DISCOVER A CAREER IN UNDERBALANCED DRILLING | GUIDE TO DUBAI | CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

The Magazine by and for Young Professionals in Oil and Gas

VOL. 7 // ISSUE 2 // 2011

Energy Companies and Climate Change

An Official Publication of

The Society of Petroleum Engineers • www.spe.org

Shenzi first oil and natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico began in March 2009, ahead of schedule and within budget.

On The hOrizOn//
Our license to operate depends on having the right people working with the right systems for maximum performance.

We are delivering prOjecTs in sOme Of The WOrld’s deepesT WaTers, and setting drilling records with
efficiency, speed, and world-class safety.
Bhp Billiton petroleum is looking for engineering professionals with five to ten years or more of industry experience to join our growing team of functional experts. as part of the world’s largest diversified resources company, we have the financial strength of a super major combined with the agility and energy of a start-up. in the last 24 months, we brought on stream two of the world’s four deepest Tension leg platforms, and our production volumes have increased at a nine percent compound annual growth rate for the last three years. Behind this performance is the commitment of our team of more than 1,700 employees. We are growing our capability toward functional excellence and an ability to work anywhere in the world. We are seeking engineers with a strong technical foundation who want the opportunity to make a difference on material, multi-billion dollar assets. multiple openings are available in the following areas:

Bhp BilliTOn peTrOleUm
1360 post Oak Boulevard, suite 150 houston, Texas 77056 United states of america p 1.713.961.8500 f 1.713.961.8400 www.bhpbilliton.com inTeresTed in a career WiTh Us? post your resume on our website: www.bhpbilliton.com - people & employment or email directly to: petroleumcareers-Us@bhpbilliton.com

• • • • •

production engineering reservoir engineering facility engineers project engineers drilling engineers

We are also seeking geoscience professionals to support our production, development, and exploration divisions.

Contents
VOL. 7 // ISSUE 2 // 2011
Americas Office Office hours: 0730–1700 CST (GMT–5) Monday–Friday 222 Palisades Creek Dr., Richardson, TX 75080-2040 USA Tel: +1.972.952.9393 Fax: +1.972.952.9435 Email: spedal@spe.org Asia Pacific Office Office hours: 0830–1730 (GMT+8) Monday–Friday Suite 23-02, Level 23, Centrepoint South, Mid Valley City, Lingkaran Syed Putra, 59200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: +60.3.2288.1233 Fax: +60.3.2282.1220 Email: spekl@spe.org Canada Office Office hours: 0830–1630 CST (GMT–6) Monday–Friday 425–500 5th Avenue SW Calgary, Alberta Canada, T2P 3L5 Tel: +403.237.5112 Fax: +403.262.4792 Email: specal@spe.org Europe, Russia, Caspian and Sub Saharan Africa Office Office hours: 0900–1700 (GMT+1) Monday–Friday 3rd Floor, First Floor, Threeways House, 40/44 Clipstone Street London W1W 5DW UK Tel: +44.20.7299.3300 Fax: +44.20.7299.3309 Email: spelon@spe.org Houston Office Office hours: 0830–1700 CST (GMT–5) Monday–Friday 10777 Westheimer Rd., Suite 1075, Houston, TX 77042-3455 USA Tel: +1.713.779.9595 Fax: +1.713.779.4216 Email: spehou@spe.org Middle East, North Africa, and India Office Office hours: 0800 to 1700 (GMT+4) Sunday–Thursday P.O. Box 502217, Dubai, UAE Tel: +971.4.390.3540 Fax: +971.4.366.4648 Email: spedub@spe.org Moscow Office Office hours: 0900–1700 (GMT+4) Monday–Friday Nizhnyaya Street, 14, Bldg. 1, 2nd Floor, Office No. 15 Moscow, Russian Federation, 125040 Tel: +7 495 748 35 88 Email: crodionova@spe.org or jkharitchenko@spe.org

2 4 7 9 12 15 17 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

What’s Ahead

Editor Anthony Onukwu discusses energy companies and climate change.

TWA Interview

A conversation with Melody Meyer, president of Chevron Asia Pacific Exploration and Production.

Forum

Youth and innovation in the oil and gas industry.

Technical Leaders

Neeraj Gupta of the Battelle Memorial Institute and Nigel Jenvey of Maersk Oil and Gas comment on technology applications for carbon emission control and enhanced oil recovery.

Tech 101

Interpreting climate change in Antarctica.

Discover a Career

What the future holds for positions in underbalanced drilling.

Academia@TWA.edu
Current research in CO2 flooding and sequestration.

Public Policy Focus SPE 101

The status of carbon capture and sequestration.

Tips on writing SPE technical papers.

Soft Skills

Tackling climate change is the key issue for the oil and gas industry in the years ahead.

Women on the Frontline

Interviews with three women who are working to develop solutions to climate change.

YP Guide

What it is like to live and work in Dubai.

YP Newsflash

A roundup of YP activities around the globe.

Your Best Shot
Photos from YPs.

An Official Publication of The Society of Petroleum Engineers • www.spe.org
Printed in USA, Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers

At the present rate of fossil fuel use. focusing on the exciting theme of: Energy Companies and Climate Change.152 MW. and gas will release sufficient greenhouse gases to create a serious risk of catastrophic climate change. In this issue we are looking ahead as always. Welcome to the second issue of TWA for 2011 and my last as editor-in-chief. coal. and coal—the main sources of emissions of greenhouse gases—and will be severely affected by regulatory measures to curb these emissions. The public image of our position on this is still not great and there is much room for improvement. ExxonMobil is contributing more than USD 1 million and technical guidance in a project sponsored by the European Commission Directorate General for Research & Innovation that will evaluate a range of technologies to monitor the injection and storage of carbon dioxide from gas streams at the Sleipner and Snohvit fields in the Norwegian North Sea. oil. In renewable energy.What’s Ahead—From the Editor of TWA Anthony Onukwu Editor-in-Chief The Way Ahead Energy Companies and Climate Change Burning more than one quarter of the current economic reserves of oil. The public image of our “We have much more to do on climate change. are we concerned about climate change? In this issue we aim to provide an insight into what the industry is doing to address the problem and the challenges ahead. we will consume this amount in 40 years or less. The question is. as an industry. Chevron is involved in four major geothermal energy projects that produce clean electricity for Indonesia and the Philippines. we should be concerned about the issue of climate change since we are responsible for more than 70% of the global energy source (hydrocarbons) that is a major contributor of greenhouse gases. at In Salah in the Saharan desert in Algeria. both to improve understanding of the global the Sleipner gas field. where more than 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide have been sequestered each year since 1998. Some oil companies have responded to this by partnering with major universities and research institutions in multimilliondollar climate change research. Anadarko Petroleum sequesters millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere. American Petroleum Institute members have established their own industry and individual company goals on climate change and are now meeting them through more aggressive action to reduce global warming emissions. etc). I would like to highlight some of the ways the industry has shown interest in this global issue. Compared with a typical power grid (coal. Shell is the world’s biggest blender of transport biofuels. Anadarko expects to sequester more than 30 million tons of CO2 over the lifetime of the Salt Creek and Monell projects alone. The goals range from encouraging every company to develop a greenhouse gas emissions management plan to setting numerical targets for improving energy efficiency and reducing emissions. we have much more to do on climate change. Enhanced oil recovery projects in Wyoming use CO2 to stimulate oil production. ExxonMobil shares ownership of 2 . primarily geothermal. and in the German locality of Ketzin. natural gas. These are a few examples of major contributions from the industry to address this important global issue. However. this level of renewable energy production represents avoided greenhouse gas emissions of more than 6 million tonnes annually.” warming problem and to advance technologies to combat it. with a stake in Iogen Energy that is testing new technology to make bioethanol cheaper using waste wood and straw. gas. making it the largest renewable energy producer of any global oil and gas company and the largest producer of geothermal energy. First. Our industry earns its livelihood from oil. With companies linked in worldwide operations. Chevron has installed production capacity of 1. with carbon emissions 90% lower than for conventional fuels.

I will leave you with an inspirational thought: “Climate change poses clear. and the staff involved in TWA’s publication process—your unwavering dedication is gratefully acknowledged. Shell. or contact me directly at: anthony. Wireline FSM. TWA Interview Anton Andreev Sakhalin Energy. Reservoir Engineer. catastrophic threats. but we certainly can’t afford the risk of inaction. Reservoir Engineer. Reservoir Engineer. I am sure this will encourage you to start thinking about what our possible contribution could be. So we have a great team in place! I thank you. Reservoir Engineer Soft Skills Chike Nwonodi NPDC Reservoir Engineer HR Discussion Dilyara Iskakova Hess Corp. YP Newsflash Manish K Lal Chevron. Reservoir Engineer. dedicated to SPE’s young members. the readers.” —Rupert Murdoch EDITORS Abhijeet S. ConocoPhillips. Ph. Co-Editor. Technical Advisor. Graduate Student. Max Medina of Statoil Canada and Todd B. They have an unparalleled commitment to TWA and the excellent support of our team of more than 30 dedicated volunteers on the TWA Editorial board. As young professionals in the energy industry. Young Professional’s Guide To… Carlos Chalbaud Gaz de France-Suez. Saudi Aramco.Well & Completions Engineer COMMUNICATIONS EDITOR: Prakash Deore Prakash Deore . Research Engineer Academia. Reservoir Engineer Young Professional’s Guide To… Women on the frontline Siddhartha Gupta University of Texas at Austin. Workover Engineer. Pillars of Industry and Public Policy Focus Yekemi Bolare Otaru Schlumberger.onukwu@inbox. Reservoir Engineer Soft Skills Women on the Frontline Amir Soltani Statoil. Soft Skills Is TWA delivering what you want from your YP global magazine? We would be delighted to receive your feedback.edu@TWA and Discover a Career Todd Benton Willis Chevron Kuwait. Special thanks to John Donnelly. Willis of Chevron in Kuwait are the TWA leaders in their new capacities as incoming editor-in-chief and deputy editor-in-chief. 7 // No. Reservoir Engineer Technical Leaders Alex Schmitt DeGolyer and MacNaughton. and my colleagues at SPE for your support throughout the years. YP Newsflash Young Professional’s Guide To… Henny Gunawan Schlumberger. Academia. The Industrial Technology Facilitator (ITF) DEPUTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Max Medina Max Medina. Kulkarni Shell. Geologist. Women on the Frontline Andres Zoldi Chevron. Hewlett Packard. Graduate Student. Your Best Shot Manish K Choudhary Stanford University. HR Discussion Chris Jenkins Production Engineer. Research Engineer Public Policy Focus Subhash Ayirala. Reservoir Engineer. all TWA pioneers.. SPE 101 David Vaucher TAM International. we have a greater role to play because we are the industry’s future. TWA has it covered. Economist’s Corner and TWA Interview Samuel C. We may not agree on the extent. Koval ConocoPhillips. We should not forget how remarkable TWA is: a successful magazine. Principal Engineer . Please write to us at: EditorTWA@spemail. Production Engineer. Surface Data Logger Discover a Career Melissa Nance Shell. For the final time. my friends on the current and previous TWA boards. Forum Scott Hou Stone Energy. 2 // 2011 3 . Reservoir Engineer Technology 101 Series Etta Agbor Shell Nigeria. JPT editor. Reservoir Engineer YP Newsflash Shruti Ravindra Jahagirdar Shell Technology India. Our strong TWA legacy positions us well to achieve even greater success and I am proud to be part of this collective journey. Statoil. Reservoir Engineer Technology 101 Series Amarachukwu Okafor Marathon Oil.D. Petroleum Engineer. Technical Leaders Lisa Song Schlumberger. org. The main challenges for us are: What do we know about climate change? How do we as an industry continue—or even take a lead role—in mitigating the effect of climate change? As usual. Associate Reservoir Engineer. now in its seventh year. with a range of articles addressing these questions and outlining the challenges ahead. this is my last issue as editor-in-chief. Energy Industry Consultant TWA ADVISER: Luis Ayala Pennsylvania State University. Reservoir Engineer YP Newsflash TWA Interview Your Best Shot Per Olav Eide Svendsen Statoil. Forum Chike Nwonodi NPDC. Graduate Research Assistant Forum Pillars of Industry THE WAY AHEAD EDITORIAL COMMITTEE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Anthony Onukwu Senior Technology Analyst.edu@TWA Vol. Economist’s Corner and Technology 101 Series Michail Tzouvelekis Maersk. Halliburton.com Siluni Wickramathilaka. Candidate. Schon Brown University. Senior Drilling Engineer Pillars of Industry Jim Stiernberg. and managed and designed by them. Business Development Manager. Associate Professor of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering LEAD EDITORS Alicia L. Technology 101 Series Sanchit Rai University of Tulsa. As I mentioned.position on this is still not great and there is much room for improvement.

California. And while Fridays are usually quiet in Houston offices. and responsible for exploration and production activities in the Asia Pacific region. and vice president of offshore Gulf of Mexico E&P. Meyer has spent 19 of them working on international projects and in operations assignments. March 2011—In downtown Houston. Chevron’s E&P world is divided into four regions. by BioHouston with a Women in Science award. TWA Interview Editor 4 . Both towers are partially occupied by Chevron Energy Technology Company (ETC).TWA Interview Melody Meyer President. She attended the Tuck Executive Education program at Dartmouth College in 1997. and the past three years leading the energy technology company. Meyer is the executive sponsor of the Chevron Women’s Network and of the Chevron University Partnership program with the University of Texas at Austin. In her 32 years with Chevron. Melody Meyer. 10 years in leadership roles in North America E&P. Until March 2011. Meyer was selected to lead one of them. Meyer graduated from Trinity University in 1979 with a BS degree in engineering science–mechanical. In 2009. vice president of the US onshore mid-continent– Alaska E&P business unit. She is on the executive committee and board of the National Ocean Industries Association. and Meyer starts sharing hers: This interview was conducted by Andres Zöldi. and by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers with the Rhodes Petroleum Industry Leadership Award. has been promoted to president of the Asia Pacific business unit. an organization that forms the nucleus of Chevron’s R&D and technical support. midstream.000 people reporting to her and a budget exceeding USD 6 billion. Meyer was honored by Trinity University as a Distinguished Alumna. including manager of operations engineering in Kazakhstan. Chevron Asia Pacific Exploration and Production MELODY MEYER is president of Chevron Asia Pacific Exploration and Production (E&P) Company in San Ramon. it doesn’t seem to be Friday on the ETC management’s floor. Every person carries a story of her own. She has held various positions with Chevron. This same week. and Trinity University Board of Trustees.500 people. Chevron has its largest offices: two twin buildings linked by an impressive sky ring that serves as a bridge. the leader of this group of 2. She will have 10. offshore production manager in Angola. and downstream businesses. Meyer was president of Chevron Energy Technology Company in Houston and responsible for research and development (R&D) and technology services to Chevron’s global upstream.

And you can see throughout the organization that we certainly value high performance. Technology companies are definitely places where challenges are tackled. we were exploring in China and in Papua New Guinea. We have strong “Chevron Way” values that create a shared culture throughout the company. right out of college. The technology company has a unique concentration of subject matter experts that are deep in their fields. Is the same feeling valid for a young professional (YP) just starting in this industry? What does it offer? The industry offers the opportunity to make a positive difference. and the skills and knowledge that come with those disciplines are highly valued. and it’s been like that for 30 years. in Gulf Oil’s pipeline division. Do you recall any such opportunity? Well yes. and an opportunity taken at the appropriate time.. We made all the early decisions to form the joint operation. It offered unlimited possibilities. Energy importance is ever growing as communities and economies are developing around the globe. At that time. who have a broad perspective and the ability to integrate across disciplines. After that assignment. Just the ability to integrate the exploration. and I got a chance to work with some very senior people in the team.“ And after that you started to be placed in managing roles? Yes. Is ETC a place where technical people can achieve their potential? This industry. What skills do you look for in the YP that you add to your team? I think it is important to be deep technically but also to have the ability to integrate across disciplines to create business opportunities and business value out of that synergy. They have broad impact on global challenges. It opened my eyes to understand how all the teams should be engaged for a positive outcome. legal. hard work. so I got a chance to work in major capital projects to be installed in Angola. When I think back. so we communicated with telex or by short phone calls every other day…. development team.I started in 1979. and will address even bigger challenges every day. I hadn’t been in an airplane or a hotel before. Plus. My dad was a PE. The pipeline company had developed all of the West Africa facilities at that time. I was recognized later with a Chairman’s award for the Papua New Guinea project. so being on the ground and forming a new startup was a real adventure. to make a difference. It was in the startup leadership team for several years. and earth scientists. always wanting to drive performance improvements. and who are hardworking with a “can-do” attitude. industry was growing aggressively. especially for the kind of YP you just described. geologists. no email. What we easily do today were once huge challenges in the past. 32 years ago there was no Internet. It was thrilling and exiting. and they are absolutely critical to the success of the company. How did you get into the oil business? I grew up in around the oil field. What does Chevron do to retain people? I think our strongest enabler for talent retention is the positive culture that we create. and all operations on the ground. We had to take those discoveries in new regions for us and develop them to first oil. The human resources aspect of this industry is very competitive. and suddenly I was introduced to a global environment with lots of responsibility and authority. adding opportunity to Chevron. so it was very rewarding to get the opportunity to lead the operation. after eight or 10 years into my career. but never being satisfied. and the governments…. coupled with the opportunity to work on high-impact global projects. This industry has been reinvented over and over. I went to Tengiz in Kazakhstan as operations engineering manager. YPs will have to keep an eye on the future. the generation they will lead are the 10-year-olds of today. will continue to make our industry safe and clean. and it was a great opportunity to learn how to work incident-free in a very large production operation. I think those are the qualities needed for success. and will address even bigger challenges every day. and we had a very talented team to pull together. Angola operations were offshore. which is definitely a great place to be. “YPs. Nigeria. So I just look for people who are deep technically. Angola was a mature operation. and Chevron in particular. Technical leadership and business leadership are both equally important to the success of the company. You can also see by walking around ETC’s corridors a very broad We usually find success as a product of combining skill. 2 // 2011 5 . and I was the operations adviser at the front end of those projects. with large tankage and marine offloading. and we were investing tens to hundreds of millions (the equivalent of billions today). I saw the industry as very exciting because of the importance of energy to the world. and to coordinate the development plan to ensure good economic value. They should be aware that by the time they move up to leadership roles. and Zaire (now Congo). I was taken out of project management into development of production operations. Our YPs have to make sure they have the talent and the leadership skills to be ready to face the challenges of the future. requires leaders with deep technical background. 7 // No. Vol. I look for YPs who have an attitude of openness to change and always being happy with progress. At that time. I loved it from day one. the partners. and YPs play a big role in that: they will continue to make our industry safe and clean. and I had been a project manager on many of the facilities there early in my career. with so much responsibility and opportunity.. It was a real learning opportunity for me. I went to Angola as the production manager. The majority of our leaders are engineers.

I always tell people that it is so important to develop a strong network to support you. one personal question. drilling. “We also invest in other forms of renewable energy where they have the potential to be economic. In fact. because you cannot put off your life goals for career goals. they can be involved with us to help solve those challenges. Chevron was a key player in that effort. we also have the opportunity (as in the case of the university) to ask that talent to come work with us later. It’s a challenge for men and women and certainly for dual-career couples that have unique challenges to manage. what would they be? Our strength is in our values and the shared culture of protecting people and environment. Why? Because while we are an oil and gas company. It was well received by industry and the government. However the primary focus of ours has always been.” Working cleanly is indeed a way of caring for the environment. with family. It is great to have a supportive spouse and children who are also flexible. As those challenges grow. taking the same exploration. What have Chevron and ETC been doing in the aftermath of the Macondo incident? Chevron was a strong participant in the joint industry task forces that made recommendations to the administration to help restore confidence in safe deepwater drilling. We also invest in other forms of renewable energy where they have the potential to be economic. was part of the containment recommendation. And actually it is important to have good dialog about what type of things might be faced over your career and how the family responds and is flexible to those. We provided technical experts in the areas of drilling standards and marine well containment response.cultural diversity. What does that bring to the organization? Our diversity brings tremendous different points of view. And that it is true for a woman and a man working in this industry. we are also pursing all forms of energy. Energy is important and it will be delivered in many ways. Eventually. In recognition of the significant challenges of bringing new supplies of energy to market. So the key is to have a supportive network. It’s a great access to tremendous talent. and improve our base business. We drive for continuous improvement. We also offer energy efficiency services to government and academic institutions through our Chevron Energy Solutions company. And as far as a weakness. what are the pillars of technology that will keep the industry running for the next 50 years? The energy industry has many challenges. different knowledge bases. Ganesh Thakur. A topic that interests many of our readers is balancing work and family. If you head down one path. So by partnering with national labs and universities. If prevention fails and there is a deepwater blowout in the future. What is Chevron doing in this respect? We are the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. Nobody can do it alone. and it has ongoing technology development efforts. but there are certainly increasing examples of how it can be done. Being a technically deep organization. we can tap into some of the best talents. there are technologies that enable small footprints and clean operations. This underscores our commitment to SPE’s mission and what it does for its members and the industry. I see those areas to continue to be important as they always were. Significant recommendations made by the task forces have been well received by the administration and are being acted upon. So. How do you do that? I do get asked that question frequently. and I think it is important to recognize that we need all kinds of energy. you tend to have an inferior project. innovation. If you had to name one strength and one weakness of Chevron. it is clear that we share and support the mission. and production technologies that we use for oil and gas and applying them to renewable energy at scale. working on prevention so that this equipment will never be used. We know that we cannot have all the bright minds that we need when solving a problem. cleanly. And you must have a very fluent relationship with SPE? We are very supportive and involved with the SPE. and will continue to be. you must have a strong relationship with universities and national labs. the key is to work them together. It’s the “Chevron Way” values that make us strong. We build on our strengths. will be the next president of SPE. reservoir management. and knowledge. we have many challenges. It doesn’t mean that it’s easy now. You use the term energy instead of oil and gas. Even in certain areas of operational excellence and safety. What value does it bring to ETC and Chevron in general? We create a lot of value by partnering with them. we are constantly working to improve in every area. but it’s a constant push to improve and enter in new challenges. spouse. economically. and children. but I think over time the whole industry is figuring that out better and better. without multiple choices. and safely—all of those are technical solutions. TWA 6 . different approaches. Certainly technologies that help us find the resources and technologies that help us produce those efficiently. such as in biofuels. Diversity brings value in the form of broad thinking. the Marine Well Containment Company. The joint industry organization. Finally. we have a sharp focus on energy efficiency— improving our own energy efficiency by almost 30%. and our culture enables everyone to interject those ideas in a comfortable way. the company will provide containment services. Balance is important. as one of our employees. That is quite exciting for us. and by letting them understand our business challenges and our problems. rather than a weakness.

7 // No. who are well trained within a certain paradigm. and Carlos Chalbaud A youth ventures RAbInDRAnATh TAgORE Is There a Correlation Between Innovation/Creativity and Age? When we first asked this question. vice president of operations at GDF Suez. and new ideas. Geologist Per Arne Bjørkum. And most of us have grown out of being creative long ago. sometimes young people feel constrained by the long learning curve in the industry. unique perspectives.Forum Youth. Such feats require serious effort and young professionals are more than ready to take on the challenge. crossing the rift can be tricky. The experts of a certain time. Per Olav Svendsen. 1953). According to her. innovation is something new and different that works and generates revenue and has found a niche. often have severe difficulties looking beyond this and when they do try to look into the future. in his book Annerledestenkerne. Wikipedia pays respect to these names. Physics. believes that seasoned professionals have the benefit of knowledge and experience but this can also inhibit innovation and creativity as one becomes comfortable with the status quo. How Important Is Age in Becoming an Expert? According to Guimet. this is a time for innovation and young professionals can be a source of refreshing insight. innovation marketing manager at Suez Environment. He is just one of the many young achievers in the oil and gas industry. However. While young people see change as an opportunity to do better. Instead it was pointed out that innovation and creativity are two very different things. Younger folks often have less fear of failure and are generally more daring but creativity can occur at any age providing the ability to challenge and question. Kenison is a project manager at Schlumberger and has six patents to his credit with six more in the pipeline. the greatest discoveries in math were made by individuals in their mid-20s and 30s (Lehman. Units are named after them. and Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry Anton Andreev. and mathematics are overflowing with people who have exemplified the meaning of prodigy and their names are found in numerous high school and college textbooks. Rob Buchan. Sidd Gupta. Instead of being inspired by these examples. Hans Haringa. Newborn elements derive their name from these people. So it is a symbiotic relationship in which both qualities are required for a successful output. Valerie Guimet. Given that products and services in the oil and gas industry are highly specialized and that young people are given little responsibility in their initial career years. Depth. or indeed takes on the “learned helplessness” that comes from ideas having been rejected too many times. all they can see is the horizon of their own paradigm” (Bjørkum. 2003). says: “The belief that the era of new significant discoveries is over is something that emerges from time to time. Albert Einstein published his theories of relativity. He received his first patent at the age of 29. Niels Bohr published his quantum theory of atoms when he was 28. photoelectric effects. there is a flipside to this. more experienced colleagues may disagree or even see it as threatening. In the 1950s. the answer was neither what we were expecting nor what we were not expecting. Creativity is the tool that was used to create it. says that creativity is the generation of a new idea while innovation is getting value out of those ideas. technical solutions must have the proper blend of creativity and practicality and ideas should meet a legitimate need. chemistry. professor Harvey Lehman wrote that although creative output in science and invention varies substantially by age. Richard Feynman published his Nobel Prize winning theory on quantum electrodynamics when he was 31. becoming an expert in a technology domain demands time: Vol. But with the “easy oil” era over. Thinking beyond the paradigm is often treated as heresy. who has been a part of the Shell Game Changer team for many years. “ AGE CONSI DE R S . has a similar definition. 2 // 2011 “ 7 ccording to Michael Kenison. not to mention bagel houses. But we rarely take a look in our own backyard. and Brownian movements at 26. and that peak productivity tends to occur between 30 and 40 years old.

Culture is a reflection of a group’s beliefs and values. and be very open to learning. It also demands that one is open minded. sales) answer technical questions. Youth should not accept the old order if the world is to move on. sensing what is around. and. might be defined as a population that understands and embraces the importance of innovation. Age and Achievement.. The expert can bring and create high value to projects with talent and knowledge acquired over time. And here youth might play a role again. Effective innovation is impossible without two ingredients—generators and adopters. It could be adjacent disciplines. Youth should demand change in the world. who attack life with all the youthful vim and vigor. or who can give technical (and complex) support quickly. not just a small subset of people who are specially trained.” says Conser. and politician.gREg CAMPbELL Innovation Culture at the Corporate Level The concept of an innovation culture is quite elusive and has been the subject of considerable discussion. considered youth as the main driving force for innovation: “Youth should be radical. take the initiative to implement the appropriate solutions. 2003. and invaluable asset in overcoming obstacles along the way.” “ every wonderful idea needs a certain amount of patience approximately 40% of the Shell E&P R&D portfolio had its roots in Game Changer. An innovation culture. says that every wonderful idea needs a certain amount of patience. most importantly. Age and time also factor into another important aspect of innovation. nurtured. This cannot be done in a flip of a switch. Idea adoption is strongly dependent on management and its willingness to support innovation. projects. Bjørkum. the world grows stale and stagnant and sour in decay. William Allen White. It demands that all people in the defined group are engaged in innovation. marketing. It may be that relatively young managers are less bound by tradition and more prone to be pragmatic or even unorthodox practices or ideas. Developing these softer skills. and social constraints may also hold back some young workers from management.. it may not be the most essential. Greg Campbell. Not everyone will gravitate to it no matter how great it is. Harvey C. Innovation is about correctly observing the challenge. Campbell further believes that it is important to know the right people who can promote your idea . use analytical thinking to find opportunities and flaws in your area of influence. “Aim to be connected to other people from industries. a renowned American newspaper editor. more seasoned folks tend more to the practical. and then connecting or orchestrating the right performers to co-create a meaningful solution. “From a competency development perspective.” Mandar Apte of Shell agrees. and matured until they are ready to be picked up in the mainstream of technology development. It is not idea creation that matters so much as idea adoption.” he says. Through 2008. says that both experienced and young professionals have contributed largely to the idea pool. Russ Conser. While creative output is one potential channel through which age may impact productivity. Incremental improvements will gain the respect of your colleagues and they will be more willing to support and accept your ideas. Organizations of which you are a part of also play a major role and could be an equally vital part of the success equation as the innovation itself.. get very good at change management. years of experience. and sometimes experience in different areas of operations. Even if you were top of your class in the university. or at least know the right people who know the right people. “Often. certainly not at the mere whim or behest of youth. But management positions also require experience. author.” To which Kenison adds: “Learn as much as you possibly can about your particular field. therefore. Shell’s Game Changer program is where innovative ideas are captured. Universitetsforlaget. Each company should create helpful and supportive environment for the ideas to get started.. But the old orders should not be moved easily. 8 “ time spent in academic background.” “I would say learn by doing. If you are an engineer. . Per Arne. If our colleges and universities do not breed men who riot. 1953. “One of the best ways to enhance your creativity is to learn about technical fields other than your own. Annerledestenkerne. And it is always wise to seek advice and feedback from those with more experience. Shell E&P Game Changer Program Manager. Go MAD (Make A Difference). then there is something wrong with our colleges. more passion and energy is seen in younger innovators.” Happy innovating! TWA References Lehman.. both in their personal and professional lives. Princeton University Press. While young proponents tend toward more novel ideas. would help youth tremendously. The culture of innovation in an ideal world should be sustained at the corporate level. An expert is someone who can help many different sectors (research. who rebel.” “There’s a bit of a ‘double edged sword’ between depth and breadth of expertise. read a book about biology and think about how nature solves problems like flow and heat transfer. along with humility and courage to never give up. “Young minds allow themselves to wander into places where someone doesn’t already ‘know’ that something can’t be done. you must accept that you are the new kid on the block and focus on learning from others. believe in yourself. a senior software engineer at Schlumberger.” Campbell gives a simple and apt instruction: “Just go for it and you will be amazed by what you accomplish.” says Conser. but could also be far afield. There must be clash and if youth hasn’t enough force or fervor to produce the clash.

7 // No. proving. for example. However.Technical Leaders Using Technology for Carbon Emission Control and EOR Neeraj Gupta. containment. and economic performance of geologic storage sites. the need for reliable long-term storage capacity for large-scale CO2 emissions sources. and above all. knowledge of the local and regional geology is critical for ensuring sufficient injectivity. Currently. Even within a single basin. there are significant barriers to overcome for commercial deployment outside the southwestern US. Sustained high price of oil alone may be sufficient to increase interest in CO2 EOR floods. and he is a principal investigator for field demonstrations under the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Climate change-related limitations on CO2 emissions are likely to boost this trend because of the potential for cost offsets with EOR. field development. including EOR. and operating such large connected pore volumes. coring. permitting. the deep saline formations that CCS at some point in the future needs to use are really the unknown territory. 2 // 2011 9 . and reservoir management. layers like these will require a sustained regional exploration effort for site characterization. One interesting consideration is that most geology in close proximity to coal mines and power stations will have undergone the same burial and uplift that creates the accessible coal seams. Therefore. need for monitoring technologies to prove CO2 retention. Jenvey serves as a director of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects at Maersk. unitization of fields. How dependent is carbon sequestration on local and regional geology? ng: Just like in oil and gas exploration. Portugal. and reservoir testing to prove commercial-scale viability. India. Most of the formations we drill in oil and gas reservoirs haven’t had this impact. where he is coordinator of research and project portfolio opportunities. we will have to displace significant volumes of fluid for the pressures to be managed safely below fracture initiation and propagation. Jenvey will chair an SPE CCS forum to be held 9–14 October in Faro. For example. a master’s degree in geochemistry from George Washington University. Battelle Memorial Institute. Should we expect CO2 floods for EOR to become more prevalent? ng: Yes. papers. even without climate legislation. will be a significant challenge. He joined Maersk Oil and Gas in 2008. we are finding some attractive potential target zones associated with secondary porosity in dolomite layers. carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Effectively finding. Battelle’s experience to date has indicated diversity in geologic feasibility. and a doctoral degree in geological sciences. He joined Battelle Memorial Institute in 1993 and has led Battelle’s efforts on geologic storage of carbon dioxide since 1996. thereby probably resulting in diagenesis and permeability/porosity degradation unless preserved by other means. Vol. nigel Jenvey holds a bachelor’s degree in mining engineering and a master’s degree in petroleum engineering from Imperial College. nJ: Very. many times the size of what we are used to in oil and gas field development. with emphasis on hydrogeology. local or regional continuity can be difficult to predict. such as the Appalachian Basin. these finds are critical for deployment of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in the region and for minimizing the need for long pipelines. thus. He has authored or coauthored more than 75 reports. plugging requirements for old wells. from Ohio State University. and Nigel Jenvey. He has published multiple papers and served on several SPE committees. borehole stability. and conference presentations. Views expressed by the individuals interviewed in this article are their personal views and not necessarily those of their organizations or SPE. unless. neeraj gupta obtained bachelor’s and master’s degrees in geology from Panjab University. these include availability of pure CO2. technology. Gupta leads the geologic storage assessment. London. Another interesting consideration is that for large-scale carbon sequestration. after holding a number of operational. where much of the CO2 EOR work has taken place. In the AEP Mountaineer Plant Carbon Capture and Storage Project. At the same time. Due to the presence of such zones along the Ohio Valley power generation corridor. In areas like the Midwestern US. Maersk Oil and Gas including advanced seismic surveys. and leadership roles with Texaco and Shell. because of secondary migration.

DOE’s Clean Coal Power Initiative programs bring together coal and oil companies to conduct CCS demonstrations. Similarly. Additionally ExxonMobil is also the largest spender on CCS-related R&D and has by far the largest number of patents in CO2 capture. a group of coal companies and coaldependent utilities are conducting the FutureGen demonstration program with the US Department of Energy (DOE) cofunding.. However. There is a significant need for building public awareness of geologic storage options. had a major impact on developing new plays. the role for companies should be to assist in the implementation of governmental policies regarding climate change. energy efficiency. the potential CO2 emissions. Of course there may be some that dismiss climate change purely as a means to justify their own choice to work in the fossil fuel industry. Recent worldwide screening estimates suggest that 1 trillion bbl of extra oil (i. and alternative energy sources. I recognize that I am certainly not qualified well enough to have any other opinion than that held by the majority of actual climate scientists and instead rely on the scientific process to make informed decisions from which we should act. Has this hindered progress on any new plays or R&D efforts? ng: In the oil and gas domain. and the energy companies are well placed to do this. Myself. and develop the more risky and costly saline aquifers. their main focus for both internal research and sponsorship of external research has been on energy technologies and mitigation options. There is an increasing wait-and-see attitude. Even with the heightened debate on climate change. For example. What role do you think energy companies can play in the larger picture of educating the public about climate change? ng: I think energy companies have to first develop a stronger scientific consensus within the industry around the issue of climate change. and perhaps a sense of confusion. On a personal level. with ExxonMobil having already contributed a reported USD 100 million as of 2006. and therefore know there is uncertainty in such predictions. which “Energy companies have to first develop a stronger scientific consensus within the industry around the issue of climate change. It sounds like a win-win situation to me. There is much debate on climate change.” – Neeraj Gupta government funding in most countries. but don’t think this itself is because of anything else but the fact that we work on similar science. because of the growing demand for energy in emerging economies. which I believe is only healthy in any scientific debate. However it is expensive to implement. this EOR-based demand for CO2 is enough to satisfy the output from the first 45 years of CCS implementation. Do you feel that there has been an industrywide consensus on climate change thus far? Or are there still largely varying views within the industry? ng: Not really. nJ: Educating the public is probably done more effectively by governments rather than energy companies. when completed. they can also provide customer outreach about the reduction in carbon footprint. prove. CO2 is probably the widest applicable EOR technique for the range of reservoir and fluid properties that exists today. nJ: I hear of varying views still as to the cause of climate change. our geoscientists work with formations that are millions of years old and have therefore gone through previous periods of climatic change. R&D continues to advance the state of CCS technology. My perception is that during the last couple of years. have been factored into developing new projects such as the Gorgon field in Australia and In Salah in Algeria. The combined value of these programs in the US alone will be worth several billion dollars. We also work with complicated simulation models populated with only a limited data set. acceptance of mitigation technologies. Although energy companies have funded some research on climate science. You can obviously suppose then why some question climate change causes and effects that others have proposed. mainly with Stanford University.e. of the GCEP project (Global Climate and Energy Project) out of 10 . Furthermore. the climate issue has not. all that I have spoken to have some scientific reasoning for their opinion. Let me explain.nJ: I expect so. Interestingly. and the switch to climatefriendly products. about the same as that produced to date globally) could be economically produced if lowcost CO2 is available at scale. nJ: One of the largest externally sponsored areas of research I know of is by ExxonMobil. I sometimes think this is more prevalent in our industry than others. This includes research and demonstrations on CCS technologies. How much ongoing research is conducted by energy companies regarding the issue of climate change? ng: The science of climate change has been researched primarily by universities and other research institutes. and would give the time necessary to find. it has been highly satisfying to be involved in some of these major national initiatives. given changes to the wells and processing facilities needed. so far. For example. the climate consensus within the energy companies has become a bit more elusive. This is. in part. energy conservation. Some of the larger global companies have the resources to evaluate the relevant climate data and help clear the scientific uncertainty and also perform a stronger advocacy role with policy-makers. Instead. in part because of the lack of clear political consensus. toward the climate science and also policy initiatives that are needed to resolve the stalemate at both national and international levels. whose motives will always be viewed by some with skepticism. especially from gas processing. This has been ongoing since 2002 and will cost the companies involved USD 225 million.

e. However. there remains a possibility that 50 years from now. development of oil fields with an objective of maximizing CO2 storage. Australia. oil and gas will not be a primary source of energy because of dwindling supply or availability of other options.have included geologic storage to mitigate climate concerns. i. nJ: I think that climate change is bringing sustainable progress to the oil and gas industry. of course. Is there a realistic business case to take this forward? Do we need any game changer or government incentives to take this to the next level? ng: CCS is fundamentally a climate mitigation technology. why not implement CO2 EOR before waterflooding. Most of the oil majors are investing in CCS technology. We are becoming smarter in our planning. say 50 years. I believe more companies will see value in lowering the carbon content of the oil and gas that they produce. and therefore it now becomes more conventional and realistic business. The cost of storage can be relatively low when integrated with existing knowledge. where CCS and EOR are combined.. and are generally becoming less focused on short-term gains. Another possible trend is increasing collaboration and joint ventures between oil and coal companies. Therefore. Europe. as CCS will build upon the successes of the oil and gas industry. It will bring questions that will have to be answered. Still. TWA Vol. and Japan. 7 // No. Of course. over the last few months. Eventually. infrastructure. I have noticed a sharp decrease in coverage of the incident and certainly the level of debate is not as visible in the media. The need for land for very large-scale deployment of these options will also become a limiting factor. given the additional revenue source. do you believe there will be a fundamental change in the way oil and gas industry works because of various emission policies in 11 . nJ: Increasing energy demands will have to be met through a variety of sources. improvements in capture technologies. The cost of deployment and geographic reach are significant challenges that must be overcome. more efficient in our operations. in terms of improving our consideration of longterm impacts. and a focus on issues such as long-term liability and pore-space ownership. This ability will become more of a competitive differentiator for greenfield developments. there are some projects. such as those that I work on. nJ: I expect that a realistic business case for CCS will always need some form of place or developments in carbon capture technology (e.. From a long-term viewpoint. developing a field with CO2 EOR in mind)? ng: I believe it could be seen the other way around. the technology development and deployment will strongly depend on the government-funded demonstrations. especially in the US.” – Nigel Jenvey government incentive to establish the carbon price needed to pay for capture and transportation infrastructure. In the early years. the incident is likely to have a significant long-term influence on the operational and environmental philosophies of the energy companies and also in the regulatory requirements for exploration and production. and indeed will drive a less progressively phased approach to field development than that to which we are accustomed. and operations that exist in oil and gas field locations. On the flip side. and renewables have a growing part to play. and the wider implications our work has on the environment and society. natural gas processing plants are becoming sources of CO2 for geologic storage in current major projects. Do you think the BP incident in the Gulf of Mexico will intensify the debate on the broader topic of energy companies’ responsibilities toward the environment? ng: For a while it appeared to be the case. and development of monitoring technologies for CCS will play a significant role in the evolution of the oil and gas industry. cost recovery mechanisms. the only business case for commercial implementation will come through the regulations on CO2 emissions. and the wider implications our work has on the environment and society. where potential CO2 emissions have been a factor in decisions about new capital investments. What is important is that we need to develop a cost-effective and sustainable energy mix from which all of world society can benefit. and the level of scrutiny in today’s society may mean that some regulations will be made tougher where uncertainty and risk are perceived to remain. nJ: Undoubtedly yes. These demonstrations and early commercial projects will also need a predictable regulatory framework. There seems to be increasing impact on developing new coal-based energy facilities. However the main increase in the effective cost of storage that has to be considered is that associated with the long-term risks of leakage and the financial security and liabilities that are imposed by regulations. in terms of improving our consideration of longterm impacts. For example. Battelle’s view is that companies that can develop the scientific knowhow and institutional mechanisms to answer these questions will be well placed to have a role in an eventual commercial CCS market.g. nJ: Yes. 2 // 2011 “Climate change is bringing sustainable progress to the oil and gas industry. rather than when it is too late and too expensive? What do you believe is the place (present and future) of renewable energies such as solar and wind power? ng: There is no doubt that the share of renewable power in the energy mix will increase over time from the current very low baseline.

This means they can be used to reconstruct a temperature record with time. 1— (Above) Map of Antarctica showing sites of interest and surface skin depth heating and cooling trends from NOAA/AVHRR satellite data. D T p = (DdD ice . us insight into the response of the Earth’s biosphere.8D d180 sw )/9. the difference between paleo-temperature 12 . only the Antarctic land ice and ecosystem records will be discussed. Atmospheric dD and d180 are indicators of global ice volume and the state of global hydrological activity. The most common ice core measurements used in climate studies are snow/ice isotope ratios (deuterium to hydrogen and 180 to 160. coldest. where DT p is the difference between the current temperature at the altitude of snow formation and the paleotemperature at altitude. 1999). ice grain size. Because marine sedimentary records exist at all latitudes. Antarctica serves as a valuable scientific resource for understanding past climate conditions as well as for gauging the current trajectory of climate change (Fig 1). perpendicular to the surface of the Earth (rather than subparallel. Antarctic Ice Cores: The Long Record of Atmospheric Conditions The Antarctic ice sheets (east and west) are tremendously large glaciers—bodies of ice deposited snow (<10 cm of snowfall per year is common at the South Pole). and d180. driest. ice electrical conductivity. Snow falling on Antarctic domes traps atmospheric gas. dust content. Data provided by Larry Stock. and 9‰ per ˚C is the deuterium temperature-isotope gradient in East Antarctica (Petit et al. as well as dust and other particular matter. As a result. the marine (sedimentary) record. that compress under their own weight (Antarctic ice sheets average ~1 km in thickness) and flow slowly toward the sea. A continent-spanning ice cap belies cold desert conditions under which climate records accumulate with glacial slowness. and atmospheric gas composition (carbon dioxide. Sodium concentration and electrical conductivity are used to estimate the contribution of marine aerosols. But Antarctica is also a living laboratory in which the decadal effects of climate change can be directly observed. Dd180 sw is the global average difference between today’s seawater d180 and paleoseawater d18O. Antarctica is the storehouse of the world’s oldest iceborne climate records. Base map courtesy of NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio. respectively when normalized to international standards). preserved in the Antarctic deep freeze for millions of years. At high points on the ice sheets (called domes). and atmospheric dD and d180). producing a continuous record of temperaturedependent snow isotopic chemistry and atmospheric gas composition. Snowfall atmospheric modeling indicates that DT p is approximately 2 ∕3 D T S. Accordingly. ice extracted from domes increases in age with increasing depth. and cryosphere to ongoing and future changes. sodium concentration. denoted dD A Lens for Climate Change Climate information from Antarctica comes from three major sources: the land ice record. In particular. the net velocity of ice is downward. the “harsh continent. as in the case of flowing ice away from domes). Dust content is used to estimate paleo-wind intensity (sediments from distant deserts). Snow dD and d180 vary linearly with the atmospheric temperature at which the snow formed and also with the surface temperature of the precipitation site.” is the highest. while ecosystem records give Fig. hydrosphere. and windiest place on Earth.Tech 101 Antarctica: Recording and Experiencing Climate Change Joseph Levy. Ice cores from interior Antarctica provide a long and continuous record of atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere. Portland State University A ntarctica. methane. and the ecosystem record.

Interestingly. 7 // No. The Vostok ice core is one of the most studied ice core climate records from Antarctica (Fig. The maximum CO2 mixing ratio reported in the Vostok core is 298. respectively. and between surface temperature and CO2 and CH4 atmospheric concentration. however. An ecosystem is the assemblage of organisms in an environment coupled with the nonliving components of the environment with which the organisms interact. However. the last two glacial/interglacial transitions have been associated with precipitous increases of atmospheric CO2 from ~180 ppmv to ~280 ppmv. All data are reported in Petit et al. the Vostok core shows a strong correlation between orbital timescales and climate timescales. modulated by an ice flow and thinning model (Vostok is not positioned directly at Dome B). the most important outcome of climate science is being able to predict how changing climate patterns will affect the ecosystems on which human beings depend. respectively) [Petit et al. The relative Vol.7 ppmv (Petit et al. 2). 2—Data and calculations from the Vostok ice core. while CO2 concentration can lag by several kiloyears.Fig. 2 // 2011 13 . Warm interglacials cool gradually into glacial periods and end with rapid transitions back into interglacial warmth. suggesting that the four most recent ice ages have been driven primarily by insulation changes associated with the Earth’s orbital eccentricity on a period of ~100 ky (Imbrie et al. The harsh physical conditions in Antarctica significantly reduce the species richness of south polar ecosystems. The temperature record has a characteristic sawtooth pattern similar to that observed in marine temperature reconstructions. nobody lives in an ice core. pCH4 and pCO2 are the atmospheric concentration of methane and carbon dioxide. 106˚E). and pinned to two dated core segments at 1534 m and 3254 m that correlate with well-dated marine records. (1999). 2) [older. The Vostok core contains a clear record of the last four major glacial interglacial periods (Fig. and modern temperature at the Earth’s surface. The Ecosystem Record: Decadal Response Antarctic ice cores provide a perspective on changing climate conditions over hundreds of thousands of years. 1999]. For example. Vostok station is located near Dome B in East Antarctica (78˚S. for example. during glacial to interglacial transitions. In summary. Glacial/ interglacial fluctuations in the measured parameters have a similar cyclicity to marine climate records. the EPICA core from Dome C extend back even further]. Dating of the ice core is based on an accumulation rate model driven by the temperature-dependence of saturation vapor pressure on temperature at the altitude of snow formation. The Vostok record shows that both the succession (timing) and intensity of temperature and atmospheric composition changes are similar through each glacial/intergacial climate cycle.73 for CO2 and CH4. Vostok core dates all have an accuracy better than ±15 ky. and provides a case study in the translation of ice cores into climate data. The Vostok core consists of 3623 m of ice. better than ±5 ky for the most recent 110 ky (Petit et al. CH4 and temperature decrease in phase. 1993).71 and 0. 1). deeper ice cores. 1999). and with increases of methane from ~350 ppbv to ~650 ppbv. Ultimately. There is a strong correlation between atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations and Antarctic surface temperature in the Vostok core (r2 of 0. 1999). The temperature and chemistry data from the Vostok ice core warrant close examination. The overall surface temperature difference between glacial and interglacial periods in Antarctica is ~12˚C (Fig. spanning ~423 kiloyears (ky). del-D is the dD of the ice used to calculate delta-T(surface). the interglacial periods vary in length and temperature evolution. Earth’s climate system responds to external (orbital) forcing. As is clear from the broad definition. delta-T(surface) is the temperature difference between paleo-temperature and current temperature at the ground surface. making them some of the simplest on Earth. better than ±10 ky for most of the record. CO2 and CH4 concentrations decrease slowly to minimum values during glacial periods and increase rapidly during transitions into interglacials. This pattern is mirrored in CO2 and CH4 concentrations. but atmospheric chemistry modulates and amplifies the temperature and timing response of the climate to this forcing in complex ways. ecosystems typically are extremely complex. Transitions from the lowest to the highest CO2 and CH4 values occur during glacial to interglacial transitions.

mean annual temperature along the northern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula has risen by 2˚C. and affected all invertebrates. New. soil moisture conditions. respectively. ephemeral streams that flow during high summer. Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (D24). Doran et al.1 Doran. etc. summer and autumn seasonal mean air temperatures cooled by 1. the seasonal average air temperature at the centrally located Lake Hoare station had declined by 0. and amplified warming along the Antarctic peninsula by ~2˚C between 1950 and 2000 (Ducklow 2007).T. reducing depth-integrated primary production in the lakes by 6% to 9% annually. Although permafrost geologists are loath to say it. The Future What does the future hold for climate change research in Antarctica? Any climate researcher will tell you that Continued on page 19 14 . In stark contrast to cooling trends in the dry valleys. explaining in part the dissimilarity in temperature conditions between the peninsula and the dry valleys. which have increased by 0. Perennial lake ice in the dry valleys has increased in thickness by 11 cm per year on average during the cooling phase (Doran 2002). Journal of Climate. present. thickening lake ice reduced summertime photosynthetically active illumination of Dry Valleys lakes. the nematode Scottnema Lindsayae. warming along the Antarctic Peninsula is acting as the primary driver of ecosystem change (Ducklow 2007).D. These natural laboratories will make a transition from being bellwethers of climate change to laboratories in which models of ecosystem response to climate change will be tested. 20 (16): 4096–4117. while mean winter temperature has risen by 6˚C (Ducklow 2007).) and that is dominated by nematodes as the top predator. and nutrient levels common in the dry valleys.0 to 3. 1). species that rely on sea ice are being displaced poleward and replaced by species that avoid ice.mcmlter. www. coupled with strong polar sensitivity to climate change. which coincide with the months of peak ecosystem functioning (the only months when day-average air temperatures rise above 0˚C). doi: 10. The southernmost terrestrial ecosystem on Earth is found in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. These simple systems can serve as models for the warm climate ecosystems upon which human beings most depend. These landforms provide the habitat for a microbially and algal-based food web that supports microscopic soil invertebrates (tardigrades. the effects of cooling air temperatures on soil temperature and soil moisture resulted in a reduction in invertebrate populations of >10% per year during 1993 to 1998. References Chapman.P. bringing the ancient record to life in a form relevant to climate and ecosystem forecasters. is analogous to ice-core observations showing increased dust fluxes to the deep interior of Antarctica during warm interglacials. These rapid and at times unexpected ecosystem responses make the Antarctic a critical test bed for models of ecosystem change under future climate scenarios. Valley Floor Climate Observations From the McMurdo Dry Valleys.L. G. Cooling in the dry valleys stands in stark contrast to global temperature trends. The response of the dry valleys biological communities to changing climate conditions has been rapid and severe. Warming in the Antarctic will likely bring even greater changes to the dry valley and peninsula ecosystems. Since 1950. from microbovorous organisms to the top predator. During the 1986–1999 cooling phase. and future changes to the Earth’s climate most certainly is. reported that between 1986 and 1999. rotifers. W. 4772. a series of exposed valleys on the shores of the Ross Sea (77-78˚S. Dry valleys cooling is most notable during the summer and autumn months (December–February.. high-resolution analyses of Antarctic ice cores will begin to provide decadal-scale measurements of past climate. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Long Term Ecological Research project (MCMLTER. reducing stratospheric ozone and promoting cooling.19˚C per decade (based on 1979–1998 measurements). A Synthesis of Antarctic Temperatures. 1986–2000. 160-164˚E) that are protected from the impinging East Antarctic Ice Sheet by the Transantarctic Mountains (Fig. From 1986 to 1999.1029/2001JD002045. in a warming world. the key to anticipating the future lies in understanding the past.5˚C by 2100 [Chapman and Walsh 2007]). In 2002. As a result of these ecosystem changes.7˚C per decade. Notably.. and permafrost.simplicity of Antarctic ecosystems. 2007.” Using the scientific resources of Antarctica to understand past. At present. the South Polar Vortex is deflected southward of the Antarctic Peninsula. P.1175/JCLI4236. The Dry Valleys are a mosaic of glaciers (alpine and outlet). likely bringing higher average temperatures to the dry valleys (~2. and has been observed at most of the weather stations.0˚C per decade.org) maintains a network of continuously recording weather stations throughout the dry valleys. This change to a warming mode. C. makes Antarctica an ideal laboratory for studying the effects of changing climate conditions on biological communities. and Walsh. This cooling trend has continued in the intervening years.2˚C per decade and 2. This is illustrated by the displacement of Adélie penguins by Chinstrap penguins. Liquid water is the limiting resource in Antarctic soil ecosystems. Antarctica. In the soil environment.E. their subject matter is “not a growth industry. doi:10. This warming has coincided with decrease in the portion of the year when sea ice is present around the peninsula by 85±19 days per year. Gradual increases in ozone concentrations above Antarctica (repair of the “ozone hole”) will allow warming to spread poleward. McKay. These population reductions occurred in experimental plots that spanned the range of elevations. strong circum-Antarctic winds (the South Polar Vortex) trap remaining atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons. March–May. with weakening circum-Antarctic winds. J. Cooling in Antarctica is driven in large part by continued low ozone levels in the Antarctic stratosphere (ozone is an effective greenhouse gas) [Randel and Wu 1999]. 2002. ice-covered lakes. and Clow. while light is the limiting factor in Antarctic lake ecosystems— evidence of their simplicity. respectively).

underbalanced drilling (UBD) continues to be a desirable option for many operations today. In true UBD. which occurs when overbalanced drilling f luids f low into the formation. If the reservoir does not have sufficient energy during production to force this mudcake out. nitrogen. oil-based fluid or mud).” Perhaps the most beneficial aspect of UBD is the reduction or elimination of formation damage. However. The one constant is that the EMW is less than the pore pressure throughout the drilling process. Circulating these fluids at the proper rate is imperative for a successful UBD project to ensure adequate removal of the drilled cuttings from the wellbore. Reynolds. gas. there are further benefits of UBD such as increased rate of penetration (ROP) and reduced likelihood of differential sticking (where the drillstring becomes stuck to the wellbore wall). A detailed analysis of all the well parameters and the project objectives is Vol. SPE. providing a likely remedy for formations where LC has been a problem. it must be stressed that not all UBD applications lead directly to these benefits. They may be composed of single-phase liquid or mud. UBD Overview The philosophy of UBD is diametrically opposed to traditional/conventional drilling methods and MPD. Another big advantage of UBD is reduction of lost circulation (LC). 7 // No. MPD uses equivalent circulating density—a combination of hydrostatic pressure. thereby earning UBD the nickname “flow drilling. Conversely. and Sagar Nauduri. and applied surface pressure—to create a BHP equal to or greater than formation pore pressure. which can optimize production rates and greatly increase the value of the well. Additionally. rather. there is the possibility of damage mechanisms that might counteract the applicability of UBD.Discover a Career Discover a Career in Underbalanced Drilling Patrick B. Sometimes lost circulation creates irreparable formation damage or becomes so severe that the well is lost. foam (a gasified fluid containing a surfactant). especially when drilling into pressure-depleted formations and/or attempting to reduce skin damage for better productivity. a fundamental knowledge of the technique can benefit young petroleum engineers looking to excel in their field. Because of the decreased bottomhole pressure in the wellbore. As with all drilling techniques. The lower hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid column enables formation fluids to flow to the surface and through specialized surface equipment. Signa Engineering Despite the drilling industry’s shift toward managed pressure drilling (MPD) over the past half-decade. the inherently low-pressured drilling column does not fracture the formation needlessly. gasified fluid (a two-phase fluid containing air. drillers can eliminate sophisticated drilling/completion fluid systems and costly remedial stimulation techniques historically used to overcome damage and increase production. 2 // 2011 15 . it allows the formation to flow naturally. Fluids employed in UBD also vary with each operation. largely by operators willing to pay top dollar for skilled UBD personnel. Because of this sustained demand. If the driller maintains an underbalanced state through the completion stage. the drilling fluid is much less likely to invade the formation. UBD utilizes an EMW maintained deliberately below the openhole pore pressure in at least one point of the open wellbore. When drilling traditionally. circulating friction pressure. it can cause a significant decrease in—or total shutoff of—the natural flow of oil and gas from the formation to the surface. or water) from entering the wellbore. Conventional drilling uses an equivalent mudweight (EMW) that results in a bottomhole pressure (BHP) greater than that of the pore pressure exposed to the open hole to prevent formation fluids (oil. or natural gas mixed with water. With UBD.B. overbalanced drilling fluid can clog up or otherwise damage the naturally porous/permeable areas of the formation in a process called invasion. mist (gas with liquid droplets suspended in the mixture) and even air (using pure gas as the drilling fluid). damage can be minimized or avoided. SPE.

Students must be able to identify indicators of drilling problems.b. and triaxial stress data on any formation samples. Knowing how to mitigate these issues is just as important. such as hydraulics planning. formation fluid types. He can be reached at snauduri@signa. 2) Different tested procedures to solve the well control situation and resume drilling. mastery of spreadsheets and associated graphical data representation (such as Microsoft Office Excel) is essential. the UBD engineer should have basic knowledge of all UBD facets. have good interactions with vendors.net. By the seventh year. Sagar nauduri is a managed pressure drilling (MPD) engineer at Signa Engineering. a beginning engineer (with no field or design experience) should still expect to have a fundamental understanding of the basic components of UBD. 16 . casing and well design. although not absolute. formation integrity test data (casing shoe pressure integrity test [pit] data). UBD Fundamentals Petroleum engineers performing at all levels during application of UBD will be expected to communicate with a wide variety of specialists. Continued on page 31 Patrick b. logging while underbalanced. These parameters should account for surface equipment. Typically. well control operations when using UBD. The engineer will need the following data: pore pressure/ fracture pressure gradient plots. core analysis. Young petroleum engineers should attend training courses on at least two hydraulics modeling software systems and use them frequently enough to become proficient in both. They are most often taught by licensed petroleum engineers and include curriculum requisite for prospective UBD engineers. Reynolds is a technical writer and registered project management professional at Signa Engineering. created and tested before the well is drilled. Hands-on experience on an operating rig is a great teacher as well. Understanding this UBD road map is essential to a successful UBD operation. He has been a professional writer for 12 years and regularly contributes articles to oil and gas industry magazines. rateof-penetration records. pressure drop calculations. Lithological description is a good starting point to determine a UBD candidate. if the student can get permission to work on a rig. As such. Once these fundamentals have been established. location topography information. He is a graduate of Texas A&M University in petroleum engineering. After three years. and executing/ overseeing the entire drilling operation.net. The classes focus on UBD problem solving and situations typically encountered in UBD operations. He can be reached at preynolds@signa. expectations will also increase. there are several industry training courses that the young UBD engineer should consider. It requires proper evaluation in great detail to make this determination. Basic drilling engineering courses help students understand standard rig equipment. so students should also attend well control courses (methodology and calculations classes) that focus on training both novices and experts to maintain a safe workplace environment. hydraulics design. A proper hydraulics design is usually done using robust modeling software and once completed provides a “road map” that shows the driller the optimal parameters for drilling the well. engineers should know whether UBD is viable for their formation. well design. and also a good understanding of contingency planning. As an individual’s field responsibilities expand. rig operations. it is important to study courses that provide a solid understanding of drilling disciplines.recommended before deciding whether to choose UBD for a given project. such as kick-loss cycles. UBD has been applied successfully in limestone. and fluid density at a minimum. In addition. well logs from area wells. dolomite. most UBD has occurred in carbonate rocks. but this is not a requirement. equipment layout. water/chemical sensitivity. basic hydraulics design. casing design. and 3) Theory and calculations behind these methods. For instance. and chain of command. fluid rheology. lost circulation information. writing UBD procedures. contingency planning. Most of the employers and regulatory agencies now require such well control certifications from their employees. and surge/swab problems. and pressure management. sour/corrosive gas data. writing contingency plans. The driller can determine if the project needs to be designed for underbalanced drilling and how much margin exists between fluid pressure in the wellbore and pressure in the formation. and UBD completions. pressure regimes. differential sticking. such as hydraulics. For undergraduates interested in UBD. production rate or reservoir characteristics to calculate/ estimate production rate. Perhaps the most important aspect of successful UBD is a properly designed hydraulics plan. Candidate Identification The first step in any successful UBD application is to ensure whether the formation is a good candidate for underbalanced drilling. circulation rate. His interests are MPD and underbalanced drilling operations. such as equipment design. Courses also typically provide handson experience by means of a simulator. designing and procuring the necessary equipment. courses teach 1) How to react in such a well control situation.

which drains to a horizontal producer straddling several injection wells. Additionally. Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering. however. Additionally. The process makes use of existing vertical wells in the field for CO2 injection and calls for drilling a long horizontal well for producing the draining oil. 2 // 2011 17 . keeping the pressure above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) maximizes the recovery efficiency. Early efforts were directed at developing methods to “improve” the injected gas’s mobility and volumetric sweep efficiency. One concern. Hughes. Rao and Richard G. which in turn results in large capillary numbers and low residual oil saturations in the swept region.Academia@TWA. This keeps the interfacial tension between the oil and the injected CO2 low. CO2 injected in vertical wells accumulates at the top of the pay zone and displaces oil. CO2 breakthrough to the producer as well as preventing the gas phase from competing for flow with oil. solvent channeling. Viscous fingering. Much of these research efforts continue today in universities and other research laboratories. Advanced Resources International identified four advanced CO2 EOR technologies: • Higher pore volume of CO2 injection • Vertical gravity stable gas injection with horizontal wells for production • Miscibility development • Effective mobility control in horizontal floods This article discusses the gasassisted gravity drainage (GAGD) technology being developed at Louisiana State University with the support of a DOE research grant. The GAGD process has the additional advantage of increased oil saturation and consequently improved oil relative permeability near the producing wellbore. the CO2 chamber grows downward and sideways. water is likely to be held back in the rock pores by capillary pressure while oil will be preferentially displaced by CO2. 7 // No. The concept of injecting gas into a formation to stimulate recovery of residual oil is not new. resulting in larger portions of the reservoir being swept without any increase in water saturation in the reservoir. The gravity segregation of CO2 also helps in delaying. and reservoir heterogeneity were found to be the main culprits for the disappointing field performance. in the face of global warming. If the formation is oil-wet. In a recent study for the US Department of Energy (DOE). using foaming agents and polymers. more operators and governments are considering the use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes as an opportunity whose time has come. The Vol. 1. but by the 1970s field experiments yielded only moderate recoveries of 5% to 10% of the remaining OOIP. Louisiana State University CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery: Background With 50% to 65% of the original oil in place (OOIP) remaining in many reservoirs after primary and secondary recovery. is that the research favors modeling work rather than experimental development of new concepts and processes. continuous films of oil will help create drainage paths for the oil to flow to the horizontal producer.edu Current Research and Challenges Pertaining to CO2 Flooding and Sequestration Dandina N. As injection continues. and included the water-alternating-gas (WAG) process. If the formation is water-wet. the prospect of CO2 sequestration has arisen with the potential of sequestering large quantities of CO2 in depleted oil fields as a means of preventing its release into the atmosphere. Successful laboratory gas-injection experiments generated a lot of optimism in the 1950s. or even eliminating. This maximizes the volumetric sweep efficiency. Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage The GAGD process is shown schematically in Fig.

and cement evaluation. understanding sequestration storage mechanisms. or cement plants.and gas-related geophysical measurements. and film flow combine to yield such high recoveries even in immiscible gas injection experiments. certain volcanic formations. or deep saline aquifers. Our ongoing experimental studies of GAGD have shown recoveries in the range of 73% to 85% remaining OOIP in its secondary immiscible mode and near complete recoveries in miscible modes. whether the depletion or pressurization of the formation breaches the integrity of the caprock needs to be evaluated. solubility trapping. underground coal seams. 1—Concept of the New Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage EOR Process (Rao et al. cement chemistry. deep CO2 Sequestration integrity of sequestration sites are the primary factors limiting widespread implementation of CCS. These gases are then injected into the subsurface in active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs. capillary trapping. gravity drainage. and characterizing storage formation parameters with limited data. there is no requirement to ensure that the CO2 remains permanently underground. the site may undergo depletion followed by repressurization. and mineralization requires both adequate models for each mechanism and laboratory measurements to calibrate the models. chemical plants. The CO2 GAGD process is being piloted in a Louisiana field and the results are awaited. mineralogy. Modeling of the sequestration storage mechanisms of adsorption.and gas-related topics. This opens up a vast arena for further research and practical applications on the use of flue gases for immiscible GAGD EOR applications without having to separate the CO2. The primary difference between using CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and for sequestration is that while EOR processes seek to utilize the CO2 efficiently.Produced Fluids CO 2 Vertical Injectors CO 2 UNDERBURDEN Gas Invaded Zone Horizontal Producer UNDERBURDEN Fig. For sequestration. The idea behind CCS is that human-generated (anthropogenic) greenhouse gases are separated and captured from concentrated sources such as power plants. The dominant mechanism for storage depends on pore structure.. 2004). Monitoring the fate of the injected CO2 also relies on oil. which constitutes about 75% of the cost. and rock and fluid 18 . Another research area often affiliated with CO2 EOR is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Chief among these technologies are monitoring the fate of injected CO2. Since the caprock ensures the storage capability of the site. drilling costs of horizontal wells have been significantly reduced in recent years due to technology advances. The mechanisms of displacement. there are active areas of research associated with technologies more aligned with oil. The cost of separating and capturing the greenhouse gases as well as of the assessment and assignment of liability for the long-term The cost of separating and capturing the greenhouse gases as well as of the assessment and assignment of liability for the long-term integrity of sequestration sites are the primary factors limiting widespread implementation of CCS. Ensuring wellbore integrity at the sequestration site relies on understanding and extending oilfield technologies of well construction. evaluating caprock and wellbore integrity. However. refineries.

K. Journal of Climate 12 (5): 1467–1479. and a PhD from the University of Calgary.1098/rstb. W. 2007. G. production data analysis. He earned a BS in petroleum engineering from New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and held various production.2006. II. He holds a BTech with Distinction from India. but any oil. Randel.. University researchers are also strong local resources for public outreach and education related to greenhouse gas generation and storage. Paleooceanography 8 (6): 699–735. 2004 Ducklow.spe. the industry that benefits from these resources should actively participate in university research for it to be relevant.M. TWA References Christianson et.. Marine Pelagic Ecosystems: The West Antarctic Penninsula.CO. Budgets for these projects are dominated by the cost of implementation and monitoring. Operators should be more open to implement pilots to try out new ideas. J. funding for CO2 sequestration research is primarily through the Regional Partnership program at the DOE.org/atce Society of Petroleum Engineers Vol. S. be it the industrial labs or academia. open-minded examination of new concepts and ideas. professional journals should publish new material even in the face of controversy—academic careers depend on publications.2 Challenges in Academia The foremost challenge is dwindling research funding. and information technology positions with Tenneco Oil.A. Second. Petroleum Recovery Institute. 1993.. A. reservoir. Third. Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420. W. modeling of multiphase flow in porous media and rock fractures. Bender. “research” becomes a bad word among all funding sources. After 17 years of research and development work (Shell Canada. Baker. Petit. E. SPE 71203. This needs to change. 1998 Rao et al. reservoir surveillance. et al. J.G. Jouzel. Boyle. Dandina n. and BDM Petroleum Technologies). Continued from page 14 properties. Fourth. 1999..1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1467:CO TA A A>2. Wu.Tech 101..C. 7 // No. His experimental research interests include reservoir condition rock-fluids interactions and thermal and nonthermal EOR. Richard g. and Martinson. When oil prices drop. His research interests include utilizing CO2 for EOR and carbon sequestration. Nature 399 (3 June): 429–436.. university research should continue to focus on the free flow of knowledge without boundaries. D. and unconventional field reservoir engineering. Cooling of the Arctic and Antarctic Polar Stratospheres Due to Ozone Depletion. he came to LSU in January1999.. J. irrespective of their origin. Dwights Energy Data.. Biological Sciences 362 (1477): 67–94. Clemens. Kukla.R. I. not just for gas flooding Joseph Levy is a postdoctoral permafrost geologist at Portland State University in Portland. On the Structure and Origin of Major Glaciation Cycles. In the US. The 100. Formation characterization for sequestration differs only slightly from oilfield exploration well characterization in that formation mineralogy must be modeled in addition to the more traditional rock and fluid properties.. and Amerada Hess.1955 Imbrie.000 Years From the Vostok Ice Core Antarctica. Barnola.000-Year Cycle.. SPE 89357. J. Chappelaz.. Raynaud. He then obtained his MS and PhD in petroleum engineering from Stanford University before joining the University of Oklahoma as an assistant professor.. Oregon. and F.R.. USA www.. NEW PERSPECTIVES SPE ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION 30 OCTOBER–2 NOVEMBER 2011 DENVER. J. 1999. hughes is a professional-in-residence for the Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering at LSU. Rao is Emmett Wells distinguished professor in the Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering at Louisiana State University (LSU). 2 // 2011 19 . doi: 10. Howard.... and independent pursuits of new realms of science. D. Basile.. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society. al. Berger. an MS from the University of Saskatchewan.. COLORADO. et al.W. doi: 10. M. H. Duffy. Additional funding is available through industry and through other governmental sources such as the National Science Foundation or the US Environmental Protection Agency.J. A. The seven Regional Partnerships have field projects designed to demonstrate full-scale implementation of CCS in each of the formation types.and gas-related research.0.

Public Policy Focus Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Potential “Win-Win” for the Oil Industry and the Public Siluni Wickramathilaka. In the past 30 years. Power plants now account for approximately 40% of all humangenerated (anthropogenic) emissions in the world.” a gas that traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere by absorbing and emitting radiation within the thermal infrared range. compressing the gas. (Used with permission of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. seven of the eight warmest years on record have occurred since 2001. N2O (ppb) I 400 2000 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O) 1800 1600 1400 1200 n 1972. fossil fuels currently comprise approximately 85% of the world’s overall energy portfolio. ConocoPhillips. or CCS. This dependence comes at a price. The IPCC estimates that carbon capture technology deployed at these CO2 sources has the potential to 20 . According to IPCC estimates. Enter carbon capture and sequestration. global CO2 emissions stemming from fossil fuel sources are projected to increase 40% to 110% by 2030 if climate policies to mitigate this rise are not implemented. or barge. As the problem is global. however. 1). transporting it via pipeline. and for a different purpose altogether: To help arrest an increase in the average surface temperature of the planet. 2). Simply put. the atmospheric presence of greenhouse gases has risen dramatically since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s (Fig. The presence of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere is vital.3°F. and injecting it underground for very longterm storage (or sequestration). According to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. causing a greenhouselike warming effect. it is a delicate balance. nearly 40 years later. Today. and there is no existing alternative energy source that will significantly impact this figure for the foreseeable future. it would seem logical for governments to be proactive in finding ways to mitigate 350 300 1000 800 250 0 500 1000 1500 2000 600 Fig. CO2. CCS technology is similar to the CO2 flooding technology that has been used on a commercial scale since the SACROC flood began almost 40 years ago. for without them. CO2 injection is being considered on a much wider scale. Politics and blame aside. 1—Concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from year 0 to 2005. truck. the rate of warming across the globe has been approximately three times greater than the rate over the past 100 years. Texas. It involves capturing carbon dioxide from a stationary source. is a “greenhouse gas. CO2 is also a key ingredient that nourishes plant life through photosynthesis. and Todd Willis. Earth’s surface would be on average about 59°F colder than at present. the first commercial carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project in the world began with the injection of CO2 into the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) unit in the Permian Basin in Scurry County. the petroleum industry is bearing much of the blame in the current politically charged environmental debate (Fig. The goal was simple: To arrest declining oil production and recover bypassed reserves. like a coal-fired power plant. Chevron Concentrations of Greenhouse Gasses from 0 to 2005 (CO2) (ppm). However. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).) the greenhouse gas effect arising from fossil fuel use. Since one of the primary sources of CO2 is fossil fuel combustion. along with a rise over the past century in the Earth’s average surface temperature of about 1. among other gases such as methane and nitrous oxide. current economic stability and ongoing economic growth are possible only with the presence of fossil fuels and their derivative products.

3% F-gasses 1. began operation in 1996 and currently injects more than 1 Mt of CO2 per year about 1. correlation of spontaneous imbibition data. and the resolution of long-term storage liability issues. Nonetheless.9% CH4 14. A report issued by the US Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage states that one of the many potential benefits of carbon capture is use of the CO2 in enhanced oil recovery. the EU announced EUR 1. She earned a BS in chemical engineering and recently completed her PhD in petroleum engineering.000 m below the sea floor. The Statoiloperated Sleipner Project. There are other hurdles to overcome before CCS becomes a widely used reality. Governments are demonstrating varying degrees of interest in and support for CCS through grants and subsidies to CCS pilot projects. and enhanced oil recovery using surfactants. both Schlumberger and Halliburton have dedicated CCS units and are involved with various active pilot CCS projects around the world. while at the same time possibly contributing to their bottom line by using captured CO2 to stimulate further production of hydrocarbons otherwise uneconomical to recover. the United States’ environmental regulatory body.1% operators around the world have large CCS demonstration projects currently under way. the world’s first commercial-scale CCS project. southwestern France. capture 20% to 40% of all CO2 emissions by 2050. As operator of the massive Gorgon Project in Western Australia. and storage demonstration facility. the identification of appropriate geologic reservoirs. While there is evidence that worldwide CO2 storage in geological formations such as oil and gas reservoirs. In addition. 7 // No.6% Fig. decay of biomass. the use of nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to better understand imbibition and waterflooding mechanisms. CCS has not been joined with EOR on a commercial scale yet. TWA CO2 (Deforestation. etc. as part of the European Energy Recovery Program. but many Todd Willis is a workover and completions engineer for Chevron in the Partitioned Zone. 2 // 2011 21 . deep saline aquifers. capturing 120 Mt of CO2 over the predicted lifetime of the project. states that CCS “could play an important role” in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the United States. Tax incentives and government grants can aid in developing new technology and effective CO2 storage projects. given enough economic incentives to make the technology commercially viable. transportation. Oil and gas companies have an opportunity to help mitigate global warming. is currently building what will be the largest CCS project in the world.05 billion in available funds for seven CCS projects. low salinity imbibition and waterflooding. in Lacq. USD 1 billion was granted by the US Department of Energy to the FutureGen 2. which it touts as Europe’s first end-to-end carbon capture. and unmineable coal seams has contributed to mitigating the effect of CO2 emissions. In 2010. a “clean coal” power plant and CCS network. Government support for CCS is crucial in its current developmental stage. the public and private sectors still need to work together to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.0 project in Illinois. the Environmental Protection Agency. 2005 and 2006). and much can be learned from the many currently operating CCS projects around the world. Siluni Wickramathilaka is a reservoir engineer in the heavy oil technology group at ConocoPhillips in Houston.8% N2O 7. 2— Greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 (Olivier et al. Kuwait. In 2009. such as the development of CO2 transportation pipelines. governments around the world have expressed varying degrees of support for the view that CCS is potentially a critical technology essential for helping transition from fossil fuels to next-generation energy sources.CO2 ( Other) 2. He holds a BS in petroleum engineering from The University of Texas at Austin.. 17. Chevron. Her PhD-related research areas included spontaneous imbibition and wettability alteration. along with joint venture partners ExxonMobil and Shell.3% CO2 Fossil fuel use 56. Total has invested approximately EUR 60 million in the Lacq Project. Vol. In its CCS Task Force Report.

excellent papers contain excellent information: new ideas. Do you write a paper with a specific audience in mind. What advice would you give to a colleague who has never written a paper? Where is a good place for them to start? Start with a literature review on your topic of interest and others related to it.SPE 101 WRITIng SPE TEChnICAL PAPERS The chief asset of SPE is the knowledge of its members. papers written for colleagues and peers who are already working in the same field of study may touch more on technical details. it is a good idea for authors to do a literature review on the same or similar topics in order to know more about the history and the recent advances in the particular subject matter. What do you think separates an excellent paper from an average one? First of all. To help potential authors write the best possible papers. what do you think is the most common area for improvement? The majority of SPE papers are very good. analysis.” Whether you are contemplating getting started on your first SPE paper or have already presented several. On the other hand. observation. Secondly. The multisociety library at www. the industry at large. SPE has posted a variety of tips on its website at www. Do you have any 22 . For example. When reading papers written by other SPE members. papers written for the industry at large may need more introductory material or general technical discussion. etc. What homework should an author do before beginning a paper? While planning a paper. Some may have issues such as being overly long or have language difficulties.? how might this change your approach? Yes. papers for different audiences are organized in quite different ways. you can learn a lot from the experience of seasoned authors. a senior research engineer at M-I Swaco. ranging from applications and improvements to detailed formulae or experiment analysis. data. spe. Here you can find advice for writing a quality paper proposal and for formatting your paper in the “SPE way.org is a good place to begin. The networking benefits for authors at these SPE events often lead to additional paths of study or learning. methods. SPE members derive tremendous benefits from papers—both from reading them and from writing them. With this in mind. The Ferguson Medal recognizes significant contributions to the permanent technical literature of the profession by an SPE member younger than 36. etc. such as for colleagues. Some SPE members struggle to come up with a “good” topic for a paper. TWA sat down with 2010 Ferguson Medal winner Lujun “Lou” Ji.onepetro. Actually. After all.org/papers. Presenters of technical papers at conferences have the chance to share their findings with peers at an industry event (possibly held in an interesting new place!). the purpose of a paper is to effectively communicate with others. researchers. all the information needs to be logically organized so that it is easy for readers to understand. which is documented primarily in the technical papers they write. Authoring papers is a way to share knowledge with the industry and to gain public recognition for one’s work.

the paper must be understandable for all the co-authors. in the keynote and technical presentations given.An ExCELLEnT PAPER COnTAInS ExCELLEnT InFORMATIOn nEW IDEAS nEW METhODS nEW DATA nEW ObSERVATIOn nEW AnALYSIS tips to help a potential author determine whether or not something they are working on is a worthwhile topic? Good topics usually can be found by browsing the offerings at SPE events. A poster briefly summarizes the analysis or experimental method. Finally. an author usually has a little bit more workload than co-authors do. and they also need to review the entire paper. since she/ he usually handles the overall organization of the paper and is responsible for including coauthors’ contributions. 2 // 2011 23 .” Watch for Part II of “Writing SPE Technical Papers” in the next issue of TWA. etc. Vol. making sure that all of the information that they want to include is present and clearly organized. Any final thoughts? Language skills are also important. 7 // No. the first readers of the paper. Co-authors may write parts of the paper as well. Weak language skills can prevent readers from understanding the information in the paper. where you will find more tips to help you write the best possible paper. and draws conclusions based on these observations.onepetro. Reading SPE papers and journal articles is also very helpful in this regard. This is one of the great benefits of participating in SPE meetings. Clues to popular and interesting topics lie in calls for papers. results. That said. how important are co-authors? how much difference is there in the workload taken on by the author as compared to his/her co-authors? Co-authors are as important as the main author—they contribute a lot to the paper and are also responsible for its content in the same manner as the author. TWA Interested in reading Ji’s medal-winning paper? Go to www. and through the networking experiences among members at these meetings. What about posters? When should an author consider a poster instead of a paper? When authors have enough data or results but do not have enough time to put them into a full paper.org and look up SPE paper 110845 “A Novel Hydraulic Fracturing Model Fully Coupled with Geomechanics and Reservoir Simulator. they should consider putting them into a poster. outlines the associated data.

CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has risen 38.000 years. but oil and gas will remain dominant for decades to come. Climate change occurs over a time frame far lengthier and on a scale far more massive for many to notice. climate change. T ackling climate change—with the predominant issue being the mitigation of CO2 emissions— while at the same time meeting the world’s growing energy demand is in my opinion the technological challenge of the 21st century. As energy demand continues to grow.000 years. You must be prepared for career progression. I believe it will also play a critical role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. I have confidence that our industry is not threatened by the CO2 emission question. As the primary industry driving global warming is petroleum. Schlumberger Carbon Services The starting point is always you. Energy companies. along with a globally burgeoning human population and the widespread use of fossil fuels. Since the Industrial Revolution began in the latter half of the 18th century.0°C. and energy companies are far greater than can be dealt with here. During the past 400. gradually evolving and gathering momentum over the coming decades. Take ownership of your career. This lack of a sense of urgency is a key reason little action on climate change has been taken.5% to 2010’s average of 388. smaller periodic increases in CO2 concentration have been associated with global warming and a corresponding rise in sea level. The number and complexity of the threads connecting CO2 emission reduction. far more rapid than temperature rises known to have occurred during the past 10. I believe alternative sources of energy will take a bigger slice of a bigger pie. However. I will touch on the key issues.5 ppm or 108 ppm above modern preindustrial levels.8°C and 4. The industry. I 24 .Soft Skills and YOu Larry Pekot. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates the global temperature increase over the coming century will be between 1. First things first.

not only in terms of corporate CO2 reduction target announcements and advertising. More anthropogenic sources. our industry hesitates to step in. As uncertainties occur more in the political and social arenas. The older. It needn’t require a stone-age type of existence. as well as size. participation. You will get direct experience learning how big the challenge is. is looking at the CO2 question as an emerging long-term market opportunity in which some companies are leaders and others laggards. Consider CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). are being connected. Its people have a unique combination of skills that can be applied to the climate change issue—ranging from the earth sciences to the ability to analyze the cost of environmental risk. On the other hand. For meaningful impact. 7 // No. And at current prices for both oil and CO2. the economics work. the industry might not fight global warming for altruistic reasons. Management notices things like that. FIRST: Walk the talk. Learn your strengths and weaknesses and trust your judgment. We have had more volunteers than we can take. experienced pros may be busy. there are at least three areas where you can act. required to effectively tackle the problem. Reduce your own energy usage and carbon footprint. most employees who work in CO2 storage volunteered or were recruited because of their interest in the field. The industry can make huge contributions to CO2 reduction efforts. and the standard project economic model does not yet apply. During my “Energy vs. Climate” talks on college campuses and in high schools. public consortium The author of this article is solely and personally responsible for the information provided and the views expressed in this article. More flexible EOR development concepts are being considered that will enlarge the range of hydrocarbon projects that might be suitable for CO2 EOR. it will have to pay more for it. long-term demand for oil as well as the price of oil give CO2 EOR a promising future. Your interest in climate change issues may be a chance to make your mark on the technological challenge of the 21st century. Under which legal and public acceptance framework will such efforts be managed? I believe such issues are in more urgent need of resolution than the technical issues. However. This requires billions of dollars’ worth of investment over several decades. discussion with groups can be quite different. Even if companies do not receive CO2 reduction credits from EOR projects. There are things you can do that will not overly restrict your lifestyle—and they may even save you money! COnCLuSIOn: The old-fashioned career advice is still good advice. Find a mentor or two. perhaps your best opportunities lie elsewhere. Expansion of the North American CO2 pipeline system continues. Our industry has the knowledge and skill base. the CO2 EOR floodgates will open all over the world. and field work? They may be doing more than you realize or less than you feared. Vol. such as power plants and fertilizer manufacturers. It’s not surprising that many energy companies are waiting rather than acting. Our e-bulletin board for CO2 has more than 500 subscribers. but will probably be flattered you asked. If your company is not working on the issue and you feel strongly about it.believe. What can you do? If you believe the rise in global temperatures can be mitigated by limiting anthropogenic CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technical process of CO2 EOR is proven and effective. but for economic self-interest. engineering. But be prepared for blowback. CO2 reduction efforts should be carried out on a very large scale. I met with open minds and respect. In my company. If CO2 EOR projects ever become sanctioned as acceptable means of reducing emissions (heavily criticized by some environmental purists). such as methane. ThIRD: Engage the world. Few people understand the scope of the problem better than petroleum professionals. go for it. Some individuals have their minds made up. usually based on a political or preconceived notion that may conflict with the facts. 2 // 2011 25 . TWA SECOnD: Find out your company stance— leader or laggard? What is your company doing. Found a team working on CO2? Maybe there is a place for you. If you are passionate about mitigating CO2. but also in R&D. and more companies and countries are considering their application. Where will these billions come from? If the public really wants cleaner energy.

By graduation. However. 26 . investing in low-carbon technologies is hard to justify to stockholders. CCS is a critical technology for the future. I understand this is an ongoing struggle.Women on the Frontline Women in Climate Change For this issue. It isn’t a long-term permanent solution to greenhouse gas emissions—that must lie in renewable energy. we interviewed three women working toward a solution for climate change. gaining master’s degrees in chemical engineering and “technology and policy. there’s going to be a transition period where its use is unavoidable. It will be in the future. where I am developing subsurface technical capacity in CCS in addition to providing technical support for traditional oil and gas projects. Ashleigh hildebrand Ross Reservoir Engineer. so I joined ConocoPhillips and became involved in a real commercial-scale CCS project. The third works for a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in the environmental sector in India. I attended Oklahoma State University where I got an honors bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering. Although our industry is perhaps the best equipped to take on technological challenges. I have since transitioned to reservoir engineering.” for which I did interdisciplinary research on CCS. and legislative and regulatory certainty. I thought investing in a technology was a straightforward decision. In the long term. and I was destined to follow in his footsteps… until I decided that chemical engineering had wider job prospects. researching refineries and environmental enforcement strategies. I want to feel like I’m benefitting society. as fossil fuels are so deeply engrained in our society and economy. and provides us with her view of the oil and gas industry and on solutions for meeting global energy demand in a more environmentally friendly manner. I then arrived at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to do a PhD in chemical engineering. I had rediscovered my childhood environmental passion and attended the University of Cambridge for a master’s in environmental policy. but until there’s an economic disincentive for emitting greenhouse gases. with minors in chemistry and philosophy. and I see my role as helping to push forward smart and practical environmental technologies. the better CO2 storage engineer I can be. Before I joined the industry. The better reservoir engineer I am. internally and externally. developing technology and working on projects at two major oil and gas companies. investing in climate change solutions isn’t a profitable business—yet. Now that I see how many competing pressures and interests are involved. CCS can mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions. Right now I am enjoying the more traditional oil and gas projects as well as my CCS research. I may start looking for other environmental challenges in the oil and gas industry that I can tackle. depending on how the CCS market shapes up. but turned back to my personal ambitions. I recognized that the oil and gas industry is uniquely positioned to implement CCS projects. Two of the women work at the forefront of carbon capture and storage (CCS). ConocoPhillips My father had a PhD in chemistry.

and in teaching in the environmental education domain. rural development. and public acceptance. More than 56% of CO2 emissions from fuel come from the use of oil and gas (according to the International Energy Agency). There is not going to be a single answer for meeting global energy demand. Only time will tell. which works in integrated watershed development and management. focusing on CO2.” The “environmental industry” is still not viewed as a “conventional” working area. As for being a woman in the industry. Combustion engines are still the best option in the automotive sector. There is no silver bullet to resolving climate change. and engaging in promotion of the efficient use of fuels. The work largely supports asset and project teams to help quickly solve specialized technical problems. while global energy demand is going to increase by 45% by 2030. and biofuels are the closest option to fossil oil. wear. However. The environmental industry has attracted and engaged me over the years because it transcends and fuses the boundaries between various fields like ecology. investing in CCS and renewable energy. and significant way to reduce CO2 emissions in road transport over the next 20 years. and changing this scene through policies and employment generation will be important in the long run for the holistic development of this domain. I joined this department to gain hands-on experience in major oil and gas projects. to blame the “producers” (the oil and gas industry) for climate change is unreasonable. preparing modules for gifted tribal students about conserving their “sacred forests. Initially I worked in research. it could provide around one-fifth of the CO2 mitigation effort needed. commercial. I am about to become a mother and plan to return to work full time. I believe CCS has an essential role to play in the world’s efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. financing. TWA Vol.Anuja Datye Research Assistant. yet it touches the very fundamental philosophy of people and their life choices in terms of what they eat. I also contributed to the joint Qatar and Shell proposal for a draft methodology on CCS under the Clean Development Mechanism proposed to the United Nations. Besides. it would be best to take a “precautionary” approach as we know very little about the environmental implications of underground CO2 storage. At Shell. some oil companies are taking great effort in reducing their own emissions. I currently work in Shell’s sour gas and CCS centre of expertise. sociology. gomukh Trust. and on increasing supplies of sustainable biofuels. after completing my PhD in geosciences. While the oil and gas industry is in many ways affecting the global environment. and lobbying and litigation for green policies. This will bring a new set of challenges especially around work-life balance. but also my husband. 7 // No. Climate change is the compounded effect of a lot of different factors like increased industrialization and urbanization. I would encourage women to follow their professional dreams. apart from CCS. then moved to the CCS and sour gas solutions team in exploration and production. It will require a mix of energy solutions. Shell I joined Shell in 2006. The development of CCS is evolving rapidly but demonstration projects still face hurdles around regulations. These sectors offer women the flexibility they need. My work there involved risk assessment methodologies of CO2 storage— developing exploration-style screening criteria for identifying CO2 storage complexes and monitoring plans. the main low-carbon focus. and so on. By 2050. especially in India where women are still looked upon as “homemakers” and not “breadwinners. including Shell CCS activities. teach. as we are part of dual-career couple in the industry. I personally have not encountered any special challenges. Women in the environmental industry in India are seen as dominating the NGO and research sectors. Elizabeth Mackie geologist. and politics. However. but biofuels do emerge as the most promising alternative. not just for me. economics. It’s the only technology capable of managing CO2 emissions from power plants and other large-scale facilities that burn fossil fuels. 2 // 2011 27 . India My first experience in the environmental industry started at age 18 when I worked as a volunteer at an NGO.” I currently work as a researcher at an NGO in India called the Gomukh Environmental Trust for Sustainable Development. and not be prejudiced by outdated stereotypes about the oil and gas industry. its cost-benefit ratios need to be studied before its full-fledged implementation. consumers are accustomed to the technology. Geoengineering approaches like “carbon sequestration” seem promising. Biofuels are the most realistic. is on increasing supplies of natural gas as the cleanest-burning fossil fuel.

000 BOPD. Dubai Petroleum. The first commercial oil discovery in the UAE was made offshore Abu Dhabi at Umm Shaif in 1958. but it is fairly easy to find a comfortable “habitat” no matter what type of person you are: a pub-and-club lover. Exports commenced in 1969 and by 1991 Dubai’s crude production reached its peak of approximately 400. foster political alignment with the Western world. including schools. Dubai used the revenues to spur infrastructure development. Dubai’s depleting gas fields combined with rising gas demand due to expanding economic activities have turned the emirate into a net gas importer. it may sound surprising that Dubai itself is not a hydrocarbon-rich emirate. develop Yanglu Ding. staying longer than they originally envisioned. roads. Two years later. The true color of Dubai’s “cultural cocktail”—with its mixture of lengthy histories embedded in all nationalities that have co-existed in this emirate for centuries—is amazing. Major oil service providers. the UAE produced approximately 2. After decades of exploration and production. such as Schlumberger. In 2010. long recognizing the importance of de-linking its economic development from its resource exports. GUIDE TO L’ S UAE have made Dubai the ideal location for many energy companies and commodity traders to set up offices and regional headquarters. This resulted in the 1966 discovery of oil in the Fateh (“good fortune” in Arabic) field. use Dubai as a base from which they provide services to the whole gulf region. The oil economy led to a massive influx of foreign workers. and telecommunications.YP Guide ROFESSIONA THE YOUNG P Du ba i Burj Khalifa. While considered one of the world’s wealthiest countries and among the most oil-rich nations in the Middle East. quickly expanding the city and bringing in international interests. Sakhalin Energy Investment Company I t is probably not a place you would fall in love with at first sight. including Dubai. as a state. The federation of UAE in its current state appeared in 1971. Baker Hughes. hospitals. but many consider it home.81 million BOPD of total oil liquids. Dubai’s leaders.000 BOPD from four separate major fields discovered between 1966 and 1976. a beach-and-book fan. when seven emirates. local Emiratis comprise only 17% of Dubai’s population. formerly self-sufficient in gas supply. The Sultanate of Oman touches Dubai from the southeast. the Emirate of Dubai shares its borders with two other emirates—Abu Dhabi to the south and Sharjah to the northeast. Energy Hub Without Much Energy Although its modern economic foundation was built on the oil sector. Nowadays. the world’s tallest tower. a national oil company and the emirate’s leading producing company. and Weatherford. the UAE. This is Dubai! Dubai’s Basics Located on the Persian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Halliburton. The oil and gas sector’s contribution to GDP now stands at less than 3%. a sportscraver. was founded in 1963 to start an intensive exploration campaign in the area. A bit later. Dubai’s oil output is on a rapid decline. followed by several finds in this area. It is impossible to find one word to describe the lifestyle you can expect to have here. Furthermore. or a homemaker. have made great effort to invest in a world-class infrastructure. The UAE’s oil reserves are ranked as the world’s sixth-largest (approximately 90% are within Abu Dhabi). Following the 1966 discovery of oil. “black gold” was discovered in Dubai. united. Its geographic proximity to the world’s major hydrocarbon producers combined with its government’s concerted efforts 28 . the first onshore oilfield at Bab was discovered. Shell Markets–Middle East Anton Andreev. has a relatively modest history. Today Dubai Petroleum produces a total of only approximately 100.

HeriotWatt University in Dubai International Academic City is the only university that provides energy-related courses of study. will still be its main competitive advantage. and shopping! For the historic part of Dubai. as the world’s tallest tower. unless you are committed to grow the emirate’s economy with your last penny! Since the mass transportation system is still not fully developed. In so doing. You can watch the sunset from the observation deck on Burj Kalifa.org/ and http://abudhabi.org/events/calendar/). Besides its status as a regional business center. Dubai’s main economic drivers for development and prosperity are trading activities (including wholesale. TWA Just the Facts • Dubai’s population: 1.spe. recent Heriot-Watt University (Dubai Campus) graduate. as the world’s largest shopping center. The Dubai duty-free retail center in itself has become the reason many luxury-lovers fly to or via Dubai. with active population of 2. Burj Khalifa. but many find other medium-sized malls are also worth visiting. As long as these core foundations remain.000. and enjoy a nice dinner at one of the countless restaurants in the neighborhood. and Palm Jumeirah. For more details on SPE activity in the UAE see http://dubai. • Dubai’s GDP per capita stands at approximately USD 48. there is no doubt Dubai will still be ideal for companies.8 million during the day. Dubai has successfully attracted a lot of foreign investment and global talent. Burj Arab (also known as Sailing Hotel).htm). If oil prices hit USD 150/bbl sometime soon. called Deira. Dubai Mall and Mall of the Emirates are the most famous shopping centers.spe. entrepreneurs. you can split your journey into three themes: traditional. and present great tolerance to non-Muslim cultures. Taking into account intensive development in the area and lack of inhouse training.8 million total.ac. followed by the Fountain Show by the tower. 7 // No. where gold lovers and curious tourists can visit the Gold Souk (“souk” means “traditional Arab market”). and business and financial services. modern. Getting Around As one of the world’s most important trading and business centers. others believe it will simply take time. Dubai International Airport. retail. 2 // 2011 29 . such as an MS in petroleum engineering and energy engineering (http://www.org/. a good place to start with is Dubai Museum where you can get a very quick grasp of its history and culture. is a major aviation hub in the Middle East. Most airlines operate direct flights to Dubai from major cities around the world and it is also a popular transit place for passengers going to other destinations. it might be worth rechecking the forecast on Dubai’s development. and its tolerance of many cultures and open mind to embrace new ideas and initiatives will still be appealing to talents around the world. Gokul Rajendran. The shopping part is fairly easy. •The SPE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference and Exhibition will be held 26–28 September 2011 in Abu Dhabi (www. for example. it is recommended to rent a car or take a taxi to get around the city. Dubai is also known for its ambitious building projects. for centuries.” and gold in Dubai is generally considered the least expensive in the world.clusters of free-zones with tax-related benefits. with. Some say Dubai will never get back the glamor that attracted the world’s attention before the crisis.ae) and Knowledge Village (www. What you need is just to get your credit card ready! An automatic reminder on overspend might prove worthwhile. and re-export). Emirates Tower. No matter what happens with the oil business. its economic policy of providing tax-related incentives remains. real estate. Dubai’s Way Ahead Dubai was hit hard by the financial crisis in 2008. • The UAE has maintained its proven reserves over the last decade primarily due to the use of enhanced oil recovery technologies that increase extraction rates of mature oil projects.ae) are two main international education hubs. •The SPE Northern Emirates Section in Dubai was established in 1985.kv. as the world’s biggest human-made island. Nowadays. The museum is close to an old business center of Dubai. which made it a trading hub Vol. You may also choose to enjoy your ocean sunset view at The Walk in the Jumeirah Beach Residence area. For those wanting to experience different aspects of Dubai. highly qualified expatriates are still in huge demand in Dubai. If you choose to drive. Dubai’s geographic location. Its advanced infrastructure is already in place and can only be developed further. Despite the ongoing so-called “emiratization” process. don’t forget to bring your driver’s license and make sure it is acceptable in Dubai. contributed to this article. tourism.uk/dubai. The Dubai International Academic City (www. For the modern part of Dubai. and Dubai Mall.hw. Who knows! Dubai’s fate might be linked to the oil business after all. which will remind you of romantic southern European cities. Palm Jumeirah. and talented individuals as a place to pursue their future. Dubai has long been known as the “city of gold.diacedu. many of which have set world records.spe. there are a few iconic places: Burj Khalifa. Dubai is easily accessible. the emirate’s government invited various foreign universities to open up campuses in the city.

or Stephen Howell. across borders. Sankesh Sundareshwar. technological innovations. The event follows the successful inauguration of the YP European Technical Series with a seminar. and more. In addition. Emerging Engineers Conference Attracts Record Attendance The sixth annual Emerging Engineers Conference (EEC) held last year in Houston by the SPE Gulf Coast Section drew a record 150 participants.YP Newsflash Program Focuses on Subsea in New YP European Technical Series A program titled “The Subsea Story: Adventures from the Deep. adopt the global nature of E&P business. For information. be ethical and trustworthy. A poster session at the Emerging Engineers Conference showcases innovative technology. Thakur advised audience members to “continuously expand their technical. The agenda focused on technical development topics in the subsea oil and gas industry. as part of the SPE Young Professional (YP) Technical Series. In establishing the series. speakers/ expertise.” Longbottom encouraged the listeners to “love and enjoy what you do. the business side of the energy sector. held on 25 March in London. and identify opportunities. 2012 SPE president. Norway. SPE Oslo. “The European Technical Series is an excellent example of how our community works together. London.” The morning session focused on industry challenges and opportunities. Included on the agenda was a tour of an FMC Technologies facility to provide a closeup view of subsea equipment. and Opportunities.” Keynote speakers were Ganesh Thakur. Eugenia M. and Netherlands sections. global business development and marketing manager at Halliburton. career management. “I hope that other YP committees are encouraged to support this effort and do the same in other regions. SPE Aberdeen. actively own their career development. and teamwork skills. deepwater developments. “Carbon Capture and Storage—Are We There Yet?”. the event drew 150 participants. the Joint Technical Organizing Committee for the series is discussing the 2012 program and welcomes ideas from any European YP committee wishing to participate. SPE Netherlands. soft. 30 . The third session in the technical series. The one-day event gave YPs the opportunity to hear from industry leaders on a variety of topics related to global energy outlook. and business strategies for challenging oil and gas projects. and sponsorship. The SPE Oslo YP organization facilitated the event with YP groups of the SPE Aberdeen. California. contact Liesbeth Zwart. Goril Tjetland.” Already. Behrooz Fattahi. gear up for challenges. A poster contest offered a platform for YPs to highlight technological achievements and successful projects they had undertaken. A social networking event toward the end of the day gave participants a chance to relax and share ideas with fellow YPs. The afternoon session featured innovations. to provide the highest quality technical development. and create exceptional values for our customers and business. intelligent-well technology. ranging from subsea processing to recovery workovers from subsea wells. SPE young member program manager. interact positively with people from different cultures and backgrounds. and the potential of unconventional resources.” was slated for 10 June in Oslo. Chevron Los Angeles Basin YPs Host Distinguished Guest Speaker Panel Young Professionals (YP) of the SPE Los Angeles Basin Section hosted a panel luncheon during the SPE Western Regional Meeting last year at Anaheim Convention Center in Anaheim. “Economics and Decision-Making in the E&P Industry. SPE London. The conference theme was “Riding the Energy Roller Coaster: Challenges. with speakers who discussed improved oil recovery.” is scheduled for 7 October in Amsterdam. promotion. Innovations. Rojas. know more than just your job. participating sections are taking advantage of knowledge and expertise within each YP committee to raise the technical standard and appeal of topical events. nanotechnology applications in the energy industry. the various YP committees are able to pool resources for logistics. with topics such as exploration challenges. and Jim Longbottom.” said Melissa Schultea. Held by the SPE Gulf Coast Section. 2010 SPE president. On the program were two distinguished speakers.

and Sam Sarem. and leadership skills. expectations by members from the society and vice versa. which showed their strong support for the YP program in the Los Angeles section. Addressing the workshop and delivering the lecture was Etta Agbor. are generally poor candidates because the geologic drilling environment (pore pressure/fracture gradient) is usually unknown. Also. communication. Both were firsts for the chapter. including exposure to the E&P industry. Behrooz Fattahi (SPE 2010 president). and the maintenance of balance between academics and SPE activities for student members..Discover. and developing confidence as student members embark on their careers. and highly laminated and variable formations. and nontechnical skills. If an analysis shows that extensive stimulation applications will be necessary to make the well productive. More than 50 people attended the luncheon. and economic analysis must be performed to ensure UBD applicability and success. Wildcat wells. Presenting the lecture. even with the use of UBD. development wells are more likely to be pressure-depleted and require a lower density fluid to drill successfully. There is increased emphasis on safer and environmentally friendly operations. candidate selection. can be exploited. The best candidates for UBD are formations where the full benefit of reduced fluid density. TWA Vol. SPE LA Basin Section First Ambassador Lecture Held at Ghana’s Nkrumah University The SPE Student Chapter at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana held an officers’ workshop and Ambassador Lecture last year. SPE volunteerism. improved technology solutions. And since the technique is always evolving. 7 // No. He noted how SPE had benefited him in similar ways. design. Agbor discussed the duties of the various officers and emphasized the benefits of SPE participation. shale. Continued from page 16 At the Los Angeles basin YP panel luncheon. UBD on the Horizon Fields mature every day and “difficult to reach” reserves are being discovered regularly. young engineers should remember that UBD must not be applied simply because it appears to be a good solution. which was established about a year ago. SPE and industry conferences are places to obtain additional knowledge that YPs may not get in class or at work. Katy Canan. networking. including interpersonal. and the lifelong learning available through the society. One of their messages for YPs was to work hard as team players. TWA sandstone. and Adi Varma provided topics. Learning to apply UBD properly can lead to a rewarding career for young engineers who enjoy challenges and solving problems before they occur. or exploratory wells. the advantages of networking with the industry while still in school. Proper planning. then the extra cost of UBD planning and surface equipment will typically outweigh the benefits of using UBD. compared with conventional drilling. Candra Janova. from left. which in turn has created a need for more experienced and skilled engineers. Development wells are much better candidates for UBD because the formation pressures and characteristics are well known. Agbor discussed his career. There is also the question of hole stability. so called because of the lack of offset well data. the scope of SPE and its demographics. many formations are not suitable for UBD. and Adi Varma. At the workshop. Candra Janova. 2 // 2011 31 .. These factors have pushed unconventional techniques such as UBD and MPD to the forefront of drilling engineering. they said. either chemical or mechanical. YP officers Candra Janova. He stressed the leadership opportunities offered by student chapter participation. Operators are constantly seeking new. Most of the SPE LA officers and board members were in attendance. Conversely. as well. the chance to take part in the student paper contest. They stressed the importance of taking the initiative to join various projects as part of their learning. and the panelists discussed three main areas of interest: careers. Sam Sarem (WNAR director). young professionals coordinator for the Africa Region. knowledge transfer. there is always room for advancement and learning—even for experienced hands. Katy Canan. which included college students and professionals working in the oil and gas industry. clay. As with any unconventional technology. 2010 Western North America Region (WNAR) director. They also recommended joining organizations that meet YPs’ interests in enhancing soft skills.

org. Photo taken with a Panasonic Lumix DMC-TS1. This contest is open to all SPE members.Your Best Shot Get Advice from Experienced E&P Professionals— Sunset in Oman Join SPE’s eMentoring Program Today! Who can be a Mentee? • Young Professionals* • University Students* Photo by Fausto Minidio. Submit photograph information with camera specifications. Weatherford This picture of a vertical high-temperature gas well was taken in the Fahud field area southwest of Muscat. This area is extremely flat with temperatures often greater than 50°C during the daytime. Brown University The Marcellus Shale is one of the largest emerging unconventional resource plays in the United States.spe. Provide your full name with your position. In addition to being mentees. and company location.org/eMentoring CALL FOR EnTRIES Submit your entry today to bestshot@spemail. company name. For more information please visit www. with a file-size limit of 4 MB. The play extends from West Virginia through Pennsylvania to New York and portions of eastern Ohio. where. The two best photographs will be published in each TWA issue. Photo taken with a Canon PowerShot SX10 IS. LWD Field Engineer. anywhere via email** * Must be an SPE member ** SPE can provide you with a free email account Drilling in Marcellus Photo by Samuel C. during a measurement-while-drilling operation. made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. and how… • One year commitment • Connect anytime. Schon. What you will gain as a Mentee… • Perspective from the experience of industry professionals • Insight into specialized fields or technical disciplines • Practical advice on day-to-day work issues • Guidance on academic direction and career choices When. Oman. young professionals can mentor university students. Your image must be in JPEG format. Society of Petroleum Engineers . student.

aeraenergy. advanced technology and real-time data to recover even the most difficult reserves. Yet. lutions u . when determination and innovation are applied in full. At Aera Energy. complex. amazing things can happen. dynamic and multifaceted. we specialize in the amazing.In the energy business today. Our people work within a culture that thrives on challenge and lives for solutions.com Produc Producing solutions. We employ leading-edge management techniques. a unique manufacturing mind-set. Why do we work so tirelessly and passionately? Well. u solut ons. the challenges are immense. the petroleum we seek will not produce itself. And we do all of this while keeping safety and respect for the environment as our top priorities.

UK Offshore and Onshore Oil Spill Preventions. Malaysia Modified EOR Methods for Better Displacement 18 July Enhanced and Improved Oil Recovery Methods—a Life Line for an Old and “Tired” Reservoir? 18 July Aberdeen. Colorado. Rewarding. Texas. Canada Modern Production Data Analysis of Unconventional Reservoirs 12–13 September Geology for Engineers 19–23 September Kuala Lumpur. Society of Petroleum Engineers . Register for an SPE training course near you. Reliable.spe. USA Introduction to Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) 2 August Register today—go to www.org/go/trainingcourses.Society of Petroleum Engineers TRAINING COURSES Setting the standard for technical excellence. Be sure to check our website for the complete schedule. USA Shale Gas Development 23 August Keystone. Relevant. Scotland. Strengthen your technical skills. Calgary. at SPE’s training centers in Houston and Calgary. Bahrain Transient Well Testing 25 September Waterflooding Concepts. Training courses are offered in conjunction with SPE conferences. Alberta. Design Prediction. Below are just a few of the courses we offer. and in new locations around the globe. and Optimization 25 September Austin. Control and Countermeasures 5 September Modern Well Design 5–6 September Manama.

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