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Global Positioning System Galileo (satellite navigation) Beidou navigation system Compass navigation system GLONASS Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Differential GPS GPS/INS GPS signals Vehicle tracking system GPS navigation software Mobile phone tracking High Sensitivity GPS Military invention Local positioning system Navigation paradox S-GPS 1 24 35 40 43 55 56 59 63 64 73 76 78 82 83 84 85 86
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Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
Fundamentals Geodesy · Geodynamics Geomatics · Cartography Concepts Datum · Distance · Geoid Figure of the Earth Geodetic system Geog. coord. system Hor. pos. representation Map projection Reference ellipsoid Satellite geodesy Spatial reference system Technologies GNSS · GPS · ... Standards ED50 · ETRS89 · NAD83 NAVD88 · SAD69 · SRID UTM · WGS84 · ... History History of geodesy NAVD29 · ...
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver with some technical limitations which are only removed for military users. The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of  integrating ideas from several previous navigation systems, predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1994.
Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in Earth orbit.
S. It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. the ground-based Omega Navigation System. development. asked Guier and Weiffenbach to look at the inverse problem where you know the location of the satellite and you want to find your own location. almost none of those were seen as justification for the billions of dollars it would cost in research. William Guier and George Weiffenbach. as they were not able to calculate the orbit themselves. The Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was in use by only the Russian military. In the 1970s. was first successfully tested in 1960. While there were wide needs for accurate navigation in military and civilian sectors. This led them and APL to develop the Transit system. until it was made fully available to civilians in 2007.Global Positioning System In addition to GPS. In 1967. Frank McClure. the U. The first satellite navigation system. became the first worldwide radio navigation system. Additional inspiration for GPS came when the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite. because of the Doppler effect. When they released the orbit of Sputnik to the media the Russians were dumbfounded to learn how powerful American computers had become. GPS receivers are now integrated in many mobile phones. The Director of the APL gave them access to their brand new UNIVAC II to do the heavy calculations required. Two American physicists. and used during World War II. based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations. Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity (for time slowing in a strong gravitational field) using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. GPS uses principles of general relativity to correct the satellites' atomic clocks. To achieve accuracy requirements. deployment. 2 History The design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems. used by the United States Navy. Limitations of these systems drove the need for a more universal navigation solution with greater accuracy. Civilian GPS receiver ("GPS navigation device") in a marine application. Sputnik in 1957. other systems are in use or under development. Transit (satellite). a technology required by GPS. In 1956. Navy developed the Timation satellite that proved the ability to place accurate clocks in space. they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit from the Doppler shift. the deputy director of the APL. There are also the planned Chinese Compass navigation system and the European Union's Galileo positioning system. decided on their own to monitor Sputnik's radio transmissions. They soon realized that. Automotive navigation system in a taxicab. such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator developed in the early 1940s. and operation for a . at Johns Hopkins's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The following spring.
a more fully encompassing name was used to identify the constellation of Navstar satellites. Navigation and Timing Executive Committee was established by presidential directive in 2004 to advise and coordinate federal departments and agencies on matters concerning the GPS and related systems. The first satellite was launched in 1989. was shot down in 1983 after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace. Updates from the Navy Transit system were too slow for the high speeds of Air Force operation. Initially. After that the National Space-Based Positioning. The executive committee is chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation. which was later shortened simply to GPS. and SECOR in a multi-service program. The executive order signed in 1996 to turn off Selective Availability in 2000 was proposed by the US Secretary of Defense. With the individual satellites being associated with the name Navstar (as with the predecessors Transit and Timation). and the FCC chairman participates as a liaison. and NASA. the nuclear threat to the existence of the United States was the one need that did justify this cost in the view of the United States Congress. Precise navigation would enable United States submarines to get an accurate fix of their positions prior to launching their SLBMs. Department of Defense (USDOD) is the steward of GPS. Its membership includes equivalent-level officials from the departments of state." Later that year. there was a proposal to use mobile launch platforms (such as Russian SS-24 and SS-25) and so the need to fix the launch position had similarity to the SLBM situation. William Perry. Considered vital to the nuclear deterrence posture. the Air Force proposed a radio-navigation system called MOSAIC (MObile System for Accurate ICBM Control) that was essentially a 3-D LORAN. Navstar-GPS. the highest quality signal was reserved for military use. The Navy Research Laboratory continued advancements with their Timation (Time Navigation) satellites. President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use. as a common good. A follow-on study called Project 57 was worked in 1963 and it was "in this study that the GPS concept was born. first launched in 1967. This changed with President Bill Clinton ordering Selective Availability to be turned off at midnight May 1. and the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded ("Selective Availability". Components of the executive office of the president participate as observers to the executive committee. it was realized that a superior system could be developed by synthesizing the best technologies from 621B. In 1960. 3 . Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) oversaw GPS policy matters from 1996 to 2004. and with the third one in 1974 carrying the first atomic clock into orbit. and homeland security. carrying 269 people." That same year the concept was pursued as Project 621B. This deterrent effect is why GPS was funded. commerce. Timation. During Labor Day weekend in 1973. 2000. the US military was actively developing technologies to deny GPS service to potential adversaries on a regional basis. During the Cold War arms race. Moreover. SA). The USAF with two-thirds of the nuclear triad also had requirements for a more accurate and reliable navigation system. Transit. the joint chiefs of staff. which had "many of the attributes that you now see in GPS" and promised increased accuracy for Air Force bombers as well as ICBMs. once it was sufficiently developed. After Korean Air Lines Flight 007. The nuclear triad consisted of the United States Navy's submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) along with United States Air Force (USAF) strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). To increase the survivability of ICBMs. in the vicinity of Sakhalin and Moneron Islands. With these parallel developments in the 1960s.Global Positioning System constellation of navigation satellites. and the 24th satellite was launched in 1994. The Navy and Air Force were developing their own technologies in parallel to solve what was essentially the same problem. the DNSS program was named Navstar. GPS is owned and operated by the United States Government as a national resource. improving the precision of civilian GPS from 100 meters (about 300 feet) to 20 meters (about 65 feet). accurate determination of the SLBM launch position was a force multiplier. a meeting of about 12 military officers at the Pentagon discussed the creation of a Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS). because of the widespread growth of differential GPS services to improve civilian accuracy and eliminate the US military advantage. It was at this meeting that "the real synthesis that became GPS was created.
ten more experimental Block-I satellites had been launched to validate the concept. killing all 269 people on board." and "develop measures to prevent hostile use of GPS and its augmentations without unduly disrupting or degrading civilian uses. signifying full availability of the military's secure Precise Positioning Service (PPS). the first experimental Block-I GPS satellite was launched. after Soviet interceptor aircraft shot down the civilian airliner KAL 007 that strayed into prohibited airspace because of navigational errors. which originally managed the system. President Ronald Reagan announced   that GPS would be made available for civilian uses once it was completed. • In 1978. . • The Gulf War from 1990 to 1991. • By 1985. the first modern Block-II satellite was launched. • Full Operational Capability (FOC) was declared by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in April 1995.Failcess ure In Planprep. U. • In 1983." 4 Timeline and modernization Summary of satellites Block Launch Period Satellite launches Suc.ned aration 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 8 16 36 0 0 10 12 7 2 0 0 0 31 Currently in orbit and healthy I II IIA IIR IIR-M IIF IIIA IIIB IIIC 1978–1985 10 1989–1990 9 1990–1997 19 1997–2004 12 2005–2009 8 2010–2011 2 2014–? 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 Theoretical 0 Theoretical 0 Total 60 (Last update: 24 May 2010) PRN 01 from Block IIR-M is unhealthy PRN 25 from Block IIA is unhealthy PRN 32 from Block IIA is unhealthy  For a more complete list. • By December 1993. was the first conflict where GPS was widely used.   • On February 14. GPS achieved initial operational capability (IOC). using ground-based pseudo-satellites. 1989. CA and turned over to the 2nd Satellite Control Squadron (2SCS) located at Falcon Air Force Station in Colorado Springs. conducted developmental flight tests of two prototype GPS receivers over White Sands Missile Range. the 2nd Space Wing.Global Positioning System USDOD is required by law to "maintain a Standard Positioning Service (as defined in the federal radio navigation plan and the standard positioning service signal specification) that will be available on a continuous. worldwide basis. • In 1992. the USAF Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (Holloman AFB). was de-activated and replaced by the 50th Space Wing. indicating a full constellation (24 satellites) was available and providing the Standard Positioning Service (SPS). see list of GPS satellite launches • In 1972. Colorado. Command & Control of these satellites had moved from Onizuka AFS.S.
• In 2004. March 2. Air Force. Parkinson served twenty-one years in the Air Force. • On May 21. and Timing. • The GPS satellite.S. established the basis for GPS. • A GPS satellite was launched on May 28. Navigation. 2009. allowing users to receive a non-degraded signal globally. recognizing the importance of GPS to civilian users as well as military users. USAF. Collier Trophy. 2000 "Selective Availability" was discontinued as a result of the 1996 executive order. the Aerospace Corporation. 1993. • On September 14. • In 2005.) was inducted into the U. 2006. the Air Force Space Command allayed fears of GPS failure saying "There's only a small risk we will not continue to exceed our performance standard. 1990. .F. was launched on July 16. United States Vice President Al Gore announced plans to upgrade GPS with two new civilian signals for enhanced user accuracy and reliability. the USAF. • On May 2. 5 Awards On February 10. and became operational on December 10. 2011 at 2:41am ET from Space Launch Complex 37B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame at Lackland A. 2007. • Bradford Parkinson. 1990. Texas. QUALCOMM announced successful tests of assisted GPS for mobile phones. Calif. the aging mainframe-based Ground Segment Control System was transferred to the new Architecture Evolution Plan. President Bill Clinton issued a policy directive declaring GPS to be a dual-use system and establishing an Interagency GPS Executive Board to manage it as a national asset. from 1957 to 1978." Two GPS developers received the National Academy of Engineering Charles Stark Draper Prize for 2003: • Ivan Getting.S. The oldest GPS satellite still in operation was launched on November 26. • On May 19. professor of aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University. GPS technology was inducted into the Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame." • On January 11. Bush updated the national policy and replaced the executive board with the National Executive Committee for Space-Based Positioning. the nation's most prestigious aviation award. conceived the present satellite-based system in the early 1960s and developed it in conjunction with the U. the first modernized GPS satellite was launched and began transmitting a second civilian signal (L2C) for enhanced user performance.  Francis X. • November 2004. San Antonio. The citation honors them "for the most significant development for safe and efficient navigation and surveillance of air and spacecraft since the introduction of radio navigation 50 years ago. an update of ground control systems caused a software incompatibility with 8000 to 10000 military receivers manufactured by a division of Trimble Navigation Limited of Sunnyvale. referring to it as GPS III. • In 2004. United States President George W. emeritus president of The Aerospace Corporation and an engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.S. Easton received the National Medal of Technology on February 13. 2010. • In 1998. the United States Government signed an agreement with the European Community establishing cooperation related to GPS and Europe's planned Galileo system. and IBM Federal Systems Company. 2010 for his role in space technology development and the engineering design concept of GPS conducted as part of Project 621B. 2009. Rockwell International Corporation. 2010. the National Aeronautic Association selected the GPS Team as winners of the 1992 Robert J. particularly with respect to aviation safety and in 2000 the United States Congress authorized the effort. GPS IIF-2. improving on the World War II land-based radio system called LORAN (Long-range Radio Aid to Navigation). U. the United States Government Accountability Office issued a report warning that some GPS satellites could fail as soon as 2010.Global Positioning System • In 1996. and retired with the rank of colonel. Kane (Col. GPS developer Roger L. • In 1998. ret. This team combines researchers from the Naval Research Laboratory.B..
elevation information may be included. a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. to compute the position of the receiver. Many GPS units show derived information such as direction and speed. A few specialized GPS applications do however use the time. even a very small clock error multiplied by the very large speed of light — the speed at which satellite signals propagate — results in a large positional error. traffic signal timing. Therefore receivers use four or more satellites to solve for the receiver's location and time. inertial navigation.Global Positioning System 6 Basic concept of GPS A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. The very accurately computed time is effectively hidden by most GPS applications. calculated from position changes. However. For example. depending on which algorithm is used. a ship or aircraft may have known elevation. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include • the time the message was transmitted • precise orbital information (the ephemeris) • the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). these include time transfer. or including information from the vehicle computer) to give a less accurate (degraded) position when fewer than four satellites are visible. dead reckoning. and synchronization of cell phone base stations.   Position calculation introduction Two sphere surfaces intersecting in a circle Surface of sphere Intersecting a circle (not a solid disk) at two points . which use only the location. If one variable is already known. The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite. Although four satellites are required for normal operation. perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude. This position is then displayed. These distances along with the satellites' locations are used with the possible aid of trilateration. Some GPS receivers may use additional clues or assumptions (such as reusing the last known altitude. Three satellites might seem enough to solve for position since space has three dimensions and a position near the Earth's surface can be assumed. fewer apply in special cases.
centered on the satellite. In the ideal case of no errors. A figure. because any clock error could cause it to miss intersecting a point. Because manufacturers prefer to build inexpensive GPS receivers for mass markets. The intersection of a third spherical surface with the first two will be its intersection with that circle. The position of the receiver is somewhere on the surface of this sphere.Global Positioning System A satellite's position and pseudorange define a sphere. It is very unlikely that the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite will intersect either of the two points of intersection of the first three. sphere. Let denote the distance from the valid estimate of GPS receiver position to the fourth satellite and let denote the pseudorange of the fourth satellite. The article trilateration shows this mathematically. The two intersections are marked with dots. the pseudoranges. Diagram depicting satellite 4. and thus the third sphere surface is likely to intersect this large circle. Another figure. For automobiles and other near-earth vehicles. the intersection farthest from Earth may be the correct one. Let . the indicated position of the GPS receiver is at or near the intersection of the surfaces of four spheres. and da It is likely that the surfaces of the three spheres intersect. However. the GPS receiver would be at a precise intersection of the four surfaces. The correct position for the GPS receiver is also the intersection closest to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite. they intersect in a circle. because the circle of intersection of the first two spheres is normally quite large. The distance between these two points is the diameter of the circle of intersection. is the distance from the computed GPS receiver position to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite. the solution for this dilemma is based on the way sphere surfaces intersect in the GPS problem. r4. Thus the quotient. Thus with four satellites.000 001 second) corresponds to an error of 300 metres (980 ft). are very sensitive to errors in the GPS receiver clock. this means they intersect at two points. Two Sphere Surfaces Intersecting in a Circle. the estimated distances from the GPS receiver to the satellites. p4. is shown below. This suggests that an extremely accurate and expensive clock is required for the GPS receiver to work. Because of the very large value of the speed of light. Two points where the surfaces of the spheres intersect are clearly shown in the figure. the distance from the valid estimate of GPS receiver position to the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite can be used to compute a clock correction. Surface of Sphere Intersecting a Circle (not a solid disk) at Two Points. If the surfaces of two spheres intersect at more than one point. in most cases of practical interest. Again the article trilateration clearly shows this mathematically. c. illustrates the intersection. the correct position of the GPS receiver is the intersection closest to the Earth's surface. 7 Correcting a GPS receiver's clock One of the most significant error sources is the GPS receiver's clock. for example an error of one microsecond (0. with radius equal to the pseudorange. For space vehicles. .
These are the space segment (SS). and each GPS receiver uses these signals to calculate its three-dimensional location (latitude. The orbits are arranged so that at least six satellites are always within line of sight from almost everywhere on Earth's surface. The orbits are centered on the Earth. provides an estimate of (correct time) – (time indicated by the receiver's on-board clock). Space segment The space segment (SS) is composed of the orbiting GPS satellites. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U. 8 Structure The current GPS consists of three major segments. 105. However. an alternate master control station.). and altitude) and the current time. In general terms. the angular difference between satellites in each orbit is 30. The result of this objective is that the four satellites are not evenly spaced (90 degrees) apart within each orbit. and a user segment (U. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service. Orbiting at an altitude of approximately 20200 km (12600 mi). The control segment is composed of a master control station. sum to 360 degrees. and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations. and tens of millions of civil. Air Force develops. The U.S.Global Positioning System . but instead fixed with respect to the distant stars.S. or Space Vehicles (SV) in GPS parlance. changes with time. repeating the same ground track each Unlaunched GPS satellite on display at the San Diego Air & Space Museum A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. and operates the space and control segments. The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapters to the boosters required to launch them into orbit. each SV makes two complete orbits each sidereal day. The six orbit planes have approximately 55° inclination (tilt relative to Earth's equator) and are separated by 60° right ascension of the ascending node (angle along the equator from a reference point to the orbit's intersection). it should be kept in mind that a less simple function of may be needed to estimate the time error in an iterative algorithm as discussed in the Navigation equations section. maintains. eight each in three approximately circular orbits. not rotating with the Earth. 120. orbital radius of approximately 26600 km (16500 mi). in this example at 45°N. commercial. . GPS satellites broadcast signals from space. of course.S. a control segment (CS). but this was modified to six orbital planes with four satellites each. and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service (see GPS navigation devices). and 105 degrees apart which. and the GPS receiver clock can be advanced if is positive or delayed if is negative. longitude. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface. The GPS design originally called for 24 SVs.
when multiple satellites fail. retired from active service satellites kept in the constellation as orbital spares. These updates synchronize the atomic clocks on board the satellites to within a few nanoseconds of each other. With the increased number of satellites. Then the new ephemeris is uploaded and the satellite marked healthy again.S. Diego Garcia. Diego Garcia.S. So to change the orbit of a satellite. Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) ground antennas (for additional command and control capability) and NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007. Kwajalein. About nine satellites are visible from any point on the ground at any one time (see animation at right). the satellite must be marked unhealthy. The updates are created by a Kalman filter that uses inputs from the ground monitoring stations. Satellite maneuvers are not precise by GPS standards. Then 2 SOPS contacts each GPS satellite regularly with a navigational update using dedicated or shared (AFSCN) ground antennas (GPS dedicated ground antennas are located at Kwajalein. Ascension Island. there are 31 actively broadcasting satellites in the GPS constellation. and Cape Canaveral). Colorado and Cape Canaveral. Such an arrangement was shown to improve reliability and availability of the system. and various other inputs. monitor stations. For military operations. 9 Control segment The control segment is composed of 1. along with shared NGA monitor stations operated in England. Bahrain. and adjust the ephemeris of each satellite's internal orbital model. . space weather information. 2. This was very helpful during development because even with only four satellites. an alternate master control station. and two older.S. As of March 2008. The tracking information is sent to the Air Force Space Command's MCS at Schriever Air Force Base 25 km (16 miles) ESE of Colorado Springs. correct alignment means all four are visible from one spot for a few hours each day. Ascension Island. which is operated by the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2 SOPS) of the U. Argentina. Air Force. Australia and Washington DC. Ecuador. the constellation was changed to a nonuniform arrangement. so receivers will not use it in their calculation. 4. the ground track repeat can be used to ensure good coverage in combat zones. and the resulting orbit tracked from the ground. The additional satellites improve the precision of GPS receiver calculations by providing redundant measurements. The flight paths of the satellites are tracked by on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum dedicated U. Colorado Springs. Then the maneuver can be carried out. a master control station (MCS). Air Force monitoring stations in Hawaii. four dedicated ground antennas and six dedicated monitor stations The MCS can also access U. relative to a uniform system.Global Positioning System day. 3.
scientific uses. and tens of millions of civil. Further information: GPS navigation device GPS receivers come in a variety of formats. or Bluetooth. such as the SiRF and MTK protocols. allowing open source tools like gpsd to read the protocol without violating intellectual property laws. even low-cost units commonly include Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) receivers. Other proprietary protocols exist as well. mobile phone operations. Receivers with internal DGPS receivers can outperform those using external RTCM data .  defined by the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA). Although this protocol is officially 15×17 mm. A receiver is often described by its number of channels: this signifies how many satellites it can monitor simultaneously. They may also include a display for providing location and speed information to the user. and watches. GPS has become a widely deployed and useful tool for commerce. GPS receivers are composed of an antenna.S. Many GPS receivers can relay position data to a PC or other device A typical OEM GPS receiver module measuring using the NMEA 0183 protocol. this has progressively increased over the years so that.Global Positioning System 10 User segment The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U. from devices integrated into cars. Data is actually sent at a much lower rate. which limits the accuracy of the signal sent using RTCM . using the RTCM SC-104 format. references to this protocol have been compiled from public records. and surveillance. GPS is considered a dual-use technology.800 bit/s speed. tracking. . commercial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service. Garmin and Leica (left to right). This is typically in the form of an RS-232 port at 4. Originally limited to four or five. to dedicated devices such as those shown here from manufacturers Trimble. and even the control of power  grids by allowing well synchronized hand-off switching. tuned to the frequencies transmitted by the satellites. GPS's accurate time facilitates everyday activities such as banking. and a highly stable clock (often a crystal oscillator). meaning it has significant military and civilian applications. In general. As of 2006. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service. receiver-processors. Applications While originally a military project. USB. phones. receivers typically have between 12 and 20 channels. GPS receivers may include an input for differential corrections. as of 2007. Receivers can interface with other devices using methods including a serial connection.
Third-party software developers later gained access to GPS APIs from Nextel upon launch. • Recreation: For example. The first handsets with integrated GPS launched in the late 1990s. person. . • Geotagging: Applying location coordinates to digital objects such as photographs and other documents for purposes such as creating map overlays. for instance. • GPS Aircraft Tracking • GPS tours: Location determines what content to display. information about an approaching point of interest. making it possible to compute phasors. or the pet collar. • Phasor measurements: GPS enables highly accurate timestamping of power system measurements. and Verizon soon thereafter. • Cellular telephony: Clock synchronization enables time transfer. locate and maintain contact reports with one or more fleet vehicles in real-time. person tracking systems. and pet tracking systems use GPS to locate a vehicle. • Disaster relief/emergency services: Depend upon GPS for location and timing capabilities. person.S. followed by Sprint in 2006. • Surveying: Surveyors use absolute locations to make maps and determine property boundaries. • Tectonics: GPS enables direct fault motion measurement in earthquakes. • Clock synchronization: The accuracy of GPS time signals (±10 ns) is second only to the atomic clocks upon which they are based. • Navigation: Navigators value digitally precise velocity and orientation measurements. which is critical for synchronizing its spreading codes with other base stations to facilitate inter-cell handoff and support hybrid GPS/cellular position detection for mobile emergency calls and other applications. The application provides continuous tracking and mobile or Internet updates should the target leave a designated area. and time transfer. • Map-making: Both civilian and military cartographers use GPS extensively. geocaching.Global Positioning System 11 Civilian Many civilian applications use one or more of GPS's three basic components: absolute location. relative movement. • Telematics: GPS technology integrated with computers and mobile communications technology in automotive navigation systems • Fleet Tracking: The use of GPS technology to identify. GPS drawing and waymarking. These devices are attached to the vehicle. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated the feature in either the handset or in the towers (for use in triangulation) in 2002 so emergency services could locate 911 callers. This antenna is mounted on the roof of a hut containing a scientific experiment needing precise timing. or pet. geodashing. The U. • Geofencing: Vehicle tracking systems.
and to coordinate troop and supply movement. an X-ray sensor. This rule applies even to otherwise purely civilian units that only receive the L1 frequency and the C/A (Coarse/Acquisition) code and cannot correct for Selective Availability (SA). • Reconnaissance: Patrol movement can be managed more closely. even in the dark or in unfamiliar territory.S. Embedded GPS receivers able to withstand accelerations of 12. March 2003. Vendor interpretations differ. military applications of GPS include: • Navigation: GPS allows soldiers to find objectives. These weapon systems pass Attaching a GPS guidance kit to a 'dumb' bomb. This has caused problems with some amateur radio balloon launches that regularly reach 30 kilometres (19 mi). Disabling operation above these limits exempts the receiver from classification as a munition. cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. target coordinates to precision-guided munitions to allow them to engage targets accurately. Artillery projectiles. while some receivers stop operating even when stationary. • GPS satellites carry a set of nuclear detonation detectors consisting of an optical sensor (Y-sensor). In the United States armed forces.Global Positioning System Restrictions on civilian use The U. These limits attempt to prevent use of a receiver in a ballistic missile. . that form a major portion of the   United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System. • Search and Rescue: Downed pilots can be located faster if their position is known.S. They would not prevent use in a cruise missile because their altitudes and speeds are similar to those of ordinary aircraft.000 g or about 118 km/s2 have been developed for use in 155 millimetres (6. Military aircraft. Government controls the export of some civilian receivers. • Missile and projectile guidance: GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs. a dosimeter. The rule targets operation given the combination of altitude and speed. State Department export licenses are required.    • Target tracking: Various military weapons systems use GPS to track potential ground and air targets before flagging them as hostile. commanders use the Commanders Digital Assistant and lower ranks use the Soldier Digital Assistant.1 in) howitzers. use GPS to find targets (for example. All GPS receivers capable of functioning above 18 kilometres (11 mi) altitude and 515 metres per second (1001 kn) are classified as munitions (weapons) for which U. etc. particularly in air-to-ground roles. 12 Military As of 2009. gun camera video from AH-1 Cobras in Iraq show GPS co-ordinates that can be viewed with specialized software). and an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor (W-sensor).
Two different encodings are used. and the precise (P) code. Each complete message is composed of 30-second frames. The ephemeris is updated every 2 hours and is generally valid for 4 hours. with provisions for updates every 6 hours or longer in non-nominal conditions. distinct groupings of 1. Additionally data for a few weeks following is uploaded in case of transmission updates that delay data upload. Each frame is further subdivided into 5 subframes of length 6 seconds and with 300 bits each. Each 30 second frame begins precisely on the minute or half minute as indicated by the atomic clock on each satellite. and the health of the network. The almanac is updated typically every 24 hours. error correction) Each GPS satellite continuously broadcasts a navigation message at a rate of 50 bits per second (see bitrate). Satellite frequencies . which is accessible by the general public. Each subframe contains 10 words of 30 bits with length 0. that is encrypted so that only the U. contains coarse orbit and status information for all satellites in the network as well as data related to error correction. These signals are transmitted on two separate carrier frequencies that are common to all satellites in the network. The second part of the message. military can access it. The last part of the message. as well as the data about the health of the satellite. The first part of the message encodes the week number and the time within the week.500 bits of information. provides the precise orbit for the satellite. Signals are encoded using code division multiple access (CDMA) allowing messages from individual satellites to be distinguished from each other based on unique encodings for each satellite (that the receiver must be aware of). and an encrypted encoding used by the U.S. the almanac. the ephemeris. a public encoding that enables lower resolution navigation.6 seconds each. Two distinct types of CDMA encodings are used: the coarse/acquisition (C/A) code. GPS time relationship Ephemeris (precise satellite orbit) Almanac component (satellite network synopsis. the state of the internal clocks.Global Positioning System 13 Communication The navigational signals transmitted by GPS satellites encode a variety of information including satellite positions. Message format GPS message format Subframes 1 2–3 4–5 Description Satellite clock.S. All satellites broadcast at the same frequencies. military.
Each carrier component is bi-phase shift key (BPSK) modulated by a separate bit train.05 MHz Coarse-acquisition (C/A) and encrypted precision P(Y) codes. for U. The receiver must be aware of the PRN codes for each satellite to reconstruct the actual message data. L2 L3 L4 L5 1379.S.60 MHz 1381. The C/A code. for civilian use.38105 GHz is used by the United States Nuclear Detonation (NUDET) Detection System (USNDS) to detect. will eventually support safety-of-life applications for aviation and provide improved availability and accuracy."  A waiver has recently been granted to LightSquared to operate a terrestrial broadband service near the L1 band. the FCC asked LightSquared to form a study group with the GPS community to test GPS receivers and identify issue that might arise due to the larger signal power from the LightSquared terrestrial network. The upper 10 MHz intended for use by LightSquared may have some impact on GPS devices. The P code can be encrypted as a so-called P(Y) code that is only available to military equipment with a proper decryption key. "L5. Testing in the first half of 2011 has demonstrated that the impact of the lower 10 MHz of spectrum is minimal to GPS devices (less than 1% of the total GPS devices are affected). The L5 consists of two carrier components that are in phase quadrature with each other. promising little or no interference under all circumstances. The L1 carrier is modulated by both the C/A and P codes. . transmits data at 1.  Aviation Week magazine reports that the latest testing (June 2011) confirms "significant jamming" of GPS by LightSquared's system.2276 GHz (L2 signal). transmits at 10. Both the C/A and P(Y) codes impart the precise time-of-day to the user.23 million chips per second. The GPS community had not objected to the LightSquared (formerly MSV and SkyTerra) applications until sometime in late 2010. This frequency falls into an internationally protected range for aeronautical navigation.023 million chips per second.379913 GHz is being studied for additional ionospheric correction. P(Y) code. the third civil GPS signal. The L3 signal at a frequency of 1. Although LightSquared had applied for a license to operate in the 1525 to 1559 band as early as 2003 and it was put out for public comment.17645 GHZ was added in the process of GPS modernization. There is some concern that this will seriously degrade the GPS signal for many consumer uses.57542 GHz (L1 signal) and 1. 1176. whereas the P code.42 MHz 1227. All satellites broadcast at the same two frequencies. and report nuclear detonations (NUDETs) in the Earth's atmosphere and near space. The L5 frequency band at 1. Used for nuclear detonation (NUDET) detection. while the L2 carrier is only modulated by the P code. One usage is the enforcement of nuclear test ban treaties. The first Block IIF satellite that would provide this signal is set to be launched in 2009. The satellite network uses a CDMA spread-spectrum technique where the low-bitrate message data is encoded with a high-rate pseudo-random (PRN) sequence that is different for each satellite. military use. The L4 band at 1.Global Positioning System 14 GPS frequency overview Band Frequency Description L1 1575.913 MHz Being studied for additional ionospheric correction. plus the L1 civilian (L1C) and military (M) codes on future Block III satellites. locate. 1.45 MHz Proposed for use as a civilian safety-of-life (SoL) signal. plus the L2C and military codes on the Block IIR-M and newer satellites.
Knowing when the message was received tr.  If the almanac information has previously been acquired. As it detects each satellite's signal. In the ideal case of no errors. b]. 2. Demodulating and Decoding GPS Satellite Signals using the Coarse/Acquisition Gold code. z. Navigation equations The receiver uses messages received from satellites to determine the satellite positions and time sent. and z components of satellite position and the time sent are designated as [xi. These navigation equations can be solved by algebraic or numerical methods.Global Positioning System 15 Demodulation and decoding Because all of the satellite signals are modulated onto the same L1 carrier frequency. …. To obtain a lock. n. The x. The receiver can then acquire the almanac and determine the satellites it should listen for. There can be a delay of up to 30 seconds before the first estimate of position because of the need to read the ephemeris data. Advanced. . the receiver computes the message's transit time as (tr − ti). the three components of GPS receiver position and the clock bias [x. The signals are decoded after demodulation using addition of the Gold codes corresponding to the satellites monitored by the receiver. zi. the receiver enters a search mode until a lock is obtained on one of the satellites. yi. This is done by assigning each satellite a unique binary sequence known as a Gold code. The receiver has four unknowns. Knowing the distance from receiver to satellite and the satellite's position implies that the receiver is on the surface of a sphere centered at the satellite's position. Thus the receiver is at or near the intersection of the surfaces of the spheres. The equations of the sphere surfaces are given by: or in terms of pseudoranges. the signals must be separated after demodulation. y. as . it is necessary that there be an unobstructed line of sight from the receiver to the satellite. unique numbers in the range 1 through 32. ti] where the subscript i denotes the satellite and has the value 1. . Assuming the message traveled at the speed of light (c) the distance traveled is (tr − ti)c. If the almanac information is not in memory. the amount that the receiver's clock is off. y. For more information see Demodulation and Decoding. the receiver is at the intersection of the surfaces of the spheres. Processing of the navigation message enables the determination of the time of transmission and the satellite position at this time. the receiver picks the satellites to listen for by their PRNs. Let b denote the clock error or bias. it identifies it by its distinct C/A code pattern.
results from other positioning systems such as GLONASS or the upcoming Galileo can be incorporated or used to check the result. multidimensional root finding method such as Newton-Raphson method can be used. Let d denote the signed distance from the receiver position to the sphere around the fourth satellite. With each combination of four or more satellites. based on the relative sky directions of the satellites used.) . As more satellites are picked up. Multidimensional Newton-Raphson calculations Alternatively. Trilateration is used to determine the position based on three satellite's pseudoranges. so much of the receiver circuitry can be shared. processing capability. Trilateration The receiver can use trilateration   and one dimensional numerical root finding. because it changes the pseudoranges. such as those found in the chapter on root finding in Numerical Recipes can solve this type of problem. these systems use the same frequency bands. Finally. In the usual case of two intersections. The notation. the results are as good as or better than using the four best. Additional methods for more than four satellites When more than four satellites are available. The problem is to determine the correction such that d(correction) = 0. which must be solved by least-squares or a similar technique. This is the familiar problem of finding the zeroes of a one dimensional non-linear function of a scalar variable. and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP). pseudoranges from various 4-way combinations can be processed to add more estimates to the location and clock offset. The approach is to linearize around an approximate solution. a GDOP factor can be calculated.Global Positioning System 16 Bancroft's method Bancroft's method is perhaps the most important method of solving the navigation equations because it involves an algebraic as opposed to numerical method. when a neighborhood containing a solution is known as is usually the case for GPS. the point nearest the surface of the sphere corresponding to the fourth satellite is chosen. the location is expressed in a specific coordinate system such as latitude and longitude. then solve the linear equations derived from the quadratic equations above to obtain . It has been shown that results are comparable in accuracy to those of the Bancroft's method. Iterative numerical methods. The receiver then takes the weighted average of these positions and clock offsets. Although there is no guarantee that the method always converges due to the fact that multidimensional roots cannot be bounded. it is quite likely that a solution will be found. d(correction) shows this as a function of the correction. (By design. Errors can be estimated through the residuals. though the decoding is different. After the final location and time are calculated. say from iteration k. The method requires at least four satellites but more can be used. considering number of channels. If all visible satellites are used. using the WGS 84 geodetic datum or a country-specific system. Using more than four is an over-determined system of equations with no unique solution. the calculation can use the four best or more than four.
Accuracy enhancement and surveying Augmentation Integrating external information into the calculation process can materially improve accuracy. numerical errors. which is about one-thousandth of the C/A Gold code bit period of . . L1 and L2. additional civilian codes are expected to be transmitted on the L2 and L5 frequencies (see GPS modernization). Differential GPS. so measuring the arrival time difference between the frequencies determines TEC and thus the precise ionospheric delay at each frequency.9–12 in) of absolute accuracy. Without decryption keys. However. which has a period of . In the future. while a third group provides additional navigational or vehicle information. multipath errors and other effects. Such augmentation systems are generally named or described based on how the information arrives. Examples of augmentation systems include the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). The spacecraft broadcast ionospheric model parameters. ephemeris errors. By eliminating this error source. it is still possible to use a codeless technique to compare the P(Y) codes on L1 and L2 to gain much of the same error information. Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP) is a third alternative for a precise GPS-based positioning system. The phase difference error in the normal GPS amounts to 2–3 metres (6. Military receivers can decode the P(Y)-code transmitted on both L1 and L2.6–9. Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and Assisted GPS. This is one reason GPS spacecraft transmit on at least two frequencies. In this approach. Ionospheric delay is a well-defined function of frequency and the total electron content (TEC) along the path. atmospherics effects. determination of range signal can be resolved to a precision of less than 10 centimetres (3. to act as an additional clock signal and resolve the uncertainty. ephemera. this technique is slow. A second form of precise monitoring is called Carrier-Phase Enhancement (CPGPS). The largest remaining error is usually the unpredictable delay through the ionosphere.2 in) of ambiguity. Precise monitoring Accuracy can be improved through precise monitoring and measurement of existing GPS signals in additional or alternate ways. RTK). Some systems transmit additional error information (such as clock drift. CPGPS coupled with DGPS normally realizes between 20–30 centimetres (7.8 ft) of ambiguity. transmitting GPS signal phase information and ambiguity resolution techniques via statistical tests—possibly with processing in real-time (real-time kinematic positioning. European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS). This corrects the error that arises because the pulse transition of the PRN is not instantaneous.Global Positioning System 17 Error sources and analysis Error analysis for the Global Positioning System is an important aspect for determining what errors and their magnitude are to be expected. This is done by resolving the number of cycles that the signal is transmitted and received by the receiver by using a combination of differential GPS (DGPS) correction data. CPGPS working to within 1% of perfect transition reduces this error to 3 centimetres (1. Then all users will be able to perform dual-frequency measurements and directly compute ionospheric delay errors. but errors remain. others characterize prior errors. CPGPS uses the L1 carrier wave. so it is currently available only on specialized surveying equipment. or ionospheric delay). GPS errors are affected by geometric dilution of precision and depend on signal arrival time errors. and thus the correlation (satellite-receiver sequence matching) operation is imperfect.9 in).
Triple differencing followed by numerical root finding. Detailed discussion of the errors is omitted. To determine the current Gregorian date.584 days) to correctly translate the GPS date signal. see the page of United States Naval Observatory). reduces this component of pseudorange error to as little as 2 millimeters.Global Positioning System 18 Timekeeping Timekeeping and leap seconds While most clocks are synchronized to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). which is about 0. month. Let denote the phase of the carrier of satellite j measured by receiver i at time to balance readability and conciseness. To address this concern the modernized GPS navigation message uses a 13-bit field that only repeats every 8. which requires specially equipped receivers. 1999). The satellite carrier total phase can be measured with ambiguity as to the number of cycles. Receivers add this offset to GPS time to calculate UTC and specific timezone values. The GPS-UTC offset field can accommodate 255 leap seconds (eight bits) that. 1999 (00:00:19 TAI on August 22. The receiver (r). GPS time was set to match Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in 1980.024 weeks (19. and day format of the Gregorian calendar. and so it becomes zero again every 1. and time (t) come in alphabetical order as arguments of be a concise abbreviation. Accuracy within 1% of wavelength in detecting the leading edge. The lack of corrections means that GPS time remains at a constant offset with International Atomic Time (TAI) (TAI – GPS = 19 seconds). j. This method has many surveying applications. the GPS date is expressed as a week number and a seconds-into-week number. given the current period of the Earth's rotation (with one leap second introduced approximately every 18 months). but has since diverged. satellite (s). First. 1980. GPS week zero started at 00:00:00 UTC (00:00:19 TAI) on January 6. so it does not contain leap seconds or other corrections that are periodically added to UTC. This compares to 3 meters for the C/A code and 0. Timekeeping accuracy GPS time is accurate to about 14 nanoseconds. and a mathematical technique called least squares can estimate the position of one receiver given the position of another. the atomic clocks on the satellites are set to GPS time (GPST. thus lasting until the year 2137 (157 years after GPS week zero). Other orders of taking differences are equally valid. compute the difference between satellites. 2 millimeter accuracy requires measuring the total phase—the number of waves times the wavelength plus the fractional wavelength. and finally between epochs.192 weeks (157 years).3 meters for the P code. New GPS units may not show the correct UTC time until after receiving the UTC offset message.19 meters for the L1 carrier.6 years). then between receivers. Also we define three . 2008. should be sufficient to last until approximately the year 2300. a GPS receiver must be provided with the approximate date (to within 3. Timekeeping format As opposed to the year. Periodic corrections are performed on the on-board clocks to keep them synchronized with ground clocks. and the week number became zero again for the first time at 23:59:47 UTC on August 21. The difference is that GPS time is not corrected to match the rotation of the Earth. which as of 2011 is 15 seconds because of the leap second added to UTC December 31. The period of the carrier frequency times the speed of light gives the wavelength. Carrier phase tracking (surveying) Another method that is used in surveying applications is carrier phase tracking. However. let . This notation shows the meaning of and the subscripts i. The GPS navigation message includes the difference between GPS time and UTC. The week number is transmitted as a ten-bit field in the C/A and P(Y) navigation messages. and k.
  An approximation of receiver 2's position is required to use such a numerical method. and time points. Also. These three functions are defined below. Receiver clock errors can be approximately eliminated by differencing the phases measured from satellite 1 with that from satellite 2 at the same epoch. which return differences between receivers.Global Positioning System functions. Processing additional time pairs can improve accuracy. and local emergency services including 911. with the values defined as variables with three subscripts as its arguments. This double difference is: Triple differencing subtracts the receiver difference from time 1 from that of time 2. j. according to Chris Dancy of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. For example if the position of receiver 1 is known but the position of receiver 2 unknown. This initial value can probably be provided from the navigation message and the intersection of sphere surfaces. Thus the triple difference result eliminates practically all clock bias errors and the integer ambiguity. . respectively. the FCC approved a wireless broadband network by the Virginia company LightSquared. : 19 . This approximately eliminates satellite clock errors. it may be possible to estimate the position of receiver 2 using numerical root finding and least squares. : . Atmospheric delay and satellite ephemeris errors have been significantly reduced. LightSquared had up to 40. overdetermining the answer with multiple solutions. This eliminates the ambiguity associated with the integral number of wave lengths in carrier phase provided this ambiguity does not change with time. If integer arguments. Iterating from three time pairs and a fairly good initial value produces one observed triple difference result for receiver 2's position. Triple difference results for three independent time pairs quite possibly will be sufficient to solve for receiver 2's three position components. . The FCC believed LightSquared would not cause problems but vowed to keep the network from operating until testing showed GPS systems would not be affected. United States Defense Department guidance. to be operational in 92 percent of the United States by 2015. Possible threat In January 2011. One problem was equipment designed to receive weak signals from satellites. This difference is designated as Double differencing computes the difference of receiver 1's satellite difference from that of receiver 2. This triple difference is: Triple difference results can be used to estimate unknown variables. Least squares determines the position of receiver 2 which best fits the observed triple difference results for receiver 2 positions under the criterion of minimizing the sum of the squares. This approval came despite concerns by GPS equipment manufacturers that the network signals could interfere with GPS. i. Each function has is a function of the three . This may require the use of a numerical procedure. and ." The problems could also affect the Federal Aviation Administration upgrade to the air traffic control system. and k then it is a valid argument for the functions. . Such a reasonable estimate can be key to successful multidimensional root finding. Also if are valid arguments for the three functions and a and b are constants then is a valid argument with values defined as . satellites. airline pilots with the type systems that would be affected "may go off course and not even realize it. and . Least squares can estimate an overdetermined system.000 ground-based transmitters whose signals would be much stronger.
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"Continuous Navigation Combining GPS with Sensor-Based Dead Reckoning" (http:/ / web. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. eurekalert. ulalaunch. Paul. globalsecurity. one intersection will be nearer the earth than the other. one point. Retrieved 2008-11-10. edu/ geography/ gcraft/ notes/ gps/ gif/ oplanes. losangeles. A receiver can approximate these effects and produce a reasonable estimate. D. . "Navstar GPS and GLONASS: global satellite navigation systems" (http:/ / ieeexplore. usno.  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www. mil/ news/ story. asp). The Guardian. United States Government. 2009). co. jsp?id=154870& pageID=6). jsp?id=154870& pageID=6) on 2006-11-11. html). "Air Force Responds to GPS Outage Concerns" (http:/ / abcnews.  Daly. pdf). com/ gpsworld/ article/ articleDetail.  Georg zur Bonsen. Globalsecurity. Crosslink: 17–21. Retrieved 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2010-10-15. GPS Solutions (Springer) 11 (1): 71–76. mil/ pub/ gps/ gpstd. GPS World. edu/ ~kristine/ gpsrep. United Launch Alliance. . Wayne Brady (Summer 2002). navcen. Retrieved 2010-11-24. go. . some receivers carefully compute the amount of atmosphere the signal traveled through and adjust the distance accordingly.  Tis-pf-nisws.comm. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ air-force-gps-problem-gli_n_595727. Etienne Favey. However. Peter H. and Larson. 3g. org/ pub/ index.  "Publications and Standards from the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA)" (http:/ / www. spotlightgps. the speed of light varies slightly between the partial vacuum of space and the atmosphere. .  "United States Naval Observatory (USNO) GPS Constellation Status" (ftp:/ / tycho. mil/ pipermail/ gps/ 2008-March/ 001625. bund. html). gov/ systems/ gps/ index. National Medal of Technology for GPS (http:/ / www. P. Retrieved 2010-06-26. uk/ PR/ November2004/ 8641. "Optimizing performance through constellation management" (http:/ / www. . Huffingtonpost. htm). 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Aviation Week. pdf)  "Latest version Commanders Digital Assistant" (http:/ / peosoldier. M. htm). de/ en/ gps/ positioning. GPS World. "Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) and Visibility" (http:/ / www. Gmat. pdf) (PDF). org/ web/ 20080610092154/ http:/ / www. archive. . pdf)PDF (126 KB)  "Global Positioning Systems" (http:/ / www. edu. . Gcn. mil/ shared/ media/ document/ AFD-070803-059.org. pdf) (PDF). and Miller A.  "Triple differencing" (http:/ / www.edu. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  chapter on root finding and nonlinear sets of equations 22 . Dennis D.de.  Sandia National Laboratory's Nonproliferation programs and arms control technology (http:/ / www.  How GPS works. . aspx)  "LightSquared Tests Confirm GPS Jamming" (http:/ / www. The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press). "The Science of Timekeeping" (http:/ / www. htm) Konowa. (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20071122063244/ http:/ / www. edu/ geography/ gcraft/ notes/ gps/ gps. af. gov/ ?pageName=gpsAlmanacs). .2. University of Colorado at Boulder.. jsp?id=news/ awx/ 2011/ 06/ 09/ awx_06_09_2011_p0-334122. Kowoma. pdf). Retrieved 20 June 2011. Gold Code Generators in Virtex Devices (http:/ / web.  Commanders Digital Assistant explanation and photo (http:/ / web. . Navstar GPS Joint Program Office. Retrieved 2010-10-15. unsw. University of Colorado at Boulder. Gmat. mil/ factsheets/ SWAR_LW_CDA. Page 103. . osti.  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www.  "Satellite message format" (http:/ / gpsinformation.. Anja Koehne. .  Dana.  United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS) (http:/ / www. NANUS. Missile Technology Control Regime (http:/ / www. . com/ Publications/ DWA/ Science_Timekeeping/ index. xml& headline=LightSquared Tests Confirm GPS Jamming& channel=busav).au. allanstime.unsw. Allan (1997). losangeles.  "Air Force Successfully Transmits an L5 Signal From GPS IIR-20(M) Satellite" (http:/ / www. aspx). McCrady.  "George.  "GPS Almanacs. net/ gpssignal.edu.  "Interface Specification IS-GPS-200. com/ contractors/ computers/ lago/ lago6. howstuffworks. . gov/ bridge/ servlets/ purl/ 10176800-S2tU7w/ native/ 10176800. fas. com/ Determination+ of+ GPS+ receiver+ position+ using+ Multivariate. Peter H. . "The GPS Burst Detector W-Sensor" (http:/ / www.au. com/ articles/ 2003/ 07/ 24/ soldiers-take-digital-assistants-to-war.  "XM982 Excalibur Precision Guided Extended Range Artillery Projectile" (http:/ / www.  Michael Woessner. archive. . html)  Sinha. Retrieved 2010-10-15. archive.  Dr. htm) at How Stuff Works  Press. .2  David W.au. uscg.  "Between-Satellite Differencing" (http:/ / www.com. asp?storyID=123144001). (http:/ / www. losangeles. M. 2006. November 5.de (2005). Retrieved 2009-09-09. com/ aw/ generic/ story. au/ snap/ gps/ gps_survey/ chap6/ 635. com/ gadgets/ travel/ gps2. "Commanders and Soldiers' GPS-receivers" (http:/ / gcn. Retrieved May 17. de/ en/ gps/ data_composition. htm). mil/ news/ story. kowoma.  "Double differencing" (http:/ / www. . LA AFB News Release. unsw. org/ military/ systems/ munitions/ m982-155. edu. colorado. Velocity. Retrieved 2010-10-15. Hamid. org/ web/ 20071201034857/ http:/ / peosoldier. aviationweek.net. 2007-05-29. gmat. globalsecurity. htm). GlobalSecurity. htm)  First GPS IIF Satellite Undergoes Environmental Testing (http:/ / mg. Revision D: Navstar GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-09-26. af.Global Positioning System  Arms Control Association. gmat. . Numerical Recipes. sandia. army-technology. uscg. htm). org/ spp/ military/ program/ nssrm/ initiatives/ usnds. gmat. html#Gdop).  Peter H. xilinx..org campaign (http:/ / www.unsw. pdf) (PDF). htm). Flannery. html#PosVelTime). edu/ ~halverson/ math36/ GPS.  gpsworld. Retrieved 2009-10-13. . Tekolsky. Retrieved 2008-07-07. htm). Gmat.com report (http:/ / www.  "Determination of GPS receiver position using Multivariate Newton-Raphson Technique for over specified cases" (http:/ / www. gpsworld. org/ studies-reports.unsw. htm) Konowa. kowoma. com/ support/ documentation/ application_notes/ xapp217. armscontrol. htm). gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. United States Coast Guard. Sandia National Laboratories. . au/ snap/ gps/ gps_survey/ chap6/ 636. com/ gpsmg/ Military+ & + Government+ News/ First-GPS-IIF-Satellite-Undergoes-Environmental-Te/ ArticleStandard/ Article/ detail/ 470408?contextCategoryId=33824). navcen. html). Vandana (2003-07-24). de/ en/ gps/ signals.edu. -a0216041321). Section 1. org/ documents/ mtcr). macalester. gov/ LabNews/ LN03-07-03/ LA2003/ la03/ arms_story. .
com/ ?id=t1lBTH42mOcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=GPS+and+GALILEO#v=onepage&q&f=false).afspc. • Air Force Space Command GPS Operations Center homepage (http://web. 2007. • U. The global positioning system (http://books. "Internet network may jam GPS in cars. Retrieved 20 June 2011.mil/gpsoc/) • The GPS Program Office (GPS Wing) (http://gps.com/?id=lvI1a5J_4ewC).losangeles. com/ 2011/ 04/ 07/ 2085752/ internet-network-may-jam-gps-in.gov/orbits/) Orbits for the Global Positioning System satellites in the Global Navigation Satellite System .org/web/20061114044246/ http://gps.ngs. Retrieved 2009-10-13.gps. .usace. com/ 2009/ 03/ 23/ technology/ 23iht-galileo23. Books. html).google.af.Global Positioning System  Preview of Root Finding (http:/ / books. The Sun News. Eng.usace. Retrieved 2011-04-07. Juan Melendez (2009). United States Coast Guard. com/ aw/ generic/ story.google. External links • Global Positioning System (http://www.  "LightSquared Tests Confirm GPS Jamming" (http:/ / www.  Beidou coverage  "Beidou satellite navigation system to cover whole world in 2020" (http:/ / eng. google.archive.gov/)—Established in 2004 to oversee management of GPS and GPS augmentations at a national level. com. GPS and Galileo (http://books. Joelle (2011-04-07).army. asmmag. • Nathaniel Bowditch (2002).htm) and PDF (22. Asmmag. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.org/web/20080625111519/http://www. . com/ ?id=UQW_VL2H56IC& pg=PA959& lpg=PA959& dq="Numerical+ Analysis"+ multidimension+ + root+ finding#PPA442. Retrieved 2010-10-15.uscg.S. .archive.gov/)—General public education website created by the U.mil/)—Responsible for designing and acquiring the system on behalf of the United States Government. government policy. . Aviation Week. xml& headline=LightSquared Tests Confirm GPS Jamming& channel=busav).army.af.com.6 MB.mil/publications/eng-manuals/em1110-1-1003/toc.org/web/20080822132227/ http://www. Roc Berenguer. 23 References II • "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http://www. Also includes satellite almanac data.cn. cn/ news-channels/ china-military-news/ 2010-05/ 20/ content_4222569.uscg. chinamil. mapping and surveying technologies for Asia" (http:/ / www. and links to other references. jets" (http:/ / www. • Jaizki Mendizabal.  New York Times (http:/ / www. aviationweek.com.S.google.  Tessler. pdf) (PDF). ISBN 9781563471063.faa.com.mil/publications/ eng-manuals/em1110-1-1003/entire.navcen. Army Corps of Engineers manual: NAVSTAR HTML (http://web. html?_r=1& scp=1& sq=chinese europe galileo& st=cse)  "ASM. September 1996.org/Science/Earth_Sciences/Geomatics/ Global_Positioning_System/) at the Open Directory Project • GPS. ISBN 9780521880688.gov (http://www.chinamil.navcen. remote sensing.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/ navservices/gnss/faq/gps/) • National Geodetic Survey (http://www.gov/?pageName=GPS)—Status of the GPS constellation.M1). Further reading • Parkinson. Retrieved 2010-10-15. spatial information.archive. thesunnews. jsp?id=news/ awx/ 2011/ 06/ 09/ awx_06_09_2011_p0-334122.gov/pubs/gps/gpsuser/gpsuser. McGraw Hill. .pdf) • FAA GPS FAQ (http://www. GNSS. nytimes.dmoz. • USCG Navigation Center (http://www. Government • National Space-Based PNT Executive Committee (http://pnt. Spilker (1996). com/ news/ india-to-launch-1st-irnss-satellite-by-december). News on GIS.noaa. ISBN 978-0071598699. The American Practical Navigator – Chapter 11 Satellite Navigation. 328 pages) (http://web. United States government. htm).
One of the political aims with Galileo is to provide a high-accuracy positioning system upon which European nations can rely independent from the Russian GLONASS and US GPS systems. The €20 billion project is named after the famous Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. Galileo will provide a global Search and Rescue (SAR) function. what can be done to stop deliberate and dangerous jamming of the signals? The Economist (http://www. This latter feature is new and is considered a major upgrade compared to the existing GPS and GLONASS navigation systems.afspc. each satellite will be equipped with a transponder.gmat. one near Munich.pdf)—The official Standard Positioning Service specification (2001 version).nl/documents/show_document. • Satellite Navigation: GPS & Galileo (PDF) (http://paul. The use of basic (low-accuracy) Galileo services will be free and open to everyone.af.au/snap/gps/gps_survey/ chap6/611.detmich.com/node/ 18304246?story_id=18304246&fsrc=rss) 24 Galileo (satellite navigation) Galileo is a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) currently being built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). php?d=6)—16-page paper about the history and working of GPS.unsw. As a further feature.kowoma. it will use the two ground operations centres. and another in Fucino.de/en/gps/errors. which is able to transfer the distress signals from the user's transmitter to the Rescue Co-ordination Centre. Italy. which will then initiate the rescue operation.aspx) • "Sources of Errors in GPS" (http://www.com/Resources/GIS/Locations/average-latitude-longitude-countries. . which do not provide feedback to the user. • GPS SPS Performance Standard (http://gps.luminos.au/snap/gps/ gps_survey/chap3/323.gov/public/docs/2008/spsps2008.pdf)—The official Precise Positioning Service specification. informing them that their situation has been detected and that help is on the way.pdf)—The official Standard Positioning Service specification (2008 version).mil/gpsoc/documents/GPS_Signal_Spec.edu.edu.mil/gpsoc/documents/ PPS_PS_Signed_Final_23_Feb_07. • GPS PPS Performance Standard (http://gps. Galileo logo The navigation system is intended to provide measurements down to the metre range as a free service including the height (altitude) above sea level.htm) • GPS and GLONASS Simulation (http://rhp. The high-accuracy capabilities will be available for paying commercial users and for military use. and better positioning services at high latitudes compared to GPS and GLONASS. the system will provide a signal to the user. mobilgistix.htm) • GPS jamming – As the uses of satellite-positioning technology continue to grow. When in operation.Global Positioning System • GPS SPS Performance Standard (http://pnt.archive.afspc. which can be disabled for commercial users in times of war or conflict. Initial date of the system becoming operational was 2012. At the same time.com/gps.gmat.af.unsw.html) (Java applet) Simulation and graphical depiction of space vehicle motion including computation of dilution of precision (DOP) • University of New South Wales: Carrier Phase Measurement (http://www. touching on the upcoming Galileo • Average Latitude & Longitude of Countries (http://web. Germany. To do so.htm) • University of New South Wales: Carrier Beat Phase (http://www.org/web/20080822000330/http://www.economist. but later it was moved for a number of times and is unlikely to be ready before  2018.
France. a move that could meet part of the cost of the union's Galileo satellite . The European system will only be subject to shutdown for military purposes in extreme circumstances. The first four operational satellites for navigation will be launched in 2011 and once this In-Orbit Validation (IOV) phase has been completed. Until 2000. national security capabilities. Italy and the United Kingdom) for Galileo were compared and reduced to one by a joint team of engineers from all four countries. European Union member states decided it was important to have a satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure that the US could not easily turn off in times of political conflict." A few months later. unlike the United States system. The first stage of the Galileo programme was agreed upon officially on 26 May 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency.S. Costs for the project have run 50% over initial estimates. was launched in 2005 and was followed by a second test satellite. which the U. Although a decision was yet too be reached.S. necessarily included all previous years of sales). German Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee was particularly doubtful about the consortium's ability to end the infighting at a time when only one testbed satellite had been successfully launched. GIOVE-B." The first experimental satellite.1 billion. In June 2004. "Galileo is almost dead.Galileo (satellite navigation) 25 History In 1999. pending a review in 2003 (which was finalised on 26 May 2003). military and its allies would be able to use it in time of conflict. the situation changed dramatically. following the September 11. The final cost is estimated at €3 billion.1) allowing the coexistence of both GPS and Galileo. Early 2007. which is to be constructed in the years 2006 and 2007. arguing that it would end the ability of the United States to shut down satellite navigation in times of military operations. £370m) from the union's competitiveness budget for the following year and shifting some of that cash to other parts of the financing pot. reserves the right to limit the signal strength or accuracy of GPS. 2001 attacks. or to shut down public GPS access completely. On 30 November 2007 the 27 EU transportation ministers involved reached an agreement that it should be operational by 2013.S. The European Commission had some difficulty getting money for the project's next stage. Partially in reaction to the pressure exerted by the U. the precision of the signal available to non-U. and the future combined use of both systems.1) (Binary Offset Carrier 1. The starting cost for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at €1. An encrypted higher-bandwidth Commercial Service with improved accuracy would be available at an extra cost. The required satellites (the planned number is 30) will be launched throughout the period 2006–2010 and the system will be up and running and under civilian control from 2010. The plan was for private companies and investors to invest at least two-thirds of the cost of implementation. additional satellites will be launched. launched in 2008. after several allegedly "per annum" sales projection graphs for the project were exposed in November 2001 as "cumulative" projections (which for each year projected. in a signed agreement with the United States. as a result of U.S. It will be available at its full precision to both civil and military users. so that only the U. including the infrastructure on Earth. the European Union agreed to switch to a modulation known as BOC(1. the EU had yet to decide how to pay for the system and the project was said to be "in deep crisis" due to lack of more public funds. however. On 17 January 2002 a spokesman for the project stated that.S.S. with the EU and ESA dividing the remaining cost. The European Union also agreed to address the "mutual concerns related to the  protection of allied and U.S. on Friday the 13th of July 2007 EU countries discussed cutting €548m ($755m. but later press releases suggest it was delayed to 2014. The attention that was brought to this multi-billion euro exponentially growing error in sales forecasts resulted in a general awareness in the Commission and elsewhere that the program did not have near the return on investment that had been presented to the investors and decision-makers up until that point. The U. Additionally. The system is intended primarily for civilian use. GIOVE-A. with the base Open Service freely available to anyone with a Galileo-compatible receiver. pressure and economic difficulties. military runs and uses on a primary basis. the United States Government wrote to the European Union opposing the project. The European Union and the European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to fund the project.-military users was limited (due to a timing pulse distortion process known as selective availability). Government. the different concepts (from Germany.
In that same month. the EU transport ministers approved the Galileo Implementation Regulation. The BBC understands 500m euros (£440m) will become available to make the extra purchase. the European Court of Auditors published a report. The think tank Open Europe has estimated the total cost of Galileo from start to completion.5-€1. As of March 2010 it was verified that the budget for Galileo would only be available to provide the 4 IOV and 14 FOC satellites by 2014.7 billion. Paul Verhoef. of which only €2. that would mean that for three weeks in the year you will not have satellite navigation" in reference to the currently proposed 18 vehicle constellation. Current budget for 2006-2013 period planned for €3. In December 2010 EU ministers in Brussels have voted Prague (Czech Republic) as the headquarters of the Galileo project. the European Commission cut the number of satellites from 28 to 22. Under the original estimates (from 2000) this cost would have been €7. PRS and SoL signal will be available in 2013 and the CS and SOL sometime later. Wikileaks revealed the opinion of CEO of German satellite company OHB-System.Galileo (satellite navigation) navigation system. it was agreed to reallocate funds from the EU's agriculture and administration budgets and to soften the tendering process in order to invite more EU companies. the system will need to be subsidized by governments at €750 million per year. European Union research and development projects could be scrapped to overcome a funding shortfall. In November 2007. with plans to order the remaining six at a later time.9 billion was planned to be spent   bringing the system up to the full complement of 30 satellites (27 operational + 3 active spares). Berry Smutny. In April 2008. In July 2010 the European Commission estimated further delays and additional costs of the project to grow up to €1. In January 2011. at a staggering €22.2 billion — a cost which will be borne entirely by taxpayers. The launch of the first four in-orbit validation (IOV) satellites is currently planned for the 2nd half of 2011. leading to further delays and failures. In November 2009. An additional €1. a ground station for Galileo was inaugurated near Kourou (French Guiana). He is quoted saying that  Galileo "is a stupid idea that primarily serves French interests". while the launch of full operational capability (FOC) satellites is planned to start in late 2012. infrastructure costs up to 2020 were estimated at €5.4 billion was also considered as insufficient.4bn to be released from the EU's agriculture and administration budgets. After it's completed. taking Europe's version of GPS from 18 operational satellites in the next few years to 24. and then running it over a 20 year period. This allowed the €3. It also announced that the first OS. 26 . pointing out governance issues.6 billion was to be borne by taxpayers and the rest by private investors. the then current satellite navigation program manager at the European Commission indicated that this limited funding would have serious consequences commenting at one point "To give you an idea. with no funds currently committed to bring the constellation above this 60% capacity. substantial delays and budget overruns that led to project stalling in 2007. This will allow the issuing of contracts to start construction of the ground station and the satellites. In October 2009.3 billion.7 billion and moved the estimated date of completion to 2018. In June 2009.
China was to invest €230 million (USD 302 million.9 million toward development costs and allowing its companies to bid for the construction contracts. As of November 2005. This greatly improves the viability of the Galileo project: "The EU's executive had previously said that if agreement was not reached by January 2008. China abandoned the programme and decided to develop an independent global navigation system: Beidou navigation system. On 30 November 2007. GBP 155 million. On 3 June 2005 the EU and Ukraine signed an agreement for Ukraine to join the project.34 billion) in the project over the following years. On 12 January 2006. the 27 member states of the European Union unanimously agreed to move forward with the project. Israel signed an agreement with the EU to become a partner in the Galileo project. Political implications of Galileo project Tension with the United States .Galileo (satellite navigation) 27 International involvement In September 2003." On 3 April 2009. CNY 2. South Korea joined the programme. Norway too joined the programme pledging €68. Morocco also joined the programme. In November 2006. In July 2004. Spain did not approve during the initial vote. the long-troubled project would essentially be dead. China joined the Galileo project. Norway while not a member of the EU is a member of the ESA. with plans for bases in Germany and Italy. as noted in a press release. but approved it later that day.
As old satellites are replaced in the GPS modernization program. A primary motivation for the Galileo project was international concern that the US could deny others access to GPS during political disagreements. SA was disabled by the then President of the United States Bill Clinton. but have since reached a compromise.Galileo (satellite navigation) Galileo is intended to be an EU GNSS civilian system that allows all users access to it. At first. that Galileo was to use a different frequency. SA will cease to exist. while also providing somewhat accurate location signals to others. However. it can create an even more accurate GNSS system. Availability still exists. Galileo's proponents argued that civil infrastructure. GPS is a US GNSS military system that provides location signals that have high accuracy to US military users. The modernization programme also contains standardized features that allow GPS III and Galileo systems to inter-operate. 28 GPS and Galileo One of the reasons given for developing Galileo as an independent system was that GPS is widely used worldwide for civilian applications. EU officials did not want to change their original plans for Galileo. On May 1. available to all countries and everyone. 2000. Some US officials became especially concerned when  Chinese interest in Galileo was reported. This could intentionally render the locations given via GPS inaccurate. which until 2000 had Selective Availability (SA) enabled (and could be re-enabled). allowing a new receiver to utilise both systems to improve accuracy. This allowed the blocking/jamming of one GNSS system without affecting the other. the US was concerned that an enemy could use Galileo signals in military strikes against the US (some weapons like missiles use GNSS systems for guidance). The frequency initially chosen for Galileo would have made it impossible for the US to block the Galileo signals without also interfering with their own GPS signals. the US Department of Defense announced that the new GPS satellites will not be capable of implementing Selective Availability. and in late 2001. the frequency difference also makes it possible to jam the GPS without affecting the Galileo. The EU's stance is that Galileo is a neutral technology. Since Galileo was designed to provide the highest possible accuracy (possibly even greater than GPS) to anyone. Letter from Paul Wolfowitz to the Ministers of the EU states Some US officials have threatened to shoot down Galileo from December 2001 as part of the US-lobbying campaign satellites in the event of a major conflict in which Galileo was against Galileo used in attacks against American forces. the entity  Though Selective managing the GPS confirmed that they never intend to enable selective availability again. should not rely solely upon GPS. on 19 September 2007. This means the wave of Block IIF satellites launched in 2009 (and all subsequent GPS satellites) do not support SA. The GPS had the capability to block the "civilian" signals while still being able to use the "military" signal (M-band). . By combining GPS and Galileo. including aeroplane navigation and landing. The US did not want to lose their GNSS capability with GPS while denying enemies the use of GNSS. giving the US a greater advantage in conflicts in which it has the electronic warfare upper hand.
The concept Each satellite will have two types of atomic clocks 4 in total (2 rubidium frequency standards and 2 passive hydrogen masers) . These clocks will provide an accurate timing signal for a receiver to calculate the time that it takes the signal to reach the target.critical to any sat-nav system and a number of other components. see GNSS and GNSS positioning calculation. Feasible to send feedback. Government agencies will be main users.7 m x 1. This information is used to calculate the position of the receiver by trilaterating the difference in received signals from multiple satellites. For more information of the concept of global satellite navigation systems. Other secondary services will also be available. For applications where guaranteed accuracy is essential. • Commercial Navigation (Encrypted): High accuracy to the centimetre.7 m • power of solar arrays: 1. ascending nodes separated by 120° longitude (9 operational satellites and one active spare per orbital plane) • satellite lifetime: >12 years • satellite mass: 675 kg • satellite body dimensions: 2. Integrity messages will warn of errors.1 m • span of solar arrays: 18. Simple timing and positioning down to 1 metre. • Public Regulated Navigation (Encrypted): Continuous availability even in time of crisis. 56° inclination. Guaranteed service for which service providers will charge fees. confirming help is on its way. • Safety Of Life Navigation: Open service.222 km (MEO) • 3 orbital planes. • Search And Rescue: System will pick up distress beacon locations.500 W (end of life) Services The Galileo system will have five main services: • Open Access Navigation: This will be 'free to air' and for use by the mass market.Galileo (satellite navigation) 29 Final system description Galileo satellites • 30 in-orbit spacecraft (including 3 spares) • orbital altitude: 23.2 m x 1. .
It was built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). GIOVE-A2. has provided industry with fundamental knowledge to develop the mission segment of the Galileo positioning system. successfully launched on 28 December 2005 by the European Space Agency and the Galileo Joint. a process that was required to be complete by June 2006.m. ESA organised the global network of ground stations to collect the measurements of GIOVE-A/B with the use of the GETR receivers for further systematic study. It was successfully launched on 27 April 2008 at 22:16 UTC (4. £510M). led by ESA and European Satellite Navigation Industries. In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites These testbed satellites will be followed by four IOV Galileo satellites that will be much closer to the final Galileo satellite design. has a more advanced payload than GIOVE-A. Thales Alenia Space subcontract performances to Astrium Gmbh and security to Thales Communications. it was announced that the contract to build the first 14 FOC satellites was awarded to OHB System and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). Those 4 IOV Galileo satellites were constructed by Astrium GmbH. £358M). • GIOVE-A is the first GIOVE (Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element) test GIOVE-A was successfully launched satellite. Once this In-Orbit Validation (IOV) phase has been completed. This project. Arianespace will launch the satellites for a cost of 397M euros ($569M. (Baikonur time) aboard a Soyuz-FG/Fregat rocket provided by Starsem. Signal analysis of GIOVE-A/B data has confirmed successful operation of all the Galileo signals with the tracking performance as expected. GETR receivers are supplied by Septentrio as well as the first Galileo navigation receivers to be used to test the functioning of the system at further stages of its deployment. the remaining satellites will be installed to reach the Full Operational Capability. The European Commission announced also that the contract of 85 million euros for the System support covering industrial services required by ESA for integration and validation of Galileo System was awarded to Thales Alenia Space. built by Astrium and Thales Alenia Space. Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites On 7 January 2010.Galileo (satellite navigation) 30 Satellite system Galileo satellite test beds: GIOVE In 2004 the Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 (GSTB-V1) project validated the on-ground algorithms for Orbit Determination and Time Synchronisation (OD&TS). The launch of the first pair of satellites is scheduled for the second half of 2011. Construction of GIOVE-A2 was terminated due to the successful launch and in-orbit operation of GIOVE-B. . was originally planned to be built by SSTL for launch in the second half of 2008.  The GIOVE Mission  segment operated by European Satellite Navigation Industries is exploiting the GIOVE-A/B satellites to provide experimental results based on real data to be used for risk mitigation for the IOV satellites that will follow on from the testbeds.16 a. • GIOVE-B. Operation of GIOVE-A ensured that Galileo meets the frequency-filing allocation and reservation requirements for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Fourteen satellites will be built at a cost of 566M euros ($811M. and 28 December 2005. The first two satellites are scheduled to launch on 20 October 2011 from Guiana Space Centre using the Soyuz launcher. A third satellite.
The AGILE  project is an EU-funded project devoted to the study of the technical and commercial aspects of Location-based Services (LBS). do?reference=IP/ 10/ 7& language=en).  Van Der Jagt. dubbed GEO6 .  Taverna. WLAN. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 7120041. html)  Johnson. The GEO6  project aims at fostering possible novel applications within the scientific UC of GNSS signals. 2010-01-07. html). . an international consortium of universities and research institutions embarked on a study of potential scientific applications of the Galileo constellation. colour gold-brown. the GEO6  project addresses the Scientific User Community (UC). . also studying the hybridisation of Galileo with other positioning technologies (network-based. The coin has a silver ring and niobium “pill”. msn. and particularly of Galileo.co. It includes technical analysis of the benefits brought by Galileo (and EGNOS). guardian.1518. 2001  Guardian. Holt. This project. .Galileo (satellite navigation) 31 Science projects using Galileo In July 2006.uk (http:/ / www. Michael A.721761. Within these project. Aviation Weekly. esa. esa. . co.  "What is Galileo?" (http:/ / www. Chalmers (2007). html). Retrieved 2010-04-19. Spiegel. the niobium portion depicts navigation satellites orbiting the Earth. Coins The European Satellite Navigation project was selected as the main motif of a very high value collectors' coin: the Austrian European Satellite Navigation commemorative coin. xml.  EU: Galileo project in deep 'crisis' (http:/ / www. In the reverse. html). com/ id/ 19750947/ ) European Satellite Navigation commemorative coin . com/ aw/ generic/ story_channel. de/ international/ europe/ 0.com (http:/ / www. a set of Priority Applications (PA) will be selected by the consortium and they will be developed within the time frame of the same Project. a container ship. potential revenues for Galileo Operating Company or Concessionaire (GOC). int/ esaNA/ GGGMX650NDC_galileo_0. bbc. minted on 1 March 2006.3604. international relevance. and level of innovation. 2007-11-30. uk/ uk_news/ story/ 0. . usmission. BBC.00.  "EU Expects Galileo Project Costs to Explode" (http:/ / www.00. http:/ / www. 235. Retrieved 2010-12-21. troubles. msnbc. Notes and references Notes  "Why Europe needs Galileo" (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ TECH/ 05/ 08/ galileo. Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. 2011. ESA. spiegel. CNN  MSN. Culver "Galileo: The Declaration of European Independence" a presentation at the Royal Institute of Navigation November 7. aviationweek. The ring shows different modes of transport (an aeroplane. is a 360-degree study oriented to the scientific community in its broader sense. Among the various GNSS users identified by the Galileo Joint Undertaking . cnn.  "Commission awards major contracts to make Galileo operational early 2014" (http:/ / europa.). gov/ Article. aiming to define and implement new applications of Galileo. ap/ index.. 2010-04-11. int/ esaNA/ GGG0H750NDC_galileo_0. These applications will help to increase and optimise the use of the EGNOS services as well as the opportunities offered by the Galileo Signal Test-Bed (GSTB-V2) and the Galileo (IOV) phase.  US-EU Agreement on Galileo (http:/ / useu. On the basis of the potential number of users. a train and a lorry) for which satellite navigation was developed. stm). Retrieved 2010-04-21. a car. some pilot prototypes were implemented and demonstrated. ESA. Retrieved 2010-04-19.1102126. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. etc. 2010-04-12. html). jsp?channel=space& id=news/ awst/ 2011/ 01/ 24/ AW_01_24_2011_p39-284139. p. asp?ID=E671D95A-FC0B-4AC5-BDCD-7F89291D2670)  "'Unanimous backing' for Galileo" (http:/ / news. co.
gnss-geo6. 7 January 2005  GIOVE-A2 to secure the Galileo programme (http:/ / www. aspx?pressreleaseid=142). Hawaii. cfm?item_id=5052& lang=en& tpa=0& displayType=news). 5 March 2007  GIOVE mission core infrastructure (http:/ / www. stm). co.  http:/ / www. 26 February 2007.int (23 May 2011). Hilton Hawaiian Village. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association. html)  "Galileo’s navigation control hub opens in Fucino" (http:/ / www. int/ esaNA/ SEM9IVMSNNG_galileo_0. "European Commission: Enterprise & Industry Latest News". eu/ enterprise/ newsroom/ cf/ itemlongdetail.  Selective Availability (http:/ / www.  European Court of Auditors . 2007. ESA. galileo-in-lbs. int/ esaCP/ SEM8LNN0LYE_index_0. stm). com/ news-eu/ 1195858921. 30 November 2007. "The EU’s Galileo satellite project could cost UK taxpayers £2. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0BPW/ is_12_13/ ai_n27579865). esa. legal and financial news and information from the European Union (http:/ / www. BBC News. com/ news/ milspace-04zc. no/ spesial/ wikileaksdokumenter/ article3985655. com/ aw/ generic/ story_generic. co. Unpublished Manuscript. eu/ portal/ pls/ portal/ docs/ 1/ 2760294. europa.  GPSdaily. 2010-12-20. December 2002. . do?reference=IP/ 05/ 666& format=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en)  Marks. 23 November 2007. php).  "Galileo legal process ticks over" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Retrieved 10 June 2011. pdf)  Press release (http:/ / europa. Retrieved 3 May 2010. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 7109971. Bastian (2005). U.Transatlantic Conflict and the Galileo System" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 3 May 2010. .com (http:/ / www. com/ / meta/ p_mla_apa_research_citation/ 0/ 7/ 2/ 1/ 4/ pages72145/ p72145-1. allacademic. . defenselink. esa. co.Radio Free Europe. org. co. html). esa. html).  Prague To Host EU Satellite Navigation Agency (http:/ / www. org/  http:/ / www. com/ 32 . official website of esa  Initial Galileo Validation Satellites Delayed (http:/ / www. openeurope.BBC News. html). ESA press release. spacenews. ESA News release. aspx?releaseid=11335). html). esa. eu-del. Retrieved 2006-11-09. 7 April 2008. GPS World. aftenposten.  One year of Galileo signals. "Satellite States . NewScientist. .  Inauguration of site of Galileo station at Kourou (http:/ / www. html). mil/ releases/ release. . html)  "EU. Mar 05. gpsdaily. esa. html) . 18 September 2007. org. . accessed May 3. faa.org. ESA News release. ece  http:/ / www. bbc. esa. . bbc. int/ esaNA/ SEMYN6TP82G_galileo_0. bbc.business.com .com. BBC News. uk/ media-centre/ pressrelease. . . bbc. April 11. int/ esaNA/ SEMWL4N0LYE_index_0. FindArticles. 2005. 15)  "Galileo 'compromise' is emerging" (http:/ / news. 2004. html#subhead5). com/ reports/ Norway_joins_EUs_Galileo_satnav_project_999. . Honolulu. eubusiness. . uk/ news/ science-environment-13871198  China joins EU's satellite network (http:/ / news. europa. cfm). AFP. stm).  esa.  "US Could Shoot Down EU Satellites if Used by Foes in Wartime" (http:/ / www.S. gov/ about/ office_org/ headquarters_offices/ ato/ service_units/ techops/ navservices/ gnss/ gps/ policy/ availability/ index. Press release. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 8442090.com. galileoju. stm) . aviationweek.Galileo (satellite navigation)  EU agrees 2008 budget to include Galileo financing — EUbusiness. esa. October 24. int/ esaNA/ SEM6KYP3K3E_index_0. split over Galileo M-code overlay" (http:/ / findarticles. Retrieved 2008-12-09. xml& headline=Europe Cuts Galileo Sats Order)  openeurope. com/ article/ dn10472-chinas-satellite-navigation-plans-threaten-galileo. int/ esaCP/ SEM4JMSRJHG_index_1. co. "China's satellite navigation plans threaten Galileo" (http:/ / www. "Galileo: Europe prepares for October launch" (http:/ / www.  "'Unanimous backing' for Galileo" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2007-12-17. bbc.Special Report on the management of the Galileo programme's development and validation phase (http:/ / eca. co. 19 September 2003  Press release (http:/ / www. 2011. int/ esaNA/ SEMUGJRMTWE_galileo_0. jsp?channel=space& id=news/ Gal102609. Retrieved 2008-12-09.6 billion more than originally planned" (http:/ / www. bbc. newscientist. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  "DoD Permanently Discontinues Procurement Of Global Positioning System Selective Availability" (http:/ / www. org/ content/ prague_galileo_agency/ 2245066.Europe Cuts Galileo Sats Order (http:/ / www.  Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 experimentation is now complete (http:/ / www. 12 January 2007. Press release. 13 December 2010  http:/ / www. stm). html). html). eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. uk/ 1/ hi/ business/ 3121682. new website opens (http:/ / www. Retrieved August 31. spacedaily.uk (17 October 2010). com  http:/ / www.  Giegerich.  "Launch site ready for first Galileo launch" (http:/ / ec. 2011.  "EU awards Galileo satellite-navigation contracts" (http:/ / news. html). com/ civil/ 100310-initial-galileo-validation-satellites-delayed. Paul. il/ hebrew/ 6180 press release Israel 18052005. Retrieved 24 November 2010. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 7120041. ESA press release. DefenseLink. rferl. uk/ 1/ hi/ sci/ tech/ 7335833. BBC News. . BBC News date= 7 January 2010. PDF)  Aviation Week .
GPS and Galileo (http://books. 13. A.V36 2002. Roc Berenguer.: Status of Galileo Frequency and Signal Design (http://ec. 2004. European Journal of Navigation. et al..com/indexe. B. Galileo : The Declaration of European Independence : a dissertation (2002). May 2002. 30–37. 30 cm.. ISBN 978-0071598699.org/) GPS 2002.. 2838–2850. • Dr Richard North: Galileo .The Military and Political Dimensions.pdf).globalsecurity.europa. 2001. “Block Acquisition of weak GPS signals in a software receiver”. Culver W.gsa. ION (http://www.com/ ?id=t1lBTH42mOcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=GPS+and+GALILEO#v=onepage&q&f=false).com/products/ublox5/technology/galileo.htm). 6. European Commission. McGraw Hill. Salt Lake City. Jeremie Godet. • Bandemer.. 3.com/) – EU-funded project devoted to the analysis of LBS applications and how Galileo will contribute to enhance them • u-blox 5 GALILEO GPS chips (http://www. • Dee Ann Divis: Military role for Galileo emerges (http://www. • Jean-Luc Issler. No. . Konovaltsev.org/org/news/2002/ 020514-gps. Proceedings of ION GPS 2001. CALL #JZ1254 .int/esaNA/galileo. 2003 • Guenter W.u-blox. “Performance of acquisition methods for Galileo SW receivers”. Vol..ion.prs-pacific. A. June. Denks.esa. H. M.htm) – Host Europe • The GEO6 project (http://www. particularly GALILEO • PACIFIC Project (http://www. Utah. Gunter W. Vol. pp.galileo-navigationssystem. GALILEO and GLONASS satellites.com/ gpsworld/article/articleDetail. pp.org/) – EU-funded project to develop GALILEO Receivers for Mass Market Applications • AGILE project (http://www. GPS World. GPS World. .org/) – EU-funded project devoted to the investigation in scientific applications using GNSS. pp 17–9.int/esaNA/galileo. No. p.html) – Europa • European GNSS Supervisory Authority (GSA) (http://www.galileo-in-lbs.eu/) – Europa • Official website (http://www.html) – ESA Other • News and Information (http://www. 2003.gpsworld. Hornbostel. July 2006 • Van Der Jagt. Further reading • Psiaki. Hein. September 11–14.ntlab. et al. + 1 CD-ROM External links Official websites • Official website (http://www. Juan Melendez (2009). 14.jsp?id=61244). 10. 5.eu/ dgs/energy_transport/galileo/doc/galileo_stf_ion2002. 850 p. L. no.: Galileo Frequency and Signal Design (http://www.html) – First receivers to simultaneously track GPS and GALILEO satellites • NTLab GALILEO + GPS + GLONASS chips (http://www. vol.4.greatproject. the 14th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation.europa.eu/) – PACIFIC • GREAT project (http://www.esa.google. : ill.com/) – First chips to simultaneously track GPS. Hein.Galileo (satellite navigation) 33 References • The Galileo Project – GALILEO Design consolidation.gnss-geo6. Proc. • Jaizki Mendizabal. Description xxv.
bbc. 21 December 2004 • Dead heat for Galileo companies (http://news.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6644697.stm) .co. 26 December 2005 • Europe launches Galileo satellite (http://news.co. 8 May 2007 Galileo Project in deep crisis (http://edition.BBC News.stm) . 10 December 2004 • Four Galileo spacecraft ordered (http://news.stm) BBC News.bbc.stm) . 10 May 2007 EU looks to public funds for satellite system (http://www.stm) .stm) .ca/technology/story/2007/06/08/ tech-galileo-funding.bbc.Galileo (satellite navigation) Press coverage • Green light for Galileo project (http://news.stm) .uk/2/hi/science/nature/4085651.bbc.bbc. 27 June 2005 • Q&A: Europe's Galileo project (http://news.cbc.BBC News. 1 March 2005 • Consortia combine to run Galileo (http://news.troubles.uk/1/hi/business/3121682.BBC News.co.co. 10 June 2007 Galileo demo sat to be despatched (http://news.CNN.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4308975.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4115761.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4555298.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3839809. BBC News.BBC News.co. CBC News.cbc.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4627661.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4610452.BBC News. 28 December 2005 • First Galileo signals received (http://news.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1893022.bbc.CBC. 19 September 2003 • EU-US strike sat-navigation deal (http://news.html) .BBC News.BBC News.edn. 13 • • • • • • • January 2006 First commercial Galileo receiver (http://www. 6 March 2008 34 . 8 May 2007 Galileo firms miss key deadline (http://news.BBC News.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7278616. 26 June 2004 • Europe presses ahead on sat-navigation (http://news.stm) .co.stm) .bbc.stm) .stm).bbc.bbc.BBC News.co.EDN.co. 11 December 2006 Galileo System in Deep Crisis (http://news.com/article/CA6373171. 18 September 2006 EU seeks input on use of Galileo navigation system (http://www.ca/technology/story/2006/12/11/ tech-galileo.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4555276.html) .co.bbc.bbc. 26 March 2002 • China joins EU's satellite network (http://news.cnn.BBC News.co.co.stm) .bbc.co.co.com/2007/TECH/05/08/galileo.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6634285.html).ap) .bbc.stm) .BBC News.
the name given by Chinese astronomers to the seven brightest stars of Ursa Major or 'the Great Bear' constellation. BeiDou-1B followed on 20 December 2000. It may refer to either one or both generations of the Chinese navigation system. 2000 . this set of stars was used in navigation to locate the North Star Polaris. China announced that from 2008 BeiDou would offer an open service with an accuracy of 10 meters. by 2012: regional BeiDou navigation system covering China and neighboring regions 3. traditional Chinese: 北 斗 導 航 系 統 . 2006. or known as BeiDou-1. BeiDou also serves as a metaphor for the purpose of the satellite navigation system. BeiDou-1A was launched on 30 October 2000. traditional Chinese: 北 斗 衛 星 導 航 系 統 . It followed that in February 2007. known as Compass or BeiDou-2. It has been offering navigation services mainly for customers in China and from neighboring regions since 2000. serving as a backup satellite). the BeiDou-1D (sometimes called BeiDou-2A. pinyin: Běidǒu wèixīng dǎoháng xìtǒng) is a project by China to develop an independent satellite navigation system. The second generation of the system. the fourth and also the last satellite of BeiDou-1 system. Coverage polygon of BeiDou Nomenclature The BeiDou Navigation System is named after the Big Dipper constellation. On November 2. which is known in Chinese as Běidǒu.2003: experimental BeiDou navigation system consisting of 3 satellites 2. It is planned to offer services to customers in Asia-Pacific region by 2012 and the global system should be finished by 2020. As such. History BeiDou system According to the China National Space Administration.  The successful launch of BeiDou-1C also meant the establishment of the BeiDou-1 navigation system. The chief designer of BeiDou navigation system is Sun Jiadong.2 nanoseconds. the development of the Chinese global navigation system should be carried out in three steps: 1. was put into orbit on 25 May 2003.Beidou navigation system 35 Beidou navigation system The BeiDou Navigation System (simplified Chinese: 北 斗 导 航 系 统 . timing of 0. speed of 0.  . was sent up into space.2 meter/second. by 2020: global BeiDou navigation system The first two satellites. officially called BeiDou Satellite Navigation Experimental System. consists of 3 satellites and has limited coverage and applications. The name literally means "Northern Dipper". is still under construction. The first BeiDou system. It was reported that the satellite had suffered from a control system malfunction but was then fully restored. The third satellite BeiDou-1C (as backup satellite). Historically. pinyin: Běidǒu dǎoháng xìtǒng) or BeiDou (Compass) Navigation Satellite System (simplified Chinese: 北 斗 卫 星 导 航 系 统 . which will be a global satellite navigation system consisting of 35 satellites.
 Three months later. the sixth satellite was sent into orbit by LM-3C. but it also limits the coverage to areas on Earth where the satellites are visible. BeiDou-1C was carried into its orbit position on May 25. and from Latitude 5°N to 55°N. this launch also completed the construction of the experimental system. The second BeiDou-2 constellation satellite Compass-G2 was launched on 15 April 2009. The third satellite (Compass-G1) was carried into its orbit by LM-3C on January 17. A signal is transmitted skyward by a remote terminal.000 kilograms (2. eleven cooperation projects within the Galileo framework had been signed between China and EU. 2. It's believed that China's "BeiDou" navigation system would then only be used by its armed forces. In October 2004. System Description Experimental System (BeiDou-1) Description BeiDou-1 is an experimental regional navigation system. 4. and European Galileo systems. the fourth satellite was launched successfully into orbit. Unlike the American GPS.200 pounds) each. which use medium Earth orbit(MEO) satellites. 2000. China officially joined the Galileo project by signing the Agreement on the Cooperation in the Galileo Program between the "Galileo Joint Undertaking" (GJU) and the "National Remote Sensing Centre of China" (NRSCC). 2000. Completion The first satellite. 3. 2010 the official website of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System  went online. Based on the Sino-European Cooperation Agreement on Galileo program. The last satellite of the constellation. GBP160 million) in Galileo over the next few years. 36 Involvement in Galileo In September 2003. The area that can be serviced is from Logitude 70°E to 140°E. BeiDou-1 uses satellites in geostationary orbit(GEO). . 2010. On the 2nd of June 2010. on November 1. BeiDou-1B was successfully launched on December 21. The ground station calculates the longitude and latitude of the remote terminal. This means that the system does not require a large constellation of satellites. 2003. BeiDou-1A was sent into its orbit on October 31. China Galileo Industries (CGI) . The fifth orbiter was launched into space by LM-3I carrier rocket from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on August 1. On January 15. and determines the altitude from a relief map. The second satellite. Each of the geostationary satellites receive the signal. the following procedure is used: 1.Beidou navigation system In April 2007. which consists of four satellites (three working satellites and one backup satellite). The satellites themselves were based on the Chinese DFH-3 geostationary communications satellite and had a launch weight of 1. Russian GLONASS. 2010. the first satellite of BeiDou-2. It is reported that another satellite (BeiDou-2 IGSO) will be launched by the end of the year. the prime contractor of the China’s involvement in Galileo programs was founded in December 2004. The Hongkong based South China Morning Post reported in January 2008 that China was unsatisfied with its role in the Galileo project and was to compete with Galileo in Asian market. China intended to join the European Galileo positioning system project and was to invest €230 million (USD296 million. namely Compass-M1 (to validate frequencies for the BeiDou-2 constellation) was successfully put into its working orbit. Position calculation To calculate a position. By April 2006. 2010. Each satellite sends the accurate time of when each received the signal to a ground station.
and measure speeds within 0. and 30 non-GSO satellites (27 in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and 3 in Inclined GSO (IGSO)).5 metres. There will be two levels of service provided. providing informations from the earthquake area. The global navigation system should be finished by 2020. As of April 2011. all Chinese border guards in Yunnan are equipped with BeiDou-1 devices. As of 2008.. According to an official report  .. almost 10 times the price of GPS counterpart. With the existing user terminals appears that the calibrated accuracy is 20m (100m. The satellites broadcast the calculated position to the remote terminal. The ground station sends the remote terminal's 3D position to the satellites.2 m/s. the official Xinhua News Agency reported that the resolution of the BeiDou system was as high as 0." Global System (BeiDou-2 or Compass navigation system) Description BeiDou-2 is not an extension to the existing BeiDou-1. that will offer complete coverage of the globe. 6.Beidou navigation system 5.collaborate with five navigation satellites.  37 According to Sun Jiadong. uncalibrated). a terminal solution costing no more than ¥3000RMB was presented. Applications • Over 1000 BeiDou-1 terminals were used in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake." . "the eighth Beidou satellite marks the completion of basic function of Beidou (Compass) Navigation Satellite System. Completion It is planned that BeiDou-2 system will have more than 10 satellites by 2012 and may offer services for the  Asia-Pacific region. China. one BeiDou-1 terminal costs about ¥20000RMB ( US$2929).will be able to provide services to most regions in China after a period of orbiting running tests and system integration. "Many organizations have been using our system for a while. will synchronize clocks with an accuracy of 10 ns. can be used for communication. In 2007. It's said that the reason why is the terminal so expensive is due to "using expensive imported Chips"， but China seemed to have found replacement and the price could lower to less than ¥1000RMB. and will supply information about the system status to the users. which include 5 geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites. chief designer of the navigation system. and they like it very much. free service to civilians and licensed service to Chinese government and military users:  • The free service will have a 10 meter location-tracking accuracy. The new system will be a constellation of 35 satellites. • The licensed service will be more accurate than the free service. eight satellites for BeiDou-2 have been launched. for backward compatibility with BeiDou-1. • As of October 2009.. Terminal The terminal can communicate with the ground station by sending and receiving short messages. considerably better than unaided GPS. By the China High-Tech Fair ELEXCON 2009(November 16–21. 2009) in Shenzhen..
. positioning network" (http:/ / english.  Pike. cn/ n615708/ n620172/ n677078/ n751578/ 62676. . iTWire.com. . . . com/ news/ compass-due-next-year). Retrieved 2009-05-05.  "BeiDou 1 Experimental Satellite Navigation System" (http:/ / www. . . newscientist. Xinhuanet. cn/ 2007-02/ 03/ content_516638. GOV. NASASpaceFlight. Spaceflight Now. GOV. 2010-08-01. Retrieved 2010-11-21. Sohu.com.  "China launches 6th satellite for indigenous global navigation.  Marks. org/ space/ world/ china/ BeiDou. sohu. Retrieved 2010-05-19.cn. Retrieved 2010-05-20. . gov. com/ 2010/ 10/ long-march-3c-launches-beidou-2/ ). Magazine article. Sohu. . asp). html).  "China sends Beidou navigation satellite to orbit" (http:/ / www.org. itwire. "Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite launched from Long March 3A rocket" (http:/ / www. SinoDefence. 2011) Date Launcher Satellite BeiDou-1A BeiDou-1B BeiDou-1C BeiDou-1D Compass-M1 Compass-G2 Compass-G1 Compass-G3  GEO 59°E GEO 80°E GEO 110. Retrieved 2010-11-21. Space. gov. .  "The construction of BeiDou navigation system steps into important stage. 200~35.  "60-day works in space -.cn.5°E GEO 84°E 118°E incl 55° GEO 160°E  118°E incl 55°   Orbit ? Yes Yes No Testing only BeiDou-2 (Compass) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Usable System BeiDou-1 10/31/2000 LM-3A 12/21/2000 LM-3A 5/25/2003 2/3/2007 4/14/2007 4/15/2009 1/17/2010 6/2/2010 8/1/2010 11/1/2010 LM-3A LM-3A LM-3A LM-3C LM-3C LM-3C LM-3A LM-3C Compass-IGSO1 Compass-G4 Compass-IGSO2 Compass-IGSO3 Compass-IGSO4 12/18/2010 LM-3A 04/10/2011 LM-3A 07/26/2011  118°E incl 55°. BeiDou. 2010-11-01. 2010-06-02. html) (in Chinese).com. GlobalSecurity. NewScientist. "BeiDou (Big Dipper)" (http:/ / www. sinodefence. Retrieved 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2010-05-19. com/ article/ dn10472-chinas-satellite-navigation-plans-threaten-galileo. BeiDou-1 navigates for China" (http:/ / www.  "China successfully launches fifth satellite for its own global navigation network" (http:/ / news. com/ english2010/ china/ 2010-08/ 01/ c_13424634. 2003-05-30. "China's satellite navigation plans threaten Galileo" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. . John. China National Space Administration. Asian Surveying and Mapping. 2008-09-24.  "Compass due Next Year" (http:/ / www.5°E  supersync orbit MEO ~21.Beidou navigation system 38 List of Satellites (as of April 10. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 2009.  "Chinese Long March 3C launches with BeiDou-2" (http:/ / www. com/ science-news/ space/ 9201-chinese-BeiDou-navigation-satellite-launched-from-long-march-3a-rocket). shtml) (in Chinese). cnsa.  "China successfully launched the third BeiDou satellite" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2010-05-20. htm). William (2007-02-05). sohu.991km Yes • Note: all dates are based on China Standard Time References  Atkins. Retrieved 2010-06-04. cn/ 2010/ 05/ 19/ 20100519101180c595f14a6d9938a42a2d796b56. shtml) (in Chinese). xinhuanet. May 4. Retrieved 2010-08-01. com/ space/ spacecraft/ beidou1. htm). com/ news/ n1006/ 02longmarch/ ). html) (in Chinese). gov. cn/ 2010-11/ 01/ content_1735077. nasaspaceflight. China National Space Administration. com/ 20070418/ n249522961. com/ 20100117/ n269631862. 2010-05-19. 2007-04-18.  "China puts new navigation satellite into orbit" (http:/ / english. . . 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2006-11-09. 2010-10-30. spaceflightnow. 2010-01-17. .  "Comparable with American and Russian in terms of performance. asmmag. htm). Retrieved 2010-05-19. Retrieved 2006-11-09.Story of reparation of the BeiDou satellite" (http:/ / news. htm). Paul (2006-11-08).500 km Drifting GEO 144. . gov. "Three Steps" development guideline clear and certain" (http:/ / www.
SinoDefence.com. bbc. shtml) (in Chinese). cn/ industries/ 2011-04/ 642763.  http:/ / www. 2008-01-03. . xinhuanet. 2010-01-15. com/ 2010/ 06/ china-launches-beidou-2-station-lunar-plans-outlined/ ). htm) (in Chinese).  "China To Set Up Independent Satellite Navigation System" (http:/ / www.gov. .globalsecurity.  "China launches BeiDou-2 – Station and Lunar plans outlined" (http:/ / www. armscontrolwonk. SpaceDaily. . 2007-07-18.  "China completes basic Beidou (Compass) Navigation Satellite System" (http:/ / business.org/space/world/china/BeiDou. com/ mil/ 2/ 200707/ 0718_340_158622. leading to command reform" (http:/ / news. .com/space/spacecraft/BeiDou2. Retrieved 2010-05-19. vectorsite. Retrieved 2010-12-30.cn/) BDstar Navigation (http://www.cn. Retrieved 2010-05-26. com/ 08/ 0628/ 08/ 4FGTUVT9000915BE. BeiDou.  "The fifth Beidou navigation satellite enters orbit" (http:/ / news.  "BeiDou-1 has equipped Yunnan troops. html) (in Chinese). beidou. html) (in Chinese).com/english/) BeiDou (Big Dipper) (http://www. spacedaily. Retrieved 2010-05-19.5 metre" (http:/ / orig. com/ english/ productlist. html) (in Chinese). vectorsite. Retrieved 2010-06-04. globaltimes. cn/ yw/ gsjjxx.com/Issues/03_07/03_07_china_62. China Galileo Industries. Retrieved 2010-05-26. com/ 10/ 1218/ 04/ 6O5LV2UF00014JB6. 2006-04-13. . xinhuanet. Business News (BBC News). html) (in Chinese). com. . com. . xinhuanet.  "China launches the seventh Beidou navigation satellite" (http:/ / news.com.asp) . com/ 2594/ beidou-update). html).com. .  "BeiDou Products" (http:/ / www.  Goebel.  "Introduction of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System" (http:/ / www.  "Why is China's beidou terminal so expensive?" (http:/ / www. com/ 20080520/ n256965516. Sohu. asp).  "BeiDou navigation system first goes to public. BDStar Navigation. com/ 20091014/ n267346694. . net/ ttgps_2. Phoenix Television.net.htm) . 2010-01-18. "International Navigation Satellite Systems" (http:/ / www.  "Eleven projects within the China-EU Galileo project have been signed and are carrying out" (http:/ / news3. Retrieved 2010-05-26. Greg (2008-09-01). com/ eyes_on_china/ 2008-01/ 42334. 163. htm) (in Chinese). InsideGNSS. html). Retrieved 2010-05-26. chinagi.  "3000Yuan BeiDou Satellite Positioning System terminal solution was presented at ELEXCON" (http:/ / www. . News.org Aviation International News (http://www. Xinhuanet. Retrieved 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2010-05-23. html#m3). com/ 10/ 0806/ 06/ 6DCRU0AJ00014AED. Xinhuanet.com .com. Globaltimes.asp) . . . gov.gov. Retrieved 2006-11-09. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ifeng. China is to invest 200 million Euro" (http:/ / news.SinoDefence. Retrieved 2010-05-29. eetrend.  "Beidou Update" (http:/ / www. NetEase. 2008-05-20. sohu. chinagi.com. 163.htm) BeiDou-1 (http://www. NASASpaceFlight. .  "Hongkong report: BeiDou-1 played an important role in rescuing. stm). 7 nations providing free satellite data" (http:/ / news. com/ news/ 100022852) (in Chinese). 2010-12-17. 2008-08-31. co. navchina.com. 2003-09-19. 2009-10-14. 2010-06-02. . armscontrolwonk. cn/ yw/ index. com/ mil/ 2010-03/ 03/ content_13087844.163.BeiDou.navchina. com/ node/ 2134).sinodefence. 2010-06-02. 2011-04-10. news. insidegnss. 2010-03-03. Sohu. . Retrieved 2010-05-23. cn/ 2010/ 03/ 06/ 20100306e4ed1ecefebb41fa933ceee48024aa00.com/space/spacecraft/BeiDou1. .ainonline. uk/ 1/ hi/ business/ 3121682. htm) (in Chinese). beidou. Retrieved 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2010-06-04. .  "China Launches Another Compass GEO Navigation Satellite" (http:/ / www. 2009-11-17. Retrieved 2010-06-04.163. nasaspaceflight. 2010-05-24. 2010-08-06.Beidou navigation system  http:/ / www. eetrend. Xinhua News Agency. . Retrieved 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2011-04-10. gov. asp  "About us" (http:/ / www. html) (in Chinese). com/ politics/ 2006-04/ 13/ content_4420183.com BeiDou-2 (http://www. with resolution 0.  "BeiDou navigation system covers Asia-Pacific region till 2012" (http:/ / news. cn  "China joins EU's satellite network" (http:/ / news. .  "First contracts of the Galileo project signed.  "South China Morning Post: China is not going to be the little partner of the Galileo project" (http:/ / china. . com/ reports/ China_To_Set_Up_Independent_Satellite_Navigation_System_999.  "BeiDou-1 commercial controversy: 10 times the price of GPS terminal" (http:/ / tech. com/ newscenter/ 2005-07/ 29/ content_3281533. PRLog. 2008-06-28. News. shtml) (in Chinese). asp?classid=12).com. Global Times. html). shtml) (in Chinese). 2005-07-29.sinodefence. sohu.GlobalSecurity. . 163. prlog. 39 External links • • • • • • Official website of BeiDou (Compass) Navigation Satellite System (in Chinese) (http://www. huanqiu. .cn. org/ 10112053-why-is-chinas-beidou-terminal-so-expensive.
Beidou navigation system. BD2) is a project by China to develop an independent global satellite navigation system. and Galileo. E5B. Frequencies for Compass are allocated in four bands: E1. who is also the general designer of its predecessor. and Compass. especially within E1 and E2 bands. E2.  COMPASS is not an extension to the previously deployed Beidou-1. which are allocated for Galileo’s Frequency allocation of GPS. The ranging signals are based on the CDMA principle and have complex structure typical to Galileo or modernized GPS. The general designer of Compass navigation system is Sun Jiadong. When all the currently planned GNSS systems are deployed. Galileo. General The new system will be a constellation of 35 satellites. the launch of the first Compass satellite permitted independent researchers not only to study general characteristics of the signals but even to build a Compass receiver. which include 5 geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites and 30 medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. the first nation to start broadcasting in a specific frequency will have priority to that frequency. The fact of overlapping could be convenient from the point of view of the receiver design. E2. but on the other hand raises the issues of inter-system interference. that will offer complete coverage of the globe. the light red color of E1 band publicly-regulated service. The public service shall be available globally to general users. GLONASS. Similarly to the other GNSS. and E6 bands before Europe's Galileo satellites and thus have primary rights to these frequency ranges. which will significantly improve all the aspects of positioning. and otherwise ensure that their broadcasts do not interfere with the original nation's broadcasts. indicates that the transmission in this band has not yet been detected under International Telecommunications Union (ITU) policies. and any subsequent users will be required to obtain permission prior to using that frequency. especially availability of the signals in so-called “urban canyons”. . However.Compass navigation system 40 Compass navigation system The COMPASS system (also known as Beidou-2. It now appears that Chinese Compass satellites will start transmitting in the E1. Although almost nothing has yet been officially announced by Chinese authorities about the signals of the new system. E5B. but a new GNSS similar in principle to GPS. and E6 and overlap with Galileo. there will be two levels of positioning service: open and restricted (military). the users will benefit from the use of a total constellation of 75+ satellites.
230 ?? >160 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1268. The “Q” components have much longer codes. has an altitude of 21.52 10.230 10230 1. msec Symbols/sec Navigation frames. min E2-I B1 BPSK(2) 1561. 2007. E5B. are more interference resistive. and are probably intended for the restricted service.0 50 ?? ?? ?? 1268.150 km and an inclination of 55. Next month researchers from the Stanford University reported complete decoding of the “I” signal scomponents.0 50 6 30 12.14 10. MHz Chip rate. The “I” components have shorter codes and are likely to be intended for the open service.Compass navigation system 41 Compass-M1 Compass-M1 is an experimental satellite launched for signal testing and validation and for the frequency filing on April 14. The orbit of Compass-M1 is nearly circular. Characteristics of COMPASS signals reported as of May 2008 compared to GPS-L1CA Parameters Native notation Code modulation Carrier frequency.098 2. but Compass signals have somewhat greater power.046 ?? >400 ?? ?? ?? ?? E5B-I B2 BPSK(2) 1207. Compass-M1 is transmitting in 3 bands: E2.230 ?? >160 ?? ?? ?? ?? Characteristics of the “I” signals on E2 and E5B are generally similar to the civilian codes of GPS (L1-CA and L2C).0 50 6 30 12.5 BPSK(10) BPSK(10) BPSK (10) 1207. 2007. The signals of Compass-M1 are to a great extent unraveled by independent research. but the notation used by the Chinese seems to be different and is quoted in the first row of the table.046 2046 1.046 2046 1.5 degrees. sec Navigation sub-frames. Mchips/sec Code period.42 1. Already in June engineers at CNES reported the spectrum and structure of the signals.  The knowledge of the codes allowed a group of engineers at Septentrio to build the COMPASS receiver and report tracking and multipath characteristics of the “I” signals on E2 and E5B. These signal components are further referred to as “I” and “Q”. The notation of Compass signals used in this page follows the naming of the frequency bands and agrees with the notation used in the American literature on the subject. Compass launches .0 50 6 30 12.52 10.14 2.0 E2-Q B1 BPSK(2) 1561. chips Code period. The investigation of the transmitted signals started immediately after the launch of COMPASS-M1 on April 14. sec Navigation period. The role of Compass-M1 for Compass is similar to the role of GIOVE satellites for Galileo. In each frequency band two coherent sub-signals have been detected with a phase shift of 90 degrees (in quadrature).098 2.023 1023 1. and E6.0 E5B-Q B2 E6-I B3 E6-Q B3 GPS L1-CA --BPSK (1) 1575.
asmmag.space objects 2010]" (http:/ / www. Initial observation and analysis of Compass MEO satellite signals.sinodefence. Chen. Delatour. J.04.500 km DFH-3 GEO drifting DFH-3 GEO 144.pl) • China launched its fourth satellite of Compass navigation system (http://cellphonetrackers. May 1.06.000 km DFH-3 GEO ? DFH-3 HEO ~36. Field Experience with Compass-M1 E2 and E5B Signals.27 Compass-IGSO-4 Xichang References  "Compass due Next year" (http:/ / www. 2010). Simsky. P. Asian Surveying and Mapping. Wilms. Lo. January 2008. 22–25 April 2008. F. May/June 2007 (http:/ / www.04. p. D. April 2008. pdf)  G. com/ auto/ IG0807-DeWilde_etal_final. Ries. . More Compass points.14 Compass-G2 2010. nytimes. Magazine article. com/ auto/ IG0807_Gao-Lo_final. com/ news/ compass-due-next-year) (in Czech). Grelier. July/August 2007.com/space/spacecraft/beidou2.07. A. 2009.  Aleš Holub (Dec 30. Boon. 62-63 (http:/ / www. Inside GNSS.10. J. L. De Wilde. Proceeedings of the ION National Technical Meeting 2008.12. "MEK tělesa 2010 [Small Encyclopaedia of Astronautics . website catalog.04. asp) • Compass-M1 orbit details can be found in the Space-Track catalogue with a name "Beidou M1" (http://www. InsideGNSS.org/ china-launched-its-fourth-satellite-of-beidou-navigation-system. html?_r=1& scp=1& sq=chinese europe galileo& st=cse)  T. asmmag. insidegnss.01. Lo. (http:/ / www.5°E DFH-3 GEO 84. pdf)  W. insidegnss. Sh.000 km DFH-3 HEO ~36.org/perl/login. stanford.  G. De Lorenzo. Inside GNSS.000 km 2011. com/ 2009/ 03/ 23/ technology/ 23iht-galileo23. F. Proceedings of ENC GNSS 2008.16 Compass-G1 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-05. China GNSS 101. 44-48. Chen.31 Compass-G4 2010. Ghion. San Diego.07. GNSS over China. External links • Compass on the Chinese Defence Today website (http://www. S. pdf)  A. Wim De Wilde. Xingxin Gao. California. com/ auto/ IG0607_CompassFinal. July/August 2007.13 Compass-M1 2009.7°E DFH-3 HEO ~36.Compass navigation system 42 Mission Date 07-32 07-37 07-38 07-39 07-40 ? ? ? ? Name Launch center Launch vehicle Bus Xichang Xichang Xichang Xichang Xichang Xichang Xichang Xichang CZ-3C CZ-3C CZ-3C CZ-3C CZ-3A CZ-3C CZ-3A CZ-3A CZ-3A Orbit 2007. p.-M. The Compass MEO satellite codes. January/February 2008. insidegnss.17 Compass-IGSO2 2011. Enge. pdf)  G. Xingxin Gao.02 Compass-G3 2010. com/ auto/ janfeb08-china. Compass on collision course. pdf)  Galileo. pp. A. edu/ ~gracegao/ publications/ ION_NTM_08 Compass. Retrieved 2011-01-01. A. Dantepal. Tracking China’s MEO satellite on a hardware receiver.000 km DFH-3 HEO ~36. Gibbons. insidegnss. D.html) . Sleewaegen. Inside GNSS. Compass-M1 broadcast codes and their application to acquisition and tracking. Mertens. com/ news/ compass-due-next-year). Compass in the rearview mirror. A. GPS World. De Lorenzo and Per Enge.31 Compass-IGSO1 2010. . pp. 27  Chinese square off with Europe in space (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. space-track. 36-43 (http:/ / www. D. Toulouse.10 Compass-IGSO3 DFH-3 MEO ~21.
and the planned Galileo positioning system of the European Union (EU) and Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System of India. short of the 24 satellites needed to provide continuous global coverage. The GLONASS satellites designs have undergone several upgrades. with the latest version being GLONASS-K. It would be able to promptly fix the receiving station's position based on signals from 4 satellites. which would support not only the navy. GLONASS had achieved 100% coverage of Russia's territory. the Chinese Compass navigation system. Development on the GLONASS began in the Soviet Union in 1976. under Vladimir Putin's presidency. a new navigation system. In 1968–1969. The main problem with the system was that. Under the leadership of Vladimir Cheremisin. in 1976. It is an alternative and complement to the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS).GLONASS 43 GLONASS GLONASS (Russian: ГЛОНАСС. but also the air. they developed different proposals. although highly accurate for stationary or slow-moving ships. from which the institute's director Grigory Chernyavsky selected the final one. The work was completed in the late 1970s. GLONASS is currently the most expensive program of the Russian Federal Space Agency. Following completion. Beginning on 12 October 1982. The satellites would be launched 3 at a time on the heavy-lift Proton rocket. consuming a third of its budget in 2010. the restoration of the system was made a top government priority and funding was substantially increased. which had better production capabilities. As of February 2011. In the early 2000s. the constellation consists of 22 operational satellites. Due to the large number of satellites needed for the program. and also reveal the object's speed and direction. making it unusable for many navigation purposes and for the guidance of the new generation of ballistic missiles. land and space forces. which had the purpose of providing ballistic missile submarines a method for accurate positioning. was conceived. numerous rocket launches added satellites to the system until the constellation was completed in 1995. the government made a decision to launch  development of the "Unified Space Navigation System GLONASS". NPO PM delegated the manufacturing of the satellites to PO Polyot in Omsk. Formal requirements were completed in 1970. GLONASS logo GLONASS History Inception and design The first satellite-based radio navigation system developed in the Soviet Union was Tsiklon. The task of designing GLONASS was given to a group of young specialists at NPO PM in the city of Krasnoyarsk-26 (today called Zheleznogorsk). it required several hours of observation by the receiving station to fix a position.000 km in medium circular orbit. the system would consist of 24 satellites operating at an altitude of 20.  . IPA: [ɡlɐˈnas]) is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces. 31 Tsiklon satellites were launched between 1967 and 1978. and is expected to be completed during 2011. By 2010. the system fell into disrepair with the collapse of the Russian economy.
After the full complement was achieved in December 1995.415 kg. However. and a mass of 1. 587) was launched. the Soviet Union successfully launched a total of 43 GLONASS-related satellites plus five test satellites. From 1982 through April 1991. the Americans could not find out the nature of those "objects". 18 satellites would have been necessary. 44 Achieving full orbital constellation In the early 1980s. but it had double the original's lifetime. NPO PM received the first prototype satellites from PO Polyot for ground tests. As only one GLONASS satellite was ready in time for the launch instead of the expected three. had a width of 7. the second generation satellite design. It had a slightly larger GLONASS. the Russian economy recovered and state finances improved considerably. in the financially difficult period of 1989–1999. navigation device.2 m. For this purpose. On 12 October 1982. three satellites. In 1993. Putin  and the system's himself took special interest in GLONASS restoration was made one of the government's top priorities. President Vladimir Putin with a GLONASS car . This brought the precision of GLONASS on-par with the American GPS system. which had achieved full operational capability two years earlier. the system. The new satellite also had better accuracy and ability to broadcast two extra civilian signals. measured across their solar panels. but in reality it had an accuracy of 20 m in the civilian signal and 10 m in the military signal. As a prelude to demilitarisation. there were no further launches until December 1999. On 10 December 2003. Renewed efforts and modernization In the early 2000s. describing GLONASS as a system "created to determine positioning of civil aviation aircraft. and Kosmos-1415 were launched aboard a Proton rocket. the constellation reached its lowest point of just 6 operational satellites in 2001. mass than the baseline GLONASS. As President. on August 2001. GLONASS was designed to have an accuracy of 65 m. Kosmos-1414. Putin paid special attention to the development of GLONASS-M. twelve functional GLONASS satellites in two planes were operational. it was decided to launch it along with two mock-ups. The program was given a budget of $420 million and aimed at restoring the full constellation by 2009.8 m tall. designated Kosmos-1413. The American media reported the event as a launch of one satellite and "two secret objects. standing at 1. two launches per year would have been necessary to maintain the full network of 24 satellites. the constellation was finally brought to its optimal status of 24 operational satellites. enough to allow limited usage of the system (to cover the entire territory of the country." For a long time. decreasing the required replacement rate by 50%. responsibility of the program was transferred from the Ministry of Defence to Russia's  civilian space agency Roscosmos. under Vladimir Putin's presidency. The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) covered the launch. the space program's funding was cut by 80% and Russia consequently found itself unable to afford this launch rate. the Federal Targeted Program "Global Navigation System" 2002–2011 (Government Decision No. Many of the produced parts were of low quality and NPO PM engineers had to perform substantial redesigning. to keep the system at full capacity. navy transport and fishing-boats of the Soviet Union". now consisting of 12 satellites.GLONASS Originally.260 kg. was formally declared operational and in December 1995. Economic crisis and fall into disrepair Since the first generation satellites operated for 3 years each. leading to a delay. As a result. was launched for the first time.) The Russian Federation took over control of the constellation and continued its development. When the Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991. The first generation GLONASS satellites were 7.
Sergei Ivanov announced a plan to introduce a 25% import duty on all GPS-capable devices. Defence Minister Sergey Ivanov ordered one of the signals (with an accuracy of 30 m) to be made available to civilian users. the Russian economy boomed. the government is planning to force all car manufacturers in Russia to make cars with GLONASS starting from 2011. Yo-mobil is equipped with GLONASS/GPS navigation device To improve development of the user segment. Consequently. on 18 May 2007.GLONASS In 2006. To improve the situation. While in 2006 the GLONASS had received $181 million from the federal budget. all restrictions were lifted. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree allocating additional 67 billion rubles (2. Any import restriction is likely to have little change as most devices shipping worldwide will soon support GLONASS.6 billion USD) to GLONASS from the federal budget. the Russian government has been actively promoting GLONASS for civilian use. Putin. which have car assembly  facilities in Russia. In the end. become the first known foreign company to use GLONASS. especially development of the user segment. has since then been freely available to civilian users. but it was much bigger and more costly than similar GPS receivers. 45 Restoring full capacity In June 2008. its budget was more than doubled.1 billion rubles ($4. the American GPS system was completely blacked out in the region. including mobile phones. the first commercial Russian-made GLONASS navigation device for cars. its commercialisation. one year later than previously planned. however. the financing of the GLONASS program was increased considerably. the system consisted of 16 satellites. there were only a handful of GLONASS receivers on the market. In September 2008. resulting in substantial increases in the country's space budget. As well. This will affect all car makers. In 2007. The military importance of having a domestic. Glospace SGK-70. Current GPS and phone baseband chips from major vendors ST-Ericsson. During the middle of the first decade of the 2000s.5 billion rubles. For example. 2010.7 billion) were spent on the program 2001–2011. 140. Broadcom and Qualcomm all support GLONASS in combination with GPS. in 2007 the amount was increased to $380 million. was introduced in 2007. and few of them were meant for ordinary consumers. was not satisfied with this. 12 of which were fully operational at the time. a national network of satellite reference stations which provides data for real-time positioning with meter accuracy. Roscosmos aimed at having a full constellation of 24 satellites in orbit by 2010. Promoting commercial use Although the GLONASS constellation is nearing global coverage. on August 11. unless they are compatible with GLONASS. At this point. formerly military-only signal with a precision of 10 m. independent satellite navigation system was highlighted by the 2008 South Ossetia war in August 2008: during the hostilities. has been lacking compared to the American GPS system. In April 2011 Sweden's Swepos. making it Roscosmos' largest project and consuming a third of its 2010 budget of 84. In late 2010.  The accurate. . and demanded that the whole system should be made fully available to everyone. including foreign brands like Ford and Toyota.
The second GLONASS-K will be ready within three to four months.. however each transmits on a different frequency using a 15-channel frequency division multiple access (FDMA) technique spanning either side from 1602. Roscosmos revealed that the agency was looking for a funding of 402 billion rubles ($14. Kommersant estimated that the launch failure cost up to $160 million. All GLONASS satellites transmit the same code as their SP signal. combined (n=−7. effectively sharing the same carrier wave as the SP signal. The center frequency is 1602 MHz + n × 0. President Dmitry Medvedev ordered the government to prepare a new federal targeted program for GLONASS.GLONASS Finishing the constellation Russia's aim of finishing the constellation in 2010 suffered a setback when a December 2010 launch of three GLONASS-M satellites failed. Signals GLONASS satellites transmit two types of signal: a standard precision (SP) signal and an obfuscated high precision (HP) signal. Following the mishap. the upper stage and the three satellites crashed into the Pacific Ocean.5625 MHz. This would bring the total number of satellites to 23. The funds would be spent on maintaining the satellite constellation. at an EIRP between 25 to 27 dBW (316 to 500 watts).0 MHz.8 degree inclination and a period of 11 hours and 15 minutes. covering the years 2012–2020. 46 System description GLONASS is a global satellite navigation system. The satellites are located in middle circular orbit at 19. A fully operational constellation with global coverage consists of 24 satellites.13). while 18 satellites are necessary for covering the territory of Russia. The original 2001 program is scheduled to end in 2011. providing real time position and velocity determination for military and civilian users. To get a position fix.. The Proton-M rocket itself performed flawlessly... part of the operational constellation instead of mainly for testing as was originally planned.  GLONASS' orbit makes it especially suited for usage in northern latitudes.. The HP signal is broadcast in phase quadrature with the SP signal..  The constellation operates in three orbital planes.−6.. but with a ten times higher bandwidth than the SP signal.35 billion) for the program.0. Signals are GLONASS/GPS receiver transmitted in a 38° cone.. . The signals use similar DSSS encoding and binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation as in GPS signals. as these satellites will never be in view of an earth based user at the same time.6. previously n==−7. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev ordered a full audit of the entire program and an investigation into the failure. obtaining almost complete worldwide coverage... to be launched in February 2011. On 22 June 2011.100 km altitude with a 64. with 8 evenly spaced satellites on each.0.. where getting a GPS signal can be problematic. where n is a satellite's frequency channel number A Russian military rugged. but the upper stage Blok DM3 (a new version which was to make its maiden flight) was loaded with too much fuel due to a sensor failure...−5. using right-hand circular polarization. three of which will be used to determine the user's location and the fourth to synchronise clocks of the receiver and the three other spacecraft. Roscosmos activated two reserve satellites and decided to make the first improved GLONASS-K satellite. the receiver must be in the range of at least four satellites. on developing and maintaining navigational maps as well as on sponsoring supplemental technologies to make GLONASS more attractive to users. As a result. known as the L1 band.. Note that the 24 satellite constellation is accommodated with only 15 channels by using identical frequency channels to support antipodal (opposite side of planet in orbit) satellite pairs. In 2010.
 Other details of the HP signal have not been disclosed.5625 MHz (L1. the GLONASS P codes are broadcast in the clear using only 'security through obscurity'.) GLONASS uses a coordinate datum named "PZ-90" (Earth Parameters 1990 – Parametry Zemli 1990). such as the Russian Military. vertical positioning within 15 meters. The more accurate HP signal is available for authorized users. L2SF L2OF. it allocates more bits to critical Luni-Solar acceleration parameters and clock correction terms. which uses the location of the North Pole in 1984. 2007 the PZ-90 datum has been updated to differ from WGS 84 by less than 40 cm (16 in) in any given direction. L1OCM. L2SF L2OF. At peak efficiency. L1SF L1OF. in which the precise location of the North Pole is given as an average of its position from 1900 to 1905.GLONASS The L2 signals use the same FDMA as the L1 band signals.4375 MHz (L2. As of September 17. and while it carries the same orbital elements as the CA code. the SP signal offers horizontal positioning accuracy within 5–10 meters.42 MHz (L1. but transmit straddling 1246 MHz with the center frequency determined by the equation 1246 MHz + n×0.14 MHz (L3.rsa. L1SF L1OC. FDMA) L1OF. The GLONASS L1P code is modulated at 50 bit/s without a manchester meander code. L1SC 1575. 47 A combined GLONASS/GPS Personal Radio Beacon Currently. (see www. L2SF L2SC L2OC. L2SF L2OF. FDMA) L2SF L2OF. yet unlike the US P(Y) code which is modulated by an encrypting W code. and timing within 200 ns. CDMA) 1176. new CDMA signals are being researched for use with GLONASS. CDMA) Clock error GLONASS GLONASS-M GLONASS-K1 GLONASS-K2 GLONASS-KМ 1982 2003 2011 2013 2015 Out of service In service In service Design phase Research phase 5×10−13 1×10−13 5×10−14 1×10−14 L5OCM L3OC L3OC. except satellite number 795 which is the last of the inferior original GLONASS design. Roadmap of GLONASS modernization Satellite series Launch Current status 1602 + n×0. Use of this signal bears risk however as the modulation (and therefore the tracking strategy) of the data bits on the L2P code has recently changed from unmodulated to 250 bit/s burst at random intervals.4375 MHz. L1SF L1OF. This is available from all satellites in the current constellation. newer satellites such as GLONASS-M improve on this. a velocity vector measuring within 10 cm/s. WGS 84. and one partially inoperable GLONASS-M satellite which is broadcasting only in the L1 band. This is in contrast to the GPS's coordinate datum. L2SC L3OС  1242 MHz (L2. L1SF L1OF. CDMA) 1246 + n×0. L1SF L1OF.glonass-ianc. all based on measurements from four first-generation satellites  simultaneously. CDMA) 1207. an additional civil reference signal is broadcast in the L2 band with an identical SP code to the L1 band signal.ru  for daily updates on constellation status.45 MHz (L5. where n spans the same range as for L1. CDMA signals Since 2008. L3SC . L1SC L1OC.
and each of them also has the military "Cosmos-NNNN" designation. but half were lost in launch vehicle accidents. and COMPASS. IIb. The six spacecraft that made it to orbit worked well.025 MHz. modernized GPS..6 48 The latest Glonass-K1 satellites to be launched in 2011–2012 will introduce an additional open CDMA signal for testing purposes. one at 1242 MHz in the L2 band.−6. Binary offset carrier (BOC) is the modulation used by Galileo.       Although the format and modulation of GLONASS CDMA signals are not finalized. the constellation will be expanded to 30 active satellites by 2020.−5. specifically QAM-2 and QAM-4. to be launched in 2013–2015. located in the L3 band at 1202. Each GLONASS satellite has a GRAU designation 11F654. and IIv vehicles.17 MHz and add an additional open CDMA signal located at 1575. however both BPSK and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) can be considered as variations of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). subsequent Glonass-KM satellites to be launched after 2015 will feature additional open CDMA signals . These spacecraft also demonstrated a 16-month average operational lifetime. similarly to corresponding modernized GPS signals in L1 band and Galileo/COMPASS signal E1. with each block containing evolutionary improvements..  Such an arrangement will allow easier and cheaper implementation of multi-standard GNSS receivers.14 MHz.  the open signal in the L3 band will use QPSK(10) modulation centered at 1207. Over time they were upgraded to Block IIa.1) modulation centered at 1575. appeared in 1987. the same as the modernized GPS signal "Safety of Life" (L5) and Galileo signal E5a.42 MHz.. the same frequency as Galileo/COMPASS signal E5b. n=−7. and increased frequency stability. of which a total of 12 were launched.one on existing L1 frequency.  Satellites The main contractor of the GLONASS program is Joint Stock Company Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems (formerly called NPO-PM). Six Block IIa satellites were launched in 1985–1986 with improved time and frequency standards over the prototypes. located in Zheleznogorsk. . GLONASS-M (since 2003) and GLONASS-K (since 2011). is the designer of all GLONASS satellites. with a 2-year design lifetimes. "С":CDMA. Additional satellites may use Molniya orbit or Tundra orbit for increased regional availability. preliminary statements from developers indicate that the new signals are essentially GPS/Galileo/COMPASS format signals placed at the same frequencies. and can be divided into three generations: the original GLONASS (since 1982).250 kg and were equipped with a modest propulsion system to permit relocation within the constellation.45 MHz.42 MHz in the L1 band.. Glonass-K2 satellites.4) modulation centered at 1176. the satellite designs have gone through numerous improvements. Glonass-KM will probably broadcast obfuscated CDMA signals in existing L1. and one at 1176. The open signal in the L5 band will use BOC(4. "S": obfuscated signal (high precision). will relocate the L3 signal to 1207. Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) is used by standard GPS and GLONASS signals. With the introduction of CDMA signals. similar to Japanese QZSS system. this may require eventual deprecation of FDMA signals. The company. Serial production of the satellites is accomplished by the company PC Polyot in Omsk. Over the three decades of development. The open signal in the L1 band will use BOC(1.45 MHz in the L5 band. in cooperation with the Institute for Space Device Engineering (ru:РНИИ КП) and the Russian Institute of Radio Navigation and Time. "F":FDMA .GLONASS "O": open signal (standard precision). generally weighing 1. L2 and L3 bands. operating for an average of nearly 22 months. Block IIb spacecraft. and will contain information and pilot components. First generation The true first generation of GLONASS (also called Uragan) satellites were all 3-axis stabilized vehicles.
with a solar array span of 7. the second generation spacecraft were launched in triplets using Proton-K Blok-DM-2 or Proton-K Briz-M boosters. nadir pointing with dual solar arrays. The aft payload structure houses 12 primary antennas for L-band transmissions. It will transmit more navigation signals to improve the system's accuracy. Galileo and Compass.1b boosters or in six-at-once from the Baikonur Cosmodrome using Proton-K Briz-M launch vehicles.450 kg of GLONASS-M). compared to the 7-year lifetime of the second generation GLONASS-M. They are approximately 2. A total of fourteen second generation satellites were launched through the end of 2007. Block II satellites were typically launched three at a time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome using Proton-K Blok-DM-2 or Proton-K Briz-M boosters. It has an operational lifetime of 10 years.  . Used exclusively from 1988 to 2000.480 kg. The design life was three years. a total of 25 satellites were launched. these are 3-axis stabilized.4 m (7 ft 10 in) in diameter and 3. with one late model lasting 68 months. As with the previous generation. however numerous spacecraft exceeded this.    The new A GLONASS-K satellite model displayed at CeBIT 2011 satellite's advanced equipment—made solely from Russian components—will allow the doubling of GLONASS' accuracy. Laser corner-cube reflectors are also carried to aid in precise orbit determination and geodetic research. on two launches. As with the previous satellites. an Etalon geodetic reflector satellite was substituted for a GLONASS satellite. Second generation The second generation of satellites. including new CDMA signals in the L3 and L5 bands which will use modulation similar to modernized GPS.  49 Due to their weight reduction.2 m (24 ft) for an electrical power generation capability of 1600 watts at launch.GLONASS Block IIv was the most prolific of the first generation.7 m (12 ft) high. known as Glonass-M. The only exception was when. GLONASS-K spacecraft can be launched in pairs from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome launch site using the substantially lower cost Soyuz-2. were developed beginning in 1990 and first launched in 2003. and continued to be included in launches through 2005. These satellites possess a substantially increased lifetime of seven years and weigh slightly more at 1. Third generation GLONASS-K is a substantial improvement of the previous generation: it is the first unpressurised GLONASS satellite with a much reduced mass (750 kg versus 1. On-board cesium clocks provide the local clock source. The first GLONASS-K satellite was successfully launched on 26 February 2011.
JAVAD. Eniseisk.GLONASS 50 Ground control The ground control segment of GLONASS is entirely located within former Soviet Union territory. and 24 satellites to provide services worldwide. and Komsomolsk-na-Amure. Current status Availability As of 24 March 2011. Magellan Navigation. Total satellites in constellation Operational In commissioning phase In maintenance Spares In decommissioning phase 27 SC 23 SC 1 SC 3 SC – – The system requires 18 satellites for continuous navigation services covering the entire territory of the Russian Federation. The Ground Control Center and Time Standards is located in Moscow and the telemetry and tracking stations are in Saint Petersburg. NPO Progress describes  a receiver called "GALS-A1" which combines GPS and GLONASS reception. . SkyWave Mobile Communications manufactures an Inmarsat-based satellite communications terminal that uses both GLONASS and GPS. Receivers Septentrio. Topcon. Ternopol. The GLONASS system currently covers 100% of Russian territory. Novatel. the GLONASS constellation status is: Map showing current values of position geometry factor PDOP on the Earth surface (the mask angle: 5°) on 9:51:05 UTC. Leica Geosystems and Trimble Inc produce GNSS receivers making use of GLONASS.
co.95) for latitude and longitude were 4. astronautix. .76 m with mean number of NSV equals 6—11 (depending on station).  Harvey. .com (http:/ / rt. For using both navigation systems simultaneously precisions of GLONASS/GPS navigation definitions were 2. army. the same time precisions of GPS navigation definitions were 2. GLObal'naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema. org/ 5ipTSCwfh) from the original on 2009-08-06. . 2009.38 m with mean number of NSV equals 7—8 (depending on station). RIA Novosti. pdf). Archived (http:/ / www.  "Glonass" (http:/ / www. com/ images/ File/ magazin/ 2007/ m2-screen_en.  "Satellite Navigation of the 21st Century" (http:/ / www. pdf).). . 2008-06-07. RIA Novosti.  "Putin makes Glonass navigation system free for customers . In indoor. ru/ articles/ 2010/ 12/ 07/ glonass_hits_a_snag05184.  RBTH. . "Military programs". "Glonass: Has Russia's sat-nav system come of age?" (http:/ / news. . iss-reshetnev. uk/ 2/ hi/ 8595704. rian. ISS Reshetnev. BBC News. html). carlisle. rian. Roger (2009). Anatoly Perminov the then director of the Russian Federal Space Agency stated that actions were undertaken to expand GLONASS's constellation and to improve the ground segment in order to increase the navigation definition of GLONASS to an accuracy of 2. In particular. ISS Reshetnev.00—8. The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program (1st ed. mil/ usawc/ parameters/ 09spring/ mcdermott. rian.  "Putin orders additional $2.  Moskvitch. stm). "GLObal NAvigation Satellite System". providing greatly improved coverage in urban canyons and giving a very fast time to fix due to over 50 satellites being available.65 m with mean number of NSV equals 14—19 (depends on station). RIA Novosti. urban canyon or mountainous areas. . ru/ russia/ 20061113/ 55588641. 2006-11-13. accuracy can be greatly improved over using GPS alone. htm). Integral navigation availability for GLONASS customer (PDOP≤6) on the diurnal range Civilian GLONASS used alone is for elevation not less than 5 degrees on therefore very slightly less accurate than GPS. bbc. "Russia's Conventional Armed Forces and the Georgian War" (http:/ / www. Brian (2007). Retrieved 2009-08-04.6 bln on Glonass development". com/ craft/ glonass. as of 2010. GLONASS' accuracy is better than that of GPS due to the orbital position of the satellites. tr. US Army War College. RIA Novosti. In comparison. ru/ russia/ 20080607/ 109483418. Katia (2010-04-02). Encyclopedia Astronautica. iss-reshetnev. In May 2009. Germany: Springer. the latest satellite design.37—4. precisions of GLONASS navigation definitions (for p=0. Some modern receivers are able to use both GLONASS and GPS satellites together.ru (http:/ / rbth. astronautix. ru/ science/ 20070518/ 65725503. On northern latitudes.1" (http:/ / en. htm). .  RT.8 m by 2011. html). . html)  "Russia's Glonass satellite system to be fully operational in 2010" (http:/ / en. html). ISBN 9780387713540. 2007. webcitation. com/ craft/ tsiklon. References  Russian: ГЛОба́льная НАвигацио́нная Спу́тниковая Систе́ма.  "Start of GLONASS" (http:/ / www. com/ images/ File/ magazin/ 2009/ m8-screen_en. . 2007-05-18. com/ news/ sci-tech/ glonass-wants-system-gps/ )  "Russia to lift Glonass restrictions for accurate civilian use" (http:/ / en. Encyclopedia Astronautica. GLONASS-K has the ability to double the system's accuracy once introduced.46—7.  McDermott. pdf).GLONASS 51 Accuracy According Russian System of Differentional Correction and Monitoring's data. 2008-09-12.  "Tsiklon" (http:/ / www.
pdf). . 2011-02-09. The Moscow Times. 2010).  Stericsson. stericsson. ru/ articles/ 2010/ 12/ 07/ glonass_hits_a_snag05184.G. pdf). 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2010-10-27. insidegnss. Retrieved 2010-12-30. rsa. pdf).  "Сотовые и навигаторы без ГЛОНАСС обложат пошлиной в 25% [Non-GLONASS-capable mobiles and satnavs will incur 25% duty]" (http:/ / top. Russia Today. themoscowtimes.  Weir. navcen. . 47th CGSIC Meeting. html). html?hp). php?id=s548720)  ". 2010). 24" (http:/ / en. asp?id=62659). Igor. ru/ economics/ 27/ 10/ 2010/ 488865. CDMA Signals Coming (http:/ / www.G. bbc. 6th ICG Meeting  Russia’s First GLONASS-K In Orbit. navcen. Kommersant.com (http:/ / www. . Dmitri Vorontsov (2010-11-26).025 MHz for the L3OC signal  "Russia Approves CDMA Signals for GLONASS. GPS World. asp?NewsID=902)  GLONASS constellation status (http:/ / www.  "Russian system of differentional correction and monitoring" (http:/ / www. insidegnss. thedigitalship. org/ 5wgZX1j2m). S. com/ business/ article/ first-foreign-firm-embraces-glonass/ 434850. 2010-12-07." (http:/ / www. ru/ english. 2010-10-27.Общество . Russian Space Web  GLONASS #787. . 22 Jun 2011. Discussing Common Signal Design" (http:/ / www.  GLONASS Summary.G. unoosa. insidegnss. sdcm. 68.  Uragan. uscg.  Роскосмос обещает повысить точность работы ГЛОНАСС с 10 до 5. mriprogress. org/ pdf/ icg/ 2010/ ICG5/ 18october/ 03. Inside GNSS. ru/ russia/ 20110209/ 162520205. csmonitor. RIA Novosti.  "First Foreign Firm Embraces Glonass" (http:/ / www. pdf& AD=ADA484380). Russia & CIS Observer. 2011-02-26. ru).  "Glonass Asks for $14. ru/ science/ 20090512/ 170848130.5 метров (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 2010-12-30. 2008. Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems. "L1CR and L5R CDMA interoperable with GPS and Galileo"  GLONASS Status and Progress (http:/ / www. RBC.  "Russia to launch Glonass satellite on Feb. Retrieved 2010-08-12. php?id=2& nid=14109). 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BBC News. com/ press/ release. . ru/ pls/ htmldb/ f?p=202:20:1999598232433879::NO:::) Russian Space Agency.  "Russia launches satellite for global navigation system" (http:/ / www. gov/ pdf/ cgsicMeetings/ 50/ CGSIC_GLONASS_Revnivykh_20_09_2010.col1). rian. nytimes. rsa.  "GLONASS Update Delves into Constellation Details" (http:/ / www. Fred (December 6. Retrieved 2010-12-30.GLONASS  "Glonass still wants to be “the other guy in the sky”" (http:/ / rt. ru/ society/ news. 50th CGSIC Meeting. 2011-04-11. pdf). uscg. Anatoly (December 7. html) РИА «Новости» 52 . Roscosmos.  GLONASS transmitter specs  "A Review of GLONASS" Miller. "  GLONASS Status and Development (http:/ / www.Интерфакс" (http:/ / www. themoscowtimes.  Afanasyev. .  "The Global Navigation System GLONASS: Development and Usage in the 21st Century" (http:/ / www. Space and Tech  http:/ / www. "  GLONASS Status and Progress (http:/ / www. Interfax.Revnivykh. . html) RIA Novosti 2008-12-29  "В российской навигационной системе ГЛОНАСС заработал еще. .com (http:/ / www. Sdcm.Revnivykh. 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting. Richard (2010). com/ business/ article/ glonass-asks-for-1435bln/ 439306. jsp)  Broadcom. "Russia's $2 billion project to rival America's GPS suffers setback" (http:/ / www. Christian Science Monitor. shtml) (in Russian).ru.ru. 2007. . ru/ main. com/ images/ File/ magazin/ 2007/ m2-screen_en. html). S. 2002. interfax. . as reported by RSA "GLONASS constellation status" on 6 April 2007  "Glonass-K: a prospective satellite of the current GLONASS system" (http:/ / www.com. pdf). rian. . "Interview of Anatoly Perminov to the Izvestia Newspaper (in Russian)" (http:/ / www. .com (http:/ / www.  Langley. 48th CGSIC Meeting. glonass-ianc. gpsworld.Revnivykh. The Moscow Times. Digital Ship. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0BPW/ is_10_21/ ai_n56309362/ ?tag=content. glonass-ianc. . 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com / Associated Press. Miller.html). "Russia Challenges the U.vectorsite. "India joins Russian GPS system" (http://timesofindia. Russian Space Agency (RSA). "Radical Change in the Air for GLONASS" (http://web.org/web/20070919124045/http://pnt. "India to Launch 2 Russian GLONASS Satellites" (http://www. "Russia Holds First Place in Spacecraft Launches" (http://mosnews. Retrieved 2008-01-18.org/web/20070210065953/http://www.ru/en/pages/about/publ/ ICD_GLONASS_eng.gnss. The Times of India. Hydrographic Society Journal. Keith M. • "GLONASS Summary" (http://www.org/web/20071012120024/http:/ /www.pdf) • GLONASS Interface Control Document Version 4. (2007-04-07). 2007-03-26.htm) on 2007-10-12. "Navigation Satellites & GPS" (http://www.html) on 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2007-04-10. "Russia Launches New Navigation Satellites into Orbit" (http://www.spaceandtech.ru/ext/117/content.au/people/ dmitchel/glonass.umaine. • Goebel. Monopoly on Satellite Navigation" (http://www.shtml). 2005-06-27.au/people/dmitchel/glonass.com/gpsworld/article/articleDetail. Retrieved 2007-04-12.atnf.com/news/2007/03/ 26/glonass.edu/PDF-files/glonass. gov/public/docs/2006-WG1-statement.glonass-ianc.0. Retrieved 2008-01-18. Retrieved 2007-04-13.jsp?id=399504). • "GLONASS constellation status for 18. 2007-03-26. "Russia Allocates $380 Million for Global Navigation System in 2007" (http://mosnews.hydrographicsociety.space. Archived from the original (http://www.html).1.org/web/20070613234101/http://www.archive.archive. Russian Space Agency (RSA).jsp?id=399504) on 2007-02-10. pp.ru/pls/htmldb/ f?p=201:24:5771576984142464179::NO:::)]"] (in Russian). Retrieved 2007-04-12.com/news/2005/06/27/indialaunch. Section 2. Archived from the original (http://www.html). • "GLONASS Transmitter Specifications" (http://web. 2007-01-29. 2008 (http://rniikp.mosnews.hydrographicsociety.htm). Retrieved 2007-12-28. 2007-12-25. GPS/GLONASS Interoperability and Compatibility Working Group.com/gpsworld/article/articleDetail. Russian Federal Government.shtml).shtml).archive. gpsworld. nytimes.com/India_joins_Russian_GPS_system/ articleshow/1502481. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2007-04-12. pdf) • "ФЕДЕРАЛЬНАЯ ЦЕЛЕВАЯ ПРОГРАММА "ГЛОБАЛЬНАЯ НАВИГАЦИОННАЯ СИСТЕМА" English: FEDERAL SPECIAL-PURPOSE PROGRAM "GLOBAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM"[[Category:Articles containing explicitly cited English language text (http://www. 1998 (http://www. 2001-08-20.glonass-ianc.gov/public/docs/2006-WG1-statement. "Joint announcement (in English and Russian)" (http://web.com/news/2007/03/26/glonass. Space and Tech. (October 2000).2. Archived from the original (http://pnt.ru/pls/htmldb/f?p=202:20:4969607893141445194::NO). Kramer.GLONASS 53 Bibliography • GLONASS Interface Control Document Edition 5. Space. Retrieved 2007-04-13. Retrieved 2007-04-12. • Retrieved 2007-04-10. Archived from the original (http://www.org/Articles/journal/2000/98-1. shtml). GPS World.indiatimes.shtml).gpsworld. csiro.csiro.shtml) on 2007-09-19. MosNews.html).01.org/Articles/journal/2000/98-1.archive. "Интегральная доступность навигации наземного потребителя по системе ГЛОНАСС English: Integral accessibility of the navigation of ground-based user along the system GLONASS[[Category:Articles containing explicitly cited English language text (http://www.com/2007/04/04/business/worldbusiness/04gps.08 under the analysis of the almanac and accepted in IANC (UTC)" (http://www. Retrieved 2007-04-13.rsa.programs-gov.rsa. Greg. Retrieved 2007-04-10. MosNews.S.cms).net/ttgps.com/missionlaunches/ ap-071225-proton-glonass. Retrieved 2007-04-12. Andrew E.com/spacedata/constellations/glonass_consum.atnf. 2006-12-14. Retrieved 2007-04-12. A Review of GLONASS (http://web. New York Times. • • • • • • • • • .htm)]"] (in Russian). MosNews.
Russian Space Agency (RSA).com/uragan.ru/glonass/). Retrieved 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2007-07-31. • "Space Policy Project's "World Space Guide: GLONASS"" (http://www. September 14–19.ru/NewsDoSele.htm).html).gpssoft. 2009. 11F654)" (http://space.fas.rsa.html) .asp?NEWSID=2021)]"] (in Russian). MosNews. • "Три КА «Глонасс-М» взяты на управление English: Three KA "GLONASS-M" have taken off[[Category:Articles containing explicitly cited English language text (http://web. • "Uragan (GLONASS. Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original (http://www.com/glonass_overview.org/spp/guide/russia/nav/ glonass. • "GLONASS News" (http://www.shtml).si/~s53mv/navsats/theory. 2006-12-26. asp?NEWSID=2021) on 2007-09-27.pdf) Presented on the ILRS Technical Workshop. nasa. Metsovo. future and past (http://147.roscosmos.org/web/ 20070927230705/http://www.GLONASS • "Russian Space Agency Plans Cooperation With India" (http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-18. Retrieved 2007-04-12.106. 2007-01-16.htm).html)]"] (in Russian).44/ILRS_W2009/docs/ PP02B_GLOTOV_GLONASS. Russian Space Web.html) • Description of GLONASS on the web page of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) (http://ilrs. RIA Novosti.com/news/2004/12/01/ indiaspace.ru/NewsDoSele.mosnews.102.archive. • "Услуги системы ГЛОНАСС будут предоставляться потребителям бесплатно English: The services of system GLONASS will be given to users free of charge[[Category:Articles containing explicitly cited English language text (http://rian.html) • GLONASS: present.glonass-ianc. 54 External links • Official GLONASS web page (http://www. Gunter's Space Page.russianspaceweb.ru/technology/innovation/20070518/65722212.positim.hamradio.gov/satellite_missions/list_of_satellites/g102_general. Retrieved 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2006-12-29.roscosmos. 2007-05-18.skyrocket. Retrieved 2007-04-12.de/doc_sdat/uragan. Greece • A homemade receiver for GPS & GLONASS satellites (http://lea.gsfc. 2004-01-12. • "Uragan navsat (11F654)" (http://www.ru/pls/htmldb/ f?p=202:1:16827457493506720876) • GNSS web page including GLONASS (http://www.
makes necessary ionospheric and clock corrections and run the navigation software. Both will be carried on L5 (1176. It is unclear if recent agreements with the Russian government to restore their GLONASS system will supersede the IRNSS project or feed additional technical support to enable its completion.  Such an arrangement would mean all seven satellites would have continuous radio visibility with Indian control stations. Three of the satellites in the constellation will be placed in geostationary orbit. The satellites would weigh approximately 1.Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System 55 Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System The Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system being developed by Indian Space Research Organisation  which would be under total control of Indian government. In pursuit of a highly independent system. The first satellite of the proposed constellation. According to a presentation  by A Bhaskaranarayana to a meeting of COSPAR in Montreal on 15 July 2008.08 MHz). The navigation signals themselves would be transmitted in the S-band frequency (2–4 GHz) and broadcast through a phased array antenna to maintain required coverage and signal strength. with the space segment. The System is intended to provide an absolute position accuracy of better than 20 meters throughout India and within a region extending approximately 2.330 kg and their solar panels generate 1.2).  Description The proposed system would consist of a constellation of seven satellites and a support ground segment. The ground segment of IRNSS constellation would consist of a Master Control Center (MCC). calculate integrity. Development The government approved the project in May 2006.000 km apogee and 250 km perigee inclined at 29 degrees. The SPS signal will be modulated by a 1 MHz BPSK signal. and additional ground stations to monitor the health of the satellites with the capability of issuing radio commands to the satellites (TT&C stations).45 MHz) and S band (2492. .400 watts. an Indian standard time infrastructure would also be established. The Precision Service will use BOC(5. ground stations to track and estimate the satellites' orbits and ensure the integrity of the network (IRIM). The requirement of such a navigation system is driven by the fact that access to Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The satellite payloads would consist of atomic clocks and electronic equipment to generate the navigation signals.000 km around it. is not guaranteed in hostile situations. It means the IRNSS optimally functional by 2014. IRNSS signals will consist of a Special Positioning Service and a Precision Service.8 million). The MCC would estimate and predict the position of all IRNSS satellites. However reports came in Apr 2010 that India plans to start launching satellites by end of 2011 and six months periodic launches take place. ground segment and user receivers all being built in India. GPS. developed at a cost of 1600 crore (US$356. with the intention of the system to be completed and implemented by 2014. is expected to be launched in last quarter of 2011. A goal of complete Indian control has been stated. Two of the GSOs will cross the equator at 55 East and two at 111 East. The GSOs will be in orbits with a 24. . These GEOs will be located at 34 East 83 East and 132 East longitude. India also launched 3 new satellites in the space to supplement this.
Science and Technology. Trade and Industry. ASBC collapsed in 2007. rediff. . Retrieved 2009-05-05.  Authorized by the Japanese government in 2002. thehindu. ISRO Space India Newsletter. pdf  http:/ / www. htm  http:/ / beta. livemint. of Economy. 2.htm 3. html). the Ministry of Education. of Internal Affairs and Communications. http://www. and GNSS Technologies Inc.  "First IRNSS satellite by December" (http:/ / www.  H.com. that would be receivable within Japan. Culture. html)  "India to develop its own version of GPS" (http:/ / www.  http:/ / www.  S. unvienna. com/ technology/ tech-tips/ 3684-3-satellites-to-be-launched-by-isro-on-20th-april.com/news/2007/sep/27gps..thehindu. SPAC is owned by four departments of the Japanese government. org/ pdf/ icg/ 2008/ expert/ 2-3. ece Quasi-Zenith Satellite System The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). As such. began development by the Advanced Space Business Corporation (ASBC) team. is a proposed three-satellite regional time transfer system and Satellite Based Augmentation System for the Global Positioning System. . "Launch of first satellite for Indian Regional Navigation Satellite system next year" (http:/ / beta. Magazine article. Beta. oosa. com/ sci-tech/ article393892. org/ newsletters/ spaceindia/ aprsep2006/ Satnavindustry. com/ sci-tech/ article393892. htm). com/ news/ 2007/ sep/ 27gps. Full operational status is expected by 2013. com/ 2007/ 09/ 05002237/ India-to-build-a-constellation. Sports. Asian Surveying and Mapping. "3 Satellites To Be Launched By ISRO" (http:/ / informationmadness.rediff. 2010 References  India to build a constellation of 7 navigation satellites by 2012 (http:/ / www. or Juntencho (準 天 頂 ) in Japanese. Infrastructure  and Transport. Rediff. Anandan (2010-04-10). Retrieved 2010-12-30. With regards to its positioning service. isro. audio. However. and the Ministry of Land. QZSS is targeted at mobile applications. SATNAV Industry Meet 2006 . Launch of first satellite for Indian Regional Navigation Satellite system next year  The Hindu . to provide Quasi-Zenith satellite orbit communications-based services (video. it is viewed as a GNSS Augmentation service.Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System 56 Footnotes 1. The first satellite 'Michibiki' was launched on 11 September 2010 . . com/ news/ first-irnss-satellite-by-december-). The work was taken over by the Satellite Positioning Research and Application Center. Pathak. . Its positioning service could also collaborate with the geostationary satellites in Japan's . Retrieved 2010-12-30. including Mitsubishi Electric Corp.. work on a concept for a Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). QZSS can only provide limited accuracy on its own and is not currently required in its specifications to work in a stand-alone mode. thehindu.September 2006 Issue. ece).Apr 10. and data) and positioning information. 2009-05-05.com. asmmag. April .. Hitachi Ltd.
currently under development. the ﬁrst QZS.S. This minimizes changes to specifications and receiver designs. QZSS animation 57 QZSS and positioning augmentation QZSS can enhance GPS services in two ways: ﬁrst. Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). L1C signal. Compared to standalone GPS. The development of a passive hydrogen maser for QZSs was abandoned in 2006. This allows the system to operate optimally when satellites are in direct contact with the ground station. These orbits allow the satellite to dwell for more than 12 hours a day with an elevation above 70° (meaning they appear almost overhead most of the time) and give rise to the term "quasi-zenith" for which the system is named. making it suitable for a system like the Japanese QZSS. to 53° with significant eccentricity. will carry a basic prototype of an experimental crystal clock synchronization system. As of June 2003. Low satellite mass and low satellite manufacturing and launch cost are significant advantages of this novel system. availability enhancement. During the ﬁrst half of the two year in-orbit test phase. QZSs was to carry two types of space-borne atomic clocks. a hydrogen maser and a Rb atomic clock. which will be employed to gain some fundamental knowledge of satellite atomic standard behavior in space as well as for other research purposes. second. QZSS timekeeping and remote synchronization Although the ﬁrst generation QZSS timekeeping system (TKS) will be based on the Rb clock. performance enhancement whereby the accuracy and reliability of GPS derived navigation solutions is increased. the proposed orbits ranged from 45° inclination with little eccentricity. It also improves reliability by means of failure monitoring and system health data notifications. Because the GPS availability enhancement signals transmitted from Quasi-Zenith Satellites are compatible with modernized GPS signals. An . preliminary tests will investigate the feasibility of the atomic clock-less technology which might be employed in the second generation QZSS. According to its original plan. whereby the availability of GPS signals is improved. the combined system GPS plus QZSS delivers improved positioning performance via ranging correction data provided through the transmission of submeter-class performance enhancement signals L1-SAIF and LEX from QZS. The mentioned QZSS TKS technology is a novel satellite timekeeping system which does not require on-board atomic clocks as used by existing navigation satellite systems such as GPS. GLONASS or the planned GALILEO system. The satellites would be placed in a periodic Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO). QZSS will also be able to use a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) scheme. QZSS also provides other support data to users to improve GPS satellite acquisition. and hence interoperability is ensured. The positioning signal will be generated by a Rb clock and an architecture similar to the GPS timekeeping system will be employed. which itself is a Satellite Based Augmentation System similar to the U. L2C signal and L5 signal. the QZSs will transmit the L1C/A signal.Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Multi-Functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT). This concept is differentiated by the employment of a synchronization framework combined with lightweight steerable on-board clocks which act as transponders re-broadcasting the precise time remotely provided by the time synchronization network located on the ground. Similar orbits are used by the Sirius Satellite Radio system (Tundra orbit).
18" (http:/ / www.jp/) Twitter (http://twitter. 2004.gov/pdf/cgsicMeetings/47/qzzmsas. 2008-12-12.com/gpsworld/article/articleDetail.uscg. asmmag. Ivan G.jaxa.com.  "Service Status of QZSS" (http:/ / www. aprsaf. (http://www. Retrieved 2009-05-07.jaxa. jaxa. com/ gpssidt/ The+ System/ THE-SYSTEM-mdash-November-2007/ ArticleStandard/ Article/ detail/ 469041?contextCategoryId=40125).jaxa. External links • • • • JAXA Quasi-Zenith Satellite-1 "MICHIBIKI" (http://www. Japan Seeking 13 Percent Budget Hike for Space Activities (http://www. • Kallender-Umezu. June 1.] Space. Magazine article. .jaxa. html).html). 2007. com/ Remote-Synchronization-Method-Quasi-Zenith-Satellite/ dp/ 3639160045/ ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8& s=books& qid=1280310101& sr=8-1).html) JAXA MICHIBIKI Special Site (http://www. November 2007. Paul.jp/countdown/f18/index_e. jp/ press/ 2010/ 09/ 20100911_h2af18_e.com/ spacenews/archive04/budgetarch_090704.html) JAXA MICHIBIKI data site (http://qz-vision. Retrieved 6 Dec 07.html). gpsworld.Quasi-Zenith Satellite System outline of this concept as well as two possible implementations of the time synchronization network for QZSS were studied and published in Tappero's PhD work. Satoshi.navcen. com/ news/ qzss-in-2010). QZSS . • Quasi-Zenith Satellites System (http://www. 2003. 58 References  "Launch Result of the First Quasi-Zenith Satellite 'MICHIBIKI' by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. jp)(Japanese) • Petrovski.  "QZSS in 2010" (http:/ / www.pdf) Kogure.  "Remote Synchronization Method for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System: study of a novel satellite timekeeping system which does not require on-board atomic clocks" (http:/ / www. pdf). Asian Surveying and Mapping.space.jsp?id=61200) GPS World Online. September 7.Japan's New Integrated Communication and Positioning Service for Mobile Users. Presentation at the 47th Meeting of the Civil Global Positioning System Service Interface Committee (CGSIC). Retrieved 2009-05-07. 2008-12-12.com/QZSS) (Japanese) . . amazon.  The System (http:/ / sidt.gpsworld. GPS World Online.jp/projects/sat/qzss/index_e. • High Accuracy Positioning Experiment System Using Quasi-Zenith Satellites System (JAXA) (http://qzss.jp/projects/sat/qzss/index_e. • QZSS / MSAS Status (http://www. . Retrieved 2009. . org/ data/ aprsaf15_data/ csawg/ CSAWG_6d. 2009-05-07.jaxa. September 25.
known as "Selective Availability". These stations broadcast the difference between the measured satellite pseudoranges and actual (internally computed) pseudoranges.42 MHz) was deliberately degraded by offsetting its clock signal by a random amount. The digital correction signal is typically broadcast locally over ground-based transmitters of shorter range. This technique. if the offset was "100 meters to the east". the main "coarse acquisition" signal (C/A) transmitted on the L1 frequency (1575. More accurate guidance was possible for users of dual frequency GPS receivers that also received the L2 frequency (1227. United States Coast Guard (USCG) and United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to set S/A aside to enable civilian use of GNSS. StarFire and OmniSTAR. Different versions of this system include the Wide Area Augmentation System. The advent of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) could provide greatly improved accuracy and performance at a fraction of the cost. that offset would be true over a relatively wide area. The military received multiple requests from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). For instance. The accuracy inherent in the S/A signal was however too poor to make this realistic. Transportable DGPS reference station Baseline HD by CLAAS for use in satellite-assisted steering systems in modern agriculture History When GPS was first being put into service. This presented a problem for civilian users who relied upon ground-based radio navigation systems such as LORAN. intended for military use. European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service. The term can refer both to the generalized technique as well as specific implementations using it. Japan's Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System. To avoid this.6 MHz). or SA for short. DGPS uses a network of fixed.Differential GPS 59 Differential GPS Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is an enhancement to Global Positioning System that provides improved location accuracy. was encrypted and was only available to authorised users with the encryption keys. the United States Coast Guard and Canadian Coast Guard run one such system in the US and Canada on the longwave radio frequencies between 285 kHz and 325 kHz near major waterways and harbors. but the L2 transmission. the effect of its offset on positioning was relatively fixed – that is. a number of agencies developed a solution to the SA "problem". Canada's CDGPS and the commercial VERIPOS. but remained steadfast in its objection on grounds of security. VOR and NDB systems costing millions of dollars each year to maintain. and receiver stations may correct their pseudoranges by the same amount. from the 15-meter nominal GPS accuracy to about 10 cm in case of the best implementations. This suggested that broadcasting this offset to local . Through the early to mid 1980s. Since the SA signal was changed slowly. equivalent to about 100 meters of distance. the US military was concerned about the possibility of enemy forces using the globally available GPS signals to guide their own weapon systems. ground-based reference stations to broadcast the difference between the positions indicated by the satellite systems and the known fixed positions. seriously degraded the usefulness of the GPS signal for non-military users. A similar system that transmits range corrections from orbiting satellites instead of ground-based transmitters is called a Satellite Based Augmentation System.
resulting in measurements closer to GPS's theoretical performance. as well as errors in the satellite position ephemeris data and clock drift on the satellites. notably in the midwest and Alaska. however. After many years of pressure. would have little coverage by ground-based GPS. but also aviation units on either VHF or commercial AM radio bands. even hand-held units. Nevertheless. Depending on the amount of data being sent in the DGPS correction signal. . a number of vendors have created commercial DGPS services. This meant that lower-population areas. and some of the compensated errors vary with space: specifically. In addition to continued deployments of the USCG and FAA sponsored systems. 60 Operation A reference station calculates differential corrections for its own location and time. which could also be measured and corrected for in the broadcast. correcting for these effects can reduce the error significantly. which could be received on existing radiotelephones and fed into suitably equipped GPS receivers. forces meant that SA was thought to harm the U.Differential GPS GPS receivers could eliminate the effects of SA. Additionally. a form of DGPS is now a natural part of most GPS operations. Almost all major GPS vendors offered units with DGPS inputs. They started sending out "production quality" DGPS signals on a limited basis in 1996. and there has been some argument that the latter will be turned off as WAAS becomes fully operational. but this would not be easy. experience during the Gulf War demonstrated that the widespread use of civilian receivers by U. by this point DGPS had evolved into a system for providing more accuracy than even a non-SA GPS signal could provide on its own. the FAA (and others) started studies for broadcasting the signals across the entire hemisphere from communications satellites in geostationary orbit.S. Plans were put into place to expand the system across the US. and rapidly expanded the network to cover most US ports of call. This has led to the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and similar systems. Instead. Users may be up to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the station. By the mid-1990s it was clear that the SA system was no longer useful in its intended role. around 15 meters. and many also support WAAS directly. the accuracy of DGPS decreases with distance from the reference station. To some degree. precisely where it was considered most needed. WAAS offers accuracy similar to the USCG's ground-based DGPS networks. more than if it were turned off. satellite ephemeris errors and those introduced by ionospheric and tropospheric distortions. or alternatively. selling their signal (or receivers for it) to users who require better accuracy than the nominal 15 meters GPS offers. "wide-area DGPS". experimenting with the system on an ever-wider basis through the late 1980s and early 1990s. This offered an improvement to about 5 meters accuracy. DGPS would render it ineffective over the US. not only for the USCG signals. For this reason. as well as the Saint Lawrence Seaway in partnership with the Canadian Coast Guard. more than enough for most civilian needs. The problem can be aggravated if the user and the station lack "inter visibility"—when they are unable to see the same satellites. it took an executive order by President Bill Clinton to get SA turned off permanently in 2000. Additionally. and most large transmitters capable of covering large areas tend to cluster near cities. although these are generally not referred to as DGPS. There are several other sources of error that share the same characteristics as SA in that they are the same over large areas and for "reasonable" amounts of time. now offer DGPS data inputs.FAA_FS The US Coast Guard was one of the more aggressive proponents of the DGPS system. another major source of errors in a GPS fix is due to transmission delays in the ionosphere. Almost all commercial GPS units. the best implementations offering accuracies of under 10 cm.S. The quality of the DGPS corrections generally fell with distance. These signals are broadcast on marine longwave frequencies. These include the ionospheric effects mentioned earlier.
and has corrections broadcast on the Commercial FM radio band. and the Mississippi River inland waterways. in Portugal suggest a degradation of just 0. it was set up in 1998 by the countries' respective General Lighthouse Authorities (GLA) .Differential GPS 61 Accuracy The United States Federal Radionavigation Plan and the IALA Recommendation on the Performance and Monitoring of DGNSS Services in the Band 283.S. With a network of 12 transmitters sited around the coastline and three control stations. MDGPS only covered coastal waters. Variations DGPS can refer to any type of Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS). according to the US Coast Guard.Details and map United States NDGPS The United States Department of Transportation.5–325 kHz cite the United States Department of Transportation's 1993 estimated error growth of 0. the system was implemented as a maritime navigational to fill the gap left by the demise of the Decca Navigator System in 2000. the Federal Railroad Administration and the National Geodetic Survey appointed the Coast Guard as the maintaining agency for the U.22 m per 100 km. There are many operational systems in use throughout the world. . Wales and the Channel Islands. while NDGPS expands this to include complete coverage of the continental United States. Australia Australia runs two DGPS systems: one is mainly for marine navigation. in conjunction with the Federal Highway Administration. A list can be found here 300KHz DGPS stations  European DGPS Network The European DGPS network has been mainly developed by the Finnish and Swedish maritime administrations in order to improve safety in the archipelago between the two countries. the Northern Lighthouse Board covering Scotland and the Isle of Man and the Commissioners of Irish Lights covering the whole of Ireland. The system is an expansion of the previous Maritime Differential GPS (MDGPS) which the Coast Guard began in the late 1980s and completed in March 1999. The centralized Command and Control unit is USCG Navigation Center. broadcasting its signal on the longwave band.European Differential Beacon Transmitters  . In the UK and Ireland. VA. based in Alexandria. Canadian DGPS The Canadian system is similar to the US system and is primarily for maritime usage covering the Atlantic and Pacific coast as well as the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway.67 m per 100 km from the broadcast site  but measurements of accuracy across the Atlantic. 47 countries operate systems similar to the US NDGPS (Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System). The USCG has carried over its NDGPS duties after the transition from the Department of Transportation to the Department of Homeland Security. with plans for up to 128 total sites to be online within the next 15 years. There are 82 currently broadcasting NDGPS sites in the US network. the Great Lakes. the other is used for land surveys and land navigation. Nationwide DGPS network. Transmitting on the 300 kHz band.DGNSS Stations: UK and Ireland  Effective Solutions (Data Products) .Trinity House covering England. the system underwent testing and two additional transmitters were added before the system was declared operational in 2002.  Trinity House .
 http:/ / www. 2002). . 2000. gov/ FGCS/ info/ sans_SA/ docs/ statement. html). navcen. co. Standard Operating Procedures (2002)  AMSA's DGPS Service . and are subsequently transferred to a computer running the GPS post-processing software. co. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. "2001 Federal Radionavigation Plan" (http:/ / www. using the receiver by quick turns of positions or loops of 3-10 survey points. ndblist. 'What is the accuracy of DGPS?'. Retrieved November 27. . uscg. noaa. pdf) (PDF). gov/ pdf/ frp/ frp2005/ 2005%20FRP%20WEB. 2005. html  http:/ / www. VA. Differential GPS measurements can also be computed in real-time by some GPS receivers if they receive a correction signal using a separate radio receiver. prnewswire. ngs. pdf  United States Coast Guard Navigation Center. 62 Post processing Post-processing is used in Differential GPS to obtain precise positions of unknown points by relating them to known points such as survey markers. au/ Shipping_Safety/ Navigation_Safety/ Differential_Global_Postitioning_System/ Service_Status/ index. uscg. pdf) (PDF). . Office of Science and Technology Policy. References  "Statement by the President regarding the United States' Decision to Stop Degrading Global Positioning System Accuracy" (http:/ / www. Luís Sardinha. Alexandria. Moore. 2005. co. Satellite Navigation.  Department of Transportation and Department of Defense (March 25. will eventually replace the Instrument Landing System. 207-225. May 1. The software computes baselines using simultaneous measurement data from two or more GPS receivers. but can also be done by special use of a single device. Press release.  Monteiro. Chris. uk/ beacons. Retrieved 2007-12-17. Terry and Hill.  PRNewsire (22 January 1998). effective-solutions. Both utilise DGPS techniques and are called the Ground Based Augmentation System and Ground based Regional Augmentation Systems. html  http:/ / www. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/ www/ story/ 1-22-98/ 399313& EDATE=). The Journal of Navigation (2005) 58. . for example in Real Time Kinematic (RTK) surveying or navigation.  http:/ / www. gov. gov/ pdf/ frp/ frp2001/ FRP2001. The GPS measurements are usually stored in computer memory in the GPS receivers. The baselines represent a three-dimensional line drawn between the two points occupied by each pair of GPS antennas. Trinity House. amsa. The improvement of GPS positioning doesn't require simultaneous measurements of two or more receivers in any case. trinityhouse.Differential GPS Two systems for air navigation and precision landing of aircraft. Both of these systems broadcast corrections via the aviation VHF band. some methods of quasi-differential GPS were developed. navcen.  Department of Transportation and Department of Defense (March 25. and therefore can be cancelled out in the calculations. trinityhouse. pdf  "Marine Differential GPS" (http:/ / www. The post-processed measurements allow more precise positioning. "UK & Republic of Ireland General Lighthouse Authorities Turn to Trimble GPS For Future Navigation" (http:/ / www. . In the 1990s when even handheld receivers were quite expensive. uk/ aids_to_navigation/ the_task/ satellite_navigation. html#). in Australia. uscg. uk/ aids_to_navigation/ the_task/ satellite_navigation. because most GPS errors affect each receiver nearly equally. Retrieved November 27. navcen.Status (http:/ / www. gov/ pdf/ frp/ frp2001/ FRS2001. info/ datamodes/ worldDGPSfreqorder. "2001 Federal Radionavigation Systems" (http:/ / www. 2002). asp) .
ndblist.uscg. Additionally.navcen. the angular position is tracked through an integration of the angular rate from the gyro sensors. The angular orientation of the unit may be inferred from the series of position updates from the GPS. GPS may lose its signal and the INS can continue to compute the position and angle during the period of lost GPS signal.hydro-international. These also produce unknown biases that affect the integration to get the position of the unit.ca/fra/GCC/DGPS_Accueil) Product Survey on RTK DGPS receivers (http://www.info/datamodes. 6900760 .htm) Canadian Coast Guard DGPS information (English) (http://www. Databases and Resources (http://www.com/productsurvey/ id10-RTK_DGPS_Receivers. This is integrated twice and produces an error in position.htm) • Worldwide database of IALA DGPS Reference stations on an interactive map (http://www.coaa.sg) US NDGPS fact sheet (http://www. The two systems are complementary and are often employed together.ccg-gcc.htm) US coverage maps (http://www.inlis. The INS accelerometers will produce an unknown bias signal that appears as a genuine specific force. References • US Patent No.sirent.co.ccg-gcc. the INS software must use an estimate of the angular position of the accelerometers when conducting this integration.tfhrc. The change in the error in position relative to the GPS may be used to estimate the unknown angle error.gov/dgps/coverage/Default.htm) • Useful DGPS Links. INS fills in the gaps between GPS positions. Inertial navigation systems usually can only provide an accurate solution for a short period of time.gov/its/ndgps/02072.gc.gov.com/ referencestations. For high dynamic vehicles such as missiles and aircraft. The benefits of using GPS with an INS are that the INS may be calibrated by the GPS signals and that the INS can provide position and angle updates at a quicker rate than GPS.Differential GPS 63 External links • • • • • • SiReNT information page (http://www.ca/eng/CCG/DGPS_Home) Canadian Coast Guard DGPS information (French) (http://www.gc. The GPS gives an absolute drift-free position value that can be used to reset the INS solution or may be blended with it by use of a mathematical algorithm such as a Kalman Filter.uk/dscdecoder.php) GPS/INS GPS/INS refers to the use of GPS satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an Inertial Navigation System (INS). Typically. Additionally.html) for (mainly) hydrographic use • DGPS Decoding Software (http://www.gnsspro.
This has allowed companies to develop semi-codeless approaches for tracking the P(Y) signal.023 megabits per second (Mbit/s). and information about the time and status of the entire satellite constellation. which allows the receiver to recognize multiple satellites on the same frequency.35 × 1014 bits in length (235. In other words. GPS signals include ranging signals.187. the code is so long and complex it was believed that a receiver could not directly acquire and synchronize with this signal alone.000 bits. Whereas the C/A PRNs are unique for each satellite.100. .GPS signals 64 GPS signals The satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) broadcast radio signals to enable GPS receivers on or near the Earth's surface to determine location and synchronized time.000. each satellite's P-code PRN code is 6. synchronize with the P-code. it was decided to encrypt the P-code. when transmitted at 1. ~720. the P-code PRN is actually a small segment of a master P-code approximately 2. Each satellite transmits a unique PRN code. It was expected that the receiver would first lock onto the relatively simple C/A code and then. Department of Defense for both military use and use by the general public. The navigation messages include ephemeris data. to generate the Y-code.1871 × 1012 bits long (6.000 bits. The extreme length of the P-code increases its correlation gain and eliminates any range ambiguity within the Solar System. used to calculate the position of each satellite in orbit. usually reserved for military applications. The GPS system itself is operated by the U. without knowledge of the W-code itself. called the almanac. and navigation messages. which is freely available to the public. however. However.000.S. Coarse/Acquisition code The C/A code is a 1.23 Mbit/s). Precision code The P-code is also a PRN. which is a slower rate than that of the P-code itself by a factor of approximately 20. The details of the W-code are kept secret. after obtaining the current time and approximate position. a special encryption sequence. To prevent unauthorized users from using or potentially interfering with the military signal through a process called spoofing.716 terabytes) and each satellite repeatedly transmits its assigned segment of the master code. used to measure the distance to the satellite. which does not correlate well with any other satellite's PRN code. These sequences only match up. Basic GPS signals The original GPS design contains two ranging codes: the Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) code. when they are exactly aligned.000. To that end the P-code was modulated with the W-code. or strongly correlate. and the restricted Precision (P) code. the PRN codes are highly orthogonal to one another. This is a form of code division multiple access (CDMA). but it is known that it is applied to the P-code at approximately 500 kHz.213 gigabytes) and only repeats once a week (it is transmitted at 10. repeats every millisecond.023 bit deterministic sequence called pseudorandom noise (also pseudorandom binary sequence) (PN or PRN code) which. The Y-code is what the satellites have been transmitting since the anti-spoofing module was set to the "on" state.000. The encrypted signal is referred to as the P(Y)-code. ~26.
contains information and status concerning all the satellites. The next word is the handover word (HOW). Subframes 4 and 5 contain components of the almanac. It begins with a Telemetry Word (TLM). the receiver must discard that data and start again. A position fix using any satellite can not be calculated until the receiver has an accurate and complete copy of that satellite's ephemeris data. it then downloads the ephemeris data directly from that satellite. error correction) 3–10 2–3 1–2 3–10 4–5 1–2 3–10 In addition to the PRN ranging codes. Subframe 1 contains the GPS date (week number) and information to correct the satellite's time to GPS time. Each subframe.GPS signals 65 Navigation message GPS message format Subframes 1 Words 1–2 Description Telemetry and handover words (TLM and HOW) Satellite clock. or ephemeris. which gives the GPS time (actually the time when the first bit of the . from the navigation message is used to calculate precisely where the satellite was at the start of the message. Each subframe has the GPS time. a receiver needs to know detailed information about each satellite's position and the network. which enables the receiver to detect the beginning of a subframe and determine the receiver clock time at which the navigation subframe begins. At this rate. The first part contains the GPS date and time. Each frame contains only 1/25th of the total almanac. The navigation message is made up of three major components. Each subframe is divided into 10 words.500 bit frame. their locations and PRN numbers.5 minutes are required to receive the entire almanac from a single satellite. The second part contains orbital information called ephemeris data and allows the receiver to calculate the position of the satellite. The orbital position data. A more sensitive receiver will potentially acquire the ephemeris data more quickly than a less sensitive receiver. The GPS design has this information modulated on top of both the C/A and P(Y) ranging codes at 50 bit/s and calls it the Navigation Message.000 bit almanac message. Subframes 2 and 3 together contain the transmitting satellite's ephemeris data. especially in a noisy environment. which is divided into five subframes of 300 bits each and transmitted at 50 bit/s. The third part. a receiver must process 25 whole frames worth of data retrieve the entire 15. If the signal from a satellite is lost while its ephemeris data is being acquired. almanac information is more general and is considered valid for up to 180 days. Whereas ephemeris information is highly detailed and considered valid for no more than four hours. The almanac assists the receiver in determining which satellites to search for. requires 6 seconds to transmit. The navigation message itself is constructed from a 1. plus satellite status and health. and once the receiver picks up each satellite's signal in turn. GPS time relationship Telemetry and handover words (TLM and HOW) Ephemeris (precise satellite orbit) Telemetry and handover words (TLM and HOW) Almanac component (satellite network synopsys. plus the satellite's status and an indication of its health. 12. called the almanac. therefore.
023 MHz signal using a bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation technique. and information to relate GPS derived time to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Each satellite transmits not only its own ephemeris. The P(Y)-code is transmitted on both the L1 and L2 frequencies as a GPS broadcast signal . due to the low data transmission rate. because the search for each satellite was a slow process. with provisions for updates every 4 hours or longer in non-nominal conditions.5 minutes). 66 Almanac The almanac. Typically the updates contain new ephemerides. A new ephemeris is broadcast by the satellite every 2 hours and is generally valid for 4 hours. called L2. The second purpose is for relating time derived from the GPS (called GPS time) to the international time standard of UTC. The receiver is potentially capable of getting a new pseudorange measurement at the beginning of each subframe or every 6 seconds. The C/A code is transmitted on the L1 frequency as a 1.GPS signals next subframe will be transmitted) and identifies the specific subframe within a complete frame. the time the next subframe was sent can be calculated through the use of the clock correction data and the HOW. provided in subframes 4 and 5 of the frames. while an ephemeris from each satellite is needed to compute position fixes using that satellite. Data updates Satellite data is updated typically every 24 hours. two frequencies are utilized.60 MHz (10. The Control Segment guarantees that during normal operations a new almanac will be uploaded at least every 6 days. Advances in hardware have made the acquisition process much faster. it is often better than no correction. but transmits an almanac for all satellites.23 MHz × 154) called L1. one at 1575. because. Finally. Frequency information For the ranging codes and navigation message to travel from the satellite to the receiver.23 MHz × 120).  The remaining eight words of the subframe contain the actual data specific to that subframe. since ionospheric error is the largest error source for a single-frequency GPS receiver. lack of an almanac in a new receiver would cause long delays before providing a valid position. the almanac allows a single-frequency receiver to correct for ionospheric error by using a global ionospheric model.42 MHz (10. The time needed to acquire the ephemeris is becoming a significant element of the delay to first position fix. and a second at 1227. consists of coarse orbit and status information for each satellite in the constellation. so not having an almanac is no longer an issue. the time to lock onto the satellite signals shrinks. they must be modulated onto a carrier frequency. with up to 60 days data loaded in case there is a disruption in the ability to make updates regularly. The corrections are not as accurate as augmentation systems like WAAS or dual-frequency receivers. The first is to assist in the acquisition of satellites at power-up by allowing the receiver to generate a list of visible satellites based on stored position and time. The almanac serves several purposes. but the ephemeris data requires 18 to 36 seconds before it is received. with new almanacs uploaded less frequently. as the hardware becomes more capable. an ionospheric model. Each frame contains a part of the almanac (in subframes 4 and 5) and the complete almanac is transmitted by each satellite in 25 frames total (requiring 12. In older hardware. After a subframe has been read and interpreted. In the case of the original GPS design. The receiver knows the receiver clock time of when the beginning of the next subframe was received from detection of the Telemetry Word thereby enabling computation of the transit time and thus the pseudorange. However.
023 bits of the receiver's internally generated PRN code are shifted by one bit relative to the satellite's PRN code and the signals are again  compared. there is a need to separate the signals after demodulation.023 cases have been tried without achieving correlation. it identifies it by its distinct C/A code pattern. Since the carrier frequency received can vary due to Doppler shift. this may be misleading since they are actually deterministic sequences.GPS signals 10. Besides redundancy and increased resistance to jamming. The results of these modulo 2 additions are the 50 bit/s navigation messages from satellites n1 through nk.023 bits of the satellite PRN signal are compared with the receiver PRN signal. carrier frequency tracking along 1 k 67 . the points where received PRN sequences begin may not differ from O by an exact integral number of milliseconds. using modulo 2 addition of the Gold codes corresponding to satellites n through n . If correlation is not achieved. so that it is unlikely that one satellite signal will be misinterpreted as another. Each satellite's Demodulating and Decoding GPS Satellite Signals using the Coarse/Acquisition Gold code.023 possible cases have been tried. a GPS receiver must use a generic model or receive ionospheric corrections from another source (such as the Wide Area Augmentation System or EGNOS). where k is the number of channels in the GPS receiver and n1 through nk are the PRN identifiers of the satellites. If all 1.23 MHz signal using the same BPSK modulation. As it detects each satellite's signal. and the signals are decoded. O.023 bits. O. As well. it is necessary that there be an unobstructed line of sight from the receiver to the satellite. the frequency oscillator is offset to the next value and the process is repeated. Because of this. To obtain a lock.023 bits with a period of one millisecond. and therefore remove. the 1. however the P(Y)-code carrier is in quadrature with the C/A carrier (meaning it is 90° out of phase). These Gold codes are quite often referred to as pseudo random noise since they contain no data and are said to look like random sequences . PRN identifier is unique and in the range from 1 through 32. A receiver capable of performing this measurement can be significantly more accurate and is typically referred to as a dual frequency receiver. a critical benefit of having two frequencies transmitted from one satellite is the ability to measure directly. but only 32 are used. Advances in the technology used on both the GPS satellites and the GPS receivers has made ionospheric delay the largest remaining source of error in the signal. This process is repeated until correlation is achieved or all 1. the receiver picks which satellites to listen for by their PRNs. The offset. However. The receiver uses the C/A Gold code with the same PRN number as the satellite to compute an offset.025 different Gold codes of length 1. The receiver can then acquire the almanac and determine the satellites it should listen for. the Gold codes have good auto-correlation properties. There are 1. If the almanac information has previously been acquired. that generates the best correlation. the receiver enters a search mode and cycles through the PRN numbers until a lock is obtained on one of the satellites. The 1. Demodulation and decoding Since all of the satellite signals are modulated onto the same L1 carrier frequency. is computed in a trial and error manner. This is done by assigning each satellite a unique binary sequence known as a Gold code. If the almanac information is not in memory. Without such a measurement. the ionospheric delay error for that satellite. These Gold codes are highly mutually orthogonal. after demodulation. The Gold codes used in GPS are a sequence of 1.
it will encounter a sudden change in the phase of the 1.023 offsets could potentially be required. the U. The Doppler velocity is computed as a function of the frequency offset from the carrier nominal frequency. This technique improves acquisition of the GPS signal and boosts power levels at the correlator. The HOW word then enables the receiver to determine which specific subframe is being transmitted. A dataless acquisition aid is an additional signal. the receiver observes two quantities. the time the next subframe was sent can be calculated through the use of the clock correction data and the HOW. This dataless signal is designed to be easier to acquire than the data encoded and. called a pilot carrier in some cases. To perform this tracking. the tracking to maintain lock usually requires shifting of half a pulse width or less. 1995 the GPS system had completed its original design goals. 68 Modernization and additional GPS signals Having reached full operational capability on July 17. Congress reaffirmed the effort. After a subframe has been read and interpreted. The TLM word at the beginning of each subframe of a navigation frame enables the receiver to detect the beginning of a subframe and determine the receiver clock time at which the navigation subframe begins. can be used to acquire the data signal. The project involves new ground stations and new satellites.S. The amount of adjustment required for maximum correlation is used in estimating phase error. referred to as GPS III. This enables the receiver to begin reading the 20 millisecond bits of the navigation message. broadcast alongside the data signal. from the navigation message is used to calculate precisely where the satellite was at the start of the message.  There can be a delay of up to 30 seconds before the first estimate of position because of the need to read the ephemeris data before computing the intersections of sphere surfaces. Comparisons of the received PRN code with receiver generated PRN code shifted half a pulse width early and half a pulse width late are used to estimate adjustment required. This indicates the beginning of a data bit of the navigation message. A more sensitive receiver will potentially acquire the ephemeris data more quickly than a less sensitive receiver. .023 bit received PRN signal. As the receiver continues to read successive PRN sequences.GPS signals with PRN code tracking are used to determine when the received satellite's PRN code begins. especially in a noisy environment. Announcements from the Vice President and the White House in 1998 heralded the beginning of these changes and in 2000. or ephemeris. upon successful acquisition. Then the orbital position data. Received frequency offset from the frequency generated by the receiver provides an estimate of phase rate error. The receiver is potentially capable of getting a new pseudorange measurement at the beginning of each subframe or every 6 seconds. and aims to improve the accuracy and availability for all users. The Doppler velocity is the velocity component along the line of sight of the receiver relative to the satellite. The correlation of the received PRN code with respect to the receiver generated PRN code is computed to determine if the bits of the two signals are misaligned. Unlike the earlier computation of offset in which trials of all 1. additional advances in technology and new demands on the existing system led to the effort to "modernize" the GPS system. However. The command for the frequency generator and any further PRN code shifting required are computed as a function of the phase error and the phase rate error in accordance with the control law used. General Features Modernized GPS civilian signals have two general improvements over their legacy counterparts: a dataless acquisition aid and forward error correction (FEC) coding of the NAV message. The receiver knows the receiver clock time of when the beginning of the next subframe was received from detection of the Telemetry Word thereby enabling computation of the transit time and thus the pseudorange. with additional navigation signals for both civilian and military users. phase error and received frequency offset. A goal of 2013 has been established with incentives offered to the contractors if they can complete it by 2011.
Therefore. such as aviation.7 dB greater data recovery and 0. however. The L2C signal is tasked with improving accuracy of navigation. The CM code is 10. repeating every 20 ms. Unlike the C/A code. so while the navigation message is 25 bps. both of which are supported. instead of using a frame / subframe architecture. to be transmitted on a frequency other than the L1 frequency used for the coarse/acquisition (C/A) signal. and the current requirements of what needs to be sent. This allows for interoperability with other global time-transfer systems. although its transmission power is 2. Ultimately. FEC on the NAV message is a significant improvement in overall signal robustness. • Finally. • Every packet contains an alert flag. and acting as a redundant signal in case of localized interference. This is longer compared to the L1 NAV message's use of a 10-bit week number. this enables the system to grow and incorporate advances. whereas CL does not contain any modulated data and is called a dataless sequence. Because it requires new hardware onboard the satellite. L2C contains two distinct PRN code sequences to provide ranging information. however. Such rapid notification is important for safety-of-life applications. The CL code is 767. Ephemeris. this became the L2C signal.250 bits long. dataless sequence provides for approximately 24 dB greater correlation (~250 times stronger) than L1 C/A-code.500 bits per second (bit/s). they are multiplexed together to form a 1. the Civilian Moderate length code (called CM). Status. In CNAV. to be set if the satellite data can not be trusted. and the Civilian Long length code (called CL). L2C has 2. • The extra bandwidth enables the inclusion of a packet for differential correction.7 dB greater carrier-tracking. CM is modulated with the CNAV Navigation Message (see below). When compared to the C/A signal. it features a new pseudo-packetized format made up of 12-second 300-bit message packets. and only repeats every 157. Only a small fraction of the available packet types have been defined. two out of every four packets are ephemeris data and at least one of every four packets will include clock data. This means users will know within 6 seconds if a satellite is no longer usable. Due to the relatively slow transmission rate of NAV data (usually 50 bits per second) small interruptions can have potentially large impacts.230 bits long.000 bits/s signal. The long. which returns to zero every 19. it is only transmitted by the so-called Block IIR-M and later design satellites. CNAV Navigation message The CNAV data is an upgraded version of the original NAV navigation message. 69 L2C One of the first announcements was the addition of a new civilian-use signal. a 50 bps signal is transmitted. meaning the next return to zero won't occur until the year 2137.GPS signals The second advancement is to use forward error correction (FEC) coding on the NAV message itself. so called because it is broadcast on the L2 frequency. the system is designed to support 63 satellites. • There is a packet that contains a GPS-to-GNSS time offset. to be used in a similar manner to satellite based augmentation systems and which can be used to correct the L1 NAV clock data. There are many important changes in the new CNAV message: • It uses forward error correction (FEC) in a rate 1/2 convolution code. but the design allows for a wide variety of packets to be transmitted. • The GPS week number is now represented as 13 bits. less than 75% of the bandwidth is used. providing an easy to track signal.3 dB weaker.6 years. The same type of information (Time. Each signal is transmitted at 511. such as Galileo and GLONASS. It contains higher precision representation and nominally more accurate data than the NAV data. repeating every 1500 ms. and Almanac) is still transmitted using the new CNAV format. compared with 32 in the L1 NAV message. . With a 32-satellite constellation.023. or 8192 weeks.0 years.
MNAV Navigation Message A little more is known about the new navigation message. it was designed to further improve the anti-jamming and secure access of the military GPS signals. offering increased data bandwidth. with significantly separated sideband lobes. the I5 stream is modulated with a 10-bit Neuman-Hofman code that is clocked at 1 kHz and the Q5-code is modulated with a 20-bit Neuman-Hofman code that is also clocked at 1 kHz. which is called MNAV. An interesting side effect of having each satellite transmit four separate signals is that the MNAV can potentially transmit four different data channels. Also like CNAV it can utilize Forward Error Correction (FEC) and advanced error detection (such as a CRC). Similar to the new CNAV. It contains a PRN code of unknown length transmitted at 5.115 MHz. Later. The modulation method is binary offset carrier. M-code Frequency Information The M-code is transmitted in the same L1 and L2 frequencies already in use by the previous military code. the M-code is designed to be autonomous. restricted code. meaning that a user can calculate their position using only the M-code signal. Called the Military code. direct-acquisition techniques were developed that allowed some users to operate autonomously with the P(Y)-code.230 bits long and transmitted at 10. • Improves signal structure for enhanced performance • Higher transmitted power than L1/L2 signal (~3 db. While the whole Earth M-code signal is available on the Block IIR-M satellites. Unlike the P(Y)-code.GPS signals L2C Frequency information An immediate effect of having two civilian frequencies being transmitted is the civilian receivers can now directly measure the ionospheric error in the same way as dual frequency P(Y)-code receivers. However. The new signal is shaped to place most of its energy at the edges (away from the existing P(Y) and C/A carriers). tentatively in 2013. this new MNAV is packeted instead of framed. This signal will have an overall bandwidth of approximately 24 MHz. L5. the M-code is intended to be broadcast from a high-gain directional antenna. Both codes are 10. Very little has been published about this new. Safety of Life Civilian. in addition to a full-Earth antenna. is intended to be aimed at a specific region (several hundred kilometers in diameter) and increase the local signal strength by 20 dB. if a user is utilizing the L2C signal alone.23 MHz subcarrier against the 5. Two PRN ranging codes are transmitted on L5: the in-phase code (denoted as the I5-code). safety of life signal planned to be available with first GPS IIF launch (2010). the spot beam antennas will not be deployed until the Block III satellites are deployed. and the quadrature-phase code (denoted as the Q5-code). or twice as powerful) • Wider bandwidth provides a 10× processing gain . or approximately 100 times stronger. the P(Y)-code. From the P(Y)-code's original design. In a major departure from previous GPS designs. 70 Military (M-code) A major component of the modernization process is a new military signal. A side effect of having two antennas is that the GPS satellite will appear to be two GPS satellites occupying the same position to those inside the spot beam. or M-code. This directional antenna's signal. they can expect 65% more position uncertainty than with the L1 signal. using a 10. In addition.23 MHz (1ms repetition). allowing for very flexible data payloads. The sidebands can be used to improve signal reception. users had to first lock onto the C/A code and then transfer the lock to the P(Y)-code.115 MHz code. called a spot beam.
It contains 9 bits of time information. status messages and time information. and Military (M) code L2 1227. currently scheduled for 2014. 71 L1C Civilian use signal.45 MHz. 10. The L5 quadrature-phase (Q5) carrier has no data and will be called the L5 Pilot signal.230 bits long and transmitted at 1. It uses both Pilot and Data carriers like L2C. The modulation technique used is BOC(1.GPS signals • Longer spreading codes (10× longer than C/A) • Uses the Aeronautical Radionavigation Services band The recently launched GPS IIR-M7 satellite transmits a demonstration of this signal. L1 Civilian (L1C). 600 bits of ephemeris data. the resultant bit-train is used to modulate the L5 in-phase (I5) carrier. 25% is allocated to the data and 75% to the pilot. The L1C will be available with first Block III launch.60 10. system time. Of the total L1C signal power.1).023 Mbps. The PRN codes are 10. The time multiplexed binary offset carrier (TMBOC) is BOC(1. which is an aeronautical navigation band.23 MHz × 115). This combined signal will be called the L5 Data signal. broadcast on the L1 frequency (1575. The resulting 100 symbols per second (sps) symbol stream is modulo-2 added to the I5-code only.42 MHz). L5 Navigation message The L5 CNAV data includes SV ephemerides.1) for the data signal and TMBOC for the pilot. etc. called CNAV-2. SV clock behavior data.42 10.1) for all except 4 of 33 cycles. Frequencies used by GPS GPS Frequencies Band Frequency (MHz) 1575. which currently contains the C/A signal used by all current GPS users.5 dB increase in minimum C/A code power to mitigate any noise floor increase Data-less signal component pilot carrier improves tracking Enables greater civil interoperability with Galileo L1 CNAV-2 Navigation message The L1C navigation message.23×120 Encrypted Precision P(Y) code L2 Civilian (L2C) code and Military (M) code . is 1800 bits (including FEC) and is transmitted at 100 bps. The frequency was chosen so that the aviation community can manage interference to L5 more effectively than L2. The 50 bit/s data is coded in a rate 1/2 convolution coder. • • • • Implementation will provide C/A code to ensure backward compatibility Assured of 1. L5 Frequency information Broadcast on the L5 frequency (1176. and 274 bits of packetized data payload.23×154 Phase Original Usage Modernized Usage L1 In-Phase (I) QuadraturePhase (Q) In-Phase (I) QuadraturePhase (Q) Unmodulated carrier Encrypted Precision P(Y) code Coarse-acquisition (C/A) code C/A. when it switches to BOC(6.
M. html). gpsworld. The satellite network uses a CDMA spread-spectrum technique where the low-bitrate message data is encoded with a high-rate pseudo-random (PRN) sequence that is different for each satellite. The receiver must be aware of the PRN codes for each satellite to reconstruct the actual message data. navcen. Sources and references  "AN02 Network Assistance" (http:/ / www. . and Ops Advisories (including archives)" (http:/ / www.23×135 Used by Nuclear Detonation (NUDET) Detection System Payload (NDS). gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. Gold Code Generators in Virtex Devices (http:/ / www. uscg. gov/ ?pageName=gpsAlmanacs). gov/ pdf/ IS-GPS-705. Each composite signal (in-phase and quadrature phase) becomes: where and represent signal powers. . 2009-03-24. navcen. whereas the P code. navcen. 1. US Government.2. transmits data at 1. for civilian use. signals nuclear detonations/ high-energy infrared events.  "IS-GPS-705: NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment / User Segment L5 Interfaces" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). 22 September 2005. navcen. gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser. (No transmission) In-Phase (I) QuadraturePhase (Q) (No transmission) Being studied for additional ionospheric correction Safety-of-Life (SoL) Data signal Safety-of-Life (SoL) Pilot signal 72 L4 L5 1379. US Government.023 million chips per second.  "George. . af. Used to enforce nuclear test ban treaties. uscg. Retrieved 2010-07-18. losangeles. navsync. net/ main/ gpslock. pdf) (PDF). .23×115 All satellites broadcast at the same two frequencies. . navcen. navcen. Retrieved 2009-09-09.  "IIR-20(M) Satellite with L5 Civil Signal Successfully Launched" (http:/ / sidt. pdf) (PDF). u-blox. 7 December 2004. pdf)  "Interface Specification IS-GPS-200.GPS signals L3 1381. uscg.4. xilinx.. Section 1. M. for U. .  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www.S. gov/ pdf/ gps/ IS-GPS-800.05 10. United States Coast Guard. com/ gpssidt/ Latest+ News/ IIR-20M-Satellite-with-L5-Civil-Signal-Successfull/ ArticleStandard/ Article/ detail/ 589051?ref=25).23 million chips per second.. military use.6. mil/ shared/ media/ document/ AFD-070803-059. The L1 carrier is modulated by both the C/A and P codes. The C/A code. uscg. US Coast Guard.  US Coast Guard GPS FAQ (http:/ / www.2276 GHz (L2 signal). Retrieved 2009-03-26. de/ en/ gps/ signals.  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www. uscg. . Section 1.2. Retrieved 2009-10-13. htm)"  ""How a GPS Receiver Gets a Lock"" (http:/ / gpsinformation.913 10. while the L2 carrier is only modulated by the P code.4.57542 GHz (L1 signal) and 1. navcen. gov/ ?pageName=gpsFaq)  "Interface Specification IS-GPS-200 Revision D" (http:/ / www. .4.  "Essentials of Satellite Navigation Compendium" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). Both the C/A and P(Y) codes impart the precise time-of-day to the user. United States Coast Guard. United States Coast Guard. pdf)PDF (126 KB)  " GPS . Section 1. gov/ pubs/ gps/ gpsuser/ gpsuser.2. uscg. com/ images/ stories/ Resources/ gps_compendiumgps-x-02007. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 4 September 2008.23×1214/9 1176. . . Hamid.5. com/ notes2.net.45 10. navcen. uscg. . kowoma.explained (Signals) (http:/ / www.  "IS-GPS-800 Specification" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-09-10. com/ support/ documentation/ application_notes/ xapp217. htm). Retrieved 2010-07-18. and Miller A. The P code can be encrypted as a so-called P(Y) code which is only available to military equipment with a proper decryption key. Gpsinformation. and represent codes with/without data . transmits at 10. pdf) (PDF). pdf) (PDF).  "GPS Almanacs.4. Revision D: Navstar GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces" (http:/ / www. Navstar GPS Joint Program Office. NANUS. pdf) (PDF). GPS Almanac Information. .  "NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introduction" (http:/ / www. uscg. US Government. gov/ pdf/ IS-GPS-200D. Page 103.
These systems also offer tracking of calls. Historically vehicle tracking has been accomplished by installing a box into the vehicle. cumulative idling. implemented by Net Research Labs for Indian urban city scenario. GPS tracking device: The device fits into the vehicle and captures the GPS location information apart from other vehicle information at regular intervals to a central server. emergency button status. Vehicle information can be viewed on electronic maps via the Internet or specialized software. For detailed vehicle locating and tracking this is still the predominant method. VETRAC . computed odometer. Passive systems include auto download type that transfer data via wireless download. GSM area code/cell code decoded.edu. 73 • SNAP-UNSW's GPS Satellite Signals (http://www. Active Versus Passive Tracking Several types of vehicle tracking devices exist. with purpose-designed computer software at least at one operational base to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. such as both a salesperson and their vehicle. Developed in partnership with TATA AUTOCOMP Mobility Telematics Limited (TMT) . door open/close. but other types of automatic vehicle location technology can also be used. collecting data in the process from the field and deliver it to the base of operation.au/snap/gps/gps_survey/chap3/311. however. (http:/ / www. htm) Konowa. the device is removed and the data downloaded to a computer for evaluation. particularly in large cities. Typical Architecture Major constituents of the GPS based tracking are 1.The Vehicle Tracking Solution lets you see exactly where your cargo is whenever you need to. Typically they are classified as "passive" and "active". The other vehicle information can include fuel amount. texts. turn on headlight. Urban public transit authorities are an increasingly common user of vehicle tracking systems. Introducing a system where your vehicle can go anywhere except out of sight. "Active" devices also collect the same information but usually transmit the data in real-time via cellular or satellite networks to a computer or data center for evaluation. tire pressure. altitude. door open/closed. Web use and generally provide a wider safety net for the staff member and the vehicle. speed. battery status.GPS signals  How GPS works. turn on taillight. kowoma. heading and sometimes a trigger event such as key on/off. throttle position. number of GPS satellites in view. de/ en/ gps/ signals. htm) Vehicle tracking system A vehicle tracking system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle. reverse geocoding. engine RPM and a lot more.de (2005). Capability of these devices actually decide the final capability of the whole . or fleet of vehicles. Many modern vehicle tracking devices combine both active and passive tracking abilities: when a cellular network is available and a tracking device is connected it transmits data to a server. many companies are increasingly interested in the emerging cell phone technologies that provide tracking of multiple entities. engine RPM. "Passive" devices store GPS location. turn off ignition. when a network is not available the device stores data in internal memory and will transmit stored data to the server later when the network becomes available again.unsw. either self-powered with a battery or wired into the vehicle's power system. is a wireless enabled vehicle tracking system. engine temperature. Modern vehicle tracking systems commonly use GPS or GLONASS technology for locating the vehicle.gmat. cut off fuel.Vehicle Tracking Solution is an efficient system for tracking and monitoring of commercial and passenger vehicles. fuel amount. glass open/close. Once the vehicle returns to a predetermined point.
as the bus (or tram) approaches a stop. and in turn produces a frequently updating display for the driver. view vehicle data. 74 Common Uses Vehicle tracking systems are commonly used by fleet operators for fleet management functions such as fleet tracking. The existence of vehicle tracking device then can be used to reduce the insurance cost. This approach recommends four layers of security based on the risk factors pertaining to a specific vehicle. Police can simply follow the signal emitted by the tracking system and locate the stolen vehicle. potentially making it easier to adhere more closely to the published schedule. Such programs are also used to provide customers with real-time information as to the waiting time until arrival of the next bus or tram/streetcar at a given stop. for example by sending an automatic alert to a phone or email if an alarm is triggered or the vehicle is moved without authorization. Some vehicle tracking systems integrate several security systems. or a parent with a teen driver. Other scenarios in which this technology is employed include: . and serving this information on demand to the user. dispatch. primarily for the benefit of visually impaired customers. or to internal announcements (to passengers already on board) identifying the next stop. including block doors or engine in case of emergency. such as an employer of an employee. Some vehicle tracking systems make it possible to control vehicle remotely. securely storing it. with icons depicting the current locations of buses in service on each route. while others provide such information only to dispatchers or other employees. Vehicle Tracking Systems are one such layer. When used as a security system.Vehicle tracking system tracking system. Along with commercial fleet operators. triggering changes of buses' destination sign displays at the end of the line (or other set location along a bus route). This can refer to external announcements (triggered by the opening of the bus's door) at a bus stop. Vehicle tracking systems are an integrated part of the "layered approach" to vehicle protection. recommended by the National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB) to prevent motor vehicle theft. based on the nearest vehicles' actual progress at the time. on-board information and security. and elicit important details from it. around half of all transit buses in the United States were already using a GPS-based vehicle tracking system to trigger automated stop announcements. GPS tracking server: The tracking server has three responsibilities: receiving data from the GPS tracking unit. Transit systems providing this kind of information assign a unique number to each stop. and waiting passengers can obtain information by entering the stop number into an automated telephone system or an application on the transit system's website. Data collected as a transit vehicle follows its route is often continuously fed into a computer program which compares the vehicle's actual location and time with its schedule. 3. Vehicle tracking systems are also popular in consumer vehicles as a theft prevention and retrieval device. or both. Other applications include monitoring driving behavior. and triggering pre-recorded announcements for passengers. or when it leaves or enters a geofence. urban transit agencies use the technology for a number of purposes. rather than merely giving information as to the scheduled time of the next arrival. a Vehicle Tracking System may serve as either an addition to or replacement for a traditional car alarm. and are described by the NICB as “very effective” in helping police recover stolen vehicles. User interface: The UI determines how one will be able to access information. because the loss-risk of the vehicle drops significantly. announcing the vehicle's route number and destination. routing. The American Public Transportation Association estimated that. telling him/her how early or late he/she is at any given time.  Some transit agencies provide a virtual map on their website. including monitoring schedule adherence of buses in service. 2. for customers' information. at the beginning of 2009.
75 Unconventional Uses Industries not traditionally known to use vehicle tracking systems (logistics and transportation industries are the ones that have traditionally incorporated vehicle tracking system into their operations) have started to use it in creative ways to improve their processes or businesses. • Field service management: Companies with a field service workforce for services such as repair or maintenance. similar to data loggers. • Field sales: Mobile sales professionals can access real-time locations. For example. The hospitality industry have caught on to this technology to improve customer service. box container.. Components come in various shapes and forms but most utilize GPS technology and SMS services. Others record real time data and store it to be read. refrigerated. systems like these track and record and allow reports after certain points have been saved. drivers now only need a mobile phone with telephony or Internet connection to be inexpensively tracked by and dispatched efficiently.g. knowing the real-time location of all drivers allows management to meet customer needs more efficiently. the police can activate the tracking unit in the vehicle directly and follow tracking signals. . Users will ensure that the assets do not stop on route or do a U-Turn in order to ensure the security of the assets. • Surveillance: A tracker may be placed on a vehicle to follow the vehicle's movements. flat bed. • Asset tracking: Companies needing to track valuable assets for insurance or other monitoring purposes can now plot the real-time asset location on a map and closely monitor movement and operating status. • Fleet management: When managing a fleet of vehicles. Vehicle tracking allows companies to quickly locate a field engineer and dispatch the closest one to meet a new customer request or provide site arrival information. For example. Benefits include increased productivity. reduced driving time and increased time spent with customers and prospects. Vehicle tracking systems have also been used in food delivery and car rental companies. • Transit tracking: This is the temporary tracking of assets or cargoes from one point to another. in unfamiliar areas. a luxury hotel in Singapore has installed vehicle tracking systems in their limousines to ensure they can welcome their VIPs when they reach the hotel. they can locate themselves as well as customers and prospects. curtain sider.Vehicle tracking system • Stolen vehicle recovery: Both consumer and commercial vehicles can be outfitted with RF or GPS units to allow police to do tracking and recovery. Vehicle tracking systems are widely used worldwide. The part of the vehicle that drives the load is known as the cab and the load carrying unit is known as the trailer. In the case of LoJack. Whether it is delivery. While most will offer real-time tracking. must be able to plan field workers’ time. e. get driving directions and add nearby last-minute appointments to itineraries. service or other multi-vehicle enterprises. • Trailer tracking: Haulage and Logistics companies often operate lorries with detachable load carrying units. schedule subsequent customer visits and be able to operate these departments efficiently. There are different types of trailer used for different applications.
htm). either by taking a reading based on a set time interval. "Location Identification and Vehicular Tracking for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks". Navigation with route calculation and directions from the software to the user of the route to take. based on a vector-based map. http:/ / vit. APTA.  "Cell phone bus tracking applications developed" (http:/ / www.N (February 2007). edu/ ArunkumarThangavelu/ Papers/ 112889/ Location_Identification_and_Vehicle_Tracking_using_VANET_VETRAC_. they can be used to simplify the construction of routes. mtc. Retracing your steps is a simple matter of following the track back to the source. http:/ / ieeexplore. This type can also be used for geocaching. Retrieved 2009-11-26. pdf) (PDF). 2009. com/ gap/ fedreg/ documents/ apta_comments_access_board_bus_2009. by being able to be re-used. metro-magazine. 2007. enabling a route to be taken around obstacles such as shallow water (marine navigation) or streams/cliffs/other hazards which may prevent a safe passage directly from point "A" to point "B". org/ xpls/ abs_all. January 20. . . and allowing "routes" to be preprogrammed. Office of Technical Information Services. depending upon the sophistication of the device. com/ Article/ Story/ 2009/ 04/ Cell-phone-bus-tracking-applications-developed. The GPS unit (external or internal) periodically sends details of the location which are recorded by the software. Duluth Transit Authority. based on a change in direction by more than a certain angle. based on a set distance. 2. academia. ca. Navigation tracking." (http:/ / www. pp. but showing where you have been. jsp?isnumber=4141003&arnumber=4156595&count=139&index=23 GPS navigation software GPS navigation software usually falls into one of the following two categories: 1. Each point is stored together with its date and time. Retrieved 2009-11-26. Terminology Track A track is a trace of somewhere that you have actually been (often called a "breadcrumb trail"). Most software allows the route and the track to be displayed at the same time. aspx). aspx). San Francisco MTA. April 2009. Waypoint Waypoints are used to mark particular locations. They are either key entered by users or downloaded from other sources. Arunkumar Thangavelu. Sivanandam S.Vehicle tracking system 76 References  . ieee. Retrieved 2009-11-26. often with a map "picture" in the background. The resulting track can be displayed as a series of the recorded points or a line connecting them.  "Real-Time Muni Arrival Information Just a Free Call Away" (http:/ / www. . Route A route is a preset series of points that make up a set route to follow for your destination.  "WebWatch allows you to obtain ‘real-time’ schedule information for your bus stop and (to) track buses in real time. waypoints serve a "safety" purpose. July 13. IEEE Explorer 1 (2): 112–116. duluthtransit. normally for motorised vehicles with some motorised forms added on as an afterthought. Frequently.  "Re: Comments to Access Board Docket Number 2007-1" (http:/ / www. or a combination of these. com/ RiderGuide/ WebWatchTips. 3. Although not linked to tracks or routes. . Metro Magazine. . Retrieved 2009-11-26. typically used as markers along the "way" to somewhere. gov/ news/ press_releases/ 2005/ rel316. apta. giving a line you can follow on the screen. 2005.
so that routing information can be uploaded or created tracks can be downloaded. stand alone system) • OziExplorer Free open source navigation software (independent stand alone system) • Waze Navigation software with maps downloaded from a remote server • • • • Google Earth (Windows. usually provides user ability to plan routes and set waypoints. . Tide predictions and other related information services of additional use to mariners. or a smartphone might be handier.GPS navigation software 77 Platforms Software can be used on a laptop computer with an attached GPS receiver. Linux) Google maps (platform independent) Navit (Cross-platform) VZ Navigator (smartphone) Marine navigation software Navigation software for use on the water has many features in common with land-based GPS navigation software. Software There is a number of navigation software products available. Mac. marine navigation software often has option to control external autopilot for automated boat navigation. Primary distinction is between navigation software designed for use on land and for use on the water. Land-based navigation software Commercial navigation software with embedded maps • • • • • • • • • • DeLorme Street Atlas USA and Topo USA Destinator Microsoft Streets and Trips 2009 Navigon Nav N Go (iGO) NDrive ROUTE 66 TomTom Navigator TomTom Mobile TeleType WorldNavigator Commercial navigation software with scanned or downloaded maps and orthophotos stored in the computer (independent. For most daily use however. a PDA. It may incorporate GRIB weather overlay on the chart. and may have live GPS tracking capabilities. Most commercial software runs only on Windows and Mac OS X. yet some projects have started to support Linux as well. a dedicated device. It can use electronic navigation chart or raster charts. These devices can often also be used as a wireless modem for a computer. In addition.
you know that the phone is close to the respective base station. but the process does not require an active call. temporarily resides. Rural and desolate areas may see miles between base stations and therefore determine locations less precisely. Advanced systems determine the sector in which the mobile phone resides and roughly estimate also the distance to the base station. Mobile positioning. so if you know which base station the phone communicates with. Qualified services may achieve a precision of down to 50 meters in urban areas where mobile traffic and density of antenna towers (base stations) is sufficiently high. is a technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone. To locate the phone using multilateration of radio signals. which includes location based service that discloses the actual coordinates of a mobile phone bearer. stationary or moving. or simply via GPS. Further approximation can be done by interpolating signals between adjacent antenna towers. The more properly applied term locating refers to the purpose rather than a positioning process. Localization-Based Systems can be broadly divided into: • • • • Network-based Handset-based SIM-based Hybrid . Such sensors are Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors. GSM localization is the use of multilateration to determine the location of GSM mobile phones. Technology The technology of locating is based on measuring power levels and antenna patterns and uses the concept that a mobile phone always communicates wirelessly with one of the closest base stations. References Mobile phone tracking Mobile phone tracking refers to the attaining of the current position of a mobile phone. usually with the intent to locate the user. Such service is offered as an option of the class of location-based services (LBS). and thereby also its user (bearer). GSM is based on the signal strength to nearby antenna masts. it must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower. Localization may occur either via multilateration of radio signals between (several) radio towers of the network and the phone.GPS navigation software 78 Aeronautical Navigation Software This kind of software usually creates a modern glass cockpit and uses more than just a single GPS sensor to assist the navigation.
Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network. The measurements that are available can include the serving Cell-ID. This avenue has not made significant headway. which is continuously sent to the carrier. e. Handset-based Handset-based technology requires the installation of client software on the handset to determine its location. The type of information obtained via the SIM can differ from what is available from the handset. SIM-based Using the SIM in GSM and UMTS handsets. such as E911. This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification. Windows Phone. and then having the information sent via the network to the person that is trying to locate the telephone. One proposed work-around is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers. One of the key challenges of network-based techniques is the requirement to work closely with the service provider. with urban environments achieving the highest possible accuracy. would be able to run such software. The accuracy of network-based techniques varies. with cell identification as the least accurate and triangulation as moderately accurate. yet still obtain measurements via the SIM. it is possible to obtain raw radio measurements from the handset. instaMapper. Services allowing such cellphone tracking are Mologogo. and newer "Forward Link" timing methods as the most accurate. due to the difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue. The accuracy of network-based techniques is both dependent on the concentration of base station cells. signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells. a legislative framework. and the implementation of the most current timing methods. Typically. Often. Alternatively tracking with both systems can also occur by having the phone attain his GPS-location directly from the satellites. without affecting the handsets. The key disadvantage of this technique (from mobile operator's point of view) is the necessity of installing software on the handset. Windows Mobile. iPhone. E-OTD. smart phones. In addition.g. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets. if the handset is also equipped with GPS then significantly more precise location information is then sent from the handset to the carrier.Mobile phone tracking 79 Network-based Network-based techniques utilize the service provider's network infrastructure to identify the location of the handset. such as one based on Symbian.   . or Android. as it entails the installation of hardware and software within the operator's infrastructure. BlackBerry OS.   Hybrid Hybrid positioning systems use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. Buddyway and Google Latitude. which can both use GPS and network information to compute the location. round trip time and signal strength. Both types of data are thus used by the telephone to make the location more accurate (ie A-GPS). For example. The advantage of network-based techniques (from mobile operator's point of view) is that they can be implemented non-intrusively. would need to be in place to compel the cooperation of the service provider as well as to safeguard the privacy of the information. One example would be some modes of Assisted GPS. it may not be possible to obtain any raw measurements from the handset directly.
but with much higher accuracy. Newer phones may also allow the tracking of the phone even when turned on and not active in a telephone call-. Justice Department has argued that current laws allow them to track suspects without having probable cause to suspect a law is being violated. where most countries have a constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence. The Electronic Frontier Foundation is tracking some cases. Newer phones may have built-in GPS receivers which could be used in a similar fashion. The U. Pen Register government tracking of individuals. Other means is the antenna pattern that supports angular determination and phase discrimination. . the antenna towers monitor the signal and the phone is roamed to an adjacent tower as appropriate.  . since it enables someone to check where a person is without the person's consent. China has proposed using this technology to track commuting patterns of Beijing city residents. the authorities (like the police) can obtain permission to position phones in emergency cases where people (including criminals) are missing. Officially. regarding Some "Free" tracking services allow the cellular telephone number being tracked to be added to telemarketers' lists. although such a use is technically possible. In some instances law enforcement may even access a mobile phone's internal microphone to eavesdrop on local conversations while the phone is switched off. explicit consent to a service provider before the service provider can compute positioning data from the user's mobile phone. By comparing the relative signal strength from multiple antenna towers a general location of a phone can be roughly determined. Strict ethics and security measures are strongly recommended for services that employ positioning. Even obviously criminal intent may not be inferred by such means. This results from the roaming procedures that perform hand over of the phone from one base station to another. Bearer interest A phone's location can be uploaded to a common web site where one's "friends and family" can view one's last reported position. The United States however has no explicit constitutional guarantee on the privacy of telecommunications. including USA v.Mobile phone tracking 80 Operational purpose In order to route calls to a phone the cell towers listen for a signal sent from the phone and negotiate which tower is best able to communicate with the phone.S. as in Germany. As the phone changes location. Privacy Locating or positioning touches upon delicate privacy issues. so use of location data is limited by law. With tolling systems. location data obtained from mobile phone networks is usually given the same protection as the communication itself. the locating of vehicles is equally sensitive to the constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence and thus any further use of tolling information beyond deducting the road fee is prohibited. and the user must give an informed. In Europe.
 "FBI taps cell phone mic as eavesdropping tool" (http:/ / news.html) • OpenCellID: An OpenSource CellID database (http://www. "Kaplan's opinion said that the eavesdropping technique "functioned whether the phone was powered on or off. December 1. nsf/ mobwire/ F41D663EAD41BC01CC2574B000133BB3) PC World.htm#5) . mologogo. Jungwon Min and Byung K. swang. washingtonpost. China  "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008 (http:/ / www.com • GSM Localization on Mobile Phones (http://www.0 SIM standard  Vodafone Local Zone (http:/ / pcworld. sparking human rights concerns" (http:/ / voices. for instance. The Chicago Syndicate. 2006).com) • J2ME and Location-Based Services (http://developers. eff. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 4738219. org/ issues/ cell-tracking  Cecilia Kang (March 3.sun. (http:/ / www. pdf).toronto. com/ )  Buddyway (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 24. some Nokia models will wake up when turned off if an alarm is set. 2011). pdf).cs. eff. .openBmap. 2005-08-03. com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2. com/ )  "Roving Bug in Cell Phones Used By FBI to Eavesdrop on Syndicate" (http:/ / www. cnet. Shu Wang.  Ryan Singel (May 8. stm). instamapper.org (http://www. .cellreception. Beijing. Shu Wang.Mobile phone tracking 81 References   "Tracking a suspect by mobile phone: Tracking SIM and handset" (http:/ / news.washingtonpost. IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008. bbc. co.com/techtopics/mobility/apis/articles/location/) • Location API for J2ME (http://www-users.edu/~czhou/docs/jsr179/lapi/) • openBmap: Map and tools for a free and open Cell ID database in GPL and Creative Common Licence (http:// www. 2006. "China plans to track cellphone users.org) • CellSpotting: A Global Cell Id-Based Information Service (http://www. Jungwon Min and Byung K.  "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“ (http:/ / to.1.privacyrights. . wired. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2006/ 05/ 70829). com/ ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2. co. nz/ pcworld/ pcw.org) . thechicagosyndicate. com) External links • privacyrights.  WhereAreYou? GPS. com/ 2100-1029_3-6140191. whereareyougps."  http:/ / www.umn. . buddyway. ieee-icc. html).cs.opencellid. . BBC News. 2010. googlepages.Protecting Your Privacy in the Age of the Super-Phone • Cell Reception (http://www. swang. Cnet. Retrieved 2010-01-02. Yi. Beijing. Yi. China  ETSI TS 102 223 V9.edu/~walex/papers/ are_gsm_phones_the_solution_for_localization_wmcsa2006." Some handsets can't be fully powered down without removing the battery. Wired. html).Google maps API to locate cell towers in the United States • Cellphone Tracking Powers on Request (http://www. The Washington Post.cellspotting. com/ posttech/ 2011/ 03/ china_said_it_may_begin. googlepages. washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/ 22/AR2007112201444. html). com/ 2006/ 12/ roving-bug-in-cell-phones-used-by-fbi. com/ )  Mologogo (http:/ / www. org/ legal/ cases/ USA_v_PenRegister/  http:/ / www. org/ ). "Cell-Phone Tracking: Laws Needed" (http:/ / www.com/towers/) .html?hpid=topnews).  InstaMapper (http:/ / www.org/fs/fs2b-cellprivacy. FREE Phone Tracking System.
High Sensitivity GPS receivers are able to integrate the incoming signals for up to 1. WOO ARTHUR N [US]. References • US Patent 6674401 .High Sensitivity GPS 82 High Sensitivity GPS High Sensitivity GPS receivers use large banks of correlators and digital signal processing to search for GPS signals very quickly. MCBURNEY PAUL W [US]. the extra processing power can be used to integrate weak signals to the point where they can be used to provide a position or timing solution. Conventional GPS receivers integrate the received GPS signals for the same amount of time as the duration of a complete C/A code cycle which is 1 ms. equivalent to one tenth of a millionth billionth of a watt. By the time the signals arrive at the user's receiver. "High sensitivity GPS receiver and reception". Signals are either heavily attenuated by the building materials or reflected as in multipath. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US6674401 . published 2003-08-21. Given that High Sensitivity GPS receivers may be up to 30 dB more sensitive. this is sufficient to track through 3 layers of dry bricks. and tracking can be continued down to levels approaching −190 dBW. This results in the ability to acquire and track signals down to around the −160 dBW level. or up to 20 cm of steel reinforced concrete for example. This results in very fast times to first fix when the signals are at their normal levels.200 km in orbit above the Earth. The GPS satellites have transmitters that only deliver 27 W from a distance of 20. A good High Sensitivity GPS receiver can acquire signals down to −185 dBW. for example indoors. This is well below the thermal noise level in its bandwidth. issued 2004-01-06 References  http:/ / v3. GPS signals are already very weak when they arrive at the Earth’s surface. When GPS signals are weak.000 times longer than this and therefore acquire signals up to 1. they are typically as weak as −160 dBW. for example outdoors. High Sensitivity GPS can provide positioning in many but not all indoor locations. Outdoors. GPS signals are typically around the −155 dBW level.000 times weaker.
Aircraft Tracking Radar Night vision mid-1930s Royal Air Force Early warning radar.Military invention 83 Military invention A military invention is an invention that was first created by a military. United States Air Force Soviet Union Swedish Ministry of Defence Sweden Nuclear weapons force multiplier. Military inventions This list is incomplete. Cameras Internet 1960s  United States Led to the World Wide Web. Led to enhancements such as the Rodman Gun and modern breech loading guns. weather and global positioning satellites Nuclear medicine. increased warhead accuracy through precise navigation The Swedish Ministry of Defence needed something that could make a fire even in a extreme climate. widespread software distribution. scientific and otherwise. widespread availability of information. There are many inventions that were originally created by the military but are now used by civilians. media (sound. collaborative encyclopaedias. Nuclear power Jet fighters. surveillance. large scale destruction Low light photography. e-mail. bulletin boards. launch of communication. jet bombers Airliners Spy Satellites. electronic commerce. picture and video) sharing. Name Date invented circa 1811 Invented by Original purpose Civilian uses Columbiad cannon United States by George Bomford Coastal defenses Obsolete. eliminated the need to recover deorbited film canisters Reliable computer networking that is robust enough to survive nuclear attack. peer-to-peer networking. Air Microwave oven. 1939 1940s 1940s 1940s 1940s 1960s United States Ballistic Missiles Nuclear Technology Jet Engine Digital Photography Nazi Germany Soviet Union United States Royal Air Force Nazi Germany United States Soviet Union Space exploration. Long range attack Nuclear weapons. Swedish Firesteel 2000s Used to easily ignite a campfire regardless of weather . Air Traffic Control Systems defence systems Visibility for military personnel in low light situations. forums. personal tracking GPS 1970s United States Navy. Navigation. social networking/blogging. Corporate websites.
especially in areas where GPS does not reach or is weak. Local positioning systems using cellular broadcast towers are also heavily used to determine the current position of a person (carrying a cellphone without GPS-capability). which also allows real-time tracking of an object or person. local positioning systems don't provide global coverage. In the past. Use Unlike GPS or other global navigation satellite systems. Instead. they use (a set of) beacons which have a limited range. See Mobile phone tracking Techniques An LPS can either use: • triangulation • trilateration or • multilateration to calculate the position of an object. inside buildings. Examples are the Decca Navigator System and LORAN. where there is an unobstructed line of sight to three or more signaling beacons of which the exact position on earth is known. html Local positioning system A local positioning system (LPS) is a navigation system that provides location information in all weather. Nowadays.Military invention 84 References  http:/ / news. Wi-Fi access points (used by the Skyhook Wireless system). ie for a wide array of services. long-range LPS's have been used for navigation of ships and aircraft. for example. Commercial systems Commercial systems on the market and/or in progress include : • • • • • Microsoft's RADAR  Ekahau's RTLS  Zebra Technologies Corporation RTLS WhereLAN  Awarepoint RTLS  Skyhook Wireless . Beacons include celllular base stations. hence requiring the user to be near these. nationalgeographic. anywhere within the coverage of the network. A special type of LPS is the Real-time locating system. and radio broadcast towers. or urban canyons. local positioning systems are often used as complementary (and in some cases alternative) positioning technology to GPS. com/ news/ 2009/ 08/ 090831-internet-40th-video-ap.
The current system as described by Paielli noted as examples that nuclear power plants and elevators are designed to be passively safe and fault tolerant. and internationally required. Reactivity control rods fall into the reactor to cause a shutdown on loss of electrical power. such as the internationally required hemispherical cruising altitude rules. which institutionalize the navigation paradox on a world wide basis. Patlovany’s computer model test of the Altimeter-Compass Cruising Altitude Rule (ACCAR) with zero piloting altitude error (a linear cruising altitude rule similar to the one recommended by Paielli). Machol noted "that if vertical station-keeping is sloppy. the Japanese near-miss in 2001." In the "below" explanation. the advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation has enabled craft to follow navigational paths with such greater precision. the Überlingen collision in Germany in 2002. The Namibian collision in 1997. the likelihood of two craft occupying the same space on the shortest distance line between two navigational points has increased. Geolocalisatie zonder GPS http:/ / research.Local positioning system 85 References      Elektor magazine February 2011. resulted in about 60% of the mid-air collisions counted from random altitude non compliance. com/ en-us/ projects/ radar/ default. then if longitudinal and lateral separation are lost. or 10 times fewer collisions than the internationally accepted hemispherical cruising altitude rules. Patlovany’s ACCAR alternative and Paielli’s linear cruising altitude rule would reduce cruising midair collisions between 10 and 33 times. . At the same vertical error. Paielli’s 2000 model corroborated an earlier 1997 model by Patlovany showing in Figure 1 that zero altitude error by pilots obeying the hemispherical cruising altitude rules resulted in six times more mid-air collisions than random cruising altitude non compliance. The navigation paradox describes a midair collision safety system that by design cannot tolerate a single failure in human performance or electronic hardware. the planes will probably pass above and below each other. absent better distribution of routes. The ACCAR alternative to the hemispherical cruising altitude rules. and 1966 . and the Amazon collision in 2006 . com/ products/ rtls/ index. who recognized that "in some cases (see below) increases in navigational precision increase collision risk. jsp http:/ / www. Colorado In Table 3 Paielli notes that aircraft cruising at random altitudes have five times fewer collisions than those obeying with only 25 ft (7. and could have saved 342 lives in over 30 midair collisions (up to November 2006) since the Risk Analysis proof that the current regulations multiply midair collision risk in direct proportion to  pilot accuracy in compliance. the prototype linear cruising altitude rule tested produced 33. hemispherical cruising altitude rules. com/ Navigation paradox The Navigation paradox states that increased navigational precision may result in increased collision risk. are all examples where human or hardware errors doomed altitude-accurate pilots killed by the navigation paradox designed into the current cruising altitude rules. coordination between neighboring craft and collision avoidance procedures.6 m) RMS of vertical error discrete cruising altitude rule. that. ekahau. compared to the currently recognized. could have eliminated the navigation paradox at all altitudes. and elevator fall-arresting brakes are released by torque from support cable tension. aspx http:/ / www. zebra. if adopted in 1997. This is the ‘navigation paradox’ mentioned earlier. In the case of ships and aircraft. Similarly. In other words." Russ Paielli wrote a mid-air collision simulating computer model 500 sq mi (1300 km2) centered on Denver.8 fewer mid-air collisions than the hemispherical cruising altitude rules. microsoft. com/ http:/ / zes. Machol attributes the term "navigation paradox" to Peter G. Research Robert E. writing in 1964 . awarepoint. (often on the order of plus or minus 2 meters. Reich.
Robert W. com/ rpatlovany/ PreventableMidairs. vanityfair." Air Traffic Control Quarterly. Pages 237-248.000 Feet".S. Vol. pp. The use of two radios with a single antenna imparts new design challenges.  Reich. No. Interfaces 25:5. but the commercial availability of S-GPS chipsets.. 1. 64041. the reception of the telephone call and the GPS signal are alternated one after the other. "A Linear Altitude Rule for Safer and More Efficient Enroute Air Traffic. II. "Analysis of long-range air traffic systems: Separation standards—I. No. 64043. it is recommended / allowed. September-October 1995 (151-172). Vanity Fair." RAE Technical Reports Nos. William.  Reich.  86 References  Machol. January 2009 (http:/ / www. 8. pdf S-GPS Simultaneous GPS or S-GPS is a method to enhance a mobile phone's satellite-based position reporting ability to a carrier. Fall 2000. html)  Langwiesche. No.. Aviation Regulations Increase Probability of Midair Collisions. United Kingdom." Journal of Navigation. and III. 64042. Vol. Ordinarily. org/ web/ 20091027124508/ http:/ / www. requiring only one RF radio. References  "Improving S-GPS sensitivity" (http:/ / www2. By using a time-multiplexed scheme called TM-GPS. flightsafety. archive. has led to adoption of the method in newer handsets. 169-176. .. Volume 17.  Paielli." Preventable Midair Collisions Since 26 June 1997 Request Denied for Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) 28996 Altimeter-Compass Cruising Altitude Rule (ACCAR) (http:/ / web. Robert.  Patlovany. Peter G. 88-96. No. com/ magazine/ 2009/ 01/ air_crash200901)  http:/ / www. 3. Russ A. aspx). April 1997. 2.. No. Farnborough. Robert E. com/ Improving_S-GPS_sensitivity-article-farr_avago_jun2008-html." Risk Analysis: An International Journal. Simultaneous GPS allows a cellphone to receive both GPS and voice data at the same time. pp.. 19. page 154. . "Preventable Midair Collisions Since 26 June 1997 Request Denied for Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) 28996 Altimeter-Compass Cruising Altitude Rule (ACCAR). 3. that planes fly one or two miles offset of the center of the airway (to the right side) thus eliminating the problem. W. As the name implies. from  manufacturers such as Qualcomm. geocities. "U. 2. org/ asw/ mar07/ asw_mar07_p40-45. Royal Aircraft Establishment. Peter G. which improves sensitivity and allows service providers to offer location-based services. "A theory of safe separation standards for air traffic control.. Avago Technologies. "The Devil at 37.  Patlovany. pp.Navigation paradox To mitigate the described problem. 331-338. a built-in GPS device is used to determine the location of an E911 call made from CDMA phones. electronicproducts.
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The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides location and time information in all weather. This book is your ultimate resource for GPS . background and everything you need to know.Global Positioning System with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Navigation paradox. analysis. GLONASS. The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems. Differential GPS. Quasi-Zenith Satellite System. GPS signals. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about GPS . High Sensitivity GPS. Local positioning system.Global Positioning System. including a number of classiﬁed engineering design studies from the 1960s. Department of Defense (USDOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. GPS/INS. It became fully operational in 1994.Global Positioning System. S-GPS This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of GPS . time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of GPS . Galileo (satellite navigation).Global Positioning System right away. integrating ideas from several predecessors. Vehicle tracking system. Beidou navigation system. where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Compass navigation system. Military invention. Mobile phone tracking. Here you will ﬁnd the most up-todate information. In easy to read chapters. anywhere on or near the Earth. . It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver with some technical limitations which are only removed for military users. GPS was created and realized by the U. It reduces the risk of your technology.S. Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System. GPS navigation software. covering: Global Positioning System.
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