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ABSTRACT
y Storage tanks are used for intermediate and final y y y y

product storage Petroleum products and chemicals are stored Used for mixing, blending, precipitation and setting process For storing Furnace Oil we use Cone Roof type Storage Tanks Efficient storage and better safety are to be concentrated while designing storage tanks

BPCL ,Ambalamugal
y Formerly known as Kochi Refinery is now owned by Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited y Location : Ambalamugal in Kochi y Refining Capacity : 9.5 million metric tons per annum y Products : LPG, Petrol, diesel, kerosene, ATF, FO(Furnace Oil), Naphtha, Benzene, Rubberized bitumen, MTO(mineral turpentine oil), SPBS(Specialized Boiling point Solvent) & Bitumen emulsion

INTRODUCTION TO STORAGE TANKS
y Storage tanks are used for the intermediate and final

product storage in process plant or for storing petroleum products and chemicals at terminals y Can be used for Mixing, blending, precipitation and setting process or as chemical reactor vessels y Tanks are classified on the basis of product which is to be stored

FURNACE OIL
y Class C Petroleum product y Bunker fuel, furnace oil , Fuel oil are other names for

the same product.
y Flash point standard is 66 degree C y Specific Gravity as per BPCL is 0.95 kg/mm3

TYPES OF STORAGE TANKS y Cone roof type y Floating roof type y Floating cum cone roof tanks y Spherical Vessels .

vaccum gas oil. seal oil etc can be stored y 32 cone roof tanks are there in BPCL Kochi .CONE ROOF TANKS y Cone roof tanks have fixed and are in a sense close vessels y They have a conical top and are used for storing less volatile products y Asphalt. fuel oil.

CONE ROOF TYPE .

FLOATING ROOF TYPE .

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FOAM SYSTEM y Foam for firefighting purposes is an aggregate of air filled bubbles formed from aqueous solutions and is higher in density than the lightest flammable liquid ‡ Used to form a floating blanket on flammable and combustible liquids lighter than water and prevents or extinguishes fire by excluding air and cooling the fuel .

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Floating cum Cone Roof Tanks y They have fixed cone roof in addition to floating roof y Are intended to store toxic product having high vapour pressure y Products like benzene and toluene are stored y Prevent the product from contamination and are used to store class A and class B products y There are 13 floating cum cone roof tanks in BPCL Kochi .

PARTS OF STORAGE TANK  Bottom plates and Annular plates  Draw off Sump  Shell  Shell openings y Shell Manhole y Yield and Suction Nozzles y Water Drain and Roof Drain  Wind Girder  Cone Roof  Foam System  Cooling System .

Why use Cone Roof type ?? y Furnace oil has a flash point of 23 degree C and above but below 65 degree C y As we have to store furnace oil we shall use cone roof type since it is a class C petroleum product y They are less expensive compared to floating roof type and they don t get vaporized fast. So we can use cone roof type since its more economical .

A537 and A537 For Shell plates .6 Mpa y Minimum Yield Strength : 410.The most cost effective material has been decided as ASTM A537 CLASS 1 y Minimum Tensile Strength : 385 Mpa y Minimum Yield Strength : 485 Mpa y For bottom plates.Material Specification for Storage Tanks y Low Carbon steels are used as they are soft and ductile y After comparing the values for ASTM A36.6 Mpa . annular plates : IS2062 grade A y Minimum Tensile Strength : 247.

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shell.Design of Storage Tank for Furnace Oil Tank Selection : Fixed Cone Roof type Height and Diameter : 14m and 36m Capacity : 14.230 m3 Design Code : API 650 Product Stored : Furnace Oil Design Specific Gravity of Product : 0.95 kg/mm3 Design Pressure : atmospheric pressure Corrosion allowance : 2 mm for annular.93km/hr y Maximum Rainfall intensity : 57mm in one hour or 254 mm in 24 hrs y y y y y y y y . roof and bottom plates y Wind Speed : 150.

.5m.5. 2. 10mm etc we have to consider 8 mm thickness for bottom plates y Available sizes of plates are of width 1.Design of bottom plates y According to API 650 all bottom plates must have thickness of 6mm exclusive of corrosive allowance y Bottom plates : 6 + CA = 6 + 2 = 8 mm y As the available size of plates in markets are 6m . etc. 2m.8mm.

SHELL PLATES .

75Mpa St= 3/7 * tensile strength = 3/7 * 410 = 207.86 Mpa Taking minimum St = 208 Mpa .6 = 258.SHELL DESIGN y If the diameter is in the range 36 to 60m the nominal plate thickness to be considered is 8mm y Minimum allowable design stress .(St) St = 3/4 * yield strength = 3/4 * 247.(Sd) Sd = 2/3 * yield strength = 2/3 * 345 = 230 Sd= 2/5 * tensile strength = 2/5 * 485 = 194 Taking minimum Sd = 194 Mpa y Minimum allowable hydrostatic stress .

5.1.3 The design shell thickness shall be computed on the basis that the tank is filled to a level H (design liquid level) with a liquid that has a specific gravity specified by the purchaser.4 5.SHELL DESIGN (API 650) 5. The calculated stress for each shell course shall not be greater than the stress permitted for the particular material used for the course. or the hydrostatic test shell thickness.5 . but the shell thickness shall not be less than the following: 5.1.1. including any corrosion allowance.3.3.1 General The required shell thickness shall be the greater of the design shell thickness.1 5. No shell course shall be thinner than the course above it.3.3. The hydrostatic test shell thickness shall be computed on the basis that the tank is filled to a level H (design liquid level) with water.3.1.

) 5.3.3 SHELL DESIGN : (Cont.2 The I-foot method calculates the thickness required at design points 03 m (I ft) above the bottom of each shell course.3.3 Calculation of Thickness by the 1-Foot Method 5.9D(H Sd t t = 4.3)G + CA 03) .9D(H St 0.3.3.1 5.5. The required minimum thickness of shell plates shall be the greater of the values computed by the following formulas: In SI units: td = 4.3.

if any. CA = corrosion allowance.5. = height from the bottom of the course under consideration to the top angle. in MPa St=allowable stress for the hydrostatic test condition. as specified purchaser. the shell plate or the bottom H = design liquid level. or to any other level specified by the purchaser. G = design specific gravity of the liquid to be stored. tt = hydrostatic test shell thickness. or controlled to allow for seismic wave action.) td = design shell thickness. as specified by the purchaser Sd = allowable stress for the design condition. in m r of the top joined (that is. in mm. in . to the bottom of any overflow that of the shell including the top limits the tank filling height. in mm. D = nominal tank diameter. in MPa by the .mm. restricted by an inter-nal floating roof. in mm.3 where SHELL DESIGN : (Cont.

1 .6.In page 3.1.

00m 14.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.5 Course 1 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = Height from bottom of the course = under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = Corrosion Allowance = Specific Gravity G = Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.9*D*(H-0.14 * D * W * t = .17 Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.00mm 0.00m 194Mpa 2.9D(H ± 0.80m 11.50 IV 2.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W = = = = = = = 36.014m 2.5 VI 2.CASE 1 I Can be divided into 6 courses as 2 II 2 III 2.95 208Mpa 13.5 V 2.80mm 14mm 0.60m 13.00m 3.

08m 9.Course omi l i meter i meters Hei t from ottom of t e course under consider tion to t e top of s ell H Desi n stress to e considered d Corrosion llowance Specific ravit ax d stress to e considered .08mm Thic ness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V2 = .1 * D * W * t = = = = 1 mm 0. *D*(H-0. D(H ± 0.01 m 2.91m Td=(( . m = = = = = = = 1 . m 1 pa 2. ))/St Max t ic ness = 12. mm 0. )* )/Sd))+CA Tt =( .00m 3.17 . 208 pa 12.

14 * D * W * t = = .00mm 0.50m 3.Course 3 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Ma hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.21m 10.39 Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V3 = 3.00m = = = = = = = = = 194Mpa 2.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.00m 10.3))/St Ma thickness Thickness selected t = = 36.36m .9D(H ± 0.36mm 12mm 0.95 20 Mpa 10.012m 2.9*D*(H-0.

0m = 194Mpa Corrosion Allowance = 2.Course 4 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Hei ht from ottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Desi n stress to e considered Sd = = 36.9*D*(H-0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t = = = = = = = 0.20mm 10mm 0.010m 2.14 * D * W * t = = .20m 6.10m 8.9 208Mpa 8.83 Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V4 = 3. 0m 2.00m .9D(H ± 0.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.00mm Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to e considered Td=((4.

9*D*(H-0.98m 6.26 idth of shell course Volume of Shell course V5 = 3.00m 5.00mm Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.00m Height from bottom of the course under consideration to = the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = 194Mpa Corrosion Allowance = 2.008m 2.05mm 8mm 0.95 208Mpa 6.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.05m 3.Course 5 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = 36.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t = = = = = = = 0.14 * D * *t = = .9D(H ± 0.50m 2.

26 = 17.00m 2.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.00mm Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.9*D*(H-0.50m Height from bottom of the course under consideration to = the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = 194Mpa Corrosion Allowance = 2.3))/St = = = = 0.95 208Mpa 3.86m Max thickness = 3.Course 6 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = 36.008m 2.14 * D * W * t Total Volume V = V1+ V2 + V3+V4+V5+V6 = .90mm Thickness selected t = = 8mm 0.07 Width of shell course W = Volume of Shell course V6 = 3.9D(H ± 0.50m 2.90m 1.

37m3 Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.9D(H ± 0.5 II 1.60m Max thickness Thickness selected t = = = 13.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.95 208Mpa 13.3))/St = = = = = = 194Mpa 2.5 III 2.00m Height from bottom of the course under = consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.50 IV 2.00m 14.CASE 2 Can be divided into 6 courses as I 1.14 * D * W * t = = .014m 1.00mm 0.5 VI 3.50m 2.5 Course 1 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = 36.9*D*(H-0.5 V 2.80m 11.80mm 14mm 0.

33m 12.014m 1.51mm 14mm 0.95 208Mpa 12.Course 2 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = = 36.00mm 0.14 * D * W * t = = .37m3 Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V2 = 3.00m 12.50m = 194Mpa Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.9D(H ± 0.9*D*(H-0.51m 10.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t = = = = = = = = 2.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.50m 2.

00m Design stress to be considered Sd = 194Mpa Corrosion Allowance = 2.50m 3.22mm 12mm 0.9*D*(H-0.39m3 Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V3 = 3.22m 9.012m 2.14 * D * W * t = = .00m 11.9D(H ± 0.06m 11.00mm Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.Course 3 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = = Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H 36.95 208Mpa 11.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t = = = = = = = 0.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.

010m 2.Course 4 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = 36.9D(H ± 0.07mm 10mm 0.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.50m Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the = top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = 194Mpa Corrosion Allowance = 2.9*D*(H-0.83m3 Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V4 = 3.00m 8.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t = = = = = = = 0.95 208Mpa 9.94m 9.50m 2.00mm Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.07m 6.14 * D * W * t = = .

008m 2.00m 6.9*D*(H-0.Course 5 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.91m 4.95 208Mpa 6.50m 2.00m 194Mpa 2.83m 6.00mm 0.91mm 8mm 0.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V5 = 3.14 * D * W * t = = = = = = = = = = = = = 36.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.26m3 .9D(H ± 0.

39m3 .95 208Mpa 4.00mm 0.71m 4.9D(H ± 0.50m 194Mpa 2.76mm 8mm 0.17m3 16.50m 3.9*D*(H-0.14 * D * W * t Total olume : 1+ 2+ 3+ 4+ 5+ 6 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 36.Course 6 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.00m 3.76m 2.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.008m 3.3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W olume of Shell course 6 = 3.

3))/St Max thickness Thickness selected t Width of shell course W Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.14 * D * W * t .00m 1.9D(H ± 0.50 36.Case 3 Course 1 I Can be divided into 6 courses as 1 = = = = = = = = = = = = = II 1.95 208Mpa 13.5 III 2.014m 1.58m3 IV 2.5 V 3 VI 3.60m 13.00m 194Mpa 2.00m 14.5 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd Corrosion Allowance Specific Gravity G Max hyd stress to be considered Td=((4.80m 11.3)*G)/Sd))+CA Tt =(4.9*D*(H-0.00mm 0.80mm 14mm 0.

50m 2.94m 10.9*D*(H-0.14 * D * * t = 36.37m3 .Course 2 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = Height from bottom of the course under consideration to the top of shell H = Design stress to be considered Sd = Corrosion Allowance = Specific Gravity G = Max hyd stress to be considered St = Td=((4.014m 1.00m 194Mpa 2.95 208Mpa 12.00m 13.94mm 14mm 0.3))/St = Max thickness = Thickness selected t = = idth of shell course = Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.00mm 0.3)*G)/Sd))+CA = Tt =(4.9D(H ± 0.75m 12.

50m 3.3)*G)/Sd))+CA = Tt =(4.012m 2.00m 11.9*D*(H-0.9D(H ± 0.Course 3 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = Height from bottom of the course under = consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = Corrosion Allowance = Specific Gravity G = Max hyd stress to be considered St = Td=((4.14 * D * W * t = 36.00mm 0.65mm 12mm 0.3))/St = Max thickness = Thickness selected t = = Width of shell course W = Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.48m 11.95 208Mpa 11.39m3 .50m 194Mpa 2.65m 9.

83m3 .9D(H ± 0.00m 9.50mm 10mm 0.00m 194Mpa 2.00mm 0.37m 9.9*D*(H-0.50m 7.010m 2.3))/St = Max thickness = Thickness selected t = = Width of shell course W = Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.Course 4 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = Height from bottom of the course under = consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = Corrosion Allowance = Specific Gravity G = Max hyd stress to be considered St = Td=((4.14 * D * W * t = 36.3)*G)/Sd))+CA = Tt =(4.95 208Mpa 9.50m 2.

Course 5 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = Height from bottom of the course under = consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = Corrosion Allowance = Specific Gravity G = Max hyd stress to be considered St = Td=((4.008m 3.9*D*(H-0.34mm 8mm 0.14 * D * W * t = 36.3))/St = Max thickness = Thickness selected t = = Width of shell course W = Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.50m 194Mpa 2.00m 2.9D(H ± 0.95 208Mpa 7.71m3 .34m 5.25m 7.00m 6.3)*G)/Sd))+CA = Tt =(4.00mm 0.

Course 6 Nominal Tank Diameter in meters D = Height from bottom of the course under = consideration to the top of shell H Design stress to be considered Sd = Corrosion Allowance = Specific Gravity G = Max hyd stress to be considered St = Td=((4.14 * D * W * t = Total Volume V1+V2+V3+V4+V5+V6 = 36.3))/St = Max thickness = Thickness selected t = = Width of shell course W = Volume of Shell course V1 = 3.71m 4.95 208Mpa 4.008m 3.50m 3.05m3 .3)*G)/Sd))+CA = Tt =(4.17m3 16.9D(H ± 0.9*D*(H-0.76m 2.76mm 8mm 0.50m 194Mpa 2.00mm 0.00m 3.

16tonnes 40000.50 162.07m3 9.00 64.86lakhs .CASE 1 Total volume of shell plate required in m3 = Density in kg/m3 The total weight of shell plates = V * density Material cost of shell plates Overall material cost of shell plates Weight * Cost = = = = 17.

00 Overall material cost of shell plates Weight Cost = 62.CASE 2 Total volume of shell plate required in m3 = 16. 1tonnes Material cost of shell plates = 40000.50 The total weight of shell plates = density = 155.39m3 Density in kg/m3 = 9.29lakhs .

00 Overall material cost of shell plates Weight * Cost = 61.00lakhs .05m3 Density in kg/m3 = 9.50 The total weight of shell plates = V * density = 152.49tonnes Material cost of shell plates = 40000.CASE 3 Total volume of shell plate required in m3 = 16.

00 lakhs So the case we should consider should be : = CASE 3 .Most economic CASE cost = = 61.

2.00mm .00mm 10. 2.00mm 14. 0. . 2. .00mm .So the values on Shell plates are : 1st shell course thickness 2nd shell course thickness 3rd shell course thickness 4th shellcourse thickness th shell course thickness 6th shellcourse thickness = = = = = = 14.00mm Width of the plate for 1st to 6th course are : 2. 2. . 2.00mm 12.

Conclusion y Thus e are i t esi a c e r f st ra e ta st ra e f fur ace il as er the re uire e ts f The calculati s f shell thic ee c lete The calculati y y y y y y y y y y y y f r the . chi y y ess a e e are tt lates have s f arts t ular tt lates a ial i th f tt late esi f ri ary ec ary i ir er I ter e iate i ir er (if ecessary) a syste iser i e a hole olts ozzles ater rai ra off umps ooli ater system .

bpcl.in .References y API 650 STANDARDS (11th EDITION) y BOOK OF ABOVE GROUND STORAGE TANKS y www.co.

.Thank you .

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