Use of details Names to reveal character Kramer: occupational name for a shopkeeper, peddler, or hawker This shows that

Mr Kramer rises to the position of a boss entirely through his own hard work, although he may have a humble beginning. Lionel: fussy, from time to time, over inconsequential matters, do not take to changes easily and can be quietly stubborn. This is evident in his hot-headedness in dealing with Miss Posen, and his fussiness in ensuring that Miss Posen is punished for petty theft. Lily: creates a desire to be of service to others. frustration, nervous tension, and personal unhappiness because she is not able to realize her ambitions and ideals. This is evident in her loyalty to Mr Kramer, however she does not readily accept Lionel’s coming, resulting in the tension and unhappiness with Lionel. Use of Irony Pg110 paragraph 7 from bottom ‘No, Mr Kramer.’ Curiously, humorously, Mr Kramer watched her. ‘You think not, Lily?’ ‘No one has ever told you what to do, not as long as I’ve been here. And you know how long that is, Mr Kramer. ‘Everything begins and ends, sooner or later.’ ‘No, Mr Kramer,’ Miss Posen said, daring to insist. And as a reward he gave her a lift home that evening. Although Miss Posen says that Mr Kramer had supreme authority and says that no one could interfere with his decisions, she herself tried to do it. Pg112 paragraph 4 from the bottom. ‘If you really wanted to help me, you’d find a way to do it.’ as compared with ‘You’ll see Dad. You’ll be able to depend on me. I’m not scared of responsibility.’ (pg 110 paragraph 3) In the face of the problem between him and Miss Posen, Lionel ultimately seeks help from his father, although claiming that he had the ability to solve his problems in the first place.

’ And the incident in which he secretly steals her bag to find evidence that could oust her from the company. Lionel was frustrated with Miss Posen and doubts and accuses her on numerous occasions.’ …the old man’s heart moved with pride and pain in his breast. Change in perspectives Lionel: There is considerable change in Lionel’s attitude. He. She’s old and finished and she’s got it against me because I’m young and on top of her.Pg110 paragraph 4 ‘That’s what I want. ‘You must let Miss Posen have a good look at you. Lionel. so that she’ll remember you. Skilful Use of Dialogue to Reveal Character Pg108 Paragraph 1&2 ‘And this. such as ‘She’s sly. At first. Miss Posen seemed to be only one of the older employees and there was not yet any hostility between them.’ Pg115 paragraph 1 “It’s what I told you the first day he was here.’ Lionel said bluntly.’ ‘You know why.’ Miss Posen said reprovingly.’ Mr Kramer said to Miss Posen.I don’t know why you pretend that you don’t. being flattered by his father’s words. he feels guilty for using such underhand methods. I’m getting to be an old man.’ Earlier he seemed to take his coming retirement in his stride. She pretends she doesn’t know what she’s doing. ‘My time is finished. ‘is my son. He may even feel sorry for his actions. Later.. which contrasts from his earlier perspective that she was just a harmless yet hardworking employee. Lionel. She’s doing it on purpose. even expresses concern that they were interfering with Miss Posen’s work.’ ‘Mr Kramer! You’re teasing me. but she knows well enough.’ he said.. but later it is revealed that a feeling of insecurity still exists in him. ‘It’s obvious. and I think I’ll be glad to rely on you. He is spiteful towards her.’ . She wants to drag me down. ….

’ She shook her head again.’ ( pg 109 paragraph 3) Mr Kramer constantly phrases his words with the sole purpose of letting Miss Posen know that Lionel would be the next boss. Pg108 Paragraph 4&6 ‘But you are different now. as if Miss Posen did not know him well enough. aren’t we.’ ‘You see. Pg108 Paragraph 3 ‘Oh. Lily. New hands and a new young man make a new order. Mr Kramer.This provides comic relief to the situation while at the same time revealing certain traits of the characters. She is conscious of Mr Kramer’s words. Mr Kramer!’ Miss Posen is rather sensitive and shy to Mr Kramer’s. Lily. We’ll all have to work harder now that he is here. He also displays concern for his future employee.’…… ‘I’m no different from what I was. It’s a good sign. We are all different. Pg 108 Paragraph 7&9 But she managed to say: ‘you’re young enough. already he is giving me orders.’ Lionel is modest about the praises his father sang him. now that the younger generation has come to take our place?’ ‘Do you hear that?’ Mr Kramer jokingly shook his finger at Miss Posen. Mr Kramer humorously teases Miss Posen by introducing and re-introducing his son. It also reveals his laid-back attitude when talking to his employees. Pg108 Paragraph 4&5 And the young man said: ‘Miss Posen’s seen me often enough. She also exclaims as though she is overwhelmed by Mr Kramer’s frequent mention of her. . And we’re interfering with Miss Posen’s work. ‘Already Lionel is worrying about the work. Miss Posen reacts immediately.

Lily?’ ‘No one has ever told you what to do.’ Lionel determinedly wanted to prove that he would be as prolific as his father. showing that she may be desperate for Mr Kramer to stay. ‘You think not. the same work.’ ‘No. From the frequent usage of ‘I’ and ‘I’m’. You’ll be able to depend on me. ‘You’ll see Dad. curt sentences.’ Curiously. every morning-the same things. sooner or later. We’ve been over all this before. Miss Posen seemed to disapprove of this. the same people… You won’t be jealous when your friends come here from university and tell you what a good time they’re having there?’ Mr Kramer is speaking from a father’s perspective. He is also adamant in taking over as the boss. he shows tender concern for his son. I’m not scared of responsibility. daring to insist. Mr Kramer. . ‘I’m not interested in wasting my time. This foreshadows the conflict later between Lionel and Miss Posen. Now it’s every day. She makes a false reference to Mr Kramer being young. And as a reward he gave her a lift home that evening. I’m here. Above his superior. And you know how long that is. And your money. bossy attitude.’ Lionel’s voice was querulous. not as long as I’ve been here. Mr Kramer watched her. Lionel seems to be impatient with his father for questioning his decision and his capabilities. Pg 109 Paragraph 2 from bottom ‘With a difference. While Mr Kramer has come to the acceptance of the fact that he was going to retire.’ Miss Posen said. Pg109 Paragraph 1 from bottom ‘I won’t be jealous. looking down at the papers on her desk. Mr Kramer.’ Miss Posen said. I don’t want to go to the university. I know what I’m doing. it shows that this was his decision to make and he would not change his mind so easily.‘I don’t believe it.’ From the short. humorously. Now it isn’t a matter of coming here for a few weeks in your school holidays. or for an afternoon when you’ve been to town with some friends. ‘Everything begins and ends. Mr Kramer. Pg 110 paragraph 7 from bottom ‘No.

’ Miss Posen inadvertently embarrassed Lionel by referring to him as a young.’ Lionel said to his father. immature boy. Pg 112 paragraph5 from bottom ‘You’ve heard the way she talks to me.’ ‘That’s over now. Lionel takes offense and responds abruptly and coldly to her. especially one who was way younger than her. Miss Posen had worked for Mr Kramer for many years hence she could not adapt to a new boss. You’ve got to do something with her.’ Lionel said bluntly. I can remember when you used to come to me for sweets. Lionel wants to seek recognition from his employees and could not tolerate such outrageous disrespect against him. as he feels like a revered figure. he develops an accusatory tone and is quick to jump to conclusions. ‘I will try.’ ‘Why should she want to do that?’ ‘You know why.’ Lionel is intimidated by Miss Posen. as she had worked for him for a long time. ‘It’s obvious.I don’t know why you pretend that you don’t. I suppose that-that-I’ve been here so long…. He is afraid that he would not get the respect he should get. Pg 112 paragraph 2 ‘She’s sly. ‘No one else calls me just Lionel.’ Lionel feels that his position is threatened. Because of this. and she seemed to give in. to surrender. She pretends she doesn’t know what she’s doing. There was none. She wants to drag me down.’ . Lionel. hence her hesitation.Miss Posen’s loyalty shone here. things can’t go on like this.’ ‘I suppose it is-if you want-‘ ‘I’ve told you what I want. Dad. Pg111 paragraph7 from bottom ‘It’s difficult for me to remember. She does not readily accept the fact.’ Miss Posen said with a start. This delighted Mr Kramer. ‘It’s impossible. After a few weeks he complained to his father. Her voice was uncertain-she was still looking for support or even response from Lionel’s’ father. Why should she? It sets a bad example to everyone else in the office. but she knows well enough. She’s old and finished and she’s got it against me because I’m young and on top of her. She’s doing it on purpose.

It’s that boy. but I can’t go against him. I’m telling you this Lily. because you’ve been with me for fifteen years-to anyone else I wouldn’t tell such a thing. They will think that Mr Lionel can’t look after himself. Pg 114 paragraph 1 ‘You’re a thief! My father has employed you for fifteen years. and makes justifiable accusations against Miss Posen in an antagonistic manner.But he would not accept her comfort. Lionel is still a greenhorn in effective leadership in the workplace. ‘The Bells of Stepney’ was a nursery rhyme. hence he depends on the more experienced Mr Kramer to solve the problem for him.‘If I bring her in here.Shouldn’t I know? Shouldn’t I know better than anyone else in the world how you are feeling? Am I not in the same position? And that’s why I can’t give you another chance Lily. Hers was low. I’m not strong enough. that he has to come running to his father like a little boy. He taps into her guilty conscience. Pg114 Paragraph 1 from bottom ‘…. ‘Say the bells of Stepney. He’s a youngster. that Lionel. not because of you.’ he said. She’ll think less of you. thus provoking him on purpose. Is that what you want?’ Mr Kramer is forward-thinking and aspires for his son to become a capable leader who can cope with any situation. Lionel. ‘My time is finished. As a result.’……. But it will be because of me. and speak to her severely. Lionel’s agitation heightened the tension between them. ‘When will that be?’ Lionel’s voice was loud with anger.’ She went on with the sorting of her papers. You see how fierce he is.’ ‘When will I have them?’ ‘When they’re ready. she’ll stop being stop cheeky to you.. Miss Posen teases him that he is still a young boy to her. and you repay everything he’s done for you by stealing from him! What are you without him? Nothing! Nothing! And you steal from him!’ The situation reached its climax with Lionel gaining the upper hand. and so will everyone else in the office when they hear of it. “It’s what I told you the first day he was here.’ .’ Miss Posen’s senseless defiance tested Lionel’s patience to the limits. Pg 113 paragraph 4 ‘Have you got the figures I wanted yesterday?’ ‘No. I’d be too ashamed.

Except by that poor Miss Posen. all her life.’ Lionel said. because you told me to?’ ‘You did. is able to understand that she is reasonably upset and intimidated by having a younger boss order her around.’ ‘Please.’ Mr Kramer evinces sympathy for Miss Posen. Being both of the older generation in the workplace. Poor Miss Posen! Poor girl! And her father a little tailor! But perhaps a hard heart is a good thing to have in business nowadays. there is a bond between them that is not possible with the younger workers. In this way. Oh. Now it’s over and done with and forgotten. Thus Lionel is able to see the fallacies in his rashness and learn that his own solution to the problem may have its shortcomings/morally erroneous . He acts as a mentor figure. She’ll remember. push her out like she was nothing to me. What? Didn’t I throw that poor girl out after fifteen years. He suggests to Lionel that a softer approach to the problem would be more feasible. having known Miss Posen for a long time.’ Lionel said miserably. ‘I don’t know. Dad.Mr Kramer.’ Mr Kramer uses sarcasm to exploit the insecurity in Lionel. He actually cared for Miss Posen. Mr Kramer also shades his hardy exterior to reveal the turmoil inside him due to his coming retirement. Sarcasm is a form of rhetoric that enables one to get across his point. Hence they find trust in each other to reveal their apprehension. ‘You don’t. Pg 116 Paragraph 3-8 ‘You did it. it will be like a scar on a heart. and that was enough. I know. they share common uneasiness about retiring after working there for so long. though I managed without one. listen to me-‘ ‘Who doesn’t listen to you now?’ Mr Kramer asked. Pg 115 last paragraph ‘You did what you thought was right.

.There is a transition of feelings from short-lived joy to feelings of regret.

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