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Chong Chien Fatt B.Sc (Mech. Eng.) Honours, M.Eng. (Ind. Eng. and Mgmt.)
This dissertation is submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Business Administration, University of Newcastle, Australia
STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL AUTHORSHIP
I hereby certify that the work embodied in this dissertation project is the result of original research and has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution.
CHONG CHIEN FATT January 2006
I am sincerely grateful to all the following people who have assisted and encouraged me throughout this research programme. My wife, Lee Sock Hiah, sons Ming Hoong and Yao Hoong, my mother and relatives for their support and understanding during this period. Dr Gian Casimir, for his dedication, commitment and friendly supervision of this research programme. Dr Nik Rahimah Yacob for her invaluable advice at any time of the day. Mr Bernard Tan, A.T., for allowing some of the concepts and items of the K.Y.K.O. Instrument to be used in the research. Mark Loon Kong Chew, for his various ideas in my research and assistance in the report preparation. Cik Rohana Haron, for her diligent data entry and report preparation. My numerous friends, who have consented and assisted in the data collection from their organisations and their moral support. The dedicated personnel (Alex, Connie, Grace, Iris, Winnie and others) in Segi.
May God bless her with good health and happiness. Madam Yew Hor.DEDICATION I dedicated this work to my beloved Mother. iii . who always gives her undivided love and care to her 11 children.
.................................................. 42 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.................. TYPES OF PERSONALITY MEASURES ......2...........2........4..............4.......7.................................................11 1........... 1.........14 1.. 2...................1.......... THE THEORIES AND CONSTRUCTS OF THE PROPOSED MEASURE ...............................................41 2................13 1.....0............... 46 Definition of Behavior ......2......................................... 23 Humanistic Theories ..5... 2..6.................. Uniqueness of the CASES Personality Measure ..........................5. 2..............................1 1....3...................2............2........................ RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES ...................2.........5........ Research Philosophy........ 2................................. 2.....................................16 2.........1...............2 1....................................................5.. iv ......................................................6......................................3..........................................................2......................2..................3.... CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................16 What is Personality? .............4.................... Five Factor Model...3.. 12 Measurement.................................7........................................................... 12 Sampling and Sample Size ...............3..... 37 2............. IX 1..........................1..........1.......................... 47 Factors Influencing Behavior................................. 50 The Constructs of this Proposed Model..... RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .4....................................... THE ROLE OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS................................................ 20 Psychodynamic Theories ..................................................4.................................................................................................................... 68 2......................6.............................7......3.....32 2.............. PERSONALITY AND WORK PERFORMANCE ............................... 25 Traits Theories ...................................... SHORTCOMINGS OF FFM AND MBTI MEASURES ........7............... 1............. 2..................................................................6....3................................................................................................................. 2...... 27 Behaviorist/Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories....... III ABSTRACT............. 66 Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure ..............6 1............................ 17 How Stable are Personality Traits?..... 56 The First Premise: Behavior is Motivated by Needs .....8.......... LIMITATIONS ..........................2........................8.....................................................62 2..................2..................................... INTRODUCTION .....1..............33 2...............................................................1.......................................................................................1....................................... CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION ............... 2.. 34 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. 19 The Objective of Psychometric Instruments... 13 1............. 29 2....2.........TABLE OF CONTENT STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL AUTHORSHIP ....................................................................................................... The Five Factor Model ........ 1...........................3...... 61 Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure...1....2.................................... 48 Current Theories of Work Motivation ........................................4................... ETHICS ..............................15 2.......................................................2.II DEDICATION ....... 2..................................... I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................. 2... THEORIES ON PERSONALITY .......... 2....7................................................................42 2............ 11 Survey Instrument........7............................. 11 Research Design ..................................................7.....0...........................4................. 2.................2........1...1...7....... 1.......................... WHY DOES PERSONALITY MATTER TO ORGANISATIONS? .......3. ANALYSES ............................1.......................4.............59 2.................3............................................. 2...................... 2......................................................21 2................... THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF FFM/MBTI ON PERFORMANCE..............1...... 2............................4.....3............8........................47 2........1........ 2................56 The Second Premise: The Accuracy of Predicting Behavior Depends on Complexity .......
........................................ 99 Self Rating .......3.....................8......2..................................5..............................................1.................... Response Distortions ........................... 3........ Purpose of the Study .......... ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ..8..........4.....72 3..2...........2........1... 4..........1........3.8................................................................................ 3............................... DEMOGRAPHICS ........................ 3...5...........................................6.......1..............................................................4...............3..............................74 3..............5..2........... 75 Type of Investigation ..................................2................................................5....................... 3.......................... Implementation ...........2.............................................103 4..................................................5... 3............ 81 Selection of Survey Method .........................................5.........................2..... 3........1.. 82 Selection of Measurement Techniques ........................ 84 Personality and Work Performance Measures.........................................3........2............................................... 3....................5.6.......................72 3. 79 Study Setting.3...............75 3. 3.........................8.............................2..86 3.............84 Scales...................... Selection of Survey Layout.........................101 4...................................................8...98 3..............................7..........6...................84 Key Variables ................2..............................5........................7. 3................5...................... 89 Selection of Sample and Sample Size...................................................................... 3............98 3. 3..................................84 Self Report.............................. 77 Research Method ..............102 4..99 3...... 4.........................................................................4...............................96 Data Entry ........5...........................................102 4.........................4..........4.........102 4......................3............. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...................1................................ 3........................................ 90 Selection of analytical approach ............5................4...............................................................8.........92 Validity.5........................ 69 Hypotheses. RESEARCH DESIGN ....114 v .. CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS .........................................5...........................5...................1.................4..........4............................................................................ RESEARCH PLAN ............................................................4............82 3............... CONCLUSION ......................6....................................................................................... 71 3..............................97 Categorising..........................................4..............5..........92 Principal Components Analysis.3.................2............ 3........ Principal Components Analysis of the FFM Personality Measure ........6....5......... 101 3.......... 109 The Relationship between the FFM Dimensions and the CASES Dimensions111 4...... 3.................................................................................................................... INTRODUCTION .................................. 3. 3...........5.....................................2...................5..............................2...... 99 Personality Scales .....1.......................................... 92 Central Tendency and Dispersion...........5............................... 103 Principal Components Analysis of the CASES Personality Measure................8............................72 3.........93 Hypothesis Testing . LIMITATIONS ....4.. RESULTS FROM PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS......0..... 3..................................................3...................5.........5........ 80 Time Horizons ..................................... CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..............................................................5........................................................................ 94 3.......... 3.................4................2................. RESULTS FROM TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES .........0..............................................................................6...... 3............................. 99 Stability of Work Performance ............ 3.........9............... RESEARCH PARADIGMS .....92 Reliability .........................94 Cost and Time Estimates ............................... 3........................3............... 3............................................................4..............2......3...............................2............... 3.........5....... 4.............6............ 81 Unit of Analysis ..................2.....2...............................................5.......... 77 Researcher’s Interference ..........5................. 107 Principal Components Analysis of RBPS Performance Measure...................................... 2.............................................................................5.......... SURVEY RESEARCH ............................................ 3...... The Relationships between FFM and CASES .......4................................1.......4...........94 Data Collection........... 3............97 3.................................................................................. 3....5........ INTRODUCTION ...................................... 3......5.. 100 Work Performance.........................4.....2....5.....8......................
..................3.133 4................................................................................... 114 Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure ..............135 5..4............................182 APPENDIX TWO – CONSENT SEEKING LETTER TO COMPANY ....1........ Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure................................................... CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ..............2........................................................................... Main Findings for Research Question One........................................ 5................... 149 Implications on Theory...... FUTURE RESEARCH . 4...................................132 FFM and CASES Predicting Total RBPS Performance ..........154 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES . 4..............1... 4.. 4...........................2................................3............... LIMITATIONS .. 120 FFM and CASES predicting performance..........6........2.... 4... 147 Implications on Professional Practice................4.....3.................3...................... 143 Main Findings for Research Question Three ........................186 vi ................3..........5......138 5.............. 5... CONCLUSION .... 138 Main Findings for Research Question Two ..........................................1............3.......130 FFM and CASES Predicting the Team Component of the RBPS ....184 APPENDIX THREE – QUESTIONNAIRE ....................... INTRODUCTION ....3.......4...............................................2....2....3.3....... 4..... CONCLUSION ..............138 5............................................5........128 FFM and CASES Predicting the Career Component of the RBPS.................3......152 5............. 4........3.............. 151 5.........................3.....................3............................................... IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS .....3......4...................................................131 FFM and CASES Predicting the Organisation Component of the RBPS............129 FFM and CASES Predicting the Innovator Component of RBPS..................... 4..3........................3.............2...................149 5.3......... 128 FFM and CASES predicting the Job Component of the RBPS . DISCUSSION OF THE MAIN FINDINGS .................2..............1.............................................. 5........................0......................3.............................2...................................3....3..158 APPENDIX ONE – INFORMATION SHEET .....................1.138 5..............6........ 5..............................3.153 5.......
.....................................................................................................................................................................................113 Table 17: Correlations of the Components of FFM and RBPS .......70 Table 5: Four Categories of Non-experimental Techniques (Grace.......110 Table 16: Correlations between the Components of FFM and CASES...........................88 Table 8: The Breakdown of Companies to be Surveyed Based on Industry (developed for this study) ........................................118 vii ........................117 Table 20: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM........... 1999)..........................................................................78 Table 6: Merits of the Four Survey Methods (Grace.....................6 Table 3: The 16 Personality Types with Cognitive Characteristics and Occupational Tendencies ........................................95 Table 9: Total Time Estimated for the Survey (developed for this research)... 2004) ...................................109 Table 15: Rotated Component Matrix of RBPS ...........................................117 Table 21: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on FFM ..........LIST OF TABLES Table 1 – Predictors of Work Performance (Yancey and Austin............4 Table 2: Six of the Most Commonly Used Personality Instruments (Dent and Curd...................................................104 Table 12: Items of FFM after Principal Components Analysis ...........96 Table 11: Rotated Component Matrix of FFM ................ 1999)................................................................................................................... 1998) ....................83 Table 7: Role-Based Performance Scale’s Items (Wilbourne et al.....................116 Table 19: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on FFM .106 Table 13: Rotated Component Matrix of CASES.............................................96 Table 10: Breakdown of Costs on Survey (developed for this research) .......................................................................................................................................... 2000) ..............40 Table 4: The Possible Associations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM with Complexity and Self-Actualisation of the CASES ................................107 Table 14: Items of CASES after Principal Components Analysis........................................................................115 Table 18: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM ...................
.......................................................................................................119 Table 24: Correlations of the Components of CASES and RBPS..............................................................129 Table 32: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on the FFM and CASES ................................................................................................134 viii ............................................................................................................................................................................................................123 Table 26: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on CASES .................119 Table 23: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM ..................................................................132 Table 35: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES ................130 Table 33: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES ........................133 Table 36: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM and CASES ..........................................................................................................................................................127 Table 31: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES ...........................................Table 22: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM....................................124 Table 27: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on CASES .......................................................................126 Table 30: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on CASES.............................................................................................................125 Table 29: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on CASES ...122 Table 25: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on CASES .....................................................................................131 Table 34: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of the RBPS on FFM and CASES ..................124 Table 28: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on CASES ........................................................................
recent studies using fundamental dimensions of personality have shown the predictive power of personality for work performance. Research on the significance of personality suggests that even though other factors are important in determining the performance of an individual in a given task. Hence. Besides providing a theory-grounded measurement tool which contributes to research on personality measures and the prediction of work-related performance.ABSTRACT “Does personality predict work performance” is a question that many researchers have addressed over the past few decades. Practical and theoretical implications. Both of the personality measures support existing literature which claims that personality can predict work performance with several dimensions of the new personality measure predicting work performance over and above the FFM. CASES) and the FFM. Prior to the 1990s. However. personality provides insight on how well a person will perform a given task. this new personality measure can be offered as a useful instrument for both practitioners and researchers.. ix . The results confirmed relationships between the dimensions of the new personality measure (i. limitations and possible areas for future research are discussed. personnel selection specialists generally did not use personality testing in employee selection due to the perception it has low validity. the more recent studies have focused on demonstrating the incremental gain in predicting work performance that can be attained using personality as a predictor.e. The study explores the predictive utility of a personality measure that is based on the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the social cognitive theory of “If-Then” and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality with regards to a multidimensional measure of work performance.
which is a wellestablished personality measure. the incremental criterion utility of the new measure over the Five-Factor Model of personality. Nevertheless. Basically. will be examined. 2000). A second objective is to examine the criterion utility of this new personality measure with regards to a self-report multi-dimensional measure of work performance. CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION Companies spend large amounts of money. The third chapter of this dissertation outlines the research methodology and design of the study that will be 1 . and Relationship Management.. many organisations pay only lip service to the adage that “people are our greatest asset” (Yancey and Austin. Empowerment. A background of the various perspectives of personality and the rationale for the new personality measure is provided in the second chapter of this dissertation. The validity of the current measures of personality is questionable given that each of them is based on a single-theory of personality.0. Learning Organisation. Investors in People. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Social Cognitive Theory) rather than on a single theory. For the top companies in the world. Furthermore. all of these have one thing in common. time and energy to improve their business performance by adopting different management philosophies and initiatives such as SixSigma. The first objective of this study therefore is to develop a new measure of personality based on two theories (i.1.e. the efforts invested to identify and select the right employees and to motivate them to give their best to the organisation is an ongoing management initiative. Employees are indisputably the most essential resource in any organisation and are the key to attaining and maintaining competitive advantage. people.
employment checks and job probation in the recruitment and selection process. The fourth chapter contains the analyses of the survey data. it is estimated to cost an average of US$15. 1995). recruitment and development processes as they are able to explore a broad range of personality characteristics that are relevant to the workplace. Hence. taking into account all expenditure. 1. Personality tests with no right or wrong answers attempt to measure how little or how much a candidate possesses a specific personality 2 . Table 1 provides a list of various sources of information that are used to predict work performance. implications and limitations of this study are presented in the fifth chapter of this dissertation. Personality tests are popularly used by organisations as part of selection. Although personality tests rank higher than other employment tests such as job-knowledge tests. Moreover. encourage and harness them. it takes only a modest improvement in selecting. 2004). THE ROLE OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS The more we know the people we employ. work-samples.1. the more effective we can manage. references. matching and recruiting people to jobs to reduce the possible financial losses incurred by recruiting employees who are incompatible with the organisation. The conclusion on the various findings. and honest/integrity tests.000 to recruit one executive or middle manager in United States of America (Melamed and Jackson. resume. Personality tests only provide an additional tool for recruitment and are not replacements for interviews.used. they are not a panacea for selecting the best candidates (Dent and Curd. cognitive ability test.
The purpose of conducting personality tests is to gather information and highlight issues for further exploration at interviews.000 million tests are administered annually in the United States of America alone and some 700 of the Times Top 1000 companies use them for personnel selection (Coull and Eary.characteristic relevant to the needs of the organisation. individuals would be able to take advantage of the positive aspects of their personalities and/or take steps to mitigate potential problems arising from any undesirable aspects which could affect their relationships. Exploring these characteristics during an interview to more closely examine the candidate can provide valid and real evidence to support the final selection decision (Coull and Eary. 2001). 2001). Non-exempt staff Source of information Interview Resume Application form References Employment check Best Predictor 75% 29 31 35 33 Middle management Best Predictor 67% 42 20 44 40 Senior management Best Predictor 66% 40 22 44 47 3 . personality tests can assist individuals to understand the significant aspects of their personality and behavior in a wide variety of work and social situations. their significant others and their related job-relevance. By understanding their behavior. As part of a development process in organisations. work performance and careers. Personality tests have been in the market for more than 50 years and their popularity has increased significantly in recent years. Psychometric assessment is big business in the 21st century as approximately 2.
psychometric tests have expanded their functionalities to many other areas such as appraisals. and retain critical personnel has fuelled the desire for more information on current employees as well as potential recruits. Test Name Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Description Probably the most popular and wellresearched personality instrument used in business today. there is no evidence to indicate a positive relation between specific MBTI types with career success (Pittenger. From their traditional use as a tool for selection and recruitment. career guidance and training needs analysis (Dent and Curd.Credit check Job trial/probation Personality tests Job knowledge test Work sample Cognitive ability test Assessment centre Honesty/integrity test Drug screen Perceptual/physical abilities test Polygraph test 13 20 13 11 11 9 4 4 0 0 0 11 20 13 6 2 7 2 2 0 0 0 9 18 11 6 2 2 2 0 2 0 0 Table 1 – Predictors of Work Performance (Yancey and Austin. 1993). The most commonly used personality instruments are shown in Table 2 but they are not necessarily valid or useful. develop. 2000) The increasing pressure on organisations to identify. It looks at an individual’s preferences on four dimensions: • • How you relate to the world How you gather information Common Uses • • • • Raising self –awareness Identifying strengths and development needs Understanding own behavior and that of others Team building 4 . management development programmes. recruit. For example. 2004).
the feedback from which defines a person’s perception of his/her behaviors at work. Another of the best-researched and most widely used tools available today.. 2004) Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) This questionnaire measures an individual’s personality against 16 different personality dimensions. It provides users with a development tool that helps them to learn about themselves and others in the context of relationship awareness • • • • Individual motivational awareness Team building and development Relationship management Assertiveness training 5 . and How you organise yourself Common Uses • • • Career development Relationship development Selection Selection Individual development Career development and counselling Leadership development Selection Career development Assessment centres Team building Individual development Change management Relationship awareness 16PF Questionnaire (Equivalent to the NEO PI-R of the Big Five (Rossier et al. the dimensions measured fall into three categories: • • • Relationships with people Thinking style.Test Name Description • • How you make decisions. which was developed by Elias Porter in the 1960s. In particular. Developed by Raymond B. Designed by Saville and Holdsworth to provide information on personality characteristics. and Feelings and emotions • • • • • • • • • • • The Belbin Team Role SelfPerception Inventory Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship OrientationBehavior (FIROB) One of the few UK instruments on the market. Developed by Meredith Belbin to help team members identify their preferred roles in teams This inventory looks at a person’s interpersonal style and how he/she relates towards others in three specific areas: • • • Inclusion-which is the need to be part of a social group Control-which is the need for control or influence over others. and Affection-which is about being close to individuals • • • • • • • • Team building and development Self-awareness Individual development Individual development Leadership development Team development Relationship counselling Career counselling and development Strength Deployment Inventory (SDI) This is an incredibly versatile instrument. it helps individuals to understand the various facets that determine their personality. Cattell.
1937). Individuals display consistent patterns of behavior. thought. and Rotter. 1997): i) The psychoanalytic perspectives of Freud. which assume personality is never completely determined and that people are always changing and free to reinterpret their experiences idiosyncratically. 2004) 1. and emotion that are relatively stable and which form the basic conception of personality (Allport. which are biological in nature and based on the premise of the unfolding of stages where the particular behaviors occur.Test Name Description Common Uses • • • • Leadership development Sales training Customer relations training Supervisory skills development Table 2: Six of the Most Commonly Used Personality Instruments (Dent and Curd. 2003). iii) The cognitive perspectives of Pavlov.2. Jung. Skinner. PERSONALITY AND WORK PERFORMANCE The fundamental objective of personality psychology is to understand how personality can be used to predict behavior (Mayer. and Adler. Cattell. Personality theories may be classified into five categories (Ryckman. ii) The traits perspectives of Allport. which assume there are dispositional factors that determine behavior in various situations. 6 . and Eysenck.
1998. De Raad. Paunonen. Unlike the psychoanalytic and existential perspectives. 1996. Paunonen and Ashton. 1977a. Maslow. The psychometric instruments in Table 2 are all based on single theories. which is based on 7 . 1990. Human behavior is a multifaceted phenomenon and any theory attempting to explain normal human behavior must reflect its multidimensionality (Leonard. There is a large body of evidence that the domain of personality can be well represented by the Five-Factor Model’s (FFM) superordinate constructs (Digman. This perspective is similar to the trait perspective as it also refers to consistencies and regularities in the behavior of individuals but differs as it asserts that behavior and personality are learned. behavior arises as a result of a complex interaction between environmental influences and inner processes (Bandura. Rossier. de Stadelhofen and Berhoud. 2003. McCrae and Costa. 1993. the social or interaction perspective excludes the growth stages. which assume most behavior is learned and purposive and that people are guided by motives to achieve certain goals. which postulate the presence of an innate need for growth which moves individuals towards achieving their potentialities given the right environmental conditions.iv) The existential or humanistic perspectives of Rogers. and v) The social behavioristic or interaction perspectives of Bandura and Mischel. 2001. Beauvais and Scholl. Although the FFM. These traditional models of personality cannot explain the diversity of behavior as human behavior cannot be explained by a single perspective. 1999). rather than innate as people’s interactions and experiences continually influence each other. 1999. 2004). and McCelland. Goldberg. 1977b). In other words.
1977a). Unlike most need theories. 1969). likes to. 1988). which motivate behavior (Wiley. 1993). and cognitive factors (Fedor and Ferris. 1981). the Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Maslow advocates the dynamic processes of need satisfaction. Variability in responses across situations are not dismissed as errors but are regarded as a distinct characteristic of the individual’s ability to either consciously or unconsciously behave differently simply because the individual wants to. 1993). 1999. the power of the Hierarchy of Needs Theory is its ability to identify a range of needs. is able to describe consistent features of the behavior of an individual it does not address the key drivers or motives of behavior (Fletcher.personality traits. Motives are only one of the determinants of behavior as behavior is also determined by other factors that are biologically. which may be classified as deficit or homeostatic theories of motivation. culturally and situationally determined (Fletcher. 8 . Individual functioning is a continuous interaction between environmental. The proposition that human beings exhibit needs for development and growth is generally accepted by practitioners due to the intuitive and face validity of this argument. ultimately leading to self-actualisation (Osteraker. attempts to explain human behavior according to key motivators. 1997). 2003). including growth needs. behavioral. or has to (Nikolaou. Interest in the motivation that drives behavior rekindled in the 1990s. The personality measure proposed in this dissertation. Chung. Social cognitive theory takes into consideration environmental and internal forces that shape behavior (Bandura. Maslow posited that needs act as motivators (Arnold. Hence. which is based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and social cognitive theories.
is based on the social cognitive theory of “IfThen”. Recent investigations using higher order personality constructs. One of the reasons for this low validity is that many studies focused mainly on personality traits at the molecular.The new personality measure proposed in this dissertation is termed CASES because it comprises five dimensions: i) Complexity. 2000. which explains the variability of an individual’s behavior in different situations. personnel selection specialists generally did not use personality testing in employee selection due to its low validity. Complexity. does not 9 . 2002... Kieffer. Does personality predict work performance? Although there are many factors besides personality that affect work performance. however. 2003. Schinka and Curtiss. 2003). It is inevitable and advantageous that researchers will attempt to compare the predictive utility of the FFM with other models of personality with respect to work performance (Robertson et al. Nikolaou. and v) Social. Stewart and Piotrowski. Personality traits can be conceptually and empirically related without being redundant (Judge et al. iii) Safety. “inventory” level instead of the construct level. such as those of the FFM. ii) Actualisation.. this question has received considerable attention in the literature (Barrick. There are good reasons to believe that some dimensions of the CASES measure will be related to some dimensions of the FFM. 2003. The first dimension. 2003). have demonstrated that certain aspects of personality are useful predictors of work performance. This. 2002. 2004). Prior to the 1990s. Salgado. Barrick et al. The other four dimensions are based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with the exclusion of the physiological needs which are unlearned and assumed to be of relatively low importance in current organisational settings. iv) Ego. Nikolaou.
Research Question 2: Does the CASES measure predict work performance? The second research question is addressed by the second hypothesis. The following research questions and hypotheses underlie the current research: Research Question 1: Does the FFM predict work performance? The first research question is addressed by the first hypothesis. H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. One way to examine whether or not the dimensions of the two measures of personality are distinct is to examine the incremental criterion validity of the two personality measures. H3: The FFM and CASES will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. Research Question 3: What is the relationship between the FFM and CASES measures? The third research question is addressed by the third hypothesis.necessarily indicate that some of the dimensions of the CASES measure are the same as some of the FFM dimensions. H2: The CASES measure will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. 10 .
1. Delahaye and Sekaran. 2001). need-induced behaviors and performance. 11 . 1998). and Swartz.3. 1997. Remenyi. Williams. Research Design This study uses hypothesis testing as there is information available on the variables involved to enable hypothesis formulation.1. This quantitative research method adopts a non-experimental technique of survey research whereby information about the variables is collected from a large number of cases to address the research questions.3. Furthermore. The investigation is a correlational study as the main interest is to examine the associations between dimensions of personality and work performance.3. Research Philosophy The study uses the positivistic paradigm with the hypothetico-deductive approach as it seeks to explain the relationship between personality. Furthermore. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Lewis and Thornhill.2. The study setting is a non-contrived setting. Money. hypotheses can be empirically substantiated which is essential for such psychometric tests (Cavana. this survey method is efficient and practical (Saunders. 1. Minimal or no interference in a natural environment by the researcher is adopted as analytical research requires precision and the control of extraneous variables is performed via statistical techniques (Gill and Johnson.
1999). Johnson and Erez (1998) will be used for this research. 2004. 12 . The research also adopts a cross-sectional study and takes a snapshot of the situation like most behavioral studies that focus on individual’s beliefs.3. and the work performance measure of Welbourne. Measurement Five-point Likert scales will be used for all of the items related to personality and performance.3. perceptions and attitudes (Lindell and Whitney. CASES. the new personality measure. Salgado. 1. 2003.. 2001).3. they allow the targeting of specific respondents in various organisations and are cost effective.4.2002). Although mail surveys tend to yield a relatively low response rate. The FFM (Goldberg. The unit of analysis is the individual. Furthermore. Survey Instrument Data will be collected via a mail survey. specifically their perceptions of their own behavior. Nikolaou. 2003). mail surveys are the most commonly used survey method in studies of personality (Kieffer et al. 1.
4. gender. as recommended by Nunnally. The questionnaire uses the Likert scale to collect interval-scaled data for each of the variables involved in the hypotheses. years of working.1. which ensures the anonymity and confidentiality of responses. The minimum targeted number of respondents is 500 as the personality measures have 50 items each (minimum of 10:1 subject to items ratio. age. ANALYSES Data analyses will be conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.e.5. Each participating organisation will be given 40 or more questionnaires to distribute to all or part of their white-collar staff by their respective Human Resource Managers.3.. 1. known to the researcher. Descriptive statistics will be computed for all of the demographic variables (i. Confirmatory factor 13 . 1978). A total of 40 commercial organisations of various sizes and from various industries. level of education. 2001). will be invited to participate in this research. and years in current job). Sampling and Sample Size Convenience sampling is used due to the time constraints placed on this research and to the unknown probability of selecting elements of the population (Cavana et al.. The respondents will be given a week to answer the questionnaire at a place of their choice and return the questionnaire in the self-addressed stamped envelope.
2001). stamped and self-addressed envelopes will be provided to the respondents.. 1980. no demeaning questions will be asked and the respondents will not be subjected to any mental or physical stress in answering the questionnaire as they are given a week to complete the questionnaire at their own free will at a place of their choice. 1978). ETHICS It is stated explicitly in the information sheet that is provided to all potential participants that participation is voluntary and that participants can withdraw at anytime during the research without any obligation or disadvantage.7 is considered adequate for initial investigations (Nunnally. Cronbach’s alpha will be calculated for each subscale to test its internal reliability.5. Furthermore. Anonymity and confidentiality are ensured as the questionnaires have no personal identifiers and only the researchers will have access to the completed questionnaires and data files. Multiple linear regression analyses will be used to test the hypotheses.5 to 0. Cronbach’s alpha is an internal reliability coefficient that shows how well the items belonging to a set are correlated to one another. Cavana et al. 1. An alpha coefficient of 0.analysis is a method for assessing construct validity and will be used to test the structures of the personality and performance measures (Schwab. Finally. 14 .
1996).. or different countries. 2004) as job satisfaction.. LIMITATIONS The research relies on self-report data that can be affected by response distortion (Barrick and Mount. blue-collar and clerical employees). organisational hygiene.. 1996) and social desirability bias such as “telling the way they like to be seen” (Hogan. motivation level and role clarity may influence self-reported performance ratings (Kieffer et al. as this study uses a convenience sampling. Finally. cognitive ability. Furthermore. Hogan and Roberts. 15 . different types of jobs (e. its findings may not be generalisable to different types of organisations such as public sector or non-profit organisations. Additionally.1.6. the stability of work performance as a construct may not be totally valid (Thoresen et al. the effect of leniency associated with selfassessment could raise concerns about the legitimacy of the data collected. 2004).g.
and appraisals. the debate on the reliability and 16 . psychometric assessment will be a major business sector in the 21st century (Coull and Eary.1. management development programmes. develop and retain key employees has increased the interest of managers for more information on current employees and potential recruits alike. 1999). as human behavior cannot be fully covered by any one single theory (Leonard et al. the functionality of such personality tests is becoming more widespread and they now have an integral place in many human resources activities such as career guidance. which are normally based on a single theory. 2004). 2001). CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.. With some 2.2.000 companies in United States of America using such instruments. INTRODUCTION Psychometric tests have been used by organisations as part of their development and recruitment processes. are not able to explain the diversity of behavior. The increasing pressure on organisations to select/recruit. The number of such psychometric instruments has increased considerably in the last few decades and has led to confusion and increased complexity in selecting an appropriate instrument (Dent and Curd. These tests.0. Although such instruments are traditionally used as a tool in the selection and recruitment processes.000 million tests administrated yearly and 700 of the Times Top 1. Many organisations use psychometric testing as part of their recruitment and development processes to select candidates who will excel in their jobs. However. training needs analysis.
2000. values. which are the building blocks of personality (Marsella et al. it does not mean that all such instruments are. selects and processes information and generates social behaviors (Mischel and Shoda. attitudes. p. p. when using psychometric instruments.1. What is Personality? Personality can be broadly defined as the durable characteristics of an individual. for example. It is most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person 17 . 45). 43) defined personality as “the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels. George and Jones (2002.. Personality is conceptualised as a stable system which influences how an individual construes. p. Robbins (2001. 92) takes personality as “the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.e. 1992). traits. Hence.. The continuing debate may be due to the fact that although some instruments may be found to be valid predictors of work performance. traits).validity of such instruments and the value of such concepts such as personality traits continues in the academic literature (Fletcher. The concept of personality can be traced to the work of Allport. “caveat emptor” should still be applied. Also. thinks and behaves”. 1995). The construct of personality is based on the assumption that an individual can be characterised by distinctive qualities that are relatively invariant over time and across situations. 2. dispositions and needs (Gelso and Fassinger. using well-proven instruments do not confer automatic validity on their application in an organisation. 1993). who assumed the presence of “neuropsychic” structures (i. beliefs.1.
exhibits. For example. most personality researchers divide personality into different areas or divisions and try to explain how each area works individually and with others. we are trying to explain the differences of that person from others. introverted. Personality can also be defined as an organised and dynamic set of characteristics of a person that influence cognitions. extraverted. Personality is too vast a field and differentiated for a single approach. 2) defined personality in two ways. (ii) individual behavior is relatively stable over time. personality is explained based on overall motivation rather than the understanding of neural pathways of motives (Mayer. The four structural divisions of personality which are repeatedly used to classify traits are: (a) Freud (1960)’s structural 18 . (1996. p. 1975). Hence. Hence. when describing someone’s personality. and so on. Personality is explained as existing in the individual as opposed to outside the person and focuses on overall psychological trends. motivations and behaviors (Lau and Shaffer. one is the “factors” inside a person that explain the behavior while the other refers to the person’s distinctive interpersonal characteristics in a variety of situations. This aspect is called individual differences whereby we categorise people as neurotic. 1999). 2001).” Hogan et al. and (iii) individual behavior is consistent across situations (Pervin. Personality psychologists postulate that personality or individual dispositions are significant determinants of behavior with the following underlying assumptions: (i) there are individual differences in ways of behaving.
2. The contents of consciousness change rapidly. Costa and McCrae (1995) posited that personality is heritable and highly stable over time while Jang et al. behavior and thought that are relatively consistent to form the basis of the conception of personality (Allport. The more developed approaches use traits in the personality structure. 40% of the phenotypic variance of given traits is attributed to genetic sources while 60% is accounted for by the environment. individuals are significantly consistent across time and place. Pervin.division of id. 2004). Emotions and actions shift in response to the environment. How Stable are Personality Traits? Psychological experience is made up of two features. ego and superego. (1998) revealed that some 20%-50% of variation in the dimensions is attributable to genetic sources. that appear to contradict each other (Cervone. (2001) revealed that on average. 2001. (2002) posited that the transition during adulthood is often marked by substantial affective and personality changes caused by environmental changes. 1980). 1997). Another study by Bouchard (1994) showed that about 66% of the reliable variance in the personality traits is due to genetic influence while Zawadzki et al. (b) the trilogy of mind (Hilgard. Yet. These 19 . 1985).1. 1937). and (d) the systems set (Mayer. 1993. They display unique patterns of emotions. Costa and McCrae. 2. (c) the five factor model (Goldberg. Vaidya et al. 2003. genes do not influence behavior directly but instead influence physiological structures (Brody. However. 2001). change and consistency.
Many theories of personality rely excessively on behavioral models. should have at least two features. the measurements are temporally stable and credible evidence linking the measure to meaningful non-test behavior (Hogan et al. 1999). Such changes or variations in personality traits can be explained by the fact that we are adapting to life in face-to-face groups (Bouchard. Beauvais and Scholl. 1998). as human behavior cannot be explained by any one factor (Leonard.3. 1994). There is a growing realisation that traditional models of personality do not explain the diversity of behavior found in organisational settings. Cropanzano and Meyer.. Human behavior is 20 . 2004).1. 1996). which conform to statistical theories to explain these complexities rather than on behavioral realities (Wolfe. Human behavior is difficult to describe with such precision since it has a large number of causes. stimulation for the intellect as well as new outlets for emotions. The Objective of Psychometric Instruments The field of psychology has tried to define human behavior with the same accuracy that scientists use to describe the motion of atoms and stars. most organisational and personality researchers agree that individual behavior involves both variable and stable aspects but there still remains disagreement regarding this quantum (Wright. independence from protective shelter and parental control. could account for much of the psychological change that occurs during early adulthood.environmental changes. Nevertheless. 2. A good personality measure. such as a strong peer culture. that is. however.
2004a). In the mid 1950s. Behavior is like the weather. Hunton and Bryant. 1998. changing from context to context and from moment to moment but personality is consistent and stable over time. Psychoanalytical. and behavioral doctrines were particularly influential in the past but social-cognitive and trait theories predominate today. et al. These personality theories 21 . the stable components affect our lives. 2000). THEORIES ON PERSONALITY The history of personality psychology has been dominated by several theoretical paradigms (Cervone.2. Tett and Burnett. What people do—their behavior—is a function of their personalities. humanistic. 1992). 2003). it changes gradually. Wheeler. 2003. Gruys and Ellingson. It will be useful for people to know their personalities so that they can take advantage of the positive aspects of their personalities or steps to mitigate potential problems arising from any undesirable aspects. the humanistic approaches of the 1950s and almost at the same time. which could affect their work performance and careers (Hogan. the cognitive and the social cognitive approaches were developed (Gelso and Fassinger. Hence. Psychoanalytical approaches were the first theories followed in the early part of last century by behavioral approaches. If personality does change.. 2. Sackett. 1996. Behavior is used to interpret and evaluate people’s personalities.clearly a multivariate phenomenon and a theory trying to explain normal human behavior must reflect this multidimensionality. it is unlikely that any instrument can claim to be the best as the usefulness of an instrument is also situational and contextually specific (Tett and Burnett. the typological and trait-factor theories.
Allport differentiated descriptors of social evaluation and temporary states from those traits descriptors which were considered to be more personality relevant. and Murray all emphasised the coherence and consistency of normal personality and perceived the individual organism as a complex but organised structure. humanistic and trait approaches (Marsella et al. 22 . 1939).. for example. Levin. Nevertheless. 2000).differ from each other in fundamental ways as they have different categories of personality variables. Murphy. Cattell. cultural and cognitive factors in the West emphasise the forces within the individual as the important determinant of behavior rather than the forces within the situations. attitudes and intelligence. 1997). Personality psychologists have to address a wide range of phenomena and it could be impossible to identify an overarching mission in this field. jealous and anxious as dispositions (Saucier. some German personality descriptors contained abilities and temperament terms while others such as Goldberg uses attitude and mood terms like conservative. In essence. This emphasis on the individual is dominant in the psychodynamic. Other researchers cast wider nets. they adopt different units of analysis for conceptualising and explaining intraindividual coherence and individual differences in personality functioning (Allport. The various historical. Eysenck emphasised biologically-based disposition variables but excluded abilities. behavioral. the various “grand theories” of Allport.
rational understanding or expectations. Adler). When we select the stimuli. One takes in the stimuli using our five senses. Freud’s structural set is the id. 2000). the ego and the superego.2. were more concerned with the interplay of conscious awareness and unconsciousness to explain personality (Coan. described as a boiling and bubbling cauldron of aggressive and animal-like urges. We select and respond to the stimuli that we perceive can satisfy our personal goals. we have three levels of consciousness: conscious. pre-conscious and unconscious. The pre-conscious level is where information of our past is stored which could be called “available memory”. 2003).1. and social ideals (Mayer. Ego is the conscious part and is responsible for the individual’s behavior and understanding of the outside world. Id.2.. They explained personality in terms of mental mechanisms and drives that seek satisfaction within the boundaries of reality (Cervone. 1987). Jung. It explains our mental activity in which all thought processes occur. the animalistic part of personality. The superego is the overseer of the ego which ensures it is morality and strives for ideals (Mayer.g. This set represents the struggles among bodily desires. Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic psychologists (e. two mental processes take place. The ego does the systematic trial and error thinking and seeks to ensure the survival of the individual. When we 23 . 2001). The conscious level deals with that part of our awareness which is in touch with the reality of our life. These stimuli are subsequently stored as information in the pre-conscious level and they become our experiences. Another takes in the stimuli. Freud. According to Freud (1960). processes them and sees many different ways of responding to them.
Hence. Generally. child abuse. It is this dynamic and active 24 . Freud posits that all human behavior is motivated by instincts or drives. 2002). they do not have a choice. when people act on a particular situation using their feelings. when they use their thinking (mental faculty). One is to act on the stimuli using our feelings by retrieving the information from our past experiences at the preconscious level. The unconscious has all the things that are not easily accessible to the awareness level such as our drives or instincts which originate from there and others that are put there such as bad memories or emotions associated with trauma because we cannot bear to look back. 2000). the distress and miseries in modern life (e. They explain personality in terms of the mental drive mechanisms that try to satisfy the drives within the boundaries of reality (Cervone. mental illness. Freud discovered the unconscious level as a source of motivation and a way of hiding thoughts and desires from awareness (Gabriel and Carr. Apparently. and crimes) are due to the repression of pain or instinct by the superego contents. they agree that personality patterns can be best understood from the dynamics of the psychological processes acting on the unconsciousness within the context of an individual’s phenomenal field. which are neurologically represented by the physical needs in the life and death instincts.respond and act on the stimuli two mental activities take place. Alternatively. The psychodynamic psychologists believe that behavior is a function of psychological processes operating within these three levels of consciousness. The other is to use our thinking (intellect) at the conscious level to process the stimuli and see alternative responses to them. they have many choices of responding to it..g. The unconscious is believed to be the source of our motivations such as desires for sex or food and neurotic compulsions or ambitions.
For Maslow. in all forms. The Mayo-Hawthorne studies demonstrated that the hourly paid employee was motivated by other needs besides economic rewards (Gallagher and Einhorn. they assume that people will be positively motivated to actualise their potential. Mayo showed that an employee’s psychological and social desires play an important role in production efficiency based on social aspects of human behavior. Carl Rogers. a major contemporary champion was Abraham Maslow with his Hierarchy of Needs Theory whereby he posited that human beings are motivated by basic needs that are species-wide. 25 .2. p. 2003). 1976). becoming and being a perfect person (Franken. becoming and being a better person or developing the human virtue. to its fullest extent (Mele. Self-actualisation can be defined as the process of learning. he must be” (Mele.g. 80). Given reasonable and conducive life conditions. 1998). Although Mayo may be considered the pioneer of the “humanistic” approach. 2002).view of the unconscious which is the heart of the field of psychology known as psychoanalysis (Gabriel and Carr. David McClelland) view existence as a process of learning. Humanistic psychologists emphasise learning from one’s subjective past experiences to develop and actualise one’s potentials. The joy of living is to prepare oneself for experiencing and progressing towards higher levels of functioning. 2.2. apparently unchanging and instinctual or genetic in origin (Kaufman. 1976). 2003.. Humanistic Theories Humanistic psychologists (e. growing. self-actualisation is achieving “what a man can be. They believe that people are responsible for their life. Mayo’s work paved the path for more humanistic theories. growing. Abraham Maslow.
The hierarchy has five categories, ascending from “physiological” to “safety”, “social”, “social and self esteem” and culminating to “self actualisation”. Maslow enlarged the concept of human personality by capturing the higher levels of needs in human. This model is applicable to any industrial setting (Mele, 2003). Drawing from Maslow’s ideas, Douglas McGregor developed his Theory X-Theory Y model of behavior whereby the “carrot and stick” theory was effective if employees were at the subsistence level of survival. McGregor in Theory Y postulated that human talent and potential are greater than usually assumed. Furthermore, the need for self-actualisation is also an important factor of the Theory Y where the satisfaction of the individual’s needs for self-actualisation is the best method to obtain commitment. He posited that human beings will, under conductive conditions, accept and even seek responsibility and contribute creatively to the organisation (Mele, 2003). Herzberg, another contributor to humanistic theories, made a distinction between rewards to workers that facilitate personal growth and those that alleviate discomfort. They are termed as motivators and hygiene factors respectively. All of these humanistic psychologists believed that human behavior is motivated by needs. This phenomenological approach has contributed immensely to personality psychology in the U.S., which promotes the individual based on the concepts of self-actualisation and oneself (Lombardo and Foschi, 2002).
Trait theories conceptualise personality as an individual-difference construct which explains an individual’s average tendency to manifest one versus another type of behavior (Cervone, 2000). Common traits are produced by both cultural contexts and by biological variation in the population in general using the nomothetic approach while the individual traits or personal dispositions are the domain of the idiographic approach (Lombardo and Foschi, 2002). Traits describe the thematic tendencies of a person: intelligence, emotionality and the like. They tend to omit consideration of other structures such as self-regulation, selfconcept, characteristic adaptation, significant other schemas, and similar entities (Mayer, 2001). Traits are the foundation of individuality. Personality traits are considered as behavioral constants which emphasise individual differences in response to identical situations or stimulation. Trait psychologists normally seek to uncover the psychological dimensions along which individuals differ and the manner in which traits group within individuals. The main focus is on enduring or lasting behavior and attention is on the content of behavior rather than the psychological processes causing the behavior. Hence, its emphasis is on the outcomes instead of the process itself (Buss, 1989). Traits can also be inferred as a quality or dimension that can be used to identify a unique pattern of how a person behaves, thinks, and feels. Narrow behaviors or specific responses of a person define a characteristic mode or habitual response pattern of behavior. Paunonen (1998) defined trait as a combination of several such habitual response tendencies while Marsella et al. (2000) postulated that traits are inferred through observed similarities in behavior across various situations.
Traits are relatively independent from each other; they can be empirically measured and evaluated; rooted in the “neuropsychic” systems. Hence, traits are useful for describing one’s personality and statistically defining the distribution of these characters in a larger population. Nevertheless, if a trait measure is linked to past behavior, then trait-performance correlations would involve the prediction of current behavior from past behavior. In this case, traits would predict but not explain behavior (Locke and Latham, 2002). Trait psychologists studied what makes us recognisably the same and different from each other; what our unique behavior patterns and their characteristics are and how settings may influence them. Trait theories of Allport (1937) and McCrae and Costa (1996) conceptualise personality as small sets of inferred structures which manifest themselves as behavioral dispositions or tendencies (Cervone, 2000). Cattell (1943) sought to organise and reduce the thousands of personality traits into clusters (i.e., factors) using quantitative methods. The architecture of personality traits postulated by Allport includes cardinal, superordinate, central, and peripheral traits. These structures are domain general which have constructs such as “agreeableness” (McCrae and Costa, 1996), a unit of analysis which does not make any distinction between being agreeable toward one’s date and towards one’s child. Both are agreeable acts. Performing both of them would move the scale up on an inferred structure of agreeableness. Individuals can be characterised in terms of a comprehensive but small set of factors or dispositions which are stable over decades of adult life, across different situations and can explain a wide spectrum of behaviors (Idson and Mischel, 2001). Furthermore, Allport posited that to understand personality, it is necessary to study
Using traits to predict behavior in the past has yielded mixed results partly because of methodological problems.2.the inter-relationships of the traits and that the “whole personality” is different from the sum of these individual traits (Lombardo and Foschi. 2003). 2003).4. 1989). strength of excitation. Generally.4. 2000). and balance. This finding has been used to support critics who claim that personality traits are unimportant (Buss. 2. They use classical and operant conditioning to understand animal and human behavior. 29 . correlations between laboratory behavior and personality traits tend to be modest. Behavior can be repeatedly reinforced or diminished through the use of reward and punishment and is one explanation of why certain dimensions of personality are dominant (DeGrandpre. 2002). The famous Pavlovian typology of temperament posits that there are four properties of the central nervous system that are responsible for individual differences in reacting to conditioning: strength of inhibition. mobility of nervous processes. Behaviorist/Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories Stimulus-Response or Behavioral Theorists posit that behavior is a function of our past experiences. they found that there are some similarities in human and animal behavior where “motivation” is externally generated in the form of punishers and reinforcers (Locke and Latham. Based on the deductions from their experiments. often not exceeding 0. One of the problems of the trait theories is that personality is not able to explain all variation in behavior as the environment does have a significant effect on behavior (Sanders.
We learn that both pleasurable and painful experiences can lead to positive and negative outcomes. 2002. Bargh and Ferguson. We learn from our experiences. which does not overly emphasise either environmental or internal forces when explaining behavior.This typology has a strong influence on personality psychology (Lombardo and Foschi. the intraindividual. They assert that people organise their values. 2002). Radical behaviorists such as Skinner and Watson ruled out emotional. expectations and goals to guide and direct their behavior. 2000. Bauer and McAdams. Moreover. 1977a). cognitive and 30 . cognitive and motivational mediators in the stimulus-response relationship due to the fact that such constructs were not measurable independently by an outside disinterested party (Bargh and Ferguson. This set of personal standards is unique in each person and grows out of one’s life experiences (Andersen and Chen.g. psychological explanatory mechanisms such as memory. individual functioning is considered as a continuous interaction among behavioral. Cognitive psychologists view behavior as a function of cognition. conscious deliberation and perception) which mediate between stimuli and responses. Integrating the behavioral and cognitive perspectives with respect to motivation produces the social cognitive theory (Bandura. We begin to use our intellect to process the stimuli and anticipate the outcomes of our behavior before we respond to pains and pleasures. The old axiom of StimulusResponse Theory that pleasure begets pleasure and pain begets pain becomes unresolved and mooted. Behaviorists denied the existence of the complex higher-order factors (e. 2004). learning and experiences.. 2000).
(i) personality is a complex system. 2000). 31 . 2000).environmental factors (Fedor and Ferris. They posit that each of the mechanisms (e. The three overarching principles of the social cognitive approach are.. These mechanisms are contextualised by these social-learning processes.g. and cognitive constructs used to give meaning to events) possesses a spectrum of possible inputs. self-reflective capabilities. how people assign meanings to social information. selfregulatory and goals mechanisms. b. social cognitive theorists postulate that the intuitive and perceived sense of coherence and consistency in personality/self/character can arise from three sources: a. 1981). and c. 2004).. (ii) reciprocal interactionism. Over the past few decades. how people establish causal linkage over their lives through self-reflective and selfknowledge processes. how people organise disparate and multiple experiences and life events within a larger cognitive framework of goals. social cognitive psychologists have been developing theories in an attempt to explain the complexities by careful observation of the human behaviors with the environment and their relations. which cause some inputs to become particularly salient to an individual or are grouped with other inputs into an equivalent class and are domain-specific (Cervone. Furthermore. and (iii) personality variables (Cervone. expectation and aspirations (Marsella et al.
the selection/recruitment systems would be more beneficial and can provide practitioners greater advantage in utilising trait information in work settings. 2000). Hogan and Holland (2003) found that the measures of Emotional Stability.2. In a Thinking and Judging consulting world. As these traits are considerably stable and probably genetic in origin. personnel selection specialists generally did not use personality testing in employee selection due to pessimistic conclusions drawn by researchers that resulted in a perception that “personality tests have low validity” (Hurtz and Donovan. knowledge of the 32 . mental ability. Meta-analyses have consistently and repeatedly shown that under specific conditions.3. By paying attention to the psychological processes where traits can be expressed in work performance. “Getting Along” and “Getting Ahead”. Another study by Judge. 2003). personality measures can predict work performance quite accurately and a given trait value is situational specific (Tett and Burnett. Nevertheless. WHY DOES PERSONALITY MATTER TO ORGANISATIONS? For several decades prior to the 1990s. a more beneficial strategy for an organisation is to select relatively more conscientious and less extroverted employees to reduce absenteeism and improve productivity. are more potent predictors of occupational performance although other factors such as values. Hurtz and Donovan (2000) show that the Conscientiousness dimension has a moderate impact on performance and appears rather stable and generalisable across occupations and criteria. interest. Martocchio and Thoresen (1997) revealed that conscientious and introverted employees are less likely to play truant or to be absent. opportunities and health are also important determinants.
4. 2. 1998) with individuality as its object of study (Pelham. the presence of some Thinking types may provide some structure to decision-making in a group of all Feeling types. Gordon W. jobs and technologies. Allport (Nicholson. termed 33 . 1988). TYPES OF PERSONALITY MEASURES Historians recognise the year 1937 to be the birth of personality psychology by its founder. 2000).personality types of the clients could be used to enhance communication. The satisfaction derived from achievement is what stimulates their performance (Arnold. 1993). Hunton and Bryant (2004a) found homogeneity of personality types that are attracted and retained in accounting firms. He found that extrinsic rewards such as money are only one form or method of “keeping score” for high achievers. certain traits correlate with higher performance for certain tasks. Such knowledge also assists management on how to understand and express feeling so as to minimise conflicts and to see their differences as an asset instead of as a liability (McCaulley. Similarly. Groups comprising members with Sensing and Intuition preferences outperformed groups with only Sensing-preference members. Wheeler. Personality theorists began to focus more on the differences within persons. McClelland conducted a study of the phenomenon of constructive activity beyond the physiological or survival requirements and classified the traits as “need for achievement”. which in turn saves money via the reduction of errors/mistakes and improved morale. a group of Introverts may benefit from the presence of an Extrovert for better communication. Also.
occupational selection. 2004). Allport’s idea of personality is a psychology of the mature and normal personality (Lombardo and Foschi. No discussion or critique is carried out on the other instruments as there is very little publicly available research on them.. career development..e. 2001.1. they are the most researched psychometric instruments according to a search conducted in PsycINFO (981 articles on FFM and 540 on MBTI as at October 2004). between subject analyses of personality.4. and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) which is based on Jungian theory. 2004. which is essentially a smaller set of trait variables derived from the 16-Factor Model of Cattell (1943) (Rossier et al. Openness to Experience. Nomothetic is the other term that refers to the classical. Furthermore. 2. Kwiatkowski. The anagram of the FFM is 34 . 2003). These psychometric instruments have been selected as they are the most popular instruments used by commercial organisations for personal development. There are many approaches to the measurement of personality (see Table 2)) but this discussion will be restricted to the Five Factor Model (FFM) by Tubes and Christal (1961) and McCrae and Costa (1996). also known as the Big Five. and for developing more effective teams (Dent and Curd. Conscientiousness. Agreeableness and Neuroticism) which represent the highest levels of a personality hierarchy (Paunonen and Ashton. posits that there are five personality dimensions (i.as idiographic. Extraversion. Toomela. 2003). The Five Factor Model The Five Factor Model (FFM). 2003).
consists of tendencies to be kind. There is considerable debate regarding how many personality factors are needed to understand and predict behavior although the generalisability and robustness of FFM has been shown across different rating sources. active and excitement seeking. moderate or low degree of each quality. types of assessment and cultures (Hogan and Holland. d. Individuals scoring high on Extraversion are strongly predisposed to the experience of positive emotions. a.C. Conscientiousness. b. Openness to Experience is the only trait to display appreciable correlations with intelligence. fearful.A. Factor 1. Emotional Adjustment is the principal trait that leads to life satisfaction and freedom from depression and other mental ailments. Emotional Adjustment. which is the tendency to be anxious. Agreeableness.O. Paunonen (2003) revealed that the construct validity of these 35 .N. imaginative. is indicated by two facets: achievement and dependability. trusting.E. Neuroticism. 2003). perceptive and thoughtful. trustworthy and warm. (De Raad. often labelled by its opposite. e. represents the tendency to be outgoing. Consciousness is the trait that best correlates with work performance. As defined by Judge and Bono (2000). gentle. These factors represent a continuum. depressed and moody. languages. 1998). Factor 4. Openness to Experience (sometimes labelled as Intellectance). assertive. where people exhibiting a high. Factor 3. c. Extraversion. Factor 5. Factor 2. represents the tendency to be creative.
California Personality Inventory) may be assumed to be part of the FFM (Salgado. 2003). 2000).. Although studies by Jang et al. Judge. (1998) and Pedersen et al. Judge and Bono.. 2003) and are endogenous and biologically determined (McCrae and Costa.inventories is supported by the consistency and strong convergence in their predictions and measurements. Toomela.. 1996. 2001. 2003. Paunonen and Aston. et al. 2004). 1999). Several studies have shown that the well-known instruments for personality assessment (Eysenck Personality Inventory. 1998. The identification of these factors is based on principal components analyses (Burke and Witt. 2004). other researchers are of the opinion that virtually all traits of personality are reasonably contained in the factor space of the FFM (e. Hogan and Holland. Gallucci and Livi. Tsaousis. 1993. 2000. These dimensions are cross-culturally generalisabled (Perugini. McCrae. 2002. these studies also revealed substantial variation due to non-genetic factors (Toomela. 1997). (1988) showed that about 20% to 55% of the trait variation in personality dimensions is linked to genetic sources. Although there is no universal agreement among theorists and researchers on the comprehensiveness of the five dimensions (Tett and Burnett. Martocchio and Thoresen. 1998. Allik and McCrae. 1997. the way one describes oneself and others in everyday life transactions). Hurtz and Donovan. 2004). 2003.g. MBTI.. Judge et al. Saucier and Goldberg. Ashton et al.. After five decades of research on personality psychology (i. 2003. 36 . 2004. 1997). Hogan and Holland.e. the FFM seems to dominate not only the theory but also the evaluation of personality (Goldberg. It has reached somewhat of a consensus that the FFM is an appropriate taxonomy of personality (Burke and Witt. 2004.
(2000) claimed that the FFM can only satisfy the nomothetic. 2004a). the 37 . Sensing/Intuition and Thinking/Feeling). There is still a lack of evidence to support the notion that culture shapes personality. socio-economic background and country of origin. Nevertheless. ethnicity. That is. the traits are rooted in biology and transcultural universals. Hunton and Bryant. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a psychometric instrument developed from Jung’s theory of personality and is designed to sort human beings into different personality types. The idiographic. Jung’s typology assumes that people differ in their choice of two attitudes. descriptive and molar goals of Allport. race.e.. McKenna. 2. Personality is the mediating and integrating factor in numerous psychological processes (e. explanatory and molecular contextual accounts of personality are still subjects of debate. and their preferences for four mental functions (i. information processing and the role of the unconscious) (Wheeler. Extroversion and Introversion.g. 1971) posits that variation in human behavior is due to basic and observable differences when people use their minds to gather and process information. Shelton and Darling (2002) posited the FFM model is applicable to all people regardless of the gender.4. individual development. age. It postulates three bipolar dimensions and the fourth bipolar.2. religion.Allick and McCrae (2004) posited that the FFM personality structure is biologically determined and universal.. Saucier and Goldberg (1996) and Digman (1997) postulated the FFM model to be descriptive summaries while Marsella et al. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Jungian theory (Jung. Allick and McCrae (2004) did not claim that the environment is irrelevant to personality functioning but rather that personality is manifested through culture.
Introverts. McCaulley. Judgment (J) versus Perception (P): The judgment-perception preferences were invented by Briggs and Myers to indicate if rational or irrational judgments are dominant when a person is interacting with the environment. however.. resulting in four dimensions with 16 distinct personality types as shown in Table 4 (Myers et al. c.Judgement/Perception dimension. a later addition by Myers and Briggs. Extroversion (E) versus Introversion (I): This dimension reflects the perceptual orientation of the individual. The judgmental person uses a combination of thinking and feelings when making decisions whereas the perception person uses the sensing and intuition processes. Extroverts are said to react to immediate and objective conditions in the environment. Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F): A preference for thinking indicates the use of logic and rational processes to make deductions and decide upon action. b. looks inward to their internal and subjective reactions to their environment. 38 . d. Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N): People with a sensing preference rely on that which can be perceived and are considered to be oriented towards that which is real. People with an intuitive preference rely more on their non-objective and unconscious perceptual processes. 1993) are: a. 2000). 1998. Feeling represents a preference to make decisions that are based on subjective processes that include emotional reactions to events. The 4 dimensions (Pittenger.
e. structured (like Conscientiousness) whereas Perceptive types are adaptable.e.e. Similarly. Similarly. self disciplined. Intuition types “see the forest” (i. more insightful and creative) while Sensing types “see the trees” (i. The scores from the MBTI test are used to determine the person’s type and labels are attached based on one’s primary preferences for the four dimensions (Pittenger. an introvert can become more extroverted when in groups). 1995).. The Judging types are described as organised. Sensing-Intuition is comparable to the Openness factor..Since MBTI is a theory of types.. Although people can develop a complimentary style (e. logical and rational natures) while Feeling types incorporate personal and group values in the decision-making process (i. (i.g. 39 . Thinking types connect ideas and experiences by logic. Hunton and Byrant. Extroversion-Introversion of the MBTI is comparable with McCrae and Costa’s Extraversion.. Metaphorically. The Judging types are more committed and decisive while the Perceiving types are more questioning and open-minded. more idealistic and compassionate) (Wheeler. Lindon. 1993). one can have only one preference. Shelton and Darling. The MBTI does not cater for the neuroticism dimension which is certainly an important variable (McC Dachowski. 2004a. Extroverted types are more outgoing while introverted types are deemed to be more detached and contemplative. more factual and observant). Although there is insufficient evidence that the MBTI is a valid instrument. ThinkingFeeling may not be directly comparable to Agreeableness but it does clearly measure a similar dimension. its popularity has not diminished despite research which shows it has low validity (McKenna..e. the primary preference always dominates the person’s personality. 1987). 2002). spontaneous and flexible.
Table 3: The 16 Personality Types with Cognitive Characteristics and Occupational Tendencies 40 .
1994. (1990). 1996.5. Descouzis (1989).. 2003). Agreeableness via its main effect and extraversion and openness via their interaction are associated with work involvement while openness correlates with support for innovation (Bozionelos. Sensing type students outperformed the Intuition students in certain subjects and in an overall accounting grade (Nourayi and Cherry. THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF FFM/MBTI ON PERFORMANCE Judge and Ilies (2002) found that neuroticism and conscientiousness were the most consistent and most strongly correlated with performance motivation. Sensing and Thinking type students perform better with a lecture mode while Intuition and Feeling types prefer and perform better under a computerassisted method (Ott et al. Neuroticism primarily influences performance through motivation while conscientiousness influences performance by being decisive and orderly.. Kreiser et al. Shackleton (1980). audit partners and managers are predominantly STJ in the MBTI matrix and another set of studies reveal that the STJ type is dominant in accounting undergraduate students (Laribee.. Otter (1984). Kovar et al. Moreover. 1993). 2004). 2004). Mount and Barrick (1994) found that conscientiousness has the strongest correlation with work performance and is positively correlated with task orientation while neuroticism has a strong negative correlation with task orientation (Burch and Anderson. 1990). Jocoby (1981). 1998).2. Satava (1996) and Schloemer and Schloemer (1997) found that accountants. Landry et al. A study on the relationship between need for achievement and need for power with six measures of life success revealed that need for achievement had a high correlation with 41 . Both of these dimensions are dominant in predicting work performance across a variety of work (Kichuk and Wiesner.
a widely used trait group. 1989. which has the advantage of getting around the problem of breaking personality into areas.success strivings for professional fulfilment. 1998).. Five Factor Model The FFM. 1996). Hogan et al. 1996. need for achievement was negatively related to security and personal fulfilment. Furthermore. 2. Hence. 1992). is unusual as its contents are defined by the lexical hypothesis instead of primary parts (Mayer. SHORTCOMINGS OF FFM AND MBTI MEASURES 2. and Berhoud. contribution to society and status-wealth.1. de Stadelhofen. personality can provide an incremental validity over ability in picking the optimal candidate (Day and Silverman.. De Raad. The lexical method hypothesises that the significant individual differences are encoded in single-term descriptors of underlying traits that find their expression in language (De Raad.6. 1998). 2001).6. This structure is essentially derived from an atheoretical trait factor approach (Gelso and Fassiinger. 2004. If personality requirements are derived for an individual job. Rossier. measures of personality based on the lexical method consist of adjectives that are representative subsets of terms describing people in a given language (Cellar et al. Its disadvantages are that numerous traits are motivational in nature (Buss. 1989) and hence other good dimensions of 42 . 1991). The need for power was highly correlated with professional fulfilment and status-wealth but was negatively related with family relationships (Parker and Chusmir.
2004b. 2003). 2004. 2003). 2003) as well as its focus on narrow aspects of personality (Paunonen and Aston. 1997. it has nothing to say about personality development. Toomela. Digman. Mayer. 2003. the FFM may only be “universal” for that specific stratum of society. Hence.. 2001. Aston et al.. It may 43 . Moreover. Paunonen. 2001. 2003. Mayer.. Cervone. The FFM is not universally accepted as the integrative model of personality (Cellar et al. Aston et al. Furthermore. over-reliance on the adjectival approach may limit the cross-cultural generalisability of the FFM. 1997.. 2004. That is. Hunton and Byrant. Digman (1990) highlighted two basic weaknesses of the FFM: (i) it is descriptive in nature and as such does not provide any possible causes to personality. Tett and Burnett. Cellar et al. A better approach is to use noun factors that provide a well-delineated and more coherent description and represents the more extreme meanings of the adjective dimensions (Saucier. It is fair to argue that adjectives are the most appropriate and versatile class of personality descriptors in English and languages linguistically linked to English but many languages do not have a big adjectival word-class. 2004. 1996). Digman. the debate on cultural specificity and the universality of personality structure continues. the exceptions which depart from the usual due to situational effects. 2001.personality may have been omitted (Paunonen and Aston. Toomela (2003) finds that due to the scientific word meaning structure used. and (ii) it cannot account for exceptions to the typical behaviors on which it is based. 1996) and is criticised for its questionable conceptual and methodological assumptions of the lexical hypothesis (Wheeler. Moreover.
helplessness. (iv) limited insight and self-awareness. For example.. immaturity and many other derogatory terms but can be viewed positively in the Japanese culture..e. 44 .be accepted that there are a relative small number of socially or biological determined behavioral dimensions (e. (iii) the situations where they are elicited. (ii) desire to conform socially. the norms of a particular instrument that are based on Western culture may give rise to questionable conclusions if applied to. dependency in Western culture implies childishness. for example.. These motivational and perceptual differences are: (i) fear of possible persecution. Finally. Chinese respondents. (iii) concern only in giving the right instead of the accurate answer. Some cultural groups have problems with Likert scales and they tend to take the middle position. the similarity in the meaning and nature of a concept) may differ. (v) desire to please authorities. (iv) the meanings they are assigned. and (v) the value or utility of behavioral descriptions (Marsella et al.. It is further complicated when the questions are applied in different cultures since these people may have different reasons to participate and perceptions of the task from those on whom the concept and the scale were constructed. 2000). (vi) variation in the construction of personality and personhood. In addition. and (vii) confusion with the implication of words and terms used in the question as well their perceived meaning (Marsella et al. introversion-extroversion) but cultural variations may shape: (i) their display patterns. in terms of normative equivalence. The adoption of self-report questions is already a complex task. many non-Western societies are unfamiliar with linear or graduated scales like the Likert scales as they do not see their world in that fashion. Furthermore. (ii) the interpersonal responses to them.g. 2000). the conceptual equivalence (i.
45 . In the final analysis. Nevertheless. 2003).. and (iii) it can advance our understanding of work-related variables (e. that is. Furthermore. the FFM does provide an initial structure of human individuality.The development of a descriptive typology such as the FFM can be done without a clear knowledge of the causal relationships of things but the proof or validation of the structure falls on that theoretical construct (Stelmack. trait ratings provide only a “first read” on an individual as people seek information which is contextualised as they get to know each other better. 1997). Unfortunately. the FFM’s taxonomy has been criticised by some researchers as being incomplete because important relationships may be obscured under the five factor model but not under a seven-factor model (Hogan and Holland.g. the FFM does not offer answers to the causes of personality nor accounts for exceptions to the selected dimensions and has no link to personality development (Digman. (ii) it provides a structure for integrating results from studies carried out to investigate personality as well as the relationships between personality and other variables such as job performance. 2003). 1997). Idson and Mischel (2001) postulated that traits cannot provide the psychologist with more than a psychology of a stranger. 2001). characteristic adaptations like developmental tasks and motives fill in the details. the FFM has the following advantages: (i) it has a parsimonious taxonomy. 1997). performance) by linking them to personality dimensions (Salgado. Several studies have found the FFM to be unrelated to cognitive ability (Sanders. while life stories provide the meaning and integration (McAdams.
the correlations between these orthogonal factors will tend towards zero even though they are highly correlated in the population. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Jung’s (1971) hypothesis states that types and preferences are invariant and innate in individuals. Hunton and Bryant. If the number of traits is large. Data are described as ipsative when a given group of responses always add to the same total. Factor analysis will not be appropriate. it is not suitable for analysis looking for before and after treatment effects (Wheeler.. Each dichotomy is a selection between qualities of equal value. 2004). Cavana et al. The correlations between ipsative factors are negative. The notion of estimating reliability is based on the assumption that the reliability indices estimate that part of the variance that is due to true scores.2. measuring the concepts the measurement instrument is designed to measure (Dent and Curd. 2001). that is.2. no value judgment attached). 1998). a forced-choice format) (Rings. the true and error scores of the FCID’s ipsative data are contaminated across scales at the outset which do not provide any legitimate justification in conducting factor analysis (Meade. Furthermore. The most common one is the forced-choice ipsative data (FCID) as employed in MBTI.e. Hunton and Bryant. Reliability is defined as the consistency in measurement of a test while validity tests are for goodness of the measure. 2004a). Hence. with no intrinsic bad or good.6. 2004b).. The type preferences are dichotomous (i. The formulae for these reliability estimates based on the 46 . wrong or right (i.e. 2004. it does not capture the strength of a preference but its direction which is only appropriate for sorting (Wheeler. Although this hypothesis has received empirical support with temporal stability studies..
1. Pittenger (1993) finds large variances as much as 50% in some “test-retest” personality studies while the “factor analysis” of the four dimensions of MBTI theory identifies six different factors and shows significant correlations of these dimensions which are supposedly independent of each other. THE THEORIES AND CONSTRUCTS OF THE PROPOSED MEASURE 2. there is no data that show certain types are more contented in specific occupations than others or stay longer in one occupation. In general. there is no evidence to indicate a positive relation between specific MBTI types with career success.7. 1996). Hence. Behavior is used to evaluate and interpret one’s personality (Hogan et al. Furthermore. 1989). high fidelity expression of a personality disposition. 2. What 47 . behavior is interpreted as conduct by most people but in the fields of psychology and behavioral science.. Any single behavior is a narrow bandwidth. it is regarded as any activity of a human being (The World Book Encyclopaedia) which is partly determined by heredity and environment but can be modified through learning (Plomin.7. Similarly. ESFPs are neither better nor worse salespeople than INTJs.classical test theory are simply not applicable or tenable with ipsative data. In addition. Definition of Behavior Behavior is the way organisms like human beings act.
In most cases. An example of an intrinsic motivation is the participation in some activities for the satisfaction and pleasure derived from it. The word “motivation” suggests energised behavior directed towards some goals that is. 2003).2. Amotivation is the lack of intent to engage in a specific behavior. 48 .7. Motivation is not behavior itself and is not performance. which represents a lack of motivation. 2000). On the other hand. Cesare and Sadri. it would be extrinsic motivation when the person participates in the activity to avoid negative consequences or gain external rewards. Extrinsic motivation. Behavior is the criterion which is chosen. the chosen actions are good reflections of performance (Mitchell. Factors Influencing Behavior Motivation is fundamental to behavior as most behavior is influenced by it (Mitchell.an individual does is a function of the kind of person he or she is – that is. Karageorghis and Terry. 2. 1982). intrinsic motivation and amotivation are three distinct motivational forces that can influence behavior (Vlachopoulos. motivation is a process that moves a person towards some action (Arnold. 2004). his or her personality. that is. Pincus (2004) defined motivation as a desire or an emotion operates willingly and causing it to act. The objective of motivation theories is often to predict behavior. 1982. the motive of participation lies in the process of participation instead of the derived external reward or avoidance of possible negative consequences for non-participation (Pincus. 1988).
“motivations provide the motor for behavior” (Pincus. Motivation is to do with the quality and direction of the effort. 1991). attitudes. Contrary to the dispositional view. (i. which arouse behavior. and goals. expectations. In this respect. That is. need theories identify the internal factors which energise behavior. reinforcement histories. 1982): (i) an individual-level phenomenon. these needs can be weak or strong. under the individual’s control) (Tubbs and Ekeberg. 1982).e. Motivational theories are used to predict behavior as motivation is about the actions and the external and internal forces that influence an individual’s choice of action. (ii) intentional. As human needs are psychological or physiological deficiencies. personality traits accounted for little variance in 49 . Hence. motivation is the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specific behaviors (Mitchell.Mitchell (1982) postulated motivation as those psychological processes that cause the arousal. and can vary over place and time due to environmental influences (Ramlall. persistence of voluntary actions and directions that are goal directed. 2004). It is generally accepted that motivation is (Mitchell. and (iii) multifaceted. 2004). Motivational theorists have different ideas on where the source of energy is derived from and the particular needs which an individual is trying to fulfil. values. Nevertheless. Different people have different needs.. others believe that behavior is determined by environmental or situational factors and that similarity in behavior is a result from similarity of environmental or situational circumstances. not the amount.
According to this view. Furthermore. That is. 970). The theories proposed by deCharmes. most researchers have adopted an interactionist view. there are no external forces regulating the behavior. 1999. the person has a dynamic reciprocal interaction with the situation/environment. 2. Katz and Khan. models are developed which can explain why people. The other source of 50 . Current Theories of Work Motivation Work motivation is defined as “the process by which behavior is energised. 1989.behavior across situations. 1999).. In recent years. directed and sustained in organisational settings” (Leonard et al.. intrinsic process motivation. which assumes behavior is a function of both personality and the environment (Pervin. 1999).7. 2000).. are able to exhibit different patterns of behavior yet are able to retain a recognisable personality structure (Pervin. Individuals who perform a behavior because it is “fun” are said to be motivated intrinsically.3. The trait-situation debate peaked with the works of Mischel (1968) and Mischel and Shoda (1995) which posited that situational factors determine behavior. when shifting from one situation to another. Leonard et al. Rothbart and Ahadi. and extrinsic or instrumental motivation. and Etzioni point to three sources of motivation: motivation based on goal internalisation. there are some studies that are able to support the predictive validity of the personality/dispositional view (Leonard et al. Hence. the individual enjoys the work and feels rewarded by just performing the task.. Deci. Nevertheless. 1994. p. 1975). not personality or dispositions (Marsella et al.
the 51 . and (iv) the need for power (Atkinson. motivation is complex in that: (i) (ii) the needs of individuals differ. (i) (ii) the need for achievement (McClelland.. there is considerable variability in the conversion of needs into action. Needs can be requested or expressed in immature or mature ways. 1958). Nevertheless. Such motivation is referred to as legal compliance and external rewards by Katz and Khan (1978) or alienative or calculative involvement by Etzioni (1975). 1995).motivation stems from external forces. Murray posited that human being can be characterised by a set of needs and that individual differences in behavior can be explained by individual differences in the strength of the needs (Franken. 1961). The more psychologically immature a person is. (iii) the need for affiliation (Atkinson. 1998). 2004). Murray’s “variables of personality” theory adopts motives as the fundamental element of personality (Winter et al. 1958). (iii) there is inconsistency in the final action taken. the need for cognition (Cohen et al. 1998). There exist several “mini” theories of individual difference in motivation which suggest the existence of motivational traits (Pincus. and (iv) the difference in reactions by individuals for the fulfilment of needs..
is fused with the holism of Goldstein. our needs determine our behavior or acts (Osteraker. Frank (2003) maintained that the characteristics of triebe characterise the vicissitudes of needs. or compromised. Maslow claimed that the five needs are universal and innate. 2003). As values determine our needs. (1999) posited that individual disposition or personality is a significant determinant of behavior. however. Hence. p. 1997). Leonard et al. These needs are instinctually weak and their effect on behavior can be 52 . These theories are. such as changes in behavior across situations when valences and expectancies remain constant. The expectancy and equity theories focus on extrinsic motivational factors and assume that individuals are “rational maximiser(s) of personal utility” (Leonard et al. Needs can also be sublimated and gratification can be delayed. For the more psychologically mature person. Behavior is motivated by goal internalisation when an individual adopts behaviors and attitudes because they are congruent with one’s value system. 1969) and has the dynamism of Adler and Freud. Values are motivations and the gratification of a need is a value (Jolibert and Baumgartner. most needs can be satisfied or expressed symbolically (Frank. Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology (Chung. which is in the functionalist tradition of James and Dewey.more literal is the gratification of the needs. 1999. unable to account for the complete range of motivated behavior. 972). needs can be unconscious and repressed or disavowed and conscious. denied or turned into the opposite. 1999). The Theory of Human Motivation postulated by Maslow (1943). and are termed instinctoid..
Maslow postulated that an individual’s needs act as motivators and are the centre of motivation (Arnold. 53 . 1988).to affiliate with others. only those behaviors that satisfy the physiological needs are unlearned that is. 1997. their behavior is determined by unsatisfied needs and satisfied needs do not motivate behavior. This may be true for lower-order needs and less so of higher-order needs. The upper levels of the Needs Hierarchy attempt to explain why an individual continue to strive for excellence when the lower needs are met. According to Maslow: (i) human beings are demanding beings. Even though the needs are innate.to achieve. and (e) self-actualisation needs . Hence. and (iii) higher needs are different from lower needs as they can never be completely satisfied. Based on the premise that motivation comes from within an individual and cannot be imposed. (c) belongingness and love needs .to find self-fulfilment and realise one’s potential.for hunger. It is shown that the greater a need’s deprivation. thirst and so forth. Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs. 1989). safe and out of danger.accelerated. all other behaviors are learned (Buttle. consisting of: (a) physiological needs . be competent and gain approval and recognition. (b) safety needs . the higher its strength. desirability or importance. (d) esteem needs . Chung. it is a dynamic model that posits multiple needs operating simultaneously (Herbig and Genestre. inhibited or modified by the environment. (ii) the five needs exist in a hierarchy of significance or importance. 1969).to feel secure. be acceptable and belong.
Alderfer argued that people can move up and down the hierarchy and can be motivated at any time by multiple needs.e. Needs are constantly changing within the individual (Osteraker. be concerned with needs on other levels of the primary need (Townsend and Gebhardt. Unlike most of the above traditional need theories that can be classified as homeostatic or deficit theories of motivation. The major difference lies in the definition of need satisfaction. 2003). More like piano keys than stairways. At any instant. For example. 54 . 2003). move on to the next need. 1969). Maslow’s need hierarchy is generally applicable to all with regards to cultural differences. 1993). Tests have shown that people across the world are essentially motivated by the same fundamental needs. existence.. related and growth). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory advocates the dynamic processes of need satisfaction which leads towards the ultimate goal of self-actualisation. to a lesser degree. self-actualisation may mean different things to individuals from collectivistic cultures than it does to individuals from individualistic cultures (Cesare and Sadri. an individual may concentrate mostly at one level but at the same time may. This Hierarchy of Needs is claimed to be a universal theory of human motivation and the needs or motives are identified to human behavior (Iachini. Maslow’s theory is dynamic in the sense that human beings are postulated as wanting beings that search constantly for the fulfilment of their needs in an expanding needs system (Chung. 1999). it must be repeated that an individual does not concentrate all energies on one need and then when that need is fulfilled.Alderfer (1969) modified Maslow’s Theory by suggesting there are only three needs (i.
Workplace behavior is posited to be influenced by a person’s existing state of needs in a certain universal needs taxonomy. 1969). 55 . Motivations are only one group of determinants of behavior. 1976). The adoption of Maslow’s needs is appropriate for the CASES personality measure as it has face validity with plausible explanatory power. Although personality-based theories may not necessarily predict behavior or motivation. Its structure is appealing in terms of its simplicity and apparent completeness (Gallagher and Einhorn. a particular behavior may be caused by many needs. Behavior is almost always motivated by other factors that are culturally. a specific behavior can meet more than one need.Maslow proposed that needs must be studied in totality or holistically rather than independently as needs are seldom found in isolation but in a variety of combinations (Chung. The Needs Hierarchy is also elegant and parsimonious. 1997). The power of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory is the identification of the needs of each individual that motivate behavior (Wiley. they do provide an understanding of what motivates or energises the individual. the scope of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is broad and is able to explain a wide range of behaviors. Conversely. In additional. For example. Maslow (1943) postulated that the theories of motivation are not synonymous with theories of behavior. Mustafa (1992) postulated that the significance of the needs hierarchy lies in understanding the motivational factors for the individuals. biologically and situationally determined. Furthermore.
The variability of these dimensions from the Needs theory is explained by the complexity dimension based on the social cognitive theory of “If-Then”. if not all.7. This model of personality (CASES) postulates that personality is a function of psychological needs and their interactions with the environment/situation. The psychological needs are based on the motivational underpinnings of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory and the environment/situation interactions are explained by the social cognitive theory.2. Most. which complete the “behavior chain”. The First Premise: Behavior is Motivated by Needs An analysis of a person’s behavior can produce a range of instrumental motives with end goals. 2.4. Any adequate model must therefore address motivation. A person taking up a second job for the extra money (instrumental motive).1. The end goals are classified as drives and intrinsic motives by social 56 . may desire the money to purchase health insurance (instrumental motive) and hopes that the health insurance will benefit the person and family (end goal).4.7. The proposed personality model of CASES attempts to explain personality with dimensions from the Hierarchy of Needs theory. The Constructs of this Proposed Model Most broad-based personality theories have assumed that specific motivations determine how personality and self develop function. existing psychometric instruments have personality dimensions which are temporally stable over various situations.
recognition and affirmation. and (iv) the need for a resilient responsiveness by one's love objects. needs have been equated with “drive” in experimental psychology (Fedor and Ferris. 1998)..psychologists (Reiss. the need definition should be given more consideration as postulated: (i) (ii) the need for one's physical needs to be deemed legitimate. Motives can be ends-based or means-based 57 . expectancies. 694). skills and other motives. 1981). However. Freud wrote. wishes and goals. 2004). Motives refer to people’s desire. p.e. 2004). the need for identity.. triebe) is need” (Frank. may enjoy the feeling of self-importance and may think of issues pertaining to wealth (Reiss. (v) the need for optimal emotional availability of a love object. They provide the meaning of human behavior. A person with a motive to gain social status may behave in ways linked with upper class status. (iii) the need for interpersonal boundaries. (iv) the need for understanding the causes of events. Furthermore. “A better term for an instinctual impulse (i. particular actions or behaviors associated with a certain motive may not have high correlations with the motive behaviors because they can vary according to the situation. Motives are reasons a person holds for initiating and performing voluntary behavior. 2003. incentives. Motives are the “why” of behaviors (Winter et al. Although Freud did not elaborate further on the idea of needs.
While people’s wants are many. 2004).. These wants are shaped and reshaped continuously by the institutional and social forces. Drive theories define drives as psychological states that move the organism towards a goal whereas needs are physiological states of deprivation (Pincus. Human wants can be regarded as specific desires for these deeper needs. On the other hand. desires or goals (Winter et al. Wants and needs are based on both inherited characteristics and environmental conditions and behavior is motivated to satisfy needs and wants (Koltko-Rivera. means-based motives are indicated when one performs an act for a specific instrumental value.. Similarly. Values are cognitive representations of biological. In these examples. 2004). Maslow (1970) posited that the gratification of any need is a value while Murray (1951) claimed that needs operate in the service of values. Our values determine our needs and our needs influence 58 . For example. needs are socially constructed and historically situated (Buttle.g.depending on the individual’s objective for performing the behavior. Ends-based motives are indicated when one engages in a behavior because one desires to do so with no other apparent reason. motives involve wishes. 1989). salary or degree). 1998). a professional footballer playing the game for a salary or a student studying diligently to obtain a degree. interactional and societal needs. their needs are fewer. Needs that people desire and require vary according to the value system in which they are oriented as different values systems induce different needs (Yamaguchi. a student reading a textbook out of curiosity or a child kicking a ball just for the fun of it. Hence. the behavior is enacted as it is a means to obtain something else (e. For example. 2003).
2004). image. structure. the four dimensions of self are proposed as follows: (i) Self-Actualising self. and affiliation. Physiological needs. Social cognitive theorists postulate that human beings are neither mechanical 59 . and control. Based on these factors. which represents the needs for security. CASES’s first premise is that personality dimensions can be represented by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. 1997). (ii) Safety self. which represents the needs for love. companionship. are not considered as they are unlearned and assumed to be of relatively in low importance in current organisational settings. To explain why some individuals are highly predictable and some are unpredictable. 1999.our acts (Osteraker. 2. which represents the needs for power. The Second Premise: The Accuracy of Predicting Behavior Depends on Complexity “Complexity” reflects the extent to which people are complex and difficult to understand (Koltko-Rivera. Hence. drives and values. and protection.4. (iii) Egocentric self. care. progress.2. however. and fulfilment. CASES posits that the needs subsume motives (implicit and explicit). the model uses the social cognitive theory to provide an explanation for complexity. Jolibert and Baumgartner.7. self development. desires. achievement. system. order. which represents the needs for growth. and (iv) Sociocentric self.
Andersen and Chen (2002) posited that personality and self are largely shaped by experiences and personality is a function of the different situations individuals encounter. The capacity to control one’s action. active construal of the environment. motivation or thought processes is a unique human characteristic (Bandura. 2000). This approach assumes that every individual possesses an idiosyncratic constellation of “if-then” relations and the overall pattern of “if-then” responses of the individual reflects the individual unique “personality signature” (Mischel and Shoda. Even though the contents and processes by which self-regulation occur are multifaceted. This self-regulation involves overriding an individual’s responses or modulating them on the basis of some threatening experience such as a disturbing emotional state.e. The “If-Then” approach defines personality based on different responses (i. Not all threats require adjustments. Complex behavior is believed to be mediated by the individual’s current purposes and intents. 60 . “if”).e. 2002). Human behavior is purposive.. and by the exercise of conscious decisions and choices based on these purposes and construals (Bargh and Ferguson. such as when the threat is insufficiently threatening or when the individual lacks the motivation or necessary cognitive resources to deal with the threat. 1995: Anderson and Chen. self-regulation is activated by a threat indicating that something is not “normal” and that adjustment may be needed. “then”) that an individual displays in various classes of situations (i.conveyors of animating influences of the environment nor autonomous agents. 1977a)..
Complex people are harder to predict. Low complexity traits describe the characteristics of people who are predictable. For example. The nature of low complexity behavior is conditioned while the nature of high complexity behavior is cognitive. For example. the person can be soft. a person can be hard. if an individual with low complexity is gullible. CASES postulates that people with a low complexity have relatively static personalities.7. representing the need to adapt. a low complexity person would normally manifest the traits of the other four dimensions consistently and persistently over time and across situations. (i) Complex self. Evidently. but at another situation and time. Apparently. change and be flexible to survive in a turbulent dynamic environment. then he/she will tend to be gullible at all times and situations.5. The traits of the other four dimensions are dynamic and are manifested on the need to suit a purpose. Complex people have dynamic personalities. CASES’s second premise states that human beings can be placed on a complexity continuum thereby producing a fifth self-dimension known as the Complexity Dimension. 2. being hard or soft is a person’s choice and is manifested with intent to achieve a purpose.No two human beings are alike. at a particular situation and time. Uniqueness of the CASES Personality Measure The notion that humans exhibit needs for growth and development has traditionally enjoyed considerable acceptance by practitioners owing possibly to the face validity and intuitive 61 . viz.
focused on personality traits at the molecular. however. 2000). That is. wants to. There has been a resurgence of interest in the role of personality in work performance (Robertson et al.8. motivation. “Does personality predict work performance?” is a question that many researchers have addressed over the past few decades. competence. personnel selection specialists did not generally use personality testing in employee selection due to the perception it had low validity. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES Prior to the 1990s. Defining personality with these theories allows for variability in personality across various situations while maintaining stability at the level of the individual’s “personality signature” (Mischel and Shoda. dispositional personality characteristics. “inventory” level instead of the construct level. or has to (Nikolaou. From this approach. however. variability in an individual’s responses across situations will not be dismissed or averaged over. has the ability either unconsciously or consciously to alter his/her behavior simply because he/she likes to. 2003). experience.. 62 . The individual. Furthermore. CASES posits that an individual is not a “hostage” of his/her traits but rather is an active personality which has stable. 2. There are many other possible factors that influence work performance such as intelligence. The CASES model of personality recognises the idiographic differences in how human beings make sense of varying situations and their responses to them.appeal of the arguments. 1995). These tests. variations in responses are not assumed to be an error.
job-specific task proficiency. procedural knowledge. more recent studies are focusing on demonstrating the incremental variance in work performance with the use of personality predictors (Sackett. self management and motivation. results from multiplicative combination of declarative knowledge. and ability (Carmeli and Freund. Barrick and Mount.satisfaction.e. administration. Mellissa and Ellington. 1998). 1998). Schmit et al. work orientation. 1997. and organisation (Barrick et al. Mellissa and Ellington. Burke and Witt (2004) postulated that personality tests account for a certain unique variance in work performance’s measures beyond the variance accounted for by mental ability tests... leadership. and interviews. Sackett. 2004). peer or supervisor reports on the job or failure 63 . interpersonal. motivation and satisfaction levels. Hence. Work performance is affected by role clarity. 1993. (2000) posited that the core work performance factors are thinking. work attitude. Performance is often measured as training academy performance. Recent studies using more fundamental dimensions of personality have shown the predictive power of personality for work performance (Kieffer et al. 2003). 2002. Several studies have shown that all personality dimensions or factors are valid predictor of work performance (Salgado. personality provides very little insight on what and why the person will do in a given job. 2004).. Sanders. Tett and Burnett (2003) used a work performance taxonomy that had eight categories (i. oral and written communication task proficiency. and motivation). assessment centre ratings. Research on the significance of personality suggests that even though other factors are important in determining the performance of an individual in a given task.
2000. beside the worker’s productivity (Hunter and Schmidt. To ensure a full representation of work performance. 1993).measures such as being fired or quitting (Sanders.. work performance comprises “will-do” and “can-do” components where the former are best predicted by personality measures (Barrick. 2000). a measure should include variables in citizenship behavior and productivity as well as steps to prevent the “halo” effect. Global measures of work performance and personality measures often correlate poorly (Cook et al.. A contributing factor for the poor correlation between personality and work performance is the “halo” effect. These two dimensions of performance show little correlation when measured objectively but exhibit high correlation when measured subjectively. cooperativeness. Another contributing factor is when supervisors evaluate their subordinates. Schweiger and Sumners. Several researchers have stressed that other factors such as occupational socialisation. and helpfulness. they also rely on other factors such as pleasant disposition. 64 . where one person assessing another person’s work tends to rate all aspects of it as good or all aspects as poor (Cook et al. Mount and Strauss. Furthermore. and the work environment can significantly influence an individual’s behavior. There exists some degree of difficulty in measuring work performance and linking specific work tasks to personality dimensions. work stress. 2003). 1994). This could be due to the confusion of the two dimensions of personnel performance evaluation: (a) citizenship behavior (social behavior at work) and (b) performance in productivity. 1990).
Subjective self-performance appraisal is the performance rating conducted by the ratee. This system of self-assessment of work performance is emerging as a popular trend in performance appraisal although it has not yet gained wide acceptance because of the general unfavourable research findings that individuals generally rate themselves higher than others do. Some studies of self-assessment also showed that self-ratings do not correlate with counter-position ratings and more halo (less differentiation). The strong standing taken by Campbell and Lee (1988) with regards to the limited usefulness of self-ratings as an evaluation tool has elicited doubts on its use in the performance appraisal process. The effect of leniency associated with it raises concerns about its legitimacy. Questions of response bias arise when self-ratings are used (Inderrieden, Allen and Keaveny, 2004). Lester and Kickul (2001) highlighted the concerns of the presence of common method variance. Participants are giving the survey responses to both the outcome measures as well as the psychological contract items. It is likely that these participants may exhibit a social desirability bias when assessing their behavior. This may have a confounding effect on the correlations found between the constructs. However, other researches produced conflicting findings which indicated that the two forms of ratings demonstrated significant correlation and self-ratings are significantly lower than counter position ratings (Nhundu, 1992). Self-rating has one distinctive advantage on the study of work performance and personality as they are less subject to “halo” but more “lenient” than other measures of performance (Cook et al., 2000). Respondents have no obvious reason to “fake good” since the assessment does not have any career implications.
Self-rating may be skewed towards the favourable end of each dimension. This may restrict the range of responses and thereby reduces correlations with the personality dimensions. This research uses self-ratings rather than ratings by superiors. Although few studies have used self-ratings, they have become popular in more recent research as it has been validated against other work performance measures (Cook et al., 2000). Difficulties such as selfenhancement, reliability and objectivity may be an issue; several studies have shown that such self-evaluation measures are more valid than originally perceived (Carmelli and Freund, 2004). Although self-evaluation may have a bias of general method variance and be susceptible to percept-percept inflation than others, the adoption of usable and validated measures can reduce method variance (Carmelli and Freund, 2004). A study showed correlations of 0.4-0.5 between objective measures of clerical ability and self-ratings while another reported a correlation of 0.5 for self assessment with measures of leadership (Cook et al., 2000). To ensure a relatively good representation of work performance, the Role-Based Performance Scale (RBPS) by Wilbourne, Johnson and Erez (1998) based on self-appraisal is adopted. The RBPS has five variables or components consisting of job, innovator, career, team, and organisation.
Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure
There has been a revival of interest in the prediction of work performance using personality measures due to the emergence of the FFM (Barrick and Mount, 1993). Numerous studies
have validated the FFM in predicting work performance and its cross-cultural generalisability (Burke and Witt, 2004). In general, many studies indicate that Conscientiousness, one of the dimensions of the FFM, is a valid predictor for all job-related criteria and occupational groups (Barrick and Mount, 1993; Barrick et al., 2002; Crant, 1995; Sanders, 2003; Salgado, 1997; Vinchur et al., 1998; Hurtz and Donovan, 2000). Conscientious people are reliable, hardworking, self-disciplined, determined, achievement oriented (Barrick et al. 2002); dependable, persistent, responsible (Barrick and Mount, 1993); and also motivated in goal-directed behavior (Crant, 1995). Over the past few decades, many studies have shown that personality can be fairly represented by the FFM and that the FFM is an effective predictor of work performance (Salgado, 1997; Stewart, 1999; Tett and Burnett, 2003). Hurtz and Donovan (2000) showed that Conscientiousness is stable and generalisable across criteria and occupations and has a moderate influence on performance. Other factors of the FFM have also been shown to predict work performance. Judge, Martocchio and Thoresen (1997) found that conscientious and introverted employees are less likely to be absent or play truant. Hogan and Holland (2003) found that the measures of Emotional Stability are good predictors of occupational performance while Tett and Burnett (2003) revealed that personality measures predict work performance satisfactorily and is situationally specific. This view is further supported by the body of FFM research revealing the existence of a personality-work performance relationship but other factors such as job requirements, personality interactions and aspects of the occupational environment may influence the relationship’s nature and strength (Kieffer et al., 2004). As the FFM reveals the existence of a personality-work performance
In Bandura’s view. and the dimension of self-actualisation which has facets of self 68 . have moderating effects on the relationship between personality and performance. (2002) and Lowery. (2004) postulated that cognitive ability and volition. The second research question is whether the CASES measure of personality is able to predict work performance. are predictors of work performance. Furthermore. which are facets of self-actualisation. High performers perceive that events as determined by themselves while low performers perceive events as controlled by chance. Nikolaou (2003) and Lowery et al. Behavior is a function of expectancy of actions which will lead to certain reinforcement. the research question posed is “Does the FFM predict work performance?” 2.. which are facets of the complexity dimension based on Vancouver and Scherbaum (2000) and KoltkoRivera (2004). McCelland identified traits for “need for achievement” and it is this satisfaction of achievement that facilitates high performance (Arnold.relationship in other countries but not done in Malaysia. low impulsivity and self-regulation. Studies by Barrick et al. 1988). Since the CASES model measure contains the dimension of complexity which has facets of volition.2. Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure It is inevitable that researchers will attempt to examine the relationship between the FFM and other personality measures/models. Beadles II and Krilowicz (2004) revealed that the need for achievement and creativity.8. people’s high expectations guide their actions to produce high performance (Lau and Shaffer. 1999).
dependable. and hostility (Judge et al. Similarly.. depressed. and realisation of one’s potential in the self-actualisation dimension and the facets of selfregulation and volition in the complexity dimension of the CASES are related to the facets of achievement-striving. passion. and planfulness of the Conscientiousness dimension in the FFM. not resilient. Furthermore. order. as shown in Table 4. realisation of one’s potential. low confidence/self esteem. creativity. impulsivity. 1992) whilst Neuroticism comprises fearful. the facets of need for achievement. self-discipline. and hard working (Costa and McCrae. reliable. positive mental health. persistent. deliberation. 1997). anxious.3. persistent. passion. 2. Conscientiousness in the FFM comprises competence.fulfilment. responsible. As personality traits can be conceptually and empirically related without being redundant. dutiful. The Relationships between FFM and CASES The third research question considers how the CASES measure of personality compares with the FFM with respect to predicting work performance. and self esteem. internalisation. there are good reasons to believe that the Complexity and Self-actualisation 69 . deliberation. need for achievement. achievement-striving. Barrick and Mount (1991) posited that Conscientiousness is associated with volition variables such as persevering and conforming which is similar to the complexity dimension of the CASES. planful.8. determined. the research postulates that the CASES model will predict work performance. The facets of positive mental health and self -esteem in the self-actualisation dimension and low impulsivity in the complexity dimension of the CASES are inversely related to the Neuroticism dimension of the FFM. determined.
conforming) Realisation of one’s potential ii) Passion iii) Need for achievement i) Positive mental health i) i) Low impulsivity Self-esteem i) Table 4: The Possible Associations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM with Complexity and Self-Actualisation of the CASES This does not necessarily imply that the CASES model includes the Neuroticism or Conscientiousness. However.dimensions of the CASES are related to the Conscientiousness and Neuroticism dimensions of the FFM. “What is the relationship between the CASES model and the FFM model?” 70 . Dimensions of the FFM Conscientiousness Neuroticism i) Reliable ii) Self discipline iii) Deliberation iv) Planful v) Dependable vi) Order vii) Dutiful viii) Perseverance i) Responsible ii) Hardworking iii) Determined iv) Achievement striving i) Fearful ii) Anxious iii) Depressed i) Low confidence ii) Low self-esteem i) Impulsivity Dimensions of CASES Complexity Self-Actualisation i) Self-regulation ii) Volition (persevering. this assumption will be tested and raised in the third research question.
8.4. The second research question is addressed by the second hypothesis. H2: The CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. 71 . H3: The CASES and the FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. Hypotheses The first research question is addressed by the first hypothesis.2. The third research question is addressed by the third hypothesis.
The two broad social science perspectives or paradigms of research. RESEARCH PARADIGMS The structure. specifically. and process of social science are linked to assumptions about ontology.3. 1980). It highlighted the shortcomings of various existing personality measures. which postulates that behavior is motivated by needs. which give rise to various theoretical perspectives or paradigms ranging from phenomenology to positivism. are discussed before proceeding to the research method adopted and the administration and development of the data collection processes. A new personality measure with five dimensions based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. human nature and epistemology (Morgan and Smircich. and on the social-cognitive construct of “IfThen” was used to explain why some individuals are more predictable than others. INTRODUCTION The previous chapter analysed and reviewed the relevant literature on personality theories with respect to predicting work performance. This chapter covers the selected research methodology and design that will be used to obtain data to examine the research questions. 72 . direction. 3. positivism and phenomenology.1. CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. they do not account for the variations in behavior due to environmental factors and the complexity of an individual.0.2.
positivism views reality as a concrete structure and is objective whereby human beings are rational responders (Morgan and Smircich. giving rise to positivism which emphasises the empirical analysis of relationships (Morgan and Smircich. 73 . Its basic epistemological stance is to obtain information on how individuals interpret the world. this study adopts a positivistic paradigm with a hypothetico-deductive approach. 2001). and work performance. 1980). relationships and the precise nature of laws among the phenomena measured. According to phenomenology. Positivism emphasises empirical facts. 1980). causal relationships and predictions. humans are transcendental beings and are not restricted by external laws. personality. The possible shortcomings of this approach would be the apparent loss of richness of concepts due to the mechanisation of variables and concepts. From this point of view. The view that the social world is a concrete structure taken by objectivists encourages an epistemological approach that stresses the significance of studying the relationships among those elements forming that structure. This approach uses a statement of a hypothesis and conclusions may be drawn from it via the analysis of quantitative data (Baker. the knowledge of the social world would imply a need to map out and understand the social structure.Phenomenology views reality as a projection of human imagination. Positivism also provides an objective form of knowledge which specifies the regularities. As this research seeks to explain the relationships between need-induced behavior. On the other end of the continuum.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Most research in the social science disciplines is conducted using quantitative methodologies. Morgan. The quantitative methods. Causal relationships link all aspects of behavior to the specific context.3.. personality. 1996). Gliner and Harmon.3. 1980. Although human perception or cognition may influence the process. are appropriate to capture a view of the social world or reality as a concrete structure. vocational preferences. with surveys as the main research method (Morgan and Smircich. By manipulating data with various sophisticated quantitative tools. which are principally drawn from natural sciences. the social world can be “frozen” into structured immobility and the role of human beings is reduced to 74 . Human beings are assumed to be products of external forces in the environment. Lubinski. and abilities) that have real-world significance. It is a structure comprising of a network of finite relationships between constituent parts. The aim of such research is to assess human variations in factors (e. Reality can be found in the relationships between these components and concrete behavior. Stimuli from the environment condition them to respond to events in determinate and predictable ways. 1996). The psychology of individual differences has a number of empirically established foundations on which a more scientific foundation may be built for a better understanding of human behavior (Lubinski. people always respond to the situation in a lawful manner. Assessment tools are developed with the aim of facilitating the optimal utilisation and development of human capital where measures of individual differences are the most common criteria of interest.g. 1999.
Any generalisation is inductive which comprises nomothetic statements. a quantitative methodology is adopted and provides the framework for the research design. adheres to strict rules and uses statistics extensively. various studies. a quantitative methodology has the ability to provide an objective view of the various external factors. the time horizon and the unit of analysis (Cavana et al. RESEARCH DESIGN Research design involving a series of logical decision-making steps basically comprises the purpose of the study (descriptive. From the framing of the research questions and hypotheses. Purpose of the Study Studies can be descriptive. Although the processes in research design are depicted in distinct sequential activities. the extent of researcher interference. An 75 .. Based on these grounds. This quantitative methodology based on the positivist paradigm is objective. as mentioned in the previous chapter. 3. 2001).4. promotes value-free inquiry. exploratory. the nature of the study depends on how far the knowledge on the research subject has advanced. Moreover. exploratory. case study or hypothesis testing. have used this approach effectively. 3.elements which are subject to deterministic sets of forces. case study or hypothesis testing).4. these activities often interact or occur at the same time.1. the types of investigation. Hence.
2001). It provides an enhanced understanding of the various relationships between variables as well as establishing their causalities (Cavana et al. This study uses hypothesis testing as there is extensive knowledge. Such an undertaking is appropriate when the three criteria of uniqueness. Morgan et al.. 1999). gender. The case study method involves a systematic gathering of in-depth information on an organisation or entity.. Such studies are appropriate to obtain an initial grasp of the phenomena of interest (Cavana et al. 2001. Hypothesis testing is employed in studies that seek to establish the independence of various factors in a situation or the differences among groups or to explain the nature of relationships. critical and revelatory are met (O’Cass. industry or individual perspective such as age. It is generally qualitative in nature and used as a managerial decision-making tool (Cavana et al. 2001). or race.exploratory study is carried out when little or no information is known about the subject. educational level. 76 . 2004). The purpose of descriptive studies is to describe aspects of the situation from an organisational. 1999). information and variables on the topic to enable the formulation of hypotheses as articulated in Chapter 2. Descriptive studies are carried out to ascertain and describe the characteristics of the variables studied but no associations or comparisons are made as only one variable is considered at a time (Morgan.. Gliner and Harmon.
consists of two distinct collection methods.. This can be done with a correlational or causal approach. The investigation carried out in this study is a correlational study as the interest is to delineate the variables which are associated with the problem (Cavana et al. Research Method When the purpose of the study and the type of investigation has been determined. that is.2. Type of Investigation There are three approaches of investigation: clarification. Clarification investigation is used to gain a better understanding of the phenomena or concepts under investigation.3. the next step is to decide on the type of research method that will be used.4. the next stage is to determine the relationships between the variables or concepts.3. correlational and causal. A causal relationship occurs when one variable or concept causes a change in another whereas a correlational relationship only indicates that two variables or concepts are associated. A causal study delineates the cause of one or more problems whereas a correlational study delineates the variables or concepts that are associated with the problem. Quantitative research methodology. Quantitative methods may be used to give a more definite answer. Experimental research involves the manipulation of one or more variables in order to study the effects of such manipulations on the subjects 77 . 3. 2001). With a better understanding of the concepts. Exploratory and descriptive studies using qualitative methods follow this approach as it allows the researcher to be flexible in exploring the issues being studied.4. experimental and non-experimental. as adopted for this research.
Where. What. and survey. there are four broad categories of non-experimental techniques: observational. Since the research questions posted for this study are on behavior. nor is it 78 . As shown in Table 5. it is not possible to manipulate these variables or assign participants to groups. case study. Is case-specific. Table 5: Four Categories of Non-experimental Techniques (Grace. which rules out case study. 1999) It is clear that observational research is not appropriate as some of the variables are not observable. 1999). the non-experimental research is considered the more appropriate approach to adopt in this study. and the work performance of individuals. Hence. this study is not case-specific. Answers How and Why? Archival Research Who. Survey Research Goal is to collect information about the same variables or characteristics from a number of cases where the end result is a data matrix or a structured or rectangular set of data. How Much and How Many? Case Study Research Research investigates a particular situation or problem. What. Method Observational Research Description Observation of subjects in their own environment or researcher participating in naturally occurring groups and recording observations. Non-experimental research does not involve the manipulation of variables or assigning subjects to groups and requires minimal interference from the researcher. Using data that were collected for a purpose other than the problem at hand. personality.under study and is generally applied to answer the questions of why and how (Grace. archival. Similarly. How Much and How Many? How and Why? Who. Where.
suitable for archival research as there are new personality variables to be measured. 2001). Researcher’s Interference There are varying degrees of interference in research ranging from minimal. moderate to excessive. 3. Hence. This approach facilitates the external validation and generalisability of the findings within similar environments (Baker. The adoption of nil or minimal interference for this study is supported by Gill and Johnson (2002) who postulated that analytical studies require precision and the control of extraneous variables can be handled via statistical techniques. An excessive interference occurs especially in a causal study whereby an artificial setting is created and manipulated in a laboratory environment. Hence. manipulation of the variables may be done to study the effects of such manipulation on the dependent variables. the survey method is the most appropriate method for data collection in this study because of its ability to address the research questions as well as its efficiency and practicality. 79 . such studies have considerable interference with the normal or natural settings.4. For a causal study. There is minimal interference in an exploratory or descriptive study conducted in an organisation.4. This study does not require interference as the objective is to collect data on the personality of individuals and their work performance. The extent of interference by the researcher in the flow of work in the workplace has an important bearing on the research decisions.
External and internal validities are competing aspects. it is more important to capture the variables or concepts in the study than to establish the cause and effect relationships (Saunders. the research is conducted whereby the work proceeds normally in the natural environment.5. may reduce the external validity due to “reactivity” (Baker. 2001). A laboratory experiment is one with a contrived setting and considerable interference by the researcher (Cavana et al.. This research will be conducted via a survey with minimal researcher interference in a natural environment as the variables under investigation are the personality dimensions of individuals and their perceptions of their own work performance within their 80 . Study Setting The setting of the study can be either contrived or non-contrived. A contrived environment. In a non-contrived setting. Hence. Efforts to strengthen internal validity will diminish external validity and vice-versa (Cavana et al..4. Control imposed on a study gives it better internal validity as the extraneous variables are removed or controlled in order to facilitate investigation of the variables of interest. (1998) postulated that the level of control is least relevant for research methods using surveys. however. 2001). 1997).3. Correlational or causal studies which use environmental settings where the employees usually function are known as field experiments. Exploratory or descriptive studies usually fall under this category whereas rigorous causal studies are often undertaken in contrived settings. Exploratory or descriptive studies carried out in organisations are known as field studies. Furthermore. Lewis and Thornhill. 2001). there are tradeoffs between internal and external validities. Remenyi et al.
the passage of time is inconsequential. valid and unambiguous will be included after proper screening by subject matter experts (SME) to ensure content. which can be individual. Unit of Analysis The research objective determines the unit of analysis.normal work environments. 1998). 3. beliefs and perceptions. This method is appropriate as the objective of this research is to examine whether a new personality measure will provide incremental validity over and above that of the FFM in the prediction of work performance.4. To control for extraneous and irrelevant factors.6. Moreover. As this research is on the measurement of personality dimensions of individuals and their work performance. Time Horizons This research adopts a cross-sectional study instead of a longitudinal study as it will take a snapshot of the situation under study (Remenyi et al. and external validities and plausible explanations of the variances of the independent and dependent variables (Remenyi et al. groups. or cultures. 1998). variables which are reliable.7. internal. organisations. Lindell and Whitney (2001) postulated that most behavioral studies are cross-sectional as such studies focus on individual’s attitudes. Hence... 3.4. the data collected will be the 81 . dyads.
effort.5. Hence. or computer interviews. SURVEY RESEARCH The survey research consists of several steps as listed below. mail. and also has the problem of the interviewer’s influence on the interviewee’s responses. the unit of analysis is at the individual level. Selection of Survey Method As survey research has been selected as the appropriate method for collecting data. 3. telephone.individuals’ demographics. 82 . The personal interview method is not used on topics of personality and work performance as these topics lie in the positivism paradigm (Morgan and Smircich.1. 1980). 3. this method is considered inappropriate for this study. 2001). and time. The personal interview method provides an excellent response rate but can be costly in terms of finance.5.. these data can be obtained by using one or a combination of methods that include personal. Together with the inherent costs as well as the time constraints of this research. and their perceptions of their behaviors and work performance (Cavana et al. The merits of these methods are shown in Table 6.
Nikolaou. Salgado. 83 . 2003. al. the mail survey is considered the most appropriate method for this study. Hence..Criterion Ability to handle complex questionnaire Ability to collect large amount of data Accuracy of sensitive questions Control of interviewer effects Degree of sample control Time required Probable response rate Cost Mail Poor Fair Good Excellent Fair Fair Fair Good Telephone Good Good Good Fair Excellent Excellent Fair Good Personal Excellent Excellent Fair Poor Fair Good Fair Fair Computer Good Good Good Excellent Fair Good Fair Fair Table 6: Merits of the Four Survey Methods (Grace. these two interview methods are also considered to be inappropriate for this study. Mail survey is commonly used in studies of personality and work performance (Robertson et. it is cost effective and allows specific respondents in various organisations to be targeted. Hence. Although mail survey does not provide a good response rate. 2003. 2004). 2002... 2000. Kieffer et al. Barrick et al. 1999) Computer and telephone interviews offer expedient and low-cost options but they are not appropriate for reaching the targeted potential respondents in the organisations.
5. 1999) and the self-rated work performance measure (RBPS) by Welbourne. The reduction of such abstract concepts 84 . Copies of the FFM measure (Goldberg. feelings.2.3. 1999. Johnson and Erez (1998) were obtained and used in this study. 3.2. researchers depend on the answers that participants provide in order to learn about the behavior. Self Report Self-report is a primary source of data in social science research.1. Personality and Work Performance Measures Several studies on personality measures and work performance that can be used for this study were identified and the respective authors were contacted for copies of their measures.5. 3.2. Selection of Measurement Techniques 3. this study uses this method whilst recognising factors and processes that affect self-reports to improve the questionnaire design and data quality (Schwarz. and thoughts of participants. context or wording can cause major changes in the results. From public opinion surveys to laboratory experiments. Marsella et al.5..2.3. Although self-reports can be a fallible source of data. where minor changes in question format. 2000).5.2. Scales The measures of personality and performance are nebulous and do not lend themselves to precise measurements due to their subjective nature.
Cavana et al. 1999. a respondent selects a response category ranging from Very Accurate. The strength or confidence of the measurement is assessed as the distance away from the neutral response (Maurer and Pierce. Such measures use an interval scale as interval scales are able to group respondents into categories. Neither Inaccurate nor Accurate or Very Inaccurate as the most representative of his/her perceived personality or behavior in terms of direction. tap the order of such groups.. A popular interval scale is the Likert scale which is often used to measure psychometric properties such as personality and performance (Maurer and Pierce. van Schaik and van Wersch. the scale adopted is a five-point Likert scale as a seven-point scale or higher can burden respondents with distinctions that are too fine and that do not have significant impact on the overall results (Grace. 1998). Likert scales typically have five or seven graduated categories to select from and are anchored with descriptive phases representing the minimum and maximum responses possible (Flynn. and enable the computation of the means and variances of the measured variables.. all the measures use a five-point Likert scale 85 . 1998). strength and confidence. Hence. 2004). 2001).to some form of tangible measurements in a continuum is often used for such measures and is an appropriate choice especially for hypothesis testing (Cavana et al. The work performance measure is categorised from Needs Much Improvement to Excellent with Satisfactory as a neutral response. In using a Likert scale. A response on the disagree side is equivalent to a no response and the response on the agree side is equivalent to a yes response. For this study. 2001).
(b) The new personality measure (CASES) The new personality measure. Actualisation.2. have alpha values larger than 0. contains five personality dimensions of Complexity. CASES..4. Conscientiousness. Agreeableness and Neuroticism. 1999) measuring Openness to Experience. Safety.5. Self-appraisals or self ratings have significant validation against other work performance measures. 1995. Extraversion. Correlations of 0. administration and cost effectiveness. (ii) The dependent variable The dependent variable is the self-appraised work performance of the respondents. Key Variables (i) The independent variables (a) The Big Five The 50 items for the FFM (Goldberg. This measure is regarded as the best measure developed to date and is used for this study (Crant. 2003). Hunthausen et al. Egocentric and Socio-centric with each dimension having 10 items.because of the above merits as well as its ease of construction.79 for all five dimensions.4 to 0. 3.5 are obtained from self ratings of 86 .
al. innovator. Furthermore.. “halo-effect” tends to obscure the differentiated relationship between the criteria of personality and work performance. which is also known as the Role-Based Performance Scale (RBPS).. 87 . the self-evaluation work performance measure of Wilbourne et al. 2000). job-related employee performance measure. with each having 4 items as shown in Table 7. Self-rating or selfappraisal also has a substantial advantage in the study of work performance and personality as they are less affected by the “halo-effect” as compared to other measures. and organisation. is developed based on identity theory and role theory in contrast to the traditional.clerical ability and measures of leadership (Cook et. This self-appraisal performance measure. team. The five components of the RBPS are job. career. In view of the stance taken by the Ethics Committee in favour of maintaining confidentiality and anonymity of respondents. (1998) is used.
ii. Quantity of work output Quality of work output Accuracy of work Customer service provided (internal and external) Obtaining personal career goals Developing skills needed for my future career Making progress in my career Seeking out career opportunities (b) My career (obtaining the necessary skills to progress in the company) i. Table 7: Role-Based Performance Scale’s Items (Wilbourne et al. (c) Innovator (creativity and innovation in my job and the organisation as a whole) i. iv. iv. 1998) 88 . ii. (e) Organisation (going above the call of duty in my concern for the firm) i. ii. iii. iii.(a) My Job (doing things specifically related to my job description) i. ii. iv. iv. ii. iii. iii.. iv. iii. Coming with new ideas Working to implement new ideas Finding improved ways to do things Creating better processes and routines Working as part of a team or work group Seeking information from others in my work group Making sure my work group succeeds Responding to the needs of others in my group Doing things that help others when it’s not part of my job Working for the overall good of the company Doing things to promote the company Helping so that the company is a good place to be (d) Team (working with co-workers and team members toward success of the firm) i.
For the first personality dimension of Complexity (with 10 items). 89 . Q61. Q71. The sequence of the instructions. The questions are sequenced in the following manner: (i) The 50 items for the FFM (Goldberg. Egocentric and Socio-centric) are placed in the same sequence to reduce the influence of the content of the adjacent similar items in the interpretation of a question by the respondents (Schwarz. The four other dimensions with 10 items each (Actualisation. To minimise error. Q91 and Q96. questions and quality of reproduction are addressed. 1999). (1998) are placed from Q101 to Q120. 1999) are placed from Q1 to Q50 in the same order as per the author’s design.3.3. Selection of Survey Layout The physical layout of the questionnaire is important as it has influence in inducing potential respondents to participate earnestly and facilitates its administration. (iv) Demographic and other classification questions to address over-inflated selfadministrated job performance appraisal are placed at the end of the survey because of their personal nature (Grace. (iii) The twenty items of the RBPS by Welbourne et al. (ii) The second set of 50 items of the new instrument (CASES) is placed as Q51 to Q100. Safety. Q76. the written instructions are screened for clarity in instructional content and presentation.5. Q56. Q66. the items are placed in Q51. Q86. Q81. 2002)..
5. 2001).. The elements in the population under study also must have some known probability of being selected as sample. Selection of Sample and Sample Size Sampling is a process whereby a representative number of elements of the population are selected and through the analysis of the characteristics of the sample subjects. a generalisation of these characteristics can be made to the population elements (Cavana et al. it will not be carried out due to the study’s time constraints. legal. convenience sampling is adopted for this study. trading and 90 . The full questionnaire will be given to the two supervisors of this study for their comments and review for face and content validity as the next best alternative (Cavana et al.. relevance. A total of 40 organisations will be invited to take part in this research by means of personal contact with the president or senior managers of the companies concerned. transportation. Every element or item is judged on its representativeness. a nonprobability sampling method such as convenience sampling can be used. For the above reasons. 2001). shipping. clarity and specificity for its particular dimension (Haynes. These firms are in general manufacturing. Probability sampling is appropriate when statistical generalisation is required. Richard and Kubany.Although pilot testing is recommended for the items to ensure content validity. When time is tight or the probability of selecting elements of the population is unknown and generalisability is not essential or critical. The wordings of several items were changed to reflect the meaning in the local Malaysian context.4. 1995). 3.
it would need at least 500 responses (that is. (ii) Must have been working in the current position for at least one year as personality characteristics show no or little relationship with performance at the initial period of work but significant correlations are found after the probationary or honeymoon period with the job has ended (Helmreich. 91 . Sawin and Carsud. Kudisch and Fortunato. 1986). Since English is a second language to many Malaysians. Besides being white-collared staff. 2002).business consulting. As the measures of the FFM and CASES have 50 items each. the respondents are also required to fulfil several other essential criteria as follow: (i) Proficient in the English language to ensure that the respondents are able to understand and answer the questionnaires properly. at least 10:1 subject to items as suggested by Nunnally (1978)) to provide sufficient rigour and statistical reliability in the principal components analysis (Avis. white-collar employees are chosen as they are more likely to be literate in English. These companies represent a convenient sample and they are invited because their offices are in the Klang Valley. Each company will be given 40 questionnaires or more depending on the size of the organisation and will be requested to distribute the questionnaires to all or part of their white-collar staff. The researcher hopes to get approval from 50% of the 40 companies and to receive on average 25 successful respondents from each of these companies thereby providing a total sample size of 500.
Cronbach’s alpha.5. is one reliability 92 . standard deviation and correlation matrix of all the variables will be generated for initial examinations. 2001). Reliability Reliability concerns the extent to which a measure is repeatable and consistent (Baker. 3. Central Tendency and Dispersion The range. CASES. the measurement of internal consistency. standard deviation.2. variance.220.127.116.11. and variance for each variable will be computed in SPSS. The measures for the FFM.1.. Selection of analytical approach Data analysis is performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. The frequency distributions of the nominal and demographic variables. Principal Components Analysis Principal components analysis will be used to check that the structure of the measures has held true (Cavana et al.5. 3. and RBPS will be analysed to determine their structure. mean. The principal-component factor will be varimaxrotated as the dimensions are assumed to be uncorrelated 3. 2001).5. means.5.5. range.5.
Construct validity subsumes all validities including concurrent. Mellenbergh and van Heerden.ori. http://0ipip..7 or more is considered satisfactory (Nunnally.org. 2004).5. Hunsley and Meyer (2003) stressed that if personality inventories do not produce an increment in validity over other inventories that are obtainable freely in the public domain in the World-Wide-Web (e.newcastle. Richard and Kubany. criterion-related validity.library. Content validity gives evidence on the construct validity of an instrument (Haynes.au:80). 2003).5. and factor structure. CASES and RBPS measures will be analysed to ascertain their internal reliabilities. Incremental validity essentially means whether a measure adds to the prediction of a criterion above what can be predicted by other variables (Hunsley and Meyer. predictive and postdictive validity.edu. All the predictor variables of the Big Five Factor Inventory. 3. An alpha coefficient of 0. Validity Construct validity is the degree to which the assessment instrument measures the proposed construct (Borsboom.4. 1995). Concurrent validity refers to the degree to which a test scores correlates with another test score that is obtained from another source. there is no psychometric rationale in using them. convergent and discriminant validity.coefficient that indicates how well items in a cluster correlate positively with one another. 1978). 93 .g.
2003). 3. the two measures of personality will be entered simultaneously in a stepwise regression analysis.5.1. Implementation The last stage of the survey research is the implementation stage which consists of time/ cost estimates and data collection/administration.6. Hypothesis Testing To test the criterion and incremental validities of the new personality measure (CASES) over and above the FFM on work performance. The findings from the descriptive statistics.5. The respondents are asked to complete two sets of personality measures and a set of self-appraisal work performance measure.6. known to the researcher.5. Cost and Time Estimates Some 40 companies from various industries.5.5.The research design is one of a criterion-related validity and incremental validity (Nikolaou. the correlation matrix. and the stepwise multiple linear regression results will be used to test the hypotheses. 3. 3. are selected for the survey with an average of 40 questionnaires given to each organisation and are targeted 94 .
Industry 1) Manufacturing 2) Service Total No of companies 27 13 40 Table 8: The Breakdown of Companies to be Surveyed Based on Industry (developed for this study) A wide spectrum of organisations in terms of industry and size is used to attain the required minimum sample size of 500 respondents. Each organisation will be given the Information Sheet and the Consent Seeking Letter. 95 . The total time estimated for the survey is 35 days as shown in Table 9. A draft letter approving the staff in the organisation to participate is also provided for the companies to complete under their official letter head. The questionnaires will be given to the Human Resource Department to be distributed to all the white collar staff and instructed to collect them in the selfaddressed envelope a week after distribution.at white-collared workers from supervisory level upwards. The industry breakdown and the number of companies to be surveyed are shown in Table 9.
00 Travelling expenses RM20 per trip for 80 RM1600.30 stamp 1600*RM0. Distributing questionnaires to organisations 3. Collecting answered questionnaires from organisations 4. Costing and Amount Computation Printing the questionnaire (1600 sets 1600*4*RM0. Checking for completeness of answers Total Estimated Times (Days) 5 15 10 5 35 Table 9: Total Time Estimated for the Survey (developed for this research) The cost of the survey is estimated at RM1.2. Data Collection The survey adopts a self-administered approach. The 96 .86 per questionnaire based on the breakdown as shown in Table 10.Activity 1.00 of 2 pages (double-sided) 2 envelopes and RM0.6.04 RM256.70 RM1120.5.00 Table 10: Breakdown of Costs on Survey (developed for this research) Item 3. which has limitations such as low response rate and the inability of respondents to seek clarification if necessary. Printing and collating of questionnaires 2.00 trips Total RM2976.
the survey is partially personally-administered but self-completed and mail-returned to minimise the effects of low response rates and lack of clarity while maintaining confidentiality and anonymity. Categorising For negatively worded questions.researcher will inform the organisations that he will be available in the organisation’s premises at the scheduled time if the need for clarification is required.4. 3.5. Incomplete questionnaires will not be considered in the analysis but efforts will be made to ensure the completeness of the questionnaires by conducting briefings in the organisations if permission is granted. Hence.5.3. Data Entry The data will be entered into SPSS and analysed. 3. The items measuring the variables are grouped together to ensure no mistake is made due to omission or wrong inclusion. 97 .6. the scores will be recoded through a Recode program in the SPSS.6.
6. 3. self-addressed envelopes are provided so the respondents can choose to participate or not. no demeaning questions will be asked and respondents are not subjected to mental or physical stress in answering the questionnaire as they are given sufficient time on their own to complete the questionnaire. 98 . ETHICAL CONSIDERATION It is explicitly stated that participation is voluntary. The research plan is based on completing the five chapters within the six-month time frame. RESEARCH PLAN The research plan is based on the timeline provided by the University of Newcastle for this Doctor of Business Administration (DBA).7.3. It is estimated that the dissertation can be completed within the time frame based on an average of some three hours of work per day on weekdays and some six hours of work per day on weekends subject to obtaining clearance from the Ethic Committee within the timeframe allowed. Finally. Participants can withdraw at anytime during the research without any obligation or disadvantage. Anonymity and confidentiality of the answers are ensured as the questionnaires do not have any identifiers. Stamped.
several studies revealed that the distortions by these response deceptions do not attenuate the predictive validity of the personality constructs (Barrick and Mount.8. However. 1988). it could be likely that some respondents may try to “beat the test” due to self-deception or impression management.3. It is widely acknowledged that the self-report a person gives about his/her own personality traits and behavior are related to his/her perception of the acceptability and the desirability of these traits and behaviors (Kagan.8. 3. 1996).8.1. 2004). Personality Scales Personality scales are often described as self-report measures but could be misleading as respondents may use the item responses to tell who they are and the way they would like to be seen. LIMITATIONS Response Distortions Given the seemingly straightforward nature of the items.3.8. one-time measure could lead to erroneous conclusions about the 99 . Stability of Work Performance Due to the implicit assumption that performance is a stable construct and the reliance on a cross-sectional. 3. item endorsements are not self-reports but self-presentations (Hogan et al.. 1996). 3. This may produce a general method variance (Carmeli and Freund.2. In that case.
. it is possible that some employees are removed from the positions due to their inadequate work performance. The requirement to maintain the anonymity of respondents restricted our ability to match the supervisors with the subordinates. 100 . 2004a). Self-ratings are known to be more “lenient” than other forms of work performance measures.. Since there is no way of estimating what the variance should be. 2000.personality-performance relationships (Thoresen et al. Bozionelos. This self rating is also subject to the common method variance or the percept-percept inflation problem (Cook et al. it will not be possible to correct or adjust the correlations for the restricted range. it is possible that some employees who could have been in the higher end of the work performance are promoted to other positions outside the parameters of the study. 2004). A rudimentary level of work performance is required for the employees to retain employment in a specific position. Thus.8. all information comes from the subordinate. The ratings would be markedly skewed towards the positive end of each item. Self Rating One limitation is the use of self-ratings and its validity and reliability as an indicator of work performance. 3. Conversely. This will restrict the range and reduce the correlations with the personality measures. These factors may restrict the range of dependent variables and produce attenuated correlations.4. Hence.
Convenience sampling is adopted..3. Barrick et al. 2000. Also.. There are limitations in this research that may not permit statements of causality. a positivist paradigm with a survey instrument via a questionnaire is developed to capture observable behaviors that reflect the dimensions of the variables or constructs. These factors have a direct or a moderating influence on work performance.. 3. Further studies will need to be conducted to establish the boundary conditions and generalisability of the findings of this study. Various relevant statistical tools are used to calculate inter-item consistency (i. ability. 2002). Cook et al. CONCLUSION Attempts to predict work performance using personality measures have been practised in organisational research for decades. motivation level. role clarity and intelligence (Carmelli and Freund.5. There is an ample body of knowledge on this subject to derive some theoretical framework for hypothesis testing. internal reliability). Hence. Nikolaou. 101 . 2004.e.8. Work Performance Studies have found linkages between work performance and job satisfaction.9. 2002. the adoption of convenience sampling in this study reduces the generalisability of the findings obtained from this study. as well as the content and construct validities of the measures.
5% rate of participation. and the remaining 107 (i.4.8%) were female. 49.3%) were diploma holders.0.e. INTRODUCTION This chapter contains four sections.2%) were male and 298 (i. A total of 587 questionnaires were returned (a response rate of 36.7%) and. which were used to verify the structures of the various scales.e. CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS 4. of these.. a 97. 246 (i. 54. The descriptive statistics of the demographic variables are presented in the first section. Of the 544 respondents. 102 .2. 45... The fourth section contains a summary of the main findings.1. A total of 267 (i.2%) of the respondents were degree-holders..e.5%) were school certificate holders. 170 (i. 4. 31.. The results of the analyses which were conducted to test the hypotheses are presented in the third section. 19.e. 544 were usable. The number of companies that responded was 39.e. The second section contains the results of principal components analyses. DEMOGRAPHICS A total of 1600 questionnaires were distributed to 40 Malaysian companies of various sizes who were invited to participate in this study.
d. The average age of the respondents was 34.50 or larger on their respective components were eliminated from the solution. 36.6 years (s. This analysis yielded five orthogonal factors that 103 . = 5.1.50 by Hair.5%) were from lower management or executive levels. Anderson. and Black (1998) was used because of the large number of items being analysed.7) while the average number of years that respondents were in their current jobs was 5.2. An examination of the skewness and kurtosis statistics as well as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic was conducted to examine the distributions of the variables.e.e.8%) respondents were from middle or senior management levels.1) and the minimum age and maximum age of the respondents were 19 years and 65 years respectively.d.2. 37.29 (s...A total of 140 (i. 4.50) was conducted on the FFM.e. Tatham.. = 9. 4.8%) of the respondents were from non-executive or clerical levels while 198 (i. The average organisational tenure of the respondents was 7.2). The remaining 205 (i. 25.0 years (s. Items that did not achieve a primary loading of . The recommended cut-off value of . = 6. RESULTS FROM PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS Principal Components Analysis with Varimax Rotation was used to examine the structure of the scales. Principal Components Analysis of the FFM Personality Measure A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation (with suppressed loading less than .d.
50 loading criterion.71 .72 .74 .70 . Component 1 2 3 4 5 Openness5 Openness8 Openness4 Openness2 Openness6 Conscientious1 Conscientious8 Conscientious7 Conscientious3 Conscientious6 Extraversion7 Extraversion9 Extraversion4 Extraversion2 Agreeableness4 Agreeableness5 Agreeableness9 Agreeableness7 Neuroticism7 Neuroticism1 Neuroticism6 Neuroticism8 .64 .62 .54 .64 .61 . five items were eliminated from each of the Openness and Conscientiousness sub-scales while six items were eliminated from each of the Extraversion.59 .57 .60 .54 .66 .accounted for 47.65 .67 .54 Table 11: Rotated Component Matrix of FFM 104 .63 .4% of the variance.68 . Using the .55 . Agreeableness and Neuroticism subscales. The findings from this analysis are presented in Table 11.67 .60 .
Conscientiousness was positively correlated with Extraversion and Agreeableness but negatively correlated with Neuroticism at the 0. a Cronbach’s alpha of .01 level.01 level.05 level. All the components therefore have acceptable internal reliability. Openness was positively correlated with Extraversion and Neuroticism at the 0. 8). According to Hair et al. .01 level whilst it was negatively correlated with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness at the 0. Agreeableness and Neuroticism components were .The Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (p < . (1998). p.59. factorability was assumed. Extraversion was positively correlated with Agreeableness and Neuroticism at the 0. Extraversion.6 is acceptable. . and 64 respectively. . The Cronbach’s alphas for the remaining items in the Openness.01 level. 105 .001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was greater than the acceptable level of 0. Agreeableness was negatively correlated with Neuroticism at the 0. The FFM components are distinct but related and “are no more wholly independent than they are redundant” (Judge et al. The items that were retained after the principal components analysis are shown in Table 12. Hence.63.. 1997. Conscientiousness.73.60.57. The intercorrelations resembled those that have been reported previously.
Big 5 Dimensions Items Openness 2 Openness 4 Openness 5 Openness 6 Openness 8 I am not interested in theoretical discussions I do not enjoy going to art museums I am not interested in abstract ideas I avoid philosophical discussions I do not like art Conscientious 1 Conscientious 3 Conscientious 6 Conscientious 7 Conscientious 8 I am always prepared I pay attention to details I get chores done right away I carry out my plans I make plans and stick to them Extraversion 2 Extraversion 4 Extraversion 7 Extraversion 9 I have little to say I keep a low profile I don’t like to draw attention to myself I don’t talk a lot Agreeableness 4 Agreeableness 5 Agreeableness 7 Agreeableness 9 I believe that others have good intentions I respect others I accept people as they are I make people feel at ease Neuroticism 1 Neuroticism 6 Neuroticism 7 Neuroticism 8 I often feel unhappy I am often depressed I have frequent mood swings I panic easily Table 12: Items of FFM after Principal Components Analysis 106 .
65 .2.62 .2.72 .79 .68 . six items were eliminated from each of the Complexity. Component Complexity7 Complexity2 Complexity4 Complexity5 Actualisation7 Actualisation2 Actualisation5 Actualisation4 Safety5 Safety3 Safety9 Safety6 Ego8 Ego6 Ego2 Ego1 Social7 Social10 Social6 Social9 1 .61 2 3 4 5 .69 .55 .51 .4.68 .50) was conducted on the CASES items.54 .63 .68 .0% of the variance.63 . Principal Components Analysis of the CASES Personality Measure A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation (with suppressed loading less than .68 .74 . This analysis yielded five orthogonal components that accounted for 57.56 . Actualisation.50 loading criterion. Safety. Using the . The results from this analysis are presented in Table 13. Ego and Social sub-scales.67 .61 Table 13: Rotated Component Matrix of CASES 107 .77 .
Hence. Ego and Social components were 73. all of the CASES sub-scales had acceptable internal reliability.64. and . factorability was assumed. 108 .74 respectively. which had marginal internal reliability.48.The Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (p < . .60. The items of the sub-scales are shown in Table 14. Safety. . With the exception of the Ego sub-scale.001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was greater than the acceptable level of 0.81. Actualisation. The Cronbach’s alphas for the remaining items in the Complexity. .
50) was conducted on the RBPS measure of performance.2.3. This analysis yielded five orthogonal components that accounted for 80.0% of the variance.50 109 .CASES Dimension Complexity2 Complexity4 Complexity5 Complexity7 Actualisation2 Actualisation4 Actualisation5 Actualisation7 Safety3 Safety5 Safety6 Safety9 Ego1 Ego2 Ego6 Ego8 Social6 Social7 Social9 Social10 Item I am good at interpreting things I can spot opportunities a and make use of them I am good at overcoming obstacles to get what I want I am good at persuading others to support me I love to seek experiences in life I find great satisfaction in doing a good job I seek knowledge and skills to improve myself I work towards improving my quality of life I like to do things following the proper channels I am law-abiding I believe in doing things step by step I do not fight with authority I need security I like living in style I can be easily hurt I like to celebrate in a grand manner I like to assist my friends in time of needs I like to visit my friends I enjoy working in groups I greet my friends with open arms Table 14: Items of CASES after Principal Components Analysis 4. Based on the . Principal Components Analysis of RBPS Performance Measure A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation (with suppressed loading less than .
loading criterion. .84 .85 .90.001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was greater than the acceptable level of 0.76 . .76 . Hence.81 . only one item was eliminated and this was from the organisation component of the RBPS. and 110 . The results of this analysis are presented in Table 15.76 .85 .56 2 3 4 5 . Innovator component.77 .73 .89.75 .73 .91.84 . Team component and Organisation component of the RBPS were . Component Job1 Job2 Job3 Job4 Career3 Career2 Career4 Career1 Innovator2 Innovator3 Innovator1 Innovator4 Team2 Team1 Team3 Team4 Organisation3 Organisation4 Organisation2 1 .90.60. factorability was assumed.63 .81 .79 Table 15: Rotated Component Matrix of RBPS The Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (p < .75 . . Career component. The Cronbach’s alphas for the Job component.80 .78 .
The Safety component of CASES was positively correlated with Conscientiousness. The Complexity component was not correlated with Extraversion. and Conscientiousness.01 level (one-tailed).93 respectively. The Actualisation component of CASES was positively correlated with Conscientiousness. The Relationship between the FFM Dimensions and the CASES Dimensions As shown in Table 16.4. Agreeableness and Extraversion but negatively correlated with Openness and Neuroticism. the Complexity component of CASES was correlated positively with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness but negatively correlated with Openness and Neuroticism. 4. Agreeableness. The five performance sub-scales therefore had acceptable internal reliability. The Safety component was not correlated with Openness. Agreeableness and Extraversion but negatively correlated with Neuroticism.2. The Ego component was not correlated with Openness or Extraversion. All of the components of the RBPS were correlated with each other at the 0.. The Ego component of CASES was positively correlated with Neuroticism. 111 .
The Social component of CASES was correlated positively with Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Extraversion but was correlated negatively with Openness. The Social component was not correlated with Neuroticism.
Conscientiousness Openness Neuroticism Agreeableness Extraversion Actualisation Social Complexity Safety Ego -.10* -.22** .48** .15** .56** .38** .58** .51** .08*
.18** -.09* .29** -.21** -.26** -.10** -.01 .03 -.13** 19** -.16** -.04 -.27** -.17** .30** .22** .59** .50** .33** .46** .14** .12** .08* -.07 .26** -.02 .59** .51** .49** .18** .31** .43** .23** .34** .12** .12**
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1 – tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1 – tailed).
Table 16: Correlations between the Components of FFM and CASES
RESULTS FROM TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES
The findings from the hypothesis testing are presented in the same order as were the research questions/hypotheses in Chapter 2. The assumptions of normality and the absence of outliers and singularity underpinning the use of regression were verified by statistical tables and histogram plots of the respective components. The various components of the FFM, CASES and RBPS were found to satisfy the conditions for regression.
Prediction of Performance by the FFM Personality Measure
H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. The components of the FFM were moderately correlated (the values of the correlation among the five factors are less than .30) with each other at the 0.01 level (one-tailed) except for one correlation of .48. The correlation coefficients did not exceed .70, which indicated that multicollinearity was not a problem (Carmelli and Freund, 2004; Nunnally, 1978). From Table 17, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Neuroticism were significantly correlated to all five components of the RBPS and Total RBPS. Openness and Extraversion were negatively correlated with the Team and Career components of the RBPS respectively.
07 -.05 level (1 – tailed).62** .21** .53** .64** .08* -.05 -.03 1 .41** -.22** .20** Career RBPS 1 .17** Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Conscientiousness Openness Neuroticism Agreeablenes s 1 .01 level (1 – tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.06 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.54** .05 -.50** .30** -.19** 1 .01 -.46** .Job RBPS Career RBPS Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Conscientiousness Openness Neuroticism Agreeableness .63** .82** .48** .32** .22** 1 .80** .29** .0 -.87** .13** .25** .32** .42** -.03 1 -.82** .55** . Table 17: Correlations of the Components of FFM and RBPS 115 .29** 1 -.02 -.33** -.79** .70** .28** .22** Extraversion -.15** 1 .29** 0.74** .32** .10** -.09* .09* -.35** -.18** -.13** .02 1 .32** -.
20 respectively (Table 19).12.25 and -.36 and -.000 .000 a.259 .000 .Using a stepwise regression analysis.238 -6.358 -. The R-square value was .23.041 -. 116 .051 .051 . Error Beta 1.537 .445 9.411 2. the Career component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.502 10. .469 .010 10.25 respectively (Table 18).229 .000 .192 .246 t 8. The R-square value was . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS and had beta values of . a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.000 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Job Table 18: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis. the Job component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.390 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Career component of the RBPS and had beta values of .353 Sig.539 .
456 .285 -. Error Beta 1.16.271 .055 .858 Sig.216 t 7.000 . the Innovator component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.249 .655 .000 .237 . The R-square value was .000 a.060 .453 .000 .767 7.000 .045 9. The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Innovator component of the RBPS and had beta values of . Dependent Variable: Perform2Car Table 19: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis.055 .034 -5.389 .290 2.29 and -.246 -. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.235 . .207 .060 .000 .000 .224 .337 Sig.000 .332 2.188 9.22 respectively (Table 20).000 .965 -4.436 .049 5.048 -. Dependent Variable: Perform2In Table 20: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM 117 .359 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std. .200 t 7.000 a. Error Beta 1.422 .993 8.044 -.683 .500 7.
242 .256 .207 2. Agreeableness and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS and had beta values of .187 .056 .264 . 118 . The R-square value was .000 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness. The R-square value was .498 -3. The regression revealed that Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were the only significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS and had beta values of .14 respectively (Table 21).197 .138 t 11.Using a stepwise regression analysis.058 .203 -.324 1.000 .001 a. the Team component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.000 .277 .000 .405 Sig.942 4.122 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Tm Table 21: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis.220 .20 respectively (Table 22).15.290 4.225 .20 and -.259 . a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Agree 3 (Constant) Conscientous Agree Neurotic Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.035 .16.575 . .936 4.000 . .400 .983 7.20.056 .164 4.000 . Error Beta 2.000 .000 .040 -.335 7.137 .25 and .541 7. the Organisation component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.058 .050 .
.370 -.000 .253 .413 .464 .210 .005 a.000 .348 1.163 . Error 1.385 Sig.297 .312 -.000 .000 .692 10. Neuroticism and Agreeableness were the only significant predictors of Total RBPS and had beta values of .044 -.744 .035 .256 .000 .23.186 .198 t 7. Dependent Variable: Perform2Org Table 22: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM Using a stepwise regression analysis. .044 2.283 7.000 .049 -.595 4.031 9. Error Beta 1.373 9.31.474 -5.21 and .000 .207 .000 . The R-square value was .000 .000 .648 4.000 a.415 .103 -5. a Coefficients Model 1 2 3 (Constant) Conscientous (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Agree Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Total RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM.910 8.065 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness.335 2.000 .121 t 10.724 .000 .364 .324 5.196 .218 .504 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Agree Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.222 .050 Standardized Coefficients Beta . Dependent Variable: Perform2Total Table 23: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM 119 .188 .064 .12 respectively (Table 23).630 12.811 Sig.068 . -.348 .140 .366 .058 .035 2.108 .
Hence. Innovator component. From Table 24. 2004. Career component.Conscientiousness was the best predictor of all of the RBPS components and the Total RBPS. Furthermore. The CASES components are distinct but related and. Organisation component. and Total RBPS. 1978). 4. Prediction of Performance by the CASES Personality Measure H2: The CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings.70. The Ego component correlated significantly with only the Job and Organisation components of the 120 .23. Agreeableness was a significant predictor of Team component.3. and Total RBPS. each component of the RBPS as well as Total RBPS had a significant proportion of variance explained by the FFM components. which indicated that multicollinearity was not a problem (Carmelli and Freund. Neuroticism was a significant predictor of the Job component. like the FFM components. the first hypothesis.2. the CASES components were positively intercorrelated. which states that the FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. The correlation coefficients did not exceed the value of . are no more wholly independent than they are redundant. Team component. The Complexity.12 to . Nunnally. Actualisation and Safety components of the CASES correlated significantly with all five components of the RBPS as well as with Total RBPS. is supported. The R-square values ranged from .
The Social component correlated significantly with all of the RBPS components. and with Total RBPS. except for the Career component.RBPS. 121 .
20** Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Actualisatio n Social Complexit y Safet y .40** .40** .37** .38** .14** .37** .37** .34** .54** .62** .0 -.87** .45** .01 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.31** .24** .27** .46** .46** .25** .01 level (1 – tailed).Job RBPS Career RBPS Innovator RBPS Team RBPS Organisation RBPS Total RBPS Actualisation Social Complexity Safety .19** .74** .23** .28** .36** .11** .12** .70** .49** .51** .31** .12** Ego -. * Correlation is significant at the 0.08* -0.39** .32** Career RBPS .53** .10* .82** .05 level (1 – tailed).59** .55** .50** .34** .07 .34** .36** .80** .01 .18** . Table 24: Correlations of the Components of CASES and RBPS 122 .64** .63** .82** .07 .43** .79** .
341 . .809 10.000 . The R-square value was .38 (Table 26).128 .057 5. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex 2 (Constant) Complex Safety 3 (Constant) Complex Safety Ego Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.755 .000 .15 respectively (Table 25). the Job component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.044 Standardized Coefficients Beta .000 . The regression revealed that Complexity was the only significant predictor of the Career component of the RBPS and had a beta value of .429 .413 .000 .238 .217 -.264 .050 1.052 .862 Sig.15. The regression revealed that Complexity.991 4.179 .049 -.994 6.205 .470 8.34.234 7.000 . .000 .169 .050 1.000 .249 . the Career component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES. Safety and Ego were the only significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS and had beta values of . 123 .Using a stepwise regression analysis.499 .540 .215 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Job Table 25: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis.149 t 9.328 .350 -3. The R-square value was . Error 1.397 .000 .394 5.22 and -.22.051 .000 a.
358 .050 . Dependent Variable: Perform2In Table 27: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on CASES 124 .379 t 6.415 . The R-square value was .239 . .765 9.21.481 Sig.000 .000 .449 .822 11.101 t 6.000 . The regression revealed that Complexity and Safety were the only significant predictors of the Innovator component of the RBPS and had beta values of . Dependent Variable: Perform2Car Table 26: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis.42 and .218 2.000 a. the Innovator component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.530 Sig.051 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.125 10.917 .531 .013 a.589 .544 .201 .127 .10 respectively (Table 27). .182 .000 .000 .053 . Error Beta 1.222 .056 Standardized Coefficients Beta .686 4. Error 1. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex 2 (Constant) Complex Safety Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.
045 .053 Sig.325 .170 . the Organisation component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.261 .000 . Complexity and Social were the only significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS and had beta values of .393 1. The regression revealed that Safety.912 4.202 .000 .000 .196 .17 and .203 .449 .240 .202 1. Complexity and Social were the only significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS and had beta values of .Using a stepwise regression analysis.958 6.654 6.127 4.000 .000 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Tm Table 28: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis. a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Safety 2 (Constant) Safety Complex 3 (Constant) Safety Complex Social Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.172 . the Team component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES. Safety. .17 and .049 .23.050 .22. 125 .049 .174 t 11. Error Beta 1.908 .298 .048 .047 .020 4. The R-square value was .010 .351 .000 a.000 .000 .929 4. . The regression revealed that Actualisation. The R-square value was .657 7.000 .26 and .19.086 9. .17 respectively (Table 28).12.371 .17 respectively (Table 29).217 .
062 .389 .000 .166 t 5.262 .235 .060 .315 .000 .291 .069 .183 5.26.911 4.000 .116 .782 3.767 .391 .000 .24 respectively (Table 30). The regression revealed that Complexity and Safety were the only significant predictors of Total RBPS and had beta values of .908 3.217 .493 .000 .167 .314 9.067 6.076 .002 .120 2.059 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Org Table 29: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on CASES Using a stepwise regression analysis.258 .164 .000 .704 1.056 .031 .281 .000 .161 4.166 .230 .199 .238 .180 3. .553 .060 .274 . Total RBPS was regressed on the five components of CASES.063 .000 . The R-square value was .250 .250 .101 4.063 Standardized Coefficients Beta .220 . 126 .062 .495 Sig.880 3.a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Actualise 2 (Constant) Actualise Safety 3 (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex 4 (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex Social Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.000 .293 . Error 1.262 .296 1.001 a.263 .38 and .186 .233 .057 .
The R-square values ranged from .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Complex 2 (Constant) Complex Safety Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.247 .032 6.26.147 . Ego was a significant predictor for only the Job component of the RBPS. Hence. the second hypothesis. Social was a significant predictor for the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.000 a.084 .459 1.000 . and Total RBPS.042 . which states that the CASES model will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Dependent Variable: Perform2Total Table 30: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on CASES Complexity was the best predictor of the Job component.709 .171 9.041 . . each component of the RBPS as well as Total RBPS had a significant proportion of variance explained by the CASES components. Actualisation and Safety were the best predictors of the Organisation component and Team component of the RBPS respectively.176 . is supported. and Total RBPS.000 .406 . the Organisation component. the Career component. Safety was also a significant predictor of the Job component.493 . the Innovator component. Furthermore.000 . the Innovator component.239 t 11.378 .644 6. Error Beta 1.000 .587 12.041 .15 to .098 Sig. 127 .
These two factors were from the FFM.9% followed by Neuroticism with 5. Conscientiousness explained 16. from the CASES.3.11. the beta values are: Conscientiousness . 4.8%. and Social were the only significant predictors.18.104.22.168. The factors of Complexity. Neuroticism -.3. and Social -. Safety . Complexity . Neuroticism.4.2% of the variance of the Job component of the RBPS. accounted for 4. From Table 31.3.20. FFM and CASES predicting performance H3: The CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. Safety and Social.20. the Job component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of the CASES. Safety. 128 . The regression revealed that Conscientiousness. Complexity. FFM and CASES predicting the Job Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.
648 6.353 7.052 .221 .000 .199 .058 .000 .228 .000 .264 . the Career component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of the CASES.109 t 8.000 . FFM and CASES Predicting the Career Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.219 -.358 -.217 .428 4.287 .969 .297 3.041 -.000 .058 .233 .010 10.000 .210 .051 .502 10.200 -.2.114 1.715 .000 .259 . Dependent Variable: Perform2Job Table 31: Coefficients of the Regression of the Job Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.229 .185 .302 -2.065 .469 .113 6.000 .000 .539 .139 .055 .537 .254 -.881 .051 -.411 2. Error Beta 1.066 .176 4.041 -.148 -.578 4. 129 . .947 4.192 .001 .946 5.041 -.251 .026 -5.248 .000 .263 .060 .581 Sig.211 .374 -5.238 -6.333 .000 .041 -.010 a.545 -5.000 .246 1.008 .a Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Conscientous 2 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic 3 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Complex 4 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Complex Safety 5 (Constant) Conscientous Neurotic Complex Safety Social Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients B Std.000 .271 .131 .241 .200 .445 9.000 .3.000 .002 2.390 .3.058 .486 4.000 .051 .000 .180 . The regression revealed that Complexity and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors.191 1.
16. . Neuroticism and Safety were the only significant predictors. explained 14. Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. The regression revealed that Complexity. From Table 32. 130 .201 . FFM and CASES Predicting the Innovator Component of RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.530 7.3. Complexity and Safety were from the CASES while Neuroticism was from the FFM.191 .4% of the variance.827 8.000 . and Social .379 .3.000 .000 a.996 Sig. Error 1.34 and for Neuroticism it was -. which explained 2.4% followed by Neuroticism from the FFM.000 .6% of the variance in the Innovator component of the RBPS.09.16. the beta values are: Complexity . Dependent Variable: Perform2Car Table 32: Coefficients of the Regression of the Career Component of RBPS on the FFM and CASES 4. From Table 33.358 .335 -. the beta value of the Complexity was .048 Standardized Coefficients Beta .163 Model 1 2 (Constant) Complex (Constant) Complex Neurotic t 6. Neuroticism -.3.000 .38.056 2.017 . the Innovator component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES.765 9.The Complexity component from the CASES model. The Complexity component explained 20.057 -.208 -3.469 .258 .531 .1% followed by Neuroticism (2.7%) and Safety accounted for 0.
14.793 Complex . From Table 34. Social .3.070 Complex . The Safety component explained 15. and Neuroticism -.a Coefficients Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. . FFM and CASES Predicting the Team Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis.050 .258 Neurotic -. The regression revealed that Safety.232 8.376 9. Safety.000 .239 .272 5. Complexity. the beta values are: Safety . 131 .686 2 (Constant 1.000 .4.033 Table 33: Coefficients of the Regression of the Innovator Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.589 .529 .000 .086 2. Complexity and Social factors were from CASES while Neuroticism factor was from the FFM.052 .000 .287 3 (Constant 1.142 Neurotic -.141 a. Dependent Variable: Perform2In Sig.093 Safety .449 11. the Team component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES.573 .161 -4.6%).109 . Social and Neuroticism were the only significant predictors.3% of the variance in the Team component of the RBPS.043 -.000 .054 .051 . Social (2.000 . and Neuroticism accounted for 1. Error Beta t 1 (Constant 1.000 .3%).177 .043 -. Complexity .19.185 .5% followed by Complexity (3.25.822 Complex .182 6.493 .12.876 .403 10.168 -4.000 .3.
followed by Safety (4.3.118 . All of these components were from the CASES.3.674 3.086 9.053 5. From Table 35.050 .Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.393 .217 .202 .010 . The regression revealed that Actualisation. FFM and CASES Predicting the Organisation Component of the RBPS Using a stepwise regression analysis. the Organisation component of the RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES. .17. Complexity (2.039 Standardized Coefficients Beta .186 -.000 .047 .17.1%). Complexity .000 .301 4.170 .000 .929 4. Safety .050 .000 .172 . Complexity and Social were the only significant predictors. Dependent Variable: Perform2Tm Table 34: Coefficients of the Regression of the Team Component of the RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.000 .8%).000 .048 1.12.000 .371 . 132 . the beta values are: Actualisation .020 4.246 .049 .127 4.196 .958 6.912 4.325 .049 1.119 Model 1 2 3 4 (Constant) Safety (Constant) Safety Complex (Constant) Safety Complex Social (Constant) Safety Complex Social Neurotic t 11. Actualisation explained 15.203 .139 .000 .449 .174 . Safety.202 .908 .657 7.045 1. and Social (1.002 Sig.0%).256 .003 a.281 .165 .654 6.048 -.5.001 .210 .425 .339 -3.3%.567 5.000 .298 .000 . and Social .351 .050 . none of the FFM components were significant.261 .19.000 .240 . Error 1.000 .
Error 1.6.911 4.28.296 1. Complexity explained 21. .031 .493 . Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were the only significant predictors.13.183 5.250 .000 .Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients B Std.000 .235 .062 .220 .495 Sig. Neuroticism (2.199 .389 .553 .056 .180 3.000 .063 .258 .3.069 .262 .000 . and Conscientiousness .060 .161 4.704 1.233 .315 .060 .250 .263 .15. the beta values are: Complexity . The regression revealed that Complexity.166 . Total RBPS was regressed on the five components of the FFM and the five components of CASES.217 .274 . Safety.293 .002 .1%).067 6.057 .782 3.167 . From Table 36.291 .3%).076 . Neuroticism -.880 3.314 9.1% followed by Safety (5. Dependent Variable: Perform2Org Table 35: Coefficients of the Regression of the Organisation Component of RBPS on FFM and CASES 4.164 .3.767 .059 .063 Standardized Coefficients Beta .120 2. and Conscientiousness (0.238 .116 .062 .908 3. 133 .9%).000 .000 .000 . Safety . FFM and CASES Predicting Total RBPS Performance Using a stepwise regression analysis.230 .001 a.262 .000 .101 4.000 .281 .18.166 Model 1 2 3 4 (Constant) Actualise (Constant) Actualise Safety (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex (Constant) Actualise Safety Complex Social t 5.186 . Complexity and Safety were from the CASES and Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were from the FFM.391 .
. and Total RBPS.587 12.034 .340 .522 8.000 .000 .126 Model 1 2 3 4 (Constant) Complex (Constant) Complex Safety (Constant) Complex Safety Neurotic (Constant) Complex Safety Neurotic Conscientous t 11.406 .041 1.220 .081 2.040 -. Social component of the CASES was a significant predictor of the Job.171 9.000 .232 .365 .048 .032 6.180 -.000 .271 -4.147 .142 .034 1.225 -.613 .084 .176 .562 5.271 4.000 .472 .Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Dependent Variable: Perform2Total Table 36: Coefficients of the Regression of Total RBPS on FFM and CASES The Complexity component of the CASES was revealed to be the best predictor of the Career component.000 .141 .304 . Complexity was also a significant predictor of the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. the Innovator component.598 Sig.041 1. 134 .709 .000 . Safety was also a significant predictor of all five components of the RBPS. Safety component of the CASES was the best predictor of the Team component of the RBPS.044 -.186 .378 .283 .493 .154 .043 .644 6.000 .247 .159 .791 -4.000 . Error 1.000 . except for the Career component.000 .459 .214 .098 7.010 a.692 6.239 . Actualisation component of the CASES was the best predictor of the Organisation component of the RBPS.042 . and Total RBPS.054 Standardized Coefficients Beta .176 6.000 .138 .000 . Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.
The principal components analysis of the CASES yielded a five-component measure that accounted for 57.Conscientiousness component of the FFM was the best predictor of the Job component and a significant predictor of Total RBPS.e.01 level (1-tailed). which states that the CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. Hence. The R-square values ranged from . Each of the components (i.17 to . 4. and Total RBPS.73. The original sub-scales had ten items 135 .29. The Openness and Conscientiousness components each have five items while the Extraversion. CONCLUSION The principal components analysis of the FFM yielded a five-component measure that accounted for 47.0% of the variance.57 to . Safety. The five factors are all intercorrelated significantly at the 0.4% of the variance in the FFM items. is supported. Agreeableness and Neuroticism components each have four items.4. the third hypothesis.. The original subscales had ten items each. except for the Organisation component. Neuroticism component of the FFM was a significant predictor of all the RBPS components. The Cronbach’s alphas for the FFM components range from . Each component of the RBPS as well as Total RBPS had a significant proportion of variance explained by at least one of the components from the CASES and/or the FFM. Ego and Social) has 4 items. Actualisation. Complexity.
Career. Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Job.each. the first hypothesis. From the stepwise regression. Complexity and Social were significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. Complexity. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. All of the components retained their original 4items except for the Organisation component. Agreeableness and Neuroticism were significant predictors of the Team component and Total RBPS. Safety and Ego were significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS.89 to . Each component of the RBPS had a significant proportion of its variance explained by the FFM components.93.12 to .23.01 level (1-tailed).0% of the variance.48 to . The R-square values ranged from . The R- 136 . Safety. From the stepwise regression. is supported. Hence. Conscientiousness. Safety. Actualisation. for which one item was removed. and Innovator components of the RBPS. The principal components analysis of the RBPS yielded a five-component measure that accounted for 80. which states that the FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. Complexity and Safety were significant predictors of the Innovator component and Total RBPS. Complexity and Social were significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS.81. The Cronbach’s alphas for these components ranged from . The Cronbach’s alphas for the CASES components ranged from . Complexity was the only significant predictor of the Career component of the RBPS. All five CASES components were intercorrelated significantly at the 0.
Complexity and Social of the CASES and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Team component of the RBPS. 137 . Each component of the RBPS. the third hypothesis. Actualisation. The R-square values ranged from .square values ranged from . Safety.26. the second hypothesis. is essentially supported. Complexity of the CASES and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Career component of the RBPS. Safety and Social of the CASES were significant predictors of the Job component of the RBPS. Hence.17 to . is supported. Safety. Complexity and Safety of the CASES and Neuroticism of the FFM were significant predictors of the Innovator component of the RBPS. except for the Organisation component which was significantly predicted only by components of CASES. which states that the CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. had a significant proportion of its variance explained by both the CASES and the FFM components. Each component of the RBPS had a significant proportion of its variance explained by the CASES components. Hence. Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM and Complexity. From the stepwise regression.29.14 to . Complexity and Social of the CASES were significant predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS. Complexity and Safety of the CASES and Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the FFM were significant predictors of Total RBPS. which states that the CASES and FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings.
and suggestions for future research.0. Main Findings for Research Question One Research Question One: Does the FFM model of personality predict work performance? The first research question was addressed by the first hypothesis: H1: The FFM will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings.1. INTRODUCTION This final Chapter contains a discussion of the main findings from the study as well as a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of the study. CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 5. 1999) was analysed using principal components analysis.2. DISCUSSION OF THE MAIN FINDINGS 5.5. The original 50-item FFM measure (Goldberg.1. and finally a conclusion.2. which revealed a five-component solution consisting of Openness 138 . the limitations of the study. 5.
This finding is not surprising given that conscientious individuals are organised. dependable.20 was too low to accept personality as a predictor of work performance.. Barrick and Mount (1991) also argued that coefficients below . In view of the cut-off value of 0. imaginative and intellectual) was found to be negatively correlated to only the Team component of the RBPS with r = -. 139 .g. achievement oriented and persistent) had the highest correlations with all of the RBPS components and Total RBPS. Agreeableness (four items) and Neuroticism (four items). Openness (e.30 were questionable. This finding corroborates the finding of Hogan and Holland (2003). 1997). this factor was considered as an inadequate predictor of any of the RBPS components or of Total RBPS. achievement oriented. Conscientiousness (e. The results of the stepwise regression analyses also did not reveal Openness as a significant predictor of any of the RBPS components.(5 items).30 or greater was therefore considered as indicating a valid predictor of performance. responsible.g. responsible. (1984) argued that a correlation of 0. a correlation coefficient of 0.30. The value of the correlation coefficient that can be considered to indicate a useful predictor has been debated over the years.20 was considered by Cohen (1988) as meaningful but Schmitt et al.. For this research. purposeful..09. hardworking. Of the five FFM components. Extraversion (four items). A value of 0. Conscientiousness (5 items). All of these components were intercorrelated as revealed in past research which showed that they were distinct but related factors (Judge et al. artistically sensitive.
the Conscientiousness construct does seem to be logically related to work performance. This finding is consistent with the results of Avis et al. Hurtz and Donovan 2000. high in Conscientiousness) were positively associated with work-related performance. Crant 1995. and persistent (Barrick et al. From a theoretical perspective. Barrick and Mount 1993. dependable. 1993). Conscientiousness was found to be the best predictor of the components of the RBPS and of Total RBPS. Such low values of the correlation 140 . hard working and thorough will perform better than those who do not have such tendencies. It makes sense that individuals who have tendencies to be careful.g. Furthermore.g. Conscientious individuals perform better because they set goals which help them to direct their effort and achieve challenging goals over a long period of time.09) with the Career component of the RBPS. assertive and sociable) was found to be negatively correlated (r = -. these results demonstrated that being dependable.e.. From the stepwise regression analysis. persistent. talkative.. the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS). Hence. the Conscientiousness component also predicted Total RBPS better than contextual work performance (i.e. Conscientiousness has been shown to be a significant predictor of all job-related criteria. achievement-oriented and responsible (i. in all occupational groups. Extraversion (e. Salgado 1997. (2002) who posited that the FFM dimensions were better at predicting overall performance measures than those with contextual aspects. that have been examined (e..dependable... and Sanders 2003).
coefficient. Agreeableness was only a valid predictor of the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. Agreeableness was a significant predictor of all the RBPS components and of Total RBPS. Neuroticism was a predictor of the Job component. In line with the findings of the current study.2%) were from the managerial positions in highly structured jobs. professional and managerial staff. the finding from this study also supported that Agreeableness was a valid predictor of certain aspects of work performance for skilled. Using a 0. are often disregarded (Barrick et al. 1993). soft-hearted. 1993). Hogan and Holland (2003) reported that Extraversion was a poor predictor of performance and claimed that this was due to the Extraversion being too broad a construct. The stepwise regressions revealed that Extraversion as a non-significant predictor of performance. Neuroticism was correlated significantly with the Job component of the RBPS and with Total RBPS. Salgado (1997) revealed that Agreeableness was a valid predictor of work performance for skilled labourers.05 level. and 141 . Since the majority of the respondents (404 or 74. cooperative and forgiving (which were facets of Agreeableness) might be more cooperative and compliant and therefore would perform better in highly structured organisations where there was little ambiguity in their jobs (Barrick and Mount. and managers. and of Total RBPS. the Team component. even though it is significant at the 0. Agreeableness can be a predictor of certain components of job performance for managerial staff in highly structured jobs. Employees in these types of jobs who were courteous. Hence.30 cut-off value for the correlation coefficient. professionals. the Innovator component. the Career component. In the stepwise regression analyses. trusting.
2003). 2002. Barrick and Mount. Agreeableness and Neuroticism could be considered as valid predictors of work performance in an absolute sense if 0.. employees who are resilient. Furthermore. This finding was partially reinforced in this study. Furthermore. Task performance corresponds to getting ahead while contextual performance corresponds to getting along. These findings supported Salgado’s (2003) argument that emotional stability (i. was supported.. organisations and countries.e. The emergence of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism as predictors of performance was not surprising as these two Big Five traits have consistently been found to be the most relevant predictors of work performance (Judge and Ilies. criteria. Hence. Hypothesis One. Neuroticism encompasses traits such as excessive worry. In the final analysis. low confidence. agreeableness and neuroticism should predict performance (Hogan and Holland.e. then conscientiousness. the antithesis of Neuroticism) has generalised validity across occupation. which states that the FFM will predict a significant of variance of performance ratings. calm and self-confident (i.Total RBPS. 142 . the five components of RBPS have components of “getting along and getting ahead”. low Neuroticism) tend to be evaluated more positively than those who are panicky. If performance criteria are classified as getting ahead and getting along. 2004a). Hurtz and Donovan (2000) postulated that Conscientiousness. tendencies to experience negative emotions and pessimism. individuals with high neuroticism would be likely to develop negative attitudes towards their work hence resulting in poor performance as they devote less time in their jobs (Bozionelos.30 was adopted as the standard. 1993). Due to their tendency to construe their experiences in a negative light.
45 and had the highest correlation with Total RBPS (r = . Complexity correlated with the Job component of the RBPS as the facets of volition and self-regulation in Complexity were related with the facets of customer services in the Job component which required tactful interventions. The new personality measure (i. The current study has provided a theoretical argument for the development of a personality measure based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the social cognitive theory of “If-Then”. Actualisation.5. which were correlated positively to each other but to an extent that they could be considered as distinct but related components.46). Complexity.. Safety. CASES) comprised five components (i.g.e.. Complexity correlated with the Career component of the RBPS as self-regulation and volition would enhance the attainment of career 143 .e.2.31 to .. Main Findings for Research Question Two Research Question Two: Does the CASES model of personality predict work performance? The second research question was addressed by the second hypothesis: H2: The CASES model will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. self-regulation or low impulsivity and volition) correlated with all of the components of the RBPS with coefficients ranging from .2. Ego and Social). The Complexity component (e.
which includes aspects of performance such as ensuring group success and seeking and responding to group’s needs. Actualisation cannot be considered a valid predictor for the Job component. Complexity correlated with the Organisation component of the RBPS arguably because self-regulation and volition would promote the virtues of the organisation. growth and progress) was correlated with all of the RBPS components and with Total RBPS. passion. Complexity had the highest correlation with Total RBPS arguably because high levels of Complexity enable one to control one’s motivation. self-esteem and the need for progress. all of which are arguably related to the need for growth.. which includes doing things outside one’s job scope for the betterment of the company. 1977a). or the Innovator component of the RBPS. action and thought.g.30 for the correlation coefficient. Actualisation correlated with the Organisation component of the RBPS.opportunities and the advancement of one’s career. self-esteem and needs for achievement. Using a cut-off value of 0. Complexity correlated with the Team component of the RBPS as facets of persevering and conforming in volition would ensure harmonious team formation and group success. Actualisation correlated with the Team component of the RBPS. Complexity correlated with the Innovator component of the RBPS as low impulsivity would enable the creation of ideas and improvements to how one does one’s work. This aspect of performance can be linked to passion. Actualisation was also correlated with 144 . The Actualisation component (e. In support of this argument is the finding that high performers perceive events are determined by themselves while low performers perceive events as controlled by chance (Bandura. the Career component.
the drive is to achieve a sense of fulfilment in balancing one’s work and life responsibilities (Stum.30. security. orderly and structured) correlated with all of the components of the RBPS and with Total RBPS. From a theoretical perspective. Safety was correlated to the Organisation component of the RBPS arguably because the existence of a good system and structure in the company would provide a good environment to promote the company. At this level. Safety correlated with the Job component of the RBPS arguably because orderly and structured facets are antecedents of high quality and high quantity. 2001).Total RBPS. such that the respondents were perhaps too young to be highly motivated to realise their full potential. passionate and creative would perform better than those who do not have these tendencies.6 years). and progress. This finding reaffirmed Arnold’s (1988) claim that Actualisation is a predictor of job performance. the Actualisation construct does seem to be logically related to organisational citizenship and total performance. Safety correlated with Total 145 . The stepwise regression analyses revealed that Actualisation was the best and only predictor of the Organisation component of the RBPS. Team.. Safety correlated with the Team component of the RBPS arguably because the facets of the Safety component would provide a sense of security to achieve success. and Organisation components of the RBPS and with Total RBPS. The reason could be the age of the respondents (average age was 34. Using a cut-off value of . the Safety component is correlated with the Job. achievement. which included facets of passion. The Safety component of CASES (e. the need for growth. systematic.g. It is reasonable that individuals with tendencies to be achievement-oriented.
Innovator. Based on the preceding discussion of the main findings. Social correlated only with the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS. quality and quantity of work) that constitute the job component of the RBPS. The stepwise regression analyses also revealed that Social was a significant predictor of the Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.g. needs for love. but negatively related. companionship and care) correlated significantly with all of the components of the RBPS... these components of performance are related to facets of teamwork and organisational citizenship.30 cut-off value. the CASES model.g. The Ego component of CASES did not correlate significantly with any of the RBPS components or with Total RBPS arguably because its facets of good living and celebrating in style are not relevant to work performance.. is a useful predictor of the various components of the 146 . with the exception of the Ego component. and Total RBPS. In the stepwise regression analyses. structured and systematic are antecedents of productivity (Cook et al. and with Total RBPS. The Social component of CASES (e. except for the Innovator component. Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.RBPS arguable because its facets of orderly. This finding indicates that the Ego component is detrimental to facets of performance (e. Using the 0. Safety was found to be a significant predictor of the Job. predictor of the Job component of the RBPS. affiliation. The stepwise regression analyses also revealed that Ego was a significant. 2000).
Main Findings for Research Question Three Research Question Three: Do the two models of personality contribute uniquely to the prediction of work performance? The third research question was addressed by the third hypothesis: H3: The CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. 5. was therefore supported.3. were better predictors of the Job component of the RBPS as compared with the Complexity.2. Safety and Social components of CASES. This finding is consistent with the findings of Barrick and Mount (1993) and Judge and Ilies (2002) that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were valid predictors of all categories of work performance. Hypothesis Two. which states that CASES will predict a significant proportion of variance in performance ratings. both of which are components of the FFM. This finding might be due to the fact that the Complexity component has facets which included volition (i.e. The stepwise regression showed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. The stepwise regression revealed that the Complexity component of the CASES was a better predictor of the Career component of the RBPS than Neuroticism. to conform and persevere) whereas the Neuroticism 147 ..RBPS and Total RBPS. a component of the FFM.
The stepwise regression revealed that the Complexity and Safety components of CASES and the Neuroticism and Conscientiousness components of the FFM were predictors of Total RBPS. Complexity. Complexity.g. Complexity includes self-regulation and volition and not surprisingly 148 . The stepwise regression showed that for the Innovator component of the RBPS. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Actualisation was the best predictor. structured. Complexity was the best predictor followed by Neuroticism and Safety. and orderly) that enhance facets of teamwork such as seeking information from others and working with others. protection. Safety was the best predictor due probably to the fact that Safety includes aspects (e. Complexity was the best predictor followed by Safety. Safety.g. The stepwise regression revealed that the Safety. passion and realisation of one’s potential) that facilitate organisational citizenship. and Social components of the CASES and the Neuroticism component of the FFM were predictors of the Team component of the RBPS. The Innovator component addresses behaviors such as finding new ways to do one’s work and requires risk taking and confidence. which is the essence of the Organisation component of the RBPS.component comprises facets such as fear and low confidence regarding career progress and development. both of which are aspects of Complexity. This was probably due to the fact that Actualisation includes facets (e. The stepwise regression revealed that the Actualisation. and Social components of CASES were predictors of the Organisation component of the RBPS.
These results provide evidence that there are specific aspects of personality that predict work-related performance over and above that provided by the FFM (Salgado. Hypothesis Three. which is based on 149 . was therefore supported. then people can learn how to modify their personality to improve their work performance and organisations can benefit by recruiting individuals with personality profiles that may render them as preferred employees. 5.was a better predictor than Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. 1998. the various components of the CASES and the FFM are significant predictors of the various components of the RBPS and Total RBPS. which states that the CASES and FFM models will each explain a significant proportion of unique variance when used concurrently to predict performance. 2004). Sackett et al... Implications on Professional Practice From the classical perspective. Based on the preceding discussion of the main findings. examining the link between personality and work performance appears to have profound implications for organisations.3.1. 1997. IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS 5. From this point of view.3. Kieffer et al. If researchers are able to affirm that certain personality traits are related significantly to work performance. the proposed CASES model. individuals and human resources consultants.
for their client organisations. organisations and individuals. recruiting and promoting personnel. The knowledge that personality can influence or even be a determinant of work performance is valuable to recruiting agencies. 1999).Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the social cognitive theory of “If-Then”. The results indicate that the CASES model of personality maybe a useful addition to the array of personality or individual difference measures that are used to predict various facets of work performance. the CASES model did account for significant variance in work performance over and above that accounted for by the FFM. 150 . Although the research methodology and design did not permit statements of causality. For organisations. The CASES model provides a means for individuals to assess their personality so as to develop appropriate strategies to improve their performance and hence their vocational endeavors (Lau and Shaffer. based on personality traits. the CASES model is another useful tool for human resource personnel with respect to designing effective job specifications or roles. The CASES model may also be useful for recruitment consultants in that it may help them to identify effective employees. has important practical implications. and formulating effective human resources strategies in training. which is a wellestablished model of personality.
it is not surprising other factors such as ability. many personality measures are based on single theories and therefore their usefulness for predicting performance in actual workplace settings needs to be examined.5. The need for achievement is also dependent on the fit between environmental factors and personality. personality. Implications on Theory The first Chapter provided an outline of this study in the context of motivation. 2004) 151 . In recent years. Two research problems were therefore identified and these guided the current research. such as Malaysia. Beadles II and Krilowicz. behavior. cognition and satisfaction are correlated with work performance. The level of job complexity may have a role in whether an interaction occurs between personality and ability when predicting work performance. Hence.3. personality interacts with cognitive ability and appears to influence work performance (Lowery. where English is a second language. Moreover.2. and psychometric measures. These instruments have predominantly been developed in the Western countries and the question arises as to the generalisability of these instruments to Asian countries. values. there has been a proliferation of psychometric instruments that have been used as part of organisational development and recruitment processes. Furthermore. There is a lot of debate on whether the role of a person on work performance is sculptor or sculpture.
2002). the CASES model suggests that certain personality factors or traits have a greater effect on work performance because people can. The predictors and the criteria used in the current study were obtained from self-report data using a single questionnaire. Furthermore.4. small or medium or large organisations.46). it seems reasonable to conclude that the measures of personality and work performance were assessing separate constructs (Barrick et al. public or private) would increase confidence in its validity and generalisability.11.e.Similarly. modify their behavior to improve their work performance. Self-ratings are influenced by social desirability such that responses tend to be skewed toward the favourable end of the Likert scale for each item. maximum r = . Common method variance and mono-source bias are potential limitations of the current study as they may produce spurious relationships. However.. 5. consciously or unconsciously. A subsequent study designed to assess personality and work performance over time (longitudinally) using a random sample of the population (i. which brings into question the representativeness of the sample and therefore the generalisability of the findings. This creates range restriction. a convenience sample was used. LIMITATIONS The study was a cross-sectional sample of some commercial organisations of various sizes in Malaysia which did not allow an assessment of causality. which reduces the correlation between items. Given the relatively small correlation coefficients obtained in this study (minimum r = .. there is no way of estimating 152 .
CASES and RBPS would have differed if incentives were provided. it is not possible to adjust the correlations for the effects of a restricted range. Another impetus for further research is the length of the CASES measure as this personality measure has only 20 items. due to its brevity. It would be difficult to fathom how the relative validities of the FFM. Hence. Consequently. FFM and the RBPS is recommended. This study was the first time these measures have been used together in Malaysia. The circumstances of the respondents’ participation did not give any incentive to give inaccurate responses.5. further instrument refinement is recommended. 5. FUTURE RESEARCH The personality measures of the FFM and the CASES and the RBPS performance measure were self-reports. possible modifications as well as further validation of the CASES. In regards to instrumentation. supervisor or co-worker ratings had equivalent or higher levels of criterion-related validity in comparison with employees’ self-reports. it would be interesting to explore these relationships using alternative measurements as certain studies had presented evidence that customer.what the variance of the ratings ought to be. 153 . Hence. For the sake of understanding the impact of personality on work performance. organisations may be willing to include the CASES measure in surveys as a preliminary screening for potential employees.
sales. job complexity. Systematic replication integrating a variety of individuals representing various ages. Future research can also be conducted to ascertain whether the results reported in this study are generalisable to different jobs (e.Questions about the generalisability of these findings and external validity issues can be addressed through replications of this study. job satisfaction and other proximal motivation models that include interaction effects should also be encouraged to further enhance the validation of this personality measure. The cross-validation of the CASES with other determinants of work performance such as ability.6. validity is a long-term process for any research. 5. it should by all means be subjected to replication in various contexts with various work performance measures. goal-setting motivation. management or clerical). From a more philosophical angle. Given that the research on the CASES measure is an initial effort. Although face validity may be defined as a “test which looks good for a particular purpose” (Hogan. 154 . organisational settings (public.g.. skilled or semi-skilled. non-governmental or non-profit organisations) and cultures. Face validity is always a problem in personality measure. income and educational backgrounds are needed to address concerns about the generalisability of the findings obtained in the current study. self-efficacy. CONCLUSION The main objective of the current study was to examine the research question as to whether personality can predict work performance using the FFM and CASES models of personality.
Furthermore. 1996.. many seemingly appropriate personality tests fail to predict work performance. to understand the impact of personality on work performance. The categorisation of work performance dimensions based on the RBPS could be criticised on the same grounds that were used to justify the use of the FFM. each individual moves through Maslow’s hierarchy at a different rate. Employee performance is basically determined by three things. job-related learning and knowledge sharing) that are not included in the RBPS. The strength of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory is its ability to identify those needs which motivate behavior (Wiley. changes in one’s life can affect the sequence of meeting these needs. Face validity would enhance the users’ acceptance of a test method and is definitely desirable but if such a face-valid measure does not predict non-test behavior. 1997). co-workers. Personality measures often have empirical validity but commonly are weak on face validity.g. p.Hogan and Roberts. supervisors. motivation. it would be appropriate to explore this relationship using third-party sources (e.g. or customers) for information on work performance and personality rather than to rely exclusively on self-report data. Furthermore. 1997). and the work environment (Wiley. If one is to choose between a test with empirical validity but no appeal to the layman and a test with face validity with no empirical validity. 474). they can provide a basic understanding of what actually energises or motivates individuals. it is of no use for decision making. While personality-based theories may not necessarily predict behavior or motivation. That is. ability. there are other dimensions of work performance (e. one should choose the former. A 155 . Because needs are met at different stages..
Although personality is significantly inherited and stable in adulthood. 156 . studies that have examined the relationship between personality and work performance can be utilised for recruitment. select and transform stimuli. The traditional personality perspectives are hampered by the mechanistic models which posited that people possess dispositions or traits which lead them to behave consistently under changing circumstances. A comment on the usefulness of research on personality and work performance should also be made. With this jockeying to satisfy these needs.promotion may meet the self-actualisation level for an individual but meeting new people and learning new routines may cause the individual to try to fulfil safety and social needs. If researchers are able to classify jobs by occupation and then consider the performance criteria and the personality dimensional requirements relevant to that occupation. 1996). it would be beneficial to individuals to be aware of the limitations and advantages associated with their personality profiles. for example. personal development and career advice. Hogan and Roberts. then the predictive relationship between work performance and personality will improve (Hogan. neurotic individuals may learn to adjust their negative outlook of life for better personal success and agreeable individuals can recognise their natural tendency to downgrade and compromise their personal interests. Hence. the individual must balance life and work responsibilities to ultimately achieve a sense of fulfilment. Besides their indisputable academic importance. people are not simply reactors to stimuli in their environment in that they can also organise. In reality.
In addition to providing a theory-grounded measurement tool. Hunton and Bryant. The researcher hopes that the combination of supportive initial research results and high face validity will encourage use of and research on the CASES model. The study also showed that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism of the FFM are valid predictors for all jobs and criteria in the sample used in this study. CASES. CASES can be offered as a useful personality measure for both practitioners and researchers. 157 . Although the FFM is a well established personality measure. Innovator. Although this is a preliminary study of the validity of the CASES model of personality. and Total RBPS as compared to the FFM which was a better predictor of only the Job component of the RBPS. CASES. the CASES model of personality is relatively unique as it is a two-theory model as compared with many one-theory based personality measures that appear to be able to explain the multivariate phenomenon of behavior in a multidimensional manner. Hence. 2003). Tett and Burnett. 2004a.The study has contributed to the literature on personality by providing a new personality measure. Moreover. some components of the CASES model were found to be better predictors of the Career. the researcher believes that it has made a contribution to research on personality measures and the prediction of work-related performance. both situationally and contextually (Wheeler. this personality measure. can be added as a new contribution to the body of knowledge for personality measure especially in relation to the prediction of work-related performance. Team and Organisation components of the RBPS.
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APPENDIX ONE – INFORMATION SHEET Newcastle Graduate School of Business Faculty of Business and Law Level 3. On completion of the study. 2005 Subject: Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure Dear Potential Participant. You are invited to take part in this research project which examines the relationship between work performance and personality. The anonymity of your responses is guaranteed because you are not required to provide your name nor any other information that can be used to identify you. You are required to complete a questionnaire on personality and work performance. The findings of this study may be published in a scholarly journal but neither you.edu.Casimir@newcastle. which will be shredded after the data have been entered into a spreadsheet. We are interested only in the overall relationships between Personality and Work Performance. 182 . I am Chong Chien Fatt. your Organisation will be provided with a report that will be recommended for distribution to staff. We are therefore not interested in the specific responses of any particular individual.au CHONG Chien Fatt Tel: +60123760133 Fax: +60331602894 Email: chongchienfatt@yahoo. a student in the Newcastle Graduate School of Business at the University of Newcastle undertaking a Doctorate of Business and Administration Degree and Gian Casimir is my research supervisor.com September 15. University House Corner King and Auckland Street Newcastle 2300 AUSTRALIA For further information: Dr Gian Casimir Tel: +61 2 4921 6680 Fax:+61 2 4921 7398 Email: Gian. I am conducting a research project titled “Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure”. As part of my studies. The confidentiality of your responses is assured as only Chong Chien Fatt and Gian Casimir will have access to the completed questionnaires. nor your organisation will be named or be able to be identified from the published report.
Research Office. If you would like more information.edu. The Chancellery. will have no effect on your employment and no one will know whether or not you have participated as completion of the questionnaire will be performed at a location of your choice. If you want to take part in the study. please complete the questionnaire and return it to the researchers in the stamped self-addressed envelope provided. Yours sincerely. email HumanEthics@newcastle. to the Human Research Ethics Officer.au) 183 . your decision to participate.au. Thank you for taking time to consider this invitation. or you have a complaint about the manner in which the research is conducted.Participation in this study is entirely voluntary. University of Newcastle. the University’s Human Research Ethics Officer. University Drive. Mr Chong Chien Fatt Dr Gian Casimir Complaints Clause: This project has been approved by the University’s Human Research Ethics Committee. Bus-Law/SEGi/1/32:05A). The University requires that should you have concerns about your rights as a participant in this research. Approval No . Chancellery. Research Branch. 2308. The University of Newcastle. please contact Chong Chien Fatt or Gian Casimir or if an independent person is preferred. Callaghan NSW 2308. it may be given to the researcher. email: HumanEthics@newcastle. However. or to not participate. telephone +61 249 216 333. or. with return of the questionnaire through stamped and self-addressed envelopes to the researcher. if an independent person is preferred. telephone (+61 249 216 333.edu. The questionnaire will be distributed by the Human Resources Managers.
you will be asked to distribute a questionnaire (see attached) to your staff selected by a stratified random procedure that represents a diagonal slice across levels and functional areas. We are interested only in the overall relationship between personality and work performance and therefore are not interested in the specific responses of any particular individual. This questionnaire is a personality and work performance measures and should take approximately twenty minutes to complete. After the data have been entered into a spreadsheet.com September 15. 184 . Mr Chong is conducting this study as part of his Doctor of Business and Administration Degree and Dr Gian Casimir is his research supervisor. The confidentiality of responses is assured as only Chong Chien Fatt and Gian Casimir will have access to the completed questionnaires. We would greatly appreciate your organisation’s participation.au CHONG Chien Fatt Tel: +60123760133 Fax: +60331602894 Email: chongchienfatt@yahoo. the questionnaires will be shredded. Your organisation is invited to take part in a study which is being conducted by Mr Chong Chien Fatt and Dr Gian Casimir from the Newcastle Graduate School of Business. Please see the attached information sheet for participants. Please note that all potential participants should be informed that participation is voluntary and that they will not be disadvantaged in any way by not participating.APPENDIX TWO – CONSENT SEEKING LETTER TO COMPANY Newcastle Graduate School of Business Faculty of Business and Law Level 3.Casimir@newcastle. This study examines the relationship between personality and work performance. University House Corner King and Auckland Street Newcastle 2300 AUSTRALIA For further information: Dr Gian Casimir Tel: +61 2 4921 6680 Fax:+61 2 4921 7398 Email: Gian.edu. Dear Sir. If your organisation is willing to participate. 2005 Subject: Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure.
if an independent person is preferred. please reply to us in writing stating your department’s willingness. which we recommend to be made available to all staff. Thank you for taking time to consider this invitation. Yours sincerely.au) 185 . Approval No . please contact Chong Chien Fatt or Gian Casimir. Mr Chong Chien Fatt and Dr Gian Casimir Complaints Clause: This project has been approved by the University’s Human Research Ethics Committee. to the Human Research Ethics Officer. Bus-Law/SEGi/1/32:05A). The University of Newcastle.On completion of the study. your organisation will be provided with a report. The Chancellery. The University requires that should you have concerns about your rights as a participant in this research. University Drive. email HumanEthics@newcastle. Research Office. or. For further information. it may be given to the researcher. or you have a complaint about the manner in which the research is conducted.edu. Callaghan NSW 2308. telephone (+61 249 216 333. If you agree to take part in the study. nor your department will be named or be able to be identified from the published report. The findings of this study may be published in a scholarly journal but neither you.
not as you wish to be in the future nor what you were in the past. 1 Very Inaccurate 2 Moderately Inaccurate 3 Neither Accurate or Inaccurate 4 Moderately Accurate 5 Very Accurate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 I often feel unhappy I feel comfortable around people I believe in the importance of art I have a good word for everyone I am always prepared I am very pleased with myself I have little to say I am not interested in theoretical discussions I waste my time I am very direct I dislike myself I make friends easily I have a vivid imagination I am critical of others I pay attention to details I am not easily bothered by things 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 186 . Part 2: Please use the rating scale below to describe how accurately each of the following statement describes you. please do not continue with the survey even though you may have consented to participate. Describe yourself as you generally are now.APPENDIX THREE – QUESTIONNAIRE Personality Measure Questionnaire Title: Predicting Work Performance using FFM and a non-FFM Personality Measure Part 1: (i) Are you proficient in English? Yes / No (ii) Have you been working in the same job for more than 12 months? Yes / No If there is a No answer in any one above. Please tick the answers above and return the full set in the self-addressed envelope. Thank you.
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 I keep a low profile I do not enjoy going to art museums I find it difficult to focus on work I believe that others have good intentions I seldom feel unhappy I am not interested in abstract ideas I would describe my experiences as somewhat dull I respect others I do just enough work to get by I am often depressed I am skilled in handling social situations I avoid philosophical discussions I insult people I get chores done right away I have frequent mood swings I carry the conversation to a higher level I don’t like to draw attention to myself I accept people as they are I carry out my plans I panic easily I do not like art I get back at others I make plans and stick to them I am the life of the party I get excited by new ideas I avoid carrying out my duties I make people feel at ease I don’t talk a lot I rarely get irritated I don’t see things through I enjoy hearing new ideas I know how to get people’s attention I feel comfortable with myself I suspect hidden motive in others I easily adapt to the needs of the situation I push myself and others to get things done I am a loving person I am careful in my work I like others to empower me to do my work I am good at interpreting things I like living in style I am pleasant to be around with I hold on to traditions and beliefs I love to seek experiences in life I often weigh the pros and cons of a situation before acting I want to take charge of my work 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 187 .
63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 I have a heart for the less fortunate I like to do things following the proper channels I believe in justice I can spot opportunities and make use of them I like to take the lead to get things done I am sensitive to other people’s feelings I prefer to buy things with guarantee I find great satisfaction in doing a good job I am good at overcoming obstacles to get what I want I am good in pressurizing others to get things done I enjoy the company of others I am law-abiding I seek knowledge and skills to improve myself I am flexible in doing things I can be easily provoked I like to assist my friends in time of needs I believe in doing things step by step I do my work enthusiastically I am good at persuading others to support me I am assertive I like to visit my friends I tend to shelter others from harm I work towards improving my quality of life I like to turn issues/situations to my advantage I like to celebrate in a grand manner I can be easily hurt I am serious in whatever I do I am a reasonable person I will do anything to achieve my goals I tend to use more of “I” than “We” I enjoy working in groups I do not fight with authority I am accountable for my mistakes I do not reveal myself too much I am determined to win in any situation I greet my friends with open arms I need security I make decisions based on bottom-lines 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 188 .
Are you confirm in your job within the normal time frame? 8.For the next 20 items. 189 . Gender (please circle) Male/Female ____Years____Months ____Years ___ Months Primary School / High School / College / University 4. Between 7% to 10%. For those working for 3 years of more. have you been promoted? Yes/No Yes/No 9. Age: ____Years____Months 3. More than 10%. How long have you worked in your current job? 6. Educational level: 2. What is your last annual increment? Less than 3%. the rating scales are: 1 Needs Much Improvement 2 Needs Some Improvement 3 Satisfactory 4 Goods 5 Excellent 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Quantity of work output Quality of work output Accuracy of work Customer service provided (internal and external) Obtaining personal career goals Developing skills needed for my future career Making progress in my career Seeking out career opportunities Coming with new ideas Working to implement new ideas Finding improved ways to do things Creating better processes and routines Working as part of a team or work group Seeking information from others in my work group Making sure my work group succeeds Responding to the needs of others in my work group Doing things that help others when it’s not part of my job Working for the overall good of the company Doing things to promote the company Helping so that the company is a good place to be 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Part 3: Respondent’s Demographic Data 1. How long have you worked in this Organisation? 5. Between 3% and 6%. What is your Level in the Organisation? Non-Executive/ Lower Mgmt/Middle Mgmt/ Senior Mgmt 7.
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