TEST PROCEDURES

SLUMP CONE 1. Purpose : The slump cone is used for determining the workability of concrete where the nominal maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 38 mm. 2. Procedure as per IS 1199 – Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete a. b. c. d.
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f. g.

h.

Firstly decide the frequency of slump value to be taken during concreting. Oil the interior surface of the slump cone with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Place the slump cone on a leveled surface. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixture. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheelbarrow with sampling scoop. After remixing immediately fill the slump cone in layers approximately one – quarter of the height of the cone. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod by 25 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the cone and for the second and subsequent layers tamping rod shall penetrate into the underlying layer. After compacting the top layer the concrete shall be struck off level with the top of the slump cone, using a _______. Any mould which may have leaked out between the mould and the base plate shall be cleaned away.

i.

Unscrew the slump cone from the base plate and remove it immediately from the concrete by raising it slowly and carefully in a vertical direction. After the concrete subsides place the slump cone on the base plate in reverse position and place a scale on it. Measure the height between the top of the mould and the highest point of the concrete specimen being tested.

j.

3. Reporting of slump value The slump measured shall be reported in terms of millimeters.

VIBRATING TABLE 1. Purpose Vibrating table is used for proper compaction of concrete (as per IS 516-Methods of tests for strength of concrete) while casting specimens for compressive strength determination. 2. Procedure i. ii. iii. After preparing the concrete mix, put moulds on the vibration table platform. Fill concrete in the mould in layers of 50 mm deep. In placing each scoopful of concrete, move the scoop around the top edge of the mould as the concrete slides from it, in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the mould. Let each layer compact by vibration. After compacting concrete in 3 layers, finish the surface of the concrete level with the top of the mould. Stop the table and remove the mould from it.

iv. v. vi.

TEST PROCEDURES
BULK DENSITY MEASURE (For Density of Concrete) 1. Purpose The bulk density measure is used for determining the weight per cubic meter of freshly mixed concrete (density) from which the yield of concrete per cubic meter can be calculated. 2. Procedure as per IS 1199 – methods of sampling and analysis of concrete i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

v. vi. vii. viii.
ix.

Take freshly mixed concrete from transit mixer by using wheel borrow. Fill the cylindrical measure with concrete as soon as practicable after mixing. Fill the cylindrical measure with concrete in layers approximately 5 cm deep and each layer shall be compacted. While compacting the concrete the standard tamping bar shall be distributed in uniform manner over the cross section of the measure. The number of strokes per layer is 60 for 10 litres cylinder and 120 for 20 litres cylinder. The exterior surface of the cylinder shall be tapped 10 to 15 times or until no large bubbles of air appear on the surface of the compacted layer. Strike-off the top surface and finish it smoothly with a flat cover plate. Clean all excess concrete from the exterior and weigh the filled measured. Density of concrete (W1): The weight per cubic meter of concrete shall be calculated by dividing the

x. xi.

weight of fully compacted concrete in the cylindrical measure by the capacity of measure in kg/cu.m (W1). Yield of concrete (V2) : The volume of concrete produced per cum. shall be calculated as follows. V2 = Wc + Wf + Wca + Ww W1 Wc = Wf = Wca = Ww = Weight of cement, kg Weight of fine aggregate, kg Weight of coarse aggregate, kg Weight of water, kg

Firstly decide the number of samples to be taken during concreting. After remixing immediately fill the mould in layers approximately 5 cm deep. During filling the mould. b. d. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheelbarrow with sampling scoop. Purpose The moulds are used for making of concrete cubes as per IS : 516 – 1959 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete. c. Procedure as per IS 516 a. the scoop shall be moved around the top edge of the mould as the concrete slides from it.6 m long and bulleted point at the lower end. sampling scoop. Oil the interior surface of the mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod (of 16 mm dia 60 cm long and rounded at one end) by . 2. Apparatus Wheel barrow. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixer. e. in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the mould. 3.TEST PROCEDURES 150 x 150MM Cube Moulds 1. f. g. 0. trowel cube moulds of 15 x 15 x 15 cm size and tamping bar 16 mm in diameter.

j. Store the cube moulds in a place which is free from vibration and cover the surface of the concrete with a piece of damp sacking for initial 16 to 24 hours. h. . i. top surface of the concrete shall be finished level with the top of the mould. After this period. mark the specimen and remove it from the mould by dismantling and submerge it clean water at a temperature of 27 +2oC and keep it till the time of testing for compressive strength. After compacting the tip layer. using a trowel.minimum 35 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the mould.

Remix the sample thoroughly and fill it in a 15 cm cube mould in two layers. a set of three cube moulds should be filled. Oil the interior surface of the cube mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. leaving a space of 13 mm (1/2 inch) at top. c. g. h. Compact each layer with tamping rod by tamping each layer 25 times. b. Procedure a. f. Prior to making each penetration resistance test. Remove all of the mortar from the sample by sieving it through a 4.75 mm IS sieve into a mortar pan. remove bleeding water by using a pipette.TEST PROCEDURES PENETRATION RESISTANCE APPARATUS 1. Select a representative sample of concrete of known proportion. After removing the bleed water. d. e. Select 65 mm2 and 16 mm2 removable needles for initial and final setting time respectively. insert the penetrometer vertically into the mortar. For easy removal of water. 2. For each test. Push the apparatus gradually i. tilt the mould by placing a 3 cm block under one of the edges and allow water to collect at the shallow portion for 2 minutes. Keep the moulds covered with a water impermeable cover and under shed for the duration of test. Purpose Penetration resistance apparatus : (Penetrometer) is used to find out initial and final setting time of concrete as per IS 8142Method of test for determining setting time of concrete by penetration resistance. .

in about 10 seconds. Record the force required and the elapsed time after adding water to the mix. k. Change the needle dia i. m. 16mm2 and final setting time is read off against a penetration resistance corresponding to 275 kgf/cm2 .e.j. Initial setting time is read off against a penetration resistance corresponding to 35 kg f/cm2. until the needle (65 mm2) penetrates the mortar upto scribe mark. The force required is indicated by the white ring. Make penetration test at hourly intervals. initial test being made after 3 hours. l. Leave a space of 20 mm from previous impression in subsequent penetration test. n.

After the test specimens (whose 28 days strength to be determined) have been made. Cover the specimens with flat steel cover plate to avoid distortion during the use. Carefully and gently lower the specimens into the curing tank and shall remain totally immersed for a period of 3½ Hours + 15 min.64 Ra. . the specimen shall be carefully removed from the boiling water and cooled by immersing in cooling tank at 27 +2oC for 2 hrs.09 + 1. store it in moist air of at least 90 percent humidity for 23 hours + 15 min. The temperature of water in the curing tank shall be at boiling (100 oC) when the specimens are placed. (As per IS 9013-1978Method of making. 2. Predicted 28 days compressive strength = R28 = 8. 6. After cooling remove the specimens from the mould and tested for its accelerated compressive strength (Ra) in N/mm2. 4. After curing for 3 ½ hours in boil water.ACCELERATED CURING METHOD 1. curing and determining compressive strength of accelerated cured concrete test specimens) Procedure : 1. The 28 days can be found out using following formula. Purpose : To find out 28 days compressive strength of concrete in 28 hours by accelerated curing method. 5. 7. 8. where Ra is accelerated compressive strength and R28 is predicted compressive strength at 28 days. 3.

6. release the pressure slowly by opening valve. Make the digital display to read “Zero” by adjusting the zero knob. 11. Put the display unit on “Peak Hold” mode to hold the maximum load reading. 8. 3. Note down the pattern of failure and calculate the compressive strength in N/mm2 or kg/cm2. As soon as sample fails. The digital display will be holding the maximum load reading at which sample has failed. Before starting another test. 2. 4. Procedure as per IS 516 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete 1. 10. .TEST PROCEDURES DIGITAL COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE 1.15 kN/s. 7. Close the pressure release valve. clean the lower platen and bring the digital display to “Zero” position by depressing the “Reset” switch. Start applying the load at the specified pace rate. Pace rate for 15 cm cube is 5. Purpose : The digital compression – testing machine is used to determine the compressive strength of hardened concrete specimens. Keep the specimen to be tested centrally on the clean lower platen so that small clearance is left between the upper platen and the top the specimen under test. 5. which could be maintained by adjusting the slow fast knob. 9. If the pace rate is on higher side the indicator displays red colour and the pace rate is on lower side the indicator will display yellow colour. If the pace rate is exactly equal to set rate then the indicator will display green colour.

Place the mould under the plunger together with non-porous resting plate. Coat the non-porous resting plate (glass plate) with petroleum jelly. initial and final setting of cement (As per IS 4031 – Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement) Procedure for determination of standard consistency : a. g. If not adjust it to zero. c. The temperature of cement and water and that of testing room shall be preferably within the range of 27 +2oC. Measure and note down the penetration. Place the mould after coating it lightly with petroleum jelly on the non-porous resting plate (glass plate).) repeat steps c to k above with the lesser water. Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement past made and smooth off the surface of the paste. e. If the value obtained is below 5 mm then try with lesser quantity of water (say 29%. Lower the plunger gently to touch the surface of the block and release quickly. Take the Vicat apparatus and fit the standard consistency plunger (Cylindrical one). Prepare a past with weighed quantity of water (30% of weight of cement = 90ml). Purpose : It is used to determine the standard consistency. h.TEST PROCEDURES VICAT APPARATUS (Standard Consistency) 1. Clean the mould and plate. Lower the stem and check if the reading is zero when the plunger touches the non-porous resting plate (glass plate). 28%. j. f. Take 300 g of cement. k. l. make it level to the top of the mould. . b. Make sure that the dash pot works properly. etc. d. i. The time from adding water to the dry cement till starting to fill the Vicat mould should be within 3 to 5 minutes.

m. Keep doing above tests with varying percentages of water until the amount of water for the required penetration of 5 to 7mm value is found. n. o.) repeat steps c to k above with more water. . Standard consistency : Express the amount of water as a percentage by weight of the dry cement. If the value obtained is above 7 mm then try with more quantity of water (say 31%. 32% etc.

g.30 x 300 x 0. make it level to the top of the mould. b. If not adjust it to zero. f. Start the stop watch as soon as you start adding water and mixing the cement past. water for initial setting time = 0. Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste made and smooth off the surface of the paste. e.85 times that of standard consistency (i. Prepare a neat cement paste mixed with water which is 0. d. .e. The time from adding water to the dry cement until starting to fill the Vicat mould should be within 3 to 5 minutes. If standard consistency = 30%. Take 300 g of cement. The mixing should be done using a stainless steel trowel called gauging trowel which is available with lab equipment dealers. on the non-porous resting plate (glass plate). Coat the non-porous resting plate (glass plate) with petroleum jelly. Place the mould after coating it lightly with petroleum jelly. c.TEST PROCEDURES VICAT APPARATUS (Initial setting time of cement) 1.5 ml). Procedure as per IS 4031 – Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement a. Take the Vicat apparatus and fit the standard consistency plunger (Needle type). Lower the stem and check if the reading is zero when the plunger touches the non-porous resting plate (glass plate). The temperature of cement and water and that of testing room shall be preferably within the range of 27 + 2oC.85 = 25. h.

i. k. Repeat this procedure until the needle fails to penetrate into the test block by 5 + 0. Make sure that the dash pot works properly. Place the mould under the needle (1 mm square) together with non-porous resting plate and cement paste. Initial setting time : The time started from mixing of water to the cement to the time when the needle fails to penetrate the test block by 5 + 0. l. . j.5 mm from the bottom of the mould.5 mm is described as the initial setting time. Initially the needle will pierce completely into the test block. Lower the needle gently to touch the surface of the block and release quickly.

Repeat this procedure at regular intervals until the time to find the needle makes an impression on the surface of the block and the circular impression is not seen. Lower the attachment gently to touch the surface of the block and release. Final Setting time : The time elapsed from mixing of water to the cement and the time till step c is the final setting time of cement. d. b. . Procedure as per IS 4031 – Method of physical tests for hydraulic cement a.TEST PROCEDURES VICAT APPARATUS (Final setting time of cement) 1. Use the dash pot. After determining the initial setting time replace the needle of Vicat apparatus by the needle with annular attachment. c.

conforming to IS : 650 – 1966. Ii & III Sand purchased from TAMIN. i. Chennai. e. d. Take water @ (P/4 + 3)% of combined weight of cement and sand (800g) where P is the standard consistency of cement paste. The 600g of standard sand will be made up o 200g each of grade I. Compact the mortar further by means of vibration for two minutes. h. Manali. At the end of vibration remove the mould from the machine and finish the top surface of the cube with the blade of a trowel. f. Take 200 g of cement and 600 gms of standard sand b.07 x 7.07 cm) mould on the vibration table and clamp it to hold it firmly in position. c.TEST PROCEDURES VIBRATING MACHINE (Compressive strength of cement) 1. Immediately after mixing the mortar place it in the cube mould and tamp it with the poking rod for 20 times in about 8 seconds. . Place the remaining quanitity of mortar place it in the cube mould and tamp it again as specified for the first layer. Procedure as per IS 4031 – Methods of physical test for hydraulic cement a. Place the 50 cm2 ( 7.07 x 7. Mix it dry with a trowel for one minute on a non-porous mixing plate. Mix the dry mixture with the quantity of water specified above for 3 to 4 minutes. Attach a hopper of suitable size on the top of the mould to facilitate filling. g.

m. Cast twelve such cubes so that we can find the compressive strength for 3 cubes each at 1 day. 3 days. Keep the filled moulds preferably at a temperature of 27 + 2oC and atleast 90 percent relative humidity for 24 hours after completion of vibration. Temperature of the curing water should be preferably 27 + 2oC.j. After 24 hours remove the cubes from the moulds and immediately submerge in clean water for curing. . k. 7 days and 28 days. Report average of compressive strength of three cube results to the nearest 5 kg/cm2. l.

b.TEST PROCEDURES SCHMIDT CONCRETE TEST HAMMER 1. Plot the average rebound value in the conversion curve to determine the compressive strength of concrete. Release the impact bolt by applying pressure to it. Minimum distance between impact points 20 mm. . The rebound value is arrested and read by means of the push-button. must be eliminated. c. The strength determined from the curve is to be corrected by using correction factors (as per manual of manufacture). k. this should be rubbed of with grinding stone. If loosely adhering scale is present. clean and dry surface preferably bottom of the slab is to be selected. PURPOSE It is used for estimation of compressive strength of concrete by rebound hammer method. PROCEDURE a. i. l. d. f. e. h. j. For testing. Each test point should be tested with at least 8 to 10 impacts. Rebound values. Place test hammer perpendicular to the test surface. (As per IS 13311 part – 2Non destructive testing of concrete – methods of test) 2. Press housing against the test surface at moderate speed until impact is triggered. g. smooth. After using the hammer the impact bolt is to be arrested by means of the push-button after the initiation of an impact. which are abnormally high or low.

n. . The test can be conducted horizontally on vertical surfaces like column or vertically upward or downward on horizontal surfaces like slabs and beams.m. The correlation between compressive strength of concrete cubes and its rebound number is to be established for most satisfactory results.

. 2..36 mm. g.. Take known weight of dry sample. d. Calculate the fineness modulus of sand by summing up the cumulative percentage of sand retained on 10 mm. Find out which grading zone the sand conforms to by checking with the table – 1 given below.e.. 300 mic. f. and 150 mic. (As per IS 2386 part 1 – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete) 2. 4. 600 mic. e. 4. Procedure : a.75 mm. 10 mm c. Purpose : The sieves are used for the determination of particle size distribution of fine aggregate by sieving. and 150 mic. . b. 1. Calculate cumulative percentage passing through each sieve. 6000 mic.18 mm.75 mm. Sizes of sieves : Sieves of the sizes 10mm.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR FINE AGGREGATE 1. Calculate the percentage of sand retained in each sieve and cumulative percentage retained on each sieve.8mm. Sieve the sample progressively starting from the largest sieve i. On completion of sieving weigh the material retained on each sieve. 3. sieves and dividing the sum by 100. 1.. 300 mic.

S.S.Table 1 : Grading zones (I.36mm 1. 383) 1978 I.18mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron 75 micron Cumulative percentage passing IS sieves for grading zone (natural sand) I II III IV 100 90-100 60-95 30-70 15-34 5-20 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 75-100 55-90 35-59 8-30 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 85-100 75-100 60-79 12-40 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 95-100 90-100 80-100 15-50 0-15 0-3 Crushed Sand 100 90-100 75-100 55-100 35-79 8-40 0-20 0-15 . Sieve 10mm 4.75mm 2.

600 mic. Calculate the percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve. Purpose : The sieves are used for the determination of particle size distribution of coarse aggregate by sieving (As per IS 2386 part I – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete) 2. e. f. b. 63 mm. 20 mm.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE 1. 150 mic. 150 mic. 10 mm.S. c. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve. 600 mic.75 mm 20 mm. 40 mm. 4. 10 mm. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate passing through each sieve. 10 mm.. sieves – sizes as following : Nominal size of aggregate 40 mm 20 mm 12. 4.5 mm. 16 mm.5 mm.36 mm. 4. 25 mm. 12. 4.75 mm. Procedure : a. . Sizes of sieves required for nominal size coarse aggregate Balance and I.75 mm 40 mm. Take a known weight 9 2kg) of dry aggregate..75 mm. 20 mm. 2. 3.5 mm 10 mm Sieve size (mm) 80 mm. Sieve the aggregate progressively starting from the largest sieve. d. 10 mm. 12. Note down the weight of the material retained in each sieve.

Grading requirement of coarse aggregate (IS : 383) 25 mm 20 mm 12.75 mm .g.5 mm 10 mm 4. Check the values of percentage passing with the limits specified in IS 383 and record it.

Find out height of silt and clay layer (A-B). e. Measure the total height of material (A). b. Calculate the percentage of silt and clay in the total sand layer. Purpose : The 250 ml capacity glass-measuring cylinder is used for determination of silt and clay content in sand on volume basis. h. Calculation : Silt & Clay %.TEST PROCEDURES SILT CONTENT OF FINE AGGREGATE (BY VOLUME METHOD) 1. (A-B) /B* 100 . Clay and silt will be seen as a separate layer over sand. Add clean water upto 150 ml and shake the contents well. 2. i. Measure the height of sand layer (B). f. d. Allow contents to settle for 15 to 20 min. g. Fill the glass-measuring cylinder with sample of sand upto 100 ml mark. c. Procedure : a.

Select the required group of sieves for the sieve analysis. dismantle the sieve assembly and collect separately the material retained on each sieve and on the receiver for weighin TEST PROCEDURES AIR OVEN . Unbolt the nuts of the sliding retaining plate. b. Place the lid on the sieve. Keep the material on the top sieve. and continue the sieving operation for specified time say 10 minutes. At the end of sieving operation. f. Purpose : Sieve shaker is used for the process of sieving easier and quicker as per IS 2386 part I – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete. 2. c. Start the sieve shaker by switching on the motor. d. Unbolt the nuts of the clamping plate. On the base of the sieve holder mount the sieves in order of decreasing opening size from top to bottom.SIEVE SHAKER 1. raise it to a suitable height and tighten the nuts. together with a receiver fitted below the bottom sieve. Procedure : a. slide it down to pass the whole sieve assembly and tighten the nuts. g. e. h.

gm W2= weight of dry sample. Purpose Air oven is used to dry the material for finding out moisture content present in aggregate. gm . Take the sample out of air oven and cool it. Moisture content of aggregate is the percentage of weight of water in the aggregate sample to the total dry weight of the aggregate sample. c. % W1=weight of moist sample. The procedure is the same for both coarse and fine aggregate. Take the weight of dry sample (W2). Take the moist or wet sample weigh (W1) Dry it in a hot air oven for 10-15 min. at the temperature of 100oC.1. Calculation Moisture content of aggregate is calculated as follows : M=(W1-W2) / W2 x 100 Where M = Moisture content of aggregate. Procedure a. 2. d. b. 3.

c. g. roll it on a flat surface and then fill it completely with water and weigh (W3). Specific Gravity = (W2 – W1) / [(W4-W1)-(W3-W2)] weight of empty pycnometer. weight of pycnometer and dry aggregate. refill it with water only and weigh. 2. Purpose : The pycnometer is used to determine the specific gravity of aggregate as per IS 2386 part III – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete. weight of pycnometer with aggregate and water. g weight of pycnometer filled with only water. Empty the contents of the pycnometer. Calculate the specific gravity using this formula. e. (W4). Procedure a. Add water to the sample. g. Weight an empty pycnometer (W1) Fill up half of the pycnometer with dry aggregate sample and weigh. g Where W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 = . d.TEST PROCEDURES SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST FOR AGGREGATE 1. b. fill the pycnometer with water.

Purpose : The cylindrical metal measures are used for determining unit weight or bulk density of aggregate.TEST PROCEDURES CYLINDRICAL METAL MEASURE (For Density of Aggregate) 1.Methods of test for aggregates for concrete A. B. Determine the net weight of aggregate by knowing empty weight of measure and calculate Bulk density in Kg/cu. Determine the net weight of aggregate by knowing empty weight of measure and calculate Bulk density in Kg/cu. Again fill the measure with approx. mixed aggregate. Tamp it with 25 strokes of the rounded end of tamping rod. Loose Density a. Fill the measure about 1/3rd height with thoroughly b. Fill the measure to overflow with aggregate by discharging from height not more than 5 cm above the top of measure. c. c. e. . Level the sample with a straight edge. b. Rodded or Compacted Density a. 2.m. tamp it 25 times & struck off surplus aggregate with tamping rod. Overflow the measure with aggregate. same quantity & tamp it with 25 strokes.m. d. Procedure as per IS 2386 part III.

5 mm to 10 mm 10 mm to 6.5 mm. 16 mm to 12. 31. f. c. Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges. Procedure a. e. 12. 40 mm to 25 mm. g . Weigh the particles retained on length gauge. Calculation Elongation index of aggregate in % is calculated as follows: Ei = (W1/W2) x 100% Where W1 = Weight of particles retained in length gauge. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. Purpose The length gauge is used to determine the Elongation index of coarse aggregate (As per IS 2386 part – 1 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete) 2. Keep the particles retained by the length separately. Take all the fraction separately. 3. g W2 = Weight of total sample taken for test. gauge them one by one through the corresponding shot provided in the gauge. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm.3 mm.5 mm to 25 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that b. 63 mm. 25 mm to 20 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i.TEST PROCEDURES LENGTH GAUGE 1. 20 mm to 16 mm. d. 50 mm to 40 mm.e. atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present.

25 mm to 20 mm. 50 mm to 40 mm. b. . Note the number of particles passing and not passing through the corresponding slot in the gauge for each fraction. Calculate for each fraction the following : a. 40 mm to 31.3 mm.e. iii. iv.5 mm to 25 mm. ii. 16 mm to 12. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. Take all the fraction separately. 12.5 mm. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. 2. This is noted as Y. v.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in fraction. 63 mm. (As per IS 2386 part 1 – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete). Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. This is noted as X. Purpose : Thickness gauge is used to find out flakiness index of coarse aggregate. Keep the particles passing through the slot of the gauge and retained in gauge separately.TEST PROCEDURES THICKNESS GAUGE 1. 20 mm to 16 mm.). vi. Percentage of weight of particles in fraction taken for testing to the total weight of particles in fraction taken for the test (total qty.5mm. Procedure : i. 31.

% .3. % Yi = Percentage of weight of particles in fraction to the total weight of particles in all fraction. Calculation : Flakiness Index = Fi = X (Xi – Yi)/100% i=1 to n Where Xi = Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in that fraction.

6. Take about 1000 g of dry sample passing through 12. 3. Fill the cylindrical metal measure with the dried sample. 7. The sample should be placed in three increments. Procedure : 1.36 mm IS sieve until no more sample passes through the sieve. The interval between each blow should be about one second. % = (W1 – W2) W1 x 100 Where W1 = weight of dry sample passing through 12.36 mm sieve (W2). g Report the aggregate impact value in percentage and as the mean of two determinations rounded off to the nearest whole number. Height of the fall of the hammer should be 380 mm. each increment being rodded 25 times with the tamping rod. Strike off the excess sample using the tamping rod as a straight edge. Calculation : Aggregate impact value. Take the weight of sample in the measure (W1). g W2 = weight of dry sample retained on 2.36 mm IS sieve. Now drop the hammer in the testing machine 15 times on the sample test in the cup. Remove the sample from the cup and sieve it on 2. 10. . 2. Repeat the test for another sample from the same lot and calculate the average of the two values. Find the weight of sample retained on 2.IMPACT VALUE TEST FOR 10 mm AGGREGATE 1. 4. 8. 9.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve. 5.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve. Purpose : The impact test machine is used to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregate as per IS 2386 Part IV – 1963 – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete 2.

Apparatus Balance and I. sieves – sizes as following : Nominal size of aggregate 40 mm 20 mm 12. Calculate the percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve.5 mm 10 mm Sieve size (mm) 80 mm. c. 10 mm. 12.75 mm. 12. Take a known weight (2 kg) of dry aggregate reduced by quartering. 150 mic. 20 mm.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVES FOR COARSE AGGREGATE Sieve analysis of Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate consists of material above 4. 150 mic. 600 mic.75 mm. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate passing through each sieve. 10 mm. d. f. 600 mic. Procedure : a. 4.36 mm.. 40 mm. 4.S.5 mm.75 mm 20 mm. Note down the weight of material retained in each sieve. 20 mm. 63 mm.75 mm 40 mm. e. 4. . It may be crushed aggregate of natural gravel of different sizes.. 16 mm. 10 mm. Sieve the aggregate progressively starting from the largest sieve. 2. 10 mm. b. 25 mm. 4.75mm size.5 mm.

g. . it can be corrected by blending it to coarser of finer size fractions available to make it according to the limit specified in IS 383 (Grades Coarse Aggregate). Check the values of percentage passing with the limits specified in IS 383 and enter the values. h. If the grading deviates from limit specified.

5 mm to 25 mm. 20 mm to 16 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. Apparatus Balance. . Take all the fraction separately. 31. 40 mm to 25 mm. Elongation gauge (Length gauge) and IS sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. Keep the particles retained by the length separately.3 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. 2. d. 12. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. 50 mm to 40 mm.5 mm 10 mm and 6.e.TEST PROCEDURES ELONGATION TEST 1. e. c. 31. 25 mm to 20 mm. 63 mm. 16 mm to 12. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.3 mm.5 mm. Weigh the particles retained on length gauge. 25 mm. f. The aim should be to retain as much as possible to avoid testing bias. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. Procedure a.3 mm 3. b. Elongation Index Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and four-fifth times their mean dimension. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6. Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm.5 mm.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. 12. 20 mm. 50 mm. 16 mm.

g W2 = weight of total sample taken for test.Calculation Elongation index of aggregate in % is calculated as follows: Ei = (W1/W2) x 100% Where W1 = weight of particles retained in length gauge. g Reporting Report the elongation index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number. .

20 mm. Apparatus : Balance. Flakiness gauge (thickness gauge) and GI sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. b. 12. 12. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. Flakiness Index : Flakiness index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles in it whose least dimension (thickness) is less then threefifth of their mean dimension. 31. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in fraction. e. 20 mm to 16 mm. Procedure : a.5 mm. Calculate for each fraction the following : a. c. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6.5 mm. 25 mm to 20 mm.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. 63 mm.5 mm. 16 mm to 12. 40 mm. 25 mm. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. 50 mm to 40 mm.3 mm.e. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm.5 mm to 25 mm.3 mm. 16 mm.5 mm. d.TEST PROCEDURES FLAKINESS TEST 1. Take all the fraction separately. . 2. 31. 3. 40 mm to 31. This is noted as X. The aim should be to pass as many as possible through the slot to avoid testing bias.3 mm. Keep the particles passing through the slot of the gauge and retained in gauge separately. 10 mm and 6. 50 mm.

). Percentage of weight of particles in fraction taken for testing to the total weight of particles in all fractions taken for the test (total qty.b. %. This is noted as Y. % Reporting Report the flakiness index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number. . Yi = Percentage of weight of particles in fraction to the total weight of particles in all fraction. Calculation Flakiness Index = Fi = ∑ (Xi – Yi)/100% Where Xi = Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in the fraction.

75 mm IS sieve into a mortar pan. For easy removal of water. Procedure a. Initial setting time of concrete by penetration resistance Initial setting time of concrete is the time interval required for the mortar sieved from the concrete mixture to reach a penetration resistance of 3. b.TEST PROCEDURES PENETROMETER 1. For each test. a set of three cube moulds should be filled. Push the apparatus h. Remix the sample thoroughly and fill it in a 15 cm cube mould in two layers. Keep the moulds covered with a water – impermeable cover and under shed for the duration of test. penetrometer graduated from 0 kgf to 60 kgf in increments of 2 kgf. d. remove bleeding water by using a pipette. After removing the bleed water. tilt the mould by placing a 3 cm block under one of the edges and allow water to collect at the shallow portion for 2 minutes. e. Compact each layer with tamping rod by tamping each layer 25 times.43 N/mm2 (35 kgf/cm2) after the initial contact of cement and water. leaving a space of 13 mm (1/2 inch) at top. Select a representative sample of concrete of known proportion. c. g. Oil the interior surface of the cube mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. 2. Prior to making each penetration resistance test. pipette. . Remove all of the mortar from the sample by sieving it through a 4. Apparatus Concrete cube moulds of 15 cm x 15 cm size. tamping rod of 16 mm in diameter and 600 mm length rounded at one end. f. insert the pocket penetrometer vertically into the mortar.

Record the force required and the elapsed time after adding water to the mix. fine aggregate. Plot the penetration resistance against time. Initial setting time is read off against a penetration resistance corresponding to 35 kgf/Cm2. k. The force required is indicated by the white ring. l. Make penetration tests at hourly intervals. Leave a space of 20 mm from previous impressions in subsequent penetration tests. in about 10 seconds. initial test being made after 3 hours. coarse aggregate and the water-cement ration with ambient temperature during test period with the result. . Reporting : Average value of elapsed time of three tests shall be reported as initial setting time. Report the type and proportion of cement. j. gradually until the needle penetrates the mortar upto the scribe mark.i.

3. Oil the interior surface of the mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete.TEST PROCEDURES CASTING OF CONCRETE CUBE MOULDS 1. PROCEDURE : a. During filling the mould. in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the mould. MAKING AND CURING CONCRETE CUBES: This method covers the procedure for making and curing of concrete cubes as per IS : 516 – 1959. the scoop shall be moved around the top edge of the mould as the concrete slides from it. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod by minimum 35 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the mould. APPARATUS : Wheel barrow.6 m long and bulleted point at the lower end. b. c. Firstly decide the number of samples to be taken during concreting. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixer. trowel. e. f. 2. d. . After remixing immediately fill the mould in layers approximately 5 cm deep. sampling scoop. 0. cube moulds of 15 x 15 x 15 cm size and tamping bar 16 mm in diameter. g. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheelbarrow with sampling scoop.

h. . using a trowel. i. Store the cube moulds in a place which Is free from vibration and cover the surface of the concrete with a piece of damp sacking for initial 16 to 24 hours. After compacting the top layer. top surface of the concrete shall be finished level with the top of the mould.

Place the slump cone on a leveled surface. d. 3. f. APPARATUS Metal slump cone of at least 1. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheel barrow with sampling scoop.6 m long and rounded at one end. for determining the workability of concrete where the nominal maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 38 mm. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixer. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod by 25 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the crosssection of the cone and for the second and subsequent layers tamping rod shall penetrate into the underlying layer. 0. e.6 mm thickness provided with suitable base plate and also handles for lifting it from the moulded concrete test specimen vertically.TEST PROCEDURES SLUMP TEST 1. Oil the interior surface of the slump cone with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Internal dimension of the cone should have the following sizes : Bottom diameter 20 cm Top diameter 10 cm Height 30 cm Tamping rod of 16 mm diameter. b. PROCEDURE : a. Firstly decide the frequency of slump value to be taken during concreting. SLUMP TEST This method of test specifies the procedure to be adopted. . either in the laboratory or in the field during work. 2. g. After remixing immediately fill the slump cone in layers approximately one – quarter of the height of the cone. c.

Unscrew the slump cone from the base plate and remove it immediately from the concrete by raising it slowly and carefully in a vertical direction. After compacting the top layer. Measure the height between the top of the mould and the highest point of the specimen being tested. which may have leaked out between the mould and the base plate. Any mortar. i.h. After the concrete subsides place the slump cone on the base plate in reverse position and place a scale on it. shall be repeated with another sample. shall be cleaned away. If. the specimen shears. which collapses or shears off laterally. shall be reported. the concrete shall be struck off level with the top of the slump cone. the slump shall be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared. using a trowel. Any slump specimen. REPORTING OF SLUMP VALUE : The slump measured shall be reported in terms of millimeters of subsidence of the specimen during the test. j. . Take corrective action to make the mix cohesive. 4. in the repeat test also.

And 60 cm long.75 mm and under Over 4. b. Sizes of metal measures for different sizes of aggregate are given in table – 1. Fill the measure about 1/3rd height with thoroughly mixed aggregate. same quantity & tamp it with 25 strokes. Again fill the measure with approx. Bulk density of aggregate This method of test covers the procedure for determining unit weight or bulk density of aggregate 2.15 4.00 5. . Tamp it with 25 strokes of the rounded end of tamping rod.TEST PROCEDURES DENSITY CYLINDER FOR AGGREGARE (Coarse and Fine) 1. rounded at one end.75 mm to 40 mm Over 40 mm Nominal Capacity Litre 3 15 30 Inside diameter cm 15 25 35 Inside Height cm 17 30 31 Thickness of Metal Min mm 3. 60 cm long and rounded at one end. Table 1 : Size of container for Bulk density test Size of largest particles 4. A straight tamping rod of cylindrical c/s 16 mm in diameter. Apparatus Balance cylindrical metal measure with handle and tamping rod of 16 mm dia.00 3. c. Procedure Rodded or Compacted weight – a.

c. e. b. Determine the net weight of aggregate and calculate Bulk density in Kg/lit. Determine the net weight of aggregate and calculate Bulk density in Kg/lit. Level the sample with a straight edge. Overflow the measure. tamp it 25 times and struck off surplus aggregate with tamping rod.d. Fill the measure to overflow with aggregate by discharging from height not more than 5 cm above the top of measure. . Loose Density – a.

Calculate the specific gravity using this formula. g weight of pycnometer filled with only water. refill it with water only and weigh. 2. Specific gravity of aggregates This method cover the procedure for finding the specific gravity of aggregate using glass pycnometer. Apparatus Pycnometer (glass bottle with conical cap) and balance.TEST PROCEDURES PYCNOMETER 1. b. Gravity = (W2-W1) [(W4-W1)-(W3-W2)] Where W1 Where W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 = weight of empty pycnometer. Fill up half of the pycnometer with dry aggregate sample and weigh. weight of pycnometer and dry aggregate. weight of pycnometer with aggregate and water. fill the pycnometer with water. Sp. roll it on a flat surface and then fill it completely with water and weigh. g . Procedure Weigh an empty pycnometer. e. g. Empty the contents of the pycnometer. g. c. Add water to the sample. 3. a. d.

TEST PROCEDURES AIR OVEN 1. c. 4. Apparatus One hot plate or over. The procedure is the same for both coarse and fine aggregate. g W2 = Weight of dry sample. tray and balance 3. b. % W1 = Weight of moist sample. Moisture Content of Aggregate Moisture content of aggregate is the percentage of weight of water in the aggregate sample to the total dry weight of the aggregate sample. Take the weight of moist or wet sample Dry it in a hot plate or oven Take the weight of dry sample Calculation Moisture content of aggregate is calculated as follows : M=(W1 – W2)/W2 x 100 Where M = Moisture content of aggregate. 2. g . Procedure a.

Now drop the hammer in the testing machine 15 times on the sample kept in the cup. Report the aggregate impact value in percentage and as the mean of two determinations rounded off to the nearest whole number. Take about 1000 g of dry sample passing through 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve. h. The interval between each blow should be about one second. Repeat the test for another sample from the same lot and calculate the average of the two values.36 mm IS sieve until no more sample passes through the sieve. Calculation : Aggregate impact value. Fill the cylindrical metal measure with the dried sample. % = (W1-W2)/W1 x 100 Where W1 = weight of dry sample passing through 12. g. g W2 = weight of dry sample retained on 2.36 mm IS sieve. Remove the sample from the cup and sieve it one 2. . f. c. Height of the fall of the hammer should be 380 mm.36 mm sieve (W2). d. each increment being rodded 25 times with the tamping rod. Take the weight of sample in the measure (W1) e. The sample should be placed in three increments. i. Strike off the excess sample using the tamping rod as a straight edge.TESTING METHOD OF IMPACT TEST MACHINE (As per IS 2386 Part IV) – 1963 Purpose : This method is used to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregate Procedure : a. g j.5mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve. Find the weight of the sample retained on 2. b.

Take the weight of dry sample 4. Take the weight of moist or wet sample b. Dry it in a hot plate or oven c. 2. Moisture content of Aggregate Moisture content of aggregate is the percentage of weight or water in the aggregate sample to the total dry weight of the aggregate sample. Apparatus One hot plate or oven tray and balance 3. % W1 = Weight of moist sample. g W2 = Weight of dy sample. Procedure a. g . Calculation Moisture content of aggregate is calculated as follows : M=(W1-W2) / W2 x 100 Where M = Moisture content of aggregate.TEST PROCEDURES Air Oven for Aggregate (Coarse and Fine) 1. The procedure is the same for both coarse and fine aggregate.

The aim should be to retain as much as possible to avoid testing bias.TEST PROCEDURES ELONGATION GAUGE COARSE AGGREGATE 1. Elongation gauge (Length gauge) and IS sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. Procedure : a. 12. Elongation Index : Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and four-fifth times their mean dimension. d. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. 20 mm to 16 mm. 40 mm to 25 mm. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. 16 mm. b. e.3 mm. c.5 mm. 63 mm. 20 mm. f. Keep the particles retained by the length separately. Weigh the particles retained on length gauge. 40 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. 16 mm to 12. Take all the fraction separately. 10 mm and 6.5 mm. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. 3. 25 mm. 31. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6.3 mm. .5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. 12. 50 mm. 50 mm to 40 mm. Apparatus : Balance.e. 25 mm to 20 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges.3 mm. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size.5 mm. 2.

g W2= weight of total sample taken for test.4. % Where W1 = weight of particles retained in length gauge. Reporting : Report the elongation index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number. Calculation : Elongation index of aggregate in % is calculated as follows : Ei = (W1 / W2) x 100. g 5. .

d.5 mm. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. Keep the particles passing through the slot of the gauge and retained in gauge separately. 12. b. 50 mm. . Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. 12. Apparatus Balance.5 mm. 40 mm to 31. c. 10 mm and 6. Note the number of particles passing and not passing through the corresponding slot in the gauge for each fraction.TEST PROCEDURES FLAKINESS GAUGE FOR COARSE AGGREGATE 1. 2. 63 mm. e. 25 mm.3 mm. 16 mm. 40 mm.e. 3. It is measure on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6.3 mm. 16 mm to 12.5 mm. Flakiness gauge (thickness gauge) and GI sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. 20 mm. The aim should be to pass as many as possible through the slot to avoid testing bias. Procedure a. 31. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. 50 mm to 40 mm. 20 mm to 16 mm.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. 25 mm to 20 mm. 31. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. Take all the fraction separately.5 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i.5 mm to 25 mm.3 mm. Flakiness Index Flakiness index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles in it whose least dimension (thickness) is less then three-fifth of their mean dimension.

Calculate for each fraction the following : 1. Percentage of weight of particles in fraction taken for testing to the total weight of particles in all fractions taken for the test (total qty. Percentage of number of particle passing the slot to the total number of particles in fraction. 2. % Yi = Percentage of weight of particles in fraction to the total weight of particles in all fraction. This is noted as X.f. Calculation : Flakiness Index = Fi = X (Xi – Yi)/100% i=1 to n Where Xi = Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in that fraction. . This is noted as Y.). % Reporting : Report the flakiness index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number.

On completion of sieving weigh the material retained on each sieve.36 mm. 600 mic.18mm.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVES FOR FINE AGGREGATE 1. 300 mic. e. Sieve analysis of Fine Aggregate : Fine aggregate consists of material mostly between 4.. and 150 mic. g. Find out which grading zone the sand conforms to by checking with the table – 1 given below : 2. Calculate cumulative percentage of sand retained in each sieve and cumulative percentage retained on each sieve. It may be natural sand or crushed stone dust..75 mm and 150 micron. 4. 1. 600 mic. Sand based on sieve analysis is classified into four zones conforming to zone-I. 3. Calculate the fineness modulus of sand by summing up the cumulative percentage of sand retained on 10 mm. d. 4.75 mm. 10 mm. .) b. 300 mic. zone-III and zone-IV as per IS383.. And weighing balance. and 150 mic. Sieve the sample progressively starting from the largest sieve i. 4. 2. Sives and dividing the sum by 100.e..75 mm. Procedure : a. Calculate cumulative percentage passing through each size. Take known weight of dry sample (about 1 kg min. Sizes of sieves : Sieves of the sizes 10 mm. c. zone-II. f. 1.18 mm. Purpose : The sieves are used for the determination of particle size distribution of fine aggregate by sieving.

Sieve 10mm 4.Table 1 : Grading zones (I.36mm 1. S.18mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron 75 micron Cumulative percentage passing IS sieves for grading zone (natural sand) I II III IV 100 90-100 60-95 30-70 15-34 5-20 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 75-100 55-90 35-59 8-30 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 85-100 75-100 60-79 12-40 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 95-100 90-100 80-100 15-50 0-15 0-3 Crushed Sand 100 90-100 75-100 55-100 35-79 8-40 0-20 0-15 .S.75mm 2. 383) 1978 I.

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