
though a diligent architect and engineer—he designed new canals to improve agriculture in Piedmont—failed to get major commissions from the court in Turin and designed chieﬂy small buildings.Confraternity of San Bernardino 39 onfraternities are congregations of laypeople who meet together for worship and also for common support and good works. 1740. to frame a painted. when the dome collapsed leaving only the walls of the church standing. illusionistic vision of the sky above within which saints or mythological C . The leaders of the Confraternity hurried to Bernardo Vittone (1702–1770) for advice. Chieri was a prosperous city in the vicinity of Turin. and the leaders of the city communal government among its members. the Confraternity commissioned the engineer Quadro to design a larger building. hospitals. It played a role in regional government. In the seventeenth century. the Confraternity counted the most prestigious traders. Bernardo Vittone. He proposed a church on a Greek cross plan with a dome over the central crossing. but “ingenious architect” would be more appropriate). Defects in the building led to the disaster of August 30. consider Baroque vault paintings. chapels. an outline based on the cornice. they could also be a force for transforming the urban setting since they ﬁnanced the building of meeting halls and chapels. but Chieri was really famous for its wines and for the linen produced in the local textile factories. and clever architectural devices to create the effect of a dome hollowed out by light. Vittone. In 1675. and churches in remote villages that are difﬁcult to ﬁnd today. To understand his design process. but his scheme was not built for forty-six years. space. Most of them use a contour line. By 1744. He convinced them that all that could be saved from the original building were the walls and that it would be most wise economically to use them in the rebuilding. fourteen years after the conclusion of the Council of Trent to oppose the Protestant Reformation and to expand the Catholic Reformation or what historians once called the Counter-Reformation. was an architect from Piedmont who was admired by his Baroque contemporaries because of his extensive knowledge of the famous architect Guarino Guarini (1624–1683). they found a prominent site on the large Piazza del Piano where a small chapel was built by the Luganese architect Bettino. who worked primarily for the Duke of Piedmont in Turin. and the Confraternity selected the most magniﬁcent one. Vittone’s dome at San Bernardino combines luminosity. written in 1737. so in 1694. the rough brick construction of the dome was ﬁnished and soon covered by the delicate work of two stucco artists. The Confraternity of San Bernardino was founded in 1577. He submitted three drawings on March 25. The chapel proved too small for the meetings and storage of documents. textile manufacturers. city halls. In fact. Quadro was dead and little attention had been paid to the details of construction. 1741. after having studied in Rome. By the time the building was ﬁnally ﬁnished. In Italian cities. Vittone convinced the Theatine Fathers to support the publication of Guarini’s Architettura civile (Civil Architecture). separated from the larger city by gentle hills. Vittone then proposed that he design a lofty dome to replace the one that had collapsed. “ingeniere” (literally engineer.
Chieri.Confraternity of San Bernardino. . The lofty system of Baroque arches and magical illumination is characteristic of the work of Vittone.
Richard.” or “light cell. Alﬁeri and Vittone. un architetto tra illuminismo e recocò. those lanterns were fairly simple. this Baroque scenographic approach (treating the interior as a set designer might) dematerializes the building and creates a total integration of light and space. 1999. Compared with Vittone’s dome. He covered the neighboring shallow bays the same way.Confraternity of San Bernardino 41 characters ﬂoat among clouds. using the real cornices and architectural moldings to create openings in a lower vault through which a vault above it can be seen. Rome: Edizioni dell’ Elefante. like many other Baroque architects. . New Haven. 4th ed. the openings in the lower vault becoming examples of what Vittone called an “occhio di lumiera. reducing the dome to a number of crossed ribs. focusing the lighting effects in an architectural translation of contemporary scientiﬁc experiments. especially those used in churches where architects had created vast lanterns above the crossing of nave and transept. 1600–1750. and. Paolo. and instead of using pendentives (spherical triangles that are typically used to make the transition between a circular dome and a square supporting structure). CT: Yale University Press. The space between the vaults became a “box of light.. 1967. Eighteenth-Century Architecture in Piedmont. Light is the dominant feature of these constructions. 1966. the Open Structures of Juvarra. returned to Gothic building techniques.” an “eye of light. creating the light cells that brought light down into the church and around the unusual dome. Art and Architecture in Italy. But Vittone had to support a spherical dome within a square lantern. dismantled its physical structure. windows. Portoghesi. Wittkower. using the English scientist’s optical observations in creating these light cells by taking advantage of the reﬂections of light on their sides. Vittone. This duplication of building elements multiplied the openings of light. Further Reading Pommer. In effect. In creating his dome. New York: New York University Press. often concealed.” Vittone became a talented interpreter of Newton (1642–1727). et al. The frames of the cells function like lenses. they were square in plan and their weight could be transferred directly to the four crossing piers and arches beneath them. Baroque architects did much the same thing.” illuminated by well-positioned. Bernardo Vittone. R. changing the church into what some historians have called “a lofty system of arches” separated by light cells. he left a gap. Baroque painters created the impression that the physical vault had been opened up to the sky.
Bernini sculpted the hard and resistant marble into reﬂective surfaces from which light ﬂashes and shimmers like elusive ﬂames. The monumental marble frame. He penetrated her heart. In the western transept. sculpture. and her garments move like ﬂames that ﬂicker ﬂeetingly in a breeze. on the sidewalls of the chapel. indicating God’s presence. opens onto a niche ﬂooded by light descending along golden rays. which increased in God’s love and gave her a feeling of overwhelming sweetness. the gentlemen of the Cornaro family are shown seated in balconies that look like theater boxes discussing the vision of the saint. according to which an angel came to her carrying a golden arrow pointed with ﬁre. Bernini’s statue of the ecstasy of Saint Teresa is a complete and detailed visualization of her own account. Instead of a painting. Soon after his arrival in Rome. like semiprecious gems that could inspire spirituality. SANTA MARIA DELLA VITTORIA. Carlo Maderno had designed the church in 1608 for the convent of the Discalced Carmelites. son of Doge Giovanni Cornaro. the ecstasy is transient and can be understood as the reduction of an instant to impermanency. and the saint’s experience was to be revealed not only to the Cornaro family but also to any believer who saw it. the order that was founded by Saint Teresa. the frame contains the scintillating white marble statues of Saint Teresa and the angel who. To the right and left of the altar. To ﬁx the ecstatic C . was the Patriarch of Venice. and architecture beginning with a cloud-like ﬂow of painting and stucco on the vault overhead and descending to a frame of dark and mellow marble. which resembles the frame of an altarpiece. Bernini’s aim was to visualize a human event that took place at the limits of the supernatural: the absolute intimacy of Saint Teresa in ecstasy. The dense glow of the mixed marbles conveys a sense of religious awe. pierced her heart. However. he commissioned Bernini to build a sepulchral chapel in the western transept of the small church of Santa Maria della Vittoria. The whole structure of the chapel should be understood as a mental preparation for a spiritual experience.42 Cornaro Chapel CORNARO CHAPEL. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1647–1652 Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini ardinal Federico Cornaro. she said. The chapel was to be developed around the ﬁgure of Saint Teresa of Avila who was canonized in 1622. Bernini set up a uniﬁed vision of painting. Teresa called the angel ﬂame-like. as if the colored marbles had curative qualities.
. Photograph courtesy of Fabio Barry.Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria. Bernini’s sculpture of Saint Teresa in ecstacy is the focus of the bel composto. Rome.
her eyes are half closed. et al. Giovanni. and architecture—into a ﬂuid whole. sculpture. the miraculous. belong to the real world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Further Reading Avery. Wittkower. . Bernini knew and practiced. In “bel composto. Bernini puts the ﬁgures of Saint Teresa and the Angel above the altar in a niche lit from above where one would expect to see a painting. Bernini. 1600–1750. New Haven. The chapel walls become a canvas: on the columns next to Saint Teresa. some of whom descend from the painted surface as three-dimensional forms modeled in stucco.” to create a convincing reality. and we ourselves standing in front of the railing of the chapel. the spiritual exercises described by Saint Ignatius Loyola. created ambiguities. One of the many marvels of the Cornaro Chapel is the use of multicolored marbles. Bernini. Careri. CT: Yale University Press. All the arts are combined. It represents heaven and is populated by cherubs and angels. Here the purpose is to connect a believer through Saint Teresa’s ecstasy to God. coalesce into a singular experience of the divine. 1997. Charles.” which resembles walnut or olive tree roots. For example. and her lips are parted as if in a sigh. B.” the parts combine effectively into a single effect so that reality and illusion. the metaphysical. the stones called “giallo antico” and “nero antico” are used to depict the fabric hung on the front of the Cornaro family’s balconies. Pelican History of Art. the Art of Devotion. and the vault over the chapel is an illusionistic combination of painting and sculpture. the eternal for a precarious. Teresa’s head is thrown back. life. they and we are invited to glimpse the invisible. Art and Architecture in Italy. Bernini has fused all the major arts—painting. called “bel composto.44 Cornaro Chapel instant. 1999. The ﬁgures and architecture are an indissoluble whole. “I Marmi Loquaci: Painting in Stone. Bernini exploited the beauty of their rich tints and patterns to create a state of wonder in the viewer that leads to religious devotion. London: Bulﬁnch. and “alabastro ﬁorito. The cascade of light descending the golden rays behind the two ﬁgures represents a sudden ﬂash of light coming from the Holy Spirit. Flights of Love. Genius of the Baroque.” Daidalos 56 (1995): 106–121. which as a devout Jesuit. an impermanent and instantaneous moment. 1995. Although the Cornaro family members in their balconies. Bernini’s “bel composto” used marble as a new painting tool. Rudolf. and artiﬁce. 4th ed. organized into a montage where transitions between art forms that are governed by different rules and regimes are treated as a series of shifts from one level to another in continuous process. Bernini’s inspiration was the mental procedure. Translated by Linda Lappin. veins of the “brescia polychroma” recall the cloud that carries her ﬁgure. making it impossible to isolate only one of them. A close inspection of the details reveals different colored marbles used to imitate other substances. is used for the doors below. and appealed to a mixture of reality and imagination to create a convincing revelation of the invisible. Vol. and David Finn. 1: Early Baroque. Fabio.
which was the typical goal of Renaissance thinkers. quick in his decisions. Florence. As a political leader. he became the general captain of the Italian League. he married Battista Sforza. which supported his fame as an eminent patron of intellectuals and artists. In all these cities. Francesco di Giorgio Martini he beauty of the Ducal Palace at Urbino. Pope Sixtus V gave Federico the title of Duke when he was thirty. a man of culture. deﬁnes both what a Renaissance prince was able to achieve and how a “condotierre” (warlord or professional general) could gather a leading group of artists to create a humanist retreat. after the death of his ﬁrst wife. he brought in a bureaucracy modeled on that of Florence to handle the ﬁnancing and remuneration of the military. its skyline with the twin turrets on the crest of the hill. Federico was a warrior. At the age of sixteen Federico was captain of the Montefeltro army. the murder of his half-brother Oddantonio. a disastrous ruler. and for the Sforza of Milan. and at thirty-two. As vicar of the church. and a shrewd political leader. and thoroughly lucky. and there he encountered the new intellectual manners of the Renaissance. in 1444. he was delegated to rule a part of the Church’s territory. This surprising mixture of war and peace explains a frantic life spent on the battleﬁeld and a sense of reasoned maturity that inﬂuenced his life.Ducal Palace 45 DUCAL PALACE. at twenty-ﬁve. he was struck by the beauty of early Renaissance buildings. a woman of excellent character who was fully able to govern Urbino in his absence. and Naples he was welcomed at the most sophisticated courts. In 1460. high-spirited. Battista died in childbirth in 1472 but left to Federico an heir who was named Guidobaldo. or caused. T . for the Malatesta princes of Rimini. He fought for the King of Naples. he was count of Urbino. Federico da Montefeltro (1422–1482) combined military accomplishments with outstanding cultural leadership. In Milan. He also reformed the judicial courts to speed up their decisions. Federico could rationalize his constant involvement in military activity (he was almost always painted in armor) by his belief that war would ﬁnance works of peace. Rome. and he reduced the taxes of his subjects to a minimum. URBINO Style: Renaissance Dates: 1444–1482 Architects: Luciano Laurana. In a time when a typical man’s life expectancy was less than forty years he lived to be sixty. after having approved of. At twenty-two. Federico’s military success with Italian and foreign princes made him so famous that he was received in triumphal processions in many Italian cities. for Florence.
Instead. In all of the arts. Vittorino da Feltre taught all sorts of “sciences” including the development of a psychophysical harmony practiced by a society that desired a life of well-being. Federico’s library reveals his passion for books while his “studiolo” (study) Ducal Palace. the grammatical (the syntactical order of the courtyard) versus the arbitrary (the diagonal façade framed by twin towers that overlooks the steep ravine). the Ducal Palace should be understood as a laboratory. One of the most beautiful of all Renaissance courtyards designed by Luciano Laurana for the humanist prince Federico da Montefeltro. they worked with contrasts: the ordinary (the sequence of 250 rooms) versus the exceptional (the splendid courtyard at its center). who was probably advised by Alberti.46 Ducal Palace Federico gathered around himself what might be thought of as a “school” of architects led by Luciano Laurana. which was based on mathematical regularity and harmony of proportions. they decided not to emulate it. the interior (the simple and ﬂat city façade) versus the exterior (the sculptural façade facing the landscape with its recessed loggias and projecting balconies). where young Italian princes ﬂocked to be educated. However. was organized in a palazzo based on the latest revolutionary principles. Urbino.” or perhaps it is more accurate to say in reverse: a palazzo shaped like a city. Laurana created for the Duke of Urbino “a city shaped like a palazzo. The gentle court of Urbino. The architects who built the Ducal Palace knew the style of contemporary palazzi in Florence. .
After a crisis in car production in 1908–1909. TURIN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1915–1923 Architect: Giacomo Matte Trucco urin was destined to become an industrial city by the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth.Fiat Lingotto Plant 47 incorporates an imaginative array of marquetry (wood inlay) doors that depict illusionistic views. and one is by an artist unknown (now in Berlin’s Bode Museum). they are conceived as pure exercises in perspective as it had been developed in Florentine artistic circles. beyond displaying perspective perfection. Their theme is mostly the city. one is attributed to Fra’Carnevale (now in the Walters Art Gallery.000 people. Baltimore).600 workers in 1911. was created in 1899. Distant mountains and hills across the Po River provided a sort of limit to a constant urban sprawl. FIAT LINGOTTO PLANT. ed. Three of the panels from the “studiolo” focus directly on the ideal city: one is attributed to Laurana (still in Urbino). the census indicated an increase of 85. S. FIAT. Further Reading Adams. T . It had adequate electrical resources to provide energy and access to an open plane ready for the development of industries that transformed the city into a dream for the jobless people coming from all over Italy. the Factory of Italian Automobiles of Turin. giving Turin a population of 500. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. June. Urbino: The Story of a Renaissance City. between 1911 and 1921. Osborne. Mass production became his guiding idea. L. which employed 14. All were hoping for both economic improvement and civil progress. He planned a new factory after he had paid a visit to Henry Ford in 1912. Federico da Montefeltro and Sigismondo Malatesta: The Eagle and the Elephant. especially from the south. Turin grew rapidly. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. the marquetry panels also trained the eye and the mind to envision the ideal city that the palace was promoting. As a result. However. Giovanni Agnelli was convinced that a concentration of modern means of production was required to ensure the future of his company.000 inhabitants. 2003. The textile industry grew more slowly than metallurgy and automobile manufacturing. 2003.
Two miles south of the Baroque core of the city. Agnelli designed a huge rectangular building—1. Turin. with the help of Giacomo Matte Trucco.800 feet long and 264 feet wide—that contained ﬁve levels.48 Fiat Lingotto Plant Fiat Lingotto Plant. Concrete ramps added after 1923 by Giacomo Matte Truco to improve the connection between the various levels of the factory. Seventeen electrical elevators brought the car from ground level to the different ﬂoors where it was assembled in a sort of vertical version of Ford’s assembly line. At . Concrete columns supporting average spans of 20 feet standardized this modern assembly plant.
such as the revision of the formerly monotonous skyline of the building. A beautiful ramp connecting all ﬁve levels was built to replace the elevators. The remodeling of the unused Lingotto Plant into a commercial hall and exhibition center by Renzo Piano (Renovation of Old Harbor. had reached the summit of their journey.Fiat Lingotto Plant 49 the top of the factory. Fiat Miraﬁori. relating both factory and church through the same Baroque process. Rome-Bari. As a contemporary critic pointed out. it had to be tested again. The test track was 79 feet wide and nearly 3.300 feet long. the base matter had been elevated and spiritualized through the process of fabrication and assembly to produce a human tool called a car in a modern “ascension” parallel to that celebrated in the Baroque Chapel of the Holy Shroud. Some work of transformation was necessary. designed by Vittorio Bonade Bottino. factory was proposed in the 1930s. By the time the raw materials. V. Architecture of Modern Italy. Agnelli realized that the elevators would have to be replaced. La città nella storia dell’Italia. a test track was provided for testing the ﬁnished automobiles. 1973. Because the speed of the cars on the test track was limited and also because customers were not really interested in the test results.” The Business History Review 70 (1996): 167–206 (includes photo). When the building was completed in 1923. when the car was complete. which limited the efﬁciency of assembly. it was necessary ﬁrst to test the chassis and then later. and by 1939. It was protected by a 5-foot-high peripheral wall. A horizontal. NJ: Princeton Architectural Press. 2 vols. T. Torino. Fauri. The interior of the building received light from a central courtyard 103 feet long in which were three small structures containing the elevators. The ramp was made of reinforced concrete and remains a testimony of the versatility of concrete construction. . but today it has an essential role to play in the plan for Turin’s modernization. which were delivered by railroad at the lowest level. began to replace Fiat Lingotto. Princeton. F. This meant that every car had to go up and down in the elevators several times. During manufacture. Further Reading Comoli-Mandracci. Genoa) brought new life to this remarkable industrial landmark. Kirk. rather than vertical. “The Role of Fiat in the Development of the Italian Car Industry in the 1950s. there was a Baroque quality to Giovanni Agnelli’s Lingotto factory. the racecourse on top of the Fiat plant had little value. The process of assembling the cars was now adapted to six levels as the area reserved for the test track was absorbed into the building. 2005. and the turns at each end were given a steep slope so that testing at all speeds was possible.
the sculptor and architect Arnolfo di Cambio. It combines design elements from antique and Early Christian architecture with the use of French Gothic ribbed groin vaults (intersecting vaults with ribs on the ridges that spring from the corners and cross at the apex). from 1280 to 1300. the Florentine church could hold 30. Resistance by members of the original aristocracy continued until 1293. in the Gothic style. made a comprehensive urban plan for Florence. For example. During this period.50 Florence Cathedral Dome FLORENCE CATHEDRAL DOME. Italian Gothic is quite distinctive. Florence entered a period of great prosperity and its population increased to 100.000 worshippers. The plan was dominated by a new cathedral that would replace the old church of Santa Reparata. Renaissance Dates: 1420–1436 Architects: Arnolfo di Cambio. the four bays in the nave of Santa Maria del Fiore are equivalent to eight bays in a French Gothic cathedral such as Rheims. in 1250. and the bourgeoisie. when they were ﬁnally ousted by the Free Commune.000 inhabitants. the “popolo grasso. mainly composed of leading merchants and craftsmen. The bays (building units that extend from column to column) of the Italian nave tend to be wider than the bays in French Gothic buildings. which was demolished in 1285. The Black Death of 1348 reduced the population of Florence by half and revived the political competition between the “popolo minuto. The ﬁrst gold ﬂorin was minted in 1252 and became the most trusted monetary instrument in Europe for several centuries.” the workers. The Florentine economy beneﬁted from the city’s status as a major banking center for all of Europe. it does not use ﬂying buttresses (exterior arches supporting the nave walls that connect the upper parts of walls with freestanding external buttresses). Florentine textile and luxury goods production relied on trading associations located in numerous countries. Political struggles deprived the noble families of their political power and led to the establishment of a government of the people. Filippo Brunelleschi I n the second half of the thirteenth century. FLORENCE Style: Gothic. The new church. but unlike French Gothic. As later in Bologna and Milan. was begun in 1296 and given a new name and dedication: Santa Maria del Fiore. who was born near Siena in Colle di Val’d’Elsa.” A strong disagreement began between master masons who built in the Gothic fashion and those who were . the scale was monumental.
Florence. dated May 1900. are completely visible in Despouy’s sketch. . The dome and apse of the cathedral. hidden by houses today. Collection of the ENSA Versailles.Santa Maria del Fiore.
which was projected to be 275 feet and was later increased to 285 feet. 1420. he had submitted drawings and an accurate description of his plan in a document. the Florentine sculptor of the famous Baptistery doors. a large model at the scale of 1 to 16 was presented to the Florentine citizens. and the Florentine jeweler Filippo Brunelleschi. In 1367.” which was kept with the city notaries. there was no winner. To everyone’s surprise. when the decision of the overseers was announced on April 16. Three men took part in the competition: the master mason Battista D’Antonio. constructed of a herringbone pattern of interlocking bricks. Brunelleschi used innovative building techniques and guaranteed their success. construction. Lorenzo Ghiberti. the impossibility of building a wooden framework (centering) to hold up such a large dome until it was ﬁnished. it included a mockup of a huge dome covering the crossing.” .52 Florence Cathedral Dome inspired by antiquity. all three competitors were appointed to supervise the construction program. but his creation of a new division of labor came into conﬂict with the medieval master builders who were traditionally in charge of design and construction. in 1418. Fifty years passed without any serious work being done on the problem of rooﬁng the enormous crossing of the cathedral. The base for the dome was already in place and its octagonal shape determined the size and silhouette of the dome. which had to span 138 feet. Brunelleschi was well prepared for the work. Brunelleschi’s plan required neither centering nor scaffolding. which Brunelleschi quickly did. which no one knew how to build. The workers went on strike from December 1430 until February 1431 because they resented being only the executants of Brunelleschi’s plans and orders. a competition to renew work on the dome was announced by the overseers of the works. resolved the greatest obstacle to the building of the dome. This manner of thinking through the project as a whole and determining every aspect of its structure. he was able to control the execution of the project he had deﬁned in the model of 1418 and in the “modellum. Then. and aesthetics was very different from the traditional ways of the masons and was to some extent the birth of the modern architectural profession. His brick frame. He clearly and precisely speciﬁed all the building materials and their position in the structure. In this situation. Complicating the design and the problem of construction was the height of the Florence dome. the architect had to prove his superiority and his competence. the “modellum. From this time on. More classical than Gothic. Brunelleschi’s plan was to build a double-shelled dome strengthened by a brick frame that was inspired by his study of the ruins of the ancient buildings in Rome but not based directly on any previous model. Equally important. nearly the 140-foot dimension of the great Roman dome of the Pantheon. He had conducted experiments in the engineering problems necessary to construct the dome and had made a simple and bold model that showed how his proposals would work.
who had . Beyond the Aemelia. Brunelleschi. King. . All forms of art celebrated the rebirth of classical architecture—which we call the Renaissance—as the Florentines listened to the perfection of the music that created the effect of “songs descending from the heavens unto us below . is the 750-by450-foot rectangle of the much earlier Republican Forum. which ran parallel to the north side of the rectangle and was the route followed by Rome’s victorious troops on their way to the Capitoline sanctuary. . Studies of His Technology and Inventions. New York: Penguin Books. Harmonia Mundi. is the Curia Julia facing in the direction of the eight remaining columns of the Temple of Saturn and the three extant columns of the Temple of Vespasian in the southeast corner. One of the most important buildings in the forum. (“Curia” was originally the name of a political and military division of the Roman people. Cambridge. 2000.) In 88 bce. and Gustina Scaglia. at the northeast corner. most of which was built during the Roman Empire. MA: MIT Press. later called the Basilica Julia. Prager. Further Reading Dufay. murmur[ing] in our ears something of the ineffable and of the divine” (Giannozzo Manetti). 1970. the dictator Sulla. the Curia was where the Roman senate met. ROMAN FORUM.Forum Romanum 53 Brunelleschi became the leader of the modern manner that fascinated painters. FORUM ROMANUM. Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture. Ross. 2003. Frank. O Gemma Lux. ROME Style: Roman Date: First Century BCE Architect: Unknown I mbedded within the ruins of the large area of the Roman Forum as it exists today. sculptors. Guillaume. It lies to the southeast of the Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill). on the left. and musicians like Guillaume Dufay (1400–1474) who composed an anthem “Nuper Rosarum Flores” for the consecration of the dome by Pope Eugenius IV in March1436. The size of the Republican Forum is not difﬁcult to grasp today if one stands in front of the Temple of Julius Caesar and looks eastward between the ruins of the grand Basilica Aemelia on the right and the Sempronia. and the Via Sacra (sacred road).
Shops. “forum” meant an enclosed space. The ruins of the heart of the Roman Empire with the Colosseum in the background. also called an “inaugural space. private or public atriums (courtyards or halls with colonnades) were . increased the number of senators from 300 to 500. The senate met. However. commercial transactions. For the ancient Romans. mainly for moneychangers. the forum was also used for business and commerce. replaced the Curia Hostilia. where they could engage in deliberation and vote. sent by the gods. By reorienting the new Curia somewhat. For these activities.” that was separated from the fabric of the town as a place for the assembly of the people. he weakened the original symbolic association of the Curia with the Comitium. Julius Caesar began to rebuild that structure when he reorganized the forum before his death in 44 bce. The Comitium was a circular. but his adopted heir Augustus ﬁnished it and renamed it the Curia Julia. and set policy in its “aula. which met inside the Curia) gathered to vote on legislation presented by the senate and to ratify the power of the consuls. like the ﬂight of birds or the path of lightning. debated. named after Tullius Hostilius. even trials needed a convenient place for groups of people to gather.54 Forum Romanum Forum Romanum. “Inaugural” meant the place was consecrated as an area where the augurs could predict the future by reading signs. stepped amphitheater-like place in front of the Curia where the Roman people (in contrast to the senate. one of the early kings of Rome. In addition to functioning as a place for attracting society to participate in public affairs. guild meetings.” an 84-by-58-foot room. with a larger building. were lined up on three sides of the Forum. Rome. Caesar was assassinated before he could complete his rebuilding.
During the early Empire. trials. convenient for small group discussions as well as for large audiences. enclosed by porticoes in the Campus Martius. or commercial debates. 100 feet wide. beginning in the third century bce. and the Temple of Concord. begun by Caesar and ﬁnished by Augustus in 12 ce. Saturn’s teaching of agriculture to the ﬁrst Romans and the power of Concordia to maintain good faith and harmony within the family and the state. The great hall was surrounded by vaulted ambulatories (sheltered walkways) that gave access to galleries on the second ﬂoor. founded in 179 bce by the Aemelia family and considered to have been one of Rome’s most beautiful buildings. and “regium” translated into Greek is “basilica. contained a ring of tribunes in the shape of an oval built of straight segments. which results in an emphasis on its transverse axis rather than the typical longitudinal axis. Below the state archives building that occupied the slope of the Capitoline Hill. Like the future Colosseum. repaired by Caesar in 46 bce. that was replaced by the Basilica Julia. and 100 feet tall. celebrated. respectively. On the north side of the forum was the Basilica Aemelia. At the end of the Republic. This displacement of activities from the forum was not the only one. there were hidden chambers dug into the ground below street level that were used as storage for stage shows and for the gladiatorial exhibitions that eventually found a more satisfactory location in the Colosseum. One of these. Voting. the Atrium Regium (Royal Atrium). were spectacular. a large area of 900 by 360 feet. the Temple of Saturn. When the small primitive atriums were replaced by large basilicas. founded in 497 bce.Forum Romanum 55 available at the back of the shops. electoral meetings were moved to the Saepta Julia. The basilica was a multipurpose building. From the balconies above the ﬂoor level of the nave. On the south side of the forum was the Basilica Sempronia of 174 bce. the name was applied to halls that could be as large as 300 feet long. and entertainment all took place in the Republican Forum. There were temples in the forum. . may once have been the site of the residence of Numa Pompilius. large audiences could attend famous trials (a podium was provided for the judges). parts of the forum. such as the Curia and the Comitium were consecrated spaces. The Temple of Concordia’s plan is unusual because the cella (cult room) is wide but not very deep. but places dedicated to the gods did not have to be dedicated only to the gods or take the form of buildings. the diversity of marble columns in many different colors and the huge wood ceiling. A wooden structure. of 397 bce. This disposition encourages the visitor to move about the cult room and not directly approach the statue of the god. Inside. political meetings. 75 feet above the ﬂoor of the nave. commercial activity.” the generic name for these meeting spaces. the temple was used as a sort of museum in which the Emperor Tiberius displayed his collection of Greek art. or central space of the hall. Between the basilicas was a rectangular open space that. was used for public executions and the spectacle of gladiatorial combats. the second king of Rome. For example. most of which faced its eastern side.
and judicial as well as religious. Just ten days after Mengoni fell from the scaffolding. The Roman Forum. the civil engineer from Bologna who designed the Galleria. L. The Galleria is about 600 feet long and is intersected at a vast octagonal central space by a second gallery to form a Latin cross plan (a cross with one arm longer than the other three). Jr. But the Republican Forum remained the model used in Roman colonies all around the Mediterranean Sea and thus a point of identiﬁcation of Roman culture everywhere. 1867). Michael. Gros. the dome is 145 feet above the ground. whose entrances are celebrated by triumphal arches. Vol. Giuseppe Mengoni (1829–1877). to religious activities and its use for other activities: commercial. Further Reading Grant. 1: les monuments publics. Pierre. 1992. the location of the most famous lyrical theater of Italy. many of its functions were moved to more suitable locations. MILAN Style: Eclectic Dates: 1863–1877 Architect: Giuseppe Mengoni monumental gallery. a large dome carried on sixteen iron ribs. 1970. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. at the crossing. The entire Galleria is covered by a splendid iron-and-glass vault that becomes. As Rome grew and the forum was enlarged. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. At this time. the triumphal arch entrance on the Piazza del Duomo was still under construction. Richardson. 1996. or consecration. entertainment. L’architecture romaine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. fell from construction scaffolding on December 30. barely three months after King Vittorio Emmanuele had inaugurated the Galleria (September 15.56 Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele This abbreviated view of the Republican Forum in Rome has stressed both its dedication. the king died. A .. Paris: A et J Picard. At its crown. the building was not completed. The six-story interior façades of the Galleria are overly decorated according to local Lombard tradition. connects the Piazza del Duomo (the square in front of the cathedral) in Milan with the Piazza della Scala. GALLERIA VITTORIO EMMANUELE (VICTOR EMMANUEL GALLERY).
Milan’s Galleria followed the proliferation of French arcades. 1859. many of its elements are French inspired. A lottery had been organized. Although Milan’s building was constructed with the help of international ﬁnance. commander of the liberated city. no winner could be agreed on. but it failed to collect more than a million lire instead of the ﬁve million that were expected. it became urgently necessary to create a vast square in front of the church. However. The Galleria was ultimately a monument to the gloriﬁcation of Italian Unity built when Milan had become part of Free Italy. Since the expense of the project was estimated at ﬁfteen million lire. Iron and glass construction designed by Giuseppe Mengoni (1863–1867). international ﬁnancing was required. . Numerous designs for the new city center were suggested during the Restoration period when Milan was returned to the Austrian Empire. it was also a logical extension of the decision to redesign the center of the city after Milan Cathedral ﬁnally received its façade in 1806. which had expanded to the length of city blocks in the nineteenth century. At this point. mainly by a British-owned company. Milan. After the victory of Napoleon III and Vittorio Emmanuele at Magenta on June 4. 220 projects were exhibited in the Brera Gallery. However. Count Belgioioso. by the end of July. decided on June 28 to connect the Piazza del Duomo to the Piazza della Scala by a street named for the Italian king. and by June 1860.Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele 57 Vittorio Emmanuele Gallery. An international competition was organized. There were also problems with ﬁnance.
and two theaters opening on diagonals at the entrance to the gallery. of course. 1865. At the bottom of the ridge is a seventeenth-century palazzo of 100 windows that belonged to the Garzoni family. After 1860. V. but it was impossible to create a garden in front of it because of the steepness of the ridge. New Haven. The creation of a large communal building. exactly the same size as the dome of Saint Peter’s. monumental fountains. Newspapers understood the value of the place. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. 1966. and two more years passed before the ceremonial laying of the ﬁrst stone on March 7. such as the Galleria. Mengoni had strictly followed the guidelines of the competition and also included the best features from the ﬁrst stage. Meeks. C. demonstrate Mengoni’s personal ambition and. T . COLLODI Style: Baroque Dates: 1650–1690 Architect: Romano Garzoni he village of Collodi occupies a narrow ridge between two steep valleys. signiﬁed the accommodation of vast crowds of the rising middle class of Milanese society. The site was difﬁcult. GARZONI GARDENS. The complexity of the original plan and the dome in the Galleria. In addition to the large independent public space. Arcades. Cambridge. the Galleria included rooms for clubs and coffee shops. he enjoyed the comparison to Bramante and Michelangelo. MA: MIT Press. Social unrest and large demonstrations in the Galleria also showed how much the citizens of Milan recognized its public utility. an Independence Hall. L. Further Reading Geist. it took three years for all concerned to agree on the proposal. CT: Yale University Press. Mengoni’s plan of 1863 created a piazza in front of the cathedral and included all the features that had been proposed for the gloriﬁcation of Vittorio Emmanuele: a king’s loggia. None of this would be built except the gallery that was expanded into a Latin cross. He became highly respected by his contemporaries. and the Galleria provided a central space for secular activities that was equal to the religiously oriented Piazza del Duomo. a series of ramps provided access to the building.58 Garzoni Gardens A commission of eleven members ﬁnally agreed to consider the proposal of Giuseppe Mengoni during a second-stage competition. 1983. Johann F. the famous Corriere della Sera opened ofﬁce space in the Galleria in March 1876. the History of a Building Type.
and mazes in this large and complex Baroque garden. grottos.Garzoni Gardens. and water are combined with terraces. Plantings. . sculpture. Collodi.
A description of 1652 gloriﬁes Garzoni’s work. even though it was not yet complete. and candelabra for night performances. On top of the bassine. and there are two small side-rooms for the preparation of refreshments. Repairs and improvements of the spectacular water displays in the Garzoni Gardens were required in 1786–1787. . The fame of Garzoni’s gardens was unsurpassed and famous people were struck by their beauty. At the bottom.60 Garzoni Gardens Romano Garzoni (d. The garden would be easily viewed from any one of the four stories of the palazzo that faced in its direction. offers a view over a watercourse that cascades down from the twin ﬁgures of Florence (with a lion) and Lucca (with a panther). a curved basin receives a long stream of water emitted by the tall ﬁgure of Fame. Visitors could hide in the bassine where they could listen to the play of waters cascading down or listen to pastoral poems in other remote areas. Garzoni would not live to see his masterpiece totally realized in 1690. Both walled in and opened to the distant landscape. a boat. located across the valley to the east. Garzoni Gardens use perspective tricks and the techniques of set design to play with the appearance of height and depth. Three superimposed bays in the center open onto fountains containing terra-cotta ﬁgures or to the grotto of Neptune. A gentle ascent. a bird. The slope of the ridge was divided into four sections. At the top of the park is a bathhouse containing three bathing rooms and a place for musicians. a ﬁgure of Melpomene. A Baroque garden like Collodi asserts itself through a stupendous arrangement of ﬂat levels imposed on a steep slope. 600 feet long on the main axis and 430 feet on the transverse terrace. which dominates the park. The Archduke of Austria visited in 1662 and King Charles VII of Naples asked Diodati to design a similar project (never executed) for the park at Caserta. isolation. The ﬁnal part of the gardens. At the end of the Imperial walkway. reveals the full extent of both the height and breadth of the gardens. or a beast. The walls of the Boboli Gardens in Florence inspired the walls of the grotto. A thick wood of green oaks (woods cover the slope) is divided by six narrow terrace-like walks in an arrangement called a “bassine. 1663) proposed to create a garden separate from the palazzo. Out of a “precipitous horror of a rough slope” he manage to design and build a scenic garden independent of the palazzo. a ﬂat terrace contains two symmetrical basins with large water jets at their centers. a small outdoor theater remains. these levels are sometimes isolated by a double hedge at their edges but offer views of the lower parts of the garden from different places. formerly adorned with colored stones and ﬂanked by orange or palm trees. with curved hedges.” Laurel hedges combined with the green oaks formed a type of arbor offering silence. and inspiring scents. Two large terraces opened to the bottom level and a path ﬂanked by palm or orange trees. Yews are treated with fanciful topiary work in both abstract and representational shapes such as a tower. It would require another forty years to ﬁnish the construction of the gardens. at the top of the slope. now in poor condition. Simulated rock formations are combined luxuriously.
See Renovation of the Old Harbor. Paris: Flammarion. OLD HARBOR RENOVATION. including Ephesus. Political reorganization and participation in the life of the provinces of the vast Roman Empire obliged him to travel for nine-and-a-half years. but Hadrian was also intensely interested in literature and the arts and had a strong fascination for architecture. Alexandria. Emperor Trajan. of remarkable landscapes. Ponte. TIVOLI Style: Roman Dates: 125–135 Architect: Unknown elow the city of Tivoli. Histoire des jardins. 1998. and especially Athens. eds. Hadrian greatly admired Greek culture and visited many cities in the Greek east. Hadrian’s villa at Tivoli was a location for governmental activities but. twice the size of the city of Pompeii. P. Antioch. Gardens of Italy. HADRIAN’S VILLA (VILLA ADRIANA).” In Monique Mosser and Georges Teyssot. Pliny the Younger (c. mainly. “Le jardin de la villa Garzoni a Collodi. Hadrian (76–138) became Roman emperor in 117 at the age of forty-two. it was a place for relaxation. In this aspect. and he never hesitated to climb the highest peaks in the area. Laras. The Garden Lover’s Guide to Italy. His capacity for governing and his talent in conducting wars were balanced by a combination of the ethical philosophies of Epicurianism and Stoicism. He was an enthusiastic visitor of all the empire’s outstanding landmarks. A. Ann. he spent only eleven-and-a-half years of his reign in Rome and at his villa near Tivoli. NJ: Princeton University Press. London: Frances Lincoln. attracts scholars and large crowds of visitors fascinated by the ancient grandeur of Hadrian’s Villa. 2002. Genoa. GENOA.Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana) Further Reading 61 Hobhouse. the villa was typical of the aristocratic country estates of the Imperial era. He had demonstrated his competence as a military leader under his predecessor. 2006. a vast stretch of ruins. 61–112) B . Princeton.
a souvenir of a canal in Alexandria. for example. its Terrace of Tempe (named for a wooded area in Thessalia). one a peristyle carried on Ionic columns. The large circular wall contains two concentric circular areas. which Hadrian had also commissioned. Very subtle arrangements in the plan of the villa provided for the mixture of large vaulted buildings. and even a grotto called Hades. Hadrian’s Villa thus took the traditional luxurious arrangements of a villa outside Rome to the acme of perfection and added new and spectacular effects. so-called because it is shaped like a racecourse. basins. an Academy.62 Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana) has left accurate descriptions of aristocratic villas and the serene landscapes. and a Poikilos (“Stoa Poikile” is Greek for a loggia decorated with murals).” according to the late Roman biography of Hadrian in the Historia Augusta. recalling the loggia in Athens decorated with paintings. galleries. with its Poikilos. . The villa was built “as a marvel. both natural and man-made. It is located on the southern edge of Hadrian’s residence behind a huge terrace containing the Hippodrome. that surrounded them. is decorated with copies of the caryatids that support the porch of the Erechtheum in Athens. or Circular Casino. its Canopus. slightly larger than the Pantheon. imitating a canal leading to the Temple of Serapis in Alexandria. What is unique about Hadrian’s Villa is that it consisted of a series of reminiscences of memorable sites from all over the Roman world that Hadrian had visited. Tivoli. a canal (Euripus). Perhaps the single most inﬂuential feature for architects in later centuries was the misnamed Maritime Theater. had a little Nile River. hidden within a circular wall 15 feet tall and 150 feet in diameter. Villa of Hadrian. His villa. and waterworks in which Hadrian’s architects (Decrianus? or Apollodorus?) were able to prove their mastery of design and building. The Canopus.
Turin. what is believed to be a library to the east. reﬂections that created illusionistic effects on the spaces of the “theater. OSTIA Style: Roman Dates: c. but it contained. CT: Yale University Press. it must also have stimulated their enthusiasm and creativity. Their unexpected architectural solution. Frank. They found it hidden in the memory of the Circular Casino. Ithaca. The richness of the decoration—in red and yellow with black-and-red stuccowork and handsomely worked ﬂoor patterns—complemented the play of light reﬂecting on and from the water in the moat. 1992. 1982. NY: Cornell University Press. HORREA EPAGATHIANA AND EPAPHRODITIANA.” Hadrian’s predilection for circular ground plans. which included a room for heating the bath. a 5-foot-deep canal surrounding and isolating a central structure on a sort of island from the surrounding villa—and the world. on the island retreat. New Haven. which played such a major role in this isolated retreat of perfect equilibrium. HOLY SHROUD CHAPEL. William. and even the Neoclassical architects. must have been a challenge for his architects. B. without precedent in the well-known examples of Roman architecture. However. J. a dining room (triclinium) on the south. Hadrian’s Villa and Its Legacy. This inner structure provided a retreat for the emperor. and John A. New Haven. Sear. Further Reading MacDonald. See Santissima Sindone. fascinated the Mannerist. CT: Yale University Press. 1995. These three diminutive apartments were connected by a strangely shaped. Roman Imperial Architecture. courtyard with a semicircular basin that was contained in an unexpected semicircular wall. 145–150 Architect: Unknown . Roman Architecture. Baroque.Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana 63 the other. and a private bath on the west side. all of whom were in search of a new and different architecture. Pinto. The Maritime Theater was not a structure to live in because it lacks necessary services and dependencies. Ward-Perkins.
Types of structures accommodating all these functions developed into multistoried buildings that differed signiﬁcantly from the traditional atrium houses of the Republican period. with a population of one hundred thousand. having achieved a population of one million or more inhabitants. or more levels aboveground. The Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana was one of these commercial buildings. and what they revealed presents the clearest vision of an ancient Roman city of the second and early third centuries ce. Before being transported to Rome. Ostia’s main function was to receive products brought from the far parts of the empire to supply Rome. was the paradigm of this new type of city. A grid plan with all streets crossing at right angles was used to determine the shape and organization of the city. The name “horrea. and North Africa. This careful restoration has resulted in an ensemble of unusual grandeur. The warehouse type of building inspired many variations that accommodated new functions in the imperial city of Ostia. like Pompeii and Herculaneum. cross at the forum. gave way to new styles of living and new housing designs characterized by three. The modular repetition of rooms is expressed by the brick arches whose severe forms resemble those of Renaissance palaces. for example. Sardinia. Rome. Instead of plans with rooms of different sizes surrounding a central atrium (or large rectangular hall) a new plan was devised with repeated.or two-storied settlements typical of the Republican era.64 Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana I ncreasingly. Worker housing.” although not used in Roman antiquity. ﬁve. a double vestibule opens onto a square courtyard surrounded by a two-storied portico with brick piers supporting arches. warehouses were essential features of the city. therefore. shipping ofﬁces. was at least as densely settled because all travelers arriving by sea and all the goods going to Rome passed through it. for example. One. The rooms or shops in these buildings opened onto narrow elongated courtyards. large amounts of these imports had to be stored. Their names were engraved in a marble plaque mounted above a monumental entrance framed by two columns made of brick that carried a pediment of noble proportions. and places for residential shopping were also necessary. wheat from Sicily. rooms on the ground ﬂoors that were interchangeable (much like ofﬁce ﬂoors in modern speculative ofﬁce buildings). The entry was restored in 1929 by assembling the fragments that had fallen to the ground. Ostia’s plan follows the strict rules of Roman urban planning: two axes. nearly identical. major roads called the Decumanus Maximus and Cardo Maximus. ofﬁces for the . a warehouse owned by two freedmen from the eastern part of the empire. Ostia. has been given to commercial and storage buildings using a nearly identical plan. an open public space that is about 300 feet long. Imperial Roman cities became densely populated. Beyond the entry. Rome’s port city at the mouth of the Tiber River. Staircases in the northwest and southwest parts of the building lead to the upper stories. Groin vaults cover most of the rooms in the two main storage levels. Excavations at Ostia were begun in the 1920s.
” or urban house. These included buildings for commerce and storage as well as worker’s residences. Further Reading Boyle.” Horrea were not designed to be houses. Gustav. Ostia: Aspects of Roman City Life. residences in the city could no longer follow the precedent of the “domus. apartments were stacked on top of each other for as many as four or ﬁve levels. builders. Roman Ostia. illumination came from an internal courtyard or a central room with windows onto the street called the “medianum. The arrangements of the nearly identical.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 31. Instead. Meiggs. . ﬁremen’s barracks. 1981. Bernard M. Hermansen.Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana 65 Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. no. “The Ancient Italian Town House Reconsidered. Ostia’s ancient dynamism presents many remarkable elements for the contemporary visitor. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1975. Ostia shows how Roman architects had to create new types of buildings for high-density living. Like the warehouses. Ostia. A warehouse in the port of ancient Rome with central entrance reconstructed in 1929. instead. multifunctional rooms no longer received light and fresh air from an atrium. 4 (December 1972): 253–260. and markets. but there were doubtless many exceptions with housing above the store rooms and shops. Russell.
66 House of the Faun For a plan and photographs of the excavation of the Horrea. The house occupies an entire city block (an insula) and covers more than 30. POMPEII Style: Roman Dates: 180 BCE–79 CE Architect: Unknown O n the afternoon of August 24.000 square feet.ostiaantica.org/indexes. This is reﬂected in the diversity of religious cults. For plans and reconstructions of Ostia. he suffocated from the sulfurous and corrosive fumes from the volcano. was visiting Naples with his mother when the volcano erupted. burying it under ashes and cinders. It is an extreme example of the residences of wealthy families. The House of the Faun. 79 ce. Italic Samnites in the late ﬁfth century. Pompeii’s site at the mouth of the River Sarno offered many commercial advantages. because of Pompeii’s position as a port city. . the same volcanic debris that destroyed the city. It was after this time that Pompeii became a prosperous city. Details of the original settlement are largely unknown. during the sixth century Greeks. little more than looting) begun in the mid-eighteenth century. it was always a multicultural community. the volcano Mount Vesuvius began to explode. the famous writer Pliny the Elder did not. preserved much of it. see: http://www. Cultural exchanges reduced the differences among these populations. followed by Etruscans in the sixth to mid-ﬁfth centuries who further developed trade. aged seventeen. Seafaring ships could berth there and exchange goods with barges traveling inland. He.org/regio1/8/8-3. Although Romans were politically and socially dominant. and raised the reputation of the city. and ﬁnally the Romans. which included traditional Roman and Greek gods as well as eastern imports such as Isis and Zeus Melichios.htm.ostia-antica. and the city sank into oblivion until it was rediscovered and excavations (at ﬁrst. brought progress.htm. which were built from the second century bce until Pompeii’s destruction in 79. Even its name eventually disappeared. Ironically. HOUSE OF THE FAUN. see: http://www. The eruption lasted until August 26 and put an end to the city of Pompeii. was the largest and one of the most luxurious houses in Pompeii. They survived but Pliny’s uncle. but it is likely that the original inhabitants were Oscan and. giving us a very good idea of how Romans lived during the ﬁrst century of the Christian era. After 200 bce. We know of the eruption because Pliny the Younger was an eyewitness and wrote about it. the victory of Rome against Carthage resulted in all of southern Italy being under Roman control. named for a statue found in it during excavation.
House of the Faun. The statue of the Faun stands in the impluvium (a shallow pool that collected rain water) and Mount Vesuvius is visible at the left beyond the peristyle. Pompeii. .
Each entrance opened onto a vestibule that led to an atrium. and from the tabliium into an outdoor space surrounded by colonnaded covered walkways (a peristyle). estate. On the public side was a Tuscan atrium. The tablinum traditionally sheltered the marriage bed and provided storage for all the important documents that involved the family history. relating ostentatiously to the richness of the owner. The house had two entrances: a modest one opening into a suite of private spaces. the major rooms were arranged on axis. political. and business. The original is now in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples and a copy has recently been installed in the exedra. which in an organizational sense was the focal point of the house. The tetrastyle atrium on the private side had four columns that supported the beams around the compluvium and created a more intimate environment. homage to Alexander the Great’s victory over the Persian king Darius at the Battle of Issus. The tablinum was decorated with great care because it was a “frame” for the aristocratic owner of the house and represented his familial and social status. called the impluvium. Perhaps copied from a painting of the fourth century bce by Philoxenus of Eretria. the tablinum. from the vestibule across the atrium to the tablinum. Located on axis directly across the atrium from the entrance and raised up a step from the level of the atrium ﬂoor. These earlier houses were gradually absorbed sometime after 180 bce. . The ﬁrst peristyle was followed by a second larger one. which were treated differently. they were aligned from front to back.68 House of the Faun replacing several smaller houses that had previously occupied the site. The House of the Faun had two atriums. Most of the important rooms of the house opened onto the atrium and were relatively small except one. to a semienclosed room. massive one that provided access to the public areas. and his subordinates and could symbolically represent the continuity and reputation of his “gens” (ancestral family). On the ﬂoor of a beautifully decorated exedra that opened onto the ﬁrst peristyle. On the public side of the house. where the clients and guests were received by the head of the household. a large rectangular hall with a rectangular opening called a compluvium in the center of the roof. reﬂecting patterns of growth and adaptation that corresponded to changing standards of beauty and fashion. that is. and a richly decorated. “Clients”—the owner’s business. It was also the place where wax death masks of famous ancestors were hung on the wall to create a sort of visual genealogical tree. it represents a rush of horses and spears as Darius begins his retreat. his colleagues. and social contacts as well as people who depended on him for basic needs—were received every morning at the public door. from which Mount Vesuvius could be glimpsed. a traditional design in which the roof was supported by huge wood beams leaving an uncluttered column-free space. the tablinum positioned the head of the family in a dominant location from which he could survey the atrium. excavators discovered a very large mosaic of great splendor. which drained into an underground cistern. The short roofs on all four sides of the opening sloped downward toward the interior. added later to the original house. the exedra. These roofs directed rainwater to a shallow pool in the center of the atrium.
. New York: Harry N.” little paintings from the Hellenistic period that decorated private rooms. NJ: Princeton University Press. Pompeii. crowded into the remaining third are a palace and a small village of almost identical size. The pavements were identical in quality to those in the most lavish public buildings. Wallace-Hadrill. Pompeii. The Houses of Roman Italy. Jr. Richardson. distributed in the rooms around the atriums and in the gardens. The name given to the island in 1636 is a phonetic reduction of Isola (island) Isabella. allow us to appreciate the luxury in which upper-class Romans lived. Wall paintings. . A. Berkeley: University of California Press. Francesco Castelli. Twothirds of the island contains a world-famous Baroque garden. 100BC–AD250. Further Reading Clarke. An Architectural History. Abrams. Translated by C. such as the faun after which excavators named the house (found in the impluvium of the public atrium) were complemented by ornamental stucco.Isola Bella Gardens 69 Every possible luxury was involved in furnishing and ornamenting the house. 1992. 1994. that is. “Emblema. Etienne. Space. the name of the wife of Charles II (1586–1652). an illusion of depth in mosaics and frescoes was represented by means of several kinds of perspective. 1988. were replaced by large frescoes during the Roman period. ISOLA BELLA GARDENS. gave the impression of decoratively framed openings onto a garden or a landscape. Andrea Bifﬁ I sola Bella is a little island in Lake Maggiore that resembles a longboat at anchor in a landscape of ravishing beauty. for example. Robert. 1991. they were famous bankers in Milan and Venice in the late fourteenth and ﬁfteenth centuries. a piece of a lost paradise. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. mosaics and paintings were a must. Pompeii’s ﬁne artistic furnishings. John R. Princeton. Palmer. Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Although the family was expelled from Florence in 1370. More important is the name of the owners of Isola Bella: the Borromeo family of Florence. L. Sculptures of high quality. The Day a City Died. LAKE MAGGIORE Style: Baroque Dates: 1631–1671 Architects: Angelo Crivelli.
120 feet above the lake. Vitaliano VI and his architect Francesco Castelli (1620–c. and feeling the danger of the Habsburg and Spanish occupations in the sixteenth century. a vast garden surrounding a central pavilion was planned but never realized. was involved in the ﬁrst stage of the planning of the existing gardens. the Borromeo family members were creators of gardens. an octagonal pumping tower was built to irrigate the garden with water from the mainland. Both were severe reformers when each one served as Archbishop of Milan. their ﬁnancial position allowed them to control a vast region called the “Borromeo State” in the region of Lombardy. the Borromeo family began to buy up the land. “Humilitas. who ruled Milan. Rivals of the Medici. 1691) transformed the castle into a . Its ﬁrst three terraces were built in 1632 to provide for the pleasure and comfort of the owner Charles III. They purchased a house on the northern end of the island and transformed it into a castle.70 Isola Bella Gardens Isola Bella Gardens. Like most Italian aristocrats of the period. beginning in 1630. View of the gardens from an approaching boat showing the terrace at the summit. the Borromeo family quit banking and ﬁnance and lived as ruling aristocrats in their large “state. about whom very little is known.” Saint Charles was immensely popular among simple believers. The architect Angelo Crivelli.” Two members of the family were important supporters of the Roman Catholic Church during the Counter-Reformation: Saint Charles Borromeo (1538– 1584) and his cousin Federico (1564–1631). The Isola Bella was a rocky bit of land where only ﬁshermen lived when. Lake Maggiore. Because there was no water available on the island. Reﬂecting the family’s motto. After an interruption of ﬁfteen years. After the removal of a large part of the preexisting vegetable gardens. Competing with the Sforza.
like a game. The Great Theater facing north is a sturdy mass of black stones and limestone concretions symbolic of the forces of nature. One leads to three more terraces that reach the summit. imitating a hill or mountainside rising up to a summit 120 feet above the level of the lake. The eastern part of the garden is more private and has large lawns and ornamental plantings. Castelli’s imagination and his love of placing sculpture and obelisks on balustrades were carried on by his successor Andrea Bifﬁ. Princeton. The Isola Bella garden was organized around ten terraces. This was a vast heraldic creation that faced north and had three levels of niches. The other descends via ﬁve terraces to the level of the lake. On each terrace. but they also amplify their visibility from a distance. 1998. Further Reading Hobhouse. Ann. a heraldic symbol of the Borromeo family. Each of its three levels of ﬁve bays is ornamented with ﬁgural sculpture and three colossal shells. Milan. N. Each level has a collection of plants and ﬁgures designed to enhance the enjoyment of a speciﬁc sight and that reveals in stages. Mauro. At the top. Most of the statues were sculpted by Carlo Simonetta (1662–1695). the profusion of the landscape seen from both above and below. one above the other. They provide a contrast to the descent down ﬁve terraces to Lake Maggiore. 2006. Gardens of Italy. which affords a view of the square Garden of Love ﬁve terraces below. The central statue depicts a unicorn carrying Honor. At the top of two high terraces carried on the western side by colossal arches is a point from which paths in two directions are possible. the ten terraces suggest a connection of the Isola Bella garden with theatrical set design of the period. they completed the main element of the garden. Four formal parterres around a basin expand the scale of the design. steps lead to the upper terrace. Laras. Behind the Great Theater. The Garden Lover’s Guide to Italy. London: Frances Lincoln. Working frenetically. . Borromee Islands.Isola Bella Gardens 71 palace and embellished the garden. P. In their varied concepts. large out-of-scale statues and obelisks suggest fantasies. NJ: Princeton University Press. The design was a convenient way of not only connecting the different levels of the palace to the garden—gardens and palace were remarkably uniﬁed—but also providing a variety of observation points focusing on local sights as well as distant views across the lake to snow-capped mountains and the villages scattered in the woods. 2000. the view is framed by groups of statues or obelisks. the Great Theater.
deeply inﬂuenced by Platonic ideas that the Lutherans could understand. beginning in 1517.72 Laurentian Library LAURENTIAN LIBRARY. Florence. FLORENCE Style: Mannerist Dates: 1524–1559 Architect: Michelangelo s soon as he was elected pope in 1523. required intellectual resistance. In the vestibule. and they also realized that the rise of the Protestant Reformation. Leo X Medici had suggested the idea to Clement in 1519. Michelangelo. Michelangelo. A Laurentian Library. Clement VII Medici decided to build a library for Greek and Latin manuscripts in Florence. who was raised in the intellectual spirit of the Medici-supported Neo-Platonic Academy. “imprisons” pairs of columns within the walls. working as a Neo-Platonist. These two Medici popes wanted to invest Florence with a cultural prestige equal to that of Rome by building a library that would rival the Vatican’s. was commissioned to design the library to house the Medici collection of books and manuscripts. . was the living symbol of the heritage of Lorenzo de’ Medici. Florence.
He articulated the walls and ornamented the ceiling and ﬂoor in a subtle. they do not carry the load of the building. that actually carry the load of the vestibule. which is their usual and expected function. left blank and without ornamentation. Despite the sculptor-architect’s desire. scroll-shaped brackets. C. strongly emotional emphasis to contrast with the horizontality and calm of the reading room. The process of design cost him an enormous amount of energy that he did not want to be revealed in the ﬁnished work of art. An entrance hall with a staircase was necessary to provide access to the reading room. The vestibule. de Tolnay described the staircase as a ﬂow of lava from the reading room. James Ackerman described how the staircase descends into the tension ﬁlled space of the vestibule like an alien intruder that provokes an emotional and intellectual shock. Michelangelo left Florence and went to Rome in 1534. the columns fail as supports and are compressed and impotent within the wall.Laurentian Library 73 The library’s reading room was to be located on the third ﬂoor of the cloister attached to the Medici-sponsored basilica of San Lorenzo so that it would be ﬂooded with light from two sides. a master of playing with oppositions and paradox. For Michelangelo. a republican revolution in Florence. Michelangelo. sculpture was a ﬁerce battle with marble. is structurally and aesthetically paradoxical. . Instead of standing free surrounded by space. with a nearly square cross section (35 by 27½ feet). ambivalent between action and immobility. Michelangelo designed the reading room as a simple box 152 feet long. Michelangelo often played with a sense of the unﬁnished in his work as he constantly critiqued and revised his compositions. The columns appear to be “imprisoned” in niches in the walls and it is the walls. This meant that the walls of the residences of the canons (the administrative clergy) on the ﬁrst two levels had to be strengthened. the staircase was constructed in stone by Ammanati in 1559 to mark the restored power of the Medici court. but the Sack of Rome by Imperial (and Lutheran) troops in 1527. active. which resisted the creative will of the sculptor. attached to the outer surface of the wall at the bases of the columns defy the laws of stability. A sense of frustration dominates the vestibule. The library opened to the public in 1571. Michaelangelo proposed that the staircase be made of wood like the furniture in the reading room. that is. neutral fashion to create a sense of calmness that stressed no activity other than reading the books that were placed on the wood desks of equally reﬁned design. Construction of the vestibule began in 1526. Eventually. regular. Useless consoles. For twenty years. Hence. not only because of its color but also for its form and the excessive amount of space it occupies. The pairs of columns are nonstructural. containing the staircase. and the impoverishment of the Medici for three years dashed any hope of ﬁnishing the work. created a vestibule with a vertical. work which began in 1524. They are like Michelangelo’s famous statue of Moses for the tomb of Julius II. the viewer’s expectation of traditional structural roles is confounded. the staircase to the library reading room was missing. so it is not surprising that his ﬁnal design for the Laurentian Library staircase was submitted as a model only in 1558–1559.
burnt at the stake. Paris: Gallimard. struck by a spade. large tracts of wooded land still preserve something of the ancient landscape. was murdered in Asia in 337. had a daughter named Constantina who lived in Rome from 337 to 351. Among them was a young girl. local tradition added many legendary elements to her story. whose name means “chastity. perhaps twelve or thirteen years of age. Constantina devoted herself to the cult of Saint Agnes and made use of imperial resources to build a grandiose basilica near Saint Agnes’s tomb. the ﬁrst Christian emperor. Agnes. Her bravery became legendary and her burial place attracted large crowds of worshippers including the emperor’s daughter. This intensely three-dimensional element characterizes Michelangelo as a sculptor as much as an architect. she did not marry again until 351 when she became the wife of Gallus and left Rome for Bithynia. Michel-Ange. Argan. de Tolnay. A few of these areas were burial grounds in antiquity that were sanctiﬁed by the bodies of the Christian martyrs of the third and fourth centuries. or strangled. During her stay in Rome. Giuilo Carlo. She may have been beheaded. on the northeast side of Rome. Constantine. Annabalianus. Her ﬁrst husband. James S. ROME Style: Early Christian Dates: 337–350 Architect: Unknown O n the via Nomentana. It is not certain how she was martyred because there are conﬂicting stories. Paris: Pierre Tisné. (This basilica should not be confused with the present . 1991. Michel-Ange Architecte. MAUSOLEUM OF CONSTANTINA (CHURCH OF SANTA COSTANZA). where she died in 354. 2nd ed. The Architecture of Michelangelo.74 Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza) A central ﬂight of stairs with convex treads contrasts with the ﬂights of straight treads on either side. Further Reading Ackerman. 1986. Although very little is known about her. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. who suffered martyrdom on the January 21 in a year that is only vaguely preserved by tradition as perhaps the fourth persecution of Diocletian in 305. Charles.” was venerated as an example of purity and faith. 1951. and Bruno Contardi.
Santa Costanza. Rome. . View into the central dome of the mausoleum of Constantine’s daughter.
Constantina adorned her church with valuable works of art and then decided to build a mausoleum for herself next to the basilica as if she expected heavenly protection from Saint Agnes. sixteenth-century drawings preserve a record of the lavish mosaic decorations of the dome and of marble revetments on the lower levels of the walls. as wide as the grandest of the Roman basilicas. birds. and her tomb was turned into a church dedicated to Santa Costanza. is one of the few remaining pieces of the fourth-century basilica. The ambulatory opens into the central space because its internal side is made up of a row of double columns of purple gray granite that carry lofty brick arches that support the drum of the dome. a mosaic represents Christ among the Apostles. and ritual vessels. the Roman . arranged opposite one another on the longitudinal and transverse axes of the building. Legend made Constantina a saint. A heavy wall. Constantina’s mausoleum has remained largely intact and was restored in 1938–1939. There. Large windows in the upper part of the central space provide illumination for the interior space of the mausoleum. However. which depict cupids and various ﬂowers. a series of coupled pilasters above the arches framing two levels of mosaics. Two niches in the external wall and the vault of the ambulatory are testimony of the imperial rank of Constantina. which was built in the seventh century. The twentieth-century restoration of Santa Costanza removed all the damaged original decoration and inconsistent later ornamentation. that once marked the apse. her Italianized name. Some of the mosaic scenes in the ambulatory. The nave was ﬂanked by an aisle and an ambulatory. Constantina’s body was brought to her mausoleum in Rome from Bithynia. Their correspondences recall the shape of a cross. The interior of the mausoleum is composed of two concentric elements: an ambulatory covered by a barrel vault decorated with sumptuous mosaics and a central circular space covered by a dome. and marquetery panels that had been applied to the interior. The niches have religious symbols while the ambulatory vaults are decorated by six mosaic panels on each side. which increase in complexity of design as they approach the small dome above Constantina’s tomb. Four of the twelve arches. It is one of the ﬁnest extant examples of late Roman architecture. making the church so majestic that the Pope used it for important ceremonies in 358. In 360. Her church was restored around the year 500 but fell into decay and had all but disappeared by the seventh century.76 Mausoleum of Constantina (Church of Santa Costanza) church of Sant’ Agnese Fuori le Mura. the original is now in the Vatican Museum. animals. Renaissance Humanists understood the images as décor celebrating Bacchus.) The nave of Constantina’s church was 260 feet long. Although nothing remains of them. 368. have no direct Christian connection and seem to reﬂect pleasurable aspects of the princess’s life. a symbolic reference to Constantina’s Christian faith. The mausoleum contains a replica of the fourth-century porphyry sarcophagus of Constantina. by Pope Innocent III (1198–1216). and at 57 feet 5 inches. are taller than the others. It was not placed in the center of the circular building but instead stood in a niche opposite the entrance. and 419. 55 feet tall.
or San Petronio in Bologna. Emilia. Gian Galeazzo Visconti took on the title of Duke of Milan in 1395. and part of Tuscany—was controlled by Milan. who were happy with the idea of peace because most of them were eager to accumulate wealth. Five aisles—a central nave ﬂanked by two aisles. As was the case with Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore). Amadeo.000 inhabitants. Rome: Tipographia Poliglotta Vaticana. he and his friends served wine on Constantina’s sarcophagus. He put Simone da Orsenigo in charge of design. Dolcebono. The outer two aisles would continue past the transept up to the apse and the inner aisles would continue beyond the transept and around the apse to form an ambulatory.Milan Cathedral 77 wine god. Most of northern Italy—including Lombardy. a Dutch artist in the sixteenth century was given a bizarre baptism in the Mausoleum. Krautheimer. 1975. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. A tower would mark the crossing of nave and transepts on the exterior. Piedmont. Because of this (mis)interpretation. MILAN Style: Gothic Dates: 1386. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. II complesso monumentale di’Sant’ Agnese e di Santa Costanza. this was the highest title of nobility given to any of the Italian rulers. had concentrated prosperity in the city of 100. Richard. T . 1960. begun in the twelfth century. each half as wide as the nave—would lead to the crossing. which they believed to be the sepulcher of Bacchus! Further Reading Frutaz. To exceed the size of these. 1858 Architects: Simone da Orsenigo. The nave and aisles were to be separated by immense pillars. city power in the Gothic era was expressed by huge churches. heavily decorated on their tops with sculpted capitals and spaced widely enough to permit views through the cathedral. which gave the Visconti rulers considerable power. or even the grandiose cathedrals at Siena and Orvieto. MILAN CATHEDRAL. Gian Galeazzo Visconti decided in 1386 to build a cathedral in Milan that would be 520 feet long and 305 feet wide at the transepts (the shorter arms of the cross-shaped plan). After a night of debauchery. 1418. A vast system of irrigation and transportation canals. A. P. numerous others he political and economic power of the Duchy of Milan was enormous from the beginning of the fourteenth century until the Wars of Italy at the beginning of the sixteenth century.
Milan Cathedral. Sharp pinnacles at the summit rise above the roofs of the city. .
Gabriele Stornacolo. These create a “formal . Later. the present crossing tower and a spire that seems to shoot into the sky were missing because of unresolved structural problems. Each aisle braces the next in a way that creates an equilateral triangular section for the church. In 1481. the expansive interior spaces. and Leonardo da Vinci. The American architectural historian James Ackerman was convinced that the German master-builders lacked experience and that their abstract sense of theory. elaborated balustrades. which attracted most of the best-trained masters from German lodges. and the French “architect” Jean Mignot argued for a nave much taller than the side aisles. that allows large windows in its upper part. Antonio di Vicenzo from Bologna. as well as their exterior expression. Johannes Niesenberger came to Milan from the leading lodge of Strasburg with ﬁfteen artisans to work on the cathedral. Nevertheless. the transept. the “ad triangulum” system restricts the size of windows so that the interior of Milan cathedral. demonstrate the confusion in Gothic design around 1400. and a group trained in Hans Parler’s “lodge. The Renaissance architects’ elaborate proposals were ignored and the tower was built according to the recommendations of Amadeo and Dolcebono. which were adopted on June 27.” which was building another grand cathedral in Prague.Milan Cathedral 79 Debates ensued for decades concerning the height of the vaults in each of the ﬁve aisles and the proportions of the interior—from a single plan. Donato Bramante. and statues. there was a new debate between Gothic master-masons from Germany and Lombardy and some of the most gifted Italian Renaissance architects: the theoretician Francesco di Giorgio. A mathematician. 1490. many transverse sections were possible. The debates. This traditional and massive masonry (as opposed to the light structure proposed by the Italians) was erected on four hidden arches at the bottom of the tower. while impressive. limited their imaginations to an elementary system of “ad triangulum” (using equilateral triangles) or “ad quadratum” (using squares). Equally. typical of French Gothic. Among the experts consulted were many famous foreign architects including Nicolas de Bonaventure from Paris. are covered to excess (in many architects’ opinion) with ornament: pinnacles. remains dark. In contrast to the typical French system with its high nave. subdivided windows. and the choir were already vaulted by 1480. Hans von Freiburg. the German “ad triangulum” was eventually agreed on as the system to be used in Milan cathedral. and Wenzel (Hans Parler’s son) from Prague debated building techniques as well as aesthetics and architectural theory. Although ﬁve bays of the nave. based on medieval Scholastic philosophy. At the height of 152 feet 11 inches. This solution recreated the continuity of the sidewalls and guaranteed the stability of the heavily decorated spire. the nave is comparable to the most daring Gothic cathedrals anywhere. Heinrich of Gmund. Meticulous records of these discussions were kept and they offer valuable insight into the way Gothic master-builders. in 1438. at least late in the Gothic period. was consulted about proportions. designed their churches.
that ﬂank a portico that was not added until 1770. was occupied by a group of Cluniac monks and their abbot in 1176.. and a sanctuary in Romanesque style with an Early Christian superstructure and wooden trussed roof. P. one unﬁnished. well-known for its elaborate columns and capitals. Crossley. and P. New Haven. the Golden Conch. Monreale Cathedral itself shows a strong contrast between the restrained harmony of its interior and the extravagantly complex decoration of its exterior. “Ars sine scienta nihil est. medallions ﬁlling in the spaces between. N. German Gothic Church Architecture. 2000. 2000. The east end is particularly ﬂorid. New Haven. transepts. was celebrated in the twelfth century for the beauty of its landscape and the richness of its soil. The interior of the Cathedral combines a basilican nave ﬂanked by aisles. On the west end. Founded in 1174 and quickly completed in 1182 by King William II. Gothic Architecture. Preceding the cathedral on the site was a Benedictine monastery which. J. Gothic Theory of Architecture at the Cathedral of Milan. Further Reading Ackerman. the entrance to the basilica is marked by two blocky tower bases. Frankl.” Art Bulletin 30 (1949): 84–111. PALERMO Style: Romanesque Dates: Cathedral 1174–1182. and Muslim pointed arches over the windows. at William’s invitation. The cloister of the monastery is a masterpiece of twelfth-century art. its clarity of articulation. CT: Yale University Press. In the T . CT: Yale University Press. Nussbaum. with three stories of Norman interlaced arches crossed by horizontal friezes.80 Monreale Cathedral and Cloister maximum” that expresses quite well the ambition of the Milanese people for their cathedral. and its golden mosaic decoration. Monreale was intended to be a counterweight to the Cathedral of Palermo and a means of keeping its independent Archbishop Walter of the Mill (Gualterio Offamilio) in check. MONREALE CATHEDRAL AND CLOISTER. Cloister 1172–1189 Architect: Unknown he Conca d’Oro. Built on the slope of a mountain behind Palermo overlooking the Conca is the Cathedral of Monreale that has been praised by architectural historians for its digniﬁed proportions.
229. Die Kunst des Mittelalters. only the three apses are vaulted. Interior (archival photograph from W. From author’s collection. retains the Early Christian tradition without any later reﬁnements. Large expanses of wall were presumably designed to carry the extensive mosaics that are purely Byzantine in style. A comparison of the Cathedrals of Cefalù and Monreale. Both the nave and transepts carry timber-framed roofs. A large cathedral like Notre Dame in Paris already had a vaulted choir in 1160. it would seem. planned in 1174. indicates no sign of architectural progress. In Sicily. Monreale. 1910). The nave of Monreale. This is in contrast to Normandy and the French Royal Domain where church naves were vaulted in the new Gothic system by the twelfth century.Monreale Cathedral and Cloister 81 Cathedral. The conjunction of multiple styles in the building was handsomely resolved. separated by only forty years. much as was done in the earlier Cathedral at Cefalù. the Normans had lost the . Luebke. Esslingen. p. nave antique columns in the Corinthian order support Muslim pointed arches.
MONTE AMIATA HOUSING. dominates the apse. Further Reading Conant. a colossal half-ﬁgure of Christ. spiral bands and mosaics” (Conant 1974. The cloisters help to evoke the charms of Norman Sicily. It was the destiny of Sicily to juxtapose. A. and the North (Pisa)—that converged on the island. 361). chevrons. Byzantine Art. The mosaics of Monreale are of a lesser quality than those of the Palatine Chapel in Palermo. M. but the way in which they cover such huge expanses of wall surface raises them to the ﬁrst rank in their overall disposition. The intricacy of their ornamentation excited Kenneth J. The cloister on the south side of the church fuses the numerous styles in a most brilliant manner. Aymonino. Neff. 1910. who cheerfully describes the columns’ “fanciful motifs— scroll-work. Luebke. The aisles and crossing are dedicated to the life of Christ. Above the image of the Virgin Mary. K. Harmondsworth: Penguin. David Talbot. Wilhelm. Ruler of the Universe. the South (Muslim). ﬂuting. and Max Semrau. Die Kunst der Mittelalters. Twenty-ﬁve Muslim pointed arches in each portico are carried by twin columns. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. Esslingen am Neckar: P. J. de Rossi. Inside the church. Old Testament scenes are illustrated in two registers on the upper walls of the nave above a richly ornamental frieze of angel busts. reﬂective Byzantine-inspired mosaics that cover most of the upper surfaces subordinate three-dimensional ornament as well as the mass of the walls to the splendor of the spaces. Conant. The aisles and the ceiling show Muslim inﬂuence in the way they are painted. citizen of Pisa) created the beautiful central bronze door in 1186. combine. the glittering. GALLARATESE. 1968. Messare . Rice. and compare the different forms of art—from the East (Byzantine). MILAN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1967–1972 Architects: Carlo Aymonino. S. CT: Yale University Press. Aldo Rossi.82 Monte Amiata Housing architectural imagination and engineering discoveries evidenced in monuments built earlier in the century. New Haven. 1974. Bonnanus civis pisanus (Bonnanus.
and an outdoor theater to manifest its urban identity. the contemporary city had long since lost its unity. This grouping creates a varied skyline. a long three-story building. and blue so fashionable in the seventies—and the oddity of its appearance. The new concept of the city that emerged in Monte Amiata. the Monte Amiata project continues to project an air of well-organized living. Simplicity also means unity. communal facilities. the “Red Dinosaur” of via Chilea in the recent northwest extension of Milan has had much international success among architects. and the blocks converge on a central core dominated by an outdoor theater painted yellow. and terraces. decks. Subsequently. and a ﬁnal threestory slab block. the complex was deserted. covers a parking facility. Monte Amiata does not resemble any other housing in the area. It is a group of ﬁve buildings: two slabs of eight stories. It began as a utopia. arising from the enormous size of the apartment blocks. Thirty years after it was built (between 1967 and 1972). when the visitor ﬁrst enters. They had accepted as a model Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation. two triangular piazzas help alleviate any confusion. which they proposed as models for contemporary planning. in actuality. The splendid ﬂexibility of shape given by Aymonino and his co-designers— 440 dwellings of various sizes ranging from studios. “Red Dinosaur” describes both the color of the buildings—that Italian mixture of Bordeaux. Of course. bridges. For them. When it was designed. The apparent simplicity of arrangement is complemented by a series of events: passages. shops. and bridges. In fact. which provide variety in the pedestrian’s walk through the project. recalled the experiments conducted in the ﬁfties by a group of modern architects called Team X. a kind of alternative model for the city of the future. and housing. a two-story connecting structure. but they wanted to improve it. were well-known for their studies of urban morphology and earlier forms of urbanism. which provided its own system of connections via decks. Carlo Aymonino and Aldo Rossi. but its initial years were disastrous because Communist League groups forced homeless people to move in.Monte Amiata Housing 83 daring experiment in public housing. By providing a feeling of simplicity and points of reference. Monte Amiata Housing is a sort of microcosm of a city. and the group of structures seems to converge into a single building of large shape standing on a long terrace that. Team X included open-air decks. elevators. and connected isolated buildings into a uniﬁed design in order to restore the social identity of an urban district. grey. its architects. shopping centers. old core businesses and commercial buildings. in 1974. a slab block of apartments at Marseilles of bold concrete expression. intersections of freeways. Not only was the housing A . Monte Amiata had to be one of these fragments with some sort of mixed activities. but it now ﬂourishes with proud and satisﬁed inhabitants. to patio houses and duplex apartments—was part of the utopian task. terraces. having become a collection of antagonistic fragments— industries. introduced variety in details. a building on its own had little interest unless it was part of an urban complex.
. Milan.Monte Amiata Housing Project. A daring experiment in public housing that ﬂourishes with proud and satisﬁed inhabitants.
With a feeling of pure realism. The absolute repetition of identical windows and bays creates an unusual building that is both monumental and ordinary and which is tricky to categorize historically. Tokyo: ADA Edita. that is.org/project?File_No=ITA021. But its social function remains. Carlo Aymonino. lintels. P. it was also conceived as a social place for modest inhabitants to live and interact with their neighbors.. 1984. Aymonino. It was thought by some to be too monumental and too disruptive of commonly held urban principles. . Further Reading Housing Prototypes. way. Aldo Rossi: Housing Complex at the Gallaratese Quarter. Critics in Italian architecture magazines debated the qualities of Monte Amiata during the early seventies. Cambridge. Rossi. Aldo.Monte Amiata Housing 85 complex a fragment of the city of tomorrow. and C. in a sense. The most distinguished part of the complex was the smaller slab built to the side of one of the taller buildings by the architect-urban historian Aldo Rossi. Monte Amiata Housing in the Gallaratese District conceals behind its appealing aspects much of the bitter discussion about Italian architecture and its relation to history that took place in the seventies. but it was politically advanced in terms of land ownership and use of space and advanced with respect to 1970s building technology. The Architecture of the City. MA: MIT Press. but in a sense he was inﬂuenced by the principles of historical realism. the architects minutely considered details characteristic of traditional Italian craftsmanship. Aymonino relied on two main elements of modern architecture: from Le Corbusier’s housing in Marseilles he retained the balconies hollowed out from the mass of the building and from Chareau’s Maison de Verre in Paris he took the glass-block walls.Org: http://housingprototypes. primitive. Rossi playfully rejoins the classical but austere idiom of Terragni. and windows) are structural. Rossi works against history by mixing industrial concrete construction with simple masonry: one wall section is made of concrete while six other intermediary sections are masonry. Occupied by the homeless as a protest as soon as it was ﬁnished. 1977. and identiﬁes his architecture with the 1930s. but they are treated in an archetypal. modernized. Avoiding prefabrication of elements. Rossi confessed that in his design he was imitating de Chirico’s paintings of the thirties and. indispensable for construction. which they contained within a modular structural frame with a bay size of 11 feet 10 inches. bringing them to life. All the elements of the building (walls. Nicolin. Monte Amiata was eventually turned into a middle-class condominium by the municipality.
in Orvieto. ORVIETO Style: Gothic Dates: 1290–1330. Because the chapter was responsible for two-thirds of the new cathedral and the bishop for only one. and Milan make clear. the communal government instituted the magistracy of the Seven Lords (Signori Sette. Scale was an important factor in thirteenth. Meanwhile. Giovanni Uguizzonis.and fourteenthcentury Italy because the size of a community’s major church was as much a matter of civic pride as religious devotion. the Umbrian hill town of Orvieto was so prosperous that it was able to replace its ruinous old cathedral with one of the marvels of medieval architecture. Francesco Monaldeschi was made Bishop of Florence in 1295. Its members were conservative nobles who held traditional opinions about the appropriate form of the new church. In 1290. the foundations for the nave and aisles of a very large basilica were begun. 1295– 1313). some sort of agreement had to be reached before the old church could be replaced. In the meantime.86 Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary) ORVIETO CATHEDRAL (CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION OF VIRGIN MARY). as the huge cathedrals at Siena. Competition among the communes of central Italy was ﬁerce. They seem to have favored Early Christian precedents. façade late sixteenth century Architects: Fra Benvegnate da Gubbio. Bishop Francesco Monaldeschi (elected 1279) was a member of one of the most powerful families of Orvieto and was the motivating power behind the decision to build the new church. which he believed would allow his community to build a cathedral of grandiose proportions. Bishop Francesco favored the “modern” Gothic style of architecture. Lorenzo Maitani t the end of the thirteenth century. The will of the chapter prevailed. Inﬂuenced by the mendicant orders. which included representatives of both the nobles and the common A . there he immediately demolished the old cathedral of Santa Reparata and started work on the huge Gothic cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore with Arnolfo di Cambio as architect. They agreed to the total removal of all their buildings as well as the old church to make way for the construction of the new cathedral with the stipulation that the building be modeled on the basilican church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Bishop Francesco’s plans were opposed by the Cathedral Chapter. speciﬁcally the Dominicans and Franciscans. Florence.
Orvieto Cathedral. The vast ﬁelds of mosaic decoration on the highly ornamented façade were paid for by the proud citizens of the city. .
The people of Orvieto revealed their public pride by being willing to pay for the vast ﬁelds of mosaic decoration on their church. much in the manner of modern mass media. This new governmental body took control of the building of the cathedral. which were roofed with Gothic cross-ribbed vaults. Although the portals are recessed. The mosaics were fragile and needed constant maintenance. In a “radically incarnational” movement (John Fleming). some from the workshop of Giovanni Pisano. This is the linen cloth stained with the blood of the Host used by a priest who doubted transubstantiation in Bolsena in 1263. and the Last Judgment were given artistic form on the front of the church with the direct pedagogic intention of spreading the doctrines of the church. narratives from the Old and New Testaments. the Capella Nuova (1406–1425).88 Orvieto Cathedral (Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary) people. the small glass cubes. The addition of two chapels and the choir lengthened the transepts. They were restored in the sixteenth century and again in the twentieth. also called the Capella di San Brizio. Benozzo Gozzoli. Traditional sculpture is limited to single ﬁgures of prophets from the ﬁfteenth century placed mainly around the rose window. Orvieto’s “open . In contrast to this conservative element in the façade is the “modern” idea. and Luca Signorelli. Specialists from Venice were brought to Orvieto to carry out the work. but numerous sculptors. On the south side. The design of the façade is attributed to Lorenzo Maitani. expresses a new strategy of illustrating and revealing biblical narratives for a huge audience. The use of mosaic decoration on the façade of the church presented problems as well as great satisfaction for the cathedral builders. On the side of the north transept is the Capella del Corporale (1350–1356) that contains the relic of the Miracle of Bolsena. The city felt obliged to build a furnace for making the tesserae. The ﬂatness of the Orvieto façade is typical of the Italian preference for two-dimensional church façades that was continuous from the Early Christian period. The triple gabled façade of the cathedral. it was taken as a sign of the validity of the Eucharist and of the Corpus Christi Celebration. the overall impression of the façade is one of absolute ﬂatness. the Life of Christ. has frescoes by Fra Angelico. which is topped by sharp Gothic pinnacles. put forward by the Franciscan Order. a large circular window that dominates the façade. mosaics that are visible from a distance. The planar surface of the façade is a backdrop for representations of religious revelations. and there is a ring of niches and a gallery. Financial documents from the years between 1321 and 1390 preserve a detailed picture of the fabrication and installation of the mosaics. worked for more than a century to complete it. above these. that biblical art should not be relegated to monastic cloisters but instead should be moved out into the heart of the city itself. used in mosaic fabrication and to dedicate a special room for assembling them. Its tools for this are mainly two: a vast expanse of panels sculpted in low relief with narrative subjects at the base and. When the host appeared to shed the blood of Christ during the mass. directed to the socially and psychologically concerned worshippers. Mosaic work cost four times that of fresco decoration.
In designing the shapes of the ribs supporting the roof of the Palace of Labor. Gino Covre he Palace of Labor. The church itself affords a startling view of the changing architectural concerns of fourteenth-century Italy. Art. Waley. he had to be involved in every detail from the beginning of the design until the moment of realization. Mediaeval Orvieto: The Political History of an Italian City-State 1157– 1334. and mathematically advanced. Nervi’s ideas came from discussions with his clients. Rosatelli. Nervi’s fame was based on his curiosity about structural engineering and his imaginative creations. Antonio Nervi. was quickly nicknamed the “Concrete Parthenon. which create a strong contrast to the severe black-and-white masonry of the rest of the cathedral. preliminary plan. Nervi had to go beyond an architect’s or an engineer’s abstract. even considered them a creative failure. he was inspired to give them the ﬂuidity of Gothic rib-and-panel vaulting. but execution of those ideas demanded that he translate his sense of structure into such mundane things as formwork for the concrete.000 square feet) and its absolute regularity—the 75-foot-tall concrete columns are spaced 130 feet apart—celebrate a return to classicism by an audacious engineer. Literature. TURIN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1960–1961 Architects: Pier Luigi Nervi. The Cathedral of Orvieto: Faith. His sense of economy and desire to ﬁt the building to the very conditions of the program gave his practice a strong sense of moral integrity. Daniel P. 1952. “The Evolution of the Design of Orvieto Cathedral. 2000. clearly reasoned. From 1960 to 1962. which is obvious in his primary works in Italy. Further Reading Gillerman. Nervi had always expressed structure in a novel and imaginary way. Lucio. an exhibition hall built in Turin by P. He resisted conventional solutions. L. D. Eraldo.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 53 (1994): 300–321. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rome and Bari: Laterza. he was T . Il duomo di Orvieto.” Its size (580.Palace of Labor 89 book façade” is an example of an original use of relief sculpture and colorful mosaic. PALACE OF LABOR. for example. Perugia: Quattroemme. M. the Exhibition Hall B in Turin (1947–1949) and the two Palaces of Sport in Rome (1956–1957 and 1958–1959). 1988. Riccetti. Nervi (1891– 1979) and his son Antonio with the help of Gino Covre.
” Photo by Remy Rouyer. Nervi’s modern classicism is reﬂected in the nickname given to this building—the “Concrete Parthenon. Turin. However. . the time allotted for building the palace was extremely limited—only seventeen months.90 Palace of Labor involved in building the George Washington Bus Station in Manhattan that still serves more than 700 buses each day. he advocated a universal space not very different from Mies van der Rohe’s buildings such as Crown Hall at the The Palace of Labor. open spaces. Nervi believed that the building could be transformed into an industrial school after serving as an exhibition hall for the Turin exhibition. Nervi reduced the program to its essentials. The hall of the Palace of Labor required neutral.
They leave the central space between the sixteen main columns free and make a ring around the periphery. 1982. the glass sheets have sufﬁcient mobility so that they will not be broken. that was part Nervi’s structural sensitivity. and G.Palatine Chapel 91 Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago (1950–1956). it was too pure. Freedom of space—inspired by Mies van der Rohe—is enhanced. Further Reading Desideri. allowing the ribs supporting the concrete slab of the roof to give a sense of motion. Jr. supported on independent columns. slightly curved vertical mullions.. umbrella-like forms that spread to support an area 125 feet square and carry a roof that measures 520 feet by 520 feet. These mezzanines. the cross and circle. separated by 6½ feet wide glass slots. L. Although it was a precedent for Nervi. decoration 1140–1183 Architect: Unknown . The Palace of Labor follows the rules of modern architecture in that it distinguishes small-scale elements from the large and monumental. Nervi. Three months (30 July to October 30) were required for the construction of the roof and the two levels of mezzanines on the periphery of the hall. Positano.. were necessary for functional reasons. too simple to be as functional as Nervi wished. PALATINE CHAPEL. sixteen gigantic columns support steel-ribbed. The only connection between the small peripheral structures and the huge umbrella-like compartments of the roof is provided by huge glass wall panels. Zurich: Patmos Verlag. NORMAN PALACE. 75 feet above the ﬂoor. PALERMO Style: Romanesque Dates: 1130–1140. a meandering movement of great reﬁnement. Nervi’s return to classicism—or to Mies van der Rohe’s classicist modernism—was for him an indispensable premise because he believed that correct technique was the only basis for architectonic beauty. Pier Luigi Nervi. The cross section of the columns changes progressively from an X-shape at the bottom to a circle at the top. All the rooﬁng compartments (the umbrellas) are independent. Because they must deal with expansion and contraction in the roof. In the Palace of Labor. Their rigidity is ensured by splendid. This change in the geometry of the columns expresses a constant modiﬁcation of two opposed forms. P. Each square steel “umbrella” supported by the columns is composed of twenty ribs. P.
on the very edge of Christian civilization. the Normans expelled the Muslims and developed a magniﬁcent culture that was a mixture of Byzantine. “Northmen” (Norsemen) from Scandinavia who had settled in the part of France now called Normandy moved abroad. Luebke. Die Kunst des Mittelalters. the lesser lords belonging to the Hauteville family were even more adventurous than William. p. 1910). Palatine Chapel in the Norman Palace. Norman.92 Palatine Chapel D uring the tenth century. Byzantine. Palermo. The Norman lord called William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066. From author’s collection. and Norman styles (archival photograph from W. Esslingen. They invaded southern Italy and took over as lords of Puglia and Sicily. . The interior shows the mixing of Muslim. Muslim. 228. and Latin traditions. There.
the chapel has a basilican plan with a nave separated from ﬂanking aisles by reused antique columns. They moved the royal palace from the shore to a distant hillside inland from which they could control Palermo’s urban life and society. performed the liturgy under a dome that covered the crossing of the church. to the north. Eight canons. Second (the Kingdom of Sicily. The coronation of Roger II in 1130 was marked by a royal donation for the chapel. Facing the altar. The power of the Norman kings brought about major changes in Palermo. A little more than 110 feet long. or crypt. well connected to the Royal Apartments. facing the city. William I obtained a settlement from Pope Adrian IV in 1156 that led to the rapid Latinization of Sicilian culture. Norman culture developed in three stages. which had been the Muslim capital city since 831. Cuba Sottana. the Norman rulers built a number of pleasure pavilions referred to by contemporaries as “jewels embellishing a woman of splendid beauty. The third stage was a late blooming during the reign of the two kings named William (1154–1195). In the center of the Norman Palace. The chapel was consecrated on April 28. is typical of the cultural inventiveness of Norman Sicily. It stood between the valleys of two diverted streams. were the Royal Apartments (“Joharia”) joined to the dwelling quarters of the women. they made a triumphal entrance into Palermo. the Kemonnia and the Papireto. canals. that includes a burial chamber. and basins. and a strict court ritual required the arrangement of rooms of increasing luxury from south to north.” or as representations of paradise on earth. which contained the state treasury. The ﬂoor has an ornamental pattern of colored cut stone. the palace was a mile away from the harbor but linked to it by the Cassaro. Accused of dictatorship and the abuse of authority. 1140. The Palatium Novum (the New Palace) was built between two inhabitable towers: the Torre Greca to the south and the Torre Pisana. Due west of the city. The Zisa. a marble veneer frame. reached by four steps. later increased to twelve. from the opposite end of the nave. It is a product of the cultural mixing characteristic of medieval Sicily and of the Norman court ritual. 500 feet across. In the center. is the Palatine Chapel. First (the Country of Sicily) was an experimental phase that combined elements of different origins. established in 1130) was a brilliant period of connections to Fatimid Egypt and the Maghreb (North Africa). It increased the prestige of the kings by its liturgical furnishings and the beauty of its decorations. Scibene. a transept with dome at the crossing and a small raised cylindrical choir. The palace was a polygon. called Cosmati work after a Roman family who . a street conceived as the backbone of the city. The chapel is built over a lower church. where the marble altar is located. a podium for a throne is accessible by ﬁve steps. and Cuba Soprano were inspired by Saracen residences with lavish interiors and gardens ornamented with fountains. In 1072. which was built on a former fortress of the Islamic period called the Mo’ashar. Its decoration.Palatine Chapel 93 The Hautevilles had begun their conquest of Sicily in 1061. Outside Palermo in the countryside. The court was separated from the city.
Sack.. 2005. PIAZZA GRANDE (PLATEA COMUNIS). and D. K. T. repetitive colorful mosaic patterns. The dome over the crossing of the Palatine Chapel was built according to Byzantine tradition. an ancient city founded by the Etruscans (see Augustus Gate). J. Kunselsau. PERUGIA Style: Gothic Dates: 1300–1443 Architect: Unknown erugia. While the Normans in France and England created the ribbed cross vault. PALAZZO DEI PRIORI. which was economical and ensured the safety of the church. CT: Yale University Press. It was a meeting point between Florence to the north and Rome to the south as well as between the Adriatic ports of Ancona and Grosseto on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The mixing of cultures in medieval Sicily was signiﬁcant of progress in art and architecture in the Middle Ages. Further Reading Conant. which were more efﬁcient to build than northern vaults because of their thinness. cotton. The eclecticism of the decoration. and segmental arches of Moorish origin. As a crossroads city. Commercial facilities and its location made it an important community beginning in the eleventh century.94 Palazzo dei Priori specialized in this type of decoration. Dittelbach. was a Byzantineinspired ﬁgure of the enthroned Christ between Saints Peter and Paul. They reused antique columns and they spanned distances with the light construction of the ogee (reverse-curve) arches. New Haven. The city attracted numbers of peasants who P . under a stalactite ceiling of Muslim derivation. The Lower Church of the Palermo’s Palatine Chapel. it developed market and ﬁnancial facilities. 1974. the shimmering light reﬂected by the mosaics. occupies numerous hilltops overlooking the Tiber River Valley. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. There are also stucco panels. and leather products. Above the podium. those in Sicily were able to give their churches a new sense of lightness. The thirteenth century was particularly prosperous as the citizens of Perugia produced artisanal goods and manufactured wool. the liturgical furnishings such as the pulpit and candlesticks and the Cosmati work combined to create a stupendously rich church interior.
At ﬁrst. A system of triangles (as at Milan Cathedral) determined the ground pattern and the positions of the surrounding buildings. The Platea Comunis. It had both straight and curved façades. These rural nobles were in conﬂict with the local rising bourgeoisie. Perugia may have counted more than 100 tower houses. built in 1278. or Franciscans. the most important of which was the formidable Palace of the Priors. By 1315. enveloped the square with the . The space of the square around the fountain had all the key components of late medieval urban design. with the help of Fra Benvignate. now commonly called the Piazza Grande. The wall of houses opposite the palace. after considerable warfare. with its crenellated rooﬂine and great meeting room. stood in the square where it symbolically reunited the rival seats of Church and municipal power. designed the fountain with two rings of sculpted panels to provide interest and attract viewers from all sides. a new wall around these areas doubled the length of the old Etruscan fortiﬁcations from two miles to four. and the Dominicans. Convents of the mendicant orders (the grey friars. Two sculptors. it was forced to recognize papal authority and was included in Saint Peter’s Patrimony. combined in an unusual relationship that gave a sense of ﬂexibility to the urban space. but rivalry between classes and organizations put an end to any hope of attaining democratic order. As its name Comunis suggests. the city’s guilds (organizations of artisans and craftsmen) participated in the municipal government. is the main square between the cathedral and the city hall. Water for the fountain was brought through an aqueduct from distant springs but it was polluted. Both classes built a great number of towers in the town that were like the tower houses in San Gimignano. which contained one bay of the former Notary’s Hall.Palazzo dei Priori 95 sold their agricultural produce and was also a magnet for the small or intermediate rural nobility searching for a new urban lifestyle. or Prior’s Palace. One faction in the commune tried to develop the symbolic power of the Roman Catholic Church by building a new cathedral and to create a rupture between the Priors in the town hall and the Podesta. whose members were required to live by begging for alms) grew up in a part of the city called “terra nova” (new land) as opposed to the “terra vecchia” (the old city center). A fountain. The growing prosperity of Perugia caused the extension of the old city core into ﬁve suburbs that grew up on the surrounding hilltops. or mayor. These monasteries were surrounded by large groups of the poor and a strong municipal government was required to bring order to the problems posed by these disparate social classes. The cathedral offered the protection of the local Saint Ercolano to the people of Perugia and the mayor’s power quickly disappeared allowing the Priors to secure full political power. Perugia was an independent commune until the fourteenth century when. Andrea and Giovanni Pisano. the piazza was formed in the fourteenth century as a space that was to be used by the whole community. which gave the city a skyscraper skyline. By the middle of the fourteenth century.
Piazza Grande (Platea Comunis). The Fontana Maggiore (Great Fountain) stands in the Piazza between the cathedral and the Palazzo as a symbol of the reunited rival seats of the Church and the municipal power. Perugia.Palazzo dei Priori. .
such as the Prior’s staircase and the tribune supplied for public oratory. business. Federico Gonzaga requested that Giulio provide a model of a villa based on ancient Roman precedent. Perugia’s Platea Comunis remains one of the most appreciated landmarks of urban Italy. They sought to rival the Renaissance giants. 1981. courtliness. to remodel the old stables on the island that housed the Gonzaga’s famous race horses. and design. Small elements. The western façade of the villa block was only completed in 1530–1534. Rather. in 1524. and a sense of humor that was typical of aristocratic behavior in the overreﬁned courts of the sixteenth century. Rome and Bari: Laterza. and an architect. provided access to the apartments as well as the courtyard. a style of art that convoluted and played with the Humanist values of the Renaissance. outside the city walls of Mantua. the duke asked Giulio Romano. PALAZZO DEL TE. Perugia. which the Romans called “negotium. Instead of unity and clarity. However. II Palazzo dei Priori di Perugia.Palazzo del Te 97 same undulation. a combination of activities that was not unusual for ﬁfteenth and sixteenth century artists. a designer of silverware and other courtly objects. MANTUA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1524–1534 Architect: Giulio Romano F or a grassy island named Teieto. or Te. each one different from the others.” the Roman concept of relaxation away from the cares of duty. Raphael and Michelangelo. The villa would be square. Giulio Pipi (1499–1546)—whose Roman origins motivated the change of his last name to Romano. with a central courtyard measuring 145 feet on each side. Ottorino. The. provide a good idea of the consistency of medieval urban design. 1985. In 1526. at the same time. Le città nella storia d’Italia. it was necessary for the Mannerists to exhibit self-control. Mannerist artists aimed at diversity and complexity. Alberto. “the Roman”—was a painter. . imagination. and urban activities. Further Reading Grohmann. Perugia: Benucci. Giulio was one of the ﬁnest practitioners of Mannerism. Gurrieri. Duke Federico Gonzaga II commissioned a villa designed around “otium. by mastering difﬁculty of invention. Three entrance halls.” It was not an entirely new building. Raphael’s most respected student.
and artiﬁcial courts of the sixteenth century. resembling a moat. in anticipation of a visit by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of the House of Habsburg. The villa opened to the east with a long axial view through loggias. The west side of the courtyard shows Giulio Romano’s subversive play with classical rules and details. Mantua. On one courtyard façade.98 Palazzo del Te Palazzo del Te. In some of the Doric friezes. the keystones over the windows are displaced upward and seem to break apart the cornices of the pediments over them. separated the main block of the building from the garden and was crossed by a bridge on the line of the axis. for its decoration. instability. and artiﬁciality into the designs of the façades. Here. there are triglyphs that have slipped down leaving an empty space above—a detail perhaps suggested by the shifting of masonry in the ruins of Roman buildings that were familiar to Giulio from having been raised in the historic center of Rome. and the garden that terminated in a ﬁnal colonnaded loggia (replaced in the eighteenth century). Giulio introduced conﬂict. . intellectually reﬁned. unﬁnished-looking roughness in the courtyard—preclude any sense of unity among the wall elevations. This sense of provocative irregularity is found throughout the building and must have been a major factor in its originality and of the allure it exercised on the members of the highly stylized. Stables for the horses and a wall ﬂanked the garden esplanade and in a corner at the far end was a fantastic bathhouse decorated as a grotto. A rectangular ﬁshpond. the courtyard. the Doric. the Mannerist paradoxes are unmistakable. Although the plan of the Palazzo del Te is based on a Roman suburban villa and uses the simplest of the orders. Various degrees of rustication—from Albertian delicacy in the north façade to the heavy.
ed. Berry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Frederick. and his honored guests. Attributed to either Baldassare Peruzzi or Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger. CT: Yale University Press. when Alessandro was elected Pope. The themes are Roman imperial and mythological. had amassed great tracts of land north of Rome and passed them on to his son Pierluigi. that the instability of the architecture reveals both human ingenuity in building and the ultimate fate of history. or second. 1556–1575 Architects: Baldassare Peruzzi. the site of the old fortress at Caprarola. Il Vignola (Jacopo Barozzi) he hilltop village of Caprarola and its fortress became part of the extensive Farnese possessions in northern Lazio in 1504. Giulio Romano. and impressive wood ceilings. his mistress. CAPRAROLA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1530–1534. Tafuri.) In 1530. PALAZZO FARNESE. New Haven.Palazzo Farnese 99 The interior of the Palazzo del Te is ornately decorated with paintings. Cardinal Alessandro (1468–1549). the drawings show a design that preserves the pentagonal shape of the fortress and its bastions at each of the ﬁve corners and creates a round multistoried courtyard. that some day the Palazzo del Te. Construction of the building was halted in 1534. The architect has presented us with a difﬁcult work that provides a moment of stability in a world of impending disorder. three preliminary designs have been preserved.” was selected as the place where a grandiose residence for the Farnese family would be built. ceiling. 1958. where every inch of wall. too. (Although a pope is supposed to be celibate. Giulio Romano.” the Room of the Giants. Translated by F. with an aura of pagan sensuality and sexuality that is appropriate for this luxurious playground for Federico. 1999. stuccowork. The ruin expressed in this room and the details on the exterior suggest other possible interpretations: ﬁrst. At this time. Leading architects from Rome were engaged in the project. Most famous of all is the “Sala dei Giganti. and ﬂoor is incorporated into a single panorama that depicts Jupiter’s destruction of the Giants who tried to storm Mount Olympus and usurp his power. will return to ruin. called the “rocca. T . who became Pope Paul III in 1534. Pierluigi and several other children were born to Alessandro before he entered religious orders. Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger. in fact. Manfredo. Further Reading Hartt.
Jacopo Barozzi. 2. Caprarola. The approach to the Palazzo Farnese is a sequence of spaces of elaborate beauty. its lavish stucco and painted decoration. 400 feet in front of the palazzo. After more than twenty years of inactivity. known as Vignola. construction of the palazzo was resumed in 1556 on behalf of the nephew of Paul III.100 Palazzo Farnese only the ﬁrst story had been built but it was sufﬁcient to determine the design of the future palazzo. Vignola’s plan for Caprarola Nova included the construction of a straight street. which would retain the form of the pentagon with a circle inscribed into its center. This necessitated the expropriation of many old houses that were rebuilt with façades adapted to late Renaissance designs. At the top of the ascent. The approach to the Palazzo is a sequence of spaces of elaborate beauty beginning in the town below and culminating in the grand entry. A pair of curving Palazzo Farnese. but ﬁnishing and decorating it took two more years. The foremost late-Renaissance architect in Rome. and its dominating position overlooking the town and countryside. The palazzo. was favored by the Cardinal who engaged him to turn the earlier design into an elegant residence situated between a vast expanse of terraced park and a radical revision of the town plan of Caprarola (called “The Farnesian Plan of Caprarola Nova”).500 feet long that climbed 150 feet upward to the residence. provided the entrance to the three-tiered piazza. whose levels are connected by staircases. the palazzo was nearly complete. By Vignola’s death in 1573. a vast triangular space—the “piazza avanti del palazzo”— opened to the view of the main façade and its bastions. with its commodious interior distribution. would commemorate of the glory of the Farnese family. where it joined the street. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese the Younger. A set of stairs at the apex of the triangle. .
Paolo. and Giulia Petrucci. had two stories of galleries beautifully adapted to the formal geometry of the circle. Architecture in Italy. Howard. 1500–1600. the antinatural strategy of imposing order onto disorderly nature could very well be understood as a means of glorifying—and making visible— the power of the Farnese family. However. An elegantly detailed spiral staircase connects the winter apartments on the ground ﬂoor with the reception rooms on the piano nobile. but the main ﬂoor of an Italian palazzo) and turned them into terraces. CT: Yale University Press. Vignola reduced the height of the bastions at the corners of the pentagonal palace so that their roofs are at the height of the piano nobile (the American second story. Rome: MultiGraﬁca Editrice 1986. Vignola adapted the loggia Peruzzi had designed for the Villa Farnesina in Rome. circular courtyard. Wolfgang. 1995. and a pair of large square garden terraces behind. but he replaced Bramante’s single Doric columns with pairs of them and included illusionistic paintings of landscape views that appear to penetrate the surrounding walls like windows. PALAZZO SANFELICE. Caprarola. Thus. The round central courtyard. the rational order of the Palazzo Farnese is also indicative of the new capacity of sixteenth-century architecture to refashion a difﬁcult topography and exploit its aesthetic possibilities. Enrico.Palazzo Sanfelice 101 staircases sweeps up to a ﬂat terrace accessible to carriages from which another pair of staircases with straight runs lead up to the entry to the palace. Lotz. which had been built in 1508–1511 for the Chigi family but had been bought by Alessandro Farnese. triangular square in front. The interior of the palazzo demonstrates Vignola’s attention to commodious design as well as his concern for references to earlier architecture. Portoghesi. Geometry symbolized power and order. Caprarola. 1996. With its three tall. elaborately decorated stories. A penchant for geometrical obsession governed the design of Caprarola with its pentagonal palace. and D. the palazzo dwarfs the neighboring houses below on the square. New Haven. For the central part of this ﬂoor. Further Reading Guidoni. probably inspired by Peruzzi’s design of 1530. NAPLES Style: Baroque Dates: 1725–1728 Architect: Ferdinando Sanfelice . Vignola was clearly referring to Bramante’s famous Belvedere “Lumaca” (snail shell) staircase built in 1512. Rome: Graﬁche Manfredi. above the entry to the palace.
the horses and numerous carriages kept there reﬂected the wealth of the owner and his continuous peregrination from city house to country estate. Naples. open balconies. which contrasted to the stupendous luxury and formality of the public reception rooms. such as Ferdinando Sanfelice (1675–1748).102 Palazzo Sanfelice aples’ mild climate and a strong and consistent Baroque tradition in the arts during the seventeenth century explain the ﬂowering of architectural inventiveness that occurred there at the beginning of the eighteenth century.000 to 400. Scenographic effects supplied intricacies and surprises in moving through the palazzo. which surrounded a central courtyard. The scenographic open double staircase in the courtyard. Servants and stables occupied the ground ﬂoor of a Neapolitan palazzo. and spectacular staircases occupied as much as half the main ﬂoor (the second story. On the third ﬂoor. as one of the most important European capital cities. Loggias. Between 1714 and 1755. but the Austrian administration was not interested in the problems of urban development. Ostentation and luxury were major concerns of the Neapolitan nobility and creative architects. the Neapolitan population doubled from 200. whose sublime setting was one of its main attractions. During this period of transformation.000. . or piano nobile). the Neapolitan palazzo became a major feature of the labyrinthine city. and an Austrian viceroy installed at Naples supported the ﬂow of northern European inﬂuence between 1713 and 1734. The Spanish monarchy lost control of the Kingdom of Naples under the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. were much in demand. N Palazzo Sanfelice. a sense of intimacy was provided for the family in their private apartment.
Jakob Prandtauer (1662– 1726) built an open staircase of grand design for the abbey of Sankt Florian. The ﬁfteen-unit design of staircases in these buildings with their three layers of space created a sense of spatial expansion that gave the same illusion of . became typical of most Neapolitan palaces. which gives access to the apartments on each side of it. The inﬂuence of Austrian architecture provides an interesting background to the creation of the Neapolitan staircase. Here even the somewhat less afﬂuent homebuilders could organize residences in less congested areas than in the old city. were obliged to restore houses on urban lots near the main shopping districts in the center of Naples. From the landing at the top of the central lower ﬂight of stairs. On via Arena della Sanita. where. His inﬂuence can also be seen when. This complex double staircase expresses the ingenuity of Sanfelice’s design. Sanfelice was able to retain many of these innovative ideas even though at a much smaller scale. In 1709. three to ﬁve levels of apartments were built over ﬁrst ﬂoor shops and storage areas. This kind of double staircase. the Spanish king Charles III had created a suburban residence. in 1738. The new Vergini and Sanita districts offered easy access to the summit of Capodimonte. The Palazzo Sanfelice is a good introduction to the sumptuous staircases of the Neapolitan palazzi of the eighteenth century. It occupies 280. the middle class and nobility abandoned the old city center and built new districts outside the walls on the hills to the north and to the west. From the landings in front of the doors further pairs of stairs inserted in the bay behind the ﬁrst set lead up to another landing and another central ﬂight. The surprises it creates combine with a sense of the picturesque and an overall organization that recalls a stage set. which provided views. and terraced hills. The eight-sided courtyard of number 2 has two spiral staircases that combine their unusual geometry into a uniﬁed mirror image labyrinth. at numbers 2 and 6. wealthy traders. dividing the four levels into ﬁfteen space-units ﬂooded with light coming from the garden side. Heavy pillars support these sets of ascending and descending stairs. The Viennese architect Lukas von Hildebrandt also designed a scenographic staircase for the residence at Pommersfelden (1715–1719). In the main courtyard of number 6. Sanfelice designed a huge double staircase that opens at its far end as a transparent element that frames views of the orange and palm trees growing in the back garden. The Neapolitan architect Ferdinando Sanfelice was a successful set designer who also designed churches and the luxurious palazzi required by the rising middle class. pairs of ﬂights lead up on either side to doorways in apartments across from each other. gardens.Palazzo Sanfelice 103 To escape the crowded living conditions inside the fortiﬁcations of the city. which measures only 64 by 48 feet. On restricted sites. A model of this type may have inﬂuenced Sanfelice. The grey tones of the walls play against the white of the marble steps to express the drama of the unexpected position of the ﬂight of stairs. some of noble extraction.000 cubic feet in the largest room in the palace. he designed a double palazzo for his own family residence. near Linz. after an earthquake.
FLORENCE Style: Gothic. literally the Ofﬁces. Two centuries of political unrest. the same impression of increased dimensions. Napoli.. PALAZZO VECCHIO. Rome: Editore Laterza. Mannerist Dates: 1298–1572 Architects: Arnolfo di Cambio. were concluded by a change in government when absolute power was given to Cosimo de’ Medici in 1537. la Città nella Storia d’Italia. connect two different periods of Florentine history. The fortress-like crenellated Prior’s Palace was the center of political and civic life in a period of great prosperity from 1300 to 1348. Further Reading De Seta. which remained a symbol of the communal achievement of the fourteenth century. Inside. Cesare. Giorgio Vasari he Prior’s Palace. Bureaucratic ofﬁces (ufﬁzi) that had formerly been located in the municipal palace had to be moved near to the Duke’s residence. to the courtyard as the similar solution Sanfelice used in his own house. Art and Architecture in Italy. They are symbols of an ascending middle class rebelling against the remnants of feudalism and ecclesiastical power in the eighteenth century. now called the Palazzo Vecchio or Old Palace. Wittkower. He designed or remodeled the vital centers of the city on behalf of civic magistrates. The new government under the Medici was based on authoritarian principles and the supervision of economic life and its control by a centralized administration. However.104 Palazzo Vecchio depth. A formidable tower 330 feet high—about as tall as a thirty-story skyscraper—dominates the building. 1999. and its sixteenth-century extension the Ufﬁzi. Arnolfo di Cambio was a talented planner who helped to give form to municipal Florence in the fourteenth century. CT: Yale University Press. rooms were distributed around a courtyard. the Palazzo Vecchio. et al. and religious orders and designed the seat of political life. 4th ed. giving it a military appearance with battlements 140 feet above the ground. during which power alternated between the great merchants and the famous bankers. 1999. or central T . New Haven. 1600–1750. when Florence monopolized industrial activity and international trade in Italy. the Palazzo Vecchio. the building of the Ufﬁzi and the remodeling of the Palazzo Vecchio by Vasari expressed the great difference of government imposed by the absolutism of the sixteenth century. guilds. All the wit of urban creation is expressed by the Neapolitan staircases. R.
Its weight. is carried by the crenellations. This arrogant building expressed the expertise and communal power of Florence. and building the tower had been a challenge for the entire city. Equilibrium is achieved by a mass of stone. like a spine in its . a plan inspired by that of a traditional monastic cloister. the Ufﬁzi.” the center of Florentine civic and political life.000 tons. atrium. The “Old Palace. about 9. Florence. which project 4½ feet in front of the building’s façade.Palazzo Vecchio 105 Palazzo Vecchio. viewed from its 16th century addition.
center, which remains from part of an earlier tower built by the Foraboschi family. Vasari (1511–1574) played a role equivalent to Arnolfo’s as artistic consultant to Cosimo I in his renewal of Florence as the afﬁrmation of the paternalism of the Grand Duke. Vasari was a painter, an architect, and a man who traveled in high literary circles. His Lives of the Artists, published in 1550 and revised in 1568 remains the classic work on the artists of the Italian Renaissance. Vasari enlarged the Palazzo Vecchio to include an entire city block. Cosimo had demanded a new conﬁguration of the interior that would change the old council chambers into prestigious rooms for court ceremonies and that would include newly designed living quarters and a study, or “studiolo.” Because the Palazzo had many internal irregularities, Vasari had to regularize its disposition and he did so without disrupting important older elements. The new decoration, mostly executed by Vasari and Agnolo Bronzino, revolved around the new power structure and the family of Cosimo I. The Sala dei Cinquecento, which measures 170 feet by 74 feet, was originally the Great Room ordered by Savonorola, the Dominican preacher and reformer who led an anti-humanist political experiment from 1498 until 1512. Vasari turned the Sala into a grandiose celebration of the Medici family who are shown in allegorical paintings. The room was used for ceremonies and for theater performances that were characteristic of sixteenth-century court life. The ufﬁzi, or administrative ofﬁces, were moved to a new street created to join the Palazzo Vecchio to the Arno River. Three buildings deﬁned the sides of the street, and the open end offered a view (in Albertian perspective) of the river. The repetitive rhythm of the façade bays expressed the prince’s bureaucratic organization, which occupied the top ﬂoors, now transformed into the Ufﬁzi Museum, one of the ﬁnest art museums in the world. Like the Palazzo Vecchio, the statues in the Piazza della Signoria, the large city square in front of the palazzo, express the change in values and the move from the communal liberties of the fourteenth century to the absolute power of the sixteenth century. Michelangelo’s David, to the left of the main entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio (a copy now replaces the original) confronts Bandinelli’s powerful Hercules, while to the left of the façade, the political interest of Cosimo’s maritime commerce is represented allegorically by Ammanati’s Neptune Fountain. Giovanni da Bologna’s statue of Cosimo I on horseback introduces the power imagery of aristocratic values into the square that once expressed the republican freedom of Florence. Further Reading
Conforti, Claudia. Giorgio Vasari architetto. Milan: Electa, 1993. Muccini, Ugo. Palazzo Vecchio: Guide to the Building, Apartments, and the Collection. Florence, 1989. Najemy, John. A History of Florence 1200–1575. London: John M. Blackwell, 2006.
Style: Roman Dates: 118–125 Architect: Unknown
adrian’s temple, the Pantheon, dedicated to all the Roman gods, is along with the Colosseum one of the best known and certainly the best preserved of all the buildings of ancient Rome. Its interior presents a breathtaking view of a huge volume based on the pure geometry of a hemisphere resting on top of a cylinder of the same diameter. In fact, if the hemispherical dome is completed, a sphere, the Roman symbol for the universe, can be inscribed within the rotunda: the height and the diameter of the interior space are precisely the same, 142 feet 5 inches. This diameter exceeds the spans of the domes by the great Renaissance builders: Brunelleschi’s dome for Florence Cathedral is 140 feet, 5 inches across, and the dome Bramante proposed for Saint Peter’s Basilica was 139 feet 6 inches. In span, the Pantheon’s dome would not be superseded until the invention of metal and reinforced concrete structures in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Pantheon’s only source of light is a circular opening 30 feet in diameter at the top of the dome called an oculus, from the Latin word for eye. Light entering through the oculus immediately draws the visitor’s attention upward emphasizing the height of the dome giving drama to the space of the interior. Hadrian’s Pantheon is an ultimate expression of the extraordinary ability of Roman engineers and architects. The second century Pantheon replaces a temple dedicated to all the gods that Marcus Agrippa, the son-in-law and lifelong advisor of Augustus, built in 27 bce. It was restored by Domitian after a ﬁre in 80 ce and was later struck by lightning and burned during the reign of Trajan (98–117 ce). When he succeeded Trajan, Hadrian replaced the destroyed temple with his new, unique building; but with great modesty he retained the original inscription on the façade that proclaimed Agrippa had built it. The use of a dome to roof a temple was an innovation. Traditional temples were rectangular rooms surrounded by columns or with a colonnaded front porch. They had a gabled roof. Romans did use large domes to cover some rooms in the great baths, like the Baths of Caracalla, but domes were always used in a secular context. The porch in front of the Pantheon that resembled a conventional temple would have identiﬁed the building as sacred and would have hidden the dome in antiquity. Unlike today, when the Pantheon sits isolated behind a piazza, in ancient Rome it stood at the back of a long rectangular piazza and was framed by porticoes that shut out the view of the world beyond
Pantheon, Rome. Section diagram from the engraving by Antoine Desgodets in Ediﬁces antiques de Rome, Paris, 1682. From author’s collection.
the sacred precinct. From this piazza, only the traditional façade of the porch was visible. This temple façade was truly grand: 100 feet 8 inches wide. Eight monolithic grey granite columns, 45 feet tall, with white marble Corinthian capitals are ranged across the front. The columns, most likely imported from Egypt, are arranged in classical Greek fashion with a wider spacing between the columns in the center of the façade opposite the entrance door and narrower column spacings toward the outer ends. An ancient visitor, having seen what appeared to be a traditional rectangular temple, would have been utterly surprised on entering the huge, lightﬁlled domed space. It is still breathtaking to enter the Pantheon today, its interior essentially unchanged when it was transformed into a church in the seventh century by Pope Boniface IV. The thrilling space, the equilibrium of the height and diameter, is enhanced by the decoration of the walls with multicolored marbles from every corner of the Empire. Their highly polished surfaces reﬂect the shaft of light entering through the oculus, which moves during the day like a spotlight over the walls, ﬂoor, and early and late in the day, the underside of the dome. Behind the marble decoration, and therefore invisible, is the Pantheon’s structure, a 20-foot-thick drum and dome of brick set into thick mortar. All parts of the structure—dome, drum, and foundation—combine structurally to make a monolithic structure that functions much like a giant, thick, rotated arch set on a cylinder. The mass of the cylindrical drum is hollowed out with niches and passageways and contains a system of brick arches and vaults, so
that the enormous stresses exerted by the dome are resolved within the mass of the walls with no need of external buttressing. The cylindrical drum stands on a foundation ring of concrete 24 feet wide and 15 feet deep. Functioning much like the niches in the walls of the cylinder, which reduce its mass by half, sunken panels (coffers) are introduced in the dome to reduce its weight. The dome also becomes thinner toward the oculus and physically lighter since pieces of a lightweight volcanic stone replace brick in the mortar. The unexpected dimensions and simple geometry of the Pantheon, complemented by how the interior is subdivided and decorated, give the interior a quality of grandeur and unity. The interior is subdivided vertically into three parts. On the lowest level, a digniﬁed colonnade is suggested by the Corinthian order that frames the eight niches, six of which contained altars dedicated to different gods. (The other two niches are the entry and an apse directly across from it.) Above this is a middle level, modiﬁed in 1746–1748 by architect Paolo Posi for Pope Benedict XIV. The coffered dome ﬁgures as the uppermost level. Renaissance and Baroque architects thought the subdivision of the middle level awkward, but Hadrian’s architect seems to have simply decided he had to break the scale of the interior by introducing a decorative zone to set off the rise of the dome, making it resemble a celestial globe. In fact, the dome has twenty-eight ribs, a number which may have represented the moon’s orbit to the Romans. Combined with the movement of the sun, whose motion is expressed by the shaft of light through the oculus, the Pantheon may very well have been a diagram of celestial motion. Given the ideology of the Roman Empire, the Pantheon is appropriately known as the grandest building of the Romans. Further Reading
Gros, Pierre. L’Architecture romaine. Paris: Pocard, 1996. Loerke, William C. “A Rereading of the Interior Elevation of Hadrian’s Rotunda.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 49, no. 1 (March 1990): 22–43. MacDonald, William L. The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976. Sear, Frank. Roman Architecture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.
PAZZI CHAPEL, FRANCISCAN CONVENT OF SANTA CROCE, FLORENCE
Style: Renaissance Dates: 1429–1459 Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi
entrally planned churches, churches with a focus on the center of the building under a dome rather than on the end of a long axis, had become traditional in Florence by the ﬁfteenth century. Florentines thought that the Baptistery, situated in front of Florence Cathedral, was an important precedent for this type of building, believing it to have been a temple of Mars from Roman antiquity. (It is, however, a Romanesque structure from the eleventh and twelfth centuries.) Filippo Brunelleschi did not therefore hesitate to propose a centralized domed building when in 1429 Andrea Pazzi commissioned him to rebuild the chapter house (the room where the business of a monastery is carried on) for a Franciscan convent. He nonetheless did not entirely follow what he considered a traditional form, and complemented the central dome with a smaller one over the little room opposite the entry, called a scarcella, that contained the altar. Two barrel vaults cover the extensions of the volume under the dome to the left and right. Because Brunelleschi was interested in the visual procession from outside to inside, he preceded the interior with a porch with six columns. It has a central bay covered by a small dome identical to that over the scarcella and barrel vaults to each side. Four tall, round-arched windows to either side of the porch door, which let light into the chapter house and illuminate it, are similar to frames on either side of the scarcella. Brunelleschi’s approach is typical for a Renaissance architect: He explains spatial depth from an external vantage point to the interior, moving the visitor’s eye through space and identifying its progression with markers. The mathematical construction representing space is called perspective, from “per-” (through) and “specere” (to look), that is, seeing through the space from a single point. Brunelleschi’s approach to architecture helps to explain the meaning of “Renaissance” as a creative development of antiquity, though, as the misidentiﬁcation of the Baptistery as an ancient Roman building demonstrates, in Brunelleschi’s time relatively little was known about ancient architecture with archeological accuracy. Filippo Brunelleschi, born in 1377, had performed many experiments with perspective before designing the Pazzi Chapel, but the application of his ideas
Ludwig Heydenreich is convinced. View into the dome designed by Brunelleschi but only completed after his death. designed with the utmost care. that the Pazzi Chapel. in the building took physical form slowly. bringing a sense of unity to the whole structure. the (horizontal) bases . a square. The main dome and the scarcella dome have the same form but their different dimensions are based on multiples of the same module. although unﬁnished at Brunelleschi’s death. and because of the smallness of the site. The window-unit design is reproduced on all four walls of the main space.Pazzi Chapel 111 Pazzi Chapel. except in a few details. however. But the main dome was erected only in 1459—thirteen years after Brunelleschi death—and the dome above the porch not until 1461. Florence. The clear. Brunelleschi carried out this arrangement of vaults of different sizes and the unit design of the windows into space. they could not be altered. circular decorative plaques created by the sculptor della Robbia. He certainly produced the plans. We know that Pope Eugene IV was housed in an apartment “above the Pazzi chapter-house” in 1442. implying that the building was probably nearly complete. The mathematical multiplication and subdivision of the module is also easily visible to any visitor in the ornament and windows (or blind window frames) as well as the roundels. a module was also used for extending the space under the main dome and for the more difﬁcult threedimensional construction of space under it. even light in the chapel emphasizes the depth and geometrical quality of space. which is easily measured by Brunelleschi’s use of a module (a deﬁned unit of measure on which the building is based). For example. is faithful to his original project.
1974. All the visible elements of the chapter house have only one reason to be there: to help the eye to follow the spatial development of the building in three dimensions.. each semicircular. In the twelfth century.” which stand out against the white walls. Siena was a city-state of great ambitions. to deﬁning the various unit structures that make up the composition of the building and deﬁne the lines that create its perspective depth. which emphasize the volume of the dome. 1995. Hottinger. modeled ﬁgures of the four Evangelists. In the scarcella. M. SIENA Style: Gothic Dates: 1169–Fourteenth Century. . PALAZZO PUBBLICO. to only sculptures of apostles. the evangelists. they are ornamented with big conch shells and in the main space by roundels for which Brunelleschi. Heydenreich. and some small incrustations. H. Brunelleschi further “measured” the main dome by dividing it with eight ribs. Further Reading Funari. Light is essential to this explanatory task. Translated by M. originally a sculptor. it became a self-governing commune and the noble families and bishops were held in check.112 Piazza del Campo of the domes over both the central space and the scarcella are circles carried by four vertical. 1284–1310. Baltimore: Pufﬁn. Architecture in Italy 1400–1600. This ensured political freedom for the citizens and autonomous jurisdiction and administration. All the details in the walls—window frames. Formal Design in Renaissance Architecture from Brunelleschi to Palladio. Lotz. PIAZZA DEL CAMPO. even the seating bench at the base of the walls—are delineated with strips of dark-green limestone. Between the circular base of the two domes and the square plan of the arches carrying them are spherical triangles called pendentives that make the transition between the square of the plan and the circular base of the dome. Brunelleschi used the Pazzi Chapel to explain the clear connection of geometry and space. semicircular arches of the same diameter. L. it was a banking center in competition with Florence. called “pietra serena. New York: Rizzoli. entablatures (over the pilasters). squares. 1325–1348 Architect: Unknown D uring the Middle Ages. pilasters. typical of his approach to Renaissance architecture. and W. and its merchants traded with all of Europe. Decoration is reduced to the minimum. the circles.
In 1270. Those facing the Palazzo were to have low façades while those at the ends of the Piazza could be fairly tall. and in plan it has the beautiful shape of a fan or scallop shell that slopes down to the southeast side where the municipal buildings are located. To maintain the visual dominance of the Palazzo. the road leads to the Maremma and the sea. As the leader of the Tuscan Ghibellines. thrusts 325 feet (about the height of a twenty-ﬁve-story modern ofﬁce building) into the sky. it is 650 feet long and 425 feet wide. occupies the southeast side of the Piazza. the Torre del Mangia (1325–1348). an urban regulation of 1297. when the Black Death killed three-quarters of Siena’s population. a horse race that takes place twice each summer. The Pope excommunicated all of Siena. When. is still celebrated today. The Palio. peace was restored with the Church. defense. who opposed the Pope and his claim to power in central Italy. which damaged the merchants’ trade and the bankers’ credit. adopting new urban regulations. or “campo. To the west. Its crenellated campanile. ﬁxed the height of the buildings around the Piazza.Piazza del Campo 113 Proportional taxes were collected by the government to ﬁnance public works such as fortiﬁcations. The Palazzo Pubblico. they built the Palazzo Pubblico and reorganized the Piazza del Campo. in 1347. and the most serene period of Sienese history began. The vibrant colors of the pavement expressed both the concavity of the square and its role as a big urban theater. A fountain called the Fonte Gaia (1408–1420) was built in the Piazza by the sculptor . The Piazza is self-contained. It can be seen from many miles around and dominated the towers built by the rich Sienese merchants. in which all the districts (“contrade”) of the city compete. The Council of Nine presided over this prosperous time and. the city hall. One of the best examples of medieval urban planning in Italy. the municipal government was overturned. like a vast urban interior room. although adjustments and construction in the area continued over a long period. The seat of municipal power was located in the center of the city on a large square. with the balconies on the surrounding buildings functioning like theater boxes during municipal celebrations such as the Palio. the southern road goes to Rome. and in 1355 outside powers seized control of it. or bell tower. the Piazza was paved with brick. The commune never recovered from this serious loss. Siena is a hill town spread on a Y-shaped ridge that is connected to its surrounding territory by three main roads. The Piazza del Campo is hidden from these roads and is only accessible through eleven narrow lanes (there were once twelve) that are steep but offer breathtaking views of the Palazzo Pubblico and the Torre del Mangia. the Piazza del Campo was already organized. eight white lines were inscribed that converged on the Palazzo Pubblico and divided the Piazza into nine wedge-shaped segments symbolizing the Council of Nine. and the road to the north connects Siena to the rival commune of Florence. This period of stability endured until 1348. the Sienese came into conﬂict with the papal ally Florence and in 1260 roundly defeated the Florentines at the Battle of Montaperti. and the construction of a city hall.” By 1169. approved by the republican government.
Piazza del Campo and Palazzo Pubblico. The Gothic seat of the governors of the republic with its spectacular Torre del Mangia viewed from the top of the 14th century cathedral. Siena. .
mother and nurse of Romulus and Remus. in its harmonious restoration. except for ﬁve. Wings of two stories were added to the three-story central block in 1310. Its Architectuer and Art. New York: W. articulated by shallow arches within pointed arches on the ground ﬂoor. Ambrogio Lorenzetti had a great success based on the philosophical ideas he was developing. W. Blue Guide. During the Baroque period. who symbolized the Roman origins of Siena. All of the towers. Addition of the wings extended the façade of the building into ten bays in the Gothic style. their height was increased to three stories in 1680. In the Room of Peace. Siena.” Today. The interior of the Palazzo was elaborately decorated by some of the most important Sienese painters of the fourteenth century. Alta. 1284–1344): a Madonna in Majesty. which was partially “re-gothicised. and a large painting celebrating the military glory of Guidoviccio da Foligno who is shown in front of a radiant blue sky riding gallantly on horseback between the castles he had attacked. VIGEVANO Style: Renaissance Dates: 1492–1494 Architect: Donato Bramante . and also the legendary ancestors Rhea Sylvia and Acca Larentia. Tuscany. a desire to redeﬁne the city as medieval mobilized a large renovation project in the Piazza del Campo. New York. PIAZZA DUCALE. Gilbert. called the “Maesta” (1315). Further Reading Hastings. He covered three of the walls with allegories of Good and Bad Government in which he depicted both political propaganda and scenes of Sienese society in a poetic treatment that imposes a freshness. the Piazza del Campo provides a genuine vision of a medieval square functioning as a center of civic and social interaction—a medieval urban showroom. 3rd ed. The room where the Council of Nine met was adorned with two paintings by Simone Martini (c. the protection of the Virgin Mary. were dismantled and balconies with rectangular openings replaced the pointed arches of the medieval windows. The History of a Medieval Commune. Macadam. Ferdinand. Siena. Schevill. In the nineteenth century. Norton Company. 1374–1438).Piazza Ducale 115 Jacopo della Quercia (c. London: The De La More Press. 1902. Scribner’s Sons 1909. The Palazzo Pubblico was originally a fortress. 1999. which became characteristic of fourteenth-century painting in Siena. It was a splendid work of art celebrating good government. the houses in front of the Palazzo Pubblico lost their medieval silhouette.
was conceived as the forum of a city that would equal the political and commercial power of antique Roman cities. on which Bramante worked for two years. . the prince had to exercise his power and pull down houses. decided to remodel the city and to connect the castle with a grand piazza. To provide for an easy access. while a narrow passage and a street came through on the left side.” a grand living room. Lines of marble that cross a cobblestone background give an astonishing magniﬁcence to a square that looks like a “gran salon. houses of the same height. or parts of houses. who was very active in mathematics. welcoming passersby with cafés for everyone’s pleasure. painted decoration substituted for actual relief. he built an elevated road 550 feet long and 20 feet wide that was carried above the streets and houses. Bishop Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz (1606–1682). According to the Renaissance theorist Alberti. became the seat of Luchino Visconti’s power in 1337. overall design. the Renaissance cathedral was given a false front of four bays that ignored the real position of the nave. the work of Filarete (1457–1464). It should take the form of a great room. The square was paved to enhance the feeling that it was a great room. In a typical Baroque gesture. hiding fragments of the old fabric and creating from the unconnected. a dynamic city twenty miles west of Milan on the banks of the torrential course of the Ticino River. illusionistic and real decoration and ornamentation being considered equivalent. irregular existing houses the beauty and harmony of a uniﬁed. was the Hospital in Milan. The original Quattrocento painting and two triumphal arches added in the seventeenth century were inaccurately restored at the end of the nineteenth century. theology. Bramante’s ground-ﬂoor arcade and the regular façade above it would be continuous around the square. Ludovico il Moro (1451–1508). decided to remodel the square so that it would face the cathedral at its western end. turned the fortress into their main residence. from 1492 to 1494.116 Piazza Ducale V igevano. He took charge of the city and a big fortress that dominated the plane. as was common during the Renaissance. however. He ﬁlled the gap and closed the recess so that the castle would not compete with the cathedral. Above the arches of the gallery. which succeeded the Visconti as Dukes of Milan. To make the square regular. Vigevano’s piazza resembled a big cloister or the elongated courtyard of a Renaissance palace such as the one in Urbino. the square could have continuous arcaded galleries on the ground ﬂoor and above them. Its main precedent. The Sforza family. Because Roman antique precedents were nearly unknown at the time. and architecture. Before the Baroque period. 155 feet wide and 453 feet long. an urban square should be encased by regular façades. following the advice of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Bramante (1444–1514). The piazza. that were not in line with Bramante’s project. in this case. the square was connected to the tall entrance tower of the castle by a large recess and a ramp that climbed 23 feet to the castle’s gate.
Bramante. Further Reading Bruschi. . Arnaldo. Although the Piazza was designed by Donato Bramante and mainly built between 1490 and1492.Piazza Ducale 117 Piazza Ducale. London: Thames and Hudson. Vigevano. the cathedral now has a Baroque façade added by Bishop Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz in the 17th century. 1973.
To the right of the cathedral. He designed the piazza/room as a strict exercise in perspective. For Rosselino. the piazza being an “open room” and the cathedral an enclosed room—a “covered square. engaged with Rosselino in a process of intense collaboration. the Pope’s Palace. is square. called the Palazzo Piccolomini. like that of the piazza.118 Piazza Pio II PIAZZA PIO II. a papal palace. organizing the pavement as a horizontal grid and the building façades as vertical grids. like those that would be used in constructing a perspective drawing of the square. or piazza. The façade is built of mellow ocher stone with all details organized by the dominant rectangular grid. This sort of construction conformed to Alberti’s theories. as if it were an interior room with walls created by the façades of the cathedral and the three surrounding buildings. Rosselino created a town square such that the approaches from the intersecting side streets would be visually attractive. a city hall. the Piazza Pio II would be enclosed within a group of buildings that included the cathedral. the Humanist Pope Pius II (Enea Silvio Piccolomini) paid a visit to Corsignano. The pattern of the rectangles implied by the grid identify the mathematical rules used in creating the proportions for all aspects of the piazza.” a church with nave and side aisles of the same height. that is. town design was simply an extension of architecture. but the task of designing and constructing the ideal city was given to Bernardo Rosselino (1409–1464). Rosselino treated the façade of the cathedral like a Roman triumphal arch. and decided to change it into an ideal city to be called Pienza. and a bishop’s palace. chose to build Pienza cathedral as a German “Hallenkirche. PIENZA Style: Renaissance Dates: 1459–1462 Architect: Bernardo Rosselino I n February 1459. divided in two by a central column and framed by a thick. Rosselino was a distinguished architect in his own right and was also the architectural executant for Alberti on the Palazzo Rucellai in Florence (1447–1451). In the center of the village. The pope. Within three years. Windows in the upper stories are bipartite. the city of Pius. who had developed an interest in Late Gothic Austrian church design when he was apostolic secretary and ambassador. Rosselino treated the square. round arch at the top and two pilasters . so that volumes of church and square are nearly comparable. at the end of a main street that measures just under 1.” Pius. one of the most famous architects of the period. Leon Battista Alberti. It closely resembles the Palazzo Rucellai. which the same pair built in Florence. The plan of the church. 90 by 80 feet. his native village. was designed by Alberti and built by Rosselino.000 feet in length. who was keenly interested in architecture. took part in the visit and gave advice to the Pope.
Piazza Pio II. . View of the well and the Cathedral entrance facing onto the piazza. Pienza.
Like Florentine palaces. NY: Cornell University Press. the cathedral choir sits on the very edge of the village’s platform above the valley. Formal Design in Renaissance Architecture from Brunelleschi to Palladio. Although the mixture of different architectural styles may be surprising. As at Michelangelo’s much later Campidoglio in Rome. The effect is to make the façade of the cathedral seem larger than the façade of the papal palace. Michele. the area of the terrace-garden is equal to the ground plan of the palazzo. Further Reading Furnari. Like the terrace-garden of Palazzo Piccolomini. Turin. in effect reversing the normal perspective sense of parallel lines appearing to converge. New York: Rizzoli. R. reveal the countryside with a view of distant mountains. Analogous to the piazza-church pairing. and the cathedral are not perpendicular to each other. 1995. . the town hall. and between the town hall and the cathedral. from which a gallery leads to a planted terrace that overlooks the immensity of the surrounding landscape. the piazza. there is a square interior courtyard. the buildings create a trapezoidal plan for the piazza. The Piazza Pio II demonstrates to how great a degree the new element of Renaissance design. See Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po). it actually reﬂects the ﬂexibility of Renaissance design. and the terrace-garden are all comparable in size. which is in fact the larger of the two buildings. and they oblige us to consider and to understand the way in which they were combined by Rosselino. creating a similar case of open versus closed volumes. a view of Mount Amiata covered with snow in the winter. PIAZZA PO. the palazzo. the bishop’s palace opposite. Two openings between the palace and the cathedral. A closer look at the space of the piazza reveals that the walls of the Palazzo Piccolomini. Two strong horizontal stringcourses resembling classical entablatures divide the three stories and the palace is topped by a powerful cornice. The Bishop’s Palace and the town hall are simpler than the other two buildings and they follow Tuscan tradition. the landscape. the cathedral. Mack. Ithaca. Pienza: The Creation of a Renaissance City. One more element should be noted: the exterior landscape. Pius II. The façade of the town hall opens into a lovely Ionic gallery. C. The module of the bifurcated window between pilasters is repeated on the walls.120 Piazza Pio II to the sides. was so fascinated by the forest and the open-air landscape that he took Catholic cardinals to the mountain facing Pienza and gave audiences to ambassadors by a spring where water cascaded into a lake. inﬂuenced the planning of the city. To carry the open/built comparison further. giving a visual density to the palace block. 1987. a highly educated man who was fond of art and deeply involved in the poetry of the natural environment.
A square was necessary to provide a setting for the church. Joseph Ramée Pertinchamp.Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po) 121 PIAZZA VITTORIO VENETO (PIAZZA PO). 1810. opening onto the river. When. Ferdinando Bonsignore urin. its gentle slope should reveal the famous Po River and make it a T . The Piazza Po should act as the entrance square to the capital city. On the other side of the river. TURIN Style: Neoclassical Dates: 1821–1831 Architects: Giuseppe Frizzi. The area of the Imperial Square would be reduced and replaced by a rectangular piazza. Between the bridge and the Contrada Po exedra. a double decision was made to improve the eastern access to the city. at the same time. Beginning at the central square of the old city. the galleries today still bustle with commercial activity. a vast open space was deﬁned by a huge semicircular row of trees on a 1. A distance of 1200 feet was left open between the wall and the Po River for defensive reasons. a distance of about two-thirds of a mile. 300 feet wide and 1. The Contrada Po (Po Street) was ﬂanked on both sides by identical façades above a monumental ﬁrst ﬂoor gallery. the Sabaudian Monarchy of Savoy was restored and a time of increasing prosperity was slowly beginning. The Contrada Po ended in an exedra (a semicircular space) just short of the city wall.000 feet long. the architect Fernando Bonsignore designed a church dedicated to the Great Mother of God as a memorial for the return of the Sabaudian King. The design for the church square in the suburbs should be simpler than the design for the Piazza Po (its name has changed several times) on the left bank in the city. the foremost city in Piedmont and the capital of the newly created Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The city of Turin was annexed to the French Republic and the French Empire from 1798 until 1814. The old bridge crossing the Po was replaced by a long bridge with ﬁve arches to give a better connection to the right side of the river. A series of new urban plans were drawn up focusing on early-nineteenth-century urban planning decisions. the Piazza Castello. Charles-François Mallet. Cutting through active districts of the city. a new district was added that expanded in the direction of the Po River. after Napoleon’s defeat in 1814. This new bridge was designed by the French architect Joseph Ramée Pertinchamp and supervised by the French engineer Charles-François Mallet in 1809. after the removal of a small district inhabited by boat people. But. became a model of seventeenth-century urban development. The ﬁrst stone was laid on November 22.000 foot diameter. this was called the Imperial Square.
whose aristocratic villas. an observer notices how the pavilions create a device for the change in slope. executed in a manner typical of neoclassicism. whose plans were approved on May 20. But the openings are no longer a series of identical bays. like the via Po. And. On each side huge galleries offer an expanse of urban space ﬁlled. giving accurate expression to one of the grandest possible squares in the history of architecture. and the work completed in 1830. designed by Ferdinando Bonsignore in 1818 and built 1827–1831. On top of the gallery. is a reproduction of the Pantheon in Rome. The church of the Great Mother of God. The Piazza Po. three stories of apartments display alternating balconies that crisscross the façades and introduce a surprising rhythm to an . offer relief from the densely built city. on the opposite bank of the river. was designed by architect Giuseppe Frizzi. Following the level of the cornices (the horizontal moldings). The success of the design is due to the ability of Frizzi to accommodate the gentle slope toward the river. part of the city. with commercial activity. the Piazza della Gran Madre di Dio should open to a vision of the splendid wooded area of the Monferatto Hills. a typical device of neoclassical architecture. The central block on each side has a pavilion at each end topped by a pediment that is carried by two Doric columns without bases in the ground ﬂoor. scattered in their parks. 1825. The process of design ignores the division of the ground into plots (two or three in each block) to focus on a highly monumentalized block façade. View from the bridge over the Po River. Turin.122 Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Piazza Po) Piazza Vittorio Veneto. The rotunda is raised on a crypt and is accessible from a long ﬂight of steps leading to a temple-like façade. on the other side of the river. but a bridge-like succession of large bays and heavy pillars opened by a circular window on top and a small arch underneath. A new connection was provided between the city and its surroundings when the city opened up to a vast landscape.
Renovation of the Old Harbor
ensemble that deserves careful observation to express the restricted sense of its beauty.
Comoli-Mandracci, V. Torino, La città nella storia dell’Italia. Rome-Bari, 1973. Hitchcock, H. R. Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977. Meeks, C. L. V. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
RENOVATION OF THE OLD HARBOR, GENOA
Style: Contemporary Dates: 1988–1992 Architects: Renzo Piano Building Workshop; Ove Arup and Partners; Peter Rice
n August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus, who was born in Genoa in 1450, sailed from the harbor of Palos, sixty miles west of Seville, Spain. He selected a route that was the opposite of the one used by Portuguese sailors, which followed the African coast to the Cape of Good Hope and reached India by sailing eastward. Columbus sailed west across the ocean believing that he could reach India in that direction. On October 11 or 12, he discovered for Europe a new continent, the New World (later called America). Commercial routes opened all around the earth; the sixteenth century was, in fact, the ﬁrst period of globalization. Five centuries later, in 1992, Seville and Genoa celebrated the new global reality by holding the Columbus International Exhibition. To prepare, Genoa began to restore its old harbor by removing the disastrous additions that had accumulated since the beginning of the nineteenth century. The public authorities wanted once again to celebrate the union of the city with the sea as a symbol of Columbus’s brave discoveries. Renzo Piano, born in Genoa and already a famous designer, was put in charge of the harbor renovation. The coastline of the Ligurian Sea left little space for a city crowded onto the shore of a small bay. Large mountains at the back of the settlement offered little possibility of development. In the Middle Ages, in 1133, the city government managed to open the city toward the harbor thanks to a portico 3,000 feet
Renovation of the Old Harbor
Renovation of the Old Harbor, Genoa. View of Renzo Piano’s Big Bigo.
long, which created a nice frontage called the Palazzata. It contained merchant’s shops and houses, as well as storage areas ﬁlled with all the valuable goods shipped from Asia through the Mediterranean Sea. The industrial prosperity during the early nineteenth century in northern Italy compelled the government in Turin to build a large warehouse, 3,000 feet long, which hid the Palazzata. But the top of the warehouse was accessible and became an attractive promenade that afforded good views of the city and the harbor. In 1885, this warehouse was demolished and replaced by railroad tracks, and in 1965 by an elevated motorway, called the Sopraelevata, which ran in front of the Palazzata. Like a work of vandalism, this destroyed all connection between the city and the harbor. Renzo Piano’s plan considered two aspects of the exhibition-renovation. He wished to remove all the elements that separated the city from the harbor. So, a vast piazza was created and vehicular trafﬁc went underground but the Sopraelevata, unfortunately, could not be demolished. The second task was to bring new festive activities to the harbor itself and to the unused piers that projected out into the bay. Only ferries going to Sardinia and Sicily used the old harbor, the modern harbor having been moved to the west of Genoa where its huge development in front of the Sampierdarena and Sestri Ponente was designed by the engineer Albertazzi in 1933. As the old Palazzata could now be opened up onto the harbor, with a better view under the Sopraelevata, the Piazza delle Feste (festive plaza) could celebrate the sea with a structure of carnivalesque sails, tents, and aerial masts.
Royal Hunting Lodge
This would be joined to an undistinguished warehouse called Millo, restored and newly colored pink. Then, on the nearby pier, would be the surprising aquarium, shaped like a boat, which created the sense that it was sailing on the water. The Piazza delle Feste contains the most attractive architectural works. A huge derrick, anchored in the waters, projects hollow-shell booms that imitate the old cranes of the harbor. It provides a panoramic elevator that offers views of the exposition center called the Big Bigo. Tent-like roofs, connected with translucent elements, cover the multipurpose hall, creating an aerial appearance. Renzo Piano got his inspiration from Frei Otto’s work in Germany and from Archigram’s projects in England during the 1960s. Wind sculptures perched high above were designed by the Japanese artist Susumu Shingu to remind visitors of the fragility of Columbus’s ships. Across the basin from the Piazza, blocking the horizon, a large cotton warehouse, 1,200 feet long, built from 1895 to 1901, was restructured to house a large auditorium made up of twinned rooms containing 800 seats linked by a central stage. The Columbus exhibition of 1992 was the starting point of a comprehensive study for the development of the new twenty-ﬁrst-century harbor of Genoa that will extend more than ten miles to the west. Renzo Piano’s fascination with sustainable and ecological procedures gave him the opportunity to deﬁne the new landscape of the Ligurian coast for the future of the city of Genoa. Further Reading
Museum of Architecture: http://www.archmuseum.org/biyograﬁ.asp?id=10033. Piano, R., and G. Bianchi. Renzo Piano & Building Workshop. Genoa, 2004. Renzo Piano: http://www.renzopiano.com.
ROYAL HUNTING LODGE, STUPINIGI
Style: Baroque Dates: 1729–1733 Architect: Filippo Juvarra
tupinigi, a hunting lodge, is a work of Filippo Juvarra’s maturity, built just before his departure for the Court of Madrid in 1735 and his death on January 16, 1736, at the age of ﬁfty-eight. Juvarra (1678–1736) was a northern Italian Baroque architect of great talent who was strongly inﬂuenced by classical art. His handsome and reﬁned design for Stupinigi is the equal in quality
Royal Hunting Lodge
of some of the best Tuscan and Venetian villas of the sixteenth century, although the program he had to follow for the lodge was unusual for Italy. Indeed, Stupinigi establishes him as one of the most creative European architects of the eighteenth century. Stupinigi is six miles distant from the center of Turin. It was accessible by a straight axial avenue lined with elm trees. Juvarra believed strongly in the variety of invention, and he began by playing with forms in the approach to the hunting lodge. The avenue was framed by two rows of farm buildings but was interrupted by a large semicircle, called an exedra, containing stables that opened into a hexagonal courtyard in front of the X-shaped lodge. The central feature of the lodge is an oval rotunda from which wings containing rooms for the king and queen, for the royal family, and for the court and guests are extended. The large roof that now dominates the building is a late remodeling by Benedetto Alﬁeri (1764–1766). The rotunda opens onto four wings arranged in a Saint Andrew’s cross (an X-shape) and offers views in multiple directions on the main and secondary axes and through the wings that align with long alleys cut into the woods. Connected to distant views in six possible directions, the lodge provides for a splendid dialogue between architecture and the rearranged nature of the surrounding hunting forest. The central rotunda is two stories tall and is enlarged by four half-domes penetrating the main volume in a monumental Baroque manner. Juvarra reminds us of Bernini and Borromini in Rome but modernizes their spirit. The proximity to Venice explains a sense of “bel composto” (see Introduction)
Royal Hunting Lodge, Stupinigi. View upward into the central rotunda designed by Filippo Juvarra and painted by Domenico and Giuseppe Valeriani.
Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus
adapted to the Veneto. Juvarra carefully controlled the introduction of color in the fresco of The Triumph of Diana by Domenico and Giuseppe Valeriani (1731– 1733). The range of color was not very far from that of Tiepolo and suggests a sort of early impressionism. Subtly, cleverly, and very intelligently arranged, Stupinigi’s suites of rooms give the feeling of a reassuring and stable world. Can we imagine Vivaldi’s music played in these rooms? While Juvarra recalls aspects of the Baroque style of the previous century, he establishes the sense of everyday comfort characteristic of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. Filippo Juvarra prepared his sketches in 1728. After the Treaty of Utrecht, the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was created as a buffer state to protect Habsburg Austria from French hegemony. Looking at a plan of Turn in 1730, a double transformation, due to this change in status, was visible within a ﬁvemile radius around the city center. A number of magniﬁcent residences displaying the power of the King were built surrounding the city: Moncalieri to the south; the hunting lodge at Stupinigi to the southwest; the castle of Rivoli seven miles to the west; and Venaria Reale to the north. As the power of the king expanded, a new relationship was created between the city and its surroundings. The city was able to dominate the land around it and showed its domination by the opening of large straight streets joining Moncaliere, Stupinigi, and Venaria, and connecting Rivoli to a church erected on a tall hill twelve miles distant called La Superga. Agriculture was not ﬁnancially rewarding so most of the middle class and nobility, who lived in the city, began to develop commercial interests. Stupinigi presents an optimistic vision of this age of transformation as it joins architecture with a new sense of controlled nature. Further Reading
Boscarino, S. Juvarra Architetto. Rome, 1973. Pommer, Richard. Eighteenth-Century Architecture in Piedmont:The Open Structures of Juvarra, Alﬁeri, and Vittone. New York: New York University Press, 1967. Severo, D. Filippo Juvarra. Bologna, 1996. Wittkower, R., et al. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600–1750. 4th ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
RUINS OF THE GREEK CITY OF SELINUS, SELINUNTE
Style: Greek Dates: 651–250 BCE Architect: Unknown
became an acropolis (“high city”) where a number of impressive temples were built. A group of citizens from the isthmus city-state of Megara sailed west. Between the rivers Belice and Modione. and continuing well into the sixth century. To either side of the settlement the mouths of the rivers could be turned into harbors to facilitate export and trade. The colonists went in search of agricultural land and pasturage as the increased population of the mainland city-states put pressure on the limited amount of farmable land in areas such as the Isthmus of Corinth and Euboea.128 Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus eginning in the eighth century bce. Megara Hyblaea prospered. Temple G sketched by the author in December 1986. its population increased. As on the mainland. where they founded Megara Hyblaea in 726 bce about ﬁfteen miles north of the Corinthian colony of Syracuse. the population of Megara Habylaea eventually outgrew the local resources and around 650 bce. It was the most westerly of all the Sicilian colonies. and a new infusion of colonists from the Greek mother-city of Megara arrived. Phoenician settlers (originally from the eastern Mediterranean littoral) who also established colonies on the island. the mainland Greeks engaged in a wave of colonization that took settlers to lands situated both to the east and west of their homeland. the settlement organizer Pammilus led a group of colonists to a new location in southwest Sicily where they founded the colony of Selinus. the oldest part of the settlement. which led to its early contact with the Carthaginians. Selinunte. to the fertile island of Sicily. the colony occupied two low-lying hills as well as the plain around and between them. Wild B Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus. The southern hill. .
olive oil. called Rahal al Asnaam. was demolished by the Carthiginians in 250. the temples of Selinus were so totally demolished that archaeologists posit that a massive earthquake. The trip took only a day and a half by sea. at times they were able to unite in the face of Carthaginian aggression. At some time in their history. called the East Temples. which indicated rich water and agricultural resources. four on the acropolis and three. Fougeres has remarked. across the Gorge of the Cottone. They exported agricultural products. The Carthaginians destroyed everything in Selinus except the temples and sold the entire population into slavery. In 409. Selinus was in an ambivalent position. during the third Carthaginian War. while allied with Syracuse. beans. Seven large temples were built. not human action. most of them built on narrow lots 15 to 30 feet wide. wood. at one time allying itself with Carthage. occupying only the south hill. was responsible for their destruction. son of Gisco. had small rooms without any deﬁnite . A small village (vicus) of the Byzantine period has been located under the collapsed columns of Temple C. Selinus grew as fast as a modern American city. Shortly after this disaster.Ruins of the Greek City of Selinus 129 parsley grew along the rivers. and a later Arab village. These works challenged the artistic superiority of Athens under the great leaders Pisistratus and Pericles. the histories of Selinus and Carthage were intertwined for better or worse. The Greek inhabitants of Selinus lived on the border of Carthaginian territory and beneﬁted from this position as a center for trade between the western and eastern Mediterranean. During the sixth and ﬁfth centuries. Roofs were covered with tiles and the inclusion of terraces could modify the silhouette of the building. as G.” was located nearby. Selinus was resettled by a Syracusan exile on a greatly reduced scale. attacked its archenemy Segesta and was crushed by the army of Hannibal. Some of the temples were rebuilt. Thus. which did not survive the decay of the city. ultimately self-destructive disputes and rivalries. and provided the name for the colony—the Greek word for parsley is “selinon. Selinus. Most of them had rudimentary foundations that consisted of a stone base carrying clay or brick walls. at others taking up the Greek cause. and other produce. The splendor of the temples at Selinus contrasted sharply with the simplicity of the houses.” The colonists understood immediately that the land could produce cereals. and the chalk used as a colorant for fortiﬁcations and buildings to the North African coast where Carthage was located. Because of its location on the Carthaginian frontier. The buildings were forgotten and not rediscovered until around 1550 and later on by travelers in the eighteenth century. Single story or two story houses. some columns still remain scattered on the ground waiting to be re-erected. The proﬁt from trade was transformed into outstanding works of art dedicated to the dignity of the gods. a sort of Sicilian California. “the village of the columns. Although the Greek colonies involved themselves in competitive. wine. This smaller city.
A public housing project containing 192 apartments contributed to the regeneration of the Venetian urban fabric. Inside the house was a courtyard where an oven in one corner could deﬁne the cooking area or a movable oven could be placed on a terrace. A. to the Renaissance palazzo and to the larger blocks of the eighteenth century. The Greek World. an unused former industrial estate. near the railroad station. Woodhead. Gregotti. preserves strongly organized defensive features. dating to the fourth and third centuries bce rather than to the days when Silenus was as the height of its power and prosperity. The urban patterns in Venice were a historical development that explained the slow process of change from the Gothic “decorated house. However. Saffa. The distinction between spaces for men and women was hardly discernable. What remains of the fortiﬁcations of the city. Most of the excavated houses are late. Social life had originally developed on small islands later connected by canals to form wards around central squares called “campi. VENICE Style: Contemporary Dates: 1984–1987 Architects: Gregotti and Associates certain number of Italian architects.” which contained a church and a campanile. Pugliese. like Saverio Muratori (1910–1973). Houses had very few openings onto the street. offered possibilities. Milan: Rizzoli International Publications. New York: Praeger. believed so deeply in the quality of the urban fabric of Venice that they conceived it as a model that would be impossible to surpass.” such as the Ca D’Oro. CANAREGGIO. Art and Civilization in Magna Graecia and Sicily. The Greeks in the West. 1962. G. The unused Dreher brewery on the eastern end of the Giudecca Island also presented a chance for development. The architect Gino Valle took charge of the Dreher residential estate (1981–1984) and Vittorio Gregotti of the Saffa estate (1984–1987).130 Saffa Area Public Housing function. a brilliant A . G. 1996. Further Reading Carratelli. yet create new forms and improve social life? Few possibilities for building remained in Venice after 1980. partly destroyed by the Carthaginians. but some had storefronts. But could contemporary architecture ﬁt within this tradition? Could it harmonize with the traditional urban fabric. SAFFA AREA PUBLIC HOUSING.
” connecting new buildings to the surrounding territory. Gregotti still uses the traditional Venetian tile roofs. to adapt it to ﬁnancial requirements. The visual and social richness of Italian towns and the beauty of the landscape were the foundations of his ideas. The designer’s task was to modernize tradition. deﬁning a section of street. Their method was based on the study of the city as it is.” or a courtyard. and to improve the contemporary sense of comfort. Gregotti respected the Venetian tradition of the “campi. in 1985. a palazzo. but he would do so with care. View of the inside of the housing block designed by Gregotti and Associates (1984–1987). Venice. A “campo” today could be a paved space. Italian morphologists. the “campi. the Saffa project was already under construction. he opened an exciting discussion on the perfect integration of architecture into the existing fabric. an apartment house) and. began by following the Italian traditions of the “townscape. were concerned with combining in a single process the building and the public or private spaces (the street. For them.” sometimes reduced to “campielli” because of their diminutive size. 509–510). isolated. a building could not exist alone.Saffa Area Public Housing 131 Saffa Area Public Housing. Canareggio. with residential areas or housing deﬁned by certain types of buildings (a row house. planted with trees. as the editor of the architectural magazine Casabella (nos.” connecting architecture with the existing urban fabric. a “campo.” and the courtyard) around it. For example. at the same time. He might introduce modern technological standards. that contains community pavilions or . which he did on a grand scale in the Zen district of Palermo. architects and planners who study the growth and future of urban form. When. The building and the adjacent area made up a single unit. and the “landscape. contemporary architect.
Manfredo. Gregotti Associati. Each apartment had its own private open space. Translated by R. making them linear or doubling the row to open the block to little gardens or to small courtyards. It became a built artiﬁce of great beauty imposed on a natural setting that offered few possibilities of development. New York: Rizzloi. which remained ﬂat and were perfectly adapted to the neighborhood. Gregotti’s Saffa residential area was a successful approach to the problem of bringing of modern design into traditional cities. 1810 Architects: Various unknown architects. Bartolomeo Bono. A sequence of spaces from private to public enhanced the signiﬁcance of social life. Mixing activities in the “campi” and the plantations. a smaller extension of the main square. or roof terraces that mixed interior and exterior life. Vincenzo Scamozzi aint Mark’s square is the symbol of Venice. Vittorio Gregotti.132 Saint Mark’s Square rows of shops. Repetitive windows offered a neutral background and left the architect free to creatively develop such inventions as Venetian chimney stacks. it typiﬁes the city of Venice. it presents the paradox that the most important civic space in Venice has no view of the water in a city devoted to distant shipping with the eastern half of the Mediterranean Sea. 1996. Buildings and Projects. bay windows on the street side. Jacopo Sansovino. gardens. Tannenbaum. Translated by R. Duplex homes were given more space by means of porches. The pink coloration of the interior and in the court gave a visual density to the walls. Although originally built on a half-emerged sandbank in the sixth century. Around these central cores. As such. Renaissance Dates: 888–912. S . One of the “campi” he built opened directly onto the canal Rio della Crea. Further Reading Rykwert. either in the private gardens or in the public spaces with large old trees. SAINT MARK’S SQUARE. 1172–1178. or wooden roofed terraces that imitated “modernistic” architecture from the early twentieth century. Gregotti modernized a series of typical Venetian row houses. Except from the far end of the Piazzetta di San Marco. VENICE Style: Romanesque. New York: Rizzoli. Sadleir. 1511–1640. increased the potential for social encounters and gave freshness to the estate. the strictly unnatural shape of the square was determined in the sixteenth century and gradually modiﬁed thereafter. Joseph. 1982. Tafuri.
Saint Mark’s Square 133 Saint Mark’s Square. by election by a minority of important . Venice. This group of islands. part of the population of the Venetian area found refuge on islands in the lagoon. During the period of the Lombard invasions in the sixth century. His title was changed to duke and later. The Basilica of Saint Mark and its campanile are the focal point at the far end of the vast square. was ruled by an exarch from the Eastern Roman Empire called the Magister Militium (military commander). which became Venice.
focused as it was on the Byzantine-inspired church of San Marco. A canal. the large waterway that winds through the center of Venice. which was used every year for the symbolic marriage of the Doge to the sea. the Ospizio (Hospital) Orseolo was aligned with a small campanile. Before 1500. The campanile crashed to the ground on July 14. The Doge’s Palace was rebuilt in the fourteenth century in a lavish Gothic style. In the early Middle Ages. it looked almost Byzantine. the Rio Batavio. Its height was increased in 1511–1513 by a tall pyramid that raised the crowning ﬁgure of Archangel Gabriel to more than 300 feet above the pavement. In the sixteenth century. as mentioned above. The bell tower. the view from the Piazzetta of the Grand Canal. cut across the center of the present square and thus reduced its length. From early in the sixteenth century. The western face of the Piazzetta was remodeled by Sansovino in a handsome classical style beginning with the Mint (la Cecca. not unlike the many “campi” that existed on each island of Venice. Today. and the ﬁne design of the Loggetta at the base of the campanile (from 1537 on). and partly ﬁnished in the twelfth century. new lead-covered domes were added to San Marco. sailing proudly on the Grand Canal. Saint Mark and Saint Theodore. Two periods show how the space of the Piazza San Marco changed. Venice took advantage of its eastern connections and developed rich commercial activities with the Orient. which gave the church a more picturesque silhouette. one needs to imagine Venice’s ﬂeet. Facing them. a celebration of Venetian domination of the waters. 1902. however. who had been trained in Bramante’s studio in Rome. The Doge’s palace and a church dedicated to Saint Mark (832) became the roots of the future Saint Mark’s Square. the Piazzetta that opens at a right angle onto the Grand Canal was started in 888–912. that plays the important role of connecting. continued by the Libreria Marciana (the Marciana Library 1537–1588). but was quickly rebuilt from 1903 to 1912. the cause of its riches and of its grandeur. or campanile. and the Procuratie Vecchie were thoroughly rebuilt with three rows of arches instead of two (1514–1532) by the architects Bartolomeo Bono and Jacopo Sansovino. on the Grand Canal 1536–1547). the desire to celebrate Venetian modernity changed the aspect of the Piazza. In the thirteenth century. Scamozzi replaced the Ospizio Orseolo and pushed it back to create a monumental wing inspired by Sansovino’s design for the extension of the .134 Saint Mark’s Square citizens. is framed by two tall columns carrying ﬁgures of the two protective saints of Venice. the public square that became Saint Mark’s was only a “campo” (a local square for a ward or neighborhood). The campanile was heightened. The ﬂeet included the enormous gilt galley called Bucentauro. Around the corner from the Piazza. the square began to take on a decidedly classical outline based on the designs of Jacopo Sansovino (1486–1570). and who brought with him to Venice a mastery of the classical orders. the large open space focused on Saint Mark’s façade and the smaller one. like a pivot. The Procuratie Vecchie (the old ofﬁces of the high-ranking magistrates of 1172–1178) on the northern side of the Piazza were purely Byzantine. to Doge. All this deﬁned the new grandeur of the Piazza San Marco.
Padua: Marsilio. Giuseppe. l’architettura. that Bramante designed to crown a centralized plan to replace the Constantinian (Early Christian) church of the fourth century. ROME Style: Renaissance Dates: 1505–1590 Architects: Donato Bramante. By 1505. Napoleon was proud of completing “the most beautiful drawing room in the world. Paul III (Pope from 1534 to 1549) unwillingly convened a . Giacomo della Porta I t took nearly a century to build Saint Peter’s dome. Samona. inspired by the Pantheon. the Protestant Reformation had changed the conditions surrounding the church. Michelangelo. who worked on Saint Peter’s from 1520 until his death in 1546. At the time of Bramante’s death in 1514. le funzioni. To combat dissent against the Catholic Church in this period. la storia.Saint Peter’s Dome 135 Procuratie Nuove (the New Ofﬁces 1582–1640). SAINT PETER’S DOME. His decision to separate from it in 1517 and Calvin’s conversion to Protestantism in 1533 put an end to Christian unity and to the unique power of the Church of Rome. religiously inactive. two Popes and two architects decided to complete Saint Peter’s Basilica and to start a movement of Catholic resistance called the Counter-Reformation (or Catholic Reformation). Piazza San Marco. only the four main piers intended to support the dome were standing. the ancient church was in danger of collapsing. a gigantic. CT: Yale University Press. By the time Sangallo took over. slightly pointed hemisphere. and Bramante and Pope Julius II wanted it replaced by a church worthy of the capital of the Christian world. which were ﬁnished by Longhena. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. and how would its form inﬂuence future Catholic Church design? Martin Luther had criticized the Church as illegitimate. Neither man lived to see his plans for the church fulﬁlled. The far end of Saint Mark’s Square contained a church that was demolished during the French occupation and replaced in 1810 by a two-story gallery inspired by the Procuratie Nuove. ed. ed. During the subsequent decades. Rev. New Haven. What would it mean to build such a great church for the Pope. Deborah. The Architectural History of Venice. 1970. transformed and radically altered Bramante’s design into a colossal structure. and corrupt. one of his former pupils.” Further Reading Howard. when the ﬁrst designs were made. 2004.
Looking back at his earlier convictions. Michelangelo had accepted his task with scrupulous faith. The great architect had died before construction could begin but he had prepared a detailed model. 1590. darkness. at the same time. was subjected to criticism from Protestants. he overcame the resistance of Michelangelo. Rome. he dismissed them and. acknowledging his need for freedom. Giacomo della Porta was able to complete work on the dome by May 19. criticizing it as dark and confused. then seventy years old. In 1547. Michelangelo objected to Sangallo’s colossal project. Offended by the corruption of Sangallo’s team of workers. to serve as architect for a remodeled Saint Peter’s. meeting of church personages.136 Saint Peter’s Dome Dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica. To return to . the Council of Trent. Begun by Michelangelo and ﬁnished by Giocomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana. which clariﬁed and systematized the bases of the Catholic faith. Michelangelo incorporated his ﬁnal thoughts about architecture in his design for the building (1547–1564). or secrecy. he refused payment for his work. he thought that Saint Peter’s should be a monument without obscurity. to ﬁnish the dome that Michelangelo had designed. 1586. A solemn mass celebrated the end of nearly a century of work on Saint Peter’s Basilica. Sixtus V (pope from 1585–1590) decided on January 19. Using a revision of that model. He had to clarify his own position because he had been accused of Protestant sympathies and.
New York: Viking. He put four subsidiary domes above the spaces in the corners. which has become such a familiar sight to Roman citizens and visitors. costing 6. and a great wood model ﬁnished in November 1561. used a dome with a double shell. he wrapped the church in closely spaced vertical elements—giant pilasters that extend the height of the building—capped with a strong horizontal element that turned the church into a uniﬁed sculptural body. making it more than twenty-ﬁve feet higher than the interior shell. like Brunelleschi. The Architecture of Michelangelo. another in 1547 for eighty-seven scudi. Instead. Michelangelo criticized Sangallo’s juxtaposing of receding and projecting masses and his use of numerous superimposed columns. strengthened by double columns. The Splendor and the Scandal: Building St. But. a third in 1557. which is framed by powerful piers that support the dome.Saint Peter’s Dome 137 the simplicity of Bramante’s plan of 1505. The long connection of artists across 160 years surely explains Saint Peter’s unchallenged rank in world architecture. 1971. was begun in January 1554. He. The construction of Saint Peter’s nave by Maderno obscured Michelangelo’s simplicity. A. that is. the pilasters suggest tense forces in action. Scotti. And Bernini’s colonnade in front of Saint Peter’s (1656–1667) created an ecumenical elliptical piazza that appeared as a splendid urban translation of Michelangelo’s argument for simplicity and attractiveness in his design of Saint Peter’s dome. As a leader in sculpture and painting. 2006. he carefully studied the church and ordered four models: in 1546. Further Reading Ackerman. the spaces between the arms and the outer square envelope. R. To defend his ideas against the unduly expensive models commanded by Sangallo (one. Michelangelo turned to Brunelleschi’s dome of Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore). a clay model for twenty-ﬁve scudi. This dynamism would. an interior hemispherical dome separated from a taller exterior one. express the impulsion given by the Church to a world infused with divine grace. This gave the dome a greater visual impact in the already famous Roman skyline by providing the decisive thrust. See also Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica. James S. inside.000 scudi. to which della Porta gave a pointed shape. who himself had respected Bramante’s much earlier design. Rome. Basilica. . Michelangelo knew well how to exploit light reﬂected on the travertine vaults to emphasize the dominance of the dome inside Saint Peter’s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bernini’s Baldacchino (1624–1633) restored the dome’s supremacy by turning the nave into a long vestibule leading to it. Peter’s. Inside and out. for Michelangelo. Four equal arms terminated by semicircular apses are arranged around the central space. Michelangelo demolished the uncontrolled growth of Sangallo’s church and returned Saint Peter’s to a Greek cross plan inscribed in a square. (Baroque painting has obscured this effect. equaled the cost of some small churches).) The erection of the dome. A Baroque artist could be faithful to Michelangelo. For the construction of the dome.
as the church is fondly called by Romans. T . using Borromini’s original designs. We possess sufﬁcient numbers of drawings to be able to understand the way in which Borromini arrived at the church plan. The body of the church was quickly erected between February 1638 and the spring of 1640 when its rough construction in brick was completed. thus the name San Carlo at the Four Fountains. a monastic order to which Borromini was deeply attached. work on the ﬁrst story of the façade was suspended until his nephew Bernardo. was Borromini’s ﬁrst successful building. the library. he introduced a reduced version of a dome. the monks’ cells. a large cloister. 1674–1676 Architect: Francesco Borromini he church and convent dedicated to Saint Charles Borromeo occupied Francesco Borromini (1599–1667) at both the beginning and the end of his productive life. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1638–1667. derived from Saint Peter’s. and a church. a tiny cloister only 28 feet long. When he died in 1667. San Carlino. After several unsuccessful attempts. two sculptors. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane was the church of the Spanish Discalced Trinitarians. mark the intersection. the church is separated from the via Felice by the sacristy and the monk’s chapter room (a room where the administration of the monastery is carried out). “quattro fontane” in Italian. Its subtle façade was added between 1665 and 1667 with undulating concave and convex movements that clearly exemplify the architect’s highly imaginative creativity. built the second story between 1674 and 1676. ﬁnding a way to erect an ingenious church contained within the block that has only one wall (the entry façade and the entrance to the cloister) exposed to the via Pia.138 San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane SAN CARLO ALLE QUATTRO FONTANE. The monk’s convent occupied a small but remarkable site at the hilltop crossroads of via Pia (now via XX Settembre) and the pilgrimage thoroughfare via Felice (now via Quattro Fontane) that connects the churches of Santissima Trinità dei Monti and Santa Maria Maggiore. positioned the two angels carrying the large medallion at the top of the façade in 1676. Dori and Antonio Fontana. Four fountains. The statue of Saint Charles in the central niche over the door was the work of Antonio Raggi. but its rich stucco decoration was not ﬁnished until the spring of 1641. For the restricted site owned by the convent—its frontage on via Pia was less than 80 feet long—Borromini had to design a compact block that contained the refectory (dining room). He accomplished the plan with great mastery.
. The undulating façade of Borromini’s small masterpiece.San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Rome.
he changed the shape of the dome from the original circular form to an elongated oval. On the main longitudinal axis (from the door to the high altar) and the transverse axis Borromini opened small rectangular bays and then. At ﬁrst. and octagons illuminated by the light coming down from the lantern and from hidden light sources at the base of the dome. Borromini lengthened the two bays on the main axis. a masterpiece of light. Above the strong uninterrupted cornice. but he had to abandon this formulation to allow room for the sacristy. View of the interior.” a subtle moment in architectural creativity. . making them semicircular. in a most original move. the oval dome appears to be higher and lighter than it actually is because its mass is deemphasized by a decoration of recessed crosses. Borromini’s façade for San Carlino was the most urbanely active of his creative life. To reduce the length of the transverse axis. which employed a triple movement of contraction. and proportionality. space. The signiﬁcance of San Carlino was understood as a “suspended difference. contraction that was typical of Baroque attitudes toward space and mass. The arches connecting the ellipses to the dome are bent in torsion. movement. expansion. The two-story columns set into the walls link the shallow and deep recesses on the axes and accentuate the movement of the walls. Next.140 San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane carried on its diagonal axes by strong piers. he intended to complete the scheme by adding semicircular bays on the transverse axis. Rome. shallow partial ellipses at either end of the axis. hexagons. Borromini used a sort of crushing movement of the semicircles that left just small. The movement can be compared to San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Its primary motif was the sinusoidal entablature.
1967. Cambridge. his hymn to the unity of the forces and elements of Nature. oval “temple” that is set into the center bay. The recession of the bays on either side. Paolo. The second story plays against the ground ﬂoor: the ground ﬂoor’s concave-convex-concave articulation is countered by the second story’s concave-concave-concave articulation.” (at the contact between the balls) or “expansion. the expansion of the central bay reveals its presence. Portoghesi. MA: Belknap Press. Both the mildness and sympathy with which he contemplated God’s Universe and his spiritual simplicity and humble joy permeate the Canticle of the Sun. and the façade simply reﬂects their competition. Anthony. As in the interior. the second story appears to be concave-convex-concave like the ground ﬂoor—until one looks carefully. Braziller. at least. the columns on the façade are set in front of the plane of the façade. The sensuality of the sinusoidal curve was the translation of this idea into architectural form.” when the balls bounce off each other. is conditioned by the presence of the urban space of the street. so that visually. his asceticism. on the contrary. New York: G. except for a small. ASSISI Style: Gothic Dates: 1228–1253 Architect: Unknown orn in Assisi in 1181 or 1182. they repulse each other. Further Reading Blunt. much as on Michelangelo’s Caampidoglio façades. His active mysticism. an action that people of the seventeenth century called “contraction. SAN FRANCESCO (SAINT FRANCIS BASILICA). 1979. and his sense of mortiﬁcation were tempered by a profound sense of humanity. Borromini. Saint Francis was responsible for a great and fundamental change in medieval Christianity. Urban space and architectural space are engaged in a game of rivalry. When the balls collide. but this time the columns frame smaller columns. Although the façade barely touches the church volume behind it. Francis brought into the religious outlook of his time a faith in the beauty of creation—of animals and nature as well as humans. like the balls in a game of billiards. B . The Rome of Borromini.San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica) 141 the actions of balls in a game of billiards.
Francis gave away all his wealth. Elia’s project. The Franciscans practiced poverty and humility. “worldly” monastic orders. the famous Franciscan preachers moved into parish churches and cathedrals. among the rich as well as the poor. the sick. Among the established clergy there was strong opposition to the Franciscan example of radical poverty and simplicity. During the year of his captivity. Francis began having religious visions that eventually caused him to abandon the military and reject the wealthy lifestyle of his father. This caused a rupture between father and son that was very bitter. Congregations were spellbound by the Franciscan emphasis on preaching in understandable language as a major focus of their new reformed liturgy. was given to him by his father because his mother came from Frenchspeaking Provence. Nevertheless. and the needy. he also had a deeply spiritual side. the followers of Francis had so increased in number that he turned over the job of organizing and directing the Order to Brother Elia. by which the Saint is known. They were not cloistered (separated from the outside world) as were earlier monastic communities. the ﬁnal decision . and they favored itinerant preaching at crossroads or in barns—any informal place that had good acoustics and could accommodate large numbers of worshippers. who laid the foundation stone. Many of the friars argued that a large and ornate church ran counter to Francis’s ideal of poverty and his spirit of humility. He believed in social charity as a means of experiencing the Christian faith. Francis took part in a military expedition against Perugia and was captured. Although the young Francis enjoyed writing poetry and carousing with his friends. In 1201.142 San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica) Saint Francis was immensely popular with the “little people” because he detached himself from obscure theological debates and addressed himself directly to the hearts of the poor. Giovanni Bernardone was the son of a rich cloth merchant in Assisi. Scurrilous attacks and diatribes full of disdain were launched from church pulpits against the new order. Elia authorized the beginning of work on a monastery and a basilica for Saint Francis to be located in Assisi. even his clothing. The name Franciscus (“Little Frenchman”). He once met a beggar in the streets of Assisi and promptly gave all his money to the man. Francis was canonized in 1228. Francis founded the Franciscan Order. many young men began to follow him and to share his interpretation of the Christian life. Francis and other reformers redirected the goals of Christian religion toward a more humanistic relationship with worshippers than had been the earlier practice. It was Elia’s dream to build a magniﬁcent church that would eventually house a tomb for Francis. was not without controversy. When. and overcrowded cities. As his reputation for holiness spread. who expected his son (whom he indulged rather extravagantly) to take up the family trade. although sanctioned by Pope Gregory IX. As the numbers grew signiﬁcantly. which was recognized by Pope Innocent III in 1209. By 1224. In a period of doubt and anxiety that was characterized by the lack of secure papal authority. two years after his death. and became a holy beggar who worked with the lepers and embraced apostolic poverty. As the popularity of the order grew.
reminiscent of Old Saint Peter’s in Rome. Assisi. with an elegant upper basilica inspired by French Gothic chapels and the Church of Basilica of San Francesco. Each church has a simple plan of a nave made up of four bays. the entrance to the lower church was in a vast narthex. The upper church was originally planned to have a nave of only three bays to avoid covering the narthex. A Romanesquestyle campanile. Until 1235. a rose window above that. View from the lower Piazza of the entrance to the lower church (at the left) and the façade of the upper church (at the right). The church contains the crypt. Both unusual cylindrical buttresses (constructions that brace the main wall) and ﬂying buttresses (freestanding arches) support the walls. and an apse. and an oculus in the third story directly below the simple gabled rooﬂine. was added at the left side of the façade. where the body of Saint Francis was placed in 1230. it was decided that the upper basilica should have four bays in to emphasize its importance. A new façade was built with a great simplicity that recalls Romanesque architecture. under the main altar.San Francesco (Saint Francis Basilica) 143 was to build a large and imposing structure because the church was the motherhouse of the Franciscan Order and because it would become an important pilgrimage site. the façade has a Gothic doorway on the lowest level. But eventually. or bell tower. with its separate doorway in the narthex. The basilica is actually two churches consisting of a lower level that is mysterious and dark and an upper basilica that shows the inﬂuence of the Gothic style of French cathedrals. Divided into three stories. a transept. The two-story church combines a lower burial church. or transverse entry hall. .
Gualtiero.144 San Gaudenzio Dome the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Between 1296 and 1304. Frankl. or even recreate. Long stretches of walls in both the lower and upper churches were decorated by the most famous painters of the time. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and heavily Byzantine-inﬂuenced painting of the Romanesque era toward a way of penetrating sacred history through the representation of daily life and natural settings. By the time he was . the Roman church symbolizing the supremacy of the Pope. a new way of representing the world. the life of Jesus Christ. Life in the religious communities encouraged the acceptance of these ideas and the understanding of religious mysteries as part of a more humanistic approach to both life and faith. SAN GAUDENZIO DOME. Assisi. Smart. and P. White. NOVARA Style: Neoclassical Dates: 1841–1878 Architect: Alessandro Antonelli T hirty-seven years were required for the conception and construction of the dome of the church of San Gaudenzio in Novara. John. that combined the pilgrimage church in Jerusalem. Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) painted twenty-eight episodes from the life of Saint Francis in the upper church. 1250–1400. God could be understood in terms of the human image. Assisi: Edizioni Porziuncola. For Giotto. Francis in the Upper Church of San Francesco. 1993. they conveyed the action of the story with gestures typical of central Italian society. Art and Architecture in Italy. 2000. 2005. New Haven. The basis for Giotto’s new attitude toward painting was Saint Francis’s conviction that human beings could imitate. 1983. CT: Yale University Press. The Franciscan friars were attempting to develop a synthesis. P. Heart of the World.. The Assisi Problem and the Art of Giotto: A Study of the Legend of St. and a sense of modernity that was associated with French Gothic architecture. Alastair. The young painter introduced a new style of painting. the plasticity of his ﬁgures and three-dimensionality of his paintings explain the new spirituality. by everyday life. Crossley. Assisi. For Giotto. CT: Yale University Press. Further Reading Bellucci. and by a sense of action. Gothic Architecture. ﬂat. New Haven. that moved away from the abstract. an “ecclesia specialis” (special church). Giotto’s holy ﬁgures were constructed from mighty volumes.
which added the ﬁnal 73 feet to the total height of the dome. making it rise high above the roofs of the city of Novara. Antonelli was eighty-years-old. Although it was ﬁnished with stone and stucco. 400 feet above the ground. Building a dome on the long unﬁnished church that housed the silver sarcophagus containing the relics of the town’s patron saint. . and its stock exchange went through explosive growth in the middle of the nineteenth century. Alessandro Antonelli was involved in the construction of several daring brick structures of enormous dimensions and spent most of his life searching for the solutions necessary to build them. Novara not only housed administrative centers. The commission to build the dome was his ﬁrst opportunity to capitalize on his technical virtuosity and to fulﬁll his architectural ambitions. and around a million by 1880. The church could not collect more than 6 percent of the city’s resources every year—compared to twenty percent before 1790—but the deﬁcit was easily made up by the communal government. west of Milan. what were the creative visions and technical skills that allowed Antonelli to conceive such an extraordinary work of art? Between 1720 and 1880. Alessandro Antonelli. To understand the phenomenon of the San Gaudenzio dome. When. was a ﬁtting way to celebrate the ﬁnancial success of Novara’s aristocracy. irrigation had caused the sixfold increase in cereal production around Novara. ﬁnance such a grand monument when the Roman Catholic Church had lost most of its power and disposable wealth after the Napoleonic Conquest of Italy? Second. First. the statue of Christ the Redeemer was installed on top of the lantern. Antonelli’s brick and glass dome contrasted with the new popular art of iron and glass construction epitomized by the Crystal Palace (1851) in London. Large cotton mills and blast furnaces were introduced during the ﬁrst industrial development.San Gaudenzio Dome 145 forty-two. it seemed a decent way of spending the local taxes. The city was quickly industrialized to provide the tools and clothing needed by the rural population. two questions must be answered. how could Novara. and hospitals but also became the seat of a big commercial market. Gaudenzio.000 by 1888. its architect. Building the dome twice as high as the ﬁrst design had not ruined the city’s ﬁnances. On the contrary. schools. the huge dome is actually held up by an internal structure of brick arches and interior buttresses analogous to the steel skeleton in a modern skyscraper. Although a neoclassicist in spirit. built from 1875 to 1878. designed by Joseph Paxton. which had tripled to 38. During the thirty-seven years of the dome’s construction the government at times changed and withheld funding. a city of only 14.000 lire a year. had been a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Turin for ﬁve years. a city in the Piedmont district of northwest Italy. Antonelli went through six different projects and an additional single late design for the lantern.000 inhabitants in 1798. in 1878. Its vertical thrust is awesome. but overall the city spent an average of 15. He had spent most of his life constantly improving and transforming a dome originally intended to be 159 feet tall into one 327 feet tall. Half a million lire was spent by 1850.
San Gaudenzio, Novara. Eleven years before Eiffel built his iron tower in Paris, Alessandro Antonelli had ﬁnished his brick version in Novara.
San Gaudenzio Dome
The Sanctuary of the Cruciﬁx in Boca Novarese (1827–1918), the dome of San Gaudenzio in Novara, and the Mole Antonelliana, originally the Jewish Temple, in Turin (1862–1900) are examples of his work. The Sanctuary of the Cruciﬁx crashed to the ground in 1907, but was rebuilt in 1918, and the dome of San Gaudenzio required consolidation and reinforcement in 1882–1885 because the pillars that supported it were independent from, that is, not structurally part of the church crossing. Both the ﬂexibility and safety of the structure were proved when it did not sustain any damage in an earthquake that occurred after the repairs. Antonelli’s six projects for the dome developed from the potential inherent in the ﬁrst basic plan of 1841. He wanted to build a triple dome, inspired ﬁrst by Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London (1675–1711), the work of Sir Christopher Wren, and secondly by the Panthéon in Paris, designed by Soufﬂot (1757– 1777). Antonelli’s triple dome was composed of an interior dome at the scale of the church with a large opening at its crown; an intermediate conical dome, visible from below, with a painting illuminated by large windows; and an exterior dome, much taller than the others, with a silhouette that exalted the city’s skyline. In the second project (1844), Antonelli corrected an error found in the ﬁrst scheme. Because the layers of the dome were independent structures, it was necessary that the supporting pillars and the two rings of arches that supported the interior and exterior shells be independent of the preexisting sixteenthcentury church. Antonelli continued to improvise. In the third, fourth, ﬁfth, and sixth projects he added a second colonnade above the ﬁrst, doubling the height of the dome. He was pushing the possibilities offered by his brick construction system to their limit. The double curvature (in both the vertical and horizontal planes) of the arches at the bottom of the dome could resist huge thrusts. As long as he kept the structure light in weight, raising the summit of the dome to 327 feet was safe. Because the unusual conical structure was so technically stable, it was possible for Antonelli to add the 73 feet of the lantern to its summit. The complex brick structure with its buttresses, its rings of balconies, and its metal-looking reinforcements was as imaginative as Gaudi’s interiors in Barcelona. The awesome dome of Novara hid its most creative part above the visible interior dome where the brick structure and Antonelli’s imagination combined to create an appealing beauty. Eleven years before Eiffel built his iron tower in Paris, Antonelli had ﬁnished his brick version in Novara. Further Reading
Meeks, C. L. V. Italian Architecture 1750–1914. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966. Rosso, Franco. Alessandro Antonelli, 1798–1888. Milan: Electa, 1989.
San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica)
SAN MARCO (SAINT MARK’S BASILICA), VENICE
Style: Byzantine Dates: 1064–1094; Decoration Twelfth Century Architect: Unknown
major route of invasions in the ﬁfth century passed through the northeast of Italy, between the Alps and the shores of the Adriatic Sea. First came Aleric in 401 and then the Huns led by Attila in 452; ﬁnally the Goths swept into prosperous Roman regions. In a country ravaged by these barbarians, refugees from the metropolis of Aquileia, just north of Venice, found small islands in the Adriatic where they could feel safe and develop a new way of living. Their major settlement was on sandbars on the sites of what are today the Doge’s Palace and the Rialto. Originally, Venice was a community spread over a group of isolated islands; they coalesced in the ninth century into a single political entity. Because of its location on the eastern coast of Italy, Venice became a trading center and had established strong relations with the Byzantine Empire by the eleventh century. Since the Byzantines ruled much of the shoreline around the Adriatic Sea, the Venetians began playing a double game: as defender of the Western world from Byzantine expansion and as commercial partner in the lucrative Byzantine luxury market. The Byzantine emperor formally recognized the Doge (the elected head of the Venetian Republic), naming him the Duke of Venice and Dalmatia, and Venice became autonomous and sovereign. In 828, the relics of the Evangelist Mark were brought to Venice from Alexandria in Egypt. A ducal chapel that was built to house the shrine containing the relics was destroyed after a popular revolt in 976 and rebuilt two years later, probably using a Byzantine Greek cross (equal arm) plan. Domenico Contarini decided to rebuild and enlarge the chapel in 1063, and he looked to Byzantium for a prestigious design, to the Apostoleion (the Church of the Holy Apostles), which is universally considered to be the inspiration for his new basilica. The original Church of the Holy Apostles, which was built by the Roman emperor Constantine (285–337) in the fourth century, was rebuilt by the emperor Justinian in the sixth century using the architects of Hagia Sophia. Enlarged in the ninth century under Emperor Basil I, the Holy Apostles was one of the greatest churches in Constantinople and was also distinguished as the burial church of the Byzantine Emperors. To build a church that would rival such a magniﬁcent and culturally signiﬁcant building challenged the pride and abilities of the Venetians.
San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica)
San Marco is often called a “copy” on a reduced scale of the Church of the Holy Apostles. Like its model, each of the four equal-length arms of San Marco carries a dome as does the crossing (the area where the arms intersect at the center of the church). This, the largest dome, is 42 feet in diameter with small windows at its base and is supported on four square piers that are pierced by arched openings on two levels. A U-shaped narthex, or front porch, runs across the front of the nave and wraps around its sides. Although built in little more than thirty years, the craftsmanship at San Marco was outstanding. Combining the exotic architectural and decorative inﬂuences from Byzantium with the work of local Lombard craftsmen and, presumably, craftsmen imported from Byzantium itself, the church could not be easily imitated in other regions and cities. It has remained unique, a oneof-a-kind masterpiece. Its only European successor was probably the abbey church, now the cathedral, of Perigueux. This building, far from Venice in French Aquitania, was built in the twelfth century, and was almost certainly inspired by San Marco. The Venetians had to adapt the Byzantine plan, intended for Orthodox services, to the ceremonies of western Catholic rite. Second-story galleries reserved for women were suppressed, and the equal-armed centralized plan with its ﬁve domes was subtly altered to resemble aspects of a western basilica. The arm of the nave is slightly longer than the transverse arms, and the pierced piers on either side of the nave suggest aisles that terminate in chapels.
San Marco, Venice. Interior (after engraving in Planat, Encyclopedie de la Construction, vol. 5, p. 238, pl. XLIV, Paris, 1892). From author’s collection.
San Marco (Saint Mark’s Basilica)
The rough brickwork in the Lombard style, used for the fabric of the building, is only visible in the upper parts of the exterior. Inside San Marco, mosaics with predominantly gold grounds cover large expanses of brickwork. This decoration of the church was begun in the twelfth century by Byzantine craftsmen and continued for centuries. During the Renaissance, the famous Venetian painters Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese furnished designs for the mosaics. The shimmering mosaics dematerialize the walls and unify the lower level with the smooth luminosity of the domes, overwhelming worshippers with celestial visions pictured in tiny pieces of glass and stone. In Stones of Venice, John Ruskin remembered “the dark dusk” he left behind when he pushed the bronze door open to enter San Marco: “light penetrates through narrow openings . . . which looked like large stars.” (Ruskin 1906, 67) Glittering light on the irregular surfaces became brilliant reﬂections. Instead of mosaics, the lower parts of the walls are covered with marble veneer; with age, their white color has turned into the softness of a brown patina. To honor Saint Mark, the patron of their Republic, the Venetians adorned his church with treasures plundered from Constantinople when the Crusaders took over the city in 1204. The extraordinary Pala d’Oro is a gold altarpiece adorned with silver, jewels, and enamel work that was made in Constantinople in 976. Also looted from the east were the four bronze horses, Greek works of the fourth century bce, that were proudly exhibited above the entrance on the balcony of the second story. These magniﬁcent works, replaced by copies on the façade, are now housed in the museum located in the upper galleries of the church. The exterior of San Marco was thoroughly transformed in the thirteenth century. The Byzantine domes were replaced with lead-clad, oriental looking domes that add signiﬁcantly to the picturesque quality of the church. The recesses of the porches received brilliantly colored mosaics. Gothic pinnacles and a wealth of ornamentation were added and give San Marco an irresistible charm. San Marco demonstrates the sort of Venetian luminosity that destroys all sense of solid form and emphasizes the eclectic decoration. It mixes the tall crowning silhouette of the domes, the agitation of Gothic proﬁles, and the multitude of the supporting marble columns on the lower level of the porches in an abstract and subtle composition of light and color. Further Reading
Demus, Otto. Studies in Byzantium, Venice, and the West. 2 vols. London: Pindar Press, 1998. Ruskin, John. Les pierres de Venise. Translated by Mathilde P. Cremieux. Paris: Renouard and Laurens, 1906. Vio, Ettore, ed. The Basilica of St. Mark in Venice. Translated by H. Evans. New York: Riverside Book Company, 2000.
and clever. became king of Italy. the Orthodox Baptistery of the mid-ﬁfth century and the Arian Baptistery from the beginning . New Haven. strong. There are two octagonal baptisteries. he charged another barbarian. located in the city. Translated by H. Other churches and religious buildings were planned as centralized buildings of octagonal or circular form. however. the Byzantine army occupied Ravenna in 540. during which time he restored antique traditions and employed a large number of artists. The Western Empire had its capital at Ravenna. In 527. ﬂanked by two or more aisles. are basilicas. John. New York: Riverside Book Company. Mark’s: The Art and Architecture of Church and State in Venice. After 15 years of warfare. Theodoric governed northern Italy and the southern part of Yugoslavia for thirty-three years. and. represented the emperor in most of Italy. the Mausoleum of Theodoric (520) is covered by a massive monolithic limestone dome 40 inches thick that spans 36 feet. Both Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo. Justinian (482–565) became the Byzantine emperor. During the period of Ravenna’s prosperity in the ﬁfth and sixth centuries. White. Energetic. 2003. deposed the last emperor of the west. Romulus Augustus. CT: Yale University Press. illuminated by a clerestory. the chief administrator who had great power at his disposal. Because the Eastern emperor distrusted Odoacer. a building type with a long central space (the nave). The majority were basilicas. Theodoric laid siege to Ravenna in 490 and after three years took the city and killed Odoacer. in the name of the Eastern emperor who ruled in Byzantium. he founded an era of great prosperity and was determined to reintegrate North Africa and all of Italy into his empire. in 568 the Lombards invaded Italy and reduced the territory governed by Ravenna to the area between the Adriatic coast and Rome. which was located at Ravenna’s harbor. ed. St.San Vitale 151 Vio. 1250–1400. RAVENNA Style: Early Byzantine Dates: 526–548 Architect: Unknown I n 402. all of which terminate in apses. and Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. numerous churches were built in the city. the Eastern. One of these. In 476. Ettore. But. They belonged to two types. the Ostrogoth Theodoric (454–526) to overthrow him. the Roman Empire was divided into two parts in order to offer better resistance against the barbarian invasions. Art and Architecture in Italy. in Byzantium (modern Istanbul). SAN VITALE. An Exarch. Evans. a barbarian of Turco-Mongolian origin. 1993. Odoacer.
San Vitale was commissioned by Ecclesius. about 100 feet above the . of the sixth century. covered by a great dome. It was planned as a rotunda with a central. Ravenna. in 526 and consecrated by archbishop Maximian in 548. Stunning 6th century mosaics of Junstinian and Theodora decorate the choir of the church. The most important of this building type is the octagonal church of San Vitale.152 San Vitale San Vitale. bishop of Ravenna. octagonal space.
Ravenna: Edizioni A. von Simson. the half domes over the niches. Krautheimer. In the half dome of the apse appears Christ in Glory seated on the orb of the Universe while lower on the walls are Moses. . tympanum. Ravenna. which was the state religion of Byzantium. such as San Lorenzo Maggiore (c. Melchisedec. Richard. two small martyria (chapels devoted to martyrs) function as annexes. An expressive lightness is visible on the exterior. Abel. In front of the entrance door a small narthex (transverse entry hall or porch). and in Rome. such as Santa Costanza (350). Mango. Since the martyria. 1948. Vault. The central space is surrounded by an ambulatory (a corridor) on the ground ﬂoor and by a “matroneium. An Art City. and the narthex are characteristics of Byzantine churches. was built using hollow clay vases in order to reduce its weight. raised on small pendentives (spherical triangles) that connect its circular base to the eight-sided drum that supports it. on the second story. and the barrel vault covering the ambulatory. 1970. 1991. Longo. Byzantine Architecture. Sacred Fortress: Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna. The lightness of the proportions of the columns and pillars allow a ﬂow of light that is reﬂected by the mosaics that cover the walls in the choir. The dome. Further Reading Bovini. Ravenna is one of the rare remnants of sixth-century mosaic art that was once present throughout the Byzantine Empire but was destroyed by the iconoclasts (the religious groups who opposed ﬁgural representation in eastern churches) and by the later devastations of the Crusaders and the Ottoman Turks.San Vitale 153 ﬂoor. and even the pavement compose a unique decorative ensemble that was created by a single group of artists. It is even likely that the early Byzantine liturgy.” a gallery reserved for women. the ﬁgures of Justinian and his court and of Empress Theodora and her attendants represent the ﬁnest examples of Byzantine mosaic work of the sixth century. rather than the Roman liturgy. 1975. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. was celebrated in San Vitale. they may be a form of propaganda for the Orthodox faith. The choir of San Vitale is completely encrusted with mosaics whose colors and reﬂections utterly transform its space. the last element remaining from a rectangular atrium (forecourt) completes the building. Giuseppe. ed. It is related to the Early Christian monuments in Milan. the result of decorative arcades and the pilaster strips. Cyril A. New York: Rizzoli International Publications. The overall form of the church expresses a hierarchy of volumes in their progression toward the center. 2nd rev. matroneium. and Abraham entertaining the three Angels under the Mamre oak tree. 480). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Otto G. Old and New Testament themes are incorporated into a complex program. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. walls. Though it may have been inﬂuenced by Byzantine architecture. On each side of the choir. San Vitale is a product of Italian masons. On the sidewalls. which is nicely buttressed by seven niches and a choir. Isaac.
A district of settlers quickly grew up around the emperor’s accommodations. The new horizontal rows of alternating materials and colors are visible mainly on the sides of the apse. Two masters. In San Zeno. The two buildings are the same type of basilica without transepts and both are covered by a wood ceiling. This was also the time when a beautiful new trefoil ceiling was added to the nave. Giovanni and Nicolò de Ferrerra. the belfry of San Zeno Maggiore stands alone to the west of the city center. one can see how Italian building technique progressed in the Middle Ages. which was begun in 1120. VERONA Style: Romanesque Dates: Ninth–Fourteenth Centuries Architects: Unknown. which would later be included inside Verona’s city walls. the Ottonian German Emperor resided in the monastery. the nave is broken up into a series of bays. alternate with single slender columns. Giovanni and Nicolò de Ferrara I n the silhouette of the city of Verona against the background of hills covered by villas and cypresses. and an alternate system of support carries the upper walls. each with four engaged columns. Its façade was completed in 1138. The startling unity of the church today gives no indication of the delays in building and the various remodeling that took place over several centuries. In the ﬁrst decades of the thirteenth century. Sant’ Apollinare is fragile because of the absence of reinforcing of its long upper walls.154 San Zeno Maggiore SAN ZENO MAGGIORE. In the ninth century. the eighth bishop of Verona and its patron saint. which are carried over a series of identical arches resting on columns. The church as it exists today is the product of many modiﬁcations. The freestanding bell tower was built in 1045 and restored in 1120. which was built between 1386 and 1389. In the aisles. The original church of San Zeno was built in the ninth century but an earthquake in 1117 made it necessary to build a new church. If one compares San Zeno to the church of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe at Ravenna. It served as a landmark for a Benedictine monastery that became famous as the site of the tomb of Saint Zeno. Two upper ﬂoors of superimposed arcades and a pyramidal high-pitched roof are carried by alternating rows of white marble and red brick. the upper nave wall is connected to the exterior wall by a series of arches or interior buttresses. Thick compound pillars. which give more solidity to the structure. added a Gothic apse and choir that was raised 7 feet above the nave ﬂoor. a good location for him to oversee international and national political affairs. its length was increased and the façade was reworked. Brick construction is replaced in San Zeno with a heavier type of .
Verona. .San Zeno Maggiore. A characteristic Lombard porch from 1140 marks the entrance.
Mantegna’s painting helps one to understand the church interior as a perspective space in the Renaissance manner (see Pazzi Chapel). A century of artistic development distinguishes work from the beginning of the twelfth century from that of a century later. The subjects are taken from the story of Genesis and from the Life of Christ and form a continuous pattern with the bronze doors. This archaic tradition. dome. vault ﬁnished in 1494.156 Sant’ Andrea masonry with brick and white marble laid in alternating courses. Luca Fancelli. The great thirteenth-century rose window represents the Wheel of Fortune. decorated with thirteenth-century ﬁgures. SANT’ ANDREA. These show ﬁgures from the Old and New Testaments and four scenes devoted to San Zeno. the enormous mass of Sant’ Andrea. Baroque Dates: 1474–1485. The “San Zeno Altarpiece” is a representation of the Madonna and Child with saints in a perspective system that continues the view of the church itself. CT: Yale University Press. It is greatly admired for its harmonious proportions. with its strict modular division into bays and the absolute control of the sculpted elements. which goes back to Carolingian models of the ninth century. evokes the spirit of a huge Roman ruin.” The porch by the artist Nicolò. on the upper level of the choir. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800–1200. above the entrance to the crypt. has a gabled roof supported by two columns that stand on the backs of lions. which dates to the 1140s. determine the fate of mortals. The only vaulted area of San Zeno is the Gothic choir. Situated . “I. The façade is typical of Italian design. New Haven. which occupies two bays.to fourteenthcentury frescoes distributed in an irregular pattern with a spontaneity that adds to their beauty. Filippo Juvarra T owering over the Piazza delle Erbe. MANTUA Style: Renaissance. K. The façade of San Zeno contains a collection of most impressive medieval artistic creations. The sculptures on the tympanum (over the door) and on either side of the door are examples of relief sculpture from the twelfth century made by Guglielmo. The interior of the church contains a profusion of twelfth. It is raised above a crypt that contains Saint Zeno’s tomb. J. Mantua’s major church. includes a balustrade. Further Reading Conant. 1733–1765 Architects: Leon Battista Alberti. 1974. a Renaissance triptych by Andrea Mantegna was installed there. with an inscription that reads. Fortuna. When the presbytery (the area around the altar) was rearranged between 1450 and 1459.
Its great dome rises above the surrounding rooftops. a quiet but powerful presence seen from city streets in all directions. a clock tower. and in close proximity to the central market. The Baroque architect Juvarra (1678–1736) ﬁnished the Renaissance building from 1733 to 1765 by adding the dome to a church designed in 1470 by Leon Battista Alberti.Sant’ Andrea 157 across from the Palazzo della Ragione (the palace of justice). . sculpture. Although he was engaged as architect by some of the most Sant’ Andrea. created late in life when he was devoting all his energies to the restoration of ancient Roman buildings. and (surprisingly enough) on the ideal Italian family. Mantua. architecture. Alberti’s splendidly proportioned façade resembles a Roman triumphal arch articulated with details in dark stone. Alberti was a humanist and theoretician who wrote treatises on painting. the church dominates the core of Mantua’s urban life. and a number of religious structures. The building was Alberti’s last major work.
So it was that Alberti always needed an architect or mason familiar with the building trades to carry out his projects. Saint Longinus. Fancelli appears to have faithfully executed Alberti’s plans. By the ﬁfteenth century. twenty-two years after Alberti’s death. Irregular ﬁnancing of the construction caused delays so that the church was not yet roofed when Fancelli left Mantua in 1485. the Roman soldier who pierced the side of Jesus with his lance. in 1470. Since Alberti was one of the leading architectural experts in Italy at the time and had already designed the sanctuary of San Sebastiano for Mantua.” a building type described by Vitruvius. Alberti was more interested in ideas and conceptual design than in the actual process of building. Alberti sent a detailed model to the stone mason Luca Fancelli who was in Mantua working on Alberti’s design for the church of San Sebastiano. It was even believed to have cured Pope Pius II of gout. The Saint had buried the relic to protect it. and workmanship. techniques. the Holy Blood of Christ. He called it a “templum etruscum. the relic was once again hidden and its location forgotten. The vault over the nave was ﬁnally built in 1494. In the case of Sant’ Andrea. Alberti proposed a great hall that was large enough to accommodate crowds of pilgrims but also functional as a church and was economical to build. covered by a continuous semicircular vault. or nave. Nearby were found the bones of Longinus. head of the dynasty that ruled Mantua from 1328 to 1707. which are now preserved in the church. The Holy Blood attracted pilgrims from all over Europe who believed in its miracle-working power. and its whereabouts were unknown until 804 when Sant’ Andrea (Andrew the apostle) appeared to a Christian man and directed him to the place where the container holding the Holy Blood was hidden. the Second Marquis. the medieval church in which the relic was displayed was no longer adequate for its lofty religious function. Longinus settled in Mantua when his legion was disbanded and was martyred there in 37. decided to build a new church.158 Sant’ Andrea prestigious patrons of the Renaissance. When the Hungarians invaded Italy in 923. had collected earth that had been saturated with the Holy Blood during the cruciﬁxion from the base of the cross. Therefore. He even owned a copy of the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius’s Ten Books on Architecture. Ludovico was passionate and knowledgeable about architecture. which would be most appropriate for the city because the Mantuans traced their early history back to the ancient Etruscans. Clearly a more contemporary and grandiose building was needed to house the Holy Blood and to accommodate the great number of pilgrims who came to worship at the site of the relic. the Duke accepted his unsolicited plan for the new church. Sant’ Andrea intervened yet again in 1048 and revealed to a German beggar the exact location of the relic. with a span . The nave is 240 feet long and the vault. and there is no evidence of signiﬁcant problems or alterations during the period beginning in 1474 when Fancelli directed the work. Ludovico Gonzaga. Alberti designed an elongated rectangular hall. According to tradition. Sant’ Andrea was built to house Mantua’s most prized relic. He disliked discussions about materials.
The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. NJ: Prentice Hall. Murray. Only the façade of Sant’ Andrea preserves Alberti’s original design and beautifully executed ornament. Juvarra’s great dome was not added until the eighteenth century. A Renaissance Tapestry: The Gonzaga of Mantua. Alberti prescribed the overall proportions for the nave at ﬁve to six (width to length). A low triangular pediment crowns the porch.” are completely open to the nave and are covered with barrel vaults. Large ones. Sant’ Andrea’s construction resembled that used in antiquity. Sculpture. was the largest and heaviest to be constructed since Roman times. Frederick. Peter. but it reduces the amount of sunlight that enters the nave. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. according to Alberti’s theories. Above the pediment is a small arched structure nicknamed the “ombrellone” (umbrella).. Alternating with the tribunalia are smaller. Architecture. and David G. more isolated chapels. 1989. 2003. Although the monumentality of the nave is still dramatic and awe-inspiring. In plan. much of Alberti’s delicate detailing and proportional system is obscured by an accretion of Neoclassical ornament. called “tribunalia. History of Italian Renaissance Art: Painting. . which would have had to have been imported.” that are closed off from the nave except for their low portals and are roofed with domes. It appears that Alberti’s original design included only the nave enhanced by a monumental entrance and closed by an apse set in a straight wall. that is. which. 1997. Like its forms. should be dimly lit to inspire awe and reverence in the worshipper. in fact. with neither iron reinforcing nor wood structure. a reference—like the contrasting colors—to the type of church façade that was popular with contemporary architects in Florence. The entire porch can be inscribed in a square and is subdivided vertically by exquisitely detailed Corinthian pilasters and horizontally by moldings of dark colored stone. but also a major ﬁnancial consideration because local brick was much cheaper than cut stone. 5th ed. Simon. Wilkins. Henry. The use of local brick rather than cut stone was. such as that of Constantine in Rome. Sant’ Andrea is similar to the great Roman basilicas. Upper Saddle River. the façade also mirrors the internal arrangement of the nave with a large barrel vaulted opening in the center ﬂanked by a vertical arrangement of smaller openings based on the tribunalia-cella alternation of chapels on either side of the nave. New York: Schocken. Further Reading Hartt. called “cellae. Although it suggests the form of a Roman triumphal arch. not only an echo of Roman building practice. Its function and purpose are not understood. 1996. Six chapels ﬂank the nave on each side and set up a visual rhythm based on their design and relative openness.Sant’ Andrea 159 of 70 feet. proportions that he claimed were used by the Etruscans. Kate. Millon. Italian Renaissance Architecture from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. New York: HarperCollins. The Latin cross plan building of today is a modiﬁcation of Alberti’s design that was constructed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
the dome was built only after 1661. sculpture. and painting. thus making it lead nowhere. A . Pope Alexander VII wanted to build a wall to separate the church from the street in front of it. as in the ancient Roman model. which made the short axis of the oval into the central axis of the church—and the focus on the main altar. Bernini played with contradictions of the viewer’s expectations. As a man of all the arts—outstanding sculptor. instead of the traditional emphasis on the long axis of an antique building or a church. Mattia de Rossi. painting and sculpture. The church was built for a Jesuit probationary convent as a place to train novices in privacy away from everyday society. His favorite pupil and architectural assistant. and distinguished architect—Bernini controlled every detail of the church. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1659–1670 Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini Baroque interior comprises a mixture of all the arts—architecture. In this way. collaborated on the designs and faithfully carried them out even after the master’s death. This alignment accelerated the path from the entrance to the altar in an unexpected and dramatic manner. by chapels— ten of them in this case. They had to face martyrdom and come to believe steadfastly that the pain leading to death would be transformed into a spiritual ascension into heaven. and the travertine street façade was ﬁnished at the end of 1670. not working on everything himself.160 Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale SANT’ ANDREA AL QUIRINALE. Bernini’s ideal was to create a form he called “bel composto” (literally. Moreover. General of the order. marble pilasters blocked the long axis of the oval. The site available on the convent grounds was very shallow. but checking the quality and aesthetic value of the work of all the participants. The altar chapel received its ornamentation in 1668. for example. Bernini was put in charge of this exceptional church program. a domed central space surrounded. were intimately combined. painter. It played an important role in the educational process as the young Jesuits were being prepared to go to hostile parts of the world and convert people to the Christian faith. a beautiful mixture) in which several visual media. a Baroque paraphrase of the Pantheon. Having been educated by the Jesuits. Sant’ Andrea exempliﬁes this ideal. Bernini engaged in a constant and profound dialogue with Giovanni Paolo Oliva. Bernini aligned the long dimension of his oval parallel to the street. He designed an oval rotunda. architecture. But. The chapels were erected ﬁrst. but Bernini sidestepped this suggestion and instead designed his church to ﬁt into the comparatively broad but shallow space in front of the other convent buildings. Bernini’s role was like a stage director.
Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. . Four honey colored columns frame the altar while a white statue of Saint Andrew ascends into the white and gold dome. Rome.
is supported on walls that take on a honeyed tone. He is in a state of ecstasy and. Four large columns. He proposed that the church be a “tableau vivant” showing the salvation of Saint Andrew. 1999. CT: Yale University Press. He appears to be rising upward into the space of the large dome toward the crowning lantern. the control of light. Bernini. frame an altar recess lit from above.. the movement of angelotti and angels spotted in distinctive parts of the church. emerges in a dramatic ascension. the creation of an overall honey-like color. The “bel composto” of Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale creates an atmosphere. with the help of ﬂying angels he envisions his encounter with God the Father. an experience. which is created by multicolored marbles and stucco revetments. A crowd of delightful angelotti (plump baby angels) ﬂutters around the base of the lantern watching the arrival of the Saint into Paradise. et al. However. 1995. Instead. secular world and participates in a manifestation of heaven. 1997. their attention is directed to the broken pediment above the columns framing the altar recess where the soul of Saint Andrew. Wittkower. depicted as a powerful ﬁgure in white marble. a fusion of the arts where no single art form dominates the others. the exaggeration of the frame around the altar that expands the altar painting into a soaring ﬂow of angels. Art and Architecture in Italy. and David Finn. Further Reading Avery. London: Bulﬁnch. New Haven. The triumph of the martyrSaint is celebrated lower down where ﬁgures of men and angelotti hang lush garlands around the base of the dome. reaching out toward Andrew and at the same time causing glistening rays of light to descend into the earthly level represented by the altar painting. 1600–1750. The selection of marbles. a painting by the Jesuit father Guillaume Courtois. Giovanni. Over the altar. Bernini: Flights of Love. reminiscent of Palladio’s in Venice. over the heads of the congregation. God appears symbolically in the top of a lantern over the altar recess. Translated by Linda Lappin. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Everything is based on Bernini’s concept and his control of the expression from ﬂat plane (the painting) to three dimensions (the sculpture) and into space (the architecture). where the Dove of the Holy Spirit awaits him. there is no evidence of suffering in the saint’s death. Genius of the Baroque. R. The intense technical and artistic thinking that transforms a church into a place to see the invisible more than merely to think about it is a process typical of Roman Baroque Catholicism. Charles. . the Art of Devotion. Careri. called Il Borgognone.162 Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale The white and gilt dome. The worshipper entering the church escapes from the physical. all these are components of Bernini’s method of expressing religious propaganda in a Baroque manner. which measures 66 by 47 feet at the base and rises to a height of 66 feet. But Andrew’s vision of God in the sanctiﬁed space of the altar recess is not visible to the congregation in the main body of the church. depicts Saint Andrew’s martyrdom.
Sant’ Apollinare in Classe
SANT’ APOLLINARE IN CLASSE, RAVENNA
Style: Early Christian Date: 549 Architect: Unknown
avenna is famous for its basilican churches, all of which conform to a basic, rather conservative plan. Long arcades separate a tall central nave from two aisles on each side, as in the cathedral, or a single aisle can ﬂank each side of the nave as in Saint John the Evangelist (424–434), Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo (c. 493–526), and Sant’ Apollinare in Classe (consecrated in 549). In the latter two, the choir is a semicircular apse at the end of the nave. A clerestory high up in the nave walls and a wood roof complete the designs. No transept separates the nave from the choir, but a transverse entry hall, or porch, called the narthex, separated the church proper from the street. A freestanding cylindrical campanile of lofty design, isolated beside the church or adjacent to its façade, would complete the church complex. Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, three miles south of Ravenna’s city center, was built after the Byzantine conquest of the city by Bishop Ursicino or his successor Vittore. It was paid for by the banker Julian Argentario, who was put in charge of the renovation of the city and its harbor, which was decreed by the Byzantine emperor Justinian. The church was consecrated in 549 by Archbishop Maximian, who is visible to the right of Justinian in the choir mosaic in San Vitale. The area of Classe refers to the Latin word “classis,” meaning ﬂeet or harbor. In the ﬁrst century bce, the Roman emperor Augustus had created a military harbor outside Ravenna that was of great importance and could berth ﬁfty ships. At that time, a sandy beach separated the shore from lagoons and swamps inland. Halfway between the city and the site of the church, where a modern channel now cuts inland, was a port-canal defended by walls and barracks. To the south, the district called Classis developed; it contained warehouses, markets, shops, and houses for about 10,000 sailors, most of whom had immigrated the eastern part of the Empire. One suspects that Christianity developed ﬁrst in Classis around Saint Apollinare, who was the ﬁrst bishop of the area. The saint was buried south of Classe in a necropolis on a vast expanse of beach, which had been established during the reign of Augustus. The harbor was kept in good repair until the time of Justinian but lost its importance soon after. It had disappeared by the eighth century, perhaps as a result of the Lombard invasion. Sant’ Apollinare
Sant’ Apollinare in Classe
Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna. An Early Christian basilica with a tall nave, lit by clerestory windows and terminating in an apse, ﬂanked by an aisle on either side.
in Classe, now isolated in a forest of pines, was a monastic establishment that served the cemetery of the old community. In the Byzantine era, a Roman road ran right in front of the entrance portico (heavily repaired in 1909). On the side of the road opposite the church, a rectangular court decorated with fountains articulated its location. The interior of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe is a long rectangular room of handsome proportions divided into a nave and aisles by two rows of twelve columns each that terminates in a raised apse glittering with mosaics. The wood roof enhanced the clarity of the space. Entry was through a remarkable group of nine
Santa Maria della Consolazione
doors that opened on the front and sides of the building. To recreate the spirit of the original church, one must imagine the ﬂoor decorated in polychrome mosaic and the walls covered with marble veneer. These disappeared when it was necessary to raise the level of the columns and rebuild the walls because of ground subsidence during the Middle Ages. Perhaps the best way to recreate the original appearance of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe is to imagine its ﬂoor mosaics resembling those of the abbey church at Pomposa (just twenty miles north of Ravenna) and to picture the decoration of the nave in a style similar to Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo. The apse mosaic in Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, with its dominant green coloration, represents a heavenly landscape with an allegorical program showing the Transﬁguration of Christ above and the power of Sant’ Apollinare to lead souls to Christ below. Three sheep (symbols of Peter, James, and John) contemplate a cross inscribed in a disc containing ninety-nine stars ﬂanked by the prophets Moses and Elijah. Directly below the cross, Apollinare gathers twelve baptized believers, symbolically represented as sheep, within a rich green ﬁeld full of trees, ﬂowers, and birds. Sant’ Apollinare is represented according to the conventions of a funeral portrait, and below the apse mosaic images of four bishops of Ravenna commemorate the role of the church as their place of burial. The dignity of these ﬁgures accords well with the tradition of ofﬁcial portraits of the high prelates and emperors in the Byzantine Empire. The heavenly vision of Christ’s transﬁguration should be understood as an inspiration for the believer and the basis of his or her absolute trust in religious orthodoxy.
Bovini, Giuseppe. Ravenna, An Art City. Ravenna: Edizioni A. Longo, 1970. Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. 2nd rev. ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975. Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, the Sacred Arts. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1976.
SANTA MARIA DELLA CONSOLAZIONE, TODI
Style: Renaissance Dates: 1509–1607 Architects: Donato Bramante; Baldassare Peruzzi; Michele Sanmicheli
Santa Maria della Consolazione
he famous architectural theoretician Leon Battista Alberti believed that the perfection of the circle, design themes inspired by nature, and the purity and simplicity of Platonic forms were conﬁrmation that a church with a dome or a central plan would surpass any other possible form. Indeed, centralized plan churches, that is, churches based on plans derived from perfect Platonic shapes (circles, equilateral triangles, squares, hexagons, and octagons) were demonstrations of the perfection of God. Outside the western end of the medieval hilltop city of Todi, at the base of a fortress owned by the ruling Atti family, one of the ﬁnest examples of such a centralized plan church stands in isolation overlooking the vast landscape of Umbria. This is Santa Maria della Consolazione, built on the site where, on May 17, 1508, a ﬁgure of the Virgin Mary was discovered hidden in spiny bushes. The discovery prompted the arrival of large numbers of pilgrims who were given indulgences (forgiveness of sin) by the Bishop of Todi on June 13. On July 13, the Atti family ordered a society of nobles to build a church on the site. They laid a foundation stone for the project on March 17, 1509, and commissioned local builders with limited experience to build the church. A single apse was begun and then, in May 1509, a new contract was drawn up for the construction of three more apses resulting in a church made up of four apses built on the sides of a square central space whose corners supported a dome. Financial difﬁculties slowed construction of the building, so in May 1512 Pope Julius II put his “Architetto” Bramante in charge of revising the project. A model was built by Arnaldo Bruschi to deﬁne the new shape of the church, which was typical of Bramante’s design approach. It had a low dome inspired by the Pantheon in Rome, a shape he would use in the future for Saint Peter’s Dome. Bramante died in 1514, however, and work on Santa Maria della Consolazione progressed very slowly with a succession of architects taking charge of construction. Baldassare Peruzzi and Michele Sanmicheli, both former members of Bramante’s studio, were two of them. The design for the dome was changed in 1587, and the church was not ﬁnished until 1607, nearly a century after the miracle of 1508. The integrity of simple volumes explains clearly how the church was designed. A series of elementary volumes—a central cube, a cylinder, four half-cylinders (one circular, the others dodecagonal), a sphere, and four hemispheres—are beautifully orchestrated. The four apses structurally strengthen the base on which the central dome is built. The shapes of the interior are repeated precisely in the form of the exterior. At the corners of the central cube are pendentives, spherical triangles that make the transition from the square top of the cube to the round base of the circular drum that supports the dome. An even light typical of the Renaissance, both in art and architecture, suffuses the ﬂuid space of the interior. This light is “universal,” that is, its diffuse uniformity changes very little throughout the day and does not create shadows. So different from the dim glow in Gothic cathedrals, this “universal” light is indifferent to site, it is an abstract part of a “universal” architecture not based on peculiarities or on historical intricacies.
Santa Maria della Consolazione, Todi. A geometrically perfect centralized plan church of the High Renaissance.
Todi. A universal light illuminates the geometrically perfect High Renaissance church.Santa Maria della Consolazione. .
Bruschi. Greatly inﬂuenced by the study of Roman architecture that he conducted after his arrival in the city. was the result of its complicated proportional A . in a vast and luminous landscape is typical of the Renaissance intolerance of the loose. Wolf. where goods from all over the countryside were brought. Bramante had been forced to leave Milan. it belongs to an ideal landscape that painters and architects of the Renaissance sought to model with perspective. The Renaissance in Italy: Painting. Keller. Milan: Electa. Bruno. Translated by R. to celebrate his architectural maturity in a rather grand manner. the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. where he had worked for Lodovico Sforza. ROME Style: Renaissance Dates: 1500–1504 Architect: Donato Bramante visitor to the central court of the Oakland. Bramante. The cloister’s high reputation among later Beaux-Arts professionals in Paris. a lover of art and antiquities. SANTA MARIA DELLA PACE CLOISTER. Bramante was ready. By providing a gathering place for people outside the city tollhouses. the ruling class demonstrated control over a large territory. YMCA would ﬁnd a replica of Donato Bramante’s cloister of Santa Maria della Pace in Rome. 1973. Four hundred years earlier. California. commissioned Bramante’s ﬁrst Roman work. But the location may also reﬂect changing political and economic conditions. The city had ceased being closed off from the countryside by its walls. E. Arnaldo. He went directly to Rome and arrived there for the Holy Year of 1500. Santa Maria della Consolazione does not belong to the city of Todi. 1974. La chiesa a pianta centrale. Inﬂuenced by the French Beaux-Arts system of architectural education where she was the ﬁrst female graduate. Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. Harald. Julia Morgan created a variation of this landmark in 1913–1915. it now ruled the region beyond.Santa Maria della Pace Cloister 169 The location of the church. Further Reading Adorni. outside the city. at ﬁfty-six years of age. when the French army deposed the duke and occupied the city. Abrams. 2002. Sculpture. New York: Harry N. London: Thames and Hudson. Architecture. such as Julia Morgan. nongeometrical organization of the typical urban fabric of the time.
Bramante was inﬂuenced by such theories. a way that would enhance the beauty of each and all of these parts of a building. an octave in musical terms. and cornices whose proportions Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. This abstract grid was now ﬁlled in with piers. thus doubling the four arches of the lower story. Bramante subdivided the second story into eight bays (units marked off by the columns). walls. The cloister itself occupied nine of the squares. Then. smaller squares with a small piece left over occasioned by the irregularity of the street on the west side. containing a gallery. opened by two arcades with windows. which Bramante subdivided into four parts to determine the width of the four arches that made up the lower story of the arcades surrounding the open court. He based the vertical subdivision of the cloister on the octave (one to two). for the back wall of the cloister. An abstract set of proportions governs Bramante’s ﬁrst Roman work. and the third (three to four). Bramante used the proportion of one to two. or a musical third. The site where the cloister was to be built was nearly square. For example. Renaissance architects considered proportions their main tool in disposing and sizing the spaces. Bramante’s method of designing for the cloister was fairly direct: he divided the site into sixteen equal. repeating a solution he had previously experimented with in a two-storied cloister in Milan. Rome. According to Vitruvius (a Roman architect and theorist writing in the ﬁrst century bce) the proportional system of a structure should be musical. and columns of their buildings in a rational way. . openings. columns. also recommended by the theorists.170 Santa Maria della Pace Cloister system. The exterior wall of the cloister. has the proportion of three to four. a fortunate and unusual occurrence in the haphazardly planned central district of Rome.
His choice of the classical orders and their deployment demonstrates how educated intuition could be involved in solving and working out a sort of intellectual game of design. Julia Morgan had a different attitude. for example. which meant that the orders of decoration had to be superimposed on two levels.Santa Maria della Pace Cloister 171 were deﬁned by the same square module and regular subdivisions that governed the whole design. in fact. she connected her courtyard to the city of Oakland in which the YMCA was located. Bramante solved the problem of distribution of the orders by using two Greek and two Roman orders. the second ﬂoor columns are three-quarters the height of those in the lower story. Mother of Peace—“Pace” in Italian. but the cloister had two stories rather than the more conventional one. creating an inward focus and detaching the cloister from urban life. In a provocative decision.) Bramante’s application of his abstract set of proportions is so subtle and delicate that it could only be the result of his personal judgment. For example. Bramante used the Tuscan and the Ionic together on the ground level and the Corinthian and Composite orders on the upper ﬂoor. thus the name of the cloister— and Mother of the People to whom both church and cloister are dedicated. The Tuscan order was a Roman variant of the Greek Doric and the Composite order was a Roman elaboration of the Greek Corinthian. this blocks or interrupts the view. Instead of relating the cloister to other spaces in the convent or to the city outside. According to these rules. (In the United States. especially the Renaissance sense of perspective and the use of the classical orders. In the cloister. The corner piers could not be widened enough to allow for complete attached Ionic . he used the orders to express an idea related to the Virgin Mary. which was based on ancient Roman prototypes is. Bramante’s rather abstract manner of combining voids and bearing elements (columns and walls). For example. But certain aspects of the design were developed and deﬁned by typical Renaissance practice. freestanding Corinthian columns alternate with piers bearing Composite capitals. There were strict canons of classical design for the vertical arrangement of the three orders. the slender Ionic order could not be on the bottom. In the second story. Attached to their front surfaces are pilasters (ﬂattened columns) raised up on pedestals and carrying Ionic capitals. This much was traditional symbolism. those found in the buildings of Mies van der Rohe during the 1950s and 1960s. On the ground level. by tradition it must be placed above the heavier Doric. not very different from some modern arrangements of space and surfaces. Bramante employed the Ionic order because it was the “feminine” order that conventionally signiﬁed the maternal role of the Virgin. the center of each side of the cloister is blocked by a pier that supports the arches. The arches on the ground level are supported by piers in the Tuscan order. Bramante’s maintaining of the proportions of the whole arcade causes the Ionic pilasters attached to the corner piers to become very slender compared to conventional proportions for the order.
Wittkower. Murray. Keller. which was also the anniversary of the legendary foundation of Venice. London: Thames and Hudson. Bramante. Antonio Canal (1697–1768). 1974. as mementos of their voyages “vedute” (views). The domes seemed to embrace a rotational movement that was exaggerated by the large scrolls. London: Academy Editions. New York: Schocken. Santa Maria della Salute stands out in this urban scenery. Translated by R. at the base of the domes. VENICE Style: Baroque Dates: 1631–1681 Architect: Baldassare Longhena I n the period when travelers or amateurs bought. Abrams. called Canaletto. Arnaldo. called volutes. New York: Harry N. Rudolf. E. and Francesco Guardi (1712–1793) took great pleasure in painting the fantasy offered by the two domes of the church of Santa Maria della Salute that appeared high above the Grand Canal immediately opposite the Piazza San Marco. The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. 1631. artists from Venice played a leading role. Sculpture. SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE. Bramante had to bend the rules in order to reach a harmonic balance. Venetians built the church to celebrate the end of a plague in 1630.172 Santa Maria della Salute pilasters without disturbing the equilibrium and proportionality of the whole abstract design. 1973. Dedicated as a votive temple to the Virgin Mary. Further Reading Bruschi. Wolf. 1998. 1997. or “vedute ideale” (ideal views). The domes of the Salute and those of three other churches—Saint Mark’s Basilica and the two Palladian churches San Giorgio Maggiore and Il Redentore—are arranged in a circular pattern and appear to be equidistant from one another. February 1. For similar reasons of geometry. or even “cappricci” (imaginary views). The Renaissance in Italy: Painting. This movement created the illusion that the domes were ﬂoating above a massive octagonal base. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. Peter. moldings that should conform to the orders by conventional rules needed to be suppressed or simpliﬁed. the foundation stone was laid on the day of the Annunciation. Harald. Architecture. a matter of individual taste that qualiﬁed him as a great architect. After a period during which Venice .
Santa Maria della Salute. which inspired the painters Guardi and Canaletto. The two domes create a picturesque sight from across the Grand Canal. . Venice.
To integrate it into the design of the other two parts of the building. he felt obliged to design all the subunits according to contemporary standards of proportion and shape and to enforce a strict regularity. But Longhena proposed a major change from Palladio’s plan. 1600–1750. Longhena had to fulﬁll some very speciﬁc demands. The use of two domes of differing size—the larger one over the nave is 130 feet tall. a retrochoir reserved for the clergy to say daily services. 4th ed. . Venice. However. R. he transformed the nave into a large octagonal rotunda covered by a dome. with a long. semicircular windows divided into thirds by two rectangular pillars. Art and Architecture in Italy. 1631. 1999. Unlike Il Redentore. in Longhena’s conception. Architetto del’600 a Venezia.. which is hidden from direct view by the large main altarpiece. A poorly organized competition delayed the choice of an architect until June 18. New Haven. In front of it is the choir. erected in memory of the plague of 1576. a nave for the public. 1972. With academic ﬁnesse. there is. the Republic was now going to prove its strict adherence and renewed ﬁdelity to Catholicism with the new church. in front of that. and. about as tall as a thirteen-story apartment building— introduces an unclassical or anticlassical element that provides an unexpected yet much appreciated dissonance. Instead of following the basilican plan. In both Il Redentore and Santa Maria della Salute. rectangular nave.174 Santa Maria della Salute was at odds with Papal power and policy and was suspected of Protestant leanings. Knowing perfectly well Palladio’s work at Il Redentore. The main rotunda was. when the Senate selected Baldassare Longhena (1598–1682). Longhena based his rotunda on Early Christian precedents. Like the Palladian church Il Redentore (1577–1592). He responded to Palladio’s inﬂuence with formal details. et al. Further Reading Critinelli. For example. San Vitale in Ravenna immediately comes to mind. a symbol of sublime mystery. in the chapels he used Palladian thermal windows. he used a scenic progression of steps that lead up to the main altar and then to the columns that frame the retrochoir. Longhena proposed to provide a variation on the system of a three-part church. but nevertheless it must appear to be one of the leading monuments of Venice. behind the choir. Wittkower. Longhena’s church had to provide space for a distinguished crowd of senators and rich merchants for ceremonies of homage to the Virgin. CT: Yale University Press. Also Palladian is the differing treatment given to the three parts of the church. because Longhena had been trained as a Renaissance architect. which is covered by a dome and used by the clergy for ofﬁcial celebrations. G. Longhena’s sense of scenic design helped him to devise a design solution that was uniquely Venetian and independent of the development of Roman Baroque. the new church would be built on a very restricted site. Baldassare Longhena.
a structure in which light and stone are exchanged. one has to imagine little shallow-arched stone bridges spanning the circle that forms the base of the dome to create a hexagon. Guarini was very daring in his designs. and in 1657. First brought to the Champagne area of France in 1430. This coincidence of levels was intended to symbolize the union of the church and state. arched openings. The gifted mathematician and philosopher Guarino Guarini (1624–1683) took charge of designing the chapel in 1668. He was a “cleric regular” in the Theatine Order. but his primary work was as an architect who focused all his attention on geometry and light in his buildings. which was located behind the cathedral. the shroud was exhibited in Turin in 1578. when it expanded in the direction of the Po River.Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel) 175 SANTISSIMA SINDONE (HOLY SHROUD CHAPEL). The interior is a lofty space that rises into a construction that is almost transparent. In order to understand how the dome was designed. the city became the capital of a state ruled for nine centuries by the absolute monarchs of the House of Savoy. from the courtyard of today’s Royal Palace. Curved elements interlace to form a conical pile of openings surmounted by a spire of stacked. From 1670 to 1674. An important element in their power was the Holy Shroud (Santissima Sindone). which the ruling dynasty owned. in which sunlight is given materiality and stone becomes luminescent. the exterior of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud looks like a Chinese pagoda. in which he combined a variety of intellectual approaches that were typical of Baroque architectural productions. no one could imagine the shape of the dome or of the room that it covers. From this. TURIN Style: Baroque Dates: 1668–1690 Architect: Guarino Guarini he site of the ancient Roman camp at Turin grew into a capital city with a promising future in the seventeenth century. The chapel was built at the eastern end of the cathedral of Turin and was elevated one story above the ﬂoor level of the church so as to be on the same level as the piano nobile (the main ﬂoor) of the Duke’s residence. Light is introduced under the arch of each bridge and from the center T . after the House of Savoy had moved the capital to that city. It was believed that this piece of linen was the actual cloth that wrapped the body of Christ after the cruciﬁxion and was then lost after the Resurrection. a vast chapel was planned to house it. Seen from the west.
Guarini was interested in the materiality of light and devoted seventy pages to this phenomenon in his treatise Placita Philosophica of 1665. an integral part of contemporary design. Matter and light could consequently exchange their properties. This idea. until it ﬁnally reaches the opening of the ﬂamboyant lantern. made up of tiny corpuscles. Interlacing bridges of stone alternating with glass lighten the dome of Guarini’s masterpiece. demonstrated how to take advantage of an immense scientiﬁc knowledge to transform space . Turin. Guarini. In addition to mathematics. This pattern is repeated six times. of each bridge springs a similar smaller bridge. The idea of a spherical dome disappears. inﬂuenced architects to mix light and matter in their buildings. following the lead of the Roman Baroque architect Borromini. Scientists of the seventeenth century believed that light was material. expressed mainly through the chiaroscuro manner (contrasts of light and dark) exhibited in the work of painters who followed Caravaggio (1571–1610). minute particles that collided and became transformed.176 Santissima Sindone (Holy Shroud Chapel) Santissima Sindone. which was being developed at that time by Newton and Leibniz: the total of all the surfaces of the triangles approaches the surface of the sphere. to be replaced by translucent bodies ﬂooded with light. This concept in Baroque architecture is a forerunner of modern architects’ ideas about transparency. The genius of Guarini can be analyzed in mathematical terms: how can the surface of a sphere be measured? One way is to divide it into small triangles and gradually to reduce the size of the triangles to an inﬁnitesimal minimum size. This is the basic principle of integral calculus. continually decreasing in size.
New Haven. H. et al. the church of San Lorenzo (1668–1687) in which he used “channels” of light and intersecting ribs to give loftiness to a graceful dome whose appearance is again impossible to divine from the exterior. 4th ed. a street was built on the site of the former aqueduct that had brought water to the Baths of Agrippa. i. Roman ofﬁcials developed an interest in the scenic attributes of the site and began to perform theatrical celebrations there in honor of the children of the Spanish Kings. the via Trinitatis (Street of the Trinity). at a right angle to the Corso.e.. In the Baroque age. Art and Architecture in Italy. These streets—the via di Ripetta. the area inside the city gate was settled and became the Piazza del Popolo. R. CT: Yale University Press. protected by the Aurelian Wall (270–275). 1988. and the via del Babuino—were called the Trident of the Piazza del Popolo.000 feet long starting at the Piazza and running southward into the heart of the old city were built in between 1518 and 1549 by Popes Leo X and Paul III. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1723–1726 Architect: Francesco de Sanctis U ntil the sixteenth century. Further Reading Meek. SPANISH STEPS. visitors to the city would enter there. the Corso. frequently. the northern part of Rome. the most famous Roman Baroque artist and architect. Aqueduct) or. New Haven. below the Pincio. Three straight streets. In 1651. Intersecting the Trident. 4. Bernini transformed . was an uninhabited plain between the Tiber River and a hill called the Pincio. Wittkower. during the seventeenth century. During the sixteenth century. Guarino Guarini and His Architecture. it ran from the Corso eastward across the via del Babuino to the slope of a hill on top of which stood a church dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Gianlorenzo Bernini.. 1600–1750. 1999. created a celebration for the birth of the King’s daughter and son—the crown prince or dauphin (which also means dolphin). a few hundred yards south of the Chapel of the Holy Shroud. Guarini also created. The climb from the bottom to the top of the hill was 73½ feet. Called the strada Condotti (Street of the Conduit.Spanish Steps 177 and light in a building. Because the principal entry into the city from the north was the Porta del Popolo. A. CT: Yale University Press.
Spanish Steps. The stairway connects the Piazza di Spagna with the church of Trinità dei Monti. Rome. a run of more than 73 feet. .
et al.Spanish Steps 179 the hill into a huge mountain or volcano. in Naples.. Spain also proposed a staircase.000 scudi for the erection of a grand staircase with a ﬁgure of King Louis XIV at the top. Though not on axis with the via dei Condotti. CT: Yale University Press. Consumo di un Linguaggio. the French prime minister until he died in 1661. Contemplation is mixed in a subtle manner with the element of utility. The French nation owned the top of the hill and the church of the Trinity while the Spanish nation had its embassy below on a triangular square called the Piazza di Spagna. Rome. 4th ed. Roma Barocca. Political rivalry between France and Spain explains the numerous arguments about building a staircase up the hill connecting the two sites. According to the architectural program for the stairs. Pope Clement XI decided to organize a discussion among ﬁve architects. de Sanctis demonstrated a great capacity for visual control. Ferdinando Sanfelice (architect of Palazzo Sanfelice) designed and executed the steps leading to the church of San Giovanni a Carbonara. de Sanctis demonstrated a genial capacity to combine irregularity and symmetry into a narrative composition that included the church of Trinità dei Monte at the top of the hill. they had to be done with all possible charm and with a playful spirit. 1966. but with a statue of a Spanish king at the bottom. 1600–1750. Each ﬂight of steps leads to terraces that offer benches for resting and enjoying the view. which took place between 1717 and 1720. The staircase was built between 1723 and 1726. The Spanish Steps show how much progress in urban design had taken place since 1708 when. Finally. Paolo. New Haven. The ﬂights of stairs had to be arranged by subtle inﬂections and connected by a mixture of straight and curved lines. Clement selected the architect who was already working for the French cloister of the Holy Trinity. with light and thunder at its summit. In organizing the project. He was one of the leaders of an urban culture that matured at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Cardinal Mazarin. Wittkower. By using convex and concave forms. It exploded into ﬂames around a colossal ﬁgure of a dolphin that emerged from the ﬁre. Francesco de Sanctis (1693–1740). De Sanctis’s major purpose in his design was to offer viewers the freedom to discover the many views of the city as they move along the stairs. Releasing the money set aside for the project. R. The popes delayed a decision on what to do for half a century. left 8. The Spanish Steps were made for people whose presence and movement added beauty to the built design. Further Reading Portoghesi. . 2. the irregular contours of the stairs offer a very loose architectural frame for it. Art and Architecture in Italy. 1999.
named after the sea god. were new to most architects (Greece was part of the Muslim Ottoman Empire at this time) and were interpreted as a new example of formal purity. the other feminine. By the middle of the sixth century bce. like those in the temples. traveled to Paestum to measure the temples. the Greek temple. For him. called The Ruins of Paestum or of Poseidonia. Although the French publication of the temples in 1764 was rather poorly produced. The three temples that survive at the site were built between 530 and 470–460 bce. was an outstanding presentation. a well-known German architect. Von Klenze included the image of a man throwing a stone at a serpent in the foreground of his drawing as a symbol of the new way of conceptualizing architecture. 1855. named it after Poseidon (Latin Neptune) the sea . well-preserved Greek temples have remained hidden. The city of Poseidonia. Leo von Klenze (1784–1864). for a thousand years—from the ninth century until the middle of the eighteenth century—when King Charles VII of Naples decided to open a new straight road to the south and discovered them? In 1750. or strength and resistance. a group of French noblemen led by the future superintendent of works for King Louis XV and by the architect Soufﬂot. as being symbolic of a dualistic approach. Doric columns. a comprehensive city plan had been organized and laid out. composed of columns and lintels was the best and most beautiful form of architecture. The clarity with which the parts that were carried were distinguished from the parts that carried them opened the eyes of architects to new formal possibilities and began the transformation that led to the twentieth-century post-and-beam (trabeated) construction in reinforced concrete structures. without bases and with their archaizing appearance. Archaeologists in the eighteenth century. He interpreted weight and load. the one masculine. As architects who had been collecting illustrations of Greek temples began to have access to these publications. PAESTUM Style: Greek Dates:Circa 480–470 BCE Architect: Unknown H ow could three enormous. the London publication by Thomas Major. was founded by Greek colonists who came from Ionia. or at least unknown except locally. impressed by the dimensions and harmony of design of the largest temple. the drawings of Paestum immediately changed the scope of eighteenth century architecture.180 Temple of Poseidon TEMPLE OF POSEIDON. made a remarkable sketch of the Poseidon Temple (also called the Neptune Temple) seen from the Temple of Hera (also called the Basilica) on May 15.
have proved that the building was built in honor of the goddess of fecundity. and fourteen columns on the ﬂanks. The Temple of Poseidon is an outstanding example of an Italian ﬁfthcentury Doric temple that creates an impression of airiness and eternal solidity. Paestum. . C. They reasoned that a city named after Poseidon would dedicate its largest and best temple to the same god.” (Sestieri 1965. P. View of the corner columns of the temple thought by 18th century archaeologists to be dedicated to the sea god. however. which means that it has six columns across the front and rear façades. Later discoveries. the Argive Hera. the temple is hexastyle. god. Sestieri claims it has “a quality never attained in any other period of the history of Greek architecture.Temple of Poseidon 181 Temple of Poseidon. 15) Measuring 80 feet by 180 feet 10 inches.
Although only about half of the temple’s interior survives. The columns and cult room. the ﬂat. it was covered with white stucco to make it appear to be made of marble. and metopes. To carry the weight of the timber ceiling. However. Long. parallel to the wall.” The Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 13 (1950): 48–64. To give a lighter aspect to the interior. are raised above the ground on a base of three steps called the stereobate. they cannot be. Its pediment shows no traces of the clamps and rods necessary to attach sculpted ﬁgures. 1983. each row was composed of two stories of superimposed columns. The stone from which the temple is made has a marvelous color that turns to mellow gold when the light is right and helps to enhance its formal perfection. In principle. The shape of the space between the columns. because shorter columns can be slimmer than a single story of taller columns. rectangular blocks with vertical grooves cut into their surfaces. For example. which narrows signiﬁcantly toward the top. or naos. W. Robertson. Greek Architecture. the triglyphs and metopes should be uniform in size. the decorative band above the colonnade. an appearance of regularity in the frieze was created with subtlety and skill. Further Reading Lawrence. an adjustment in the shape of a column called entasis. the walls of the sekos are sturdy.182 Temple of Poseidon The term used to describe a plan with freestanding columns all around is peripteral. which includes triglyphs. Although it was built earlier than the Parthenon. A. panels between the triglyphs. On the front and rear façades. and a row of columns. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Greek and Roman Architecture. and from the back porch. 2nd ed. All these adjustments complicate the design of the frieze. The ﬁgure of the god may have been a simple representation in terra cotta or an elegant marble statue. . 1969. a distance called the intercolumniation. enough remains to distinguish the sekos. Except for the metopes on the western main façade. the temple has very little sculptural ornament. called the pronaos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Another adjustment was applied to the columns. S. Donald S. Each one has a bulge at the midpoint of the shaft. the Temple of Poseidon has similar optical corrections included in its design and execution to correct for how people perceive things. Instead. Greek for the residence room of the divinity. in the center from the vestibule in front. also has a beauty of its own. the horizontal lines in the building are all slightly bowed upward a little less than an inch in 180 feet because long horizontal lines appear to sag in the middle. called the opisthodomos. the columns are slightly wider than those on the sides and the ones placed on the corners are slightly elliptical. but because of the variation in the column spacing. sometimes ornamented. was placed on either side of the interior of the cult room. “The Early Publications of the Temples at Paestum.
in its restored form. After making detailed sketches of the site in June 1836. The siting of the theater is typical of Greek architectural practice: it is nestled into a hillside that provides the area for the “cavea”. Viollet-leDuc restricted his painting to the representation of the building itself. or semicircular auditorium. The German Romantic architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel.” After visiting the theater.Theater 183 Sestieri. Viollet-le-Duc.” (Schinkel 1979. the glory of Taormina was to be experienced through its architecture rather than its natural setting. For Viollet-le-Duc. blocked the panorama of Etna and the extensive stretch of iridescent water below. slightly south of the Straits of Messina. THEATER. the Heraion at the Mouth of the Sele. In contrast to Schinkel’s Romantic ecstasy inspired by the awesomeness of Nature and the mythical associations of Taormina. who would later lead extensive restoration work on the major French medieval churches. 1965. Schinkel described the view from its ruins thus: “Etna rises high in its total majesty above the plains of Catania. the sea closing the horizon. He depicted several thousand spectators totally focused on the action in front of the stage building. which. could not resist his enthusiasm for the picturesque ruins of the theater and its impressive setting. he painted a large watercolor showing the Theater restored to its ancient form. Catania 1804) Thirty-two years after Schinkel’s visit to Taormina. the French architect Viollet-le-Duc included the theater in his tour of Sicily. The City. Roman Dates: Third Century BCE and Second Century CE Architect: Unknown ravelers making the Grand Tour in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were overwhelmed by the landscape and the mythological aura that surrounded the ancient city of Taormina on the northeast coast of Sicily. Pellegrino Claudio. Schinkel discovered that a small bay nearby was linked by folk tradition to the ancient Greek hero and was even called the “Harbor of Ulysses. one-eyed Cyclops Polyphemus. visiting the site in 1804. visitors from all over the world ﬂock to Taormina to enjoy both the ruins of the Theater and its spectacular view of Etna and the sea. wrote that the gigantic volcanic forms he observed brought to mind Homer’s story of the struggle between Ulysses and the monstrous. Today. T . TAORMINA Style: Hellenistic. Rome: Instituto Poligraﬁco dello Stato. Paestum. the Prehistoric Necropolis in Contrado Gaudo.
Photograph of drawing courtesy of Centre des Monuments Nationaux. Taormina as reconstructed in the mid nineteenth century by Viollet-le-Duc.Theater. .
The three niches were linked by a row of Corinthian columns on a low podium. from some time during the third century bce. divide the cavea into ﬁve horizontal tiers. An inscription giving the date 108 has led some scholars to attribute the reconstruction to the reign of the emperor Trajan (98–117). A portico. while other specialists suggest that the work was done under his successor Hadrian (117–138). This distinctive feature and the use of carefully squared (ashlar) masonry for the base of the scene building (“scaena”) are evidence for dating the construction of the building to the Hellenistic period. Connected to either end of the cavea was the stage building. A rectangular niche in the center of the stage building contained three doors that opened onto the stage. parallel to the seats. Walkways. narrow hall with a second series of doors in its back wall that opened outward to the area behind the theater. such as the very large one at Syracuse. once ran completely around the top of the cavea to provide shade for spectators (the lower classes and women) who occupied the highest seats. The cavea. eight stairways from bottom to top further divide the seating area into nine wedge-shaped sections called cunei. On either side of this was a semicircular niche containing a single door that was clearly subordinate to the triad of doors in the center.Theater 185 with rows of seats cut from the living rock. The theater could also be roofed with fabric awnings on hot sunny days. These divisions facilitated the entrance and exit of the crowd and also marked the location of blocks of seats for the various strata of the local society grouped in hierarchical order. The Taormina Theater does not resemble other Hellenistic theaters. or seating area. . By the second century. The interior of the scaena was a long. one above the other. The provision of public entertainments and the ﬁnancing of elaborate buildings in which to house them were important components of the Roman political tradition. Scholars calculate that the cavea at Taormina accommodated about 5. The façade of the scaena was elaborately decorated with two stories of Corinthian columns. or covered colonnade. 2. or scaena. At either end of the stage building was a large hall connected to the cavea that made the theater a self-contained enclosed space. because it was remodeled and enlarged by the Romans in the second century ce. Like every Roman theater. which was a long rectangular structure equal in height to the seating area. is made up of semicircular steps. Both of these emperors presided over the Empire when it was at its zenith and they made it a practice to donate buildings to communities in Italy as well as in the provinces. which were the seats.400 spectators. the people expected imperial donations as tokens of the Emperor’s beneﬁcence and generosity. the one at Taormina has the following three primary parts and several secondary features: 1. Small arched niches. scooped out of the front wall of the scaena—probably holding statues—were visible through the spaces between the columns.
Sear. “The Scaenae Frons of the Theater of Pompey. the space between the base of the cavea and the front of the stage.edu/theatre/theatretour/taormina/taormina. Princeton. Antonio Nicollini I taly did not become a uniﬁed country until 1870 (see Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele). Margarete. Late in the history of the Taormina Theater. the orchestra was rebuilt in a circular shape so that it could function as an arena where gladiatorial and wild beast shows were staged. Taormina is host each year to the most important Italian ﬁlm festival. the “David di Donatello Award. most likely in the third century. and the usefulness of the restored Theater. in the eighteenth century when the country . NAPLES Style: Baroque. 1809–1811. An area of about 33 feet is missing from the center of the scaena. The History of the Greek and Roman Theater. 394 feet long. Prior to that date. A wood stage in front of the scaena overlooked the orchestra. the Roman orchestra was semicircular in shape and used for seating important viewers whereas the Greek orchestra was round and was reserved for the use of the musicians and dancers.186 Theater of San Carlo 3. it has a positive side.whitman. Although the word orchestra. so well appreciated by Violletle-Duc. its results are scheduled to appear on the website listed below. meaning “dancing place. A new survey of the ruins has been undertaken by the Australian Roman Theater Project. The opening allows the visitor a spectacular view of Mount Etna and the sea. Neoclassical Dates: 1737. This gap was either the result of damage inﬂicted during World War II or of constant looting of useable materials from the site over the centuries. Dimensions for the theater are only approximate: it is 164 feet wide.” An international festival called “Taormina Art” runs continuously every summer.” was borrowed from Greek practice.” American Journal of Archaeology 97 (1993): 687–701. 1961. Bieber. Frank B. NJ: Princeton University Press. Because of the beauty of the environment. 1816–1817 Architects: Giovanni-Antonio Medrano. Further Reading The Ancient Theater Archive: www.htm. and 66 feet high. Although the loss of this part of the building is unfortunate. so admired by Schinkel. THEATER OF SAN CARLO.
but its vertical arrangement of the six rows. Nicollini (1772–1850). he became King of the Two Sicilies and reigned until 1759. of a population of 350. Paisiello.000 ducats necessary to run the theater.000 were obtained from the payments for the boxes. Don Calo’s ﬁrst concern was for the Theater of San Carlo that was built in just eight months after his arrival in Naples. and the experience of sudden transformations occurring in the hall itself fascinated Neapolitan society. added a new façade to the theater. The hall of the theater deﬁned a social hierarchy where brilliant formal attitudes required recognition. Taking the best features from earlier theaters. The horseshoe plan provided good visibility of the stage. New melodies. In 1809–1811. although rebuilt after a ﬁre in 1816.000. which endangered the royal ideology. there were 16. 32. In 1742. in a design inﬂuenced by the French architect Ledoux. each able to hold up to ten people.500 men and women in Holy Orders. original stage sets designed by the young Bibiena. the architect Medrano (1703 to about 1750) juxtaposed two equivalent spaces. The King initiated a process of laicization with the main objective being recovering acres of land that had been conﬁscated by the convents. graded according to status. In 1737. and Alessandro Scarlatti. for example. But Don Carlos had great difﬁculties in combating feudalism (see Trulli. a vast stage convenient for the performance of operas and a horseshoe-shaped hall with six rows of 184 boxes. San Carlo was known as one of the best theaters according to European standards. At the same time. the fees were higher if the buyers were distinguished and wished to be placed close to the King. Neapolitan nobility had to pay for the ﬁrst four rows of boxes.000 were provided by the king and 68. The musical and opera productions of Naples demanded a venue where audiences could listen to the compositions of Cimarosa. The interior. Of the sum of 100.Theater of San Carlo 187 was divided into numerous independent areas. also reﬂected the social role that the theater played in Neapolitan life. The French encyclopedia of Diderot and D’Alembert (1772) published its plan as a reference and a model. He used Florentine rusticated masonry for the wall surfaces (Nicollini was a Florentine) and. incredible creativity. Naples entered the Age of Enlightenment under Don Carlos of Bourbon (1716–1788). a row of fourteen Ionic columns on the second ﬂoor. After a serious economic crisis. is famous for its red and gilt decoration. Alberobello) and the power of the Church. the culture of Naples was transformed by such urban attractions as organized festivals and theatrical productions. Social life was sometimes more important than the performance. but they genuinely enjoyed the pleasures provided by the festivals. Don Carlos had to rely on a group of social leaders who. since Naples was now independent from Austria and Spain (although Don Carlos was eventually compelled to become King of Spain after 1759) shifted their concerns from a local to a more European focus. Some foreigners accused the local politicians of devoting too much attention to leisure as a way of hiding their conservative policies. a stage designer who belonged to the Neoclassical school in Naples. Nicollini was aware of a rivalry between Naples’ San Carlo and Milan’s La Scala so strong that it included everything .
Naples. The greatly transformed Royal Palace. positioned at the beginning of via Toledo. He also included a large number of meeting rooms inside the theater. marked a prestigious mile long street at the edge of old Naples (Spaccanapoli). Clearing the ground around the Palace was a task that lasted until 1890. Because La Scala had comfortable access for vehicles. associated with the theater—even questions of architecture.188 Theater of San Carlo Theater of San Carlo. when the Galleria Umberto. which imitated the Galleria Vittorio . Nicollini added a covered entrance for carriages to the façade of San Carlo. The façade was modiﬁed in 1809–1811 by Antonio Niccolini. San Carlo Theater was part of an Enlightenment plan to improve the city of Naples.
Pietro da Cortona turned the church façade of Santa Maria della Pace (1656–1657) into the main and determining feature of a relatively small piazza. rocklike escarpments. playful urban feature. and a representation of nature frozen into stone combine to provide a most surprising. Il teatro di San Carlo. La città nella storia d’Italia. De Seta. The soaring iron and glass Galleria is located just opposite the Theater of San Carlo. Sculptural ﬁgures. was ﬁnished. who added a basin designed by Leon Battista Alberti. Pope Urban VIII was convinced to enlarge the square in front of the fountain which was moved so that it faced south and could be seen from the summer residence of T . reinterpreted an earlier (1629) scheme by Bernini that was never completed. Similarly. the play of water. 1981. TREVI FOUNTAIN. Nicolò Salvi’s success is due to a generosity of spirit and to the approachability of his design and its ability equally to touch anonymous passersby and delight urban visitors. The name Trevi is a distortion of Trebium. P. The stability of the architecture provided a neutral background that contrasted with the irregularity of rocks and the motion of splashing waters. the Trevi Fountain is not just a fountain in an urban space. Rome. The Trevi’s architect. The water delivered to the Trevi Fountain was brought from a spring twelve miles east of Rome by an aqueduct that Agrippa had built in 19 bce.Trevi Fountain 189 Emmanuele of Milan. decorative triumphal arch out of which a statue representing the Ocean would release tumbling waters cascading down to a basin that occupies half the square. but rather it is a large structure that ﬁlls one side of a square in much the same way a stage with an elaborate set ﬁlls the focal side of an auditorium in a Baroque opera house. Napoli. 1732–1762 Architects: Gianlorenzo Bernini. C. Nicolò Salvi he urban patterns established during the Baroque era completely changed the way we understand a city. 1998. An ancient fountain at the site of the Trevi had been restored by different popes (Nicolas V in 1453. architecture. Salvi hid the side façade of the preexisting Palazzo Poli behind a huge. In Rome. Naples. Nicolò Salvi. It was named Acqua Vergine (Aqua Virgo) after a young girl who had shown the spring to Roman soldiers. the source of the spring near the via Tiburtina. and Pius IV in 1561). In 1629. Further Reading Ciapparelli. ROME Style: Baroque Dates: 1640–1644. for example.
as a false palazzo-like façade of nine bays framed by pilasters and columns whose piano nobile (Italian main ﬂoor. Rome. and water in an operatic ensemble that dominates the small piazza in the heart of the city. Houses were torn down in order to double the size of the original square. Each competitor was asked to provide both drawings and models. three entrants were awarded commissions: Alessandro Galilei to design a quarantine station at Ancona. when the crucial ﬁgure of the Ocean was installed. the Palazzo del Quirinale. and Luigi Vanvitelli and Salvi to design the fountain. but when the basin for the fountain was installed. lack of material and the pope’s death stopped the work for nearly ninety years. American second story) was supported on a tumbled rocky basement. During the Late Baroque period. Salvi was given sole responsibility for the Trevi Fountain. Pope Clement XII (1730–1740) decided to ﬁnish the fountain and organized two competitions. The fountain was ﬁnally ﬁnished in 1762. its backdrop. to choose the architect. Two bays on each side are . but forced to experience the jealousy of contemporary sculptors and artists.190 Trevi Fountain Trevi Fountain. on top of the Quirinal Hill. the fountain was nearly ﬁnished in 1747. Construction was stopped in 1740 at Clement XII’s death but started again in 1742. In his Late Baroque masterpiece. the popes. in 1730 and 1732. architecture. He treated the wall behind the fountain. Salvi showed a total sympathy with Bernini’s ideals both for the architectural background and for the display of the enormous waterfall and the basin it splashes into. Salvi died in 1751. Nicolò Salvi combined sculpture. In a surprising decision. In September 1732. Totally devoted to his task. from 1644 to 1732.
already familiar to Bernini.” transformed by the Byzantine rulers into “torullos. from the city of Barletta to the southernmost Cape of Leuca. John. Emerging from the central niche. A ring of stones A . about 3 feet thick and 6 to 10 feet high was a satisfactory base for the construction of the conical roof and offered total stability. they number about 50. New York: Garland. 1700–1758. They frame a large Palladian-style triumphal arch.000.” meaning cupola or dome.000 and a community like Alberobello contains 2. Further Reading Mallory. is used to demonstrate the power of the waters. TRULLI. Building a trullo required only the most primitive technology and no wooden scaffolding or formwork to erect the dome. out of which and around which sprout stone bushes and other plants.” “trulla. the large sculptural ﬁgure representing Ocean is carried above the waters by a carriage drawn by two hippocamps (creatures that are half horse and half ﬁsh) guided by two tritons (creatures that are half man and half ﬁsh). there are 14. Pinto.” or the Greek “tholos.Trulli 191 a simple repetition of Bernini’s façade for the palazzo Odescalchi. CT: Yale University Press. The Trevi Fountain. 1977. showing Salvi’s interest in sixteenth century architecture.” the more popular name “trullo” (plural “trulli”) is derived from the Latin words “turris. Ultimately. In all.000. their whirling ﬁsh tails evoking the depths of the Ocean from which they rush. A thick and simple cylindrical wall. Nina A. The play of waters enlivens the rocky background to a surprising extent. Also commonly called “casedde. New Haven. Salvi turned the square into an urban opera house whose spectators enjoy the grandiose spectacle of waters splashing down from under the ﬁgure of Ocean and give life and a sense of humanity to a city piazza. 1986. Roman Rococo Architecture from Clement XI to Benedict XIV. ALBEROBELLO Style: Vernacular Date: Nineteenth Century Architect: Unknown cross the vast area of the Pugliese highlands. The ferocious movement of the hippocamps. in the area around Martina Franca. Salvi was inspired by Bernini’s ability to evoke nature from lifeless stone: The base of the palazzo façade seems to be carried by a crumbling mass of disorganized rocks. a large number of rural houses are built in the form of a cluster of limestone domes.
Local limestone from the highland was plentiful so there was no need to quarry it. and the houses are no longer built by peasants.” The King of Naples and Aragon gave the forest to the Counts of Conversano in 1481 as a grant for resisting Turkish troops who were threatening Italy. there are specialized “maestri-caseddari” (masters of “casedda” building). without mortar. that is. because of complaints from surrounding feudal lords. at which time the population of the community was only 3. dying sick but free. instead. in Barcelona in 1665. which projected slightly (corbelled) over the row below. ﬂat slabs of limestone. Ostensibly. Ring after ring the circles became smaller each time and at the very top. The Counts allowed the peasants to clear the forest and cultivate the land.500. Their houses had to be built of dry masonry. The history of the town of Alberobello helps to explain the peculiarities of the trulli. so that they could be disassembled at any time should the Count or the King decide to clear the property and expel the inhabitants for whatever reason. the dome was closed by a large cylindrical stone. dating mostly from the 19th century. but gave them no property or civil rights. Domed houses of rustic masonry. the count was obliged to demolish the houses and scatter the stones in 1644. He was taken to Madrid in 1648 and imprisoned for sixteen years. the place was a vast oak forest. are characteristic of several towns in Puglia. was placed on the top of the cylinder wall and on top of them was set another ring. the shape of the trullo has gone through several adaptations.192 Trulli Trulli. In the Middle Ages. a “selva. From its primitive beginning. The conical roof is sometimes supported by pendentives connected to a square base. King Ferdinand IV of Spain freed the inhabitants of Alberobello in 1797. Alberobello. .
Public housing. Mariano. as is frequently the case in Italy with cooking. was to express local approaches and a keen social control. A visit to the area requires courage and stubbornness but anyone interested in the disastrous state of Italy after her defeat in World War II will be rewarded by the experience. W. was founded on February 18. ROME Style: Contemporary Dates: 1950–1954 Architects: Adalberto Libera. or administration. Saverio Muratori outh of Rome. An architect. and lasted for fourteen years. called INA Casa. public housing and the failure of the promises of modern architecture are very obvious here. P. Rome: Editrice Adriana. London: W. All the houses have a bedchamber in a separate trullo. Blanchard. Southern Italy: South of Rome to Calabria. After the war. 1949. The historical ﬁght for the peasants’ freedom gave a sense of independence to the trulli villages. Norton Company. The dome may be hidden by an attic. I Trulli di Alberobello. 1967. before reaching Frascati (the ancient city of Tusculum). Edward. had prepared the ground for enhancing local capacities when he published his Manuale dell’ S . Mario Ridolﬁ. Marraffa. Cambridge. 1971. 2000. until 1963. the incapacity of Mussolini’s Fascist government to eliminate poverty convinced President Fanfani to launch a vast program of public housing. TUSCOLANO II PUBLIC HOUSING. The problems of social. Stone Shelters. where food and tools are kept.geocities. the via Tuscolana meanders through nondescript suburbs. newspapers. accessible by a ladder. Trulli Houses: http://www. Whitewashed walls and the ring of small limestone slabs covering the domes under the sunshine and the unpredictable plans of the trulli explain the beauty of this architecture without architects. La Storia della Città Attraverso I Secoli. MA: MIT Press. Further Reading Allen.com/trullihouses/. Blue Guide. Most of INA Casa was based on the clever use of nonindustrial techniques and materials and on the idea of restoring the culture of the inhabitants. that is.Tuscolano II Public Housing 193 Small ancillary domes help to reﬁne the interior distribution of space around the main trullo where the family gathers in winter in front of the ﬁreplace. The program.
the Italian Modern Movement in architecture. However. With his design. Architetto (The Architect’s Manual) in 1946. The INA Casa housing project of Tuscolano II (1950–1954) contained 3. Façade detail. Rome. Two well-known architects from the 1930s worked with a new spirit.150 apartments intended to house 12. which had been allied with the Fascist movement.194 Tuscolano II Public Housing Tuscolano II Public Housing. he explained how to develop traditional technologies.150 apartments and was to house 12. Saverio Muratori (1910–1973) respected the urban fabric with a simpliﬁed version that addressed the poor solar orientation of modern buildings.000 inhabitants. faced criticism after the war and therefore had to search for new goals. which he combined with a bizarre skeleton that was used as the . In this book. An INA Casa project containing 3.000 inhabitants.
and new trends in contemporary society have limited the promises of this urban settlement. and Luca Veresane. cantilevered beyond the twenty lower stories. Bearing elements. Built between 1956 and the beginning of 1958 with a concrete structure. its form. the calmness of the exteriors. the building conforms to the traditional hue of Lombard architecture. also in Milan. Francesco. He proposed a “horizontal town” of 200 houses as an alternative solution to Muratori’s housing project. Further Reading Garofalo. This section. is reminiscent of a medieval tower. the failure of shops. Structural dynamism and forms that suggest a complete A . Adalberto Libera (1903–1963) was fascinated. MILAN Style: Contemporary Dates: 1956–1958 Architect: BBPR Ofﬁce bout 1. columns of subtle geometric shape. envelop the tower and express its verticality. Candilis and Sadrach Woods) used it to develop new solutions for housing design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. A trip to Morocco in 1951 had opened his eyes to the Muslim habitat and to the way that certain great young American architects (for example. VELASCA TOWER. was constructed at the same time). Adalberto Libera. Unfortunately. A tight urban fabric was replacing the loneliness of the isolated towers and slab buildings of the recent past. Libera designed patio-type houses connected by crisscrossing alleys and small piazzas. The use of concrete canopies. and the simplicity of the houses clearly proved that the Modern Movement was going through a careful reevaluation. Social concerns helped to reconcile the inhabitants with the traditional city and to propose its contemporary equivalent. in the years from 1943 to 1946. But its machicolations—the projecting defensive galleries that crown most medieval fortiﬁcations—have been translated into huge diagonal concrete beams or struts that support the upper six stories.Velasca Tower 195 basic formal system for the plan. one of the ﬁrst skyscrapers in Italy (the Pirelli Building. allows larger ﬂoor plans at the top of the tower. He attached his buildings to the ground in an attempt to enhance social intercourse within the project. Because of the color of the walls. which looks so natural and roughhewn.500 feet from Milan’s Cathedral rises the Torre Velasca. by the attitude of the body in a house and its functional counterparts. isolation and the absence of public transportation. 330 feet high. 1992.
housing. The position of the tower in a courtyardlike space within the block is quite surprising because the skyscraper does not have the usual open-air plaza facing a large avenue. Rogers. conducted a great number of tests before building commenced. Rogers was looking for an “eternal present. which was connected to the lower part by the diagonal struts. The ground and second stories are commercial. was a charismatic leader who was also in charge of several architecture magazines: Style (1941–1947). yet was fair to the local spirit of Milanese architecture. Believing in history and contextual climate. the master-thinker of modern architects. the plan allows freedom to adapt the interiors either to open-plan ofﬁces or well-designed apartments. a member of the BBPR group. The decision to abandon steel and to use concrete was more in line with the goals deﬁned by E. and Casabella (1953–1964). Of course. the gifted Arturo Danusso. Their lyrical approach and their translation of a traditional concept into modern form celebrate the BBPR group’s design ability.” like Siegfried Giedion. The resulting vertical expression and cantilevered upper section. N. With widely spaced columns placed on the exterior surface of the building façade.196 Velasca Tower integration into local building traditions make this skyscraper both an innovation and a respectful continuation of its historical context. and working studios. one ﬂoor of interchange. He argued for the translation of the historical heritage into modern terms. those on the uppermost level being duplexes. Rogers was accused of “revisionism” because the architecture he was deﬁning was not only functional but was also immersed in memory and local patriotism. The Velasca tower is a mixed-use skyscraper that combines two underground storage facilities with twenty-seven aboveground stories. The city had been damaged by military bombardments. BBPR erected their surprising “Gothic” tower in a kind of virtual space hidden within an urban block. there began a kind of competition among the architects because they were all convinced that they had to create a new language that was based on the most advanced techniques and materials. Domus. These top ﬂoors contain twenty-seven apartments. and eight stories of housing. Enrico Peressutti. . Rogers) who had been involved in the postwar period of prosperity that turned Milan into a major industrial and business center. The architects obviously did not want to rebuild the city the way it was before World War II but they paid distinguished homage to Milan and its traditional urban fabric. hence a series of skyscrapers were built during the 1950s. The architects responsible for the Velasca Tower belonged to the respected group known as BBPR (Gianluigi Banﬁ. Rogers. In a block heavily damaged by World War II bombardments. and E. the BBPR group was charged with building a ring of eight-story buildings surrounding a large underground parking facility on top of which would be erected the skyscraper. N. In response to all the building. validated the advanced technical ideas of Italian engineers. E. the nine stories above them are devoted to ofﬁces. They all wanted to revive the “old creative virtues” of the Milanese tradition. N. Their engineer. Lodovico Barbiano di Belgioso.
.Velasca Tower. Milan. A skyscraper that looks like a medieval tower and incorporates traditional Lombard materials to preserve the local spirit of Milanese architecture in the 20th century.
to counteract stresses the structure will have to resist. G. Morandi preferred light structures referred to as “isostatic.” tensile schemes that produced very sophisticated forms. two large freight yards. reinforced concrete in which steel bars or cables are stretched. Morandi had a feeling for abstract geometry that ﬁt into the ideals of the modern Italian architecture of the 1950s. Milan: http://milano.198 Viaduct of the Polcevera Further Reading D’ Amia. they were equivalent to vaults). Whereas Nervi used the continuity of undulating structures (for him. BBPR. One of these bridges carries the superhighway.com/city_tour/IT000005339. Morandi developed a method that was in sharp contrast to the sense of monolithic structures imagined by Pier Luigi Nevi (see Palace of Labor). Morandi favored a subtle sense of dynamism. VIADUCT OF THE POLCEVERA. The viaduct is comprised of three large spans of 664. and several factories. the most direct connection from Milan to Genoa. C . is densely ﬁlled with buildings. is 3. or tensioned. This bridge or viaduct. Genoa was unable to develop fully without a tunnel system for its railroads or enormous bridges for its freeways.600 feet long and 180 feet (roughly eighteen stories) above the ground. which crosses the valley of the Polcevera. 686. two railroad lines. which connects Genoa and Savona and proceeds on to Turin. GENOA Style: Contemporary Dates: 1961–1964 Architect: Riccardo Morandi rowded by mountains onto the shore of the Ligurian Sea.” Moniteur Architecture AMC 133 (2003): 100–104. Creating the viaduct—one of the largest works of civil engineering in an industrial metropolis—required the talent of a gifted engineer named Riccardo Morandi (1902–1989). He earned his engineering degree at the Applications School for Engineers in Rome in 1927 and became immediately involved in Sicily. working in areas affected by earthquakes. Milan 1958. that is. called the autostrada.arounder. Nervi looked at structures that engineers refer to as “hyperstatic” and from his research developed forms with classical harmonious overtones. Morandi’s fame was based on his experiments with prestressed concrete structures. “Tour Velasca. and 466 feet and six smaller spans of an average length of 240 feet.html. The Polcevera valley.
Designed and built by Riccardo Morandi (1961–1964).Viaduct of the Polcevera. near Genoa. .
A garden could be enclosed. Further Reading Boaga. 1966. making it a secret garden or “hortus conclusus. Publishers. measuring 118 feet. Genoa’s viaduct uses the same components as the Venezuelan bridge. Florentine princes developed gardens around their villas. The V-shaped structure carries the western end of the viaduct with the same system of smaller connecting slabs. Poretti. A Mannerist garden also meant nature submitting to all the powers of art. il secondo Novecento. revealing both the intricacies of the industrial landscape and the natural beauty of the mountains above Genoa and the Ligurian Sea. VICTOR EMMANUEL GALLERY. Morandi was also ﬁnishing the 5. Milan. Three big pillars shaped like a double “A” carry the freeway on diagonal prestressed bars which are in turn carried by an independent double “V” from the ground up. The Concrete Architecture of Riccardo Morandi. Praeger. See Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele (Victor Emmanuel Gallery). The Polcevera viaduct has a dynamic quality that makes it seem to jump across the valley.200 Villa Lante Gardens While he was designing the Polcevera viaduct. This subtle structure of great beauty is connected to a second system by smaller slabs. S. which create a feeling of slenderness. VILLA LANTE GARDENS. Milan.” in Storia dell’ architettura italiana. BAGNAIA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1560–1600 Architect: Vignola G arden architecture that required the work of famous architects deﬁned the luxury of an aristocratic retreat in the sixteenth century. Giorgio and Benito Boni. Rome was also famous for remarkable gardens that were . 1997. New York: Frederick A. “La Costruzione. Beginning in the late Renaissance.” or a garden could be walled in but be large enough to suggest a long promenade through mythology.4-mile-long bridge across the Sound of Maracaibo in Venezuela (1957– 1962).
The courtyard of the Belvedere in the Vatican. for receptions.Villa Lante Gardens 201 Villa Lante. sixty miles north of Rome. and at the top of the terraces was a refreshing garden. They occupy a lovely site on the slope of an oak-covered mountain called Monte Cimino. still exist. was designed with skillfully arranged terraces joined by ramps or stairs. Bramante designed the Belvedere in 1505 with the intention of rivaling antique Roman grandeur and to provide an atmosphere for the fulﬁllment of ofﬁcial duties while also discussing the values of art among a collection of antiquities. It contained a “forum. a theater.” or public square. mostly designed for popes and cardinals of the Catholic Church. the related gardens at the Villa Lante in Bagnaia. Bagnaia. Cardinal Raffaele Riario created a . Although the Belvedere gardens are gone. In the second decade of the sixteenth century. A water chain in the large gardens of the villa. for example.
in a natural landscape of nice coloration. Three straight streets. which is made up of volute-shaped interconnected basins that contain the ﬂow of the water as it rushes down the incline. looking very modern when compared to the tortuous medieval streets. This ﬁnal ﬂat area. reminders that according to the Roman poet Ovid honey ﬂowed from oaks during the Golden Age. and the equilibrium established by the ramps. At the top of a hill is the Deluge fountain that symbolizes the end of the Golden Age and also provides a sweeping view of the formal garden below. Sixteenth-century planning could improve an existing landscape by simple transformation. built on a ridge. On the third terrace. was redesigned in the seventeenth or eighteenth century in formal French style. The garden is as large as the whole town of Bagnaia. Although there are no documents proving his presence. The play of the waters through the shadows of the trees is astonishing. which includes ﬁgures of the Muses. run from the square to the garden. At the entrance to the garden. The ten acres of the Lante garden are divided into ﬁve terraces that follow the slope of the hill. splashes up. From the parterre. the intervention of Vignola (1507–1573) in the design of the garden is unmistakable. Later owners of the property. is connected to the garden by a lively piazza next to a fortress that is now its center. The medieval village. adds to the charm of the site. Two casinos (small rectangular buildings) located above the parterre offer a pleasant retreat for visitors—as they surely did for the original owners of Villa Lante. stairs. at the base of a hillside. At the bottom are four basins encircling the Fountain of the Moors. The ﬂow of trees on the slopes and down in the valleys. Water plays many games. water emerges from the Fountain of the Deluge into a small open-air theater placed between the two Loggias of the Muses. Next is a large labyrinth of oak trees. On the uppermost terrace. a large parterre at the base of the hillside.202 Villa Lante Gardens hunting preserve here. . ﬂowing in the balustrades and in ornamental vases. stumbles. the clever perspective given to the stepped terraces. a group of ﬁgures attributed to Giambologna. Elements characteristic of Vignola’s other designs and evidence of his involvement in the garden are: the formal rigidity of the plan. is the fountain of Pegasus. Cardinal Gambarra (in ofﬁce from 1561 to 1587) and Cardinal Montalto developed the estate into a replica of Mount Parnassus. the waters ﬂow in an unreal manner down the center of the “Cardinal’s stone table. His development of the courtyard of the Villa Lante garden is based on the plan of the Vatican Belvedere. the view of the distant landscape beyond Bagnaia provides a striking contrast to the closeness of the upper terraces of the garden. It glides. Movement and time elapsing— the sense of time and destiny—profoundly permeate the garden. and loggias (covered rooms unenclosed on one side) that open onto the landscape. or cascades down in small jets or in a continuous ﬂow.” across the surface of which it may have once spread like transparent crystal glass. the garden of the Muses. The “water chain” is a gliding slope in the center of a ﬂight of stairs. colonnades.
Situated on the ﬂattened top of a cliff is the thin.Villa Malaparte Further Reading 203 Hobhouse. accessible by an extremely long staircase that snakes up the side of the escarpment. Access to the top of the villa is via another great ﬂight of stairs in the shape of an inverted triangle that increases in width from the bottom to the top. Penelope. on the narrow cape Ponta Massullo. 1938. Since very few trees grow near the house. the pure lines of the roof terrace recreate the aspect of a Greek theater and contrast with the ruggedness of the cliff. who. red. offered few possibilities. Cambridge. Mosser. T . only a freestanding curved white wall. Monique. a visitor proceeds a thousand feet toward the south and comes upon a view of overwhelming beauty. MA: MIT Press. VILLA MALAPARTE. When the shore comes into view. He applied for a building permit on March 14. in 1937. These pictures helped to popularize Capri as “the city of leisure” and ultimately to inﬂuence the famous writer Curzio Malaparte (1898–1957) to build a retreat there. CAPRI Style: Contemporary Dates: 1938–1942 Architect: Adalberto Libera he island of Capri became fashionable when it was rediscovered by Fascist politicians. 1991. which makes it look like the top of an ancient fortress. There is no ornamentation on the terrace. 1998. With the help of some high-ranking politicians. only an hour by boat from Naples. The terrace provides spectacular views of the deep blue sea all around and the Amalﬁ Coast in the distance. one walks eastward from the city of Capri on the path leading to the Matromania Grotto. his obsession was to ﬁnd a refuge on a cliff above the southern shores of Capri. rectangular block of the Villa Malaparte. To reach it today. After this. This staircase leads to a roof terrace with no railing. Malaparte received the permit for a villa designed by the architect Adalberto Libera (1903–1963). The Achievement of Western Gardens. He had been a troublesome member of the Fascist Party and was put in jail in 1933 for threatening Mussolini’s power. celebrated the second millennial anniversary of the reign of the Emperor Augustus with pictures of the Villa Jovis built by his successor Tiberius. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. The site. after which he was exiled to the volcanic island of Lipari and later (1934–1935) sent to the most hospitable island of Ischia. The Garden Lover’s Guide to Italy. and Georges Teyssot.
Capri. Malaparte made a joke of the ancient aura of his villa. The feeling projected by the villa is one of ancient architecture. The choice was clear. Curzio Malaparte had asked Adalberto Libera to design the house in 1938. The spectacular site of the villa can be appreciated in this view from above.204 Villa Malaparte Villa Malaparte. of a building done long ago. The Villa Malaparte raises a problem of attribution of authorship. Malaparte did not want to engage in the picturesque imitation of . telling visitors that he had needed only to work on the landscape.
Escaping from Libera’s design. Was the imitation of the staircase a way for him to imagine his house as a refuge or. better yet. His desires for the villa were not stated initially. Behind the atrium. In a large volume of severe emptiness. The respected Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri argued for an intermediate position that acknowledged the roles of both architect and client. The documents relating to the design of Villa Malaparte do not differentiate between rational decisions about how to build a house and the emotional desires and decisions of the owner. as a prison? The interior of the villa opens with a large atrium. Further Reading Garofalo. The use of stone and of square windows conveyed a sense of primitivism. A wood sculpture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. and a slow process of reﬁnement and trials was necessary to achieve them.Villa Malaparte 205 the traditional architecture of Capri. a reference to ancient Roman house designs. the domus (house) is divided into two rooms. Francesco. suggesting that modernity should be linked to the permanence of Mediterranean standards. Malaparte himself was not an easy client to work with. The pyramidal staircase was known to Malaparte from his exile on the island of Lipari where it was used as the approach to a chapel of the Annunciation. Libera designed a “rectilinear villa. Danza (the Dance) by Malaparte’s friend Pericle Fazzini. The relationship between Malaparte and his architect quickly deteriorated. and Libera was a well-known modern architect. ﬁrst through inspiration and then by working through a series of modiﬁcations in much the same way as a writer slowly improves his text. is a link to contemporary sculpture. cut gray sandstone evoked the birth of early Greece.” a powerful gesture that commanded the difﬁcult site. In the face of such a fantastic natural setting. Marida Talamona has studied the indifference of the architect to Malaparte’s changing approach. the villa is a walk through the ideas of a man of letters. He characterized Malaparte’s ideas as a series of afterthoughts and suggested that there had been a close collaboration with Libera from early on in the design stage. only modern design criteria would be appropriate for the retreat he dreamed of. Later. Building in Italy both before and during World War II gave great authority to the constructor-builder—especially if he was a man of Capri who was more accustomed to building a house adapted to the peculiarities of the site. Adalberto Libera. and Luca Veresane. 1992. A few of the details of the ﬁnished villa could easily be traced to Malaparte’s preoccupations. . Perhaps he interpreted the design process in architecture the way that a writer would. the ﬂoor of the living room. Libera even omitted the villa in Capri from his résumé when he submitted documents for a paper by Gio Ponti in the journal Style (1942). made of primitive. partly because in 1938 Libera was much more interested in the functionality of the house than Malaparte’s poetic intent.
a half hour’s walk south of the walls of Vicenza. The second of Palladio’s elements was the colonnaded templelike portico. First. providing the American house with that extension into nature that would become typical of Frank Lloyd Wright and many other modern architects such as Peter Eisenman. Two centuries later. offered views of richly cultivated land and of a little plain. In The Four Books of Architecture. Thomas Jefferson. Artisans and peasants had embraced Anabaptism as a protest against authority while the upper class adopted Erasmian ideals and some converted to Presbyterianism. to build a place for contemplation and entertainment on a property he owned. in fact.206 Villa Rotonda VILLA ROTONDA. Paolo Almerico wished. built his residence and named it Monticello. William Turnbull. not only because Almerico was a churchman. As a cultivated amateur architect.” which actually means “house. the gentle hills. He had studied literature and canon law at the university in Padua during the period of the Reformation. who commissioned the Villa Rotonda. tamed by human improvement. and others. a dome was selected. When he retired. inspired by Palladio’s Villa Rotonda. 1580. 1680–1689 Architect: Andrea Palladio I n a Virginia landscape that was still idyllic. Palladio adapted the scheme to the beauty of the site and. Jefferson borrowed the Rotonda’s scheme of a central vertical domed space intersected by four wings that opened through colonnades or rows of windows to the four directions of the hilly landscape. Palladio combined two main elements of his architectural vocabulary.” connected the ancient Roman house with the dome. Charles Moore. he suggested schemes to be used or developed by amateur builders and this availability added to the success of his style. unusual for him. Although Jefferson believed he was reuniting Man and Nature he was. as four wings projecting from the central rotunda. For Paolo Almerico’s residence. incorporated the temple portico on all four sides of the central rectangular block of the villa. Paolo Almerico (1514–1589). in order to escape from this turmoil. He aligned the porticos with the four directions that represented the main . Jefferson was aware both of the vogue for Palladio in English and European architecture of the late eighteenth century and the possibilities for enlargement and modiﬁcation built into the villa designs by Palladio himself. was a count and a canon of the Cathedral chapter of Vicenza and Referendary to Pope Pius IV. a time of turmoil in the region around the city of Vicenza where he built the villa. but also because he believed that the Latin word “domus. In that place. published in 1570. VICENZA Style: Mannerist Dates: 1567–1569.
Vicenza. View of one of the four porticos. Villa Rotonda. . From each of its four sides the villa offers extensive landscape views.Villa Rotonda. Vicenza.
1974. None were designed for a particular function. 1965. to convey the idea of beauty. some of which (the small ones) were more convenient in winter. harmonic ratios of height to width to length deﬁne the variety of sizes of the rooms in the Villa Rotonda. In this case. as if space has been expanded upward. the mathematical organization he gave to the plan created the most appealing variety inside and out.208 Villa Rotonda views of the surrounding landscape. Paul. etc. Doors. or what seems so to the modern person. Straight staircases lead from the gound to the loggias and the piano nobile (the main ﬂoor) atop the podium. In the corners created between these corridors and the square body of the house are four pairs of rooms. Palladio. Rev. The Four Books of Architecture. Bruce. others more distant. Four short corridors lead from the porticoes to the circular center of the house under the dome. ed. 41) As a belvedere. London: John Murray.) was used. Andrea Palladio: The Architect in His Time. a small and a large one. some screened. He combined numbers. Boucher. Although the four wings express the horizontal dimension of the villa. fourth. 1998. proportions of rooms were carefully considered. Andrea. a system of proportions based on the harmonies of the musical scale (octaves. some getting better light at certain times of the day. are aligned in a planning technique known as enﬁlade. some positioned in the center or near the windows. Harmondsworth: Penguin. furniture was installed speciﬁcally for his visit. Holberton. rather. explaining the lack of speciﬁc function for the rooms. Inc. thirds. . Further Reading Ackerman. By carrying one dimension of a room on to the next. Almerico’s residence “enjoys the most lovely view on all sides. the rooms provided a variety of spaces. Palladio’s Villas: Life in the Renaissance Countryside. proportion. These mathematical.. New York: Abbeville. As in Renaissance buildings (see Santa Maria della Pace Cloister). 1991. As Palladio wrote in The Four Books of Architecture. James S. New York: Dover Publications. the dome expresses its vertical direction. From the house the view is of a vast theater of hilltops where other villas are scattered—a place of pure contemplation. the house is raised on a podium. Palladio created a “musical” composition of rooms with him as composer. and others reaching the horizon (so that) loggias were made on each face. and—abstractly—music. as was conventional at the time. a structure designed to command views. when he went to the villa.” (Palladio 1965. Palladio. Almerico lived mainly in his urban residence and. As always in his architecture.
atrium: The central hall and reception area of a Roman house with a compluvium. that contains an altar. pointed. ashlar masonry: Carefully cut blocks of masonry with smooth even facing. ambulatory: An aisle used primarily for movement rather than worship. aisle. usually at the east end of a nave. it forms a dome. apse: A recess. usually semicircular but sometimes rectangular or polygonal. See order. a priory is a monastery under the direction of a prior. amphitheater: A “double theater” with an elliptical seating area around an arena used primarily for gladiatorial shows and animal hunts. arcade: A row of adjoining arches supported on columns or piers (see also colonnade). usually separated from it by an arcade or colonnade. abbey: An establishment for celibate persons. It may be semicircular. or the east side of a transept. who have taken religious vows. directed by an abbot or abbess. a convent is a monastery under the direction of a superior. and an impluvium below to catch rainwater. or even lobed and is usually made up of trapezoidal or wedge-shaped blocks called voussoirs. architrave. aisle: A passage or lateral division parallel to the nave. or ambulatory. In Early . used to describe the aisle that curves around the central space of a centralized plan building (see central plan). arch: A curved structure that is used to span an opening. open to the sky. Extended horizontally. the arch forms a vault.Glossary Words in italics denote a term with its own entry in the glossary listing. a segment of a circle. rotated around its center.
frequently ﬁve of them arranged on a Greek cross plan. barrel vault: A simple continuous vault—essentially an arch. usually built at right angles to it. or Greek cross (equal-armed) shape. Most buttresses are built directly against the wall or the columns that deﬁne it. canon: A member of the clergy on the staff of a cathedral or collegiate church. irregular forms. which then serves as a chapel. beam: A horizontal structural member that spans between two vertical supports such as columns or bearing walls. choir: The area of the church in front of the main altar originally reserved for the clergy and the ordained. basilicas have been used for churches from the Early Christian period to the present. in most cases past the choir. exaggerated proportions. Basilican naves usually end in an apse that contains the main altar. the high altar in most Catholic churches was moved closer to the congregation.210 Glossary Christian and medieval architecture. octagonal. especially monks. During the 1960s. Also called a tunnel vault (see also groin vault). abundant decoration. . buttress: A short wall that braces a main bearing wall or other support. usually either a circular. canons are not necessarily priests or monks. extended horizontally. central plan: A plan that is symmetrical about two or more axes. typically marked by structural elements such as columns. campanile: A detached bell tower. bay: A subdivision of a building. capital: The head or crowning feature at the top of a column (see order). and a balance of parts rather than a strictly symmetrical arrangement. Also called a lintel. but in Gothic churches. called ﬂying buttresses. emphasizing a dramatic sequence of spaces. Byzantine architecture is characterized by domes. especially when it spans a door or window opening. an ancient Roman building type. a belfry. usually semicircular but sometimes pointed. baldacchino: A canopy-like construction over an altar. Baroque: A style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early seventeenth to mid-eighteenth century. chiaroscuro: The arrangement of light and dark areas in a painting or a building. and mosaic decoration. the courtyard enclosed by porticoes in front of a church. Originally. buttresses. or pilasters. some buttresses are built at a distance from the wall they brace and are connected to its upper parts by arches. cantilever: A horizontal structural member that projects past a vertical support without external bracing. basilica: A building type characterized by a long central space (nave) ﬂanked by side aisles separated from it by rows of columns. battlements: Parapets or fortiﬁcations with alternating openings called crenellations and raised portions called merlons. Byzantine: A style of architecture associated with the Eastern Roman Empire that was contemporaneous with Early Christian through Gothic architecture in the West.
corbel: A projecting. frequently at least partially underground. cornice. coffer: A sunken panel. colonnade: A row of evenly spaced columns. reinforced concrete contains steel bars or cables to increase its strength in tension. tall transepts. which typically had no views of the outside world. especially the part of an entablature above the frieze. convent. and ambulatories with numerous radiating chapels. Cluniac: A style of Romanesque and Early Gothic architecture associated with the Abbey at Cluny in southern Burgundy and its daughter houses. Corinthian order. water. Modern concrete combines cement. clerestory: Windows high in the exterior walls of a building. cantilevered bracket supporting a balcony. crossing: The part of a church where nave. and chancel intersect. column: A vertical structural element. small stones. which are connected with beams. etc. Most of the rooms of the monastery or convent could be reached from the cloister. crypt: The level under the main part of a church.Glossary 211 classical: Refers to Greek and Roman antiquity. concrete: Roman building material made up of a mixture of lime mortar. water. A pillar is a relatively thick round column. and aggregate (pieces of brick. cloister: A covered passage surrounding an open court that was the center of circulation and meditation in a monastery or convent. The classical orders were invented by the Greeks and reintroduced in architecture during the Renaissance. At the height of its inﬂuence. crushed pottery). an arcade is a special type of colonnade in which arches replace the beams.450 daughter houses and thus spread its unique style and building technology throughout Western Europe. . crenellations. volcanic sand. compluvium: The rectangular opening in the roof of the atrium in a Roman house. Classicism refers to a style of later art and architecture that takes its inspiration from ancient Greece or Rome or from the classical theory and ideals of the Renaissance. usually in a ceiling or vault. Composite order: An order used by the Romans that combined the design elements of the Ionic and Corinthian orders (see order for descriptions of the orders). Corbelling is used to build a conical dome. transepts. See abbey. See order. Cornices are usually horizontal. a pier is a relatively thick square or rectangular column. The architects of Cluny were innovative builders whose common ideal was to create handsomely decorated vaulted churches with aisled naves. cornice: An ornamental molding that projects from the top of a wall or part of a wall. the Abbey controlled about 1. See battlements. although the cornice on a pediment (called the raking cornice) is at an angle. and sand or gravel.
groin vault: A vault formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults of similar shape. and cornice) supported by columns in a classical order. during the period from the mid-twelfth century to the end of the ﬁfteenth century. engaged column: A half-round column embedded in or attached to a wall. often vaulted that connects multiple shops or rooms. frieze. a long narrow platform open in front except for a balustrade or colonnade constructed on the side of a building at some elevation above the ﬂoor. 4.212 Glossary cupola: The Italian term for a dome. In secular architecture. See buttress. a large room or space in which business is conducted. The most characteristic detail of Gothic architecture is the pointed arch. In Gothic architecture. 5. either pendentives (spherical triangles) or squinches (a group of progressively larger. especially religious architecture. ﬂying buttress. in effect. corbelled arches) are used to make a transition from the corners of the square to create the circular base of the dome. gallery: In a medieval church. in contrast to northern Gothic. Since most domes cover square shapes. when Augustus Caesar defeated the last Hellenistic monarch. . 3. In Italian Gothic architecture. See order. a horizontal element consisting of three subdivisions (architrave. It represents a dramatic change in the way large buildings were constructed and required a level of technical sophistication in construction not seen since the Roman Empire. Cleopatra VII of Egypt and her ally Mark Antony. the galleries extend to the outer walls of the side aisles. exedra: A semicircular or rectangular recessed area. dome: A round. Greek cross plan: A plan based on a cross with arms of equal lengths (see also Latin cross plan). its name derives from the ﬂamelike tracery in windows. central to the new form of construction. ﬂamboyant: A late-Gothic decorative style. the second story above the side aisles that opens onto the nave. Gothic: Refers to much European architecture. gallery has many meanings depending on its context: 1. fresco: Mural painting in which the colors are applied to wet plaster. an arch rotated about its center. Hellenistic: The designation of the culture that developed following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce. A dome is. a room for the exhibition and sale of artworks. a balcony in a theater. ﬂying buttresses are rarely seen. which in the larger churches consisted of a stone skeleton with ribbed groin vaults and stained glass windows. entablature: In classical architecture. 2. the gallery eventually becomes little more than a passageway. frieze. Doric order. but in Romanesque and Early Gothic architecture. typically hemispherical vault used to cover a structure or part of it. the Hellenistic period lasted until the Battle of Actium in 31 bce. See order. a long passage.
metope. At one time. and the capital is decorated with volutes. pillow-shaped capital. from the Latin word for “eye. the nave was originally intended for worshippers that were neither ordained nor part of the clergy. Ionic. keystone: The center stone in an arch or vault. was later developed by the Italians. Corinthian capitals are decorated with leaves of the acanthus plant. Latin cross plan: The most common plan shape for a medieval church in the West. A small cylindrical or polygonal turret. The Ionic order is slimmer and more elegant.” ogee or ogival arch: A ﬂame-shaped arch whose sides are two reverse S curves that meet in a point. order: A combination of column or shaft (with its base and capital) and the entablature it supports (architrave. and cornice). which usually are ornamented with relief sculptures. and Composite—were deﬁned by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Doric is the simplest of the ﬁve orders and the only one whose shaft has no base. Ionic order. monastery. and proportions of the four most commonly used orders—Doric. with windows all around. it usually stretches across the entire front of the building. frieze. which are decorated with three vertical grooves. See order. martyrium/martyria: A church or chapel built over the tomb of a martyr. and the ﬁfth most-used order. also used to designate a multistory apartment house. only baptized Christians were allowed past the narthex into the church. . Variations on the characteristics of the ﬁve orders remain within fairly strict limits for followers of the classical tradition. insula: A city block in a Roman town. See abbey. spiral shapes that resemble rams’ horns. nave: The central vessel of a church up to the crossing. The composition. narthex: The vestibule or front porch of a church. it is patterned on the usual Christian symbol with a long upright that is intersected near the top by a crossbar (see also Greek cross plan). Corinthian. and metopes.Glossary 213 impluvium: The shallow rectangular catch basin under the compluvium in the center of a Roman atrium. lintel: A beam that spans an opening between two vertical supporting members such as columns. loggia: A gallery with an open colonnade or arcade on one side. syntax. and Composite capitals combine characteristics of the Ionic and Corinthian orders. oculus: A round opening at the top of a dome or a round window in a wall. introduced atop the center of a dome or in a roof to provide light to the area below. thus the “key” to the arch or vault. lantern. usually the last to be put in place and without which an arch cannot stand. the Tuscan. it has a simple. The Doric frieze is immediately recognizable by series of squarish blocks. alternately triglyphs. See order.
214 Glossary The shafts of any of these orders may be decorated with vertical grooves called ﬂutes. pediment: A triangular element representing the gable end of the roof in temples. See vault. piazza: An open space in a city. It is characterized by relatively thick walls. though late Romanesque buildings tend to be very sophisticated and demonstrate a shift to the use of highly trained architects and builders. portico: A roofed colonnade. though it is no longer certain exactly what structural role they play. until then. which require less expert construction than Gothic architecture. thus the name. relic: An object. ribbed groin vault. The Romanesque period was a result of a revived monied economy. the American second story. rustication: Masonry in which the joints between stones are exaggerated and in which the surface is frequently rough. pilasters can be the shaft of any of the orders. relatively small windows and consequently dark interiors. and the general renascence of culture after 1000 ce. that belonged to a saint or other holy person. Relics were believed to have super-natural power. regularly shaped ornamental beds framed by low hedges often containing objects such as urns or topiary work. It was a period of rediscovery of Roman building techniques. but rests on a base and its shaft is smooth. above the ground ﬂoor. Romanesque architecture is remarkably varied and vital. See dome. it is used at various scales above porticoes and windows in classical buildings. quatrefoil: A Gothic tracery design composed of four lobe-shaped forms. . peristyle: A colonnaded courtyard in a Roman house or Christian abbey. been called Early Gothic. especially curative. The Tuscan order resembles the Doric. rose window: A round. usually oblong and surrounded by buildings. wheel-shaped window in the façade of a Gothic church. and a close connection to nature in feeling and decoration. pendentive. piano nobile: The main ﬂoor of a house. and in its earliest stages has a folk quality. usually a body part or piece of clothing. Romanesque: A relatively new term introduced by Henri Focillon in the 1930s to describe what had. and of a scale of architecture not seen for nearly seven centuries. and were enshrined in elaborate containers made of precious materials called reliquaries. suggesting stone taken from the quarry and placed without the outer surface being smoothed (dressed). Because it was a period of experimentation and amateur building (in the best sense). See column. Ribs are characteristic of Gothic architecture. parterre: In formal gardens. pier. pilaster: A ﬂat column-like strip attached to a wall. rib: A projecting band at the edges where vaults intersect. and were long thought to be an essential part of a Gothic skeleton. the reestablishment of cities.
The shape of vaults depends on the shape of the arches that form their cross section (see barrel vault. the marriage bed. See order. it contained an altar. tablinum: The open room at the back of the atrium in a Roman house from which the owner interviewed his friends and clients. triumphal arch: A freestanding arch. in some of the most famous arches. and other important possessions were kept there. like stone arches. vaults are related to arches and when built of stone. Tuscan order.Glossary 215 sanctuary: The sacred part of a church corresponding to the area beyond the crossing around the main altar. family records. groin vault. a small. and for honoriﬁc occasions such as the visits of royalty. . and ribbed groin vault). vault: An arched ceiling structure. Structurally. tracery: The ornamental and structural stone framework in windows. are made up of voussoirs (trapezoidal stones). Beginning in the Renaissance. built to commemorate an event or person in ancient Rome. triglyph. typically larger than a house but smaller than a manor. the use of triumphal arches was revived in architectural designs. See arch. a sacred space containing shrines. See order. especially of Gothic buildings. voussoir. domed room opposite the entry. scarcella: In the Pazzi Chapel. truss: A frame composed of numerous smaller pieces that substitutes for beams or other large structural members. In pagan contexts. usually made up of stones or brick although concrete and tiles may also be employed. transept: The parts of a church that correspond to the transverse arms of the cross-shaped plan. a tall central opening is ﬂanked by two lower openings. political marriages. and noble births. usually adorned with sculpture. tetrastyle: Having four columns. offerings. located in the countryside. and other religious paraphernalia usually with a temple as its major focus. villa: A detached dwelling. garden ornaments.
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171. 94. 215 Archigram. 209. 26. xxxiv. xxii. 116. 80. 189 Aleric. 14. Carlo. 156–59. 147. 177. 15 Baldacchino. xi. 82. xxxvi. 122. l atrium. 163. 42–44. 148 Alexander VII. 209 American Academy in Rome. xxiii. 116. xlv. xlix. 159. 165. 212. 49. xxi. 210. xlix. xxxvii. Giovanni. 52. 73. 117 Baroque. xix. 129 Adrian IV. 166. 56. 143. 77. 175. 107. 27. 159. 81. 1–4. 69–71. xiii. l Ardinghelli house. 213. xxi. 8. xxxvii. 32. xxiii. 170. 40. xxxi. 41. 50. 208. 18 Art Nouveau in Italy. 38–41. 149. 212. 109. xxxi. 112. 64. 76. xxviii Ammanati. 110. 116. Marcus. 98. 217 Acqua Vergine (Aqua Virgo). xviii–xix “Architettura razionale” (Rationalist Architecture). 151 Baron Juan Caramuel de Lobkowitz. 63. 215 Augustus Gate. 106 Antonelli. xxx. 33. 46. Leon Battista. 153. 211. 64. 211. 145. x. 151. xxxiv. xx. 74. 118. 71. 166. 206. 54–55. 25.” lii Ackerman. xlv–xlvii. 153. 85 Aymonino. 7. 137. 39. 144–47 apse. 76. 118. xxxv. 153. 186–89. Gianluigi. 158. 172–74. xviii. 137. 47–49 Agrippa. 77. 65. xxxvi. 121. xxv. 51. 3. 215 . 164. xxxiv. 21. 154. 157. 105. xxx. 209 arch. 68–69. 177–79. Paolo. 154. 210. Bartolomeo. San Gimignano. 38. 134. 160–62. 101–4. 1. 160 Almerico. xxii. 110. 79 ambulatory. 108. xxiii. xxxiv. 205. Alessandro. 82 avant-garde. 115. 189–91. 191. 143. 125–27. 109. l. 93 “ad triangulum. xl–xli. xvii. 26. 213. 83. 125 architectural landmarks. 210 Banﬁ. 2.” xxxiii Autostrada del Sole. xxiii. 81. 21. 79. 115. xlvi. lii. 80. 73. 2. 189. 106. 186.Index “absolute historicism. xxix. 189 Alberti. 116. 32–35. 27 Aymonino. 175–77.. Pope. 138–40. 153. 82. 82.” 79 Agnelli. 209. M. 58–61. 208 Amadeo. 23. 137. 32. Pope. 157. 79. 76. xiii. 94 “aulae ecclesia. xxvii. 76. 48. 110. Perugia. 137. xli. 196 Baptistery. 77. 128. 189 acropolis. 210 barrel vault. 6. 117. James. xli.
108. xxxviii. Venice. 196 Belvedere. Bartolomeo. 181. xxxvi. xxvii. 70. 94. xxxv. 138 Borromini. xxx. 53. 26 buttress. xxxiii. Julius. xviii. 32–35. 134 Bonsignore. 69. xxiii. xlviii. 145. xxi. 162 Belgioso. 23. 106 Brother Elia. 141–44 Basilica of San Lorenzo. 116–17. xxiii. 166. Rome. xix. Rome. 149. 37. 52. 177. 106. Pope. 195. 148. 159. 208 Benedict XIV. xxxix. 130 Caesar. 82 Bono. 148–50. xxi. 160–62. Pope. 27–29 Church of the Holy Apostles. xxi. 210 Campidoglio. 154. xlvii. 190. 177. Pisa. 25. Campi Besenzio. 137. 169–72. 74. lii. xxxii. 82. Ferdinando. 129 Casa Rustici. li. 14. xlvi. 30–32 basilica. 27. x. xxx. xxiii. li. 64 Carthage. 163. xliv. 134. xxxviii. 142 Brunelleschi. 17–20 Castel del Monte. 79. 143. xxix. 80. 172 Baths of Caracalla. Byzantium (Istanbul). xxxv. 27. 107. 50. 135. 38. xxxix. 33. 169 cardo. Pope. 71 Bishop Ursicino. 209. 86. 25. Urbino. 151. 170–72 Collegio del Colle. 113 Bologna. 179 Clement XII. 154. 210 Church of the Autostrada. xxxvii. 138–41. 30. 5. 27 Cangrande I della Scala. 76. 25. xxxv. 20–22 Castelli. 215 Bronzino. 109. 26. 44. 163 Black Death. 151. 4–7 BBPR Ofﬁce. 210. 211. 120 Campo Santo. xxi. xliii. xxviii. 13.224 Index Byzantine. 9–11 Cambio. Pope. 147. 137. 69–71 Castelvecchio Museum of Art. 159. 210 Basilica Aemelia. Bernardo. xxi. xxiii. 86. 69. Gianlorenzo. xx. 190 Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace. Assisi. 24. Venice. 105 campanile. 108 Bonnanus of Pisa. 135. xliii Buschetto. Rome. Giovanni. 134. 81. See Campidoglio Carafa. Verona Capitoline Hill. 201 brick construction. xlix. 163 Bishop Vittore. 15–17 Casa Torre. 126. Giovanni da. 104. 53. xlii. 174. 163–65. xxii. 24. Lodovico Barbiano di. xxxi. xli. 64. xlv. Donato. 130. 113. 113. 26. xxii. See also Castelvecchio Museum of Art. xx. 22. 126. 147. xxi. xxxvii. xliii. Arnolfo di. Francesco. xviii. 210 chiaroscuro. Francesco. Verona. 149 Cistercian architecture. 22 Clement VII. 134. 53. xxxiv. xl. xxxviii. xxxi. xli. 53.” xlvi. 55 Basilica Julia. 110–12 Buontalenti. xix. 53. 50–53. 176 Bramante. xli. 80–82 Catholic Reformation. l. 133. 101. Saint Charles. 9. 132. Pope. 153. xxxviii. 143. 34. xxxviii. 72 Clement XI. 138. xxiii. Cardinal Oliviero. 73 Basilica of San Marco. 55 Caffè Pedrocchi. 191 Bifﬁ. 92. xxix. Padua. 121. 109 Bernardone. 42–44. 76. 210 Ca d’Oro. 39. xli. 150. 153. xlvi. 163. 11. Florence. 107. xlviii. Agnolo. 212 . 22. 8. xli. xlv. 55. 12. xix. 160. 156. 54. xl. xlvi. 55 Basilica of San Francesco. 32. 50. 93. 196 “bel composto. l. Milan. xxi. xlii. 126. 12–14. 122 Borromeo. 165–66. Puglia. 189. xxiii. xiv. 7–9. xx. Rome. 25. 22–25 Cathedral and Cloister of Monreale. xx. 142 Bernini. xlvii. 50. 148–50. 66. San Gimignano. Filippo. xli. 154. 145. 58. Rome. 202 Boniface IV. 144. xxxvii. xix. See CounterReformation central plan xxxiv. Andrea. 25.
xlv. 104. 174. Giacomo. 211 components of antique cities. 54. See Colosseum Florence Cathedral. 212 Ducal Palace. 6. 154 Ferrara. xxxii. xx. 79 Dolcebono. xxxvii. 144–47. 176. xxxv. xxxiii. 27–29. xliii. 152 Eclectic Style. 150. 110. Rome. 159 construction techniques. xxxvii. xviii. xli. 212 Corinthian Order. 136 Counter-Reformation (or Catholic Reformation). xxx. 26. 79 decision making by architects. 213. 32. 101. 45–47 Dufay. 198–200. 193. 58. xlvi. Urbino. Chieri. 20. xxxvi. xxxiv. 69. 107. 53 Fancelli. 88. Luca. 213 Cornaro Chapel. 175. 93. Rome. xxxiii–xxxiv. 126. 135–37. 27. 208. 52 Danusso. 113 Crivelli. Guillaume. 86. 53 Early Christian architecture. 33. 163–65. xviii. Simone. li. 140. xlviii–xlix. 206. 211 “condotierre. 7 Contemporary. 33. 76. 135. Gino. 95. Rome. Giovanni de. xlvii. 158 Farnese family. 192. 137 Fontana. 50–53. 111. 46 D’Antonio. 157. 64 della Porta. 15. xxxv. Marino. xxvii.Index Colonnade of Saint Peter’s. 30–32 Diotisalvi. 191. xxx. 116 Flavian Amphitheater. xlvi. Count of. 27 di Vicenzo. 177. 41. 192 corbel. 154 Fascist Party. 50. 153. xxxviii. xlvi. 172. 162 Colosseum. xix–xx Curia. Turin. xxi Dominican Order. 148. 123 Comitium. 53. 86. xviii. 149. 80. Nicolò de. 153. 192. xxiii. 13. xx–xxi 225 decumanus. xxii. 6. 93. 32. 106 Donatello. xxxix cultural and political changes in architecture. Arturo. 77 de Bonaventure. 70 Cubism. xxxix. 135 Covre. xxii–xxiii Contarini. xlvii. 123–25. 54. xxiii. 94. 215 Dome of Saint Peter’s. xxxii. 101. 203–5 Contrada Po. xl di Carlo. 106 Cosmati family stone workers. Antonio. Pietro da. 58. 23. 212. 14. xxix. xviii. xxxvi. 174. 15–17. 100. 68. 135–37 De Re Adiﬁcatoria. Battista. 211. 74–77. 55. 81. 22–25. 39. 134. 39. 166 domestic architecture. Rome. 196 da Orsenigo. see xiv for a list of buildings Etruscan architecture. See also Augustus Gate. xlvii. 38–41 Constantine. 211. 95. xlix. 108. 34. 121 Conversano. xviii. 56. li. 94 Council of Trent. 159. xix. 14. 150. 156. 30–32. Nicolas. xxxix. 45 Confraternity of San Bernardino. Turin. 211. 109. 189 Cosimo I de’ Medici. 107 colored marbles. 77. 186 Doric Order. Giancarlo. 167 Columbus International Exhibition. 50–53. Rome. 42. 35–38. 47–49. xxi. 79 domes. 138. 12. 151. 107–9. 165–69. xlix–lii. 122. Vittorino. 77. 9. 5. 81. 55 da Feltre. 89 crenellated/crenellation. 130–32. xliii. 12. 152. 135–37. Genoa. 209. 70. xx. 203 Fiat Lingotto Plant. xliii.” xl. 209. xix. Angelo. 25. 210. 180. 41. 55 compluvium. 42–44 Cortona. 34. Rome. 33 . 104. 55. xx. 210 Ecclesius. 35–38. 39. 162. Domenico. Pope. 47–49 Filarete (Antonio di Pietro Averlino). xxxiii. xliii. 171. 82–85. Bishop. 195–98. 44. xix Composite Order. 160. xxi. xxxix. xxxvii. 112. 74. 193–95. 99. Perugia Eugenius IV. 89–91. 101 Ferrara.
21 Frizzi. 175–77 Guglielmo. 14. Louis. xviii. 58–61 Garzoni. 30 Franciscan Order. 68. Pope. 183. Francesco di. xxxiii. 156. 29. 150. 88 Francesca. xlix. 193. 175. xxxviii. 163 Julius II. Lorenzo. 86. Pietro. 79 Hellenistic period. l Guarini. 31. Vittorio. 45. 30. 83. 85 Maitani. 92. 189 Isola Bella Gardens. xxii “La Tendenza. xlvi Garzoni Gardens. xxvii. Giuseppi. 185. 88. Benozzo. xxxii. Carlo. 159 Kahn. xix. 69. 194 Innocent III.” xxxv Maison de Verre. 52 Giambologna. 95. 44. 12. 170. 85 Leo X. 15. 116. Romano. 60 geometry in design. 130 Gregotti and Associates. 88 Forum Romanum. li. 103. Cardinal Gianfrancesco. xxxi. 122 Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele. xxii. 72–74 Leaning Tower of Pisa. 21. xix. 72 Loyola. l. 151. xliii. xxxiii. xlvii. 56. 107. 121. Turin. 177 Libera. 101. See central plan Gregotti. 145. 208 Hauteville family. 137 “maestri-caseddari. Pope.” 41 Lingeri. 79. 17 Lombardy/Lombard. xxxvi. 143. 144 Frederick II. xxxiii. xxi. 172–74 Lorenzetti. 149. 185 harmonic musical ratios in architectural design. 160. xxi. 70. xix. 33. 69–71 Japelli. 8. Baldassare. xlvi. 32. 135 Maderno. 72. xlvi.226 Index illusionism/illusionistic. Thomas. 172. Piero della. 195. 93 Heinrich of Gmund. 63. li. xxxviii. Lorenzo. xxi. 30. 11 Jefferson. 188 Gambarra. 158 Gozzoli. Ostia. 135. 135. 76. Florence. 126. 172 impluvium. 20. 127. 77. xli. 144 Gonzaga. 122 Greek colonies. xx. xlii. 112. xlvii. 61–63. 15. 153. See Giovanni da Bologna Giorgio. Ambrogio. 125. xxiii. 142. 163 Juvarra. xxxiii. 17. 121. xx. 166 Justinian. 116 Luther. 9. Holy Roman Emperor. 66–68 . 27 Le Corbusier. 46. 181 Horrea Epagathiana and Epaphroditiana. Lake Maggiore. xliii. 212 hexastyle temple plan. Guarino. 130 Gruppo 7. 79 Giotto di Bondone. 20. 133. 86. 67. xxiii. 39. xxxiv. 142 Insula. 30. 213 INA Casa. 109. xli. xxviii Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. Luciano. 206 Jesuit Order. xlv. Pompeii. Pope. xxii. 88 Gran Madre di Dio (Church of the Great Mother of God). li. 115 Lorenzo de’ Medici. 127 landscape and gardens. xviii. xxxvi. 16. 157. 47 Laurentian Library. 209. l. l. 103. 107. 42. 91. xxii. Milan. xlvii. 39. 198 Ghiberti. 202 garden design. 148. 46. Rome. xxvii–xxx. xix. 13. 45. 58. 44 Ludovico il Moro. 53–56 Fra Angelico. lii. 73.” 192 “Maestri Comacini”/“Magistri Comacini. xlvi. 69. 56. 213 iron and glass construction. xxi. Saint Ignatius. 129 Greek cross plan. 69. 97 Gonzaga. 63–66 House of the Faun. Filippo. 110. Paris. 29. 193. 26. Giuseppe. 162 Julian Argentario. 203–5 “light cell. 109. Duke Federico. Adalberto. 156 Hadrian. 34. xxxviii. Collodi. Ludovico. 66. xlvi. xliv. xxxii. 11. 195 Longhena. 186. Martin. 44. xix.” lii Laurana. xxxv. 101. 56–58.
xxi. Palermo. 5. xxi. Roman. xxxiv. xliii. Milan. Saverio. xxvii. S.Index Malaparte. Florence. xxiii. 14 Palace of Labor. Verona. 106. Ludwig. 147 Monaldeschi. 63. 82. 86–89 Ostia/Ostia Antica. xix. Mantua. 145. xliii. 121. Julia. Baroque. 99–101 Palazzo Rucellai. xlii. 174. 166 Parler. Antonio. 115 martyrium. 189 Nicolò. 111. 187 Nervi. 159. Curzio. 5. 200–203. Archbishop. 6. George. xxi. 32. xxiii. xlix. 195 227 names of Roman architects. Caprarola. xxvii. xli. 62. xxi. Rome. 168 Megara Hyblaea. 82. 153. 171. xxii. 97. xxx. 113 Palladio. xx. Hans. 179 Palazzo Vecchio. Bishop Francesco. 90. Federico de. 104–6 Palio. l. xix. 69. 79 . 89–91. Romanesque. 122. 64. Rome. 57. 68 Muratori. 162. 80. xxxviii. xxiv. l. xxiii. 121 Narthex. xx. 104 Nelson. Francesco di Giorgio. xxii. Cardinal Peretti. xxxvii. xlviii. 22. xxxiv. 121 Mannerism. sculptor at San Zeno. Turin. 206–8 Mantegna. xx. 186. Turin. 103. xxii. 45 Morandi. xiv. Pier Luigi. xxvii. 81. xxviii Neoclassical. lii. xxv. xxiii. xxii. 160. 97–99 Palazzo Farnese. Jean. Rome. xliv. 153. Andrea. xix. xlviii. 143 optical corrections. Contemporary. 30. 89 Nervi. Rome. 101–3. 97–101. 66. li. See Giorgio. 124 Palazzo dei Priori. 135. 198 Niesenberger. xxiii. 130. 150. 120. xli. xxxviii Mausoleum of Constantina. 94. xxvii. 198–200 Morgan. 104–6. xviii. 203. 82. 85 Mole Antonelliana. 123 Paestum. xxxv. lii. Giuseppi. 86 Montalto. Simone. xxxiii. xxxv Normans. 31. li. Andrea. Byzantine. xxxii Napoleonic Conquest of Italy. 193–95 Muslim architecture. Giovanni. 63 Martini. Pope. 74–77 Maximian. 13. 195 modular design. 69. 182 Orvieto Cathedral. 65 Ove Arup and Partners. xxiii. xliii. xxxvii. 80. 128 Mengoni. 82–85 Montefeltro. 171 mosaic. 153. 163. 81. inﬂuence of. 13 Maritime Theater. 89–91 Palatine Chapel in the Norman Palace. xlvi. xix. 165. xviii. xix. Johannes. 81. xx. 11. xxiii. 152. 94 Old Saint Peter’s. xxi. 94 Mount Vesuvius. xxxvii. 72–74. xxix. 27–29 Mies van der Rohe. 206–8 Pantheon. Florence. xxxv. 52. 88. 72–74. Early Christian. xxi. 156. xxxix. xlix. 169.. 210. 91. 12–14. xxxiii. 77–80. 213 Neapolitan staircases. 202 Monte Amiata Housing. xxi. xlvii. xxxv. 56–58 Messare. 68. 64. xviii. 135–37 Michelucci. 12. xxi. 180–82 Palace of the Conservators. 94–97 Palazzo del Te. 149. Siena. 79 Milan Cathedral. xlvii. Charles-François. xxxv. xlvii–xlix. 86. 156 Marcus Aurelius. xviii. xl. Tivoli. 6. 156 Norman churches in Apulia. 122. lii. 120. 118 Palazzo Sanfelice. xlii–xliv. 63. 213 Masaccio. 34. xxiii. 163. xviii. 79 Nicolas V. 9. 89. 62. 95. Perugia. 92. 171 Mignot. xix. 82 Michelangelo. Naples. lii. 91–94 “Palazzata. 143. 76. 204 Mallet. in Sicily. 144. 63. Francesco di Martini. modular structure. xl. 164. Riccardo.” Genoa. 92. 107–9.
xxiii. 101. Peter. 135. xlvii. 124. xxiii. 166 Piano. 18. colonnade. 107. 177 Pazzi. xlv. Pienza. 120. 99. xix. 57. 174 public housing. 159. 132. 136. 212. Renzo. 135. 166 Salvi. 189. xi. 134 “pietra serena. 115–17 Piazza Grande. li. Wenzel. 26 . Mario. xlv. 151 Reformation. 201 ribbed vault. 211. Pisa. Stupinigi. 196 Romanesque. xxxviii–xl. 82. 93 Rogers.. 132. Jacopo della. xxxiv. 125 Piazza del Popolo. 198. 132–35 Saint Paul’s Outside the Walls. Andrea. xli. 80–82. Florence. 177 Piazza Ducale. 214. 14. xxx profession of architect. 94. xx. Venice. 115 Piazza del Duomo. xlvi. xviii. 185–86 Ronchamp. 215 Rice. 25. Pope. 33. Mattia de. 7. Giovanni. 112. xlii. xxii. 29 perspective. 46. 83. 82 Rossi. 169. xviii. xxxix proportions in Renaissance architecture. 58. xx. 88. E. 21. 144. xxi. xxxviii. 110–12. 60. 97 Ravenna. xli. xix. 50. Turin. 88.228 Index Raphael. xxii. xxxvii. 49. 193 Risorgimento. 91–94. 206 reinforced concrete. dome.” 112 Pisa Cathedral. lii. Andrea. 112. 25. 30. xxiv. xlii. 34 Rossi. Giulio. 121 Sack of Rome. Genoa. 25–27. xli. xxxvii. 107. 110. A. li. xxii. l Sabaudian Monarchy of Savoy. 158 Riario. See also INA Casa Quaroni. xxiii. 32–35. 69. Aldo. Jakob. 156. xxii. Vigevano. Joseph Ramèe. Venice. 13. Genoa. 34. xix. 138. 189–91 Parler. 97–99 Roman theater design. xxiii. xl. Enrico. features of basilicas. xxxiv–xxxvi. xlviii. xxi. 143. Bernardo. xli. 29 rose window. xlviii. 17–20. lii. 76 Saint Mark’s Square. xxvii. Pope. 158 Pius IV. xxxvii. Nicolo. xxxviii. 66 Portoghesi. xliii. Venice. 206 Pliny the Younger. Nicola. xxvii. John. xxiii. 25–27 Pisano. 156. 123 Ridolﬁ. 95 Pisano. Luca della. xli. 118. August. Rome. 34. 27 Pius II. 73 Saffa Area Public Housing. xxxvi. 208 Protestantism. 29 Quercia. 135–37. xl. xx. Girolamo. Paolo. 214 Romano. 79 Paul III. 56. xlix. 23. 111 Roger II of Sicily. 85 Rossi. xxxii. 156. Ludovico. 103 Pre-Roman Italy. 215 Peressutti. 121 Peruzzi. 123–25 Renzo Piano Building Workshop. Siena. 28 Prandtauer. 125–27 Ruskin. 39. xlvii.N. 180. 118. 160 Royal Hunting Lodge. xlii. 110 Pazzi Chapel. 39. 123 Relic of the Holy Blood. Cardinal Raffaele. de. xxxiii. 143. 9 Robbia. 72. 110. xxvii. 135. 171. Baldassare. 88. 193–95. 165. 95 Pisano. Rome. 12. 154–56. 72. 74. xliii. xxiii. 214 Rossellino. xxxiv Saint Peter’s. xlvi. 12 Rainaldus. 196 Perret. 123–25 Piazza del Campo. 99. 58 Piazza delle Feste. 106. 37. 115 Rainaldi. 202 Pertinchamp. Eero. xl. 150 Saarinen. 130–32 Saint Agnes. 211 Renovation of the Old Harbor. 49. xxxv. xxiii. xxiii. 118. 61. 120. xlii. li. 130–32. 170. 212. 46. Pope. 95 Piazza Pio II. 14. 121–23 Piazzetta di San Marco. 118–20 Piazza Vittorio Veneto. l. Rome. 100. 47. Perugia. 12.
Giovanni. 106 Uguizzonis. Francesco de. Novara. Pope. 41. 132. 127 Selinus. xxxiv. Gabriele. 177 “studiolo. xxi. 46. 1. Florence. xlviii. xiv. xxii. xxxix. 186 Selinunte. 186–89 Theatine Orde. 85 tetrastyle atrium.” 46. 215 Trucco. Giorgio. 185 Travertine. xlvi. Giuseppe. 215 Scarpa. 112. Michele. xviii. 180–82 Teresa of Avila. xxiii. Venice. 193–95 Ufﬁzi. 83 Valeriani. xviii. xxxvii. 191. Antonio da. xxxviii. 95. 179 San Gaudenzio. xxxii. xxvii. Domenico and Giuseppe. xliii Team X. 13. Turin. 151–53. 33. 104. xxxiii. Taormina. xxviii. 71. Rome. xlii. See Pazzi Chapel Santa Maria della Consolazione. xxiv. Naples. 144–47 San Vitale. xxxi Stornacolo. 134 Sant’ Andrea. xxi. 156–59 Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale. lii. 68. 130 Vasari.” 156 San Zeno Maggiore. 126. 72. 189 urban design. 165. 61. 47 Syracuse. Pope. l. 31. Rome. 56. 201. 104. 175 Signorelli. 208 . 177. 116. xlvi. 129. 154. xlv. 83 utopian housing. 15–17. 95 slab building. Rome. 102. xx. 42–44 Terragni. 163. 189. 136 skyscraper skyline. xli. 160 Treaty of Utrect. xlii. xlviii. Alberobello. 70. 215 Theater. 88 Simone. 106 “studiolo” of Federico da Montefeltro. 202. xlii. xxx. l. xxxvi. 183–86 Theater of San Carlo. xxxiv. 39. xx. xxix. 49. xliii. Todi. Paestum. 183. Jacopo. xlvii. Rome. Rome. 118. xxx. xxii. 177–79 229 stoa. 174 “San Zeno Altarpiece. 14 Sforza family. xlix. 38. 2 Sangallo. Ravenna. Mantua. 127 Trevi Fountain. xxi. xx. 29. 136. li. the Elder. xlvi. 215 Tuscolano II. xix. xxiii. 86 Santissima Sindone. 151. 163–65 Santa Croce. 71 Sixtus V. 172–74 Santa Maria della Vittoria. the Younger. Florence. 83 Temple of Poseidon. 134 scarcella. 33. 138–41 Sanctis. 99 Sanmicheli. xlviii. 132. 189–91 triumphal arch. 128. 127 Valle. xxxiv. 191–93 Tufa. Greek colony. 160–62 Sant’ Apollinare in Classe. xx. lii. xxxiv. the Younger. xxix. 27 Simonetta. xxx. 154–56 Sangallo. xlix. 135. 22–25 scenographic design. 175 Theodora. 165–69 Santa Maria della Salute. Rome. xxii. xix. xxiii. 153 Theodoric. 45. 12. Verona. 68. Gino. xli. 110. 179 urbanism. Giacomo Matte. xlvi. 102. Rome. 175–77 Savonarola. xl. 42 Santa Reparata. 86 Urban VIII. 159. xli. xlvi. Francesco. 215 Talenti. 47. Giovanni di. Carlo. xxi. 107. 45. Karl Friedrich. 106 Scamozzi. 137 Sangallo. xlvi. 195 “Sopraelevata. 38 Tuscan Order. 17. xxiii–xxiv. 32. xx. 50. xlvi. xlvi. xxiii. 151 Trajan.Index San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.” 124 Spanish Steps. 137. 47–49 Trulli. xviii. Vincenzo. 76 Vatican Belvedere. xviii. 25. Giuliano da. Ravenna. 79 strada Condotti. 106 Vatican. 127–30 Senators’ Palace. 214. xxx. xxiv. Carlo. 187. 116 Shroud of Turin. Antonio da. Luca. 97. 185 tablinum. 166 Sansovino. 103 Schinkel.
xxiv. Milan. xxi. Genoa. 31. 209. Eugène. 191 Viaduct of the Polcevera. l. Vicenza. xxi. Bagnaia. l Velasca Tower. lii. 200–202 Villa Lante Gardens. xxii. xxiii. Leo. Luchino. xliii. 198–200 Vignola (Jacopo Barozzi). xxii. xliii. 116 Vitruvius. 170 von Freiburg. 203–5 Villa of Hadrian. xxi. xix. xxii. 103 von Klenze. Frank Lloyd. 79 von Hildebrandt. 206–8 . Tivoli. Leonardo da. 79. 2. xliv. 186 Visconti. 206 Zevi. li. xxiii. 61–63 Villa Rotonda. xl. 5. xix. 180 voussoir.230 Index Vinci. 183. xxii. 195–98 vernacular architecture. 200–202 Villa Malaparte. Lukas. xxxii. 31. Gian Galeazzo. 99–101. 215 Wright. Bruno. Capri. 158. xxxiii. Hans. 77 Visconti. 116 Viollet-le-Duc. xli.
Ch. Panerai and J. where he has served as president of the faculty. He has published several books and articles on urban studies. was re-edited in 2004 and has been translated into Dutch and Spanish. Classicisme. 1420–1720. . including Urban Forms. the Death and Life of the Urban Block (1977). His 1989 book on architecture of the ﬁfteenth through the nineteenth centuries. Renaissance.About the Author JEAN CASTEX is an architect and professor of architectural history at the Versailles School of Architecture. which he authored with Ph. Depaule. Baroque. Professor Castex graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1968 and was awarded a doctorate from Paris VIII University in 1997 with a thesis on the seventeenth-century French architect François Mansart.