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TOEFL iBT 80
(Student’s Book )
Compiled and Edited by
Ta Tu Quynh Dinh Tran Hanh Nguyen Pham Nguyen Huy Hoang Vu Quoc Anh Truong Son
(Internal Use Only)
TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________
WRITING AN ESSAY
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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________
WHAT IS AN ESSAY?
TOEFL iBT 80
WHAT IS AN ESSAY?
Letter Word Sentence Paragraph
STRUCTURE OF AN ESSAY
Introduction: attracts the reader’s interest Thesis Statement: states the main aim or purpose of the essay Body: list of points that support the thesis First Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis Second Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis Third Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis ...
Conclusion: a final thought or two stemming from the topic of the essay
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Those sentences can be background information about the topic or they can be examples.) Use a famous quote Ex: “To be or not to be. (This observation makes the reader want to know why Asian economists are not sleeping well. he feels as though he is not moving. There are 2 ways to write a thesis statement.” (This hook begins an essay on the topic about suicide. it is as if he entered another dimension. and limited university programs for poor students. that’s the question.) Give a unique scenario Ex: Traveling at more than 100 mph.) 2. There are generally 4 ways to write a hook.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY TOEFL iBT 80 I. increasing demand for better healthcare. Direct thesis statement: specific outline of the essay Ex: The main problems facing South American countries are a lack of job opportunities for citizens. (This essay is about the exciting sport of skydiving. Thesis Statement The Thesis Statement (or writing plan) is usually the last part of the introduction. He is engulfed in complete silence. Connecting ideas After the hook. but they’ll probably be hooked and want to find out more about the topic) Make an interesting observation Ex: Asian economists are not sleeping well these days. INTRODUCTION Hook A hook is the opening sentence(s) to catch the reader’s attention. In the thesis statement. Ask a question Ex: How many out there on the roads are driving uninsured vehicles? (Most people won’t know the answer. the writer tells the reader what to expect in the essay. the writer usually writes 3 to 5 sentences that help connect the reader and the topic. It can be 1 or 2 sentences long. he reads on. 1. To find out. For a moment. 3. Page 4 of 37 .
facts. CONCLUSION Final thought(s) stemming from the topic of the essay Page 5 of 37 ..) 4.... . facts. but that is not a problem.) II. facts. . Paragraph 3 Topic sentence – Supporting sentences (examples. III. 1. The reader does not know exactly what to expect.... Paragraph 2 Topic sentence – Supporting sentences (examples. .) 3. BODY Paragraph 1 Topic sentence – Supporting sentences (examples.) 2..TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Indirect thesis statement Ex: The problems facing South American countries today require immediate attention. . (The reader expects to find out a discussion of problems in South America.
The people in the neighborhood are friendly and cooperative.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY TOEFL iBT 80 READ AND WRITE OUT ITS OUTLINE OF THIS ESSAY MY HOME Have you ever been away from home for a time? If you have. there is a huge tree that has brilliant red flowers from April through June. Like almost anyone else. Like the others. or even prettier. several parks. In the front is a large sitting room where we keep all our books and family mementos. and children are often found playing on the less-traveled streets. there are tables and chairs where we can sit in the late afternoon and have a cold drink or tea and talk with our friends. Plants hang from the edge of the roof. Under the tree. the bus lines. It is centrally located near my school. and there are no comfortable chairs here and there around the porch. There is very little crime. the house looks like most in the area and has two floors. Inside the house. My home is an old but comfortable building near the downtown area in the capital of my country. There are other houses in our neighborhood that are more expensive. I had my room painted a rich blue with white trim. bigger. with all types of tropical flowers and shrubs. it has a high ceiling. and I often feel very homesick and eager to go back to it. pollution. or danger there. and my bed and desk and chairs were all made of a rare tropical wood that has a beautiful texture. On the outside. There is a small yard in front and a large. The whole lot is surrounded by a low wall with a fancy iron fence on top of it. with curtains and bedspread to match. there are many tall bushes that have bright flowers on them most of the year and that branch out over the fence and are visible from the sidewalk and street. in the very middle. It is treasured and loved and adored. I have a home. Home is the most intimate place to a person. there is an open courtyard with tropical plants and flowers and even a wild parrot that can say a few words and whistle. Page 6 of 37 . But I have many fond memories of that home and all the things that I have done in it. In back. Upstairs are the four bedrooms. The rooms all open to this porch and courtyard. There are small markets and shops within walking distance and larger department stores and a shopping center less than ten blocks away. In front. you certainly would have felt terribly homesick. and a museum. large windows that let the air in on hot nights. and a good view of both the outside and the inner courtyard. and there are numerous flower beds as well. All around the courtyard is a kind of open corridor or porch with pillars and a railing. one of which I had all to myself most of last year. more private yard in back.
TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ The Outline Title: Introduction: Hook: Connecting ideas: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Body: Paragraph 1: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Page 7 of 37 .
these animals present a serious health hazard in our neighborhood. It may contain an opinion an opinion or a judgment that can be explained. II. A successful soccer coach has four qualities. for a question contains no attitude or opinion. Common errors in writing thesis statements 1. What is a thesis statement? Thesis statement is usually one sentence that states the aim or purpose of the essay. 3. clarified and illustrated in the body paragraphs of the essay. Not a thesis: Thesis: Cows produce milk The milk cows produce is not always fit for human consumption. Announcements rather than statements The subject of these papers will be my parents. Page 8 of 37 . My neighbor. 4. 2. The ‘baby boom’ generation has changed history. Mrs. 5. It must not be expressed as a question. Brown. It must come in the introduction. Features of a good thesis statement A good thesis statement has the following features: 1. Statements that are too broad My parents have been the most influential people in my life. owns four cats. It contains controlling ideas that will be used in the topic sentences of the essay. I want to talk about the crime wave in our country. The answer to the question is the thesis statement. 6. III. It must not be a simple statement of fact. It should be the strongest and clearest statement in the essay.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ THE THESIS STATEMENT TOEFL iBT 80 I. 2.
although in other respects I was limited. Page 9 of 37 . Since last year there have been over 20 robberies in our neighborhood. Statements that are too narrow My parents have only one child. Statements that contain more than one idea My parents helped me grow in important ways.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. The ‘baby boom’ generation has had many advantages. 4. but it also faces many problems.
TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON THE THESIS STATEMENT TOEFL iBT 80 I. I made several mistakes in the process of trying to win the respect and affection of my teenage stepson. The strangest teacher I have ever had taught me a lesson I will never forget. 1. A. ‘strugglers’. Write A beside each sentence that is an announcement rather than a thesis statement. B. The kinds of workout clothes worn in my aerobics class identify ‘jocks’. 4. The first car that I owned was a Ford. The subject of this essay is daily prayer in our public schools. although they also portray real problems in American life. 1. A period of loneliness can teach you to use your creativity. 3. Write 2 beside each statement that contains more than one idea. and feel empathy for others. Action must be taken against drugs. Page 10 of 37 . A. Write OK beside the statement in each pair that is a clear. Computers have changed our society. and ‘princesses’. 4. 5. A. Loneliness is the subject of this paper. 2. 5. 2. but many American cars are poorly made. sort out your values. This essay will discuss the people you meet in exercise class. People who eat a lot of red meat are almost three times more likely to get colon cancer than people who eat mostly fish and chicken. II. III. Write TB beside each statement that is too broad to be covered in an essay. The way our society treats elderly people is unbelievable. Soap operas show many stereotyped characters. My thesis in this paper is relationships between stepparents and stepchildren. 1. Write A beside each sentence that is an announcement rather than a thesis statement. I am going to write on my ideas concerning ‘F’ grades. B. limited point which could be developed in the essay. 3. 2. My last car was dependable. B. 3. Write TN in the space next to each statement that is too narrow to be developed in an essay.
B. A. I had squash. B. A. Learning new skills can be difficult and frustrating. My concern here is to discuss ‘near-death’ experiences reported by some patients. 5. B. limited point. The main road into our town is lined with billboards. A. A. 2. 1. In many ways. Write OK beside each statement in each pair that is a clear. A. A. Organization is the key to being a successful single parent. Vegetable gardening can be a frustrating hobby. patience. B. There are several possible explanations for the similar ‘near-death’ experiences reported by some patients. B. Advertising has bad effects on all society. tomatoes. 2. A. B. IV. B. This paper will be about sharing housework. 3. A. and a sense of humor. I learned that I had several bad work habits. Page 11 of 37 . In my first job. 5. A. limited point. B. beer. V. B. 5. billboards should be abolished. Modern life makes people suspicious and unfriendly. Write TB beside each statement that is too broad to be developed in an essay. Learning to write takes work. A frightening experience in my neighborhood has caused me to be a much more cautious person in several ways. 1. Deciding who will perform certain unpleasant household chores can be the crisis that makes or breaks a marriage. and corn in my garden last summer. 4. Widespread gambling has changed professional football for the worse. 3. sports are an important part of American life. Toy ads on TV teach children to be greedy. B. and hard liquor increases in the United States every year. B. Americans abuse alcohol because it has become such an important part of our personal and public celebrations. Running away from home taught me that my parents weren’t as terrible as I thought. I lost an hour’s pay and was called in to see the boss. competitive and snobbish. Consumption of wine. Write TN beside each statement that is too narrow to be developed in an essay. A. 4. For several reasons. Because I was late for work yesterday. I didn’t get along with my family. There are now more single-parent households in our country than ever before. so I did many foolish things.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Write OK beside each statement in each pair that is a clear. A. A. B.
B. VII. we weren’t ready for children. but we still have conflicts at times. intimidating. 4. although the expansion was desperately needed. Although ads on TV for mail-order products are often misleading. and ____________________. B. and ____________________. I prefer to watch old movies because they are more interesting. 7. A. A. The new architecture on this campus is very unpleasant.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ VI. and my ____________________ are three people who are very important in my life right now. and ____________________. 1. 5. my boss. to be aggressive. 4. 1. Rather than blame myself for failing the course. and their ____________________ at home. sets and actors than movies made today. Our new college library building is ugly. I blamed the instructor. they can still be very entertaining. and inefficient. I entered college deficient in mathematics. 2. 3. Although some good movies have come out lately. and cleaning our room. and ____________________. Anyone who buys an old house planning to fix it up should be prepared to put in a lot of time. Among the most entertaining ads on TV today are those for mail-order products. Our old car eats gas. A good sales person need to like people. makes funny noises. Movies of the 1930s and 1940s have better plots. and ____________________. 8. My roommate and I are compatible in most ways. my adviser. Because I never took college preparatory courses in high school. write 2 beside the statement that contains more than one idea. 2. B. Complete the following thesis statement by adding a third supporting point that will parallel the two already provided. their cleanliness. My mother. A. writing term papers. B. A. Getting married too young was a mistake because we hadn’t finished our education. 3. For each pair. study skills. limited point. Write OK beside the statement that is a clear. 6. and even ____________________. My roommate has his own unique systems for studying. Some restaurant patrons seem to leave their honesty. Page 12 of 37 . hard work.
Thesis: a. ___________________________________________________________________________________ All the course credits that are accumulated can be transferred to a four-year school.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. I also had a family history of relatives with heart trouble. there are also significant savings in everyday living expenses. impatient. and ____________________. Then I started limiting myself only five units of any given snack. 1. First of all. Thesis: a. c. ___________________________________________________________________________________ First. Children can be struck by cars while wearing vision-obstructing masks and dark costumes. b. I began keeping the cellophane bags of snacks in a padlocked cupboard. Write a thesis for each group of supporting statements. my diet. the time I tried to fix my parents’ lawn mower. 4. During my first semester at college. c. c. Finally. it shows my growing concern with comfort and safety. Three experiences I wish I could forget are the time I fell off a ladder. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. c. in desperation. There are always incidents involving deadly treats: fruits. If the college is nearby. Thesis: a. My next car reflected my more mature and practical adult self. b. b. and ____________________. Page 13 of 37 . b. VIII. Going to a two-year college can save a great deal of money in tuition and other fees. c. I tried simply avoiding the snacks aisle of the supermarket. 3. and hard-driving. b. ___________________________________________________________________________________ The holiday can be very frightening little children. 10. was probably the major factor. 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ My first car was a rebellious-looking one which matched the way I felt and acted as a teenager. and candies that contain razor blades or even poison. I had to learn how to manage my time. My latest car seems to tell me that I’m aging. Thesis: a. cookies. I was a typical type ‘A’ personality: anxious. Thesis: a. My unhealthy lifestyle. though.
III. It indicates a plan of development. general statements ease the readers into your thesis statement by first introducing the topic. It attracts the reader's interest. General to narrow Begin with a broad. A. encouraging him or her to continue reading the essay. 3. or is something he should know more about. writers sometimes choose not to describe the plan of development. FUNCTIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION A well-written introductory paragraph perform several important roles: 1. Broad. general statement of your topic and narrow it down to your thesis statement. This clear. the major supporting points for the thesis are listed in the order in which they will be presented. It presents a thesis statement. Stating the importance of the topic Explain the importance of your topic to the reader. Starting with an opposite Start with an idea or situation that is the opposite with the one you will develop. or a combination of methods. C. In this ‘preview’. You can use any one method. Page 14 of 37 . he will want to keep reading. and then inspired by the contrast between the opening idea and the thesis following. the thesis and plan of development appear in the same sentence. If you can convince your reader that the subject in some way applies to him. It supplies any background information that may be needed to understand the essay. However. This approach works because your reader will be surprised. 4.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 I. direct statement of the main idea of the paper usually appears near the end of the introductory paragraph. In some cases. COMMON METHODS OF INTRODUCTION Here are some common methods of introduction. COMPONENTS OF THE INTRODUCTION Hook Connecting Information Thesis Statement II. to introduce your subject in an interesting way to the reader. B. 2.
The incident can be something that happened to you. In your introduction. or something you have heard: a popular saying or a proverb.. or you may plan to answer the questions yourself later in the paper. The story should be brief and related to your main idea. a current advertising slogan. Page 15 of 37 . Incident or story Use an incident or a brief story. They appeal to the reader’s curiosity. Questions Ask one or more questions. something that you have heard about or read about in a newspaper or magazine.. The quotation can be something you have read in a book or in an article. an anecdote will grab the reader’s attention right away.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ D. Stories are naturally interesting. F. You may simply want the reader to think about possible answers.”). E. Using a quotation lets you add someone else’s voice to your own. Quotation Use a quotation. or a favorite expression used by friends or family (“My father always says .
Type: __________ 3. the desire to give rather than take. how can we tell that our feelings are genuine and not merely infatuation? And. miraculous results. After all.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 I. especially the ones that promise instant. and the feeling of being wholly at ease. car accidents are the number one killer of our children. and is a sure route to poor nutrition. doesn't achieve the results it claims. Bookstore shelves today are crammed with dozens of different diet books. What is love? How do we know that we are really in love? When we meet that special person. Type: __________ 4. if they are genuine. belts. and even how to speak up in class discussions. Love involves mutual respect. When I decided to return to school at the age of thirty-five. child mortality due to disease has been almost completely eliminated by medical science. is difficult to define. And authors are more than willing to invent new fad diets to cash in on this craze. But most people agree that true and lasting love involves far more than mere physical attraction. not a confused teenager fresh out of high school. 2. Type: __________ 1. I wasn't at all worried about my ability to do the work. as we all know. will these feelings last? Love. I was a grown woman who had raised a family. It is impractical. I had to learn how to locate information in a library. And most of the children fatally injured in car accidents were not protected by car seats. or restraints of any kind. Today. Several steps must be taken to reduce the serious dangers car accidents pose to our children. in the space provided. I realized that those ‘confused teenagers’ sitting around me were in much better shape for college than I was. Unfortunately. Diseases like scarlet fever and whooping cough used to kill more young children than any other cause. however. But when I started classes. The American public seems willing to try any sort of diet. while mine had grown rusty from disuse. write the letter of the kind of introduction used in each case. shiny condition. They still had all their classroom skills in bright. how to write a report. some of these fad diets are ineffective or even unsafe. Read the introductions and. Type: __________ Page 16 of 37 . One of the worst fad diets is the "Palm Beach" plan. Instead.
an exotic setting. when my sister and her family came to spend their two week vacation with us. food preparation will be with a processor. Worst of all. Type: __________ Page 17 of 37 . Type: __________ 9. Don't believe it. a feminine hand is touching it lovingly. even for short trips." wrote Benjamin Franklin. Would-be parents should be forced to apply for parental licenses for parental licenses for which they would have to meet three important conditions. become healthier. Instead of cooking a simple. Every romance novel has the same elements: an innocent heroine. My father stubbornly says. Instead of studying a daily newspaper. I became convinced that Franklin was right. "begin to smell after three days. The ad. Type: __________ 7. and discover fascinating things about our surroundings. I was thoroughly sick of my brother. and a cruel but fascinating hero. we pop a frozen dinner into the oven. In the foreground. a picture book.in law's corny jokes. and their children’s constant invasions of our privacy. on one of the counters. Type: __________ 6. Usually. They show mounds of perfectly sliced onion rings. abandoning her five year-old because she couldn't cope with being a parent anymore. My processor turned out to be expensive. they drove downtown to a Methodist church. "Fish and visitors. difficult to operate. This dependence on the automobile. we are contented with the capsule summaries on the network news. Perhaps the automatic right to become a parent should no longer exist. When you're browsing in the drugstore or supermarket and you see a paperback featuring an attractive young woman in a low-cut dress fleeing from a handsome dark figure in a shadowy castle. stands a shiny new food processor. After only three days of my family's visit. "You can often tell a book by its cover. If we drove less and walked more. Together.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. how easy. Then the young mother drove off. instead of walking even a few blocks to the local convenience store. nourishing meal. and piles of golden. has robbed us of a valuable experience of walking. Type: __________ 8. evenly grated cheese The ad copy tells you how wonderful. This incident is one of thousands of cases of child neglect and abuse that occur annually. and very limited in its use. shows a beautiful kitchen with gleaming counters. thin rounds of juicy tomatoes. we jump into our cars. he's right. There the mother told the little girl to wait on the stone steps until children began arriving for Sunday school. in full color on a glossy magazine page. We Americans are incredibly lazy. Around the main picture are other. smaller shots. you know exactly what you’re getting." and when it comes to certain paperbacks. we would save money. heaps of matchstick-sized potatoes." Last summer. and a well-worn stuffed rabbit. Early Sunday morning the young mother dressed her little girl warmly and gave her a candy bar. my sister's endless complaints about her boss.
city dwellers all over the world tend to have similar lifestyles. Her basketball team-mates adore her and are willing to do anything she says. she is most often seen in T-shirts and shorts. Once. She has an hour-glass figure and looks sensational in brightly colored clothes. Miranda’s enthusiasm for sports does not extend to her academic work. pink and purple are her favorite colors. “Well. Although she looks good in formal clothes. She is the captain of the school basketball team and is also the best player in the team. regardless of their country. so the biggest differences are between Toronto and its smaller neighbor. she does manage to pass her examinations by studying frantically at the eleventh hour. Type: __________ II.” It is fun to have such an interesting person for a sister. Write the introductory paragraph for the essay below. Her soft. picture life in Rome. I’ll just have to be patient and wait for the next match. Page 18 of 37 . Miranda is an extrovert and enjoys outdoor activities. Fortunately. By nature. live quite differently. Finally. In fact. pace of life. Which of these last two places is more different from Toronto? Many people might mistakenly choose Rome because it is in a different country. Italy. Sometimes. The younger girls in the school admire her because of all the medals she has won. when she fractured her arm and had to miss an important basketball match. In school. and variety of activities. My sister aspires to be a teacher of physical education. She hopes one day to improve the status of sports in Singapore. Urban people and rural people. curly hair is dark brown. However. she took it all in stride and said. Blue. Miranda has an optimistic outlook towards life. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Miranda is one of those girls who makes heads turn wherever she goes. Now imagine life in a neighboring rural Canadian town. She believes that every problem in life serves only to build one’s character. my sister is very popular. Perhaps some of the most notable differences in the lives of these two groups include degree of friendliness. Imagine life in Toronto.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. She camps and cycles at every possible opportunity. and is usually tied in a pony tail to keep is from falling onto her face. I wish that I share some of her interests and her untiring zest for life.
8. Presenting cause – effect The writer explains the causes or the effects of something or both. Giving a definition The writer wants to share his or her personal meaning of a term with the reader.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT TOEFL iBT 80 There are many different ways of developing your ideas. Making comparison / contrast The writer wants to show similarities (comparison) or differences (contrast) of something. Explaining a process The writer explains how something is made or done. 3. Arguing a position The writer aims to convince the reader to think or act a certain way. Giving a description The writer gives the reader a mental picture of what is being described. 2. 4. Narrating The writer tells a story. Page 19 of 37 . 6. Giving examples The writer uses examples or figures to illustrate his or her own opinion on something or somebody. 1. [ 7. 5. 9. Classifying The writer places items in groups according to some principle.
Most are in the late teens to early twenties. Almost have children to raise or grandchildren to baby-sit for. It is not going to the dentist for two years and then going and finding out that you do not have any cavities. Second. day and night. Luck refers to moments of good fortune that happen in everyday life. In short. they pretty much dress alike. and they don’t want their time wasted. college is generally their only major responsibility. day students and night students are different as . But students in my evening courses are much more diverse.75 USD into a vending machine and getting the money back with your snacks. It is driving into a traffic bottleneck and choosing the lane that winds up moving most rapidly. day and evening students definitely have different attitudes toward school. not for a typical college classroom. Finally. However. Generally. and ask the instructor lots of questions. I have observed notable differences between day and evening students. or child care than about what was on TV last night. It is an instructor’s decision to give a retest on a test where you first scored 30. Luck is being late for work on a day when your boss arrives later than you do. Some are in their late teens.. Their uniform consists of jeans. It is calling up a plumber to fix a leak on a day when the plumber has no other work to do. many of the women wear skirts or dresses. They are dressed for the workplace. They use the same popular slang. Luck is finding a used car for sale at a good price at exactly the time when your car rolls its last mile. and know the same musical artists. the students in my daytime classes are all about the same age. baseball caps and maybe a gold earring or two. Evening students sit up straight. talk about the same movies and TV shows. They may come to campus after putting in a nine-to-five day at work. T-shirts.. whisper and write notes instead of paying attention. Page 20 of 37 . day students often seems more interested in the view out the window or the cute classmate in the next row than in what the instructor is saying. but most range from young married people in their twenties and thirties to people my grandparents’ age. Luck Method: __________ Luck is putting 1.. their clothing is more formal than the day students’. it’s usually because of a real problem. First of all. such as a sick child or an important deadline at work. They doze. for day students. draw cartoons. listen hard. and whether male or female. running shoes.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT TOEFL iBT 80 IDENTIFY THE METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH Day versus Evening students Method: __________ As a part-time college student who has taken both day and evening courses. They obviously are there to learn. When they miss a class or hand in their assignments late. They have plenty of time to study and get assignments done. with similar clothing styles and similar interests. And they are more comfortable talking about their mortgages or work schedules. while the men often wear shirts or sweaters. evening students lead much more complicated lives than most day students.
a fielder’s glove. I carefully picked my way around scattered pairs of worn-out sneakers. I noticed some tarnished medals and faded ribbons for track accomplishments. revealing a tangle of odd sweat socks and a few stretched-out Tshirts emblazoned with team insignias. about a month later. When my mother answered it. “What is this all about?” and he explained to her about the sweepstakes contest. One hot summer afternoon. flat pile carpet. and the ball bounced with dull thuds across the width of the room. orange. Turning from the closet. but not a Michael Winchester. However. Between the window and the left corner stood a dresser with one drawer half open. A desk with a bookcase top stood against the left wall. My mother said. completely forgetting about the car. An Athlete’s Room Method: __________ As I entered the bright. the telephone rang. “Is this 862-9715 at 29 Williams Street?” My mother said. The bedspread was a brown. a man asked to speak to Michael Winchester. football. These lay next to a heavy gold trophy that read. I noticed a single bed with its wooden headboard against the far wall. A Childhood Disappointment Method: __________ The time I almost won a car when I was 10 years old was probably the most disappointing moment of my childhood. so I filled out a card. “MVP: Pinewood Varsity Basketball. waiting for my mother to finish shopping. The best kind of luck is winning a new color TV set on a chance for which you paid only a quarter. “There’s a Michael Williams here. I was attracted to a crowd of people gathering around a bright-blue car that was on display in the main aisle. Next to the desk was a window with brightly printed curtains that matched the bedspread. Page 21 of 37 . White entry cards and shiny yellow pencils were scattered on a card table nearby. and a battered brown gym bag. cheerful space. “That’s the right number.” She then asked him. On the shelf above the bunched-together clothes were a red baseball cap. I was wandering around a local department store. but this is 29 Winchester Street. near the toy department. just as I was walking into the house from my first day back at school.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ It is having a new checkout aisle at the supermarket open up just as your cart arrives. As I ran my fingers over the items on the dusty shelves. I slipped my card into the slot of a heavy blue wooden box that rested on another table nearby. A sign indicated that the car was the first prize in a sweepstakes celebrating the store’ s tenth anniversary. I turned to leave the room. My mother then called me to ask if I had ever filled out an application for a sweepstakes drawing. and the table was just low enough for me to write on.” He asked. The sign also said that a person did not have to buy anything to fill out an entry form. I noticed a closet to my right with the door open.” I accidentally tipped an autograph-covered. feeling very much like an adult. I then proceeded to the toy department. Then. A lamp shaped like a baseball and a copy of Sports illustrated were on the top of a nightstand to the left of the bed. and beige print of basketball. slightly deflated basketball off one shelf. and baseball scenes. A sports schedule and several yellowing newspaper clippings were tacked to the cork bulletin board on the wall above the nightstand. with its beige walls and practical. I walked toward it to examine it more closely.
If they had any consideration for the cars behind them. This may be difficult for you to believe. For one thing. yip. and that you will accept no less. But that is a lie. First. Other drivers will suddenly slow down unexpectedly at a city intersection to make a right or left turn. Years of verbal abuse have probably convinced you that you’re responsible for everything that’s wrong with your relationship. short-tempered. when the puppy is placed in its box. trembling ‘woo-woo’. A second effect is that the puppy tortures the family by destroying its material possessions. it begins to howl. Even after the lights go out or the house quiets down. If he refuses to take responsibility for changing his abusive behavior. Inconsiderate Drivers Method: __________ Some people are inconsiderate drivers. you should take steps to change your situations. or disappointment. they would pull over to the curb first. fear. Yet. You were not put here on earth to have your self-concept demolished by serving as someone else’s verbal punching-bag. Steps two and three need to be done one right after the other. and whine. Every day. New Puppy in the House Method: __________ Buying a new puppy can have drastic effects on a quiet household. something different is damaged. Since it is impossible to sleep while listening to a heartbroken. Next. and irritable. and leaking sofa cushions. Maybe he never learned any more positive ways to deal with negative emotions like anger. offer to go with him to talk to a counselor who will help both of you learn new ways to communicate. creating litter that takes away some of the pleasure of driving and that must be paid for with everyone’s tax dollars. On the highway. State that you are a person who deserves respect and civil behavior. you can learn to stand up for yourself and express your feelings clearly. the puppy usually ruins the wall-to-wall Page 22 of 37 . Everyone becomes hostile. While he learns to express his feelings without attacking you. realize that you are not to blame for his abusive behavior. Other rude highway drivers move to the second or passing lane and then stay there. Perhaps the most inconsiderate drivers are those who throw trash out their windows. the family begins to suffer the effects of loss of sleep. creating glare for cars approaching in the other direction.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Dealing with Verbal Abuse Method: __________ If you are living with a man who abuses you verbally with criticism. making it impossible for cars behind to go around them. Step two is for you to announce that you will no longer tolerate being verbally abused. other drivers who act as if they had special privileges are those who do not wait their turn in bottleneck situations where the cars in two lanes must merge alternately into one lane. The least they could do is to use their turn signals to let those behind them know in advance of their intention. Every night. they will at times stop right in the middle of the street while looking for a certain home or landmark. In addition. Perhaps he observed his father treating his mother the same way. the puppy keeps the entire family awake for at least two solid weeks. a common example of inconsiderateness is night drivers who fail to turn off their high beams. depressed. In the city. gnawed tables legs. then you must consider step four: to leave him. If your partner is verbally abusive. it is his responsibility to learn why he chooses to deal with his problems by saying nasty things. Family members find chewed belts and shoes. and insults. the puppy continues to moan.
though. at 4 or 5 AM. is the drinking and driving that go on after the prom is over. Teenagers are separated into ‘the ones who were asked’ and ‘the ones who weren’t’. At the beginning of the evening. the popular teenagers drive off happily to other parties while the less-popular ones head home. seriously disrupt a household. Page 23 of 37 . Teenagers pile into their cars on their way to ‘after-proms’ and pull out the bottles and cans stashed under the seats. Only when the puppy gets a bit order will the house be peaceful again. Children argue among themselves about whose turn it is to play with the puppy. Some of them do not make it. One reason is that even before the prom takes place. These continual arguments. The prom itself can be unpleasant and frustrating. as usual. Parents argue with children about who is supposed to feed and walk the dog. it causes problems. Another pre-prom problem is money.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ carpeting and makes the house smell like a public restroom at a big city bus station. Perhaps the main reason prom should be banned. When the prom draws to a close. By the time the big night is finally over. Let’s Ban Proms Method: __________ While many students regard proms as peak events in high school life. along with the effects of sleeplessness and the loss of valued possessions. the girls enviously compare dresses while the boys sweat nervously inside their rented suits. I believe that high school proms should be banned. proms have no place in our school. the couples who have gotten together only to go to the prom have split up into miserable singles. Everyone argues about whose idea it was to get the puppy in the first place. Being one of those who weren’t asked can be heartbreaking to a sensitive young person. and prom night turns into tragedy. During the dance. For all of these reasons. too. the puppy causes family arguments. students are trying to weave home without encountering the police or a roadside tree. Worst of all. however. The price of the various items needed can add up quickly to a lot of money.
then. though. don’t use the exact wording you used before. you restate the thesis and supporting points (Tell them what you have told them). Such shopping is convenient. saves you money. Here is a summary conclusion: Catalog shopping at home. 1. A question must deal with one of these areas: Why the subject of your paper is important What might happen in the future What should be done about this subject Which choice should be made In your conclusion.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 A concluding paragraph is your chance to remind the reader of your thesis idea and bring the paper to a natural and graceful end. End with a summary and final thought When army instructors train new recruits. Note that a summary is accompanied by a final comment that rounds off the paper and brings the discussion to a close. COMMON METHODS OF CONCLUSION Any one of the methods below. has several advantages. and supported it (Tell them). here is an example: Page 24 of 37 . It is a direct appeal to your reader to think further about what you have written. each of their lessons follows a three-step formula: Tell them what you are going to tell them Tell them Tell them what you have told them An essay that ends with a summary is not very different. A question grabs the reader’s attention. may be used to round off your paper. It is not surprising that growing numbers of devoted catalog shoppers are welcoming those full color mail brochures that offer everything from turnip seeds to televisions. or a combination of methods. After you have stated your thesis (Tell them what you are going to tell them). A question should follow logically from the points you have already made in the paper. However. Include a thought-provoking question or short series of questions. This combination of a summary and a final thought is the most common method of concluding an essay. that the question is closely related to your thesis. 2. Be sure. you may provide an answer to your question. and saves you time.
and dotty grandparent are insulting enough to begin with. there would be fewer instances of cruelty to animals. A prediction states what may happen in the future. then. they become even more insulting. will happen in the 21st century when most of the population will be over 60 years old? Retirement policies could change dramatically. it is the people who adopt pets without considering the expense and responsibility involved who mistreat and neglect their animals. they are being turned into hucksters to sell products to an unsuspecting public. hurried executive. predictions and recommendations also involve your reader. Now these unfortunate characters are not just being laughed at. Pets are living creatures. They do not deserve to be treated as carelessly as one would treat a stuffed toy. A recommendation suggests what should be done about a situation or problem. Even TV would change as the Metamucil generation replaces the Pepsi generation. New soap operas and situation comedies would reveal the secrets of the ‘sunset years’. In magazine ads or TV commercials.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ What. with the age 65 testimonial dinner and gold watch postponed for 5 or 10 years. It will be a different world indeed when the young find themselves outnumbered. Many times. Glamorous gray-haired models would sell everything from toilet paper to televisions. If people stopped to think before acquiring pets. Page 25 of 37 . Consumers should boycott companies whose advertising continues to use such stereotypes. End with a prediction or recommendation Like questions. Stereotypes such as the helpless homemaker. 3.
in fact. Page 26 of 37 . its entertainment value. Critics of TV will continue to put down the ‘boob tube’. write Not Good in the blank together with the reason with which it is not good. or ends with a question (write Q). it is clear. The best thing. II. simply write Logical in the blank. watching TV is a good way to spend one’s time. 2. I’d rather lead an ordinary. 1. They can. visitors in everyone’s life. Study each conclusion in the following outlines to determine if it is logically concluded. In the box provided. are often not the fulfilling experience they are supposed to be. and is never completely safe. though. but calm. their names in lights. b. But would we rather have a holiday-free calendar? Some people dream of starring roles. rewrite the conclusion so that it sounds better. After that. We can feel depressed about them. ends with a prediction or recommendation (write P/R). ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: Watching TV is not a waste of time. If the conclusion is not appropriate. our family is going to continue watching TV for a long time. c. So let someone else have that cover story. 1. a. but regular. If the conclusion is appropriate. life than a stressfilled one. Holidays. But because of its educational value. It provides entertainment to cheer us up. Indeed. A famous person gives up private life. Disappointments are unwelcome. and so should others. It’s a valuable educational tool. It provides something our family can have in common to discuss. feels pressured all the time. note whether each concluding paragraph ends with a summary and final thought (write S). or we can try to escape from them.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 I. though. be very stressful. and its provision of things we can discuss together. is to accept a disappointment and then try to use it somehow: step over the unwelcome visitor and then get on with life. I’m not one of them. 3. and their pictures on the cover of People magazine.
The Chevrolet commercial is as good as any situation comedy. 4. b. If you do not have a TV. In addition. 3. State also offers quality student services. the academic resources. b. State University offers a superior program in my major. c. Indeed. Page 27 of 37 . The challenge of a diversified and excellent program. In addition. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: My reasons for coming to State University center around the services it provides. the recreational activities. everyone should have a TV set.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. the student services. Misusing vocabulary words can really make you blush. the university has high quality academic resources. a. The Coca-Cola commercial is a good example of an entertaining commercial. The Fritos commercial is particularly amusing. and the low tuition are the reasons I decided to come to the State University. c. I really think I made a wise decision. What you need to do is go to the laboratory as often as you can to improve your language skills. Misunderstanding what someone says to you can create amusing problems. Everyone who speaks a foreign language is bound to have misunderstandings from time to time. you are certainly missing out on the fun of commercials. a. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: Communicating in a foreign language can create some embarrassing misunderstandings. c. b. There are also a lot of entertaining programs to see. Mispronouncing words can lead to real embarrassment. The people there are very nice and they will help you with your grammar and pronunciation. then consider State as the place to enroll. the news programs can keep you informed about the world. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: TV commercials are entertaining a. If you are looking for a quality education at a reasonable price.
will guide you as you write your essay. I need to plan the organization of the topic. 9 STEPS TO WRITE AN ESSAY The following steps structured in an example will help you plan and write an essay fast and effectively. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Home School ______________________________________________________________________________________________ activities people day-to-day interaction ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Page 28 of 37 . like a road map. As the writer.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ USEFUL GUIDELINES TO WRITE AN ESSAY TOEFL iBT 80 A. Step 1: Read the essay topic In the future. The concept map. Do you prefer to study at home using computers or study at school? The instructions suggest you give reasons and specific details to support your answer. Step 4: Make notes about your general ideas These notes are the start of your concept map. Step 2: Identify the task The topic wants you to state a preference. students many have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. I make two columns so that I can compare the quality of education at home with the quality of education at school. In this case it is the straightforward announcement of your preference. Step 3: Write your thesis statement Thesis statement: Studying at school must be best for me. The thesis statement is the summation of your thought about the topic.
I put the specific details socialize and learn from others under school. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Home School ______________________________________________________________________________________________ isolation activities people boring day-to-day interaction ______________________________________________________________________________________________ technology only source subjects ______________________________________________________________________________________________ limited future technology ______________________________________________________________________________________________ hard to concentrate at home motivation work as team more air technology plus teachers learn from others socialize ______________________________________________________________________________________________ In my first general idea.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ subjects ______________________________________________________________________________________________ future technology ______________________________________________________________________________________________ motivation ______________________________________________________________________________________________ I then make a list of all the general ideas that affect the education at home and at school. At school. Now expand your concept map with specific details. I would be able to socialize with other students and learn from them as well. If I can’t give any examples. or I may not think I could give any examples about them. I must give reasons and specific details to support my ideas. Step 5: Expand your notes to include specific details You started your concept map with general notes. I would find studying at home all by myself boring. interaction. Therefore. As I write. I may change my mind and cross out a few ideas. I may not like them. Page 29 of 37 . I added the specific details of isolation and boredom at home. I shouldn’t mention them.
I decided I had already talked about technology under subjects so I crossed it out. An education is not just getting information from a source. studying at school would be best for me. Page 30 of 37 . people wasn’t as precise a term as interaction. I have access to these technological sources plus human ones as well. Step 6: Write the topic sentence for each paragraph Each of the rows in the concept map could be a paragraph: one paragraph could be about interaction. I have stated my opinion. essay. I have indicated that I will develop my topic by discussing information. Once I have the topic sentences for my paragraphs. Topic sentence for general idea information: Both technology and teachers can give you a good education.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ I cross out activities and day-to-day because they weren’t exactly the words I was looking for. Therefore. and motivation. Step 8: Write the Body Paragraph 2: At home. Topic sentence for general idea motivation: If you are motivated to learn. I want both options to learn. my DVD player. I can only get information from technological sources like my computer. There is interaction with that source and motivation from that source. or my television. In this introduction. the word subjects was not parallel with the other nouns. I only have technology. I can begin to write the essay Step 7: Write the Introduction The introduction lets the reader know what my point of view is and how I plan to develop the I could get a good education either at home or at school. one paragraph could be about motivation Topic sentence for general idea interaction: You need interaction to get a good education. I thought more about what I wanted to say. Both technology and teachers can give you a good education. but at home. Similarly. interaction. In the third row for general ideas. I have teachers and students who will share their knowledge with me. Studying at school would be best for me. one paragraph could be about course subjects. you can get a good education. I chose information. I needed a word that ended with -tion. In the second row for general ideas. I need to interact and be motivated by humans not by a machine. but an education involves more than just studying. At school.
It appears that . USEFUL EXPRESSIONS TO EXPRESS YOUR OPINION The Introduction to your essay should tell the reader what your opinion is on the topic. convinced. I did not simply repeat them. B. The students at school always have new ideas. Your ideas on a topic are important.. It seems to me that . to believe. conceivably. however. I can’t motivate myself. I need information from as many sources as possible. to hope. I need students to interact with. I need the stimulus of the classroom to motivate me.. probably.. show how strongly you feel about something: seemingly. The reader is interested in what you have to say. But I can’t. These verbs show how strongly you feel about something: to agree. presumably. . To my way of thinking .. I want to learn from them.. perhaps.. possibly.... then I could study at home... positive. There is... I rephrased my ideas. . you may never develop your ideas. no one to socialize with. If no one ever challenges your opinion. You can express your opinion by using the following phrases: In my opinion . definitely.. to think. there would be no one to learn from.. No doubt. I think . It’s too easy to be distracted by unimportant things. to realize... no right or wrong opinion. almost. From my point of view .TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: You need interaction to get a good education. to suppose. But how can you motivate yourself isolated at home? I like to work as a team. . The reader looks to see how you express your opinion.... to infer. sure. At home. . certainly. to guess. Give me the traditional school! In this paragraph. To me .. you can get a good education. maybe. Paragraph 4: If you are motivated to learn. if I could sit all day in a room without interacting with anyone... and if I wouldn’t mind getting information from limited sources.. to understand. In my view .. These adverbials qualify your opinion..... whatever it is. These adjectives show how strongly you feel about something: certain.. I’d be isolated and bored. I believe .. doubtless.. I summarized why I preferred studying in school. To my mind . Step 9: Write the Conclusion If I could motivate myself to work harder.... I want the focus that a class goal can give me... Page 31 of 37 . At home.. I want to do well so our class look good. It is my opinion that ....
Synonyms provide coherence in your essay. All things considered. In general.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ These adverbials make general statement about how you feel about something: All in all. examine. On the whole.. I tried to reason with them. elaborate. hash over. These adverbials show an idea which is not completely true: Almost. To some extend. Overall. Synonyms When you are writing on one topic. II. For the most part. Altogether. Up to a point. You should try to use words that are similar in meaning. They felt I had not thoroughly examined the issue and saw no reason to debate the subject any longer. More or less. Look for these synonyms of discuss and discussion Verb: discuss discuss Noun: discussion discussion Synonyms argue. . My explanation fell on deaf ears. Generally. I had a dispute with my parents. your ideas will stand alone. Learning different ways to express similar ideas (synonyms) and different ways to help the reader move from one idea to the next will help you develop semantic variety.. Practically. . my parents argued that I should stay in school. reason Synonyms argument. Basically. C. Synonyms are important because they help you link closely related words or ideas. Of course. and they refused to let me continue the discussion. you don’t want to repeat the same verb or adverb. conversation. discourse.. I. I wanted to take a year off from school. and that will carry the meaning of the sentence. debate. In a way. I confer with my sister who felt we could hash it over later when my parents were in a better mood. explanation Last month. For all interests and purposes. your essay must interest the reader. VARIETIES IN DEVELOPING AN ESSAY Semantic Variety In order to be a good essay. As a rule. Transitional words Transitional words and phrases will help your reader follow your ideas from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. Without transitional words and phrases. So to speak. confer. unrelated to the thesis of your essay. noun or adjective in every sentence. One way to do this is to vary your vocabulary. Essentially. Read the paragraph below. I tried to persuade them that taking a year off from school and working would be valuable experience. It started as a simple conversation that turned into argument. Page 32 of 37 . explain. dispute..
While yet. To clarify. Besides. you may want to use these expressions: In other words. For this reason. Page 33 of 37 . Common in. Because of. Neither/Nor. As well as. Moreover. Namely... second. On the other hand. Always. Next. 2. you may want to use these expressions: So. During.. Principally. While. To paraphrase. Due to. For example. For instance. Since. Either/Or.. Similarly. To Contrast: Differ from. .. Transitional words that show Time When you are explaining the sequence of events. Less than. Transitional words that show Explanation If you are explaining what something is by giving an example or if you are restating something for emphasis. 5. Just as.. Even. Resemble. . Furthermore. That is. Nevertheless. you may want to use these expressions: In addition.. Subordinate. In contrast to. Also. Basically. Then. Since. Almost the same as. 3. Lesser. To illustrate. Owing to. In the same way. Also.. Meanwhile. . At the same time. . 6.. Primarily. Similarly. Therefore. First. But. At the same time as. you may want to use these expressions: Before. Often.. Like.. .. Otherwise.. Like. Correspondingly. So that. Alike. After. . However. Different from. 4. What’s more. you may want to use these expressions: Most important. In a like manner. Such as. As a result. you may want to use these expressions: To Compare: Similar to. Instead.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Essentially. Unlike. Less important. Transitional words that show Degree When you are explaining why one thing is more or less important than another thing. As. Chiefly. Sometimes. Transitional words that show Cause and Effect When you are explaining how something caused a change in something else. Thus. Although. As. Still. More than. Consequently. Transitional words that show Comparison and Contrast When you are explaining how two or more things are similar or how they are different. Although. Because. Secondary. . To explain. Transitional words to add more information If you are adding more information to make your point stronger.
Your structures. Rephrasing gives the reader a second chance to understand your thesis. Repeating words can also link ideas that may be sentences apart. adverbs. Page 34 of 37 . She worked with school teachers helping them recognize early signs of illness. The scenery near the ocean is especially dramatic. 2. Repeating Repeating words can provide a rhythm to a paragraph. the subject of the sentences. and gerunds must be parallel. Sentences You can vary the types of sentences you use. and the voice of the sentences. She worked with restaurant personnel showing them proper food handling techniques. verbs. Rephrasing We learned the words to use to introduce a statement that has been restated or rephrased for emphasis. We can also rephrase words to provide coherence in the essay. She worked with mothers teaching them how to keep their children healthy. II. the subjects. however.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Syntactic variety I. III. It seems in all directions you look at a breathtaking vista. They are one way to provide coherence in an essay. That is. adjectives. Coherence Transitional words help the reader see the relationship between sentences and ideas. There are two other ways to provide coherence: repeating words and rephrasing ideas. Synonyms are one way to rephrase. The countryside where I grew up is very isolated. You can drive for miles without seeing another car. the length of the sentences. with giant dark cliffs rising out of the water. 1. Parallel Structures Parallelism gives your essay rhythm. It makes it easier to read and understand. must be parallel.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ TOPICS FOR FURTHER PRACTICE OR HOMEWORK TOEFL iBT 80 1. what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answers. or an animal) can contribute to a child’s development. 12. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 6. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 7. Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. Page 35 of 37 . Compare these two views. The twentieth century saw great changes. Which opinion do you agree with? Give reasons to support your answer. Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 5. a camera. 2. 8. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? University should give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Books are not needed anymore because people can read information on computers. A gift (such as a soccer ball. Why did you enjoy this class so much? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answers. 4. Which view do you agree with? Why? If you could change one important thing about your hometown. 10. 3. Which do you prefer – items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. 9. Think of the most important class you have taken. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. In your opinion. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. In the twentieth century. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games is fun only when you win. food has become easier to prepare.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Business should do anything they can to make a profit. Which do you think the company should choose? Some movies are serious. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 26.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 13. How do movies or television influence people’s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 27. 18. 16. Neighbors are the people who live near us. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 20. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. 24. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 23. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use reasons to support your answer. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 22. Others prefer to live in a big city. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Some people prefer to live in a small town. what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. 15. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Others like to be with friends most of the time. Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done. A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. 19. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 21. designed to make the audience think. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Other people prefer to take their time and live life at slower pace. 17. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. 25. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. In your opinion. 14. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Page 36 of 37 .
traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Some read. People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. 29. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples to support your answer. Page 37 of 37 . If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition. Some people think the government should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example. Other people disagree and think the government should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. 30. what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. others work in their gardens.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 28. some exercise.