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The World Copper Fac ctbook 2010 0
Ab bout ICS SG
The International Copper Study G T Group (ICSG) was formally established as an autonomo inter‐governmental organiza ous ation on 23 Jan nuary 1992, following a series of Ad Ho meetings spon oc nsored by the Un nited Nations (UNCTAD in 1986 and 1987 to review th world situatio of N D) he on copper and discuss the need for s such a body. ICS serves to incr SG rease copper market transparency and promote inter d rnational discuss sions and cooperation o issues related to copper. on d In order to fulfi its mandate, the Study Gro n ill oup has three main objectives: o • Increase ma arket transparen ncy by promoting an exchange of information o production, co on onsumption, stocks, trade, and p prices of copper, b forecasting pr by roduction and consumption, and by c assessing the present and future capacitie of copper m e es mines, plants, smelters and refinerie es. Promote inte ernational coope eration on matte related to cop ers pper, such as health and the environment, research, techno ology transfer, regu ulations and trad de. Provide a glo forum where industry and go obal e overnments can m meet and discuss common proble ems/objectives. The ICSG is the only T inter‐governm ment forum solely dedicated to copper. c The current member of ICSG are: rs Belgium Chile China European Union Finland France Germany y Greece India Italy Japan Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Peru Poland Portugal ration Russian Feder Serbia Spain Sweden United States
As p of its manda to provide a global forum w part ate where industry an nd gove ernments can meet and discuss c common problem and objective ms es, ICSG meetings are h G held twice per ye typically in t Spring and Fa ear, the all at IC Headquarte in Lisbon, Portugal. The meet CSG ers tings of the Stud dy Group are open to g government mem mbers, their industry advisors an nd invit observers. ted
In nternational Cop pper Study Group p
The World Copper Factbook 2010
ICSG Officers and Secretariat
INTERNATIONAL COPPER STUDY GROUP OFFICERS FOR 2009 Chairman Vice-Chairman Vice-Chairman STANDING COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman Finance Committee Chairman Mr Salim Bhabhrawala (U.S.A.) Mr Alejandro Alarcón Garza (Mexico) Mr Henrique Santos (Portugal) Mr Erik Heimlich (Chile) Mr Carlos Caxaria (Portugal) Mr Bian Gang (China) STATISTICAL COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman INDUSTRY ADVISORY PANEL Chairman SECRETARIAT Secretary General Chief Statistician Head of Environment and Economics Economist Secretary Mr Don Smale Ms Ana Rebelo Mr Carlos Risopatron Mr Joseph Pickard Ms Fatima Cascalho Mr Mark Loveitt (IWCC) Mr Daniel Edelstein (U.S.A.) Mr Juan Cristóbal Ciudad (Chile)
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman Ms Ajita Bajpai Pande (India) Ms Magdalena Kopijkowska-Gozuch (Poland)
Contacts: International Copper Study Group Rua Almirante Barroso, 38‐6º 1000‐013 Lisbon, Portugal Tel: +351‐21‐351‐3870 Fax: +351‐21‐352‐4035 e‐mail: firstname.lastname@example.org website: www.icsg.org
Acknowledgements and Copyright: ICSG would like to thank the International Copper Association, the Copper Development Association, the European Copper Institute, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. National Park Service, the British Museum and Mr. Luis Hernán Herreros Infante for their contributions to the Factbook. The International Copper Study Group's World Copper Factbook © 2010 is published by the ICSG.
International Copper Study Group
The World Copper Factbook 2010
• COPPER BULLETIN (monthly). The ICSG Copper Bulletin includes annual and monthly statistics on copper and copper products, their production, usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, providing a global view of supply and demand. Subscribers to the Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual subscription. ICSG 2010 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK (July 2010). The ICSG Copper Bulletin yearbook includes annual statistics on copper and copper products, their production, usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, providing a global view of supply and demand for the past 10 years. The Yearbook serves as a useful tool for consultations and analysis on the longer term evolution of world copper production, usage, stocks and prices. Subscribers to the Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual subscription. ICSG GLOBAL COPPER SCRAP RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT (August 2010). Copper scrap generation, trade and use are playing a key role to balance the growth observed in recent years in the global copper market. If the demand for copper continues the dynamic growth related to electrification, infrastructure development and urbanization observed mainly in developing countries, and led by China in the last two decades, then the domestic supply, demand and international flows of copper scrap are expected to remain important issues for all copper related business in the medium and long term. This report presents a comprehensive picture of the global copper scrap market and its determinants, synthesizing the findings of ICSG research project on the copper and copper alloy scrap market. • DIRECTORY OF COPPER MINES AND PLANTS (September 2010 edition). The Directory of Copper Mines and Plants highlights current capacity and provides a five year outlook of forecasted capacity for over 1,000 existing and planned copper mines, plants and refineries on a country by country basis, including separate tables for SX‐EW plants. Salient details for each operation are included and the Directory separates operations between Operating & Developing and Exploration & Feasibility stages. The Directory is published twice per year. • DIRECTORY OF COPPER & COPPER ALLOY FABRICATORS (FIRST USE) 2010 EDITION. This directory provides a systematic global overview of companies and plants involved in the first use of copper. First users are mainly semis fabricators that process refinery shapes into semi‐finished copper and copper alloy products. The Directory covers wire rod plants, ingot makers (for castings), master alloy plants, brass mills, and electrodeposited copper foil mills. Published September 2010. ICSG STATISTICAL DATABASE. The ICSG maintains one of the world's most complete historical and current databases with statistics on copper production capacities, data on copper production, consumption, stocks, prices, recycling and trade for copper products. Historical data series and other data are available on custom request.
For more information about ICSG and ICSG publications, please visit our website at www.icsg.org
International Copper Study Group
The World Copper Factbook 2010
Table of Contents
About ICSG ICSG Officers and Secretariat ICSG Publications Table of Contents Chapter 1: Cu Basics What is Copper? Copper Properties and Benefits Selected Copper Definitions Copper in History Copper Today Chapter 2: Copper Production How is Copper Produced? Copper Mine Production: World Copper Mine Production, 1900‐2009 Copper Mine Production by Region: 1960, 1980 & 2009 Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity, 2010 Constraints on Copper Supply Copper Smelter Production: World Copper Smelter Production 1976‐ 2009 Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity, 1995‐2010 Copper Smelter Production by Region, 1990‐2009 Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009 Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity, 2010 Refined Copper Production: World Refined Copper Production, 1960‐ 2009 Trends in Refined Copper Production Capacity, 1995‐2010 Refined Copper Production by Region, 1990‐2009 Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009 Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity, 2010 Semis Production: Copper & Copper Alloy and Casting Production, 1980‐2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region, 1980 & 2008 i ii iii 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production by Country: Top 20 Countries, 2010 Chapter 3: Copper Trade Major International Trade Flows of Copper Ores and Concentrates Major International Trade Flows of Copper Blister and Anode Major International Trae Flows of Refined Copper Leading Exporters and Importers of Semi‐Fabricated Copper Products, 2009 The Global Copper Market and the Commodity "Copper" Copper Stocks, Prices and Usage Chapter 4: Copper Usage How is Copper Used? World Refined Copper Usage, 1900‐2009 Refined Copper Usage by Region, 1960, 1980 & 2009 World Refined Copper Usage per Capita: 1950‐2009 Intensity of Refined Copper Use Total Copper Usage, Including Copper Scrap, 2002‐2008 Major Uses of Copper: Electrical Major Uses of Copper: Electronics and Communications Major Uses of Copper: Construction Major Uses of Copper: Transportation Major Uses of Copper: Industrial Machinery and Equiptment Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General Products Major Uses of Copper: Usage by End‐Use Sector and Region, 2009 Chapter 5: Copper Recycling Copper Recycling Rate Definitions Global Copper Recyclables Use, 2002‐2008 ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project The Flow of Copper ANNEX World Copper Production and Usage, 1960‐2009
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 53 53
International Copper Study Group
Copper also occurs naturally in humans. efficient design. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals. Copper and copper‐based alloys are used in a variety of applications that are necessary for a reasonable standard of living. How society exploits and uses its resources. Organic life forms have evolved in an environment containing copper. in carbonate deposits (as azurite and malachite). Copper will continue to contribute to society’s development well into the future. Copper occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust in a variety of forms.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 1: Cu Basics What is Copper? Copper is a malleable and ductile metallic element that is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity as well as being corrosion resistant and antimicrobial. International Copper Study Group 2 . and supply and demand principles. processing. competition between materials. Its continued production and use is essential for society's development. contribute to ensuring that materials are used efficiently and effectively. As a nutrient and essential element. is an important factor in ensuring society's sustainable development. The demand for copper will continue to be met by the discovery of new deposits. Copper is an important contributor to the national economies of mature. These activities contribute to building and maintaining a country's infrastructure. chalcocite. results in energy savings and contributes to ensuring that we have a sustainable source of metal for future generations. once reprocessed. while ensuring that tomorrow's needs are not compromised. It can be found in sulfide deposits (as chalcopyrite. covellite). Mining. and create trade and investment opportunities. and by taking advantage of the renewable nature of copper through reuse and recycling. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. in silicate deposits (as chrysycolla and dioptase) and as pure "native" copper. Recycling copper extends the efficiency of use of the metal. Life sustaining functions depend on copper. technological improvements. It is our ability to recycle metals over and over again that makes them a material of choice. newly developed and developing countries. recycling and the transformation of metal into a multitude of products creates jobs and generates wealth. Recycled copper (also known as secondary copper) cannot be distinguished from primary copper (copper originating from ores). copper is vital to maintaining health. As well. animals and plants. bornite.
or nickel. such as zinc (to form brass). for example. in part. Virtually all products made from copper can be recycled and recycled copper loses none of its chemical or physical properties.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Key Physical Properties of Copper Copper Properties and Benefits Chemical Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Weight Density Melting point Specific Heat cp (at 293 K) Thermal conductivity Coefficient of linear expansion Young's Modulus of Elasticity Electrical Conductivity (% IACS) Crystal Structure Cu 29 63. Antimicrobial Properties. it can acquire new characteristics for use in highly specialized applications. In fact. physical and aesthetic properties make it a material of choice in a wide range of domestic. Recycling. Due to copper’s antimicrobial properties. Energy Efficiency. aluminum or tin (to form bronzes).383 kJ kg-1 K-1 394 W m-1 K-1 16. on copper. society's infrastructure is based. animal and humans. as well as excesses. • • International Copper Study Group 3 . copper and copper alloy products can be used to eliminate pathogens and reduce the spread of diseases. Copper's chemical. Deficiencies. can be detrimental to health. industrial and high technology applications.54 8960 kg m-3 1356 K 0.673 x 10-8 ohm-m Face-Centered Cubic But copper’s benefits extend beyond mechanical characteristics: • • Copper is essential to the health of plants. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals. Copper can improve the efficiency of energy production and distribution systems. Copper makes vital contributions to sustaining and improving society.5 x 10-6 K-1 110 x 109 N m-2 1. Alloyed with other metals.
and high‐purity copper is plated at the cathode.99 percent pure. ICSG reports refined copper stocks as those held by the exchanges. more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material than blister. Usage. both products requiring further processing to obtain copper metal. Primary copper. The metal is recovered from the solvent by further treatment. Electrorefining. Cathode. from which it is made. Copper extracted from ores and recovered as copper metal or copper‐bearing chemicals. Contained Copper. It is an intermediate. Contained copper is defined as the analytical amount of copper outputted in concentrates and precipitates. and rich (copper‐loaded) electrolyte continually replaces lean (copper‐depleted) electrolyte as copper is plated at the cathode. Solvent extraction. Usage data is either directly reported. Secondary refined material represents scrap that has been fire‐refined. Sources: ICSG and USGS. A method of separating one or more metals from a leach solution by treating with a solvent that will extract the required metal. Fire‐refined copper. Stocks. Blister. iron. An electrolytic refining process where less pure copper anode are dissolved. Fire‐refined copper contains about 99 percent copper. The negative terminal in an electrolytic cell where copper is plated during electrowinning or electrolytic refining. An electrolytic refining process where the anode is inert. Items such as wire rod. and is usually transferred to another furnace for further concentration. producers and governments. tube and other semifabricated forms are not included. Direct melt. or that has been converted to anode at the smelter level and then electrolytically refined. It can be processed pyrometallurgically in a smelter to produce matte or hydrometallurgically (pressure leaching) to produce pregnant leach solution.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Selected Copper Definitions • • Anode. or ICSG estimates an apparent usage using the following formula: Refined copper production + refined imports ‐ refined exports + refined beginning stocks ‐ ending stocks. consumers. Merchant stocks are included where it is certain that these are nonduplicative to those already reported. Copper so plated is referred to as “cathode” and is generally about 99. Copper concentrate. A product of flotation milling. Direct melt scrap. Secondary refined material. The positive terminal in an electrolytic cell where electrons leave a device to enter the external circuit. and sulfur. Copper usage represents refined copper used by semifabricators. The product of a fire‐refining furnace. It composes sulfide minerals and entrained material and contains one‐third each copper. It is an intermediate. the exact percentage depending on the process parameters. • • • • • • • • • • • • Electrowinning. A copper anode at 99 percent purity will dissolve. or Remelt scrap is secondary material that can be used directly in a furnace without cleanup through the use of fluxes and poling and re‐refining. from which it is made. Only refined products at plant sites are included. leaving the others. more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material than matte. International Copper Study Group 4 . The product of a converting furnace.
Israel's Tim Valley ed e mna provide copper to the Pharaohs (an Egyptian papyr records the use of copper to treat infection and to sterili water). D in old During the Mid ddle Ages. 2. India an Japan. man discovered h s. and ks nd The dis scoveries and in nventions relatin to electricity and magnetism of the late 18t and early 19 centuries by scientists ng m th 9th y such as Ampere. rd m how to extract and use copper to produce ornam o ments and imple ements. and the products manufactured from copper. In South Am merica. he s day a s elped launch the Industrial Re e evolution and pro opel copper into a new era. Tod o day. ted The dis scovery that copp per. In nternational Cop pper Study Group p 5 . "Cop for pper" is derived from the latin Cyprium. prod ed duces bronze.000 nce rst d years ago for items suc as coins and ornaments in w ch western Asia. Although copp has been in use for at per least 10 0. of um.The World Copper Fac ctbook 2010 0 Copper in History C Archa aeological eviden demonstrates that copper was one of the fir metals used by humans and was used at least 10. c. the pre-Columbian Maya. Greek and Roman needs f copper. copper con ntinues to serve society's needs. innovative applicat tions for copper are still being d developed as evi idenced by the d development of t copper the chip by the semi-conductors industry. Images courtesy o the British Museu the Copper Development Association and ICSG.500 BC. f were familiar wi brass as a va ith alued copper all loy. ed e rus o ns ize Cyprus supplied much of the Phoenic h cian. le to the Bronze Age. workers extract copper from Spain's Huelva region. A Aztec and Inca civilizations exp ploited copper. Farad and Ohm. As early as the 4th to 3rd m s millennium BC. copper a bronze work flourished in China.000 years. Du uring the prehistoric Chalcolith Period (der hic rived from chalkos the Greek wor for copper). i addition to go and silver. d literally Cyprian metal The Greeks of Aristotle's era w y l. when alloye with tin.
The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Today The global demand for copper continues to grow: world refined usage has surged by around 300% in the last 50 years thanks to expanding sectors such as electrical and electronic products.cl. lead‐free brass plumbing. trade. Copper Usage Highlights Refined copper usage (usage by semis plants or the first users of copper) in 2009 reached nearly 18. China was the largest producer of blister & anode in 2009 (over 3.7 million tonnes. usage of copper in end‐use products totaled over 22 million tonnes last year. Images courtesy of CDA and Luis Hernán Herreros from www. usage and recycling.org.9 million tonnes of secondary refined production. Some of the highlights of 2009 copper production and usage are listed below.4 million tonnes. power utility. Copper Production Highlights Preliminary figures indicate that global copper mine production in 2009 reached over 15. © Copyright Anglo American (Faena Los Bronces y Mantos Blancos – Chile). high tech copper wire. building construction. In the chapters that follow.icsg.4 million tonnes). followed by industrial use. For the most up‐to‐date information on the global copper market. and consumer and general products. and new consumer products as well. New copper applications being developed include antimicrobial copper touch surfaces.2 million tonnes. and consumer and general products.5 million tonnes. China was also the largest consumer of refined copper in 2009 with apparent usage of over 7 million tonnes. The largest producer of mined copper was Chile (nearly 5. including 2.4 million tonnes) Refinery Production in 2009 increased to nearly 18. transportation equipment. more in‐depth information is presented on copper production. According to the International Copper Association (ICA). heat exchangers. ICA figures indicate that electrical power was the largest copper end‐ use sector last year.visnu. please visit our website at www. Smelter production in 2009 reached over 14. International Copper Study Group 6 . industrial machinery and equipment.
copper is extracted from mainly low grade oxide ores and also some sulphide ores.99% of copper. secondary copper refined production reached around 16% of total copper refined production. re‐melted and cast into anodes for electro‐refining. In the following smelting process. However.5% copper content. it is crushed and ground followed by a concentration by flotation. Copper scrap derives from either metals discarded in semis fabrication or finished product manufacturing processes (“new scrap”) or obsolete end‐of‐life products (“old scrap”). Open‐pit mining is the predominant mining method in the world. refined copper production from SX‐EW represented 18% of total copper refined production. ICSG estimates that in 2009. Refined copper production attributable to recycled scrap feed is classified as “secondary copper production”.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 2: Copper Production How is Copper Produced? Geologists look for signs and/or anomalies that would indicate the presence of a mineral deposit. at the refinery level. there is another important source of raw material which is scrap. environmental and legal conditions. in the hydrometallurgical route. Primary copper production starts with the extraction of copper‐bearing ores. or. economic. ICSG estimates that in 2009. After the ore has been mined. copper is transformed into a “matte” containing 50‐70% copper. There are three basic ways of copper mining: surface. sometimes preceded by a roasting step. underground mining and leaching. In the next step. The output of electro‐refining is refined copper cathodes. through leaching (solvent extraction) and electrowinning (SX‐EW process). The obtained copper concentrates typically contain around 30% of copper. Under the right geological. The molten matte is processed in a converter resulting in a so‐called blister copper of 98. as obtainable from a primary raw material source. International Copper Study Group 7 . Alternatively. The output is the same as through the electro‐refining route ‐ refined copper cathodes. mining can proceed. assaying over 99. the blister copper is fire refined in the traditional process route. Refined copper production derived from mine production (either from metallurgical treatment of concentrates or SX‐EW) is referred to as “primary copper production”. increasingly. but grades can range from 20 to 40 per cent.5‐99. Secondary producers use processes similar to those employed for primary production.
000 14. reached nearly 3.000 3.000 10. International Copper Study Group 8 . virtually non‐existent before the 1960’s.3 million tonnes in 2009.000 15.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Mine Production World Copper Mine Production.000 1.000 13.000 0 0 19 0 0 19 4 0 19 8 1 19 2 1 19 6 2 19 0 2 19 4 2 19 8 3 19 2 3 19 6 4 19 0 4 19 4 4 19 8 5 19 2 5 19 6 6 19 0 6 19 4 6 19 8 7 19 2 7 19 6 8 19 0 8 19 4 8 19 8 9 19 2 9 20 6 0 20 0 0 20 4 08 19 Concentrates SX-EW Since 1900.000 12.000 7.000 5.000 11.000 2. world copper mine production has grown by around 4% per year to reach nearly 16 million tonnes in 2009.000 8.000 6. 1900‐2009 (thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG 16.000 4. SX‐EW production.000 9. when world production was less than 500 thousand tonnes .
1980 & 2009p (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG 8000 Thousand Metric Tonnes Copper 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Africa Asia Europe Latin America North America Oceania 1960 1980 2009p From less than 750 thousand tonnes in 1960.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Mine Production by Region. International Copper Study Group 9 . 1960. copper mine production in Latin America surged to just over 7 million tonnes last year.
Zambia Canada Poland Kazakhstan Congo Iran Mexico Brazil Papua New Guinea Argentina Mongolia Laos South Africa 0 1.4 million tonnes.000 3.000 Chile accounted for over one‐third of world copper mine production in 2009 with mine output of nearly 5.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009p (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG Chile Peru United States China Indonesia Australia Russian Fed.000 5.000 4.000 6.000 2. International Copper Study Group 10 .
BHP Billiton Mexicana de Cobre S.5%. Mina Ministro Hales project) Mine Country Chile Chile Indonesia Chile Chile Owner(s) BHP Billiton (57.5%) Codelco P.T.5%)./Sumitomo Kennecott (Rio Tinto) PT Pukuafu 20%. (Grupo Mexico) Source Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Concentrates concentrates concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concentrates concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW concentrates Concs & SX-EW concentrates Concs & SX-EW SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Capacity 1. Mitsubishi (10%) Antofagasta Plc (60%).A. ZCCM (20%) Anglo American (100%) Kazakhmys (Samsung) BHP Billiton KGHM Polska Miedz S. Radomiro Tomic. Xstrata plc (44%). Freeport Indonesia Co.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity. A.5%.75%).300 920 780 520 454 430 400 400 390 280 280 280 270 241 230 225 220 204 200 195 Grasberg Collahuasi El Teniente Taimyr Peninsula (Norilsk/ Talnakh Russia Mills) Antamina Los Pelambres Morenci Bingham Canyon Batu Hijau Andina Kansanshi Los Bronces Zhezkazgan Complex Olympic Dam Rudna Sarcheshmeh Spence La Caridad Peru Chile United States United States Indonesia Chile Zambia Chile Kazakhstan Australia Poland Iran Chile Mexico International Copper Study Group 11 . (PT-FI)..5%). 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 9 10 10 10 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Escondida Codelco Norte (includes Chuquicamata. Rio Tinto Corp. Teck (22. PT Multi Daerah Bersaing 7% Codelco Chile First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%). Mitsui + Nippon (12%) Codelco Chile Norilsk Nickel BHP Billiton (33. Nippon Mining (25%). Japan Escondida (12. Rio Tinto Anglo American (44%). Newmont 41. National Iranian Copper Industry Co. Mitsubishi Materials (15%) Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Xstrata plc (33. (30%). Sumitomo Metal Mining & Mitsubishi Materials 31.75%). Sumitomo Corp.
For more information about ICSG research related to constraints on copper supply.org • • • • • Energy: coal is the fuel chosen to power main copper mines and processes… climate change may increase costs. for now Sulphuric acid supply and price: 16% cost factor for SX‐EW projects Skilled labor: open labor markets would help address this constraint Labor strikes: tend to increase when refined prices are high and GDP is growing faster. High interest rates may reduce supply significantly Capital cost overruns: in the past. the ICSG Secretariat conducted a project on Constraints on New Copper Supply Coming On Stream. underestimations of US dollar inflation was source of many cost overruns Tax & investment regimes: recent research indicates these are less important than geological endowments Water supply: a critical issue in dry mining districts • • • • International Copper Study Group 12 .. there has been growing interest in understanding the obstacles that can prevent copper mine supply from coming on‐stream. Below are some of the operational and financial constraints identified from the study..The World Copper Factbook 2010 Constraints on Copper Supply With copper concentrate in strong demand. Shipping costs: not an issue for copper. please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. with the final project report completed in October 2009. but tend to be longer and less frequent in cool economic times and also when copper prices are down High domestic costs if there is “dutch disease” (resulting in higher exchange rates due in part to strong exports) Rate between imported inputs and domestic input costs affected by the currency strength of the producer Market power/concentration: risks have moved to the import demand side versus export supply side in recent years Peace and security is also a key factor • • • • • Falling Ore Grades: a serious issue in developed copper areas such as the USA and Chile Project finance: cost of capital is a central factor. During 2008‐2009.
000 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Primary Feed Secondary Feed Smelting is the pyrometallurgical process used to produce copper metal. world copper smelter production reached 14.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Smelter Production World Copper Smelter Production. Secondary copper smelters use copper scrap as their feed. the trend to recover copper directly from ores through leaching processes has been on the increase. Primary smelters use mine concentrates as their main source of feed (although some use copper scrap as well).5 million tonnes. International Copper Study Group 13 . In 2009.000 7. Recently.500 5.000 12.500 10. 1976-2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 15.
000 2.000 6.000 14.000 - Thousand tonnes copper 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Flash/Continuous Reverb/Blast/Rotary Electric Modified Reverb/Convert Low Grade EW International Copper Study Group 14 .000 12.000 16.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity. 1995‐2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.000 18.000 10.000 4.000 8.
000 2.000 3.000 0 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Asia’s share of world copper smelter output jumped from 27% in 1990 to 52% in 2009 as smelter production in China expanded rapidly.000 4.000 1.000 7. 1990-2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 8.000 5.000 6. International Copper Study Group 15 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Smelter Production by Region.
000 3. Poland Australia Kazakhstan Canada Peru Zambia Indonesia Bulgaria Spain Iran Philippines Brazil 0 500 1. China accounted for around 24% of world copper smelter output. followed by Japan (11%).500 3.000 1. International Copper Study Group 16 . Chile (10%) and the Russian Federation (5%).500 In 2009.000 2.500 2. India United States Germany Korean Rep.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Japan Chile Russian Fed.
Ltd. Ltd. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 4 4 4 7 7 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 18 19 19 19 19 Smelter Guixi (smelter) Birla Copper (Dahej) Codelco Norte (smelter) Saganoseki/ Ooita (smelter) Hamburg Besshi/ Ehime (Toyo) Norilsk (Nikelevy. Nippon Mining) Mitsubishi (75%). Birla Group Codelco Pan Pacific Copper Co. Norilsk G-M Jinchuan Non. (12. (Freeport McMoran) Kennecott (Rio Tinto) Mitsubishi Materials Corp.29%).Ferrous Metal Co. Nippon Mining) Mitsubishi Materials Corp.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity.67%) Atlantic Copper S. (Grupo Mexico 75. Electric Outokumpu Flash Reverb. Noranda Continuous Isasmelt Process Isasmelt Process Isasmelt Process Mitsubishi Continuous Reverberatory Outokumpu Flash Kennecott/ Outokumpu Mitsubishi Continuous Isasmelt Process Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter Outokumpu Flash Mitsubishi Flash International Copper Study Group 17 . Electric. Furukawa Metals & Resources Co. Codelco Chile Xstrata plc Vedanta Southern Copper Corp. (LS.A. A. Reverberatory/ Teniente Conv. Contimelt. Ltd Aurubis Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. (LS. (Grupo Mexico) LS-Nikko Co.1%) Yunnan Copper Industry Group (Local Government) LS-Nikko Co. (49. Ltd. Xstrata plc Mexicana de Cobre S. Mitsubishi Continuous Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter Outokumpu Flash Outokumpu.(31. Medny) Jinchuan (smelter) El Teniente (Caletones) Altonorte (La Negra) Sterlite Smelter (Tuticorin) Ilo Smelter Yunnan Onsan II Onahama/ Fukushima Huelva Garfield (smelter) Naoshima/ Kagawa (smelter) Mount Isa (smelter) La Caridad (smelter) Onsan I Gresik Country China India Chile Japan Germany Japan Russia China Chile Chile India Peru China Korean Republic Japan Spain United States Japan Australia Mexico Korean Republic Indonesia Operator/Owner(s) Jiangxi Copper Corp. Dowa Metals & Mining Co. Freeport (25%) Outokumpu Flash Process Capacity 900 500 460 450 450 450 400 400 400 390 380 360 350 340 322 320 320 306 300 300 300 300 Outokumpu Flash.15%). Vanyukov Reverberatory/ Kaldo Conv. Ausmelt.
The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Production World Refined Copper Production. refined copper produced from leaching ores has been on the rise.500 10. 1960‐2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20. increasing from less than 1% of world refined copper production in the late 1960’s to 18% of world output in 2009.000 2.000 12. International Copper Study Group 18 .500 15.000 7.000 17.500 0 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 Refinery Primary Refinery Secondary Refinery SX-EW With the emergence of solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW) technology.500 5.
000 18. The ratio between production and capacity is called the capacity utilization rate.000 22.000 Thousand tonnes copper 20.000 12.000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Electrolytic Electrowinning Fire Refining This chart shows world copper refinery capacity by refining process.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Trends in Refined Capacity. International Copper Study Group 19 .000 6.000 26. At around 78% in 2009.000 2.000 4.000 24.000 16.000 10. 1995-2010 28.000 8.000 14. the world refinery capacity utilization rate was lower than in recent years.
000 0 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Region with the highest output of refined copper in 1990: the Americas (4.000 8.050 kt) International Copper Study Group 20 .000 5.000 7.000 6.000 1.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Production by Region.250 kt).004 kt) Leading region in the world in 2009: Asia (8.000 4. followed by Europe (3.000 3.000 2. 1990‐2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 9.
The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Chile Japan United States Russian Fed.500 4.000 1.000 2. Poland Australia Peru Zambia Belgium Kazakhstan Canada Spain Indonesia Mexico Brazil Iran 0 500 1.500 3. India Germany Korean Rep.000 3.000 4.500 2.500 International Copper Study Group 21 .
5% Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. (30%). Sharpline International 13%. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 2 4 5 6 6 8 9 9 11 12 12 12 15 16 16 16 19 20 20 Guixi Yunnan Copper Birla Chuquicamata Refinery Codelco Norte (SX-EW) Toyo/Niihama (Besshi) Amarillo El Paso (refinery) Jinchuan Las Ventanas Hamburg (refinery) Sterlite Refinery Pyshma Refinery CCR Refinery (Montreal) Ilo Copper Refinery Jinlong (Tongdu) (refinery) Morenci (SX-EW) Escondida (SX-EW) Olen Onsan Refinery I Norilsk Refinery Refinery Country China China India Chile Chile Japan United States United States China Chile Germany India Russia Canada Peru China United States Chile Belgium Korean Republic Russia Jiangxi Copper Corporation Yunnan Copper Industry Group (64.5%). Rio Tinto Corp.) Xstrata plc Southern Copper Corp. 52 %. Codelco Aurubis Vedanta Uralelectromed (Urals Mining & Metallurgical Co./Sumitomo BHP Billiton (57.8%) Birla Group Hidalco Codelco Codelco Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Jinchuan Non Ferrous Co. Tongling NonFerrous Metal Corp.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity.5%. Japan Escondida (12. (LS. 7. Grupo Mexico Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Itochu Corp. Ltd. Nippon Mining) Norilsk Copper Owner(s) Process Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrowinning Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrowinning Electrowinning Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Capacity 900 500 500 490 470 450 450 415 400 400 395 380 380 380 360 350 350 350 345 330 330 International Copper Study Group 22 . Sumitomo Corp.5%) Aurubis LS-Nikko Co. 7.
1980‐2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 27. ingot.000 21. wire bar. brass mills.000 6. Semis fabricators are considered to be the “first users” of refined copper and include ingot makers.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Semis Production Copper and Copper Alloy and Casting Production. International Copper Study Group 23 . billet slab and cake into semi‐finished copper and copper alloy products using both unwrought copper materials and direct melt scrap as raw material feed.000 0 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 Copper Semis Copper Alloy Semis Other Semis Foundry Castings Semis fabricators process refinery shapes such as cathodes. wire rod plants. foundries and foil mills.000 9. alloy wire mills.000 12.000 3.000 24.000 18. master alloy plants.000 15.
000 10. or more than 13.000 12. 1980 & 2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 14.000 4. up from 22% in 1980.000 1980 2008 6.4 million metric tonnes.000 2.000 0 Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania South America Asia accounted for 58% of semis production in 2008.000 8. International Copper Study Group 24 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region.
4% Foil 1. China accounted for the largest share of world semis capacity production (30%) and the largest number of semis plants (498). 25 .6 Mt. International Copper Study Group Wire rod plants are estimated to have accounted for just under half of all first use capacity in 2010. & Central Asia 5%+ Middle East 5% Africa 1% Semis Production Capacity by Product. or nearly 19. 2010 (%) Source: ICSG Powder 0.4% s 3% Ingot South Asia & Oceania 9% North Asia (ex-China) 14% Mainland China 30% Cu Alloy Wire 6% Cu & Cu Alloy Tubes 13% WireRod 49% Rods. Sheet & Strips (PSS) 15% In 2010. 2010 (%) Source: ICSG Russian Fed.1% Castings 0.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Semis Production Capacity by Region. Bars and Sections (RBS) 13%+ Americas 14% EU27. Norway & Switzerland 22% Plate.
000 4.000 International Copper Study Group 26 . 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China United States Germany Japan Korean Rep. Italy India Taiwan (China) Russian Turkey Rest of World France Brazil Belgium Spain Thailand Indonesia Mexico Poland Iran 0 2.000 14.000 10.000 6.000 12.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production Capacity by Country: Top 20 Countries.000 8.
but typica in ally much smaller qua m antities.000 9. 1 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis /1 S 0 1.000 Gross metal weight t.000 6. Major product categori of vice ies co opper traded inte ernationally includ de: • • • • • Copper concentrates Copper blister and anode thode and ingots Copper cat rap Copper scr and mis Copper sem World Copp Exports by Pro per oduct Category. co ountries where upstream cop pper production capacity exc n ceeds downstream production capacity w import the raw materials neede to will w ed meet their produc m ction needs.000 9. appliances. O i Often. In nternational Cop pper Study Group p 27 2 . and v versa.000 3.000 8.0 000 2.The World Copper Fac ctbook 2010 0 Chapter 3: Copp Trade C per e Copper products a C across the value c chain are traded internationally.000 8.000 6. formation about the t in nternational trade of copper and changes in regulations that can a e affect th trade of coppe please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. Changes in trade regulat tions. electronic equipm ment and other pr roducts. .0 000 5. can have significant impact on s ts su as import du th international trade of coppe For more inf he er.org World Copp Imports by Pro per oduct Category. In additi ional. uch uties or export qu uotas. 2 2009p Thousand m metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise not ted) CSG Source: IC Concentrates Blister & Anode B Refined Copper R Copper Scrap /1 C Image courtesy of the Copper Development Association.000 Copper powders a compounds a also traded glo C and are obally.000 7.000 7.000 4.000 3. copper is contained in end d‐use products that are traded globall including auto e ly omobiles.0 000 2.000 4.000 4 5. 20 009p Thousand m metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise note ed) SG Source: ICS Concentrates Blister & Anode Refined Copper Copper Scrap /1 C Copper & Copper Alloy r Semis /1 0 1. 1 he er.
Kazakhstan 8. Australia 5. Spain 7. China 2. Japan 3. Chile 2. Brazil 10. Argentina 10. Bulgaria 9. Mongolia Major Importers of Copper Ores and Concentrates. USA 9. Brazil 7.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major International Trade Flows of Copper Ores and Concentrates1 Major Exporters of Copper Ores and Concentrates. Peru 3. 2009 1. India 4. 5. Canada 6. Korean Rep. Sweden 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. International Copper Study Group 28 . 2009 1. Philippines 8. Germany 6. Indonesia 4.
Austria 10. USA 10. Canada 4. Chile 2. Canada 5. Netherlands 5. Spain 6. United States 4. Turkey 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. 2009 1. Netherlands 7. Australia 9. Belgium 2. China 3. 8. Mexico 6. International Copper Study Group 29 . Finland 9. Philippines Major Importers of Copper Blister and Anode. Bulgaria 3. Turkey 7. Slovakia 8. 2009 1.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major International Trade of Copper Blister and Anode1 Major Exporters of Copper Blister and Anode. Korean Rep.
The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major International Trade Flows of Refined Copper1 Major Exporters of Refined Copper. 2009 1. Thailand 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. China 2. Belgium 10. Japan 4. Russia 5. 2009 1. Peru 6. Korean Rep. Poland 9. Italy 5. International Copper Study Group 30 . Kazakhstan 8. Netherlands 10. Netherlands Major Importers of Refined Copper. Germany 4. Zambia 3. Taiwan 6. Turkey 8. Australia 7. USA 3. 7. France 9. Chile 2.
Importers S K I U M O T Ch U G Ho S F S A C ina nited taly ng erm ranc nited exic zech ustr pain witz haila orea inga ther erl a s n R por e Ko Re i a Ki n o Sta and nd ng ny e ep.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Leading Exporters and Importers of Semi‐Fabricated Copper Products.400 1.600 1. 2009 Thousand metric tonnes. C Ho U R S J B O S P ng nite ussi elgiu apan pain wed anad olan ther dS en s an d Ko a m tat ng es Fed. Source: ICSG 1.000 800 600 400 200 0 1. p. gd te s om International Copper Study Group 31 .200 Exporters 1.000 800 600 400 200 0 Ko I Ge Ch T F rea aiwa ranc taly rm i an na nR e n y ep .200 1.
delivery warehouses and other aspects related to the trading process.000 pounds and quoted in US cents per pound. Cash). who are ready to buy the risk of price variation in exchange for monetary reward.000 4. In these exchanges.000 3. and on the SHME. so that downstream fabricators can transform these into different end‐use products. reflecting the market's perception of supply and demand of a commodity on a particular day. Grade A. Three commodity exchanges provide the facilities to trade copper: The London Metal Exchange (LME). copper is traded in 25 tonne lots and quoted in US dollars per tonne. More recently. A futures or options contract defines the quality of the product. Exchanges also provide for the trading of futures and options contracts.000 5. who transform the metal into shapes or alloys. gives liquidity to the market.000 1. On the LME. prices are settled by bid and offer. Producers sell their present or future production to clients. mini contracts of smaller lots sizes have been introduced at the exchanges. copper is traded in lots of 25. Contracts are unique for each exchange.000 2. the size of the lot. thus providing a hedge against price variations. copper is traded in lots of 5 tonnes and quoted in Renminbi per tonne. delivery dates. Average Annual Copper Prices (LME. the Commodity Exchange Division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (COMEX/NYMEX) and the Shanghai Metal Exchange (SHME).The World Copper Factbook 2010 The Global Copper Market and the Commodity “Copper” Copper. as any other good or merchandise. In this process the participation of speculators. The existence of futures contracts also allows producers and their clients to agree on different price settling schemes to accommodate different interests. These allow producers and consumers to fix a price in the future. Exchanges also provide for warehousing facilities that enable market participants to make or take physical delivery of copper in accordance with each exchange's criteria.000 0 6 9 3 2 5 8 1 0 4 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 20 0 19 6 19 6 19 6 19 6 19 9 19 8 19 7 19 7 19 7 19 8 19 8 19 9 19 9 19 9 20 0 20 0 8 US$ per tonne Source: ICSG Current $ Constant 2005 $ International Copper Study Group 32 . 1960‐2009 8.000 6.000 7. is traded between producers and consumers. Exchanges The role of a commodity exchange is to facilitate and make transparent the process of settling prices. One of the most important factors in trading a commodity such as copper is the settlement price for the present day (spot price) or for future days. on COMEX.
650 1. copper Jan 00 Jul 00 Jan 01 Jul 01 Jan 02 Jul 02 Jan Jul 03 03 Jan Jul 04 04 Jan 05 Jul 05 Jan 06 Jul 06 Jan Jul-07 07 Jan Jul-08 08 Jan Jul-09 Jan09 10 Exchanges Merchants Price LME (UScents/pound) Producers Consumers 3 mth moving average copper usage seasonally adjusted International Copper Study Group Price LME (US cents/pound) 33 .000 2.125 1.025 1.200 1.575 1.400 2.275 1.925 2.800 1.350 1.875 1.425 1.050 975 900 825 750 675 600 525 450 375 300 225 150 75 0 Thousand metric tonnes and US cents/pound Source: ICSG 400 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Thousand metric tonnes. Prices and Usage 3.550 2.325 2.850 2.175 2.250 2.775 2.500 1.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Stocks.475 2.625 2.700 2.950 1.100 2.725 1.
please visit the ICSG website at www. drawing.icsg. electrolysis or atomization. wire rod. castings. Copper and copper alloy semis can be further transformed by downstream industries for use in end use products such as automobiles. forging. fabricators form wire. The fabricators of these shapes are called the first users of copper. electronics. billet. melting. cake (slab) or ingot. strip.org International Copper Study Group 34 . Through extrusion. rolling. rod. major uses of copper and end‐use. sheet. powder and other shapes. For the most up‐to‐date information on refined copper usage. This section provides a range of information about refined copper usage. and a whole range of other copper‐dependent products in order to meet society’s needs. plate. appliances. total use.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 4: Copper Usage How Is Copper Used? Copper is shipped to fabricators mainly as cathode. The total use of copper includes copper scrap that is directly melted by the first users of copper to produce copper semis. tube.
500 0 19 00 19 04 19 08 19 12 19 16 19 20 19 24 19 28 19 32 19 36 19 40 19 44 19 48 19 52 19 56 19 60 19 64 19 68 19 72 19 76 19 80 19 84 19 88 19 92 19 96 20 00 20 04 20 08 Since 1900. demand for refined copper increased from less than 500 thousand tonnes to over 18 million metric tonnes in 2009 as demand over the period grew by an average of 4% per year.The World Copper Factbook 2010 World Refined Copper Usage.500 10. International Copper Study Group 35 .000 7.500 5.500 15.000 2.000 17.000 12. 1900‐2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.
1980 & 2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Thousand Metric Tonnes Copper 12.000 2. where demand has expanded more than five fold in less than 30 years.000 10.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Usage by Region.000 8.000 6. 1960.000 4. International Copper Study Group 36 .000 0 1960 1980 2009p Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Growth in refined copper usage has been especially strong in Asia.
per capita consumption of refined copper refers to the amount of copper consumed by industry divided by the total population and does not represent consumption of copper in finished products per person. master alloy plants.000.000.000.000. As a result.000 population 4.000 1.0 kg per person 5. brass mills.0 7.000 0.000. foundries and foil mills.000.000 3.000. alloy wire mills.5 1. including ingot makers.000 0 0. International Copper Study Group 37 .000 1.000.0 2.000.0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 1950 World Population Refined Copper Usage per Capita *Refined copper is consumed by semis fabricators or the “first users” of refined copper.000 2.The World Copper Factbook 2010 World Refined Copper Usage* per Capita: 1950‐2009p Sources: ICSG and US Census Bureau 8.5 3.000.000.000.000.000.000.5 6.000.000 2. wire rod plants.
alloy wire mills.000 50.000 40.The World Copper Factbook 2010 25 Intensity of Refined Copper Use* Sources: ICSG and International Monetary Fund Belgium Taiwan (China) Refined Copper Usage per Capita (kg/person) 20 Korean Rep. foundries and foil mills. brass mills. per capita consumption of refined copper refers to the amount of copper consumed by industry divided by the total population and does not represent consumption of copper in finished products per person.000 35. Brazil Portugal 0 0 India 5. including ingot makers.000 15. master alloy plants.000 GDP per Capita (2009 US$/person) *Refined copper is consumed by semis fabricators or the “first users” of refined copper.000 10. wire rod plants.000 20. As a result.000 25.000 30. International Copper Study Group 38 .000 45. United Arab Emirates 15 Germany 10 Italy Saudi Arabia Chile China Egypt Mexico Peru Poland Spain EU-27 Japan Australia France Canada USA 5 Turkey Russian Fed.
Including Copper Scrap.000 5.000 TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP 15.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Total Copper Usage.000 PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED 10. 2002‐2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 25.000 TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP 20.000 0 2002 International Copper Study Group 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 39 .
Copper is an essential component of energy efficient generators. is supervising the Transfer of Technology for High Pressure Copper Die Casting in India project. fuel cells and other technologies are all heavily reliant on copper due to its excellent conductivity. the International Copper Association and the International Copper Promotion Council (India). geothermal. Renewable energy sources such as solar. either insulated or uninsulated. ICSG. transformers and renewable energy production systems. copper's exceptional strength. Copper is also used in power cables. medium and low voltage applications. It sets the standard to which other conductors are compared. International Copper Study Group 40 . wind. ductility and resistance to creeping and corrosion makes it the preferred and safest conductor for commercial and residential building wiring. motors. motors and motor systems using more energy efficient high pressure copper die castings. in partnership with the Common Fund for Commodities. The project is designed to facilitate the transfer of technology related to the manufacture of rotors. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Electrical Copper is the best non‐ precious metal conductor of electricity as it encounters much less resistance compared with other commonly used metals. In addition. for high.
through the existing copper infrastructure of ordinary telephone wire. mobile phones and personal computers. wide and local area networks. Semiconductor manufacturers have launched a revolutionary "copper chip.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Electronics and Communications Copper plays a key role in worldwide information and communications technologies. Copper and copper alloy products are used in domestic subscriber lines. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and European Copper Institute. connectors and switches." By using copper for circuitry in silicon chips. using less energy. transformers. International Copper Study Group 41 . HDSL (High Digital Subscriber Line) and ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) technology allows for high‐speed data transmission. microprocessors are able to operate at higher speeds. Copper is also used extensively in other electronic equipment in the form of wires. Copper heat sinks help remove heat from transistors and keep computer processors operating at peak efficiency. including internet service.
in addition to being attractive. is well known for its resistance to extreme weather conditions. is used in a variety of settings to build facades. Copper roofing. doors and window frames. copper does not burn. Unlike plastic tubing. Major public buildings. copper and its alloys. Copper tubes also help protect water systems from potentially lethal bacteria such as legionella. that gives copper the classic look of warmth and richness. The telltale green patina finish. such as architectural bronze. Copper fire sprinkler systems are a valuable safety feature in buildings. The use of copper doorknobs and plates exploits copper's biostatic properties to help prevent the transfer of disease and microbes. commercial buildings and homes use copper for their rainwater goods and roofing needs.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Construction Copper and brass are the materials of choice for plumbing. valves and fittings. is the result of natural weathering. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Association. taps. Thanks in part to its aesthetic appeal. melt or release noxious or toxic fumes in the event of a fire. International Copper Study Group 42 . canopies.
connectors. Copper's superior thermal conductivity. while luxury cars on average contain around 1. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and the European Copper Institute. Electric and hybrid vehicles can contain even higher levels of copper.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Transportation All major forms of transportation depend on copper to perform critical functions. wiring.5 kg (50 lbs) of copper. Automobiles and trucks rely on copper motors. smaller and more efficient radiators. Today. processes and innovative designs are resulting in lighter.6 km (1 mile) in length. New high‐speed trains can use anywhere from 2 to 4 tonnes of copper. significantly higher than the 1 to 2 tonnes used in traditional electric trains. thereby reducing drag and improving fuel consumption. the average mid‐size automobile contains about 22.500 copper wires totaling about 1. Copper is also used extensively in new generation airplanes and trains. New manufacturing technologies. brakes and bearings. radiators. corrosion resistance and recyclability make it ideal for automotive and truck radiators. strength. International Copper Study Group 43 . Copper‐nickel alloys are used on the hulls of boats and ships to reduce marine biofouling.
oil platforms and coastal power stations. propellers. International Copper Study Group 44 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Industrial Machinery and Equipment Wherever industrial machinery and equipment is found. it is a safe bet that copper and its alloys are present. tanks. bearings and turbine blades. Due to their durability. machinability and ability to be cast with high precision and tolerances. The corrosion resistant properties of copper and copper alloys (such as brass. copper alloys are ideal for making products such as gears. Copper's superior heat transfer capabilities and ability to withstand extreme environments makes it an ideal choice for heat exchange equipment. and piping exposed to seawater. bronze. pressure vessels and vats. and copper‐nickel) make them especially suitable for use in marine and other demanding environments. Vessels. all depend on copper's corrosion resistance for protection Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association.
respectively. copper is used by farmers to supplement livestock and crop feed. 20 and even 50 times longer. Today. and locks and keys are just some of the products exploiting copper's advantages. cookware. also contain copper. International Copper Study Group 45 . in areas known to be copper deficient. one cent coins and five cent coins contain 2. Department of the Treasury. electrical appliances.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General Products From the beginning of civilization copper has been used by various societies to make coins for currency. households and workplaces. coins contain a pure copper core and 75% copper face. In the United States.5% and 75% copper. Copper and copper‐based products are used in offices. Computers. In addition.1 In the recently expanded European Union. 1 Source: U. as these coins last 10. countries are replacing lower denomination bills with copper‐based coins. brassware.S. while other U. first introduced in 2002. the Euro coins. Images courtesy of the International Copper Association and the Copper Development Association.S.
194 3.468 1.133 751 464 534 1.222 766 920 863 435 2.477 22.873 1. thousand metric tonnes Source: International Copper Association 2009 tonnes 000 China Japan South Korea India ASEAN Taiwan North America Latin America Western Europe Eastern Europe (excluding Russia Africa Rest of World World 7. 2009 Basis: copper content.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Usage by End‐Use Sector and Region.099 International Copper Study Group 46 .
Images courtesy of the European Copper Institute. Considering this. In 2008. In the recent decades. an increasing emphasis has been placed on the sustainability of material uses in which the concept of reuse and recycling of metals plays an important role in the material choice and acceptance of products. recycling has the potential to extend the use of resources. Closing metal loops through increased reuse and recycling enhances the overall resource productivity and therefore represents one of the key elements of society’s transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. It is widely recognized that recycling is not in opposition to primary metal production. Some countries' copper requirements greatly depend on recycled copper to meet internal demands. However. If appropriately managed. but is a necessary and beneficial complement. International Copper Study Group 47 . and to minimize energy use. so we also rely on copper produced from the processing of mineral ores.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 5: Copper Recycling Copper is among the few materials that do not degrade or lose their chemical or physical properties in the recycling process. the existing copper reservoir in use can well be considered a legitimate part of world copper reserves. ICSG estimates that 35% of copper consumption came from recycled copper. recycled copper alone cannot meet society's needs. and waste disposal. some emissions.
The RIR is mainly a statistical measurement for raw material availability and supply rather than an indicator of recycling efficiency of processes or products. scope. The RIR has been in use in the metals industry for a long time and is widely available from statistical sources. metal traders and resource policy makers. Major target audiences for this type of “metallurgical” indicator are the metal industry. 48 . This measure focuses on end-of-life management performance of products and provides important information to target audiences such as metal and recycling industries. data availability and target audience. International Copper Study Group • The Overall Recycling Efficiency Rate (Overall RER) indicates the efficiency with which end of life (EOL) scrap. and other metal-bearing residues are collected and recycled by a network of collectors. processors. given structural and process variables. scrap processors and scrap generators. new scrap. and environmental policy makers.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Recycling Rate Definitions The recycling performance of copper-bearing products can be measured and demonstrated in various ways – depending. life cycle analysts. among other things. • The EOL Recycling Efficiency Rate (EOL RER) indicates the efficiency with which EOL scrap from obsolete products is recycled. product designers. it may have limited use as a policy tool. on objectives. and metal recyclers. The three International Non-Ferrous Metal Study Groups in conjunction with various metal industry associations agreed on the common definitions of the three following metal recycling rates: • The Recycling Input Rate (RIR) measures the proportion of metal and metal products that are produced from scrap and other metal-bearing lowgrade residues. The key target audiences of this particular indicator are metal industry. However.
069 5.898 5.9% 44.1% 18.062 23.743 5.677 22.324 2.304 2.0% 2003 30.575 2.4% 16.469 55 7.594 51 7.426 3.845 22.781 33.379 2.941 35.0% 1.719 20.466 2.702 18.8% 2006 37.161 5.257 2.6% 33.401 8.159 15.375 16.6% 2. 2002-2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Americas Asia Europe Africa & Oceania World / Total Scrap Use Total scrap use year-on-year Secondary refined production Cu content of Direct Melt Refined Usage Total copper usage Recycling Input Rate (RIR) Recycling Input Rate Asia Europe North America Rest of the World Total World 2002 1.493 4.812 17.8% 2007 1.058 22.786 5.3% 34.7% 33.056 1.5% 14.3% 34.296 2.882 2.869 36.5% 14.053 34.0% 41.848 -3.823 5.6% 2003 1.638 50 8.476 4.711 68 7.176 33.3% 2008 1.6% 34.0% 16.7% 41.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Global Copper Recyclables Use.2% 2006 1.2% 17.238 20.6% 2002 30.0% 33.331 16.1% International Copper Study Group 49 .429 3.407 18.0% 42.345 4.6% 31.2% 30.536 1.396 34.3% 35.1% 16.1% 2008 34.579 61 8.445 0.0% 2004 1.8% 35.2% 2005 33.239 23.529 52 8.4% 2004 31.4% 2005 1.529 51 6.2% 41.7% 41.4% 32.8% 2.230 -2.2% 2.3% 2007 34.0% 33.468 35.8% 2.1% 36.425 11.807 2.5% 31.613 5.1% 2.1% 41.061 15.
ICSG launched the copper scrap market project in 2007 in order to provide greater transparency on an increasingly vital component of the world copper market at a time when globalization is reshaping the copper scrap and copper alloy recycling business. Key drivers of the global scrap market are identified below as are some of the key project outputs.org Key Drivers of the Global Copper Scrap Market • Expanding Copper Mine Production and Refined Copper Substitution • Industrialization and Economic Growth • Prices o Copper Scrap Prices and Spreads o Refined Copper Prices and the Demand for Scrap • China • The Shift in Regional Scrap Processing Capacity • Regulations on Recycling and Trade • Technology International Copper Study Group ICSG Global Copper Scrap Project Reports • ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project Final Report (New!) • Japan Scrap Market Report • China Scrap Usage Survey • China Domestic Scrap Generation 2010‐2015 • India Scrap Market • China Scrap Market Report 50 . For more information about ICSG work related to copper scrap. please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg.The World Copper Factbook 2010 ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project Based on interest expressed by ICSG member countries. The final report of the project was published in August 2010.
Plant Direct Melt 987 refined Ingot Maker scrap alloys International Copper Study Group 51 . low grade Scrap for Refining Hydromet.The World Copper Factbook 2010 The Flow of Copper Trade Concentrates/ Matte Blister/ Anode Refined Copper Alloy Ingot Alloy Metals Semis Net Trade Mining Production Wire rod SX/EW Refined Usage Fabrication Wire rod plant / Wire mill Brass mill Foundry Chemicals Semis Supply Mine Smelter Refinery New Scrap Low Grade Residues Tailings By-products/ slag/ashes Other Plants Scrap Recycling Scrap for Smelting incl.
equipment Transport Consumer/ Gen.The World Copper Factbook 2010 The Flow of Copper (cont. Other Uses Low grade from Fabr.) Semis Import Manufacture Construction Product Supply E&E Equipment Ind. Recycling losses new scrap Recycling New Scrap Recycling International Copper Study Group Finished Products Net Trade Product Use (Lifetime) Copper Reservoir in Use EOL Products (EOL Management adjusted for export/reuse after collection) End-of-Life Management C&D Finished Products EOL Products INEW IEW Abandoned/ Stored/ Reused End-of-Life Products ELV WEEE MSW & Other Dissipative Uses Disposal/ Other Uses Old Scrap Scrap & Low grade Net Trade Other Metal Loops 52 .
216 4.084 9.998 5.289 Refined Production 4.553 Refined Production 8.572 17.594 14.633 13.319 9.934 18.930 9.979 Mine Production 9.626 5.444 7.739 6.541 6.100 8.097 11.924 4.757 14.097 6.833 16.592 8.239 18.081 4.519 14.735 7.832 12.112 10.203 13.497 9.057 9.536 15.443 4. 1960-2009p Thousand Metric Tonnes Source: ICSG Mine Production 3.014 15.539 Mine Production 7.798 10.592 7.877 Refined Production 11.200 9.537 12.721 7.185 15.474 15.081 10.The World Copper Factbook 2010 ANNEX World Copper Production and Usage.186 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009p International Copper Study Group 53 .261 9.500 5.740 8.549 10.775 13.404 8.717 16.440 9.872 4.249 Refined Usage 9.296 5.668 11.400 5.084 11.059 6.677 13.653 7.127 5.522 9.058 18.991 15.187 8.647 4.210 15.510 9.090 9.286 4.396 9.124 11.371 7.920 10.293 10.445 6.288 8.030 9.478 14.846 10.103 13.324 6.562 5.843 10.512 10.310 7.354 15.050 5.942 8.775 9.291 17.540 10.010 5.745 7.059 12.356 Refined Usage 11.915 7.420 12.541 9.137 7.523 7.138 8.941 6.048 5.291 7.636 13.056 18.884 9.372 9.804 10.632 Refined Usage 4.301 15.638 15.577 13.759 8.248 12.306 7.848 9.075 14.796 15.212 7.193 6.195 6.908 10.738 5.924 14.686 11.578 14.266 8.042 11.544 8.272 15.148 10.445 8.900 5.230 7.573 9.226 9.296 7.918 16.200 18.995 6.843 8.455 9.683 17.527 9.004 6.
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