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Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
1
Chapter 2
AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)
• Singlephase, half wave rectifier
– Uncontrolled
– R load
– RL load
– RC load
– Controlled
– Free wheeling diode
• Singlephase, full wave rectifier
– R load
– RL load,
– Controlled R, RL load
– continuous and discontinuous current mode
• Threephase rectifier
– uncontrolled
– controlled
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
2
Rectifiers
• DEFINITION: Converting AC (from
mains or other AC source) to DC power by
using power diodes or by controlling the
firing angles of thyristors/controllable
switches.
• Basic block diagram
• Input can be single or multiphase (e.g. 3
phase).
• Output can be made fixed or variable
• Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive,
Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC
AC input DC output
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
3
Singlephase, halfwave with
Rload
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
ω
t
v
o
i
o
v
s
ω
t
m
m
m avg o
V
V
t d t V V V
318 . 0
) sin(
(average), tage Output vol
0
= =
= =
∫
π
ω ω
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
4
RMS voltage
( )
2
,
0
Output voltage (RMS)
1
sin( )
2
Output current (DC),
0.318
m
o RMS m
o m
o
V
V V t d t
V V
I
R R
π
ω ω
π
= =
= =
∫
• DC voltage is fixed at 0.318 or 31.8% of
the peak value
• RMS voltage is reduced from 0.707
(normal sinusoidal RMS) to 0.5 or 50%
of peak value.
• Half wave is not practical because of
high distortion supply current. The
supply current contains DC component
that may saturate the input transformer
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
5
Halfwave with RL load
+
v
TNB
_
+
v
o
_
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
i
tan and ) (
: where
) sin( ) (
: is response forced diagram, From
ly. respective response, natural" "
and forced" " as known are , : where
) ( ) ( ) (
: of form in the is Solution
equation. al differenti order first a is This
) (
) ( ) sin(
1 2 2

.

\

= + =
− ⋅

.

\

=
+ =
+ =
+ =
−
R
L
L R Z
t
Z
V
t i
i i
t i t i t i
dt
t di
L R t i t V
v v v
m
f
n f
n f
m
L R s
ω
θ ω
θ ω
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
6
RL load
 
 
ωτ ω
τ
τ
τ
τ
θ θ ω ω
θ θ ω
θ θ
θ
θ ω
τ
t
m
t
m
m m
m
t
m
n f
t
n
e t
Z
V
t i
e t
Z
V
t i
Z
V
Z
V
A
Ae
Z
V
i
A
Ae t
Z
V
t i t i t i
R L Ae t i
dt
t di
L R t i
−
−
−
−
+ − ⋅

.

\

=
+ − ⋅

.

\

=
⋅

.

\

= − ⋅

.

\

= ⇒
+ − ⋅

.

\

=
+ − ⋅

.

\

= + =
= =
= +
=
) sin( ) sin( ) (
or
) sin( ) sin( ) (
as, given is current the Therefore
) sin( ) sin(
) 0 sin( ) 0 (
: i.e , conducting starts diode the before zero is
current inductor realising by solved be can
) sin( ) ( ) ( ) (
Hence
; ) (
: in results which
0
) (
) (
0, source when is response Natural
0
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
7
RL waveform
ω
t
v
o
v
s,
π
2π
i
o
β
v
R
v
L
3π
4π
0
: i.e , decreasing
is current the because negative is
: Note
dt
di
L v
v
L
L
=
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
8
Extinction angle
 
 
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
≤ ≤
+ − ⋅

.

\

=
= + −
= + − ⋅

.

\

=
−
−
−
otherwise
0
0 for
) sin( ) sin(
) (
load, L  R ith rectfier w the summarise To
and 0 between conducts diode the Therefore,
y. numericall solved be only can
0 ) sin( ) sin(
: to reduces which
0 ) sin( ) sin( ) (
. angle, extinction
the as known is point This OFF. turns diode
when is zero reaches current point when The
duration) that during negative
is source the (although radians n longer tha
biased forward in remains diode that the Note
β ω
θ θ ω
ω
β
β
θ θ β
θ θ β β
β
π
ωτ ω
ωτ β
ωτ β
t
e t
Z
V
t i
e
e
Z
V
i
t
m
m
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
9
RMS current, Power Factor
( )
( )( )
( )( )
RMS RMS s
RMS RMS s
RMS
RMS
o
I V
P
pf
I V S
S
P
S
P
pf
R I
t d t i t d t i I
t d t i t d t i I
.
.
i.e source,
by the supplied power apparent the is
load. by the absorbed power the to equal which
source, by the supplied power real the is where
: definition from computed is Factor Power
P
: is load by the absorbed Power
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
: is current RMS The
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
: is current (DC) average The
,
,
2
o
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
= ⇒
=
=
⋅ =
= =
= =
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
β
π
β
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
10
Half wave rectifier, RC Load
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
i
D
π
2π
3π 4π
V
m
V
max
v
s
v
o
V
min
π /2
i
D
3π /2
α
θ
∆V
o
( )
θ
ω
θ
ω θ ω
θ
sin
OFF is diode when
ON is diode hen w ) sin(
/
m
RC t
m
o
V v
e V
t V
v
=
¹
´
¦
=
− −
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
11
Operation
• Let C initially
uncharged. Circuit
is energised at
ωt=0
• Diode becomes
forward biased as
the source become
positive
• When diode is ON
the output is the
same as source
voltage. C charges
until V
m
• After ωt=π/2, C
discharges into
load (R).
• The source
becomes less than
the output voltage
• Diode reverse
biased; isolating
the load from
source.
• The output voltage
decays
exponentially.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
12
Estimation of θ
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) π ω ω θ
ω θ
ω θ
θ
ω
θ θ
θ ω
ω
θ
ω
θ
ω
ω
ω
ω θ θ
ω θ ω
ω θ ω
+ − = − =
−
=
− =
⋅
⇒
⋅

.

\

− ⋅ =
=
⋅

.

\

− ⋅ =
⋅
=
− −
− −
− −
− −
RC RC
RC
RC V
V
e
RC
V V
t
e
RC
V
t d
e V d
t V
t d
t V d
m
m
RC
m m
RC t
m
RC t
m
m
m
1 1
/
/
/
tan tan
1
tan
1
1
sin
cos
1
sin cos
equal, are slopes the , At
1
sin
) (
sin
and
cos
) (
sin
: are functions the of slope The
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
13
Estimation of α
( )
α
θ α
θ α π
α π ω
θ
π
π
π
π θ
ω
ω θ α π
ω θ α π
for y numericall solved be must equation This
0 ) (sin sin(
or
) sin ( ) 2 sin(
, 2 t At
sin and
2 2
tan
: then large, is circuits, practical For
) 2 (
) 2 (
= −
= +
+ =
=
= + − = + ∞ =
− + −
− + −
RC
RC
m m
m m
e
e V V
V V
RC
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
14
Ripple Voltage



.

\

− = − ≈ ∆
= = +
+ =
≈
= =
− = + − =
− = ∆
+ =

.

\

−

.

\

−

.

\

−

.

\

− +
−
RC
m
RC
m m o
RC
m
RC
m o
m
m m m m
o
e V e V V V
e V e V v
t
V V
V V V V
V V V
t
V
ω
π
ω
π
ω
π
ω
π π π
θ
α π
α π ω
π α
π θ
α α π
α π ω
2 2
2 2 2 2
min max
max
1
: as ed approximat is voltage ripple The
) 2 (
: is 2 at evaluated tage output vol The
2. then constant, is tage output vol DC
such that large is C and 2, and If
sin ) 2 sin(
: is ripple the diagram, to Reffering
2 at occurs tage output vol Min
. is tage output vol Max
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
15
Voltage ripplecont’d
2
Approximation of exponent term yields:
2
1
Substituting,
2
The output voltage ripple is reduced
by increasing C.
As C is increased, the conduction interval
for diode d
RC
m
o m
e
RC
V
V V
RC fRC
π ω
π
ω
π
ω
−
≈ −
 
∆ ≈ =

\ .
•
•
ecreases.
Therefore, reduction in output voltage
ripple results in larger peak diode current.
•
• EXAMPLE:
The half wave rectifier has 120V RMS source at
60Hz. R=500 Ohm and C=100uF. Determine (a)
the expression for output voltage, (b) voltage ripple.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
16
Controlled halfwave
ω
t
v
s
v
o
i
a
α
i
g
α
ω
t
+
v
s
_
i
g
i
a
( )  
( )  
( )
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
α
π
ω ω
π
π
α
π
α
π
α
2
2 sin
1
2
] 2 cos( 1 [
4
sin
2
1
volatge RMS
cos 1
2
sin
2
1
: voltage Average
2
2
+ − = − =
=
+ = =
∫
∫
∫
m m
m RMS
m
m o
V
t d t
V
t d t V V
V
t d t V V
+
v
o
_
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
17
Controlled h/w, RL load
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
ωτ
α
ωτ
α
ωτ
ω
θ α
θ α α
α
θ ω ω ω ω
−
−
−
− ⋅

.

\

− =
+ − ⋅

.

\

= =
=
+ − ⋅

.

\

= + =
e
Z
V
A
Ae
Z
V
i
i
Ae t
Z
V
t i t i t i
m
m
t
m
n f
sin
sin 0
, 0 : condition Initial
sin ) ( ) ( ) (
+
v
s
_
i
+
v
o
_
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
ω
t
v
o
v
s
π
2π
ω
t
α
i
o
π
β
2π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
18
Extinction angle
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
degrees. for conducts diode the i.e
. angel conduction the called is Angle
y. numericall solved be only can which
sin sin 0
, 0 when defined is angle, Extinction
otherwise 0
t for
sin sin
g, simplifyin and for ng Substituti
(
) (
γ
θ β
θ β θ β β
β
β ω α
θ α θ ω
ω
ωτ
β α
ωτ
ω α
−
− − −

.

\

= =
=
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
≤ ≤
− − − ⋅

.

\

=
−
− −
e
Z
V
i
i
e t
Z
V
t i
A
m
t
m
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
19
RMS voltage and current
( )  
( ) ( )
R I P
d t i I d t i I
V
t d t V V
RMS o
RMS o
m
m o
⋅ =
= =
− = =
∫ ∫
∫
2
2
: is load by the absorbed power The
2
1
2
1
current RMS current Average
cos cos
2
sin
2
1
: voltage Average
ω ω
π
ω ω
π
β α
π
ω ω
π
β
α
β
α
β
α
• EXAMPLES
• 1. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V
across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS, 60Hz supply.
Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance.
• 2. A half wave rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at
60Hz. R=20 ohm, L=0.04H, and the delay angle is 45
degrees. Determine: (a) the expression for i(ωt), (b)
average current, (c) the power absorbed by the load.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
20
Freewheeling diode (FWD)
• Note that for singlephase, half wave
rectifier with RL load, the load (output)
current is NOT continuos.
• A FWD (sometimes known as
commutation diode) can be placed as
shown below to make it continuos
+
v
s
_
i
o
+
v
o
_
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
i
o
+
v
o
_
i
o
D
2
is on, D
1
is off
v
o
= 0
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
D
1
is on, D
2
is off
i
o
v
o
= v
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
21
Operation of FWD
• Note that both D
1
and D
2
cannot be turned
on at the same time.
• For a positive cycle voltage source,
– D
1
is on, D
2
is off
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)
– The voltage across the RL load is the same as
the source voltage.
• For a negative cycle voltage source,
– D
1
is off, D
2
is on
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)
– The voltage across the RL load is zero.
– However, the inductor contains energy from
positive cycle. The load current still circulates
through the RL path.
– But in contrast with the normal half wave
rectifier, the circuit in Figure (c) does not
consist of supply voltage in its loop.
– Hence the “negative part” of v
o
as shown in the
normal halfwave disappear.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
22
FWD Continuous load
current
• The inclusion of FWD results in continuos
load current, as shown below.
• Note also the output voltage has no
negative part.
π
2π 3π
4π
i
D1
i
o
output
Diode
current
i
D2
v
o
0
ωt
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
23
Full wave rectifier with R load
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
Bridge circuit
i
s
+
v
s
_
− v
o
+
i
D1
i
D2
i
o
+
v
s1
_
+
v
s2
_
Centertapped circuit
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
24
Notes on fullwave
• Centertapped rectifier requires centertap
transformer. Bridge does not.
• Center tap requires only two diodes,
compared to four for bridge. Hence, per
halfcycle only one diode voltdrop is
experienced. Conduction losses is half of
bridge.
• However, the diodes ratings for center
tapped is twice than bridge.
{
( )
m
m
m o
m
m
o
V
V
t d t V V
t t V
t t V
v
637 . 0
2
sin
1
: voltage DC
2 sin
0 sin
circuits, both For
0
= = =
≤ ≤ −
≤ ≤
=
∫
π
ω ω
π
π ω π ω
π ω ω
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
25
Bridge waveforms
π
2π
3π
4π
V
m
V
m
V
m
V
m
v
s
v
o
v
D1
v
D2
v
D3
v
D4
i
o
i
D1
i
D2
i
D3
i
D4
i
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
26
Centertapped waveforms
π
2π
3π
4π
V
m
V
m
2V
m
2V
m
v
s
v
o
v
D1
v
D2
i
o
i
D1
i
D2
i
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
27
Full wave bridge, RL load
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
π
2π
3π
4π
v
o
v
s
i
o
i
D1
, i
D2
i
D3
,i
D4
output
supply
i
s
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
28
RL load analysis:
approximation with large L
output. e approximat to
sufficient terms few a Only . increasing
for rapidly decreases makes This
decreases. harmonic th for the amplitude
voltage increases, as that Note
: are currents harmonic and DC The
1
1
1
1 2
2
where
) cos( ) (
: as described is
tage output vol Series, Fourier Using
... 4 , 2
n
I
n
n
L jn R
V
Z
V
I
R
V
I
n n
V
V
V
V
t n V V t v
n
n
n
n
n
o
o
m
n
m
o
n
n o o
ω
π
π
π ω ω
+
= = =

.

\

+
−
−
=
=
+ + =
∑
∞
=
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
29
RL load analysis
( )
below. shown is L large ion with approximat The
, for ,
2
: i.e. terms, harmonic
the all drop to possible is it enough, large is If
R L
R
V
R
V
I t i
L
m o
o
>> = = ≈ ω ω
ω
π
2π
3π
4π
v
o
i
s
i
o
approx.
2V
m
/R
i
D1
, i
D2
i
D3
,i
D4
output
supply
exact
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
30
Examples
( )
R I P
I I I I
RMS o
o RMS n o RMS
2
2
,
2
: load the to delivered Power =
= + =
∑
• EXAMPLE: Given a bridge rectifier has an
AC source V
m
=100V at 50Hz, and RL
load with R=10ohm, L=10mH
– a) determine the average current in the load
– b) determine the first two higher order
harmonics of the load current
– c) determine the power absorbed by the load
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
31
Controlled full wave, R load
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
( )  
( )  
( )
R
V
P
V
t d t V V
V
t d t V V
RMS
o
m
m RMS
m
m o
2
2
: is load R by the absorbed power The
4
2 sin
2 2
1
sin
1
cos 1 sin
1
=
+ − =
=
+ = =
∫
∫
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
α
π
ω ω
π
π
α
π
α
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
32
+
v
s
_
i
s
i
D
1
+
v
o
_
i
o
+
v
R
_
+
v
L
_
Controlled, RL load
π
2π
v
o
Discontinuous mode
β
α
π
+α
i
o
π
2π
v
o
Continuous mode
π+α
α
β
i
o
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
33
Discontinuous mode
 
zero. an greater th be must ) ( t
at current operation continous For
). ( is expression current output the
in when is mode current us discontino
and continous between boundary The
0 ) (
: condition y with numericall solved be must
and angle extinction the is that Note
) (
: ensure to need mode, us discontino For
; tan and
) (
for
) sin( ) sin( ) (
: load L  R
with wave half controlled similar to Analysis
1
2 2
) (
α π ω
α π
β
β
β
π α β
τ
ω
θ
ω
β ω α
θ α θ ω ω
ωτ α ω
+ =
+
=
+ <
=

.

\

=
+ =
≤ ≤
− − − ⋅

.

\

=
−
− −
o
t
m
i
R
L
R
L
L R Z
t
e t
Z
V
t i
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
34
Continuous mode
 
( ) α
π
ω ω
π
ω
α
ω
α
α
α θ
α θ θ α π
θ α π θ α π
α π
π α
α
ωτ π
ωτ α α π
cos
2
sin
1
: as given is tage output vol (DC) Average
tan
mode, current continuous for Thus
tan
for Solving
, 0 1 ) sin(
), sin( ) sin(
: identity ry Trigonomet Using
0 ) sin( ) sin(
0 ) (
1
1
) (
) (
m
m o
V
t d t V V
R
L
R
L
e
e
i
= =

.

\

≤

.

\

=
≥ − −
− = − +
≥ − + − − +
≥ +
∫
+
−
−
−
− + −
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
35
Singlephase diode groups
+
v
s
_
+
v
o
_
v
p
v
n
i
o
D
1
D
3
D
4
D
2
v
o
=v
p
−v
n
• In the top group (D
1
, D
3
), the cathodes () of the two
diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the
diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will
conduct (carry) i
d
.
• For example, when v
s
is ( +), D
1
conducts i
d
and D
3
reverses (by taking loop around v
s
, D
1
and D
3
).
When v
s
is (), D
3
conducts, D
1
reverses.
• In the bottom group, the anodes of the two diodes
are at common potential. Therefore the diode with
its cathode at the lowest potential conducts i
d
.
• For example, when v
s
(+), D
2
carry i
d
. D
4
reverses.
When v
s
is (), D
4
carry i
d
. D
2
reverses.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
36
Threephase rectifiers
D
1
+
v
o
_
v
pn
v
nn
i
o
D
3
D
2
D
6
+ v
cn

n
+ v
bn

+ v
an

D
5
D
4
v
o
=v
p
−v
n
V
m
V
m
v
an
v
bn
v
cn
v
n
v
o
=v
p
 v
n
v
p
3π
4π π 2π 0
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
37
Threephase waveforms
• Top group: diode with its anode at the
highest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.
• Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at
the lowest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.
• For example, if D
1
(of the top group)
conducts, v
p
is connected to v
an
.
. If D
6
(of the
bottom group) conducts, v
n
connects to v
bn
.
All other diodes are off.
• The resulting output waveform is given as:
v
o
=v
p
v
n
• For peak of the output voltage is equal to
the peak of the line to line voltage v
ab
.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
38
Threephase, average voltage
v
o
0
π/3 2π/3
V
m, LL
v
o
π/3
 
phase.  single
a of n higher tha much is rectifier phase  three a
of component voltage DC output that the Note
955 . 0
3
) cos(
3
) sin(
3
1
: voltage Average
radians. 3 or degrees 60 over average its
Obtain segments. six the of one only Considers
,
,
3 2
3
,
3 2
3
,
L L m
L L m
L L m
L L m o
V
V
t
V
t d t V V
−
−
−
−
= =
=
=
∫
π
ω
π
ω ω
π
π
π
π
π
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
39
Controlled, threephase
+
v
o
_
v
pn
v
nn
i
o
D
3
D
2
D
6
+ v
cn

n
+ v
bn

+ v
an

D
5
D
4
D
1
V
m
v
an
v
bn v
cn
α
v
o
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
40
Output voltage of controlled
three phase rectifier
α
π
ω ω
π
α
α π
α π
cos
3
) sin(
3
1
: as computed be can voltage Average
SCR. the of angle delay
the be let Figure, previous the From
,
3 2
3
,
⋅ 
.

\

=
=
−
+
+
−
∫
L L m
L L m o
V
t d t V V
• EXAMPLE: A threephase controlled rectifier has
an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. The load
R=10 ohm. Determine the delay angle required to
produce current of 50A.
Rectifiers
• DEFINITION: Converting AC (from mains or other AC source) to DC power by using power diodes or by controlling the firing angles of thyristors/controllable switches. • Basic block diagram
AC input
DC output
• Input can be single or multiphase (e.g. 3phase). • Output can be made fixed or variable • Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive, Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC
Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2), Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002 2
Singlephase, halfwave with Rload
+ vs _ + vo _
vs
vo
ωt
io
ωt
Output voltage (average), Vo = Vavg = ∫ Vm sin(ωt )dωt
0 π
Vm = = 0.318Vm π
Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2), Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002 3
RMS voltage
Output voltage (RMS) Vo , RMS
π Vm 1 2 = ∫ (Vm sin(ω t ) ) dω t = 2 π 0
Output current (DC), Vo 0.318Vm Io = = R R
• DC voltage is fixed at 0.318 or 31.8% of the peak value • RMS voltage is reduced from 0.707 (normal sinusoidal RMS) to 0.5 or 50% of peak value. • Half wave is not practical because of high distortion supply current. The supply current contains DC component that may saturate the input transformer
Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2), Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002 4
Solution is in the form of : i ( t ) = i f ( t ) + in ( t ) where : i f . Zainal Salam. forced response is : Vm i f (t ) = ⋅ sin( ω t − θ ) Z where : Z= R 2 + (ω L ) 2 and vs = vR + v L ωL θ = tan −1 R 5 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). in are known as " forced" and " natural" response. respective ly.Halfwave with RL load i + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ + vTNB _ di (t ) Vm sin( ω t ) = i (t ) R + L dt This is a first order differenti al equation. Dr. 2002 . From diagram.
Dr. V i (t ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −t τ Z or V i (ωt ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −ωt ωτ Z Hence [ ] [ ] 6 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).e : Vm i (0) = ⋅ sin(0 − θ ) + Ae −0 τ Z Vm Vm ⇒ A = ⋅ sin( −θ ) = ⋅ sin(θ ) Z Z Therefore the current is given as.RL load Natural response is when source = 0. di (t ) =0 i (t ) R + L dt which results in : in (t ) = Aet τ . i. τ = L R V (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + Ae −t τ i Z A can be solved by realising inductor current is zero before the diode starts conducting. 2002 . Zainal Salam.
io β vo vR vL 0 π 2π 3π 4π ωt Note : vL is negative because the current is decreasing.RL waveform vs. Zainal Salam. i. Dr.e : di vL = L dt Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 7 .
the diode conducts between 0 and β To summarise the rectfier with R . Vm ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −ωt ωτ Z i (ωt ) = for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ β 0 otherwise Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). This point is known as the extinction angle.Extinction angle Note that the diode remains in forward biased longer than π radians (although the source is negative during that duration) The point when current reaches zero is when diode turns OFF. 2002 [ ] 8 .L load. Zainal Salam. β . Therefore. Dr. V i ( β ) = m ⋅ sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β Z which reduces to : sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β ωτ [ ωτ ]= 0 =0 β can only be solved numerically.
S is the apparent power supplied by the source.(I RMS ) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).RMS ). Power Factor The average (DC) current is : β 1 2π 1 Io = ∫ i(ωt )dωt = 2π ∫ i(ωt )dωt 2π 0 0 The RMS current is : β 1 2π 2 1 2 I RMS = ∫ i (ωt )dωt = 2π ∫ i (ωt )dωt 2π 0 0 Power absorbed by the load is : Po = ( I RMS )2 ⋅ R Power Factor is computed from definition : P pf = S where P is the real power supplied by the source. 2002 9 . which equal to the power absorbed by the load.e S = (Vs .RMS current. i.( I RMS ) P ⇒ pf = (Vs. Dr. Zainal Salam. RMS ).
Dr. RC Load + vs _ iD + vo _ vs Vm π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π Vmax Vmin vo iD α θ ∆Vo when diode is ON Vm sin(ωt ) vo = −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC when diode is OFF Vθ e vθ = Vm sin θ Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Half wave rectifier. 2002 10 . Zainal Salam.
isolating the load from source. 2002 11 . Circuit is energised at ωt=0 • Diode becomes forward biased as the source become positive • When diode is ON the output is the same as source voltage. C charges until Vm • After ωt=π/2.Operation • Let C initially uncharged. C discharges into load (R). • The source becomes less than the output voltage • Diode reverse biased. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Dr. • The output voltage decays exponentially. Zainal Salam.
Dr. 2002 12 . the slopes are equal. − 1 ⋅ e −(θ −θ ) / ωRC Vm cosθ = Vm sin θ ⋅ ωRC Vm cosθ 1 ⇒ =− Vm sin θ ⋅ ωRC 1 1 = tan θ − ωRC θ = tan −1 (− ωRC ) = − tan −1 (ωRC ) + π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Estimation of θ The slope of the functions are : d (Vm sin ωt ) = Vm cos ωt d (ωt ) and d Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC d (ωt ) − 1 ⋅ −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC = Vm sin θ ⋅ e ωRC ( ) At ωt = θ . Zainal Salam.
ωRC is large. Vm sin( 2π + α ) = (Vm sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC or sin(α − (sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC = 0 This equation must be solved numerically for α π π +π = 2 2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). then : θ = tan(∞ ) + π = − and Vm sin θ = Vm At ωt = 2π + α . Zainal Salam. Dr. 2002 13 .Estimation of α For practical circuits.
then α ≈ π 2. 2002 . the ripple is : ∆Vo = Vmax − Vmin = Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α If Vθ = Vm and θ = π 2. Min output voltage occurs at ωt = 2π + α Reffering to diagram. Dr. The output voltage evaluated at ωt = 2π + α is : vo (2π + α ) = Vm 2π +π 2−π 2 − ωRC e = Vm 2π − ωRC e The ripple voltage is approximated as : ∆Vo ≈ Vm − Vm 2π − ωRC e 2π − ωRC = Vm 1 − e 14 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Zainal Salam. and C is large such that DC output voltage is constant.Ripple Voltage Max output voltage is Vmax .
Voltage ripplecont’d Approximation of exponent term yields: 2π ≈ 1− e ω RC Substituting. •Therefore. Dr. •As C is increased. Determine (a) the expression for output voltage. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 15 . (b) voltage ripple. Zainal Salam. R=500 Ohm and C=100uF. reduction in output voltage ripple results in larger peak diode current. −2π ω RC 2π Vm ∆Vo ≈ Vm = ω RC fRC • The output voltage ripple is reduced by increasing C. the conduction interval for diode decreases. • EXAMPLE: The half wave rectifier has 120V RMS source at 60Hz.
Zainal Salam.Controlled halfwave ig ia + vs _ + vo _ ig vo ia α vs ωt Average voltage : α ωt Vm 1 π Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = 2π [1 + cos α ] 2π α RMS volatge VRMS 1 = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt 2π α π 2 2 Vm π Vm α sin (2α ) = ∫ [1 − cos(2ω t ] dωt = 2 1 − π + 2π 4π α Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Dr. 2002 16 .
Zainal Salam. Dr. V i (α ) = 0 = m ⋅ sin (α − θ ) + Z −α V A = − m ⋅ sin (α − θ ) e ωτ Z −α Aeωτ −ωt Ae ωτ Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Controlled h/w. 2002 17 . RL load i + vR _ + vL _ + vs _ + vo _ vs π vo io 2π ωt α π β 2π ωt V i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) = m ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) + Z Initial condition : i (α ) = 0.
Dr. β is defined when i = 0. Zainal Salam.e the diode conducts for γ degrees. Angle ( β − θ ) is called the conduction angel. i. 2002 18 . −(α −ωt ) V m ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ωτ Z i (ωt ) = for α ≤ ωt ≤ β 0 otherwise Extinction angle.Extinction angle Substituting for A and simplifying. (α − β V i( β ) = 0 = m sin ( β − θ ) − sin ( β − θ )e ωτ Z which can only be solved numerically. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).
Determine: (a) the expression for i(ωt). (c) the power absorbed by the load. Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance. L=0. 2. A half wave rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at 60Hz. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Dr. (b) average current. 60Hz supply.RMS voltage and current Average voltage : Vm 1 Vo = ∫Vm sin(ωt )dωt = [cosα − cosβ ] 2π α 2π Average current 1 Io = ∫ i(ωt )dω 2π α β β RMScurrent 1 2 I RMS = ∫ i (ωt )dω 2π α β Thepowerabsorbed theloadis : by P = I RMS2 ⋅ R o • • EXAMPLES 1. R=20 ohm. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS.04H. 2002 19 • . and the delay angle is 45 degrees. Zainal Salam.
half wave rectifier with RL load. Zainal Salam. the load (output) current is NOT continuos. D2 is off D2 is on. • A FWD (sometimes known as commutation diode) can be placed as shown below to make it continuos io + vR _ + vL _ io + vs _ vo= vs io vo= 0 + vo _ io + vo _ + vs _ + vo _ D1 is on. D1 is off 20 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Freewheeling diode (FWD) • Note that for singlephase. 2002 . Dr.
– Hence the “negative part” of vo as shown in the normal halfwave disappear. Zainal Salam. However. 2002 21 . – But in contrast with the normal half wave rectifier. • For a positive cycle voltage source. the circuit in Figure (c) does not consist of supply voltage in its loop. – D1 is on. D2 is off – The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b) – The voltage across the RL load is the same as the source voltage. the inductor contains energy from positive cycle. The load current still circulates through the RL path. D2 is on The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c) The voltage across the RL load is zero. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Operation of FWD • Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned on at the same time. – – – – D1 is off. Dr. • For a negative cycle voltage source.
as shown below. Zainal Salam. • Note also the output voltage has no negative part. output vo io Diode current iD1 iD2 0 π 2π 3π ωt 4π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).FWD. 2002 22 .Continuous load current • The inclusion of FWD results in continuos load current. Dr.
Dr.Full wave rectifier with R load iD1 io + vo _ is + vs _ Bridge circuit is iD1 + vs1 _ + vs2 _ iD2 + vs _ − vo + io Centertapped circuit Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 23 . Zainal Salam.
per halfcycle only one diode voltdrop is experienced.637Vm Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = π0 π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Dr. For both circuits. vo = ω {V Vsinsintωt − m m 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π DC voltage : 2Vm 1π = 0. compared to four for bridge. Zainal Salam.Notes on fullwave • Centertapped rectifier requires centertap transformer. Conduction losses is half of bridge. Hence. • Center tap requires only two diodes. the diodes ratings for centertapped is twice than bridge. • However. Bridge does not. 2002 24 .
Zainal Salam. Dr.Bridge waveforms vs Vm 3π 4π vo Vm π 2π vD1 vD2 Vm vD3 vD4 Vm io iD1 iD2 iD3 iD4 is Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 25 .
2002 26 .Centertapped waveforms vs Vm 3π 4π vo Vm π 2π vD1 2Vm vD2 2Vm io iD1 iD2 is Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Dr. Zainal Salam.
Full wave bridge. iD2 iD3 . RL load io iD1 is + vs _ + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ iD1 . Dr.iD4 vo π 2π 3π 4π output io vs supply is Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 27 . Zainal Salam.
RL load analysis: approximation with large L Using Fourier Series. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 28 . 4. Dr. Zainal Salam.. This makes I n decreases rapidly for increasing n. voltage amplitude for the nth harmonic decreases. output voltage is described as : vo (ωt ) = Vo + n = 2.. ∞ ∑ Vn cos(nωt + π ) where 2Vm Vo = π 2V 1 1 Vn = m − π n − 1 n + 1 The DC and harmonic currents are : Vo Io = R Vn Vn = In = Z n R + jnωL Note that as n increases. Only a few terms sufficient to approximate output.
2002 29 . iD2 iD3 . it is possible to drop all the harmonic terms.iD4 vo π exact 2π 3π approx. i. R R for ωL >> R. 4π output io 2Vm/R is supply Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). The approximation with large L is shown below.RL load analysis IfωLis large enough. iD1 .e. : Vo 2Vm = i(ωt ) ≈ I o = . Dr. Zainal Salam.
L=10mH – a) determine the average current in the load – b) determine the first two higher order harmonics of the load current – c) determine the power absorbed by the load Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). 2002 30 . RMS 2 = I o Power delivered to the load : Po = I RMS 2 R ( ) • EXAMPLE: Given a bridge rectifier has an AC source Vm=100V at 50Hz. Zainal Salam. and RL load with R=10ohm.Examples I RMS = I o 2 + ∑ I n. Dr.
R load iD1 io + vo _ is + vs _ V 1π Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = m [1 + cos α ] πα π VRMS 1 = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt πα = Vm 1 α sin (2α ) − + 2 2π 4π π 2 The power absorbed by the R load is : VRMS 2 Po = R Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Dr. Zainal Salam. 2002 31 .Controlled full wave.
Zainal Salam. 2002 32 . Dr. RL load io iD1 is + vs _ + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ io α π β π+α 2π vo Discontinuous mode io α π π+α β 2π vo Continuous mode Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Controlled.
need to ensure : β < (α + π ) Note that β is the extinction angle and must be solved numerically with condition : io ( β ) = 0 The boundary between continous and discontinous current mode is when β in the output current expression is (π + α ). Dr. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).L load : V i (ωt ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) − sin(α − θ )e −(ωt −α ) ωτ Z for α ≤ ωt ≤ β Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2 L −1 ωL and θ = tan . For continous operation current at ωt = (π + α ) must be greater than zero. τ = R R For discontinous mode. 2002 33 [ ] .Discontinuous mode Analysis similar to controlled half wave with R . Zainal Salam.
−1 ωL α ≤ tan R Average (DC) output voltage is given as : 2Vm 1 α +π Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = π cos α π α Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). −1 ωL .Continuous mode i (π + α ) ≥ 0 sin(π + α − θ ) − sin(π + α − θ )e −(π +α −α ) ωτ ≥ 0 Using Trigonometry identity : sin(π + α − θ ) = sin(θ − α ). Dr. Zainal Salam. sin(θ − α ) 1 − e −(π Solving for α α = tan R Thus for continuous current mode. 2002 34 [ ωτ ) ] ≥ 0.
Dr. Therefore the diode with its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id.Singlephase diode groups D1 io + vs _ D3 vp + vo _ vn vo =vp −vn D4 D2 • In the top group (D1. the anodes of the two diodes are at common potential. Zainal Salam. D1 and D3). the diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will conduct (carry) id. when vs (+). Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). D1 reverses. D4 carry id. D3 conducts. For example. the cathodes () of the two diodes are at a common potential. For example. When vs is (). When vs is (). D1 conducts id and D3 reverses (by taking loop around vs. In the bottom group. Therefore. D4 reverses. when vs is ( +). D3). D2 carry id. D2 reverses. 2002 35 • • • .
vn 0 π 2π 3π 4π 36 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Threephase rectifiers D1 + van D3 n + vbn + vcn D5 D2 D6 D4 vnn io vpn + vo _ vo =vp −vn Vm van vbn vcn Vm vp vn vo =vp . 2002 . Zainal Salam. Dr.
vn connects to vbn . 2002 37 . • Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at the lowest potential will conduct. If D6 (of the bottom group) conducts. The other two will be reversed.Threephase waveforms • Top group: diode with its anode at the highest potential will conduct. • The resulting output waveform is given as: vo=vpvn • For peak of the output voltage is equal to the peak of the line to line voltage vab . Zainal Salam. if D1 (of the top group) conducts. vp is connected to van. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). All other diodes are off. Dr.. The other two will be reversed. • For example.
2002 38 2π 3 . Average voltage : 1 Vo = ∫ Vm. LL 0 π/3 2π/3 Considers only one of the six segments.955Vm. average voltage vo vo π/3 Vm. Zainal Salam. L − L π Note that the output DC voltage component of a three .L− L sin(ωt )dωt π 3π3 3Vm. Obtain its average over 60 degrees or π 3 radians. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2).Threephase. Dr.phase rectifier is much higher than of a single .phase. L − L = = 0. L − L 2 [cos(ωt )]ππ33 = π 3Vm.
threephase D1 + van + vbn + vcn D3 D5 D2 D6 D4 vnn io n vpn + vo _ α Vm vo van vbn vcn Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). Zainal Salam. 2002 39 .Controlled. Dr.
Determine the delay angle required to produce current of 50A. Average voltage can be computed as : 1 Vo = ∫ Vm. Dr. L − L = ⋅ cos α π 2π 3+α • EXAMPLE: A threephase controlled rectifier has an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. Zainal Salam. The load R=10 ohm. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2). L− L sin(ωt )dωt π 3 π 3+α 3Vm. 2002 40 . let α be the delay angle of the SCR.Output voltage of controlled three phase rectifier From the previous Figure.
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