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Ho Chi Minh City University of Education Foreign Language Center Branch 11

222 Le Van Sy Street, District 3, HCMC Tel: (84.8) 9312291 24 Ky Dong Street, District 3, HCMC Tel: (84.8) 8844911 73B/563 Quang Trung Street, Go Vap District, HCMC Tel: (84.8) 9893214

TOEFL iBT 80

WRITING
(Students Book )
Compiled and Edited by

Ta Tu Quynh Dinh Tran Hanh Nguyen Pham Nguyen Huy Hoang Vu Quoc Anh Truong Son

(Internal Use Only)

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

WRITING AN ESSAY

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS AN ESSAY?
TOEFL iBT 80

I.

WHAT IS AN ESSAY?

Letter Word Sentence Paragraph

Essay

II.

STRUCTURE OF AN ESSAY

Introduction: attracts the readers interest Thesis Statement: states the main aim or purpose of the essay Body: list of points that support the thesis First Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis Second Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis Third Topic sentence: advances first supporting point for the thesis ...

Conclusion: a final thought or two stemming from the topic of the essay

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY
TOEFL iBT 80
I.
1.

INTRODUCTION
Hook

A hook is the opening sentence(s) to catch the readers attention. There are generally 4 ways to write a hook. Ask a question Ex: How many out there on the roads are driving uninsured vehicles? (Most people wont know the answer, but theyll probably be hooked and want to find out more about the topic) Make an interesting observation Ex: Asian economists are not sleeping well these days. (This observation makes the reader want to know why Asian economists are not sleeping well. To find out, he reads on.) Use a famous quote Ex: To be or not to be, thats the question. (This hook begins an essay on the topic about suicide.) Give a unique scenario Ex: Traveling at more than 100 mph, he feels as though he is not moving. He is engulfed in complete silence. For a moment, it is as if he entered another dimension. (This essay is about the exciting sport of skydiving.) 2. Connecting ideas

After the hook, the writer usually writes 3 to 5 sentences that help connect the reader and the topic. Those sentences can be background information about the topic or they can be examples. 3. Thesis Statement

The Thesis Statement (or writing plan) is usually the last part of the introduction. It can be 1 or 2 sentences long. In the thesis statement, the writer tells the reader what to expect in the essay. There are 2 ways to write a thesis statement. Direct thesis statement: specific outline of the essay Ex: The main problems facing South American countries are a lack of job opportunities for citizens, increasing demand for better healthcare, and limited university programs for poor students. Page 4 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Indirect thesis statement Ex: The problems facing South American countries today require immediate attention. (The reader expects to find out a discussion of problems in South America. The reader does not know exactly what to expect, but that is not a problem.)

II.
1.

BODY
Paragraph 1 Topic sentence Supporting sentences (examples, facts, ...)

2.

Paragraph 2 Topic sentence Supporting sentences (examples, facts, ...)

3.

Paragraph 3 Topic sentence Supporting sentences (examples, facts, ...)

4.

...

III. CONCLUSION
Final thought(s) stemming from the topic of the essay

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

APPLICATION ON OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY


TOEFL iBT 80
READ AND WRITE OUT ITS OUTLINE OF THIS ESSAY

MY HOME Have you ever been away from home for a time? If you have, you certainly would have felt terribly homesick. Home is the most intimate place to a person. It is treasured and loved and adored. Like almost anyone else, I have a home. My home is an old but comfortable building near the downtown area in the capital of my country. It is centrally located near my school, the bus lines, several parks, and a museum. The people in the neighborhood are friendly and cooperative. There is very little crime, pollution, or danger there, and children are often found playing on the less-traveled streets. There are small markets and shops within walking distance and larger department stores and a shopping center less than ten blocks away. On the outside, the house looks like most in the area and has two floors. There is a small yard in front and a large, more private yard in back. The whole lot is surrounded by a low wall with a fancy iron fence on top of it. In front, there are many tall bushes that have bright flowers on them most of the year and that branch out over the fence and are visible from the sidewalk and street. In back, there is a huge tree that has brilliant red flowers from April through June, and there are numerous flower beds as well, with all types of tropical flowers and shrubs. Under the tree, there are tables and chairs where we can sit in the late afternoon and have a cold drink or tea and talk with our friends. Inside the house, in the very middle, there is an open courtyard with tropical plants and flowers and even a wild parrot that can say a few words and whistle. All around the courtyard is a kind of open corridor or porch with pillars and a railing. Plants hang from the edge of the roof, and there are no comfortable chairs here and there around the porch. The rooms all open to this porch and courtyard. In the front is a large sitting room where we keep all our books and family mementos. Upstairs are the four bedrooms, one of which I had all to myself most of last year. Like the others, it has a high ceiling, large windows that let the air in on hot nights, and a good view of both the outside and the inner courtyard. I had my room painted a rich blue with white trim, with curtains and bedspread to match, and my bed and desk and chairs were all made of a rare tropical wood that has a beautiful texture. There are other houses in our neighborhood that are more expensive, bigger, or even prettier. But I have many fond memories of that home and all the things that I have done in it, and I often feel very homesick and eager to go back to it.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

The Outline
Title: Introduction: Hook: Connecting ideas: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Body: Paragraph 1: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Conclusion:

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

THE THESIS STATEMENT


TOEFL iBT 80

I.

What is a thesis statement?


Thesis statement is usually one sentence that states the aim or purpose of the essay.

II.

Features of a good thesis statement


A good thesis statement has the following features:

1. 2. 3.

It should be the strongest and clearest statement in the essay; It must come in the introduction; It must not be a simple statement of fact; Not a thesis: Thesis: Cows produce milk The milk cows produce is not always fit for human consumption.

4.

It must not be expressed as a question, for a question contains no attitude or opinion. The answer to the question is the thesis statement; It contains controlling ideas that will be used in the topic sentences of the essay; A successful soccer coach has four qualities.

5.

6.

It may contain an opinion an opinion or a judgment that can be explained, clarified and illustrated in the body paragraphs of the essay; My neighbor, Mrs. Brown, owns four cats; these animals present a serious health hazard in our neighborhood.

III. Common errors in writing thesis statements


1. Announcements rather than statements The subject of these papers will be my parents. I want to talk about the crime wave in our country. 2. Statements that are too broad My parents have been the most influential people in my life. The baby boom generation has changed history.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Statements that are too narrow My parents have only one child. Since last year there have been over 20 robberies in our neighborhood. 4. Statements that contain more than one idea My parents helped me grow in important ways, although in other respects I was limited. The baby boom generation has had many advantages, but it also faces many problems.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

APPLICATION ON THE THESIS STATEMENT


TOEFL iBT 80
I. Write TN in the space next to each statement that is too narrow to be developed in an essay. Write TB beside each statement that is too broad to be covered in an essay. The way our society treats elderly people is unbelievable. The first car that I owned was a Ford. Computers have changed our society. People who eat a lot of red meat are almost three times more likely to get colon cancer than people who eat mostly fish and chicken. Action must be taken against drugs.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

II.

Write A beside each sentence that is an announcement rather than a thesis statement. Write 2 beside each statement that contains more than one idea. My last car was dependable, but many American cars are poorly made. The subject of this essay is daily prayer in our public schools. Soap operas show many stereotyped characters, although they also portray real problems in American life. I am going to write on my ideas concerning F grades. The strangest teacher I have ever had taught me a lesson I will never forget.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

III. Write A beside each sentence that is an announcement rather than a thesis statement. Write OK beside the statement in each pair that is a clear, limited point which could be developed in the essay. 1. A. This essay will discuss the people you meet in exercise class. B. The kinds of workout clothes worn in my aerobics class identify jocks, strugglers, and princesses. 2. A. I made several mistakes in the process of trying to win the respect and affection of my teenage stepson. B. My thesis in this paper is relationships between stepparents and stepchildren. 3. A. A period of loneliness can teach you to use your creativity, sort out your values, and feel empathy for others. B. Loneliness is the subject of this paper.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. A. This paper will be about sharing housework. B. Deciding who will perform certain unpleasant household chores can be the crisis that makes or breaks a marriage. 5. A. My concern here is to discuss near-death experiences reported by some patients. B. There are several possible explanations for the similar near-death experiences reported by some patients.

IV. Write TN beside each statement that is too narrow to be developed in an essay. Write OK beside each statement in each pair that is a clear, limited point. 1. A. I had squash, tomatoes, and corn in my garden last summer. B. Vegetable gardening can be a frustrating hobby. 2. A. The main road into our town is lined with billboards. B. For several reasons, billboards should be abolished. 3. A. There are now more single-parent households in our country than ever before. B. Organization is the key to being a successful single parent. 4. A. In my first job, I learned that I had several bad work habits. B. Because I was late for work yesterday, I lost an hours pay and was called in to see the boss. 5. A. Americans abuse alcohol because it has become such an important part of our personal and public celebrations. B. Consumption of wine, beer, and hard liquor increases in the United States every year.

V.

Write TB beside each statement that is too broad to be developed in an essay. Write OK beside each statement in each pair that is a clear, limited point. A. In many ways, sports are an important part of American life. B. Widespread gambling has changed professional football for the worse.

1.

2.

A. Modern life makes people suspicious and unfriendly. B. A frightening experience in my neighborhood has caused me to be a much more cautious person in several ways.

3.

A. Toy ads on TV teach children to be greedy, competitive and snobbish. B. Advertising has bad effects on all society.

4.

A. Learning new skills can be difficult and frustrating. B. Learning to write takes work, patience, and a sense of humor.

5.

A. I didnt get along with my family, so I did many foolish things. B. Running away from home taught me that my parents werent as terrible as I thought. Page 11 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ VI. For each pair, write 2 beside the statement that contains more than one idea. Write OK beside the statement that is a clear, limited point. 1. A. Although some good movies have come out lately, I prefer to watch old movies because they are more interesting. B. Movies of the 1930s and 1940s have better plots, sets and actors than movies made today. 2. A. The new architecture on this campus is very unpleasant, although the expansion was desperately needed. B. Our new college library building is ugly, intimidating, and inefficient. 3. A. Among the most entertaining ads on TV today are those for mail-order products. B. Although ads on TV for mail-order products are often misleading, they can still be very entertaining. 4. A. My roommate and I are compatible in most ways, but we still have conflicts at times. B. My roommate has his own unique systems for studying, writing term papers, and cleaning our room.

VII. Complete the following thesis statement by adding a third supporting point that will parallel the two already provided. 1. Because I never took college preparatory courses in high school, I entered college deficient in mathematics, study skills, and ____________________. 2. 3. A good sales person need to like people, to be aggressive, and ____________________. Rather than blame myself for failing the course, I blamed the instructor, my adviser, and even ____________________. 4. Anyone who buys an old house planning to fix it up should be prepared to put in a lot of time, hard work, and ____________________. 5. 6. Our old car eats gas, makes funny noises, and ____________________. My mother, my boss, and my ____________________ are three people who are very important in my life right now. 7. Getting married too young was a mistake because we hadnt finished our education, we werent ready for children, and ____________________. 8. Some restaurant patrons seem to leave their honesty, their cleanliness, and their

____________________ at home.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. During my first semester at college, I had to learn how to manage my time, my diet, and ____________________. 10. Three experiences I wish I could forget are the time I fell off a ladder, the time I tried to fix my parents lawn mower, and ____________________.

VIII. Write a thesis for each group of supporting statements. 1. Thesis: a. b. c. ___________________________________________________________________________________

My first car was a rebellious-looking one which matched the way I felt and acted as a teenager. My next car reflected my more mature and practical adult self. My latest car seems to tell me that Im aging; it shows my growing concern with comfort and safety.

2.

Thesis: a. b. c.

___________________________________________________________________________________

All the course credits that are accumulated can be transferred to a four-year school. Going to a two-year college can save a great deal of money in tuition and other fees. If the college is nearby, there are also significant savings in everyday living expenses.

3.

Thesis: a. b. c.

___________________________________________________________________________________

First, I tried simply avoiding the snacks aisle of the supermarket. Then I started limiting myself only five units of any given snack. Finally, in desperation, I began keeping the cellophane bags of snacks in a padlocked cupboard.

4.

Thesis: a. b. c.

___________________________________________________________________________________

The holiday can be very frightening little children. Children can be struck by cars while wearing vision-obstructing masks and dark costumes. There are always incidents involving deadly treats: fruits, cookies, and candies that contain razor blades or even poison. ___________________________________________________________________________________

5.

Thesis: a. b. c.

First of all, I was a typical type A personality: anxious, impatient, and hard-driving. I also had a family history of relatives with heart trouble. My unhealthy lifestyle, though, was probably the major factor.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH


TOEFL iBT 80
I. COMPONENTS OF THE INTRODUCTION Hook Connecting Information Thesis Statement

II.

FUNCTIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION A well-written introductory paragraph perform several important roles:

1. 2. 3. 4.

It attracts the reader's interest, encouraging him or her to continue reading the essay. It supplies any background information that may be needed to understand the essay. It presents a thesis statement. This clear, direct statement of the main idea of the paper usually appears near the end of the introductory paragraph. It indicates a plan of development. In this preview, the major supporting points for the thesis are listed in the order in which they will be presented. In some cases, the thesis and plan of development appear in the same sentence. However, writers sometimes choose not to describe the plan of development.

III. COMMON METHODS OF INTRODUCTION Here are some common methods of introduction. You can use any one method, or a combination of methods, to introduce your subject in an interesting way to the reader. A. General to narrow Begin with a broad, general statement of your topic and narrow it down to your thesis statement. Broad, general statements ease the readers into your thesis statement by first introducing the topic. B. Starting with an opposite Start with an idea or situation that is the opposite with the one you will develop. This approach works because your reader will be surprised, and then inspired by the contrast between the opening idea and the thesis following. C. Stating the importance of the topic Explain the importance of your topic to the reader. If you can convince your reader that the subject in some way applies to him, or is something he should know more about, he will want to keep reading. Page 14 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ D. Incident or story Use an incident or a brief story. Stories are naturally interesting. They appeal to the readers curiosity. In your introduction, an anecdote will grab the readers attention right away. The story should be brief and related to your main idea. The incident can be something that happened to you, something that you have heard about or read about in a newspaper or magazine. E. Questions Ask one or more questions. You may simply want the reader to think about possible answers, or you may plan to answer the questions yourself later in the paper. F. Quotation Use a quotation. The quotation can be something you have read in a book or in an article, or something you have heard: a popular saying or a proverb, a current advertising slogan, or a favorite expression used by friends or family (My father always says ...). Using a quotation lets you add someone elses voice to your own.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

APPLICATION ON THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH


TOEFL iBT 80

I.

Read the introductions and, in the space provided, write the letter of the kind of introduction used in each case. What is love? How do we know that we are really in love? When we meet that special person, how can we tell that our feelings are genuine and not merely infatuation? And, if they are genuine, will these feelings last? Love, as we all know, is difficult to define. But most people agree that true and lasting love involves far more than mere physical attraction. Love involves mutual respect, the desire to give rather than take, and the feeling of being wholly at ease. Type: __________

1.

2.

When I decided to return to school at the age of thirty-five, I wasn't at all worried about my ability to do the work. After all, I was a grown woman who had raised a family, not a confused teenager fresh out of high school. But when I started classes, I realized that those confused teenagers sitting around me were in much better shape for college than I was. They still had all their classroom skills in bright, shiny condition, while mine had grown rusty from disuse. I had to learn how to locate information in a library, how to write a report, and even how to speak up in class discussions. Type: __________

3.

Diseases like scarlet fever and whooping cough used to kill more young children than any other cause. Today, however, child mortality due to disease has been almost completely eliminated by medical science. Instead, car accidents are the number one killer of our children. And most of the children fatally injured in car accidents were not protected by car seats, belts, or restraints of any kind. Several steps must be taken to reduce the serious dangers car accidents pose to our children. Type: __________

4.

Bookstore shelves today are crammed with dozens of different diet books. The American public seems willing to try any sort of diet, especially the ones that promise instant, miraculous results. And authors are more than willing to invent new fad diets to cash in on this craze. Unfortunately, some of these fad diets are ineffective or even unsafe. One of the worst fad diets is the "Palm Beach" plan. It is impractical, doesn't achieve the results it claims, and is a sure route to poor nutrition. Type: __________

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. "Fish and visitors," wrote Benjamin Franklin, "begin to smell after three days." Last summer, when my sister and her family came to spend their two week vacation with us, I became convinced that Franklin was right. After only three days of my family's visit, I was thoroughly sick of my brother- in law's corny jokes, my sister's endless complaints about her boss, and their childrens constant invasions of our privacy. Type: __________

6.

Early Sunday morning the young mother dressed her little girl warmly and gave her a candy bar, a picture book, and a well-worn stuffed rabbit. Together, they drove downtown to a Methodist church. There the mother told the little girl to wait on the stone steps until children began arriving for Sunday school. Then the young mother drove off, abandoning her five year-old because she couldn't cope with being a parent anymore. This incident is one of thousands of cases of child neglect and abuse that occur annually. Perhaps the automatic right to become a parent should no longer exist. Would-be parents should be forced to apply for parental licenses for parental licenses for which they would have to meet three important conditions. Type: __________

7.

The ad, in full color on a glossy magazine page, shows a beautiful kitchen with gleaming counters. In the foreground, on one of the counters, stands a shiny new food processor. Usually, a feminine hand is touching it lovingly. Around the main picture are other, smaller shots. They show mounds of perfectly sliced onion rings, thin rounds of juicy tomatoes, heaps of matchstick-sized potatoes, and piles of golden, evenly grated cheese The ad copy tells you how wonderful, how easy, food preparation will be with a processor. Don't believe it. My processor turned out to be expensive, difficult to operate, and very limited in its use. Type: __________

8.

My father stubbornly says, "You can often tell a book by its cover," and when it comes to certain paperbacks, he's right. When you're browsing in the drugstore or supermarket and you see a paperback featuring an attractive young woman in a low-cut dress fleeing from a handsome dark figure in a shadowy castle, you know exactly what youre getting. Every romance novel has the same elements: an innocent heroine, an exotic setting, and a cruel but fascinating hero. Type: __________

9.

We Americans are incredibly lazy. Instead of cooking a simple, nourishing meal, we pop a frozen dinner into the oven. Instead of studying a daily newspaper, we are contented with the capsule summaries on the network news. Worst of all, instead of walking even a few blocks to the local convenience store, we jump into our cars. This dependence on the automobile, even for short trips, has robbed us of a valuable experience of walking. If we drove less and walked more, we would save money, become healthier, and discover fascinating things about our surroundings. Type: __________ Page 17 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. Imagine life in Toronto. Now imagine life in a neighboring rural Canadian town. Finally, picture life in Rome, Italy. Which of these last two places is more different from Toronto? Many people might mistakenly choose Rome because it is in a different country. In fact, city dwellers all over the world tend to have similar lifestyles, so the biggest differences are between Toronto and its smaller neighbor. Urban people and rural people, regardless of their country, live quite differently. Perhaps some of the most notable differences in the lives of these two groups include degree of friendliness, pace of life, and variety of activities. Type: __________

II.

Write the introductory paragraph for the essay below.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________

Miranda is one of those girls who makes heads turn wherever she goes. Her soft, curly hair is dark brown, and is usually tied in a pony tail to keep is from falling onto her face. She has an hour-glass figure and looks sensational in brightly colored clothes. Blue, pink and purple are her favorite colors. Although she looks good in formal clothes, she is most often seen in T-shirts and shorts. By nature, Miranda is an extrovert and enjoys outdoor activities. She is the captain of the school basketball team and is also the best player in the team. She camps and cycles at every possible opportunity. In school, my sister is very popular. The younger girls in the school admire her because of all the medals she has won. Her basketball team-mates adore her and are willing to do anything she says. However, Mirandas enthusiasm for sports does not extend to her academic work. Fortunately, she does manage to pass her examinations by studying frantically at the eleventh hour. My sister aspires to be a teacher of physical education. She hopes one day to improve the status of sports in Singapore. Miranda has an optimistic outlook towards life. She believes that every problem in life serves only to build ones character. Once, when she fractured her arm and had to miss an important basketball match, she took it all in stride and said, Well, Ill just have to be patient and wait for the next match. It is fun to have such an interesting person for a sister. Sometimes, I wish that I share some of her interests and her untiring zest for life. Page 18 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT
TOEFL iBT 80
There are many different ways of developing your ideas. 1. Giving a definition The writer wants to share his or her personal meaning of a term with the reader. 2. Classifying The writer places items in groups according to some principle. 3. Giving examples The writer uses examples or figures to illustrate his or her own opinion on something or somebody. 4. Making comparison / contrast The writer wants to show similarities (comparison) or differences (contrast) of something. 5. Giving a description The writer gives the reader a mental picture of what is being described. 6. Arguing a position The writer aims to convince the reader to think or act a certain way.
[

7.

Presenting cause effect The writer explains the causes or the effects of something or both.

8.

Narrating The writer tells a story.

9.

Explaining a process The writer explains how something is made or done.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

APPLICATION ON METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT


TOEFL iBT 80

IDENTIFY THE METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH

Day versus Evening students Method: __________ As a part-time college student who has taken both day and evening courses, I have observed notable differences between day and evening students. First of all, the students in my daytime classes are all about the same age, with similar clothing styles and similar interests. Most are in the late teens to early twenties, and whether male or female, they pretty much dress alike. Their uniform consists of jeans, T-shirts, running shoes, baseball caps and maybe a gold earring or two. They use the same popular slang, talk about the same movies and TV shows, and know the same musical artists. But students in my evening courses are much more diverse. Some are in their late teens, but most range from young married people in their twenties and thirties to people my grandparents age. Generally, their clothing is more formal than the day students. They are dressed for the workplace, not for a typical college classroom. many of the women wear skirts or dresses, while the men often wear shirts or sweaters. And they are more comfortable talking about their mortgages or work schedules, or child care than about what was on TV last night. Second, for day students, college is generally their only major responsibility. They have plenty of time to study and get assignments done. However, evening students lead much more complicated lives than most day students. They may come to campus after putting in a nine-to-five day at work. Almost have children to raise or grandchildren to baby-sit for. When they miss a class or hand in their assignments late, its usually because of a real problem, such as a sick child or an important deadline at work. Finally, day and evening students definitely have different attitudes toward school. day students often seems more interested in the view out the window or the cute classmate in the next row than in what the instructor is saying. They doze, draw cartoons, whisper and write notes instead of paying attention. Evening students sit up straight, listen hard, and ask the instructor lots of questions. They obviously are there to learn, and they dont want their time wasted. In short, day students and night students are different as .... day and night.

Luck Method: __________ Luck is putting 1.75 USD into a vending machine and getting the money back with your snacks. It is an instructors decision to give a retest on a test where you first scored 30. Luck refers to moments of good fortune that happen in everyday life. It is not going to the dentist for two years and then going and finding out that you do not have any cavities. It is calling up a plumber to fix a leak on a day when the plumber has no other work to do. Luck is finding a used car for sale at a good price at exactly the time when your car rolls its last mile. It is driving into a traffic bottleneck and choosing the lane that winds up moving most rapidly. Luck is being late for work on a day when your boss arrives later than you do.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ It is having a new checkout aisle at the supermarket open up just as your cart arrives. The best kind of luck is winning a new color TV set on a chance for which you paid only a quarter.

An Athletes Room Method: __________ As I entered the bright, cheerful space, with its beige walls and practical, flat pile carpet, I noticed a closet to my right with the door open. On the shelf above the bunched-together clothes were a red baseball cap, a fielders glove, and a battered brown gym bag. Turning from the closet, I noticed a single bed with its wooden headboard against the far wall. The bedspread was a brown, orange, and beige print of basketball, football, and baseball scenes. A lamp shaped like a baseball and a copy of Sports illustrated were on the top of a nightstand to the left of the bed. A sports schedule and several yellowing newspaper clippings were tacked to the cork bulletin board on the wall above the nightstand. A desk with a bookcase top stood against the left wall. I walked toward it to examine it more closely. As I ran my fingers over the items on the dusty shelves, I noticed some tarnished medals and faded ribbons for track accomplishments. These lay next to a heavy gold trophy that read, MVP: Pinewood Varsity Basketball. I accidentally tipped an autograph-covered, slightly deflated basketball off one shelf, and the ball bounced with dull thuds across the width of the room. Next to the desk was a window with brightly printed curtains that matched the bedspread. Between the window and the left corner stood a dresser with one drawer half open, revealing a tangle of odd sweat socks and a few stretched-out Tshirts emblazoned with team insignias. I turned to leave the room. I carefully picked my way around scattered pairs of worn-out sneakers.

A Childhood Disappointment Method: __________ The time I almost won a car when I was 10 years old was probably the most disappointing moment of my childhood. One hot summer afternoon, I was wandering around a local department store, waiting for my mother to finish shopping. near the toy department, I was attracted to a crowd of people gathering around a bright-blue car that was on display in the main aisle. A sign indicated that the car was the first prize in a sweepstakes celebrating the store s tenth anniversary. The sign also said that a person did not have to buy anything to fill out an entry form. White entry cards and shiny yellow pencils were scattered on a card table nearby, and the table was just low enough for me to write on, so I filled out a card. Then, feeling very much like an adult, I slipped my card into the slot of a heavy blue wooden box that rested on another table nearby. I then proceeded to the toy department, completely forgetting about the car. However, about a month later, just as I was walking into the house from my first day back at school, the telephone rang. When my mother answered it, a man asked to speak to Michael Winchester. My mother said, Theres a Michael Williams here, but not a Michael Winchester. He asked, Is this 862-9715 at 29 Williams Street? My mother said, Thats the right number, but this is 29 Winchester Street. She then asked him, What is this all about? and he explained to her about the sweepstakes contest. My mother then called me to ask if I had ever filled out an application for a sweepstakes drawing.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Dealing with Verbal Abuse Method: __________ If you are living with a man who abuses you verbally with criticism, and insults, you should take steps to change your situations. First, realize that you are not to blame for his abusive behavior. This may be difficult for you to believe. Years of verbal abuse have probably convinced you that youre responsible for everything thats wrong with your relationship. But that is a lie. If your partner is verbally abusive, it is his responsibility to learn why he chooses to deal with his problems by saying nasty things. Perhaps he observed his father treating his mother the same way. Maybe he never learned any more positive ways to deal with negative emotions like anger, fear, or disappointment. Steps two and three need to be done one right after the other. Step two is for you to announce that you will no longer tolerate being verbally abused. State that you are a person who deserves respect and civil behavior, and that you will accept no less. Next, offer to go with him to talk to a counselor who will help both of you learn new ways to communicate. While he learns to express his feelings without attacking you, you can learn to stand up for yourself and express your feelings clearly. If he refuses to take responsibility for changing his abusive behavior, then you must consider step four: to leave him. You were not put here on earth to have your self-concept demolished by serving as someone elses verbal punching-bag.

Inconsiderate Drivers Method: __________ Some people are inconsiderate drivers. In the city, they will at times stop right in the middle of the street while looking for a certain home or landmark. If they had any consideration for the cars behind them, they would pull over to the curb first. Other drivers will suddenly slow down unexpectedly at a city intersection to make a right or left turn. The least they could do is to use their turn signals to let those behind them know in advance of their intention. On the highway, a common example of inconsiderateness is night drivers who fail to turn off their high beams, creating glare for cars approaching in the other direction. Other rude highway drivers move to the second or passing lane and then stay there, making it impossible for cars behind to go around them. Yet, other drivers who act as if they had special privileges are those who do not wait their turn in bottleneck situations where the cars in two lanes must merge alternately into one lane. Perhaps the most inconsiderate drivers are those who throw trash out their windows, creating litter that takes away some of the pleasure of driving and that must be paid for with everyones tax dollars.

New Puppy in the House Method: __________ Buying a new puppy can have drastic effects on a quiet household. For one thing, the puppy keeps the entire family awake for at least two solid weeks. Every night, when the puppy is placed in its box, it begins to howl, yip, and whine. Even after the lights go out or the house quiets down, the puppy continues to moan. Since it is impossible to sleep while listening to a heartbroken, trembling woo-woo, the family begins to suffer the effects of loss of sleep. Everyone becomes hostile, short-tempered, depressed, and irritable. A second effect is that the puppy tortures the family by destroying its material possessions. Every day, something different is damaged. Family members find chewed belts and shoes, gnawed tables legs, and leaking sofa cushions. In addition, the puppy usually ruins the wall-to-wall Page 22 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ carpeting and makes the house smell like a public restroom at a big city bus station. Worst of all, though, the puppy causes family arguments. Parents argue with children about who is supposed to feed and walk the dog. Children argue among themselves about whose turn it is to play with the puppy. Everyone argues about whose idea it was to get the puppy in the first place. These continual arguments, along with the effects of sleeplessness and the loss of valued possessions, seriously disrupt a household. Only when the puppy gets a bit order will the house be peaceful again.

Lets Ban Proms Method: __________ While many students regard proms as peak events in high school life, I believe that high school proms should be banned. One reason is that even before the prom takes place, it causes problems. Teenagers are separated into the ones who were asked and the ones who werent. Being one of those who werent asked can be heartbreaking to a sensitive young person. Another pre-prom problem is money. The price of the various items needed can add up quickly to a lot of money. The prom itself can be unpleasant and frustrating, too. At the beginning of the evening, the girls enviously compare dresses while the boys sweat nervously inside their rented suits. During the dance, the couples who have gotten together only to go to the prom have split up into miserable singles. When the prom draws to a close, the popular teenagers drive off happily to other parties while the less-popular ones head home, as usual. Perhaps the main reason prom should be banned, however, is the drinking and driving that go on after the prom is over. Teenagers pile into their cars on their way to after-proms and pull out the bottles and cans stashed under the seats. By the time the big night is finally over, at 4 or 5 AM, students are trying to weave home without encountering the police or a roadside tree. Some of them do not make it, and prom night turns into tragedy. For all of these reasons, proms have no place in our school.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH


TOEFL iBT 80
A concluding paragraph is your chance to remind the reader of your thesis idea and bring the paper to a natural and graceful end. COMMON METHODS OF CONCLUSION Any one of the methods below, or a combination of methods, may be used to round off your paper. 1. End with a summary and final thought When army instructors train new recruits, each of their lessons follows a three-step formula: Tell them what you are going to tell them Tell them Tell them what you have told them

An essay that ends with a summary is not very different. After you have stated your thesis (Tell them what you are going to tell them), and supported it (Tell them), you restate the thesis and supporting points (Tell them what you have told them). However, dont use the exact wording you used before. Here is a summary conclusion: Catalog shopping at home, then, has several advantages. Such shopping is convenient, saves you money, and saves you time. It is not surprising that growing numbers of devoted catalog shoppers are welcoming those full color mail brochures that offer everything from turnip seeds to televisions. Note that a summary is accompanied by a final comment that rounds off the paper and brings the discussion to a close. This combination of a summary and a final thought is the most common method of concluding an essay. 2. Include a thought-provoking question or short series of questions.

A question grabs the readers attention. It is a direct appeal to your reader to think further about what you have written. A question should follow logically from the points you have already made in the paper. A question must deal with one of these areas: Why the subject of your paper is important What might happen in the future What should be done about this subject Which choice should be made

In your conclusion, you may provide an answer to your question. Be sure, though, that the question is closely related to your thesis. here is an example:

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ What, then, will happen in the 21st century when most of the population will be over 60 years old? Retirement policies could change dramatically, with the age 65 testimonial dinner and gold watch postponed for 5 or 10 years. Even TV would change as the Metamucil generation replaces the Pepsi generation. Glamorous gray-haired models would sell everything from toilet paper to televisions. New soap operas and situation comedies would reveal the secrets of the sunset years. It will be a different world indeed when the young find themselves outnumbered. 3. End with a prediction or recommendation Like questions, predictions and recommendations also involve your reader. A prediction states what may happen in the future. If people stopped to think before acquiring pets, there would be fewer instances of cruelty to animals. Many times, it is the people who adopt pets without considering the expense and responsibility involved who mistreat and neglect their animals. Pets are living creatures. They do not deserve to be treated as carelessly as one would treat a stuffed toy. A recommendation suggests what should be done about a situation or problem. Stereotypes such as the helpless homemaker, hurried executive, and dotty grandparent are insulting enough to begin with. In magazine ads or TV commercials, they become even more insulting. Now these unfortunate characters are not just being laughed at; they are being turned into hucksters to sell products to an unsuspecting public. Consumers should boycott companies whose advertising continues to use such stereotypes.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

APPLICATION ON THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH


TOEFL iBT 80

I.

In the box provided, note whether each concluding paragraph ends with a summary and final thought (write S), ends with a prediction or recommendation (write P/R), or ends with a question (write Q). Disappointments are unwelcome, but regular, visitors in everyones life. We can feel depressed about them, or we can try to escape from them. The best thing, though, is to accept a disappointment and then try to use it somehow: step over the unwelcome visitor and then get on with life. Holidays, it is clear, are often not the fulfilling experience they are supposed to be. They can, in fact, be very stressful. But would we rather have a holiday-free calendar? Some people dream of starring roles, their names in lights, and their pictures on the cover of People magazine. Im not one of them, though. A famous person gives up private life, feels pressured all the time, and is never completely safe. So let someone else have that cover story. Id rather lead an ordinary, but calm, life than a stressfilled one.

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II.

Study each conclusion in the following outlines to determine if it is logically concluded. If the conclusion is not appropriate, write Not Good in the blank together with the reason with which it is not good. After that, rewrite the conclusion so that it sounds better. If the conclusion is appropriate, simply write Logical in the blank.

1.

____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: Watching TV is not a waste of time. a. b. c. Its a valuable educational tool. It provides entertainment to cheer us up. It provides something our family can have in common to discuss.

Critics of TV will continue to put down the boob tube. But because of its educational value, its entertainment value, and its provision of things we can discuss together, our family is going to continue watching TV for a long time, and so should others. Indeed, watching TV is a good way to spend ones time.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: Communicating in a foreign language can create some embarrassing misunderstandings. a. b. c. Mispronouncing words can lead to real embarrassment. Misunderstanding what someone says to you can create amusing problems. Misusing vocabulary words can really make you blush.

Everyone who speaks a foreign language is bound to have misunderstandings from time to time. What you need to do is go to the laboratory as often as you can to improve your language skills. The people there are very nice and they will help you with your grammar and pronunciation.

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____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: TV commercials are entertaining a. b. c. The Coca-Cola commercial is a good example of an entertaining commercial. The Chevrolet commercial is as good as any situation comedy. The Fritos commercial is particularly amusing.

If you do not have a TV, you are certainly missing out on the fun of commercials. There are also a lot of entertaining programs to see. In addition, the news programs can keep you informed about the world. Indeed, everyone should have a TV set.

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____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thesis: My reasons for coming to State University center around the services it provides. a. b. c. State University offers a superior program in my major. In addition, the university has high quality academic resources. State also offers quality student services.

The challenge of a diversified and excellent program, the academic resources, the student services, the recreational activities, and the low tuition are the reasons I decided to come to the State University. I really think I made a wise decision. If you are looking for a quality education at a reasonable price, then consider State as the place to enroll.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

USEFUL GUIDELINES TO WRITE AN ESSAY


TOEFL iBT 80
A. 9 STEPS TO WRITE AN ESSAY

The following steps structured in an example will help you plan and write an essay fast and effectively. Step 1: Read the essay topic In the future, students many have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. Step 2: Identify the task The topic wants you to state a preference. Do you prefer to study at home using computers or study at school? The instructions suggest you give reasons and specific details to support your answer. Step 3: Write your thesis statement Thesis statement: Studying at school must be best for me. The thesis statement is the summation of your thought about the topic. In this case it is the straightforward announcement of your preference. Step 4: Make notes about your general ideas These notes are the start of your concept map. The concept map, like a road map, will guide you as you write your essay. As the writer, I need to plan the organization of the topic. I make two columns so that I can compare the quality of education at home with the quality of education at school. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Home School ______________________________________________________________________________________________ activities people day-to-day interaction ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Page 28 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ subjects ______________________________________________________________________________________________ future technology ______________________________________________________________________________________________ motivation ______________________________________________________________________________________________ I then make a list of all the general ideas that affect the education at home and at school. As I write, I may change my mind and cross out a few ideas. I may not like them, or I may not think I could give any examples about them. If I cant give any examples, I shouldnt mention them. I must give reasons and specific details to support my ideas. Step 5: Expand your notes to include specific details You started your concept map with general notes. Now expand your concept map with specific details. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Home School ______________________________________________________________________________________________ isolation activities people boring day-to-day interaction ______________________________________________________________________________________________ technology only source subjects ______________________________________________________________________________________________ limited future technology ______________________________________________________________________________________________ hard to concentrate at home motivation work as team more air technology plus teachers learn from others socialize

______________________________________________________________________________________________ In my first general idea, interaction, I added the specific details of isolation and boredom at home. I would find studying at home all by myself boring. At school, I would be able to socialize with other students and learn from them as well. Therefore, I put the specific details socialize and learn from others under school. Page 29 of 37

TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ I cross out activities and day-to-day because they werent exactly the words I was looking for. Similarly, people wasnt as precise a term as interaction. In the third row for general ideas, I thought more about what I wanted to say. I decided I had already talked about technology under subjects so I crossed it out. In the second row for general ideas, the word subjects was not parallel with the other nouns. I needed a word that ended with -tion. I chose information. Step 6: Write the topic sentence for each paragraph Each of the rows in the concept map could be a paragraph: one paragraph could be about interaction; one paragraph could be about course subjects; one paragraph could be about motivation Topic sentence for general idea interaction: You need interaction to get a good education. Topic sentence for general idea information: Both technology and teachers can give you a good education. Topic sentence for general idea motivation: If you are motivated to learn, you can get a good education. Once I have the topic sentences for my paragraphs, I can begin to write the essay Step 7: Write the Introduction The introduction lets the reader know what my point of view is and how I plan to develop the I could get a good education either at home or at school, but an education involves more than just studying. An education is not just getting information from a source. There is interaction with that source and motivation from that source. I need to interact and be motivated by humans not by a machine. Therefore, studying at school would be best for me. In this introduction, I have stated my opinion, Studying at school would be best for me. I have indicated that I will develop my topic by discussing information, interaction, and motivation. Step 8: Write the Body Paragraph 2: At home, I can only get information from technological sources like my computer, my DVD player, or my television. At school, I have access to these technological sources plus human ones as well. I have teachers and students who will share their knowledge with me. Both technology and teachers can give you a good education, but at home, I only have technology. I want both options to learn.

essay.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: You need interaction to get a good education. If no one ever challenges your opinion, you may never develop your ideas. At home, there would be no one to learn from, no one to socialize with. Id be isolated and bored. The students at school always have new ideas. I want to learn from them. Paragraph 4: If you are motivated to learn, you can get a good education. But how can you motivate yourself isolated at home? I like to work as a team. I want to do well so our class look good. At home, I cant motivate myself. Its too easy to be distracted by unimportant things. I want the focus that a class goal can give me. Step 9: Write the Conclusion If I could motivate myself to work harder; if I could sit all day in a room without interacting with anyone; and if I wouldnt mind getting information from limited sources, then I could study at home. But I cant. I need the stimulus of the classroom to motivate me; I need students to interact with; I need information from as many sources as possible. Give me the traditional school! In this paragraph, I summarized why I preferred studying in school. I rephrased my ideas. I did not simply repeat them.

B.

USEFUL EXPRESSIONS TO EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

The Introduction to your essay should tell the reader what your opinion is on the topic. Your ideas on a topic are important. The reader is interested in what you have to say. There is, however, no right or wrong opinion. The reader looks to see how you express your opinion, whatever it is. You can express your opinion by using the following phrases: In my opinion ..., To my way of thinking ..., In my view ..., To me ..., From my point of view ..., It is my opinion that ..., I believe ..., I think ..., It seems to me that ..., It appears that ..., To my mind ..., ... These verbs show how strongly you feel about something: to agree, to believe, to guess, to hope, to infer, to realize, to suppose, to think, to understand, ... These adjectives show how strongly you feel about something: certain, convinced, positive, sure, ... These adverbials qualify your opinion, show how strongly you feel about something: seemingly, conceivably, possibly, perhaps, maybe, probably, presumably, certainly, almost, doubtless, No doubt, definitely, ...

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ These adverbials make general statement about how you feel about something: All in all, All things considered, As a rule, Altogether, Basically, Essentially, For the most part, Generally, In general, On the whole, Overall, ... These adverbials show an idea which is not completely true: Almost, In a way, More or less, Practically, So to speak, For all interests and purposes, To some extend, Up to a point, ...

C.

VARIETIES IN DEVELOPING AN ESSAY


Semantic Variety

In order to be a good essay, your essay must interest the reader. One way to do this is to vary your vocabulary. Learning different ways to express similar ideas (synonyms) and different ways to help the reader move from one idea to the next will help you develop semantic variety. I. Synonyms

When you are writing on one topic, you dont want to repeat the same verb or adverb, noun or adjective in every sentence. You should try to use words that are similar in meaning, and that will carry the meaning of the sentence. Synonyms are important because they help you link closely related words or ideas. Synonyms provide coherence in your essay. Read the paragraph below. Look for these synonyms of discuss and discussion Verb: discuss discuss Noun: discussion discussion Synonyms argue, confer, debate, dispute, elaborate, examine, explain, hash over, reason Synonyms argument, conversation, discourse, explanation

Last month, I had a dispute with my parents. It started as a simple conversation that turned into argument. I wanted to take a year off from school. Of course, my parents argued that I should stay in school. I tried to reason with them; I tried to persuade them that taking a year off from school and working would be valuable experience. My explanation fell on deaf ears, and they refused to let me continue the discussion. They felt I had not thoroughly examined the issue and saw no reason to debate the subject any longer. I confer with my sister who felt we could hash it over later when my parents were in a better mood. II. Transitional words

Transitional words and phrases will help your reader follow your ideas from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. Without transitional words and phrases, your ideas will stand alone, unrelated to the thesis of your essay.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Transitional words that show Time When you are explaining the sequence of events, you may want to use these expressions: Before, After, Since, Next, During, At the same time, Then, Always, While, Often, Sometimes, Meanwhile, ... 2. Transitional words that show Degree When you are explaining why one thing is more or less important than another thing, you may want to use these expressions: Most important, Less important, Basically, First, second, Subordinate, Primarily, Secondary, Lesser, Essentially, Principally, Chiefly, ... 3. Transitional words that show Comparison and Contrast When you are explaining how two or more things are similar or how they are different, you may want to use these expressions: To Compare: Similar to, Similarly, Like, Alike, Either/Or, Neither/Nor, Correspondingly, Resemble, Almost the same as, At the same time as, As, Just as, In a like manner, In the same way, Common in, Also, ... To Contrast: Differ from, However, Otherwise, Still, Nevertheless, Even, Different from, Less than, More than, Unlike, In contrast to, On the other hand, Although, While yet, But, Instead, ... Transitional words that show Cause and Effect When you are explaining how something caused a change in something else, you may want to use these expressions: So, For this reason, Since, Thus, As a result, Due to, Consequently, Because, Because of, Although, Therefore, Owing to, So that, ... 5. Transitional words that show Explanation If you are explaining what something is by giving an example or if you are restating something for emphasis, you may want to use these expressions: In other words, As, Such as, To clarify, Like, For instance, To explain, That is, To illustrate, To paraphrase, For example, Namely, ... 6. Transitional words to add more information If you are adding more information to make your point stronger, you may want to use these expressions: In addition, Moreover, Besides, Similarly, Furthermore, Also, As well as, Whats more, ..

4.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ Syntactic variety I. Parallel Structures

Parallelism gives your essay rhythm. It makes it easier to read and understand. Your structures, however, must be parallel. That is, the subjects, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and gerunds must be parallel. II. Coherence

Transitional words help the reader see the relationship between sentences and ideas. They are one way to provide coherence in an essay. There are two other ways to provide coherence: repeating words and rephrasing ideas. 1. Repeating Repeating words can provide a rhythm to a paragraph. Repeating words can also link ideas that may be sentences apart. She worked with mothers teaching them how to keep their children healthy. She worked with school teachers helping them recognize early signs of illness. She worked with restaurant personnel showing them proper food handling techniques. 2. Rephrasing We learned the words to use to introduce a statement that has been restated or rephrased for emphasis. We can also rephrase words to provide coherence in the essay. Rephrasing gives the reader a second chance to understand your thesis. Synonyms are one way to rephrase. The countryside where I grew up is very isolated. You can drive for miles without seeing another car. It seems in all directions you look at a breathtaking vista. The scenery near the ocean is especially dramatic, with giant dark cliffs rising out of the water. III. Sentences You can vary the types of sentences you use, the length of the sentences, the subject of the sentences, and the voice of the sentences.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________

TOPICS FOR FURTHER PRACTICE OR HOMEWORK


TOEFL iBT 80
1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. The twentieth century saw great changes. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Think of the most important class you have taken. Why did you enjoy this class so much? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answers. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answers. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Which opinion do you agree with? Give reasons to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Books are not needed anymore because people can read information on computers. Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. In the twentieth century, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. Which do you prefer items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. A gift (such as a soccer ball, a camera, or an animal) can contribute to a childs development. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? University should give the same amount of money to their students sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 13. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use reasons to support your answer. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. How do movies or television influence peoples behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Others movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Business should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done. Other people prefer to take their time and live life at slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

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TOEFL iBT 80 Writing Students Course Book ______________________________________________________________________________ 28. Some people think the government should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think the government should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples to support your answer. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice.

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