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FTTH - Fiber To The Home: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

FTTH - Fiber To The Home: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
FTTH - Fiber-to-the-home - fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the outside wall of a home. Active Ethernet Point-to-Point is fast emerging as the optimum architecture for delivering advanced triple-play services over FTTH networks because there is no limit on the distance between an operator‘s central office (CO) and a subscriber’s home.

This book is your ultimate resource for FTTH - Fiber To The Home. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about FTTH - Fiber To The Home right away, covering: Fiber to the x, Fiber-optic communication, 10G-EPON, Optical add-drop multiplexer, Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero, Automatically switched optical network, Brillouin scattering, Optical buffer, Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero, Optical cross-connect, Dark fibre, Dark fibre network, Dispersion-limited operation, Optical DPSK demodulator, Dynamic circuit network, Fiber in the loop, Fiber media converter, Fiber to the premises by country, Fiber to the telecom enclosure, FTTLA, Google Fiber, Hybrid fibre-coaxial, Hybrid fibre-optic, IBZL, IEEE P1904, Indefeasible rights of use, Interconnect bottleneck, Optical interleaver, User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community, Mechanically induced modulation, Multiwavelength optical networking, Next-generation access, Novus Entertainment, Offset time, On-off keying, Optical amplifier, Optical burst switching, Optical conductivity, Optical ground wire, Optical hybrid, Optical Internetworking Forum, Optical line termination, Optical mesh network, Optical network unit, Optical performance monitoring, Optical time-domain reflectometer, Parallel optical interface, PAROLI, Passive optical network, Project OXYGEN, Radio Frequency over Glass, Raman amplification, Raman scattering, Relative intensity noise, SerDes Framer Interface, Sidera Networks, Subnetwork connection protection, Optical switch, Synchronous optical networking, Thunderbolt (interface), Time stretch analog-to-digital converter, Transmission coefficient, Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency, Velocity1, Verizon FiOS, XFP transceiver

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of FTTH - Fiber To The Home. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of FTTH - Fiber To The Home with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
FTTH - Fiber-to-the-home - fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the outside wall of a home. Active Ethernet Point-to-Point is fast emerging as the optimum architecture for delivering advanced triple-play services over FTTH networks because there is no limit on the distance between an operator‘s central office (CO) and a subscriber’s home.

This book is your ultimate resource for FTTH - Fiber To The Home. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about FTTH - Fiber To The Home right away, covering: Fiber to the x, Fiber-optic communication, 10G-EPON, Optical add-drop multiplexer, Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero, Automatically switched optical network, Brillouin scattering, Optical buffer, Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero, Optical cross-connect, Dark fibre, Dark fibre network, Dispersion-limited operation, Optical DPSK demodulator, Dynamic circuit network, Fiber in the loop, Fiber media converter, Fiber to the premises by country, Fiber to the telecom enclosure, FTTLA, Google Fiber, Hybrid fibre-coaxial, Hybrid fibre-optic, IBZL, IEEE P1904, Indefeasible rights of use, Interconnect bottleneck, Optical interleaver, User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community, Mechanically induced modulation, Multiwavelength optical networking, Next-generation access, Novus Entertainment, Offset time, On-off keying, Optical amplifier, Optical burst switching, Optical conductivity, Optical ground wire, Optical hybrid, Optical Internetworking Forum, Optical line termination, Optical mesh network, Optical network unit, Optical performance monitoring, Optical time-domain reflectometer, Parallel optical interface, PAROLI, Passive optical network, Project OXYGEN, Radio Frequency over Glass, Raman amplification, Raman scattering, Relative intensity noise, SerDes Framer Interface, Sidera Networks, Subnetwork connection protection, Optical switch, Synchronous optical networking, Thunderbolt (interface), Time stretch analog-to-digital converter, Transmission coefficient, Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency, Velocity1, Verizon FiOS, XFP transceiver

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of FTTH - Fiber To The Home. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of FTTH - Fiber To The Home with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 23, 2011
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11/27/2014

Sections

  • Fiber to the x
  • Fiber-optic communication
  • 10G-EPON
  • Optical add-drop multiplexer
  • An optical add-drop multiplexer
  • Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero
  • Automatically switched optical network
  • Brillouin scattering
  • Optical buffer
  • Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero
  • Optical cross-connect
  • Dark fibre
  • Dark fibre network
  • Dispersion-limited operation
  • Optical DPSK demodulator
  • Dynamic circuit network
  • Fiber in the loop
  • Fiber media converter
  • Fiber to the premises by country
  • Fiber to the telecom enclosure
  • FTTLA
  • Google Fiber
  • Hybrid fibre-coaxial
  • Hybrid fibre-optic
  • IBZL
  • IEEE P1904
  • Indefeasible rights of use
  • Interconnect bottleneck
  • Optical interleaver
  • User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community
  • Mechanically induced modulation
  • Multiwavelength optical networking
  • Next-generation access
  • Novus Entertainment
  • Novus Entertainment [1]
  • Offset time
  • On-off keying
  • Optical amplifier
  • Optical burst switching
  • Optical conductivity
  • Optical ground wire
  • Optical hybrid
  • Optical Internetworking Forum
  • Optical line termination
  • Optical mesh network
  • Optical network unit
  • Optical performance monitoring
  • Optical time-domain reflectometer
  • An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR)
  • Parallel optical interface
  • PAROLI
  • Passive optical network
  • Project OXYGEN
  • Radio Frequency over Glass
  • Raman amplification
  • Raman scattering
  • Relative intensity noise
  • SerDes Framer Interface
  • Sidera Networks
  • Subnetwork connection protection
  • Optical switch
  • Synchronous optical networking
  • Thunderbolt (interface)
  • Time stretch analog-to-digital converter
  • Transmission coefficient
  • Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency
  • Velocity1
  • Verizon FiOS
  • XFP transceiver
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

F T T H

Fiber To The Home
High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know:
Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors
IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS
REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR
TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS
ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF
EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS
Kevin Roebuck
FTTH - Fiber-to-the-home - fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the outside
wall of a home. Active Ethernet Point-to-Point is fast emerging as the optimum architecture for delivering
advanced triple-play services over FTTH networks because there is no limit on the distance between an
operator‘s central office (CO) and a subscriber’s home.
This book is your ultimate resource for FTTH - Fiber To The Home. Here you will find the most up-to-date
information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.
In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about
FTTH - Fiber To The Home right away, covering: Fiber to the x, Fiber-optic communication, 10G-EPON,
Optical add-drop multiplexer, Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero, Automatically switched optical network, Bril-
louin scattering, Optical buffer, Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero, Optical cross-connect, Dark fibre, Dark
fibre network, Dispersion-limited operation, Optical DPSK demodulator, Dynamic circuit network, Fiber in
the loop, Fiber media converter, Fiber to the premises by country, Fiber to the telecom enclosure, FTTLA,
Google Fiber, Hybrid fibre-coaxial, Hybrid fibre-optic, IBZL, IEEE P1904, Indefeasible rights of use, Inter-
connect bottleneck, Optical interleaver, User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community, Mechanically induced modu-
lation, Multiwavelength optical networking, Next-generation access, Novus Entertainment, Offset time,
On-off keying, Optical amplifier, Optical burst switching, Optical conductivity, Optical ground wire, Optical
hybrid, Optical Internetworking Forum, Optical line termination, Optical mesh network, Optical network
unit, Optical performance monitoring, Optical time-domain reflectometer, Parallel optical interface, PAROLI,
Passive optical network, Project OXYGEN, Radio Frequency over Glass, Raman amplification, Raman scat-
tering, Relative intensity noise, SerDes Framer Interface, Sidera Networks, Subnetwork connection pro-
tection, Optical switch, Synchronous optical networking, Thunderbolt (interface), Time stretch analog-to-
digital converter, Transmission coefficient, Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency, Velocity1,
Verizon FiOS, XFP transceiver
This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of FTTH - Fiber To The Home. It reduces the risk
of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understand-
ing of FTTH - Fiber To The Home with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
F
T
T
H
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All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Contents
Articles
Fiber to the x 1
Fiber-optic communication 8
10G-EPON 17
Optical add-drop multiplexer 20
Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero 21
Automatically switched optical network 21
Brillouin scattering 24
Optical buffer 26
Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero 27
Optical cross-connect 27
Dark fibre 28
Dark fibre network 30
Dispersion-limited operation 31
Optical DPSK demodulator 31
Dynamic circuit network 32
Fiber in the loop 33
Fiber media converter 33
Fiber to the premises by country 34
Fiber to the telecom enclosure 48
FTTLA 49
Google Fiber 49
Hybrid fibre-coaxial 51
Hybrid fibre-optic 54
IBZL 54
IEEE P1904 56
Indefeasible rights of use 57
Interconnect bottleneck 58
Optical interleaver 59
User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community 61
Mechanically induced modulation 62
Multiwavelength optical networking 62
Next-generation access 63
Novus Entertainment 65
Offset time 66
On-off keying 67
Optical amplifier 67
Optical burst switching 73
Optical conductivity 75
Optical ground wire 76
Optical hybrid 77
Optical Internetworking Forum 81
Optical line termination 84
Optical mesh network 85
Optical network unit 90
Optical performance monitoring 91
Optical time-domain reflectometer 92
Parallel optical interface 96
PAROLI 97
Passive optical network 99
Project OXYGEN 106
Radio Frequency over Glass 106
Raman amplification 108
Raman scattering 109
Relative intensity noise 113
SerDes Framer Interface 113
Sidera Networks 114
Subnetwork connection protection 116
Optical switch 117
Synchronous optical networking 118
Thunderbolt (interface) 130
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter 136
Transmission coefficient 139
Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency 141
Velocity1 144
Verizon FiOS 144
XFP transceiver 149
References
Article Sources and Contributors 151
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 154
Article Licenses
License 155
Fiber to the x
1
Fiber to the x
FTTB, FTTC, FTTH, FTTK, FTTN, and FTTP all redirect here. For airports with those ICAO codes, see List
of airports in Chad.
Fiber to the x (FTTx) is a generic term for any broadband network architecture that uses optical fiber to replace all
or part of the usual metal local loop used for last mile telecommunications. The generic term originated as a
generalization of several configurations of fiber deployment (FTTN, FTTC, FTTB, FTTH...), all starting by FTT but
differentiated by the last letter, which is substituted by an x in the generalization.
A schematic illustrating how FTTx architectures vary — with regard to the
distance between the optical fiber and the end-user. The building on the left
is the central office; that on the right is one of the buildings served by the
central office. Dotted rectangles represent separate living or office spaces
within the same building.
Definition of terms
The telecommunications industry differentiates
between several distinct configurations. The
terms in most widespread use today are:
• FTTN - Fiber-to-the-node - fiber is terminated
in a street cabinet up to several kilometers
away from the customer premises, with the
final connection being copper.
Fiber-to-the-node is often seen as an interim
step towards full FTTH and is currently used
by telecoms service providers like AT&T,
Deutsche Telekom, Telekom Austria and
Swisscom to deliver advanced triple-play
services.
• FTTC - Fiber-to-the-cabinet - this is very
similar to FTTN, but the street cabinet is closer
to the user's premises; typically within 300m.
• FTTB - Fiber-to-the-building or
Fiber-to-the-basement - fiber reaches the
boundary of the building, such as the basement
in a multi-dwelling unit, with the final
connection to the individual living space being
made via alternative means.
• FTTH - Fiber-to-the-home - fiber reaches the
boundary of the living space, such as a box on
the outside wall of a home. Active Ethernet
Point-to-Point is fast emerging as the optimum architecture for delivering advanced triple-play services over
FTTH networks because there is no limit on the distance between an operator‘s central office (CO) and a
subscriber’s home.
[1]

[2]
• FTTP - Fiber-to-the premises - this term is used in several contexts: as a blanket term for both FTTH and FTTB,
or where the fiber network includes both homes and small businesses.
To promote consistency, especially when comparing FTTH penetration rates between countries, the three FTTH
Councils of Europe, North America and Asia-Pacific have agreed upon definitions for FTTH and FTTB.
[3]
The
FTTH Councils do not have formal definitions for FTTC and FTTN.
It is worth pointing out that fiber to the telecom enclosure (FTTE) is not considered to be part of the FTTx group of
technologies, despite the similarity in name. FTTE is a form of structured cabling typically used in the enterprise
Fiber to the x
2
local area network, where fiber is used to link the main computer equipment room to an enclosure close to the desk
or workstation.
[4]
Similarly, in fiber-to-the-desk a fiber connection is installed from the main computer room to a
terminal at the desk.
Benefits of fiber in the access network
The speeds of fiber optic and copper cables are both limited by length, but copper is much more sharply limited in
this respect. For example, gigabit Ethernet runs over relatively economical category 5e, category 6, or augmented
category 6 unshielded twisted pair copper cabling but only to 100 meters. However, over the right kind of fiber,
gigabit ethernet can easily reach distances of tens of kilometers.
Even in the commercial world, most computers have copper communication cables. But these cables are short,
typically tens of meters. Most metropolitan network links (e.g., those based on telephone or cable television services)
are several kilometers long, in the range where fiber significantly outperforms copper. Replacing at least part of
these links with fiber shortens the remaining copper segments and allows them to run much faster.
Fiber configurations that bring fiber right into the building can offer the highest speeds since the remaining segments
can use standard Ethernet or coaxial cable. Fiber configurations that transition to copper in a street cabinet are
generally too far from the users for standard Ethernet configurations over existing copper cabling. They generally
use VDSL at (downstream) speeds of several tens of megabits per second.
Fiber is often said to be 'future proof' because the speed of the broadband connection is usually limited by the
terminal equipment rather than the fiber itself, permitting at least some speed improvements by equipment upgrades
before the fiber itself must be upgraded. Still, the type and length of employed fibers chosen, e.g. multimode vs
single mode, are critical for applicability for future high gigabit connections.
Ethernet Point-to-Point
Ethernet Point-to-Point is widely accepted as the optimum architecture for delivering bandwidth-heavy next
generation triple (and quad) play (voice, video, data and mobile) services over both fiber and hybrid fiber coax
[HFC] networks. Active Ethernet Point-to-Point uses dedicated fiber from an operator’s central office all the way to
the subscribers’ home, while hybrid networks [often FTTN] use it to transport data via fiber to a node, and then to
ensure the highest possible throughput speeds over last mile copper connections.
This approach has become increasingly popular in recent years with telecoms service providers in both North
America AT&T, Telus, for example] and Europe's Fastweb, Telecom Italia, Telekom Austria and Deutsche Telecom,
for example]. Search specialist Google has also looked into this approach, amongst others, as a way to deliver
multiple services over open-access networks in the United States.
[5]
Fiber to the node
Fiber to the node (FTTN), also called fiber to the neighborhood or fiber to the cabinet (FTTCab),
[6]
is a
telecommunication architecture based on fiber-optic cables run to a cabinet serving a neighborhood. Customers
typically connect to this cabinet using traditional coaxial cable or twisted pair wiring. The area served by the cabinet
is usually less than 1,500 m in radius and can contain several hundred customers. (If the cabinet serves an area of
less than 300 m in radius then the architecture is typically called fiber to the curb.)
[7]
Fiber to the node allows delivery of broadband services such as high speed Internet. High speed communications
protocols such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of DSL are used between the cabinet
and the customers. The data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer
is to the cabinet.
Fiber to the x
3
Unlike the competing fiber to the premises technology, fiber to the node often uses the existing coaxial or twisted
pair infrastructure to provide last mile service. For this reason, fiber to the node is less costly to deploy. In the
long-term, however, its bandwidth potential is limited relative to implementations which bring the fiber still closer to
the subscriber.
A variant of this technique for cable television providers is used in a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) system. It is
sometimes given the acronym FTTN for Fiber To The Last Amplifier when it replaces analog amplifiers up to the
last one before the customer (or neighborhood of customers).
Fiber to the curb
Fiber to the curb (FTTC) is a telecommunications system based on fiber-optic cables run to a platform that serves
several customers. Each of these customers has a connection to this platform via coaxial cable or twisted pair.
Fiber to the curb allows delivery of broadband services such as high speed internet. High speed communications
protocols such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of DSL are used between the cabinet
and the customers. The data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer
is to the cabinet.
FTTC is subtly distinct from FTTN or FTTP (all are versions of Fiber in the Loop). The main difference is the
placement of the cabinet. FTTC will be placed near the "curb" which differs from FTTN which is placed far from the
customer and FTTP which is placed right at the serving location.
Unlike the competing fiber to the premises (FTTP) technology, fiber to the curb can use the existing coaxial or
twisted pair infrastructure to provide last mile service. For this reason, fiber to the curb costs less to deploy.
However, it also has lower bandwidth potential than fiber to the premises.
In the United States of America and Canada, the largest deployment of FTTC was carried out by BellSouth
Telecommunications. With the acquisition of BellSouth by AT&T, deployment of FTTC will end. Future
deployments will be based on either FTTN or FTTP. Existing FTTC plant may be removed and replaced with
FTTP.
[8]
Fiber to the premises
Fiber to the premises is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run from the central
office all the way to the premises occupied by the subscriber. Fiber to the premises is often abbreviated with the
acronym FTTP. However, this acronym has become ambiguous and may instead refer to a form of fiber to the curb
where the fiber terminates at a utility pole without reaching the premises.
FTTH vs. FTTB
Fiber to the premises can be categorized according to where the optical fiber ends:
• FTTH (fiber to the home) is a form of fiber optic communication delivery in which the fiber extends from the
central office to the subscriber's living or working space.
[9]
Once at the subscriber's living or working space, the
signal may be conveyed throughout the space using any means, including twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless,
power line communication, or optical fiber.
• FTTB (fiber to the building, also called fiber to the basement) is a form of fiber optic communication delivery in
which the optical fiber terminates before actually reaching the subscribers living or working space itself, but does
extend to the property containing that living or working space. The signal is conveyed the final distance using any
non-optical means, including twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless, or power line communication.
[10]
By definition,
FTTB necessarily applies only to those properties which contain multiple living or working spaces.
Fiber to the x
4
An apartment building may provide an example of the distinction between FTTH and FTTB. If a fiber is run to a
panel at each subscriber's apartment, this is FTTH. If instead the fiber goes only as far as the apartment building's
shared electrical room, then this is FTTB.
Deployments
FTTH
• Fastweb - Italian operator Fastweb launched the first commercial fiber-to-the-home service in 2001. Using an
Active Ethernet Point-to-Point architecture, the service delivered voice, video and data services to thousands of
subscribers’ homes in Italy over a 10MB symmetrical dedicated fiber connection. Fastweb used one of the first
residential gateways for both multiple dwelling units [MDUs] as well as residential homes that provided
embedded fiber-termination, designed and built by Advanced Digital Broadcast, to enable consumers to share
services with a range of CE devices around the home.
[11]
The deployment of an FTTH network meant Fastweb was the first telecom operator to deliver true triple-play
services to its subscribers. This contributed to its ARPU [Average Revenue Per User] being amongst the highest in
the industry for a number of years during the early 2000s. Its FTTH network also puts it at the forefront of advanced
connected home services.
• Fiber for Italy - The Fiber For Italy
[12]
Initiative has the stated goal of offering 100MBps symmetrical
connections to 10 million Italian subscribers across 15 cities by [2018] and up to 1GBps for business
customers.
[13]
It involves operators Wind, Tele2, Vodafone and Fastweb. An ongoing pilot project in the Italian
capital Rome delivers symmetrical speeds of up to 100MBps to small businesses. Italian state operator Telecom
Italia is not a participant in the Fiber For Italy programme, but has independently committed to provide ultra-high
speed broadband up to 100MBps symmetrical connections to 50 percent of the country’s population (138 cities)
by 2018.
[14]
Both Fiber for Italy participants and Telecom Italia are working with Advanced Digital Broadcast to provide
residential gateway technology with embedded fiber termination.
FTTN
FTTN, or Fiber-to-the-node, is currently used by a number of multiple-service operators to deliver advanced triple
play services to consumers, including AT&T in the United States for its U-Verse service, Deutsche Telekom in
Germany, Swisscom and Canadian operator Telus. It is seen as an interim step towards full FTTH and in many cases
services triple play services delivered using this approach has been proven to grow subscriber numbers and ARPU
considerably.
[15]

[16]
Direct fiber
The simplest optical distribution network can be called direct fiber. In this architecture, each fiber leaving the central
office goes to exactly one customer. Such networks can provide excellent bandwidth since each customer gets their
own dedicated fiber extending all the way to the central office. However, this approach is about 10% more costly due
to the amount of fiber and central office machinery required.
[17]
The approach is generally favored by new entrants
and competitive operators. A benefit of this approach is that it doesn't exclude any layer 2 networking technologies,
be they Passive optical network, Active Optical Network, etc. From a regulatory point of view it leads to least
implications as any form of regulatory remedy is still possible using this topology.
[18]
Fiber to the x
5
Shared fiber
More commonly each fiber leaving the central office is actually shared by many customers. It is not until such a fiber
gets relatively close to the customers that it is split into individual customer-specific fibers. There are two competing
optical distribution network architectures which achieve this split: active optical networks (AONs) and passive
optical networks (PONs).
Active optical network
Comparison showing how a typical active optical network handles
downstream traffic differently than a typical passive optical network.
The type of active optical network shown is a star network capable of
multicasting. The type of passive optical network shown is a star
network having multiple splitters housed in the same cabinet.
Active optical networks rely on some sort of
electrically powered equipment in Optical
Distribution Network(ODN) to distribute the signal,
such as a switch or router. Normally, optical signals
need O-E-O transformation in ODN. Each signal
leaving the central office is directed only to the
customer for which it is intended. Incoming signals
from the customers avoid colliding at the intersection
because the powered equipment there provides
buffering.
As of 2007, the most common type of active optical
networks are called active Ethernet, a type of Ethernet
in the first mile (EFM). Active Ethernet uses optical
Ethernet switches to distribute the signal, thus
incorporating the customers' premises and the central
office into one giant switched Ethernet network. Such
networks are identical to the Ethernet computer
networks used in businesses and academic
institutions, except that their purpose is to connect
homes and buildings to a central office rather than to
connect computers and printers within a campus.
Each switching cabinet can handle up to 1,000
customers, although 400-500 is more typical. This
neighborhood equipment performs layer 2/layer 3
switching and routing, offloading full layer 3 routing
to the carrier's central office. The IEEE 802.3ah
standard enables service providers to deliver up to
100 Mbit/s full-duplex over one single-mode optical fiber to the premises depending on the provider. Speeds of
1Gbit/s are becoming commercially available.
Passive optical network
A passive optical network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network architecture in which
unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 32-128. A
PON configuration reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point to point
architectures.
Downstream signal coming from the central office is broadcast to each customer premises sharing a fiber.
Encryption is used to prevent eavesdropping.
Fiber to the x
6
Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, usually time division multiple access (TDMA). The
OLTs "range" the ONUs in order to provide time slot assignments for upstream communication.
Electrical portion
Once on private property, the signal typically travels the final distance to the end user's equipment using an electrical
format.
A device called an Optical Network Terminal (ONT), also called an Optical Network Unit (ONU), converts the
optical signal into an electrical signal. (ONT is an ITU-T term, whereas ONU is an IEEE term, but the two terms
mean exactly the same thing.) Optical network terminals require electrical power for their operation, so some
providers connect them to back-up batteries in case of power outages. Optical network units use thin film filter
technology to convert between optical and electrical signals.
For fiber to the home and for some forms of fiber to the building, it is common for the building's existing phone
systems, local area networks, and cable TV systems to connect directly to the ONT.
If all three systems cannot directly reach the ONT, it is possible to combine signals and transport them over a
common medium. Once closer to the end-user, equipment such as a router, modem, and/or network interface module
can separate the signals and convert them into the appropriate protocol. For example, one solution for apartment
buildings uses VDSL to combine data (and / or video) with voice. With this approach, the combined signal travels
through the building over the existing telephone wiring until it reaches the end-user's living space. Once there, a
VDSL modem copies the data and video signals and converts them into Ethernet protocol. These are then sent over
the end user's category 5 cable. A network interface module can then separate out the video signal and convert it into
an RF signal that is sent over the end-user's coaxial cable. The voice signal continues to travel over the phone wiring
and is sent through DSL filters to remove the video and data signals. An alternative strategy allows data and / or
voice to be transmitted over coaxial cable. In yet another strategy, some office buildings dispense with the telephone
wiring altogether, instead using voice over Internet Protocol phones that can plug directly into the local area
network.
Notes and references
[1] http:/ / www. telecompaper. com/ research/
ftth-networking-active-ethernet-versus-passive-optical-networking-and-point-to-point-vs-point-to-multipoint
[2] http:// nxtcommnews. com/ ethernet/news08/ active-ethernet-pon/
[3] FTTH Council, Definition of Terms, Jan 2009 (http:/ / www. ftthcouncil.eu/ documents/ studies/ FTTH-Definitions-Revision_January_2009.
pdf), Retrieved on 2009-08-25.
[4] All multimode fiber is not created equal (http:/ / cim. pennnet.com/ Articles/ Article_Display.cfm?Section=ARCHI&
ARTICLE_ID=283326& VERSION_NUM=2&p=27)
[5] http:// www. lightwaveonline. com/ fttx/featured-articles/Is-Active-Ethernet-best-FTTH-option-for-Google-85219312.html
[6] da Silva, Henrique (March, 2005), Optical Access Networks (http:/ / www. co. it. pt/ seminarios/ webcasting/ itcbr_09_03_05. pdf), Instituto
de Telecomunicações, p. 10. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
[7] McCullough, Don (August, 2005), " Flexibility is key to successful fiber to the premises deployments (http:// www. lightwaveonline.com/
about-us/lightwave-issue-archives/ issue/ flexibility-is-key-to-successful-fiber-to-the-premises-deployments-53914857.html)", Lightwave 22
(8). Retrieved on 2010-01-27.
[8] Analyst: AT&T may replace some FTTC with FTTP (http:/ / telephonyonline.com/ home/ news/ att_fttc_fttp_122107/)
[9] FTTH Council - Definition of Terms (http:/ / www.ftthcouncil. org/sites/ default/files/ FTTH_definitions.pdf), FTTH Council, (August
2006) p. 1. Retrieved on 2010-01-19.
[10] FTTH Council - Definition of Terms (http:// www.ftthcouncil. org/sites/ default/files/ FTTH_definitions.pdf), FTTH Council, (August
2006) p. 2. Retrieved on 2010-01-19.
[11] http:// www. nannimagazine. it/ articolo/5353/
Pirelli-Broadband-Solutions-e-il-partner-tecnologico-di-Fastweb-per-la-nuova-rete-a-banda-larga
[12] http:// www. telecomseurope. net/ content/ italy-gets-fiber-back-track
[13] http:// www. freevoipcallsolution.com/ 2010/ 08/ pirelli-broadband-solutions-technology.html
[14] http:/ / fibertothewhatever.com/ wp/ news/ telecom-italia-rolls-out-100-mbps-ftth-services-in-catania
[15] http:// ar2010.telekomaustria. com/ en/ facts_and_figures_2010. html
Fiber to the x
7
[16] http:/ / 2010. swisscom-report. ch/ en/ financial-year-2010 [page 22]
[17] The Economics of Next Generation Access (http:// www. wik.org/ content_e/ecta/ ECTA NGA_masterfile_2008_09_15_V1.pdf)
[18] Developments In Fibre Technologies And Investment (http:/ / www.oecd.org/dataoecd/ 49/ 8/ 40390735. pdf)
External links
• Fiber to the Home Council: Asia & The Pacific (http:// www.ftthcouncilap.org/)
• Fiber to the Home Council: Europe (http:/ / www.ftthcouncil.eu/ )
• Fiber to the Home Council: Northern America (http:/ / www.ftthcouncil.org/ )
• Fiber to the Home Conference: Europe (http:/ / www.ftthforum.net/ )
• Fiber Optics LAN Section of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http:/ / www.fols. org/)
• Telephony Magazine — FTTH One-Stop (http:// www.telephonyonline. com/ fttp/) news, metrics, technology,
regulatory information and industry commentary
• Kingfisher International Application Notes (http:/ / www.kingfisher.com. au/ applicationnotes. htm) Fiber Optic
Testing information about FTTH backbone Terminology.
• Can You Say FTTN? (http:/ /telephonyonline. com/ mag/ telecom_say_fttn/ ) Annie Lindstrom, Telephony
Online, January 22, 2001
• SBC clarifies FTTN, FTTP plans (http:// telephonyonline. com/ finance/web/ telecom_sbc_clarifies_fttn/) Ed
Gubbins, Telephony Online, November 12, 2004
• Network intelligence — optical networks of new generation (http:/ / www.vector. pl/en/ article/
42778_Network_intelligence_-_optical_networks_of_new_generation.htm) August 2008
• FTTx Primer (http:// www. fiopt.com/ primer.php), July 2008
• Developments in Fibre Technologies and Investment (http:/ / www.oecd. org/ dataoecd/ 49/ 8/ 40390735. pdf),
[OECD], 2008
• San Francisco Draft Fiber Study (http:// www.sfgov. org/site/ tech_connect_index. asp)
• UOC University article (http:/ / www. fabila. com/ proyectos/ ftth/)
Fiber-optic communication
8
Fiber-optic communication
An optical fiber junction box. The yellow cables
are single mode fibers; the orange and blue cables
are multi-mode fibers: 50/125 µm OM2 and
50/125 µm OM3 fibers respectively.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information
from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical
fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is
modulated to carry information. First developed in the 1970s,
fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the
telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the
advent of the Information Age. Because of its advantages over
electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire
communications in core networks in the developed world.
The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the
following basic steps: Creating the optical signal involving the use of a
transmitter, relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal
does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical signal,
and converting it into an electrical signal.
Applications
Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to
transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Due to much lower attenuation and
interference, optical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand
applications. However, infrastructure development within cities was relatively difficult and time-consuming, and
fiber-optic systems were complex and expensive to install and operate. Due to these difficulties, fiber-optic
communication systems have primarily been installed in long-distance applications, where they can be used to their
full transmission capacity, offsetting the increased cost. Since 2000, the prices for fiber-optic communications have
dropped considerably. The price for rolling out fiber to the home has currently become more cost-effective than that
of rolling out a copper based network. Prices have dropped to $850 per subscriber in the US and lower in countries
like The Netherlands, where digging costs are low.
Since 1990, when optical-amplification systems became commercially available, the telecommunications industry
has laid a vast network of intercity and transoceanic fiber communication lines. By 2002, an intercontinental network
of 250,000 km of submarine communications cable with a capacity of 2.56 Tb/s was completed, and although
specific network capacities are privileged information, telecommunications investment reports indicate that network
capacity has increased dramatically since 2004.
History
In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to
fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Bell
considered it his most important invention. The device allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. On
June 3, 1880, Bell conducted the world's first wireless telephone transmission between two buildings, some 213
meters apart.
[1]

[2]
Due to its use of an atmospheric transmission medium, the Photophone would not prove practical
until advances in laser and optical fiber technologies permitted the secure transport of light. The Photophone's first
practical use came in military communication systems many decades later.
In 1966 Charles K. Kao and George Hockham proposed optical fibers at STC Laboratories (STL) at Harlow,
England, when they showed that the losses of 1000 dB/km in existing glass (compared to 5-10 dB/km in coaxial
Fiber-optic communication
9
cable) was due to contaminants, which could potentially be removed.
Optical fiber was successfully developed in 1970 by Corning Glass Works, with attenuation low enough for
communication purposes (about 20dB/km), and at the same time GaAs semiconductor lasers were developed that
were compact and therefore suitable for transmitting light through fiber optic cables for long distances.
After a period of research starting from 1975, the first commercial fiber-optic communications system was
developed, which operated at a wavelength around 0.8 µm and used GaAs semiconductor lasers. This
first-generation system operated at a bit rate of 45 Mbps with repeater spacing of up to 10 km. Soon on 22 April
1977, General Telephone and Electronics sent the first live telephone traffic through fiber optics at a 6 Mbit/s
throughput in Long Beach, California.
The second generation of fiber-optic communication was developed for commercial use in the early 1980s, operated
at 1.3 µm, and used InGaAsP semiconductor lasers. These early systems were initially limited by multi mode fiber
dispersion, and in 1981 the single-mode fiber was revealed to greatly improve system performance, however
practical connectors capable of working with single mode fiber proved difficult to develop. By 1987, these systems
were operating at bit rates of up to 1.7 Gb/s with repeater spacing up to 50 km.
The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fiber was TAT-8, based on Desurvire optimized laser
amplification technology. It went into operation in 1988.
Third-generation fiber-optic systems operated at 1.55 µm and had losses of about 0.2 dB/km. They achieved this
despite earlier difficulties with pulse-spreading at that wavelength using conventional InGaAsP semiconductor
lasers. Scientists overcame this difficulty by using dispersion-shifted fibers designed to have minimal dispersion at
1.55 µm or by limiting the laser spectrum to a single longitudinal mode. These developments eventually allowed
third-generation systems to operate commercially at 2.5 Gbit/s with repeater spacing in excess of 100 km.
The fourth generation of fiber-optic communication systems used optical amplification to reduce the need for
repeaters and wavelength-division multiplexing to increase data capacity. These two improvements caused a
revolution that resulted in the doubling of system capacity every 6 months starting in 1992 until a bit rate of 10 Tb/s
was reached by 2001. In 2006 a bit-rate of 14 Tbit/s was reached over a single 160 km line using optical
amplifiers.
[3]
The focus of development for the fifth generation of fiber-optic communications is on extending the wavelength
range over which a WDM system can operate. The conventional wavelength window, known as the C band, covers
the wavelength range 1.53-1.57 µm, and dry fiber has a low-loss window promising an extension of that range to
1.30-1.65 µm. Other developments include the concept of "optical solitons, " pulses that preserve their shape by
counteracting the effects of dispersion with the nonlinear effects of the fiber by using pulses of a specific shape.
In the late 1990s through 2000, industry promoters, and research companies such as KMI, and RHK predicted
massive increases in demand for communications bandwidth due to increased use of the Internet, and
commercialization of various bandwidth-intensive consumer services, such as video on demand. Internet protocol
data traffic was increasing exponentially, at a faster rate than integrated circuit complexity had increased under
Moore's Law. From the bust of the dot-com bubble through 2006, however, the main trend in the industry has been
consolidation of firms and offshoring of manufacturing to reduce costs. Companies such as Verizon and AT&T have
taken advantage of fiber-optic communications to deliver a variety of high-throughput data and broadband services
to consumers' homes.
Fiber-optic communication
10
Technology
Modern fiber-optic communication systems generally include an optical transmitter to convert an electrical signal
into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber, a cable containing bundles of multiple optical fibers that is routed
through underground conduits and buildings, multiple kinds of amplifiers, and an optical receiver to recover the
signal as an electrical signal. The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by computers,
telephone systems, and cable television companies.
Transmitters
A GBIC module (shown here with its cover
removed), is an optical and electrical transceiver.
The electrical connector is at top right, and the
optical connectors are at bottom left
The most commonly-used optical transmitters are semiconductor
devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes. The
difference between LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce
incoherent light, while laser diodes produce coherent light. For use in
optical communications, semiconductor optical transmitters must be
designed to be compact, efficient, and reliable, while operating in an
optimal wavelength range, and directly modulated at high frequencies.
In its simplest form, an LED is a forward-biased p-n junction, emitting
light through spontaneous emission, a phenomenon referred to as
electroluminescence. The emitted light is incoherent with a relatively
wide spectral width of 30-60 nm. LED light transmission is also
inefficient, with only about 1 % of input power, or about 100
microwatts, eventually converted into launched power which has been
coupled into the optical fiber. However, due to their relatively simple design, LEDs are very useful for low-cost
applications.
Communications LEDs are most commonly made from gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) or gallium arsenide
(GaAs). Because GaAsP LEDs operate at a longer wavelength than GaAs LEDs (1.3 micrometers vs. 0.81-0.87
micrometers), their output spectrum is wider by a factor of about 1.7. The large spectrum width of LEDs causes
higher fiber dispersion, considerably limiting their bit rate-distance product (a common measure of usefulness).
LEDs are suitable primarily for local-area-network applications with bit rates of 10-100 Mbit/s and transmission
distances of a few kilometers. LEDs have also been developed that use several quantum wells to emit light at
different wavelengths over a broad spectrum, and are currently in use for local-area WDM networks.
Today, LEDs have been largely superseded by VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) devices, which
offer improved speed, power and spectral properties, at a similar cost. Common VCSEL devices couple well to multi
mode fiber.
A semiconductor laser emits light through stimulated emission rather than spontaneous emission, which results in
high output power (~100 mW) as well as other benefits related to the nature of coherent light. The output of a laser is
relatively directional, allowing high coupling efficiency (~50 %) into single-mode fiber. The narrow spectral width
also allows for high bit rates since it reduces the effect of chromatic dispersion. Furthermore, semiconductor lasers
can be modulated directly at high frequencies because of short recombination time.
Commonly used classes of semiconductor laser transmitters used in fiber optics include VCSEL (Vertical Cavity
Surface Emitting Laser), Fabry–Pérot and DFB (Distributed Feed Back).
Laser diodes are often directly modulated, that is the light output is controlled by a current applied directly to the
device. For very high data rates or very long distance links, a laser source may be operated continuous wave, and the
light modulated by an external device such as an electro-absorption modulator or Mach–Zehnder interferometer.
External modulation increases the achievable link distance by eliminating laser chirp, which broadens the linewidth
of directly-modulated lasers, increasing the chromatic dispersion in the fiber.
Fiber-optic communication
11
Receivers
The main component of an optical receiver is a photodetector, which converts light into electricity using the
photoelectric effect. The photodetector is typically a semiconductor-based photodiode. Several types of photodiodes
include p-n photodiodes, a p-i-n photodiodes, and avalanche photodiodes. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM)
photodetectors are also used due to their suitability for circuit integration in regenerators and wavelength-division
multiplexers.
Optical-electrical converters are typically coupled with a transimpedance amplifier and a limiting amplifier to
produce a digital signal in the electrical domain from the incoming optical signal, which may be attenuated and
distorted while passing through the channel. Further signal processing such as clock recovery from data (CDR)
performed by a phase-locked loop may also be applied before the data is passed on.
Fiber
A cable reel trailer with conduit that can carry
optical fiber.
Single-mode optical fiber in an underground
service pit
An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective
outer coating), in which the cladding guides the light along the core by
using the method of total internal reflection. The core and the cladding
(which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality
silica glass, although they can both be made of plastic as well.
Connecting two optical fibers is done by fusion splicing or mechanical
splicing and requires special skills and interconnection technology due
to the microscopic precision required to align the fiber cores.
[4]
Two main types of optical fiber used in optic communications include
multi-mode optical fibers and single-mode optical fibers. A
multi-mode optical fiber has a larger core (≥ 50 micrometres), allowing
less precise, cheaper transmitters and receivers to connect to it as well
as cheaper connectors. However, a multi-mode fiber introduces
multimode distortion, which often limits the bandwidth and length of
the link. Furthermore, because of its higher dopant content, multi-mode
fibers are usually expensive and exhibit higher attenuation. The core of
a single-mode fiber is smaller (<10 micrometres) and requires more
expensive components and interconnection methods, but allows much
longer, higher-performance links.
In order to package fiber into a commercially-viable product, it is
typically protectively-coated by using ultraviolet (UV), light-cured
acrylate polymers, then terminated with optical fiber connectors, and
finally assembled into a cable. After that, it can be laid in the ground
and then run through the walls of a building and deployed aerially in a manner similar to copper cables. These fibers
require less maintenance than common twisted pair wires, once they are deployed.
[5]
Amplifiers
The transmission distance of a fiber-optic communication system has traditionally been limited by fiber attenuation
and by fiber distortion. By using opto-electronic repeaters, these problems have been eliminated. These repeaters
convert the signal into an electrical signal, and then use a transmitter to send the signal again at a higher intensity
than it was before. Because of the high complexity with modern wavelength-division multiplexed signals (including
the fact that they had to be installed about once every 20 km), the cost of these repeaters is very high.
Fiber-optic communication
12
An alternative approach is to use an optical amplifier, which amplifies the optical signal directly without having to
convert the signal into the electrical domain. It is made by doping a length of fiber with the rare-earth mineral
erbium, and pumping it with light from a laser with a shorter wavelength than the communications signal (typically
980 nm). Amplifiers have largely replaced repeaters in new installations.
Wavelength-division multiplexing
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is the practice of multiplying the available capacity of an optical fiber by
adding new channels, each channel on a new wavelength of light. This requires a wavelength division multiplexer in
the transmitting equipment and a demultiplexer (essentially a spectrometer) in the receiving equipment. Arrayed
waveguide gratings are commonly used for multiplexing and demultiplexing in WDM. Using WDM technology now
commercially available, the bandwidth of a fiber can be divided into as many as 160 channels
[6]
to support a
combined bit rate into the range of terabits per second.
Bandwidth-distance product
Because the effect of dispersion increases with the length of the fiber, a fiber transmission system is often
characterized by its bandwidth-distance product, usually expressed in units of MHz×km. This value is a product of
bandwidth and distance because there is a trade off between the bandwidth of the signal and the distance it can be
carried. For example, a common multi-mode fiber with bandwidth-distance product of 500 MHz×km could carry a
500 MHz signal for 1 km or a 1000 MHz signal for 0.5 km.
Engineers are always looking at current limitations in order to improve fiber-optic communication, and several of
these restrictions are currently being researched. Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a
different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)). The net data rate (data rate without
overhead bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead, multiplied by the number of
channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). For instance, NTT was able to
achieve 69.1 Tbit/s transmission by applying wavelength division multiplex (WDM) of 432 wavelengths with a
capacity of 171 Gbit/s over a single 240 km-long optical fiber on March 25, 2010. This was the highest optical
transmission speed recorded at that time.
[7]
Dispersion
For modern glass optical fiber, the maximum transmission distance is limited not by direct material absorption but
by several types of dispersion, or spreading of optical pulses as they travel along the fiber. Dispersion in optical
fibers is caused by a variety of factors. Intermodal dispersion, caused by the different axial speeds of different
transverse modes, limits the performance of multi-mode fiber. Because single-mode fiber supports only one
transverse mode, intermodal dispersion is eliminated.
In single-mode fiber performance is primarily limited by chromatic dispersion (also called group velocity
dispersion), which occurs because the index of the glass varies slightly depending on the wavelength of the light, and
light from real optical transmitters necessarily has nonzero spectral width (due to modulation). Polarization mode
dispersion, another source of limitation, occurs because although the single-mode fiber can sustain only one
transverse mode, it can carry this mode with two different polarizations, and slight imperfections or distortions in a
fiber can alter the propagation velocities for the two polarizations. This phenomenon is called fiber birefringence and
can be counteracted by polarization-maintaining optical fiber. Dispersion limits the bandwidth of the fiber because
the spreading optical pulse limits the rate that pulses can follow one another on the fiber and still be distinguishable
at the receiver.
Some dispersion, notably chromatic dispersion, can be removed by a 'dispersion compensator'. This works by using a
specially prepared length of fiber that has the opposite dispersion to that induced by the transmission fiber, and this
sharpens the pulse so that it can be correctly decoded by the electronics.
Fiber-optic communication
13
Attenuation
Fiber attenuation, which necessitates the use of amplification systems, is caused by a combination of material
absorption, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, and connection losses. Although material absorption for pure silica is
only around 0.03 dB/km (modern fiber has attenuation around 0.3 dB/km), impurities in the original optical fibers
caused attenuation of about 1000 dB/km. Other forms of attenuation are caused by physical stresses to the fiber,
microscopic fluctuations in density, and imperfect splicing techniques.
Transmission windows
Each effect that contributes to attenuation and dispersion depends on the optical wavelength. The wavelength bands
(or windows) that exist where these effects are weakest are the most favorable for transmission. These windows have
been standardized, and the currently defined bands are the following:
[8]
Band Description Wavelength Range
O band original 1260 to 1360 nm
E band extended 1360 to 1460 nm
S band short wavelengths 1460 to 1530 nm
C band conventional ("erbium window") 1530 to 1565 nm
L band long wavelengths 1565 to 1625 nm
U band ultralong wavelengths 1625 to 1675 nm
Note that this table shows that current technology has managed to bridge the second and third windows that were
originally disjoint.
Historically, there was a window used below the O band, called the first window, at 800-900 nm; however, losses are
high in this region so this window is used primarily for short-distance communications. The current lower windows
(O and E) around 1300 nm have much lower losses. This region has zero dispersion. The middle windows (S and C)
around 1500 nm are the most widely used. This region has the lowest attenuation losses and achieves the longest
range. It does have some dispersion, so dispersion compensator devices are used to remove this.
Regeneration
When a communications link must span a larger distance than existing fiber-optic technology is capable of, the
signal must be regenerated at intermediate points in the link by repeaters. Repeaters add substantial cost to a
communication system, and so system designers attempt to minimize their use.
Recent advances in fiber and optical communications technology have reduced signal degradation so far that
regeneration of the optical signal is only needed over distances of hundreds of kilometers. This has greatly reduced
the cost of optical networking, particularly over undersea spans where the cost and reliability of repeaters is one of
the key factors determining the performance of the whole cable system. The main advances contributing to these
performance improvements are dispersion management, which seeks to balance the effects of dispersion against
non-linearity; and solitons, which use nonlinear effects in the fiber to enable dispersion-free propagation over long
distances.
Fiber-optic communication
14
Last mile
Although fiber-optic systems excel in high-bandwidth applications, optical fiber has been slow to achieve its goal of
fiber to the premises or to solve the last mile problem. However, as bandwidth demand increases, more and more
progress towards this goal can be observed. In Japan, for instance EPON has largely replaced DSL as a broadband
Internet source. South Korea’s KT also provides a service called FTTH (Fiber To The Home), which provides
fiber-optic connections to the subscriber’s home. The largest FTTH deployments are in Japan, Korea, and China.
Singapore started implementation of their all-fibre Next Generation Nationwide Broadband Network (Next Gen
NBN), which is slated for completion in 2012 and is being installed by OpenNet. Since they began rolling out
services in September 2010, Network coverage in Singapore has reached 60% nationwide.
In the US, Verizon Communications provides a FTTH service called FiOS to select high-ARPU (Average Revenue
Per User) markets within its existing territory. The other major surviving ILEC (or Incumbent Local Exchange
Carrier), AT&T, uses a FTTN (Fiber To The Node) service called U-verse with twisted-pair to the home. Their MSO
competitors employ FTTN with coax using HFC. All of the major access networks use fiber for the bulk of the
distance from the service provider's network to the customer.
The globally dominant access network technology is EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network). In Europe, and
among telcos in the United States, BPON (ATM-based Broadband PON) and GPON (Gigabit PON) had roots in the
FSAN (Full Service Access Network) and ITU-T standards organizations under their control.
Comparison with electrical transmission
A mobile fiber optic splice lab used to access and
splice underground cables.
An underground fiber optic splice enclosure
opened up.
The choice between optical fiber and electrical (or copper)
transmission for a particular system is made based on a number of
trade-offs. Optical fiber is generally chosen for systems requiring
higher bandwidth or spanning longer distances than electrical cabling
can accommodate.
The main benefits of fiber are its exceptionally low loss (allowing long
distances between amplifiers/repeaters), its absence of ground currents
and other parasite signal and power issues common to long parallel
electric conductor runs (due to its reliance on light rather than
electricity for transmission, and the dielectric nature of fiber optic), and
its inherently high data-carrying capacity. Thousands of electrical links
would be required to replace a single high bandwidth fiber cable.
Another benefit of fibers is that even when run alongside each other for
long distances, fiber cables experience effectively no crosstalk, in
contrast to some types of electrical transmission lines. Fiber can be
installed in areas with high electromagnetic interference (EMI), such as
alongside utility lines, power lines, and railroad tracks. Nonmetallic
all-dielectric cables are also ideal for areas of high lightning-strike
incidence.
For comparison, while single-line, voice-grade copper systems longer
than a couple of kilometers require in-line signal repeaters for
satisfactory performance; it is not unusual for optical systems to go
over 100 kilometers (60 miles), with no active or passive processing.
Single-mode fiber cables are commonly available in 12 km lengths, minimizing the number of splices required over
a long cable run. Multi-mode fiber is available in lengths up to 4 km, although industrial standards only mandate
2 km unbroken runs.
Fiber-optic communication
15
In short distance and relatively low bandwidth applications, electrical transmission is often preferred because of its
• Lower material cost, where large quantities are not required
• Lower cost of transmitters and receivers
• Capability to carry electrical power as well as signals (in specially-designed cables)
• Ease of operating transducers in linear mode.
Optical fibers are more difficult and expensive to splice than electrical conductors. And at higher powers, optical
fibers are susceptible to fiber fuse, resulting in catastrophic destruction of the fiber core and damage to transmission
components.
[9]
Because of these benefits of electrical transmission, optical communication is not common in short box-to-box,
backplane, or chip-to-chip applications; however, optical systems on those scales have been demonstrated in the
laboratory.
In certain situations fiber may be used even for short distance or low bandwidth applications, due to other important
features:
• Immunity to electromagnetic interference, including nuclear electromagnetic pulses (although fiber can be
damaged by alpha and beta radiation).
• High electrical resistance, making it safe to use near high-voltage equipment or between areas with different earth
potentials.
• Lighter weight—important, for example, in aircraft.
• No sparks—important in flammable or explosive gas environments.
• Not electromagnetically radiating, and difficult to tap without disrupting the signal—important in high-security
environments.
• Much smaller cable size—important where pathway is limited, such as networking an existing building, where
smaller channels can be drilled and space can be saved in existing cable ducts and trays.
Optical fiber cables can be installed in buildings with the same equipment that is used to install copper and coaxial
cables, with some modifications due to the small size and limited pull tension and bend radius of optical cables.
Optical cables can typically be installed in duct systems in spans of 6000 meters or more depending on the duct's
condition, layout of the duct system, and installation technique. Longer cables can be coiled at an intermediate point
and pulled farther into the duct system as necessary.
Governing standards
In order for various manufacturers to be able to develop components that function compatibly in fiber optic
communication systems, a number of standards have been developed. The International Telecommunications Union
publishes several standards related to the characteristics and performance of fibers themselves, including
• ITU-T G.651, "Characteristics of a 50/125 µm multimode graded index optical fibre cable"
• ITU-T G.652, "Characteristics of a single-mode optical fibre cable"
Other standards specify performance criteria for fiber, transmitters, and receivers to be used together in conforming
systems. Some of these standards are:
• 100 Gigabit Ethernet
• 10 Gigabit Ethernet
• Fibre Channel
• Gigabit Ethernet
• HIPPI
• Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
• Synchronous Optical Networking
• Optical Transport Network (OTN)
Fiber-optic communication
16
TOSLINK is the most common format for digital audio cable using plastic optical fiber to connect digital sources to
digital receivers.
References
• Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology
[10]
• Fiber-Optic Technologies by Vivek Alwayn
[11]
• Agrawal, Govind P. (2002). Fiber-optic communication systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 0-471-21571-6.
Notes
[1] Mary Kay Carson (2007). Alexander Graham Bell: Giving Voice To The World (http:// books.google.com/ books?id=a46ivzJ1yboC).
Sterling Biographies. New York: Sterling Publishing. pp. 76–78. ISBN 978-1-4027-3230-0. .
[2] Alexander Graham Bell (October 1880). "On the Production and Reproduction of Sound by Light". American Journal of Science, Third
Series XX (118): 305–324. also published as "Selenium and the Photophone" in Nature, September 1880.
[3] "14 Tbit/s over a single optical fiber: successful demonstration of world's largest capacity" (http:// www.ntt. co.jp/ news/ news06e/ 0609/
060929a. html). News release (NTT). September 29, 2006. . Retrieved June 17, 2011.
[4] An optical fiber will break if it is bent too sharply. Alwayn, Vivek (2004-04-23). "Splicing" (http:// www. ciscopress. com/ articles/ article.
asp?p=170740&seqNum=9& rl=1). Fiber-Optic Technologies. Cisco Systems. . Retrieved 2006-12-31.
[5] (http:/ / observernews. com/ stories/ current/news/ 021105/ fiber.shtml)
[6] Infinera Introduces New Line System (http:// www.infinera.com/ j7/ servlet/ NewsItem?newsItemID=108) Infinera Corp press release,
Retrieved 2009-08-26
[7] NTT (2010-03-25). "World Record 69-Terabit Capacity for Optical Transmission over a Single Optical Fiber" (http:/ / www.ntt. co.jp/
news2010/1003e/ 100325a. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-04-03.
[8] Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (http:/ / www. rp-photonics.com/ optical_fiber_communications.html)
[9] Lee, M. M.; J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan (2006). "The Fiber Fuse Phenomenon in Polarization-Maintaining Fibers at 1.55 μm"
(http:// www. toddulmer. com/ work/lee_ulmerCLEO2006.pdf) (PDF). Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and
Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies. paper JWB66 (Optical Society of America). . Retrieved March
14, 2010
[10] http:/ / www. rp-photonics.com/ optical_fiber_communications. html
[11] http:// www. ciscopress. com/ articles/ article. asp?p=170740& seqNum=1& rl=1
External links
• How Fiber-optics work (Howstuffworks.com) (http:// electronics. howstuffworks.com/ fiber-optic.htm)
• The Laser and Fiber-optic Revolution (http:/ / www.beyonddiscovery. org/content/ view. article. asp?a=438)
• Fiber Optics, from Hyperphysics at Georgia State University (http:/ / hyperphysics. phy-astr.gsu. edu/ hbase/
optmod/ fibopt.html)
• "Understanding Optical Communications" (http:/ / www.redbooks.ibm. com/ pubs/ pdfs/ redbooks/ sg245230.
pdf) An IBM redbook
• FTTx Primer (http:// www. fiopt.com/ primer.php) July 2008
10G-EPON
17
10G-EPON
The 10 Gbit/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network standard, better known as 10G-EPON allows computer network
connections over telecommunication provider infrastructure. The standard supports two configurations: symmetric,
operating at 10 Gbit/s data rate in both directions, and asymmetric, operating at 10 Gbit/s in the downstream
(provider to customer) direction and 1 Gbit/s in the upstream direction. It was ratified as IEEE 802.3av standard in
2009.
Standardization
The Ethernet in the first mile In March 2006, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3
standards committeee held a call for interest for a 10 Gbit/s Ethernet passive optical network study group. According
to the CFI materials, representatives from the following companies supported the formation of the study group:
[1]
Advance/Newhouse Communications, Aeluros, Agilent, Allied Telesyn, Alloptic, Ample Communications,
Astar-ODSM, Broadcom, Centillium Communications, China Netcom, China Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, Cisco
Systems, ClariPhy Communications, Conexant Systems, Corecess, Corning, Delta Electronics, ETRI, Fiberxon,
FOTEK Optoelectronics, ImmenStar, Infinera, ITRI, KDDI R&D Labs., K-Opticom, Korea Telecom, NEC, OpNext,
Picolight, Quake Technologies, Salira Systems, Samsung Electronics, Softbank BB, Teknovus, Teranetics, Texas
Instruments, Telecom Malaysia, TranSwitch, UNH IOL, UTStarcom, Vitesse.
By September 2006, IEEE 802.3 formed the 802.3av task force to produce a draft standard. In September 2009, the
IEEE 802 Plenary ratified the amendment to 802.3 to make 802.3av-2009 a standard.
[2]
Major milestones:
Date Milestone
September 2006 IEEE 802.3av task force was formed and met in Knoxville, Tennesee.
December 2007 Draft D1.0 produced.
July 2008 Draft D2.0 produced. Working Group balloting began.
November 2008 Cut-off date for last technical change
January 2009 Draft D3.0 produced. Sponsor balloting began.
September 2009 Standard approved.
Architecture
Symmetric (10/10G-EPON)
Symmetric-rate 10/10G-EPON supports transmit and receive data paths operating at 10 Gbit/s. The main driver for
10/10G-EPON was to provide adequate downstream and upstream bandwidth to support multi-family residential
building (known in the standard as Multi Dwelling Unit or MDU) customers. When deployed in the MDU
configuration, one EPON ONU may be connected to up to a thousand subscribers.
The 10/10G-EPON employs a number of functions that are common to other point-to-point Ethernet standards. For
example, such functions as 64B/66B line coding, self-synchronizing scrambler, or gearbox are also used in optical
fiber types of 10 Gigabit Ethernet links.
10G-EPON
18
Asymmetric (10/1G-EPON)
The asymmetric 10/1G-EPON appear less challenging than the symmetric option, as this specification relies on fairly
mature technologies. The upstream transmission is identical to that of the 1G-EPON (as specified in IEEE standard
802.3ah), using deployed burst-mode optical transceivers. The downstream transmission, which uses
continuous-mode optics, will rely on the maturity of 10 Gbit/s point-to-point Ethernet devices.
Power budgets
The 802.3av defines several power budgets, denoted either PR or PRX. PRX power budget describes
asymmetric–rate PHY for PON operating at 10 Gbit/s downstream and 1 Gbit/s upstream. PR power budget
describes symmetric–rate PHY for PON operating at 10 Gbit/s downstream and 10 Gbit/s upstream. Each power
budget is further identified with a numeric representation of its class, where value of 10 represents low power
budget, value of 20 represents medium power budget, and value of 30 represents high power budget. The 802.3av
draft standard defines the following power budgets:
Power Budget Downstream Line
Rate
(Gbit/s)
Upstream Line
Rate
(Gbit/s)
Channel Insertion
Loss
(dB)
Notes
PRX10 10.3125 1.25 20 compatible with PX10 power budget defined for
1G-EPON
PRX20 10.3125 1.25 24 compatible with PX20 power budget defined for
1G-EPON
PRX30 10.3125 1.25 29
PR10 10.3125 10.3125 20 compatible with PX10 power budget defined for
1G-EPON
PR20 10.3125 10.3125 24 compatible with PX20 power budget defined for
1G-EPON
PR30 10.3125 10.3125 29
Forward error correction
The 10G-EPON employs a stream-based forward error correction (FEC) mechanism based on Reed-Solomon(255,
223). The FEC is mandatory for all channels operating at 10 Gbit/s rate, i.e., both downstream and upstream
channels in symmetric 10 Gbit/s EPON and the downstream channel in the 10/1 Gbit/s asymmetric EPON. Upstream
channel in the asymmetric EPON is the same as in 1 Gbit/s EPON, an optional frame-based FEC using
Reed-Solomon(255, 239).
Backward compatibility
The 10G-EPON standard defines a new physical layer, keeping the MAC, MAC Control and all the layers above
unchanged to the greatest extent possible. This means that users of 10G-EPON can expect backward compatibility of
network management system (NMS), PON-layer operations, administrations, and maintenance (OAM) system, DBA
and scheduling, and so on.
10G-EPON
19
Coexistence with 1G-EPON
The 802.3av standard places significant emphasis on enabling simultaneous operation of 1 Gbit/s and 10 Gbit/s
EPON systems on the same outside plant. In the downstream direction, the 1 Gbit/s and 10 Gbit/s channels are
separated in the wavelength domain, with 1 Gbit/s transmission limited to 1480-1500 nm band and 10 Gbit/s
transmission using 1575-1580 nm band.
In the upstream direction, the 1 Gbit/s and 10 Gbit/s bands overlap. 1 Gbit/s band spreads from 1260 to 1360 nmi
(2520 km); 10 Gbit/s band uses 1260 to 1280 nmi (2370 km) band. This allows both upstream channels to share
spectrum region characterized by low chromatic disperson, but requires the 1 Gbit/s and 10 Gbit/s channels to be
separated in time domain. Since burst transmissions from different ONUs now may have different line rates, this
method is termed dual-rate TDMA.
Various OLT implementations may support 1 Gbit/s and 10 Gbit/s transmissions only downstream direction, only
upstream direction, or in both downstream and upstream directions. The following table illustrates which ONU types
are simultaneously supported by various OLT implementations:
OLT Implementation Supported ONU types
Downstream: two wavelengths
Upstream: single rate
(1) 1G-EPON ONU
(2) 10/1G-EPON ONU
Downstream: single
wavelength
Upstream: dual rate
(1) 10/10G-EPON ONU
(2) 10/1G-EPON ONU
Downstream: two wavelengths
Upstream: dual rate
(1) 1G-EPON ONU
(2) 10/1G-EPON ONU
(3) 10/10G-EPON ONU
Related standard
Another standards body, the International Telecommunications Union has a similar standard in the ITU-T sector,
recommendation number G.987. Known as 10GPON, it has 10 Gbit/s downstream and 2.5 Gbit/s upstream, and is
intended to coexist with ITU-IT's G.984 standard known as GPON instead of the IEEE standards.
[3]
References
[1] "10Gb/s PHY for EPON - Call For Interest Presentation (http:// www.ieee802.org/ 3/ cfi/0306_1/ cfi_0306_1.pdf)
[2] "10Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network: IEEE P802.3av Task Force" (http:// www.ieee802. org/ 3/ av/ ). official web site. October 14,
2009. . Retrieved May 7, 2011.
[3] Stefan Dahlfort (September 22, 2009). "Comparison of 10 Gbit/s PON vs WDM-PON" (http:/ / conference.vde. com/ ecoc-2009/programs/
documents/sp_stefandahlfort_ng access. pdf). ECOC’2009 symposium "Next generation optical access technologies". . Retrieved May 7,
2011.
External links
• Alliance "Overview of 10Gb/s EPON Status, Requirements and Applications" (http:/ / www.ethernetalliance.
org/files/ static_page_files/ ACF586A4-1D09-3519-ADAC82B586E5A655/10GEPON_WP_EA_from
FC_Final_updated_V2d4. pdf). Ethernet Alliance. May 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
• Next-gen FTTX ecosystem (http:// www. vitesse. com/ fttx)
Optical add-drop multiplexer
20
Optical add-drop multiplexer
Optical add-drop multiplexer, using a fiber Bragg grating and two circulators.
An optical add-drop multiplexer
(OADM) is a device used in
wavelength-division multiplexing
systems for multiplexing and routing
different channels of light into or out
of a single mode fiber (SMF). This is a
type of optical node, which is generally
used for the construction of optical
telecommunications networks. "Add"
and "drop" here refer to the capability
of the device to add one or more new wavelength channels to an existing multi-wavelength WDM signal, and/or to
drop (remove) one or more channels, passing those signals to another network path. An OADM may be considered
to be a specific type of optical cross-connect.
A traditional OADM consists of three stages: an optical demultiplexer, an optical multiplexer, and between them a
method of reconfiguring the paths between the optical demultiplexer, the optical multiplexer and a set of ports for
adding and dropping signals. The optical demultiplexer separates wavelengths in an input fiber onto ports. The
reconfiguration can be achieved by a fiber patch panel or by optical switches which direct the wavelengths to the
optical multiplexer or to drop ports. The optical multiplexer multiplexes the wavelength channels that are to continue
on from demultipexer ports with those from the add ports, onto a single output fiber.
All the light paths that directly pass an OADM are termed cut-through lightpaths, while those that are added or
dropped at the OADM node are termed added/dropped lightpaths. An OADM with remotely reconfigurable optical
switches (for example 1×2) in the middle stage is called a reconfigurable OADM (ROADM). Ones without this
feature are known as fixed OADMs. While the term OADM applies to both types, it is often used interchangeably
with ROADM.
Physically, there are several ways to realize an OADM. There are a variety of demultiplexer and multiplexer
technologies including thin film filters, fiber Bragg gratings with optical circulators, free space grating devices and
integrated planar Arrayed waveguide gratings. The switching or reconfiguration functions range from the manual
fiber patch panel to a variety of switching technologies including MEMS, Liquid crystal and thermo optic switches
in planar waveguide circuits.
Although both have add/drop functionality, OADMs are distinct from add-drop multiplexers. The former function in
the photonic domain under wavelength-division multiplexing, while the latter are implicitly considered to function in
the traditional SONET/SDH networks.
References
• "OADM"
[1]
. Optical Network. Retrieved 2006-08-07.
References
[1] http:/ / www. optical-network.com/ terminology.php?letter=all&id=8
Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero
21
Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero
Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero (APRZ) is an optical signal format.
In APRZ the field intensity drops to zero between consecutive bits (RZ), and the field phase alternates between
neighbouring bits (AP), so that if the phase of the signal is, for example, 0 in even bits (bit number 2n), the phase in
odd bit slots (bit number 2n+1) will be ΔΦ, the phase alternation amplitude.
Return-to-zero (RZ) can be seen as a special case of APRZ in which ΔΦ=0, while Carrier-Suppressed
Return-to-Zero (CSRZ) can be viewed as a special case of APRZ in which ΔΦ=π (and the duty cycle is 67%, at least
in the standard form of CSRZ).
APRZ can be used to generate specific optical modulation formats, for example, APRZ-OOK, in which data is coded
on the intensity of the signal using a binary scheme (light on=1, light off=0). APRZ is often used to designate
APRZ-OOK.
The characteristic properties of an APRZ signal are those to have a spectrum similar to that of an RZ signal, except
that frequency peaks at a spacing of B
R
/2 as opposed to B
R
are observed (where B
R
is the bit rate).
APRZ-OOK is considered to be more tolerant to pulse-to-pulse (intra-channel) non-linear impairments, with respect
to other OOK modulation formats.
Automatically switched optical network
ASON (Automatically Switched Optical Network) is a concept for the evolution of transport networks which allows
for dynamic policy-driven control of an optical or SDH network based on signaling between a user and components
of the network.
[1]
Its aim is to automate the resource and connection management within the network. The IETF
defines ASON as an alternative/supplement to NMS based connection management.
[2]
The Need for ASON
In an optical network without ASON, whenever a user requires more bandwidth, there is a request for a new
connection
[By whom?, To Whom?]
. The service provider must then manually plan and configure the route in the
network. This is not only time consuming, but also wastes bandwidth if the user sparingly uses the connection.
Bandwidth is increasingly becoming a precious resource and expectations from future optical networks are that they
should be able to efficiently handle resources as quickly as possible. ASON fulfills some of the requirements of
optical networks such as:
• Fast and automatic end-to-end provisioning
• Fast and efficient re-routing
• Support of different clients, but optimized for IP
• Dynamic set up of connections
• Support of Optical Virtual Private Networks (OVPNs)
• Support of different levels of quality of service
( These requirements are not restricted to optical networks and can be applied to any transport network (including
SDH Networks). )
[3]
Automatically switched optical network
22
Logical Architecture of An ASON
Logical Architecture of ASON
The logical architecture of an ASON can be divided into 3 planes:
• Transport Plane
• Control Plane
• Management Plane
The Transport Plane contains a number of switches (optical or
otherwise) responsible for transporting user data via connections.
These switches are connected to each other via PI (Physical Interface).
The Control Plane is responsible for the actual resource and
connection management within an ASN network. It consists of a series
of OCC (Optical Connection Controllers), interconnected via NNIs
(Network to Network Interfaces). These OCCs have the following functions:
• Network topology discovery (resource discovery)
• Signaling, routing, address assignment
• Connection set-up/tear-down
• Connection protection/restoration
• Traffic engineering
• Wavelength assignment
[3]
The Management Plane is responsible for managing the Control plane. Its responsibilities include Configuration
Management of the Control Plane Resources, Routing Areas, Transport resource in Control Plane and Policy. It also
provides Fault Management, Performance Management, Accounting and Security Management functions.
[4]
The
Management Plane contains the Network Management Entity which is connected to an OCC in Control Plane via the
NMI-A ( Network Management Interface for ASON Control Plane) and to one of the switches via NMI-T ( Network
Management Interface for the Transport Network).
The traffic from user connected to an ASON network contains data for both Transport and Control Plane. The user is
connected to Transport plane via a PI (Physical Interface), while it communicates with the Control plane via a UNI (
User Network Interface).
[3]
The Role of IETF
While ITU has worked on the requirements and architecture of ASON based on the requirements on its members, it
is explicitly aiming to avoid the development of new protocols, when existing ones will work fine. The IETF, on the
other hand , has been tasked with the development of new protocols in response to general industry requirement.
Therefore, while ITU already include the PNNI protocol for signaling in the Control plane, IETF has been
developing GMPLS as a second option protocol to be used in the Control Plane for signalling.
[5]
As a product of
IETF, GMPLS (Generalized MPLS) uses IP to communicate between different components in the Control Plane.
[6]
Automatically switched optical network
23
ITU-T documentation for ASON standardization
The following is a list and description of architecture and requirements as published by ITU-T
• G.8080/Y.1304, Architecture for the automatically switched optical network (ASON)
• G.807/Y.1302, Requirements for automatic switched transport networks (ASTN) Call and Connection
Management
• G.7713/Y.1704, Distributed call and connection management (DCM)
• G.7713.1/Y.1704.1, DCM signalling mechanism using PNNI/Q.2931
• G.7713.2/Y.1704.2, DCM signalling mechanism using GMPLS RSVP-TE
• G.7713.3/Y.1704.3, DCM signalling mechanism using GMPLS CR-LDP Discovery and Link Management
• G.7714/Y.1705, Generalized automatic discovery techniques
• G.7715/Y.1706, Architecture and requirements of routing for automatic switched transport network
• G.7716/Y.1707, Architecture and requirements of link resource management for automatically switched transport
networks
• G.7717/Y.1708, ASTN connection admission control. Other Related Recommendations
• G.872, Architecture of optical transport networks
• G.709/Y.1331, Interface for the optical transport network (OTN)
• G.959.1, Optical transport network physical layer interfaces
• G.874, Management aspects of the optical transport network element
• G.874.1, Optical transport network (OTN) protocolneutral management information model for the network
element view.
• G.875, Optical transport network (OTN) management information model for the network element view
• G.7041/Y.1303, Generic framing procedure (GFP)
• G.7042/Y.1305, Link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) for virtual concatenated signals
• G.65x, series on optical fibre cables and test methods
• G.693, Optical interfaces for intra-office systems
• G.7710/Y.1701, Common equipment management function requirements
• G.7712/Y.1703, Architecture and specification of data communication network.
• G.806, Characteristics of transport equipment . Description methodology and generic functionality.
[1]
References
[1] ITU-T Promotional Document (http:// www.itu. int/ itudoc/ gs/ promo/tsb/ 80686. pdf)
[2] Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS," Route into Common Future" - Slide 6 (http:// www.
ietf.org/ proceedings/ 01dec/ slides/ plenary-2/sld006. htm)
[3] Automatic Switched Optical Networks: functionality and architectural components, Roberto Clemente and Giuseppe Ferraris , 2nd Eurescom
WDM Hungarian Workshop Budapest, March 27th 2001 (http:/ / www.eurescom. de/ ~projects-workspace/P1000-series/ P1012/
presentations/ pdf/2nd Hungarian WDM workshop. pdf)
[4] Management of ASON-capable Network and its Control Plane, by H. Kam LAM, ITU-T Workshop “NGN and its Transport Networks“ Kobe,
20-21 April 2006 (http:/ / www.itu. int/ ITU-T/worksem/ ngn/ 200604/ presentation/ s4_lam.pdf)
[5] ASON AND GMPLS - THE BATTLE OF THE OPTICAL CONTROL PLANE, Nick Larkin, Data Connection Ltd. Whitepaper (http:/ /
www.dataconnection. com/ network/ download/ whitepapers/ asongmpls. pdf)
[6] Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Route into Common Future - Slide 2 (http:/ / www.
ietf.org/ proceedings/ 01dec/ slides/ plenary-2/sld002. htm)
Brillouin scattering
24
Brillouin scattering
Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, occurs when light in a medium (such as air, water or a crystal)
interacts with time dependent optical density variations and changes its energy (frequency) and path. The density
variations may be due to acoustic modes, such as phonons, magnetic modes, such as magnons, or temperature
gradients. As described in classical physics, when the medium is compressed its index of refraction changes, and a
fraction of the traveling light wave, interacting with the periodic refraction index variations, is deflected as in a
three-dimensional diffraction grating. Since the sound wave, too, is travelling, light is also subjected to a Doppler
shift, so its frequency changes.
Mechanism
From a quantum perspective, Brillouin scattering is an
interaction between an electromagnetic wave and a
density wave (photon-phonon scattering), magnetic
spin wave (photon-magnon scattering), or other low
frequency quasiparticle. The scattering is inelastic: the
photon may lose energy to create a quasiparticle
(Stokes process) or gain energy by destroying one
(anti-Stokes process). This shift in photon frequency,
known as the Brillouin shift, is equal to the energy of
the interacting phonon or magnon and thus Brillouin
scattering can be used to measure phonon or magnon
energies. The Brillouin shift is commonly measured by
the use of a Brillouin spectrometer, based on a
Fabry–Pérot interferometer.
Relationship to Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering, too, can be considered to be due to fluctuation in the density, composition and orientation of
molecules, and hence of refraction index, in small volumes of matter (particularly in gases or liquids). The difference
is that Rayleigh scattering considers only random and incoherent thermal fluctuations, in contrast with the correlated,
periodic fluctuations (phonons) of Brillouin scattering. Roughly speaking, we could say that in a silent environment
we have Rayleigh, in the presence of noise we have Brillouin scattering.
Relationship to Raman scattering
Raman scattering is another phenomenon involving inelastic scattering processes of light with vibrational properties
of matter. The detected frequency shift range and type of information extracted from the sample, however, are very
different. Brillouin scattering denominates the scattering of photons from low-frequency phonons, while for Raman
scattering photons are scattered by interaction with vibrational and rotational transitions in single molecules.
Therefore the two techniques provide very different information about the sample: Raman spectroscopy is used to
determine the chemical composition and molecular structure, while Brillouin scattering measures properties on a
larger scale – such as the elastic behaviour. Experimentally, the frequency shifts in Brillouin scattering are detected
with an interferometer, while Raman setup can be based on either interferometer or dispersive (grating)
spectrometer.
Brillouin scattering
25
Stimulated Brillouin scattering
For intense beams (e.g. laser light) travelling in a medium such as an optical fiber, the variations in the electric field
of the beam itself may produce acoustic vibrations in the medium via electrostriction. The beam may undergo
Brillouin scattering from these vibrations, usually in opposite direction to the incoming beam, a phenomenon known
as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). For liquids and gases, typical frequency shifts are of the order of 1–10
GHz (wavelength shifts of ~1–10 pm for visible light). Stimulated Brillouin scattering is one effect by which optical
phase conjugation can take place.
Discovery
Inelastic scattering of light by acoustic phonons was first predicted by Léon Brillouin in 1922. Leonid Mandelstam is
believed to have recognised the possibility of such scattering as early as 1918, but he published it only in 1926.
[1]
In
order to credit Mandelstam the effect is also called Brillouin-Mandelstam scattering (BMS). Other commonly used
names are Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and Brillouin-Mandelstam light scattering (BMLS).
The process of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was first observed by Chiao et al. in 1964. The optical phase
conjugation aspect of the SBS process was discovered by Zel’dovich et al. in 1972.
Fiber Optic Sensing
Brillouin scattering can also be employed to sense mechanical strain and temperature in optical fibers.
[2]
References
[1] Feînberg, E.L.: The forefather, Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, Vol. 172, 2002 (Physics-Uspekhi, 45, 81 (2002)
doi:10.1070/PU2002v045n01ABEH001126)
[2] Measures, Raymond M. (2001). Structural Monitoring with Fiber Optic Technology. San Diego, California, USA: Academic Press.
pp. Chapter 7. ISBN 0-12-487430-4.
• Léon Brillouin, Ann. Phys. (Paris) 17, 88 (1922).
• L.I. Mandelstam, Zh. Russ. Fiz-Khim., Ova. 58, 381 (1926).
• R.Y.Chiao, C.H.Townes and B.P.Stoicheff, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering and coherent generation of intense
hypersonic waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 12, 592 (1964)
• B.Ya. Zel’dovich, V.I.Popovichev, V.V.Ragulskii and F.S.Faisullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the
reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam Brillouin scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP , 15, 109 (1972)
External links
• CIMIT Center for Intigration of Medicine and Innovative Technology (http:// cimit. org)
• Brillouin scattering (http:/ / www. rp-photonics. com/ brillouin_scattering.html) in the Encyclopedia of Laser
Physics and Technology
• Surface Brillouin Scattering (http:// www. soest. hawaii. edu/ ~zinin/ Zi-Brillouin.html), U. Hawaii
• List of labs (http:/ / www. icmm.csic. es/ brillouin/BrillouinEN.htm) performing Brillouin scattering
measurements
Optical buffer
26
Optical buffer
In telecommunications, an optical buffer is a device that is capable of temporarily storing light. Just as in the case of
a regular buffer, it is a storage medium that enables compensation for a difference in time of occurrence of events.
More specifically, an optical buffer serves to store data that was transmitted optically (i.e., in the form of light),
without converting it to the electrical domain.
Optical networks
Today, computer networks consist of optical fiber links, interconnected by electrical nodes. The data transport in the
backbone is done in the form of light, typically from LED or laser. DWDM technologies enable bitrates well beyond
1 Tbit/s. However, at the nodes, this light has to be converted to the electronic domain, in order to switch all data to
their separate destinations. Due to rapidly increasing channel capacities, the switching capacity is becoming the
bottleneck of the system. Currently, research activities focus on optical switching technologies, that involve fewer or
no conversions from the optical to the electronic domain. An important problem however, is the buffering.
Contention resolution
Whenever two or more data packets arrive at a network node at the same time and contend for the same output,
external blocking occurs. All packets but one are perceived as superfluous, and have to be dealt with. Next to the
obvious choice of dropping all excess packets, academic literature typically presents three solutions: buffering,
deflection routing or wavelength conversion. Optical buffering uses fiber delay lines (FDLs) to delay the light, and is
regarded as the most effective, but comes with the additional cost of the FDLs.
Implementation of optical buffers
As light cannot be frozen, an optical buffer is made of optical fibers, and is generally much larger than a RAM chip
of comparable capacity. A single fiber can serve as a buffer. However, a set of more than one is usually used. A
possibility, for example, is to choose a certain length for the smallest fiber, and then let the second, third... have
lengths . Another typical example is to use a single loop, in which the data circulates a variable
number of times.
Research
Currently, research on optical buffers is performed in two separate fields. One is to investigate on the technological
implementation of this buffer, and try to reduce the size by using slow-light devices
[1]
. The other is to better overall
performance, by using stochastics. (Further detail on the latter approach can be found e.g. on the author's homepage
[2]
.)
References
[1] http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news7839. html
[2] http:/ / telin.ugent. be/ ~wrogiest
Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero
27
Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero
Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero (CSRZ) is an optical signal format. In CSRZ the field intensity drops to zero
between consecutive bits (RZ), and the field phase alternates by π between neighbouring bits, so that if the phase of
the signal is e.g. 0 in even bits (bit number 2n), the phase in odd bit slots (bit number 2n+1) will be π, the phase
alternation amplitude. In its standard form CSRZ is generated by a single Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), driven
by two sinusoidal waves at half the bit rate B
R
, and in phase opposition. This gives rise to characteristically broad
pulses (duty cycle 67%).
The signal format Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero (APRZ) can be viewed as a generalisation of CSRZ in which the
phase alternation can take up any value ΔΦ (and not necessarily only π) and the duty cycle is also a free parameter.
CSRZ can be used to generate specific optical modulation formats, e.g. CSRZ-OOK, in which data is coded on the
intensity of the signal using a binary scheme (light on=1, light off=0), or CSRZ-DPSK, in which data is coded on the
differential phase of the signal, etc. CSRZ is often used to designate APRZ-OOK.
The characteristic properties of an CSRZ signal are those to have a spectrum similar to that of an RZ signal, except
that frequency peaks (still at a spacing of B
R
) are shifted by B
R
/2 with respect to RZ, so that no peak is present at the
carrier and power is ideally zero at the carrier frequency (hence the name).
Compared to standard RZ-OOK, the CSRZ-OOK is considered to be more tolerant to filtering and chromatic
dispersion, thanks to its narrower spectrum.
Optical cross-connect
An optical cross-connect (OXC) is a device used by telecommunications carriers to switch high-speed optical
signals in a fiber optic network, such as an optical mesh network.
There are several ways to realize an OXC:
• Opaque OXCs (electronic switching) - One can implement an OXC in the electronic domain: all the input optical
signals are converted into electronic signals after they are demultiplexed by demultiplexers. The electronic signals
are then switched by an electronic switch module. Finally the switched electronic signals are converted back into
optical signals by using them to modulate lasers and then the resulting optical signals are multiplexed by optical
multiplexers onto outlet optical fibers. This is known as an "OEO" (Optical-Electrical-Optical) design.
Cross-connects based on an OEO switching process generally have a key limitation: the electronic circuits limit
the maximum bandwidth of the signal. Such an architecture prevents an OXC from performing with the same
speed as an all-optical cross-connect, and is not transparent to the network protocols used. On the other hand, it is
easy to monitor signal quality in an OEO device, since everything is converted back to the electronic format at the
switch node. An additional advantage is that the optical signals are regenerated, so they leave the node free of
dispersion and attenuation. An electronic OXC is also called an opaque OXC.
• Transparent OXCs (optical switching) - Switching optical signals in an all-optical device is the second approach
to realize an OXC. Such a switch is often called a transparent OXC or photonic cross-connect (PXC).
Specifically, optical signals are demultiplexed, then the demultiplexed wavelengths are switched by optical switch
modules. After switching, the optical signals are multiplexed onto output fibers by optical multiplexers. Such a
switch architecture keeps the features of data rate and protocol transparency. However, because the signals are
kept in the optical format, the transparent OXC architecture does not allow easy optical signal quality monitoring.
• Translucent OXCs (optical and electronic switching) - As a compromise between opaque and transparent
OXC's, there is a type of OXC called a translucent OXC. In such a switch architecture, there is a switch stage
which consists of an optical switch module and an electronic switch module. Optical signals passing through the
Optical cross-connect
28
switch stage can be switched either by the optical switch module or the electronic switch module. In most cases,
the optical switch module is preferred for the purpose of transparency. When the optical switch module's
switching interfaces are all busy or an optical signal needs signal regeneration through an OEO conversion
process, the electronic module is used. Translucent OXC nodes provide a compromise of full optical signal
transparency and comprehensive optical signal monitoring. It also provides the possibility of signal regeneration
at each node.
An optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) can be viewed as a special case of an OXC, where to node degree is two.
Dark fibre
A dark fiber or unlit fiber is an unused Optical fiber, available for use in fiber-optic communication.
The term dark fiber was originally used when referring to the potential network capacity of telecommunication
infrastructure, but now also refers to the increasingly common practice of leasing fiber optic cables from a network
service provider.
For capacity expansion
One reason that dark fiber exists in well-planned networks is that much of the cost of installing cables is in the civil
engineering work required. This includes planning and routing, obtaining permissions, creating ducts and channels
for the cables, and finally installation and connection. This work usually accounts for more than 60% of the cost of
developing fiber networks. For example, in Amsterdam's city-wide installation of a fiber network, roughly 80% of
the costs involved were labor, with only 10% being fibre.
[1]
It therefore makes sense to plan for, and install,
significantly more fiber than is needed for current demand, to provide for future expansion and provide for network
redundancy in case any of the cables fail.
Many fiber optic cable owners such as railroads or power utilities have always added additional fibers for lease to
other carriers.
In common vernacular, dark fiber may sometimes still be called "dark" if it has been lit by a fiber lessee and not the
cable's owner.
Overcapacity
In the dot-com bubble, a large number of telephone companies built optical fiber networks, each with the business
plan of cornering the market in telecommunications by providing a network with sufficient capacity to take all
existing and forecast traffic for the entire region served. This was based on the assumption that telecoms traffic,
particularly data traffic, would continue to grow exponentially for the foreseeable future
[2]
.
The availability of wavelength-division multiplexing further reduced the demand for fiber by increasing the capacity
that could be placed on a single fiber by a factor of as much as 100. As a result, the wholesale price of data traffic
collapsed. A number of these companies filed for bankruptcy protection as a result. Global Crossing
[3]
and
Worldcom
[4]
are two high profile examples.
Just as with the Railway Mania, the misfortune of one market sector became the good fortune of another, and this
overcapacity created a new telecommunications market sector.
Dark fibre
29
Market
For many years incumbent local exchange carriers would not sell dark fiber to end users, because they believed
selling access to this core asset would cannibalize their other, more lucrative services. Incumbent carriers in the US
were required to sell dark fiber to competitive local exchange carriers as Unbundled Network Elements (UNE), but
they have successfully lobbied to reduce these provisions for existing fiber, and eliminated it completely for new
fiber placed for fibre to the premises (FTTP) deployments.
Competitive local carriers were not required to sell dark fiber, and many do not, although fiber swaps between
competitive carriers are quite common. This increases the reach of their networks in places where their competitor
has a presence, in exchange for provision of fiber capacity on places where that competitor has no presence. This is a
practice known in the industry as "coopetition".
Meanwhile, other companies arose specializing as dark fiber providers. Dark fiber became more available when
there was enormous overcapacity after the boom years of the late 1990s through 2001. The market for dark fiber
tightened up with the return of capital investment to light up existing fiber, and with mergers and acquisitions
resulting in consolidation of dark fiber providers.
Dark fiber capacity is typically used by network operators to build SONET and dense wavelength division
multiplexing (DWDM) networks, usually involving meshes of self-healing rings. Now, it is also used by end-user
enterprises to expand Ethernet local area networks, especially since the adoption of IEEE standards for Gigabit
Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet over single-mode optical fiber. Running Ethernet networks between geographically
separated buildings is a practice known as "WAN elimination".
Emerging Markets
In the last decade, many higher education institutions have bought up large quantities of existing fiber optics sitting
dormant. Starting in 1999, Larry Starr, a technology director from the University of Illinois, connected the
Urbana-Champaign campus to major academic, research, and telecommunications facilities in the Chicago area
[5]
.
At the same time, other schools began creating large urban networks to directly connect their school campuses with
hospitals and large telecommunications companies in metropolitan areas. Since then, the U.S. research and education
(R&E) community have been aggressively pursuing a revolutionary new means for delivering advanced networking
capabilities
[6]
. With the plummeting prices of fiber due to the over abundance, the option to own fiber networks has
stomped out the competition leasing of commercial circuits elsewhere. Experts say that a mile of dark fiber that in
the past would sell for $1,200 has sold, for as low $200 or less. The downturn in telecommunications has offered
significant savings to schools, since intercity networks may include several hundred to several thousand miles of
fiber optic cable.
[7]
Variations
• Managed dark fiber is a form of wavelength-division multiplexed access to otherwise dark fiber where a simple
"pilot" signal is beamed into the fiber by the fiber provider for management purposes using a transponder tuned to
the assigned wavelength. DWDM systems generally require central management because their closely spaced
wavelengths are subject to disruption by signals on adjacent wavelengths that are not within tightly controlled
parameters, especially if amplification is required for signal transmission over 100 km.
• Virtual dark fiber using wavelength multiplexing allows a service provider to offer individual wavelengths
("lambdas" (λ) or "colors"), where access to a dark narrowband wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical
channel is provided over a wavelength division multiplexed fiber network that is managed at the physical level,
but unlit by the network provider. This is typically done using coarse wavelength division multiplexing CWDM
because the wider 20 nm spacing of the wave bands makes these systems much less susceptible to interference.
Dark fibre
30
Rate of expansion
According to Gerry Butters,
[8]

[9]

[10]
the former head of Lucent's Optical Networking Group at Bell Labs, Moore's
law holds true with fiber optics.
[11]
The amount of data coming out of an optical fiber is doubling every nine months.
Thus, excluding the transmission equipment upgrades, the cost of transmitting a bit over an optical network
decreases by half every nine months. The availability of dense wavelength-division multiplexing DWDM and coarse
wavelength division multiplexing CWDM is rapidly bringing down the cost of networking, and further progress
seems assured.
References
[1] http:/ / arstechnica.com/ tech-policy/ news/ 2010/ 03/ how-amsterdam-was-wired-for-open-access-fiber.ars/ 4
[2] http:// firstmonday.org/ htbin/ cgiwrap/bin/ ojs/ index. php/ fm/article/viewArticle/ 3142/ 2603
[3] http:// investors. globalcrossing. com/ secfiling. cfm?filingID=893750-02-72
[4] http:/ / news. corporate.findlaw.com/ hdocs/ docs/ worldcom/thornburgh1strpt.pdf
[5] http:// www. educause. edu/ EDUCAUSE+Review/ EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume40/ DarkFiberShiningaNewLight/157981
[6] http:// www. educause. edu/ EDUCAUSE+Review/ EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume40/ DarkFiberShiningaNewLight/157981
[7] http:// web.ebscohost. com. libdb. njit. edu:8888/ ehost/ detail?sid=7c31ab31-86b4-4ec6-b48a-422db3df3c95%40sessionmgr115&vid=1&
hid=119& bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=eric&AN=EJ664783
[8] Forbes.com - Profile - Gerald Butters is a communications industry veteran (http:// www.forbes.com/ finance/ mktguideapps/ personinfo/
FromPersonIdPersonTearsheet. jhtml?passedPersonId=922126)
[9] Forbes.com - Profile - Gerry Butters is a communications industry veteran (http:// www.forbes.com/ finance/ mktguideapps/ personinfo/
FromPersonIdPersonTearsheet. jhtml?passedPersonId=1098900)
[10] LAMBDA Optical Systems - Board of Directors - Gerry Butters (http:// www.lambdaopticalsystems. com/ about-board-dir.php)
[11] Speeding net traffic with tiny mirrors (http:// www.eetimes. com/ story/ OEG20000926S0065)
Dark fibre network
A dark fibre network or simply dark network
[1]
is a privately operated optical fibre network that is run directly by
its operator over dark fibre leased or purchased from another supplier, rather than by purchasing bandwidth or leased
line capacity. Dark fibre networks may be used for private networking, or as Internet access or Internet infrastructure
networking.
Dark fibre networks may be point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, or use self-healing ring or mesh topologies.
Because there is no intermediate resale of capacity, dark fibre networks can operate using the latest optical protocols
using wavelength division multiplexing to add capacity where needed, and to provide an upgrade path between
technologies without removing the network from service.
For example, many dark fibre metropolitan area networks use cheap Gigabit Ethernet equipment over CWDM, rather
than expensive SONET ring systems.
They offer very high price-performance for network users who require high performance, such as Google, which has
dark network capacities for video and search data,
[1]
or wish to operate their own network for security or other
commercial reasons.
However, dark fibre networks are generally only available in high-population-density areas where fibre has already
been laid, as the civil engineering costs of installing fibre to new locations is often prohibitive. For these reasons,
dark fibre networks are typically run between data centers and other places with existing fibre infrastructure.
Dark fibre network
31
References
[1] Markoff, John (1 March 2010). "Scientists Strive to Map the Shape-Shifting Net" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2010/ 03/ 02/ science/ 02topo.
html?_r=1&src=sch& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved 27 July 2010.
Dispersion-limited operation
A dispersion-limited operation is an operation of a communications link in which signal waveform degradation
attributable to the dispersive effects of the communications medium is the dominant mechanism that limits link
performance. The dispersion is the filter-like effect that a link has on the signal, due to the different propagation
speeds of the eigenmodes of the link. Practically, this means that the waveform at the input will be different from the
waveform at the output of the link.
Note that the amount of allowable degradation is dependent on the quality of the receiver. Note also that in fiber
optic communications, dispersion-limited operation is often confused with distortion-limited operation.
References
•  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services
Administration (in support of MIL-STD-188).
Optical DPSK demodulator
An Optical DPSK demodulator is a device that provides a method for converting an optical differential phase-shift
keying (DPSK) signal to an intensity-keyed signal at the receiving end in fiber-optic communication networks. It is
also known as delay line interferometer (DLI), or simply called DPSK demodulator
[1]

[2]
.
Working principle of optical DPSK demodulation: (a) Incoming DPSK signal with
uniform intensity, (b) 1-bit delay of the incoming DPSK signal with uniform intensity,
and (c) Demodulated intensity signal after interference between (a)/(a') and (b)/(b').
The DPSK decoding method is
achieved by comparing the phase of
two sequential bits. An incoming
DPSK optical signal is first split into
two beams with equal intensities, in
which one beam is delayed in space by
an optical path difference that
introduces a time delay corresponding
to one bit. The two beams in the two
paths are then coherently recombined
to interfere each other constructively or
destructively. The interference
intensity is measured and becomes the
intensity-keyed signal. A typical
optical system for such a purpose is
Mach-Zehnder interferometer or Michelson interferometer, forming an optical DPSK Demodulator.
Delay time depends on the data rate. For instance, in a 40 Gbit/s system, one bit corresponds to 25 picoseconds, and
light travels 5 mm in a fiber optics or 7.5 mm in free space within that period. Thus the optical path difference
between the two beams is 5 mm or 7.5 mm depending on the type of interferometer used.
DQPSK
[3]

[4]
is the four-level version of DPSK. DQPSK transmits two bits for every symbol (bit combinations being
00, 01, 11 and 10) and has an additional advantage over conventional binary DPSK. DQPSK has a narrower optical
Optical DPSK demodulator
32
spectrum, which tolerates more dispersion (both chromatic and polarization-mode), allows for stronger optical
filtering, and enables closer channel spacing. As a result, DQPSK allows processing of 40 Gbit/s data-rate in a 50
GHz channel spacing system. A demodulator for optical DQPSK signals can be constructed using two matched
DPSK demodulators with phase off-set at .
References
[1] DPSK demodulation for fiber-optic communications (http:// www. optoplex. com/ DPSK_Demodulator.htm)
[2] All-Fiber Delay line interferometer and Optical DPSK demodulator (http:// 216.234.124. 74/ ITFLabs/Products. php?locale=en&
Line_no=13& sub_category_id=155& cat_category_id=138)
[3] DQPSK Demodulators (http:// www.optoplex. com/ DQPSK_Demodulator. htm)
[4] Tunable DPSK demodulator for DQPSK application (http:// www. kylia. com/ dpsk. html)
Dynamic circuit network
A dynamic circuit network (DCN) is an advanced computer networking technology that combines traditional
packet-switched communication based on the Internet Protocol, as used in the Internet, with circuit-switched
technologies that are characteristic of traditional telephone network systems. This combination allows user-initiated
ad-hoc dedicated allocation of network bandwidth for high-demand, real-time applications and network services,
delivered over an optical fiber infrastructure.
[1]
Implementation
Dynamic circuit networks were pioneered by the Internet2 advanced networking consortium.
[2]
The experimental
Internet2 HOPI infrastructure, decommissioned in 2007, was a forerunner to the current SONET-based Ciena
Network underlying the Internet2 DCN. The Internet2 DCN began operation in late 2007 as part of the larger
Internet2 network.
[3]
It provides advanced networking capabilities and resources to the scientific and research
communities, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project.
[4]
The Internet2 DCN is based on open-source, standards-based software, the Inter-domain Controller (IDC) protocol,
developed in cooperation with ESnet
[5]
and GÉANT2.
[3]
The entire software set is known as the Dynamic Circuit
Network Software Suite (DCN SS).
Inter-domain Controller protocol
The Inter-domain Controller protocol manages the dynamic provisioning of network resources participating in a
dynamic circuit network across multiple administrative domain boundaries.
[6]
It is a SOAP-based XML messaging
protocol, secured by Web Services Security (v1.1) using the XML Digital Signature standard. It is transported over
HTTP Secure (HTTPS) connections.
References
[1] Erica Naone (2008-02-14). "Bandwidth on Demand" (http:// www. technologyreview.com/ Infotech/20277/ page1/ ?a=f). MIT Technology
Review. .
[2] "Dynamic Circuit Network" (http:/ /www. internet2.edu/ network/dc/ ). Internet2. .
[3] Internet2 DCN Working Group (2009-02-03). "Internet2 DCN Pilot Service Definition" (https:/ / spaces. internet2.edu/ download/
attachments/12931/ Internet2+DCN+ Pilot+ Service+Definition+v0.4.pdf) (PDF). .
[4] Mary E. Shacklett (2009-08-11). "Dynamic Circuit Network Debuts for Researchers" (http:// www.internetevolution.com/ author.
asp?section_id=562&doc_id=180322). Internet Evolution. . Retrieved 2009-08-19.
[5] C.P. Guok, D.W. Robinson, E. Chaniotakis, M.R. Thompson, W. Johnston, B. Tierney (2008). "A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network
Implementation" (http:// www.es. net/ pub/ esnet-doc/ DANMS08_1569141354_Guok_et-al.pdf) (PDF). ESNET. .
Dynamic circuit network
33
[6] A. Lake, J. Vollbrecht, A. Brown, J. Zurawski, D. Robertson, M. Thompson, C. Guok, E. Chaniotakis, T. Lehman (2008-05-30).
"Inter-domain Controller (IDC) Protocol Specification" (https:// wiki.internet2.edu/ confluence/ download/ attachments/ 19074/
IDC-Messaging-draft. pdf?version=1) (PDF). .
External links
• Internet2 Website (http:// www. internet2.edu/ )
• Dynamic Circuit Network Suite (https:/ / wiki. internet2. edu/ confluence/display/ DCNSS/ Home)
Fiber in the loop
Fiber In The Loop (FITL) is a system implementing or upgrading portions of the POTS local loop with fiber optic
technology from the central office of a telephone carrier to a remote Serving area interface (SAI) located in a
neighborhood or to an Optical Network Unit (ONU) located at the customer premises (residential and/or business).
Generally, fiber is used in either all or part of the local loop distribution network. FITL can be implemented with any
FTTx architecture, such as fiber to the curb (FTTC), fiber to the node (FTTN), and fiber to the premises (FTTP).
Residential areas already served by balanced pair distribution plant call for a trade-off between cost and capacity.
The closer the fiber head, the higher the cost of construction and the higher the channel capacity. In places not served
by metallic facilities, little cost is saved by not running fiber to the home.
A similar network called a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) network is used by cable television operators but is usually
not synonymous with "fiber In the loop", although similar advanced services are provided by the HFC network.
Fiber media converter
Fiber media converters are simple networking devices that make it possible to connect two dissimilar media types
such as twisted pair with fiber optic cabling. They were introduced to the industry nearly two decades ago, and are
important in interconnecting fiber optic cabling-based systems with existing copper-based, structured cabling
systems. They are also used in MAN access and data transport services to enterprise customers.
Media conversion types
Fiber media converters support many different data communication protocols including Ethernet, Fast Ethernet,
Gigabit Ethernet, T1/E1/J1, DS3/E3, as well as multiple cabling types such as coax, twisted pair, multi-mode and
single-mode fiber optics. Media converter types range from small standalone devices and PC card converters to high
port-density chassis systems that offer many advanced features for network management.
On some devices, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) enables proactive management of link status,
monitoring chassis environmental statistics and sending traps to network managers in the event of a fiber break or
even link loss on the copper port.
Fiber media converters can connect different Local area network (LAN) media, modifying duplex and speed settings.
Switching media converters can connect legacy 10BASE-T network segments to more recent 100BASE-TX or
100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet infrastructure. For example, existing Half-Duplex hubs can be connected to
100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet network segments over 100BASE-FX fiber.
When expanding the reach of the LAN to span multiple locations, media converters are useful in connecting multiple
LANs to form one large campus area network that spans over a limited geographic area. As premises networks are
primarily copper-based, media converters can extend the reach of the LAN over single-mode fiber up to 130
kilometers with 1550 nm optics.
Fiber media converter
34
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology in the LAN is especially beneficial in situations where fiber is
in limited supply or expensive to provision. As well as conventional dual strand fiber converters, with separate
receive and transmit ports, there are also single strand fiber converters, which can extend full-duplex data
transmission up to 70 kilometers over one optical fiber.
Other benefits of media conversion include providing a gradual migration path from copper to fiber. Fiber
connections can reduce electromagnetic interference.
Also fiber media converters pose as a cheap solution for those who want to buy switches for use with fiber but do not
have the funds to afford them , they can buy ordinary switches and use fiber media converters to use with their fiber
network.
References
• Spurgeon, Charles E., Ethernet: The Definitive Guide, Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, 2000
• Residential Network Cabling, New York, NY: R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 2002
• The Switching Book, Xylan: An Alcatel Company, 1999
Fiber to the premises by country
This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises by country.
Africa
Kenya
Zuku FIBRE
[1]
broadband residential and SOHO packages 1Mbps, 4Mbps and 8Mbps currently available in
Nairobi’s Kileleshwa, Kilimani and Lavington suburbs
[2]
. Also available as Triple-Play bundles.
Asia
Further information: FTTH Council Asia Pacific
China
In APOC 2003 (Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications) held in Wuhan, many Chinese telecom experts
discussed FTTH (fiber to the home) in China for the first time in the last a few years. The topics include FTTH
opportunities and challenges, FTTH applications, FTTH network architecture, cost analysis, etc. That forum
attracted a lot of attention of China's telecom community and became a starting point for this new FTTH wave.
Hong Kong
As of April 2006, HKBN was offering its customers Internet access via fiber to the building and fiber to the home.
Speeds ranged from 10 Mbit/s (19 USD/month) to up to 1000 Mbit/s (1 Gbit/s) (215 USD/month), although the
speed to non-Hong Kong destinations was capped at 20 Mbit/s. And in October 2007, the largest telecom giant in
Hong Kong -- PCCW started to offer both 100 Mbit/s and 1000 Mbit/s FTTH Internet plans for consumers. As
November 2007, their cost is around USD75 and USD280 respectively without any speed cap on overseas traffic.
Fiber to the premises by country
35
India
FTTB services are currently supplied in Hyderabad by Beam Telecom
[3]
, offering a variety of plans for home users
up to 6 Mbit/s, "power users" up to 20 Mbit/s and enterprises up to 30 Mbit/s. Beam Telecom have also launched
fristever FTTH Solution in Hyderabad in three major townships by end of 2010, they have planned to complete
FTTH setup in 20 upcoming townships by the end of 2011.
Triple-play FTTH services are due to be launched in 2011 by Hayai Broadband. Services will be offered via an
entirely Passive Optical Network, allowing speeds of 100+ Mbit/s to the Internet and 1000+ Mbit/s (1 Gbit/s) within
its own network. The coverage area will include most suburbs in Mumbai and the company has announced intentions
to spread to other cities and even rural areas. It has coverage ready in the Northern Suburbs of Mumbai based on a
UTStarcom platform, however the company expects to replace this with a platform by either Alcatel Lucent or
Motorola.
BSNL has launched an FTTH service in Jaipur in late 2010 [4]
Indonesia
Biznet Networks is a network provider in Indonesia. Being the first one who deployed this service in South East
Asia, Biznet Metro FTTH network uses the latest Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network (GE-PON) based
networking technology. Supported by Nokia Siemens, this network is capable of delivering Triple Play services that
consist of Data (Internet or Intranet), Voice (VoIP) and Video (Interactive TV and Multimedia) in a single
infrastructure. This network is capable of supporting up to 1 Gbyte/s data transfer. First Media, a company born from
Lippo group's new $650 million investment in Internet in Indonesia, as well as cable television, began offering
FTTH (using coaxial cable not Optical Fiber), branded as FastNet, on 8 September.
Japan
FTTP, often called FTTH in Japan, was first introduced in 1999, and did not become a large player until 2001. In
2003-2004, FTTH grew at a remarkable rate, while DSL's growth slowed. 10.5 million FTTH connections are
reported as of September 2007 in Japan.
[5]
Currently, many people are switching from DSL to FTTH, the use of DSL
is decreasing, with the peak of DSL usage being March 2006. On September 17, 2008, Ministry of Internal Affairs
and Communications reported that for the first time, the number of FTTH connections (13.08 million connections)
eclipsed that of DSL (12.29 million connections) and became the biggest means of broadband connection in Japan at
45% of total compared to that of DSL at 42%. In the report, the number of FTTH connections grew by 929,681
during the period of March to June 2008 while the number of DSL connections declined by 420,706 during the same
period.
[6]
Average real-world speed of FTTH is 66 Mbit/s in the whole of Japan, and 78 Mbit/s in Tokyo.
FTTH first started with 10 Mbit/s (end-user rate) passive optical network (PON) by Nippon Telegraph and
Telephone (NTT), and 100 Mbit/s (end-user rate) with GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet-PON) or broadband PON as the
major one in 2006. PON is the major system for FTTH by NTT, but some competitive services present 1 Gbit/s (at
end-user rate) with SS (Single Star). Currently, most people use 100 Mbit/s.
Major application services on fibers are voice over IP, video-IP telephony, IPTV (IP television), IPv6 services and so
on.
Fiber to the premises by country
36
Malaysia
Telekom Malaysia officially launched FTTH on 24 March 2010, TM High Speed Broadband (HSBB) to end users in
stages. The product name is UniFi offering speeds from 5 MBPS, 10 MBPS and 20 MBPS for Residential and
Corporate Customers. As of Jun 2011, TM has completed approx. 900K Homepasses (or premises) and has about
more than 100,000 customers.
Visit http:/ / www.unifi.my/
Philippines
Philippine Long Distance Company or PLDT announced its delivery of FTTH in the country set for later this year.
Initial tests done by PLDT showed that a FTTH-enabled computer posted download speeds of up to 94.86 megabits
per second (mbps) and upload rates of 69.39 Mbit/s. PLDT said FTTH will be initially marketed to high-bandwidth
residential customers such as households in high-income subdivisions and condominiums.
Pilot areas for PLDT's new service will include Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Forbes Park, Urdaneta Village, and
Dasmarinas Village in Makati City, Ayala Heights in Quezon City, Wack Wack in San Juan, Valle Verde in
Mandaluyong, and certain areas covered by PLDT in Subic and Clark free ports.
[7]
Singapore
http:/ / www. opennet. com. sg
South Korea
FTTP is offered by various Internet service providers including KT (formerly, Korea Telecom), Hanaro Telecom,
and LG Powercom. The connection speed for both downloading and uploading is set to be 100 Mbit/s. Monthly
subscription fee ranges between USD20 and USD30 depending on subscription period.
Taiwan
Chunghwa Telecom Co offers FTTB for around $30USD. Taiwan ranks 4th highest FTTB penetration rate in the
world.
Thailand
CAT Telecom is now offering FTTH service using GEPON in Bangkok and major cities in Thailand. The speed
starts at 12 Mbits to 32 Mbits. TOT Public Company also start to offer FTTH service but the information about its
package is not release yet.
Europe
Further information: FTTH Council Europe
Bulgaria
FTTH is being deployed by the Internet service provider ITD Network. Available in Plovdiv, Veliko Tarnovo and
some areas in Sofia under the trademark Cooolbox. FTTH: active fiber at each node, providing service-neutral
switched environment, based on intelligent 3-tier platform, serving up to 14,000 nodes in each deployment. Uses the
same fiber infrastructure as the corporate backbone does. Fully automated services provisioning. 24x7 monitoring
and customer care. Diverse double-play and triple-play packages featuring: * High-speed Internet access (up to 40
Mbit/s symmetrical bandwidth) with wireless options featuring high-grade protection and automated equipment
configuration * Up to two phone lines and up to 10 reserved DIDs for easy SOHO service upgrade * Value-added
Fiber to the premises by country
37
voice services like fax-to-email * Digital TV featuring over 80 popular channels incl. HD, customized middleware
and high-quality STBs by Motorola. Multiple STBs per subscriber available * Video-on-demand (music and film
libraries available) * Online services management
Croatia
The first provider to offer FTTH in Croatia was Vodatel. As of September 2006, Vodatel service was available only
in the capital Zagreb, although plans to cover other major towns also existed at that point. The service offered
symmetrical 2/5/10 Mbit/s speeds in triple play packages. As of mid 2009 T-com.hr equipped a 28floor building in
Rijeka at least partly with Fiber to the Homes/Flats offering triple play. The building was announced to be a test site
and the service was initially offered free of charge.
Cyprus
In 2007, the island largest telecoms provider, the Cyprus Telecommunications Authority (CYTA), signed a contract
with Ericsson for a rollout of FTTH.
[8]
Czech Republic
In Prague, a FTTH (1/10/100 Mbit/s) service called ViaGia provided by T-Systems is available in newer homes built
by CentralGroup. UPC, a cable TV and Internet company provides Triple Play Services over FTTH in new
buildings.
[9]
Although there is no information about it on their website. In Brno, there is a FTTH service called
NETBOX at www.netbox.cz provided by SMART Comp. a.s. There are some smaller FTTH networks in Brno,
Frýdek-Místek, Šumperk and Most.
Denmark
As of 2006, FTTH was being installed in Denmark in the northern parts of Zealand north and west of Copenhagen.
DONG Energy does however not provide access to internet, television or telephone by themselves - other providers
may rent themselves onto the cable to provide the end customer with anything ranging from simple POTS-like
telephony to triple play. The installation was being performed by the power company DONG Energy as part of a
project to convert their airborne power infrastructure into one consisting of underground cables. Their plans called
for a completion date of 2010, after which they expected to expand FTTH installation to areas that fell outside of the
scope of the power infrastructure conversion project.
Estonia
As of 2010, FTTH networks are fully developed and commercially available in select locations. Speeds up to
100mbit/s downstream and 20mbit/s upstream are commercially available for around €35 a month. The same
network delivers digital television and is usually marketed as a "home package" (Internet, Digital Television &
Landline). The price is the same as current ADSL2 offering which is 12/1Mb/s. In all cases, TV and Internet share
the overall bandwidth, so the more active TV tuners in use at a given time, the less bandwidth is available for
Internet use.
Fiber to the premises by country
38
France
On March 1, 2007, Orange SA released their first commercial FTTH offer in Paris at 45€ a month for a 100 Mbit/s
Internet connection (flat rate) and a set of services including telephone over IP and television. The fiber installation
is free. In June 2006, France Telecom/Orange SA launched a test program for FTTH in some arrondissements of
Paris. It proposes up to 2.5 Gbit/s downstream and 1.2 Gbit/s upstream per 30 users using PON for 70€ a month.
In September 2006, Free announced a €30 a month triple play offer including 100 Mbit/s Internet connection, free
phone calls to 42 countries and high-definition television. The roll-out of this service was planned for May 2007, but
wide offering has been postponed to September after a detailed presentation during summer. It will be available first
in Paris, then other French towns including Montpellier, Lyon and Valenciennes as well as certain Paris suburbs.
A residential fibre service had been deployed in the 15th Arrondissement (borough) of Paris by Cité Fibre.
Bandwidth allocated to each user was 100 Mbit/s with 30 Mbit/s reserved for Internet traffic. The package included
Digital Television and VoIP Telephone services along with the above-mentioned unlimited Internet starting at 49€
per month. The 15th arrondissement was probably selected for its comparatively high residential population. Cité
Fibre was bought by Free in October 2006 and merged into Free's own FTTH project.
In 2003 Erenis launched an offer of FTTB which evaluate to 100 Mbit/s in January 2007 including the triple play.
Erenis was bought by Neuf on April 2, 2007, and this company is planning to offer a 50 Mbit/s triple play service for
€29.90 starting at once (A user reports in fact a debit of 35/10 Mbit/s
[10]
). In July 2007 Neuf announced it will only
use FTTH in new deployments, and that the existing Erenis FTTB users would be switched to FTTH at some time in
the future. Neuf also acquired Mediafibre, a company which sold fibre optic access is Pau, France, in January 2007.
Finland
Sonera offers FTTH in some urban areas of Finland. In Autumn 2010, it is due to launch a 1 Gbit/s service for 99€
per month.
[11]
Greece
In September 2008, Transport and Communications Minister Kostas Hatzidakis announced plans to provide FTTH to
2 million homes in Athens, Thessaloniki and 50 other cities across Greece by 2013, at a cost of €2.1 billion and at
speeds of "at least" 100 Mbit/s.
[12]
Hungary
In Hungary, as of 2009 Magyar Telekom is the largest FTTH provider in the country. Fiber-optic services are
currently available in the inner districts of Budapest, and other major cities like Győr and Sopron. By 2011 the
fiber-optic network will be extended to 800.000 households.
Iceland
In Iceland, FTTH is being deployed by Gagnaveita Reykjavikur, a subsidiary of Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (Reykjavik
Power Company). By March 2006, they had begun connecting the towns of Seltjarnarnes, Akranes and parts of the
Greater Reykjavík Area. At that time they expected to have 50% of Reykjavik connected by 2008 and all of the
Greater Reykjavík Area, Seltjarnes, Akranes, Mosfellsbær, Þorlákshöfn and Hveragerði connected by 2012.
However, deployment in other areas was pending due to agreements with city officials. GR only owned the FTTH
network; ISP services were provided by HIVE, Skýrr, and Vortex. As of July 2006, VoIP service were available
from HIVE. By March 2007, Vodafone Iceland was providing ISP and VoIP services, and had introduced video via
its Digital Iceland broadcasting system. However, Skýrr had stopped providing ISP services at this point. The FTTH
connections are 100 Mbit/s, but as of March 2007 the ISP services only offered speeds of 6 Mbit/s, 8 Mbit/s, 10
Mbit/s, 20 Mbit/s and 30 Mbit/s.
Fiber to the premises by country
39
In March 2006, the monthly cost of having the FTTH in house was 1.990 ISK (approx 26 US dollars), not including
any services. This was somewhat more expensive than having a phone line in the house which cost 1.340 ISK
(approx 18 US dollars) at that time. By June 2009, the monthly cost of having the FTTH in house had risen to 2.390
ISK (approx 19 US dollars at the time), not including any services. By comparison, having a phone line in the house
had dropped to 1.147 ISK (approx $9 US dollars) by that time.
Other smaller FTTH providers are Míla which operates in recently developed areas in Greater Reykjavík Area,
Gagnveita Skagafjarðar operates in Sauðárkrókur and Tengir in Akureyri and its vicinity.
Italy
In Italy, FTTH has been deployed by FASTWEB since 1999 in selected areas of Milan, Rome, Naples, Genova,
Bologna and other few cities, however they aren't planning to deploy any more FTTP as DSL deployment is far
cheaper. Where FTTP is available, they offer a triple play service on a 10/10 Mbit/s Internet connection. Telecom
Italia announced, in March 2008, they would deploy FTTH in 140,000 homes in Milan, by the end of 2008 and in 10
cities the following year (speed up to 1 Gbit/s).
Kosovo
Kosovo, FTTN (N=Neighborhood) has been deployed by Telecom Kosovo since 2000 in selected areas of Prishtine,
Peja, Prizren, Mitrovice, Ferizaj, Gjilan and other cities in Kosovo. More than 800 km connects 50 locations in
MASH topology, in 2010 Telecom Kosovo introduced Triple-Play for its costumers.
Lithuania
FTTH is provided in all major and smaller cities (~30 of them) of Lithuania, mainly by Teo LT and some smaller
local providers. Teo LT are a former state telecom operator now owned by Telia and Sonera, and according to local
regulatory agency their data communications business accounts for ~69% of the total data service revenue in
Lithuania for 2009. They sell FTTH under same ZEBRA brand, there were 63.000 subscribers
[13]
connected via
FTTH end of 2009, and there are plans that most of residents in 3 biggest cities - Vilnius (95%), Kaunas (70%) and
Klaipėda (95%) - will have a possibility to connect to FTTH by the end of 2010. According to the FTTH European
Rankings
[14]
of the FTTH Council Europe published February 24, 2010, Lithuania leads Europe in FTTH
connectivity with 18% penetration, followed by Sweden, Norway and Slovenia.
Macedonia
In Macedonia, as of 2010 Makedonski Telekom is the largest FTTH provider in the country. Fiber-optic services are
currently available in the inner districts of Skopje, and it's expected to expand to the larger cities in the country. The
service offers symmetrical 20/40/60 Mbit/s speeds in triple play and double play packages.
Moldova, Republic of
In Moldova FTTB has been deployed by StarNet and Arax since 2006 and Moldtelecom since 2008 in the city of
Kishinev at first and other towns and regional centers later. Since then the fiber network grew very fast due to
intense competition between two dominant ISP's in the country - StarNet and Moldtelecom. The result of this
competition is that currently FTTB holds more than 35%
[15]
of the broadband market in the country and is
continuing to increase, slowly pushing back ADSL as the main internet access technology. As of 2010 there are
multiple local and only two country-wide ISP's (StarNet and Moldtelecom) that offer internet access via FTTB.
StarNet and Moldtelecom both offer 100/100Mbit (symmetrical) internet connection via FTTB in the city of
Kishinev and some regional centers with prices around 15€ per month
[16]

[17]
.
Fiber to the premises by country
40
Netherlands
In The Netherlands in the city Eindhoven and a nearby village called Nuenen, there is a large network with 15 000
connections. Triple play is offered. Houses and companies are connected with single-mode fibre. The network is
owned by the members themselves, who formed a corporation. The first European FTTH project was also in
Eindhoven in a neighborhood known as the "Vlinderflats". This was a multi-mode fibre but was in 2005 changed to
single-mode fibre. FTTH resulted in new broadband services; the inhabitants started their own broadband TV station
called VlinderTV.
Since October 2006 the fibre optics connections are being deployed in the city of Amsterdam. In the first phase of
the deployment there are some 40 000 connections planned with the first ones being available for connection to end
users by the February 2007. The network is rolled out in the boroughs of Zeeburg, Oost and Osdorp. The owner of
the network is GNA CV, the operator is BBned, a subsidiary of Telecom Italia. BBned operates as a
non-discriminating wholesaler of capacity to serviceproviders. This setup with a structural separation of ownership
of the network and the delivery of services ensures that the network is open to all.
Also, another company is building new FTTH networks in Arnhem, Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Hilversum, Soest,
Leiden and Utrecht. These networks are almost completed. The first home was connected around March 2005. If all
goes according to plan, the last home in these networks will be connected in June 2007. These networks also provide
triple play services. Internet connection speed varies from 24, 48 and 100 Mbit/s (up and down).
The city of Deventer will be the first city in The Netherlands which will be fully connected with FTTH, at the end of
2009. Already in the first quarter of 2009, more than half of the roughly 100.000 citizens are able to use the FTTH
services. Single Pay, Double Pay and Triple Pay are offered, with speeds of 35 and 50 Mbit/s. In the near future,
these speeds will be upgraded to 50 and 100 Mbit/s respectively.
[18]
Portugal
In Portugal, ZON was created from the old TVCabo spin-off of its mother company PT. Subsequently a large group
of smaller cable operators was bought into the new company. TVTEL was the first Portuguese ISP to offer FTTH
services initially in Oeiras (near Lisbon) and also in Porto, Pluricanal
[19]
was another ISP that offers this kind of
access in some neighborhoods on the outskirts of Lisbon. Both TVTel and Pluricanal are now a part of ZON. ZON
based its current expansion program not on the FTTH network but in upgrading the HFC (cable) network to
Eurodocsys3.0 (service is at 200 Mbit/s on cable and 1 Gbit/s in FTTH).
Sonaecom with Optimus Clix Fibra
[20]
was the "arguably" first investing in large-scale fiber optical network, to
cover 1,000,000 people by 2011, the triple-play packages include maximum speed of 360 Mbps/36 Mbps
(down/upstream), TV offer with +150 channels is over FTTH and IPTV, in which the company was first to offer
such service in Portugal.
Portugal Telecom launched the FTTH service in May 2009, the Meo Fibra
[21]
, that offers a triple-play service at
maximum speed (for now) of 200/20 Mbps (download/upload), more than 100 TV channels over IPTV and VoIP
phone; the coverage is still limited to major cities, but the expansion of the fiber is underway across the country. A
special notice should be mentioned about the late development of PT FTTH network since due to previous
"unbundling" problems of the copper DSL network only after getting a guarantee from the respective authorities
(Anacom) that they would not be mandated to give free/open access to other companies in their network.
Fiber to the premises by country
41
Romania
In Romania, FTTH was first deployed in Timişoara by RDS. Currently, it is available in Bucharest, Alexandria,
Arad, Bacău, Baia Mare, Bârlad, Bocşa, Braşov, Caransebeş, Constanţa, Craiova, Deva, Drobeta-Turnu Severin,
Galaţi, Iaşi, Oradea, Piteşti, Reşiţa, Sibiu, Suceava, Timişoara and Târgu-Mureş. The name of the service is
FiberLink.
Russia
ER-Telecom company started construction of the "Universal City Telecommunication Network" (UCTN) in Perm.
General principle applied to the construction was FTTH («Optics up to Home»). On the base of UCTN company
offers the following services:
• Cable Television «Divan-TV»
• High-speed broadband Internet Access «DOM.RU»
• IP-telephony «GORSVYAZ»
• Services for corporations («home office» service, videoconference connection, telemetry collecting service etc.).
Slovakia
In Slovakia, FTTH was first deployed in Bratislava, Piešťany and Trnava by Orange. End user speed is 70/8 Mbit/s
(down/up).The name of the service is Orange Doma
Another FTTx connectivity is available in Michalovce by GeCom, s.r.o, which offers FTTB+ETTH variant at speeds
up to 33/33 Mbit/s (down/up).
FTTx connectivity is available in Košice by Antik computers & communications.
Slovenia
In Slovenia, FTTH was first deployed in Kranj by T-2 company. Currently optical fiber infrastructure for FTTH is
being built by Gratel and Telekom Slovenija in Šenčur, Ljubljana, Koper, Novo Mesto, Murska Sobota, Maribor,
Slovenska Bistrica, Velenje, Nova Gorica and Jesenice. The plan by both companies is to cover all the major and
smaller towns first before they roll out fiber to suburbs. T-2 FTTH speed ranges from 10/10Mbps (€22/month),,
20/20Mbps (€28/month), 50/50Mbps (€39/month), 100/10Mbps (€27/month), 100/100Mbps (€49/month) up to 1
Gbit/s (€1,000/month). Telekom Slovenije offers FTTH speeds from 20 Mbit/s (€26/month) upward.
Spain
In Spain, the first FTTH network commercially deployed is in the mining valleys of Asturias. The network is
currently (June 2007) being built and is planned for launch shortly. The networks covers 30.000 households in
smaller towns in the mining districts of Asturias. The network uses Alcatel equipment and is PON based with 2.5G
downstream and 1.25G upstream capacity per 32 homes. The network has an Open Access FTTH Network
architecture allowing end users to select from several different service providers. website
[22]
Fiber to the premises by country
42
Sweden
Sweden has a vast number of installed FTTH connections both in rural and suburban areas.
Municipalities and private companies are using blown fiber and cable in metro networks. For metro networks, fibre
cable are used with fibre counts ranging from eight to 96 SM, and blown fibre with bundles of 8 fibers or less, for
connecting houses and apartments.
Competitors to Telia, the Swedish incumbent, helped to drive the early development of fiberbased broadband
installations made by Bredbandsbolaget and others. For instance by municipality owned power companies and
housing corporations.
Stokab, Stockholm’s city-owned network company, is the owner of one of the largest dark fiber city networks in
Europe. Ribbon cables, new micro cables and blown fiber used by Stokab, are facilitating the installation. New smart
network designs, cuts construction costs and eliminates the need to dig up streets and sidewalks to connect building
properties one by one. Stokab installs a fibre optic cable from its metro network into the basement of a building
where it terminates all the fibres from the street. From the termination box Stokab then installs a multiduct with
micro ducts that goes through all the basements on the block to form a ring. Each building has a ‘delivery point’ from
which Stokab can connect a micro duct when the building owner wants fibre.
Stokab has connected so far 10 city blocks in central Stockholm during 2006, which each have about 250
apartments. Stokab plans to connect 100 more blocks in 2007 -2008. Some of the biggest scale projects are now built
in Stockholm, where housing corporations use micro duct to blow cable and fiber to connect tenants. In Stockholm,
housing corporations (Svenska Bostäder, Stockholmshem, Familjebostäder) will connect more than 100,000
apartments over the next coming years forming the worlds largest Open Fiber To The Home network. Tenants can
chose among competing service providers of Internet, telephony and TV. The dominating active FTTH technology
used in Sweden is AON, some few PON based project are also up and running. A standard for national certification
of fiberinstallers has been formed in order to keep high installation quality and lower maintenance costs.
As of March 2009, Sweden has 8% of households connected with fiber, making Sweden number one in Europe
FTTH-wise.
In Autumn 2010, Sweden is due to launch 1 Gbit/s in some areas for 999SEK per month.
[23]
Switzerland
In Switzerland, the first FTTH network started in January 2007, exclusively in Basel. The company CATV
Satellitentechnik planned and built a FTTH installation for several apartment buildings, totalling 190 apartments.
Four fibers are connected to each of the apartments, one for television, one for telephone and internet, one for the
facility-management. The final cable is for backup purposes. The service enables internet speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s
full-duplex.
Turkey
Tellcom started its FTTB service "QuikNET" on December 2007. The initial tariff
[24]
had 100/100 Mbit/s service at
a price of 109 TL/month (~=73 $/month).
Superonline (an ADSL operator) acquired
[25]
Tellcom on 01.05.2009 and continued the fiber internet service on
highly populated buildings, along with its ADSL service. Current name of the fiber internet service is "Superonline
Fiber Internet"
[26]
.
Currently offered tariffs
[27]
are 10/1 Mbit/s (99 TL/month ~= 65 $/month), 20/5 Mbit/s (199TL ~= 135 $/month),
50/5 Mbit/s (399TL ~= 265 $/month, and 100/5 Mbit/s (599TL ~=400 $/month).
[28]
Tariffs include low priced fiber packages with download quotas, and after quota limits are reached, extra downloads
cost fees depending on the amount of the download. (9.4 TL / GB =~ 6.3$ / GB)
Fiber to the premises by country
43
Finally there are packages with "fair use policy"
[29]
which limit the fiber speed to 512/128 kbit/s once download
caps are reached. The download caps are set at 5 times the download speed and 10 times the upload speed in terms of
GB (As an example, 10/1 Mbit/s "fair use" tariff has 50 GB/10 GB fair usage quotas).
Superonline's "fair use policy" tariffs, price increases for the unlimited tariffs (73 $/month to 400 $/month for the
100 Mbit unlimited tariff), and the reduced upload speeds (From symmetrical upload speed to 5 Mbit upload speed)
have created a controversy
[30]
among its users, and a protest group
[31]
was formed condemning Superonline for its
actions.
Superonline announced on its April 2010 monthly bill
[32]
that after June 15, 2010, all upload speeds will be
decreased to 1 Mbit/s for the fiber internet tariffs. This includes the 20/5 Mbit/s , 50/5 Mbit/s and 100/5 Mbit/s
tariffs, thus after June 15, 2010, these tariffs will be 20/1 Mbit/s , 50/1 Mbit/s and 100/1 Mbit/s. (100/1 service with a
download to upload ratio of 100:1 is the most asymmetrical fiber connection in the world.) However on 15 May
2010, Superonline later sent an e-mail to its customers stating that this announcement on the bills was a "technical
glitch" which should be ignored. This incident decreased Superonline's credibility among its fiber internet customers.
Superonline announced on July 9, 2010 that customers would be discriminated according to their internet service
starting dates. Customers who started using fiber internet before March 15 2010
[33]
will not be affected by the "fair
usage policy", thus they will be able to download unlimited data while paying half the price of unlimited tariffs or in
other words paying the same price as a fair usage limited user and downloading unlimited data.
Ukraine
In Ukraine, first FTTH project launched in Odessa in 2006 by Comstar-Ukraine, LLC. Local branch of
Comstar-UTS, Russia. Project aimed to prepare a basic network for TriplePlay services deployment. Along with the
broadband internet service on April 2008 Comstar-Ukraine presented to the market first in Ukraine commercial
IPTV project, which presently supports HDTV and Dolby 5.1 sound.
Later 2007 FTTP project in Kiev was deployed by Svitonline/Golden Telecom. Svitonline proposes such tariffs:
"Hourly": 20₴ (€2,70)/month, 25 hours included, ₴1 (€0,01)./hour above included. "Standart": 80₴
(€10,81)/month, 11 GiBs included, ₴0,01 (€0,001)/MiB above included. "Unlimited": 200₴ (€27)/month. Speed for
all of the tariffs is 100 Mbit/s.
United Kingdom
BT Openreach started a pilot at Ebbsfleet in Kent, Highams Park in London and Milton Keynes offering speeds of
up to 100 Mbit/s, and have plans to make FTTP available to 2.5 million homes and businesses by 2012 [34].
H2O Networks,
[35]
part of the i3 Group
[36]
, is rolling out Fibrecity, offering Residential FTTH in Bournemouth,
Northampton and Dundee.
[37]
Middle East
Israel
Ministry of communication approved the pilot is being run by Israel Electric Company (IEC) to connect 100
residential homes in city of Kiryat Shmona by FTTH.
Fiber to the premises by country
44
Jordan
Jordan Cable Services JCS was founded in 2003 as a private company andit has a view to realize a cable TV and
internet network (FTTH technology) in Jordan. On 11 April 2007 Jordan Cable TV & Internet Services obtained
from the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission the individual license to build communications networks.
Kuwait
South Surra, in four cities, Alsalam, Hutteen, Alshuhada, and future Seddeek. The project started on 2003, service
has completed but with a lot of errors in installations (mixed up phone numbers, inactive additional services like
CallerId). The equipment is from Alcatel. A typical installation
[38]
has four RJ32 female sockets and two RJ45
female sockets. On May 2, 2007 Internet is offered for premises with Fibre.
Lebanon
In April 2009, Lebanese Minister of Communications Gebran Bassil unveiled a study to provide FTTH to 40,000
subscribers residing on Hamra Street and to 35,000 others residing in Achrafieh, both located in Beirut. If approved
by the cabinet, the system will take 10 months to be completed. [39]
Qatar
Incumbent telecommunications operator, Qtel, announced in March 2010 a plan to roll out an FTTP network across
the country. Construction began in August 2010 with completion expected in late-2013. The network will be
connected to all homes and businesses in the country and offer speeds of 100Mbps.
[40]
United Arab Emirates
The first FTTH project in the UAE went live in September 2002. The network initially served subscribers within
Emaar Properties PJSC developments such as Dubai Marina, Emirates Lakes, Hills, Springs and the Arabian
Ranches.
The network was operated by a subsidiary of Emaar Properties called SAHM Technologies. The network was
designed by Marconi and used equipment from Marconi, Riverstone, WWP, 3Com and Tandberg.
International City developed by Nakheel Properties offers FTTH built and managed by du.
Subscribers are offered Voice, IPTV and broadband Internet. All services were transported over IP.
The network is now operated by du.
North America
Canada
Novus provides FTTB services in Vancouver, British Columbia. The carrier provides TV (cable, digital, and HD),
digital phone, and up to 200 Mbit/s Internet access to residential and business (SOHO) customers in its service area,
as well as provide dark fibre to local businesses.
In August 2007 VIC Communications
[41]
began providing 10 Mbit/s FTTH to the Ottawa Valley through its
Killaloe, Ontario Service Area, which the company delivers High Speed Internet, Television, and Digital Phone
Services to Residential and Business customers.
VIC Communications also offers Fiber-to-the-Node in rural-connectivity through its service area, including
additional build plans for 2008 which include Renfrew, Ontario, Pembroke, Ontario, and Eganville, Ontario. The
carrier maintains its own Optical Network and Deployment.
Fiber to the premises by country
45
Wightman Telecom
[42]
offers FTTH with zero installation cost to subscribers in Mount Forest, Harriston, Listowel
and Palmerston in Southwestern Ontario, which carries POTS phone, symmetric 20 Mbit/s Internet access and digital
TV (SD and HD) services.
Hurontel Telecommunications Co-operative Limited
[43]
has announced plans to launch pilot FTTH services in
Goderich and Ripley.
Bell Aliant
[44]
is offering a FTTH which they call Bell Aliant FibreOP and they state is Canada's first 100%
fibre-to-the home network to cover an entire city. Available in the Halifax and Sydney areas of Nova Scotia,
Fredericton, Saint John and Moncton areas of New Brunswick and Charlottetown, PEI. The service is in the process
of being installed in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. Speeds are up to 170 Mbit/s.
South America
Argentina
In Argentina, telecommunications firm IPlan [45] offers since its launch in the year 2000 a fiber optic backbone
throughout the city of Buenos Aires, and extending into other provincial capitals like Rosario, La Plata, and Cordoba
city. They provide Internet, telephony, and value-added services over that network. They reach the customer using
Cisco's Long Reach Ethernet and using Cisco Catalyst switches. IPlan's network reaches over 3,000 connected
buildings [46].
Brazil
Telefonica launched, in São Paulo, its FTTH service in 3Q 2007 with an initial speed of 30, 60 and 100 Mbit/s in
downstream, and 5 Mbit/s with upstream, and also offering an IPTV on-demand service, and a convergent POTS and
mobile pack. Initially only available in the Jardins neighborhood, its currently expanding to other regions.
The second provider to offer FTTH is Brasil Telecom (bought by Oi Telecomunicações in Abr 2008), offering
speeds up to 100 Mbit/s on downstream, and 5 Mbit/s on upstream. The service is now marketed in ten states. Oi is
now offering its own FTTH operation, in its original service area, completing the BrT's area operation.
GVT launched, in August 2009, FTTH service in 56 cities, including major markets like Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Belo
Horizonte and Salvador. GVT offer speeds up 100 Mbit/s downstream and 10 Mbit/s upstream.
Chile
The first provider to offer FTTH in Chile was GTD-Manquehue (2005). This service is available only in some
sectors of the capital city Santiago. The service offered symmetrical 100 Mbit/s speed. The second provider is Surnet
(another subsidiary of GrupoGTD like GTD Manquehue) that offers Triple Play Plans with speeds up to 100 Mbps.
This service is available in the major cities of the southern regions of Chile.
Venezuela
First Deployment for 2000-Home FTTH Project in Maracay, Venezuela. In a first phase project to bring fiber to
more than half million residents.
Fiber to the premises by country
46
Oceania
Australia
The first FTTH network deployed in Australia was delivered in 2001 by Bright Telecommunications - a subsidiary
of Western Power the state power company. Bright Telecommunications initially deployed Fibre to the Curb by
Marconi and a PtP FTTH solution from Entrasys, but later progressed to a GePON product from Alloptic. Bright
telecommunications was sold to Silk Telecom (now Nextgen) in 2007.
The Australian Government is in the process of rolling out an A$36.9 billion open-access National Broadband
Network comprising GPON-based FTTP services to 93% of the Australian population at speeds up to 1Gbps, with
the remainder of the population to be serviced by fixed-wireless and satellite technologies. The network will be built
and operated by a Government Business Enterprise, NBN Co Limited.
Construction began with trial sites in Tasmania in 2009, with the first services commencing in July 2010. The
network is scheduled for completion in December 2021.
[47]

[48]
The Tasmanian NBN trial sites were operated by
Opticomm on behalf of NBN Co.
[49]
Other FTTP installations in Australia include greenfield estates deployed by private companies including Arise,
BES, Comverge, Fuzeconnect, Openetworks, Opticomm, Pivit, Telstra and TransACT. In 2009, Opticomm became
the first company to offer a 100Mbps residential service in Australia.
[50]
New Zealand
Telecom New Zealand, the major telecommunications company in New Zealand, started a FTTP trial (dubbed Next
Generation Broadband) in a new subdivision (Flat Bush) in South Auckland in May 2006. The NGB provides up to
30 Mbit/s downstream speeds over a Passive Optical Network (PON) with the only cost to the customers during the
trial being a NZ$49.95 activation fee.
[51]
Vector Communications provides FTTP in wider regions of Auckland CBD
and Wellington CBD, and extended network of over 770 km. FTTP services are available from Citylink in
Wellington and the pricing makes it suitable for businesses only.
On 22 April 2008, the National party announced a $1.5B plan to roll out of FTTH to 75% of the population, if they
were elected.
[52]
References
[1] http:/ / www. zuku. co. ke/ fibre/home/
[2] http:/ / www. moseskemibaro. com/ 2010/ 11/ 16/ zuku-gets-even-cheaper-fibre-broadband-internet/Zuku gets even cheaper fibre broadband
Internet. | Moses Kemibaro
[3] http:// www. beamtele. com/
[4] http:/ / www. bsnl. co. in/ service/ bb_ftth.htm
[5] MIC(Press Release-Telecom) (http:// www.soumu. go. jp/ joho_tsusin/ eng/ Releases/ Telecommunications/ news071218_1. html)
[6] Connections to Broadband Networks, MIC press release (http:/ / www.soumu. go. jp/s-news/ 2008/ 080917_2. html)
[7] http:// www. abs-cbnnews. com/ business/ 05/ 27/ 09/ pldt-launch-fiber-optic-broadband-service
[8] "Ericsson has signed the first GPON contract in Europe with CYTA in Cyprus" (http:// www.sys-con.com/ read/ 400473.htm). Marketwire
(SYS-CON Publications). 2007-07-11. . Retrieved 2007-07-11.
[9] Raycom Telekomunikace - Skutečné FTTH poprvé v Praze (http:/ / www.raycom.cz/ skutecne-ftth-poprve-v-praze.html)
[10] http:// www. toutsurlafibre.com/ index. php?2007/ 07/ 17/ 84-interview-neuf#c46
[11] http:// www. sonera. fi/laajakaista/ laajakaista+ kotiin/ 1000+ megaa?intcmp=BB-Tuhat-Laajakaista-keski2
[12] "Εργο 2,1 δισ. ευρώ για υποδομές σε δίκτυα οπτικών ινών νέας γενιάς" (http:// www. tovimadaily.gr/ / Article.aspx?d=20080904&
nid=9688359& sn=& spid=1376) (in Greek). Το Βήμα. 2008-09-04. .
[13] http:/ / www. teo. lt/ en/ oper_figures-1969.html
[14] http:/ / www. ftthcouncil.eu/ documents/ press_release/ PR_EU_rankings_Lisbon_Final.pdf
[15] http:// en.anrceti.md/ transpdate#fig7
[16] http:// www. moldtelecom. md/ ru/persons/ internet/maxfiber/planuri_tarifare/maxfiber_regiunea1
[17] http:// www. starnet. md/ abonamente_home
[18] http:// www. concepts. nl/ glasvezel-deventer
Fiber to the premises by country
47
[19] http:/ / www. pluricanal.pt
[20] http:/ / fibra.clix.pt
[21] http:/ / fibra.meo. pt
[22] http:/ / www. gitpa. es
[23] http:/ / www. telia. se/ privat/produkter_tjanster/bredband/bredbandvianatverksuttaget/ fiberlan/
?sl=privat_produkter_tjanster_bredband_bredbandvianatverksuttaget_fiberlan
[24] http:// www. donanimhaber.com/ tm. asp?m=19889303
[25] http:// www. superonline. net/ hakkimizda/ superonline/ default.aspx
[26] http:/ / www. superonline. net/ bireysel/ urunler/fiber/superfiber.aspx
[27] http:// www. superonline. net/ bireysel/ ucretlendirme/superfiber-double.aspx
[28] http:/ / www. superonline. net/ bireysel/ ucretlendirme/superfiber-double.aspx
[29] http:/ / www. superonline. net/ yardim/adil. aspx
[30] http:/ / forum.donanimhaber.com/ m_38464941/ tm. htm
[31] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ group.php?gid=370912814935
[32] http:// img.donanimhaber.com/ upfiles/ 25877/ 098579C1C54448C2B95937E9B78E578E. jpg
[33] http:/ / www. sikayetvar. com/ sikayet/ no/ 617911/ g/ SUPERONLINE%20Adil%20Kullanim%20Denildi%20Fakat%20Aldatildik
[34] http:// www. btplc. com/ news/ articles/ showarticle. cfm?articleid={bc50a7e9-7b75-4c22-a443-410a7083411f}
[35] H2O Official site (http:// www. h2onetworksdarkfibre.com/ )
[36] i3 Group Official site (http:// www. i3-group.co. uk/ )
[37] "UK homes to get super-fast fibre" (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 7202396.stm). BBC News. 2008-01-23. . Retrieved
2010-05-02.
[38] http:// don-veto.blogspot. com/ 2006/ 09/ fiber-to-home-in-kuwait-part-2.html
[39] http:/ / www. dailystar. com. lb/ article.asp?edition_id=1& categ_id=3&article_id=101418
[40] "Qtel Begins Roll Out Process for Fibre to the Home in Qatar" (http:// www1.albawaba.com/ news/
qtel-begins-roll-out-process-fibre-home-qatar). Al Waba News. 30 August 2010. . Retrieved 17 June 2011.
[41] http:// www. vicip. ca
[42] http:/ / www. wightman. ca
[43] http:/ / www. hurontel.on. ca/ ftth. html
[44] http:/ / productsandservice. bellaliant. net/ PS/ nb/ english/ home/ home. jsp
[45] http:/ / www. iplan. com. ar
[46] http:// www. canalar. com. ar/noticias/ noticiamuestra. asp?Id=3462
[47] Rodgers, Emma (12 August 2010), Big gig: NBN to be 10 times faster (http:// www.abc.net. au/ news/ stories/ 2010/ 08/ 12/ 2980752.
htm), ABC News, , retrieved 27 April 2011
[48] NBN Co (15 December 2010), Corporate Plan 2011–2013 (http:/ / www.nbnco.com.au/ wps/ wcm/ connect/
eea11780451bd3618ebfef15331e6bbb/101215+ NBN+ Co+ 3+ Year+GBE+Corporate+Plan+ Final. pdf), NBN Co Limited, p. 12, ,
retrieved 1 June 2011
[49] (http:// www. zdnet. com. au/ opticomm-scores-tas-nbn-deal-339300035.htm)
[50] [http://ozftth.blogspot.com/2009/02/internode-and-opticomm-launches-100mbps.html}
[51] Computerworld > Telecom to learn from small fibre to houses pilot (http:/ / computerworld.co. nz/ news. nsf/ news/
6A7ED6A369FC154FCC2571DB0076DE75)
[52] > National Party has announced the intention to invest 1.5 bn dollars in broadband (http:/ / www.national. org.nz/ Article.
aspx?ArticleID=12143)
Fiber to the telecom enclosure
48
Fiber to the telecom enclosure
Diagram originally published by the Fiber Optics
LAN Section of the Telecommunications
Industry Association
Fiber to the telecom enclosure (FTTE), also sometimes called fiber
to the zone (FTTZ),
[1]
is a standards-compliant structured cabling
system architecture that extends the optical fiber backbone network
from the equipment room, through the telecom room, and directly to a
telecommunications enclosure (TE) installed in a common space to
serve a number of users in a work area. Its implementation is based on
the TIA/EIA-569-B “Pathways and Spaces” standard, which defines the
Telecommunications Enclosure (TE), and TIA/EIA-568-B.1
Addendum 5, which defines the cabling when a TE is used. The FTTE
architecture allows for many media choices from the TE to the work
area; it may be balanced twisted pair copper, multi-mode optical fiber,
or even wireless if an access point is installed in or near the TE.
Depending on the user’s needs, FTTE can be deployed in low-density
or high-density configurations. A low-density system might use one or
two inexpensive 8-port Ethernet mini-switches as an example (these
switches have eight 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet copper ports and one 1
Gbit/s Ethernet fiber uplink). A high-density FTTE design might use
commonly available 24- or 48-port switches (these switches are
configured with one 1 Gbit/s uplink port per twelve 100BASE-TX user ports). This relatively high work
area-to-backbone port ratio provides better performance than is typically provided to enterprise users. Both low and
high-density FTTE architectures provide excellent performance in terms of bandwidth delivered to the work area.
• Advantages
• Low Cost
• Non-blocking or low-blocking performance better supports convergence
• Extremely flexible to deploy; supports Moves, Adds & Changes
• Enables consolidation of electronics into a centralized Telecommunications Room
• Allows the use of a variety of media from the TE to the user
• Disadvantages
• TE location is near the user and must be secured
References
[1] Hardy, Stephen (March 31, 2009). "FTTE battles for enterprise/SAN acceptance" (http://www. lightwaveonline.com/ about-us/
lightwave-issue-archives/issue/ ftte-battles-for-enterprisesan-acceptance-54893707.html). Lightwave (PennWell Corporation). .
FTTLA
49
FTTLA
FTTLA refers to "Fibre To The Last Amplifier". Classic analogue cable television trunks used several amplifiers at
intervals in cascade, each of which degrades the signal. FTTLA replaces the coaxial cable all along the line to the
last amplifier (towards the subscriber) with optical fibre. It retains the existing most expensive part of the access
network, the coaxial cables for the "last mile" or "last metres" connected with the subscriber.
Fibre to the last amplifier improves scalability (performance and reliability) when new services such as triple play
are introduced. From the optical sender to the node, fibre which is split by 4, or by 8 depending on the distance, and
on the output power of the optical sender (from 6 to 16 dBm). Intermodulation and carrier-to-noise ratio are
improved. Other benefits include lower power consumption.
Google Fiber
Google Fiber is a project to build an experimental broadband internet network
[1]
in Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas
City, Missouri, following a selection process.
[2]
Over 1,100 communities applied to be the first recipient of the
technology.
[3]
Google announced on March 30, 2011 that Kansas City, Kansas will be the first community where the
experimental network would be deployed.
[4]
On May 17, 2011, Google announced that they would now be
expanding the service to include the Kansas City, Missouri metro area.
Cost
It has been estimated that Google will need to pay $3,000 to $8,000 per home broadband connection, totaling
anywhere from $60 million up to $1.6 billion USD.
[2]
Google Fiber will be provided "at a competitive price" to the
citizens in the community Google selects from among submitted applications.
[5]
Technical specifications
Google Fiber will provide connections at over 1 gigabit per second,
[6]
which is about 100 times faster access than
most Americans have.
[6]
Despite the advertising claims of internet service providers, the average download speed in
the United States is only about 4 megabits per second.
[7]
Locations
• Kansas City, Kansas - On March 30, 2011, KCK was selected from over 1,100 applicants to be the first Google
Fiber community.
• Kansas City, Missouri - Seventeen days after the initial announcement regarding KCK, Google announced the
decision to include Kansas City, Missouri, making the entirety of Kansas City the first ultra high-speed hub in
America. The network is expected to become available to residents in early 2012. Google is not expected to build
a campus or data center in the Kansas City area.
Google Fiber
50
Selection process
Google originally stated that they would announce the winner or winners by the end of 2010; however, in
mid-December, Google pushed back the announcement date of the selected Google Fiber community (or
communities) to "early 2011" due to an increase in the time necessary to review all of the over 1,100 applications.
[8]
[9]

[10]
The request form was simple,
[11]
and, some have argued, too straightforward.
[12]
This led to various attention-getting
behaviors by those hoping to have their town selected.
[12]
Some examples are given below:
• Baton Rouge supporters remade the song "Give a Little Bit" by Roger Hodgson to "Give a Gigabit".
• Greenville, South Carolina utilized 1000 of their citizens and glow sticks to create "The World's First and Largest
People-Powered Google Chain." From an aerial view, the title "Google" was colorfully visible.
• Topeka, Kansas temporarily renamed itself "Google"
• A small plane bearing a banner reading “Will Google Play in Peoria, IL?” flew over the Google campus in
Mountain View, California.
[13]
• One of the islands in Sarasota, Florida was temporarily renamed "Google Island".
[12]
Municipalities and citizens have also uploaded YouTube videos to support their bids. Some examples:
• A YouTube video in support of Sarasota, Florida used the Bobby McFerrin song Don't Worry, Be Happy, which
Warner Music Group does not allow to appear in user-uploaded videos.
[12]
A video for Sarasota was uploaded
through Facebook’s video service.
[12]
Duluth's mayor jokingly proclaimed that every first-born child will be
named either Google Fiber or Googlette Fiber.
[14]
The city of Rancho Cucamonga, California dubbed their city,
"Rancho Googlemonga".
[15]
• Comedian and United States Senator Al Franken made a YouTube video to support Duluth, Minnesota's bid.
[16]
• Ann Arbor, Michigan has its own YouTube channel
[17]
featuring a David Letterman-style Top Ten list delivered
by town VIPs such as Mayor John Hieftje and University of Michigan President Mary Sue Coleman. Ann Arbor
also held a city-wide GoogleFest,
[18]
kicking off with a gathering of hundreds of participants dancing and
chanting "Ann Arbor Google Fiber, ain't Nothing any finer."
[19]
External links
• Google Fiber for Communities: Think big with a gig
[20]
• Official Google Blog
[21]
• List of government responses for Google Fiber
[22]
References
[1] HELFT, MIGUEL (2010-03-21). "Hoping for Gift From Google? Go Jump in the Lake" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2010/ 03/ 22/
technology/ 22stunts. html?src=me& ref=technology). New York Times. .
[2] Malik, Om (February 11, 2010). "How Much Will Google’s Fiber Network Cost?" (http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2010/ 02/ 11/
google-fiber-network-cost/). gigaOm.com. .
[3] "More than 1,100 communities seek Google network" (http:// www.google.com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/
ALeqM5ilm6prueBb6Uvvsk2OBBaPUqxCQQD9EML45G0). Associated Press. 2010-03-27. . Retrieved 2010-03-27.
[4] Google Fiber KCK (http:/ / www.google. com/ fiber/kansascityks/ index. html)
[5] Google Fiber FAQ (http:// www. google. com/ appserve/ fiberrfi/public/ faq)
[6] Google picks KCK to be its first ultra-fast broadband network site (http:/ / www.kansascity. com/ 2011/ 03/ 30/ 2763299/ google-picks-kck.
html)
[7] "Googlenet - A Cure for America's Lame and Costly Broadband?" (http:// www.economist. com/ daily/ columns/ techview/ displaystory.
cfm?story_id=15841658&fsrc=nwl). The Economist. 2010-04-01. .
[8] "Google Fiber for Communities" (http:// www. google. com/ appserve/ fiberrfi/). Google. .
[9] Medin, Milo (2010-12-15). "An update on Google Fiber" (http:/ / googleblog.blogspot. com/ 2010/ 12/ update-on-google-fiber.html).
Google. .
Google Fiber
51
[10] Anderson, Nate (2010-12-15). "Google delays its 1Gbps fiber announcement" (http:// arstechnica. com/ tech-policy/news/ 2010/ 12/
google-delays-its-1gbps-fiber-announcement. ars). Arstechnica. .
[11] Google Fiber for Communities (http:// www.google. com/ appserve/ fiberrfi/)
[12] Van Buskirk, Eliot (March 11, 2010). "Al Franken Jokes, But Google Fiber Is No Laughing Matter" (http:/ / www.wired.com/ epicenter/
2010/03/ al-franken-jokes-but-google-fiber-is-no-laughing-matter/). Wired Magazine. .
[13] HELFT, MIGUEL (March 26, 2010). "Cities Rush to Woo Google Broadband Before Friday Deadline" (http:/ / bits. blogs. nytimes. com/
2010/03/ 26/ cities-rush-to-woo-google-broadband-before-friday-deadline/?scp=1& sq=ann arbor google fiber&st=cse). New York Times
blog. .
[14] Silver, Curtis (March 10, 2010). "I, Google" (http:// www. wired.com/ geekdad/ 2010/ 03/ i-have-renamed-my-house-google/). Wired
Magazine. .
[15] "The 5 Strangest City Pitches for Google's New Fiber-Optic Service" (http:// www.pcmag.com/ article2/0,2817,2361038,00. asp). PC
Magazine. March 7, 2010. .
[16] Al Franken YouTube video (http:/ / www.youtube. com/ watch?v=G2i_piWVXuc)
[17] Ann Arbor YouTube channel (http:// www.youtube. com/ a2fiber)
[18] Ann Arbor GoogleFest (http:// www.AAGoogleFest. com)
[19] Reed, Tina (March 26, 2010). "Ann Arbor 'mob' makes another case to attract Google Fiber" (http:// www.annarbor.com/ news/
ann-arbor-mob-makes-another-case-to-attract-google-fiber/). AnnArbor.com. .
[20] http:// www. google. com/ appserve/ fiberrfi/
[21] http:/ / googleblog. blogspot. com/ 2010/02/ think-big-with-gig-our-experimental.html
[22] http:/ / www. google. com/ appserve/ fiberrfi/public/ list
Hybrid fibre-coaxial
Hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) is a telecommunications industry term for a broadband network which combines
optical fibre and coaxial cable. It was commonly employed globally by cable television operators since the early
1990s.
HFC network diagram
Description
The fibre optic network extends from
the cable operators' master headend,
sometimes to regional headends, and
out to a neighbourhood's hubsite, and
finally to a fibre optic node which
serves anywhere from 25 to 2000
homes. A master headend will usually
have satellite dishes for reception of
distant video signals as well as IP
aggregation routers. Some master
headends also house telephony
equipment for providing telecommunications services to the community. A regional or area headend/hub will receive
the video signal from the master headend and add to it the Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable
TV channels as required by local franchising authorities or insert targeted advertising that would appeal to a local
area. The various services are encoded, modulated and upconverted onto RF carriers, combined onto a single
electrical signal and inserted into a broadband optical transmitter. This optical transmitter converts the electrical
signal to a downstream optically modulated signal that is sent to the nodes. Fibre optic cables connect the headend or
hub to optical nodes in a point-to-point or star topology, or in some cases, in a protected ring topology.
A fibre optic node has a broadband optical receiver which converts the downstream optically modulated signal
coming from the headend/hub to an electrical signal going to the homes. Today, the downstream signal is a radio
frequency modulated signal that typically begins at 50 MHz and ranges from 550 MHz to 1000 MHz on the upper
Hybrid fibre-coaxial
52
end. The fibre optic node also contains a reverse/return path transmitter that sends communication from the home
back to the headend. In North America, this reverse signal is a modulated radio frequency ranging from 5 to 42 MHz
while in other parts of the world, the range is 5 to 65 MHz.
The optical portion of the network provides a large amount of flexibility. If there are not many fibre optic cables to
the node, wavelength division multiplexing can be utilised to combine multiple optical signals onto the same fibre.
Optical filters are used to combine and split optical wavelengths onto the single fibre. For example, the downstream
signal could be on a wavelength at 1310nm and the return signal could be on a wavelength at 1550nm. There are also
techniques to put multiple downstream and upstream signals on a single fibre by putting them at different
wavelengths.
The coaxial portion of the network connects 25 to 2000 homes (500 is typical) in a tree-and-branch configuration off
of the node. Radio frequency amplifiers are used at intervals to overcome cable attenuation and passive losses of the
electrical signals caused by splitting or "tapping" the coaxial cable. Trunk coaxial cables are connected to the optical
node and form a coaxial backbone to which smaller distribution cables connect. Trunk cables also carry AC power
which is added to the cable line at usually either 60V or 90V by a power supply and a power inserter. The power is
added to the cable line so that trunk and distribution amplifiers do not need an individual, external power source.
From the trunk cables, smaller distribution cables are connected to a port of the trunk amplifier to carry the RF signal
and the AC power down individual streets. If needed, line extenders, which are smaller distribution amplifiers, boost
the signals to keep the power of the television signal at a level that the TV can accept. The distribution line is then
"tapped" into and used to connect the individual drops to customer homes. These taps pass the RF signal and block
the AC power unless there are telephony devices that need the back-up power reliability provided by the coax power
system. The tap terminates into a small coaxial drop using a standard screw type connector known as an “F”
connector. The drop is then connected to the house where a ground block protects the system from stray voltages.
Depending on the design of the network, the signal can then be passed through a splitter to multiple TVs. If too many
splitters are used to connect multiple TVs, the signal levels will decrease, and picture quality on analog channels of
TVs past those splitters will go down requiring the use of a "drop" or "house" amplifier.
Transport over HFC network
By using frequency division multiplexing, an HFC network may carry a variety of services, including analogue TV,
digital TV (SDTV or HDTV), Video on demand, telephony, and high-speed data. Services on these systems are
carried on Radio Frequency (RF) signals in the 5 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency band.
The HFC network can be operated bi-directionally, meaning that signals are carried in both directions on the same
network from the headend/hub office to the home, and from the home to the headend/hub office. The forward-path
or downstream) signals carry information from the headend/hub office to the home, such as video content, voice and
internet data. The return-path or upstream signals carry information from the home to the headend/hub office, such
as control signals to order a movie or internet data to send an email. The forward-path and the return-path are
actually carried over the same coaxial cable in both directions between the optical node and the home. In order to
prevent interference of signals, the frequency band is divided into two sections. In countries that have traditionally
used NTSC System M, the sections are 52 MHz to 1000 MHz for forward-path signals, and 5 MHz to 42 MHz for
return-path signals. Other countries use different band sizes, but are similar in that there is much more bandwidth for
downstream communication instead of upstream communication.
Traditionally, since video content was sent only to the home, the HFC network was structured to be
non-symmetrical: one direction has much more data-carrying capacity than the other direction. The return-path was
originally only used for some control signals to order movies, etc., which required very little bandwidth. As
additional services have been added to the HFC network, such as internet access and telephony, the return-path is
being utilised more.
Hybrid fibre-coaxial
53
Multiple System Operators (MSOs) developed methods of sending the various services over RF signals on the fibre
optic and coaxial copper cables. The original method to transport video over the HFC network and, still the most
widely used method, is by modulation of standard analogue TV channels which is similar to the method used for
transmission of over-the-air broadcast. See broadcast television system for more information. One analogue TV
channel occupies a 6 MHz-wide frequency band in NTSC-based systems, or an 8 MHz-wide frequency band in PAL
or SECAM-based systems. Each channel is centred on a specific frequency carrier so that there is no interference
with adjacent or harmonic channels. Digital TV channels offer a more-efficient way to transport video by using
MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 coding over Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) channels. To be able to view a digitally
modulated channel, home, or customer-premises equipment (CPE), e.g. digital televisions, computers, or set-top
boxes, are required to convert the RF signals to signals that are compatible with display devices such as analogue
televisions or computer monitors. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) has ruled that consumers can
obtain a cable card from their local MSO to authorise viewing digital channels. By using digital compression
techniques, multiple standard and high-definition TV channels can be carried on one 6 or 8 MHz frequency carrier
thus increasing the channel carrying-capacity of the HFC network by 10 times or more versus an all analogue
network. Note that a digital tuner (i.e. TV set-top box) is not required for standard analogue TV channels since most
televisions have integrated analogue tuners that can decode the signal, unless some type of scrambling is used.
Competitive network technologies
Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a technology used by traditional telephone companies to deliver advanced services
(high-speed data and sometimes video) over twisted pair copper telephone wires. It typically has lower data carrying
capacity than HFC networks and data speeds can be range-limited by line lengths and quality.
Satellite television competes very well with HFC networks in delivering broadcast video services. Interactive
satellite systems are less competitive in urban environments because of their large round-trip delay times, but are
attractive in rural areas and other environments with insufficient or no deployed terrestrial infrastructure.
Analogous to HFC, Fibre In The Loop technology is used by telephone local exchange carriers to provide advanced
services to telephone customers over the POTS local loop.
In the 2000s, telecom companies started significant deployments of Fibre to the x such as passive optical network
solutions to deliver video, data and voice to compete with cable operators. These can be costly to deploy but they can
provide large bandwidth capacity especially for data services.
Hybrid fibre-optic
54
Hybrid fibre-optic
Hybrid fibre-optic is term used to describe the connection used by some television studio and field production
video cameras that combine all video, audio, data, control, power, and other signals onto two single mode optical
fibres and a few copper conductors in one jacket, allowing one cable to provide all the necessary signals a camera
needs for the television production environment.
IBZL
IBZL - infinite bandwidth zero latency - is a thought experiment that asks: what will happen when bandwidth (for
connecting to the Internet for example) is so great, and latency so small, that it no longer matters? What will be the
applications and services that become widespread?. The IBZL programme
[1]
was started by the Open University and
Manchester Digital in the UK.
Background
Next Generation Access (NGA) broadband is promoted strongly by policy makers as underpinning future economic
growth. There is however a lack of examples of the ways that NGA will be used or of the sort of innovations that
may come about as a result of widespread access to NGA. A parallel can be drawn with the advent of first generation
broadband which arguably created the conditions for the success of innovations such as Wikipedia, Youtube and
Facebook, but the most innovative aspects of these - open source knowledge, video sharing and always-on social
networking - were not foreseen.
The IBZL programme has used a process (Imagine/ Triple Task Method) to explore the potentially novel
applications of NGA and provide some ideas as to the key components of the future inter-networked landscape.
Next Generation Access (NGA)
While there is no universally agreed definition of what qualifies a network to be considered ‘next generation’, three
elements are usually considered essential:
• NGA will provide a significant increase in the transmission speeds available to the domestic or small-business
end-user. The speeds cited vary widely from 25 Mbps (e.g. What is Digital Region? 2009) to over 200 Mbps. The
‘Digital Britain’ report
[2]
refers to ‘next generation service up to’ 40 Mbps, and more recently UK ministers have
referred to 50 Mbps and faster
[3]
. To put this in context, in early 2010, Google (Google, 2010) announced a plan
for experimental community networks operating at 100 Gbps.
• In contrast with currently widespread ADSL technologies, it is generally assumed that NGA will offer a
step-change in upload as well as download speeds, reflecting the demands of increasingly user-generated content.
For some, NGA bandwidth should be symmetrical, though others have a more relaxed view (e.g. OFCOM 2009
[4]
).
• NGA is widely taken to offer improved ‘quality of service’ (QoS)
[5]
. QoS here is taken to mean not only service
reliability and availability, but also indicators of network performance including latency (the time taken for data
packets to travel from source to destination), jitter (the variation in latency among data packets) and data loss (the
loss of data packets due to network congestion). Latency, jitter and data loss are important aspects of the usability
of applications such as internet telephony or video, in addition to ‘raw’ bandwidth.
IBZL
55
IBZL as a way to develop NGA
The Infinite Bandwidth, Zero Latency (IBZL
[6]
) initiative was designed as a contribution to innovation by
identifying new applications that will be made possible by NGA as it evolves and that may contribute to the
continuing development of innovative digital industries. 'Infinite bandwidth' and 'zero latency' are not meant literally;
they are a shorthand for networks where bandwidth and latency cease to be limiting factors. IBZL addresses a gap in
policy and strategic thought, where relatively little attention has been given to what kinds of novel application are
made feasible by networks which are relatively free of speed and latency capacity constraints. The IBZL process is
intended as a means to explore and speculate on potential future technologies. To facilitate the process the Imagine
methodology was adapted and applied as a form of future workshop for deep reflection on possible scenarios
(numerous examples of this kind of work exist, but see for example: List 2006
[7]
)
There have been two IBZL workshops held in Manchester, UK in May and October 2010. They were organized
jointly by the Open University Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology
[8]
and Manchester Digital, a
trade association of creative and digital companies in Manchester and the North West of England. They brought
together invited public sector, private sector and academic participants, to imagine a digital future.
IBZL outcomes
The workshops produced ideas that will be further developed. Five of these are briefly summarised below.
‘Always on social space’ - virtual spaces in which the connection is always on/perpetual, supporting the kind of
occasional, informal, spontaneous, real-time social encounters (‘collisions’) that happen when people are co-located,
between people living and working remotely. This would not only allow a new level of remote working and
collaboration but also the sense of living in proximity with friends and relations could transform the lives of older
people who need to stay longer in their homes as the population ages.
‘Intelligent matchmaking’ – bringing suppliers and consumers together optimally for business, social and
educational interactions. Behind this would be a thorough analysis of organizations, products and people, made
possible next generation networks, in order to synthesize high quality informational and other connections.
‘Real artisans in a virtual world’ - the networked production of artefacts by artisans in multiple locations. Next
generation technology could support real-time collaborative generation of product ideas followed by the process of
design, development and distributed fabrication. This could turn the conventional trading pattern on its head with
artisans in the developing world crafting products for “3D printing” in the developed world, effectively
re-engineering (or at least, challenging) current craft value chains.
Peer-to-peer processor time-sharing - projects like SETI@home use the spare processor capacity of millions of
personal computers to process batches of number-crunching tasks, co-ordinated among volunteers by a central
‘master’ application. Next generation networks could allow real time peer-to-peer sharing so that when an application
needs additional capacity for processor-heavy tasks like video rendering it could have access to effectively limitless
extra computing power.
Latency mapping - the evolution of next generation networks will be uneven, resulting in a ‘geography of latency’
and the disruption of ‘simultaneous time’. The kinds of networked application that are feasible between two network
locations will be a function of a range of factors including spatial distribution, network infrastructure and the
network of relationships between service providers. Latency maps would be an enabling tool to identify the kinds of
applications possible within/between, technical/geographic, or commercial spaces.
IBZL
56
References
[1] Infinite Bandwidth, Zero Latency (IBZL) project website (http:// www.ibzl.net)
[2] Department_for_Business_Innovation_and_Skills (2009). Digital Britain: Final Report. London, Department for Business Innovation and
Skills and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Page 54
[3] INCA (2010). INCA Policy Briefing No. 1: Broadband Delivery UK - Industry Day (http:/ / www.inca. coop/ policy/
inca-policy-briefing-no1), Independent Networks Cooperative Association
[4] OFCOM (2009). Delivering Super-Fast Broadband in the UK: Promoting investment and competition OFCOM
[5] OFCOM (2009)Delivering Super-Fast Broadband in the UK: Promoting investment and competition OFCOM
[6] Infinite Bandwidth, Zero Latency (IBZL) project website (http:// www.ibzl.net)
[7] List, D. (2006). "Action Research Cycles for Multiple Futures Perspectives." Futures 38: 673 - 684.
[8] http:/ / mct.open. ac. uk/
External links
• IBZL project website (http:// www. ibzl. net)
• Open University Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology (http:/ / mct. open.ac. uk/ )
• Manchester Digital (http:/ / www.manchesterdigital. com)
IEEE P1904
IEEE P1904.1
[1]
: "Standard for Service Interoperability in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (SIEPON).
EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Networks) is the leading technology for FTTx (Fiber to the x) access networks,
with more than 30 million subscriber lines being served by 1G-EPON. It is expected that deployment volumes soon
will reach more than 10 million new subscribers annually. In response to this rapid growth, the market is looking for
open, international, system-level specifications that will foster multi-vendor interoperability. The SIEPON standard
project will develop system-level specifications, targeting "plug-and-play" interoperability of the transport, service,
and control planes in a multi-vendor environment.
[2]
Project purpose - to build upon the IEEE 802.3ah
[3]
(1G-EPON) and IEEE 802.3av
[3]
(10G-EPON) Physical Layer
and Data Link Layer standards and create a system-level and network-level standard, thus allowing full
“plug-and-play” interoperability of the transport, service, and control planes in a multi-vendor environment.
References
[1] IEEE P1904.1 Working Group, http:// www.ieee1904. org/ 1/
[2] IEEE SA press release on formation of P1904.1 at http:// standards.ieee.org/announcements/ 2009/ pr_ieeenewSIEPONstandard.html
[3] IEEE P802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force, http:/ / www.ieee802.org/3/ ah/
• IEEE P802.3 Working Group (http:// www. ieee802. org/3/ )
• Get IEEE 802.3 LAN/MAN CSMA/CD Access Method (http:/ / standards. ieee.org/getieee802/ 802.3. html) -
Download 802.3 specifications.
Indefeasible rights of use
57
Indefeasible rights of use
Indefeasible right of use (IRU) is a contractual agreement between the operators of a communications cable, such
as submarine communications cable or a fiber optic network and a client.
The IRU:
shall mean the exclusive, unrestricted, and indefeasible right to use the relevant capacity (including
equipment, fibers or capacity) for any legal purpose. [1]
It refers to the bandwidth purchased after the submarine cable system has sealed the Construction and Maintenance
Agreement (C&MA) among the owners or after the system came into service and where the unowned capacity is
available. IRU may also be purchased from the existing owner.
The right of use is indefeasible, so as the capacity purchased is also unreturnable and maintenance cost incurred
becomes payable and irrefusable. “IRU user” can unconditionally and exclusively use the relevant capacity of the
“IRU grantor’s” fibre network for the specified time period.
In plainer, but less accurate English, the purchase of an IRU gives the purchaser the right to use some capacity on a
telecommunications cable system, including the right to lease that capacity to someone else. However, with that right
comes an obligation to pay a proportion of the operating cost and a similar proportion of the costs of maintaining the
cable including any costs incurred repairing the cable after mishaps. Companies that buy a leased line between say,
London and New York do not buy an IRU - they lease capacity from a telecommunications company that themselves
may lease a larger amount of capacity from another company (and so on), until at the end of the chain of contracts
there is a company that has an IRU, or wholly owns a cable system.
(extract from WSJ) Pioneered decades ago by AT&T, IRU's allowed competitors to gain access to the costly
undersea cables that only Ma Bell could afford to build. There remains some controversy over booking IRU's as
assets in an asset-swap transaction between companies. Since IRU's are technically rights to a physical part of an
underground cable, they can be considered as an asset. Which means, their cost isn't part of the company's operating
results, but show up under PPE.
The Dark fibre (DF) IRU:
shall mean the exclusive, unrestricted, and indefeasible right to use one, a pair, or more strands of fibre of a
fibre cable for any legal purpose.
The wholesale purchase of DF has normally been accomplished by means of IRUs. Fibre cable owners do not
normally sell their fibre but offer IRUs for up to 20 years for unrestricted use. 10 to 25 years corresponds to a typical
lifetime of the Optical fiber cable systems. The up-front cost for the purchase of a 20-year IRU can be a one-time
investment. It will normally be associated with ongoing obligations for shared maintenance. Usually, the IRU can be
considered to be a physical asset, which can be resold, traded or used as collateral. For regulatory reasons generally
only licensed carriers are allowed access to support structures and municipal right of ways. With an IRU contractual
arrangement the “IRU user” can unconditionally and exclusively use one or more fibres of the “IRU grantor’s” fibre
network for a long time period. [2] In this case dark fiber is still called "dark" since it has been lit by a fiber lessee
and not the cable's owner.
The IRU contract defines detailed technical and performance specifications for the IRU fibres. More specifically, it
includes DF acceptance and testing procedures, the description of the DF physical route, operating specifications for
the DF infrastructure, performance specifications (attenuation, Chromatic Dispersion, Polarisation Mode Dispersion,
Optical Return Loss), maintenance and restoration terms. These terms must be valid for the full duration of the IRU
contract. Moreover, it includes specific actions and procedures in cases of changes on the IRU grantor’s fibre
network, degradation of fibre performance etc.
IRU payment terms usually follow the scheme outlined below:
Indefeasible rights of use
58
A lump sum payment corresponding to the DF construction cost and the use of the DF infrastructure for the
IRU duration. This payment usually accounts for the greatest part of the IRU budget.
A periodic (e.g. annual) fee corresponding to the maintenance services provided to IRU user by the IRU
grantor. This is usually fixed or slightly increasing, taking into account country’s inflation. [3]
External links
• Example agreement
[1]
• FAQ Customer Owned Dark Fiber
[2]
• Economic analysis, dark fibre usage cost model and model of operations, Porta Optica Study
[3]
• Example agreement: SEA-ME-WE 3 STANDARD IRU AGREEMENT
[4]
References
[1] http:/ / contracts.corporate.findlaw.com/ agreements/ athome/ att. iru.1998. 12. 19. html
[2] http:// its. ucsc.edu/ core_tech/ projects/ dark_fiber/frequentlyaskedquestionsaboutdarkfiber.doc
[3] http:// www. porta-optica.org/publications/ POS-D3.2_Economical_analysis. pdf
[4] http:/ / www. smw3. com/ smw3/ SignIn/Download/ IRU/ Standard%20Agreement/AG-IRU-Final%20(Mar03).pdf
Interconnect bottleneck
The interconnect bottleneck, the point at which integrated circuits (ICs) reach their capacity, is expected sometime
around 2010.
[1]
Improved performance of computer systems has been achieved, in large part, by downscaling the IC minimum
feature size. This allows the basic IC building block, the transistor, to operate at a higher frequency, performing
more computations per second. However, downscaling of the minimum feature size also results in tighter packing of
the wires on a microprocessor, which increases parasitic capacitance and signal propagation delay. Consequently, the
delay due to the communication between the parts of a chip becomes comparable to the computation delay itself.
This phenomenon, known as an “interconnect bottleneck”, is becoming a major problem in high-performance
computer systems.
[2]
This problem of "interconnect bottleneck" can be solved by utilizing optical interconnects to replace the long
metallic interconnects.
[3]
Such hybrid optical/electronic interconnects promises better performance even with larger
designs. Optics has widespread use in long-distance communications; still it has not yet been widely used in
chip-to-chip or on-chip interconnections because they (in centimeter or micrometer range) are not yet
industry-manufacturable owing to costlier technology and lack of fully mature technologies. As optical
interconnections move from computer network applications to chip level interconnections, new requirements for
high connection density and alignment reliability have become as critical for the effective utilization of these links.
There are still many materials, fabrication, and packaging challenges in integrating optic and electronic technologies.
Interconnect bottleneck
59
References
[1] Quantum Paint-on Laser Could Rescue Computer Chip Industry (http:/ / www.sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2006/ 04/ 060417124542.htm)
[2] Dynamically tunable 1D and 2D photonic bandgap structures for optical interconnect applications (http:// www.ece.rochester.edu/ ~weiss/
SMW papers/MH_SPIE2004.pdf)
[3] Bek, Jesper (2008-06-09). "Parallel Optical Interconnects" (http:/ / www. iptronics.com/ 36209/ Optical interconnects.html). IPtronics. .
Retrieved 2010-04-09.
Optical interleaver
Illustration of the function of an optical interleaver and de-interleaver
An optical interleaver is a 3-port
passive fiber-optic device that is used
to combine two sets of dense
wavelength-division multiplexing
(DWDM) channels (odd and even
channels) into a composite signal
stream in an interleaving way. For
example, optical interleaver takes two
multiplexed signals with 100 GHz
spacing and interleaves them, creating
a denser DWDM signal with channels
spaced 50 GHz apart. The process can
be repeated, creating even denser
composite signals with 25 GHz or
12.5 GHz spacing.
The device can be used in a reverse direction, forming an optical deinterleaver that separates a denser DWDM
signal into odd channels and even channels. See schematic diagram.
For example, in most DWDM equipment, the standard channel spacing is 100 GHz. But spacing the signal-carrying
frequencies every 50 or even 25 GHz can double or even quadruple the number of channels per fiber. Thus, optical
interleaver can expand the number of channels per fiber, and devices and/or networks can be upgraded without
requiring that all devices be upgraded.
Optical interleaver is based on multiple-beam interference. Currently, there are two approaches to building optical
interleaver: 1) Step-phase Michelson interferometer, and 2) Birefringent crystal networks. The former is based on
Michelson interferometer combined with Gires-Tournois interferometer.
Optical interleaver
60
Transmission spectra of 50–100 GHz optical interleaver (at three temperatures)
External Links
• Optical Interleaver for fiber-optic communications
[1]
References
[1] http:/ / www. optoplex. com/ Optical_Interleaver.htm
User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community
61
User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community
Founded in 2010, the Dark Fiber Community, created by Allied Fiber is a single online resource for those seeking
to build new or extend existing dark fiber and wireless transport networks. Major, middle and minor markets,
wireless towers and data centers all require a range of network investment. To operate effectively these companies
require access to major Internet interconnection and peering points. The Dark Fiber Community serves as a portal for
access to the entire industry.
It connects buyers to sellers of these necessary network elements including communications equipment providers,
dark fiber manufacturers, data center and tower builders, as well as a variety of financing sources for these elements.
The Dark Fiber Community is constructed to mirror the layers of the OSI Model, from the physical layer up through
transport. Companies that represent aspects of the model are present within the community.
An online directory for network operators, the Dark Fiber Community provides information and contact details for
industry-leading vendors, as well as the opportunity to plan one-on-one meetings with those suppliers anywhere in
the world. The Dark Fiber Community facilitates the necessary relationships for growth and the evolution of the
physical network layer in the United States. Through the facilitation of this networking, industry thought leaders
have a platform to come together, further aiding in the efforts to increase broadband speeds and penetration rates.
Industry Sectors The Dark Fiber Community provides resources for industry sectors including equipment vendors
and manufacturers of the following:
• Dark Fiber
• DWDM
• Ethernet
• Data Centers
• Internet transit
References
• "Allied Fiber Launches Dark Fiber Community" (http:// www.telecompaper.com/ news/
allied-fiber-launches-dark-fiber-community). Telecom Paper. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
• "Allied’s Dark-Fiber Ecosystem Grows" (http:/ / www.datacenterdynamics. com/ focus/ archive/2011/ 02/
allieds-dark-fiber-ecosystem-grows). DatacenterDynamics. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
• "For Allied Fiber’s “Dark Fiber” Online Community, It’s All About Collaboration" (http:// www.tmcnet. com/
channels/ communities/ articles/ 152840-allied-fibers-dark-fiber-online-community-its-all.htm). TMCnet.
Retrieved 2011-03-10.
• "OFS Joins Allied Fiber’s Dark Fiber Community" (http:/ / www.thestreet. com/ story/ 11070273/ 1/
ofs-joins-allied-fibers-dark-fiber-community.html). The Street. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
External links
• Dark-fiber.tmcnet.com (http:// dark-fiber.tmcnet. com/ )
Mechanically induced modulation
62
Mechanically induced modulation
Mechanically induced modulation is an optical signal modulation induced by mechanical means.
An example of deleterious mechanically induced modulation is speckle noise created in a multimode fiber by an
imperfect splice or imperfectly mated connectors. Mechanical disturbance of the fiber ahead of the joint will
introduce changes in the modal structure, resulting in variations of joint loss. This is a subset of many mechanisms
that can lead to modal noise in an optical system.
References
 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services
Administration.
Multiwavelength optical networking
Multiwavelength optical networking (MONET), is a method for communicating digital information using lasers
over optical fiber. The method provides the next level of communication networks after SONET optical networks.
MONET optical networks provide an even greater bandwidth capacity. This new method employs Wave division
multiplexing (WDM) technology for transporting large amounts of telephone and data traffic and allow for
interoperability between equipment from different vendors.
First developed by the secretive National Security Agency as author James Bamford points out in his book, "Body of
Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency". It was also discussed at the 1996 Military
Communications Conference.
References
• Multiwavelength Optical Networking Consortium
[1]
• Multiwavelength Optical Networks - A layered Approach
[2]
by Thomas E. Stern and Krishna Bala
• Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency
[3]
by James Bamford
• Military Communications Conference, 1996
[4]
References
[1] http:/ / www. bell-labs. com/ project/MONET/
[2] http:// www. amazon. com/ dp/ 020130967X
[3] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0385499086
[4] http:/ / ieeexplore.ieee. org/xpl/ freeabs_all.jsp?tp=& arnumber=568597&isnumber=12345
Next-generation access
63
Next-generation access
Next-generation access (NGA) is term describing a significant upgrade to the existing telecommunication access
network by replacing some or all of the copper cable with optical fiber. Since fiber is capable of sustaining higher
data transmission rates over longer distances than twisted-pair or coaxial cable, NGA is an important enabler for
faster broadband Internet access.
There is often some confusion
[1]
about the difference between broadband and NGA. The former is a service that
allows a connection to the internet; the latter is the physical cables and equipment to deliver the service.
Definition
The European Commission defines NGA as follows: "Next generation access (NGA) networks" means wired access
networks which consist wholly or in part of optical elements and which are capable of delivering broadband access
services with enhanced characteristics (such as higher throughput) as compared to those provided over already
existing copper networks. In most cases NGAs are the result of an upgrade of an already existing copper or co-axial
access network.
[2]
UK operator BT offers a similar description: "Broadly speaking, it means internet that uses next-generation optic
fibres, rather than the copper wires which most broadband users in the UK use at the moment."
[3]
It is generally accepted that NGA includes fiber-rich infrastructure and technologies such as fiber-to-the-cabinet
(FTTC), fiber-to-the-home or premises (FTTH/FTTP) and upgraded cable TV networks.
Network architectures
• HFC – Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial: any configuration that includes both fiber and coaxial cable to deliver content from
an operator’s central office to a subscriber’s home.
• PON – Passive Optical Network: A passive optical network is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network
architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple
premises, typically 16-128.
• FTTX including FTTH, FTTC, FTTB, FTTP, FTTN and FTTC: Fiber to the Home, Business, Premise, Node or
Cabinet: Where fiber is used to deliver content from an operator’s central office to a variety of termination points
– the subscriber’s home; a telecommunication’s street cabinet; a local node or a multi-dwelling unit – an
apartment or condominium block, for example.
• FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence: where hand-off between fixed and mobile networks is seamless, providing
ubiquitous connectivity.
• AON – Active Optical Network: a fiber optic network that uses electrically-powered equipment, such as switch or
router, to distribute a signal. This provides Pay TV operators and telecommunications service providers with
complete control of their infrastructure, enabling them to guarantee a quality of service (QOS) to subscribers.
Next-generation access
64
Milestones
Operators around the world have been rolling out high-speed broadband access networks since the mid 2000s.
However, the first commercial all-fiber deployment was started in 1999 by Italian Multiple Service Provider
Fastweb
[4]

[5]
as part of a plan to create an infrastructure with which to deliver multiple voice, data and video
services. The network was launched in 2001.
Fastweb used a network topology known as Active Ethernet Point-to-Point, widely seen as the defacto standard for
next generation networks, to deliver services from its central office direct into its subscribers’ homes. Network
termination was handled by an advanced residential gateway provided by Advanced Digital Broadcast– the first to
offer embedded fiber termination inside a subscribers’ home and enable services to be shared between a residential
gateway and other consumer electronics (CE) devices in the home.
Since 2007, Italian access providers Fastweb, Telecom Italia, Vodafone, and Wind have been participating in an
initiative called Fiber for Italy, with the stated aim of creating a countrywide FTTH network in Italy. The ongoing
pilot taking place in the Italian capital, Rome, has already seen symmetrical bandwidth of 100MBps achieved.
[6]
Telecom Italia, which refused to take part in the Fiber for Italy initiative, has set an even more ambitious plan to
bring FTTH/B to 138 cities by 2018.
[7]
By the end of December 2010, the total number of FTTH-enabled homes had passed 2.5 million, with more than
348,000 subscribers.
[8]
Fixed wireless and mobile technologies such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX and LTE are an alternative to NGA for providing
internet access.
Regulation
In September 2010 the European Commission published a new Recommendation for Regulated Access to NGA
Networks along with a list of measures to promote deployment of fast broadband and NGA networks
[9]
.
References
[1] The Definition of UK Superfast Next-Generation Broadband (http:// www. ispreview.co.uk/ articles/
10_Definition_of_UK_Superfast_NGA_Broadband/index. php) ISP Review, October 25th, 2010
[2] 2010/572/EU: Commission Recommendation of 20 September 2010 on regulated access to Next Generation Access Networks (NGA) (http://
eur-lex.europa.eu/ LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32010H0572:EN:NOT) Retrieved 30/10/2010.
[3] NGA explained (http://www. insight. bt. com/ NGA/ SME/ NGA-explained/) Retrieved 30 October 2010
[4] http:// en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Fiber_to_the_premises_by_country
[5] http:// www. wik. org/fileadmin/ Konferenzbeitraege/2009/ Challenges_for_FTTB_H_in_Europe/
S2_3_Pietralunga_Fastweb_WIK_FTTH_Conference2009. pdf
[6] http:// www. connections. rdm.com/ en/ desktopdefault. aspx/ tabid-2001/3439_read-3159/
[7] http:/ / fibertothewhatever.com/ wp/ news/ italy-ftth-reaches-348000-subscriber-mark
[8] http:// fibertothewhatever.com/ wp/ news/ italy-ftth-reaches-348000-subscriber-mark
[9] Digital Agenda: Commission outlines measures to deliver fast and ultra-fast broadband in Europe (http:// ec.europa.eu/ information_society/
newsroom/cf/ itemdetail.cfm?item_id=6070) Brussels, 20 September 2010
External links
• http:/ / www. openreach.co. uk/ orpg/ products/ nga/ nga_hp.do
• http:/ / www. bt. com/ nga
• http:/ / www. nextgenerationaccess. com
Novus Entertainment
65
Novus Entertainment
Novus Entertainment Inc.
Type Corporation
Industry telecommunications
Founded 1996
Headquarters Vancouver, British Columbia
Key people Donna L. Robertson (Co-President, CLO) Doug Holman (Co-President, CFO)
Products cable television, high-speed internet, telephone
Website
Novus Entertainment
[1]
Novus Entertainment (commonly known simply as Novus) is a Canadian telecommunications company providing
television, digital phone, and high-speed Internet services via a fibre optic network. The company is licensed by the
Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (the CRTC) as a Class 1 Broadcast Distribution
Undertaking for both Metro Vancouver and Toronto. Novus presently provides services to apartments,
condominiums, and businesses in Metro Vancouver. Novus is one of the few broadband Internet carriers in Canada
to offer a Fibre-to-the-Building (FTTB) network, and is currently the only carrier in Western Canada to do so.
[2]
The
company continues to expand its service in Metro Vancouver, and plans to launch services in the Metro Vancouver
municipality of Richmond in the near future.
[3]
Novus is also in the business of leasing dark fibre to other communications service providers and to businesses.
Internet
On February 4, 2010, Novus announced its 200 Mbit/s Internet service, claiming to be “Canada’s fastest Internet
service” to go into effect February 12, 2010.
[3]
Due to its use of Metro Ethernet rather than DOCSIS or DSL
technology, the carrier allows a direct RJ-45 connection into a wall jack, circumventing the use of a modem.
Television
Novus offers analogue and digital (SD and HD) television services. The carrier continues to add standard and high
definition channels to its lineup as they become available.
Novus’ cable community channel is branded as Novus TV or NVTV 4.
Novus Entertainment
66
Telephone
In April 2008, Novus launched its digital phone (VOIP) service through its fibre optic network.
Wireless Network
In 2008, Novus Wireless Inc., a related company to Novus Entertainment Inc., acquired advanced wireless spectrum
licenses from the Industry Canada auction for wireless services.
[4]
The licenses are authorized for the provinces of
British Columbia and Alberta. The carrier has not yet revealed details on when it plans to deploy its services.
Notes
[1] http:/ / www. novusnow. ca
[2] Fibre to the premises by country.
[3] Novus Smashes the Speed Barrier, CNW Group Press Release (http:/ / www.newswire.ca/ en/ releases/ archive/February2010/04/ c6687.
html)
[4] George-Cosh, D. (2008, April 24). Hui aims at Wireless Spectrum. National Post, pp. FP3. (http:/ / www.novusnow. ca/ about/
wireless_spectrum.html)
External links
• Novus Entertainment (http://www. novusnow. ca)
Offset time
In optical burst switching, offset time is the time between the burst header/control packet. The offset time used in
one-way reservation schemes allows the network time to schedule the burst and set-up resources prior to burst arrival
is sent into the network. The offset time can be varied to allow the network time to configure based on the
information carried in the burst header packet. By varying the offset time, different levels of quality of service can be
provided.
On-off keying
67
On-off keying
On-off keying (OOK) the simplest form of amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation that represents digital data as
the presence or absence of a carrier wave. In its simplest form, the presence of a carrier for a specific duration
represents a binary one, while its absence for the same duration represents a binary zero. Some more sophisticated
schemes vary these durations to convey additional information. It is analogous to unipolar encoding line code.
On-off keying is most commonly used to transmit Morse code over radio frequencies (referred to as CW (continuous
wave) operation), although in principle any digital encoding scheme may be used. OOK has been used in the ISM
bands to transfer data between computers, for example.
OOK is more spectrally efficient than FSK, but more sensitive to noise.
In addition to RF carrier waves, OOK is also used in optical communication systems (e.g. IrDA).
In aviation, some possibly unmanned airports have equipment that let pilots key their VHF radio a number of times
in order to request an Automatic Terminal Information Service broadcast, or turn on runway lights.
External links
• Application Note - I'm OOK. You're OOK?
[1]
References
[1] http:/ / www. maxim-ic.com/ appnotes. cfm/an_pk/ 4439/ CMP/ ELK12
Optical amplifier
An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an
electrical signal. An optical amplifier may be thought of as a laser without an optical cavity, or one in which
feedback from the cavity is suppressed. Optical amplifiers are important in optical communication and laser physics.
There are several different physical mechanisms that can be used to amplify a light signal, which correspond to the
major types of optical amplifiers. In doped fiber amplifiers and bulk lasers, stimulated emission in the amplifier's
gain medium causes amplification of incoming light. In semiconductor optical amplfiers (SOAs), electron-hole
recombination occurs. In Raman amplifiers, Raman scattering of incoming light with phonons in the lattice of the
gain medium produces photons coherent with the incoming photons. Parametric amplifiers use parametric
amplfication.
Optical amplifier
68
Laser amplifiers
Almost any laser active gain medium can be pumped to produce gain for light at the wavelength of a laser made with
the same material as its gain medium. Such amplifiers are commonly used to produce high power laser systems.
Special types such as regenerative amplifiers and chirped-pulse amplifiers are used to amplify ultrashort pulses.
Doped fiber amplifiers
Schematic diagram of a simple Doped Fiber Amplifier
Doped fiber amplifiers (DFAs) are optical
amplifiers that use a doped optical fiber as a
gain medium to amplify an optical signal.
They are related to fiber lasers. The signal to
be amplified and a pump laser are
multiplexed into the doped fiber, and the
signal is amplified through interaction with
the doping ions. The most common example
is the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
(EDFA), where the core of a silica fiber is
doped with trivalent Erbium ions and can be efficiently pumped with a laser at a wavelength of 980 nm or 1,480 nm,
and exhibits gain in the 1,550 nm region.
Amplification is achieved by stimulated emission of photons from dopant ions in the doped fiber. The pump laser
excites ions into a higher energy from where they can decay via stimulated emission of a photon at the signal
wavelength back to a lower energy level. The excited ions can also decay spontaneously (spontaneous emission) or
even through nonradiative processes involving interactions with phonons of the glass matrix. These last two decay
mechanisms compete with stimulated emission reducing the efficiency of light amplification.
The amplification window of an optical amplifier is the range of optical wavelengths for which the amplifier yields a
usable gain. The amplification window is determined by the spectroscopic properties of the dopant ions, the glass
structure of the optical fiber, and the wavelength and power of the pump laser.
Although the electronic transitions of an isolated ion are very well defined, broadening of the energy levels occurs
when the ions are incorporated into the glass of the optical fiber and thus the amplification window is also
broadened. This broadening is both homogeneous (all ions exhibit the same broadened spectrum) and
inhomogeneous (different ions in different glass locations exhibit different spectra). Homogeneous broadening arises
from the interactions with phonons of the glass, while inhomogeneous broadening is caused by differences in the
glass sites where different ions are hosted. Different sites expose ions to different local electric fields, which shifts
the energy levels via the Stark effect. In addition, the Stark effect also removes the degeneracy of energy states
having the same total angular momentum (specified by the quantum number J). Thus, for example, the trivalent
Erbium ion (Er
+3
) has a ground state with J = 15/2, and in the presence of an electric field splits into J + 1/2 = 8
sublevels with slightly different energies. The first excited state has J = 13/2 and therefore a Stark manifold with 7
sublevels. Transitions from the J = 13/2 excited state to the J= 15/2 ground state are responsible for the gain at
1.5 µm wavelength. The gain spectrum of the EDFA has several peaks that are smeared by the above broadening
mechanisms. The net result is a very broad spectrum (30 nm in silica, typically). The broad gain-bandwidth of fiber
amplifiers make them particularly useful in wavelength-division multiplexed communications systems as a single
amplifier can be utilized to amplify all signals being carried on a fiber and whose wavelengths fall within the gain
window.
Optical amplifier
69
Basic principle of EDFA
A relatively high-powered beam of light is mixed with the input signal using a wavelength selective coupler. The
input signal and the excitation light must of course be at significantly different wavelengths. The mixed light is
guided into a section of fiber with erbium ions included in the core. This high-powered light beam excites the erbium
ions to their higher-energy state. When the photons belonging to the signal at a different wavelength from the pump
light meet the excited erbium atoms, the erbium atoms give up some of their energy to the signal and return to their
lower-energy state. A significant point is that the erbium gives up its energy in the form of additional photons which
are exactly in the same phase and direction as the signal being amplified. So the signal is amplified along its
direction of travel only. This is not unusual - when an atom “lases” it always gives up its energy in the same direction
and phase as the incoming light. That is just the way lasers work. Thus all of the additional signal power is guided in
the same fiber mode as the incoming signal.There is usually an isolator placed at the output to prevent reflections
returning from the attached fiber. Such reflections disrupt amplifier operation and in the extreme case can cause the
amplifier to become a laser.
Noise
The principal source of noise in DFAs is Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE), which has a spectrum
approximately the same as the gain spectrum of the amplifier. Noise figure in an ideal DFA is 3 dB, while practical
amplifiers can have noise figure as large as 6–8 dB.
As well as decaying via stimulated emission, electrons in the upper energy level can also decay by spontaneous
emission, which occurs at random, depending upon the glass structure and inversion level. Photons are emitted
spontaneously in all directions, but a proportion of those will be emitted in a direction that falls within the numerical
aperture of the fiber and are thus captured and guided by the fiber. Those photons captured may then interact with
other dopant ions, and are thus amplified by stimulated emission. The initial spontaneous emission is therefore
amplified in the same manner as the signals, hence the term Amplified Spontaneous Emission. ASE is emitted by the
amplifier in both the forward and reverse directions, but only the forward ASE is a direct concern to system
performance since that noise will co-propagate with the signal to the receiver where it degrades system performance.
Counter-propagating ASE can, however, lead to degradation of the amplifier's performance since the ASE can
deplete the inversion level and thereby reduce the gain of the amplifier.
Gain saturation
Gain is achieved in a DFA due to population inversion of the dopant ions. The inversion level of a DFA is set,
primarily, by the power of the pump wavelength and the power at the amplified wavelengths. As the signal power
increases, or the pump power decreases, the inversion level will reduce and thereby the gain of the amplifier will be
reduced. This effect is known as gain saturation – as the signal level increases, the amplifier saturates and cannot
produce any more output power, and therefore the gain reduces. Saturation is also commonly known as gain
compression.
To achieve optimum noise performance DFAs are operated under a significant amount of gain compression (10 dB
typically), since that reduces the rate of spontaneous emission, thereby reducing ASE. Another advantage of
operating the DFA in the gain saturation region is that small fluctuations in the input signal power are reduced in the
output amplified signal: smaller input signal powers experience larger (less saturated) gain, while larger input
powers see less gain.
The leading edge of the pulse is amplified, until the saturation energy of the gain medium is reached. In some
condition, the width (FWHM) of the pulse is reduced.
Optical amplifier
70
Inhomogeneous broadening effects
Due to the inhomogeneous portion of the linewidth broadening of the dopant ions, the gain spectrum has an
inhomogeneous component and gain saturation occurs, to a small extent, in an inhomogeneous manner. This effect is
known as Spectral hole burning because a high power signal at one wavelength can 'burn' a hole in the gain for
wavelengths close to that signal by saturation of the inhomogeneously broadened ions. Spectral holes vary in width
depending on the characteristics of the optical fiber in question and the power of the burning signal, but are typically
less than 1 nm at the short wavelength end of the C-band, and a few nm at the long wavelength end of the C-band.
The depth of the holes are very small, though, making it difficult to observe in practice.
Polarization effects
Although the DFA is essentially a polarization independent amplifier, a small proportion of the dopant ions interact
preferentially with certain polarizations and a small dependence on the polarization of the input signal may occur
(typically < 0.5 dB). This is called Polarization Dependent Gain (PDG). The absorption and emission crossections of
the ions can be modeled as ellipsoids with the major axes aligned at random in all directions in different glass sites.
The random distribution of the orientation of the ellipsoids in a glass produces a macroscopically isotropic medium,
but a strong pump laser induces an anisotropic distribution by selectively exciting those ions that are more aligned
with the optical field vector of the pump. Also, those excited ions aligned with the signal field produce more
stimulated emission. The change in gain is thus dependent on the alignment of the polarizations of the pump and
signal lasers – i.e. whether the two lasers are interacting with the same sub-set of dopant ions or not. In an ideal
doped fiber without birefringence, the PDG would be inconveniently large. Fortunately, in optical fibers small
amounts of birefringence are always present and, furthermore, the fast and slow axes vary randomly along the fiber
length. A typical DFA has several tens of meters, long enough to already show this randomness of the birefringence
axes. These two combined effects (which in transmission fibers give rise to Polarization Mode Dispersion) produce a
misalignment of the relative polarizations of the signal and pump lasers along the fiber, thus tending to average out
the PDG. The result is that PDG is very difficult to observe in a single amplifier (but is noticeable in links with
several cascaded amplifiers).
Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers
The erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is the most deployed fiber amplifier as its amplification window coincides
with the third transmission window of silica-based optical fiber.
Two bands have developed in the third transmission window – the Conventional, or C-band, from approximately
1525 nm – 1565 nm, and the Long, or L-band, from approximately 1570 nm to 1610 nm. Both of these bands can be
amplified by EDFAs, but it is normal to use two different amplifiers, each optimized for one of the bands.
The principal difference between C- and L-band amplifiers is that a longer length of doped fiber is used in L-band
amplifiers. The longer length of fiber allows a lower inversion level to be used, thereby giving at longer wavelengths
(due to the band-structure of Erbium in silica) while still providing a useful amount of gain.
EDFAs have two commonly-used pumping bands – 980 nm and 1480 nm. The 980 nm band has a higher absorption
cross-section and is generally used where low-noise performance is required. The absorption band is relatively
narrow and so wavelength stabilised laser sources are typically needed. The 1480 nm band has a lower, but broader,
absorption cross-section and is generally used for higher power amplifiers. A combination of 980 nm and 1480 nm
pumping is generally utilised in amplifiers.
The optical fiber amplifier was invented by H. J. Shaw and Michel Digonnet at Stanford University, California, in
the early 1980s.
[1]
The EDFA was first demonstrated several years later
[2]
by a group including David N. Payne, R.
Mears, and L. Reekie, from the University of Southampton and a group from AT&T Bell Laboratories, E. Desurvire,
P. Becker, and J. Simpson.
[3]
Optical amplifier
71
Doped fiber amplifiers for other wavelength ranges
Thulium doped fiber amplifiers have been used in the S-band (1450–1490 nm) and Praseodymium doped amplifiers
in the 1300 nm region. However, those regions have not seen any significant commercial use so far and so those
amplifiers have not been the subject of as much development as the EDFA. However, Ytterbium doped fiber lasers
and amplifiers, operating near 1 micrometre wavelength, have many applications in industrial processing of
materials, as these devices can be made with extremely high output power (tens of kilowatts).
Semiconductor optical amplifier
Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are amplifiers which use a semiconductor to provide the gain medium.
[4]
These amplifiers have a similar structure to Fabry–Pérot laser diodes but with anti-reflection design elements at the
endfaces. Recent designs include anti-reflective coatings and tilted waveguide and window regions which can reduce
endface reflection to less than 0.001%. Since this creates a loss of power from the cavity which is greater than the
gain it prevents the amplifier from acting as a laser.
Semiconductor optical amplifiers are typically made from group III-V compound semiconductors such as
GaAs/AlGaAs, InP/InGaAs, InP/InGaAsP and InP/InAlGaAs, though any direct band gap semiconductors such as
II-VI could conceivably be used. Such amplifiers are often used in telecommunication systems in the form of
fiber-pigtailed components, operating at signal wavelengths between 0.85 µm and 1.6 µm and generating gains of up
to 30 dB.
The semiconductor optical amplifier is of small size and electrically pumped. It can be potentially less expensive
than the EDFA and can be integrated with semiconductor lasers, modulators, etc. However, the performance is still
not comparable with the EDFA. The SOA has higher noise, lower gain, moderate polarization dependence and high
nonlinearity with fast transient time. The main advantage of SOA is that all four types of nonlinear operations (cross
gain modulation, cross phase modulation, wavelength conversion and four wave mixing) can be conducted.
Furthermore, SOA can be run with a low power laser.
[5]
This originates from the short nanosecond or less upper state
lifetime, so that the gain reacts rapidly to changes of pump or signal power and the changes of gain also cause phase
changes which can distort the signals. This nonlinearity presents the most severe problem for optical communication
applications. However it provides the possibility for gain in different wavelength regions from the EDFA. "Linear
optical amplifiers" using gain-clamping techniques have been developed.
High optical nonlinearity makes semiconductor amplifiers attractive for all optical signal processing like all-optical
switching and wavelength conversion. There has been much research on semiconductor optical amplifiers as
elements for optical signal processing, wavelength conversion, clock recovery, signal demultiplexing, and pattern
recognition.
Vertical-cavity SOA
A recent addition to the SOA family is the vertical-cavity SOA (VCSOA). These devices are similar in structure to,
and share many features with, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The major difference when
comparing VCSOAs and VCSELs is the reduced mirror reflectivities used in the amplifier cavity. With VCSOAs,
reduced feedback is necessary to prevent the device from reaching lasing threshold. Due to the extremely short
cavity length, and correspondingly thin gain medium, these devices exhibit very low single-pass gain (typically on
the order of a few percent) and also a very large free spectral range (FSR). The small single-pass gain requires
relatively high mirror reflectivities to boost the total signal gain. In addition to boosting the total signal gain, the use
of the resonant cavity structure results in a very narrow gain bandwidth; coupled with the large FSR of the optical
cavity, this effectively limits operation of the VCSOA to single-channel amplification. Thus, VCSOAs can be seen
as amplifying filters.
Optical amplifier
72
Given their vertical-cavity geometry, VCSOAs are resonant cavity optical amplifiers that operate with the
input/output signal entering/exiting normal to the wafer surface. In addition to their small size, the surface normal
operation of VCSOAs leads to a number of advantages, including low power consumption, low noise figure,
polarization insensitive gain, and the ability to fabricate high fill factor two-dimensional arrays on a single
semiconductor chip. These devices are still in the early stages of research, though promising preamplifier results
have been demonstrated. Further extensions to VCSOA technology are the demonstration of wavelength tunable
devices. These MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity SOAs
[6]
utilize a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based
tuning mechanism for wide and continuous tuning of the peak gain wavelength of the amplifier. SOAs has a more
rapid gain response ,which is in the order of 1 to 100ps.
Raman amplifier
In a Raman amplifier, the signal is intensified by Raman amplification. Unlike the EDFA and SOA the amplification
effect is achieved by a nonlinear interaction between the signal and a pump laser within an optical fiber. There are
two types of Raman amplifier: distributed and lumped. A distributed Raman amplifier is one in which the
transmission fiber is utilised as the gain medium by multiplexing a pump wavelength with signal wavelength, while
a lumped Raman amplifier utilises a dedicated, shorter length of fiber to provide amplification. In the case of a
lumped Raman amplifier highly nonlinear fiber with a small core is utilised to increase the interaction between signal
and pump wavelengths and thereby reduce the length of fiber required.
The pump light may be coupled into the transmission fiber in the same direction as the signal (co-directional
pumping), in the opposite direction (contra-directional pumping) or both. Contra-directional pumping is more
common as the transfer of noise from the pump to the signal is reduced.
The pump power required for Raman amplification is higher than that required by the EDFA, with in excess of
500 mW being required to achieve useful levels of gain in a distributed amplifier. Lumped amplifiers, where the
pump light can be safely contained to avoid safety implications of high optical powers, may use over 1W of optical
power.
The principal advantage of Raman amplification is its ability to provide distributed amplification within the
transmission fiber, thereby increasing the length of spans between amplifier and regeneration sites. The amplification
bandwidth of Raman amplifiers is defined by the pump wavelengths utilised and so amplification can be provided
over wider, and different, regions than may be possible with other amplifier types which rely on dopants and device
design to define the amplification 'window'.
Note: The text of an earlier version of this article was taken from the public domain Federal Standard 1037C.
Optical parametric amplifier
An optical parametric amplifier allows the amplification of a weak Signal-Impulse in a noncentrosymmetric
nonlinear medium (e.g. BBO). In contrast to the previously mentioned amplifiers, which are mostly used in
telecommunication environments, this type finds its main application in expanding the frequency tunability of
ultrafast solid-state lasers (e.g. Ti:sapphire). By using a noncollinear interaction geometry Optical Parametric
Amplifiers are capable of extreme broad amplification bandwidths.
Optical amplifier
73
References
[1] Mears, R.J. and Reekie, L. and Poole, S.B. and Payne, D.N.: "Low-threshold tunable CW and Q-switched fiber laser operating at 1.55um",
Electron. Lett., 1986, 22, pp.159-160
[2] R.J. Mears, L. Reekie, I.M. Jauncey and D. N. Payne: “Low-noise Erbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1.54pm”, Electron. Lett., 1987, 23,
pp.1026–1028
[3] E. Desurvire, J. Simpson, and P.C. Becker, High-gain erbium-doped traveling-wave fiber amplifier," Optics Letters, vol. 12, No. 11, 1987, pp.
888–890
[4] M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers. Boston, MA: Springer-Verlag, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7923-7657-6
[5] Ghosh, B.; Mukhopadhyay, S. (2011). "All-Optical Wavelength encoded NAND and NOR Operations exploiting Semiconductor Optical
Amplifier based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Wavelength Converter and Phase Conjugation System". Optics and Photonics Letters 4 (2):
1–9. doi:10.1142/S1793528811000172.
[6] http:/ / www. engineering.ucsb. edu/ ~memsucsb/ Research/ MT-VCSOA/ MT-VCSOA. html
External links
• Encyclopedia of laser physics and technology on fiber amplifiers (http:// www.rp-photonics. com/
fiber_amplifiers. html) and Raman amplifiers (http:// www.rp-photonics. com/ raman_amplifiers.html)
Optical burst switching
Optical burst switching (OBS) is an optical networking technique that allows dynamic sub-wavelength switching
of data. OBS is viewed as a compromise between the yet unfeasible full optical packet switching (OPS) and the
mostly static optical circuit switching (OCS). It differs from these paradigms because OBS control information is
sent separately in a reserved optical channel and in advance of the data payload. These control signals can then be
processed electronically to allow the timely setup of an optical light path to transport the soon-to-arrive payload.
This is known as delayed reservation.
Purpose
The purpose of optical burst switching (OBS) is to dynamically provision sub-wavelength granularity by optimally
combining electronics and optics. OBS considers sets of packets with similar properties called bursts. Therefore,
OBS granularity is finer than optical circuit switching (OCS). OBS provides more bandwidth flexibility than
wavelength routing but requires faster switching and control technology. OBS can be used for realizing dynamic
end-to-end all optical communications.
Method
In OBS, packets are aggregated into data bursts at the edge of the network to form the data payload. Various
assembling schemes based on time and/or size exist (see burst switching). Edge router architectures have been
proposed (see
[1]

[2]
). OBS features the separation between the control plane and the data plane. A control signal
(also termed burst header or control packet) is associated to each data burst. The control signal is transmitted in
optical form in a separated wavelength termed the control channel, but signaled out of band and processed
electronically at each OBS router, whereas the data burst is transmitted in all optical form from one end to the other
end of the network. The data burst can cut through intermediate nodes, and data buffers such as fiber delay lines may
be used. In OBS data is transmitted with full transparency to the intermediate nodes in the network. After the burst
has passed a router, the router can accept new reservation requests.
Optical burst switching
74
Advantages of OBS over OPS and OCS
Advantages over OCS
More efficient bandwidth utilization - In a OCS system, a lightpath must be set up from source to destination in the
optical network. If the data transmission duration is short relative to the set up time, bandwidth may not be
efficiently utilized in the OCS system. In comparison, OBS does not require end-to-end lightpath set up, and
therefore may offer more efficient bandwidth utilization compared to an OCS system. This is similar to the
advantage offered by packet switching over circuit switching.
Advantages over OPS
Remove throughput limitation - Optical buffer technology has not matured enough to enable low cost manufacturing
and widespread use in optical networks. Core optical network nodes are likely to either be unbuffered or have limited
buffers.
[3]
In such networks, delayed reservation schemes such as Just Enough Time (JET)
[4]
are combined with
electronic buffering at edge routers to reserve bandwidth. Using JET can create a throughput limitation in an edge
router in an OPS system.
[5]
This limitation can be overcome by using OBS
[6]

[7]
Furthermore there must be a guardband in the data channel between packets or bursts, so that core optical router data
planes have adequate time to switch packets or bursts. If the guardband is large relative to the average packet or burst
size, then it can limit data channel throughput. Aggregating packets into bursts can reduce guardband impact on data
channel throughput.
Reduce processing requirements and core network energy consumption - A core optical router in an OBS network
may face reduced control plane requirements when compared to that in an OPS network, as: A core optical router in
an OPS network would have to perform processing operations for every arriving packet, wherelse in an OBS
network the router performs processing operations for an arriving burst which contains several packets. Therefore,
less processing operations per packet are required in a OBS network core optical router compared to an OPS
network. Consequently the energy consumption and potentially the carbon footprint of a core optical router in an
OPS network is likely to be larger than that of an OBS network router for the same amount of data.
This advantage may be offset by the fact that an OBS network edge router is likely to be more complex than an OPS
network edge router, due to the possible need for a burst assembly/aggregation and a sorting stage. Consequently
energy consumption at the edge of an OBS network may be higher than in an OPS network.
References
[1] R. Rajaduray, S. Ovadia, D. J. Blumenthal, "Analysis of an edge router for span-constrained optical burst switched (OBS) networks", IEEE
Journal of Lightwave Technology, November 2004, pp. 2693-2705 (https:// docs. google. com/ viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&
srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwN2Q1OWViNzQtYTQxNy00ODNjLWI4MDQtNWQwOTllNmEyM2M4& hl=en& authkey=CK2C1NcE)
[2] R. Rajaduray, "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks", PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, Dec. 2005,
pp. 61 - 105 (https:// docs. google. com/ viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&
srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwZDcwOWQ1YTYtOGQwNS00MjU4LWE1ZTEtYTNmMGFlMDM1Mzc4& hl=en)
[3] S. Ovadia, C. Maciocco, M. Paniccia, R. Rajaduray “Photonic Burst Switching (PBS) Architecture for Hop and Span-Constrained Optical
Networks”, S24-S32 IEEE Comms Magazine Nov 2003 (https:// docs. google.com/ viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&
srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwYTE1OTYwODUtMGE4Yi00ZmFiLWE5NDEtZDFlMjQ1OTRiZDE5& hl=en)
[4] C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS) - a New Paradigm for an Optical Internet", Journal of High Speed Networks, vol. 8, pp.
69 - 84, 1999 (http:// www. cse. buffalo.edu/ ~qiao/ wobs/ obs/ papers/ qiao_jhs99.pdf)
[5] R. Rajaduray, "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks", PhD dissertation, University of California Santa Barbara, December
2005, pp. 61 - 78, pp. 97 - 99 (https:/ / docs. google. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer&chrome=true&
srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwZDcwOWQ1YTYtOGQwNS00MjU4LWE1ZTEtYTNmMGFlMDM1Mzc4& hl=en)
[6] R. Rajaduray, "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks", PhD dissertation, University of California Santa Barbara, December
2005, pp. 61 - 78, pp. 97 - 99 (https:// docs. google. com/ viewer?a=v& pid=explorer&chrome=true&
srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwZDcwOWQ1YTYtOGQwNS00MjU4LWE1ZTEtYTNmMGFlMDM1Mzc4& hl=en)
[7] R. Rajaduray, Additional notes (10 Jan 2011) to accompany "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks" (https:// docs.google.
com/ viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&
srcid=0B_eAvAR7y2DwMWI2ZGI1M2UtZDIyOC00NTg2LThmZTAtOThkMjJkNmE0M2Q4& hl=en& authkey=CKymjskF)
Optical burst switching
75
Additional reading
• Baldine I, et al., 2003, "Just-in-Time Optical Burst Switching Implementation in the ATDnet All-Optical
Networking Testbed" Proceedings of the Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2003), San
Francisco, USA.
• Chen, Yang; Qiao, Chunming and Yu, Xiang; "Optical Burst Switching (OBS): A New Area in Optical
Networking Research", IEEE Network Magazine, Vol. 18 (3), pp. 16–23, May–June 2004.
• Gauger, C.; 2003, "Projects and Test Beds Related to OBS in Europe", Proceedings of the 2nd International
Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, IEEE Globecom, San Francisco, USA.
• Jue, Jason P. and Vokkarane, Vinod M.; Optical Burst Switched Networks, Springer, Optical Networks Series,
2005 ISBN 0-387-23756-9.
• Garcia, Nuno; "Architectures and Algorithms for IPv4/IPv6-Compliant Optical Burst Swicthing Networks", PhD
Thesis, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal, 2008.
• R. Rajaduray, S. Ovadia, D. J. Blumenthal, "Analysis of an edge router for span-constrained optical burst
switched (OBS) networks", IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, November 2004, pp. 2693–2705
• R. Rajaduray, D. J. Blumenthal, S. Ovadia, “Impact of Burst Assembly Parameters on Edge Router Latency in an
Optical Burst Switching Network”, Paper MF3 LEOS 2003 Annual Meeting, Oct 26 – 30, Tucson, Arizona
• R. Rajaduray, "Unbuffered and Limited-Buffer All-Optical Networks", PhD dissertation, University of California
Santa Barbara, December 2005
• S. Ovadia, C. Maciocco, M. Paniccia, R. Rajaduray “Photonic Burst Switching (PBS) Architecture for Hop and
Span-Constrained Optical Networks”, S24-S32 IEEE Comms Magazine Nov 2003
Optical conductivity
Optical conductivity is one of the powerful tools for studying the electronic states in materials.
[1]
If a system is
subjected to an external electric field then, in general, a redistribution of charges occurs and currents are induced. For
small enough fields, the induced polarization and the induced currents are proportional to the inducing field.
References
[1] Takami TOHYAMA and Sadamichi MAEKAWA, Journal of The Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 60, No.1, January, 1991, pp. 53-56
Optical ground wire
76
Optical ground wire
An optical ground wire (also known as an OPGW or, in the IEEE standard, an optical fiber composite overhead
ground wire) is a type of cable that is used in the construction of electric power transmission and distribution lines.
Such cable combines the functions of grounding and communications. An OPGW cable contains a tubular structure
with one or more optical fibers in it, surrounded by layers of steel and aluminum wire. The OPGW cable is run
between the tops of high-voltage electricity pylons. The conductive part of the cable serves to bond adjacent towers
to earth ground, and shields the high-voltage conductors from lightning strikes. The optical fibers within the cable
can be used for high-speed transmission of data, either for the electrical utility's own purposes of protection and
control of the transmission line, for the utility's own voice and data communication, or may be leased or sold to third
parties to serve as a high-speed fiber interconnection between cities.
The optical fiber itself is an insulator and protects against power transmission line and lightning induction, external
noise and cross-talk. Typically OPGW cables contain single-mode optical fibers with low transmission loss,
allowing long distance transmission at high speeds. The outer appearance of OPGW is similar to ACSR cable
usually used for shield wires.
OPGW as a communication medium has some advantages over buried optical fiber cable. Installation cost per
kilometre is lower than a buried cable. Effectively, the optical circuits are protected from accidental contact by the
high voltage cables below (and by the elevation of the OPGW from ground). A communications circuit carried by an
overhead OPGW cable benefits from the lower likelihood of accidental damage due to excavation work, for example
road expansion or by any kind of repairing work of under ground drainage system or water supply system.
A utility may install many more fibers than it needs for its internal communications both to allow for future needs
and also to lease or sell to telecommunications companies. Rental fees for these "dark fibers" (spares) can provide a
valuable source of revenue for the electrical utility. However, when rights-of-way for a transmission line have been
expropriated from landowners, occasionally utilities have been restricted from such leasing agreements on the basis
that the original right of way was only granted for electric power transmission.
Lower-voltage distribution lines may also carry OPGW wires for bonding and communications; however, utilities
may also install all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) cables on distribution pole lines. These cables are somewhat
similar to those used for telephone and cable television distribution.
In Baden-Württemberg, Germany on several powerlines built by former EVS and which are today operated by
EnBW uses such cables, which are installed like a garland on the ground conductor or an auxiliary rope of the
powerline.
Air cable spun like a garland on a
110kV-powerline of EnBW AG near Leonberg in
Germany
External links
• "IEEE 1138 Standard Construction of Composite Fiber Optic
Overhead Ground Wire (OPGW) for Use on Electric Utility Power
Lines"
[1]
. 17 March 1994. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
Optical ground wire
77
References
[1] http:/ / electronics.ihs. com/ document/ abstract/ WZRTZAAAAAAAAAAA
Optical hybrid
A 90° optical hybrid is a six-port device that is used for coherent signal demodulation for either homodyne or
heterodyne detection. It would mix the incoming signal with the four quadratural states associated with the reference
signal in the complex-field space. The optical hybrid would then deliver the four light signals to two pairs of
balanced detectors.
Why optical hybrids are needed
Since the late 1990s, the transport capacities of long haul and ultra-long haul fiber-optic communications systems
have been significantly increased by the introduction of EDFA, DWDM, dispersion compensation, and FEC
technologies. For fiber-optic communications systems utilizing such technologies, the universal on/off-keying
(OOK) modulation format in conjunction with direct detection methods have been sufficient to address data rates up
to 10 Gbit/s per channel.
Several technological advancements can economically extend the reach and data capacity beyond such legacy
systems and into next-generation networks, including but not limited to: 1) adoption of a differential phase-shift
keying (DPSK) modulation format, as opposed to OOK; 2) developments in optical coherent detection; and 3)
progress in adaptive electrical equalization technology. In combination, these technologies can boost a signal’s
robustness and spectral efficiency against noise and transmission impairments.
These advancements in optical signal technology are feasible solutions in present-day optical networking. The path
for an optical coherent system has been provided by 1) the deployment of DPSK modulated systems by Tier-1
network providers; and 2) the increased computational capacity and speed of electronic digital signal processing
circuits in receivers, which provides an efficient adaptive electrical equalization solution to the costly and difficult
optical phase-locked loop. These advances coupled with recent introduction of six-port optical hybrids make
adopting and implementing an optical coherent detection scheme economically feasible. With such advances, optical
networks can begin to realize the benefits already recognized in microwave and RF transmission systems for
extending capacity and repeaterless transmission distances through coherent detection.
Optical coherent systems
The commercial feasibility of a coherent system for optical signal transmission was first investigated in the late
1980s as a means to improve a receiver’s sensitivity. At the time, because optical amplifiers were not yet fully
developed, optical transmission systems were limited by the attenuation in optical fibers. A large number of
transmission experiments with coherent detection were carried out to demonstrate its superior receiver sensitivity,
which could be improved by up to 20 dB compared with that of intensity modulation with direct detection. In
addition, in contrast to existing optical direct-detection system technology, because optical coherent detection
systems can also detect not only an optical signal’s amplitude but phase and polarization as well, a number of other
modulation schemes were also proposed, with a focus on improving the receiver sensitivity. However, the
technology did not soon gain commercial traction because the implementation and benefits of an optical coherent
system could not be realized by existing systems and technologies.
The development of the Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in the 1990s and its rapid implementation in
wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks nearly brought most of the research on coherent detection to a
halt, as optical signals could get amplified along the optical transmission link, effectively extending the reach of the
Optical hybrid
78
optical signal. The primary focus of the development of optical fiber transmission systems gradually shifted towards
developing techniques to compensate for chromatic dispersion, which became one of the most limiting impairments
in optical fibers. Eventually, many techniques were developed to overcome this limit, including dispersion
compensating fiber, and the focus shifted towards increasing the amount of information that could be transmitted in
an optical fiber.
Because of coherent detection systems' ability to distinguish the optical phase and polarization of light, it was
suggested that they could also be used to increase optical fiber spectral efficiency, effectively allowing more data to
be transmitted within the same optical bandwidth, as modulation formats that take full advantage of these extra
degree of freedom could be used, rather that simply using the intensity of light. Moreover, because coherent
detection allows an optical signal’s phase and polarization to be detected and therefore measured and processed,
transmission impairments which previously presented challenges, can, in theory, be mitigated electronically when an
optical signal is converted into the electronic domain.
As demand for higher transmission capacity systems has evolved, a method that quadruples transmission capacity to
40 Gbit/s while maintaining the transmission properties of a 10 Gbit/s non-coherent transmission system has been
introduced by Nortel in the OME 6500. It uses dual-polarization, quadrature phase-shift keyed modulation of the
light source, and a coherent receiver with advanced electronic compensation of path impairments. Another approach
for 10 Gbit/s optical coherent transmission uses heterodyne technique for electrical compensation of the chromatic
dispersion in the IF domain was introduced by Discovery Semiconductors in 2005
[1]
.
Implementing a coherent detection system in optical networks requires 1) a method to stabilize frequency difference
between a transmitter and receiver within close tolerances; 2) the capability to minimize or mitigate frequency chirp
or other signal inhibiting noise; 3) an availability of an optical mixer to properly combine the signal and the local
amplifying light source or local oscillator (LO); and 4) an ability to stabilize the relative state of polarization
between the transmitter and the local oscillator. These technologies were not available in the 1990s. A further
setback to the adoption and commercialization of an optical coherent system was the introduction of the EDFA, an
alternative low cost solution to the sensitivity issue. Notwithstanding the myriad challenges, an optical coherent
system (also referred to as Coherent Light Wave) remains a holy grail of sorts to the optical community because of
its advantages over traditional detection technologies:
• An increase of receiver sensitivity by 15 to 20 dB compared to incoherent systems, there-fore, permitting longer
transmission distances (up to an additional 100 km near 1.55 µm in fiber). This enhancement is particularly
significant for space based laser communications where a fiber-based solution similar to the EDFA is not
available.
• Compatibility with complex modulation formats such as DPSK or DQPSK.
• Concurrent detection of a light signal’s amplitude, phase and polarization allowing more detailed information to
be conveyed and extracted, thereby increasing tolerance to network impairments, such as chromatic dispersion,
and improving system performance.
• Better rejection of interference from adjacent channels in DWDM systems, allowing more channels to be packed
within the transmission band.
• Linear transformation of a received optical signal to an electrical signal that can then be analyzed using modern
DSP technology.
• Suitable for secured communications.
There is a growing economic and technical rationale for adoption of a coherent optical system now. Academic and
industrial research results have demonstrated that coherent optical systems are feasible today using advanced but
commercially available optical components. The six-port 90° optical hybrid device is consequently developed based
on such practical requirements.
Optical hybrid
79
Six-port optical hybrid
Six-port hybrid devices have been used for microwave and millimeter-wave detection systems since the mid-1990s
and are a key component for coherent receivers. In principle, the six-port device consists of linear dividers and
combiners interconnected in such a way that four different vectorial additions of a reference signal (LO) and the
signal to be detected are obtained. The levels of the four output signals are detected by balanced receivers. By
applying suitable base-band signal processing algorithms, the amplitude and phase of the unknown signal can be
determined.
For optical coherent detection, the six-port 90° optical hybrid would mix the incoming signal with the four
quadratural states associated with the reference signal in the complex-field space. The optical hybrid would then
deliver the four light signals to two pairs of balanced detectors. See Figure 1 for block diagram of a coherent
receiver.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of optical coherent receiver.
Implementation of optical hybrids
Figure 2. Fiber or waveguide implementation of optical hybrid.
For laboratory purposes, the 90° optical hybrid has
traditionally been constructed using two 50/50-beam
splitters and two beam combiners, plus one 90° phase
shifter (See Figure 2). These optical hybrids can be
implemented using all-fiber, planar waveguide technologies
or free-space technology.
Optical hybrid
80
Figure 3. Illustrative optical layout for Michelson-interferometer hybrid device.
A 90° optical hybrid can be based on a
Michelson interferometer or Michelson
interferometerstructure (See Figure 2-3). The
Michelson interferometer principle has been
proven and tested in free-space bulk optics
and optical component manufacturing.
Free-space bulk optics is used in many optical
components, such as circulators, polarization
beam combiners, wavelength lockers,
dispersion compensators, optical interleavers
and Optical DPSK demodulators, to the
fiber-optic communication industry. Bulk
optics based devices can be coupled to
commercially available fiber collimators.
References
1. G. P. Agrawal, “Fiber-Optic Communication Systems”, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997.
2. R. Noe, in Proc. Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., Yo-kohama, Japan, Jul. 12-16, 2004, pp. 818–819.
3. G. Goldfarb, C. Kim and G Li, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 18, 517-519 (2006).
4. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh and K. Kikuchi, J. of Lightwave Tech., Vol. 24, 12-21 (2006).
5. L. G. Kazovsky, L. Curtis, W. C. Young and N. K. Cheung, Applied Optics, Vol. 26, 437-439 (1987).
6. S. Camatel, V. Ferrero and P. Poggiolini, "2-PSK Homodyne Re-ceiver Based on a Decision Driven Architecture
and a Sub-Carrier Optical PLL," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Anaheim CA, March 5–10,
2006, Paper No. OTuI3.
7. S. Camatel and V. Ferrero, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 18, 142-144 (2006).
8. J. Li, R. G. Bosisio and K. Wu, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 43, 2766-2772 (1995).
9. T. Visan, J. Beauvais and R. G. Bosisio, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 27, 432-438 (2000).
10. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon and M. G. Raymer, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol.
15, 1746-1748 (2003).
11. 90-Degree Optical Hybrid
[2]
12. Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications (COTA)
[3]
13. Dual polarization 90-Degree Optical Hybrid
[4]
Notes
[1] http:/ / www. chipsat. com/ press/ press42. php
[2] http:/ / www. optoplex. com/ Optical_Hybrid.htm
[3] http:// www. osa. org/meetings/ topicalmeetings/ COTA/ default.aspx
[4] http:// www. kylia. com/ dualp. html
Optical Internetworking Forum
81
Optical Internetworking Forum
The Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) is a non-profit, member-driven organization founded in 1998. It promotes
the development and deployment of interoperable networking solutions and services through the creation of
Implementation Agreements (IAs) for optical networking products, network processing elements, and component
technologies. Implementation agreements are based on requirements developed cooperatively by end-users, service
providers, equipment vendors and technology providers, and aligned with worldwide standards, augmented if
necessary. This is accomplished through industry member participation working together to develop specifications
(IAs) for:
• External network element interfaces
• Software interfaces internal to network elements
• Hardware component interfaces internal to network elements
The OIF creates benchmarks, performs worldwide interoperability testing, builds market awareness and promotes
education for technologies, services and solutions. The OIF provides feedback to worldwide standards organizations
to help achieve a set of implementable, interoperable solutions.
The OIF strives to accelerate the deployment of interoperable optical networks by developing market-driven
solutions to real-world problems in a timely manner thereby reducing market-entry risks. It develops
contribution-driven IAs in a virtual/open collaboration model by members who represent the entire industry
ecosystem.
Organizational form
Launched in 1998, the OIF is the first industry group to unite representatives from data and optical networking
disciplines, including many of the world's leading carriers, component manufacturers, and system vendors. With
100+ member companies, the OIF unites representatives from data and optical networking disciplines, including
many of the world’s leading carriers, component manufacturers and system vendors.
Technical Committee and Working Groups
The OIF structure includes a Technical Committee and a Market Awareness and Education Committee (MA&E).
The MA&E Committee is responsible for the educational and marketing activities of the OIF. The Technical
Committee essentially produces IAs out of the following working groups:
• The OIF Architecture and Signaling Working Group solicits and analyzes requirements from service providers.
Based on these requirements, it develops implementation agreements related to architectures and signaling for
Optical Internetworks and optical network elements.
• The OIF Carrier Working Group develops requirements and guidelines for the services and functions to be
supported by the future optical networking products to be installed in the service providers networks, thus
providing a common direction to the equipment vendors community as well as the other OIF working groups.
Specifically
• The Interoperability Working Group defines testing methodologies for implementation agreements, carries out
proofs of concept, evaluates multi-vendor interoperability and contributes technical leadership for interoperability
trials. Interoperability test criteria are extracted from implementation agreements, and methods are defined with
support of the source technical working group.
• The Operations, Administration, Maintenance, & Provisioning (OAM&P) working group develops architectures,
requirements, guidelines, and implementation agreements critical to widespread deployment of interoperable
optical networks by carriers. The scope includes but is not limited to a) planning, engineering and provisioning of
Optical Internetworking Forum
82
network resources; b) operations, maintenance or administration use cases and processes; and c) management
functionality and interfaces for operations support systems and interoperable network equipment. Within its scope
are Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security Management (FCAPS) and Security.
• The OIF Physical and Link Layer (PLL) Working Group develops Implementation Agreements related to
physical and data link layer interfaces between Optical Internetworking elements and between their internal
components, reusing existing standards when applicable.
• The OIF Physical Layer User Working Group develops requirements and guidelines for components, modules,
subsystems and communication links used in networking equipment thus providing common direction to the PLL
vendor community as well as the other OIF working groups.
Interoperability agreements
100G Implementation Agreements
• 100G Ultra Long Haul DWDM Framework Document
• Implementation Agreement for Integrated Polarization Multiplexed Quadrature Modulated Transmitters
• Implementation Agreement for Integrated Dual Polarization Intradyne Coherent Receivers
• Multisource Agreement for 100G Long-Haul DWDM Transmission Module - Electromechanical
• 100G Forward Error Correction White Paper
Electrical Interfaces Implementation Agreements
• Common Electrical I/O (CEI)- Electrical and Jitter Interoperability Agreements for 6G+bps and 11G+bps I/O
• Implementation Guide for the Common Electrical Interface 2.0 (CEI 2.0)
• Common Electrical I/O - Protocol (CEI-P) Implementation Agreement
• Proposal for a Common Electrical Interface Between SONET Framer and Serializer/deserializer Parts for OC-192
Interfaces
• SERDES Framer Interface Level 4 (SFI-4.2) Phase 2: Implementation Agreement for 10Gb/s Interface for
Physical Layer Devices
• Serdes Framer Interface Level 5 (SFI-5): 40Gb/s Interface for Physical Layer Devices
• Serdes Framer Interface Level 5 Phase 2 (SFI-5.2): Implementation Agreement for 40Gb/s Interface for Physical
Layer Devices
• Scalable Serdes Framer Interface (SFI-S): Implementation Agreement for Interfaces Beyond 40G for Physical
Layer Devices
• Serial Look Aside Interface Implementation Agreement
• SPI-3 Packet Interface for Physical and Link Layers for OC-48
• System Physical Interface Level 4 (SPI-4) Phase 1: A System Interface for Interconnection Between Physical and
Link Layer, or Peer-to-Peer Entities Operating at an OC-192 Rate (10 Gb/s)
• System Packet Interface Level 4 (SPI-4) Phase 2: OC-192 System Interface for Physical and Link Layer Devices
• System Packet Interface Level 5 (SPI-5) : OC-768 System Interface for Physical and Link Layer Devices
• Scalable System Packet Interface Implementation Agreement: System Packet Interface Capable of Operating as
an Adaptation Layer for Serial Data Links
• System Interface Level 5 (SxI-5): Common Electrical Characteristics for 2.488 - 3.125Gbps Parallel Interfaces
• TDM System Interface Protocol
• TDM Fabric to Framer Interface (TFI5)
Optical Internetworking Forum
83
Optical Transponder Interoperability Agreement
• Interoperability for Long Reach and Extended Reach 10 Gb/s Transponders and Transceivers
Tunable Laser Implementation Agreements
• Implementation Agreement for Common Software Protocol,Control Syntax, and Physical (Electrical and
Mechanical) Interfaces for Tunable Laser Modules
• Multi-Source Agreement for CW Tunable Lasers
• Integrable Tunable Laser Assembly Multi Source Agreement
• Integrable Tunable Transmitter Assembly Multi Source Agreement
UNI – NNI Implementation Agreements
• User Network Interface (UNI) 1.0 Signaling Specification
• Common - User Network Interface (UNI) 1.0 Signaling Specification, Release 2: Common Part
• RSVP Extensions for User Network Interface (UNI) 1.0 Signaling, Release 2
• Common - User Network Interface (UNI) 2.0 Signaling Specification: Common Part
• User Network Interface (UNI) 2.0 Signaling Specification: RSVP Extensions for User Network Interface (UNI)
2.0
• Call Detail Records for OIF UNI 1.0 Billing
• Security Extension for UNI and E-NNI 2.0
• Security Extension for UNI and NNI
• Addendum to the Security Extension for UNI and NNI
• OIF Control Plane Logging and Auditing with Syslog
• Security for Management Interfaces to Network Elements
• Addendum to the Security for Management Interfaces to Network Elements
• Intra-Carrier E-NNI Signaling Specification
• E-NNI Signaling Specification
• External Network-Network Interface (E-NNI) OSPF-based Routing - 1.0 (Intra-Carrier)
• OIF Guideline Document: Signaling Protocol Interworking of ASON/GMPLS Network Domains
• OIF Carrier Working Group Guideline Document: Control Plane Requirements for Multi-Domain Optical
Transport Networks
Very Short Reach Interface Implementation Agreements
• Very Short Reach (VSR) OC-192 Interface for Parallel Optics
• Very Short Reach (VSR) OC-192 Four Fiber Interface Based on Parallel Optics
• Serial Shortwave Very Short Reach (VSR) OC-192 Interface for Multimode Fiber
• Very Short Reach (VSR) OC-192 Interface Using 1310 Wavelength and 4 and 11 dB Link Budgets
• Very Short Reach Interface Level 5 (VSR-5): SONET/SDH OC-768 Interface for Very Short Reach (VSR)
Applications
Optical Internetworking Forum
84
Merger
The Network Processing Forum merged into the OIF in June, 2006.
Liaison relationships
The OIF actively supports and extends the work of standards bodies and industry forums with the goal of promoting
worldwide compatibility of optical internetworking products.
External links
• OIF Home Page
[1]
• OIF Interoperability Agreements
[2]
• OIF Events Calendar
[3]
References
[1] http:/ / www. oiforum.com/
[2] http:/ / www. oiforum.com/ public/ impagreements. html
[3] http:/ / www. oiforum.com/ public/ 2011_calendar.html
Optical line termination
An optical line termination (OLT), also called an optical line terminal, is a device which serves as the service
provider endpoint of a passive optical network. It provides two main functions:
1. to perform conversion between the electrical signals used by the service provider's equipment and the fiber optic
signals used by the passive optical network.
2. to coordinate the multiplexing between the conversion devices on the other end of that network (called either
optical network terminals or optical network units).
Features
OLTs include the following features:
• A downstream frame processing means for receiving and churning an asynchronous transfer mode cell to generate
a downstream frame, and converting a parallel data of the downstream frame into a serial data thereof.
• A wavelength division multiplexing means for performing an electro/optical conversion of the serial data of the
downstream frame and performing a wavelength division multiplexing thereof.
• A upstream frame processing means for extracting data from the wavelength division multiplexing means,
searching an overhead field, delineating a slot boundary, and processing a physical layer operations
administration and maintenance (PLOAM) cell and a divided slot separately.
• A control signal generation means for performing a media access control (MAC) protocol and generating
variables and timing signals used for the downstream frame processing means and the upstream frame processing
means.
• A control means for controlling the downstream frame processing means and the upstream frame processing
means by using the variables and the timing signals from the control signal generation means.
Optical mesh network
85
Optical mesh network
Transport network based on SONET/SDH ring
architecture
Optical mesh networks are a type of telecommunications network.
Transport networks, the underlying optical fiber-based layer of
telecommunications networks, have evolved from DCS (Digital
Cross-connect Systems)-based mesh architectures in the 1980s, to
SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Networking/Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy) ring architectures in the 1990s. Technological
advancements in optical transport equipment in the first decade of the
21st century, along with continuous deployment of DWDM systems,
have led telecommunications service providers to replace their SONET
ring architectures by mesh-based architectures. The new optical mesh networks support the same fast recovery
previously available in ring networks while achieving better capacity efficiency and resulting in lower capital cost.
Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks, such as inter-router or
inter-switch connectivity in an IP, MPLS, or Ethernet-centric infrastructure, but also support efficient routing and
fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth services. This was made possible by the emergence of optical network
elements that have the intelligence required to automatically control certain network functions, such as fault
recovery.
Optical mesh networks enable a variety of dynamic services such as bandwidth-on-demand, Just-In-Time bandwidth,
bandwidth scheduling, bandwidth brokering, and optical virtual private networks that open up new opportunities for
service providers and their customers alike.
Example of mesh network: NSFNET 14nodes
History of transport networks
Transport networks, the underlying optical fiber-based layer of
telecommunications networks, have evolved from Digital cross
connect system (DCS)-based mesh architectures in the 1980s, to
SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Networking/Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy) ring architectures in the 1990s. In DCS-based mesh
architectures, telecommunications carriers deployed restoration
systems for DS3 circuits such as at&t FASTAR (FAST Automatic
Restoration)
[1]
and MCI Real Time Restoration (RTR)
[2]
, restoring circuits in minutes after a network failure. In
SONET/SDH rings, carriers implemented ring protection such as SONET Universal Path Switched Ring (UPSR)
[3]
(also called Sub-Network Connection Protection (SCNP) in SDH networks) or SONET Bidirectional Line Switched
Ring (BLSR)
[4]
(also called Multiplex Section - Shared Protection Ring (MS-SPRing) in SDH networks), protecting
against and recovering from a network failure in 50 msecs or less
[5]
, a significant improvement over the recovery
time supported in DCS-based mesh restoration, and a key driver for the deployment of SONET/SDH ring-based
protection.
There have been attempts at improving and/or evolving traditional ring architectures to overcome some of its
limitations, with trans-oceanic ring architecture (ITU-T Rec. G.841), “P-cycles” protection
[6]
, next-generation
SONET/SDH equipment that can handle multiple rings, or have the ability to not close the working or protection
ring side, or to share protection capacity among rings (e.g., with Virtual Line Switched Ring (VLSR)
[7]
.
Technological advancements in optical transport switches
[8]
in the first decade of the 21st century, along with
continuous deployment of dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) systems, have led telecommunications
service providers to replace their SONET ring architectures by mesh-based architectures for new traffic. The new
Optical mesh network
86
optical mesh networks support the same fast recovery previously available in ring networks while achieving better
capacity efficiency and resulting in lower capital cost. Such fast recovery (in the tens to hundreds of msecs) in case
of failures (e.g., network link or node failure) is achieved through the intelligence embedded in these new optical
transport equipment, which allows recovery to be automatic and handled within the network itself as part of the
network control plane, without relying on an external network management system.
Optical mesh networks
Switching, multiplexing, and grooming
of traffic in an OEO device
Optical mesh networks refer to transport networks that are built directly off
the mesh-like fiber infrastructure deployed in metropolitan, regional, national,
or international (e.g., trans-oceanic) areas by deploying optical transport
equipment that are capable of switching traffic (at the wavelength or
sub-wavelength level) from an incoming fiber to an outgoing fiber. In
addition to switching wavelengths, the equipment is typically also able to
multiplex lower speed traffic into wavelengths for transport, and to groom
traffic (as long as the equipment is so-called opaque - see subsection on
transparency). Finally, these equipment also provide for the recovery of
traffic in case of a network failure. As most of the transport networks evolve
toward mesh topologies utilizing intelligent network elements (optical cross-connects or optical switches
[8]
) for
provisioning and recovery of services, new approaches have been developed for the design, deployment, operations
and management of mesh optical networks.
Optical mesh networks today not only provide trunking capacity to higher-layer networks, such as inter-router or
inter-switch connectivity in an IP, MPLS, or Ethernet-centric packet infrastructure, but also support efficient routing
and fast failure recovery of high-bandwidth point-to-point Ethernet and SONET/SDH services.
Recovery in optical mesh networks
Shared backup path protection - before
failure
Shared backup path protection - after
failure and recovery
Optical mesh networks support the establishment of circuit-mode
connection-oriented services. Multiple recovery mechanisms that provide
different levels of protection
[9]
or restoration
[10]
against different failure
modes are available in mesh networks. Channel, link, segment and path
protection are the most common protection schemes. P-cycles
[6]
is another
type of protection that leverages and extends ring-based protection.
Restoration is another recovery method that can work on its own or
complement faster protection schemes in case of multiple failures.
In path-protected mesh networks, some connections can be unprotected;
others can be protected against single or multiple failures in various ways. A
connection can be protected against a single failure by defining a backup
path, diverse from the primary path taken by the connection over the mesh
network. The backup path and associated resources can be dedicated to the
connection (aka Dedicated Backup Path Protection), or shared among
multiple connections (aka Shared Backup Path Protection
[11]
), typically ones
whose primary paths are not likely to fail at the same time, thereby avoiding
contention for the shared resources in case of a single link or node failure. A
number of other protection schemes such as the use of pre-emptible paths, or
Optical mesh network
87
only partially diverse backup paths, can be implemented. Finally, multiple diverse routes can be designed so that a
connection has multiple recovery routes and can recover even after multiple failures (examples of mesh networks
across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans).
Transparency
Opaque switching of traffic between
fiber links
Transparent switching of traffic
between fiber links
Traditional transport networks are made of optical fiber-based links between
telecommunications offices, where multiple wavelengths are multiplexed to
increase the capacity of the fiber. The wavelengths are terminated on electronic
devices called transponders, undergoing an optical-to-electrical conversion for
signal Reamplification, Reshaping, and Retiming (3R). Inside a
telecommunications office, the signals are then handled to and switched by a
transport switch (aka optical cross-connect or optical switch) and either are
dropped at that office, or directed to an outgoing fiber link where they are again
carried as wavelengths multiplexed into that fiber link towards the next
telecommunications office. The act of going through Optical-Electrical-Optical
(O-E-O) conversion through a telecommunications office causes the network to
be considered opaque. When the incoming wavelengths do not undergo an
optical-to-electrical conversion and are switched through a telecommunications
office in the optical domain using all-optical switches (also called photonic
cross-connect, optical add-drop multiplexer, or Reconfigurable Optical
Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM) systems), the network is considered to be
transparent. Hybrid schemes can provide limited O-E-O conversions at key
locations across the network.
Transparent optical mesh networks have been deployed in metropolitan and regional networks. In 2010, operational
long distance networks still tend to remain opaque.
Routing in optical mesh networks
Routing is a key control and operational aspect of optical mesh networks. In transparent or all-optical networks,
routing of connections is tightly linked to the wavelength selection and assignment process (so-called routing and
wavelength assignment, or "RWA"). This is due to the fact that the connection remains on the same wavelength from
end-to-end throughout the network (sometimes referred to as wavelength continuity constraint, in the absence of
devices that can translate between wavelengths in the optical domain). In an opaque network, the routing problem is
one of finding a primary path for a connection and if protection is needed, a backup path diverse from the primary
path. Wavelengths are used on each link independently of each other's. Several algorithms can be used to determine
a primary path and a diverse backup path (with or without sharing of resource along the backup path) for a
connection or service, such as shortest path, including Dijkstra's algorithm, k-shortest path
[12]
, edge and
node-diverse or disjoint routing, including Suurballe's algorithm
[13]
, and numerous heuristics.
Optical mesh network
88
Applications
The deployment of optical mesh networks is enabling new services and applications for service providers to offer
their customers, such as
• Dynamic services such as Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD)
[14]
, Just-In-Time (JIT) bandwidth, bandwidth
scheduling, and bandwidth brokering
• Optical virtual private networks
[15]
It also supports new network paradigms such as
• IP-over-optical network architectures
[16]
Related network architectures
Mesh networking in general and wireless mesh networking in particular.
References
[1] FAST Automatic Restoration - FASTAR (http:// ieeexplore.ieee. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=188598).
[2] Real Time Restoration (RTR) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yA0EAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA27).
[3] Universal Path Switched Ring (UPSR) (http:/ / www. sonet. com/ EDU/ upsr. htm).
[4] Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR) (http:/ / www.sonet. com/ EDU/blsr. htm).
[5] Is 50 ms necessary? (http:/ / www.ece. ualberta.ca/ ~grover/pdf/Schallenburg_50ms.ppt)
[6] W. D. Grover, (Invited Paper) "p-Cycles, Ring-Mesh Hybrids and "Ring-Mining:” Options for New and Evolving Optical Networks," (http://
www.ece.ualberta. ca/ ~grover/pdf/ Grover_OFC_2003_Invited_Paper_TuI1.pdf) Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC
2003), Atlanta, March 24–27, 2003, pp.201-203. ( related presentation (http:/ / www. ece.ualberta.ca/ ~grover/pdf/
Grover_OFC_2003_Invited_Presentation_TuI1. ppt)).
[7] Virtual Line Switched Ring (VLSR). (http:// www. google.com/ patents/ about?id=9z-nAAAAEBAJ)
[8] Also referred to as optical cross-connects or optical switches. The term optical does not imply that the equipment handles signals completely
in the optical domain, and most of the times, it does not and instead it grooms, multiplexes, and switches signals in the electrical domain,
although some equipment (referred to as photonic cross-connect) do switching (only) fully in the optical domain without any O-E-O
conversion.
[9] Protection refers to a pre-planned system where a recovery path is pre-computed for each potential failure (before the failure occurs) and the
path uses pre-assigned resources for failure recovery (dedicated for specific failure scenarios or shared among different failure scenarios)
[10] With restoration, the recovery path is computed in real time (after the failure occurs) and spare capacity available in the network is used to
reroute traffic around the failure.
[11] http:// www. network-protection.net/ shared-backup-path-protection-sbpp/
[12] K-th Shortest Path Problem. (http:// www.mat. uc. pt/ ~eqvm/ OPP/ KSPP/ KSPP. html)
[13] J. W. Suurballe, R. E. Tarjan, "A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths". (http:// onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/ 10. 1002/
net. 3230140209/ abstract)
[14] Verizon's Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) (http:/ / www22.verizon.com/ wholesale/ solutions/ solution/ bod. html)
[15] PHOTONIC NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS, special issue on "Optical Virtual Private Networks (oVPNs)" (http:// www. springerlink.
com/ content/ n134143km2630l1q)
[16] RFC 3717 - IP over Optical Networks: A Framework (http:/ / tools.ietf.org/html/ rfc3717)
Further reading
• "Site on Network Protection - network protection techniques, network failure recovery, network failure events"
(http:// www. network-protection.net/ )
• “Mesh-based Survivable Transport Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM
Networking”, by Wayne Grover (http:// www. ece.ualberta. ca/ ~grover/book)
• "Optical Network Control: Architecture, Protocols, and Standard", by Greg Bernstein, Bala Rajagopalan, and
Debanjan Saha (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Optical-Network-Control-Architecture-Protocols/dp/ 0201753014/ )
• “Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks”, by Eric Bouillet, Georgios Ellinas, Jean-Francois Labourdette, and
Ramu Ramamurthy (http:/ / www. wiley. com/ WileyCDA/ WileyTitle/productCd-0470015659.html), (http://
books. google. com/ books?id=zSSjFf-jZT8C)
Optical mesh network
89
• "P-cycles: an overview", R. Asthana, Y.N. Singh, W.D. Grover, IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials,
February 2010 (http:// dl. comsoc. org/livepubs/ surveys/ public/ 2010/ jan/ 07asthana. html)
• "Survivable networks: algorithms for diverse routing", by Ramesh Bhandari (http:// books. google. com/
books?id=SIkfR0lAN1wC)
External links
• Self-Healing Mesh Optical Nets Emerge (http:// www.eetimes. com/ showArticle. jhtml?articleID=207402005)
• AT&T Optical Bandwidth on Demand Gains Velocity with More Speeds for Customer Provisioning (http://
www. att. com/ gen/ pressroom?pid=4800& cdvn=news& newsarticleid=24555)
• AT&T offering fully meshed optical service (http:// www.networkworld.com/ news/ 2006/
111606-att-meshed-optical. html)
• Verizon Business Enhances Trans-Atlantic Network (http:/ / www.verizonbusiness. com/ about/ news/
displaynews. xml?newsid=21353)
• Verizon Business Enhances Performance and Reliability of Pacific Undersea Cable Systems on Global Network
(http:// www. verizonbusiness. com/ about/ news/ displaynews. xml?newsid=25065)
• The Internet2 Dynamic Circuit Network (DCN) (http:// www.internet2.edu/ network/dc/ index. html)
• Intelligent optical mesh empowers digital media network (http:/ / www.lightwaveonline. com/ about-us/
lightwave-issue-archives/ issue/ intelligent-optical-mesh-empowers-digital-media-network-54890667.html)
• VSNL and Tata Teleservices Build First Nationwide Intelligent Optical Mesh Network in India Using Ciena's
CoreDirector (http:/ / www. indiaprwire.com/ pressrelease/ telecommunications/ 200710235231. htm), (http://
www. ciena. com/ news/ news_2007pr_8630. htm)
• 360networks Deploys The World's Most Extensive Optical Mesh Network (http:/ / www.thefreelibrary.com/
360networks+ Deploys+ The+World's+Most+ Extensive+Optical+ Mesh+ Network-a067463903)
• Verizon Business Circles Globe With Optical Mesh Network; Begins Extension to Middle East (http:/ / www.
verizonbusiness.com/ about/ news/ pr-25395-en-Verizon+Business+ Circles+ Globe+ With+Optical+ Mesh+
Network;+Begins+ Extension+to+ Middle+ East. xml)
• Verizon Business Global Mesh Network Investment Pays Big Dividends for Enterprise Customers During
Multiple Submarine Cable System Disruptions in Asia-Pacific Region (http:/ / www.verizonbusiness. com/
about/news/ pr-25372-en-Verizon+Business+ Global+ Mesh+ Network+Investment+Pays+ Big+ Dividends+
for+Enterprise+Customers+ During+Multiple+ Submarine+Cable+ System+ Disruptions+ in+Asia+ Pacific+
Region. xml)
• Verizon builds 18-city optical mesh (http:// connectedplanetonline. com/ ethernet/ news/
verizon-optical-mesh-0310/)
Optical network unit
90
Optical network unit
An optical network unit (ONU) is a device that transforms incoming optical signals into electronics at a customer's
premises in order to provide telecommunications services over an optical fiber network.
Definition
An ONU is a generic term denoting a device that terminates any one of the endpoints of a fiber to the premises
network, implements a passive optical network (PON) protocol, and adapts PON PDUs to subscriber service
interfaces
[1]
. In some contexts, an ONU implies a multiple subscriber device. An optical network terminal (ONT) is
a special case of an ONU that serves a single subscriber.
Usage
FTTx/xPON Optical Network
ONU provides the subscribers with broadband Internet access.
An ONU is used in combination with an optical line terminal (OLT).
Optical Network Unit (ONU) Closure
An ONU closure is a mechanical compartment that houses the ONU
equipment. The outer closure faces the outside environment and
provides physical, mechanical, and environmental protection for cable
(fiber and copper) components or equipment housed within it.
An ONU system consists of a closure that is a metallic or non-metallic enclosure that provides physical and
environmental protection for the active electronic, optoelectronics, and passive optical components it houses. It
terminates optical fibers from the ODN and processes the signals to and from the Customer Premises Equipment
(CPE). It is the NE that provides the tariffed telecommunications as well as video service interfaces for multiple
residential and small business customers.
Services on the customer side of the ONU are communicated over metallic twisted pairs and coaxial cable drops (in
the future, possibly fiber cable or wireless) to a Network Interface (NI) where they are handed off to the customer’s
network (usually, inside wiring). Depending on the deployment strategy, the ONU closure may provide one or more
of the following additional features:
1. Access to the fiber distribution cable
2. Management of slack fiber and fiber splices
3. Access to the Telephone Support Cable (TSC) for the purpose of powering the ONU
4. Prevention of unauthorized entry.
Primary power for ONUs is derived from either an external DC or an external AC power source. Back-up power for
ONUs can either be derived from an external power source or be internal to the ONU closure and be provided by the
FITL system supplier. Primary power and external back-up power can be delivered to ONUs over either copper
twisted pairs or coaxial cable facilities. These cable facilities are commonly referred to as the TSC.
Deployment of an ONU system requires access to the fiber distribution cable, TSC, and metallic customer drop
wires. When access to these cables is provided internal to the ONU closure (i.e., by looping each cable through the
closure), it is necessary that the ONU closure also provide splicing and storage facilities for each of these cables.
Telcordia GR-950, Generic Requirements for Optical Network Unit (ONU) Closures and ONU Systems
[2]
, contains
complete proposed specifications for the ONU closures and systems.
Optical network unit
91
References
[1] G.984.4 : Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): ONT management and control interface specification (http:// www.itu. int/
rec/ T-REC-G.984. 4-200802-I) page 4, section 3 definitions, accessed 2010/11/04.
[2] http:/ / telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-950&
External links
• ONU on Google Images (http:// images. google. com.pk/ images?q=optical network unit)
Optical performance monitoring
Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is used for managing high capacity dense wavelength division
multiplexing (DWDM) optical transmission and switching systems in Next Generation Networks (NGN). OPM
involves assessing the quality of data channel by measuring its optical characteristics without directly looking at the
transmitted sequence of bits. It is a potential mechanism to improve control of transmission and physical layer fault
management in optical transmission systems.
In optical communications, typical roles for optical performance monitoring include ensuring correct switching in
reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers, setting levels for dynamic equalization of the gain of optical
amplifiers, and providing system alarms and error warning for lost or out of specification optical channels.
The optical component used for this purpose in DWDM networks is known as optical performance monitor (OPM)
or optical channel monitor (OCM), which measures channel power, wavelength, and optical signal-to-noise ratio
(OSNR) for each channel.
References
• D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical
performance monitoring
[1]
," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294– (2004).
• Journal of Optical Networking: Virtual special issue on optical performance monitoring
[2]
.
• Optical channel monitor or Optical performance monitor
[3]
References
[1] http:/ / www. opticsinfobase. org/abstract. cfm?URI=JLT-22-1-294
[2] http:// www. osa-jon. org/virtual_issue. cfm?vid=3
[3] http:// www. optoplex. com/ Optical_Channel_Monitor. htm
Optical time-domain reflectometer
92
Optical time-domain reflectometer
Fluke Networks OTDR in use
Yokogawa's OTDR
An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR)
is an optoelectronic instrument used to
characterize an optical fiber. An OTDR injects a
series of optical pulses into the fiber under test. It
also extracts, from the same end of the fiber, light
that is scattered (Rayleigh backscatter) or
reflected back from points along the fiber. (This is
equivalent to the way that an electronic
time-domain reflectometer measures reflections
caused by changes in the impedance of the cable
under test.) The strength of the return pulses is
measured and integrated as a function of time,
and is plotted as a function of fiber length.
An OTDR may be used for estimating the fiber's
length and overall attenuation, including splice
and mated-connector losses. It may also be used
to locate faults, such as breaks, and to measure
optical return loss. To measure the attenuation of
multiple fibers, it is advisable to test from each
end and then average the results, however this
considerable extra work is contrary to the
common claim that testing can be performed from
only one end of the fiber.
In addition to required specialized optics and
electronics, OTDRs have significant computing
ability and a graphical display, so they may
provide significant test automation. However,
proper instrument operation and interpretation of
an OTDR trace still requires special technical
training and experience.
OTDRs are commonly used to characterize the
loss and length of fibers as they go from initial
manufacture, through to cabling, warehousing
while wound on a drum, installation and then
splicing. The last application of installation
testing is more challenging, since this can be over extremely long distances, or multiple splices spaced at short
distances, or fibers with different optical characteristics joined together. OTDR test results are often carefully stored
in case of later fiber failure or warranty claims. Fiber failures can be very expensive, both in terms of the direct cost
of repair, and consequential loss of service.
OTDRs are also commonly used for fault finding on installed systems. In this case, reference to the installation
OTDR trace is very useful, to determine where changes have occurred. Use of an OTDR for fault finding may
require an experienced operator who is able to correctly judge the appropriate instrument settings to locate a problem
accurately. This is particularly so in cases involving long distance, closely spaced splices or connectors, or PONs.
Optical time-domain reflectometer
93
OTDRs are available with a variety of fiber types and wavelengths, to match common applications. In general,
OTDR testing at longer wavelengths, such as 1550 nm or 1625 nm, can be used to identify fiber attenuation caused
by fiber problems, as opposed to the more common splice or connector losses.
The optical dynamic range of an OTDR is limited by a combination of optical pulse output power, optical pulse
width, input sensitivity, and signal integration time. Higher optical pulse output power, and better input sensitivity,
combine directly to improve measuring range, and are usually fixed features of a particular instrument. However
optical pulse width and signal integration time are user adjustable, and require trade-offs which make them
application specific.
A longer laser pulse improves dynamic range and attenuation measurement resolution at the expense of distance
resolution. For example, using a long pulse length, it may possible to measure attenuation over a distance of more
than 100 km, however in this case an optical event may appear to be over 1 km long. This scenario is useful for
overall characterisation of a link, but would be of much less use when trying to locate faults. A short pulse length
will improve distance resolution of optical events, but will also reduce measuring range and attenuation
measurement resolution. The "apparent measurement length" of an optical event is referred to as the "dead zone".
The theoretical interaction of pulse width and dead zone can be summarised as follows:
Pulse length Event Dead zone
1 nsec 0.15 m ( theoretically )
10 nsec 1.5 m ( theoretically )
100 nsec 15 m
1 µsec 150 m
10 µsec 1.5 km
100 µsec 15 km
A stand for OTDR calibration (an optical fiber standard in the background)
The OTDR "dead zone" is a topic of much
interest to users. Dead zone is classified in
two ways. Firstly, an "Event Dead Zone" is
related to a reflective discrete optical event.
In this situation, the measured dead zone
will depend on a combination of the pulse
length (see table), and the size of the
reflection. Secondly, an "Attenuation Dead
Zone" is related to a non-reflective event. In
this situation, the measured dead zone will
depend on a combination of the pulse length
(see table).
A long signal integration time effectively
increases OTDR sensitivity by averaging the
receiver output. The sensitivity increases
with the square root of the integration time.
So if the integration time is increased by 16 times, the sensitivity increases by a factor of 4. This imposes a
sensitivity practical limit, with integration times of seconds to a few minutes.
The dynamic range of an OTDR is usually specified as the attenuation level where the measured signal gets lost in
the detection noise level, for a particular combination of pulse length and signal integration time. This number is
easy to deduce by inspection of the output trace, and is useful for comparison, but is not very useful in practice, since
at this point the measured values are random. So the practical measuring range is smaller, depending on required
Optical time-domain reflectometer
94
attenuation measurement resolution.
When an OTDR is used to measure the attenuation of multiple joined fiber lengths, the output trace can incorrectly
show a joint as having gain, instead of loss. The reason for this is that adjacent fibers may have different backscatter
coefficients, so the second fiber reflects more light than the first fiber, with the same amount of light travelling
through it. If the OTDR is placed at the other end of this same fiber pair, it will measure an abnormally high loss at
that joint. However if the two signals are then combined, the correct loss will be obtained. For this reason, it is
common OTDR practice to measure and combine the loss from both ends of a link, so that the loss of cable joints,
and end to end loss, can be more accurately measured.
The theoretical distance measuring accuracy of an OTDR is extremely good, since it is based on software and a
crystal clock with an inherent accuracy of better than 0.01%. This aspect does not need subsequent calibration since
practical cable length measuring accuracy is typically limited to about 1% due to: The cable length is not the same as
the fiber length, the speed of light in the fiber is known with limited accuracy (the refractive index is only specified
to 3 significant figures such as e.g. 1.45 etc.), and cable length markers have limited accuracy (0.5% – 1%).
An OTDR excels at identifying the existence of unacceptable point loss or return loss in cables. Its ability to
accurately measure absolute end-to-end cable loss or return loss can be quite poor, so cable acceptance usually
includes an end-to-end test with a light source and power meter, and optical return loss meter. Its ability to exactly
locate a hidden cable fault is also limited, so for fault-finding it may be augmented with other localised tools such as
a red laser fault locator, clip-on identifier, or "Cold Clamp" optical cable marker.
Reliability and quality of OTDR equipment
The reliability and quality of an OTDR should be determined on the basis of its accuracy, measurement range, ability
to resolve and measure closely spaced events, the speed at which it makes measurements, and its ability to perform
satisfactorily under various environmental extremes and after various types of physical abuses. In addition to its cost,
the instrument should also be rated on the features provided, its size, its weight, and how simple it is to operate.
Accuracy is defined as the correctness of the measurement (i.e., the difference between the measured value and the
true value of the event being measured).
The measurement range of the OTDR is defined as the maximum attenuation that can be placed between the
instrument and the event being measured, for which the instrument will still be able to measure the event within
acceptable accuracy limits.
Instrument resolution is a measure of how close two events can be spaced and still be recognized as two separate
events. The duration of the measurement pulse and the data sampling interval create a resolution limitation for
OTDRs: the shorter the pulse duration and the shorter the data sampling interval, the better the instrument resolution,
but the shorter the measurement range. Resolution is also often limited when powerful reflections return to the
OTDR and temporarily overload the detector circuitry. When this occurs, some time is required before the
instrument can resolve a second fiber event. Some OTDR manufacturers use a “masking” procedure to improve
resolution. The procedure shields or “masks” the detector from high-power fiber reflections, preventing detector
overload and eliminating the need for detector recovery.
Industry requirements for the reliability and quality of OTDRs are in GR-196, Generic Requirements for Optical
Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) Type Equipment.
[1]
Optical time-domain reflectometer
95
Types of OTDR-like test equipment
The common types of OTDR-like test equipment are:
• Full-feature OTDR
• Hand-held OTDR
• Fiber Break Locator
• RTU in RFTSs
The equipment is summarized below, and detailed in GR-196, Generic Requirements for Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer (OTDR) Type Equipment.
[1]
• Full-feature OTDR
Full-feature OTDRs are traditional, optical time domain reflectometers. They are feature-rich and usually
larger, heavier, and less portable than either the hand-held OTDR or the fiber break locator. Despite being
characterized as large, their size and weight is only a fraction of that of early generation OTDRs. Often a
full-feature OTDR has a main frame that can be fitted with multi-functioned plug-in units to perform many
different fiber measurement tasks. Larger, color displays are common. The full-feature OTDR often has a
greater measurement range than the other types of OTDR-like equipment. Often it is used in laboratories and
in the field for difficult fiber measurements. Most full-feature OTDRs are powered from an AC source and or
battery source.
• Hand-held OTDR and Fiber break locator
Hand-held (formerly mini) OTDRs and fiber break locators are designed to troubleshoot fiber networks in a
field-type environment often using battery power. The two types of instruments cover the spectrum of
approaches to fiber optic plant taken by the communications providers. Hand-held, inexpensive (compared to
full-feature) OTDRs are intended to be easy-to-use, light-weight, sophisticated OTDRs to collect field data
and perform rudimentary data analysis upon. They may be less feature rich than full-feature OTDRs. Often
they can be used in conjunction with PC-based software to perform easy data collection with the hand-held
OTDR and sophisticated data analysis with the PC-based software. The hand-held OTDRs are commonly used
to measure fiber links and locate fiber breaks, points of high loss, points of high reflectance, link end-to-end
loss, and Optical Return Loss (ORL) for the link.
Fiber break locators are intended to be low-cost instruments specifically designed to locate the position of a
catastrophic fiber event, e.g., fiber break, point of high reflectance, or high loss. The fiber break locator is an
opto-electronic tape measure that is designed to measure only distance to catastrophic fiber events.
In general, hand-held OTDRs and fiber break locators are lighter and smaller, simpler to operate, and more
likely to operate using battery power than full-feature OTDRs. The intent is for hand-held OTDRs and fiber
break locators to be inexpensive enough for optical technicians to be equipped with one as part of their
standard tool kit.
• Remote Test Unit (RTU)
The RTU is the testing module of the RFTS described in GR-1295, Generic Requirements for Remote Fiber
Testing Systems (RFTSS).
[2]
An RFTS enables fiber physical plant to be automatically tested from a central
location. A central computer is used to control the operation of OTDR-like test components located at key
points in the fiber network. These test components will scan the fiber to locate problems. If a problem is
found, its location is noted and the appropriate Operations Systems (OSs) are notified to begin the repair
process. The RFTS can also provide direct access to a corporate database that contains a historical repository
for the OTDR fiber traces and any other fiber records for the physical fiber plant.
Since OTDRs and OTDR-like equipment have many uses in the communications industry, their possible
operating environment is varied, ranging from indoors to outdoors. Most often, however, these test sets are
operated in controlled environments, accessing the fibers at their termination points on fiber distributing
Optical time-domain reflectometer
96
frames. Indoor environments include controlled environments such as in central offices (COs), equipment
huts, or Controlled Environment Vaults (CEVs). Use in outside environments is rarer, but may include use in a
manhole, aerial platform, open trench, or a splicing van.
External links
• BBC News: Work begins to repair severed net
[3]
• OTDR Manufacturer
[4]
 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services
Administration.
References
[1] http:/ / telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-196&
[2] http:// telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-1295&
[3] http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7228315. stm
[4] http:/ / www. fsm-otdr.com/ category/otdr-8135-d641/1
Parallel optical interface
A parallel optical interface is a form of fiber optic technology aimed primarily at communications and networking
over relatively short distances (less than 300 meters), and at high bandwidths.
Parallel optic interfaces differ from traditional fiber optic communication in that data is simultaneously transmitted
and received over multiple fibers. Different methods exist for splitting the data over this high bandwidth link. In the
simplest form, the parallel optic link is a replacement for many serial data communication links. In the more typical
application, one byte of information is split up into bits and each bit is coded and sent across the individual fibers.
Needless to say, there are many ways to perform this multiplexing provided the fundamental coding at the fiber level
meets the channel requirement.
The main applications for parallel optical interfaces are found in telecommunications and supercomputers, also being
introduced to consumer applications
[1]
. It displaces copper backplanes that are commonly used for large switching
equipment design.
There are two forms of commercially available products for parallel optic interfaces. The first is a twelve channel
system consisting of an optical transmitter and an optical receiver. The second is a four channel transceiver product
that is capable of transmitting four channels and receiving four channels in one product
[2]
.
Parallel optics is often the most cost effective solution for getting 40 Gigabit per second transmission of data over
distances exceeding 100 meters.
References
[1] Bek, Jesper (2008-06-09). "Parallel Optical Interconnects" (http:// www. iptronics.com/ 36209/ Optical interconnects.html). IPtronics. .
Retrieved 2010-04-09.
[2] Bek, Jesper (2009-08-05). "IPtronics fuels Active Optical Cable implementation in the Data Center" (http:/ / www.iptronics.com/ 37629/
IPtronics fuels Active Optical Cable implementation in the Data Center/). IPtronics. . Retrieved 2010-11-17.
PAROLI
97
PAROLI
Three chassis of a CSR system
if these shelves would be interconnected it would
use PAROLI
PAROLI is a propriety protocol used inside a multi-shelf Carrier
Routing System from Cisco and stands for parallel optical link
[1]
Paroli usage
It is used to connect the line-cards in a so called line-card chassis with
the switching fabric in a switch-fabric chassis. As the traffic between
these kind of chassis is comparable with the data that flows over a
backplane in a single-shelf system the required bandwidth is very high
and as is the need for reliability the shelves are interconnected using
several fibre optic cables.
As this protocol/feature is only used in multi-shelf Cisco-CSR systems
you will only find it in IOS XR the special high performance version
of Cisco IOS.
There are basically two types of multi-shelf CSR systems:
[2]
• single switch-fabric chassis and two line-card chassis
• two switch-fabric chassis and two line-card chassis
• four switch-fabric chassis and two line-card chassis
The second option allows for the most fault-tolerant system in a CSR system: although a single shelf switch-fabric
allows for redundancy on most levels (power. fans, management-cards, switch-cards etc.), a multi-shelf system based
on two switch-fabric cards and (at least) two line-card chassis will continue to run even when one of the
switch-fabric shelfs is completely down. The four SCC/2 LCC also gives optimal availability and reliability without
the loss of any throughput in case that a switch fabric module fails.
Distance between shelves
Although the different shelves of a multi-shelf routing system will often be placed directly next to each other the
PAROLI system allows for some distance between the shelves. If you want to place the different shelves in different
rooms (e.g. in a system with two switch-fabris chassis have one of these chassis with 50% of the line-card chassis in
dataroom 1 and the rest of the system in room 2 so that even when there is fire in one room the system will continue
to work) it is possible as long as the length of the fibre-optic canles doesn't exceed 100 meters (328 feet). This will
also allow you to move individual shelves of the system
[2]
Interconnecting shelves
All traffic coming in into a multi-shelf CRS system will come in via an interface of a line card on a line-card shelf.
The traffic is then sent to the switch-fabric shelf where the packet is processed and based on the desitination (and of
course system-configuration) the data is then sent to the outgoing interface on a line-card in a line-card shelf. The
inter shelf communication links will therefore process the same kind of data-volumes as a backplane will normally
carry in any single-shelf router. To allow these kind of speeds via external fibre optic cabling Cisco designed special
modules to make this possible. For a multi-shelf system you need three kind of connections between the line-card
chassis and the switch-fabric chassis:
• 1:Management cabling
• 2:Controller cabling
PAROLI
98
• 3:Fabric cabling
Management Cabling
The management, alarm and external clock cabling is to allow management of the different shelves in the system.
There are different type of management and clock signalling options. At least one management cabling is required
and in general that will be the RP ethernet connection.
• Console cabling: initial configuration of the route processor (RP) of a shelf a multi-shelf system is done via the
console port. The ethernet management port will only become operational after configuring it with a terminal
connected to a console port. Initial configuration of a shelf is done via the console port of a RP. The console
port of the 22 (switch fabric shelf) or 2 port (line card shelf) SCGE card (see below) cannot be used to
configure a new system. If you want all console ports of each RP connected you can use a terminal server
• AUX port: provides remote out of band access to the RP, similar to the console port, but is meant for remote
access via a modem
• Management ethernet port:This will be the main means of configuring and managing the system after initial
configuration. In general the ethernet ports of each RP in the system will be connected to an out-of-band
ethernet LAN so you keep control over the system even when the CSR wouldn't be able to route any data. If
the CSR is installed at the same location as the configuration system you will probably use a dedicated ethernet
LAN. If the CSR is in a different location you will probably connect this (configuration) management (V)LAN
withh your NOC via a network connection that doesn't use the CRS to route the data (or you have a fall-back
method such as ISDN access to the local management LAN)
• Alarm-Out cabling: You can use the external alarm-out cicuits to raise alarms with the power modules
• External network clocking: If you use an external clock to synchronize your network components you can
'feed' this clock into all shelves.
[3]
Controller Cabling
For the controller cabling Cisco have created a special module for use in the fabric card chassis: the 22 port Shelf
Controller Gigabit Ethernet module the SC-GE-22. And on the LCC's you use the two ethernet interfaces provided
with the two RP's in each chassis. In a single SFC with two LCC you will install both SC-GE-22 modules in the
single SFC and each interface of the RP connect twice to the single SFC. In a 2 x 2 setup one GE port of each RP
connects to one SFC and the other GE port connects to the other SFC. In a four SFC setup the first RP connects to
SFC 1 and 3 while the other RP of that shelf connects to SFC 2 and 4. To allow for redundancy you will connect
each ethernetport0 interface of each RP to a port on the first FC-FE-22 and each interface 1 to the second SC-FE-22.
And to allow for communication between the two Sc-FE-22 modules (creating a mesh-network) you connect port 22
of each SC-FE-22 to each other. In a dual SFC each SC-FE-22 has a direct (full mesh) link to all 3 other SC-FE-22
and in a 4 SFC system you also create a full-mesh network between all FC-FE-22 modules. This cabling means that
for a one SFC and two LCC you will need 8+1 ethernet cables for network control, in a dual SFC you will need 14
cables (8xSC-LC + 6 LCC mesh) and in a 4 SFC-2 LCC you need 8 LC cables and 28 SFC-SFC mesh cables.
[4]
Fabric cabling
And finally you need the fabric cabling that will carry the actual data or payload between the line card chassis and
the switch fabric chassis. For the interconnection the system uses 8 fabric planes, numbered 0 to7. In combination
with that it uses a 3 components or stages. When a packet arrives via an interface on a linecard in a LCC (the ingress
FCC) it is on stage 1, then goes to the switch-fabric (stage 2) and then to the desitination line-card (stage 3).It is of
course possible that the linecard of the ingress resides in the same shelf as the egress line card, but this same 3 stage
model is being used.
[5]
In the LCC's you use stage 1 and 3 cards: S13 cards. In a SFC you have stage 2 cards S2. In a
single SFC setup all 8 S2 cards reside in the single SFC, in a multi SFC setupthe S2 cards are distributed over the
PAROLI
99
SFC's. For the communication based on tow line-card chassis you will need 72 fibres (3(S1,2,3) x 8(#planes) x
3(2xLCC+1FCC). Even when you have more than one SFC you still use 72 cables: in a two SFC setup 50% of the
fibres from LCC connect to SFC1 and 50% to SFC2 and similar to a 4 node system). These cables can be ordered in
lenhths of 10-100 meter and come in sets of 24. Thus to interconnect a system you need 3 sets ordered in the length
you require in steps of 5 meters
[6]
In the future configurations with more than two LCC's will be supported, but
currently a multi-shelf configuration supports two lince card chassis and 1,2 or 3 switch facbric chassis.
[5]
References
[1] Cisco IOS-XR Glossary (http:/ / www.cisco. com/ en/ US/ docs/ ios_xr_sw/ iosxr_r3. 0/ interfaces/configuration/guide/ hc3gloss. html),
visited 6 December 2010
[2] Cisco CSR-1 Introduction to Multishelf System Cabling (http:/ / www. cisco.com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/
guide/mcabintr.html), visited 6 december 2010
[3] Cabling instruction for the Management, alarm and clock cabling (http:// www.cisco. com/ en/ US/docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/
design/ guide/ mcabrout.html) in CRR Multishelf cabling guide, visited 6 December 2010
[4] Cabling instruction for the Control cabling (http:/ / www.cisco. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabsc22.
html) in CRR Multishelf cabling guide, visited 6 December 2010
[5] Cabling instruction for the Fabric cabling (http:/ / www. cisco. com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/ crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/ guide/ mcabfbrc.
html) in CRR Multishelf cabling guide, visited 6 December 2010
[6] Cisco CRS multishelf cabling guide Ordering Fabric cables (http:/ / www. cisco.com/ en/ US/ docs/ routers/crs/ crs1/ mss/ cabling/ design/
guide/mcabfbrc.html#wp1170337), visited 3 December 2010
Passive optical network
A passive optical network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network architecture in which
unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 16-128. A
PON consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the service provider's central office and a number of optical
network units (ONUs) near end users. A PON reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required
compared with point to point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network.
Downstream signals are broadcast to all premises sharing a single fiber. Encryption is used to prevent
eavesdropping.
Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, usually time division multiple access (TDMA). The
OLTs "range" the ONUs in order to provide time slot assignments for upstream communication.
Standards
There are two major standard groups: the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the
Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T). Both
organisations produced separate and incompatible 1 Gigabit and 10 Gigabit standards.
• IEEE 802.3
• EPON (Ethernet PON) is part of IEEE standard Ethernet with options for 1/1 Gbit/s 10/1 Gbit/s and
10/10 Gbit/s. There are currently over 40 million installed EPON ports making it the most widely deployed
PON technology globally. EPON is also the foundation for cable operators business services as part of the
DOCSIS Provisioning of EPON (DPoE) specifications.
• ITU-T
• G.983
• APON (ATM PON). This was the first Passive optical network standard. It was used primarily for business
applications, and was based on ATM.
Passive optical network
100
• BPON (Broadband PON) is a standard based on APON. It adds support for WDM, dynamic and higher
upstream bandwidth allocation, and survivability. It also created a standard management interface, called
OMCI, between the OLT and ONU/ONT, enabling mixed-vendor networks.
• G.984
• G-PON (Gigabit PON) is an evolution of the BPON standard. It supports higher rates, enhanced security,
and choice of Layer 2 protocol (ATM, GEM, Ethernet). By mid-2008, Verizon had installed over 800
thousand lines. British Telecom, Mobily-SaudiArabia, Etisalat-UAE, and AT&T are in advanced trials. It is
the successor to G.983. GPON networks have now been deployed in numerous carrier networks across the
globe, and the trends indicate higher growth in GPON than other PON technologies.
• G.987
• 10G-PON has 10 Gbit/s downstream and 2.5 Gbit/s upstream – framing is "G-PON like" and designed to
coexist with GPON devices on the same network.
[1]
• SCTE 174
• RFoG (RFoverGlass) is an SCTE Standard for carrying HFC RF signals over a passive optical Network
(PON).
History
In the 1990s, work on efficient fiber to the home architectures was done by the Full Service Access Network (FSAN)
[2]
working group, formed by major telecommunications service providers and system vendors. The International
Telecommunications Union (ITU) did further work, and has since standardized on two generations of PON. The
older ITU-T G.983 standard is based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and has therefore been referred to as
APON (ATM PON). Further improvements to the original APON standard – as well as the gradual falling out of
favor of ATM as a protocol – led to the full, final version of ITU-T G.983 being referred to more often as broadband
PON, or BPON. A typical APON/BPON provides 622 megabits per second (Mbit/s) (OC-12) of downstream
bandwidth and 155 Mbit/s (OC-3) of upstream traffic, although the standard accommodates higher rates.
The ITU-T G.984 (GPON) standard represents a boost, compared to BPON, in both the total bandwidth and
bandwidth efficiency through the use of larger, variable-length packets. Again, the standards permit several choices
of bit rate, but the industry has converged on 2.488 gigabits per second (Gbit/s) of downstream bandwidth, and
1.244 Gbit/s of upstream bandwidth. GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM) allows very efficient packaging of user
traffic with frame segmentation.
In 2004, the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet PON (EPON or GEPON) standard was ratified as part of the Ethernet in the First
Mile project. EPON uses standard 802.3 Ethernet frames with symmetric 1 Gigabit per second upstream and
downstream rates. EPON is applicable for data-centric networks, as well as full-service voice, data and video
networks. 10Gbit/s EPON or 10G-EPON was ratified as an amendment IEEE 802.3av to IEEE 802.3. 10G-EPON
supports 10/1 Gbit/s. The downstream wavelength plan support simultaneous operation of 10 Gbit/s on one
wavelength and 1 Gbit/s on a separate wavelength for operation of IEEE 802.3av and IEEE 802.3ah on the same
PON concurrently. The upstream channel can support simultaneous operation of IEEE 802.3av and 1 Gbit/s 802.3ah
simultaneously on a single shared (1,310 nm) channel.
Network elements
A PON takes advantage of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), using one wavelength for downstream traffic
and another for upstream traffic on a single nondispersion-shifted fiber (ITU-T G.652). BPON, EPON, GEPON, and
GPON have the same basic wavelength plan and use the 1,490 nanometer (nm) wavelength for downstream traffic
and 1310 nm wavelength for upstream traffic. 1550 nm is reserved for optional overlay services, typically RF
(analog) video.
Passive optical network
101
As with bit rate, the standards describe several optical budgets, most common is 28 dB of loss budget for both BPON
and GPON, but products have been announced using less expensive optics as well. 28 dB corresponds to about
20 km with a 32-way split. Forward error correction (FEC) may provide another 2–3 dB of loss budget on GPON
systems. As optics improve, the 28 dB budget will likely increase. Although both the GPON and EPON protocols
permit large split ratios (up to 128 subscribers for GPON, up to 32,768 for EPON), in practice most PONs are
deployed with a split ratio of 1x32 or smaller.
A PON consists of a central office node, called an optical line terminal (OLT), one or more user nodes, called optical
network units (ONUs) or optical network terminals (ONTs), and the fibers and splitters between them, called the
optical distribution network (ODN). ONT is an ITU-T term to describe a special, single-user case of an ONU. In
Multiple Tenant Units, the ONU may be bridged to a customer premise device within the individual dwelling unit
using technologies such as Ethernet over twisted pair, G.hn (a high-speed ITU-T standard that can operate over any
existing home wiring - power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables) or DSL. An ONU is a device that terminates the
PON and presents customer service interfaces to the user. Some ONUs implement a separate subscriber unit to
provide services such as telephony, Ethernet data, or video.
The OLT provides the interface between the PON and the service providers network services. These typically
include:
• Internet Protocol (IP) traffic over gigabit/s, 10 Gbit/s, or 100 Mbit/s Ethernet
• standard time division multiplexed (TDM) interfaces such as SONET or SDH
• ATM UNI at 155–622 Mbit/s
The ONT or ONU terminates the PON and presents the native service interfaces to the user. These services can
include voice (plain old telephone service (POTS) or voice over IP (VoIP)), data (typically Ethernet or V.35), video,
and/or telemetry (TTL, ECL, RS530, etc.). Often, the ONU functions are separated into two parts:
• the ONU, which terminates the PON and presents a converged interface – such as xDSL, coax, or multiservice
Ethernet – toward the user, and
• network termination equipment (NTE), which provides the separate, native service interfaces directly to the user
A PON is a shared network, in that the OLT sends a single stream of downstream traffic that is seen by all ONUs.
Each ONU only reads the content of those packets that are addressed to it. Encryption is used to prevent
eavesdropping on downstream traffic.
Upstream bandwidth allocation
The OLT is responsible for allocating upstream bandwidth to the ONUs. Because the optical distribution network
(ODN) is shared, ONU upstream transmissions could collide if they were transmitted at random times. ONUs can lie
at varying distances from the OLT, meaning that the transmission delay from each ONU is unique. The OLT
measures delay and sets a register in each ONU via PLOAM (physical layer operations and maintenance) messages
to equalize its delay with respect to all of the other ONUs on the PON.
Once the delay of all ONUs has been set, the OLT transmits so-called grants to the individual ONUs. A grant is
permission to use a defined interval of time for upstream transmission. The grant map is dynamically re-calculated
every few milliseconds. The map allocates bandwidth to all ONUs, such that each ONU receives timely bandwidth
for its service needs.
Some services – POTS, for example – require essentially constant upstream bandwidth, and the OLT may provide a
fixed bandwidth allocation to each such service that has been provisioned. DS1 and some classes of data service may
also require constant upstream bit rate. But much data traffic – internet surfing, for example – is bursty and highly
variable. Through dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), a PON can be oversubscribed for upstream traffic,
according to the traffic engineering concepts of statistical multiplexing. (Downstream traffic can also be
oversubscribed, in the same way that any LAN can be oversubscribed. The only special feature in the PON
Passive optical network
102
architecture for downstream oversubscription is the fact that the ONU must be able to accept completely arbitrary
downstream time slots, both in time and in size.)
In GPON there are two forms of DBA, status-reporting (SR) and non-status reporting (NSR).
In NSR DBA, the OLT continuously allocates a small amount of extra bandwidth to each ONU. If the ONU has no
traffic to send, it transmits idle frames during its excess allocation. If the OLT observes that a given ONU is not
sending idle frames, it increases the bandwidth allocation to that ONU. Once the ONU's burst has been transferred,
the OLT observes a large number of idle frames from the given ONU, and reduces its allocation accordingly. NSR
DBA has the advantage that it imposes no requirements on the ONU, and the disadvantage that there is no way for
the OLT to know how best to assign bandwidth across several ONUs that need more.
In SR DBA, the OLT polls ONUs for their backlogs. A given ONU may have several so-called transmission
containers (T-CONTs), each with its own priority or traffic class. The ONU reports each T-CONT separately to the
OLT. The report message contains a logarithmic measure of the backlog in the T-CONT queue. By knowledge of the
service level agreement for each T-CONT across the entire PON, as well as the size of each T-CONT's backlog, the
OLT can optimize allocation of the spare bandwidth on the PON.
EPON systems use a DBA mechanism equivalent to GPON's SR DBA solution. The OLT polls ONUs for their
queue status and grants bandwidth using the MPCP GATE message, while ONUs report their status using the MPCP
REPORT message.
Current status
TDM-PON
Both APON/BPON and EPON/GEPON have been deployed widely, but most networks designed in 2008 use GPON
or GEPON. GPON has fewer than 2 million installed ports. GEPON has approximately 30 million deployed ports.
For TDM-PON, a passive power splitter is used as the remote terminal. Each ONUs (Optical network units) signals
are multiplexed in the time domain. ONUs see their own data through the address labels embedded in the signal.
DOCSIS Provisioning of EPON or DPoE
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) Provisioning of Ethernet Passive Optical Network, or
DPoE, is a set of Cable Television Laboratory specifications that implement the DOCSIS service layer interface on
existing Ethernet PON (EPON, GEPON or 10G-EPON) Media Access Control (MAC) and Physical layer (PHY)
standards. In short it implements the DOCSIS Operations Administration Maintenance and Provisioning (OAMP)
functionality on existing EPON equipment. It makes the EPON OLT look and act like a DOCSIS Cable Modem
Termination Systems (CMTS) platform (which is called a DPoE System in DPoE terminology). In addition to
offering the same IP service capabilities as a CMTS, DPoE supports Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) 9 and 14 services
for the delivery of Ethernet services for business customers.
RFoG
Radio Frequency over Glass (RFoG) is a type of passive optical networking, that transports RF signals that are now
transported over copper (principally over a hybrid fiber and coaxial cable) over PON. In the forward direction
RFoGis either a stand alone P2MP system or an optical overlay for existing PON such as GEPON/EPON. The
overlay for RFoG is based on Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) -- the passive combination of wavelengths on a
single strand of glass. Reverse RF support is provided by transporting the upstream or return RF into on a separate
lambda from the PON return wavelength. The Society of Cable and Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE)
Interface Practices Subcomittee (IPS) Work Group 5, is currently working on IPS 910 RF over Glass. RFoG offers
backwards compatibility with existing RF modulation technology, but offers no additional bandwidth for RF based
services. Although not yet completed, the RFoG standard is actually a collection of standardized options which are
Passive optical network
103
not compatible with each other (they cannot be mixed on the same PON). Some of the standards may interoperate
with other PONs, others may not. It offers a means to support RF technologies in locations where only fiber is
available or where copper is not permitted or feasible. This technology is targeted towards Cable TV operators and
their existing HFC networks.
WDM-PON
Wavelength Division Multiplexing PON, or WDM-PON, is a non-standard type of passive optical networking, being
developed by some companies.
The multiple wavelengths of a WDM-PON can be used to separate Optical Network Units (ONUs) into several
virtual PONs co-existing on the same physical infrastructure. Alternatively the wavelengths can be used collectively
through statistical multiplexing to provide efficient wavelength utilization and lower delays experienced by the
ONUs.
There is no common standard for WDM-PON nor any unanimously agreed upon definition of the term. By some
definitions WDM-PON is a dedicated wavelength for each ONU. Other more liberal definitions suggest the use of
more than one wavelength in any one direction on a PON is WDM-PON. It is difficult to point to an un-biased list of
WDM-PON vendors when there is no such unanimous definition. PONs provide higher bandwidth than traditional
copper based access networks. WDM-PON has better privacy and better scalability because of each ONU only
receives its own wavelength.
Advantages: The MAC layer is simplified because the P2P connections between OLT and ONUs are realized in
wavelength domain, so no P2MP media access control is needed. In WDM-PON each wavelength can run at a
different speed and protocol so there is an easy pay-as-you-grow upgrade
Challenges: High cost of initial set-up, the cost of the WDM components. Temperature control is another challenge
because of how wavelengths tend to drift with environmental temperatures.
Long-Reach Optical Access Networks
The concept of the Long-Reach Optical Access Network (LROAN) is to replace the optical/electrical/optical
conversion that takes place at the local exchange with a continuous optical path that extends from the customer to the
core of the network. Work by Davey and Payne at BT showed that significant cost savings could be made by
reducing the electronic equipment and real-estate required at the local exchange or wire center
[3]
. A proof of concept
demonstrator showed that it was possible to serve 1024 at 10GBit/s with 100 km reach
[4]
.
This technology has sometimes been termed Long-Reach PON, however, many argue that the term PON is no longer
applicable as, in most instances, only the distribution remains passive.
Enabling technologies
Due to the topology of PON, the transmission modes for downstream (i.e., from OLT to ONU) and upstream (i.e.,
from ONU to OLT) are different. For the downstream transmission, the OLT broadcasts optical signal to all the
ONUs in continuous mode (CM), i.e., the downstream channel always has optical data signal. However, in the
upstream channel, ONUs can not transmit optical data signal in CM. Use of CM would result in all of the signals
transmitted from the ONUs converging (with attenuation) into one fiber by the power splitter (serving as power
coupler), and overlapping. To solve this problem, burst mode (BM) transmission is adopted for upstream channel.
The given ONU only transmits optical packet when it is allocated a time slot and it needs to transmit, and all the
ONUs share the upstream channel in the time division multiplexing (TDM) mode. The phases of the BM optical
packets received by the OLT are different from packet to packet, since the ONUs are not synchronized to transmit
optical packet in the same phase, and the distance between OLT and given ONU are random. Since the distance
between the OLT and ONUs are not uniform, the optical packets received by the OLT may have different
Passive optical network
104
amplitudes. In order to compensate the phase variation and amplitude variation in a short time (e.g., within 40 ns for
GPON
[5]
), burst mode clock and data recovery (BM-CDR) and burst mode amplifier (e.g., burst mode TIA) need to
be employed, respectively. Furthermore, the BM transmission mode requires the transmitter to work in burst mode.
Such a burst mode transmitter is able to turn on and off in short time. The above three kinds of circuitries in PON are
quite different from their counterparts in the point-to-point continuous mode optical communication link.
Fiber to the premises
Passive optical networks do not use electrically powered components to split the signal. Instead, the signal is
distributed using beam splitters. Each splitter typically splits the signal from a single fiber into 16, 32, or 64 fibers,
depending on the manufacturer, and several splitters can be aggregated in a single cabinet. A beam splitter cannot
provide any switching or buffering capabilities; the resulting connection is called a point-to-multipoint link. For such
a connection, the optical network terminals on the customer's end must perform some special functions which would
not otherwise be required. For example, due to the absence of switching capabilities, each signal leaving the central
office must be broadcast to all users served by that splitter (including to those for whom the signal is not intended). It
is therefore up to the optical network terminal to filter out any signals intended for other customers. In addition, since
beam splitters cannot perform buffering, each individual optical network terminal must be coordinated in a
multiplexing scheme to prevent signals leaving the customer from colliding at the intersection. Two types of
multiplexing are possible for achieving this: wavelength-division multiplexing and time-division multiplexing. With
wavelength-division multiplexing, each customer transmits their signal using a unique wavelength. With
time-division multiplexing (TDM), the customers "take turns" transmitting information. TDM equipment has been
on the market longest; WDM-PON equipment became available in 2005
[6]
.
Passive optical networks have both advantages and disadvantages over active networks. They avoid the complexities
involved in keeping electronic equipment operating outdoors. They also allow for analog broadcasts, which can
simplify the delivery of analog television. However, because each signal must be pushed out to everyone served by
the splitter (rather than to just a single switching device), the central office must be equipped with a particularly
powerful piece of transmitting equipment called an optical line terminal (OLT). In addition, because each customer's
optical network terminal must transmit all the way to the central office (rather than to just the nearest switching
device), customers can't be as far from the central office as is possible with active optical networks.
Passive optical components
The drivers behind the modern passive optical network are the optical components that enable Quality of Service
(QoS).
Single-mode, passive optical components include branching devices such as Wavelength- Division
Multiplexer/Demultiplexers– (WDMs), isolators, circulators, and filters. These components are used in interoffice,
loop feeder, Fiber In The Loop (FITL), Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial Cable (HFC), Synchronous Optical Network (SONET),
and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) systems; and other telecommunications networks employing optical
communications systems that utilize Optical Fiber Amplifiers (OFAs) and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer
(DWDM) systems. Industry proposed requirements for these components are detailed in GR-1209, Generic
Requirements for Passive Optical Components.
[7]
The broad variety of passive optical components applications include multichannel transmission, distribution, optical
taps for monitoring, pump combiners for fiber amplifiers, bit-rate limiters, optical connects, route diversity,
polarization diversity, interferometers, and conherent communication.
WDMs are optical components in which power is split or combined based on the wavelength composition of the
optical signal. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexers (DWDMs) are optical components that split power over at
least four wavelengths. Wavelength insensitive couplers are passive optical components in which power is split or
Passive optical network
105
combined independently of the wavelength composition of the optical signal. A given component may combine and
divide optical signals simultaneously, as in bidirectional (duplex) transmission over a single fiber. Passive optical
components are data format transparent, combining and dividing optical power in some predetermined ratio
(coupling ratio) regardless of the information content of the signals. WDMs can be thought of as wavelength splitters
and combiners. Wavelength insensitive couplers can be thought of as power splitters and combiners.
An optical isolator is a two-port passive component that allows light (in a given wavelength range) to pass through
with low attenuation in one direction, while isolating (providing a high attenuation for) light propagating in the
reverse direction. Isolators are used as both integral and in-line components in laser diode modules and optical
amplifiers, and to reduce noise caused by multi-path reflection in highbit-rate and analog transmission systems.
An optical circulator operates in a similar way to an optical isolator, except that the reverse propagating lightwave is
directed to a third port for output, instead of being lost. An optical circulator can be used for bidirectional
transmission, as a type of branching component that distributes (and isolates) optical power among fibers, based on
the direction of the lightwave propagation.
A fiber optic filter is a component with two or more ports that provides wavelength sensitive loss, isolation and/or
return loss. Fiber optic filters are in-line, wavelength selective, components that allow a specific range of
wavelengths to pass through (or reflect) with low attenuation for classification of filter types).
GR-1221-CORE, Generic Reliability Assurance Requirements for Passive Optical Components
[8]
, addresses the
long-term reliability of passive optical components.
References
[1] http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/dologin_pub. asp?lang=e& id=T-REC-G.987.1-201001-I!!PDF-E&type=items
[2] http:/ / www. fsanweb.org/
[3] D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, "The Future of Fiber Access Systems,” BT Technology Journal , vol. 20, 2002, pp. 104–114. (http:/ / www.
springerlink.com/ content/ v0r4hv1h21q60731/ fulltext.pdf).
[4] D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10 Gb/s 1024-Way Split 100-km Long Reach Optical Access Network,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave
Technology , vol. 25, no. 3, Mar. 2007. (http:// eprints. ucl. ac.uk/ 14085)
[5] Rec. G.984, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON), ITU-T, 2003.
[6] Novera's Got a New PON Spin (http:// www.lightreading.com/ document.asp?doc_id=80646) from Light Reading, retrieved on
2009-09-02.
[7] http:// telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-1209&
[8] http:// telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-1221&
Further reading
• Lam, Cedric F., (2007) "Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice. San Diego, California.: Elsevier.
• Kramer, Glen, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks, McGraw-Hill Communications Engineering, 2005.
• Monnard, R., Zirngibl, M.m Doerr, C.R., Joyner, C.H. & Stulz, L.W. (1997). Demonstration of a 12 155 Mb/s
WDM PON Under Outside Plant Temperature Conditions (http:// ieeexplore. ieee. org/stamp/ stamp. jsp?tp=&
arnumber=643302&userType=inst). IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 9(12), 1655-1657.
• Blake, Victor R. Chasing Verizon FiOS, Communications Technology, August 2008 (http:/ / www.cable360. net/
ct/sections/ features/31025. html)
• McGarry, M., Reisslein, M., Maier M. (2006). WDM Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (http:/ / mre.faculty.
asu.edu/ WDM_EPON06.pdf). IEEE Optical Communications. (February 2006), S18-S25.
Project OXYGEN
106
Project OXYGEN
Project OXYGEN was an ambitious global network proposal that was supposed to link 78 countries with more than
100000 miles ( km) of optical fiber (mostly under the sea) at a minimum transmission speed of 1.2 Gbit/s by the year
2003. Originally estimated to cost more than $10 billion for the trans-Atlantic segment, the project ran out of funding
in 2000 and was never resurrected.
Radio Frequency over Glass
Radio Frequency over Glass (RFoG) is a deep fiber network design in which the coax portion of the HFC network
is replaced by a single-fiber, passive optical architecture (PON). Downstream and return path transmission uses
different wavelengths to share the same fiber, typically 1,550 nm downstream and either 1,310 nm or 1,590/1610 nm
upstream. The return path wavelength standard is expected to be 1610 nm, but early deployments have used
1590 nm. Using 1,590/1610 nm for the return path allows the fiber infrastructure to simultaneously support both
RFoG and a standards-based PON, operating with 1,490 nm downstream and 1,310 nm return path wavelengths.
Advantages of RFoG service
RFoG delivers the same services as an RF/DOCSIS/HFC network, with the added benefit of improved noise
performance and increased usable RF spectrum in both the downstream and return path directions. Both RFoG and
HFC systems can concurrently operate out of the same headend/hub, making RFoG a good solution for node
splitting and capacity increases on an existing network.
RFoG allows service providers to continue to leverage traditional HFC equipment and back-office applications with
the new FTTP deployments. Cable operators can continue to rely on the existing provisioning and billing systems,
CMTS platforms, headend equipment, set-top boxes, conditional access technology, and cable modems while
gaining benefits inherent with RFoG and FTTx. RFoG provides multiple benefits over traditional network
architectures:
• More downstream spectrum. RFoG systems support 1 GHz and beyond, directly correlating to increased video
and/or downstream data service support
• More upstream bandwidth. RFoG's improved noise characteristics allow for the use of the full 5–42 MHz return
path spectrum. Additionally, higher performance RFoG systems not only support DOCSIS 3.0 with bonding, but
also enable 64 QAM upstream transmission in a DOCSIS 3.0 bonded channel, dramatically increasing return path
bandwidth.
• Improved operational expenses. RFoG brings the benefits of a passive fiber topology. Removing active devices in
the access network reduces overall power requirements as well as ongoing maintenance costs that would normally
be needed for active elements like nodes and amplifiers.
Both cost savings and increased capacity for new services (revenue generating and/or competitive positioning) are
driving the acceptance of RFoG as a cost-effective migration step on the path towards a 100% PON-based access
network.
Radio Frequency over Glass
107
How RFoG is implemented
Just like with an HFC architecture, video controllers and data networking services are fed through a CMTS/edge
router. These electrical signals are then converted to optical and transported via a 1550 nm wavelength through a
wave division multiplexing (WDM) platform and a passive splitter to a fiber-optic micronode located at the customer
premises. If necessary, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) can be used to boost the downstream optical signal
to cover a greater distance.
The fiber-optic micronodes – which are also referred to as RFoG optical networking units (R-ONUs) –terminate the
fiber connection and convert the traffic for delivery over the in-home network. Video traffic can be fed over coax to
a set-top box, while voice and data traffic can be delivered to an embedded multimedia terminal adapter (eMTA),
which connects to analog telephone lines over the subscriber’s internal phone wiring and to PCs via Ethernet or
WiFi. The return path for voice, data, and video traffic is over a 1310 or 1590/1610 nm wavelength to a return path
receiver, which converts the optical signal to RF and feeds it back into the CMTS and video controller. Although
RFoG is providing a capacity increase, one undesired effect of the system is that more than one R-ONU can have the
optical return path activated at the same time and at the same wavelength (for instance one R-ONU falsely triggered
by ingress), thus an optical collision may occur (optical beating).
R-ONUs convert optical signals into electrical ones. This is done in place of the same function traditionally
performed back at the higher-level serving area nodes in the HFC network. The RF infrastructure remains in place;
the difference is that the fiber termination is moved from a fiber node to the customer premise. The R-ONU can be
located at any type of customer premise: a single home, a business, a multi-tenant dwelling (MTU/MDU) or even the
individual living units within an MTU.
When the time comes to migrate to the next phase in upgrading the network, the RFoG elements can remain in place
while the provider rolls out the necessary components (OLTs and ONTs) for a full PON implementation.
Standards
The Society of Cable and Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) has approved SCTE 174 2010, the standards for
RF over Glass. The standard is currently seeking American National Standard Institute (ANSI) approval which is
expected in March 2011.
Current status
Cable service providers, also called MSOs, have in general responded favorably to the technology and the benefits it
brings to their networks. Many have trialed the technology and some have begun to deploy RFoG. Following
positive experience with smaller deployments and with the finalization of the standard, it is expected to become
more widely adopted.
Radio Frequency over Glass
108
External references
• Leveraging RFoG to Deliver DOCSIS and GPON Services Over Fiber
[1]
(Motorola Whitepaper, 09/2008)
• “RFoG for Business Services”
[2]
by Michael Emmendorfer
• Is Radio Frequency over Glass (RFoG) the Solution for CATV Operators
[3]
(PBN Whitepaper, 08/2009)
External links
• The Society of Telecommunications Engineers
[4]
References
[1] http:/ / www. motorola.com/ staticfiles/ Business/ _Documents/ static%20files/
Leveraging%20RFoG%20to%20Deliver%20DOCSIS%20and%20GPON%20Services%20over%20Fiber.pdf
[2] http:// www. cable360. net/ technology/ strategy/ RFoG-for-Business-Services_27351.html
[3] http:/ / www. pbn. com. au/ library/media_releases/ PBN_RFoG_Peter_Saglietti_White_Paper_Aug09. pdf
[4] http:// www. scte. org/
Raman amplification
Raman amplification (pronounced /ˈrɑːmən/
[1]
) is based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) phenomenon,
when a lower frequency 'signal' photon induces the inelastic scattering of a higher-frequency 'pump' photon in an
optical medium in the nonlinear regime. As a result of this, another 'signal' photon is produced, with the surplus
energy resonantly passed to the vibrational states of the medium. This process, as with other stimulated emission
processes, allows all-optical amplification. Optical fiber is today mostly used as the nonlinear medium for SRS, for
telecom purposes; in this case it is characterized by a resonance frequency downshift of ~11 THz (corresponding to a
wavelength shift at ~1550 nm of ~90 nm). The SRS amplification process can be readily cascaded, thus accessing
essentially any wavelength in the fiber low-loss guiding windows (both 1300 and 1550). In addition to applications
in nonlinear and ultrafast optics, Raman amplification is used in optical telecommunications, allowing all-band
wavelength coverage and in-line distributed signal amplification.
References
[1] " Raman (http:/ / oed. com/ search?searchType=dictionary&q=Raman)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
External links
• Intel Photonics lab presents silicon-based continuous wave raman laser (http:/ / blogs. intel. com/ technology/
2008/02/ video_worlds_first_cascaded_ra.php)
• Intel Silicon Photonics Research (http:/ / www. intel. com/ go/ sp/ )
• Raman amplifiers from RP Photonics Consulting GmbH's Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (http://
www. rp-photonics.com/ raman_amplifiers.html)
Raman scattering
109
Raman scattering
Raman scattering or the Raman effect (pronounced /ˈrɑːmən/) is the inelastic scattering of a photon. It was
discovered by Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman and Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan in liquids,
[1]
and by
Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam in crystals.
[2]

[3]
When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such
that the scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and wavelength as the incident photons. However, a
small fraction of the scattered light (approximately 1 in 10 million photons) is scattered by an excitation, with the
scattered photons having a frequency different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons.
[4]
In a gas, Raman scattering can occur with a change in vibrational, rotational or electronic energy of a molecule (see
energy level). Chemists are concerned primarily with the vibrational Raman effect.
The inelastic scattering of light was predicted by Adolf Smekal in 1923
[5]
(and in German-language literature it may
be referred to as the Smekal-Raman effekt
[6]
). In 1922, Indian physicist C. V. Raman published his work on the
"Molecular Diffraction of Light," the first of a series of investigations with his collaborators which ultimately led to
his discovery (on 28 February 1928) of the radiation effect which bears his name. The Raman effect was first
reported by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam, in
1928. Raman received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his work on the scattering of light. In 1998
[7]
the Raman effect
was designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance as a tool for
analyzing the composition of liquids, gases, and solids.
[8]
Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering
The different possibilities of visual light scattering: Rayleigh scattering (no Raman effect;
the incident and emitted photons have the same energy), Stokes scattering (the atom or
molecule absorbs energy; the emitted photon has less energy than the absorbed photon)
and anti-Stokes scattering (the atom or molecule loses energy; the emitted photon has
more energy than the absorbed photon)
There are two types of Raman
scattering, Stokes scattering and
anti-Stokes scattering.
The interaction of light with matter in a
linear regime allows the absorption and
emission of a photon precisely
matching the difference in energy
levels of the interacting electron or
electrons.
The Raman effect corresponds, in
perturbation theory, to the absorption
and subsequent emission of a photon
via an intermediate electron state,
having a virtual energy level (see also:
Feynman diagram). There are three
possibilities:
• no energy exchange between the incident photons and the molecules (and hence no Raman effect)
• energy exchanges occur between the incident photons and the molecules. The energy differences are equal to the
differences of the vibrational and rotational energy-levels of the molecule. In crystals only specific phonons are
allowed (solutions, which do not cancel themselves, of the wave equations) by the periodic structure, so Raman
scattering can only appear at certain frequencies. In amorphous materials like glasses, more photons are allowed
and thereby the discrete spectral lines become broad.
Raman scattering
110
• molecule absorbs energy: Stokes scattering. The resulting photon of lower energy generates a Stokes line on
the red side of the incident spectrum.
• molecule loses energy: anti-Stokes scattering. Incident photons are shifted to the blue side of the spectrum,
thus generating an anti-Stokes line.
These differences in energy are measured by subtracting the energy of the mono-energetic laser light from the energy
of the scattered photons. The absolute value, however, doesn't depend on the process (Stokes or anti-Stokes
scattering), because only the energy of the different vibrational levels is of importance. Therefore, the Raman
spectrum is symmetric relative to the Rayleigh band. In addition, the intensities of the Raman bands are only
dependent on the number of molecules occupying the different vibrational states, when the process began. If the
sample is in thermal equilibrium, the relative numbers of molecules in states of different energy will be given by the
Boltzmann distribution:
where: : number of atoms in the lower vibrational state
: number of atoms in the higher vibrational state
: degeneracy of the lower vibrational state (number of orbitals of the same energy)
: degeneracy of the higher vibrational state
: energy difference between these two vibrational states
k: Boltzmann constant
T: thermodynamic (absolute) temperature
Thus lower energy states will have more molecules in them than will higher (excited) energy states. Therefore, the
Stokes spectrum will be more intense than the anti-Stokes spectrum.
Distinction with fluorescence
The Raman effect differs from the process of fluorescence. For the latter, the incident light is completely absorbed
and the system is transferred to an excited state from which it can go to various lower states only after a certain
resonance lifetime. The result of both processes is essentially the same: A photon with the frequency different from
that of the incident photon is produced and the molecule is brought to a higher or lower energy level. But the major
difference is that the Raman effect can take place for any frequency of the incident light. In contrast to the
fluorescence effect, the Raman effect is therefore not a resonant effect. In practice, this means that a fluorescence
peak is anchored at a specific excitation frequency, whereas a Raman peak maintains a constant separation from the
excitation frequency. Another, related distinction is that Raman scattering is a coherent process, whereas
fluorescence is not.
[9]
This means that the measured intensity is the square of a coherent sum of scattering
amplitudes. In practice, this means that different paths to the excitation of the same mode may interfere, leading to
Fano effects: asymmetries in the shape of the scattering peaks.
Raman scattering
111
Selection rules
The distortion of a molecule in an electric field, and therefore the vibrational Raman cross section, is determined by
its polarizability.
A Raman transition from one state to another, and therefore a Raman shift, can be activated optically only in the
presence of non-zero polarizability derivative with respect to the normal coordinate (that is, the vibration or
rotation):
Raman-active vibrations/rotations can be identified by using almost any textbook that treats quantum mechanics or
group theory for chemistry. Then, Raman-active modes can be found for molecules or crystals that show symmetry
by using the appropriate character table for that symmetry group.
Stimulated scattering and amplification
Raman amplification can be obtained by using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which actually is a combination
of a Raman process with stimulated emission. It is interesting for application in telecommunication fibers to amplify
inside the standard material with low noise for the amplification process. However, the process requires significant
power and thus imposes more stringent limits on the material. The amplification band can be up to 100 nm broad,
depending on the availability of allowed photon states.
SRS is one of the processes which impedes the laser coupling of inertial confinement fusion capsules.
Spectrum generation
For high intensity CW (continuous wave) lasers, SRS can be used to produce broad bandwidth spectra. This process
can also be seen as a special case of four wave mixing, where the frequencies of the two incident photons are equal
and the emitted spectra are found in two bands separated from the incident light by the phonon energies. The initial
Raman spectrum is built up with spontaneous emission and is amplified later on. At high pumping levels in long
fibers, higher order Raman spectra can be generated by using the Raman spectrum as a new starting point, thereby
building a chain of new spectra with decreasing amplitude. The disadvantage of intrinsic noise due to the initial
spontaneous process can be overcome by seeding a spectrum at the beginning, or even using a feedback loop like in
a resonator to stabilize the process. Since this technology easily fits into the fast evolving fiber laser field and there is
demand for transversal coherent high intensity light sources (i.e. broadband telecommunication, imaging
applications), Raman amplification and spectrum generation might be widely used in the near future.
Applications
Raman spectroscopy employs the Raman effect for materials analysis. The spectrum of the Raman scattered light
depends on the molecular constituents present and their state, allowing the spectrum to be used for material
identification and analysis. Raman spectroscopy is used to analyze a wide range of materials, including gases, liquids
and solids. Highly complex materials such as biological organisms and human tissue
[10]
can also be analyzed by
Raman spectroscopy.
For solid materials, Raman scattering is used as a tool to detect high-frequency phonon and magnon excitations.
Raman lidar is used in atmospheric physics to measure the atmospheric extinction coefficient and the water vapour
vertical distribution.
Stimulated Raman transitions are also widely used for manipulating a trapped ion's energy levels, and thus basis
qubit states.
Raman amplification is used in optical amplifiers.
Raman scattering
112
Notes
[1] doi: 10.1007/s000160200002
This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand (http:// en. wikipedia.org/
wiki/ Template:cite_doi/_10. 1007. 2fs000160200002?preload=Template:Cite_doi/preload& editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro&
action=edit)
[2] doi: 10.1007/BF01506807
This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand (http:/ / en. wikipedia.org/
wiki/ Template:cite_doi/_10. 1007. 2fbf01506807?preload=Template:Cite_doi/preload& editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro&
action=edit)
[3] doi: 10.1007/BF01576902
This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand (http:/ / en. wikipedia.org/
wiki/ Template:cite_doi/_10. 1007. 2fbf01576902?preload=Template:Cite_doi/preload& editintro=Template:Cite_doi/editintro&
action=edit)
[4] Harris and Bertolucci (1989). Symmetry and Spectroscopy. Dover Publications. ISBN 048666144X.
[5] <A. Smekal: Zur Quantentheorie der Dispersion. In: Die Naturwissenschaften. 11, Nr. 43, 1923, S. 873-875, doi:10.1007/BF01576902.
[6] A review of the 1931 book Der Smekal-Raman effekt (http:/ / www. nature. com/ nature/journal/v128/ n3242/ abs/ 1281026c0. html)
[7] Raman effect (http:/ / portal.acs. org/portal/ acs/ corg/ content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=924&
content_id=WPCP_007605&use_sec=true& sec_url_var=region1)
[8] Frontiers of Knowledge, ACS web (http:/ / acswebcontent. acs. org/landmarks/ front_t2.html#Raman)
[9] "Interaction of Light and Matter" (http:/ / www. files. chem. vt. edu/ chem-ed/light/ light-ma.html). . Retrieved 2010-01-17.
[10] "Painless laser device could spot early signs of disease" (http:// www.bbc.co.uk/ news/ science-environment-11390951). BBC News. 27
September 2010. .
References
• "A new radiation", Indian J. Phys., 2 (1928) 387 - http:// www.uky.edu/ ~holler/raman.html
• Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, Litton Educational Publishing, 1950, ISBN 0-442-03385-0, pp. 61ff
and 66ff
External links
• Explanation from Hyperphysics in Astronomy section of gsu.edu (http:// hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/ hbase/
atmos/ raman.html)
• Raman Spectroscopy - Tutorial at Kosi.com (http:// www.kosi. com/ Raman_Spectroscopy/ rtr-ramantutorial.
php?ss=700)
• December 1930;Prof. R. W. Wood Demonstrating the New "Raman Effect" in Physics (http:// www.
scientificamericanpast. com/ Scientific American 1930 to 1939/1/ med/ sci121930. htm)
• A short description of spontaneous Raman scattering (http:/ / www.lavision. de/ techniques/
mie_raman_rayleigh/raman_imaging.php)
• Raman Effect: fingerprinting the universe (http:// blogs. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Swaminomics/ entry/
raman-effect-fingerprinting-the-universe)
Relative intensity noise
113
Relative intensity noise
Relative intensity noise (RIN), describes the instability in the power level of a laser. The noise term is important to
describe lasers used in fiber-optic communication and LIDAR remote sensing.
Relative intensity noise can be generated from cavity vibration, fluctuations in the laser gain medium or simply from
transferred intensity noise from a pump source. Since intensity noise typically is proportional to the intensity, the
relative intensity noise is typically independent of laser power. RIN typically falls off with frequency and is a kind of
pink noise.
Relative intensity noise is measured by sampling the output current of a photodetector over time and transforming
this data set into frequency with a fast Fourier transform. RIN is usually presented as relative noise power in decibels
per hertz at one or several intensities.
External reference
• Intensity noise
[1]
in Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology
• Relative Intensity Noise
[2]
in Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology
References
[1] http:/ / www. rp-photonics.com/ intensity_noise. html
[2] http:/ / www. rp-photonics.com/ relative_intensity_noise. html
SerDes Framer Interface
SerDes Framer Interface is a standard for telecommunications abbreviated as SFI. Variants include:
• SFI-4 or SerDes Framer Interface Level 4, a standardized Electrical Interface by the Optical Internetworking
Forum (OIF) for connecting a synchronous optical networking (SONET) framer component to an optical
serializer/deserializer (SerDes) for Optical Carrier transmission rate OC-192 interfaces at about 10 Gigabits per
second.
[1]
• SFI-5 or SerDes Framer Interface Level 5, a standardized Electrical Interface by the OIF for connecting a
SONET Framer component to an optical SerDes for OC-768, about 40 Gbit/s.
[1]
Electrically, it consists of 16
pairs of SerDes channels each running at 3.125 Gbit/s which gives an aggregate bandwidth of 50 Gbit/s
accommodating up to 25% of Forward Error Correction
References
[1] Panos C. Lekkas (2003). Network Processors:Architecture, Protocols, and Platforms (http:/ / books. google.com/
books?id=IND9AzJFtvEC&pg=PA423). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 423. ISBN 0071409866. .
External links
• OIF (http:// www.oiforum.com)
• OFI SFI-5 Implementation Agreement (http:// www. oiforum.com/ public/ documents/ OIF-SFI5-01.0.pdf)
Sidera Networks
114
Sidera Networks
Sidera Networks is a New York City-based, privately held, United States owned, telecommunications company that
provides fiber optic-based network solutions to the carrier, financial services, education, healthcare, government,
legal services and media industries.
Services
Sidera Networks’ suite of facilities-based services includes:
• Ethernet
• SONET
• Wavelength
• Internet Access
• Colocation
• Custom Private Optical Network
• Dark Fiber Solutions
• Central Office Access
• Managed Services including Network Operations Center, Managed Router and Remote Hands services
History and Acquisitions
Sidera Networks began as RCN Corporation, a publicly traded telecommunications company, based out of Herndon,
VA. RCN Corporation was founded in 1993 by developer David McCourt and Peter Kiewit Sons' Inc
[1]
.
In 1998, RCN Corporation became one of the ten largest Internet service providers in the country after acquiring
Virginia-based Erols Internet, Inc. and Boston-based UltraNet Communications to strengthen the data side of its
business. That same year, RCN acquired Interport Communications in New York City and Springfield,
Massachusetts-based JavaNet, Inc., which linked high schools and colleges to the Internet.
[2]
In March 2006, RCN Corporation created the subsidiary, RCN Business Solutions, with the acquisition of Con
Edison Communications (CEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Consolidated Edison Inc.
[3]
CEC presented a range of
transport products and services to carriers, Fortune 1000 corporations, and small and medium-sized businesses with a
focus on serving the needs of the financial services industry. RCN Business Solutions also built and operated its own
fiber optic network in New York City. This network leveraged the electric utility rights of way.
After acquiring NEON Communications in November 2007, RCN Business Solutions became RCN Metro Optical
Networks, providing telecommunication services to enterprises and carrier customers.
[4]
Founded in 1989 as
FiveCom, NEON owned and operated a fiber optic network in twelve Northeastern and mid-Atlantic states and was
a wholesale service provider of high bandwidth transport services to service providers and Fortune 100 companies.
In September 2010, RCN Metro Optical Networks re-launched as Sidera Networks.
[5]
The change was a result of
ABRY Partners, LLC’s acquisition of RCN Corporation on August 26, 2010.
[6]
Later that year, Sidera Networks made two additional acquisitions. In November 2010, Sidera acquired Cross
Connect Solutions, Inc. a Philadelphia-based colocation provider, adding 28,000 square feet of colocation space to
Sidera's existing portfolio.
[7]
In December 2010, Sidera Networks acquired Long Island Fiber Exchange
[8]
(LIFE),
adding 900 miles of fiber and 550 lit buildings to its footprint.
[9]
Investors
ABRY Partners, LLC.
[10]
Based in Boston, Massachusetts, ABRY Partners, LLC is a media, communications,
business, and information services-focused private equity investment firm. Since its founding in 1989, ABRY has
completed over $27 billion of leveraged transactions and other private equity, mezzanine and preferred equity
placements, representing investments in approximately 450 properties.
Footprint
Sidera Networks’ footprint includes: Albany, Baltimore, Boston, Burlington, Chicago, Hartford, Manchester, New
Sidera Networks
115
York City, Long Island, Newark, Philadelphia, Portland, Providence, Washington D.C., London and Toronto.
Overview
Type
Private
Industry
Telecommunications
Founded
Founded in 2010 as Sidera Networks
Headquarters
55 Broad Street
New York, NY 10004
Key People
Michael T. Sicoli, Chief Executive Officer; Edward O'Hara, Chief Financial Officer; Paul Eskildsen, Vice President
& General Counsel; Lorin Dorco, Chief Technology Officer; Brad Boddicker, Vice President of Sales; Maura
Mahoney, Vice President of Marketing & Business Development; Patrick O'Hare, Vice President of Operations &
Engineering; Kevin Mulqueen, Vice President of Colocation; Maria T. Fornario, Vice President of Human Resources
Services
Ethernet, SONET, Wavelength, Internet Access, Colocation, Custom Private Optical Network, Dark Fiber Solutions,
Xtreme Solution, Managed Services - Network Operations Center, Managed Router Services and Remote Hands
Fiber Miles:
Approximately 446,000
Route Miles:
Approximately 12,500
On-Net Locations:
Approximately 2,800
Colocation Facilities:
30
References
[1] http:/ / www. granahanmccourt.com/
[2] http:/ / www. fundinguniverse.com/ company-histories/ RCN-Corporation-Company-History. html
[3] http:/ / www. crunchbase. com/ company/ rcn
[4] http:// preview.telephonyonline. com/ access/ finance/rcn_neon_communications_062507
[5] http:/ / www. telecomramblings. com/ 2010/ 09/ industry-spotlight-sidera-networks-new-ceo-mike-sicoli/
[6] http:/ / www. multichannel. com/ article/456420-RCN_Deal_Complete. php
[7] http:/ / www. fiercetelecom.com/ story/ sidera-networks-bolsters-colocation-footprint-cross-connect-solutions-acqui/2010-11-22
[8] http:/ / www. longislandfiber.com/
[9] http:/ / www. crn.com/ news/ networking/228800240/ sidera-acquires-new-york-area-service-provider.
htm;jsessionid=Ip0c6uHc8VHVSbcYY1WIUw**. ecappj01
[10] http:// www. abry.com/ Home. aspx
Sidera Networks
116
External links
• Sidera.net (http://www. sidera. net/ )
Subnetwork connection protection
In telecommunications, subnetwork connection protection, or SNCP, is a type of protection mechanism associated
with synchronous optical networks such as synchronous digital hierarchy.
SNCP is a dedicated (1+1) protection mechanism for SDH network spans which may be deployed in ring, point to
point or mesh topologies.
It is complementary to Multiplex Section Protection (MSP), applied to physical handover interfaces; which offers
1+1 protection of the handover.
An alternative to SNCP is Multiplex Section Shared Protection Rings or MS-SPRings, which offers a shared
protection mode.
SNCP's functional equivalent in SONET is called UPSR [1]
SubNetwork Connection Protection is a per path protection. It follows the principle of Congruent Sending Selective
Receive, i.e, Signal is sent on both paths but received only where the Signal Strength is best. When the working path
for Signal receiving is cut, the receiver detects SD (Signal Degradation) and the receiver of the other path becomes
active.
SNCP is a network protection mechanism for SDH networks providing path protection (end-to-end protection). The
data signal is transmitted in a ring structure via two different paths and can be implemented in line or ring structures.
The changeover criteria are specified individually when configuring a network element. A protection protocol is not
required. The switchover to protection path occurs in the non-revertive mode, i.e. if traffic was switched to the
protection path due to a transmission fault, there is no automatic switch-back to the original path once the fault is
rectified, but only if there is a fault on the new path (the one labeled as “protecting” and currently services traffic).
SNCP is a 1+1 protection scheme (one working and one protection transport entity). Input traffic is broadcast in two
routes (one being the normal working route and the second one being the protection route).
Assume a failure free state for a path from a node B to a node A. Node B bridges the signal destined to A from other
nodes on the ring, both on working and protecting routes. At node A, signals from these two routes are continuously
monitored for path layer defects and the better quality signal is selected. Now consider a failure state where fiber
between node A and node B is cut. The selector switches traffic on the standby route when the active route between
node A and node B is failed.
In order to prevent any unnecessary or spurious protection switching in the presence of bit errors on both paths, a
switch will typically occur when the quality of the alternate path exceeds that of the current working path by some
threshold (e.g., an order of magnitude better BER). Consecutively, any case of failure drops in SNCP’s decision
mechanism.
Sources: [2]
Standards: ITU-T G.841
Subnetwork connection protection
117
References
[1] http:/ / www. sonet. com/ EDU/upsr. htm
[2] http:/ / translate.google. co. uk/ translate?hl=en& sl=de& u=http:// de.wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Sub-Network_Connection_Protection&
ei=2QQDSpXGMpGZ_Qa8-pH6Bg&sa=X& oi=translate& resnum=9&ct=result& prev=/
search%3Fq%3Dsub%2Bnetwork%2Bconnection%2Bprotection%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG
Optical switch
In telecommunication, an optical switch is a switch that enables signals in optical fibers or integrated optical circuits
(IOCs) to be selectively switched from one circuit to another.
The word is used on several levels. In commercial terms (such as "the telecom optical switch market size") it refers
to any piece of circuit switching equipment between fibers. The majority of installed systems in this category
actually use electronic switching between fiber transponders. Systems that perform this function by physically
switching light are often referred to as "photonic" switches, independent of how the light itself is switched. Away
from the world of telecom systems, an optical switch is the unit that actually switches light between fibers, and a
photonic switch is one that does this by exploiting nonlinear material properties to steer light (i.e., to switch
wavelengths or signals within a given fiber).
Hence a certain portion of the optical switch market is made up of photonic switches. These will contain within them
an optical switch, which will, in a small number of cases, be a photonic switch.
An optical switch may operate by mechanical means, such as physically shifting an optical fiber to drive one or more
alternative fibers, or by electro-optic effects, magneto-optic effects, or other methods. Slow optical switches, such as
those using moving fibers, may be used for alternate routing of an optical switch transmission path, such as routing
around a fault. Fast optical switches, such as those using electro-optic or magneto-optic effects, may be used to
perform logic operations; also included in this category are the semiconductor optical amplifiers, which are
optoelectronic devices that can be used as optical switches and be integrated with discrete or integrated
microelectronic circuits.
A search on “optical switch” [1] yielded some 8000 patents, roughly categorized as follows:
• MEMS approaches involving arrays of micromirrors that can deflect an optical signal to the appropriate receiver
(e.g., U.S. Patent 6,396,976);
• Piezoelelectric Beam Steering involving piezoelctric ceramics providing enhanced optical switching
characteristics
• Inkjet methods involving the intersection of two waveguides so that light is deflected from one to the other when
an inkjet-like bubble is created (e.g., Patent 6,212,308);
• Liquid crystals (e.g., Patent 4,948,229) that rotate polarized light either 0 degrees or 90 degrees depending on the
applied electric field to support switching;
• Thermal methods (e.g., Patent 5,037,169) that vary the index of refraction in one leg of an interferometer to
switch the signal on or off;
• Nonlinear methods (e.g., Patent 5,319,492) that vary the diffraction pattern in a medium by taking advantage of
the material nonlinear properties to deflect light to the desired receiver;
• Acousto-optic methods that change the refractive index as a result of strain induced by an acoustic field to deflect
light (e.g., Patent 6,922,498);
• Amplifiers and attenuators in output fibers that adjust the signal to the digital “0” power range (when the fiber is
not switched to) or to the normal power range when it is (e.g., Patent 7,027,211).
Optical switch
118
External links
• Catalyst: Photonic Chip - ABC TV Science
[2]
References
•  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services
Administration.
References
[1] http:/ / patft.uspto. gov/ netahtml/ PTO/search-bool. html
[2] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ catalyst/ stories/ 2675781. htm
Synchronous optical networking
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized
multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or light-emitting diodes
(LEDs). Lower data rates can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was developed to replace the
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic
over the same fiber without synchronization problems. SONET generic criteria are detailed in Telcordia
Technologies Generic Requirements document GR-253-CORE.
[1]
Generic criteria applicable to SONET and other
transmission systems (e.g., asynchronous fiber optic systems or digital radio systems) are found in Telcordia
GR-499-CORE.
[2]
SONET and SDH, which are essentially the same, were originally designed to transport circuit mode
communications (e.g., DS1, DS3) from a variety of different sources, but they were primarily designed to support
real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM format.
[3]
The primary difficulty in doing this prior
to SONET/SDH was that the synchronization sources of these various circuits were different. This meant that each
circuit was actually operating at a slightly different rate and with different phase. SONET/SDH allowed for the
simultaneous transport of many different circuits of differing origin within a single framing protocol. SONET/SDH
is not itself a communications protocol per se, but a transport protocol.
Due to SONET/SDH's essential protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH was the obvious
choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames. It quickly evolved mapping structures and
concatenated payload containers to transport ATM connections. In other words, for ATM (and eventually other
protocols such as Ethernet), the internal complex structure previously used to transport circuit-oriented connections
was removed and replaced with a large and concatenated frame (such as OC-3c) into which ATM cells, IP packets,
or Ethernet frames are placed.
Synchronous optical networking
119
Racks of Alcatel STM-16 SDH add-drop
multiplexers
Both SDH and SONET are widely used today: SONET in the United
States and Canada, and SDH in the rest of the world. Although the
SONET standards were developed before SDH, it is considered a
variation of SDH because of SDH's greater worldwide market
penetration.
The SDH standard was originally defined by the European
Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and is formalized as
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standards G.707,
[4]
G.783,
[5]
G.784,
[6]
and G.803.
[7]

[8]
The SONET standard was defined
by Telcordia
[1]
and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
standard T1.105.
[9]

[8]
Difference from PDH
Synchronous networking differs from Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy (PDH) in that the exact rates that are used to transport the
data on SONET/SDH are tightly synchronized across the entire
network, using atomic clocks. This synchronization system allows
entire inter-country networks to operate synchronously, greatly
reducing the amount of buffering required between elements in the
network.
Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital transmission standards, such as the PDH standard,
or they can be used to directly support either Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or so-called packet over
SONET/SDH (POS) networking. As such, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols
in and of themselves; they are generic, all-purpose transport containers for moving both voice and data. The basic
format of a SONET/SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its virtual container (VC), because it is
bandwidth-flexible.
Protocol overview
SONET and SDH often use different terms to describe identical features or functions. This can cause confusion and
exaggerate their differences. With a few exceptions, SDH can be thought of as a superset of SONET.
The protocol is an extremely heavily-multiplexed structure, with the header interleaved between the data in a
complex way. This permits the encapsulated data to have its own frame rate and be able to "float around" relative to
the SDH/SONET frame structure and rate. This interleaving permits a very low latency for the encapsulated data.
Data passing through equipment can be delayed by at most 32 microseconds (µs), compared to a frame rate of
125 µs; many competing protocols buffer the data during such transits for at least one frame or packet before sending
it on. Extra padding is allowed for the multiplexed data to move within the overall framing, as the data is clocked at
a different rate than the frame rate. The protocol is made more complex by the decision to permit this padding at
most levels of the multiplexing structure, but it improves all-around performance.
Synchronous optical networking
120
The basic unit of transmission
The basic unit of framing in SDH is a STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module, level 1), which operates at 155.52
megabits per second (Mbit/s). SONET refers to this basic unit as an STS-3c (Synchronous Transport Signal 3,
concatenated) or OC-3c, depending on whether the signal is carried electrically (STS) or optically (OC), but its
high-level functionality, frame size, and bit-rate are the same as STM-1.
SONET offers an additional basic unit of transmission, the STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal 1) or OC-1,
operating at 51.84 Mbit/s—exactly one third of an STM-1/STS-3c/OC-3c carrier. This speed is dictated by the
bandwidth requirements for PCM-encoded telephonic voice signals: at this rate, an STS-1/OC-1 circuit can carry the
bandwidth equivalent of a standard DS-3 channel, which can carry 672 64-kbit/s voice channels.
[3]
In SONET, the
STS-3c/OC-3c signal is composed of three multiplexed STS-1 signals; the STS-3C/OC-3c may be carried on an
OC-3 signal. Some manufacturers also support the SDH equivalent of the STS-1/OC-1, known as STM-0.
Framing
In packet-oriented data transmission, such as Ethernet, a packet frame usually consists of a header and a payload.
The header is transmitted first, followed by the payload (and possibly a trailer, such as a CRC). In synchronous
optical networking, this is modified slightly. The header is termed the overhead, and instead of being transmitted
before the payload, is interleaved with it during transmission. Part of the overhead is transmitted, then part of the
payload, then the next part of the overhead, then the next part of the payload, until the entire frame has been
transmitted.
In the case of an STS-1, the frame is 810 octets in size, while the STM-1/STS-3c frame is 2,430 octets in size. For
STS-1, the frame is transmitted as three octets of overhead, followed by 87 octets of payload. This is repeated nine
times, until 810 octets have been transmitted, taking 125 µs. In the case of an STS-3c/STM-1, which operates three
times faster than an STS-1, nine octets of overhead are transmitted, followed by 261 octets of payload. This is also
repeated nine times until 2,430 octets have been transmitted, also taking 125 µs. For both SONET and SDH, this is
often represented by displaying the frame graphically: as a block of 90 columns and nine rows for STS-1, and 270
columns and nine rows for STM1/STS-3c. This representation aligns all the overhead columns, so the overhead
appears as a contiguous block, as does the payload.
The internal structure of the overhead and payload within the frame differs slightly between SONET and SDH, and
different terms are used in the standards to describe these structures. Their standards are extremely similar in
implementation, making it easy to interoperate between SDH and SONET at any given bandwidth.
In practice, the terms STS-1 and OC-1 are sometimes used interchangeably, though the OC designation refers to the
signal in its optical form. It is therefore incorrect to say that an OC-3 contains 3 OC-1s: an OC-3 can be said to
contain 3 STS-1s.
Synchronous optical networking
121
SDH frame
An STM-1 frame. The first nine columns contain the overhead and the pointers. For
the sake of simplicity, the frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270 columns
and nine rows but the protocol does not transmit the bytes in this order.
For the sake of simplicity, the frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270
columns and nine rows. The first three rows and nine columns contain regenerator
section overhead (RSOH) and the last five rows and nine columns contain multiplex
section overhead (MSOH). The fourth row from the top contains pointers.
The STM-1 (Synchronous Transport
Module, level 1) frame is the basic
transmission format for SDH—the first
level of the synchronous digital hierarchy.
The STM-1 frame is transmitted in exactly
125 µs, therefore, there are 8,000 frames
per second on a 155.52 Mbit/s OC-3
fiber-optic circuit.
[10]
The STM-1 frame
consists of overhead and pointers plus
information payload. The first nine
columns of each frame make up the
Section Overhead and Administrative Unit
Pointers, and the last 261 columns make up
the Information Payload. The pointers (H1,
H2, H3 bytes) identify administrative units
(AU) within the information payload.
Thus, an OC-3 circuit can carry
150.336 Mbit/s of payload, after
accounting for the overhead.
[11]
Carried within the information payload,
which has its own frame structure of nine
rows and 261 columns, are administrative
units identified by pointers. Also within
the administrative unit are one or more
virtual containers (VCs). VCs contain path
overhead and VC payload. The first
column is for path overhead; it is followed
by the payload container, which can itself
carry other containers. Administrative units
can have any phase alignment within the
STM frame, and this alignment is indicated
by the pointer in row four.
The section overhead (SOH) of a STM-1
signal is divided into two parts: the regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and the multiplex section overhead
(MSOH). The overheads contain information from the transmission system itself, which is used for a wide range of
management functions, such as monitoring transmission quality, detecting failures, managing alarms, data
communication channels, service channels, etc.
The STM frame is continuous and is transmitted in a serial fashion: byte-by-byte, row-by-row.
Synchronous optical networking
122
Transport overhead
The transport overhead is used for signaling and measuring transmission error rates, and is composed as follows:
Section overhead
Called RSOH (regenerator section overhead) in SDH terminology: 27 octets containing information about the
frame structure required by the terminal equipment.
Line overhead
Called MSOH (multiplex section overhead) in SDH: 45 octets containing information about error correction
and Automatic Protection Switching messages (e.g., alarms and maintenance messages) as may be required
within the network.
AU Pointer
Points to the location of the J1 byte in the payload (the first byte in the virtual container).
[12]
Path virtual envelope
Data transmitted from end to end is referred to as path data. It is composed of two components:
Payload overhead (POH)
Nine octets used for end-to-end signaling and error measurement.
Payload
User data (774 bytes for STM-0/STS-1, or 2,340 octets for STM-1/STS-3c)
For STS-1, the payload is referred to as the synchronous payload envelope (SPE), which in turn has 18 stuffing
bytes, leading to the STS-1 payload capacity of 756 bytes.
[13]
The STS-1 payload is designed to carry a full PDH DS3 frame. When the DS3 enters a SONET network, path
overhead is added, and that SONET network element (NE) is said to be a path generator and terminator. The
SONET NE is line terminating if it processes the line overhead. Note that wherever the line or path is terminated, the
section is terminated also. SONET regenerators terminate the section, but not the paths or line.
An STS-1 payload can also be subdivided into seven virtual tributary groups (VTGs). Each VTG can then be
subdivided into four VT1.5 signals, each of which can carry a PDH DS1 signal. A VTG may instead be subdivided
into three VT2 signals, each of which can carry a PDH E1 signal. The SDH equivalent of a VTG is a TUG2; VT1.5
is equivalent to VC11, and VT2 is equivalent to VC12.
Three STS-1 signals may be multiplexed by time-division multiplexing to form the next level of the SONET
hierarchy, the OC-3 (STS-3), running at 155.52 Mbit/s. The signal is multiplexed by interleaving the bytes of the
three STS-1 frames to form the STS-3 frame, containing 2,430 bytes and transmitted in 125 µs.
Higher-speed circuits are formed by successively aggregating multiples of slower circuits, their speed always being
immediately apparent from their designation. For example, four STS-3 or AU4 signals can be aggregated to form a
622.08 Mbit/s signal designated OC-12 or STM-4.
The highest rate commonly deployed is the OC-768 or STM-256 circuit, which operates at rate of just under 38.5
Gbit/s.
[14]
Where fiber exhaustion is a concern, multiple SONET signals can be transported over multiple
wavelengths on a single fiber pair by means of wavelength-division multiplexing, including dense
wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM). DWDM
circuits are the basis for all modern submarine communications cable systems and other long-haul circuits.
Synchronous optical networking
123
SONET/SDH and relationship to 10 Gigabit Ethernet
Another type of high-speed data networking circuit is 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE). The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance
created two 10 Gigabit Ethernet variants: a local area variant (LAN PHY) with a line rate of 10.3125 Gbit/s, and a
wide area variant (WAN PHY) with the same line rate as OC-192/STM-64 (9,953,280 kbit/s). The WAN PHY
variant encapsulates Ethernet data using a lightweight SDH/SONET frame, so as to be compatible at a low level with
equipment designed to carry SDH/SONET signals, whereas the LAN PHY variant encapsulates Ethernet data using
64B/66B line coding.
However, 10 Gigabit Ethernet does not explicitly provide any interoperability at the bitstream level with other
SDH/SONET systems. This differs from WDM system transponders, including both coarse and dense
wavelength-division multiplexing systems (CWDM and DWDM) that currently support OC-192 SONET signals,
which can normally support thin-SONET–framed 10 Gigabit Ethernet.
SONET/SDH data rates
SONET/SDH Designations and bandwidths
SONET Optical Carrier
Level
SONET Frame
Format
SDH level and Frame
Format
Payload bandwidth
[15]
(kbit/s)
Line Rate
(kbit/s)
OC-1 STS-1 STM-0 50,112 51,840
OC-3 STS-3 STM-1 150,336 155,520
OC-12 STS-12 STM-4 601,344 622,080
OC-24 STS-24 – 1,202,688 1,244,160
OC-48 STS-48 STM-16 2,405,376 2,488,320
OC-192 STS-192 STM-64 9,621,504 9,953,280
OC-768 STS-768 STM-256 38,486,016 39,813,120
User throughput must also deduct path overhead from the payload bandwidth, but path-overhead bandwidth is
variable based on the types of cross-connects built across the optical system.
Note that the data-rate progression starts at 155 Mbit/s and increases by multiples of four. The only exception is
OC-24, which is standardized in ANSI T1.105, but not a SDH standard rate in ITU-T G.707.
[9]

[4]
Other rates, such
as OC-9, OC-18, OC-36, OC-96, and OC-1536, are defined but not commonly deployed; most are considered
orphaned rates.
[16]

[17]

[3]
The next logical rate of 160 Gbit/s OC-3072/STM-1024 has not yet been standardized, due to the cost of high-rate
transceivers and the ability to more cheaply multiplex wavelengths at 10 and 40 Gbit/s.
Synchronous optical networking
124
Physical layer
The physical layer actually comprises a large number of layers within it, only one of which is the
optical/transmission layer (which includes bit rates, jitter specifications, optical signal specifications, etc.). The
SONET and SDH standards come with a host of features for isolating and identifying signal defects and their origins.
SONET/SDH network management protocols
SONET equipment is often managed with the TL1 protocol. TL1 is a telecom language for managing and
reconfiguring SONET network elements. The command language used by a SONET network element, such as TL1,
must be carried by other management protocols, such as SNMP, CORBA, or XML. SDH has been mainly managed
using the Q3 interface protocol suite defined in ITU recommendations Q.811 and Q.812. With the convergence of
SONET and SDH on switching matrix and network elements architecture, newer implementations have also offered
TL1.
Most SONET NEs have a limited number of management interfaces defined:
Electrical interface
The electrical interface, often a 50-ohm coaxial cable, sends SONET TL1 commands from a local
management network physically housed in the central office where the SONET network element is located.
This is for local management of that network element and, possibly, remote management of other SONET
network elements.
Craft interface
Local "craftspersons" (telephone network engineers) can access a SONET network element on a "craft port"
and issue commands through a dumb terminal or terminal emulation program running on a laptop. This
interface can also be attached to a console server, allowing for remote out-of-band management and logging.
Data communication channels (DCCs)
SONET and SDH have dedicated data communication channels (DCCs) within the section and line overhead
for management traffic. Generally, section overhead (regenerator section in SDH) is used. According to
ITU-T G.7712, there are three modes used for management:
[18]
• IP-only stack, using PPP as data-link
• OSI-only stack, using LAP-D as data-link
• Dual (IP+OSI) stack using PPP or LAP-D with tunneling functions to communicate between stacks.
To handle all of the possible management channels and signals, most modern network elements contain a router for
the network commands and underlying (data) protocols.
The main functions of network management include:
Network and network-element provisioning
In order to allocate bandwidth throughout a network, each network element must be configured. Although this
can be done locally, through a craft interface, it is normally done through a network management system
(sitting at a higher layer) that in turn operates through the SONET/SDH network management network.
Software upgrade
Network-element software upgrades are done mostly through the SONET/SDH management network in
modern equipment.
Performance management
Network elements have a very large set of standards for performance management. The
performance-management criteria allow not only monitoring the health of individual network elements, but
isolating and identifying most network defects or outages. Higher-layer network monitoring and management
Synchronous optical networking
125
software allows the proper filtering and troubleshooting of network-wide performance management, so that
defects and outages can be quickly identified and resolved.
Equipment
With advances in SONET and SDH chipsets, the traditional categories of network elements are no longer distinct.
Nevertheless, as network architectures have remained relatively constant, even newer equipment (including
multi-service provisioning platforms) can be examined in light of the architectures they will support. Thus, there is
value in viewing new, as well as traditional, equipment in terms of the older categories.
Regenerator
Traditional regenerators terminate the section overhead, but not the line or path. Regenerators extend long-haul
routes in a way similar to most regenerators, by converting an optical signal that has already traveled a long distance
into electrical format and then retransmitting a regenerated high-power signal.
Since the late 1990s, regenerators have been largely replaced by optical amplifiers. Also, some of the functionality of
regenerators has been absorbed by the transponders of wavelength-division multiplexing systems.
Add-drop multiplexer
Add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) are the most common type of network elements. Traditional ADMs were designed
to support one of the network architectures, though new generation systems can often support several architectures,
sometimes simultaneously. ADMs traditionally have a high-speed side (where the full line rate signal is supported),
and a low-speed side, which can consist of electrical as well as optical interfaces. The low-speed side takes in
low-speed signals, which are multiplexed by the network element and sent out from the high-speed side, or
vice-versa.
Digital cross connect system
Recent digital cross connect systems (DCSs or DXCs) support numerous high-speed signals, and allow for
cross-connection of DS1s, DS3s and even STS-3s/12c and so on, from any input to any output. Advanced DCSs can
support numerous subtending rings simultaneously.
Network architectures
SONET and SDH have a limited number of architectures defined. These architectures allow for efficient bandwidth
usage as well as protection (i.e. the ability to transmit traffic even when part of the network has failed), and are
fundamental to the worldwide deployment of SONET and SDH for moving digital traffic. Every SDH/SONET
connection on the optical Physical layer uses two optical fibers, regardless of the transmission speed.
Synchronous optical networking
126
Linear Automatic Protection Switching
Linear Automatic Protection Switching (APS), also known as 1+1, involves four fibers: two working fibers (one in
each direction), and two protection fibers. Switching is based on the line state, and may be unidirectional (with each
direction switching independently), or bidirectional (where the network elements at each end negotiate so that both
directions are generally carried on the same pair of fibers).
Unidirectional path-switched ring
In unidirectional path-switched rings (UPSRs), two redundant (path-level) copies of protected traffic are sent in
either direction around a ring. A selector at the egress node determines which copy has the highest quality, and uses
that copy, thus coping if one copy deteriorates due to a broken fiber or other failure. UPSRs tend to sit nearer to the
edge of a network, and as such are sometimes called collector rings. Because the same data is sent around the ring in
both directions, the total capacity of an UPSR is equal to the line rate N of the OC-N ring.
[19]
For example, in an
OC-3 ring with 3 STS-1s used to transport 3 DS-3s from ingress node A to the egress node D, 100 percent of the ring
bandwidth (N=3) would be consumed by nodes A and D. Any other nodes on the ring could only act as pass-through
nodes. The SDH equivalent of UPSR is subnetwork connection protection (SNCP); SNCP does not impose a ring
topology, but may also be used in mesh topologies.
Bidirectional line-switched ring
Bidirectional line-switched ring (BLSR) comes in two varieties: two-fiber BLSR and four-fiber BLSR. BLSRs
switch at the line layer. Unlike UPSR, BLSR does not send redundant copies from ingress to egress. Rather, the ring
nodes adjacent to the failure reroute the traffic "the long way" around the ring. BLSRs trade cost and complexity for
bandwidth efficiency, as well as the ability to support "extra traffic" that can be pre-empted when a protection
switching event occurs.
BLSRs can operate within a metropolitan region or, often, will move traffic between municipalities. Because a
BLSR does not send redundant copies from ingress to egress, the total bandwidth that a BLSR can support is not
limited to the line rate N of the OC-N ring, and can actually be larger than N depending upon the traffic pattern on
the ring.
[20]
In the best case, all traffic is between adjacent nodes. The worst case is when all traffic on the ring
egresses from a single node, i.e., the BLSR is serving as a collector ring. In this case, the bandwidth that the ring can
support is equal to the line rate N of the OC-N ring. This is why BLSRs are seldom, if ever, deployed in collector
rings, but often deployed in inter-office rings. The SDH equivalent of BLSR is called Multiplex Section-Shared
Protection Ring (MS-SPRING).
Synchronization
Clock sources used for synchronization in telecommunications networks are rated by quality, commonly called a
stratum. Typically, a network element uses the highest quality stratum available to it, which can be determined by
monitoring the synchronization status messages (SSM) of selected clock sources.
Synchronization sources available to a network element are:
Local external timing
This is generated by an atomic Caesium clock or a satellite-derived clock by a device in the same central office
as the network element. The interface is often a DS1, with sync-status messages supplied by the clock and
placed into the DS1 overhead.
Line-derived timing
A network element can choose (or be configured) to derive its timing from the line-level, by monitoring the S1
sync-status bytes to ensure quality.
Synchronous optical networking
127
Holdover
As a last resort, in the absence of higher quality timing, a network element can go into a holdover mode until
higher-quality external timing becomes available again. In this mode, the network element uses its own timing
circuits as a reference.
Timing loops
A timing loop occurs when network elements in a network are each deriving their timing from other network
elements, without any of them being a "master" timing source. This network loop will eventually see its own timing
"float away" from any external networks, causing mysterious bit errors—and ultimately, in the worst cases, massive
loss of traffic. The source of these kinds of errors can be hard to diagnose. In general, a network that has been
properly configured should never find itself in a timing loop, but some classes of silent failures could nevertheless
cause this issue.
Next-generation SONET/SDH
SONET/SDH development was originally driven by the need to transport multiple PDH signals—like DS1, E1, DS3,
and E3—along with other groups of multiplexed 64 kbit/s pulse-code modulated voice traffic. The ability to
transport ATM traffic was another early application. In order to support large ATM bandwidths, concatenation was
developed, whereby smaller multiplexing containers (e.g., STS-1) are inversely multiplexed to build up a larger
container (e.g., STS-3c) to support large data-oriented pipes.
One problem with traditional concatenation, however, is inflexibility. Depending on the data and voice traffic mix
that must be carried, there can be a large amount of unused bandwidth left over, due to the fixed sizes of
concatenated containers. For example, fitting a 100 Mbit/s Fast Ethernet connection inside a 155 Mbit/s STS-3c
container leads to considerable waste. More important is the need for all intermediate network elements to support
newly-introduced concatenation sizes. This problem was overcome with the introduction of Virtual Concatenation.
Virtual concatenation (VCAT) allows for a more arbitrary assembly of lower-order multiplexing containers, building
larger containers of fairly arbitrary size (e.g., 100 Mbit/s) without the need for intermediate network elements to
support this particular form of concatenation. Virtual concatenation leverages the X.86 or Generic Framing
Procedure (GFP) protocols in order to map payloads of arbitrary bandwidth into the virtually-concatenated container.
The Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) allows for dynamically changing the bandwidth via dynamic virtual
concatenation, multiplexing containers based on the short-term bandwidth needs in the network.
The set of next-generation SONET/SDH protocols that enable Ethernet transport is referred to as Ethernet over
SONET/SDH (EoS).
Notes
[1] Telcordia GR-253-CORE (http:// telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH& DOCUMENT=GR-253&),
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria (October 2009). Issue 5.
[2] Telcordia GR-499-CORE (http:// telecom-info.telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH& DOCUMENT=GR-499&), Transport
Systems Generic Requirements (TSGR): Common Requirements (November 2009). Issue 4.
[3] Horak, Ray (2007). Telecommunications and Data Communications Handbook. Wiley-Interscience. p. 476. ISBN 9780470041413.
[4] ITU-T Rec. G.707/Y.1322 (http:// www. itu. int/ rec/dologin_pub. asp?lang=e& id=T-REC-G.707-200701-I!!PDF-E&type=items)PDF,
Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) (Geneva: International Telecommunications Union, January 2007).
Accessed 2010-11-03.
[5] ITU-T Rec. G.783 (http:// www. itu. int/ rec/dologin_pub. asp?lang=e& id=T-REC-G.783-200603-I!!PDF-E&type=items)PDF,
Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks (Geneva: International Telecommunications Union,
March 2006). Accessed 2010-11-03.
[6] ITU-T Rec. G.784 (http:// www. itu. int/ rec/dologin_pub. asp?lang=e& id=T-REC-G.784-200803-I!!PDF-E&type=items)PDF,
Management aspects of the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) transport network element (Geneva: International Telecommunications
Union, March 2008). Accessed 2010-11-03.
Synchronous optical networking
128
[7] ITU-T Rec. G.803 (http:// www. itu. int/ rec/dologin_pub. asp?lang=e& id=T-REC-G.803-200003-I!!PDF-E&type=items)PDF,
Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) (Geneva: International Telecommunications Union,
March 2000). Accessed 2010-11-03.
[8] "SONET/SDH Technical Summary" (http:// www.techfest. com/ networking/wan/ sonet. htm). TechFest. TechFest.com. 2002. . Retrieved
2010-11-13.
[9] ANSI T1.105.07-1996 (http:/ / webstore. ansi. org/ RecordDetail.aspx?sku=ANSI+ T1.105. 07-1996+(R2005)), Synchronous Optical
Network (SONET)—Sub–STS-1 Interface Rates and Formats Specification (New York: American National Standards Institute, 1996). Revised
2005.
[10] 2,430 octets × 8 bits per octet × 8,000 frames per second = 155.52 Mbit/s
[11] 2,349 octets of payload × 8 bits per octet × 8,000 frames per second = 150.336 Mbit/s
[12] "Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Graphical Overview" (http:// www. cisco.com/ en/ US/ tech/ tk482/ tk876/
technologies_tech_note09186a008011927d.shtml). Cisco. San Jose, California: Cisco Systems. 2006-10-01. . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
[13] "Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)" (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20080407212239/ http:/ / www.iec.org/online/ tutorials/ sonet/
topic03.html). Web ProForums. International Engineering Consortium. 2007. Archived from the original (http:// www.iec.org/online/
tutorials/sonet/ topic03. html) on 2008-04-07. . Retrieved 2007-04-21.
[14] "OC 768 Internet Connection" (http:/ / www.gcgcom. com/ business-data-and-wan/ business-internet-connections/ oc768-internet/). GCG.
Global Communications Group. 2009. . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
[15] line rate minus the bandwidth of the line and section overheads
[16] Tozer, Edwin Paul J. (2004). "1.8.11 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)". Broadcast Engineer's Reference Book. Focal Press. p. 97.
ISBN 9780240519081.
[17] Elbert, Bruce R. (2008). Introduction to Satellite Communication. Artech House space applications series (3rd ed.). Artech House. p. 73.
ISBN 9781596932104.
[18] ITU-T Rec. G.7712/Y.1703 (http:// www. itu. int/ itudoc/ itu-t/aap/ sg15aap/ history/ g7712/ g7712. html), Architecture and Specification
of Data Communication Network (Geneva: International Telecommunications Union, 2007-03-30).
[19] "Understanding SONET UPSRs" (http:/ / www.sonet. com/ EDU/upsr.htm). SONET Homepage. . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
[20] "Understanding SONET BLSRs" (http:/ / www.sonet. com/ EDU/blsr. htm). SONET Homepage. . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
References
External links
• Understanding SONET/SDH (http:// www. electrosofts. com/ sonet)
• The Queen's University of Belfast SDH/SONET Primer (http:// www.pcc. qub. ac.uk/ tec/ courses/ network/
SDH-SONET/ SDH-SONET.html)
• SDH Pocket Handbook from Acterna/JDSU (http:/ / www.jdsu. com/ ProductLiterature/sdh_pg_opt_tm_ae. pdf)
• SONET Pocket Handbook from Acterna/JDSU (http:/ / www.jdsu. com/ ProductLiterature/sonet_pg_opt_tm_ae.
pdf)
• The Sonet Homepage (http:/ / www. sonet. com)
• SONET Interoperability Form (SIF) (http:// www.atis. org/atis/ sif/ sifhom. htm)
• Network Connection Speeds Reference (http:/ / www.ertyu. org/steven_nikkel/ netspeeds. html)
• Next-generation SDH: the future looks bright (http:// fibresystems. org/cws/ article/articles/ 21707)
• The Future of SONET/SDH (http:// img. lightreading. com/ heavyreading/pdf/hr20031114_esum. pdf) (pdf)
Synchronous optical networking
129
Standards
• Telcordia GR-253-CORE, SONET Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria (http:// telecom-info.telcordia.
com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-253& )
• Telcordia GR-499-CORE, Transport Systems Generic Requirements (TSGR): Common Requirements (http://
telecom-info. telcordia.com/ site-cgi/ ido/ docs. cgi?ID=SEARCH&DOCUMENT=GR-499& )
• ANSI T1.105: SONET - Basic Description including Multiplex Structure, Rates and Formats (http:/ / webstore.
ansi. org/RecordDetail. aspx?sku=T1. 105-2001)
• ANSI T1.119/ATIS PP 0900119.01.2006: SONET - Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
(OAM&P) - Communications (http:// webstore. ansi. org/RecordDetail. aspx?sku=ATIS-PP-0900119.01.2006)
• ITU-T recommendation G.707: Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) (http://
www. itu. int/ rec/T-REC-G.707/ )
• ITU-T recommendation G.783: Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional
blocks (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/T-REC-G.783/ )
• ITU-T recommendation G.803: Architecture of Transport Networks Based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
(SDH) (http:/ / www.itu. int/ rec/T-REC-G.803/ )
Thunderbolt (interface)
130
Thunderbolt (interface)
Thunderbolt
Type
Dual-protocol I/O
[1]
Production history
Designer
Intel and Apple
[2]
Manufacturer Various
Produced February 2011–present
General specifications
Length
3 meters maximum (copper)
[3]
Width 8.3 mm
Height 5.4 mm
Hot pluggable Yes
Daisy chain
Yes, up to 7 devices
[3]
External Yes
Connector Mini DisplayPort
Electrical
Signal
10 W
[3]
Data
Data signal Yes
Bitrate
20 Gbit/s PCIe and DisplayPort
bi-directional
100 Gbit/s (over next decade)
[4]
Protocol
PCI Express, DisplayPort v1.1a
[3]
Thunderbolt (originally codenamed Light Peak
[1]
) is an interface for connecting peripheral devices to a computer
via an expansion bus. Thunderbolt was developed by Intel and brought to market with technical collaboration from
Apple Inc. It was introduced commercially on Apple's updated MacBook Pro lineup on February 24, 2011, using the
same port and connector as Mini DisplayPort. Though initially registered with Apple Inc., full rights of the
Thunderbolt technology trademark belong to Intel Corp., and subsequently led to the transfer of the registration.
[5]
Thunderbolt essentially combines PCI Express and DisplayPort into a new serial data interface that can be carried
over longer and less costly cables. Because PCI Express is widely supported by device vendors and built into most of
Intel's modern chipsets, Thunderbolt can be added to existing products with relative ease. Thunderbolt driver chips
fold the data from these two sources together, and split them back apart again for consumption within the devices.
This makes the system backward compatible with existing DisplayPort hardware upstream of the driver.
The interface was originally intended to run on an optical physical layer using components and flexible optical fiber
cabling developed by Intel partners and at Intel's Silicon Photonics lab. The Intel technology at the time was
Thunderbolt (interface)
131
marketed under the name Light Peak,
[6]
today (2011) referred to as Silicon Photonics Link.
[7]
However, conventional
copper wiring turned out to be able to furnish the desired 10 Gb/s Thunderbolt bandwidth per channel at lower cost.
Later versions of Thunderbolt are still planned to introduce an optical physical layer based on Intel silicon photonics
technology.
The Intel and Apple implementation of the port adapter folds PCI Express and DisplayPort data together, allowing
both to be carried over the same cable at the same time. A single Thunderbolt port supports hubs as well as a daisy
chain of up to seven Thunderbolt devices; up to two of these devices may be high-resolution displays using
DisplayPort.
[8]
Apple sells existing DisplayPort adapters for DVI, dual-link DVI, HDMI, and VGA output from the Thunderbolt
port, showing broad compatibility.
History
Introduction
Intel introduced Light Peak at the 2009 Intel Developer Forum (IDF), using a prototype Mac Pro motherboard to run
two 1080p video streams plus LAN and storage devices over a single 30-meter optical cable with modified USB
ends.
[9]
The system was driven by a prototype PCI Express card, with two optical buses powering four ports.
[10]
At
the show, Intel claimed that Light Peak-equipped systems would begin to appear in 2010.
[11]
On 4 May 2010, in Brussels, Intel demonstrated a laptop with a Light Peak connector, indicating that the technology
had shrunk small enough to fit inside such a device, and had the laptop send two simultaneous HD video streams
down the connection, indicating that at least some fraction of the software/firmware stacks and protocols were
functional. At the same demonstration, Intel officials said they expected hardware manufacturing to begin around the
end of 2010.
[12]
In September 2010, some early commercial prototypes from manufacturers were demonstrated at Intel Developer
Forum 2010.
[13]
Copper vs. optical
Originally conceived as an optical technology, Thunderbolt switched to electrical connections to reduce costs and to
supply up to 10W of power to connected devices.
[14]
In 2009, Intel officials said the company was "working on bundling the optical fibre with copper wire so Light Peak
can be used to power devices plugged into the PC."
[15]
In 2010, Intel said the original intent was "to have one single
connector technology" that would allow "electrical USB 3.0 […] and piggyback on USB 3.0 or 4.0 DC power."
[16]
In January 2011, Intel's David Perlmutter told Computerworld that initial Thunderbolt implementations would be
based on copper wires.
[17]
"The copper came out very good, surprisingly better than what we thought," he said.
[18]
Intel and industry partners are still developing optical Thunderbolt hardware and cables.
[19]
The optical fiber cables
are to run "tens of meters" but will not supply power, at least not initially.
[20]

[21]

[22]
They are to have two
62.5-micron-wide fibers to transport an infrared signal up to 100 metres (330 ft).
[23]
The conversion of electrical
signal to optical will be embedded into the cable itself, allowing the current DisplayPort socket to be future
compatible, but eventually Intel hopes for a purely optical transceiver assembly embedded in the PC.
[22]
Actual claimed implementation from Intel differs from original claims about "electric cable", to use an "active" cable
that embed 1 or 2 communication chip inside the cable to format the signal between Thunderbolt-equipped
computers and peripherals. Copper has not been confirmed either.
Thunderbolt (interface)
132
Market introduction
Macbook Pro Thunderbolt Interface (center port)
It was long rumoured that the early-2011 MacBook Pro update would
include some sort of new data port, and most of the speculation
suggested it would be Light Peak.
[24]
At the time, there were no details
on the physical implementation, and mock-ups appeared showing a
system similar to the earlier Intel demos using a combined USB/Light
Peak port.
[25]
Shortly before the release of the new machines, the USB
Implementers Forum (USB-IF) announced they would not allow this,
stating that USB was not open to modification in this way.
In spite of these comments and speculation, the introduction came as a
major surprise when it was revealed that the port was based on
DisplayPort, not USB. As the system was described, Intel's solution to the display connection problem became clear:
Thunderbolt controllers fold data from existing DisplayPort systems with data from the PCI Express port into a
single cable. Older displays, using DisplayPort 1.1 or earlier, have to be located at the end of a Thunderbolt device
chain, but newer displays can be placed anywhere along the line.
[21]
Thunderbolt devices can go anywhere on the
chain. In this respect, Thunderbolt shares a relationship with the older ACCESS.bus system, which used the display
connector to support a low-speed bus.
Apple published
[2]
technical details explaining that 6 daisy-chained peripherals are supported per Thunderbolt port,
and that the Display should lie at the end of the chain.
Apple
• MacBook Pro (February 24, 2011)
[26]
• iMac (May 3, 2011)
[27]
• MacBook Air (July 20, 2011)
[28]
• Mac mini (July 20, 2011)
[29]
• Mac Pro (N/A)
Sony
• Vaio Z21 (N/A)
[30]

[31]
In February 2011, Apple introduced its new line of MacBook Pro laptop computers and announced the technology's
commercial name would be Thunderbolt, with these machines being the first to feature the new I/O technology.
In May 2011, Apple announced a new line of iMacs that include the Thunderbolt interface.
[32]
The Thunderbolt port on the new Macs is in the same location relative to other ports and maintains the same physical
dimensions and pin out as the legacy DisplayPort connector. The primary visual differentiation on Thunderbolt
equipped Macs is a Thunderbolt symbol instead of a DisplayPort symbol next to the port opening.
[8]
Apple's legacy DisplayPort standard is partially compatible with Thunderbolt, as the two share a physically
compatible Mini DisplayPort connector. The Target Display mode on iMacs requires a Thunderbolt cable to accept a
video-in signal from another Thunderbolt-capable computer.
[33]
Mini DisplayPort monitors function correctly as an
external monitor without an adaptor if they are either the only or the last device in the Thunderbolt device chain.
Intel announced that a developer kit would be released in the second quarter of 2011,
[34]
while manufacturers of
hardware development equipment have indicated they will add support for the testing and development of
Thunderbolt devices.
[35]
The developer kit was not yet available as of 21 July 2011, with Intel saying that interested
parties needed to keep checking later
[36]
.
Thunderbolt will be featured on Intel's Ivy Bridge, but it will not be integrated into its 7-series chipsets, scheduled
for release around March 2012.
[37]
Thunderbolt (interface)
133
Description
Thunderbolt link connections
Intel will provide two types of Thunderbolt controllers, a 2 port type
and a 1 port type. Both Peripherals and computers need to include a
controller.
Thunderbolt is based on the Mini DisplayPort
connector developed by Apple. This is electrically
identical to "normal" DisplayPort connectors, but uses
a smaller connector that is more suitable for use on
laptops and other consumer devices. It is expected that
Thunderbolt's use of this connector will drive wider
acceptance.
Because the PCIe bus does not carry video data, it is
unclear whether a standalone PCIe card could offer a
Thunderbolt port. The Intel Thunderbolt Technology
Brief does not give a conclusive answer.
[3]
Intel
disclosed documentation where video stream is sent to
a dual-thunderbolt controller, with the video stream
being only sent to one of the thunderbolt Port, giving
the assumption that video stream is not mandatory on
Thunderbolt implementation.
Thunderbolt can be implemented on graphics cards,
which have access to DisplayPort data and PCI express
connectivity, or on the motherboard of new devices,
such as the MacBook Pro.
[8]

[21]

[38]
Thunderbolt controllers on the host and peripherals fold
the PCIe and DisplayPort data together and unfold
them after they exit the cable.
[3]
Thunderbolt is interoperable with [DisplayPort] 1.2
compatible devices. When connected to a DisplayPort
compatible device the Thunderbolt port can provide a native DisplayPort signal with 4 lanes of output data at no
more than 5.4Gbps per lane. When connected to a Thunderbolt device the per-lane data rate becomes 10Gbps and the
4 lanes are configured as 2 channels with each bidirectional 10Gbps channel comprising one lane of input and one
lane of output.
[3]
Security
Since Thunderbolt extends the PCI Express bus, which is the main expansion bus in current systems, it allows very
low-level access to the system. PCI devices need to have unlimited access to memory, and may thus compromise
security.
[39]
This issue exists with all high-speed expansion buses, including PC Card, ExpressCard and IEEE 1394
interface (FireWire).
It is worth noting that a number of Intel processors since the introduction of the Nehalem microarchitecture (that is, a
number of CPU branded Core i5, Core i7, or later) support VT-d, an IOMMU implementation. This allows the
operating system (OS) to isolate a device in its own virtual memory address space (in a manner analogous to the
isolation of processes from one another using the MMU). Devices are thus prevented from having access to all of
physical memory.
Thunderbolt (interface)
134
Cost
As of July 2011, the first two meter Thunderbolt cable from Apple costs US$49.00.
[40]
As an active cable, it includes
circuitry inside the connectors. Cable has 5 wires, 1 for management and two uni-directional pairs, one for incoming
and second for outgoing traffic.
[41]
References
[1] "Thunderbolt™ Technology" (http:// www. intel. com/ technology/ io/ thunderbolt/ ). Intel. . Retrieved June 28, 2011.
[2] "Thunderbolt: Next-Generation high-speed I/O technology" (http:// www. apple.com/ thunderbolt/ ). Apple. February 24, 2011. . Retrieved
February 25, 2011.
[3] "Technology Brief" (http:// www.intel. com/ technology/ io/ thunderbolt/325136-001US_secured.pdf). Intel. . Retrieved February 25, 2011.
[4] Lowensohn, Josh (February 24, 2011). "Intel's Thunderbolt: What you need to know (FAQ)" (http:// news. cnet. com/
8301-11386_3-20036033-76. html). CNet News (CBS Interactive). . Retrieved February 25, 2011.
[5] http:// www. appleinsider. com/ articles/ 11/ 05/ 20/ thunderbolt_trademark_rights_will_be_transferred_from_apple_to_intel.html
[6] "Light Peak: Overview" (http:// techresearch.intel. com/ spaw2/ uploads/ files/ Intel Light Peak White Paper_0910.pdf). Intel. . Retrieved
June 29, 2011.
[7] "White Paper: The 50G Silicon Photonics Link" (http:// download.intel. com/ pressroom/ pdf/photonics/
Intel_SiliconPhotonics50gLink_WhitePaper. pdf?iid=pr_smrelease_vPro_materials2). Intel. . Retrieved June 29, 2011.
[8] Foresman, Chris (February 24, 2011). "Thunderbolt smokes USB, FireWire with 10 Gb/s throughput" (http:// arstechnica.com/ apple/ news/
2011/02/ thunderbolt-smokes-usb-firewire-with-10gbps-throughput.ars). Ars Technica (Condé Nast Digital). . Retrieved February 24, 2011.
[9] Patel, Nilay (September 24, 2009). "Video: Intel's Light Peak running an HD display while transferring files... on a hackintosh" (http:/ / www.
engadget.com/ 2009/ 09/ 24/ video-intels-light-peak-running-an-hd-display-while-transferri/). Engadget. AOL. . Retrieved February 25,
2011.
[10] Jason Ziller. (January 26, 2010). Intel Light Peak Interconnect Technology Update (http:// www.youtube. com/ watch?v=nfGevFIVKw4).
[YouTube]. Intel. Event occurs at 1:20. . Retrieved February 23, 2011.
[11] Shiels, Maggie (September 25, 2009). "Future is TV-shaped, says Intel" (http:// news.bbc.co.uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 8272003. stm). BBC
News. . Retrieved September 27, 2009.
[12] Collins, Barry (May 4, 2010). "Intel shows off first Light Peak laptop" (http:/ / www.pcpro.co. uk/ news/ 357688/
intel-shows-off-first-light-peak-laptop). PC Pro (Dennis Publishing). . Retrieved May 5, 2010.
[13] Hollister, Sean (September 14, 2010). "Intel's Light Peak optical interconnect shrinks slightly, LaCie, WD, Compal and Avid begin
prototyping" (http:/ / www.engadget. com/ 2010/ 09/ 14/ intels-light-peak-optical-interconnect-shrinks-slightly-while/). Engadget. AOL. .
Retrieved November 28, 2010.
[14] Hachman, Mark (February 24, 2011). "Intel Thunderbolt Rollout Won't Be Lightning Fast" (http:// www.pcmag. com/ article2/
0,2817,2380890,00.asp). PC Mag (Ziff Davis). . Retrieved February 26, 2011.
[15] Shankland, Stephen (September 23, 2009). "Intel's Light Peak: One PC cable to rule them all" (http:// news. cnet.com/
8301-30685_3-10360047-264. html). CNet News (CBS Interactive). . Retrieved November 28, 2010.
[16] Crothers, Brooke (September 29, 2009). "Sources: 'Light Peak' technology not Apple idea" (http:// news.cnet. com/
8301-13924_3-10363956-64. html). CNet News (CNet). . Retrieved February 23, 2011.
[17] Crothers, Brooke (December 9, 2010). "Sources: 'Light Peak' technology not Apple idea" (http:// news. cnet.com/
8301-13924_3-20025179-64. html). CNet News (CBS Interactive). . Retrieved February 23, 2011.
[18] Shah, Agam (January 8, 2011). "Intel says Light Peak interconnect technology is ready" (http:// www. computerworld.com/ s/ article/
9204158/Intel_says_Light_Peak_interconnect_technology_is_ready). Computer World (International Data Group). . Retrieved February 23,
2011.
[19] IPtronics (October 1, 2009). "IPtronics Develops Components for Light Peak Technology" (http:// www.design-reuse.com/ news/ 21682/
light-peak-intel-iptronics.html). Press release. . Retrieved April 5, 2011.
[20] Clarke, Peter (October 1, 2009). "IPtronics, Avago chip in to Intel's optical interconnect" (http:// www.eetimes. com/ news/ latest/
showArticle.jhtml?articleID=220300670). EETimes. . Retrieved October 1, 2009.
[21] Dilger, Daniel Eran (February 24, 2011). "Intel details Thunderbolt, says Apple has full year head start" (http:// www.appleinsider.com/
articles/ 11/ 02/ 24/ intel_details_thunderbolt_as_exclusive_to_apple_until_2012. html). AppleInsider. . Retrieved February 25, 2011.
[22] Metz, Cade (February 24, 2011). "Intel: 'PC makers took the light out of Light Peak'" (http:// www.theregister.co. uk/ 2011/ 02/ 24/
intel_thunderbolt_copper_embrace_explained/ ). The Register (Situation Publishing). . Retrieved February 25, 2011.
[23] Jason Ziller. (January 23, 2010). Light Peak to Connect Consumer Devices at Record Speed (http://www. youtube. com/
watch?v=izNoF1SWtSg). [YouTube]. Intel. Event occurs at 1:13. . Retrieved February 23, 2011.
[24] Crothers, Brooke (February 19, 2011). "New high-speed connection tech due from Apple" (http:// news.cnet. com/
8301-13924_3-20033940-64. html). CNet News (CBS Interactive). . Retrieved February 25, 2011.
[25] Kim, Arnold (February 19, 2011). "Apple to Introduce Light Peak (High Speed Connection Technology) Soon?" (http:// www. macrumors.
com/ 2011/ 02/ 19/ apple-to-introduce-light-peak-high-speed-connection-technology-soon/). MacRumors. . Retrieved February 25, 2011.
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[26] Apple (February 24, 2011). "Apple Updates MacBook Pro with Next Generation Processors, Graphics & Thunderbolt I/O Technology"
(http:// www. apple. com/ pr/ library/2011/ 02/
24Apple-Updates-MacBook-Pro-with-Next-Generation-Processors-Graphics-Thunderbolt-I-O-Technology.html). Press release. . Retrieved
August 17, 2011.
[27] Apple (May 3, 2011). "Apple Announces New iMac With Next Generation Quad-Core Processors, Graphics & Thunderbolt I/O
Technology" (http:// www.apple. com/ pr/ library/2011/ 05/
03Apple-Announces-New-iMac-With-Next-Generation-Quad-Core-Processors-Graphics-Thunderbolt-I-O-Technology.html). Press release. .
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[28] Apple (July 20, 2011). "Apple Updates MacBook Air With Next Generation Processors, Thunderbolt I/O & Backlit Keyboard" (http://
www.apple.com/ pr/library/2011/ 07/
20Apple-Updates-MacBook-Air-With-Next-Generation-Processors-Thunderbolt-I-O-Backlit-Keyboard.html). Press release. . Retrieved
August 17, 2011.
[29] Apple (July 20, 2011). "Apple Updates Mac mini" (http:// www.apple.com/ pr/library/2011/ 07/ 20Apple-Updates-Mac-mini.html). Press
release. . Retrieved August 17, 2011.
[30] Sony (June 28, 2011). "Ultimate performance and design: ultra-mobile new VAIO Z Series from Sony weighs under 1.2kg" (http://
presscentre.sony. eu/ content/ detail. aspx?ReleaseID=6836& NewsAreaId=2). Press release. . Retrieved August 17, 2011.
[31] Westaway, Luke (June 28, 2011). "Sony Vaio Z series laptop boasts external graphics and Thunderbolt tech" (http:/ / crave. cnet.co. uk/
laptops/sony-vaio-z-series-laptop-boasts-external-graphics-and-thunderbolt-tech-50004246/). CNet UK. . Retrieved August 17, 2011.
[32] "Apple Announces New iMac With Next Generation Quad-Core Processors, Graphics & Thunderbolt I/O Technology" (http:// www.apple.
com/ pr/library/2011/ 05/ 03imac. html). Apple. . Retrieved 10 May 2011.
[33] "iMac (Mid 2011): Target Display Mode does not accept video over a Mini DisplayPort cable" (http:// support. apple.com/ kb/ TS3775/).
Apple. July 14, 2011. . Retrieved July 17, 2011.
[34] Shah, Agam (April 12, 2011). "Intel to Open up Thunderbolt Development This Quarter" (http:/ / www. pcworld.com/ businesscenter/
article/224995/ intel_to_open_up_thunderbolt_development_this_quarter.html). PC World (PCWorld Communications). . Retrieved April
13, 2011.
[35] Holland, Colin (April 12, 2011). "LeCroy lines up armada for Thunderbolt testing" (http:/ / www. eetimes.com/ electronics-products/
test-measurement/4215081/ LeCroy-lines-up-armada-for-Thunderbolt-testing). EE Times Products. UBM Electronics. . Retrieved April 18,
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[36] Intel community: no developer kit by mid-July 2011 (http:/ / communities. intel. com/ message/ 133139)
[37] Shimpi, Anand (31 May 2011). "Intel Intel Integrates USB 3.0 into Ivy Bridge Platform, Thunderbolt Optional" (http:/ / www.anandtech.
com/ show/ 4377/ intel-integrates-usb-30-and-thunderbolt-into-ivy-bridge-platform). . Retrieved 31 May 2011.
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[39] Graham, Robert (February 24, 2011). "Thunderbolt: Introducing a new way to hack Macs" (http:/ / erratasec.blogspot. com/ 2011/ 02/
thunderbolt-introducing-new-way-to-hack.html). Errata Security. . Retrieved March 5, 2011.
[40] http:// arstechnica. com/ apple/ news/ 2011/ 06/ why-apples-2m-thunderbolt-cable-costs-a-whopping-50.ars Retrieved July 2, 2011
[41] http:// www. eetimes. com/ electronics-news/ 4213828/ Thunderbolt-interface-rattles-placid-PC-landscape " the five-wire assembly uses
one wire each for the four 10-Gbit/s links (two in and two out) and the fifth for management traffic."
External links
• Thunderbolt technology (http:// www. intel. com/ technology/ io/ thunderbolt/index. htm) at Intel.com
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter
136
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter
Time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TS-ADC)
[1]

[2]
is an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system that has
the capability of digitizing very high bandwidth signals that cannot be captured by conventional electronic ADCs.
Alternatively, it is also known as the Photonic Time Stretch (PTS) digitizer
[3]
, since it uses an optical frontend. It
relies on the process of time-stretch, which effectively slows down the analog signal in time (or compresses its
bandwidth) before it can be digitized by a slow electronic ADC.
Background
There is a huge demand for very high speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), as they are needed for test and
measurement equipment in laboratories and in high speed data communications systems. Most of the ADCs are
based purely on electronic circuits, which have limited speeds and add a lot of impairments, limiting the bandwidth
of the signals that can be digitized and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio. In the TS-ADC, this limitation is
overcome by time-stretching the analog signal, which effectively slows down the signal in time prior to digitization.
By doing so, the bandwidth (and carrier frequency) of the signal is compressed. Electronic ADCs that would have
been too slow to digitize the original signal, can now be used to capture this slowed down signal.
How it works
Fig. 1 A time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (with a stretch factor of 4) is shown. The
original analog signal is time-stretched and segmented with the help of a time-stretch
preprocessor (generally on optical frontend). Slowed down segments are captured by
conventional electronic ADCs. The digitized samples are rearranged to obtain the digital
representation of the original signal.
The basic operating principle of the
TS-ADC is shown in Fig. 1. The
time-stretch processor, which is
generally an optical frontend, stretches
the signal in time. It also divides the
signal into multiple segments using a
filter, for example a wavelength
division multiplexing (WDM) filter, to
ensure that the stretched replica of the
original analog signal segments do not
overlap each other in time after
stretching. The time-stretched and
slowed down signal segments are then
converted into digital samples by slow
electronic ADCs. Finally, these
samples are collected by a digital
signal processor (DSP) and rearranged
in a manner such that output data is the
digital representation of the original analog signal. Any distortion added to the signal by the time-stretch
preprocessor is also removed by the DSP.
An optical frontend is commonly used to accomplish this process of
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter
137
Fig. 2 Optical frontend for a time-stretch analog-to-digital converter is shown. The
original analog signal is modulated over a chirped optical pulse (obtained by dispersing
an ultra-short supercontinuum pulse). Second dispersive medium stretches the optical
pulse further. At the photodetector (PD) output, stretched replica of original signal is
obtained.
time-stretch, as shown in Fig. 2. An
ultrashort optical pulse (typically 100
to 200 femtoseconds long), also called
a supercontinuum pulse, which has a
broad optical bandwidth, is
time-stretched by dispersing it in a
highly dispersive medium (such as a
dispersion compensating fiber). This
process results in (an almost) linear
time-to-wavelength mapping in the
stretched pulse, because different
wavelengths travel at different speeds
in the dispersive medium. The
obtained pulse is called a chirped pulse
as its frequency is changing with time,
and it is typically a few nanoseconds long. The analog signal is modulated onto this chirped pulse using an
electro-optic intensity modulator. Subsequently, the modulated pulse is stretched further in the second dispersive
medium which has much higher dispersion value. Finally, this obtained optical pulse is converted to electrical
domain by a photodetector, giving the stretched replica of the original analog signal.
For continuous operation, a train of supercontinuum pulses is used. The chirped pulses arriving at the electro-optic
modulator should be wide enough (in time) such that the trailing edge of one pulse overlaps the leading edge of the
next pulse. For segmentation, optical filters separate the signal into multiple wavelength channels at the output of the
second dispersive medium. For each channel, a separate photodetector and backend electronic ADC is used. Finally
the output of these ADCs are passed on to the DSP which generates the desired digital output.
Impulse response of the photonic time-stretch (PTS) system
Fig. 3 Capture of a 95-GHz RF tone using the photonic time-stretch digitizer. The signal
is captured at an effective sample rate of 10-Terasamples-per-second.
The PTS processor is based on
specialized analog optical (or
microwave photonic) fiber links
[3]
such as those used in cable TV
distribution. While the dispersion of
fiber is a nuisance in conventional
analog optical links, time-stretch
technique exploits it to slow down the
electrical waveform in the optical
domain. In the cable TV link, the light
source is a continuous-wave (CW)
laser. In PTS, the source is a chirped
pulse laser.
In a conventional analog optical link,
dispersion causes the upper and lower
modulation sidebands, f
optical
±
f
electrical
, to slip in relative phase. At certain frequencies, their beats with the optical carrier interfere destructively,
creating nulls in the frequency response of the system. For practical systems the first null is at tens of GHz, which is
sufficient for handling most electrical signals of interest. Although it may seem that the dispersion penalty places a
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter
138
fundamental limit on the impulse response (or the bandwidth) of the time-stretch system, it can be eliminated. The
dispersion penalty vanishes with single-sideband modulation
[3]
. Alternatively, one can use the modulator’s
secondary (inverse) output port to eliminate the dispersion penalty
[3]
, in much the same way as two antennas can
eliminate spatial nulls in wireless communication (hence the two antennas on top of a WiFi access point). Thus, the
impulse response (bandwidth) of a time-stretch system is limited only by the bandwidth of the electro-optic
modulator, which is about 120 GHz—a value that is adequate for capturing most electrical waveforms of interest.
Extremely large stretch factors can be obtained using long lengths of fiber, but at the cost of larger loss—a problem
that has been overcome by employing Raman amplification within the dispersive fiber itself, leading to the world’s
fastest real-time digitizer
[4]
, as shown in Fig. 3. Also, using PTS, capture of very high frequency signals with a
world record resolution in 10-GHz bandwidth range has been achieved
[5]
.
Comparison with time lens imaging
Another technique, that involves a time lens, can also be used to slow down (mostly optical) signals in time. The
time-lens concept relies on the mathematical equivalence between spatial diffraction and temporal dispersion, the so
called space-time duality
[6]
. A lens held at fixed distance from an object produces a magnified image visible to the
eye. The lens imparts a quadratic phase shift to the spatial frequency components of the optical waves; in
conjunction with the free space propagation (object to lens, lens to eye), this generates a magnified image. Owing to
the mathematical equivalence between paraxial diffraction and temporal dispersion, an optical waveform can be
temporally imaged by a three-step process of dispersing it in time, subjecting it to a phase shift that is quadratic in
time (the time lens itself), and dispersing it again. Theoretically, a focused aberration-free image is obtained under a
specific condition when the two dispersive elements and the phase shift satisfy the temporal equivalent of the classic
lens equation. Alternatively, the time lens can be used without the second dispersive element to transfer the
waveform’s temporal profile to the spectral domain, analogous to the property that an ordinary lens produces the
spatial Fourier transform of an object at its focal points
[7]
.
In contrast to the time-lens approach, PTS is not based on the space-time duality – there is no lens equation that
needs to be satisfied in order to obtain an error-free slowed-down version of the input waveform. Time-stretch
technique also offers continuous-time acquisition performance, a feature needed for mainstream applications of
oscilloscopes.
Another important difference between the two techniques is that the time lens requires the input signal to be
subjected to high amount of dispersion before further processing. For electrical waveforms, the electronic devices
that have the required characteristics: (1) high dispersion to loss ratio, (2) uniform dispersion, and (3) broad
bandwidths, do not exist. This renders time lens not suitable for slowing down wideband electrical waveforms. In
contrast, PTS does not have such a requirement. It was developed specifically for slowing down electrical
waveforms and enable high speed digitizers.
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter
139
References
[1] A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion," Electronics Letters vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 839-841,
April 1998. (http:// ieeexplore.ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=682797)
[2] Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic Time-Stretched Analog-to-Digital Converter: Fundamental Concepts and Practical Considerations," Journal
of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 21, Issue 12, pp. 3085-3103, Dec. 2003. (http:/ / www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?&
uri=JLT-21-12-3085)
[3] J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nature Photonics 1, 319-330 (2007). (http:/ / www. nature.com/
nphoton/ journal/v1/ n6/ abs/ nphoton. 2007. 89. html)
[4] J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer," Applied Physics Letters 91, 161105 (2007). (http:/ /
scitation.aip.org/getabs/ servlet/ GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APPLAB000091000016161105000001& idtype=cvips& gifs=yes)
[5] S. Gupta and B. Jalali, “Time-warp correction and calibration in photonic time-stretch analog-to-digital converter," Optics Letters 33,
2674-2676 (2008). (http:// www.opticsinfobase. org/ abstract. cfm?uri=ol-33-22-2674)
[6] B. H. Kolner and M. Nazarathy, “Temporal imaging with a time lens," Optics Letters 14, 630-632 (1989. (http:// www.opticsinfobase. org/
ol/ abstract.cfm?URI=ol-14-12-630)
[7] J. W. Goodman, “Introduction to Fourier Optics," McGraw-Hill (1968).
Other Resources
• G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters," Opt. Express, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1955–1982, March 2007.
(http:// www. opticsinfobase. org/oe/ abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-5-1955)
• Photonic Bandwidth Compression for Instantaneous Wideband A/D Conversion (PHOBIAC) project. (http:/ /
www. darpa.mil/ MTO/ Programs/ phobiac/ index. html)
Transmission coefficient
An electromagnetic (or any other) wave
experiences partial transmittance and partial
reflectance when the medium through which it
travels suddenly changes.
The transmission coefficient is used in physics and electrical
engineering when wave propagation in a medium containing
discontinuities is considered. A transmission coefficient describes the
amplitude, intensity, or total power of a transmitted wave relative to an
incident wave.
Different fields have different definitions for the term.
Optics
In optics, transmission is the property of a substance to permit the
passage of light, with some or none of the incident light being absorbed in the process. If some light is absorbed by
the substance, then the transmitted light will be a combination of the wavelengths of the light that was transmitted
and not absorbed. For example, a blue light filter appears blue because it absorbs red and green wavelengths. If white
light is shone through the filter, the light transmitted also appears blue because of the absorption of the red and green
wavelengths.
The transmission coefficient is a measure of how much of an electromagnetic wave (light) passes through a surface
or an optical element. Transmission coefficients can be calculated for either the amplitude or the intensity of the
wave. Either is calculated by taking the ratio of the value after the surface or element to the value before.
Transmission coefficient
140
Quantum mechanics
In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the transmission coefficient and related reflection coefficient are used to
describe the behavior of waves incident on a barrier. The transmission coefficient represents the probability flux of
the transmitted wave relative to that of the incident wave. It is often used to describe the probability of a particle
tunneling through a barrier.
The transmission coefficient is defined in terms of the incident and transmitted probability current density j
according to:
where j
incident
is the probability current in the wave incident upon the barrier and j
transmitted
is the probability current
in the wave moving away from the barrier on the other side.
The reflection coefficient R is defined analogously, as R=|j
reflected
|/|j
incident
|. Conservation of probability implies that
T+R=1.
For sample calculations, see finite potential barrier or square potential.
WKB approximation
Using the WKB approximation, one can obtain a tunnelling coefficient that looks like
Where are the two classical turning points for the potential barrier. If we take the classical limit of all other
physical parameters much larger than Planck's constant, abbreviated as , we see that the transmission
coefficient correctly goes to zero. This classical limit would have failed in the situation of a square potential.
If the transmission coefficient is much less than 1, it can be approximated with the following formula:
where is the length of the barrier potential.
Telecommunication
The transmission coefficient is the ratio of the amplitude of the complex transmitted wave to that of the incident
wave at a discontinuity in the transmission line.
The probability that a portion of a communications system, such as a line, circuit, channel or trunk, will meet
specified performance criteria is also sometimes called the "transmission coefficient" of that portion of the system.
The value of the transmission coefficient is inversely related to the quality of the line, circuit, channel or trunk.
Transmission coefficient
141
Chemistry
The transmission coefficient is a state of unity for monomolecular reactions. It appears in the Eyring equation.
References
• Telecommunication: Federal Standard 1037C in support of MIL-STD-188
• Griffiths, David J. (2004). Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131118927.
Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure
Agency
The Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency (UTOPIA) is a consortium of 16 Utah cities engaged
in deploying and operating a fiber to the premises network to every business and household (about 140,000) within
its footprint. Using an active Ethernet infrastructure and operating at the wholesale level, it supports open access and
promotes competition in all telecommunications services.
Operations
UTOPIA operates as a wholesale fiber optic network and is prohibited by law from providing retail services. There
are currently 7 service providers on the UTOPIA network and the network is open to additional service providers
that meet certain qualifications
[1]
. Though UTOPIA has extended an open invitation to both Comcast and Qwest,
the incumbent service providers, both have declined to join the network.
Financing
UTOPIA bonds for construction costs using sales tax pledges as collateral to secure the bond. Revenues to cover the
bonds are then set aside by pledging cities in an interest-bearing account and will only be used should subscriber
revenues fail to cover the debt service. Because UTOPIA cities all bond at the same time and use their collective
bond ratings and taxing authority, financing is generally seen as low-risk and secures a low interest rate.
UTOPIA encountered financial problems in late 2007 and halted all new construction. They have applied for and
been approved for loans from the US Department of Agriculture's Rural Utilities Service program. These loans
required UTOPIA to submit a construction plan for approval and, once approved, apply for reimbursement. UTOPIA
reportedly ran into multiple delays in seeking reimbursement before being outright refused any further
reimbursement from RUS without explanation. At the time, UTOPIA had $11M in outstanding construction costs
that had not been reimbursed by RUS.
Because of these problems, UTOPIA asked its pledging member cities to extend the bonding period from 20 to 30
years and bond for additional money to pay down debts, complete unfinished sections of the network, and provide
two years of capitalized interest payments. The new bond is for $202M with a total cost with interest of over $500M.
The network has fewer than 10,000 subscribers.
Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency
142
Member Cities
UTOPIA has two types of members: pledging and non-pledging. Pledging cities have committed to cover bond
payments should UTOPIA become unable to service the debt through subscriber revenues. Non-pledging cities have
made no such commitment and will only see construction begin after the pledging cities are complete and if
UTOPIA goes revenue positive.
• Brigham City
• Cedar City (Non-pledging)
• Cedar Hills (Non-pledging)
• Centerville
• Layton
• Lindon
• Midvale
• Murray
• Orem
• Payson
• Perry
• Riverton (Non-pledging)
• Tremonton
• Vineyard (Non-pledging)
• Washington City (Non-pledging)
• West Valley City
Types of Service
• Phone
• Video
• Internet (Data)
Service Providers
• XMission (data/voice)
• Nuvont Communications (data/voice)
• Veracity Communications (business data/voice)
• FuzeCore (data/voice)
• Fibernet (data)
• Integra Telecom (business data/voice)
• Prime Time Communications (data/voice/video)
• Brigham.net (data/voice/video)
Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency
143
Network Management/Design
• DynamicCity (Purchased by PacketFront Inc. Aug. 2007)
External links
• UTOPIA Home Page
[2]
• Mstar (Service Provider)
[3]
• Nuvont Communications (Residential Service Provider)
[4]
• Veracity Communications (Business Service Provider)
[5]
• XMission (Service Provider)
[6]
• FuzeCore (Service Provider)
[7]
• FiberNet (Service Provider)
[8]
• Integra Telecom (Service Provider)
[9]
• Prime Time Communications (Service Provider)
[10]
• DynamicCity's Home Page
[11]
• Brigham.net Home Page (Service Provider)
[12]
• PacketFront's Home Page
[13]
(Purchased DynamicCity in Aug. 2007)
• FreeUTOPIA
[14]
(Local advocacy for UTOPIA)
References
[1] http:/ / www. utopianet. org/docs/ Service%20Providers%20Qualifications%20Final%20Version.pdf
[2] http:/ / www. utopianet. org
[3] http:/ / www. mstar. net
[4] http:/ / nuvont.net/
[5] http:/ / www. veracitycom. net
[6] http:/ / www. xmission. net
[7] http:// www. fuzecore.com
[8] http:/ / www. fiber.net/
[9] http:/ / www. integratelecom. com/
[10] http:/ / primetimecommunications. net/
[11] http:/ / www. dynamiccity. com
[12] http:/ / www. brigham.net
[13] http:/ / www. packetfront.com
[14] http:/ / www. freeutopia.org
Velocity1
144
Velocity1
Velocity1 is the first FTTH Network Service launched by Quintain in February 2009. It covers the area of Wembley
Park in London, UK. It offers Digital TV, Broadband, and Telephone Services across a FTTH. Its Digital TV also
offers over 120 Channels including HD Channels, its Broadband offers 100MB per second (fastest speed and
broadband in the UK), PVR, VOIP and High-Speed Fibre optic Cables.
Every home of the development project Wembley City is pre-wired with Velocity1.
External links
• Velocity1
[1]
• Velocity1 Launch (PDF)
[2]
References
[1] http:/ / www. velocity1. co. uk/
[2] http:// www. wembley. co. uk/ images/ 090129%20Velocity1%20launch.pdf
Verizon FiOS
Verizon FiOS is a bundled home communications (Internet access, telephone, and television) service, operating over
a fiber-optic communications network, that is offered in some areas of the United States by Verizon
Communications. Verizon was one of the first major U.S. carriers to offer fiber to the home, and received positive
ratings from Consumer Reports among cable television and Internet service providers.
[1]
Other service providers
often use fiber optics in the network backbone and existing copper or infrastructure for residential users. Service
began in 2005, and coverage areas expanded through 2010, although some areas do not have service or cannot
receive TV and phone service because of franchise agreements.
Verizon FiOS logo
FiOS ONT with (left to right) optical fiber, power, Ethernet,
telephone, and television cables
Verizon FiOS
145
FiOS ONT installed in Montclair, New Jersey
with Ethernet (left) and telephone (right)
connections
As described in 2007, Verizon FiOS services are delivered over a
fiber-to-the-premises network using passive optical network
technology. Voice, video, and data travel over three wavelengths in the
infrared spectrum. To serve a home, a single-mode optical fiber
extends from an optical line terminal at a FiOS central office out to the
neighborhoods where a passive optical splitter fans out the same signal
on up to 32 fibers, thus serving up to 32 subscribers. At the subscriber's
home, an Optical Network Terminal (ONT) transfers data onto the
corresponding in-home copper wiring for phone, video and Internet
access.
[2]
Older FiOS installations mount the ONT inside the house
and use Category 5 cable for data and coaxial cable for video, while
newer markets mount the ONT outside the house and use Multimedia
over Coax Alliance (MoCA) protocol for both data and video over a
single coaxial cable. Voice service is carried over the existing
telephone wires already in the house.
One of the three wavelength bands is devoted to carrying television
channels using standard QAM cable television technology. The other
two wavelengths are devoted to all other data, one for outbound and the other for inbound data. This includes video
on demand, telephone and Internet data.
This allocation of wavelengths adheres to the ITU-T G.983 standard, also known as an ATM passive optical network
(APON). Verizon initially installed slower BPONs but now only installs GPONs specified in the ITU-T G.984
standard. These bands and speeds are:
• 1310 nm wavelength for upstream data at 155 Mbit/s (1.2 Gbit/s with GPON)
• 1490 nm wavelength for downstream data at 622 Mbit/s (2.4 Gbit/s with GPON)
• 1550 nm wavelength for QAM cable television with 870 MHz of bandwidth
The set top box (STB) receives it code and channel subscription information through the out-of-band (OOB) channel
just as other coax or RF-based STB's do. However, guide data, cover art, widgets and other data are sent via IP over
the data channels. All upstream OOB requests (or responses) are sent via IP over the data channels. All non-OOB
data transactions to or from STB's are carried over the MoCA channels. The MoCA channel is also used to carry out
inter-STB transactions (multi-room DVR, synchronization, etc.).
Internet access
Internet throughput rates depend upon factors as customer location, cost, and services of the competing broadband
providers. Available speeds in various areas have been changed with little notice, generally to raise throughput (but
also prices in some cases). Customers usually have three or more choices for Internet rates. For example:
[3]
• The lowest rate tier was originally 5 Mbit/s downstream and 2 Mbit/s upstream and later raised to 15 Mbit/s down
and 5 Mbit/s up in most areas.
• A second tier is available with 25 Mbit/s download speed and 25 Mbit/s upload speed.
• A third (or higher) service tier, when available for residential service, provides higher still bandwidth, in some
areas reaching 30/15, 35/35 or 50/20 Mbit/s downstream and upstream.
• The fourth and highest service tier is 150Mbit/s down and 35Mbit/s up.
Verizon FiOS
146
Television
Unlike AT&T's U-verse product, Verizon's broadcast video service is not IPTV. However, video on demand content
and interactive features, such as "widgets" and programing guide data, are delivered using IPTV-based technology.
The vast majority of content is provided over a standard broadcast video signal which carries digital QAM content
up to 870 MHz. This broadcast content originates from a Super Head-End, which then sends the signal to a Video
Hub Office for distribution to FiOS TV customers.
[4]
At the Optical Network Terminal (ONT) at the subscriber's home, the RF video is sent over a coaxial connection,
typically to a FiOS set-top box that handles both RF and IPTV video. Interactive services such as VOD and widgets
are delivered by IP and are only accessible through use of a FiOS set-top box and a Verizon-supplied router. The
router supports MOCA and provides the set-top boxes with programming guides and (all SD channels), but high
definition content (beyond local HD channels which are in clear QAM) requires HD equipment like a FiOS HD
set-top box/DVR or a CableCARD-supporting device, such as TiVo. Through 2008, Verizon ceased carrying analog
television signals in parallel with digital channels, meaning televisions without a QAM tuner or a set-top digital
adapter received no signal.
[5]
Service tiers
FiOS TV service tiers include:
[6]
Prime HD, Extreme HD, Ultimate HD, with La Conexión (a Spanish
language-oriented plan) and broadcast and local access channels only.
Additional subscription packages are available, including sports packages, pay-per-view channels, and video on
demand content.
[6]
Telephone
Verizon offers regular telephone service as well as VoIP over FiOS. The common model optical network terminals
have two or four phone jacks.
There have been reports in various markets that Verizon physically disconnected the copper lines (or the network
interface device, necessary for copper-line phone service) at the time that FiOS was installed.
[7]
Power outages may affect service availability. Since fiber-optic service does not carry power from the exchange as
copper service does, the customer's power is used instead. This means that if there is no electricity at the premises,
telephone service will be interrupted. This may be an issue for sites that experience extended power outages that
depend on analog phone lines for remote monitoring, alarm systems, and/or emergency calls. Verizon provides a
rechargeable battery backup unit free with installation of the service, which powers the ONT for up to eight hours to
provide telephone service in the event of a power outage.
FiOS Digital Voice
FiOS Digital Voice, a Voice over IP (VoIP) service with premium features, began in September 2008.
[8]
It replaced
an earlier service called VoiceWing which was launched in 2004. Verizon announced expanded availability for
2009.
[9]
The expansion took longer than planned, as Verizon continued to lose traditional wireline customers. By
June 2010 Digital Voice was available in 11 states (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Virginia,
California, Texas, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Florida) and the District of Columbia.
[10]
It offers
both an unlimited calling and a per-minute plan.
[11]

[9]
Verizon FiOS
147
Availability
FiOS Television service began in 2005. Verizon announced plans to expand its FiOS coverage to all Verizon
territories across the United States. In 2006 The Wall Street Journal speculated:
[12]
Verizon Communications Inc. is fielding offers for [sale of]...of traditional telephone lines...part of the New
York-based phone giant's strategy to delve deeper into the wireless and broadband arenas, while getting out of
the traditional phone business in U.S. areas that aren't slated for fiber upgrades...Verizon also has been
shopping a package dubbed "GTE North" that comprises about 3.4 million access lines in former GTE Corp.
territories in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Michigan.
Price increases were announced in 2008 when FiOS was available to 6.5 million households.
[13]
In January 2009,
FiOS was available to 12.7 million homes, with about 2.5 million subscribing to the Internet service.
[14]
As of June
2009, FiOS Internet had 3.1 million customers.
[15]
Estimates on December 31, 2009, were 3.4 million Internet
customers and 2.86 million for FiOS TV, with availability down to 12.2 million premises.
[16]
Verizon announced in March 2010 they were winding down their FiOS expansion, concentrating on completing their
network in areas that already had FiOS franchises but were not deploying to new areas, which included the cities of
Baltimore and Boston, who had not yet secured municipal franchise agreements.
[17]
In July 2010, estimates were 3.8
million FiOS Internet subscribers and 3.2 million TV subscribers, with availability to 15 million homes.
[18]
Verizon sold landline operations in the markets of northern New England to FairPoint Communications in March
2008.
[19]
Fiber to the premises projects in those markets was renamed as FAST (Fiber Access Speed Technology).
[20]
In June 2010, Verizon sold landline operations scattered throughout 13 states to Frontier Communications.
[21]
Some
of these areas already had FiOS service availability, for which Frontier became responsible.
References
[1] "Fiber-Optic Providers Are Leading Choices for Internet, TV, and Telephone Service" (http:// pressroom. consumerreports.org/pressroom/
2010/01/ fiberoptic-providers-are-leading-choices-for-internet-tv-and-telephone-service.html). Consumer Reports. January 5, 2010. .
Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[2] Rowe, Martin (April 30, 2007). "Verizon's last mile" (http:/ / www.tmworld. com/ article/ 321131-Verizon_s_last_mile.php). Test &
Measurement World. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[3] "FiOS Residential Internet plans" (http:/ / www22.verizon.com/ Residential/ FiOSInternet/Plans/ Plans. htm). Commercial web site.
Verizon. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[4] Drawbaugh, Ben (December 17, 2009). "An inside look at a Verizon FiOS Super Headend and Video Hub" (http:// hd.engadget.com/ 2009/
12/17/ an-inside-look-at-a-verizon-fios-super-headend-and-video-hub/). Engadget. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[5] "Your FiOS TV service is becoming 100% Digital" (http:/ / web.archive.org/web/ 20080513042036/ http:/ / www22.verizon.com/ content/
fiostv/ godigital.html). web site. Verizon Communications. Archived from the original (http:// www22.verizon. com/ content/ fiostv/
godigital. html) on May 13, 2008. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[6] "Verizon FiOS TV Packages and Plans" (http:// www22. verizon.com/ Residential/ FiOSTV/Plans/ Plans.htm). Commercial web site.
Verizon Communications. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[7] Yao, Deborah (July 11, 2007). "Verizon's copper cutoff traps customers, hampers rivals" (http:// seattletimes. nwsource.com/ html/
businesstechnology/2003782083_verizoncopper10.html). Seattle Times. Associated Press. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
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Here-Comes-FiOS-Digital-Voice-99652). Broadband Reports. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
[9] Spangler, Todd (December 12, 2008). "FiOS to Raise Its Voice: Verizon Plans to Widely Roll Out Internet-Based Phone Service in Early
2009" (http:// www. multichannel. com/ article/133065-Verizon_Plans_Q2_Rate_Hike_For_FiOS. php). Multichannel News. . Retrieved July
24, 2011.
[10] Spangler, Todd (June 3, 2010). "Verizon Pushes FiOS Digital Voice In 11 States And D.C.: Service Aims To Retain Landline Phone
Customers" (http:/ / www.multichannel. com/ article/453304-Verizon_Pushes_FiOS_Digital_Voice_In_11_States_And_D_C_. php).
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[11] "Verizon FiOS Digital Voice" (http:/ / www36. verizon.com/ fiosvoice). Commercial web site. Verizon. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
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Billion; Bigger Focus on Web Services". The Wall Street Journal: p. B4. ISSN 00999660.
[13] Spangler, Todd (April 30, 2008). "Verizon Plans Q2 Rate Hike For FiOS" (http:// www. multichannel.com/ article/
133065-Verizon_Plans_Q2_Rate_Hike_For_FiOS.php). Multichannel News. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
Verizon FiOS
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[14] Porges, Seth (February 12, 2009). "Fiber Optics Bring Faster Internet, DVDs on Demand" (http:// www. bloomberg. com/ apps/
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Launches+ 50+Megabit+ DOCSIS+30+ Service/article16036. htm). DailyTech. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
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telecom/ 2010-03-26-verizon-fios_N.htm). USA Today. Associated Press. . Retrieved July 24, 2011.
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24, 2011.
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Further reading
• Marsan, C. D. (2008). Verizon FiOS tech heading to enterprises; Claims new high-speed optical networks slash
floor space, electricity needs. Network World, (1). Retrieved March 8, 2009.
• Searcey, D. (2006). Telecommunications; Beyond Cable; Beyond DSL: Fiber-optic lines offer connection speeds
up to 50 times faster than traditional services; Here's what early users have to say. The Wall Street Journal, (R9).
Retrieved March 7, 2009.
External links
• Verizon FiOS for consumers (http:// www. verizon.com/ fios)
• Verizon FiOS for businesses (http:/ / www. verizon.com/ businessfios)
XFP transceiver
149
XFP transceiver
Intel XFP Transceiver (MultiMode Fiber Optics)
The XFP (10 Gigabit Small Form Factor
Pluggable) is a standard for transceivers for
high-speed computer network and
telecommunication links that use optical fiber. It
was defined by an industry group in 2002, along
with its interface to other electrical components
which is called XFI.
Description
XFP modules are hot-swappable and protocol-independent. They typically operate at optical wavelengths (colors) of
850 nm, 1310 nm or 1550 nm. Principal applications include 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gbit/s Fibre Channel,
Synchronous optical networking (SONET) at OC-192 rates, Synchronous optical networking STM-64, 10 Gbit/s
Optical Transport Network (OTN) OTU-2, and parallel optics links. They can operate over a single wavelength or
use dense wavelength-division multiplexing techniques. They include digital diagnostics that provide management
that were added to the SFF-8472 standard.
[1]
XFP modules use an LC fiber connector type to achieve high density.
The XFP specification was developed by the XFP Multi Source Agreement Group. It is an informal agreement of an
industry group, not officially endorsed by any standards body. The first preliminary specification was published on
March 27, 2002. The first public release was on July 19, 2002. It was adopted on March 3, 2003, and updated with
minor updates through August 31, 2005.
[2]
The chair of the XFP group was Robert Snively of Brocade
Communications Systems, and technical editor was Ali Ghiasi of Broadcom.
[2]
The organization's web site was
maintained until 2009.
[3]
XFI
The XFI electrical interface specification was a 10 gigabit per second chip-to-chip electrical interface specification
defined as part of the XFP multi-source agreement. It was also developed by the XFP MSA group. XFI provides a
single lane running at 10.3125 Gbit/s when using a 64B/66B encoding scheme. A serializer/deserializer is often used
to convert from a wider interface such as XAUI that has four lanes running at 3.125 Gbit/s using 8B/10B encoding.
XFI is sometimes pronounced as "X" "F" "I" and other times as "ziffie".
Dimensions
The physical dimensions of the XFP transceiver are slightly larger than the original small form-factor pluggable
transceiver (SFP). One of the reasons for the increase in size is to allow for on-board heat sinks for greater cooling.
XFP dimensions are:
Height: 0.33 inches (8.5 mm)
Width: 0.72 inches (18.3 mm)
Depth: 3.1 inches (78 mm)
The XFP packaging was smaller than the XENPAK form-factor which had been published earlier (by almost a
year).
[4]
Some vendors supported both, or the XENPAK follow-ons called XPAK and X2.
[5]
XFP transceiver
150
References
[1] "SFF-8472 Specification for Diagnostic Monitoring Interface for Optical Transceivers Rev 11.0" (ftp:// ftp.seagate. com/ sff/SFF-8472.
PDF). Small Form Factor Committee. September 14, 2010. . Retrieved June 16, 2011.
[2] "INF-8077i: 10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable Module" (ftp:// ftp.seagate. com/ sff/INF-8077.PDF). Small Form Factor Committee.
August 31, 2005. . Retrieved June 16, 2011.
[3] "About the 10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable (XFP) Multi Source Agreement (MSA) Group" (http:/ / replay.web. archive.org/
20090501191825/http:/ / www.xfpmsa. org/). 2009. Archived from the original (http:// www. xfpmsa.org/) on May 1, 2009. . Retrieved
June 16, 2011.
[4] "INF-8474i Specification for Xenpak 10 Gigabit Ethernet Transceiver Rev 3.0" (ftp:/ / ftp.seagate. com/ sff/INF-8474.PDF). Small Form
Factor Committee. September 18, 2002. . Retrieved June 16, 2011.
[5] John Walko (November 19, 2002). "Intel pushes optical comps for all transceiver MSAs" (http:/ / www.eetimes. com/ electronics-news/
4097600/Intel-pushes-optical-comps-for-all-transceiver-MSAs). EE Times. . Retrieved June 16, 2011.
Article Sources and Contributors
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Fiber to the x  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=443056854  Contributors: 78.26, 802geek, A.R., A8UDI, ALARMNZ, Advancedtelcotv, Ahruman, Armando, Art Cancro,
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Fiber-optic communication  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444847654  Contributors: 123davidn, 6Metal6Head6, A. B., Adamantios, Afluegel, Alansohn, Alejo2083,
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Automatically switched optical network  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=393772012  Contributors: Applejaxs, Asad88, Cbradshaw, Christopher Mahan, Ctempleton3,
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Brillouin scattering  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444428340  Contributors: Brholden, Cimiteducation, Delirium, DrBob, Everton, GianniG46, Gmoose1, GregVolk,
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VanishedUser314159, Venny85, WingkeeLEE, Zavijavabeta, 37 anonymous edits
Optical buffer  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=398315160  Contributors: Attilios, Bobblewik, Psychoticfruit, Rich Farmbrough, Spacexplosion, Srleffler, Trevyn, Wrogiest, 1
anonymous edits
Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=400184215  Contributors: Ahellwig, Marfor, Mbell, Michael Hardy, Mr Adequate, Nasa-verve, R'n'B,
The Anome, 1 anonymous edits
Optical cross-connect  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=445340753  Contributors: Comsign, CosineKitty, Diverman, Dtneilson, Gaius Cornelius, Jflabourdette, Jim.henderson,
Rabarberski, Robofish, Sartaj beary, Srleffler, Triplelutz, Twisp, Woohookitty, 4 anonymous edits
Dark fibre  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434798073  Contributors: A. B., Alex Whittaker, Alkivar, Also, octopuses, Altenmann, Alvis, Andsam, Andyzweb, Asparagus,
Baloo rch, Bgleatherhead, Bluezy, CP\M, CapitalLetterBeginning, Cburnett, Chainz, Copyeditor42, David Martland, Dhaluza, Dictabeard, Diliff, Dragon 280, DragonflySixtyseven, DreamGuy,
Eagle100, Egil, Err0neous, Ewlyahoocom, FLIPPOLIS-NJITWILL, Feldon23, Fetch, Fuper, Gary King, Giraffedata, Gobelet, Guymatthews, IMSoP, JayKeaton, Joffeloff, Johnpseudo,
Jpfagerback, Jscotto, Karada, LobStoR, Lumos3, Martarius, Mboverload, Mdd4696, Mindmatrix, Mion, Mrand, NightMonkey, Nurg, Phatom87, ProhibitOnions, Raysonho, Robertvan1, Secret
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Dark fibre network  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434741574  Contributors: Altenmann, Asparagus, Baloo rch, CapitalLetterBeginning, Elfguy, HenryLi, Ingolfson,
Rjwilmsi, Srleffler, The Anome, 5 anonymous edits
Dispersion-limited operation  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=276920296  Contributors: Alinja, Backslash Forwardslash, BenFrantzDale, Deville, DrBob, Dreadstar, Dto,
Eastlaw, Edgar181, Jyril, Panairjdde, 3 anonymous edits
Optical DPSK demodulator  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427300078  Contributors: Bobblehead, Dtneilson, Editore99, Fiberware, Jaclermont, Opticaldog, R'n'B,
Srleffler, 20 anonymous edits
Dynamic circuit network  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=397140678  Contributors: Kbrose, Rjwilmsi, 3 anonymous edits
Fiber in the loop  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=343532047  Contributors: Frap, Funkysapien, GregA, Jim.henderson, Johnpseudo, Khattab01, Kjkolb, Radagast83, Riick,
Snafflekid, Srleffler, Xaosflux
Fiber media converter  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434991627  Contributors: Bearcat, Brnsuga99, Btilm, CommonsDelinker, Dgtsyb, Dicklyon, IMC Networks,
Jstasmith, Kvng, Malcolma, Materialscientist, Neteon, Promise2k, Srleffler, Temason, Tothwolf, Ttwaring, W Nowicki, Yangxinese, 12 anonymous edits
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Benbest, Bgwhite, BrownHairedGirl, Brutere, Cenora, Chris the speller, Cruiser-Aust, DerBorg, Devx101, Donveto, Edward, Eitesam, Epbr123, Erwinkarim, Ev, Fledge, Fratrep, Fæ, Grafen,
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Shirulashem, Skyisgreat, Symplectic Map, Tabletop, Telomer2009, Thakaran, Ulric1313, Vector Communications, WereSpielChequers, Woohookitty, Ynhockey, Zambriis, Zippo, ΚΕΚΡΩΨ,
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Fiber to the telecom enclosure  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=383857655  Contributors: Fuhghettaboutit, Funkysapien, Jim.henderson, Lightmouse, Lizgo, Luk, Nabla,
Phoebe, PurpleSunflower, Riick, WikHead, Zyxw, 3 anonymous edits
FTTLA  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=440179029  Contributors: Beao, Canis Lupus, Chaosdruid, Jim.henderson, Ksempac, Malcolma, Mandarax, Marcioalexpires,
Michael.W.Meissner, Rchandra, W Nowicki, 2 anonymous edits
Google Fiber  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=442243887  Contributors: 7y7y7u, BaiginLong, CaribDigita, Cnewville, Criticalthinker, FloK, Gonzonoir, Greenapplee,
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Closedmouth, Dancter, Dicklyon, Dmeranda, Edman007, Eisnel, Eleland, Estesdan, Fgeisse, Gavron, HenryLi, Hermógenes Teixeira Pinto Filho, Huku-chan, Iridescent, Jesse Viviano, Jffner,
Jim.henderson, JordoCo, Jt, Kah13, Kjkolb, KnightRider, Laslandes, Longhair, Maximus Rex, Merovingian, Mirror Vax, Mushroom, Nageh, Notmicro, Praetor alpha, Pritch, Qmwnebrvtcyxuz,
Radiojon, Railpass, Riick, Rolands77, Sam Hocevar, Saper, Skapur, Snafflekid, Srleffler, Unforgettable fan, VCA, Voidxor, W Nowicki, Zollerriia, 65 anonymous edits
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IEEE P1904  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=347591288  Contributors: Arjunatgv, Dv82matt, IShadowed, Katharineamy, Marek haj
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Interconnect bottleneck  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419137288  Contributors: BirgitteSB, Fabrictramp, Gary King, Pearle, Pegship, Rilak, Robert K S, Tetsuo,
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Optical interleaver  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444317221  Contributors: Dialectric, Dtneilson, Fiberware, Srleffler, The JPS, 11 anonymous edits
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Zureks, 102 anonymous edits
Optical burst switching  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=443628225  Contributors: Al Wiseman, Bobo192, Bonadea, Citikiwi, Cmdrjameson, Cmokon, Crazysane,
Ddechene, EdGl, Jflabourdette, Josh Parris, JzG, Kbrose, Merlion444, Meshraj, Pichote, Poco a poco, Rabarberski, Rjstott, Sam Hocevar, Saxifrage, Srleffler, Stephan Leeds, Tburns,
Treasurecoast, TrojanLight, Woohookitty, 36 anonymous edits
Optical conductivity  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423795859  Contributors: Calaka, E. Fokker, Hongui, Tbennert, 4 anonymous edits
Optical ground wire  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=377869278  Contributors: Barticus88, Cedars, Chris Capoccia, Genhiit, Hmains, Makemi, Neddy53, Rich Farmbrough,
RockMFR, Srleffler, Wtshymanski, 6 anonymous edits
Optical hybrid  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431919395  Contributors: Dan314, Dhaluza, Dtneilson, Fiberware, Fulldecent, Geek2003, Lightmouse, Longhair, Opticaldog,
Srleffler, Will Beback Auto, 19 anonymous edits
Optical Internetworking Forum  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=415231552  Contributors: BertK, Brholden, Debporch, Engineerism, Ghettoblaster, Martarius, MeltBanana,
The Anome, 3 anonymous edits
Optical line termination  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390727107  Contributors: Bearcat, Bluezy, Jaffar.a, Mak Thorpe, Riick, Turlo Lomon, 5 anonymous edits
Optical mesh network  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=441851024  Contributors: Grafen, Jflabourdette, Michal Nebyla, Phatom87, Srleffler, Whoisjohngalt, Woohookitty, 8
anonymous edits
Optical network unit  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=410734341  Contributors: Derek Andrews, Managerarc, Opticalgirl, R'n'B, Riick, WCroslan, 2 anonymous edits
Optical performance monitoring  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=357316972  Contributors: Dtneilson, Epbr123, Fibergoogle, Fiberware, JonHarder, Srleffler, Xag, 9
anonymous edits
Optical time-domain reflectometer  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=428993358  Contributors: A. B., Altenmann, Atlant, Bratch, Bruce Elphinston Robertson, Cameron
Dewe, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Ceroklis, Chphe, Chris the speller, Clizotte1, Crazycomputers, Curious Blue, Dakrit, Dcolcott, Discobiscuit2, Electron, ElphinstonR, Fejesjoco, Flopsy
Mopsy and Cottonmouth, Fyrael, John of Reading, KrakatoaKatie, LilHelpa, Little buddha81, Materialscientist, Mild Bill Hiccup, Minimac, Mlewis000, Nickptar, Oliver Lineham, PaulHanson,
Pinethicket, Pippin Bear, Pjvpjv, Podzemnik, Rajb245, Sergiusz Patela, Sophus Bie, Srleffler, Stixpjr, Surpluseq, Unknownacct01, VoteITP, WCroslan, 21 anonymous edits
Parallel optical interface  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426237089  Contributors: Alex ngi, Businesstecho, Cje, CosineKitty, Kvng, Mindmatrix, N2e, RattusMaximus,
Srleffler, 7 anonymous edits
PAROLI  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427974797  Contributors: Anna Frodesiak, Eugene-elgato, Manishearth, Sophus Bie, Tabletop, Tonkie67
Passive optical network  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=445483969  Contributors: Aditya.m4, Airplaneman, AlexGalis, Amoakopoku, Apollodino, Armando, BertK,
Bobblewik, Bruceroe, Carbon-16, Charles Matthews, Chris the speller, Cmdrjameson, Coolbrother, Dandin1, DaveBurstein, Davehood, Derek Andrews, Dfred, Doulos Christos, EHRice,
Echuck215, Extraordinary, Ferdinand Pienaar, Fibregirl, Folajimi, Fppseudo, Fstanchina, Girisesh, Gkr wiki, GraemeL, Gregcaldwell, Harryzilber, HenryLi, Hu12, Itusg15q4user, Jayshuler,
Jim.henderson, JiveTalkinChoirBoy, Jj137, Jmitchel, JonHarder, Julianthomas1, Kbrose, Kgrr, Kozuch, Ksn, Kuru, Kyng, Lamp90, Lightmouse, Lmatt, LuisVilla, Mam711, Mindmatrix, Mirror
Vax, Mkouklis, Mro, Narayan82es, Opticalgirl, Pabix, Patcat88, Patrick Bernier, Phatom87, Prunesqualer, REBECKA, Raanoo, RadioFan, Rchandra, Requestion, Riick, Rjwilmsi, Robertvan1,
Romanc19s, Slickegle, Slow Thinker, Snarius, SolidC60, Srleffler, Stevenmyan, StéfanLD, TellWeb, Thunderbird2, Timecop, Toddyboy711, VANTECK, Vampir2011, Veghead, Victorblake,
Vrenator, W Nowicki, WCroslan, Webwat, Will-h, Woohookitty, Worm That Turned, Xag, Zigger, ﻡﻡﻡﻡ.ﻡﻡﻡﻡﻡ.24, 223 anonymous edits
Project OXYGEN  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=421130314  Contributors: BuDi, Jeff Silvers, Katharineamy, Lightmouse, Materialscientist, Rich Farmbrough, Srleffler, 1
anonymous edits
Radio Frequency over Glass  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=408840974  Contributors: Alvestrand, Alvin Seville, Chowbok, Julianthomas1, Michal Nebyla, 8 anonymous
edits
Raman amplification  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417569310  Contributors: Akerans, Alynna Kasmira, Amirber, Armdurp, Bearcat, Hqb, Jbusenitz, Johnpseudo, Keenan
Pepper, Kwamikagami, Mark83, Mike Rosoft, R'n'B, Radagast83, Theodolite, Tomatoman, Uzume, 12 anonymous edits
Raman scattering  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=441408950  Contributors: Ab384, Aciani, Alansohn, Andris, Androstachys, Annabel, Antariki Vandanamu, Antimoni,
Asang, Assedo, Atechi, Average Earthman, Bharat Jain, Billjoie, Biplabpal2000, Bnachumi, BoP, Brholden, Brighterorange, Calvero JP, Cap.fwiffo, Cardamon, CardinalDan, Carnildo,
D.Wardle, DanMS, Dirac66, Dori, Drmies, Ferini, FocalPoint, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, Gene s, Giftlite, GilCahana, Goudzovski, GravityExNihilo, Grmf, Hannes Röst, Headbomb,
Howcheng, Iantresman, Jerryobject, Jwoodger, Jwwfemto, Karada, Kirchsw, Kwamikagami, LAk loho, Latch.r, Lkinkade, Lorem Ip, M stone, Mac Davis, Magicalsaumy, Marie Poise, Matthias
Buchmeier, Max-braeu, Mill haru, Mrcreelman, Nick Levine, Nigholith, Nostraticispeak, Oniows, PKWallace, Pavlina2.0, Pflatau, Rich Farmbrough, Ripero, Rod57, Ronningt, Safalra, Sam
Article Sources and Contributors
153
Hocevar, Schmloof, Scvblwxq, ShakespeareFan00, Sho Uemura, SiobhanHansa, Slashme, TensorProduct, Thaejas, The wub, Tomatoman, Towerman86, Twisp, Vadim Makarov,
VanishedUser314159, Weevil, Yclept:Berr, Ytterbium, Z10x, ZYV, Zipz0p, Znamenski, आशीष भटनागर, 104 anonymous edits
Relative intensity noise  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387572390  Contributors: Chris the speller, Dr Lind, Micru, Srleffler, 1 anonymous edits
SerDes Framer Interface  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434642294  Contributors: Engineerism, Jim.henderson, Squids and Chips, W Nowicki, XLerate
Sidera Networks  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444731853  Contributors: Bearcat, Chris the speller, GoingBatty, Rkc60647, Tesscass
Subnetwork connection protection  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430791972  Contributors: Bearcat, EoGuy, Espoo, GeorgeLouis, Jflabourdette, Malcolma, Nedrutland,
Rich Farmbrough, Sheshnarayan, TelecomNut, 3 anonymous edits
Optical switch  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418515899  Contributors: Afluegel, Big Bob the Finder, Cbdorsett, Ceyockey, Connormah, Eagle100, Eastlaw, Jflabourdette,
Jmalicki, Kevin Rector, Kinema, Lsi, Marj Tiefert, Pigletpoglet, Pion, Pol098, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Srleffler, Todd Vierling, Trevyn, Triplelutz, Wikiwisecontent, 16 anonymous edits
Synchronous optical networking  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=443586616  Contributors: AJR, Acesaro, AckleyJ, Adam Zivner, Adams13, Afiler, Ageo020,
Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Aksi great, Albe, AlephGamma, Alexwcovington, Ali@gwc.org.uk, Alinekaplan, Allenc28, Altenmann, Amosbell, Arowden, ArséniureDeGallium, Aruni Mishra, Atf,
Autoerrant, Baloo rch, BertK, Binayrd, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Brholden, Calvin 1998, Canterbury Tail, Capricorn42, Carlox, Cgbraschi, Chrisbolt, Colin Marquardt, Compuman81, Comsign,
Courcelles, Cudawuda11, Danutz, Darrien, Daviddavid, Davire, Deasington, Derek Ross, Dgtsyb, Dreadstar, Druiloor, Dyl, EagleOne, Editore99, Ehn, Email4mobile, Engineerism, Espoo,
Esskay236, FF2010, Flash42, Galoubet, Garnok, Gea-141020, GiacomoV, Giftlite, Grendelkhan, Grigio60, Guy Harris, Guymacon, Hakamadare, Harris000, Hemanshu, Heron, Hjc906, Ian
Pitchford, Iandiver, IlyaHaykinson, Immibis, Intgr, Islander, JHunterJ, JIP, Jeffr, Jflabourdette, Jishnua, Jmgonzalez, Jodypro, John254, Josef Sábl cz, Josh Parris, Jpgs, Jstahley, Kanwarjot,
Kauczuk, Kbk, Kbrose, Keithp0823, Killiondude, Knoll, Koavf, Ksyrie, Kubanczyk, Lampglow, Lechatjaune, Lee Carre, Leotohill, LiDaobing, Lightmouse, Lka, MER-C, MJHankel, MacFreek,
Macwhiz, Mako098765, Mam711, Mandarax, Mange01, Mani1, Manscher, Mauls, Mcmlmick, Mentifisto, Mga, Michael Hardy, Milo.tw, Mindmatrix, Miserableantichrist, Mmccalpin,
MrDolomite, Mrand, Mrpigowns, Mrzaius, Mulad, MureninC, Nextop, Nichtich, Nitesh mathur, Nono64, Odedee, OlEnglish, Otrfan, PACO, Pennermi, Peterpudaite, Pikiwyn, Prari, Rabarberski,
Radon210, Raelx, Raghubhat1, Rait, Ralesk, Rich Farmbrough, Rick Sidwell, Robertvan1, RogerZoel, Ronz, Roybadami, Rror, Seiyo.chen, Sha2b705, Shantnup, Slidersv, Srbanator, Srleffler,
Standsteve12, Stepp-Wulf, Stigmj, Subburao89, Sudirclu, Sunil Upadhyay, Swalklin, Swarve, T1Rex, Telekid, The Anome, TimVickers, Tjshepp, Tonkie67, Tregoweth, Triplelutz, Trusilver,
Vanquirius, Velella, Vulcan's Forge, W Nowicki, W-dueck, Wafry, West London Dweller, West.andrew.g, Wiki alf, Wisden17, Wolfkeeper, ZalleZack, Σ, 464 anonymous edits
Thunderbolt (interface)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=445322791  Contributors: A5b, Abune, Adbge, Aeiuthhiet, Aerotheque, Airplaneman, Akhristov, AlexanderHaas,
Algr, Andrewmu, Apalonso, ArbitraryConstant, Asmendel, Axlrosen, Badwolftv, Bartron67, Basscheffers, Bdijkstra, Bjankuloski06en, Blujayy26, Bmike8, Bookbrad, Bovineone, Brianski,
Brokenwit, Businesstecho, Bxj, Cdevers, Chriswaco, Coaster J, CopyeditMan, Cybercobra, Cyclonius, Dan.oliver, Dancraggs, Danp5648, Dawnseeker2000, Dbosso, Deineka, Denisarona,
Diddl14, Difu Wu, Dirtyharry2, DoctorCaligari, Doodaaa, Dsi2104, Ejumper, Emado2, Eugene-elgato, Ezra Wax, Falcorian, Fanf, Fetchcomms, FironDraak, Flightsoffancy, Frap, FunPika,
Garbledisposure, GcSwRhIc, GeiwTeol, GregorB, Gustavh, Guy Harris, Haakon, Henriok, Hest100, Hottscubbard, Howiki, Hydnjo, Iapx, Illegalferry49, InventorOfLPK, Isha, J-beda,
Jamesdouma, Jantangring, Jareha, Jasper Deng, Jbo5112, Jeff Wheeler, Jfriedl, Jfromcanada, Jim.henderson, Jimthing, John Holmes II, JonThackray, Jonathan Watt, Jonthegeologist, Josso000,
Julesd, Jwoolson, Katieh5584, Kellyprice, Killdevil, L Kensington, Leandrod, Lhostrovski, Liamoliver, LilHelpa, LindsayH, LorenzoB, Macaldo, Macfan97, Malik Shabazz, Mamaoyot,
ManicDee, Marklar2007, Martica1974, MatthewDaniel, Maury Markowitz, Mausy5043, Max Legroom, Mcarling, Meow, Metageek, Michael a lowry, MikeLynch, Nasa-verve, Nataraja87,
Nikuda, NisseSthlm, Ohms law, PRRfan, Patrickwooldridge, Pol098, R. S. Shaw, Rajpaj, Rasmasyean, Redrose64, Richiekim, Riffic, Robert1947, Rostz, Ruud Koot, SURIV, Sam Coskey,
Sawyeriii, Sbmeirow, SchmuckyTheCat, SchuminWeb, Shigeru23, SmileyDude, Sonicsuns, Srleffler, Stephan Leeds, Stephenb, Sun Ladder, SvartMan, Svick, Syp, Tabletop, TheIguana,
Thorwald, Thue, Timl2k4, Tommy Kronkvist, Tooki, Traut, Tweisbach, Tyw7, UR3IRS, Vant826, Vikrant42, Wikipelli, Will Hawes, Winterspan, Woohookitty, WulfTheSaxon, XP1, Xeworlebi,
Yosh3000, Yozh, Zayani, Zooloo, ﻲﻲﻲﻲ, 327 anonymous edits
Time stretch analog-to-digital converter  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427881164  Contributors: John of Reading, Mbell, Physchim62, R'n'B, Schmloof, Shalabh24,
Spinningspark, 13 anonymous edits
Transmission coefficient  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=434806573  Contributors: Adoniscik, Cybercobra, Fresheneesz, Jarekt, Srleffler, Thurth, Zak.estrada, 8 anonymous
edits
Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=445049944  Contributors: Brad101, Elforesto, Hmains, Ioeth, Jlechem, Katxena,
LeeZ, LilHelpa, Mandarax, Mckaysalisbury, NawlinWiki, Nick2588, Ntsimp, Ossguy, Pearle, Srleffler, Xeen, 21 anonymous edits
Velocity1  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=373053236  Contributors: MRSC, TransportJone
Verizon FiOS  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444258678  Contributors: A. B., Abeck, AgentCDE, Ajraddatz, AlanBarrett, Alanhwiki, Alvis, Amazingtrav, Amigan,
AnOddName, Anand999, Andareed, Andrew Hoag, AndrewMack, Anjow, Anthonyyki, Atomic Taco, Auser1, Azumanga1, BACbKA, BILBO HARPEY, BarryTheUnicorn, Baylink, Beao,
BenRain, Benklop, Berkut, Bhudson, Bikenyakr, Bjdraw, Blind justice, Bobblewik, Bodeskimba, Bovineone, Boyhere, Brewcrewer, Brewthatistrue, Brian Kendig, Brianski, Brianzimm,
Brokerblogger, Bucketsofg, Buffix, CATVguy, CJS102793, CPAScott, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CapitalR, CaribDigita, Cassini83, Ccerf, Centrx, ChangChienFu, Chaos2, Charles1993,
Chitchatjf, ChrisGriswold, Christopher Kraus, Chroniclev, Cmc0, Cmdrbeevus, Codeczero, Cole Kitchen, CommonsDelinker, Compuz1, Crab182, CronoDAS, CynicalMe, D-Clancy,
DGLongwing, DH85868993, DJMcNiff, DRTllbrg, DaedalusZM, Dan198792, DanB91, Dancter, Darknewmoon, Darrellk, Darth Panda, Dawnseeker2000, Deathwish644, Destroyah3034,
Df747jet, Dferrantino, Disavian, Dj stone, DocVM, DocWatson42, Dodd m, Dondondon, DragonHawk, Dragonnas, Dustman81, ENeville, Ecombarton, Ed Poor, Edwy, Emx, EoGuy,
Erasmussen, Estoy Aquí, Evice, Evilgohan2, F, FIshstick, FTTP CA Tech, Fatmatt14, Feudonym, Flounderxl, Fogster, FpsFugazi, FrYGuY, Frazell, Fulldecent, Fxhomie, GSCalhoun, Gene93k,
Ghostfighters, Giftlite, Gjs238, Grayshi, Greenlead, Gurulegend, Gwunnick, Gyrferret, H4xx0r, Hacker2000, Hannahs haven, Harryzilber, Haseo9999, HashBrownCipher, Hastyo, Hbdragon88,
HeffeQue, Henrybnyc, Hgschulz, Hsmith254, Hydrargyrum, I Use Dial, ILBASTARDO90210, IO Device, Ian3055, Igiffin, Indefatigable, Indon, Internic, J.delanoy, JBsupreme, JLaTondre,
JTCotton, JackGavin, Jackdyson, Jake Nelson, Jbladex, Jerem43, Jerome Charles Potts, Jgera5, Jinhuili, Jlkramer, Jmoz2989, Joebeone, John254, John335, Jontomkittredge, JordoCo, Josh3580,
Joshg678, Joshuajohaneman, Jostrognai, Jpf51286, Jps57, JustinLee, K Watson1984, KJHobin, KJRehberg, KUsam, Kafowler, Kai Ojima, Kalatix, Karlbrace, Kavefish, Kbrose, Ke5crz,
Kevinrossen, Kitch, Kjkolb, Kjtobo, Kooky, Ksnow, Kungfuadam, Kushal one, Kwamikagami, L0b0t, LancerEvolution ;, Leemichaelinsa, Leroyjabari, Liftarn, Lightmouse, Lisasmall, Liutang,
Logan, Longhair, Lord Richard, LuisVilla, Lwalt, M412k, MCB, MSTCrow, Macbrando, Magioladitis, MajorT, Mak Thorpe, Maksdo, ManiF, Manthas, Marcsin, Martensjd, Masterpiece Guy,
Masterpjz9, Mbernste, Me Three, Meatsicle, Metsfan84, Mfactor, Michael Greiner, Michael93555, Michelet, Milchama, Mild Bill Hiccup, Ministorm47, Mirror Vax, Mkaycomputer,
Moogle10000, Mrkahuna, Mschamberg, MureninC, MutantMonkey, Mytwocents, N5iln, NTFS, Natoma, Netalarm, Newarknj76, Ng.j, Ninja Wizard, Nuggetboy, OKTerrific, Obriente,
Ohnoitsjamie, Oleg Alexandrov, Omegatron, Omicronpersei8, Osabek, Ourai, Pacific Coast Highway, Pakaru, Paradoxian, Patcat88, Pats1, PaulHanson, Pauli133, Pearle, Peng, Pimlottc,
PitzWriter, QTCaptain, R6MaY89, Raere, RasputinAXP, Raymie, Reeegan, RevRagnarok, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Richdt, Riick, Rjwilmsi, Robertvan1, Rror, Rusf10, Ryan.n, S1312,
SDC, SJP, SLi, Sakimtsev, Sam916, Scanz851, Scooper12, Seaweed64, Sertrel, Shoozle, SigmaEpsilon, SiobhanHansa, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Skunkboy74, Skydiver1921,
Snowolfd4, Son, Soumyasch, Sozekizer, SpecOp Macavity, Spencer, Spitzak, Srleffler, Starbois, StuffOfInterest, SuperJSP, Supersquid, Sydbarrett74, TK-925, Tacodaemon, Tagus, Tartan01,
Tawker, TerraHikaru, Tertiary7, That CS Guy, The Inedible Bulk, TheDoober, TheREALCableGuy, Themfromspace, Timberlax, TimberleyArne, Tirerim, Toddyboy711, TomCat4680, Tothwolf,
Toussaint, Tregoweth, TreyGeek, Trichotomous, Tun, Tvh2k, Unixxx, Uris, Vchimpanzee, Vkailasa, Vocaro, Voidxor, W Nowicki, WJetChao, Wadems, Wdfarmer, Weopgon, WhisperToMe,
Whywhenwhohow, Wiki131wiki, WikiPedEditor, WikipedianProlific, Wildwill2002, Will-h, Woohookitty, Writesimply, Wsloand, X1987x, Xyzzyva, Zimbabweed, 911 anonymous edits
XFP transceiver  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=439594346  Contributors: Adamantios, Armando, BertK, Bobblewik, Brholden, Btritchie, CapitalR, CerberuS, Charan
jeetsingh, Deville, Fulldecent, Grm wnr, Hashar, Kvng, Leon2323, Lightmouse, Martarius, Mortense, Mrand, Orenburg1, Srleffler, W Nowicki, Xaosflux, 18 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
154
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:FTTX.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FTTX.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Riick
Image:PON vs AON.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PON_vs_AON.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Riick
Image:Optical-fibre-junction-box.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Optical-fibre-junction-box.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alby (talk)
File:Finisar GBIC SX 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Finisar_GBIC_SX_2.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Lukas
Brinias Side
Image:Fiber optic3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fiber_optic3.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Original uploader was
Wikidenizen at en.wikipedia
File:Fibre-optic cable in a Telstra pit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fibre-optic_cable_in_a_Telstra_pit.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Bidgee
Image:Fiber Splice Lab.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fiber_Splice_Lab.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Original uploader was
Dhaluza at en.wikipedia
Image:Fiber Splice.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fiber_Splice.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Original uploader was Dhaluza at
en.wikipedia
Image:Fbg_oadm.GIF  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fbg_oadm.GIF  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: BenFrantzDale, Grahamwild
Image:ASON Logical Architecture.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ASON_Logical_Architecture.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Digimanpk (talk)
Image:Lattice wave.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lattice_wave.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: en:User:FlorianMarquardt,
w:User:MysidMysid
Image:PD-icon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PD-icon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various. See log. (Original SVG was based on File:PD-icon.png
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Image:DPSK-Demodulation.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DPSK-Demodulation.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fiberware
Image:FTTE Diagram.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FTTE_Diagram.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Gargan
Image:HFC Network Diagram.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HFC_Network_Diagram.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: HFC_Network_Diagram.png:
Unforgettable fan en:User:Unforgettable fan Vectorised by: Jffner (talk)
Image:Optical_Interleaver.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Optical_Interleaver.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fiberware
Image:Interleaver_Spectrum.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Interleaver_Spectrum.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fiberware, Srleffler
File:Novus Entertainment.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Novus_Entertainment.png  License: Fair Use  Contributors: The GateKeeper07
Image:Doped fibre amplifier.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Doped_fibre_amplifier.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Wykis
Image:Evsl1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Evsl1.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Timberwind at de.wikipedia
Image:Optical Hybrid 1.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Optical_Hybrid_1.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fiberware
Image:Optical Hybrid 2.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Optical_Hybrid_2.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fiberware
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F T T H
Fiber To The Home
High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know:
Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors
IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS
REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR
TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS
ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF
EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS
Kevin Roebuck
FTTH - Fiber-to-the-home - fiber reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a box on the outside
wall of a home. Active Ethernet Point-to-Point is fast emerging as the optimum architecture for delivering
advanced triple-play services over FTTH networks because there is no limit on the distance between an
operator‘s central office (CO) and a subscriber’s home.
This book is your ultimate resource for FTTH - Fiber To The Home. Here you will find the most up-to-date
information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.
In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about
FTTH - Fiber To The Home right away, covering: Fiber to the x, Fiber-optic communication, 10G-EPON,
Optical add-drop multiplexer, Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero, Automatically switched optical network, Bril-
louin scattering, Optical buffer, Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero, Optical cross-connect, Dark fibre, Dark
fibre network, Dispersion-limited operation, Optical DPSK demodulator, Dynamic circuit network, Fiber in
the loop, Fiber media converter, Fiber to the premises by country, Fiber to the telecom enclosure, FTTLA,
Google Fiber, Hybrid fibre-coaxial, Hybrid fibre-optic, IBZL, IEEE P1904, Indefeasible rights of use, Inter-
connect bottleneck, Optical interleaver, User:Llemoi/Dark Fiber Community, Mechanically induced modu-
lation, Multiwavelength optical networking, Next-generation access, Novus Entertainment, Offset time,
On-off keying, Optical amplifier, Optical burst switching, Optical conductivity, Optical ground wire, Optical
hybrid, Optical Internetworking Forum, Optical line termination, Optical mesh network, Optical network
unit, Optical performance monitoring, Optical time-domain reflectometer, Parallel optical interface, PAROLI,
Passive optical network, Project OXYGEN, Radio Frequency over Glass, Raman amplification, Raman scat-
tering, Relative intensity noise, SerDes Framer Interface, Sidera Networks, Subnetwork connection pro-
tection, Optical switch, Synchronous optical networking, Thunderbolt (interface), Time stretch analog-to-
digital converter, Transmission coefficient, Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency, Velocity1,
Verizon FiOS, XFP transceiver
This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of FTTH - Fiber To The Home. It reduces the risk
of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understand-
ing of FTTH - Fiber To The Home with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
F
T
T
H

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

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