# Chapter # 1

Information System Prepared by: Mazhar Javed Awan

mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420)

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com(03334461420) 2 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.Data & Information DATA  Collection of facts and figures Representation of information  Numeric Alphabetic Alphanumeric  INFORMATION  Processed and meaningful form of data is information  Reprocessed data to get more results mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.Data Examples    A set of names and addresses written on student¶s admission form A telephone conversation converted to electrical signals to be sent down the wires A song written in sheet music so that it can be played mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420) 3 .

com(03334461420) 4 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.Information Processing  Is the organization. Listening the songs Reading a map from one place to other What does the number 29061996 mean? Is it:         A birthday? (29th June 1996) A bank account number? A club membership number? A telephone number?  Without processing or more information this data is meaningless. manipulation and distribution of information   Example: The sorted data for those students in admission form which have taken computer subject. mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

com(03334461420) 5 .Data Processing Process Output Input Data Collection mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

Processing Processing has various operations  Calculation  Analysis  Comparison  Manipulation mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420) 6 .

com(03334461420) 7 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo. (INPUT)  The data is processed. (PROCESS)  Information comes out of the information system.The three stages of doing tasks Input Process Output  Data is put into the information system. (OUTPUT) mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

com(03334461420) 8 .Manual information systems   We are all used to using manual information systems. An example of a manual information system is a telephone directory.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo. mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

(INPUT) We look up the name and the address (PROCESS).com(03334461420) 9 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo. (OUTPUT) mazharjaved2001@yahoo. and we find their telephone number.Manual information systems   All we need to know to find a person·s telephone number in the telephone book is their name and address.

(OUTPUT) mazharjaved2001@yahoo. (PROCESS)  Find the telephone number. (INPUT)  Look up the name and address.com(03334461420) 10 .Manual information systems Input Process Output  Have the name and address.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

com(03334461420) 11 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo. These include: Greater flexibility  Speed  mazharjaved2001@yahoo.Computerised information systems   Computerised information systems have several advantages over manual information systems.

mazharjaved2001@yahoo. This database can be used to find information about a vehicle or driver even if the data is incomplete.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420) 12 .Examples of computerised information systems    DVLA ² Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority The DVLA has a computerised database about every driver and vehicle in the UK.

com(03334461420) 13 . mazharjaved2001@yahoo. By using several terminals different people can access information at the same time. Information is not duplicated.Advantages of computerised information systems     A single computer can store all the information needed. Information can be transferred to other computer systems easily.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

 mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.Encoding To convert information or data into a form ready for processing Example: Information about products is encoded into bar codes which are then printed on products labels.com(03334461420) 14 .

Decoding  To convert data back to a form where it can be understood. the names of the teachers are stored . Example: On a school data file. mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420) 15 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.

com(03334461420) 16 .com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo. In schools there is a admission form that filled completely and send admin back . mazharjaved2001@yahoo. Their details are typed into a computer via a keyboard.Data Collection   Bringing together all the data for an application and getting it ready for processing.

com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420) 17 . The card is read by a mark sensing device.Data Capture Means obtaining data for a Computer  Term is used in situations where a computer peripheral inputs the data automatically.  mazharjaved2001@yahoo. Example: Example: In examination candidate does a multiple choice test by making a card with pencil in right places.

All types of equipment or programs that are used in processing information World has become a global village Information can be communicated in any shape such as Photographs Movies Text Digital diagrams mazharjaved2001@yahoo.com(03334461420) 18       .Information Technology   Uses Computing with high speed communication links to spread information from one place to other.com(0333mazharjaved2001@yahoo.