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Ho Chi Minh City University of Education Foreign Language Center – Branch 11

222 Le Van Sy Street, District 3, HCMC – Tel: (84.8) 9312291 24 Ky Dong Street, District 3, HCMC – Tel: (84.8) 8844911 73B/563 Quang Trung Street, Go Vap District, HCMC – Tel: (84.8) 9893214

TOEFL iBT 80

WRITING
(Student’s Book )
Compiled and Edited by

Ta Tu Quynh Dinh Tran Hanh Nguyen Pham Nguyen Huy Hoang Vu Quoc Anh Truong Son

(Internal Use Only)

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

WRITING AN ESSAY

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS AN ESSAY?
TOEFL iBT 80

I.

WHAT IS AN ESSAY?

Letter Word Sentence Paragraph

Essay

II.

STRUCTURE OF AN ESSAY

Introduction: attracts the reader’s interest Thesis Statement: states the main aim or purpose of the essay Body: list of points that support the thesis First Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis Second Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis Third Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis ...

Conclusion: a final thought or two stemming from the topic of the essay

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For a moment. 1. he feels as though he is not moving.) 2. INTRODUCTION Hook A hook is the opening sentence(s) to catch the reader’s attention. He is engulfed in complete silence. he reads on. and limited university programs for poor students.” (This hook begins an essay on the topic about suicide. increasing demand for better healthcare. but they’ll probably be hooked and want to find out more about the topic)  Make an interesting observation Ex: Asian economists are not sleeping well these days.)  Use a famous quote Ex: “To be or not to be.  Direct thesis statement: specific outline of the essay Ex: The main problems facing South American countries are a lack of job opportunities for citizens. (This essay is about the exciting sport of skydiving.  Ask a question Ex: How many out there on the roads are driving uninsured vehicles? (Most people won’t know the answer. Page 4 of 37 .TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY TOEFL iBT 80 I. 3. the writer usually writes 3 to 5 sentences that help connect the reader and the topic. it is as if he entered another dimension. There are generally 4 ways to write a hook. the writer tells the reader what to expect in the essay. (This observation makes the reader want to know why Asian economists are not sleeping well. that’s the question. There are 2 ways to write a thesis statement.)  Give a unique scenario Ex: Traveling at more than 100 mph. In the thesis statement. It can be 1 or 2 sentences long. Thesis Statement The Thesis Statement (or writing plan) is usually the last part of the introduction. To find out. Connecting ideas After the hook. Those sentences can be background information about the topic or they can be examples.

facts. facts... BODY Paragraph 1 Topic sentence – Supporting sentences (examples. .. but that is not a problem.) 3. Paragraph 2 Topic sentence – Supporting sentences (examples.. ..) II. CONCLUSION Final thought(s) stemming from the topic of the essay Page 5 of 37 . . III. 1.) 2. ..) 4. Paragraph 3 Topic sentence – Supporting sentences (examples... (The reader expects to find out a discussion of problems in South America. The reader does not know exactly what to expect. facts.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________  Indirect thesis statement Ex: The problems facing South American countries today require immediate attention.

The people in the neighborhood are friendly and cooperative. and there are no comfortable chairs here and there around the porch. There are small markets and shops within walking distance and larger department stores and a shopping center less than ten blocks away. Like almost anyone else. bigger. large windows that let the air in on hot nights. or danger there. there is a huge tree that has brilliant red flowers from April through June. In the front is a large sitting room where we keep all our books and family mementos. and my bed and desk and chairs were all made of a rare tropical wood that has a beautiful texture. I had my room painted a rich blue with white trim. one of which I had all to myself most of last year. Under the tree. The whole lot is surrounded by a low wall with a fancy iron fence on top of it. Inside the house. and a museum. In front. There is very little crime. and there are numerous flower beds as well. All around the courtyard is a kind of open corridor or porch with pillars and a railing. I have a home. with curtains and bedspread to match. In back. Page 6 of 37 . or even prettier. pollution. But I have many fond memories of that home and all the things that I have done in it. there are many tall bushes that have bright flowers on them most of the year and that branch out over the fence and are visible from the sidewalk and street. you certainly would have felt terribly homesick. It is treasured and loved and adored. There are other houses in our neighborhood that are more expensive. Plants hang from the edge of the roof. and children are often found playing on the less-traveled streets. Like the others. in the very middle. On the outside. The rooms all open to this porch and courtyard. with all types of tropical flowers and shrubs. It is centrally located near my school. the bus lines. Upstairs are the four bedrooms. there is an open courtyard with tropical plants and flowers and even a wild parrot that can say a few words and whistle. several parks.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY TOEFL iBT 80 READ AND WRITE OUT ITS OUTLINE OF THIS ESSAY MY HOME Have you ever been away from home for a time? If you have. there are tables and chairs where we can sit in the late afternoon and have a cold drink or tea and talk with our friends. My home is an old but comfortable building near the downtown area in the capital of my country. it has a high ceiling. the house looks like most in the area and has two floors. and I often feel very homesick and eager to go back to it. Home is the most intimate place to a person. and a good view of both the outside and the inner courtyard. more private yard in back. There is a small yard in front and a large.

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ The Outline Title: Introduction: Hook: Connecting ideas: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Body: Paragraph 1: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Page 7 of 37 .

Announcements rather than statements The subject of these papers will be my parents. My neighbor. clarified and illustrated in the body paragraphs of the essay. 6. The answer to the question is the thesis statement. Common errors in writing thesis statements 1. Page 8 of 37 . It must not be expressed as a question. It may contain an opinion an opinion or a judgment that can be explained. It contains controlling ideas that will be used in the topic sentences of the essay. Features of a good thesis statement A good thesis statement has the following features: 1. Brown. II. It must not be a simple statement of fact. What is a thesis statement? Thesis statement is usually one sentence that states the aim or purpose of the essay. for a question contains no attitude or opinion. 2. The ‘baby boom’ generation has changed history. I want to talk about the crime wave in our country. It should be the strongest and clearest statement in the essay. Statements that are too broad My parents have been the most influential people in my life. 4. Not a thesis: Thesis: Cows produce milk The milk cows produce is not always fit for human consumption. 2. 3. these animals present a serious health hazard in our neighborhood. A successful soccer coach has four qualities. Mrs. 5. owns four cats.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ THE THESIS STATEMENT TOEFL iBT 80 I. III. It must come in the introduction.

The ‘baby boom’ generation has had many advantages. Since last year there have been over 20 robberies in our neighborhood. although in other respects I was limited. but it also faces many problems. Statements that are too narrow My parents have only one child. Page 9 of 37 . 4.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Statements that contain more than one idea My parents helped me grow in important ways.

II. Write TN in the space next to each statement that is too narrow to be developed in an essay. The kinds of workout clothes worn in my aerobics class identify ‘jocks’. 1. People who eat a lot of red meat are almost three times more likely to get colon cancer than people who eat mostly fish and chicken. Write OK beside the statement in each pair that is a clear. Action must be taken against drugs. 2. 1. I am going to write on my ideas concerning ‘F’ grades. B. 1. Write 2 beside each statement that contains more than one idea. 3. A. This essay will discuss the people you meet in exercise class. I made several mistakes in the process of trying to win the respect and affection of my teenage stepson. Write TB beside each statement that is too broad to be covered in an essay. and ‘princesses’. 5. 4. B. and feel empathy for others. sort out your values. Write A beside each sentence that is an announcement rather than a thesis statement. Page 10 of 37 . 2. Loneliness is the subject of this paper. but many American cars are poorly made. III.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON THE THESIS STATEMENT TOEFL iBT 80 I. although they also portray real problems in American life. The subject of this essay is daily prayer in our public schools. Soap operas show many stereotyped characters. The way our society treats elderly people is unbelievable. 4. Computers have changed our society. 5. My thesis in this paper is relationships between stepparents and stepchildren. 3. A. The first car that I owned was a Ford. My last car was dependable. B. A period of loneliness can teach you to use your creativity. ‘strugglers’. The strangest teacher I have ever had taught me a lesson I will never forget. limited point which could be developed in the essay. Write A beside each sentence that is an announcement rather than a thesis statement. 3. A. 2.

limited point. For several reasons. B. A. There are several possible explanations for the similar ‘near-death’ experiences reported by some patients. In many ways. Page 11 of 37 . 5. A. Widespread gambling has changed professional football for the worse. Toy ads on TV teach children to be greedy. Vegetable gardening can be a frustrating hobby. patience. beer. B. Running away from home taught me that my parents weren’t as terrible as I thought. B. A. Deciding who will perform certain unpleasant household chores can be the crisis that makes or breaks a marriage. B. B. A. My concern here is to discuss ‘near-death’ experiences reported by some patients.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Americans abuse alcohol because it has become such an important part of our personal and public celebrations. I learned that I had several bad work habits. Write TN beside each statement that is too narrow to be developed in an essay. A. I didn’t get along with my family. A frightening experience in my neighborhood has caused me to be a much more cautious person in several ways. 2. 1. sports are an important part of American life. 4. Write OK beside each statement in each pair that is a clear. Write TB beside each statement that is too broad to be developed in an essay. Consumption of wine. 4. In my first job. Learning new skills can be difficult and frustrating. The main road into our town is lined with billboards. There are now more single-parent households in our country than ever before. 2. IV. B. B. tomatoes. and hard liquor increases in the United States every year. 3. B. 5. B. V. Organization is the key to being a successful single parent. limited point. so I did many foolish things. Modern life makes people suspicious and unfriendly. A. B. A. competitive and snobbish. 3. Write OK beside each statement in each pair that is a clear. billboards should be abolished. A. and a sense of humor. 1. B. B. A. 5. and corn in my garden last summer. I had squash. A. A. A. Advertising has bad effects on all society. Learning to write takes work. I lost an hour’s pay and was called in to see the boss. This paper will be about sharing housework. Because I was late for work yesterday.

I prefer to watch old movies because they are more interesting. I entered college deficient in mathematics. A. and my ____________________ are three people who are very important in my life right now. 3. hard work. and inefficient. and their ____________________ at home. and ____________________. My roommate has his own unique systems for studying. Some restaurant patrons seem to leave their honesty. 4. to be aggressive. B. For each pair. they can still be very entertaining. Rather than blame myself for failing the course. Our old car eats gas. writing term papers. 1. limited point. B. but we still have conflicts at times. Our new college library building is ugly. A. I blamed the instructor. 2. intimidating. Although ads on TV for mail-order products are often misleading. and ____________________. and ____________________. study skills. Because I never took college preparatory courses in high school. 7. The new architecture on this campus is very unpleasant. My mother. A. A. 6. A good sales person need to like people. makes funny noises. Anyone who buys an old house planning to fix it up should be prepared to put in a lot of time. my boss. sets and actors than movies made today. 3.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ VI. Write OK beside the statement that is a clear. B. Among the most entertaining ads on TV today are those for mail-order products. 8. 4. Getting married too young was a mistake because we hadn’t finished our education. Complete the following thesis statement by adding a third supporting point that will parallel the two already provided. Movies of the 1930s and 1940s have better plots. Page 12 of 37 . 1. 5. My roommate and I are compatible in most ways. and cleaning our room. and even ____________________. and ____________________. their cleanliness. and ____________________. although the expansion was desperately needed. we weren’t ready for children. 2. write 2 beside the statement that contains more than one idea. B. VII. Although some good movies have come out lately. my adviser.

in desperation. My latest car seems to tell me that I’m aging. ___________________________________________________________________________________ All the course credits that are accumulated can be transferred to a four-year school. Thesis: a. b. Three experiences I wish I could forget are the time I fell off a ladder. there are also significant savings in everyday living expenses. cookies. 1. 3. 2. b. though. and hard-driving. c. My unhealthy lifestyle. Finally. and ____________________. 4. I also had a family history of relatives with heart trouble. Children can be struck by cars while wearing vision-obstructing masks and dark costumes. Thesis: a. b. was probably the major factor. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Thesis: a. c. impatient. Write a thesis for each group of supporting statements. Then I started limiting myself only five units of any given snack. it shows my growing concern with comfort and safety. VIII. I began keeping the cellophane bags of snacks in a padlocked cupboard. Page 13 of 37 . There are always incidents involving deadly treats: fruits. 10. If the college is nearby.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. c. ___________________________________________________________________________________ The holiday can be very frightening little children. During my first semester at college. ___________________________________________________________________________________ My first car was a rebellious-looking one which matched the way I felt and acted as a teenager. I tried simply avoiding the snacks aisle of the supermarket. ___________________________________________________________________________________ First. Going to a two-year college can save a great deal of money in tuition and other fees. b. my diet. b. First of all. the time I tried to fix my parents’ lawn mower. My next car reflected my more mature and practical adult self. and ____________________. I had to learn how to manage my time. I was a typical type ‘A’ personality: anxious. c. c. and candies that contain razor blades or even poison. Thesis: a. Thesis: a.

he will want to keep reading. It supplies any background information that may be needed to understand the essay. the thesis and plan of development appear in the same sentence. A. general statements ease the readers into your thesis statement by first introducing the topic. Stating the importance of the topic Explain the importance of your topic to the reader. writers sometimes choose not to describe the plan of development. to introduce your subject in an interesting way to the reader. or a combination of methods. FUNCTIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION A well-written introductory paragraph perform several important roles: 1. This approach works because your reader will be surprised. direct statement of the main idea of the paper usually appears near the end of the introductory paragraph. III. It attracts the reader's interest. In this ‘preview’. the major supporting points for the thesis are listed in the order in which they will be presented. If you can convince your reader that the subject in some way applies to him. Page 14 of 37 . It indicates a plan of development. B. Broad. However. It presents a thesis statement. 3. C. You can use any one method. and then inspired by the contrast between the opening idea and the thesis following. General to narrow Begin with a broad. Starting with an opposite Start with an idea or situation that is the opposite with the one you will develop. 2. COMPONENTS OF THE INTRODUCTION Hook Connecting Information Thesis Statement II. encouraging him or her to continue reading the essay. This clear. COMMON METHODS OF INTRODUCTION Here are some common methods of introduction.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 I. In some cases. 4. or is something he should know more about. general statement of your topic and narrow it down to your thesis statement.

You may simply want the reader to think about possible answers. or something you have heard: a popular saying or a proverb. Incident or story Use an incident or a brief story. The incident can be something that happened to you. Using a quotation lets you add someone else’s voice to your own. Quotation Use a quotation. a current advertising slogan.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ D. The story should be brief and related to your main idea. Stories are naturally interesting.. F. They appeal to the reader’s curiosity. In your introduction. or a favorite expression used by friends or family (“My father always says . something that you have heard about or read about in a newspaper or magazine. an anecdote will grab the reader’s attention right away. E. The quotation can be something you have read in a book or in an article. Page 15 of 37 . or you may plan to answer the questions yourself later in the paper. Questions Ask one or more questions..”).

I realized that those ‘confused teenagers’ sitting around me were in much better shape for college than I was. shiny condition. if they are genuine. When I decided to return to school at the age of thirty-five. But most people agree that true and lasting love involves far more than mere physical attraction. in the space provided. as we all know. not a confused teenager fresh out of high school. however. especially the ones that promise instant. It is impractical. After all. Type: __________ 1. 2. Bookstore shelves today are crammed with dozens of different diet books. how to write a report. One of the worst fad diets is the "Palm Beach" plan. will these feelings last? Love. Type: __________ 4.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 I. Unfortunately. and is a sure route to poor nutrition. or restraints of any kind. belts. They still had all their classroom skills in bright. miraculous results. I had to learn how to locate information in a library. Diseases like scarlet fever and whooping cough used to kill more young children than any other cause. Read the introductions and. And authors are more than willing to invent new fad diets to cash in on this craze. What is love? How do we know that we are really in love? When we meet that special person. I was a grown woman who had raised a family. Type: __________ Page 16 of 37 . Type: __________ 3. while mine had grown rusty from disuse. The American public seems willing to try any sort of diet. Instead. Several steps must be taken to reduce the serious dangers car accidents pose to our children. and the feeling of being wholly at ease. Love involves mutual respect. And most of the children fatally injured in car accidents were not protected by car seats. some of these fad diets are ineffective or even unsafe. doesn't achieve the results it claims. the desire to give rather than take. how can we tell that our feelings are genuine and not merely infatuation? And. But when I started classes. I wasn't at all worried about my ability to do the work. Today. car accidents are the number one killer of our children. child mortality due to disease has been almost completely eliminated by medical science. and even how to speak up in class discussions. write the letter of the kind of introduction used in each case. is difficult to define.

smaller shots. evenly grated cheese The ad copy tells you how wonderful. Type: __________ 7. Type: __________ 9. The ad. food preparation will be with a processor. If we drove less and walked more. how easy. we are contented with the capsule summaries on the network news. we would save money. Every romance novel has the same elements: an innocent heroine. Type: __________ 6. stands a shiny new food processor. This dependence on the automobile. when my sister and her family came to spend their two week vacation with us. When you're browsing in the drugstore or supermarket and you see a paperback featuring an attractive young woman in a low-cut dress fleeing from a handsome dark figure in a shadowy castle. Instead of studying a daily newspaper. thin rounds of juicy tomatoes. they drove downtown to a Methodist church. Usually. "Fish and visitors. we pop a frozen dinner into the oven. and their children’s constant invasions of our privacy. abandoning her five year-old because she couldn't cope with being a parent anymore. My processor turned out to be expensive. Then the young mother drove off. Early Sunday morning the young mother dressed her little girl warmly and gave her a candy bar. even for short trips. you know exactly what you’re getting. Instead of cooking a simple. shows a beautiful kitchen with gleaming counters. Around the main picture are other. become healthier. In the foreground. Type: __________ Page 17 of 37 . heaps of matchstick-sized potatoes. in full color on a glossy magazine page. Type: __________ 8. Together. instead of walking even a few blocks to the local convenience store." wrote Benjamin Franklin. he's right. My father stubbornly says. Perhaps the automatic right to become a parent should no longer exist. Worst of all. a feminine hand is touching it lovingly." and when it comes to certain paperbacks. "begin to smell after three days. on one of the counters. Don't believe it. we jump into our cars. and discover fascinating things about our surroundings. After only three days of my family's visit. a picture book. I was thoroughly sick of my brother.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. There the mother told the little girl to wait on the stone steps until children began arriving for Sunday school. They show mounds of perfectly sliced onion rings. Would-be parents should be forced to apply for parental licenses for parental licenses for which they would have to meet three important conditions. and piles of golden. difficult to operate. and very limited in its use. and a well-worn stuffed rabbit. has robbed us of a valuable experience of walking." Last summer. We Americans are incredibly lazy. This incident is one of thousands of cases of child neglect and abuse that occur annually. I became convinced that Franklin was right. and a cruel but fascinating hero. "You can often tell a book by its cover. nourishing meal. my sister's endless complaints about her boss. an exotic setting.in law's corny jokes.

Although she looks good in formal clothes. In fact. I wish that I share some of her interests and her untiring zest for life. Blue. Page 18 of 37 . Fortunately.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. pink and purple are her favorite colors. Miranda is an extrovert and enjoys outdoor activities. Write the introductory paragraph for the essay below.” It is fun to have such an interesting person for a sister. she does manage to pass her examinations by studying frantically at the eleventh hour. However. my sister is very popular. curly hair is dark brown. she took it all in stride and said. picture life in Rome. regardless of their country. In school. and variety of activities. live quite differently. Now imagine life in a neighboring rural Canadian town. and is usually tied in a pony tail to keep is from falling onto her face. Miranda has an optimistic outlook towards life. Finally. I’ll just have to be patient and wait for the next match. Italy. She hopes one day to improve the status of sports in Singapore. She has an hour-glass figure and looks sensational in brightly colored clothes. Imagine life in Toronto. so the biggest differences are between Toronto and its smaller neighbor. By nature. Sometimes. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Miranda is one of those girls who makes heads turn wherever she goes. She is the captain of the school basketball team and is also the best player in the team. Type: __________ II. Urban people and rural people. Her basketball team-mates adore her and are willing to do anything she says. Perhaps some of the most notable differences in the lives of these two groups include degree of friendliness. She camps and cycles at every possible opportunity. she is most often seen in T-shirts and shorts. My sister aspires to be a teacher of physical education. pace of life. city dwellers all over the world tend to have similar lifestyles. Her soft. when she fractured her arm and had to miss an important basketball match. Which of these last two places is more different from Toronto? Many people might mistakenly choose Rome because it is in a different country. Miranda’s enthusiasm for sports does not extend to her academic work. The younger girls in the school admire her because of all the medals she has won. She believes that every problem in life serves only to build one’s character. “Well. Once.

Explaining a process The writer explains how something is made or done. Presenting cause – effect The writer explains the causes or the effects of something or both. Arguing a position The writer aims to convince the reader to think or act a certain way.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT TOEFL iBT 80 There are many different ways of developing your ideas. [ 7. Page 19 of 37 . 9. Giving a description The writer gives the reader a mental picture of what is being described. 8. Narrating The writer tells a story. 5. 4. 3. 1. Giving a definition The writer wants to share his or her personal meaning of a term with the reader. Making comparison / contrast The writer wants to show similarities (comparison) or differences (contrast) of something. Giving examples The writer uses examples or figures to illustrate his or her own opinion on something or somebody. 6. Classifying The writer places items in groups according to some principle. 2.

75 USD into a vending machine and getting the money back with your snacks. It is an instructor’s decision to give a retest on a test where you first scored 30.. Page 20 of 37 . Most are in the late teens to early twenties. they pretty much dress alike. with similar clothing styles and similar interests. while the men often wear shirts or sweaters. Their uniform consists of jeans.. whisper and write notes instead of paying attention. They are dressed for the workplace. for day students. listen hard. Luck is being late for work on a day when your boss arrives later than you do.. and they don’t want their time wasted. Generally. and know the same musical artists. They doze. their clothing is more formal than the day students’. And they are more comfortable talking about their mortgages or work schedules. Luck Method: __________ Luck is putting 1. Luck refers to moments of good fortune that happen in everyday life. Some are in their late teens. When they miss a class or hand in their assignments late. They may come to campus after putting in a nine-to-five day at work. It is not going to the dentist for two years and then going and finding out that you do not have any cavities. I have observed notable differences between day and evening students. day and evening students definitely have different attitudes toward school. evening students lead much more complicated lives than most day students. Luck is finding a used car for sale at a good price at exactly the time when your car rolls its last mile. day students often seems more interested in the view out the window or the cute classmate in the next row than in what the instructor is saying. In short. the students in my daytime classes are all about the same age. Finally. and ask the instructor lots of questions. not for a typical college classroom.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT TOEFL iBT 80 IDENTIFY THE METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH Day versus Evening students Method: __________ As a part-time college student who has taken both day and evening courses. They obviously are there to learn. Second. It is calling up a plumber to fix a leak on a day when the plumber has no other work to do. Evening students sit up straight. it’s usually because of a real problem. such as a sick child or an important deadline at work. day and night. college is generally their only major responsibility. T-shirts. baseball caps and maybe a gold earring or two. Almost have children to raise or grandchildren to baby-sit for. However. and whether male or female. draw cartoons. or child care than about what was on TV last night. many of the women wear skirts or dresses. First of all. It is driving into a traffic bottleneck and choosing the lane that winds up moving most rapidly. but most range from young married people in their twenties and thirties to people my grandparents’ age. running shoes. They use the same popular slang. talk about the same movies and TV shows. They have plenty of time to study and get assignments done. But students in my evening courses are much more diverse. day students and night students are different as .

so I filled out a card. I noticed some tarnished medals and faded ribbons for track accomplishments. and beige print of basketball. just as I was walking into the house from my first day back at school. I turned to leave the room. Page 21 of 37 . One hot summer afternoon. However. a man asked to speak to Michael Winchester. cheerful space. a fielder’s glove. the telephone rang. These lay next to a heavy gold trophy that read. Turning from the closet. A sign indicated that the car was the first prize in a sweepstakes celebrating the store’ s tenth anniversary. orange.” He asked. revealing a tangle of odd sweat socks and a few stretched-out Tshirts emblazoned with team insignias. but not a Michael Winchester. On the shelf above the bunched-together clothes were a red baseball cap.” I accidentally tipped an autograph-covered. A Childhood Disappointment Method: __________ The time I almost won a car when I was 10 years old was probably the most disappointing moment of my childhood.” She then asked him. I was wandering around a local department store. Next to the desk was a window with brightly printed curtains that matched the bedspread. “MVP: Pinewood Varsity Basketball. I noticed a single bed with its wooden headboard against the far wall. I slipped my card into the slot of a heavy blue wooden box that rested on another table nearby. I then proceeded to the toy department. flat pile carpet. about a month later. My mother said. football. and baseball scenes. I was attracted to a crowd of people gathering around a bright-blue car that was on display in the main aisle. A sports schedule and several yellowing newspaper clippings were tacked to the cork bulletin board on the wall above the nightstand. slightly deflated basketball off one shelf. A lamp shaped like a baseball and a copy of Sports illustrated were on the top of a nightstand to the left of the bed. I noticed a closet to my right with the door open. An Athlete’s Room Method: __________ As I entered the bright. “There’s a Michael Williams here. I carefully picked my way around scattered pairs of worn-out sneakers. My mother then called me to ask if I had ever filled out an application for a sweepstakes drawing. “What is this all about?” and he explained to her about the sweepstakes contest. and the table was just low enough for me to write on. feeling very much like an adult. with its beige walls and practical. and a battered brown gym bag. and the ball bounced with dull thuds across the width of the room. As I ran my fingers over the items on the dusty shelves. “Is this 862-9715 at 29 Williams Street?” My mother said. but this is 29 Winchester Street. near the toy department. Between the window and the left corner stood a dresser with one drawer half open. waiting for my mother to finish shopping. When my mother answered it. A desk with a bookcase top stood against the left wall. “That’s the right number. The sign also said that a person did not have to buy anything to fill out an entry form.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ It is having a new checkout aisle at the supermarket open up just as your cart arrives. The bedspread was a brown. Then. White entry cards and shiny yellow pencils were scattered on a card table nearby. The best kind of luck is winning a new color TV set on a chance for which you paid only a quarter. completely forgetting about the car. I walked toward it to examine it more closely.

If your partner is verbally abusive. Steps two and three need to be done one right after the other. the family begins to suffer the effects of loss of sleep. In addition. Perhaps he observed his father treating his mother the same way. then you must consider step four: to leave him. Yet. gnawed tables legs. it begins to howl. Every night. Years of verbal abuse have probably convinced you that you’re responsible for everything that’s wrong with your relationship. the puppy keeps the entire family awake for at least two solid weeks. Even after the lights go out or the house quiets down. realize that you are not to blame for his abusive behavior. they would pull over to the curb first. Maybe he never learned any more positive ways to deal with negative emotions like anger. Since it is impossible to sleep while listening to a heartbroken. If they had any consideration for the cars behind them. it is his responsibility to learn why he chooses to deal with his problems by saying nasty things. when the puppy is placed in its box. This may be difficult for you to believe. Inconsiderate Drivers Method: __________ Some people are inconsiderate drivers. the puppy continues to moan. If he refuses to take responsibility for changing his abusive behavior.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Dealing with Verbal Abuse Method: __________ If you are living with a man who abuses you verbally with criticism. depressed. a common example of inconsiderateness is night drivers who fail to turn off their high beams. In the city. For one thing. The least they could do is to use their turn signals to let those behind them know in advance of their intention. Other rude highway drivers move to the second or passing lane and then stay there. yip. Other drivers will suddenly slow down unexpectedly at a city intersection to make a right or left turn. and irritable. fear. and whine. and insults. making it impossible for cars behind to go around them. something different is damaged. offer to go with him to talk to a counselor who will help both of you learn new ways to communicate. creating litter that takes away some of the pleasure of driving and that must be paid for with everyone’s tax dollars. you can learn to stand up for yourself and express your feelings clearly. While he learns to express his feelings without attacking you. and that you will accept no less. You were not put here on earth to have your self-concept demolished by serving as someone else’s verbal punching-bag. But that is a lie. State that you are a person who deserves respect and civil behavior. Every day. other drivers who act as if they had special privileges are those who do not wait their turn in bottleneck situations where the cars in two lanes must merge alternately into one lane. the puppy usually ruins the wall-to-wall Page 22 of 37 . Step two is for you to announce that you will no longer tolerate being verbally abused. Perhaps the most inconsiderate drivers are those who throw trash out their windows. A second effect is that the puppy tortures the family by destroying its material possessions. First. trembling ‘woo-woo’. On the highway. and leaking sofa cushions. you should take steps to change your situations. Family members find chewed belts and shoes. or disappointment. Everyone becomes hostile. creating glare for cars approaching in the other direction. New Puppy in the House Method: __________ Buying a new puppy can have drastic effects on a quiet household. short-tempered. Next. they will at times stop right in the middle of the street while looking for a certain home or landmark.

students are trying to weave home without encountering the police or a roadside tree.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ carpeting and makes the house smell like a public restroom at a big city bus station. is the drinking and driving that go on after the prom is over. Teenagers pile into their cars on their way to ‘after-proms’ and pull out the bottles and cans stashed under the seats. at 4 or 5 AM. Worst of all. I believe that high school proms should be banned. When the prom draws to a close. and prom night turns into tragedy. These continual arguments. Only when the puppy gets a bit order will the house be peaceful again. it causes problems. as usual. along with the effects of sleeplessness and the loss of valued possessions. Perhaps the main reason prom should be banned. For all of these reasons. Parents argue with children about who is supposed to feed and walk the dog. Another pre-prom problem is money. too. The prom itself can be unpleasant and frustrating. though. During the dance. proms have no place in our school. At the beginning of the evening. Some of them do not make it. One reason is that even before the prom takes place. The price of the various items needed can add up quickly to a lot of money. Let’s Ban Proms Method: __________ While many students regard proms as peak events in high school life. the popular teenagers drive off happily to other parties while the less-popular ones head home. Everyone argues about whose idea it was to get the puppy in the first place. Teenagers are separated into ‘the ones who were asked’ and ‘the ones who weren’t’. seriously disrupt a household. By the time the big night is finally over. the girls enviously compare dresses while the boys sweat nervously inside their rented suits. the couples who have gotten together only to go to the prom have split up into miserable singles. the puppy causes family arguments. Being one of those who weren’t asked can be heartbreaking to a sensitive young person. Children argue among themselves about whose turn it is to play with the puppy. Page 23 of 37 . however.

2. 1. After you have stated your thesis (Tell them what you are going to tell them). However. you may provide an answer to your question.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 A concluding paragraph is your chance to remind the reader of your thesis idea and bring the paper to a natural and graceful end. This combination of a summary and a final thought is the most common method of concluding an essay. A question must deal with one of these areas: Why the subject of your paper is important What might happen in the future What should be done about this subject Which choice should be made In your conclusion. Be sure. and saves you time. End with a summary and final thought When army instructors train new recruits. don’t use the exact wording you used before. Here is a summary conclusion: Catalog shopping at home. has several advantages. or a combination of methods. you restate the thesis and supporting points (Tell them what you have told them). may be used to round off your paper. A question grabs the reader’s attention. It is a direct appeal to your reader to think further about what you have written. Include a thought-provoking question or short series of questions. that the question is closely related to your thesis. It is not surprising that growing numbers of devoted catalog shoppers are welcoming those full color mail brochures that offer everything from turnip seeds to televisions. then. saves you money. Such shopping is convenient. here is an example: Page 24 of 37 . A question should follow logically from the points you have already made in the paper. and supported it (Tell them). each of their lessons follows a three-step formula:    Tell them what you are going to tell them Tell them Tell them what you have told them An essay that ends with a summary is not very different. COMMON METHODS OF CONCLUSION Any one of the methods below. though. Note that a summary is accompanied by a final comment that rounds off the paper and brings the discussion to a close.

Pets are living creatures. predictions and recommendations also involve your reader. A prediction states what may happen in the future. If people stopped to think before acquiring pets. hurried executive. Consumers should boycott companies whose advertising continues to use such stereotypes. Now these unfortunate characters are not just being laughed at. there would be fewer instances of cruelty to animals. will happen in the 21st century when most of the population will be over 60 years old? Retirement policies could change dramatically. Stereotypes such as the helpless homemaker. then. with the age 65 testimonial dinner and gold watch postponed for 5 or 10 years. they are being turned into hucksters to sell products to an unsuspecting public. They do not deserve to be treated as carelessly as one would treat a stuffed toy. 3. A recommendation suggests what should be done about a situation or problem. Even TV would change as the Metamucil generation replaces the Pepsi generation. Page 25 of 37 .TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ What. and dotty grandparent are insulting enough to begin with. New soap operas and situation comedies would reveal the secrets of the ‘sunset years’. Glamorous gray-haired models would sell everything from toilet paper to televisions. In magazine ads or TV commercials. It will be a different world indeed when the young find themselves outnumbered. Many times. it is the people who adopt pets without considering the expense and responsibility involved who mistreat and neglect their animals. they become even more insulting. End with a prediction or recommendation Like questions.

though. Holidays. But would we rather have a holiday-free calendar? Some people dream of starring roles. Indeed. 1. It provides something our family can have in common to discuss. c. But because of its educational value. rewrite the conclusion so that it sounds better. In the box provided. a. So let someone else have that cover story. 1. 2. or ends with a question (write Q). note whether each concluding paragraph ends with a summary and final thought (write S). simply write Logical in the blank. They can. visitors in everyone’s life. and is never completely safe. I’d rather lead an ordinary. Study each conclusion in the following outlines to determine if it is logically concluded. b. II. their names in lights.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ APPLICATION ON THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH TOEFL iBT 80 I. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: Watching TV is not a waste of time. and their pictures on the cover of People magazine. or we can try to escape from them. ends with a prediction or recommendation (write P/R). feels pressured all the time. write Not Good in the blank together with the reason with which it is not good. Disappointments are unwelcome. watching TV is a good way to spend one’s time. its entertainment value. Critics of TV will continue to put down the ‘boob tube’. After that. Page 26 of 37 . 3. life than a stressfilled one. and its provision of things we can discuss together. It provides entertainment to cheer us up. It’s a valuable educational tool. The best thing. is to accept a disappointment and then try to use it somehow: step over the unwelcome visitor and then get on with life. though. it is clear. If the conclusion is not appropriate. but regular. are often not the fulfilling experience they are supposed to be. I’m not one of them. We can feel depressed about them. and so should others. but calm. If the conclusion is appropriate. our family is going to continue watching TV for a long time. A famous person gives up private life. be very stressful. in fact.

____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: Communicating in a foreign language can create some embarrassing misunderstandings. Mispronouncing words can lead to real embarrassment. The Coca-Cola commercial is a good example of an entertaining commercial. What you need to do is go to the laboratory as often as you can to improve your language skills. c. If you do not have a TV. b. The Fritos commercial is particularly amusing. then consider State as the place to enroll. you are certainly missing out on the fun of commercials. If you are looking for a quality education at a reasonable price. a. the recreational activities. Misunderstanding what someone says to you can create amusing problems. the academic resources. 3. Misusing vocabulary words can really make you blush. State University offers a superior program in my major. State also offers quality student services. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: TV commercials are entertaining a. Page 27 of 37 . In addition. the university has high quality academic resources. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: My reasons for coming to State University center around the services it provides. b. c. 4. the news programs can keep you informed about the world. In addition.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. b. and the low tuition are the reasons I decided to come to the State University. The challenge of a diversified and excellent program. I really think I made a wise decision. There are also a lot of entertaining programs to see. The Chevrolet commercial is as good as any situation comedy. a. Everyone who speaks a foreign language is bound to have misunderstandings from time to time. the student services. The people there are very nice and they will help you with your grammar and pronunciation. Indeed. c. everyone should have a TV set.

I need to plan the organization of the topic. As the writer. The thesis statement is the summation of your thought about the topic. 9 STEPS TO WRITE AN ESSAY The following steps structured in an example will help you plan and write an essay fast and effectively. In this case it is the straightforward announcement of your preference. The concept map. will guide you as you write your essay. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Home School ______________________________________________________________________________________________ activities people day-to-day interaction ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Page 28 of 37 . Step 3: Write your thesis statement Thesis statement: Studying at school must be best for me. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. I make two columns so that I can compare the quality of education at home with the quality of education at school. Step 4: Make notes about your general ideas These notes are the start of your concept map. Step 2: Identify the task The topic wants you to state a preference. Do you prefer to study at home using computers or study at school? The instructions suggest you give reasons and specific details to support your answer. students many have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Step 1: Read the essay topic In the future. like a road map.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ USEFUL GUIDELINES TO WRITE AN ESSAY TOEFL iBT 80 A.

I would find studying at home all by myself boring. I may not like them. Now expand your concept map with specific details. I may change my mind and cross out a few ideas. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Home School ______________________________________________________________________________________________ isolation activities people boring day-to-day interaction ______________________________________________________________________________________________ technology only source subjects ______________________________________________________________________________________________ limited future technology ______________________________________________________________________________________________ hard to concentrate at home motivation work as team more air technology plus teachers learn from others socialize ______________________________________________________________________________________________ In my first general idea. I added the specific details of isolation and boredom at home. Step 5: Expand your notes to include specific details You started your concept map with general notes. At school. Therefore. or I may not think I could give any examples about them. I must give reasons and specific details to support my ideas. Page 29 of 37 . I would be able to socialize with other students and learn from them as well.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ subjects ______________________________________________________________________________________________ future technology ______________________________________________________________________________________________ motivation ______________________________________________________________________________________________ I then make a list of all the general ideas that affect the education at home and at school. I shouldn’t mention them. I put the specific details socialize and learn from others under school. If I can’t give any examples. As I write. interaction.

There is interaction with that source and motivation from that source. I have access to these technological sources plus human ones as well. In this introduction. but at home. I have stated my opinion. one paragraph could be about course subjects. In the third row for general ideas. people wasn’t as precise a term as interaction. Step 8: Write the Body Paragraph 2: At home. and motivation.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ I cross out activities and day-to-day because they weren’t exactly the words I was looking for. I chose information. Page 30 of 37 . essay. but an education involves more than just studying. An education is not just getting information from a source. you can get a good education. Topic sentence for general idea information: Both technology and teachers can give you a good education. I have indicated that I will develop my topic by discussing information. interaction. Studying at school would be best for me. At school. I have teachers and students who will share their knowledge with me. I thought more about what I wanted to say. Step 6: Write the topic sentence for each paragraph Each of the rows in the concept map could be a paragraph: one paragraph could be about interaction. I decided I had already talked about technology under subjects so I crossed it out. Therefore. Once I have the topic sentences for my paragraphs. Both technology and teachers can give you a good education. the word subjects was not parallel with the other nouns. Similarly. I only have technology. one paragraph could be about motivation Topic sentence for general idea interaction: You need interaction to get a good education. I can only get information from technological sources like my computer. I want both options to learn. or my television. Topic sentence for general idea motivation: If you are motivated to learn. I need to interact and be motivated by humans not by a machine. In the second row for general ideas. my DVD player. studying at school would be best for me. I needed a word that ended with -tion. I can begin to write the essay Step 7: Write the Introduction The introduction lets the reader know what my point of view is and how I plan to develop the I could get a good education either at home or at school.

.. But how can you motivate yourself isolated at home? I like to work as a team.. to think. These adverbials qualify your opinion. I summarized why I preferred studying in school. I’d be isolated and bored. But I can’t. In my view . I rephrased my ideas. Paragraph 4: If you are motivated to learn. .. certainly. there would be no one to learn from. I need students to interact with. I need the stimulus of the classroom to motivate me. No doubt. To me . I want to learn from them. however. convinced. The reader is interested in what you have to say. positive. to realize.. you can get a good education...... Give me the traditional school! In this paragraph... definitely. .. no one to socialize with.. I can’t motivate myself. then I could study at home. USEFUL EXPRESSIONS TO EXPRESS YOUR OPINION The Introduction to your essay should tell the reader what your opinion is on the topic.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: You need interaction to get a good education. I want the focus that a class goal can give me. whatever it is.. conceivably. Your ideas on a topic are important.. At home. It appears that . .. If no one ever challenges your opinion. It’s too easy to be distracted by unimportant things. To my mind . B.    These verbs show how strongly you feel about something: to agree. You can express your opinion by using the following phrases: In my opinion ... ... The reader looks to see how you express your opinion. to understand... To my way of thinking . to guess... almost. I think . At home... to hope. doubtless. Page 31 of 37 ... maybe. presumably.. It seems to me that . These adjectives show how strongly you feel about something: certain. Step 9: Write the Conclusion If I could motivate myself to work harder.. to suppose. you may never develop your ideas.. I need information from as many sources as possible. I believe .. possibly. show how strongly you feel about something: seemingly.. to believe.. probably. It is my opinion that . I did not simply repeat them. no right or wrong opinion. sure. to infer.. The students at school always have new ideas. There is.. perhaps.. From my point of view . I want to do well so our class look good. and if I wouldn’t mind getting information from limited sources. if I could sit all day in a room without interacting with anyone....

. VARIETIES IN DEVELOPING AN ESSAY Semantic Variety In order to be a good essay. Basically. conversation. For the most part. Practically. My explanation fell on deaf ears. More or less.. I. your essay must interest the reader. It started as a simple conversation that turned into argument. you don’t want to repeat the same verb or adverb. and that will carry the meaning of the sentence. I tried to reason with them. Read the paragraph below. Generally. examine. Essentially. Synonyms provide coherence in your essay. They felt I had not thoroughly examined the issue and saw no reason to debate the subject any longer. Overall. Transitional words Transitional words and phrases will help your reader follow your ideas from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. unrelated to the thesis of your essay. noun or adjective in every sentence. One way to do this is to vary your vocabulary. So to speak. Page 32 of 37 . Learning different ways to express similar ideas (synonyms) and different ways to help the reader move from one idea to the next will help you develop semantic variety. reason Synonyms argument. All things considered. discourse. elaborate. These adverbials show an idea which is not completely true: Almost. Up to a point.  C. confer. Look for these synonyms of discuss and discussion Verb: discuss discuss Noun: discussion discussion Synonyms argue.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________  These adverbials make general statement about how you feel about something: All in all. Synonyms When you are writing on one topic. your ideas will stand alone.. For all interests and purposes. I had a dispute with my parents. my parents argued that I should stay in school.. To some extend. I wanted to take a year off from school. and they refused to let me continue the discussion. hash over. debate. II. I confer with my sister who felt we could hash it over later when my parents were in a better mood. Without transitional words and phrases. Altogether. I tried to persuade them that taking a year off from school and working would be valuable experience. You should try to use words that are similar in meaning. In a way. Synonyms are important because they help you link closely related words or ideas. explain. explanation Last month. As a rule. . dispute. In general. Of course. On the whole. .

5. Transitional words that show Degree When you are explaining why one thing is more or less important than another thing... Moreover. To illustrate. Almost the same as. Secondary. Just as. Chiefly. As well as. 6. Meanwhile.. Since.. Although.. To paraphrase. As. Next. So that.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Nevertheless. As a result. Lesser. However. 3. That is. In a like manner. At the same time as.. Neither/Nor. Still. Always. Less important. Different from. . Basically. Furthermore. Transitional words that show Cause and Effect When you are explaining how something caused a change in something else. What’s more. .. Like. After. First. For example. Common in. Similarly. Because.. During. Owing to. Alike. Correspondingly. . Principally. Sometimes. On the other hand. you may want to use these expressions: In addition. At the same time. To clarify. Like. Since. you may want to use these expressions: Most important. second. While. Transitional words that show Comparison and Contrast When you are explaining how two or more things are similar or how they are different. Also. Unlike. you may want to use these expressions:  To Compare: Similar to. While yet. Therefore. Besides. Due to. But. In the same way. In contrast to. Essentially. you may want to use these expressions: So.. Page 33 of 37 . you may want to use these expressions: Before. To explain.. To Contrast: Differ from. For instance. . Either/Or. . Transitional words that show Explanation If you are explaining what something is by giving an example or if you are restating something for emphasis. Although. Often. Then... Primarily. Instead. Because of. Similarly. Resemble. As. Namely. Also. . you may want to use these expressions: In other words. For this reason. Such as.  4. Subordinate. Less than. Thus. Otherwise. Transitional words to add more information If you are adding more information to make your point stronger. . Transitional words that show Time When you are explaining the sequence of events. More than.. Consequently. Even. 2.

She worked with school teachers helping them recognize early signs of illness. and gerunds must be parallel. must be parallel. III. verbs. We can also rephrase words to provide coherence in the essay. the length of the sentences. The countryside where I grew up is very isolated. with giant dark cliffs rising out of the water. adjectives. however. She worked with mothers teaching them how to keep their children healthy. Repeating words can also link ideas that may be sentences apart. They are one way to provide coherence in an essay. Coherence Transitional words help the reader see the relationship between sentences and ideas. Rephrasing gives the reader a second chance to understand your thesis. Parallel Structures Parallelism gives your essay rhythm. Repeating Repeating words can provide a rhythm to a paragraph. adverbs. the subject of the sentences. and the voice of the sentences.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Syntactic variety I. There are two other ways to provide coherence: repeating words and rephrasing ideas. Rephrasing We learned the words to use to introduce a statement that has been restated or rephrased for emphasis. 2. Your structures. II. Page 34 of 37 . It seems in all directions you look at a breathtaking vista. You can drive for miles without seeing another car. The scenery near the ocean is especially dramatic. the subjects. Synonyms are one way to rephrase. She worked with restaurant personnel showing them proper food handling techniques. It makes it easier to read and understand. That is. Sentences You can vary the types of sentences you use. 1.

The twentieth century saw great changes. or an animal) can contribute to a child’s development. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. 10. 9. 6. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. A gift (such as a soccer ball. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Books are not needed anymore because people can read information on computers. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games is fun only when you win. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 7. Why did you enjoy this class so much? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answers. 8. Which opinion do you agree with? Give reasons to support your answer. In your opinion. Which view do you agree with? Why? If you could change one important thing about your hometown. 4. food has become easier to prepare. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. Which do you prefer – items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. Think of the most important class you have taken. 11. a camera. what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answers. Page 35 of 37 . Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. In the twentieth century. Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. 2. what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Compare these two views. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. 5. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? University should give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ TOPICS FOR FURTHER PRACTICE OR HOMEWORK TOEFL iBT 80 1. 12.

what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Which do you think the company should choose? Some movies are serious. Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done. 14. 26. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Others movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. 20. Others prefer to live in a big city. 19. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. 18. In your opinion.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 13. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Business should do anything they can to make a profit. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 23. designed to make the audience think. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. 25. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Others like to be with friends most of the time. Other people prefer to take their time and live life at slower pace. 16. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 27. Page 36 of 37 . A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17. 21. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. 15. 22. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use reasons to support your answer. 24. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Neighbors are the people who live near us. How do movies or television influence people’s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.

traveling to the Moon and to other planets). People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Other people disagree and think the government should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. 29. Page 37 of 37 . If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition.TOEFL iBT 80 Writing – Student’s Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 28. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples to support your answer. some exercise. Some read. others work in their gardens. what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Some people think the government should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example. 30.