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Chong Chien Fatt B.Sc (Mech. Eng.) Honours, M.Eng. (Ind. Eng. and Mgmt.)
This dissertation is submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Business Administration, University of Newcastle, Australia
STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL AUTHORSHIP
I hereby certify that the work embodied in this dissertation project is the result of original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution.
CHONG CHIEN FATT January 2006
I am sincerely grateful to all the following people who have assisted and encouraged me throughout this research programme. My wife, Lee Sock Hiah, sons Ming Hoong and Yao Hoong, my mother and relatives for their support and understanding during this period. Dr Gian Casimir, for his dedication, commitment and friendly supervision of this research programme. Dr Nik Rahimah Yacob for her invaluable advice at any time of the day. Mr Bernard Tan, A.T., for allowing some of the concepts and items of the K.Y.K.O. Instrument to be used in the research. Mark Loon Kong Chew, for his various ideas in my research and assistance in the report preparation. Cik Rohana Haron, for her diligent data entry and report preparation. My numerous friends, who have consented and assisted in the data collection from their organisations and their moral support. The dedicated personnel (Alex, Connie, Grace, Iris, Winnie and others) in Segi.
DEDICATION I dedicated this work to my beloved Mother. who always gives her undivided love and care to her 11 children. Madam Yew Hor. iii . May God bless her with good health and happiness.
........................................ 20 Psychodynamic Theories .............1...4........... THE THEORIES AND CONSTRUCTS OF THE PROPOSED MEASURE ...... CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION ...........1......56 The Second Premise: The Accuracy of Predicting Behavior Depends on Complexity .......................8.........2......................6..................5.................. 1........................................................... 2...................................................4............................................. 2.....7......... 2..............................................................3... 1.....................6....3..................... 48 Current Theories of Work Motivation .................1........ 25 Traits Theories ..........33 2..2................................................13 1.............11 1..4...........1........................................................16 What is Personality? ............2.......15 2.. 11 Research Design ............................... 2...2.. 12 Measurement.................... 46 Definition of Behavior .................7............ 1.......7...................5.......... 2.....2......................1.........................21 2.......... 1....... RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES .....1........................2.......................................................................................... CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW .... 68 2.........3...0.................59 2......... 2...... 2........2............................................................................. 12 Sampling and Sample Size .............3............................... 42 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.................... 17 How Stable are Personality Traits?.................................. 37 2............................................. III ABSTRACT..........................................2................4.1...... 2. LIMITATIONS .........3................................2.4.......3....................................................................16 2................................................................................................ RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................. 11 Survey Instrument............................ THEORIES ON PERSONALITY .................................... 66 Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure ..................3........... 2....................... THE ROLE OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS...3......................................................62 2...........................................................................6....................... 27 Behaviorist/Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories..................41 2........4................ 47 Factors Influencing Behavior................ Five Factor Model................... I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...........................................................................................................................................................5. 23 Humanistic Theories ..................... 2.............5......................................................... 2.........2.................................... PERSONALITY AND WORK PERFORMANCE ........0................... Research Philosophy.............. 2. 50 The Constructs of this Proposed Model.....................................................................1................................... INTRODUCTION ... ETHICS .......... Uniqueness of the CASES Personality Measure ..... 61 Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure......................................14 1.......1....................................................................................1..... 2......................................................... TYPES OF PERSONALITY MEASURES ...............................................1...................... 13 1...........................3......................... 56 The First Premise: Behavior is Motivated by Needs ............7.......2...7....................TABLE OF CONTENT STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL AUTHORSHIP ........ ANALYSES .......8.............7........................4..........47 2................ IX 1........3...........1... 2...6 1................................................................................................. 29 2............ SHORTCOMINGS OF FFM AND MBTI MEASURES .................................................................. WHY DOES PERSONALITY MATTER TO ORGANISATIONS? ....7...............6........................................................................... The Five Factor Model ....................II DEDICATION .................4......32 2.... 2................3................................1..........7.....2.4............ 19 The Objective of Psychometric Instruments....42 2..................... iv .....................2.2 1.............. 2..........2.......................... 34 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator..1 1.......................................................... THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF FFM/MBTI ON PERFORMANCE.8......................
.......................... 109 The Relationship between the FFM Dimensions and the CASES Dimensions111 4..........................103 4.....................2.. RESEARCH PARADIGMS ....... RESEARCH DESIGN ........... 3......... RESEARCH PLAN ....................................2..... Selection of Survey Layout........................................6...2...........................3......1.. LIMITATIONS ..........................................5........................4..................3........... 92 Central Tendency and Dispersion...........................................5........................................5.........................74 3...................................5........................ 77 Researcher’s Interference ............................... 107 Principal Components Analysis of RBPS Performance Measure........... Principal Components Analysis of the FFM Personality Measure ...........4..................... 82 Selection of Measurement Techniques ..98 3.................................................. 71 3................... 3.......... 3........5...............................2..........4.......................................3.....................2....................84 Key Variables ................8...... 3....3.......... 90 Selection of analytical approach ........ 3...5........................................... 101 3.... 3...... 3..........................5......................................................6...................................8.....................................72 3.............2..114 v ...................................................................... 3........................ INTRODUCTION ........................................... 2....................84 Self Report...........................................5........................ The Relationships between FFM and CASES .........1..........................................4..................................................5.........4.................4......................5.......... Purpose of the Study .4................................... 4.... 4....................... 3.............3.............5...................................8....6..........................................4..........3............................3.................................................................................. 3...............................99 3.......................5..........4...........0..5.........................................2................................................2..................82 3..4.................5...... 69 Hypotheses.............2.............. 94 3.......8..92 Reliability ............................... 3...2. 3..... 3.............. 3... 84 Personality and Work Performance Measures..............................101 4..................................................... 3......................94 Cost and Time Estimates .......3...........8.................5............5...... 79 Study Setting........1......8..................5..............4.........................................................8............................... RESULTS FROM PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS...................... 3........................................ 3.....................................98 3......1.......2............. 3........................ CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...........8............ 3.................................................102 4..... 3.........2.92 Principal Components Analysis.............. 3...........5.........................................................1...........0..................................... 75 Type of Investigation . 89 Selection of Sample and Sample Size...........................................5........................ 80 Time Horizons .......... Response Distortions .................6............................2........ 103 Principal Components Analysis of the CASES Personality Measure.... 3..................102 4........................................................................ CONCLUSION ................2..........9.......................6......5.....................................1.....4....1.........................................2...........75 3....... 81 Unit of Analysis ....... 3............. DEMOGRAPHICS .............................5...........................................................5.................................5................93 Hypothesis Testing ...............................7................. 3.....4.....................................................................................5.1..............94 Data Collection...................... 81 Selection of Survey Method ..........................................................86 3.2......4............. 3........... 99 Self Rating ....96 Data Entry .................84 Scales.....................................................................................................................72 3..............................7.................................5..............2.......................................3........ 3............................3......................................... 3......... CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................................ Implementation ..................... INTRODUCTION ................. 100 Work Performance............ RESULTS FROM TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES .........92 Validity........2........ RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ....................102 4.............................4.....6.............97 3..............5... ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ....................... 99 Personality Scales .........................................72 3. 77 Research Method ......2.....5................................97 Categorising.....5....1.........................5.......................... 4..............4...6............... 99 Stability of Work Performance .................. SURVEY RESEARCH ..........
.................................................2................................................................................129 FFM and CASES Predicting the Innovator Component of RBPS..4.....3......2........ 4.......5.....3............2........................................................3.....................3.................................................................186 vi .........................1........... 143 Main Findings for Research Question Three ..... 4.....158 APPENDIX ONE – INFORMATION SHEET ...128 FFM and CASES Predicting the Career Component of the RBPS................ 138 Main Findings for Research Question Two ...............3......132 FFM and CASES Predicting Total RBPS Performance .......................................................... 4.................3.......... CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS .......................152 5..3..........................3. 4..................................... 5..........3....................................6............ 5.1...........................138 5............ DISCUSSION OF THE MAIN FINDINGS .....................0........ CONCLUSION ............ Main Findings for Research Question One....4.............2.......................... FUTURE RESEARCH ....... 4............ 4............. 147 Implications on Professional Practice.................5.................................... 120 FFM and CASES predicting performance.................138 5............. 149 Implications on Theory... INTRODUCTION ........................................184 APPENDIX THREE – QUESTIONNAIRE .... 4...149 5.. CONCLUSION .....154 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES ..............................................131 FFM and CASES Predicting the Organisation Component of the RBPS...3......................... 5..............138 5..2........1............................................ 4.......................3...........2..................1........................................ LIMITATIONS ....... 114 Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure ....3.....2....3......................................... 5.......135 5.3..............2..... 128 FFM and CASES predicting the Job Component of the RBPS ........3...3...............................3............4................................3......1.........182 APPENDIX TWO – CONSENT SEEKING LETTER TO COMPANY ...................................130 FFM and CASES Predicting the Team Component of the RBPS .....3.................................3...133 4.. Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure..... 151 5........3.........6......4........................153 5..... IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS ..
....107 Table 14: Items of CASES after Principal Components Analysis.......................................................83 Table 7: Role-Based Performance Scale’s Items (Wilbourne et al.....................................................115 Table 18: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM ...................................................................88 Table 8: The Breakdown of Companies to be Surveyed Based on Industry (developed for this study) ............................................................................................................ 1999)...........40 Table 4: The Possible Associations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM with Complexity and Self-Actualisation of the CASES . 1998) ........ 2000) ................104 Table 12: Items of FFM after Principal Components Analysis ............................................... 2004) ...4 Table 2: Six of the Most Commonly Used Personality Instruments (Dent and Curd..........95 Table 9: Total Time Estimated for the Survey (developed for this research)........................................................................................116 Table 19: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on FFM .......LIST OF TABLES Table 1 – Predictors of Work Performance (Yancey and Austin.............96 Table 11: Rotated Component Matrix of FFM ...................................................................110 Table 16: Correlations between the Components of FFM and CASES........................................113 Table 17: Correlations of the Components of FFM and RBPS .................106 Table 13: Rotated Component Matrix of CASES...........96 Table 10: Breakdown of Costs on Survey (developed for this research) ......................................................................................................................117 Table 21: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on FFM .........................................................................................70 Table 5: Four Categories of Non-experimental Techniques (Grace......118 vii .............................................................................78 Table 6: Merits of the Four Survey Methods (Grace........117 Table 20: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM............................109 Table 15: Rotated Component Matrix of RBPS ..................................... 1999).......................................................................6 Table 3: The 16 Personality Types with Cognitive Characteristics and Occupational Tendencies ..............................
.....125 Table 29: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on CASES ....................................................................................................119 Table 23: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM ..........133 Table 36: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM and CASES .......................................126 Table 30: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on CASES.................................................................................................................................124 Table 27: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on CASES ..................................................................................................................................130 Table 33: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES .............................................................................129 Table 32: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on the FFM and CASES .............................................122 Table 25: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on CASES ....................................................................................................................119 Table 24: Correlations of the Components of CASES and RBPS.............................................127 Table 31: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES .....................................................................................................123 Table 26: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on CASES .134 viii ...........................................................................................................131 Table 34: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of the RBPS on FFM and CASES ............................124 Table 28: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on CASES ..............................................................................................................Table 22: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM........................................................................................................................132 Table 35: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES ................
limitations and possible areas for future research are discussed.e. Practical and theoretical implications. Hence. CASES) and the FFM. Prior to the 1990s. recent studies using fundamental dimensions of personality have shown the predictive power of personality for work performance.ABSTRACT “Does personality predict work performance” is a question that many researchers have addressed over the past few decades. ix . this new personality measure can be offered as a useful instrument for both practitioners and researchers. The study explores the predictive utility of a personality measure that is based on the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the social cognitive theory of “If-Then” and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality with regards to a multidimensional measure of work performance. However. Besides providing a theory-grounded measurement tool which contributes to research on personality measures and the prediction of work-related performance. the more recent studies have focused on demonstrating the incremental gain in predicting work performance that can be attained using personality as a predictor. Both of the personality measures support existing literature which claims that personality can predict work performance with several dimensions of the new personality measure predicting work performance over and above the FFM. The results confirmed relationships between the dimensions of the new personality measure (i. personality provides insight on how well a person will perform a given task. Research on the significance of personality suggests that even though other factors are important in determining the performance of an individual in a given task. personnel selection specialists generally did not use personality testing in employee selection due to the perception it has low validity..
Empowerment. Learning Organisation. A second objective is to examine the criterion utility of this new personality measure with regards to a self-report multi-dimensional measure of work performance. A background of the various perspectives of personality and the rationale for the new personality measure is provided in the second chapter of this dissertation. the incremental criterion utility of the new measure over the Five-Factor Model of personality. which is a wellestablished personality measure. The first objective of this study therefore is to develop a new measure of personality based on two theories (i. The validity of the current measures of personality is questionable given that each of them is based on a single-theory of personality. people. CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION Companies spend large amounts of money. and Relationship Management. many organisations pay only lip service to the adage that “people are our greatest asset” (Yancey and Austin.e. The third chapter of this dissertation outlines the research methodology and design of the study that will be 1 . Investors in People. the efforts invested to identify and select the right employees and to motivate them to give their best to the organisation is an ongoing management initiative. Furthermore. 2000). time and energy to improve their business performance by adopting different management philosophies and initiatives such as SixSigma.. Nevertheless. Basically. all of these have one thing in common. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Social Cognitive Theory) rather than on a single theory.1. For the top companies in the world. Employees are indisputably the most essential resource in any organisation and are the key to attaining and maintaining competitive advantage.0. will be examined.
and honest/integrity tests. The conclusion on the various findings. Personality tests are popularly used by organisations as part of selection. cognitive ability test. work-samples. The fourth chapter contains the analyses of the survey data. it takes only a modest improvement in selecting. the more effective we can manage. Personality tests only provide an additional tool for recruitment and are not replacements for interviews. Personality tests with no right or wrong answers attempt to measure how little or how much a candidate possesses a specific personality 2 . Hence.1. it is estimated to cost an average of US$15. they are not a panacea for selecting the best candidates (Dent and Curd. THE ROLE OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS The more we know the people we employ. Moreover. 1995).000 to recruit one executive or middle manager in United States of America (Melamed and Jackson. resume. taking into account all expenditure.used. 1. matching and recruiting people to jobs to reduce the possible financial losses incurred by recruiting employees who are incompatible with the organisation. Although personality tests rank higher than other employment tests such as job-knowledge tests. encourage and harness them. Table 1 provides a list of various sources of information that are used to predict work performance. 2004). implications and limitations of this study are presented in the fifth chapter of this dissertation. employment checks and job probation in the recruitment and selection process. recruitment and development processes as they are able to explore a broad range of personality characteristics that are relevant to the workplace. references.
2001).characteristic relevant to the needs of the organisation. Personality tests have been in the market for more than 50 years and their popularity has increased significantly in recent years. individuals would be able to take advantage of the positive aspects of their personalities and/or take steps to mitigate potential problems arising from any undesirable aspects which could affect their relationships. Exploring these characteristics during an interview to more closely examine the candidate can provide valid and real evidence to support the final selection decision (Coull and Eary. their significant others and their related job-relevance. By understanding their behavior.000 million tests are administered annually in the United States of America alone and some 700 of the Times Top 1000 companies use them for personnel selection (Coull and Eary. personality tests can assist individuals to understand the significant aspects of their personality and behavior in a wide variety of work and social situations. Non-exempt staff Source of information Interview Resume Application form References Employment check Best Predictor 75% 29 31 35 33 Middle management Best Predictor 67% 42 20 44 40 Senior management Best Predictor 66% 40 22 44 47 3 . Psychometric assessment is big business in the 21st century as approximately 2. 2001). work performance and careers. The purpose of conducting personality tests is to gather information and highlight issues for further exploration at interviews. As part of a development process in organisations.
management development programmes. and retain critical personnel has fuelled the desire for more information on current employees as well as potential recruits. develop. recruit. career guidance and training needs analysis (Dent and Curd. 2004). It looks at an individual’s preferences on four dimensions: • • How you relate to the world How you gather information Common Uses • • • • Raising self –awareness Identifying strengths and development needs Understanding own behavior and that of others Team building 4 . From their traditional use as a tool for selection and recruitment.Credit check Job trial/probation Personality tests Job knowledge test Work sample Cognitive ability test Assessment centre Honesty/integrity test Drug screen Perceptual/physical abilities test Polygraph test 13 20 13 11 11 9 4 4 0 0 0 11 20 13 6 2 7 2 2 0 0 0 9 18 11 6 2 2 2 0 2 0 0 Table 1 – Predictors of Work Performance (Yancey and Austin. For example. 2000) The increasing pressure on organisations to identify. The most commonly used personality instruments are shown in Table 2 but they are not necessarily valid or useful. psychometric tests have expanded their functionalities to many other areas such as appraisals. 1993). Test Name Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Description Probably the most popular and wellresearched personality instrument used in business today. there is no evidence to indicate a positive relation between specific MBTI types with career success (Pittenger.
2004) Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) This questionnaire measures an individual’s personality against 16 different personality dimensions. Another of the best-researched and most widely used tools available today. It provides users with a development tool that helps them to learn about themselves and others in the context of relationship awareness • • • • Individual motivational awareness Team building and development Relationship management Assertiveness training 5 . the dimensions measured fall into three categories: • • • Relationships with people Thinking style. Cattell. the feedback from which defines a person’s perception of his/her behaviors at work.Test Name Description • • How you make decisions. and Affection-which is about being close to individuals • • • • • • • • Team building and development Self-awareness Individual development Individual development Leadership development Team development Relationship counselling Career counselling and development Strength Deployment Inventory (SDI) This is an incredibly versatile instrument. In particular. Developed by Raymond B. and Feelings and emotions • • • • • • • • • • • The Belbin Team Role SelfPerception Inventory Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship OrientationBehavior (FIROB) One of the few UK instruments on the market. which was developed by Elias Porter in the 1960s. Designed by Saville and Holdsworth to provide information on personality characteristics.. and How you organise yourself Common Uses • • • Career development Relationship development Selection Selection Individual development Career development and counselling Leadership development Selection Career development Assessment centres Team building Individual development Change management Relationship awareness 16PF Questionnaire (Equivalent to the NEO PI-R of the Big Five (Rossier et al. Developed by Meredith Belbin to help team members identify their preferred roles in teams This inventory looks at a person’s interpersonal style and how he/she relates towards others in three specific areas: • • • Inclusion-which is the need to be part of a social group Control-which is the need for control or influence over others. it helps individuals to understand the various facets that determine their personality.
Test Name Description Common Uses • • • • Leadership development Sales training Customer relations training Supervisory skills development Table 2: Six of the Most Commonly Used Personality Instruments (Dent and Curd. which assume there are dispositional factors that determine behavior in various situations. and emotion that are relatively stable and which form the basic conception of personality (Allport. Cattell. 1997): i) The psychoanalytic perspectives of Freud. and Eysenck. which are biological in nature and based on the premise of the unfolding of stages where the particular behaviors occur. which assume personality is never completely determined and that people are always changing and free to reinterpret their experiences idiosyncratically. 2003). and Adler. thought. PERSONALITY AND WORK PERFORMANCE The fundamental objective of personality psychology is to understand how personality can be used to predict behavior (Mayer.2. 2004) 1. Individuals display consistent patterns of behavior. and Rotter. Skinner. 1937). 6 . iii) The cognitive perspectives of Pavlov. Jung. ii) The traits perspectives of Allport. Personality theories may be classified into five categories (Ryckman.
1996. de Stadelhofen and Berhoud. behavior arises as a result of a complex interaction between environmental influences and inner processes (Bandura. 1998. and v) The social behavioristic or interaction perspectives of Bandura and Mischel. There is a large body of evidence that the domain of personality can be well represented by the Five-Factor Model’s (FFM) superordinate constructs (Digman. Paunonen. Goldberg. Human behavior is a multifaceted phenomenon and any theory attempting to explain normal human behavior must reflect its multidimensionality (Leonard. which is based on 7 . 1977a. Although the FFM. which postulate the presence of an innate need for growth which moves individuals towards achieving their potentialities given the right environmental conditions. and McCelland. 1977b). the social or interaction perspective excludes the growth stages. which assume most behavior is learned and purposive and that people are guided by motives to achieve certain goals. Paunonen and Ashton. The psychometric instruments in Table 2 are all based on single theories. 2003. Unlike the psychoanalytic and existential perspectives. Beauvais and Scholl. 1990. 2004). McCrae and Costa. 2001. rather than innate as people’s interactions and experiences continually influence each other. In other words. This perspective is similar to the trait perspective as it also refers to consistencies and regularities in the behavior of individuals but differs as it asserts that behavior and personality are learned. Maslow. Rossier. 1999.iv) The existential or humanistic perspectives of Rogers. These traditional models of personality cannot explain the diversity of behavior as human behavior cannot be explained by a single perspective. 1993. 1999). De Raad.
attempts to explain human behavior according to key motivators. Maslow posited that needs act as motivators (Arnold. Social cognitive theory takes into consideration environmental and internal forces that shape behavior (Bandura. which is based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and social cognitive theories. is able to describe consistent features of the behavior of an individual it does not address the key drivers or motives of behavior (Fletcher. 1969). 2003). Interest in the motivation that drives behavior rekindled in the 1990s. or has to (Nikolaou. the power of the Hierarchy of Needs Theory is its ability to identify a range of needs. 1997). 1993). Individual functioning is a continuous interaction between environmental. Variability in responses across situations are not dismissed as errors but are regarded as a distinct characteristic of the individual’s ability to either consciously or unconsciously behave differently simply because the individual wants to. including growth needs.personality traits. culturally and situationally determined (Fletcher. 1981). 1993). 1988). Unlike most need theories. Hence. and cognitive factors (Fedor and Ferris. ultimately leading to self-actualisation (Osteraker. which may be classified as deficit or homeostatic theories of motivation. The personality measure proposed in this dissertation. Motives are only one of the determinants of behavior as behavior is also determined by other factors that are biologically. behavioral. 1999. 8 . the Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Maslow advocates the dynamic processes of need satisfaction. Chung. The proposition that human beings exhibit needs for development and growth is generally accepted by practitioners due to the intuitive and face validity of this argument. 1977a). likes to. which motivate behavior (Wiley.
Barrick et al. Complexity. and v) Social. Does personality predict work performance? Although there are many factors besides personality that affect work performance.. which explains the variability of an individual’s behavior in different situations. such as those of the FFM.. 2003). ii) Actualisation. however. Prior to the 1990s. Nikolaou. The other four dimensions are based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with the exclusion of the physiological needs which are unlearned and assumed to be of relatively low importance in current organisational settings.The new personality measure proposed in this dissertation is termed CASES because it comprises five dimensions: i) Complexity. iv) Ego. It is inevitable and advantageous that researchers will attempt to compare the predictive utility of the FFM with other models of personality with respect to work performance (Robertson et al. The first dimension.. 2002. This. Kieffer. One of the reasons for this low validity is that many studies focused mainly on personality traits at the molecular. Stewart and Piotrowski. 2003. Personality traits can be conceptually and empirically related without being redundant (Judge et al. Salgado. is based on the social cognitive theory of “IfThen”. this question has received considerable attention in the literature (Barrick. Schinka and Curtiss. have demonstrated that certain aspects of personality are useful predictors of work performance. “inventory” level instead of the construct level. does not 9 . Nikolaou. 2002. There are good reasons to believe that some dimensions of the CASES measure will be related to some dimensions of the FFM. personnel selection specialists generally did not use personality testing in employee selection due to its low validity. 2000. Recent investigations using higher order personality constructs. 2004). iii) Safety. 2003). 2003.
The following research questions and hypotheses underlie the current research: Research Question 1: Does the FFM predict work performance? The first research question is addressed by the first hypothesis. H2: The CASES measure will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings.necessarily indicate that some of the dimensions of the CASES measure are the same as some of the FFM dimensions. One way to examine whether or not the dimensions of the two measures of personality are distinct is to examine the incremental criterion validity of the two personality measures. 10 . Research Question 3: What is the relationship between the FFM and CASES measures? The third research question is addressed by the third hypothesis. Research Question 2: Does the CASES measure predict work performance? The second research question is addressed by the second hypothesis. H3: The FFM and CASES will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings.
3. Williams.3.1. 1997. 1998).1. Research Philosophy The study uses the positivistic paradigm with the hypothetico-deductive approach as it seeks to explain the relationship between personality. Delahaye and Sekaran. 2001). Research Design This study uses hypothesis testing as there is information available on the variables involved to enable hypothesis formulation. and Swartz.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. this survey method is efficient and practical (Saunders. This quantitative research method adopts a non-experimental technique of survey research whereby information about the variables is collected from a large number of cases to address the research questions. Remenyi. hypotheses can be empirically substantiated which is essential for such psychometric tests (Cavana. Minimal or no interference in a natural environment by the researcher is adopted as analytical research requires precision and the control of extraneous variables is performed via statistical techniques (Gill and Johnson. Furthermore. need-induced behaviors and performance. The investigation is a correlational study as the main interest is to examine the associations between dimensions of personality and work performance. Furthermore. Money.2. 1. 11 . The study setting is a non-contrived setting. Lewis and Thornhill.
perceptions and attitudes (Lindell and Whitney. The unit of analysis is the individual. 1. CASES. 1.3. The research also adopts a cross-sectional study and takes a snapshot of the situation like most behavioral studies that focus on individual’s beliefs. The FFM (Goldberg. the new personality measure.. and the work performance measure of Welbourne.2002). Salgado. 1999).3. 2003). Furthermore. mail surveys are the most commonly used survey method in studies of personality (Kieffer et al. Measurement Five-point Likert scales will be used for all of the items related to personality and performance. 2004. 2001). Although mail surveys tend to yield a relatively low response rate.4. specifically their perceptions of their own behavior.3. Johnson and Erez (1998) will be used for this research. 12 . 2003. Nikolaou. they allow the targeting of specific respondents in various organisations and are cost effective. Survey Instrument Data will be collected via a mail survey.
level of education. and years in current job). 1. The minimum targeted number of respondents is 500 as the personality measures have 50 items each (minimum of 10:1 subject to items ratio.e. will be invited to participate in this research. which ensures the anonymity and confidentiality of responses. 2001). The questionnaire uses the Likert scale to collect interval-scaled data for each of the variables involved in the hypotheses. The respondents will be given a week to answer the questionnaire at a place of their choice and return the questionnaire in the self-addressed stamped envelope. gender.3. known to the researcher. years of working. Each participating organisation will be given 40 or more questionnaires to distribute to all or part of their white-collar staff by their respective Human Resource Managers. Descriptive statistics will be computed for all of the demographic variables (i.5. Sampling and Sample Size Convenience sampling is used due to the time constraints placed on this research and to the unknown probability of selecting elements of the population (Cavana et al.. ANALYSES Data analyses will be conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. as recommended by Nunnally. A total of 40 commercial organisations of various sizes and from various industries.4.1.. Confirmatory factor 13 . 1978). age.
1980. An alpha coefficient of 0. Cronbach’s alpha will be calculated for each subscale to test its internal reliability.. Multiple linear regression analyses will be used to test the hypotheses. no demeaning questions will be asked and the respondents will not be subjected to any mental or physical stress in answering the questionnaire as they are given a week to complete the questionnaire at their own free will at a place of their choice. Furthermore. 1. 2001). Cavana et al. Finally. Anonymity and confidentiality are ensured as the questionnaires have no personal identifiers and only the researchers will have access to the completed questionnaires and data files. Cronbach’s alpha is an internal reliability coefficient that shows how well the items belonging to a set are correlated to one another. 1978).7 is considered adequate for initial investigations (Nunnally.5.5 to 0. ETHICS It is stated explicitly in the information sheet that is provided to all potential participants that participation is voluntary and that participants can withdraw at anytime during the research without any obligation or disadvantage. stamped and self-addressed envelopes will be provided to the respondents.analysis is a method for assessing construct validity and will be used to test the structures of the personality and performance measures (Schwab. 14 .
1996). blue-collar and clerical employees). Finally.6. 2004) as job satisfaction. motivation level and role clarity may influence self-reported performance ratings (Kieffer et al. organisational hygiene. 15 . or different countries..g. cognitive ability.1. its findings may not be generalisable to different types of organisations such as public sector or non-profit organisations.. 1996) and social desirability bias such as “telling the way they like to be seen” (Hogan.. 2004). LIMITATIONS The research relies on self-report data that can be affected by response distortion (Barrick and Mount. the effect of leniency associated with selfassessment could raise concerns about the legitimacy of the data collected. Furthermore. different types of jobs (e. Additionally. the stability of work performance as a construct may not be totally valid (Thoresen et al. as this study uses a convenience sampling. Hogan and Roberts.
0. 2001).. 2004). Although such instruments are traditionally used as a tool in the selection and recruitment processes. psychometric assessment will be a major business sector in the 21st century (Coull and Eary. 1999). training needs analysis. and appraisals. INTRODUCTION Psychometric tests have been used by organisations as part of their development and recruitment processes. are not able to explain the diversity of behavior. These tests.000 companies in United States of America using such instruments. CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW 2. which are normally based on a single theory. However. develop and retain key employees has increased the interest of managers for more information on current employees and potential recruits alike. the functionality of such personality tests is becoming more widespread and they now have an integral place in many human resources activities such as career guidance. The number of such psychometric instruments has increased considerably in the last few decades and has led to confusion and increased complexity in selecting an appropriate instrument (Dent and Curd. the debate on the reliability and 16 .000 million tests administrated yearly and 700 of the Times Top 1. as human behavior cannot be fully covered by any one single theory (Leonard et al. The increasing pressure on organisations to select/recruit.1. Many organisations use psychometric testing as part of their recruitment and development processes to select candidates who will excel in their jobs.2. With some 2. management development programmes.
values. which are the building blocks of personality (Marsella et al. when using psychometric instruments. 1992).e. it does not mean that all such instruments are. for example. Hence. It is most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person 17 . The continuing debate may be due to the fact that although some instruments may be found to be valid predictors of work performance. “caveat emptor” should still be applied.1. 43) defined personality as “the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels. beliefs. 45). 92) takes personality as “the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. attitudes.1. 1993). Robbins (2001. p. thinks and behaves”. 2. The construct of personality is based on the assumption that an individual can be characterised by distinctive qualities that are relatively invariant over time and across situations. p.. What is Personality? Personality can be broadly defined as the durable characteristics of an individual. traits. 2000.. George and Jones (2002. 1995). Also. p. The concept of personality can be traced to the work of Allport. selects and processes information and generates social behaviors (Mischel and Shoda.validity of such instruments and the value of such concepts such as personality traits continues in the academic literature (Fletcher. dispositions and needs (Gelso and Fassinger. Personality is conceptualised as a stable system which influences how an individual construes. who assumed the presence of “neuropsychic” structures (i. traits). using well-proven instruments do not confer automatic validity on their application in an organisation.
(1996. This aspect is called individual differences whereby we categorise people as neurotic. and so on. Personality can also be defined as an organised and dynamic set of characteristics of a person that influence cognitions. motivations and behaviors (Lau and Shaffer. 2) defined personality in two ways. when describing someone’s personality. one is the “factors” inside a person that explain the behavior while the other refers to the person’s distinctive interpersonal characteristics in a variety of situations. Personality psychologists postulate that personality or individual dispositions are significant determinants of behavior with the following underlying assumptions: (i) there are individual differences in ways of behaving. introverted. 1975). personality is explained based on overall motivation rather than the understanding of neural pathways of motives (Mayer. p. For example. Hence. most personality researchers divide personality into different areas or divisions and try to explain how each area works individually and with others. and (iii) individual behavior is consistent across situations (Pervin. we are trying to explain the differences of that person from others. extraverted. 1999). 2001). Personality is explained as existing in the individual as opposed to outside the person and focuses on overall psychological trends. Hence.” Hogan et al. (ii) individual behavior is relatively stable over time. Personality is too vast a field and differentiated for a single approach.exhibits. The four structural divisions of personality which are repeatedly used to classify traits are: (a) Freud (1960)’s structural 18 .
(b) the trilogy of mind (Hilgard. and (d) the systems set (Mayer. 40% of the phenotypic variance of given traits is attributed to genetic sources while 60% is accounted for by the environment. (2002) posited that the transition during adulthood is often marked by substantial affective and personality changes caused by environmental changes. Pervin. 1980). 2. that appear to contradict each other (Cervone. 2003. 2004). The more developed approaches use traits in the personality structure. They display unique patterns of emotions.division of id. Another study by Bouchard (1994) showed that about 66% of the reliable variance in the personality traits is due to genetic influence while Zawadzki et al. The contents of consciousness change rapidly. Emotions and actions shift in response to the environment. How Stable are Personality Traits? Psychological experience is made up of two features. (2001) revealed that on average. However. behavior and thought that are relatively consistent to form the basis of the conception of personality (Allport. Costa and McCrae. genes do not influence behavior directly but instead influence physiological structures (Brody. 1937). (c) the five factor model (Goldberg. individuals are significantly consistent across time and place. Vaidya et al.2. change and consistency. 1997). 2001). 1993. ego and superego. 2001.1. (1998) revealed that some 20%-50% of variation in the dimensions is attributable to genetic sources. These 19 . 1985). Yet. Costa and McCrae (1995) posited that personality is heritable and highly stable over time while Jang et al.
the measurements are temporally stable and credible evidence linking the measure to meaningful non-test behavior (Hogan et al. A good personality measure.1. could account for much of the psychological change that occurs during early adulthood. independence from protective shelter and parental control. 2. which conform to statistical theories to explain these complexities rather than on behavioral realities (Wolfe. 1994).. such as a strong peer culture. Many theories of personality rely excessively on behavioral models. 1996). as human behavior cannot be explained by any one factor (Leonard. Nevertheless. The Objective of Psychometric Instruments The field of psychology has tried to define human behavior with the same accuracy that scientists use to describe the motion of atoms and stars.environmental changes. Beauvais and Scholl.3. 2004). Human behavior is 20 . There is a growing realisation that traditional models of personality do not explain the diversity of behavior found in organisational settings. stimulation for the intellect as well as new outlets for emotions. however. that is. 1998). most organisational and personality researchers agree that individual behavior involves both variable and stable aspects but there still remains disagreement regarding this quantum (Wright. Human behavior is difficult to describe with such precision since it has a large number of causes. Cropanzano and Meyer. should have at least two features. Such changes or variations in personality traits can be explained by the fact that we are adapting to life in face-to-face groups (Bouchard. 1999).
What people do—their behavior—is a function of their personalities. Psychoanalytical. 1996. Psychoanalytical approaches were the first theories followed in the early part of last century by behavioral approaches. THEORIES ON PERSONALITY The history of personality psychology has been dominated by several theoretical paradigms (Cervone. It will be useful for people to know their personalities so that they can take advantage of the positive aspects of their personalities or steps to mitigate potential problems arising from any undesirable aspects. Behavior is like the weather. it changes gradually. the humanistic approaches of the 1950s and almost at the same time. Behavior is used to interpret and evaluate people’s personalities. 2003. it is unlikely that any instrument can claim to be the best as the usefulness of an instrument is also situational and contextually specific (Tett and Burnett.clearly a multivariate phenomenon and a theory trying to explain normal human behavior must reflect this multidimensionality. These personality theories 21 . et al.2. 2. Tett and Burnett. 1992). the stable components affect our lives. the typological and trait-factor theories. Sackett. Hunton and Bryant. the cognitive and the social cognitive approaches were developed (Gelso and Fassinger. Hence. humanistic.. 2004a). Gruys and Ellingson. which could affect their work performance and careers (Hogan. In the mid 1950s. If personality does change. 2000). and behavioral doctrines were particularly influential in the past but social-cognitive and trait theories predominate today. changing from context to context and from moment to moment but personality is consistent and stable over time. 2003). Wheeler. 1998.
Other researchers cast wider nets. Allport differentiated descriptors of social evaluation and temporary states from those traits descriptors which were considered to be more personality relevant. humanistic and trait approaches (Marsella et al. 2000). jealous and anxious as dispositions (Saucier. for example. In essence. Eysenck emphasised biologically-based disposition variables but excluded abilities. Personality psychologists have to address a wide range of phenomena and it could be impossible to identify an overarching mission in this field. 22 . attitudes and intelligence. some German personality descriptors contained abilities and temperament terms while others such as Goldberg uses attitude and mood terms like conservative. Levin. Murphy. This emphasis on the individual is dominant in the psychodynamic. The various historical.. they adopt different units of analysis for conceptualising and explaining intraindividual coherence and individual differences in personality functioning (Allport.differ from each other in fundamental ways as they have different categories of personality variables. the various “grand theories” of Allport. 1939). 1997). and Murray all emphasised the coherence and consistency of normal personality and perceived the individual organism as a complex but organised structure. Cattell. behavioral. Nevertheless. cultural and cognitive factors in the West emphasise the forces within the individual as the important determinant of behavior rather than the forces within the situations.
the ego and the superego. These stimuli are subsequently stored as information in the pre-conscious level and they become our experiences. This set represents the struggles among bodily desires. The pre-conscious level is where information of our past is stored which could be called “available memory”. Freud. the animalistic part of personality. Jung. were more concerned with the interplay of conscious awareness and unconsciousness to explain personality (Coan. 1987). 2001). When we select the stimuli. The conscious level deals with that part of our awareness which is in touch with the reality of our life. According to Freud (1960). described as a boiling and bubbling cauldron of aggressive and animal-like urges. It explains our mental activity in which all thought processes occur. 2003). rational understanding or expectations. When we 23 . 2000). One takes in the stimuli using our five senses.2.. Another takes in the stimuli.2.g. The ego does the systematic trial and error thinking and seeks to ensure the survival of the individual. and social ideals (Mayer. Adler). processes them and sees many different ways of responding to them. Freud’s structural set is the id. pre-conscious and unconscious. Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic psychologists (e. The superego is the overseer of the ego which ensures it is morality and strives for ideals (Mayer. Ego is the conscious part and is responsible for the individual’s behavior and understanding of the outside world. we have three levels of consciousness: conscious. We select and respond to the stimuli that we perceive can satisfy our personal goals. two mental processes take place. They explained personality in terms of mental mechanisms and drives that seek satisfaction within the boundaries of reality (Cervone. Id.1.
Apparently. the distress and miseries in modern life (e. 2002). The unconscious is believed to be the source of our motivations such as desires for sex or food and neurotic compulsions or ambitions.. mental illness.g. Freud discovered the unconscious level as a source of motivation and a way of hiding thoughts and desires from awareness (Gabriel and Carr. The other is to use our thinking (intellect) at the conscious level to process the stimuli and see alternative responses to them. One is to act on the stimuli using our feelings by retrieving the information from our past experiences at the preconscious level. The unconscious has all the things that are not easily accessible to the awareness level such as our drives or instincts which originate from there and others that are put there such as bad memories or emotions associated with trauma because we cannot bear to look back. child abuse. Generally. when they use their thinking (mental faculty). they do not have a choice. which are neurologically represented by the physical needs in the life and death instincts. They explain personality in terms of the mental drive mechanisms that try to satisfy the drives within the boundaries of reality (Cervone. when people act on a particular situation using their feelings. It is this dynamic and active 24 . 2000).respond and act on the stimuli two mental activities take place. and crimes) are due to the repression of pain or instinct by the superego contents. they agree that personality patterns can be best understood from the dynamics of the psychological processes acting on the unconsciousness within the context of an individual’s phenomenal field. Alternatively. The psychodynamic psychologists believe that behavior is a function of psychological processes operating within these three levels of consciousness. they have many choices of responding to it. Freud posits that all human behavior is motivated by instincts or drives. Hence.
Carl Rogers. David McClelland) view existence as a process of learning. 2003. Given reasonable and conducive life conditions. Humanistic psychologists emphasise learning from one’s subjective past experiences to develop and actualise one’s potentials. 2002). 1998). Mayo’s work paved the path for more humanistic theories. self-actualisation is achieving “what a man can be. The Mayo-Hawthorne studies demonstrated that the hourly paid employee was motivated by other needs besides economic rewards (Gallagher and Einhorn.2. a major contemporary champion was Abraham Maslow with his Hierarchy of Needs Theory whereby he posited that human beings are motivated by basic needs that are species-wide.2. 1976).. Although Mayo may be considered the pioneer of the “humanistic” approach. to its fullest extent (Mele. Self-actualisation can be defined as the process of learning. 80). 2003).view of the unconscious which is the heart of the field of psychology known as psychoanalysis (Gabriel and Carr.g. in all forms. they assume that people will be positively motivated to actualise their potential. For Maslow. he must be” (Mele. 25 . 2. Humanistic Theories Humanistic psychologists (e. growing. The joy of living is to prepare oneself for experiencing and progressing towards higher levels of functioning. growing. Mayo showed that an employee’s psychological and social desires play an important role in production efficiency based on social aspects of human behavior. becoming and being a better person or developing the human virtue. becoming and being a perfect person (Franken. p. 1976). They believe that people are responsible for their life. Abraham Maslow. apparently unchanging and instinctual or genetic in origin (Kaufman.
The hierarchy has five categories, ascending from “physiological” to “safety”, “social”, “social and self esteem” and culminating to “self actualisation”. Maslow enlarged the concept of human personality by capturing the higher levels of needs in human. This model is applicable to any industrial setting (Mele, 2003). Drawing from Maslow’s ideas, Douglas McGregor developed his Theory X-Theory Y model of behavior whereby the “carrot and stick” theory was effective if employees were at the subsistence level of survival. McGregor in Theory Y postulated that human talent and potential are greater than usually assumed. Furthermore, the need for self-actualisation is also an important factor of the Theory Y where the satisfaction of the individual’s needs for self-actualisation is the best method to obtain commitment. He posited that human beings will, under conductive conditions, accept and even seek responsibility and contribute creatively to the organisation (Mele, 2003). Herzberg, another contributor to humanistic theories, made a distinction between rewards to workers that facilitate personal growth and those that alleviate discomfort. They are termed as motivators and hygiene factors respectively. All of these humanistic psychologists believed that human behavior is motivated by needs. This phenomenological approach has contributed immensely to personality psychology in the U.S., which promotes the individual based on the concepts of self-actualisation and oneself (Lombardo and Foschi, 2002).
Trait theories conceptualise personality as an individual-difference construct which explains an individual’s average tendency to manifest one versus another type of behavior (Cervone, 2000). Common traits are produced by both cultural contexts and by biological variation in the population in general using the nomothetic approach while the individual traits or personal dispositions are the domain of the idiographic approach (Lombardo and Foschi, 2002). Traits describe the thematic tendencies of a person: intelligence, emotionality and the like. They tend to omit consideration of other structures such as self-regulation, selfconcept, characteristic adaptation, significant other schemas, and similar entities (Mayer, 2001). Traits are the foundation of individuality. Personality traits are considered as behavioral constants which emphasise individual differences in response to identical situations or stimulation. Trait psychologists normally seek to uncover the psychological dimensions along which individuals differ and the manner in which traits group within individuals. The main focus is on enduring or lasting behavior and attention is on the content of behavior rather than the psychological processes causing the behavior. Hence, its emphasis is on the outcomes instead of the process itself (Buss, 1989). Traits can also be inferred as a quality or dimension that can be used to identify a unique pattern of how a person behaves, thinks, and feels. Narrow behaviors or specific responses of a person define a characteristic mode or habitual response pattern of behavior. Paunonen (1998) defined trait as a combination of several such habitual response tendencies while Marsella et al. (2000) postulated that traits are inferred through observed similarities in behavior across various situations.
Traits are relatively independent from each other; they can be empirically measured and evaluated; rooted in the “neuropsychic” systems. Hence, traits are useful for describing one’s personality and statistically defining the distribution of these characters in a larger population. Nevertheless, if a trait measure is linked to past behavior, then trait-performance correlations would involve the prediction of current behavior from past behavior. In this case, traits would predict but not explain behavior (Locke and Latham, 2002). Trait psychologists studied what makes us recognisably the same and different from each other; what our unique behavior patterns and their characteristics are and how settings may influence them. Trait theories of Allport (1937) and McCrae and Costa (1996) conceptualise personality as small sets of inferred structures which manifest themselves as behavioral dispositions or tendencies (Cervone, 2000). Cattell (1943) sought to organise and reduce the thousands of personality traits into clusters (i.e., factors) using quantitative methods. The architecture of personality traits postulated by Allport includes cardinal, superordinate, central, and peripheral traits. These structures are domain general which have constructs such as “agreeableness” (McCrae and Costa, 1996), a unit of analysis which does not make any distinction between being agreeable toward one’s date and towards one’s child. Both are agreeable acts. Performing both of them would move the scale up on an inferred structure of agreeableness. Individuals can be characterised in terms of a comprehensive but small set of factors or dispositions which are stable over decades of adult life, across different situations and can explain a wide spectrum of behaviors (Idson and Mischel, 2001). Furthermore, Allport posited that to understand personality, it is necessary to study
2.the inter-relationships of the traits and that the “whole personality” is different from the sum of these individual traits (Lombardo and Foschi. 2003). mobility of nervous processes. correlations between laboratory behavior and personality traits tend to be modest. strength of excitation. and balance. Generally.4. They use classical and operant conditioning to understand animal and human behavior. 2000). 2002). Behavior can be repeatedly reinforced or diminished through the use of reward and punishment and is one explanation of why certain dimensions of personality are dominant (DeGrandpre. 2003).4. The famous Pavlovian typology of temperament posits that there are four properties of the central nervous system that are responsible for individual differences in reacting to conditioning: strength of inhibition.2. often not exceeding 0. 1989). Behaviorist/Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories Stimulus-Response or Behavioral Theorists posit that behavior is a function of our past experiences. This finding has been used to support critics who claim that personality traits are unimportant (Buss. they found that there are some similarities in human and animal behavior where “motivation” is externally generated in the form of punishers and reinforcers (Locke and Latham. 29 . One of the problems of the trait theories is that personality is not able to explain all variation in behavior as the environment does have a significant effect on behavior (Sanders. Using traits to predict behavior in the past has yielded mixed results partly because of methodological problems. Based on the deductions from their experiments.
learning and experiences. Cognitive psychologists view behavior as a function of cognition. We learn that both pleasurable and painful experiences can lead to positive and negative outcomes. This set of personal standards is unique in each person and grows out of one’s life experiences (Andersen and Chen. They assert that people organise their values. the intraindividual. Bauer and McAdams. Moreover. Integrating the behavioral and cognitive perspectives with respect to motivation produces the social cognitive theory (Bandura. 1977a).g. 2004). 2002). psychological explanatory mechanisms such as memory. Behaviorists denied the existence of the complex higher-order factors (e. cognitive and 30 . 2000). conscious deliberation and perception) which mediate between stimuli and responses. The old axiom of StimulusResponse Theory that pleasure begets pleasure and pain begets pain becomes unresolved and mooted. 2002. We learn from our experiences. individual functioning is considered as a continuous interaction among behavioral. which does not overly emphasise either environmental or internal forces when explaining behavior. Radical behaviorists such as Skinner and Watson ruled out emotional. 2000. expectations and goals to guide and direct their behavior. We begin to use our intellect to process the stimuli and anticipate the outcomes of our behavior before we respond to pains and pleasures. Bargh and Ferguson. cognitive and motivational mediators in the stimulus-response relationship due to the fact that such constructs were not measurable independently by an outside disinterested party (Bargh and Ferguson..This typology has a strong influence on personality psychology (Lombardo and Foschi.
and (iii) personality variables (Cervone. 31 .environmental factors (Fedor and Ferris. and c. social cognitive psychologists have been developing theories in an attempt to explain the complexities by careful observation of the human behaviors with the environment and their relations. how people assign meanings to social information. (i) personality is a complex system. selfregulatory and goals mechanisms. and cognitive constructs used to give meaning to events) possesses a spectrum of possible inputs. which cause some inputs to become particularly salient to an individual or are grouped with other inputs into an equivalent class and are domain-specific (Cervone. 2004). how people establish causal linkage over their lives through self-reflective and selfknowledge processes. 1981). Furthermore. Over the past few decades. 2000). 2000). (ii) reciprocal interactionism. They posit that each of the mechanisms (e. b.. These mechanisms are contextualised by these social-learning processes. expectation and aspirations (Marsella et al. social cognitive theorists postulate that the intuitive and perceived sense of coherence and consistency in personality/self/character can arise from three sources: a. The three overarching principles of the social cognitive approach are.. self-reflective capabilities.g. how people organise disparate and multiple experiences and life events within a larger cognitive framework of goals.
2. WHY DOES PERSONALITY MATTER TO ORGANISATIONS? For several decades prior to the 1990s. personality measures can predict work performance quite accurately and a given trait value is situational specific (Tett and Burnett. mental ability. Nevertheless. In a Thinking and Judging consulting world. are more potent predictors of occupational performance although other factors such as values. Another study by Judge. Meta-analyses have consistently and repeatedly shown that under specific conditions. 2000). personnel selection specialists generally did not use personality testing in employee selection due to pessimistic conclusions drawn by researchers that resulted in a perception that “personality tests have low validity” (Hurtz and Donovan.3. Hogan and Holland (2003) found that the measures of Emotional Stability. As these traits are considerably stable and probably genetic in origin. By paying attention to the psychological processes where traits can be expressed in work performance. opportunities and health are also important determinants. knowledge of the 32 . interest. Hurtz and Donovan (2000) show that the Conscientiousness dimension has a moderate impact on performance and appears rather stable and generalisable across occupations and criteria. a more beneficial strategy for an organisation is to select relatively more conscientious and less extroverted employees to reduce absenteeism and improve productivity. 2003). the selection/recruitment systems would be more beneficial and can provide practitioners greater advantage in utilising trait information in work settings. “Getting Along” and “Getting Ahead”. Martocchio and Thoresen (1997) revealed that conscientious and introverted employees are less likely to play truant or to be absent.
Allport (Nicholson. termed 33 .4. Similarly. 1998) with individuality as its object of study (Pelham.personality types of the clients could be used to enhance communication. 1988). jobs and technologies. 2. Hunton and Bryant (2004a) found homogeneity of personality types that are attracted and retained in accounting firms. Personality theorists began to focus more on the differences within persons. He found that extrinsic rewards such as money are only one form or method of “keeping score” for high achievers. Gordon W. Wheeler. the presence of some Thinking types may provide some structure to decision-making in a group of all Feeling types. 1993). certain traits correlate with higher performance for certain tasks. TYPES OF PERSONALITY MEASURES Historians recognise the year 1937 to be the birth of personality psychology by its founder. a group of Introverts may benefit from the presence of an Extrovert for better communication. 2000). Also. McClelland conducted a study of the phenomenon of constructive activity beyond the physiological or survival requirements and classified the traits as “need for achievement”. which in turn saves money via the reduction of errors/mistakes and improved morale. The satisfaction derived from achievement is what stimulates their performance (Arnold. Groups comprising members with Sensing and Intuition preferences outperformed groups with only Sensing-preference members. Such knowledge also assists management on how to understand and express feeling so as to minimise conflicts and to see their differences as an asset instead of as a liability (McCaulley.
as idiographic. 2003).. Openness to Experience. they are the most researched psychometric instruments according to a search conducted in PsycINFO (981 articles on FFM and 540 on MBTI as at October 2004). Conscientiousness. Allport’s idea of personality is a psychology of the mature and normal personality (Lombardo and Foschi.1. There are many approaches to the measurement of personality (see Table 2)) but this discussion will be restricted to the Five Factor Model (FFM) by Tubes and Christal (1961) and McCrae and Costa (1996). 2004. Extraversion.. Furthermore. No discussion or critique is carried out on the other instruments as there is very little publicly available research on them. 2003). Kwiatkowski. between subject analyses of personality. The Five Factor Model The Five Factor Model (FFM).4. Toomela. and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) which is based on Jungian theory. The anagram of the FFM is 34 . 2004). These psychometric instruments have been selected as they are the most popular instruments used by commercial organisations for personal development. also known as the Big Five. 2. 2001. posits that there are five personality dimensions (i. occupational selection.e. 2003). career development. Agreeableness and Neuroticism) which represent the highest levels of a personality hierarchy (Paunonen and Ashton. Nomothetic is the other term that refers to the classical. which is essentially a smaller set of trait variables derived from the 16-Factor Model of Cattell (1943) (Rossier et al. and for developing more effective teams (Dent and Curd.
languages. often labelled by its opposite. where people exhibiting a high.O. e. types of assessment and cultures (Hogan and Holland. Factor 5. is indicated by two facets: achievement and dependability.E. trusting. 2003). 1998). Extraversion. As defined by Judge and Bono (2000). Emotional Adjustment. consists of tendencies to be kind. Emotional Adjustment is the principal trait that leads to life satisfaction and freedom from depression and other mental ailments. active and excitement seeking. (De Raad. d. Consciousness is the trait that best correlates with work performance. Factor 3. gentle.C. These factors represent a continuum. a. c. Factor 1. b. Individuals scoring high on Extraversion are strongly predisposed to the experience of positive emotions. Agreeableness. Factor 4. moderate or low degree of each quality. depressed and moody. perceptive and thoughtful. Neuroticism. assertive. Conscientiousness. There is considerable debate regarding how many personality factors are needed to understand and predict behavior although the generalisability and robustness of FFM has been shown across different rating sources. Paunonen (2003) revealed that the construct validity of these 35 . trustworthy and warm. Openness to Experience is the only trait to display appreciable correlations with intelligence. imaginative. Openness to Experience (sometimes labelled as Intellectance). represents the tendency to be outgoing. fearful. which is the tendency to be anxious.N. represents the tendency to be creative. Factor 2.A.
Ashton et al.. 2001. Judge and Bono. 1997. McCrae. 2003.g. 2004. 2004). the way one describes oneself and others in everyday life transactions). (1998) and Pedersen et al. 1998. 2002.. Although studies by Jang et al. 2004). 2003. Allik and McCrae. other researchers are of the opinion that virtually all traits of personality are reasonably contained in the factor space of the FFM (e. these studies also revealed substantial variation due to non-genetic factors (Toomela. The identification of these factors is based on principal components analyses (Burke and Witt. 2003). 2000. MBTI. 36 . et al.. 1997).inventories is supported by the consistency and strong convergence in their predictions and measurements.. 2004. Judge et al. Paunonen and Aston. 2000). 1997). 1999). It has reached somewhat of a consensus that the FFM is an appropriate taxonomy of personality (Burke and Witt. Although there is no universal agreement among theorists and researchers on the comprehensiveness of the five dimensions (Tett and Burnett. Hogan and Holland. Judge. 2003) and are endogenous and biologically determined (McCrae and Costa.. After five decades of research on personality psychology (i. 2003. Tsaousis. 2004). 1998. These dimensions are cross-culturally generalisabled (Perugini. 1996. Toomela. Several studies have shown that the well-known instruments for personality assessment (Eysenck Personality Inventory. Gallucci and Livi. 1993. Hogan and Holland. Hurtz and Donovan. (1988) showed that about 20% to 55% of the trait variation in personality dimensions is linked to genetic sources. Martocchio and Thoresen. Saucier and Goldberg. the FFM seems to dominate not only the theory but also the evaluation of personality (Goldberg.e. California Personality Inventory) may be assumed to be part of the FFM (Salgado.
race. the traits are rooted in biology and transcultural universals. and their preferences for four mental functions (i. Jung’s typology assumes that people differ in their choice of two attitudes. The idiographic. Personality is the mediating and integrating factor in numerous psychological processes (e. individual development. the 37 . (2000) claimed that the FFM can only satisfy the nomothetic. 1971) posits that variation in human behavior is due to basic and observable differences when people use their minds to gather and process information. It postulates three bipolar dimensions and the fourth bipolar. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a psychometric instrument developed from Jung’s theory of personality and is designed to sort human beings into different personality types.Allick and McCrae (2004) posited that the FFM personality structure is biologically determined and universal. explanatory and molecular contextual accounts of personality are still subjects of debate. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Jungian theory (Jung. Sensing/Intuition and Thinking/Feeling). ethnicity.2. age. 2. 2004a). Shelton and Darling (2002) posited the FFM model is applicable to all people regardless of the gender. Allick and McCrae (2004) did not claim that the environment is irrelevant to personality functioning but rather that personality is manifested through culture.. That is. socio-economic background and country of origin. Nevertheless. Extroversion and Introversion.4. information processing and the role of the unconscious) (Wheeler. There is still a lack of evidence to support the notion that culture shapes personality. descriptive and molar goals of Allport. religion. McKenna. Hunton and Bryant.e. Saucier and Goldberg (1996) and Digman (1997) postulated the FFM model to be descriptive summaries while Marsella et al..g.
looks inward to their internal and subjective reactions to their environment. 1998. 2000). The judgmental person uses a combination of thinking and feelings when making decisions whereas the perception person uses the sensing and intuition processes. a later addition by Myers and Briggs. resulting in four dimensions with 16 distinct personality types as shown in Table 4 (Myers et al. b.. McCaulley. People with an intuitive preference rely more on their non-objective and unconscious perceptual processes. Judgment (J) versus Perception (P): The judgment-perception preferences were invented by Briggs and Myers to indicate if rational or irrational judgments are dominant when a person is interacting with the environment. Feeling represents a preference to make decisions that are based on subjective processes that include emotional reactions to events.Judgement/Perception dimension. 1993) are: a. The 4 dimensions (Pittenger. d. however. c. Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N): People with a sensing preference rely on that which can be perceived and are considered to be oriented towards that which is real. Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F): A preference for thinking indicates the use of logic and rational processes to make deductions and decide upon action. Introverts. Extroverts are said to react to immediate and objective conditions in the environment. 38 . Extroversion (E) versus Introversion (I): This dimension reflects the perceptual orientation of the individual.
(i. Hunton and Byrant. Extroversion-Introversion of the MBTI is comparable with McCrae and Costa’s Extraversion.. self disciplined. spontaneous and flexible. Although people can develop a complimentary style (e. an introvert can become more extroverted when in groups). structured (like Conscientiousness) whereas Perceptive types are adaptable. the primary preference always dominates the person’s personality. Intuition types “see the forest” (i. The MBTI does not cater for the neuroticism dimension which is certainly an important variable (McC Dachowski. 2002). Although there is insufficient evidence that the MBTI is a valid instrument. The scores from the MBTI test are used to determine the person’s type and labels are attached based on one’s primary preferences for the four dimensions (Pittenger.e. ThinkingFeeling may not be directly comparable to Agreeableness but it does clearly measure a similar dimension. Similarly.. The Judging types are described as organised. logical and rational natures) while Feeling types incorporate personal and group values in the decision-making process (i. 39 . 2004a.Since MBTI is a theory of types.e. one can have only one preference. more insightful and creative) while Sensing types “see the trees” (i. 1995). Sensing-Intuition is comparable to the Openness factor. Shelton and Darling.e. 1993). more factual and observant). its popularity has not diminished despite research which shows it has low validity (McKenna. Extroverted types are more outgoing while introverted types are deemed to be more detached and contemplative. Metaphorically... Thinking types connect ideas and experiences by logic..e. The Judging types are more committed and decisive while the Perceiving types are more questioning and open-minded. Similarly. 1987). more idealistic and compassionate) (Wheeler. Lindon.g.
Table 3: The 16 Personality Types with Cognitive Characteristics and Occupational Tendencies 40 .
2004). 1996. Moreover. Descouzis (1989). 1994.2. Agreeableness via its main effect and extraversion and openness via their interaction are associated with work involvement while openness correlates with support for innovation (Bozionelos. Both of these dimensions are dominant in predicting work performance across a variety of work (Kichuk and Wiesner.5. Sensing type students outperformed the Intuition students in certain subjects and in an overall accounting grade (Nourayi and Cherry. 2003). Shackleton (1980).. (1990). 1993). Otter (1984). Neuroticism primarily influences performance through motivation while conscientiousness influences performance by being decisive and orderly.. audit partners and managers are predominantly STJ in the MBTI matrix and another set of studies reveal that the STJ type is dominant in accounting undergraduate students (Laribee. Satava (1996) and Schloemer and Schloemer (1997) found that accountants. THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF FFM/MBTI ON PERFORMANCE Judge and Ilies (2002) found that neuroticism and conscientiousness were the most consistent and most strongly correlated with performance motivation. Sensing and Thinking type students perform better with a lecture mode while Intuition and Feeling types prefer and perform better under a computerassisted method (Ott et al. Kovar et al. Kreiser et al.. Landry et al. Jocoby (1981). A study on the relationship between need for achievement and need for power with six measures of life success revealed that need for achievement had a high correlation with 41 . Mount and Barrick (1994) found that conscientiousness has the strongest correlation with work performance and is positively correlated with task orientation while neuroticism has a strong negative correlation with task orientation (Burch and Anderson. 1998). 1990). 2004).
1991). and Berhoud.6. 2001). 1996. personality can provide an incremental validity over ability in picking the optimal candidate (Day and Silverman. If personality requirements are derived for an individual job. 1989.. 2004. Its disadvantages are that numerous traits are motivational in nature (Buss. 2. Furthermore. which has the advantage of getting around the problem of breaking personality into areas. measures of personality based on the lexical method consist of adjectives that are representative subsets of terms describing people in a given language (Cellar et al..6. 1992). Hogan et al. is unusual as its contents are defined by the lexical hypothesis instead of primary parts (Mayer. This structure is essentially derived from an atheoretical trait factor approach (Gelso and Fassiinger. 1996).1. 1998). De Raad. need for achievement was negatively related to security and personal fulfilment. Rossier. de Stadelhofen. Five Factor Model The FFM. 1998). The need for power was highly correlated with professional fulfilment and status-wealth but was negatively related with family relationships (Parker and Chusmir. contribution to society and status-wealth. a widely used trait group. The lexical method hypothesises that the significant individual differences are encoded in single-term descriptors of underlying traits that find their expression in language (De Raad. 1989) and hence other good dimensions of 42 .success strivings for professional fulfilment. SHORTCOMINGS OF FFM AND MBTI MEASURES 2. Hence.
2003).personality may have been omitted (Paunonen and Aston. the FFM may only be “universal” for that specific stratum of society. 2004. Aston et al. The FFM is not universally accepted as the integrative model of personality (Cellar et al. it has nothing to say about personality development. 2004. the exceptions which depart from the usual due to situational effects. Cervone. Hunton and Byrant.. Hence. 2003). Paunonen. 1996) and is criticised for its questionable conceptual and methodological assumptions of the lexical hypothesis (Wheeler. Furthermore.. 1997. Toomela. 2001. Toomela (2003) finds that due to the scientific word meaning structure used. Digman (1990) highlighted two basic weaknesses of the FFM: (i) it is descriptive in nature and as such does not provide any possible causes to personality. Digman. 2001. That is. 2003. It may 43 . Cellar et al. 2003. It is fair to argue that adjectives are the most appropriate and versatile class of personality descriptors in English and languages linguistically linked to English but many languages do not have a big adjectival word-class. 2003) as well as its focus on narrow aspects of personality (Paunonen and Aston. and (ii) it cannot account for exceptions to the typical behaviors on which it is based. 2001. 2004. Tett and Burnett. A better approach is to use noun factors that provide a well-delineated and more coherent description and represents the more extreme meanings of the adjective dimensions (Saucier. Aston et al. Mayer. Moreover. over-reliance on the adjectival approach may limit the cross-cultural generalisability of the FFM. 1997. 2004b. Moreover.. Mayer. 1996).. Digman. the debate on cultural specificity and the universality of personality structure continues.
for example. (iv) limited insight and self-awareness. The adoption of self-report questions is already a complex task. (v) desire to please authorities. (iii) concern only in giving the right instead of the accurate answer. For example. and (vii) confusion with the implication of words and terms used in the question as well their perceived meaning (Marsella et al. the similarity in the meaning and nature of a concept) may differ. (iii) the situations where they are elicited. In addition.. Some cultural groups have problems with Likert scales and they tend to take the middle position. the norms of a particular instrument that are based on Western culture may give rise to questionable conclusions if applied to. dependency in Western culture implies childishness.g. helplessness. These motivational and perceptual differences are: (i) fear of possible persecution. and (v) the value or utility of behavioral descriptions (Marsella et al. 2000)... introversion-extroversion) but cultural variations may shape: (i) their display patterns. in terms of normative equivalence.. Chinese respondents. (vi) variation in the construction of personality and personhood. 44 . (iv) the meanings they are assigned. the conceptual equivalence (i. It is further complicated when the questions are applied in different cultures since these people may have different reasons to participate and perceptions of the task from those on whom the concept and the scale were constructed. 2000). (ii) the interpersonal responses to them.e. many non-Western societies are unfamiliar with linear or graduated scales like the Likert scales as they do not see their world in that fashion. Furthermore.be accepted that there are a relative small number of socially or biological determined behavioral dimensions (e. immaturity and many other derogatory terms but can be viewed positively in the Japanese culture. Finally. (ii) desire to conform socially.
Nevertheless. and (iii) it can advance our understanding of work-related variables (e. the FFM’s taxonomy has been criticised by some researchers as being incomplete because important relationships may be obscured under the five factor model but not under a seven-factor model (Hogan and Holland. while life stories provide the meaning and integration (McAdams.. Unfortunately. Idson and Mischel (2001) postulated that traits cannot provide the psychologist with more than a psychology of a stranger. the FFM does not offer answers to the causes of personality nor accounts for exceptions to the selected dimensions and has no link to personality development (Digman. Several studies have found the FFM to be unrelated to cognitive ability (Sanders. 45 . 2003). characteristic adaptations like developmental tasks and motives fill in the details. the FFM does provide an initial structure of human individuality. performance) by linking them to personality dimensions (Salgado. 2001). (ii) it provides a structure for integrating results from studies carried out to investigate personality as well as the relationships between personality and other variables such as job performance. the FFM has the following advantages: (i) it has a parsimonious taxonomy. that is. In the final analysis.g. 2003). 1997). 1997). Furthermore.The development of a descriptive typology such as the FFM can be done without a clear knowledge of the causal relationships of things but the proof or validation of the structure falls on that theoretical construct (Stelmack. trait ratings provide only a “first read” on an individual as people seek information which is contextualised as they get to know each other better. 1997).
measuring the concepts the measurement instrument is designed to measure (Dent and Curd.2. no value judgment attached). 2001). Furthermore. it is not suitable for analysis looking for before and after treatment effects (Wheeler. 2004b). The formulae for these reliability estimates based on the 46 .e. Cavana et al. Data are described as ipsative when a given group of responses always add to the same total. wrong or right (i. If the number of traits is large. 2004). the true and error scores of the FCID’s ipsative data are contaminated across scales at the outset which do not provide any legitimate justification in conducting factor analysis (Meade.2. Factor analysis will not be appropriate.. The correlations between ipsative factors are negative. Hunton and Bryant. the correlations between these orthogonal factors will tend towards zero even though they are highly correlated in the population. 2004a). Although this hypothesis has received empirical support with temporal stability studies. with no intrinsic bad or good. 1998)... Each dichotomy is a selection between qualities of equal value. The notion of estimating reliability is based on the assumption that the reliability indices estimate that part of the variance that is due to true scores.6. Reliability is defined as the consistency in measurement of a test while validity tests are for goodness of the measure. Hence. a forced-choice format) (Rings.e. The type preferences are dichotomous (i. The most common one is the forced-choice ipsative data (FCID) as employed in MBTI. 2004. it does not capture the strength of a preference but its direction which is only appropriate for sorting (Wheeler. that is. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Jung’s (1971) hypothesis states that types and preferences are invariant and innate in individuals. Hunton and Bryant.
high fidelity expression of a personality disposition. THE THEORIES AND CONSTRUCTS OF THE PROPOSED MEASURE 2. there is no evidence to indicate a positive relation between specific MBTI types with career success. 1989). Definition of Behavior Behavior is the way organisms like human beings act. Pittenger (1993) finds large variances as much as 50% in some “test-retest” personality studies while the “factor analysis” of the four dimensions of MBTI theory identifies six different factors and shows significant correlations of these dimensions which are supposedly independent of each other.7. ESFPs are neither better nor worse salespeople than INTJs.7. behavior is interpreted as conduct by most people but in the fields of psychology and behavioral science. In addition. In general. 2. 1996). Hence. Furthermore. Behavior is used to evaluate and interpret one’s personality (Hogan et al. there is no data that show certain types are more contented in specific occupations than others or stay longer in one occupation. it is regarded as any activity of a human being (The World Book Encyclopaedia) which is partly determined by heredity and environment but can be modified through learning (Plomin..classical test theory are simply not applicable or tenable with ipsative data. Any single behavior is a narrow bandwidth.1. What 47 . Similarly.
intrinsic motivation and amotivation are three distinct motivational forces that can influence behavior (Vlachopoulos. An example of an intrinsic motivation is the participation in some activities for the satisfaction and pleasure derived from it. Cesare and Sadri. the motive of participation lies in the process of participation instead of the derived external reward or avoidance of possible negative consequences for non-participation (Pincus. 48 . Pincus (2004) defined motivation as a desire or an emotion operates willingly and causing it to act. his or her personality. The objective of motivation theories is often to predict behavior. which represents a lack of motivation.an individual does is a function of the kind of person he or she is – that is. 1982). that is.2. In most cases. 2004).7. Extrinsic motivation. 2000). motivation is a process that moves a person towards some action (Arnold. Karageorghis and Terry. the chosen actions are good reflections of performance (Mitchell. 2003). Behavior is the criterion which is chosen. 1982. it would be extrinsic motivation when the person participates in the activity to avoid negative consequences or gain external rewards. Motivation is not behavior itself and is not performance. 1988). Amotivation is the lack of intent to engage in a specific behavior. On the other hand. The word “motivation” suggests energised behavior directed towards some goals that is. 2. Factors Influencing Behavior Motivation is fundamental to behavior as most behavior is influenced by it (Mitchell.
expectations. 1982): (i) an individual-level phenomenon. Contrary to the dispositional view. 2004). Motivational theorists have different ideas on where the source of energy is derived from and the particular needs which an individual is trying to fulfil. 1982).. motivation is the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specific behaviors (Mitchell. Motivational theories are used to predict behavior as motivation is about the actions and the external and internal forces that influence an individual’s choice of action. reinforcement histories. Motivation is to do with the quality and direction of the effort. values. (ii) intentional. and can vary over place and time due to environmental influences (Ramlall.e. 2004). Nevertheless. That is.Mitchell (1982) postulated motivation as those psychological processes that cause the arousal. As human needs are psychological or physiological deficiencies. and (iii) multifaceted. It is generally accepted that motivation is (Mitchell. under the individual’s control) (Tubbs and Ekeberg. Different people have different needs. personality traits accounted for little variance in 49 . and goals. need theories identify the internal factors which energise behavior. 1991). In this respect. Hence. persistence of voluntary actions and directions that are goal directed. others believe that behavior is determined by environmental or situational factors and that similarity in behavior is a result from similarity of environmental or situational circumstances. not the amount. (i. these needs can be weak or strong. attitudes. “motivations provide the motor for behavior” (Pincus. which arouse behavior.
970). when shifting from one situation to another. Individuals who perform a behavior because it is “fun” are said to be motivated intrinsically. The other source of 50 . there are no external forces regulating the behavior. Deci. 1999. Katz and Khan. Current Theories of Work Motivation Work motivation is defined as “the process by which behavior is energised. and extrinsic or instrumental motivation. According to this view. the person has a dynamic reciprocal interaction with the situation/environment. directed and sustained in organisational settings” (Leonard et al. The theories proposed by deCharmes. the individual enjoys the work and feels rewarded by just performing the task.. intrinsic process motivation. 2. 1999). models are developed which can explain why people. In recent years. 1994.behavior across situations. 1999). The trait-situation debate peaked with the works of Mischel (1968) and Mischel and Shoda (1995) which posited that situational factors determine behavior. Nevertheless.. 1989. p. there are some studies that are able to support the predictive validity of the personality/dispositional view (Leonard et al..3.. 2000). Hence. and Etzioni point to three sources of motivation: motivation based on goal internalisation. Furthermore. most researchers have adopted an interactionist view. Rothbart and Ahadi. That is. not personality or dispositions (Marsella et al. are able to exhibit different patterns of behavior yet are able to retain a recognisable personality structure (Pervin. Leonard et al. which assumes behavior is a function of both personality and the environment (Pervin.7. 1975).
the 51 . There exist several “mini” theories of individual difference in motivation which suggest the existence of motivational traits (Pincus. motivation is complex in that: (i) (ii) the needs of individuals differ. 2004).. Nevertheless.. there is considerable variability in the conversion of needs into action. (iii) the need for affiliation (Atkinson. Needs can be requested or expressed in immature or mature ways. 1958). 1958). Murray posited that human being can be characterised by a set of needs and that individual differences in behavior can be explained by individual differences in the strength of the needs (Franken. and (iv) the difference in reactions by individuals for the fulfilment of needs.motivation stems from external forces. and (iv) the need for power (Atkinson. 1998). The more psychologically immature a person is. (i) (ii) the need for achievement (McClelland. Such motivation is referred to as legal compliance and external rewards by Katz and Khan (1978) or alienative or calculative involvement by Etzioni (1975). 1995). 1961). Murray’s “variables of personality” theory adopts motives as the fundamental element of personality (Winter et al. 1998). (iii) there is inconsistency in the final action taken. the need for cognition (Cohen et al.
which is in the functionalist tradition of James and Dewey. however. For the more psychologically mature person. Values are motivations and the gratification of a need is a value (Jolibert and Baumgartner. Hence. p. is fused with the holism of Goldstein. unable to account for the complete range of motivated behavior. Behavior is motivated by goal internalisation when an individual adopts behaviors and attitudes because they are congruent with one’s value system. 2003). 972).more literal is the gratification of the needs.. 1999). Frank (2003) maintained that the characteristics of triebe characterise the vicissitudes of needs. As values determine our needs. 1999. Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology (Chung. such as changes in behavior across situations when valences and expectancies remain constant. and are termed instinctoid. our needs determine our behavior or acts (Osteraker. 1969) and has the dynamism of Adler and Freud. Needs can also be sublimated and gratification can be delayed. These needs are instinctually weak and their effect on behavior can be 52 . Leonard et al. The Theory of Human Motivation postulated by Maslow (1943). 1997). Maslow claimed that the five needs are universal and innate. The expectancy and equity theories focus on extrinsic motivational factors and assume that individuals are “rational maximiser(s) of personal utility” (Leonard et al. needs can be unconscious and repressed or disavowed and conscious. most needs can be satisfied or expressed symbolically (Frank. (1999) posited that individual disposition or personality is a significant determinant of behavior. or compromised. denied or turned into the opposite. These theories are.
be acceptable and belong.to find self-fulfilment and realise one’s potential. (ii) the five needs exist in a hierarchy of significance or importance. it is a dynamic model that posits multiple needs operating simultaneously (Herbig and Genestre. Maslow postulated that an individual’s needs act as motivators and are the centre of motivation (Arnold.to feel secure. Based on the premise that motivation comes from within an individual and cannot be imposed. 1997. 1969).for hunger. (b) safety needs .accelerated.to affiliate with others. their behavior is determined by unsatisfied needs and satisfied needs do not motivate behavior. Even though the needs are innate. 1988). (d) esteem needs . 53 . be competent and gain approval and recognition. Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs. only those behaviors that satisfy the physiological needs are unlearned that is. and (e) self-actualisation needs . and (iii) higher needs are different from lower needs as they can never be completely satisfied. thirst and so forth. the higher its strength. According to Maslow: (i) human beings are demanding beings. consisting of: (a) physiological needs . (c) belongingness and love needs . desirability or importance. The upper levels of the Needs Hierarchy attempt to explain why an individual continue to strive for excellence when the lower needs are met. safe and out of danger. It is shown that the greater a need’s deprivation. 1989). This may be true for lower-order needs and less so of higher-order needs. inhibited or modified by the environment. all other behaviors are learned (Buttle. Chung. Hence.to achieve.
to a lesser degree. 1999).. 1993). 54 . Unlike most of the above traditional need theories that can be classified as homeostatic or deficit theories of motivation. it must be repeated that an individual does not concentrate all energies on one need and then when that need is fulfilled. self-actualisation may mean different things to individuals from collectivistic cultures than it does to individuals from individualistic cultures (Cesare and Sadri.e. For example.Alderfer (1969) modified Maslow’s Theory by suggesting there are only three needs (i. be concerned with needs on other levels of the primary need (Townsend and Gebhardt. Maslow’s need hierarchy is generally applicable to all with regards to cultural differences. Needs are constantly changing within the individual (Osteraker. related and growth). Maslow’s theory is dynamic in the sense that human beings are postulated as wanting beings that search constantly for the fulfilment of their needs in an expanding needs system (Chung. Tests have shown that people across the world are essentially motivated by the same fundamental needs. Alderfer argued that people can move up and down the hierarchy and can be motivated at any time by multiple needs. 2003). an individual may concentrate mostly at one level but at the same time may. This Hierarchy of Needs is claimed to be a universal theory of human motivation and the needs or motives are identified to human behavior (Iachini. At any instant. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory advocates the dynamic processes of need satisfaction which leads towards the ultimate goal of self-actualisation. The major difference lies in the definition of need satisfaction. More like piano keys than stairways. existence. move on to the next need. 2003). 1969).
The adoption of Maslow’s needs is appropriate for the CASES personality measure as it has face validity with plausible explanatory power. For example. Motivations are only one group of determinants of behavior.Maslow proposed that needs must be studied in totality or holistically rather than independently as needs are seldom found in isolation but in a variety of combinations (Chung. Workplace behavior is posited to be influenced by a person’s existing state of needs in a certain universal needs taxonomy. biologically and situationally determined. Mustafa (1992) postulated that the significance of the needs hierarchy lies in understanding the motivational factors for the individuals. In additional. 1969). 1976). the scope of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is broad and is able to explain a wide range of behaviors. Its structure is appealing in terms of its simplicity and apparent completeness (Gallagher and Einhorn. 1997). a specific behavior can meet more than one need. Behavior is almost always motivated by other factors that are culturally. a particular behavior may be caused by many needs. The power of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory is the identification of the needs of each individual that motivate behavior (Wiley. 55 . Maslow (1943) postulated that the theories of motivation are not synonymous with theories of behavior. they do provide an understanding of what motivates or energises the individual. Although personality-based theories may not necessarily predict behavior or motivation. Conversely. The Needs Hierarchy is also elegant and parsimonious. Furthermore.
The proposed personality model of CASES attempts to explain personality with dimensions from the Hierarchy of Needs theory. Any adequate model must therefore address motivation.4. Most. A person taking up a second job for the extra money (instrumental motive).7. which complete the “behavior chain”. may desire the money to purchase health insurance (instrumental motive) and hopes that the health insurance will benefit the person and family (end goal).4. This model of personality (CASES) postulates that personality is a function of psychological needs and their interactions with the environment/situation. The Constructs of this Proposed Model Most broad-based personality theories have assumed that specific motivations determine how personality and self develop function. if not all. The variability of these dimensions from the Needs theory is explained by the complexity dimension based on the social cognitive theory of “If-Then”. The First Premise: Behavior is Motivated by Needs An analysis of a person’s behavior can produce a range of instrumental motives with end goals.2. The psychological needs are based on the motivational underpinnings of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory and the environment/situation interactions are explained by the social cognitive theory. 2. The end goals are classified as drives and intrinsic motives by social 56 .1. existing psychometric instruments have personality dimensions which are temporally stable over various situations.7.
. expectancies. 2004). the need definition should be given more consideration as postulated: (i) (ii) the need for one's physical needs to be deemed legitimate. triebe) is need” (Frank. p. Motives can be ends-based or means-based 57 . incentives.e. However. 1981). 694). 2003. (iv) the need for understanding the causes of events. particular actions or behaviors associated with a certain motive may not have high correlations with the motive behaviors because they can vary according to the situation. skills and other motives. Motives refer to people’s desire. Furthermore. They provide the meaning of human behavior. needs have been equated with “drive” in experimental psychology (Fedor and Ferris. A person with a motive to gain social status may behave in ways linked with upper class status. (v) the need for optimal emotional availability of a love object. 1998). Motives are the “why” of behaviors (Winter et al. wishes and goals. and (iv) the need for a resilient responsiveness by one's love objects. the need for identity. (iii) the need for interpersonal boundaries.psychologists (Reiss. 2004). recognition and affirmation. “A better term for an instinctual impulse (i. Motives are reasons a person holds for initiating and performing voluntary behavior. Freud wrote.. may enjoy the feeling of self-importance and may think of issues pertaining to wealth (Reiss. Although Freud did not elaborate further on the idea of needs.
For example.g. interactional and societal needs. Human wants can be regarded as specific desires for these deeper needs. desires or goals (Winter et al. Hence. In these examples. Similarly. These wants are shaped and reshaped continuously by the institutional and social forces. the behavior is enacted as it is a means to obtain something else (e. 2004). their needs are fewer. Wants and needs are based on both inherited characteristics and environmental conditions and behavior is motivated to satisfy needs and wants (Koltko-Rivera. 2004). Drive theories define drives as psychological states that move the organism towards a goal whereas needs are physiological states of deprivation (Pincus. For example.depending on the individual’s objective for performing the behavior. Maslow (1970) posited that the gratification of any need is a value while Murray (1951) claimed that needs operate in the service of values. 1989). Needs that people desire and require vary according to the value system in which they are oriented as different values systems induce different needs (Yamaguchi. a professional footballer playing the game for a salary or a student studying diligently to obtain a degree. Ends-based motives are indicated when one engages in a behavior because one desires to do so with no other apparent reason. 2003). On the other hand. needs are socially constructed and historically situated (Buttle.. salary or degree). motives involve wishes.. Values are cognitive representations of biological. Our values determine our needs and our needs influence 58 . means-based motives are indicated when one performs an act for a specific instrumental value. a student reading a textbook out of curiosity or a child kicking a ball just for the fun of it. While people’s wants are many. 1998).
which represents the needs for love.7. desires. and fulfilment. achievement. self development. 1997). CASES posits that the needs subsume motives (implicit and explicit). which represents the needs for power. system. which represents the needs for security. which represents the needs for growth. and affiliation. image. and control. care. structure. (iii) Egocentric self. (ii) Safety self. 1999. Social cognitive theorists postulate that human beings are neither mechanical 59 . 2. and (iv) Sociocentric self. Jolibert and Baumgartner. order.4. however. 2004). and protection. companionship. progress.2. the model uses the social cognitive theory to provide an explanation for complexity. drives and values. CASES’s first premise is that personality dimensions can be represented by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The Second Premise: The Accuracy of Predicting Behavior Depends on Complexity “Complexity” reflects the extent to which people are complex and difficult to understand (Koltko-Rivera. Physiological needs. Based on these factors. Hence. To explain why some individuals are highly predictable and some are unpredictable. are not considered as they are unlearned and assumed to be of relatively in low importance in current organisational settings.our acts (Osteraker. the four dimensions of self are proposed as follows: (i) Self-Actualising self.
conveyors of animating influences of the environment nor autonomous agents. This approach assumes that every individual possesses an idiosyncratic constellation of “if-then” relations and the overall pattern of “if-then” responses of the individual reflects the individual unique “personality signature” (Mischel and Shoda. The capacity to control one’s action. self-regulation is activated by a threat indicating that something is not “normal” and that adjustment may be needed. motivation or thought processes is a unique human characteristic (Bandura. This self-regulation involves overriding an individual’s responses or modulating them on the basis of some threatening experience such as a disturbing emotional state. active construal of the environment. and by the exercise of conscious decisions and choices based on these purposes and construals (Bargh and Ferguson. Not all threats require adjustments.. Complex behavior is believed to be mediated by the individual’s current purposes and intents. Even though the contents and processes by which self-regulation occur are multifaceted. “then”) that an individual displays in various classes of situations (i. 1977a).e. Human behavior is purposive. such as when the threat is insufficiently threatening or when the individual lacks the motivation or necessary cognitive resources to deal with the threat. “if”). The “If-Then” approach defines personality based on different responses (i. Andersen and Chen (2002) posited that personality and self are largely shaped by experiences and personality is a function of the different situations individuals encounter.. 1995: Anderson and Chen. 60 . 2000).e. 2002).
Complex people are harder to predict. Low complexity traits describe the characteristics of people who are predictable. Complex people have dynamic personalities. representing the need to adapt. but at another situation and time. For example. being hard or soft is a person’s choice and is manifested with intent to achieve a purpose. change and be flexible to survive in a turbulent dynamic environment. at a particular situation and time. (i) Complex self. The nature of low complexity behavior is conditioned while the nature of high complexity behavior is cognitive. Evidently.5. For example. a person can be hard. Uniqueness of the CASES Personality Measure The notion that humans exhibit needs for growth and development has traditionally enjoyed considerable acceptance by practitioners owing possibly to the face validity and intuitive 61 . then he/she will tend to be gullible at all times and situations.No two human beings are alike. Apparently. a low complexity person would normally manifest the traits of the other four dimensions consistently and persistently over time and across situations. 2. the person can be soft. CASES’s second premise states that human beings can be placed on a complexity continuum thereby producing a fifth self-dimension known as the Complexity Dimension.7. The traits of the other four dimensions are dynamic and are manifested on the need to suit a purpose. CASES postulates that people with a low complexity have relatively static personalities. viz. if an individual with low complexity is gullible.
There has been a resurgence of interest in the role of personality in work performance (Robertson et al. “Does personality predict work performance?” is a question that many researchers have addressed over the past few decades. 2000). These tests. From this approach. has the ability either unconsciously or consciously to alter his/her behavior simply because he/she likes to. “inventory” level instead of the construct level. 2003). 2. variability in an individual’s responses across situations will not be dismissed or averaged over. The CASES model of personality recognises the idiographic differences in how human beings make sense of varying situations and their responses to them. variations in responses are not assumed to be an error. wants to. The individual. dispositional personality characteristics. however. CASES posits that an individual is not a “hostage” of his/her traits but rather is an active personality which has stable. competence. There are many other possible factors that influence work performance such as intelligence. motivation. That is.8. personnel selection specialists did not generally use personality testing in employee selection due to the perception it had low validity. 62 . 1995). RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES Prior to the 1990s.. or has to (Nikolaou.appeal of the arguments. Furthermore. however. focused on personality traits at the molecular. experience. Defining personality with these theories allows for variability in personality across various situations while maintaining stability at the level of the individual’s “personality signature” (Mischel and Shoda.
Research on the significance of personality suggests that even though other factors are important in determining the performance of an individual in a given task. more recent studies are focusing on demonstrating the incremental variance in work performance with the use of personality predictors (Sackett. motivation and satisfaction levels. (2000) posited that the core work performance factors are thinking. Work performance is affected by role clarity. peer or supervisor reports on the job or failure 63 . 2004). Schmit et al... 1998). work orientation. self management and motivation. Mellissa and Ellington. leadership. Sanders. Mellissa and Ellington. 2003). assessment centre ratings. Several studies have shown that all personality dimensions or factors are valid predictor of work performance (Salgado. work attitude. job-specific task proficiency. 1998). personality provides very little insight on what and why the person will do in a given job. and ability (Carmeli and Freund. Recent studies using more fundamental dimensions of personality have shown the predictive power of personality for work performance (Kieffer et al. administration. Barrick and Mount. Sackett.e. 1997. 2004). Burke and Witt (2004) postulated that personality tests account for a certain unique variance in work performance’s measures beyond the variance accounted for by mental ability tests.satisfaction. interpersonal. results from multiplicative combination of declarative knowledge. and interviews. procedural knowledge. and motivation). Tett and Burnett (2003) used a work performance taxonomy that had eight categories (i. 1993. 2002. oral and written communication task proficiency. Hence.. and organisation (Barrick et al. Performance is often measured as training academy performance.
Another contributing factor is when supervisors evaluate their subordinates. Several researchers have stressed that other factors such as occupational socialisation. beside the worker’s productivity (Hunter and Schmidt. To ensure a full representation of work performance.. 1990). A contributing factor for the poor correlation between personality and work performance is the “halo” effect. There exists some degree of difficulty in measuring work performance and linking specific work tasks to personality dimensions. Mount and Strauss. a measure should include variables in citizenship behavior and productivity as well as steps to prevent the “halo” effect.measures such as being fired or quitting (Sanders. This could be due to the confusion of the two dimensions of personnel performance evaluation: (a) citizenship behavior (social behavior at work) and (b) performance in productivity. These two dimensions of performance show little correlation when measured objectively but exhibit high correlation when measured subjectively. and helpfulness. work stress. and the work environment can significantly influence an individual’s behavior. they also rely on other factors such as pleasant disposition. 64 . Schweiger and Sumners. 2000).. 1993). Furthermore. cooperativeness. work performance comprises “will-do” and “can-do” components where the former are best predicted by personality measures (Barrick. 2000. Global measures of work performance and personality measures often correlate poorly (Cook et al. where one person assessing another person’s work tends to rate all aspects of it as good or all aspects as poor (Cook et al. 1994). 2003).
Subjective self-performance appraisal is the performance rating conducted by the ratee. This system of self-assessment of work performance is emerging as a popular trend in performance appraisal although it has not yet gained wide acceptance because of the general unfavourable research findings that individuals generally rate themselves higher than others do. Some studies of self-assessment also showed that self-ratings do not correlate with counter-position ratings and more halo (less differentiation). The strong standing taken by Campbell and Lee (1988) with regards to the limited usefulness of self-ratings as an evaluation tool has elicited doubts on its use in the performance appraisal process. The effect of leniency associated with it raises concerns about its legitimacy. Questions of response bias arise when self-ratings are used (Inderrieden, Allen and Keaveny, 2004). Lester and Kickul (2001) highlighted the concerns of the presence of common method variance. Participants are giving the survey responses to both the outcome measures as well as the psychological contract items. It is likely that these participants may exhibit a social desirability bias when assessing their behavior. This may have a confounding effect on the correlations found between the constructs. However, other researches produced conflicting findings which indicated that the two forms of ratings demonstrated significant correlation and self-ratings are significantly lower than counter position ratings (Nhundu, 1992). Self-rating has one distinctive advantage on the study of work performance and personality as they are less subject to “halo” but more “lenient” than other measures of performance (Cook et al., 2000). Respondents have no obvious reason to “fake good” since the assessment does not have any career implications.
Self-rating may be skewed towards the favourable end of each dimension. This may restrict the range of responses and thereby reduces correlations with the personality dimensions. This research uses self-ratings rather than ratings by superiors. Although few studies have used self-ratings, they have become popular in more recent research as it has been validated against other work performance measures (Cook et al., 2000). Difficulties such as selfenhancement, reliability and objectivity may be an issue; several studies have shown that such self-evaluation measures are more valid than originally perceived (Carmelli and Freund, 2004). Although self-evaluation may have a bias of general method variance and be susceptible to percept-percept inflation than others, the adoption of usable and validated measures can reduce method variance (Carmelli and Freund, 2004). A study showed correlations of 0.4-0.5 between objective measures of clerical ability and self-ratings while another reported a correlation of 0.5 for self assessment with measures of leadership (Cook et al., 2000). To ensure a relatively good representation of work performance, the Role-Based Performance Scale (RBPS) by Wilbourne, Johnson and Erez (1998) based on self-appraisal is adopted. The RBPS has five variables or components consisting of job, innovator, career, team, and organisation.
Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure
There has been a revival of interest in the prediction of work performance using personality measures due to the emergence of the FFM (Barrick and Mount, 1993). Numerous studies
have validated the FFM in predicting work performance and its cross-cultural generalisability (Burke and Witt, 2004). In general, many studies indicate that Conscientiousness, one of the dimensions of the FFM, is a valid predictor for all job-related criteria and occupational groups (Barrick and Mount, 1993; Barrick et al., 2002; Crant, 1995; Sanders, 2003; Salgado, 1997; Vinchur et al., 1998; Hurtz and Donovan, 2000). Conscientious people are reliable, hardworking, self-disciplined, determined, achievement oriented (Barrick et al. 2002); dependable, persistent, responsible (Barrick and Mount, 1993); and also motivated in goal-directed behavior (Crant, 1995). Over the past few decades, many studies have shown that personality can be fairly represented by the FFM and that the FFM is an effective predictor of work performance (Salgado, 1997; Stewart, 1999; Tett and Burnett, 2003). Hurtz and Donovan (2000) showed that Conscientiousness is stable and generalisable across criteria and occupations and has a moderate influence on performance. Other factors of the FFM have also been shown to predict work performance. Judge, Martocchio and Thoresen (1997) found that conscientious and introverted employees are less likely to be absent or play truant. Hogan and Holland (2003) found that the measures of Emotional Stability are good predictors of occupational performance while Tett and Burnett (2003) revealed that personality measures predict work performance satisfactorily and is situationally specific. This view is further supported by the body of FFM research revealing the existence of a personality-work performance relationship but other factors such as job requirements, personality interactions and aspects of the occupational environment may influence the relationship’s nature and strength (Kieffer et al., 2004). As the FFM reveals the existence of a personality-work performance
McCelland identified traits for “need for achievement” and it is this satisfaction of achievement that facilitates high performance (Arnold. people’s high expectations guide their actions to produce high performance (Lau and Shaffer. are predictors of work performance. Beadles II and Krilowicz (2004) revealed that the need for achievement and creativity.. The second research question is whether the CASES measure of personality is able to predict work performance. (2004) postulated that cognitive ability and volition. Since the CASES model measure contains the dimension of complexity which has facets of volition. Nikolaou (2003) and Lowery et al.8. High performers perceive that events as determined by themselves while low performers perceive events as controlled by chance. Behavior is a function of expectancy of actions which will lead to certain reinforcement. 1999). low impulsivity and self-regulation. which are facets of self-actualisation. In Bandura’s view. and the dimension of self-actualisation which has facets of self 68 . Furthermore.2. Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure It is inevitable that researchers will attempt to examine the relationship between the FFM and other personality measures/models. have moderating effects on the relationship between personality and performance. the research question posed is “Does the FFM predict work performance?” 2.relationship in other countries but not done in Malaysia. (2002) and Lowery. 1988). which are facets of the complexity dimension based on Vancouver and Scherbaum (2000) and KoltkoRivera (2004). Studies by Barrick et al.
realisation of one’s potential. 1992) whilst Neuroticism comprises fearful. positive mental health. the facets of need for achievement. self-discipline. The facets of positive mental health and self -esteem in the self-actualisation dimension and low impulsivity in the complexity dimension of the CASES are inversely related to the Neuroticism dimension of the FFM. order. Similarly. not resilient. low confidence/self esteem. the research postulates that the CASES model will predict work performance. need for achievement. responsible. 1997). as shown in Table 4. As personality traits can be conceptually and empirically related without being redundant. determined. Furthermore. 2.8. internalisation. and hard working (Costa and McCrae. dutiful. The Relationships between FFM and CASES The third research question considers how the CASES measure of personality compares with the FFM with respect to predicting work performance.fulfilment. determined. depressed. reliable. persistent. planful. and self esteem. dependable. creativity. and planfulness of the Conscientiousness dimension in the FFM.3. achievement-striving. there are good reasons to believe that the Complexity and Self-actualisation 69 . Conscientiousness in the FFM comprises competence. anxious. deliberation. passion.. and realisation of one’s potential in the self-actualisation dimension and the facets of selfregulation and volition in the complexity dimension of the CASES are related to the facets of achievement-striving. Barrick and Mount (1991) posited that Conscientiousness is associated with volition variables such as persevering and conforming which is similar to the complexity dimension of the CASES. impulsivity. persistent. and hostility (Judge et al. deliberation. passion.
dimensions of the CASES are related to the Conscientiousness and Neuroticism dimensions of the FFM. conforming) Realisation of one’s potential ii) Passion iii) Need for achievement i) Positive mental health i) i) Low impulsivity Self-esteem i) Table 4: The Possible Associations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM with Complexity and Self-Actualisation of the CASES This does not necessarily imply that the CASES model includes the Neuroticism or Conscientiousness. However. this assumption will be tested and raised in the third research question. “What is the relationship between the CASES model and the FFM model?” 70 . Dimensions of the FFM Conscientiousness Neuroticism i) Reliable ii) Self discipline iii) Deliberation iv) Planful v) Dependable vi) Order vii) Dutiful viii) Perseverance i) Responsible ii) Hardworking iii) Determined iv) Achievement striving i) Fearful ii) Anxious iii) Depressed i) Low confidence ii) Low self-esteem i) Impulsivity Dimensions of CASES Complexity Self-Actualisation i) Self-regulation ii) Volition (persevering.
H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. 71 . H3: The CASES and the FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance.8. The second research question is addressed by the second hypothesis. Hypotheses The first research question is addressed by the first hypothesis. H2: The CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. The third research question is addressed by the third hypothesis.2.4.
positivism and phenomenology. 1980). and process of social science are linked to assumptions about ontology.1. RESEARCH PARADIGMS The structure. are discussed before proceeding to the research method adopted and the administration and development of the data collection processes. This chapter covers the selected research methodology and design that will be used to obtain data to examine the research questions. CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0. specifically. which give rise to various theoretical perspectives or paradigms ranging from phenomenology to positivism. It highlighted the shortcomings of various existing personality measures. direction.2. and on the social-cognitive construct of “IfThen” was used to explain why some individuals are more predictable than others.3. 72 . A new personality measure with five dimensions based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The two broad social science perspectives or paradigms of research. 3. which postulates that behavior is motivated by needs. they do not account for the variations in behavior due to environmental factors and the complexity of an individual. human nature and epistemology (Morgan and Smircich. INTRODUCTION The previous chapter analysed and reviewed the relevant literature on personality theories with respect to predicting work performance.
the knowledge of the social world would imply a need to map out and understand the social structure. The view that the social world is a concrete structure taken by objectivists encourages an epistemological approach that stresses the significance of studying the relationships among those elements forming that structure.Phenomenology views reality as a projection of human imagination. relationships and the precise nature of laws among the phenomena measured. Positivism also provides an objective form of knowledge which specifies the regularities. This approach uses a statement of a hypothesis and conclusions may be drawn from it via the analysis of quantitative data (Baker. causal relationships and predictions. According to phenomenology. this study adopts a positivistic paradigm with a hypothetico-deductive approach. Positivism emphasises empirical facts. As this research seeks to explain the relationships between need-induced behavior. personality. humans are transcendental beings and are not restricted by external laws. 1980). and work performance. 2001). The possible shortcomings of this approach would be the apparent loss of richness of concepts due to the mechanisation of variables and concepts. Its basic epistemological stance is to obtain information on how individuals interpret the world. From this point of view. positivism views reality as a concrete structure and is objective whereby human beings are rational responders (Morgan and Smircich. 1980). 73 . giving rise to positivism which emphasises the empirical analysis of relationships (Morgan and Smircich. On the other end of the continuum.
1996). Gliner and Harmon. vocational preferences. The quantitative methods. with surveys as the main research method (Morgan and Smircich. people always respond to the situation in a lawful manner. 1980.g. the social world can be “frozen” into structured immobility and the role of human beings is reduced to 74 . Morgan. are appropriate to capture a view of the social world or reality as a concrete structure. By manipulating data with various sophisticated quantitative tools..3. The aim of such research is to assess human variations in factors (e.3. personality. Causal relationships link all aspects of behavior to the specific context. 1999. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Most research in the social science disciplines is conducted using quantitative methodologies. and abilities) that have real-world significance. The psychology of individual differences has a number of empirically established foundations on which a more scientific foundation may be built for a better understanding of human behavior (Lubinski. Lubinski. Stimuli from the environment condition them to respond to events in determinate and predictable ways. It is a structure comprising of a network of finite relationships between constituent parts. Reality can be found in the relationships between these components and concrete behavior. Assessment tools are developed with the aim of facilitating the optimal utilisation and development of human capital where measures of individual differences are the most common criteria of interest. which are principally drawn from natural sciences. Although human perception or cognition may influence the process. Human beings are assumed to be products of external forces in the environment. 1996).
exploratory.4.. promotes value-free inquiry. the nature of the study depends on how far the knowledge on the research subject has advanced. Any generalisation is inductive which comprises nomothetic statements. Moreover.1. have used this approach effectively. various studies. Although the processes in research design are depicted in distinct sequential activities. 3. 2001). case study or hypothesis testing). This quantitative methodology based on the positivist paradigm is objective. RESEARCH DESIGN Research design involving a series of logical decision-making steps basically comprises the purpose of the study (descriptive. case study or hypothesis testing. An 75 . Hence. Based on these grounds. From the framing of the research questions and hypotheses. a quantitative methodology has the ability to provide an objective view of the various external factors. the extent of researcher interference. 3. as mentioned in the previous chapter. the time horizon and the unit of analysis (Cavana et al. a quantitative methodology is adopted and provides the framework for the research design. exploratory. these activities often interact or occur at the same time. adheres to strict rules and uses statistics extensively.4.elements which are subject to deterministic sets of forces. the types of investigation. Purpose of the Study Studies can be descriptive.
The purpose of descriptive studies is to describe aspects of the situation from an organisational. 2001). gender. The case study method involves a systematic gathering of in-depth information on an organisation or entity. 2001. It provides an enhanced understanding of the various relationships between variables as well as establishing their causalities (Cavana et al. 76 . Descriptive studies are carried out to ascertain and describe the characteristics of the variables studied but no associations or comparisons are made as only one variable is considered at a time (Morgan. 1999). industry or individual perspective such as age. Morgan et al.. Such an undertaking is appropriate when the three criteria of uniqueness. It is generally qualitative in nature and used as a managerial decision-making tool (Cavana et al. or race. 2004).. critical and revelatory are met (O’Cass. 2001). educational level. Such studies are appropriate to obtain an initial grasp of the phenomena of interest (Cavana et al. This study uses hypothesis testing as there is extensive knowledge. Gliner and Harmon. information and variables on the topic to enable the formulation of hypotheses as articulated in Chapter 2.exploratory study is carried out when little or no information is known about the subject. 1999). Hypothesis testing is employed in studies that seek to establish the independence of various factors in a situation or the differences among groups or to explain the nature of relationships..
. 2001).2. as adopted for this research. Quantitative research methodology. This can be done with a correlational or causal approach.3. Clarification investigation is used to gain a better understanding of the phenomena or concepts under investigation. The investigation carried out in this study is a correlational study as the interest is to delineate the variables which are associated with the problem (Cavana et al. 3. Exploratory and descriptive studies using qualitative methods follow this approach as it allows the researcher to be flexible in exploring the issues being studied. A causal relationship occurs when one variable or concept causes a change in another whereas a correlational relationship only indicates that two variables or concepts are associated. Research Method When the purpose of the study and the type of investigation has been determined. the next step is to decide on the type of research method that will be used. consists of two distinct collection methods. Quantitative methods may be used to give a more definite answer. correlational and causal. experimental and non-experimental. Experimental research involves the manipulation of one or more variables in order to study the effects of such manipulations on the subjects 77 . With a better understanding of the concepts. A causal study delineates the cause of one or more problems whereas a correlational study delineates the variables or concepts that are associated with the problem. that is.4.3.4. Type of Investigation There are three approaches of investigation: clarification. the next stage is to determine the relationships between the variables or concepts.
under study and is generally applied to answer the questions of why and how (Grace. What. the non-experimental research is considered the more appropriate approach to adopt in this study. 1999). and survey. How Much and How Many? How and Why? Who. Answers How and Why? Archival Research Who. What. Where. Non-experimental research does not involve the manipulation of variables or assigning subjects to groups and requires minimal interference from the researcher. Similarly. this study is not case-specific. Hence. Table 5: Four Categories of Non-experimental Techniques (Grace. As shown in Table 5. archival. Where. How Much and How Many? Case Study Research Research investigates a particular situation or problem. nor is it 78 . Is case-specific. Survey Research Goal is to collect information about the same variables or characteristics from a number of cases where the end result is a data matrix or a structured or rectangular set of data. Method Observational Research Description Observation of subjects in their own environment or researcher participating in naturally occurring groups and recording observations. there are four broad categories of non-experimental techniques: observational. and the work performance of individuals. personality. Using data that were collected for a purpose other than the problem at hand. case study. it is not possible to manipulate these variables or assign participants to groups. which rules out case study. 1999) It is clear that observational research is not appropriate as some of the variables are not observable. Since the research questions posted for this study are on behavior.
There is minimal interference in an exploratory or descriptive study conducted in an organisation. 2001). This approach facilitates the external validation and generalisability of the findings within similar environments (Baker. The extent of interference by the researcher in the flow of work in the workplace has an important bearing on the research decisions. 3. The adoption of nil or minimal interference for this study is supported by Gill and Johnson (2002) who postulated that analytical studies require precision and the control of extraneous variables can be handled via statistical techniques. manipulation of the variables may be done to study the effects of such manipulation on the dependent variables. This study does not require interference as the objective is to collect data on the personality of individuals and their work performance. For a causal study. Hence. An excessive interference occurs especially in a causal study whereby an artificial setting is created and manipulated in a laboratory environment. Researcher’s Interference There are varying degrees of interference in research ranging from minimal.4.suitable for archival research as there are new personality variables to be measured. moderate to excessive. such studies have considerable interference with the normal or natural settings. Hence. the survey method is the most appropriate method for data collection in this study because of its ability to address the research questions as well as its efficiency and practicality. 79 .4.
Furthermore. however. Hence. there are tradeoffs between internal and external validities. Control imposed on a study gives it better internal validity as the extraneous variables are removed or controlled in order to facilitate investigation of the variables of interest. Efforts to strengthen internal validity will diminish external validity and vice-versa (Cavana et al. A contrived environment. Study Setting The setting of the study can be either contrived or non-contrived. may reduce the external validity due to “reactivity” (Baker. (1998) postulated that the level of control is least relevant for research methods using surveys. This research will be conducted via a survey with minimal researcher interference in a natural environment as the variables under investigation are the personality dimensions of individuals and their perceptions of their own work performance within their 80 . Exploratory or descriptive studies carried out in organisations are known as field studies. the research is conducted whereby the work proceeds normally in the natural environment. External and internal validities are competing aspects.3. 2001). 2001). A laboratory experiment is one with a contrived setting and considerable interference by the researcher (Cavana et al.5. Lewis and Thornhill. Remenyi et al.. In a non-contrived setting. 1997).4. 2001). Exploratory or descriptive studies usually fall under this category whereas rigorous causal studies are often undertaken in contrived settings. Correlational or causal studies which use environmental settings where the employees usually function are known as field experiments. it is more important to capture the variables or concepts in the study than to establish the cause and effect relationships (Saunders..
. organisations. 3. To control for extraneous and irrelevant factors. variables which are reliable. As this research is on the measurement of personality dimensions of individuals and their work performance.6. or cultures. 1998). 3. the passage of time is inconsequential. valid and unambiguous will be included after proper screening by subject matter experts (SME) to ensure content. groups. Unit of Analysis The research objective determines the unit of analysis. Hence. This method is appropriate as the objective of this research is to examine whether a new personality measure will provide incremental validity over and above that of the FFM in the prediction of work performance. beliefs and perceptions. Time Horizons This research adopts a cross-sectional study instead of a longitudinal study as it will take a snapshot of the situation under study (Remenyi et al.4. Moreover. Lindell and Whitney (2001) postulated that most behavioral studies are cross-sectional as such studies focus on individual’s attitudes. dyads. the data collected will be the 81 .4. and external validities and plausible explanations of the variances of the independent and dependent variables (Remenyi et al.. 1998).7. which can be individual. internal.normal work environments.
and time.individuals’ demographics. effort. 82 . telephone. The personal interview method is not used on topics of personality and work performance as these topics lie in the positivism paradigm (Morgan and Smircich. 1980). or computer interviews.1. The merits of these methods are shown in Table 6. these data can be obtained by using one or a combination of methods that include personal. and also has the problem of the interviewer’s influence on the interviewee’s responses. mail. Hence. and their perceptions of their behaviors and work performance (Cavana et al.5. the unit of analysis is at the individual level. Together with the inherent costs as well as the time constraints of this research. The personal interview method provides an excellent response rate but can be costly in terms of finance.5. 3. SURVEY RESEARCH The survey research consists of several steps as listed below. 2001). this method is considered inappropriate for this study.. Selection of Survey Method As survey research has been selected as the appropriate method for collecting data. 3.
Nikolaou.. these two interview methods are also considered to be inappropriate for this study. al.. 83 . 2004). Hence. 1999) Computer and telephone interviews offer expedient and low-cost options but they are not appropriate for reaching the targeted potential respondents in the organisations. 2002. Kieffer et al. the mail survey is considered the most appropriate method for this study. it is cost effective and allows specific respondents in various organisations to be targeted.Criterion Ability to handle complex questionnaire Ability to collect large amount of data Accuracy of sensitive questions Control of interviewer effects Degree of sample control Time required Probable response rate Cost Mail Poor Fair Good Excellent Fair Fair Fair Good Telephone Good Good Good Fair Excellent Excellent Fair Good Personal Excellent Excellent Fair Poor Fair Good Fair Fair Computer Good Good Good Excellent Fair Good Fair Fair Table 6: Merits of the Four Survey Methods (Grace.. Salgado. 2003. Mail survey is commonly used in studies of personality and work performance (Robertson et. 2003. Barrick et al. 2000. Although mail survey does not provide a good response rate. Hence.
2.3. 3.2. Marsella et al. 3.5. Johnson and Erez (1998) were obtained and used in this study.5.. From public opinion surveys to laboratory experiments. Although self-reports can be a fallible source of data.1.2. Copies of the FFM measure (Goldberg.5.3.5. feelings. Scales The measures of personality and performance are nebulous and do not lend themselves to precise measurements due to their subjective nature.2. and thoughts of participants. context or wording can cause major changes in the results. Personality and Work Performance Measures Several studies on personality measures and work performance that can be used for this study were identified and the respective authors were contacted for copies of their measures. Self Report Self-report is a primary source of data in social science research. researchers depend on the answers that participants provide in order to learn about the behavior. The reduction of such abstract concepts 84 . 1999) and the self-rated work performance measure (RBPS) by Welbourne. where minor changes in question format. 2000). this study uses this method whilst recognising factors and processes that affect self-reports to improve the questionnaire design and data quality (Schwarz. 1999.2. Selection of Measurement Techniques 3.
a respondent selects a response category ranging from Very Accurate. Likert scales typically have five or seven graduated categories to select from and are anchored with descriptive phases representing the minimum and maximum responses possible (Flynn. For this study. A popular interval scale is the Likert scale which is often used to measure psychometric properties such as personality and performance (Maurer and Pierce. tap the order of such groups. all the measures use a five-point Likert scale 85 . 1999.. Cavana et al. the scale adopted is a five-point Likert scale as a seven-point scale or higher can burden respondents with distinctions that are too fine and that do not have significant impact on the overall results (Grace.. 2001). 2004). and enable the computation of the means and variances of the measured variables.to some form of tangible measurements in a continuum is often used for such measures and is an appropriate choice especially for hypothesis testing (Cavana et al. 2001). 1998). Such measures use an interval scale as interval scales are able to group respondents into categories. Hence. The work performance measure is categorised from Needs Much Improvement to Excellent with Satisfactory as a neutral response. Neither Inaccurate nor Accurate or Very Inaccurate as the most representative of his/her perceived personality or behavior in terms of direction. In using a Likert scale. strength and confidence. A response on the disagree side is equivalent to a no response and the response on the agree side is equivalent to a yes response. van Schaik and van Wersch. The strength or confidence of the measurement is assessed as the distance away from the neutral response (Maurer and Pierce. 1998).
contains five personality dimensions of Complexity.5.5 are obtained from self ratings of 86 . Actualisation. Key Variables (i) The independent variables (a) The Big Five The 50 items for the FFM (Goldberg. (ii) The dependent variable The dependent variable is the self-appraised work performance of the respondents. (b) The new personality measure (CASES) The new personality measure.because of the above merits as well as its ease of construction. 2003). Self-appraisals or self ratings have significant validation against other work performance measures.4 to 0. Correlations of 0..2. 1999) measuring Openness to Experience. Egocentric and Socio-centric with each dimension having 10 items. Safety.79 for all five dimensions. Hunthausen et al. CASES. Conscientiousness.4. Agreeableness and Neuroticism. administration and cost effectiveness. have alpha values larger than 0. Extraversion. This measure is regarded as the best measure developed to date and is used for this study (Crant. 3. 1995.
This self-appraisal performance measure. innovator. team. Furthermore. Self-rating or selfappraisal also has a substantial advantage in the study of work performance and personality as they are less affected by the “halo-effect” as compared to other measures. with each having 4 items as shown in Table 7.. which is also known as the Role-Based Performance Scale (RBPS). “halo-effect” tends to obscure the differentiated relationship between the criteria of personality and work performance. and organisation. al. career. 87 .. The five components of the RBPS are job. 2000). In view of the stance taken by the Ethics Committee in favour of maintaining confidentiality and anonymity of respondents. (1998) is used. the self-evaluation work performance measure of Wilbourne et al. job-related employee performance measure. is developed based on identity theory and role theory in contrast to the traditional.clerical ability and measures of leadership (Cook et.
(e) Organisation (going above the call of duty in my concern for the firm) i. ii. iv.(a) My Job (doing things specifically related to my job description) i. iv. (c) Innovator (creativity and innovation in my job and the organisation as a whole) i. iii. iii. iii. 1998) 88 . iv. ii. ii. iv. Table 7: Role-Based Performance Scale’s Items (Wilbourne et al.. ii. Quantity of work output Quality of work output Accuracy of work Customer service provided (internal and external) Obtaining personal career goals Developing skills needed for my future career Making progress in my career Seeking out career opportunities (b) My career (obtaining the necessary skills to progress in the company) i. ii. iv. iii. Coming with new ideas Working to implement new ideas Finding improved ways to do things Creating better processes and routines Working as part of a team or work group Seeking information from others in my work group Making sure my work group succeeds Responding to the needs of others in my group Doing things that help others when it’s not part of my job Working for the overall good of the company Doing things to promote the company Helping so that the company is a good place to be (d) Team (working with co-workers and team members toward success of the firm) i. iii.
3. 89 .3. Q61. (ii) The second set of 50 items of the new instrument (CASES) is placed as Q51 to Q100. Q76. Q86.. Q81. 2002). 1999).5. The questions are sequenced in the following manner: (i) The 50 items for the FFM (Goldberg. (iii) The twenty items of the RBPS by Welbourne et al. For the first personality dimension of Complexity (with 10 items). Selection of Survey Layout The physical layout of the questionnaire is important as it has influence in inducing potential respondents to participate earnestly and facilitates its administration. questions and quality of reproduction are addressed. Q71. (iv) Demographic and other classification questions to address over-inflated selfadministrated job performance appraisal are placed at the end of the survey because of their personal nature (Grace. the items are placed in Q51. Egocentric and Socio-centric) are placed in the same sequence to reduce the influence of the content of the adjacent similar items in the interpretation of a question by the respondents (Schwarz. To minimise error. The four other dimensions with 10 items each (Actualisation. The sequence of the instructions. 1999) are placed from Q1 to Q50 in the same order as per the author’s design. Safety. Q56. (1998) are placed from Q101 to Q120. Q66. Q91 and Q96. the written instructions are screened for clarity in instructional content and presentation.
clarity and specificity for its particular dimension (Haynes. relevance. The wordings of several items were changed to reflect the meaning in the local Malaysian context. Every element or item is judged on its representativeness. Selection of Sample and Sample Size Sampling is a process whereby a representative number of elements of the population are selected and through the analysis of the characteristics of the sample subjects. it will not be carried out due to the study’s time constraints. Probability sampling is appropriate when statistical generalisation is required.. 3.5.4. A total of 40 organisations will be invited to take part in this research by means of personal contact with the president or senior managers of the companies concerned. For the above reasons. These firms are in general manufacturing. a generalisation of these characteristics can be made to the population elements (Cavana et al. a nonprobability sampling method such as convenience sampling can be used. When time is tight or the probability of selecting elements of the population is unknown and generalisability is not essential or critical. shipping. trading and 90 .Although pilot testing is recommended for the items to ensure content validity.. convenience sampling is adopted for this study. The elements in the population under study also must have some known probability of being selected as sample. 1995). 2001). The full questionnaire will be given to the two supervisors of this study for their comments and review for face and content validity as the next best alternative (Cavana et al. transportation. Richard and Kubany. legal. 2001).
Kudisch and Fortunato. Sawin and Carsud. Since English is a second language to many Malaysians. Besides being white-collared staff. white-collar employees are chosen as they are more likely to be literate in English. Each company will be given 40 questionnaires or more depending on the size of the organisation and will be requested to distribute the questionnaires to all or part of their white-collar staff. the respondents are also required to fulfil several other essential criteria as follow: (i) Proficient in the English language to ensure that the respondents are able to understand and answer the questionnaires properly. at least 10:1 subject to items as suggested by Nunnally (1978)) to provide sufficient rigour and statistical reliability in the principal components analysis (Avis. 2002). The researcher hopes to get approval from 50% of the 40 companies and to receive on average 25 successful respondents from each of these companies thereby providing a total sample size of 500. 91 . it would need at least 500 responses (that is.business consulting. (ii) Must have been working in the current position for at least one year as personality characteristics show no or little relationship with performance at the initial period of work but significant correlations are found after the probationary or honeymoon period with the job has ended (Helmreich. As the measures of the FFM and CASES have 50 items each. These companies represent a convenient sample and they are invited because their offices are in the Klang Valley. 1986).
Principal Components Analysis Principal components analysis will be used to check that the structure of the measures has held true (Cavana et al. 3. 2001). The measures for the FFM.3. Selection of analytical approach Data analysis is performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.1. 2001).5. Central Tendency and Dispersion The range. range. The principal-component factor will be varimaxrotated as the dimensions are assumed to be uncorrelated 3. variance. The frequency distributions of the nominal and demographic variables. Cronbach’s alpha. Reliability Reliability concerns the extent to which a measure is repeatable and consistent (Baker.5.2.3. CASES. the measurement of internal consistency. is one reliability 92 .5.. 3. and variance for each variable will be computed in SPSS.5. standard deviation. standard deviation and correlation matrix of all the variables will be generated for initial examinations.5.5. mean.5. means.5. and RBPS will be analysed to determine their structure.
4. and factor structure.org. CASES and RBPS measures will be analysed to ascertain their internal reliabilities.newcastle.edu. 93 . 3.ori. 1995). 2004). convergent and discriminant validity. Construct validity subsumes all validities including concurrent. An alpha coefficient of 0.au:80). http://0ipip. there is no psychometric rationale in using them. Incremental validity essentially means whether a measure adds to the prediction of a criterion above what can be predicted by other variables (Hunsley and Meyer. Validity Construct validity is the degree to which the assessment instrument measures the proposed construct (Borsboom.7 or more is considered satisfactory (Nunnally. 1978).g. criterion-related validity. Hunsley and Meyer (2003) stressed that if personality inventories do not produce an increment in validity over other inventories that are obtainable freely in the public domain in the World-Wide-Web (e.coefficient that indicates how well items in a cluster correlate positively with one another. All the predictor variables of the Big Five Factor Inventory. Concurrent validity refers to the degree to which a test scores correlates with another test score that is obtained from another source. Mellenbergh and van Heerden. Content validity gives evidence on the construct validity of an instrument (Haynes. predictive and postdictive validity.5. Richard and Kubany..library.5. 2003).
3. The findings from the descriptive statistics. 2003). the correlation matrix. Cost and Time Estimates Some 40 companies from various industries.6. 3. are selected for the survey with an average of 40 questionnaires given to each organisation and are targeted 94 .5.The research design is one of a criterion-related validity and incremental validity (Nikolaou.5.5.5. and the stepwise multiple linear regression results will be used to test the hypotheses. Hypothesis Testing To test the criterion and incremental validities of the new personality measure (CASES) over and above the FFM on work performance. known to the researcher.6.1. The respondents are asked to complete two sets of personality measures and a set of self-appraisal work performance measure.5. Implementation The last stage of the survey research is the implementation stage which consists of time/ cost estimates and data collection/administration. 3. the two measures of personality will be entered simultaneously in a stepwise regression analysis.
Each organisation will be given the Information Sheet and the Consent Seeking Letter. The total time estimated for the survey is 35 days as shown in Table 9. The industry breakdown and the number of companies to be surveyed are shown in Table 9. A draft letter approving the staff in the organisation to participate is also provided for the companies to complete under their official letter head.at white-collared workers from supervisory level upwards. 95 . Industry 1) Manufacturing 2) Service Total No of companies 27 13 40 Table 8: The Breakdown of Companies to be Surveyed Based on Industry (developed for this study) A wide spectrum of organisations in terms of industry and size is used to attain the required minimum sample size of 500 respondents. The questionnaires will be given to the Human Resource Department to be distributed to all the white collar staff and instructed to collect them in the selfaddressed envelope a week after distribution.
00 Table 10: Breakdown of Costs on Survey (developed for this research) Item 126.96.36.199.86 per questionnaire based on the breakdown as shown in Table 10. Data Collection The survey adopts a self-administered approach. Distributing questionnaires to organisations 3. The 96 .00 of 2 pages (double-sided) 2 envelopes and RM0. Checking for completeness of answers Total Estimated Times (Days) 5 15 10 5 35 Table 9: Total Time Estimated for the Survey (developed for this research) The cost of the survey is estimated at RM1. Collecting answered questionnaires from organisations 4. Printing and collating of questionnaires 2.Activity 1.30 stamp 1600*RM0.04 RM256.70 RM1120.00 Travelling expenses RM20 per trip for 80 RM1600.00 trips Total RM2976. which has limitations such as low response rate and the inability of respondents to seek clarification if necessary. Costing and Amount Computation Printing the questionnaire (1600 sets 1600*4*RM0.
Incomplete questionnaires will not be considered in the analysis but efforts will be made to ensure the completeness of the questionnaires by conducting briefings in the organisations if permission is granted. the scores will be recoded through a Recode program in the SPSS.3.6.researcher will inform the organisations that he will be available in the organisation’s premises at the scheduled time if the need for clarification is required. 97 .6. 3. The items measuring the variables are grouped together to ensure no mistake is made due to omission or wrong inclusion. Categorising For negatively worded questions. the survey is partially personally-administered but self-completed and mail-returned to minimise the effects of low response rates and lack of clarity while maintaining confidentiality and anonymity. Hence. 3.5. Data Entry The data will be entered into SPSS and analysed.4.5.
7. self-addressed envelopes are provided so the respondents can choose to participate or not. The research plan is based on completing the five chapters within the six-month time frame. no demeaning questions will be asked and respondents are not subjected to mental or physical stress in answering the questionnaire as they are given sufficient time on their own to complete the questionnaire. It is estimated that the dissertation can be completed within the time frame based on an average of some three hours of work per day on weekdays and some six hours of work per day on weekends subject to obtaining clearance from the Ethic Committee within the timeframe allowed. Participants can withdraw at anytime during the research without any obligation or disadvantage.3. Stamped. 3. Finally. Anonymity and confidentiality of the answers are ensured as the questionnaires do not have any identifiers. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION It is explicitly stated that participation is voluntary. RESEARCH PLAN The research plan is based on the timeline provided by the University of Newcastle for this Doctor of Business Administration (DBA). 98 .6.
3. several studies revealed that the distortions by these response deceptions do not attenuate the predictive validity of the personality constructs (Barrick and Mount.8. However. 3.. 1996).8. Stability of Work Performance Due to the implicit assumption that performance is a stable construct and the reliance on a cross-sectional. one-time measure could lead to erroneous conclusions about the 99 .8. 1988). LIMITATIONS Response Distortions Given the seemingly straightforward nature of the items. Personality Scales Personality scales are often described as self-report measures but could be misleading as respondents may use the item responses to tell who they are and the way they would like to be seen.2.8.1. In that case.3. It is widely acknowledged that the self-report a person gives about his/her own personality traits and behavior are related to his/her perception of the acceptability and the desirability of these traits and behaviors (Kagan. 1996). 2004). 3. This may produce a general method variance (Carmeli and Freund. item endorsements are not self-reports but self-presentations (Hogan et al. it could be likely that some respondents may try to “beat the test” due to self-deception or impression management.3.
all information comes from the subordinate. Bozionelos.. 3. Thus.4. it is possible that some employees who could have been in the higher end of the work performance are promoted to other positions outside the parameters of the study. The ratings would be markedly skewed towards the positive end of each item.personality-performance relationships (Thoresen et al. Conversely. Self-ratings are known to be more “lenient” than other forms of work performance measures. 100 . 2004a). Hence. 2000. This will restrict the range and reduce the correlations with the personality measures. The requirement to maintain the anonymity of respondents restricted our ability to match the supervisors with the subordinates. This self rating is also subject to the common method variance or the percept-percept inflation problem (Cook et al. These factors may restrict the range of dependent variables and produce attenuated correlations. 2004)..8. A rudimentary level of work performance is required for the employees to retain employment in a specific position. Since there is no way of estimating what the variance should be. it will not be possible to correct or adjust the correlations for the restricted range. it is possible that some employees are removed from the positions due to their inadequate work performance. Self Rating One limitation is the use of self-ratings and its validity and reliability as an indicator of work performance.
8. 2000. the adoption of convenience sampling in this study reduces the generalisability of the findings obtained from this study.9. motivation level. There are limitations in this research that may not permit statements of causality. Cook et al. internal reliability). Hence. 2002.e. as well as the content and construct validities of the measures.. 101 . Convenience sampling is adopted. role clarity and intelligence (Carmelli and Freund. 3. Work Performance Studies have found linkages between work performance and job satisfaction. Various relevant statistical tools are used to calculate inter-item consistency (i. Further studies will need to be conducted to establish the boundary conditions and generalisability of the findings of this study. 2004.3. CONCLUSION Attempts to predict work performance using personality measures have been practised in organisational research for decades..5. Nikolaou. There is an ample body of knowledge on this subject to derive some theoretical framework for hypothesis testing. These factors have a direct or a moderating influence on work performance. a positivist paradigm with a survey instrument via a questionnaire is developed to capture observable behaviors that reflect the dimensions of the variables or constructs. Barrick et al. ability. 2002). Also..
of these.2%) were male and 298 (i.. which were used to verify the structures of the various scales.5%) were school certificate holders.. 102 .5% rate of participation. A total of 587 questionnaires were returned (a response rate of 36.. 45. and the remaining 107 (i. The number of companies that responded was 39.. 544 were usable. 19.e. 54.e.3%) were diploma holders. 31. The fourth section contains a summary of the main findings.2. The second section contains the results of principal components analyses. INTRODUCTION This chapter contains four sections. a 97. 4. A total of 267 (i.e. The descriptive statistics of the demographic variables are presented in the first section. CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS 4.8%) were female.1. 246 (i. Of the 544 respondents..e.2%) of the respondents were degree-holders. The results of the analyses which were conducted to test the hypotheses are presented in the third section. 49.7%) and. DEMOGRAPHICS A total of 1600 questionnaires were distributed to 40 Malaysian companies of various sizes who were invited to participate in this study.e.4.0. 170 (i.
5%) were from lower management or executive levels..2. An examination of the skewness and kurtosis statistics as well as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic was conducted to examine the distributions of the variables. 36.7) while the average number of years that respondents were in their current jobs was 5.29 (s.8%) respondents were from middle or senior management levels.0 years (s.e. Tatham.e. = 5. 4.. This analysis yielded five orthogonal factors that 103 .2). 37.8%) of the respondents were from non-executive or clerical levels while 198 (i.d. 4. RESULTS FROM PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS Principal Components Analysis with Varimax Rotation was used to examine the structure of the scales.50 or larger on their respective components were eliminated from the solution. = 6.1. Anderson.d.A total of 140 (i.d.6 years (s.1) and the minimum age and maximum age of the respondents were 19 years and 65 years respectively. The recommended cut-off value of .e.2. The remaining 205 (i. The average organisational tenure of the respondents was 7. and Black (1998) was used because of the large number of items being analysed. Principal Components Analysis of the FFM Personality Measure A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation (with suppressed loading less than . 25.50) was conducted on the FFM.50 by Hair.. Items that did not achieve a primary loading of . = 9. The average age of the respondents was 34.
54 . Agreeableness and Neuroticism subscales.64 .67 . Component 1 2 3 4 5 Openness5 Openness8 Openness4 Openness2 Openness6 Conscientious1 Conscientious8 Conscientious7 Conscientious3 Conscientious6 Extraversion7 Extraversion9 Extraversion4 Extraversion2 Agreeableness4 Agreeableness5 Agreeableness9 Agreeableness7 Neuroticism7 Neuroticism1 Neuroticism6 Neuroticism8 .72 .54 .60 .74 .66 .63 .50 loading criterion.64 .61 .4% of the variance.70 .accounted for 47.67 .55 .60 .57 . The findings from this analysis are presented in Table 11.62 .54 Table 11: Rotated Component Matrix of FFM 104 .59 . Using the .65 .71 . five items were eliminated from each of the Openness and Conscientiousness sub-scales while six items were eliminated from each of the Extraversion.68 .
1997. .73.The Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (p < .001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was greater than the acceptable level of 0.63.01 level whilst it was negatively correlated with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness at the 0. factorability was assumed. Agreeableness was negatively correlated with Neuroticism at the 0. Conscientiousness. Extraversion was positively correlated with Agreeableness and Neuroticism at the 0. (1998). and 64 respectively. Agreeableness and Neuroticism components were .59. The Cronbach’s alphas for the remaining items in the Openness. All the components therefore have acceptable internal reliability. According to Hair et al.57.6 is acceptable. Hence. The items that were retained after the principal components analysis are shown in Table 12. Conscientiousness was positively correlated with Extraversion and Agreeableness but negatively correlated with Neuroticism at the 0. Openness was positively correlated with Extraversion and Neuroticism at the 0. p.01 level. 8)..01 level.01 level.05 level. .60. 105 . a Cronbach’s alpha of . . The FFM components are distinct but related and “are no more wholly independent than they are redundant” (Judge et al. Extraversion. The intercorrelations resembled those that have been reported previously.
Big 5 Dimensions Items Openness 2 Openness 4 Openness 5 Openness 6 Openness 8 I am not interested in theoretical discussions I do not enjoy going to art museums I am not interested in abstract ideas I avoid philosophical discussions I do not like art Conscientious 1 Conscientious 3 Conscientious 6 Conscientious 7 Conscientious 8 I am always prepared I pay attention to details I get chores done right away I carry out my plans I make plans and stick to them Extraversion 2 Extraversion 4 Extraversion 7 Extraversion 9 I have little to say I keep a low profile I don’t like to draw attention to myself I don’t talk a lot Agreeableness 4 Agreeableness 5 Agreeableness 7 Agreeableness 9 I believe that others have good intentions I respect others I accept people as they are I make people feel at ease Neuroticism 1 Neuroticism 6 Neuroticism 7 Neuroticism 8 I often feel unhappy I am often depressed I have frequent mood swings I panic easily Table 12: Items of FFM after Principal Components Analysis 106 .
56 . Actualisation.4.69 .51 . Component Complexity7 Complexity2 Complexity4 Complexity5 Actualisation7 Actualisation2 Actualisation5 Actualisation4 Safety5 Safety3 Safety9 Safety6 Ego8 Ego6 Ego2 Ego1 Social7 Social10 Social6 Social9 1 .50 loading criterion. Principal Components Analysis of the CASES Personality Measure A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation (with suppressed loading less than . Ego and Social sub-scales. The results from this analysis are presented in Table 13.50) was conducted on the CASES items.55 .67 .2.63 .68 .63 .61 2 3 4 5 .72 . This analysis yielded five orthogonal components that accounted for 57.74 .65 . six items were eliminated from each of the Complexity.68 .54 .68 .79 .77 .68 .2.0% of the variance.62 . Using the . Safety.61 Table 13: Rotated Component Matrix of CASES 107 .
81.74 respectively.The Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (p < .48. Hence. Ego and Social components were 73. . all of the CASES sub-scales had acceptable internal reliability. The items of the sub-scales are shown in Table 14. factorability was assumed. Safety. With the exception of the Ego sub-scale. . which had marginal internal reliability. and . . The Cronbach’s alphas for the remaining items in the Complexity. Actualisation. 108 .60.001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was greater than the acceptable level of 0.64.
50 109 .50) was conducted on the RBPS measure of performance.CASES Dimension Complexity2 Complexity4 Complexity5 Complexity7 Actualisation2 Actualisation4 Actualisation5 Actualisation7 Safety3 Safety5 Safety6 Safety9 Ego1 Ego2 Ego6 Ego8 Social6 Social7 Social9 Social10 Item I am good at interpreting things I can spot opportunities a and make use of them I am good at overcoming obstacles to get what I want I am good at persuading others to support me I love to seek experiences in life I find great satisfaction in doing a good job I seek knowledge and skills to improve myself I work towards improving my quality of life I like to do things following the proper channels I am law-abiding I believe in doing things step by step I do not fight with authority I need security I like living in style I can be easily hurt I like to celebrate in a grand manner I like to assist my friends in time of needs I like to visit my friends I enjoy working in groups I greet my friends with open arms Table 14: Items of CASES after Principal Components Analysis 4. Based on the . Principal Components Analysis of RBPS Performance Measure A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation (with suppressed loading less than .3. This analysis yielded five orthogonal components that accounted for 80.0% of the variance.2.
90.75 .75 . The Cronbach’s alphas for the Job component.91. Career component. and 110 .001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was greater than the acceptable level of 0.56 2 3 4 5 .76 . Hence.76 .73 .85 .84 .79 Table 15: Rotated Component Matrix of RBPS The Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (p < .78 . . The results of this analysis are presented in Table 15.77 .81 .85 . .80 .84 .63 . factorability was assumed. only one item was eliminated and this was from the organisation component of the RBPS. Innovator component.73 . Team component and Organisation component of the RBPS were . .76 .60.81 .loading criterion. Component Job1 Job2 Job3 Job4 Career3 Career2 Career4 Career1 Innovator2 Innovator3 Innovator1 Innovator4 Team2 Team1 Team3 Team4 Organisation3 Organisation4 Organisation2 1 .90.89.
and Conscientiousness. The Actualisation component of CASES was positively correlated with Conscientiousness. The Ego component of CASES was positively correlated with Neuroticism. 111 . The Ego component was not correlated with Openness or Extraversion. The Relationship between the FFM Dimensions and the CASES Dimensions As shown in Table 16.01 level (one-tailed). Agreeableness and Extraversion but negatively correlated with Neuroticism. The Safety component of CASES was positively correlated with Conscientiousness. The Complexity component was not correlated with Extraversion. The five performance sub-scales therefore had acceptable internal reliability. the Complexity component of CASES was correlated positively with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness but negatively correlated with Openness and Neuroticism.4.2. All of the components of the RBPS were correlated with each other at the 0. Agreeableness. The Safety component was not correlated with Openness.. 4. Agreeableness and Extraversion but negatively correlated with Openness and Neuroticism.93 respectively.
The Social component of CASES was correlated positively with Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Extraversion but was correlated negatively with Openness. The Social component was not correlated with Neuroticism.
Conscientiousness Openness Neuroticism Agreeableness Extraversion Actualisation Social Complexity Safety Ego -.10* -.22** .48** .15** .56** .38** .58** .51** .08*
.18** -.09* .29** -.21** -.26** -.10** -.01 .03 -.13** 19** -.16** -.04 -.27** -.17** .30** .22** .59** .50** .33** .46** .14** .12** .08* -.07 .26** -.02 .59** .51** .49** .18** .31** .43** .23** .34** .12** .12**
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1 – tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 – tailed).
Table 16: Correlations between the Components of FFM and CASES
RESULTS FROM TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES
The findings from the hypothesis testing are presented in the same order as were the research questions/hypotheses in Chapter 2. The assumptions of normality and the absence of outliers and singularity underpinning the use of regression were verified by statistical tables and histogram plots of the respective components. The various components of the FFM, CASES and RBPS were found to satisfy the conditions for regression.
Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure
H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. The components of the FFM were moderately correlated (the values of the correlation among the five factors are less than .30) with each other at the 0.01 level (one-tailed) except for one correlation of .48. The correlation coefficients did not exceed .70, which indicated that multicollinearity was not a problem (Carmelli and Freund, 2004; Nunnally, 1978). From Table 17, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Neuroticism were significantly correlated to all five components of the RBPS and Total RBPS. Openness and Extraversion were negatively correlated with the Team and Career components of the RBPS respectively.
05 -.64** .17** Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Conscientiousness Openness Neuroticism Agreeablenes s 1 .09* .50** .01 level (1 – tailed).10** -.20** Career RBPS 1 .33** -.15** 1 .82** .03 1 .13** .29** .42** -.18** -.82** .25** .Job RBPS Career RBPS Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Conscientiousness Openness Neuroticism Agreeableness .32** .70** .05 level (1 – tailed). Table 17: Correlations of the Components of FFM and RBPS 115 .79** .55** .07 -.46** .48** .22** 1 .13** .53** .32** .87** .41** -.74** .63** .01 -.32** .28** .05 -.80** .02 -.21** .06 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.0 -.08* -.29** 1 -. * Correlation is significant at the 0.22** .29** 0.32** -.19** 1 .30** -.09* -.54** .62** .02 1 .22** Extraversion -.03 1 -.35** -.
12. The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS and had beta values of .469 .539 . .36 and -.000 .Using a stepwise regression analysis.192 .238 -6. 116 . the Job component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.229 .353 Sig.051 .390 .259 .000 .246 t 8.25 and -.000 . The R-square value was .051 .041 -. the Career component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.000 a.537 .411 2. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.000 .502 10. The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Career component of the RBPS and had beta values of .358 -. Error Beta 1.23.20 respectively (Table 19).25 respectively (Table 18). Dependent Variable: Perform2Job Table 18: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis.010 10. The R-square value was .445 9.
337 Sig.000 .249 .22 respectively (Table 20). Dependent Variable: Perform2Car Table 19: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis.048 -. .000 .000 .436 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Innovator component of the RBPS and had beta values of .045 9.216 t 7.000 .188 9.237 .332 2.858 Sig.16.049 5. Error Beta 1.060 . a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.655 . Error Beta 1.060 .000 . the Innovator component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.246 -.000 a.285 -.235 .290 2.000 .767 7.453 .034 -5.500 7.271 .224 .200 t 7.000 .422 .389 .000 a. Dependent Variable: Perform2In Table 20: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM 117 .359 . .055 .456 .000 .683 .055 . The R-square value was .044 -.29 and -.207 .993 8.965 -4.a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.
541 7.16.498 -3.290 4.20 respectively (Table 22). Dependent Variable: Perform2Tm Table 21: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis.14 respectively (Table 21).164 4.25 and .137 .335 7.259 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness.000 .056 .058 .983 7.058 .220 .207 2.942 4.000 .15.197 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were the only significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS and had beta values of .056 .122 . .242 .225 . Agreeableness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS and had beta values of .256 .001 a.035 .Using a stepwise regression analysis.000 .040 -.324 1.203 -.138 t 11. the Team component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.936 4.277 . a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Agree 3 (Constant) Conscientous Agree Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.000 .20 and -.20.000 .187 .050 . The R-square value was .000 .405 Sig.000 . .400 .000 .264 . 118 . The R-square value was .575 . Error Beta 2. the Organisation component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.
000 .163 .373 9.595 4.044 2.474 -5.000 . The R-square value was . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness.000 .413 .000 .000 a.000 . .335 2.348 .218 .064 .504 .186 .724 .648 4.000 .044 -.283 7.222 .121 t 10.312 -.000 .000 .210 .000 .324 5.811 Sig.910 8.348 1.140 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Org Table 22: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis.000 . -.198 t 7. a Coefficients Model 1 2 3 (Constant) Conscientous (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Agree Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.108 .253 .21 and .049 -. Error Beta 1.035 2.297 .12 respectively (Table 23).256 .188 .000 . Total RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.050 Standardized Coefficients Beta .031 9.058 .692 10.065 . .196 .364 .31.385 Sig.207 . Error 1.103 -5.370 -.23.000 .464 .005 a.a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Agree Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Neuroticism and Agreeableness were the only significant predictors of Total RBPS and had beta values of .068 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Total Table 23: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM 119 .035 .366 .744 .415 .630 12.
12 to . Agreeableness was a significant predictor of Team component.3. is supported. Nunnally.23. Career component. and Total RBPS. Team component. Furthermore. The R-square values ranged from . Neuroticism was a significant predictor of the Job component. The CASES components are distinct but related and.Conscientiousness was the best predictor of all of the RBPS components and the Total RBPS. the first hypothesis. and Total RBPS. 4. which states that the FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. like the FFM components. 2004.70. Actualisation and Safety components of the CASES correlated significantly with all five components of the RBPS as well as with Total RBPS. Innovator component. The Complexity. The Ego component correlated significantly with only the Job and Organisation components of the 120 .2. the CASES components were positively intercorrelated. Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure H2: The CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Hence. are no more wholly independent than they are redundant. which indicated that multicollinearity was not a problem (Carmelli and Freund. From Table 24. each component of the RBPS as well as Total RBPS had a significant proportion of variance explained by the FFM components. Organisation component. The correlation coefficients did not exceed the value of . 1978).
RBPS. and with Total RBPS. 121 . The Social component correlated significantly with all of the RBPS components. except for the Career component.
24** .74** .79** .54** .63** .80** .20** Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Actualisatio n Social Complexit y Safet y .49** .64** . * Correlation is significant at the 0.82** .28** .37** .34** .27** .59** .38** .40** .34** .36** .11** .39** .53** .01 level (1 – tailed).07 .18** .01 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.12** Ego -.25** .32** Career RBPS .87** .34** .31** .46** .14** .70** .45** .36** .0 -.Job RBPS Career RBPS Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Actualisation Social Complexity Safety .50** .37** .08* -0.23** .10* .07 .55** .01 . Table 24: Correlations of the Components of CASES and RBPS 122 .37** .43** .62** .40** .46** .31** .12** .51** .82** .19** .05 level (1 – tailed).
540 .Using a stepwise regression analysis.050 1.215 .350 -3.755 . the Career component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES. Dependent Variable: Perform2Job Table 25: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis.052 .049 -. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex 2 (Constant) Complex Safety 3 (Constant) Complex Safety Ego Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.38 (Table 26).413 . the Job component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.000 .000 .34. The regression revealed that Complexity was the only significant predictor of the Career component of the RBPS and had a beta value of .994 6.341 .051 .249 .000 .499 .217 -.128 .000 .050 1. .429 .328 .179 .000 .044 Standardized Coefficients Beta .000 .22 and -. The regression revealed that Complexity.15 respectively (Table 25).238 .234 7.15.809 10.000 .169 . . The R-square value was . 123 . Safety and Ego were the only significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS and had beta values of .000 a.394 5.057 5.397 .991 4. The R-square value was .862 Sig.470 8. Error 1.000 .264 .22.149 t 9.205 .
21.222 .056 Standardized Coefficients Beta . .000 .544 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Car Table 26: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex 2 (Constant) Complex Safety Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.239 .101 t 6. Dependent Variable: Perform2In Table 27: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on CASES 124 .013 a. Error 1.000 .379 t 6.053 .449 . Error Beta 1.10 respectively (Table 27). The R-square value was .050 .358 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.42 and .000 a.218 2.917 .201 .822 11.589 .000 . the Innovator component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.765 9. .000 .125 10.531 .686 4.415 .481 Sig. The regression revealed that Complexity and Safety were the only significant predictors of the Innovator component of the RBPS and had beta values of .000 .182 .530 Sig.051 .127 .
26 and .174 t 11.000 .086 9.203 . . the Team component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.958 6.000 a.010 . 125 .17 respectively (Table 29).654 6.17 respectively (Table 28).047 .261 .000 .351 .020 4.22. Complexity and Social were the only significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS and had beta values of . the Organisation component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.908 .000 .196 .12.23.127 4. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Safety 2 (Constant) Safety Complex 3 (Constant) Safety Complex Social Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.050 .912 4.202 1.000 .929 4. The regression revealed that Safety.045 .298 .240 . The R-square value was . The R-square value was . Dependent Variable: Perform2Tm Table 28: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis.19.202 . Error Beta 1. Complexity and Social were the only significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS and had beta values of .048 .053 Sig.217 . .000 .393 1.000 .17 and .17 and .049 .325 .Using a stepwise regression analysis. .371 . Safety.449 . The regression revealed that Actualisation.170 .172 .657 7.049 .000 .000 .
704 1.000 .293 .116 .314 9.782 3.000 .000 .120 2. 126 .274 .250 .056 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Org Table 29: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis.059 .060 .000 .389 .101 4.238 . Total RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.233 .911 4.067 6.281 .166 t 5.060 . The regression revealed that Complexity and Safety were the only significant predictors of Total RBPS and had beta values of .063 .26.062 .199 .167 .391 .493 .38 and .250 . The R-square value was .180 3.164 .553 .262 .258 .495 Sig.000 .001 a.217 .000 .767 . .062 .908 3.291 .263 .000 .315 . Error 1.262 .24 respectively (Table 30).296 1.000 .000 .880 3.a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Actualise 2 (Constant) Actualise Safety 3 (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex 4 (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex Social Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.230 .166 .031 .076 .057 .186 .220 .063 Standardized Coefficients Beta .235 .183 5.002 .069 .161 4.
406 . and Total RBPS. each component of the RBPS as well as Total RBPS had a significant proportion of variance explained by the CASES components.239 t 11.247 .032 6.26.709 .587 12. Actualisation and Safety were the best predictors of the Organisation component and Team component of the RBPS respectively.378 .000 .644 6.176 .084 .459 1. The R-square values ranged from . Social was a significant predictor for the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. Furthermore. the Innovator component.000 .041 .041 . the Innovator component.171 9.000 a. the Career component. the Organisation component. Ego was a significant predictor for only the Job component of the RBPS. 127 . Safety was also a significant predictor of the Job component. . and Total RBPS.15 to . Hence. which states that the CASES model will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Error Beta 1.098 Sig.000 .147 .000 . the second hypothesis. Dependent Variable: Perform2Total Table 30: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on CASES Complexity was the best predictor of the Job component.493 .042 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex 2 (Constant) Complex Safety Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std. is supported.
3.4. Complexity.20. From Table 31. The factors of Complexity.22. and Social were the only significant predictors.9% followed by Neuroticism with 5.20. FFM and CASES predicting the Job Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.8%. the beta values are: Conscientiousness . Safety and Social. Neuroticism -. and Social -. Neuroticism.3.1. Complexity . FFM and CASES predicting performance H3: The CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. accounted for 4. from the CASES. Safety. These two factors were from the FFM. Conscientiousness explained 16. The regression revealed that Conscientiousness. Safety .2% of the variance of the Job component of the RBPS.3. 4.11. the Job component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of the CASES. 128 .3.15.
058 . .246 1.271 .238 -6.176 4.113 6.051 .946 5.055 .139 .264 .041 -.715 .109 t 8.200 -.2.000 .545 -5.041 -.200 .228 .000 .502 10.287 .000 . FFM and CASES Predicting the Career Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.947 4.969 .041 -.537 .000 .000 .114 1. Error Beta 1.010 a.217 .065 .428 4.254 -. The regression revealed that Complexity and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors.251 .333 .411 2.648 6.041 -.302 -2.000 .000 .052 .199 .374 -5.000 .581 Sig.010 10.219 -.000 .192 .248 .578 4.180 .353 7.390 .000 .051 .358 -.469 .148 -. the Career component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of the CASES.026 -5.000 .263 .058 .008 .297 3.002 2.000 .058 .539 .066 .233 .210 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic 3 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Complex 4 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Complex Safety 5 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Complex Safety Social Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.131 .221 .229 .191 1.259 .3.486 4.000 .060 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Job Table 31: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.3.241 .445 9.000 .051 -.211 . 129 .000 .001 .881 .000 .185 .000 .
Neuroticism -.996 Sig.191 . The regression revealed that Complexity. From Table 32.000 .000 a. From Table 33.379 .6% of the variance in the Innovator component of the RBPS.34 and for Neuroticism it was -. the Innovator component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES.057 -. the beta values are: Complexity .765 9. Complexity and Safety were from the CASES while Neuroticism was from the FFM. Error 1.000 .048 Standardized Coefficients Beta . . and Social .1% followed by Neuroticism (2.7%) and Safety accounted for 0. Dependent Variable: Perform2Car Table 32: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on the FFM and CASES 4.530 7.3.056 2. Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.258 .3. which explained 2.358 . explained 14. 130 .000 .208 -3.38.827 8.469 .09.335 -.000 .4% followed by Neuroticism from the FFM.4% of the variance. The Complexity component explained 20.The Complexity component from the CASES model.16. Neuroticism and Safety were the only significant predictors.201 .16.3.531 . the beta value of the Complexity was .017 .163 Model 1 2 (Constant) Complex (Constant) Complex Neurotic t 6. FFM and CASES Predicting the Innovator Component of RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.
12.000 .070 Complex .051 .589 .493 .000 .141 a.168 -4. The Safety component explained 15.000 . FFM and CASES Predicting the Team Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis. and Neuroticism accounted for 1.232 8. Safety.033 Table 33: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.093 Safety .043 -. the beta values are: Safety .142 Neurotic -.161 -4. Dependent Variable: Perform2In Sig.3.793 Complex .000 .043 -.177 .449 11.000 .5% followed by Complexity (3.14.686 2 (Constant 1.3%). the Team component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES.052 .3% of the variance in the Team component of the RBPS.109 . Complexity .25. Complexity and Social factors were from CASES while Neuroticism factor was from the FFM. Social and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors. From Table 34.4. The regression revealed that Safety. 131 .000 .19. Complexity.239 .376 9.185 . Error Beta t 1 (Constant 1.822 Complex .403 10. Social .050 .287 3 (Constant 1.000 . .054 .573 .182 6.a Coefficients Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Social (2.3.876 .529 .6%).086 2. and Neuroticism -.000 .272 5.258 Neurotic -.
048 1.Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.053 5. Safety .912 4.000 .127 4. 132 .449 . and Social (1. From Table 35.000 . Error 1.674 3.12. The regression revealed that Actualisation.000 .210 .339 -3.050 .281 .351 .000 .3.139 .301 4.1%).000 .958 6.196 . Safety.371 .246 .203 .000 .045 1.000 .170 .003 a.657 7. FFM and CASES Predicting the Organisation Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.000 .119 Model 1 2 3 4 (Constant) Safety (Constant) Safety Complex (Constant) Safety Complex Social (Constant) Safety Complex Social Neurotic t 11.186 -.202 .165 . . none of the FFM components were significant. the Organisation component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES.048 -.002 Sig.086 9.174 . All of these components were from the CASES.000 .049 1.202 .325 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Tm Table 34: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of the RBPS on FFM and CASES 4. and Social .19.050 . the beta values are: Actualisation . Complexity (2.8%).240 .908 .929 4.001 .049 .261 .567 5.050 .425 .118 . Complexity and Social were the only significant predictors.172 .17. Complexity .256 .047 .217 .000 .5.000 .0%). followed by Safety (4.3%.298 .654 6.000 .393 .010 .020 4. Actualisation explained 15.039 Standardized Coefficients Beta .17.3.
180 3.230 .120 2.3. Complexity and Safety were from the CASES and Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were from the FFM.6. 133 .3%).220 . Total RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES. Safety. The regression revealed that Complexity.9%).314 9.281 .000 .553 . the beta values are: Complexity .28.908 3.880 3.164 .062 .000 .116 .031 .293 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Org Table 35: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.3.167 .250 .060 .063 Standardized Coefficients Beta . FFM and CASES Predicting Total RBPS Performance Using a stepwise regression analysis.199 .262 .18.15.911 4.069 . Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were the only significant predictors. Complexity explained 21. .238 .000 .063 .000 .315 .057 .166 Model 1 2 3 4 (Constant) Actualise (Constant) Actualise Safety (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex Social t 5.1%). and Conscientiousness .493 .Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. and Conscientiousness (0.274 .166 . From Table 36.000 .002 .296 1.062 .291 .233 .060 .262 .101 4.161 4.495 Sig.217 .391 .250 .000 .767 . Neuroticism (2. Error 1.000 .782 3.704 1.235 .13.186 . Safety .001 a.076 .059 . Neuroticism -.258 .183 5.000 .263 .1% followed by Safety (5.389 .067 6.000 .056 .
Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.340 .613 .247 .180 -.186 .000 .493 .176 .141 .159 .126 Model 1 2 3 4 (Constant) Complex (Constant) Complex Safety (Constant) Complex Safety Neurotic (Constant) Complex Safety Neurotic Conscientous t 11.000 .000 .000 .084 .587 12.041 1.176 6. Safety component of the CASES was the best predictor of the Team component of the RBPS. Social component of the CASES was a significant predictor of the Job.010 a.054 Standardized Coefficients Beta .225 -.142 .365 .598 Sig.000 .081 2. except for the Career component.154 .472 .406 .459 .034 .000 .000 .098 7.138 .000 . and Total RBPS.171 9.522 8.214 .562 5.709 . the Innovator component.791 -4.283 . Error 1. 134 .000 .232 .271 4. Actualisation component of the CASES was the best predictor of the Organisation component of the RBPS.000 .032 6.000 . .042 .692 6.271 -4.239 .304 .041 1. Safety was also a significant predictor of all five components of the RBPS.378 . Complexity was also a significant predictor of the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.147 .000 . Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.048 .044 -.220 .000 .043 .034 1. and Total RBPS.644 6. Dependent Variable: Perform2Total Table 36: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM and CASES The Complexity component of the CASES was revealed to be the best predictor of the Career component.040 -.
.4% of the variance in the FFM items. Each component of the RBPS as well as Total RBPS had a significant proportion of variance explained by at least one of the components from the CASES and/or the FFM.Conscientiousness component of the FFM was the best predictor of the Job component and a significant predictor of Total RBPS. The five factors are all intercorrelated significantly at the 0. The original sub-scales had ten items 135 . Hence. The Openness and Conscientiousness components each have five items while the Extraversion. 4. is supported. Ego and Social) has 4 items. and Total RBPS.01 level (1-tailed). Safety. The Cronbach’s alphas for the FFM components range from .e. Complexity. Each of the components (i.4. except for the Organisation component. The principal components analysis of the CASES yielded a five-component measure that accounted for 57.73.57 to . CONCLUSION The principal components analysis of the FFM yielded a five-component measure that accounted for 47.0% of the variance. which states that the CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. Actualisation. The original subscales had ten items each. Agreeableness and Neuroticism components each have four items. the third hypothesis.29.17 to . The R-square values ranged from . Neuroticism component of the FFM was a significant predictor of all the RBPS components.
Complexity. The R-square values ranged from . is supported. the first hypothesis. Each component of the RBPS had a significant proportion of its variance explained by the FFM components. Safety and Ego were significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS. From the stepwise regression.each. All five CASES components were intercorrelated significantly at the 0. Complexity and Social were significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. Agreeableness and Neuroticism were significant predictors of the Team component and Total RBPS.01 level (1-tailed). Safety. which states that the FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Conscientiousness. From the stepwise regression.12 to .89 to . and Innovator components of the RBPS. Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Job. for which one item was removed. The Cronbach’s alphas for the CASES components ranged from . All of the components retained their original 4items except for the Organisation component.93.0% of the variance. Complexity was the only significant predictor of the Career component of the RBPS. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. The Cronbach’s alphas for these components ranged from .23. The principal components analysis of the RBPS yielded a five-component measure that accounted for 80.81.48 to . Hence. The R- 136 . Complexity and Safety were significant predictors of the Innovator component and Total RBPS. Complexity and Social were significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS. Safety. Actualisation. Career.
Complexity and Safety of the CASES and Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the FFM were significant predictors of Total RBPS. Hence. Hence. the second hypothesis. except for the Organisation component which was significantly predicted only by components of CASES. which states that the CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Actualisation.square values ranged from .29. Complexity of the CASES and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Career component of the RBPS.14 to . Complexity and Social of the CASES and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS. The R-square values ranged from . had a significant proportion of its variance explained by both the CASES and the FFM components. Each component of the RBPS. Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM and Complexity. Safety. Complexity and Social of the CASES were significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. Each component of the RBPS had a significant proportion of its variance explained by the CASES components. Complexity and Safety of the CASES and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Innovator component of the RBPS.26. the third hypothesis. is essentially supported. is supported.17 to . Safety. 137 . Safety and Social of the CASES were significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS. From the stepwise regression. which states that the CASES and FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings.
0. and finally a conclusion.2. 5. and suggestions for future research. which revealed a five-component solution consisting of Openness 138 . the limitations of the study. DISCUSSION OF THE MAIN FINDINGS 5.1. CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 5. INTRODUCTION This final Chapter contains a discussion of the main findings from the study as well as a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of the study. 1999) was analysed using principal components analysis.2. Main Findings for Research Question One Research Question One: Does the FFM model of personality predict work performance? The first research question was addressed by the first hypothesis: H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. The original 50-item FFM measure (Goldberg.1.5.
(1984) argued that a correlation of 0. responsible. imaginative and intellectual) was found to be negatively correlated to only the Team component of the RBPS with r = -.30 or greater was therefore considered as indicating a valid predictor of performance. The results of the stepwise regression analyses also did not reveal Openness as a significant predictor of any of the RBPS components.. hardworking. dependable. The value of the correlation coefficient that can be considered to indicate a useful predictor has been debated over the years. 1997). achievement oriented. This finding is not surprising given that conscientious individuals are organised.20 was considered by Cohen (1988) as meaningful but Schmitt et al. purposeful. Of the five FFM components. All of these components were intercorrelated as revealed in past research which showed that they were distinct but related factors (Judge et al.30 were questionable. Conscientiousness (5 items). Barrick and Mount (1991) also argued that coefficients below . Conscientiousness (e. achievement oriented and persistent) had the highest correlations with all of the RBPS components and Total RBPS.g. A value of 0. In view of the cut-off value of 0.30. a correlation coefficient of 0. For this research. this factor was considered as an inadequate predictor of any of the RBPS components or of Total RBPS.09. This finding corroborates the finding of Hogan and Holland (2003). responsible. Agreeableness (four items) and Neuroticism (four items). 139 .20 was too low to accept personality as a predictor of work performance... Openness (e.g.(5 items). artistically sensitive. Extraversion (four items).
Crant 1995.. Such low values of the correlation 140 . Conscientious individuals perform better because they set goals which help them to direct their effort and achieve challenging goals over a long period of time. Extraversion (e.g. and persistent (Barrick et al. Hurtz and Donovan 2000. From a theoretical perspective. persistent. It makes sense that individuals who have tendencies to be careful. talkative. the Conscientiousness construct does seem to be logically related to work performance.. From the stepwise regression analysis. 1993).. the Conscientiousness component also predicted Total RBPS better than contextual work performance (i. achievement-oriented and responsible (i. dependable. the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS).. Hence. Barrick and Mount 1993. hard working and thorough will perform better than those who do not have such tendencies. that have been examined (e. Conscientiousness has been shown to be a significant predictor of all job-related criteria. and Sanders 2003). Furthermore.e. in all occupational groups.. Salgado 1997. high in Conscientiousness) were positively associated with work-related performance. assertive and sociable) was found to be negatively correlated (r = -. these results demonstrated that being dependable.g.e. Conscientiousness was found to be the best predictor of the components of the RBPS and of Total RBPS. This finding is consistent with the results of Avis et al.09) with the Career component of the RBPS.dependable. (2002) who posited that the FFM dimensions were better at predicting overall performance measures than those with contextual aspects.
Hence. and 141 . The stepwise regressions revealed that Extraversion as a non-significant predictor of performance. are often disregarded (Barrick et al. Neuroticism was a predictor of the Job component. Using a 0. Salgado (1997) revealed that Agreeableness was a valid predictor of work performance for skilled labourers. Agreeableness was only a valid predictor of the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. the Innovator component. Neuroticism was correlated significantly with the Job component of the RBPS and with Total RBPS. and managers. Agreeableness can be a predictor of certain components of job performance for managerial staff in highly structured jobs. Employees in these types of jobs who were courteous. 1993). Agreeableness was a significant predictor of all the RBPS components and of Total RBPS. the Career component.2%) were from the managerial positions in highly structured jobs. 1993). In the stepwise regression analyses. trusting. the finding from this study also supported that Agreeableness was a valid predictor of certain aspects of work performance for skilled. cooperative and forgiving (which were facets of Agreeableness) might be more cooperative and compliant and therefore would perform better in highly structured organisations where there was little ambiguity in their jobs (Barrick and Mount.05 level.coefficient. and of Total RBPS.30 cut-off value for the correlation coefficient. even though it is significant at the 0. professional and managerial staff. professionals. Since the majority of the respondents (404 or 74. In line with the findings of the current study. Hogan and Holland (2003) reported that Extraversion was a poor predictor of performance and claimed that this was due to the Extraversion being too broad a construct. soft-hearted. the Team component.
. 1993). which states that the FFM will predict a significant of variance of performance ratings. tendencies to experience negative emotions and pessimism. individuals with high neuroticism would be likely to develop negative attitudes towards their work hence resulting in poor performance as they devote less time in their jobs (Bozionelos. In the final analysis. Hence. 2003). employees who are resilient. low confidence. The emergence of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism as predictors of performance was not surprising as these two Big Five traits have consistently been found to be the most relevant predictors of work performance (Judge and Ilies. agreeableness and neuroticism should predict performance (Hogan and Holland. If performance criteria are classified as getting ahead and getting along.e. Furthermore. criteria. the antithesis of Neuroticism) has generalised validity across occupation. was supported. low Neuroticism) tend to be evaluated more positively than those who are panicky. These findings supported Salgado’s (2003) argument that emotional stability (i.e. Furthermore. Neuroticism encompasses traits such as excessive worry. Task performance corresponds to getting ahead while contextual performance corresponds to getting along. Agreeableness and Neuroticism could be considered as valid predictors of work performance in an absolute sense if 0. Hypothesis One.Total RBPS. organisations and countries. This finding was partially reinforced in this study. 2002. Barrick and Mount. then conscientiousness. calm and self-confident (i.30 was adopted as the standard.. 2004a). Hurtz and Donovan (2000) postulated that Conscientiousness. 142 . Due to their tendency to construe their experiences in a negative light. the five components of RBPS have components of “getting along and getting ahead”.
. Main Findings for Research Question Two Research Question Two: Does the CASES model of personality predict work performance? The second research question was addressed by the second hypothesis: H2: The CASES model will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings..31 to . self-regulation or low impulsivity and volition) correlated with all of the components of the RBPS with coefficients ranging from . Safety..2. Ego and Social).e. Complexity correlated with the Job component of the RBPS as the facets of volition and self-regulation in Complexity were related with the facets of customer services in the Job component which required tactful interventions.46).g.45 and had the highest correlation with Total RBPS (r = . The Complexity component (e.e. CASES) comprised five components (i. The current study has provided a theoretical argument for the development of a personality measure based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the social cognitive theory of “If-Then”. Complexity.5. which were correlated positively to each other but to an extent that they could be considered as distinct but related components. The new personality measure (i. Actualisation. Complexity correlated with the Career component of the RBPS as self-regulation and volition would enhance the attainment of career 143 .2.
Using a cut-off value of 0.g.. self-esteem and needs for achievement. Actualisation cannot be considered a valid predictor for the Job component. growth and progress) was correlated with all of the RBPS components and with Total RBPS. all of which are arguably related to the need for growth. Actualisation correlated with the Organisation component of the RBPS. 1977a). Actualisation correlated with the Team component of the RBPS. action and thought. Actualisation was also correlated with 144 . passion. or the Innovator component of the RBPS. Complexity correlated with the Team component of the RBPS as facets of persevering and conforming in volition would ensure harmonious team formation and group success. This aspect of performance can be linked to passion. which includes doing things outside one’s job scope for the betterment of the company. The Actualisation component (e. the Career component.30 for the correlation coefficient. Complexity correlated with the Innovator component of the RBPS as low impulsivity would enable the creation of ideas and improvements to how one does one’s work. Complexity correlated with the Organisation component of the RBPS arguably because self-regulation and volition would promote the virtues of the organisation. which includes aspects of performance such as ensuring group success and seeking and responding to group’s needs.opportunities and the advancement of one’s career. Complexity had the highest correlation with Total RBPS arguably because high levels of Complexity enable one to control one’s motivation. In support of this argument is the finding that high performers perceive events are determined by themselves while low performers perceive events as controlled by chance (Bandura. self-esteem and the need for progress.
Safety correlated with the Team component of the RBPS arguably because the facets of the Safety component would provide a sense of security to achieve success.30. At this level. achievement. the need for growth. Safety was correlated to the Organisation component of the RBPS arguably because the existence of a good system and structure in the company would provide a good environment to promote the company. Safety correlated with the Job component of the RBPS arguably because orderly and structured facets are antecedents of high quality and high quantity. systematic. Using a cut-off value of . The Safety component of CASES (e. and progress. Safety correlated with Total 145 . security. passionate and creative would perform better than those who do not have these tendencies. such that the respondents were perhaps too young to be highly motivated to realise their full potential. Team. which included facets of passion. the Actualisation construct does seem to be logically related to organisational citizenship and total performance.Total RBPS.. orderly and structured) correlated with all of the components of the RBPS and with Total RBPS.g. the Safety component is correlated with the Job. From a theoretical perspective. This finding reaffirmed Arnold’s (1988) claim that Actualisation is a predictor of job performance. the drive is to achieve a sense of fulfilment in balancing one’s work and life responsibilities (Stum. and Organisation components of the RBPS and with Total RBPS. The reason could be the age of the respondents (average age was 34. It is reasonable that individuals with tendencies to be achievement-oriented.6 years). 2001). The stepwise regression analyses revealed that Actualisation was the best and only predictor of the Organisation component of the RBPS.
RBPS arguable because its facets of orderly... quality and quantity of work) that constitute the job component of the RBPS.30 cut-off value. This finding indicates that the Ego component is detrimental to facets of performance (e. The Ego component of CASES did not correlate significantly with any of the RBPS components or with Total RBPS arguably because its facets of good living and celebrating in style are not relevant to work performance. Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. predictor of the Job component of the RBPS. needs for love. companionship and care) correlated significantly with all of the components of the RBPS. with the exception of the Ego component.g. The stepwise regression analyses also revealed that Social was a significant predictor of the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. these components of performance are related to facets of teamwork and organisational citizenship. In the stepwise regression analyses. is a useful predictor of the various components of the 146 . structured and systematic are antecedents of productivity (Cook et al. and Total RBPS. the CASES model. Innovator. Using the 0. except for the Innovator component.g. 2000).. Social correlated only with the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. Safety was found to be a significant predictor of the Job. The Social component of CASES (e. Based on the preceding discussion of the main findings. and with Total RBPS. affiliation. The stepwise regression analyses also revealed that Ego was a significant. but negatively related.
both of which are components of the FFM. Safety and Social components of CASES. was therefore supported. to conform and persevere) whereas the Neuroticism 147 . The stepwise regression showed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Hypothesis Two.e. which states that CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Main Findings for Research Question Three Research Question Three: Do the two models of personality contribute uniquely to the prediction of work performance? The third research question was addressed by the third hypothesis: H3: The CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. were better predictors of the Job component of the RBPS as compared with the Complexity.3. This finding might be due to the fact that the Complexity component has facets which included volition (i.RBPS and Total RBPS. The stepwise regression revealed that the Complexity component of the CASES was a better predictor of the Career component of the RBPS than Neuroticism. 5.2. This finding is consistent with the findings of Barrick and Mount (1993) and Judge and Ilies (2002) that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were valid predictors of all categories of work performance.. a component of the FFM.
Complexity. which is the essence of the Organisation component of the RBPS.g. protection. structured. Safety. The stepwise regression revealed that the Complexity and Safety components of CASES and the Neuroticism and Conscientiousness components of the FFM were predictors of Total RBPS.g. Complexity includes self-regulation and volition and not surprisingly 148 . The stepwise regression revealed that the Safety. and Social components of the CASES and the Neuroticism component of the FFM were predictors of the Team component of the RBPS. passion and realisation of one’s potential) that facilitate organisational citizenship. The stepwise regression showed that for the Innovator component of the RBPS. and orderly) that enhance facets of teamwork such as seeking information from others and working with others. Complexity was the best predictor followed by Safety.component comprises facets such as fear and low confidence regarding career progress and development. and Social components of CASES were predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. This was probably due to the fact that Actualisation includes facets (e. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. both of which are aspects of Complexity. Complexity. The Innovator component addresses behaviors such as finding new ways to do one’s work and requires risk taking and confidence. The stepwise regression revealed that the Actualisation. Safety was the best predictor due probably to the fact that Safety includes aspects (e. Complexity was the best predictor followed by Neuroticism and Safety. Actualisation was the best predictor.
. IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS 5. examining the link between personality and work performance appears to have profound implications for organisations. If researchers are able to affirm that certain personality traits are related significantly to work performance. the various components of the CASES and the FFM are significant predictors of the various components of the RBPS and Total RBPS. These results provide evidence that there are specific aspects of personality that predict work-related performance over and above that provided by the FFM (Salgado. individuals and human resources consultants. which is based on 149 . Implications on Professional Practice From the classical perspective.1.3.3. Based on the preceding discussion of the main findings. 5. 1997. 1998. Sackett et al. then people can learn how to modify their personality to improve their work performance and organisations can benefit by recruiting individuals with personality profiles that may render them as preferred employees. which states that the CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance.was a better predictor than Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Hypothesis Three. was therefore supported. the proposed CASES model. From this point of view. 2004).. Kieffer et al.
Although the research methodology and design did not permit statements of causality. The CASES model may also be useful for recruitment consultants in that it may help them to identify effective employees. organisations and individuals. 150 . For organisations. The CASES model provides a means for individuals to assess their personality so as to develop appropriate strategies to improve their performance and hence their vocational endeavors (Lau and Shaffer. which is a wellestablished model of personality. The knowledge that personality can influence or even be a determinant of work performance is valuable to recruiting agencies.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the social cognitive theory of “If-Then”. The results indicate that the CASES model of personality maybe a useful addition to the array of personality or individual difference measures that are used to predict various facets of work performance. 1999). for their client organisations. recruiting and promoting personnel. the CASES model did account for significant variance in work performance over and above that accounted for by the FFM. based on personality traits. has important practical implications. the CASES model is another useful tool for human resource personnel with respect to designing effective job specifications or roles. and formulating effective human resources strategies in training.
These instruments have predominantly been developed in the Western countries and the question arises as to the generalisability of these instruments to Asian countries. personality.3. The level of job complexity may have a role in whether an interaction occurs between personality and ability when predicting work performance. where English is a second language. Beadles II and Krilowicz. it is not surprising other factors such as ability. Hence. Moreover. many personality measures are based on single theories and therefore their usefulness for predicting performance in actual workplace settings needs to be examined. Furthermore. behavior. Implications on Theory The first Chapter provided an outline of this study in the context of motivation. personality interacts with cognitive ability and appears to influence work performance (Lowery. cognition and satisfaction are correlated with work performance.2. The need for achievement is also dependent on the fit between environmental factors and personality. In recent years. There is a lot of debate on whether the role of a person on work performance is sculptor or sculpture.5. 2004) 151 . Two research problems were therefore identified and these guided the current research. values. such as Malaysia. there has been a proliferation of psychometric instruments that have been used as part of organisational development and recruitment processes. and psychometric measures.
public or private) would increase confidence in its validity and generalisability. This creates range restriction. LIMITATIONS The study was a cross-sectional sample of some commercial organisations of various sizes in Malaysia which did not allow an assessment of causality. which reduces the correlation between items. A subsequent study designed to assess personality and work performance over time (longitudinally) using a random sample of the population (i..11.e. Given the relatively small correlation coefficients obtained in this study (minimum r = . a convenience sample was used.. 5. consciously or unconsciously. Furthermore.4. Self-ratings are influenced by social desirability such that responses tend to be skewed toward the favourable end of the Likert scale for each item. which brings into question the representativeness of the sample and therefore the generalisability of the findings. Common method variance and mono-source bias are potential limitations of the current study as they may produce spurious relationships. modify their behavior to improve their work performance. 2002). small or medium or large organisations. the CASES model suggests that certain personality factors or traits have a greater effect on work performance because people can. there is no way of estimating 152 .46). it seems reasonable to conclude that the measures of personality and work performance were assessing separate constructs (Barrick et al. However.Similarly. The predictors and the criteria used in the current study were obtained from self-report data using a single questionnaire. maximum r = .
supervisor or co-worker ratings had equivalent or higher levels of criterion-related validity in comparison with employees’ self-reports. FFM and the RBPS is recommended. It would be difficult to fathom how the relative validities of the FFM. 5. 153 .what the variance of the ratings ought to be. This study was the first time these measures have been used together in Malaysia. possible modifications as well as further validation of the CASES. The circumstances of the respondents’ participation did not give any incentive to give inaccurate responses. Hence. CASES and RBPS would have differed if incentives were provided. further instrument refinement is recommended. Hence. In regards to instrumentation.5. Another impetus for further research is the length of the CASES measure as this personality measure has only 20 items. it is not possible to adjust the correlations for the effects of a restricted range. it would be interesting to explore these relationships using alternative measurements as certain studies had presented evidence that customer. FUTURE RESEARCH The personality measures of the FFM and the CASES and the RBPS performance measure were self-reports. due to its brevity. For the sake of understanding the impact of personality on work performance. Consequently. organisations may be willing to include the CASES measure in surveys as a preliminary screening for potential employees.
From a more philosophical angle. Future research can also be conducted to ascertain whether the results reported in this study are generalisable to different jobs (e. CONCLUSION The main objective of the current study was to examine the research question as to whether personality can predict work performance using the FFM and CASES models of personality. 5. income and educational backgrounds are needed to address concerns about the generalisability of the findings obtained in the current study. skilled or semi-skilled. goal-setting motivation. management or clerical). 154 . Given that the research on the CASES measure is an initial effort.6. organisational settings (public. Although face validity may be defined as a “test which looks good for a particular purpose” (Hogan. validity is a long-term process for any research. self-efficacy.. Face validity is always a problem in personality measure. job satisfaction and other proximal motivation models that include interaction effects should also be encouraged to further enhance the validation of this personality measure. Systematic replication integrating a variety of individuals representing various ages. it should by all means be subjected to replication in various contexts with various work performance measures. non-governmental or non-profit organisations) and cultures. job complexity.Questions about the generalisability of these findings and external validity issues can be addressed through replications of this study. sales.g. The cross-validation of the CASES with other determinants of work performance such as ability.
Because needs are met at different stages. Personality measures often have empirical validity but commonly are weak on face validity. ability. p. co-workers. 1996. changes in one’s life can affect the sequence of meeting these needs. job-related learning and knowledge sharing) that are not included in the RBPS. it would be appropriate to explore this relationship using third-party sources (e. Face validity would enhance the users’ acceptance of a test method and is definitely desirable but if such a face-valid measure does not predict non-test behavior. If one is to choose between a test with empirical validity but no appeal to the layman and a test with face validity with no empirical validity.g. That is. 1997). supervisors.Hogan and Roberts. it is of no use for decision making.. 474). A 155 . each individual moves through Maslow’s hierarchy at a different rate. The strength of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory is its ability to identify those needs which motivate behavior (Wiley. one should choose the former. to understand the impact of personality on work performance. The categorisation of work performance dimensions based on the RBPS could be criticised on the same grounds that were used to justify the use of the FFM. many seemingly appropriate personality tests fail to predict work performance. or customers) for information on work performance and personality rather than to rely exclusively on self-report data.g. motivation. Employee performance is basically determined by three things. Furthermore.. Furthermore. they can provide a basic understanding of what actually energises or motivates individuals. there are other dimensions of work performance (e. and the work environment (Wiley. While personality-based theories may not necessarily predict behavior or motivation. 1997).
neurotic individuals may learn to adjust their negative outlook of life for better personal success and agreeable individuals can recognise their natural tendency to downgrade and compromise their personal interests. 156 . people are not simply reactors to stimuli in their environment in that they can also organise. The traditional personality perspectives are hampered by the mechanistic models which posited that people possess dispositions or traits which lead them to behave consistently under changing circumstances. With this jockeying to satisfy these needs. Besides their indisputable academic importance. select and transform stimuli. personal development and career advice. Hogan and Roberts.promotion may meet the self-actualisation level for an individual but meeting new people and learning new routines may cause the individual to try to fulfil safety and social needs. for example. Hence. 1996). If researchers are able to classify jobs by occupation and then consider the performance criteria and the personality dimensional requirements relevant to that occupation. then the predictive relationship between work performance and personality will improve (Hogan. In reality. studies that have examined the relationship between personality and work performance can be utilised for recruitment. the individual must balance life and work responsibilities to ultimately achieve a sense of fulfilment. A comment on the usefulness of research on personality and work performance should also be made. it would be beneficial to individuals to be aware of the limitations and advantages associated with their personality profiles. Although personality is significantly inherited and stable in adulthood.
The researcher hopes that the combination of supportive initial research results and high face validity will encourage use of and research on the CASES model. Hunton and Bryant. the CASES model of personality is relatively unique as it is a two-theory model as compared with many one-theory based personality measures that appear to be able to explain the multivariate phenomenon of behavior in a multidimensional manner. CASES can be offered as a useful personality measure for both practitioners and researchers. some components of the CASES model were found to be better predictors of the Career. 2004a. Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. The study also showed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM are valid predictors for all jobs and criteria in the sample used in this study. the researcher believes that it has made a contribution to research on personality measures and the prediction of work-related performance. CASES. Innovator. can be added as a new contribution to the body of knowledge for personality measure especially in relation to the prediction of work-related performance. CASES. Hence. 2003). In addition to providing a theory-grounded measurement tool. Moreover. 157 . Although the FFM is a well established personality measure. and Total RBPS as compared to the FFM which was a better predictor of only the Job component of the RBPS.The study has contributed to the literature on personality by providing a new personality measure. Although this is a preliminary study of the validity of the CASES model of personality. Tett and Burnett. this personality measure. both situationally and contextually (Wheeler.
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nor your organisation will be named or be able to be identified from the published report. I am conducting a research project titled “Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure”.com September 15. I am Chong Chien Fatt. We are interested only in the overall relationships between Personality and Work Performance. 2005 Subject: Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure Dear Potential Participant.Casimir@newcastle. which will be shredded after the data have been entered into a spreadsheet. As part of my studies. The confidentiality of your responses is assured as only Chong Chien Fatt and Gian Casimir will have access to the completed questionnaires. The anonymity of your responses is guaranteed because you are not required to provide your name nor any other information that can be used to identify you.APPENDIX ONE – INFORMATION SHEET Newcastle Graduate School of Business Faculty of Business and Law Level 3. We are therefore not interested in the specific responses of any particular individual. 182 .au CHONG Chien Fatt Tel: +60123760133 Fax: +60331602894 Email: chongchienfatt@yahoo. You are invited to take part in this research project which examines the relationship between work performance and personality. a student in the Newcastle Graduate School of Business at the University of Newcastle undertaking a Doctorate of Business and Administration Degree and Gian Casimir is my research supervisor. your Organisation will be provided with a report that will be recommended for distribution to staff. On completion of the study.edu. University House Corner King and Auckland Street Newcastle 2300 AUSTRALIA For further information: Dr Gian Casimir Tel: +61 2 4921 6680 Fax:+61 2 4921 7398 Email: Gian. The findings of this study may be published in a scholarly journal but neither you. You are required to complete a questionnaire on personality and work performance.
University Drive. The Chancellery. Approval No . Chancellery. telephone (+61 249 216 333.au) 183 . However. The University requires that should you have concerns about your rights as a participant in this research. 2308. Yours sincerely. Thank you for taking time to consider this invitation. telephone +61 249 216 333. If you would like more information.Participation in this study is entirely voluntary. to the Human Research Ethics Officer. email: HumanEthics@newcastle. University of Newcastle. The University of Newcastle. If you want to take part in the study.au. The questionnaire will be distributed by the Human Resources Managers. the University’s Human Research Ethics Officer. Mr Chong Chien Fatt Dr Gian Casimir Complaints Clause: This project has been approved by the University’s Human Research Ethics Committee. please contact Chong Chien Fatt or Gian Casimir or if an independent person is preferred. will have no effect on your employment and no one will know whether or not you have participated as completion of the questionnaire will be performed at a location of your choice. Research Office. please complete the questionnaire and return it to the researchers in the stamped self-addressed envelope provided.edu. it may be given to the researcher. if an independent person is preferred. with return of the questionnaire through stamped and self-addressed envelopes to the researcher.edu. Bus-Law/SEGi/1/32:05A). Research Branch. or. Callaghan NSW 2308. or you have a complaint about the manner in which the research is conducted. or to not participate. email HumanEthics@newcastle. your decision to participate.
184 .edu. We would greatly appreciate your organisation’s participation.com September 15. Please note that all potential participants should be informed that participation is voluntary and that they will not be disadvantaged in any way by not participating. This questionnaire is a personality and work performance measures and should take approximately twenty minutes to complete.au CHONG Chien Fatt Tel: +60123760133 Fax: +60331602894 Email: chongchienfatt@yahoo. you will be asked to distribute a questionnaire (see attached) to your staff selected by a stratified random procedure that represents a diagonal slice across levels and functional areas. Dear Sir. After the data have been entered into a spreadsheet.Casimir@newcastle. Please see the attached information sheet for participants. If your organisation is willing to participate. 2005 Subject: Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure. Your organisation is invited to take part in a study which is being conducted by Mr Chong Chien Fatt and Dr Gian Casimir from the Newcastle Graduate School of Business. This study examines the relationship between personality and work performance. Mr Chong is conducting this study as part of his Doctor of Business and Administration Degree and Dr Gian Casimir is his research supervisor.APPENDIX TWO – CONSENT SEEKING LETTER TO COMPANY Newcastle Graduate School of Business Faculty of Business and Law Level 3. the questionnaires will be shredded. University House Corner King and Auckland Street Newcastle 2300 AUSTRALIA For further information: Dr Gian Casimir Tel: +61 2 4921 6680 Fax:+61 2 4921 7398 Email: Gian. The confidentiality of responses is assured as only Chong Chien Fatt and Gian Casimir will have access to the completed questionnaires. We are interested only in the overall relationship between personality and work performance and therefore are not interested in the specific responses of any particular individual.
Research Office. it may be given to the researcher. which we recommend to be made available to all staff. Yours sincerely. please reply to us in writing stating your department’s willingness. University Drive. The University requires that should you have concerns about your rights as a participant in this research. The Chancellery.au) 185 . Mr Chong Chien Fatt and Dr Gian Casimir Complaints Clause: This project has been approved by the University’s Human Research Ethics Committee. Thank you for taking time to consider this invitation. Bus-Law/SEGi/1/32:05A). if an independent person is preferred. or. email HumanEthics@newcastle. Callaghan NSW 2308. If you agree to take part in the study.On completion of the study. or you have a complaint about the manner in which the research is conducted. nor your department will be named or be able to be identified from the published report. please contact Chong Chien Fatt or Gian Casimir. For further information. The findings of this study may be published in a scholarly journal but neither you. Approval No .edu. The University of Newcastle. telephone (+61 249 216 333. to the Human Research Ethics Officer. your organisation will be provided with a report.
Describe yourself as you generally are now. Thank you.APPENDIX THREE – QUESTIONNAIRE Personality Measure Questionnaire Title: Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure Part 1: (i) Are you proficient in English? Yes / No (ii) Have you been working in the same job for more than 12 months? Yes / No If there is a No answer in any one above. please do not continue with the survey even though you may have consented to participate. Please tick the answers above and return the full set in the self-addressed envelope. Part 2: Please use the rating scale below to describe how accurately each of the following statement describes you. not as you wish to be in the future nor what you were in the past. 1 Very Inaccurate 2 Moderately Inaccurate 3 Neither Accurate or Inaccurate 4 Moderately Accurate 5 Very Accurate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 I often feel unhappy I feel comfortable around people I believe in the importance of art I have a good word for everyone I am always prepared I am very pleased with myself I have little to say I am not interested in theoretical discussions I waste my time I am very direct I dislike myself I make friends easily I have a vivid imagination I am critical of others I pay attention to details I am not easily bothered by things 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 186 .
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 I keep a low profile I do not enjoy going to art museums I find it difficult to focus on work I believe that others have good intentions I seldom feel unhappy I am not interested in abstract ideas I would describe my experiences as somewhat dull I respect others I do just enough work to get by I am often depressed I am skilled in handling social situations I avoid philosophical discussions I insult people I get chores done right away I have frequent mood swings I carry the conversation to a higher level I don’t like to draw attention to myself I accept people as they are I carry out my plans I panic easily I do not like art I get back at others I make plans and stick to them I am the life of the party I get excited by new ideas I avoid carrying out my duties I make people feel at ease I don’t talk a lot I rarely get irritated I don’t see things through I enjoy hearing new ideas I know how to get people’s attention I feel comfortable with myself I suspect hidden motive in others I easily adapt to the needs of the situation I push myself and others to get things done I am a loving person I am careful in my work I like others to empower me to do my work I am good at interpreting things I like living in style I am pleasant to be around with I hold on to traditions and beliefs I love to seek experiences in life I often weigh the pros and cons of a situation before acting I want to take charge of my work 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 187 .
63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 I have a heart for the less fortunate I like to do things following the proper channels I believe in justice I can spot opportunities and make use of them I like to take the lead to get things done I am sensitive to other people’s feelings I prefer to buy things with guarantee I find great satisfaction in doing a good job I am good at overcoming obstacles to get what I want I am good in pressurizing others to get things done I enjoy the company of others I am law-abiding I seek knowledge and skills to improve myself I am flexible in doing things I can be easily provoked I like to assist my friends in time of needs I believe in doing things step by step I do my work enthusiastically I am good at persuading others to support me I am assertive I like to visit my friends I tend to shelter others from harm I work towards improving my quality of life I like to turn issues/situations to my advantage I like to celebrate in a grand manner I can be easily hurt I am serious in whatever I do I am a reasonable person I will do anything to achieve my goals I tend to use more of “I” than “We” I enjoy working in groups I do not fight with authority I am accountable for my mistakes I do not reveal myself too much I am determined to win in any situation I greet my friends with open arms I need security I make decisions based on bottom-lines 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 188 .
Between 7% to 10%. Educational level: 2. More than 10%. the rating scales are: 1 Needs Much Improvement 2 Needs Some Improvement 3 Satisfactory 4 Goods 5 Excellent 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Quantity of work output Quality of work output Accuracy of work Customer service provided (internal and external) Obtaining personal career goals Developing skills needed for my future career Making progress in my career Seeking out career opportunities Coming with new ideas Working to implement new ideas Finding improved ways to do things Creating better processes and routines Working as part of a team or work group Seeking information from others in my work group Making sure my work group succeeds Responding to the needs of others in my work group Doing things that help others when it’s not part of my job Working for the overall good of the company Doing things to promote the company Helping so that the company is a good place to be 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Part 3: Respondent’s Demographic Data 1. Between 3% and 6%. For those working for 3 years of more. How long have you worked in this Organisation? 5. Age: ____Years____Months 3. have you been promoted? Yes/No Yes/No 9. 189 . What is your last annual increment? Less than 3%. Are you confirm in your job within the normal time frame? 8. What is your Level in the Organisation? Non-Executive/ Lower Mgmt/Middle Mgmt/ Senior Mgmt 7.For the next 20 items. Gender (please circle) Male/Female ____Years____Months ____Years ___ Months Primary School / High School / College / University 4. How long have you worked in your current job? 6.
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