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(Book ID: 1237) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Q.1 Explain the following a. Rolling wave planning b. Decomposition c. Precedence diagramming method d. Dependency determination Ans:
Fundamentals of Rolling Wave Planning
Rolling Wave Planning is a technique that enables you to plan for a project as it unfolds. Therefore, Rolling Wave Planning requires you to plan iteratively. The planning technique is very similar to those used in SCRUM or other Agile Methodologies. Essentially, when you use Rolling Wave Planning, plan until you have visibility, implement, and then re-plan.
For example, suppose you expect to complete the project in eight months, but only have clarity for the first three months. Then, you would plan only for these three months. As the project progresses and you gain more clarity, you would then plan for the remaining months. The Rolling Wave Planning technique uses progressive elaboration, which is the act of elaborating the work packages in greater detail as the project unfolds. Rolling Wave Planning does not exempt you from creating a list of milestones and assumptions for the entire project. As a matter of fact, it is necessary to provide key milestones and assumptions as it will help stakeholders see why you are using Rolling Wave Planning and what to expect as the project progresses. PMP Exam: Rolling Wave Planning and Progressive Elaboration are concepts that are often quizzed in the PMP exam.
you must use the Risk Management best practices. Therefore. This important step can save time in the long run. Once deliverable and task information has been gathered. This .Usage of Rolling Wave Planning in Project Management Rolling Wave Planning is used when you just don’t have enough clarity to plan in detail the entire project. Rolling Wave Planning: • • • • Encourages adaptability Encourages planning Is great for R&D. in such an environment you would use Rolling Wave Planning to plan the prototype and then make a decision to proceed to implementation. Knowing what needs to be produced as the end products and knowing the important milestones will help guide the project to keep it on course. For example. you will need to gather the information involving the project’s deliverables and the tasks that have already been determined. The project manager will break down the biggest items (deliverables. High-Tech. decomposition takes a topdown approach to determining tasks and subtasks. in product development it is common practice to prototype before going into the actual product development. Once you have determined the project objectives. major tasks) into the smallest tasks. milestones. there are six steps involved with the decomposition process. decomposition can be a useful tool when managing projects. Therefore. Post the Prototype phase. Benefits of Rolling Wave Planning This iterative approach to planning is commonly found in SCRUM and other Agile Project Management Methodologies. you would plan once again. Decomposition is a technique used in project management that breaks down the workload and tasks before the creation of the work breakdown structure. Overview of the Decomposition Process Roughly. Similar to Agile. such as emerging requirements. Invention projects Is good for projects with changing scope (b) While it sounds like something you don’t want to happen when planning a project. Rolling Wave Planning is particularly useful in projects with high uncertainty. This lack of clarity could come from various factors.
This is known as the Critical Path Method (CPM). both terms are used interchangeably. the final product is dependent on the vendor. So. For example. you can determine the activities critical to the project schedule. When done properly. Identify dependencies: Each activity is dependent on some other activity. By using PDMs. even if you complete all other activities. Once the project has been broken down into the smallest tasks. Each chapter could be broken down into research. decomposition will make clear the relevance of each task to the bigger project picture. if there is a critical component that is being produced by a third-party vendor. Once the work breakdown structure creation is completed. the project manager will organize the work packages into the work breakdown structure. . Precedence Diagrams are also known as Project Network Diagrams.process can occur in the work breakdown structure format. The next article in this series deals with the benefits of project decomposition in project management. In this article. or it can be completed as a mind map and structured later. PDM helps you to: • • • • Communicate: The visual representation make it easier for you to communicate the flow of project execution or the project activity flow. Each package can be assigned a specific code. revision. then work packages can be created. the project will not be complete until the vendor supplies the critical component. Finally. then the work packages are assigned to resources. When a dependency is not identified. Identify critical activities: Certain activities have a greater impact on project schedule than others. printready copy. A work package is a collection of related action items that can be assigned to a resource as a sub-set of the whole of work that must be created. Identify missing activities: When an activity is not identified. Double-check that the project has been sufficiently decomposed into the smallest parts possible. outline. By visually representing the activities. The idea is to move from the most general aspects of the project to the most specific and detailed tasks in the project. it’ll never be done. (C) ntroduction to PDM PDM is a visual representation technique that depicts the activities involved in a project. you would break it down into its smallest components – chapters. there is a greater chance for your team to identify missing activities. For example. if you are writing a technical manual. the project will be delayed until such a time that identification occurs. draft.
Therefore. you cannot cook a stew before gathering all the ingredients. an activity cannot start before a previous activity has ended. there is a defined relationship between the start of activities. PDM is used most often. Of the two. For example. PDM and Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM). PMP Exam Tip: There are two visualization techniques. Start-Finish: In this dependency. which is also known as a milestone. Start-Start: In this dependency. Finish-Finish: In this dependency. Now. there is a defined relationship between the start of one activity and the end date of a successor activity. Types of Dependencies There are four types of dependencies that you need to be aware of before creating a Precedence Diagram.) You’ll notice that the Precedence Diagram has the following features: • Events: The Start and End oval shapes signify events. An event is a point in time having no duration. . This is the most commonly used dependency. there is a defined relationship between the end dates of activities. This dependency is rarely used. let’s look at dependencies further.• Create a project schedule: The final goal of PDM is to create a practical and robust project schedule. A Precedence Diagram will always have a Start and an End event. Precedence Diagram Notation The image displays a simple Precedence Diagram. the activity “Gather Ingredients” needs to finish. before the activity “Cook Stew” can begin. • • • • Finish-Start: In this dependency. (Click the image for a larger view.
External dependencies. . such as on a construction project. and 4). • • • Mandatory dependencies. The relationship between activities can either be predecessor or successor. Discretionary dependencies are fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options. Dependencies: Each node (Activities and Events) is connected by using unidirectional arrows. where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built. 3. Activities 2 and 3 are dependent on Activity 1. They may also have other events called milestones. A Network Diagram will always have the Start and End events. Discretionary dependencies. Discretionary dependencies are usually established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired. while Activity 4 is dependent on Activities 2 and 3. Note: Since the activities are represented by the node. kill-points are milestones. 2. where a prototype must be built before it can be tested. For example. The project management team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. Mandatory dependencies are those that are inherent in the nature of the work being done. Mandatory dependencies are also sometimes referred to as hard logic. Precedence Diagrams are also called “activity-on-the-node” diagrams. For example in the image.• • Activity: There are four activities (Activity 1. Activity 1 has no dependency. each activity is represented by a node. The project management team determines which dependencies are discretionary during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. the start of an activity must be linked to the end of another activity. preferential logic or soft logic. This signifies the relationship between activities. Some discretionary dependencies include preferred schedule activity sequences based upon previous experience on a successful project performing the same type of work. Discretionary dependencies are sometimes referred to as preferred logic. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations. or on an electronics project. In a Network Diagram. The project management team identifies external dependencies during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. (d) Dependency Determination Three types of dependencies are used to define the sequence among the activities. even though there are other acceptable sequences.
a resource breakdown structure. perhaps close to or even slightly after the project has officially kicked off. The resulting outputs from this process include activity resource requirements. There are six inputs that are to be used in the process of activity resource estimating. project management software. as the project engineering and design work evolves. of the activity are to have been completed in final or draft form. the testing schedule activity in a software project can be dependent on delivery of hardware from an external source. activity attributes updates. such as months. The duration estimate is progressively elaborated. Those tools include expert judgment. The process of estimating schedule activity durations uses information on schedule activity scope of work. etc. The successful utilization of activity resource estimates will help assure that enough resources are acquired without waste and excessive expenditure. Estimations can be made in any calendar unit that seems appropriate. a complete alternatives analysis. or governmental environmental hearings may need to be held before site preparation can begin on a construction project. The inputs for the estimates of schedule activity duration originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work content in the specific schedule activity. typically and traditionally takes place before a project is kicked off.External dependencies are those that involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. and resource calendars with resource availabilities. and the accuracy of the duration estimates . even in those cases a draft or preliminary estimation has typically been made. or deliverables. and the resource availability. requested changes. and the process considers the quality and availability of the input data. This input can be based on historical information Q. during the conception phase. the enterprise environmental factors. There are a number of tools that can also be utilized in most effectively estimating the required activity resources. the entirety of the activity duration estimate can be further broken down into subparts or milestones at which certain elements. the organizational process assets. estimated resource quantities. This phase of the project. Those six inputs are the activity list. however.. Activity duration estimating represents the act of quantifying the amount of time that it is anticipated the activity will take to complete.2 State and describe process of estimating resource & duration for the activity Activity resource estimating is a process in which the project team carefully compiles a thorough listing of the resources that will be needed in completing a project. weeks. the activity attributes. however. and the development of a resource calendar. required resource types. and project management plan. For example. it is possible for the actual activity duration estimating period to take place later. and the use of bottom-up estimating. days. that which consists of the estimating of the amount of time needed to complete all individual schedule activities. the use of published estimating data. more detailed and precise data is available. For example.
Most project management software for scheduling will handle this situation by using a project calendar and alternative work-period resource calendars that are usually identified by the resources that require specific work periods. All data and assumptions that support duration estimating are documented for each activity duration estimate. Overall project duration is calculated as an output of the Schedule Development process Activity Duration Estimating: Inputs. the duration estimate can be assumed to be progressively more accurate and of better quality.1 Enterprise Environmental Factors One or more of the organizations involved in the project may maintain duration estimating databases and other historical reference data.improves. Estimating the number of work periods required to complete a schedule activity can require consideration of elapsed time as a requirement related to a specific type of work. One or more of the organizations involved in the project may maintain records of previous project results that are detailed enough to aid in developing duration . how long it takes concrete to cure or how long a government agency usually takes to respond to certain types of requests). and the number of work periods needed to complete the schedule activity is determined. Tools & Techniques. The Activity Duration Estimating process requires that the amount of work effort required to complete the schedule activity is estimated. The schedule activities will be worked according to the project calendar. This type of reference information is also available commercially. the assumed amount of resources to be applied to complete the schedule activity is estimated.g. These databases tend to be especially useful when activity durations are not driven by the actual work content (e. and the schedule activities to which the resources are assigned will also be worked according to the appropriate resource calendars. . and Outputs Activity Duration Estimating: Inputs . Thus..2 Organizational Process Assets Historical information on the likely durations of many categories of activities is often available.
evaluating. a manager can develop a comprehensive plan that contains all the information required for sponsors and stakeholders to approve the effort. and desired performance levels. the project manager cannot prove her work has made any difference in improving operations. . The project manager uses information gathered during the analysis phase of this project or previous projects to complete these sections. such as one available from the American Society for Training and Development website. An example of a constraint would be document submittals. reviews. current performance levels. if they occur. An example of an assumption would be the length of the reporting periods for the project that could dictate maximum schedule activity durations. The organizational process assets of the performing organization may have some asset items that can be used in Activity Duration Estimating. such as plans. could impact the completion of the project. such as the project calendar (a calendar of working days or shifts on which schedule activities are worked. Background Information The background information element of a training project plan typically describes the purpose of the training program.Describe the basic elements of a project plan Project managers leading training development teams use project management tools. Q3. Establishing clear performance objectives ensures that the training program and its participants can be evaluated. target audience. The basic elements of a training project plan allow a project manager to succinctly communicate the types of tasks required to complete a project. and nonworking days on which schedule activities are idle). and similar non-deliverable schedule activities that often have frequency and durations specified by contract or within the performing organization’s policies. and correcting any issues that arise. Using a free template. the project team uses the plan to adhere to schedule commitments and accomplish training project goals by measuring. expected outcomes. to organize and direct task completion. individual team members may maintain such records. This section also includes a description . Additionally. Without defining this aspect. Risk Assessment The risk assessment element of a training project plan usually lists the events that.estimates. In some application areas.3 Project Scope Statement The constraints and assumptions from the project scope statement are considered when estimating the schedule activity durations.
of the strategies that can be deployed to minimize or eliminate the impact. not products or services. Communication Techniques The communication techniques section of a training plan lists the messages. Conclusion The basic elements of a training project plan coincide with those required for any other type of project plan. workshops or seminars). to develop a work breakdown structure including additional details such as dependencies and start dates. format. responsible sender. and time frame of communication required for the project to be a success. and limited funding to produce training products and services. implementation details (such as the scheduling of lectures. due dates. Types of messages include course announcements. The expected outcomes usually involve changes to human performance. and even students all agree on the intent and purpose of the effort. the impact anticipated and type of resistance (if any) expected. Writing a training project plan for projects of even the smallest scope. Creating a realistic schedule (that everyone on the team endorses) ensures that the project completes successfully. testing results. managers. Project managers handle risk throughout the project life cycle. Change Management The change management portion of a training project plan describes what will change a result of the training project. and requests for input on new training projects. Training development and delivery projects do have some key differences. Scheduled Milestones The milestones section of a training project plan summarizes the tasks. . The project manager should include details about why the change is necessary. This section should also describe how to overcome obstacles and ensure the success of the training project. and accountability for completing all tasks. slow review cycles. such as Microsoft Project or Excel. Common risks include lack of subject matter expert input. Project managers may also use software tools. ensures that sponsors. Listing a high-level summary in the project plan sets expectations about when the project tasks will be completed and by whom. subject matter experts. team members.
This template walks you through building a very detailed and comprehensive description of your project. its planning and execution. developing a common understanding of project details with your team. Project Team and other management of the enterprise associated with and/or affected by the project. Each Project Plan component is essentially a work product resulting from subtasks in the Make Plan Project Management task. Understanding the risks of the project to the organization and how it related to other initiatives already underway. The finished product can be useful for: • • • • setting stakeholder expectations. It is important to document all parameters that will have an impact on the project. • controlling it during its duration and ending the project. The finished product can be 30 pages long describes the following about the project: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Purpose/background/approach Goals/objectives Scope Deliverables Constraints/assumptions Related projects/critical dependencies Schedule and milestones Budget/cost-benefit assessment Risk assessment WBS Quality management approach Tools and techniques to be used Resource estimates Standards Change and control procedures Roles/responsibilities Work plan Team contact directory Approval sign-off form . Executive Sponsor. particularly during project startup creating a very solid basis for building a project schedule. but can be revised during other project management activities. The Plan is a contract between the Project Manager.
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