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CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

QCVN 07:2010/BXD

QUY CHUN K THUT QUC GIA CC CNG TRNH H TNG K THUT TH


Vietnam Building Code Urban Engineering Infrastructures

H NI - 2010

LI NI U Quy chun QCVN 07:2010/BXD do Hi Mi trng Xy dng Vit Nam bin son vi s tham gia ca Tp on Du kh Quc gia Vit Nam, V Khoa hc Cng ngh v Mi trng trnh duyt, B Xy dng ban hnh theo Thng t s 02/TT-BXD ngy 05 thng 02 nm 2010. Quy chun QCVN 07:2010/BXD l kt qu hot ng ca Hp phn pht trin bn vng mi trng trong cc khu th ngho (SDU) do B Xy dng ch tr thc hin trong khun kh Chng trnh hp tc pht trin Vit Nam an Mch trong lnh vc mi trng (DCE).

MC LC Trang
CHNG 1: NHNG QUY NH CHUNG

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4


CHNG 2:

Phm vi p dng Cc cng trnh h tng k thut th Gii thch t ng Quy nh chung
H THNG CC CNG TR NH CP NC TH

6 6 6 11 12 12 12 13 13 15 16 21 24 26 29 30 35 36 39

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9


CHNG 3:

Quy nh chung Nhu cu dng nc ca cc th Cng sut ca trm cp nc Ngun nc Cng trnh khai thc nc th Trm bm Trm x l nc cp Mng li cp nc H thng cp nc trong cc khu vng c bit
H THNG CC CNG TR NH THOT NC TH

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6


CHNG 4:

Quy nh chung Mng li thot nc ma H thng thot nc thi, nc bn H thng thot nc chn khng v h thng thot nc gin lc Cng trnh x l nc thi sinh hot th (cc b v khu vc) Yu cu i vi vt liu v cu kin h thng thot n c th
H THNG CC CNG TR NH GIAO THNG TH

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

Quy nh chung Phn cp ng t th Cc quy nh k thut ng t th Qung trng H ph, ng i b v ng xe p Bi xe, bn dng xe but, bn xe li n tnh Trm thu ph Trm sa cha t Nn ng o ng Mng li giao thng vn ti hnh khch cng cng

41 41 42 46 46 47 49 50 50 50 51 3

4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20


CHNG 5:

ng t chuyn dng ng st th ng thu ni a ng hng khng Nt giao thng trong th Cu trong th Hm giao thng trong th Tuy-nen v ho k thut An ton giao thng v cc thi t b iu khin, hng dn giao thng
H THNG CC CNG TRNH CP IN TH

51 51 53 53 53 55 56 58 58

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17
CHNG 6:

Quy nh chung tin cy cung cp in H thng in th Cp in p ca h thng in th Ph ti in Nh my nhit in ring ca th Ngun in ca cc h thng cung cp in th Trm bin p v trm phn phi ca h thng cung cp in th Ph kin ng dy o m in nng Bo v v t ng ho trong h thng in th Ni t v ni khng trong h thng in th Bo v chng st Khong cch an ton t trm bin p n cng tr nh xy dng khc Hnh lang an ton bo v li in cao p An ton h thng in th An ton phng chy cha chy
H THNG CC CNG TR NH CP XNG DU V KH T TH

60 60 61 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 66 66 67

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4


CHNG 7:

Quy nh chung H thng cc trm xng du th H thng cp kh t th H thng cp in v chng st cho trm xng du v trm kh t th
H THNG CHIU SNG TH

68 68 70 76

7.1

Quy nh chung

77 4

7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6


CHNG 8:

Chiu sng ng, ph cho xe c ng c Chiu sng hm, cu cho ngi i b v xe p Chiu sng cc trung tm th, qung tr ng v cc khu vc vui chi cng cng Chiu sng cng trnh c bit (cng trnh kin trc c bit, tng i) Chiu sng sn ga, bn cng, bn xe, b i xe
H THNG CC CNG TRNH THNG TIN TH

78 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 86 86

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7


CHNG 9:

Quy nh chung Nhiu cng nghip v nhiu v tuyn i vi h thng thng tin th Cng trnh cp quang Chng st bo v cc cng trnh vin thng Ni t cho cc cng trnh vin thng An ton cc cng trnh thng tin th m bo an ton thng tin phng chy, ch a chy
H THNG THU GOM, PHN LOI, VN CHUYN, X L CHT THI RN V NH V SINH CNG CNG

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8


CHNG 10:

Quy nh chung Thu gom, phn loi v lu cha cht thi rn sinh hot th Thu gom, phn loi v lu cha cht thi rn nguy hi Vn chuyn cht thi rn Trung chuyn cht thi rn X l cht thi rn Khu lin hp x l cht thi rn Nh v sinh cng cng v qun l bn cn
NH TANG L V NGHA TRANG TH

87 87 89 89 90 91 93 93 95 95 95 95 96 96 97 98 98

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9

Quy nh chung Phn cp ngha trang th Nh tang l Khong cch an ton v sinh mi trng i vi nh tang l v ngha trang Cc khu chc nng ch yu trong nh tang l, ngha trang Din tch v s dng t trong nh tang l, ngha trang Kin trc, cnh quan mi tr ng nh tang l, ngha trang Thu gom v x l cht thi ngha trang Nh ho tng

Chng 1 NHNG QUY NH CHUNG 1.1. Phm vi p dng Quy chun ny qui nh cc yu cu k thut bt buc phi tun th trong u t v xy dng mi, ci to hoc nng cp cc cng trnh h tng k thut th. 1.2. Cc cng trnh h tng k thut th Cc cng trnh h tng k thut th c nu trong Quy chun ny gm: H thng cc cng trnh giao thng th; H thng cc cng trnh cp nc th; H thng cc cng trnh thot nc th; H thng cc cng trnh cp in th; H thng cc cng trnh cp xng du v kh t th; H thng cc cng trnh chiu sng th; H thng cc cng trnh thng tin th; H thng thu gom, phn loi, x l cht thi rn v nh v sinh cng cng; Nh tang l v ngha trang th.

1.3. Gii thch t ng 1.3.1. Cp nc th 1) H thng cp nc l tp hp cc cng trnh thu, x l nc, iu ho, vn chuyn v phn phi nc ti cc i tng dng nc. 2) Nhu cu dng nc n v (tiu chun dng nc) l lng nc cp cho mt n v dng nc trong mt n v thi gian hay lng cp nc cho mt n v sn phm sn xut (l/ng-ng, l/vsp). 3) Lng nc tht thot trong h thng cp n c l lng nc b mt i trong qu trnh x l nc cp, vn chuyn, d tr v phn phi nc cp. 4) Cng trnh khai thc nc l cng trnh lm chc nng khai thc nc t ngun nc. 5) Mng li cp nc l mng li ng ng dn nc v cc cng trnh trn ng ng a nc ti ni tiu dng. 6) Mng li cp nc vng l mng li cp nc n ni s dng theo mt vng kn. 7) Mng li cp nc ct l mng li cp nc n ni s dng t 1 hng. 1.3.2. Thot nc th 1) Nc thi sinh hot l nc thi ra t cc hot ng sinh hot ca con ng i nh n ung, tm git, v sinh c nhn.

2) Nc thi cng nghip l nc thi ra t cc hot ng sn xut cng nghip, l ng ngh, hot ng kinh doanh hoc cc hot ng sn xut khc . 3) Ngun tip nhn nc thi l ngun nc mt hoc vng bin ven b, c mc ch s dng xc nh, ni m nc thi thi vo. 4) H thng thot nc l mt t hp cc thit b, cng tr nh k thut, mng li thot nc v cc phng tin thu gom nc thi t ni pht sinh, dn- vn chuyn n cc cng trnh x l, kh trng v x nc thi ra ngun tip nhn. 5) Thot nc dng chuyn ch nh k l tp trung nc thi vo mt thng cha hay b cha, nh k vn chuyn bng t hoc xe ht a n ni x l nc thi. 6) Thot nc dng dng chy t vn chuyn l thot nc thi theo ng ngcng ngm t vn chuyn ra cc trm x l. 7) Mng li thot nc l h thng ng ng, cng rnh hoc knh mng thot nc v cc cng trnh trn thu v thot nc thi cho mt khu vc nht nh. 8) Qu trnh x l nc thi trong iu kin hiu kh l qu trnh phn hy cc cht nhim hu c trong nc thi di tc dng ca cc vi sinh vt trong iu kin c xy ca khng kh. 9) Qu trnh x l nc thi trong iu kin k kh l qu trnh phn hy cc cht nhim hu c trong nc thi di tc dng ca cc vi sinh vt trong iu kin khng c xy ca khng kh. 10) X l nc thi bng phng php c hc l qu trnh cng ngh x l nc thi bng phng php c hc v l hc. 11) X l nc thi bng phng php sinh hc l qu trnh cng ngh x l nc thi da vo kh nng ca cc vi sinh vt phn hy cc cht bn. 12) X l nc thi bng phng php ha hc l qu trnh cng ngh x l nc thi bng ha cht. 1.3.3. Giao thng th 1) Lu lng xe chy (hay lu lng giao thng) l s lng xe chy qua mt mt ct ngang ng trong mt n v thi gian. n v tnh l xe/ng. hoc xe/h, k hiu: Nxe/ng., Nxe/h. 2) Lu lng xe thit k bnh qun ngy m trong nm tnh ton l lu lng xe trong 1 ngy m c quy i ra xe con ca nm tnh ton, c th nguy n Xe q/ng., lu lng ny dng chn cp ng (Nxe q./ng.). 3) Kh nng thng hnh (hay kh nng thng xe) l lu lng xe ln nht c th chy trn mt ln xe m bo an ton, c th nguyn l Xe q/h-ln. Kh nng thng hnh dng tnh s ln xe cn thit ca mt ct ngang ng, nh gi cht lng dng xe, t chc giao thng. 4) Tc thit k (V TK) l tc dng tnh ton cc ch tiu hnh hc gii hn ca ng dng trong thit k bo m iu kin v tm nh n, bn knh ng cong ti thiu v.v 5) Tc l thuyt (V LT) l tc ln nht xe n chic (trong iu kin vng xe) c th chy. Tc l thuyt c s dng nh gi cht l ng khai thc ca cc phng n ng. Tc l thuyt ln h n tc thit k. 7

6) Tc lu hnh cho php (V LH) l tc cho php lu hnh trn mt on ng no do c quan qun l ng quy nh m bo an to n giao thng, hn ch tai nn. 7) Tc khai thc trung bnh ca tuyn ng (VKT) l tc trung bnh ca tuyn ng c xt n tt c cc iu kin c nh hng ti tc thc t xe chy nh : mt xe, thnh phn xe, iu kin ca ng, yu cu hn ch tc khi qua khu dn c ng c, gim tc, ch xe cc ni giao nhau cng mc v.v, tc khai thc trung bnh ca tuyn ng nh hn tc thit k v tc l thuyt. 8) ng ngoi th l ng chy ngoi phm vi th. 9) ng th l ng nm trong phm vi th, thuc mng l i giao thng ni th. 10) ng cao tc th l ng trc cp c bit, phc v giao thng th vi tc cao, giao thng lin tc khng b gin on cc n i giao ct, an ton giao thng cao. 11) ng trc chnh th l ng trc chnh ca ton th hoc mt khu th ln v ni vi ng cao tc hay ng vnh ai th. 12) ng trc th l ng trc phc v giao thng trong khu th v ni vi ng trc chnh th. ng trc khu th bao gm c ng ngang v ng bn c chc nng thu gom lng giao thng t h thng ng ni b khu th ln ng trc chnh th, nhm ngn khng cho c c phng tin giao thng t do ra vo ng trc chnh th. 1.3.4. Cp in th 1) H thng in quc gia l h thng cung cp in cho to n lnh th ca mt quc gia, bao gm h thng cc trm bin p v mng li cc ng dy ti in. 2) H thng cung cp in th l h thng cung cp in cho mt th, c cp in t h thng in quc gia, bao gm cc mng l i phn phi in, cc trm bin p khu vc v trm bin p h p. 3) Trm bin p l trm bin i in p v phn phi in nng. Trm bin p c cc my bin p, cc thit b phn phi in, thit b o l ng iu khin v thit b bo v. 4) Trm bin p phn phi l trm bin i in trung p 22 kV th nh in h p 380/220 V cung cp in nng cho ph ti th. 5) Trm phn phi (trm ct) l trm nhn v phn phi in nng cng mt cp in p. 6) Cp in p l phn cp theo in p ca ng dy ti in. C ba cp in p l Cao p: 110kV - 220kV; Trung p: 6kV, 10kV, 15kV, 22kV, 36kV v 66kV; H p: 380 / 220V. 7) H dng in l mt n v s dng in ring l, c ring mt ng h o in s dng. 8) Ph ti in l cng sut in tiu th ca h dng in. 9) Thit b bo v rle l thit b chuyn mch t ng bo tn hiu hoc ng ct mch in khi c s c. 8

10) Aptmat l thit b bo v ngn mch trong mng h p. 11) Thit b t ng ATS l thit b t ng ng lp li khi ngun in l m vic b mt in tc thi hoc t ng ng ngun d ph ng khi mt ngun in lm vic. 12) Ni t l ni trung tnh ca mng trung p v trung tnh ca cc my bin p h p 22/0,4kV trc tip vi t. 1.3.5. H thng thng tin th H thng thng tin th l h thng bao gm cc i, trm, tuyn thng tin, cc thit b thng tin, cc cp thng tin thng th ng v cc cp quang. 1.3.6. Cp kh t th 1) Kh t l kh ho lng hay kh du m ho lng (LPG), c khai thc t m du, m kh v sn phm du m, l hn hp kh hyrocacbon, bao gm ch yu l butan (C4H10) v Propan (C 3H8). 2) Bn cha l loi bn chuyn dng, c ch to c bit dnh ring tch cha kh t, c dung tch cha ln hn 0,45 m3. 3) Trm kh t th l ni t cc bn cha kh t v cc thit b cn thit tip nhn kh t c cung cp bn ngoi th v phn phi kh t n cc trm kh t khu th vi cc cp p sut thch hp. 4) Trm kh t khu th l ni t cc bn cha kh t v cc thit b cn thit tip nhn kh t t trm kh t th vn chuyn n v cp kh t n cc h s dng trong khu th. 5) H thng ng ng kh t th bao gm ng ng vn chuyn, ng ng chnh v ng ng nhnh. ng ng vn chuyn l ng ng vn chuyn kh t t ngun kh t nm ngoi th n trm kh t th. ng ng nhnh l ng ng phn phi kh t t trm kh t khu th n cc h ti u th. 1.3.7. Chiu sng th 1) ri (E, Lux (lx)) l mt quang thng trn b mt c chiu sng. 2) chi (L, Cd/m2) l mt cng sng trn b mt pht sng. chi mt ng trung bnh (L, Cd/m2) l chi tnh trung bnh trn mt ng. 3) nhn tinh (a = 1/) l thc o bng gi tr nghch o ca gc (pht) nh nht nhn thy vt. 4) Ngng tng phn nhn thy l chnh lch chi nh nht gia vt v nn bt u nhn thy vt. 5) H s ng u chung (Uo) l t s gia chi cc tiu v chi trung bnh ca mt ng. H s ng u dc (U 1) l t s gia chi cc tiu v chi cc i theo phng dc ng. 6) Ch s hn ch lo (G) l ch s nh gi mc lo. Ch s n y cng ln cng khng cm thy lo. 1.3.8. Cht thi rn 1) Cht thi rn l cht thi th rn, c thi ra t qu trnh sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v, sinh hot hoc cc hot ng khc. Cht thi rn bao gm cht thi rn thng thng v cht thi rn nguy hi. 9

2) Cht thi rn sinh hot l cht thi ra t sinh hot c nhn, h gia nh, ni cng cng. 3) Cht thi rn cng nghip l cht thi ra t hot ng sn xut cng nghip, l ng ngh, kinh doanh, dch v hoc cc hot ng sn xut khc. 4) Cht thi rn nguy hi l cht thi rn cha cc cht hoc hp c ht c mt trong nhng c tnh phng x, d chy, d n, d n m n, d ly nhim, gy ng c hoc cc c tnh nguy hi khc. 5) Hot ng qun l cht thi rn bao gm cc hot ng quy hoch qun l, u t xy dng c s qun l cht thi rn, cc hot ng phn loi, thu gom, l u gi, vn chuyn, ti s dng, ti ch v x l cht thi rn nhm ngn nga, gim thiu nhng tc ng c hi i vi mi tr ng v sc kho con ngi. 6) Thu gom cht thi rn l hot ng tp hp, phn loi, ng gi v lu gi tm thi cht thi rn ti cc a im thu gom hoc c s c c quan nh nc c thm quyn chp thun. 7) Vn chuyn cht thi rn l hot ng vn chuyn cht thi rn t n i pht sinh, thu gom, trm trung chuyn n ni x l, ti ch, ti s dng hoc b i chn lp, thi b cui cng. 8) Ti ch cht thi rn l hot ng ti ch cht thi rn th nh cc sn phm s dng c. 9) X l cht thi rn l hot ng s dng cc bin php k thut hoc cng ngh nhm gim thiu, loi b cc th nh phn c hi trong cht thi rn nh cc cht c hi, mt v sinh v ti s dng, ti ch cc cht thi rn th nh cc sn phm c ch cho x hi. 10) C s x l cht thi rn l cc c s vt cht bao gm t ai, nh xng, dy chuyn cng ngh, trang thit b v cc hng mc cng trnh ph tr c s dng cho hot ng x l cht thi rn. 11) Bi chn lp cht thi rn hp v sinh l bi chn lp cht thi rn c qui hoch, thit k, xy dng v qun l hp k thut v sinh chn lp cc cht thi rn pht sinh t cc khu dn c, th v cc khu cng nghip. Bi chn lp bao gm cc chn lp cht thi rn, vng m, cc cng trnh ph tr nh trm x l nc, trm x l kh thi, trm cung cp in - nc, vn phng lm vic v cc cng trnh ph tr khc. 12) Khu lin hp x l cht thi rn l t hp ca mt s hoc nhiu hng mc cng trnh x l, ti ch, ti s dng cht thi rn v bi chn lp cht thi rn. 1.3.9. Ngha trang 1) Ngha trang hung tng/mai tng l ngha trang chn thi th ngi cht, m din ra qu trnh phn hy cc t chc t bo phn mm ca c th, c th gy nhim i vi mi trng khng kh, t v nc ngm trong khu vc ngha trang v cc vng ln cn. 2) Ngha trang chn mt ln cng l ngha trang hung tng nhng khng ci tng bc xng ct chuyn i tng ti n i khc.

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3) Ngha trang ct tng l ngha trang ch chn ct xng ct ngi cht, qu trnh phn hy cc t chc trong xng (ty) chm dt, nn nguy c gy nhim i vi mi trng ch cn mc thp. 4) Ngha trang cng cng (cn gi l ngha trang ca t chc hay tp th ) l ngha trang chung ca cng ng, nh l ngha trang nhn dn v ngha trang lit s. 5) a tng/mai tng l thc hin vic lu gi hi ct hoc thi hi mt im di mt t gm hai hnh thc: Chn ct mt ln l hnh thc lu gi thi hi vnh vin trong t (khng bc m). Ct tng l hnh thc lu gi hi ct trong tiu snh, chn li trong t ln th hai.

6) Ha tng l thiu xc hoc hi ct ngi cht. 1.4. Quy nh chung Xy dng mi, ci to v nng cp cc cng trnh h tng k thut th phi : 1) Ph hp vi quy hoch xy dng th c cp c thm quyn ph duyt; khng c gy thit hi n cnh quan thi n nhin, cc di tch lch s - vn ho th; gi gn, pht trin bn sc vn ho a phng v ca dn tc: bo m an ton th v an ninh quc gia. 2) Bo m hiu qu, cht lng v s bn vng ca cc cng trnh; bo m iu kin an ton, phng chy cha chy, mi trng, v sinh v tin nghi s dng cho mi ngi dn th. 3) m bo yu cu tit kim nng lng, s dng hp l ti nguyn t ai, ti nguyn nc v cc dng ti nguyn khc. 4) m bo ng b v hon chnh ca h thng cc cng trnh h tng k thut th di mt t v trn mt t. 5) i vi cc th mi, cc khu th mi, h thng cc cng trnh h tng k thut th phi tun th y cc yu cu k thut ca Quy chun ny. i vi cc th, khu th ci to v nng cp, phi c cc gii php ci to v nng cp h thng h tng k thut th nhm p ng ti a trong iu kin c th cc yu cu k thut c quy nh trong Quy chun ny. 6) Cn c trn cc s liu iu kin t nhin, s liu v a hnh, a cht cng trnh, a cht thu vn, hin trng mi trng ti a im xy dng.

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Chng 2 H THNG CC CNG TRNH CP NC TH 2.1. Quy nh chung 1) H thng cp nc cho th phi m bo ph hp vi s cp nc ca quy hoch vng, quy hoch chung v quy hoch chi tit xy dng th ; m bo vic bo v v s dng tng hp cc ngun n c. 2) Khi ci to, m rng h thng cp nc, phi nh gi v k thut, kinh t v iu kin v sinh ca cc cng tr nh cp nc hin c v d kin kh nng s dng tip. Phi xt n kh nng s dng ng ng, mng li v cng trnh theo tng t xy dng. 3) Cht lng nc cp cho n ung v sinh hot phi m bo yu cu ca quy chun nc cp sinh hot. Ho cht, vt liu, thit b...trong x l, vn chuyn v d tr nc n ung khng c nh hng xu n cht lng nc v sc kho ca con ngi. Cht lng nc dng cho cng nghip v vic s dng ho cht x l nc phi ph hp vi yu cu cng ngh v sn phm. 2.2. Nhu cu dng nc ca cc th Nhu cu dng nc ca cc th phi tho mn cc yu cu v s lng, cht lng, p lc nc cp cho cc nhu cu trong th, bao gm: Nc sinh hot cho ngi dn th (gm dn ni th v ngoi th); Nc sinh hot cho khch v ng lai; Nc cho cc cng trnh cng cng, dch v: 10% lng nc sinh hot; Nc ti cy, ra ng: 8% lng nc sinh hot; Nc cho sn xut nh, tiu th cng nghip: 8% lng nc sinh hot;

- Nc cho cc khu cng nghip tp trung: xc nh theo loi h nh cng nghip, m bo ti thiu 40m3/ha-ng cho ti thiu 60% din tch; Nc dng cho cha chy; Nc dng cho ti cy, ra ng ph;

- Nc d phng, r r: i vi cc h thng nng cp ci to khng qu 20%, i vi h thng xy mi khng qu 15% tng cc loi nc trn. Nc cho bn thn khu x l: ti thiu 4% tng l ng nc trn. 2.3. Cng sut ca trm cp nc 1) Cng sut ca trm cp nc cho cc khu th phi m bo cc nhu cu dng nc cho cc khu th nh nu mc 2.2. 2) Cng sut ca h thng cp nc sinh hot cho th c tnh ton m bo cp nc theo thi gian quy hoch ngn hn v di hn, thng thng tnh cho nm th 5 k t khi cng trnh cp nc a vo hot ng. 3) Cng sut ca trm cp nc phi tnh cho ngy dng nc ln nht trong nm.

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2.4. Ngun nc 2.4.1. La chn ngun nc - Chn ngun nc phi cn c theo ti liu kho st vi thi gian ti thiu l 5 nm, da trn cc ch tiu la chn ngun nc mt, nc ngm phc v h thng cp n c sinh hot. - u tin la chn loi ngun nc c cht lng tt, thun li cho qu tr nh x l, gi thnh x l nc nh. - Khi tr lng ca mt ngun nc khng th c php s dng nhiu ngun nc cho mt h thng cp nc. - Ngun nc c la chn khai thc phi c s cho php ca c quan Nh nc qun l ngun nc. 2.4.2. Ngun nc mt - Lu lng khai thc phi ph hp vi quy hoch s dng tng hp ngun n c; khng lm thay i cc c trng thy vn hoc dng chy. - Nu khai thc nc sng, sui th v tr khai thc phi nm pha th ng lu so vi khu vc dng nc. Ti liu thy vn phi l ti liu tch ly nhiu nm (ti thiu l 10 nm). Cht lng nc th t ngun cung cp phi t ti u chun ngun nc loi A.

- Nu c nhiu loi ngun n c mt tng ng nhau, cn u tin theo th t: nc sng, nc h, nc sui hoc tin hnh so snh kinh t - k thut. 2.4.3. Ngun nc ngm - Phi c y ti liu a cht, a cht thy vn ca khu vc khoan ging, ca ton b vng b cp v ngun b cp; ti liu v cc mc ch s dng khc khi c ng khai thc nc ngm trong mt tng cha n c. - Nu c nhiu tng cha n c th phi u tin la chn tng cha nc c p, cht lng tt, chiu dy ln, tr lng ln. Lu lng khai thc khng c vt qu tr lng cho php. 2.5. Cng trnh khai thc nc th 2.5.1. Cng trnh khai thc nc mt: 1) Bc tin cy ca cng trnh khai thc nc mt: - Bc tin cy v cp thit k ca cng trnh khai thc nc c xc nh theo bc tin cy ca h thng cp nc. - S cng trnh khai thc nc ly theo bng 2.1 tu theo bc tin cy yu cu v phc tp ca iu kin khai th c nc. 2) Cng trnh khai thc nc mt phi bo m: - cng sut thit k. Nu c phn t xy dng phi tnh ton theo c ng sut ca tng giai on. Cng trnh phi lm vic an ton, n nh, bn lu. Khng gy nh hng n ch thy vn ca ngun cp n c. 13

Bng 2.1. S cng trnh khai thc nc theo bc tin cy ca cng trnh khai thc nc
iu kin t nhin ca vic khai thc nc Cng trnh khai thc nc a Cng trnh khai thc nc st b khng ngp vi cc ca thu nc d tip cn qun l v c cc cng trnh bo v v h tr cn thit Cng trnh khai nc xa b nm xa b, thc t khng th tip cn c vo mt s thi k trong nm Cng trnh khai thc nc di ng: Dng ni Dng ray trt II III I II III III II D dng b c a Trung bnh b c a Kh khn b c S cng trnh khai thc nc

II

II

III

II

Ch thch: - Bc tin cy ca cng trnh cp nc ly theo QCXDVN 01:2008/BXD Quy hoch xy dng. - Bng trn c lp cho 3 s cng trnh khai thc nc: S (a) c 1 ca thu nc; S (b) tng t nh trn nhng gm mt s ngn thu nc c trang b phng tin ngn nga ph sa v khc phc kh khn khc; S (c) c 2 ca thu nc nm cch nhau mt khong cho php loi tr kh nng b gin on cng mt lc trong vic thu nc. - i vi cng trnh khai thc nc bc tin cy I v II phi chia cng trnh khai thc nc lm nhiu ngn. S ngn lm vic c lp khng nh hn 2.

3) V tr cng trnh khai thc nc mt phi bo m: Nm u ngun so vi khu vc d ng nc. - Nm v tr c b v lng sng n nh hoc c th gia c cng trnh khng b bi lp hoc xi l. Thun tin v giao thng v cp in. C kh nng t chc bo v an ton v sinh ngun nc.

4) Khi xy dng cng trnh khai thc nc phi tnh n kh nng sc x, no vt b n cn, vt rc, dit h bm vo song chn rc, li chn rc v ng t chy. 5) Hng thu nc: - Hng thu kiu thng xuyn ngp: phi m bo sao cho khi thu n c khng to xoy trn mt nc. - Khng c xy dng hng thu nc trong lung chy ca cc ph ng tin giao thng ng thy, trong lung di chuy n ca ct v ph sa y sng hoc khu vc c rong to pht trin. 14

6) Khi dao ng mc nc cc ma t 6m tr ln phi b tr 2 hng ca thu nc cao khc nhau. Khong cch theo chiu cao gia 2 h ng ca ti thiu l 3m. 2.5.2. Ging khoan nc ngm 1) S lng ging cng tc c xc nh ph thuc vo lu lng khai thc, kh nng cung cp ca tng cha nc v phng php khoan gi ng. S lng ging d phng c xc nh ph thuc vo s lng ging cng tc v mc an ton cp nc, ly theo bng 2.2. Bng 2.2. S lng ging khoan d ph ng
S lng ging cng tc 2 39 10 S lng ging d phng an ton cp nc loi 1 1 12 20% an ton cp nc loi 2 0 1 10% an ton cp nc loi 3 0 0 0

2) Chn ging: - Nu thu nc t tng cha nc c cu to l ct hoc cui si ln ct, ng lc phi c chn bng si thch anh sch, tr n cnh, chiu dy lp si chn ti thiu l 75mm. - Khong trng gia cc ng vch, gia ng vch v thnh l khoan phi c chn k bng va xi mng hoc st vi n sy kh. Lp chn st pha trn tng khai thc nht thit phi bng st vin sy kh vi di ti thiu l 5m. 2.6. Trm bm 2.6.1. Trm bm 1) Trong gian my ca trm bm khng cho php t my bm dung dch c hi v c mi hi, ngoi tr trng hp dng my bm cp dung dch to bt cha chy. 2) Phn chm di mt t ca trm bm phi c xy dng bng b tng ct thp. Nu tng nm trong mc nc ngm, phi ph mt lp vt liu chng thm s n y, mt trong v mt ngoi tng. 3) B tr ng ht ca trm bm - S lng ng ht bng s my b m v t nht l 2 ng. Ch c php t 1 ng i vi trm bm c nh v trong h thng cp nc c nhiu nh my nc. - Ming vo ng ht phi m bo sao cho khi my b m lm vic khng to xoy trn b mt v khng ht cn y b ht. - Nu cc bm c ng ht ni chung th phi t van trn ng ht ca tng bm v trn ng ni chung. S lng van trn ng ni chung phi m bo c th tch bt k mt my no hay mt on ng no ra m trm bm vn cp c 70% lu lng nc tnh ton. - Cn ni vi ming ht ca my b m phi l cn lch. ng ht ca tng my b m ni vi ng ht chung phi c ng cao nh ng v phi c dc cao dn v pha my bm. 15

- Trn ng ng ht v y ca tng my bm v ng gp chung phi lp t mi ni mm gn cc cm van tho lp, bo d ng, sa cha, thay th my b m v thit b khi cn thit. 4) B tr ng y ca trm bm - Mi trm bm t nht c 2 ng y. Ch c php b tr mt ng y i vi trm nh hoc trong h thng c nhiu nh my cng cp nc vo mng li. Trn ng ng y phi c van mt chiu v van ng m nc. Phi t thit b o p lc tr n ng y ca tng bm. Phi t thit b o lu lng cho trm bm. 5) B tr thit b o

6) Trong gian my phi b tr thit b nng. Loi t hit b nng c chn theo trng lng t my bm ln nht t trong trm b m. 2.6.2. Trm bm ging khoan Din tch mt bng ca trm bm ging khoan ti thiu l 12m2. Mi nh trm phi c ca rt ng.

- Cc trm bm ging xy dng vng ngp lt phi xy dng c cao sn gian my cao hn cao mc nc cao nht ti thiu 0,5m. B bm v ming ging phi cao hn sn t nht l 0,3m. 2.6.3. Trm bm cp mt bm nc mt Cc trm cp mt bm nc mt c phn t xy dng th phn v phi c xy dng cho c hai giai on ngay t t u, phn thit b lp t ph hp vi tng giai on. 2.6.4. Trm bm cp hai bm nc sch - Trong trm bm cp 2 b tr bm nc sinh hot, sn xut, b m nc cha chy v c th c bm ra lc, my gi ra lc. - Mi nhm bm phi c bm d phng. Nu bm cha chy v bm nc sinh hot cng loi th bm d phng c chn chung cho c hai nhm b m. - Lu lng ca my bm sinh hot phi m bo cung cp nc cho khu vc thit k vo gi dng nc ln nht. - Lu lng ca my bm cha chy phi m bo cung cp lng nc cha chy xy ra trong gi dng nc ln nht. - Cc trm bm s dng bin tn, trong gi d ng nc t, s vng quay ca my bm khng c gim n di 50% s vng quay nh mc. S lng bin tn chn ti a bng s bm cng tc. 2.7. Trm x l nc cp 2.7.1. Trm x l nc cp - Quy m cng sut ca trm x l nc cp xc nh da trn c s lng nc tiu th trong ngy dng nc ln nht c k n l ng nc dng cho bn thn trm phc v cho vic x cn ca b lng, ra b lc v cc nhu cu cho cng ngh v sinh hot 16

trong trm x l. Lng nc ny khng c vt qu 10% cng sut ca trm, ng thi phi kim tra trng hp lm vic tng cng m bo b sung l ng nc khi c chy xy ra. - Ti thiu c 2 cng trnh trm x l nhm m bo iu kin lm vic iu ho sut ngy m vi kh nng c th ngng tng cng trnh ca trm thau ra, sa cha. i vi trm c cng sut d i 3000 m 3/ng th c php ngng lm vic mt s gi ca ngy m thau ra, sa cha. - Khi thit k trm x l nc cp c cng sut t 10.000 m 3/ng tr ln phi x l nc ra b lc dng li hoc x vo h cha vi iu kin phi thc hin cc y u cu ca c quan qun l mi trng. Bn cn ca trm x l nc phi chuyn n bi chn lp. Din tch ti thiu khu t xy dng trm x l n c cp c quy nh ti bng 2.3. Bng 2.3. Din tch ti thiu khu t xy dng trm x l n c cp
Cng sut trm x l (1.000 m 3/ng) <1 T 15 T > 510 T > 1030 T > 3060 T > 60120 T > 120250 T > 250400 T > 400800 T > 8001.200 T > 1.200 tr ln Din tch ti thiu khu t (ha) 0,02 0,05 0,5 1,0 2,0 4,0 5,0 7,0 9,0 13,0 16,0

2.7.2. Dy chuyn cng ngh x l nc cp 1) Dy chuyn cng ngh x l nc mt v nc ngm phi c la chn cn c vo thnh phn tnh cht ca nc th, quy m cng sut ca trm cp n c v cc iu kin khc. 2) Cc iu kin bt buc phi thc hin: - Ti thiu phi c 2 cng trnh n v trong trm x l khi trm c cng sut t 3.000m3/ng tr ln. - Trong dy chuyn cng ngh c dng b to bng c lp cn l lng, b lng trong c tng cn l lng, b lc tip xc th phi tch kh trc khi a nc vo cc loi b . 17

2.7.3. Thit b trn v tch kh - Trong dy chuyn cng ngh c dng sa vi th phi dng b trn ng hoc b trn cnh khuy. - Phi b tr ngn tch kh khi s dng b phn ng c lp cn l lng, b lng trong c lp cn l lng v b lc tip xc. 2.7.4. B to bng cn Trong dy chuyn cng ngh x l nc bng ha cht keo t phi b tr b to bng vi thi gian nc lu ti thiu l 15 pht, b to bng phi thit k hp khi vi b lng. 2.7.5. B lng - B lng c s dng lng cn tr c khi a nc vo b lc hoc a thng n ni dng nc cho nhu cu sn xut - Hm lng cn trong nc sau b lng v ti b lng khng c vt qu 20mg/l, khi tng hm lng cn trong nc ngm ln hn 20mg/l th phi thit k b lng tip xc - B lng tip xc trong cc trm x l nc ngm phi tnh ton vi thi gian n c lu li trong b ti thiu l 90 pht, khi c s dng ho cht phi thit k b trn v b phn ng. Phi m bo sao cho vic phn phi v thu nc u hiu qu lng l ln nht. Phi b tr cc thit b tp trung cn v x cn khi b lng.

- Phi xy dng cng trnh lng s b trong trng hp nc c hm lng cn ln hn 2.500mg/l hoc trong trng hp hm lng cn nh hn 2.500 mg/l nhng c th s dng cc h c sn trong t nhi n lm h s lng. 2.7.6. B lc 1) B lc nhanh trng lc - B lc nhanh trng lc phi c tnh ton theo 2 ch lm vic, ch lm vic bnh thng v ch lm vic tng cng. Trong cc trm x l c s lng b lc n 20 phi d tnh ngng 1 b lc sa cha, khi s lng b ln hn 20 phi d tnh ngng 2 b sa cha ng thi. - S lng v din tch mt b lc phi cn c v o quy m cng sut, iu kin cung cp thit b , iu kin xy dng v qun l v phi thng qua vic so snh kinh t - k thut. S lng b lc khng c nh hn 2, din tch 1 b lc khng c qu 100m2. - Tn tht p lc trong b lc nhanh trng lc s b ly bng 2,5 - 3m, trong b lc p lc s b ly bng 6-8m. Chiu cao lp nc trn b mt lp lc trong b lc nhanh trng lc khng nh hn 2m. Chiu cao xy dng ca b phi v t qu mc nc tnh ton trong b lc t nht l 0,3m. Chiu cao lp nc trn mt ct lc ti thiu l 1,5m. - Vt liu lc phi l ct thch anh, angtraxit nghin nh hoc lm t vt liu khc c bn c hc v bn ho hc cn thit ( v vn khng qu 4%, m i mn khng qu 0,5%). Angtraxit nghi n nh phi c ht hnh lp phng hay gn trn, 18

tro khng qu 10%, hm l ng lu hunh khng qu 3%. Khng c php dng angtraxit c cu to lp lm vt liu lc. - H thng phn phi tr lc ln phi m bo nc ra phun trc tip vo y lp ng thi phi d kin kh nng kim tra, sc ra v sa cha h thng phn phi. B c kch thc mi cnh trn mt bng nh hn 3m phi dng h thng phn phi tr lc ln bng ng khoan l. - H thng phn phi bng chp l c c thit k khi p dng bin php ra bng nc kt hp vi khng kh, kch th c mi cnh trn mt bng ca b lc ln h n 3m, s lng chp lc ly khng d i 50 ci/1m2 din tch lc ca b. - Khi b c h thng thu nc lc v phn phi nc ra bng chp lc th hm thu nc phi c chiu cao ti thiu l 0,9m v phi c ca qun l c ng knh ti thiu l 500mm. - Kch thc ng dn hoc mng ca b lc phi tnh theo ch l m vic tng cng. 2) B lc chm - Tc lc tnh ton trong b lc ch m phi ly trong gii hn t 0,1 - 0,3m/h tu theo hm lng cn trong nc th. - S b lc chm phi ly khng t h n 2. Khi ra ct lc ngay trong b lc, b rng mi ngn ca b khng c ln qu 6m, b di khng ln qu 60m. 3) B lc ht ln - B lc ht ln c dng lm trong mt phn nc cung cp cho sn xut khng s dng cht phn ng hoc lc s b trc khi lc chm. - Lng cn c gi li trong b lc ly ti a l 70% hm lng cn trong nc ngun. 4) B lc tip xc - B lc tip xc c s dng lm sch nc theo s mt bc, trong b lc tip xc nc cn lc chuyn ng theo chiu t d i ln trn. H thng phn phi nc lc v nc ra lc phi l h thng phn phi tr lc ln t trong lp si . Trong s dy chuyn cng ngh c s dng sa vi kim ho hoc n nh n c th khng c dng b lc tip xc. - Khi sa cha mt b, nhng b cn li phi lm vic ch tng cng vi tc lc khng qu 6m/h v thi gian ca 1 chu k lm vic khng c nh hn 6h. - Vt liu lc dng cho b lc tip xc phi l ct thnh anh v si hoc cc loi vt liu lc khc p ng yu cu v vt liu lc nh b lc nhanh trng lc v khng b l lng trong qu trnh lc. - Khi lm sch nc cho nhu cu sinh hot mt thong ca b l c tip xc phi c h thng che y bo v cht l ng nc lc. 2.7.7. Kh st v mng gan trong nc - Phi tin hnh nghin cu thc nghim trn m hnh pilot la chn phng php kh st, kh mng gan ph hp v c thc hin ti ngun n c cp.

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- Nu hm lng cn tng cng ln nht C max ln hn 20 mg/l th phi dng b lng tip xc, thi gian nc lu li trong b lng tip xc ti thiu phi ly bng 90 pht, ti a l 150 pht. 2.7.8. X l bn cn - Cc trm x l nc c cng sut t 3.000m3/ng tr ln phi c h thng x l thu hi s dng li nc x cn b lng, nc ra cc b lc. - Bn cn ca trm x l nc phi c thu gom, lm kh v chuyn ch ti ni chn lp hp v sinh hoc ti s dng. Khng c php x bn cn trc tip ra mi trng xung quanh. 2.7.9. B cha nc sch - B cha nc sch c dung tch t 100 m3 tr ln phi bng b tng ct thp, thp lp ghp hay composite. B c dung tch nh hn 100m3 c php xy bng gch. - Cc trm c cng sut t 30.000m 3 tr ln phi c ngn cha nc ra lc cha qua kh trng. Trong b cha phi c cc vch ngn to d ng nc chy vng vi thi gian lu nc phi ln hn 30 pht, thi gian tip xc cn thit cho vic kh trng. 2.7.10. i cha nc - Khi dng my bin tn iu khin ch lm vic ca trm bm t II th khng dng i nc. - Ch c php xy dng i cha nc trong trng hp a hnh thun li, chiu cao xy dng i nh, dng i nc ra b lc hoc tn dng a hnh cao xy dng b cha p lc. 2.7.11. Kh trng nc - Chn phng php kh trng nc cn phi ch n yu cu cht lng nc, hiu qu x l nc, tin cy ca bin php kh tr ng, c s kinh t - k thut, c gii ho vic lao ng v iu kin bo qun ho cht. - Ho cht c la chn kh trng phi m bo hiu qu kh trng cao v tuyt i an ton cho sc khe con ngi, k c cng nhn vn h nh v ngi s dng nc. - Khi kh trng bng clo v cc hp cht cha clo, hm lng clo d cn nh hn 0,5mg/l u mng li cp nc v nh hn 0,3mg/l cui mng li. - Trong nh cha ha cht phi trang b cc thit b bo h lao ng, h thng thng gi, thit b bo lng clo r r, h thng dp clo, khi c s c m bo an ton cho ngi vn hnh v cho ton trm. 2.7.12. Cc iu kin khc - Cc cng trnh chnh trong dy chuyn cng ngh x l nc phi bng b tng ct thp, tui th ca cng trnh l 100 nm. Phi u tin din tch b tr cc cng tr nh chnh theo hng t chy t cng trnh u tin ti b cha nc sch. - ng ni b trong trm x l ph i c chiu rng ti thiu l 3,5m, sc chu ti cho xe ch thit b nng nht trong trm v phi c ch quay xe.

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- Cc cng trnh ph nh kho, xng sa cha, my bin p, sn ph i vt liu lc, nh ho cht, nh hnh chnh phi c b tr sao cho ph hp v thun tin cho vn hnh, qun l trm v bo m an ton, v sinh mi trng. - Ngun in cp cho trm x l phi l ngun in u tin, trng hp trong dy chuyn cng ngh c b lng trong c tng cn l lng th trong trm phi c my pht in d phng. - Trong trm x l phi c phng th nghim phn tch cc ch tiu c bn ca nc th trc khi x l, nc sch sau x l. Vic phn tch cc ch ti u c bn ca nc phi c thc hin mi ngy 02 ln. 2.8. Mng li cp nc 2.8.1. ng ng cp nc 1) Mng li ng ng cp nc phi chia thnh 3 cp: Mng li ng ng cp I: Ch c chc nng truyn ti. Mng li ng ng cp II: Ch c chc nng phn phi n c. Mng li ng ng cp III: mng dch v ni vi cc i t ng dng nc.

2) S lng cc ng ng truyn ti nc t trm bm n im u ca mng li cp nc phi tnh n bc tin cy ca h thng cp n c v khng c nh hn 2. ng knh ng dn v cc ng ni phi thit k sao cho khi c s c tr n mt ng no ca ng ng dn th lu lng nc chy qua vn m bo ti thiu 70% lng nc sinh hot v mt phn nc cng nghip cn thit, ngoi ra phi d phng lng nc cha chy, trong trng hp mng li ng ng khng m bo lu lng nc cho cha chy th phi c b d tr nc cho cha chy. 3) Mng li ng ng cp nc phi l mng vng. Mng li ct ch c php p dng trong cc trng hp: Cp nc sn xut khi c php ngng sa cha. Cp nc sn xut khi ng knh ng khng ln hn 100mm.

- Mng li cp nc cho th loi V hoc cc im dn c khi s dn di 3.000 ngi. - c php t mng li ct theo phn t xy dng tr c khi t hon chnh mng li vng theo quy hoch. 4) ng knh ti thiu ca mng l i cp nc sinh hot kt hp vi cha chy trong cc khu dn c v cc x nghip cng nghip phi l 100mm. 5) Trn cc ng ng dn v mng li ng phn phi phi t cc thit b sau y: Kho chia on sa cha. Van x kh. Van x cn. Np vo ng ng khi ng knh ng ln hn 600mm. Van gim p v n nh p lc khi a hnh c chnh cao ln. Khp co gin. 21

6) Trn ng ng t chy c p phi t cc ging ti u nng hay thit b bo v khc ng ng lm vic trong gii hn p lc cho php. 7) Phi thit k trc dc ca cc tuyn ng , ti nhng im cao trn trc dc cc tuyn ng ca mng li phi lp t van x kh. Ti cc im thp theo trc dc cc tuyn ng phi lp t van x cn phc v vic thau ra mng l i. 8) Chiu di on ng ng sa cha quy nh nh sau: - Khi c hai hoc nhiu ng ng t song song v khng c s lin h gia cc ng th ly khng qu 5km. Khi c s lin h gia cc ng th ly bng chiu di on ng gia cc im ni. Khi ch c mt ng ng dn th chiu di khng qu 3km.

- i vi mng li ng phn phi, khng c ngng cp nc ti cc ni dng nc m khng cho php gin on cp n c. 9) ng ng dn v mng li phi t dc v pha x cn vi dc khng nh hn 0,001. Khi a hnh bng phng th dc t ng cho php gim n 0,0005. 10) Hng cp nc cha chy b tr trn va h dc theo ng t, cch mp ngoi ca lng ng khng qu 2,5m v cch tng nh khng di 3,0m. Khong cch gia cc hng cha chy xc nh theo tnh ton l u lng cha chy v c tnh ca hng cha chy. Khong c ch ny phi ph hp vi yu cu ca quy nh hin hnh v cha chy, nhng khng qu 300m. 11) i vi ng ng dn t chy khng p phi xy dng cc ging thm. Nu a hnh qu dc phi xy dng cc ging chuyn bc gim tc d ng nc v khng ch mc nc trong ng. Khong cch gia cc ging thm ly nh sau: ng knh ng nh hn 700mm th khong cch khng nh hn 200m. ng knh ng t 700mm ti 1400mm th khong cch khng nh hn 400m.

12) su chn ng di t phi c xc nh theo ti trng bn ngoi, bn ca ng, nh hng ca nhit bn ngoi v cc iu kin khc, trong trng hp thng thng c th ly nh sau: - Vi ng knh ng n 300mm chn su khng nh h n 0,7m tnh t mt t n nh ng. - Vi ng knh ng ln hn 300mm chn su khng nh hn 1m tnh t mt t n nh ng.
Ch thch: - Khi t ng trn va h th c th gim tr s trn nhng khng nh hn 0,3m. - Khi xc nh su t ng cn xt n ct mt t theo thit k quy hoch san nn ca th v kh nng s dng ca ng ng trc khi hon thnh cng tc san nn.

13) ng ng cp nc phi t song song vi ng ph v c th t mp ng hay phm vi va h. Khong cch nh nht theo mt bng t mt ngo i ng n cc cng trnh v cc ng ng khc xung quanh, phi xc nh tu theo ng knh ng, tnh hnh a cht, c im cng tr nh, c im cng trnh v khng nh hn cc quy nh sau y: n chn dc ng st 5m; n mp mng hay chn mi dc ng t 1,5 m; 22

n mp ng ray xe in 1,5 m; ng dy in thoi 0,5m; n ng dy in cao th ti 35k V l 1,0m; n mt ngoi ng thot nc ma, ng cp nhit v ng dn sn phm 1,0 m; n ct in cao th 3,0m;

14) Khi ng cp nc sinh hot t song song vi ng thot n c bn v cng mt su th khong cch theo mt bng gia hai th nh ng khng c nh hn 1,0 m vi ng knh ng ti 200 mm v khng c nh hn 1,5 m vi ng knh ng ln hn 200 mm. Cng vi iu kin trn nhng ng cp nc nm di ng thot nc bn th khong cch ny cn phi tng ln tu theo s khc nhau v su t ng m quyt nh. 15) Khi ng cp nc giao nhau hoc giao nhau vi ng ng khc th khong cch ti thiu theo phng ng khng nh hn 0,2 m.Trng hp ng cp nc sinh hot i ngang qua ng thot nc, ng dn cc dung dch c m i hi th ng cp nc phi t cao hn cc ng khc ti thiu 0,4m. Nu ng cp n c nm di ng thot nc thi th ng nc phi c ng bao bc ngo i, chiu di ca ng bao k t ch giao nhau khng nh hn 3m v mi pha nu t ng trong t st v khng nh hn 10m nu t ng trong t thm, c n ng thot nc phi dng ng gang. 16) Nu ng cp nc giao nhau vi ng dy cp in, dy in thoi th khong cch ti thiu gia chng theo ph ng ng khng nh hn 0,5 m. 17) Khng cho php ng ng cp nc i qua cc bi chn lp rc, ngha trang. Khi ng i cnh cc ni ny th khong cch ti thiu t ng ng n ranh t ngha trang hoc bi chn lp rc l 20m. 18) ng ng qua ng xe la, tu in, ng cao tc, trng hp c bit c php t trc tip nhng phi tnh ton m bo an to n vi tc ng ca loi xe c trng ti ln nht cho php i qua. 19) Khong cch trn mt bng t mt ngoi ca tng ging thm ( hai u on qua ng) n trc ng ray ngoi cng hoc n b va ng khng nh hn 5m, n chn ta-luy khng nh hn 3m. 2.8.2. ng ng qua ng tu ho, ng cao tc - Xy dng ng ng qua ng xe ho v ng cao tc phi c s tha thun ca c quan qun l ng st v ng b. - Khi ng ng qua ng xe la chy in, phi c bin php bo v ng khi b n mn do dng in gy ra. - ng ng qua ng xe ho, ng cao tc, tu in phi t trong ng lng, hai u ng qua ng phi c ging kim tra v van chn. 2.8.3. ng ng qua sng, sui - Xy dng ng ng qua sng c tu b qua li phi c s tha thun ca c quan qun l ng sng. - S lng ng qua y sng phi khng nh h n 2. Vt liu lm ng qua sng phi l ng thp do t cacbon hoc ng cht do HDPE. 23

- su t y sng n nh ng phi xc nh theo iu kin si l ca l ng sng v trng ti ln nht ca tu qua li trn sng khi th neo khng gy h hng ng qua sng. - Phi c ging kim tra hai b n b sng v bin bo hiu cho tu thuyn qua li trn sng. Phi c bin php thau ra ng ng khi cn thit. 2.8.4. Th p lc, thau ra, ty tr ng ng ng - ng ng lp t xong phi c th p lc. Th p lc trong t nh trng khng c lp t, cc mi ni phi h tin vic theo d i, kim tra. Trc khi a mng li vo s dng phi thau ra mng l i bng nc sch. - Sau khi ty ra mng li phi ty trng mng li, sau khi ty trng phi ra sch ng ng bng nc sch cho ti khi lng clo d trong nc khng vt qu 0,5mg/l. 2.8.5. ng h o nc - Trn cc ng ng dn nc vo tng nh, vo tng cn h v trn cc on ng cp nc n cc ni tiu th khc phi t ng h o n c. - ng h phi c t nhng v tr sau: ng h tng t ti trm bm cp II; ng h vng t ti bin gii gia cc trm cp nc, u cc ng mng cp II, u cc ng mng cp III phc v vic kim tra, pht hin tht thot, tht thu n c; ng h ti cc h tiu th nc. 2.9. H thng cp nc trong cc vng c bit 2.9.1. Vng ng t 1) Khi thit k cc cng trnh cp nc, trong vng ng t cp 8 v 9 phi s dng hai ngun cp nc c lp. Bc tin cy ca cng trnh cp nc ly theo QCXDVN 01:2008 BXD Quy hoch xy dng. 2) m bo cho h thng cp n c hot ng an ton cn phi thc hin cc bin php sau: - Phn tn cc b cha; t cc b cha ti cc khu vc u mng li v cui mng li. - Thay th cc thp cha bng cc b cha t tr n cc im cao ca khu vc xy dng. S dng h thng cp nc p lc thp. Mng phn phi kiu mng v ng. Hp nht cc mng li cp nc sinh hot, sn xut, cha chy.

3) Khng cho php hp khi trm bm vi cc cng trnh khc tr cng trnh thu. Trm bm t su phi cch xa b ch a v ng ng dn t nht 10m, ng t qua tng trm bm phi bc ng lng. 4) Cc cng trnh cha nc trn trm x l phi phn thnh nhm, t nht hai nhm. Trm x l nc phi c ng ng vng cp nc vo mng li.

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5) Khng cho php ngm cng ng ng trong tng v mng nh. Kch thc l cho ng ng i qua phi m bo c k he h t nht 10cm. Trng hp c t ln st th khe h rng t nht 20cm; phi dng vt liu n hi bt khe h. 6) Khi t ng qua tng cng trnh phi t trong ng lng. 7) Phi s dng mi ni mm nhng v tr sau: Trn ng ng dn nc ra, vo nh v cng trnh; - Cc mi ni vi my bm, kt nc, ging, van v cc thit b khc phi l mi ni tho lp c bo dng, sa cha, thay th; Ch ng ng ca i nc ni vi cc ng ng ngang; 2.9.2. Vng t ln st - Cng trnh cha nc phi b tr trn khu vc xy dng m bo thot n c ma tt. - Trong vng t ln st phi m bo cho cng tr nh cha v mng li cp nc kn kht, phi c bin php ngn nga n c thm, thu v thot nc nhng ch r r. ng ng bn trong trm bm, trm x l phi t trn mt sn. 2.9.3. Vng t khai thc khong sn - Phi c bin php bo v nh v cng trnh cp nc, ng ng dn nc v mng li cp nc ti vng chu nh hng ca vic khai thc m. - Khng c xy dng cc b cha kn c dung tch ln h n 6.000m3 trn vng t khai thc. - Trn vng t khai thc khong sn phi thit k cc cng trnh cha bng b tng ct thp hnh tr trn. Trng hp c l do xc ng mi cho php thit k cng tr nh hnh ch nht. - Cc ng ng, mng, rnh gia cc cng trnh trong trm x l nc phi m bo x dch chuyn v c. - Cc thit b nng trong trm bm, trm x l phi t trn cc mng ring khng lin kt vi kt cu nh. H thng ng ng trong trm phi c mi ni cho php co dn. - ng ng t qua thnh cng trnh cha phi c ng lng v trc ng lng phi lp mi ni co gin hoc chn bng cc vt liu n hi. - Cc mi ni phi s dng vt liu n hi, vng m cao su. Cc mi ni h n ng thp phi c bn cao hn bn ca kim loi lm ng. - Ch t van x kh, x cn trn ng ng dn phi tnh ti ln ca t do khai thc khong sn.

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Chng 3 H THNG CC CNG TR NH THOT NC TH 3.1. Quy nh chung

3.1.1. H thng thot nc th - H thng thot nc th bao gm h thng thot nc thi v h thng thot nc ma. - La chn h thng thot nc th (chung, ring hon ton, n a ring, ring khng hon chnh, h thng thot nc hn hp, h thng thot n c n gin hay gin lc, h thng thot nc lng cn, h thng thot n c chn khng) phi cn c vo iu kin t nhin, kinh t - x hi v mi trng c th ca tng a ph ng, m bo cc quy nh ca p hp lut v quy hoch, xy dng v mi trng. 3.1.2. H thng thot nc th phi m bo cc chc nng: Thu gom nc ma trn ton din tch th. Thu gom nc thi t ni pht sinh. Dn, vn chuyn nc thi n cc cng trnh x l, kh trng. X l nc thi t quy chun mi trng trc khi x ra ngun tip nhn. X l, ti s dng cn, cc cht cha trong n c thi v cn.

- m bo thot nc mt cch nhanh chng tt c c c loi nc thi, nc ma khi phm vi th, khu dn c trnh ngp ng. 3.1.3. H thng thot nc th phi c y cc b phn hay cng trnh, thit b ph hp sau y: 1) Mng li ng ng, cng hay knh mng thu gom, dn v vn chuyn nc ma. 2) Mng li ng ng, cng hay knh mng thu gom, dn v vn chuyn nc thi. 3) Ging thm hay ging kim tra ti cc im i hng dng chy, chuyn tip t trong sn nh, tiu khu, t tuyn ng ng ph, tuyn cng gp l u vc... cho n ng ng thi cui cng. Cc ging thm ny c b tr trn cc tuyn hay on ng, cng thot nc. Khong cch ca cc ging ph thuc kch thc hay ng knh ng cng. 4) Ging thu nc ma b tr trn cc ng ph, qung trng, ch trng, cc ng ng. 5) Cng thot nc: - Cng lun (iu-ke) khi phi b tr cng thot nc chui qua sng, sui hoc cng trn cu cn bc qua cu ng b, ng st. - Cc cng gp thot nc phi c b tr, t ni a hnh thp hay ng t thy v phi ni vi ng, cng ng ph sao cho nc t chy c.

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- Khi ng cng phi t nhng chiu su qu ln hoc khng th t cng t chy c th c php b tr xy dng nhng trm b m chuyn bc. 6) Cng trnh x l nc thi cc b: nc thi sau khi x l cc b t quy chun mi trng c php x vo h thng thot nc th. 7) Cng trnh x l nc thi khu vc hay ton th: sau khi x l t quy chun mi trng c php x ra ngun tip nhn. 8) Ca x x nc thi x l hay nc ma ra ngun tip nhn. 3.1.4. Cng trnh x l nc thi - Gii php cng ngh v xy dng cc cng trnh x l nc thi sinh hot, nc thi bnh vin, nc thi sn xut, dch v phi cn c vo lu lng, thnh phn tnh cht nc thi, ngun tip nhn - ni tip nhn nc thi, quy m ngun nc, cc i tng s dng ngun nc vng h lu ca x nc thi. - Nc thi sau khi x l phi t quy chun mi trng ph hp vi tng loi ngun tip nhn. 3.1.5. Xy dng, vn hnh h thng thot nc th 1) Xy dng h thng thot nc phi tnh n cc gii php c bn ca s h thng thot nc ph hp vi qui hoch xy dng th, cc khu cng nghip, mt bng tng th ca cc khu hay cm cng nghip. 2) S h thng thot nc phi c nh gi v mt kinh t, k thut, x hi, mi trng, mc m bo v sinh ca cc cng tr nh thot nc hin c v kh nng tip tc s dng chng trong t ng lai. 3) i vi cc im dn c, cho php s dng cc loi h thng thot nc chung, ring mt na, ring hon ton hoc h thng kt hp tu theo a h nh, iu kin kh hu, yu cu v sinh ca cng trnh thot nc hin c trn c s so snh cc ch tiu kinh t - k thut. 4) H thng thot nc ca cc x nghip cng nghip phi theo kiu ri ng hon ton, khi c cc loi nc thi cha cc cht nhim khc nhau i hi cc phng php x l khc nhau. Trong mi trng hp phi xem xt kh nng kt hp thot n c ton b hoc mt phn nc thi sn xut vi nc thi sinh hot. 5) Thot nc cho x nghip cn xem xt: Kh nng thu hi cc cht c th ti s dng tro ng nc thi. - Kh nng gim nc thi sn xut bng cch p dng qu tr nh cng ngh hp l, thc hin chng trnh sn xut sch hn, s dng h thng cp nc tun hon ton b, mt phn hoc ly nc thi ca phn xng ny s dng cho phn xng khc.
Ch thch: Ch cho php s dng nc thi sinh hot c lm sch v kh trng cp nc cho ra sn nh, ti ng, ti cy xanh.

6) Nc thi khng b nhim bn trong qu tr nh sn xut (cn gi l nc thi sn xut quy c sch) cn s dng li trong h thng cp nc tun hon. Khi khng th s dng li th cho php x vo ngun tip nhn nc (sng, h v.v..) hoc vo h thng thot nc ma.

27

7) Nc thi sn xut khi x vo h thng thot nc sinh hot ca th phi m bo cc yu cu sau: - C nng cht l lng, cht ni v cc thng s nhim khc phi t yu cu loi C ca quy chun k thut mi trng Vit nam. - Khng cha cc cht c th ph hu vt liu l m ng v nhng cng trnh khc ca h thng thot nc; - Khng cha cc cht c kh nng dnh bm ln thnh ng hoc lm tc ng thot nc; - Khng cha cc cht d chy (du, xng) v cc cht kh ho tan c th to thnh hn hp n trong ng ng hoc cng trnh thot nc; - Khng cha cc cht c c nng nh h ng xu ti qu trnh x l sinh hc i vi nc thi.
Ch thch: Nu nc thi sn xut khng m bo cc y u cu ni trn phi lm sch s b. Mc x l s b cn tho thun vi c quan thit k v qun l h thng thot nc chung ca khu vc.

8) Khi ni mng li thot nc thi sn xut ca tng x nghip v o mng li ca th th mi x nghip cn c ng x ri ng v c ging kim tra t ngoi phm vi x nghip hay khu cng nghip.
Ch thch: Cho php t ng dn chung nc thi sn xut ca mt v i x nghip sau ging kim tra ca tng x nghip.

9) Nc thi c cha cc cht phng x, cc cht c v vi trng gy bnh trc khi x vo mng li thot nc ca th phi c kh c v kh trng. 10) Khng cho php x nhiu loi nc thi vo cng mt mng li thot nc, nu nh vic trn cc loi nc thi vi nhau c th to th nh cc cht c, kh n hoc cc cht khng tan vi s lng ln. 11) Khng c x nc thi sn xut c nng nhim bn cao tp trung th nh tng t. Trng hp khi lng v thnh phn nc thi thay i qu ln trong ng y cn phi thit k b iu ho. 12) iu kin x nc thi vo ngun tip nhn c xc nh bng tnh ton tr n c s m bo tiu chun mi trng khi x nc thi vo ngun tip nhn. 13) Khong cch an ton v mi trng (ATVMT) t cc cng trnh x l v trm bm nc thi ti ranh gii xy dng nh , cng cng, bnh vin, tr ng hc, cc x nghip thc phm phi tun th qui nh ti bng 3.1. Trong khong cch ATVMT phi trng cy xanh vi chiu rng 10m. - i vi loi trm bm nc thi s dng my bm th chm t trong ging ga kn th khng cn khong cch ATVMT, nh ng phi c ng thng hi x mi hi (x cao 3m). - Nu trong a gii ca trm x l n c thi c hc v sinh hc cng sut n 50m3/ng v bi lc din tch n 0,5ha th ly khong cch bng 100m. Khong cch ly v sinh trong b i lc ngm cng sut i 15m3/ng ly bng15m. - Khong cch ly v sinh ca b i lc ngm v thm t si ly bng 25m, ca b t hoi bng 5m, ging thm bng 8m, ca cc cng tr nh lm sch kiu xy ho hon ton bng 50m. 28

Bng 3.1: Khong cch ly ti thiu gia trm bm, cng trnh x l nc thi vi khu dn c, bnh vin, trng hc, cng trnh cng cng v x nghip thc phm
Khong cch ATVMT ti thiu (m) ng vi cng sut (m3/ng) TT Loi cng trnh < 200 (m3/ng) 15 100 100 10 200-5.000 (m3/ng) 20 200 150 15 >5.00050.000 (m3/ng) 25 300 300 30 > 50.000 (m3/ng) 30 400 400 40

1 2 a b c

Trm bm nc thi Trm x l nc thi: X l c hc, c sn phi bn X l sinh hc nhn to, c sn phi bn X l sinh hc khng c sn phi bn, c my lm kh bn, c thit b x l mi hi, xy dng kn Khu t lc ngm nc thi Khu t ti cy xanh, nng nghip H sinh hc Mng xy ho

d e f g

100 50 50 50

150 200 200 150

300 400

500 1000

3.2.

Mng li thot nc ma

3.2.1. Quy hoch mng li thot nc ma Quy hoch mng li thot nc nc ma phi tun th cc quy nh ca QCXDVN 01:2008/BXD Quy hoch xy dng. 3.2.2. Thot nc ma i vi th c quy m va v ln - i vi th t loi III tr l n, phi nghin cu b tr h iu ho nc ma (s dng cc h hin c hoc o mi), trm bm thot nc ma trnh ng ngp th v gim tit din ng cng thot nc ma sau h iu ho. - Ngoi thot nc ma cho th, phi bo m thot nc ma ca vng ln cn, nh hng trc tip i vi th. 3.2.3. X nc ma Khi khng c nhu cu s dng li th cho php x vo ngun nc (sng, h v.v..) hoc vo h thng thot nc ma. Khng c x nc ma vo: cc khu vc dng lm bi tm; cc khu vc trng khng c kh nng t thot n c v d to thnh m ly; khu vc c nguy c xi mn, khng c bin php gia c b.

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3.3.

H thng thot nc thi, nc bn

3.3.1. Quy hoch h thng thot nc thi, nc bn 1) Xy dng h thng thot nc thi, nc bn phi ph hp vi quy hoch xy dng th, cc c im a hnh, a cht cng trnh, a cht thy vn, kh tng, thy vn ngun nc. 2) Tuyn v ng ng - Phi tn dng ti mc ti a iu kin a h nh xy dng h thng t chy. i vi th ci to cn nghi n cu s dng mng li thot nc hin c. - Mng li thot nc phi m bo khong cch ti thiu t mt ngo i ng ti cc cng trnh v h thng k thut khc, to iu kin cho thi cng, sa cha. - Trn mng li thot cn xy cc ming x d ph ng x nc thi vo h thng thot nc ma hoc vo h khi xy ra s c. - Trong phm vi khu dn c, khng c t ng ng thot nc ni hoc treo trn mt t. - cc ng ph xy dng mi phi t cng thot n c dc theo va h trong ho k thut; cc ng ph c chiu rng 7m phi b tr cng thu nc thi dc hai bn ng; khu vc ng ph c, va h nh hp, khng th o va h t cng thot nc th c t cng lng ng.
Ch thch: Nu ng ng thot nc qua cc h su, sng, h hoc ng ng thot nc ngoi phm vi khu dn c, cho php t trn mt t hoc treo trn cu cn.

3.3.2. Cc yu cu k thut ng ng 1) Gc ngot ca ng, ni ng, su t ng Gc ni gia hai ng ng khng nh hn 900.


Ch thch: Gc ni cho php ly tu nu ni qua ging chuyn bc kiu thang ng hoc ni ging thu nc ma vi ging chuyn bc.

Ni rnh vi ng ng kn phi qua ging thm c h lng cn v song chn rc. su t ng nh nht tnh i v i nh ng qui nh nh sau: + i vi cc ng c ng knh di 300mm t khu vc khng c xe c gii qua li l 0,3m . + ch c xe c gii qua li l 0,7m. Trong trng hp c bit khi chiu su nh hn 0,7m th phi c bin php bo v ng.

Ch thch: su t ng ln nht xc nh theo tnh ton, tu thuc v o vt liu lm ng, iu kin a cht, phng php thi cng v cc yu t k thut khc.

2) ng, gi ng, ph tng v nn t ng S dng cc loi ng sau y lm ng ng thot nc: + ng ng t chy: dng ng b tng ct thp khng p, ng b tng, ng snh, ng cht do, ng fibr xi mng v cc loi cu kin b tng ct thp lp ghp. + ng ng c p: dng ng b tng ct thp c p, fibr xi mng, gang v cc loi ng bng cht do. 30

- Cho php dng ng gang cho ng ng t chy v ng thp cho ng ng p lc trong cc trng hp sau: + ng t nhng khu vc kh thi cng, t ln, t tr ng n hoc snh ly, khu vc khai thc m, c hin t ng cct, nhng ch i qua sng h, ng st hoc ng t, khi giao nhau vi ng ng cp nc sinh hot, khi t ng tr n cu dn hoc nhng ni c th c nhng chn ng c hc. + ng t trong mi trng xm thc cn dng cc loi ng khng b xm thc hoc phi dng cc bin php bo v ng khi xm thc. + ng thp phi c lp chng n mn kim loi mt ngoi. nhng ch c hin tng n mn in ho phi c bin php bo v c bit. - Kiu t ng ph thuc kh nng chu lc ca t nn v ti trng. Cho php t ng trc tip trn nn t t nhin nhng phi m k. Trong trng hp nn t yu phi lm nn nhn to. - Trn ng ng p lc khi cn thit phi b tr, t cc van, van x, mi ni co gin v mi ni co gin vi ging thm v.v... dc ng ng p lc v pha van x khng c nh hn 0,001. Ti nhng ch ng p lc i h ng, phi b tr t gi ta. Trong nhng trng hp sau cho php khng d ng gi ta: + ng ng p lc dng ng kiu ming bt vi p sut l m vic ti 100N/cm 2 v gc ngot n 10 0. + ng ng c p bng thp hn t di t vi gc ngot n 30 0 trong mt phng thng ng. 3) Mi ni ng - Mi ni ca cc ng ng t chy kiu ming bt hoc mng s ng c xm bng dy ay tm bitum, bn ngoi chn va xi mng aming. i vi cc ng ln khng sn xut c kiu ming bt hoc mng sng th ni bng b tng hoc b tng ct thp ti ch. Cp bn chu nn ca b tng lm mi ni khng nh hn cp bn chu nn ca b tng ng.
Ch thch: Cho php thay th xi mng aming bng xi mng pooclng PC40.

Mi ni cc ng ng p lc theo tiu chun thit k cp nc.

4) Ging thm - Kch thc mt bng ging thm phi m bo an to n cho qun l, vn hnh, bo dng. - Chiu cao phn cng tc ca g ing (tnh t sn cng tc ti sn c ging) ly bng 1,2m. - Trong phn cng tc v c ging ca ging phi c thang m bo cho cng tc qun l. S bc thang ph thuc v o chiu cao ging, khong cch gia cc bc thang l 300mm. Bc thang u tin cch ming ging 0,5m. - Trong nhng khu vc xy dng cng tr nh, np ging t bng ct mt ng. Trong khu vc trng cy np ging cao h n mt ng 50-70mm, cn trong khu vc

31

khng xy dng l 200mm. Nu c yu cu c bit (trnh ngp n c ma) c th t cao hn. - y ging thm trong h thng thot n c ma cn c h thu cn. Tu theo mc hon thin cc khu vc c thot nc v chiu su h thu cn ly t 0,3 -0,5m. - Khi mc nc ngm cao hn y ging phi c bin php chng thm cho y v thnh ging. Chiu cao on thng chng thm tr n thnh ging phi cao hn mc nc ngm 0,5m. - Np ca ging thm (k c ging chuyn bc) c th b ng gang hoc b tng ct thp v phi chu c ti trng tiu chun H13. Nu dng np b tng ct thp th ming ging phi c cu to thch hp trnh b st, v do va p ca xe c c ng nh khi ng m np. Kch thc np b tng ct thp phi m bo vic y, m np thun tin.
Ch thch: Trng hp np ging t trn ng c xe ti trng lng ln th thit k ring.

5) Ging chuyn bc - Ging chuyn bc c xy dng m bo su t ng ti thiu, m bo tc chy ca nc trong ng khng vt qu gi tr cho php hoc trnh thay i t ngt tc dng chy, khi cn trnh cc cng trnh ngm, khi x nc theo phng php x ngp.
Ch thch: i vi ng c ng knh nh hn 600mm nu chiu cao chuyn bc nh h n 0,3m cho php thay th ging chuyn bc bng ging tr n chy m trong ging thm.

- Ging chuyn bc vi chiu cao d i 3m trn cc ng ng c ng knh t 600mm tr ln phi xy kiu p trn . - Ging chuyn bc vi chiu cao di 3m trn cc ng ng c ng knh di 500mm c lm theo kiu c mt ng ng trong ging, tit din khng nh h n tit din ng dn n. Pha trn ng ng c phu thu nc, di ng ng l h tiu nng c t bn kim loi y.
Ch thch: i vi cc ng ng c ng knh di 300mm cho php dng ct nh hng dng chy thay th cho h tiu nng.

6) Ging thu nc ma Khi ng ph rng khng di 30m v khng c ging thu bn trong tiu khu th khong cch gia cc ging thu l y theo bng 3.2. Chiu di ca on ng ni t ging thu n ging thm ca ng cng khng ln hn 40m. Cho php ni vo ging thu cc ng thot nc ma ca nh hoc ng h nc ngm.

Bng 3.2. Khong cch gia cc ging thu


dc dc ng ph Nh hn hoc bng 0,004 Trn 0,004 n 0,006 Trn 0,006 n 0,01 Trn 0,01 n 0,03 Khong cch gia cc ging thu (m) 50 60 70 80

Ch thch: Qui nh ny khng p dng i vi kiu ging thu ca h b va (ging thu h m ch).

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- Khi chiu rng ng ph nh hn 30m hoc khi dc ln hn 0,03 th khong cch gia cc ging thu khng ln h n 60m. - y ca ging thu nc ma phi c h thu cn chiu su t 0,3 -0,5m v ca thu phi c song chn rc. Mt tr n song chn rc t thp hn rnh ng khong 2030mm. - i vi h thng thot nc chung trong cc khu dn c , ging thu phi c kho thu lc, chiu cao khng nh h n 0,1m. - Ging thm h thu cn ni vi mng h bng ng kn, pha ming h phi t song chn rc c khe h khng qu 50mm; ng knh on ng ni xc nh bng tnh ton nhng khng nh hn 300mm. - i vi mng li thot nc ma khi chnh ct y ng nh hn hoc bng 0,5m ng knh ng di 1.500mm v tc khng qu 4m/s th cho php ni ng bng ging thm. Khi ch nh ct ln hn phi c ging chuyn bc. 7) ng lun qua sng (iu-ke) ng knh ng ca iu-ke khng nh hn 150mm. - iu-ke qua sng, h phi c t nht hai ng ng lm vic bnh thng, bng thp c lp chng n mn v chu c cc tc ng c hc. Mi ng ng phi c kim tra kh nng dn nc theo lu lng tnh ton c xt ti mc dng cho php. Nu lu lng nc thi khng m bo tc tnh ton nh nht th ch s dng mt ng ng lm vic v mt ng ng d phng.
Ch thch: iu-ke qua cc khe, thung lng kh cho php t mt ng ng.

B tr iu-ke phi bo m: + Chiu su t ng ca on ng ngm d i nc khng c nh hn 0,5m tnh t ct thit k ca y sng n nh ng. + Trong gii hn lch sng tu b qua li th khng c nh hn 1m. + Gc nghing ca on ng xin hai b sng khng ln h n 200 so vi phng ngang. + Khong cch mp ngoi gia hai ng iu-ke khng nh hn 0,7-1,5m ph thuc vo p lc.

Trong cc ging thm t ca vo, ca ra v ging x s c phi c phai ch n.

- Nu ging thm xy dng cc b i bi ca sng th phi d tnh kh nng khng cho ging ngp vo ma nc ln. - i vi h thng thot nc chung th phi kim tra mt ng ng ca iu-ke m bo c iu kin thot nc trong ma kh theo cc tiu chun qui nh. 8) ng ng qua ng - Khi xuyn qua ng st, ng t c ti trng ln hoc ng ph chnh th ng ng phi t trong ng bc hoc ng hm. - Trc v sau on ng qua ng phi c ging thm v trong trng hp c bit phi c thit b kho chn. 9) Ca x nc thi, nc ma v ging trn nc ma 33

- Kt cu ca x nc thi x l hay nc ma vo sng cn phi m bo vic xo trn nc thi lm sch vi nc sng h c hiu qu nht. - ng dn x nc kiu xa b - gia lng sng v x ngp su di nc phi bng thp c lp chng n m n v c t trong hp. u ming x kiu l ng sng, xa b v x ngp nc u phi c gia c bng b tng. Sn to ming x phi xt ti yu cu tu b i li, mc nc sng, nh hng ca sng, iu kin a cht v s thay i lng sng. - Ging trn nc ma kiu ging vi ngng trn tnh theo lu lng nc x vo sng h, cu to ngng trn xc nh ph thuc vo iu kin ch t ming x trn ng chnh hay ng nhnh, mc n c ti a trong sng h v.v... 10)Mng li thot nc ca x nghip cng nghip - Trong phm vi cc x nghip, ph thuc vo thnh phn ca nc thi, cho php t ng ng thot nc trong rnh kn, rnh h, trong ng hm hoc trn cu dn. - Khong cch t cc ng ng dn nc thi cha cc cht n m n, cc cht c d bay hi v cc cht gy n (c t trng kh v hi nc nh hn 0,8 so vi khng kh) n thnh ca ng hm khng di 3m, n cc tng ngm khng d i 6m. - Cc thit b kho chn, kim tra v ni trn ng ng dn nc thi c cha cc cht c d bay hi, cc cht gy n phi m bo tuyt i kn. - Dn nc thi sn xut c tnh n m n, tu theo thnh phn, nng v nhit ca nc bng cc loi ng chu axt (ng s nh, s, thu tinh, ng lm bng plyetilen, ng thp lt cao su, ng gang tm nha ng).
Ch thch: Cc loi ng lm bng plyetilen, ng gang tm nha ng, ng lt cao su, c s dng khi nhit nc thi khng qu 60 0C. Cc loi ng cht do khc phi theo ch dn p dng ca nh sn xut.

- Xm cc ming bt ca ng dn n c thi c tnh axt bng si aming tm bi tum v chn ngoi bng va chu axt. - Phi c bin php bo v ca cng tr nh trn mng li thot nc c tnh n mn khi tc hi do hi v nc v phi m bo khng cho nc thm lu vo t. - Mng ca ging thm trn ng ng dn nc thi c tnh n mn phi lm bng vt liu chng n mn. Thang ln xung trong cc ging ny khng c lm bng thp. - Ging x nc thi cha cc cht d chy, d n ca cc phn xng phi c tm chn thu lc. 11)Trm bm, b cha nc thi sinh hot - Trm bm nc thi sinh hot b tr th nh cc cng trnh ring bi t; khong cch ly v sinh ly theo bng 3.1. Xung quanh khu vc trm b m phi trng cy, b rng di cy xanh bo v khng c di 10m. Cn xy dng cng x d ph ng x nc thi ra sng, h hoc v o mng li thot nc ma khi xy ra s c trong trm bm. - Trm bm phi c cp in lin tc; ch cho php cp in khng li n tc trong cc trng hp sau:

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+ Mng li thot nc v trm bm c sc cha cha nc thi trong thi gian trm bm ngng hot ng. + Trc trm bm c cng x d phng. - Trn tuyn ng dn nc thi ti trm bm phi c phai chn v phi m bo kh nng khi ng trn mt t c th ng m c. - S ng ng y bn ngoi trm bm khng c t hn 2. Trong trng hp cn thit th cc ng y phi ni vi nhau bng cc ng nhnh, khong cch gia cc ng nhnh c xc nh bng tnh ton. ng knh ng y xc nh theo iu kin bo m vic dn nc khi c mt ng ng y b hng, c th nh sau: + Khng di 70% lu lng tnh ton nu nc trm bm c cng x d phng. + Bng 1% lu lng tnh ton nu trc trm bm khng c cng x d phng. Trong trng hp ny cn s dng cc my bm d phng v cc on ng nhnh ni gia cc ng y loi tr on ng b h hng khi ch lm vic chung ca h thng ng y. - Trm bm xy dng khu vc c th b ng lt th ct thm ca ca ra vo phi cao hn nh sng ca cn l ln nht vi m bo 3% v t nht l 0,5m. B cha ca trm bm phi c song chn rc. - Dung tch nh nht ca b cha ca trm b m bn dng bm cn lng ra ngoi phm vi trm lm sch c xc nh bng cng sut ca mt my b m lm vic trong 15 pht. Trong b cha phi c thit b xc b n v ra b. Trong trm bm phi c song chn rc d ph ng. H thng thot nc chn khng v h thng thot nc gin lc

3.4.

3.4.1. H thng thot nc chn khng - H thng thot nc chn khng c p dng nhng khu vc bng phng, mc nc ngm cao, t nn l hoc nn khng n nh. Trong mt s trng hp nh cc th vng i ni, vic p dng h thng thot nc chn khng phi thc hin theo quy trnh c th quy nh ring. - H thng thot nc chn khng phi c cc b ph n chnh nh h thu, ng ng chn khng thu gom chnh, tr m chn khng tp trung n c thi. - H thu phi c cc b phn van chn khng, thng hi, h van, ngn cha - iu ho (cho lu lng nc thi ln). ng ng thu chnh lm bng cht do c ng knh 75-200 mm. Trm chn khng phi c my pht in d phng ch ch (standby). H thng thot nc chn khng c ch lm vic hai pha kh v lng.

3.4.2. H thng thot nc gin lc - i vi cc khu dn c ven , cc th nh hay th ci to, cho php p dng h thng thot nc gin lc, s dng cc tuyn cng thot n c thi ring theo s

35

xuyn tiu khu. Nc thi t cc h gia nh c dn trong cc tuyn cng rnh cp 3, chn nng < 0,4m. - ng cng ca h thng thot n c gin lc c dc ti thiu 1/200, ng knh ti thiu 100mm. Cc h ga - ging kim tra c thay bng cc ca kim tra n gin, xy bng gch hay bng ng cht do . Cc b phn ca h thng thot n c gin lc bao gm: + Tuyn cng cp 3 v cc ging thm, cc nhnh ch Y u bt kn, s dng thng tc khi cn thit; + + Tuyn cng cp 1, 2 v cc ging thm; H tch m, lng ct.

3.5. Cng trnh x l nc thi sinh hot th (cc b v khu vc) 3.5.1. Khi lng nc thi v ti lng nhim nc thi sinh hot th t rc x l - Khi lng nc thi sinh hot v ch a nc thi ti trm x l phi xt ti s pht trin tng lai ca cc khu dn c tng ng vi tiu chun thi nc, h s khng iu ho chung v biu thi nc trong ngy. - Khi lng nc thi sn xut, ch a nc thi ti trm x l, th nh phn v nng cht bn cn xc nh theo t i liu cng ngh. - Lu lng tnh ton ca nc thi cn xc nh theo th tng hp l u lng cho c trng hp dng trm bm hay t chy. - Tnh ton cc cng trnh lm sch nc thi th c tin hnh theo (1) hm lng cht l lng (SS) tnh ton cc cng tr nh x l c hc v (2) BODTP tnh ton cc cng trnh x l sinh hc. - Phi xc nh ti lng nhim ca nc thi th theo SS, BOD, N, P. Ngoi ra, vi nc thi sn xut cng nghip c n phi xc nh cc cht c th - kim loi nng nu thy cn thit. - Cho php kt hp hoc lm sch c hc ring r trc khi kt hp lm sch sinh hc hn hp nc thi sinh hot v sn xut, cng nh khi cn lm sch nc thi sn xut bng phng php ho hc hoc l hc.
Ch thch: Bt buc phi lm sch c hc ring r trong trng hp phng php x l cn lng ca hai loi nc thi khc nhau.

3.5.2. Cu phn cng trnh x l nc thi - Cu phn cng trnh x l nc thi ph thuc vo c im v khi lng nc thi a ti cng trnh lm sch, mc lm sch cn thit, phng php s dng cn lng v cc iu kin c th khc ca a ph ng. B cc v quan h gia cc cu phn phi m bo: + + + + Kh nng xy dng theo tng t; Kh nng m rng cng sut khi l u lng nc thi tng; Chiu di cc ng ng k thut phi ngn nht (mng dn, ng dn); Thun tin cho qun l v sa cha; 36

Kh nng hp khi cng trnh.

- Cc cng trnh x l nc thi cn b tr ngoi tri hay chm di mt t, ch trong trng hp c bit v c l do xc ng mi c lm mi che. Trong trm x l phi c cc thit b sau y: + Thit b phn phi u nc thi v cn cho cc cng trnh lm sch n v. + Thit b cng trnh tm ngng hot ng, tho cn v thau ra cng trnh, ng ng dn khi cn thit. + Thit b x nc khi xy ra s c trc v sau cc cng trnh x l c hc. + Thit b o lu lng nc thi, cn lng, bn hot tnh tun hon v bn hot tnh tha, khng kh, hi nc, nng lng. + Thit b ly mu v dng c t ghi cc thng s v cht l ng ca nc thi, bn v cn lng. 3.5.3. Cng ngh x l nc thi 1) loi tr cc vi khun gy bnh trong n c thi, cn thc hin giai on kh trng trc khi x ra sng h. Cn bn hnh thnh trong cng trnh x l nc thi phi c x l m bo v sinh v an ton khi s dng 2) S cng trnh x l nc thi - S v thnh phn ca cng trnh x l nc thi ph thuc vo cc yu t: mc cn thit lm sch nc thi, lu lng nc thi cn x l, tnh hnh a cht v a cht thu vn, iu kin cp in, c im ca ngun tip nhn. - Cc thnh phn ca cng trnh x l nc thi c b tr sao cho nc thi t chy lin tc t phn ny sang phn khc. Cho php dng my bm nu chng minh c tnh hp l v kinh t, k thut, cnh quan, mi tr ng. - Cc b phn hay thit b x l cn cng c b tr theo mt trnh t nht nh, m bo t hiu sut cao v tun th cc tiu chun v sinh - mi trng. 3.5.4. Cc b phn ca cng trnh x l nc thi 1) Song chn rc phi c lp t mi cng trnh x l nc thi vi cng sut bt k. 2) B lng ct c b tr cc cng trnh x l nc thi c cng sut 100m3/ng. 3) Thit b thu du m phi c b tr khi nng du m ln hn 100mg/l. 4) B lng - Kiu b lng (ng, ngang, ly tm, lng vi lp mng, lng hai v...) c la chn theo cng sut, tnh cht nc thi, cc iu kin t nhi n v cc iu kin c th khc ca tng a phng. - Nng cht l lng trong nc thi sau khi lng b ln 1 a vo b aeroten lm sch sinh hc hon ton hoc vo cc b lc sinh hc khng c vt qu 150 mg/l. 5) Lm thong s b v ng t sinh hc

37

- Phi b tr b lm thong s b v ng t sinh hc tng hiu sut lng v m bo iu kin nng cht rn l lng ca dng nc thi vo cc cng trnh x l sinh hc di 150mg/l. - B lm thong s b c p dng trm x l vi b aeroten; b ng t sinh hc c s dng c trm x l vi b aeroten v trm x l vi b lc sinh hc. 6) H sinh hc v cnh ng ti Khi iu kin t ai cho php, h sinh hc v cnh ng ti l nhng cng trnh phi c u tin la chn trong s cng ngh x l nc thi. H sinh hc va l cng trnh x l bc hai va l cng trnh lm sch trit hay x l bc ba nc thi khi c yu cu v sinh cao. 7) Bi thm - Bi thm ch cho php c p dng i vi vng t ct pha v st nh lm sch bng phng php sinh hc hon ton nc thi c lng s b. - Bi thm khng c xy dng trn nhng khu t c s dng n c ngm mch ngang cng nh nhng khu vc c hang ng ngm (cc -xt). - Bi thm phi t cui dng chy i vi cng trnh thu nc ngm, khong cch ca n xc nh theo bn knh nh h ng ca ging thu, nhng khng nh hn 200m i vi t st, 300m i vi ct pha v 500m i vi t ct. Khi t bi thm pha thng ngun dng chy ca nc ngm th khong cch ca bi thm n cng trnh thu nc ngm phi c tnh ton ti iu kin thu a cht v yu cu bo v v sinh ca ngun nc. 8) B lc sinh hc - B lc sinh hc (kiu nh git v cao ti) lm sch bng phng php sinh hc hon ton v khng hon ton. - Cho php s dng b lc sinh hc nh git x l sinh hc ho n ton trm c cng sut khng qu 1.000 m3/ng. Cho php s dng b lc sinh hc cao ti cho trm c cng sut ti 50.000 m 3/ng. - Cho php p dng b lc sinh hc lm sch nc thi sn xut lm cng trnh xy ho chnh trong s lm sch mt bc hoc lm cng trnh xy ho bc I hoc bc II trong s lm sch hai bc (hon ton v khng hon ton). 9) Aeroten - Xy dng v vn hnh b aeroten cn cn c vo cc yu t thnh phn v tnh cht cng nh cng sut nc thi (nhu cu xy cn cho qu tr nh sinh ho (BOD) 20, hiu qu s dng khng kh). - Hm lng cc cht c hi phi nh h n ngng gii hn cho php m bo s hot ng bnh thng ca vi sinh vt - tc nhn ch o phn hu cc cht bn trong nc thi. 10) B nn bn phi c b tr trong cc cng trnh x l nc thi c b aeroten. 11) B lm thong xy ha hon ton (hay b aeroten lm thong ko di), knh xy ho tun hon phi c xem xt nh mt trong nhng phng n x l nc thi bc II, bc III hay x l trit nc thi trc khi x ra ngun hay tun ho n ti 38

s dng nc thi. Phi loi b cc tp cht c hc th khi nc thi m bo yu cu trc khi dn vo cc cng trnh ny. 12) B m tan - B mtan phi c xem xt nh mt phng n phn hu cn lng ca n c thi sinh hot v sn xut i vi cc trm c c ng sut t 7.000 m 3/ng tr ln. Cho php a vo b cc cht hu c khc nhau sau khi nghin nh rc t song chn, cc loi ph liu c ngun gc hu c ca cc x nghip. Cn c gii php phng n v an ton chy n cho b mtan. 13) Cc cng trnh, thit b lm kh hay tch nc khi bn - Sn phi bn trn nn t t nhin hay nhn to. Phi b tr dn ng thu nc bn v khng cho php nc bn thm vo trong t. - Lm kh bng cc thit b c gii p dng khi cng sut ln v d khc phc cc nh hng ca t nhin (ma nhiu, m khng kh cao) hay t ai cht hp.
Ch thch: khc phc nh hng ca ma, p dng kiu sn phi c mi che, trn c s so snh cc ch tiu kinh t - k thut.

14) Kh trng nc thi phi c thc hin tt c cc c ng trnh x l nc thi trc khi x nc thi x l ra ngun tip nhn. 15) B t hoi - Nc thi t cng trnh xy dng dn dng (h gia nh, vn phng lm vic, nh hng, c s dch v, nh v sinh cng cng...) x vo cng thot nc ca khu vc cha hoc khng c cng trnh x l nc thi, bt buc phi xy dng b t hoi hay cc cng trnh lm sch ti ch khc x l s b nc thi (k c nc en v nc xm). - c php xy dng b t hoi chung cho mt cm cc cng tr nh xy dng (cc khi nh lin k, cm h gia nh trong khu ph c) c x nc thi. - B t hoi c xy dng trong trng hp p dng h thng thot n c tch cn (t chy hay p lc) v cc trng hp x l nc thi ti ch hay phn tn khc (theo cm) . - Vic xy dng, vn hnh bi lc ngm hay bi lc ngp trng cy phi tun th cc quy chun xy dng c lin quan. Trc bi lc ngm phi xy b t hoi hay cc cng trnh x l s b khc ph hp. 16) Bi lc ct si, ho lc v bi lc ngp nc trng cy - Bi lc ct si v ho lc c p dng i vi cc cng tr nh x l nc thi ti ch hay phn tn cho cm dn c . Nc thi sau x l c x vo trong t, qua h thng ng c l t trong b i lc. Chiu dy lp t khng bo ho (tnh t y bi lc n mc nc ngm cao nht) c xc nh theo loi t nh sau: (a) >1,5 m i vi t ct, mn, ct pha; (b) >0,6 m i vi t ct mn, st. - Vic xy dng, vn hnh bi lc ct si v ho lc phi tun th cc quy nh c lin quan. 3.6. Yu cu i vi vt liu v cu kin h thng thot nc th

39

1) ng ng, cng v cu kin h thng thot nc th phi m bo bn lu, khng thm nc, khng b n mn bi axit v kim, b mt trong nhn v d thi cng lp t. 2) Cc ng dng thot nc c ch to t cc loi vt li u nh b tng ct thp, b tng, ximng aming, gang, thp, thp m km, nha ABS, PVC, PE, HDPE, ng snh cng cao hoc cc loi ng vt liu ph hp khc phi ph hp cc tiu chun sn phm tng ng. Khng dng ng st, ng thp trng km l m ng thot nc ngm di t. Cc loi ng ny ch dng nhng v tr cao hn nn t 150 mm tr ln. ng v ph kin bng snh ch dng lm ng thot nc ngm di t. su t ng snh ti thiu l 300mm di mt t.

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Chng 4 H THNG CC CNG TR NH GIAO THNG TH 4.1. Quy nh chung

1) Xy dng cc cng trnh giao thng th phi ph hp vi quy hoch xy dng th c cp c thm quyn ph duyt, tun th cc quy nh ca QCXDVN 01:2008/BXD Quy hoch xy dng. 2) H thng cc cng trnh giao thng th phi m bo cho xe cha chy tip cn ti cc cng trnh xy dng, tip cn ti cc hng cp nc cha chy. 4.2. Phn cp ng t th Phn cp ng b th theo chc nng, tc thit k, l u lng giao thng c quy nh trong bng 4.1. Bng 4.1. Phn cp ng t th
Cp ng Lu lng Cp ng theo giao thng chc nng (xeq/ng.) 1. ng cao tc th (Express way) 50.000 70.000 Tc thit k (VTK, Km/h) 80 - 100 Chc nng Dng cc thnh ph ln, th loi c bit. phc v giao thng vi tc cao, giao thng lin tc v thi gian hnh trnh ngn gia cc khu vc chnh ca thnh ph, gia thnh ph v khu cng nghip ln nm ngoi phm vi thnh ph, gia thnh ph vi cc cng hng khng, cng sng, cng bin. Phc v giao thng c ngha to n th, ni cc trung tm dn c ln, cc khu cng nghip ln, nh ga, bn cng, sn vn ng, ni vi ng cao tc v cc ng quc l. Phc v giao thng c ngha lin khu, ni cc khu dn c, cc khu cng nghip, trung tm cng cng vi nhau v ni vi ng trc chnh th. Phc v giao thng c ngha ni b cc khu vc, cc qun ca th. Ni cc khu trn vi ng trc th v ng trc khu vc (gi l ng gom (Collector)). Phc v giao thng trong ni b cc n v , ng ph, nhm nh. Ni cc ng trong ni b n v vi cc ng ngoi n v .

Cp th

2. ng trc chnh th (Urban Arterials) 3. ng trc th 4. ng lin khu vc

20.000 50.000

- 80 - 100

20.000 50.000 20.000 30.000

80 - 100 60 - 80

5. ng chnh khu vc Cp khu 6. ng khu vc vc 7. ng phn khu vc 8. ng nhm Cp ni nh , vo nh b 9. ng xe p ng i b

50 - 60 10.000 20.000 40 - 50

30 - 40 20 - 30

41

Ch thch: - i vi mi cp ng quy nh nhiu tc thit k, tu theo iu kin c th v cp loi th, v a hnh v giao thng chn cp tc thit k thch hp theo kt qu phn tch kinh t - k thut - Cch phn loi, phn cp ng theo bng 4.1 ch p dng cho cc th loi c bit, loi I v loi II. Cc th loi thp hn, tu theo tnh cht v quy m dn s, loi ng th v a hnh h xung mt cp tc thit k. - Tc thit k ghi trong bng l tc ca xe quy i (xe con) ch y trong iu kin vng xe d ng tnh ton cc ch tiu k thut gii hn p dng trong tr ng hp kh khn. Tc xe chy thc t trn ng c th ln hn, nh hn tc thit k ty thuc vo iu kin hnh hc ca ng, lu lng xe, thnh phn xe v loi xe chy trn ng, cht lng mt ng, cc bin php an ton v t chc giao thng - Lu lng xe ghi trong bng l lu lng xe c quy i cc loi xe khc nhau trong d ng xe ra xe con (k hiu l xeq/ng.) v tnh ton cho nm tng la i th 20 i vi ng mi v 15 nm i vi ng nng cp ci to. Tr s lu lng xe ghi trong bng c tnh cht tham kho.

4.3.

Cc quy nh k thut ng t th

4.3.1. Bnh ng th Tm nhn ti thiu trn bnh v mt ct dc ng - Khng cho php xy dng cc cng trnh v trng cy cao qu 0,5m trong phm vi cn m bo tm nhn. Bn knh ng cong trn bnh - Bng 4.2 quy nh tr s bn knh ng cong ti thiu gii hn, ti thiu thng thng v ti thiu khng yu cu b tr siu cao. Bn knh ng cong c tnh theo tim ng. - Vi ng ph ci to v i vi ng mi a hnh c bit kh khn, nu c cn c kinh t - k thut, cho php gim tr s tm nhn cho trong bng 4.2. Khi phi c bin bo hn ch tc . - Ti cc nt giao thng th, bn knh ng cong c tnh theo b va v ti thiu l 12m, ti cc qung trng giao thng l 15m. cc th ci to bn knh cc nt giao cho php gim xung cn 5-8m. - Bn knh quay xe cc ph ct khng nh h n 10m i vi dng quay vng xuyn v din tch l 12 x 12m i vi dng bi quay xe khng phi l vng xuyn. Ni tip on thng v on cong trn - Khi V TK 60km/h gia on thng v on cong trn c ni tip bng ng cong chuyn tip. - Khi ng cong c b tr siu cao th cn c mt on ni siu cao, trn mt ct ngang 2 mi on thng c chuyn dn thnh mt ct ngang mt mi ti on cong trn. 4.3.2. Mt ct dc ng th 1) Mt ct dc ng c xc nh theo tim ng phn xe chy. Trong trng hp gia ng c ng xe in th mt ct dc c xc nh theo tim ng xe in.

42

Bng 4.2. Cc tr s gii hn thit k bnh v mt ct dc ng


TT 1 Cc yu t Bn knh ng cong nm, (m) (1) - Ti thiu gii hn - Ti thiu thng thng - Ti thiu khng siu cao 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tm nhn dng xe, (m) Tm nhn vt xe, (m)
0 (2) (3) (4)

Tc thit k (km/h) 100 80 60 50 40 30 20

400 600 4000 150 40 8 200

250 400 2500 100 550 50 8 150

125 200 1500 75 350 60 7 100

80 100 1000 55 300 60 6 80

60 75 600 40 200 70 6 70

30 50 350 30 150 80 6 50

15 50 250 20 100 90 6 30

dc dc ln nht, /00

dc siu cao ln nht % Chiu di ti thiu i dc, (m) Bn knh ng cong ng ti thiu, (m) (5) a. Li: - Thng thng - Gii hn b. Lm: - Thng thng - Gii hn

10000 6500 4500 3000 85

4500 3000 3000 2000 70

2000 1400 1500 1000 50

1200 800 1000 700 40

700 450 700 450 35

400 250 400 250 25

200 100 200 100 20

Chiu di ng cong ng ti thiu, (m)

Ch thch: (1) Bn knh ng cong nm ghi trong bng ch p dng i vi cc on ng vng, khng p dng cc nt giao nhau. (2) Tm nhn 2 xe i ngc chiu (2 xe gp nhau) ly bng 2 ln tm nh n dng xe. i vi cc nt giao n gin cho php khng b tr siu cao v on ni siu cao hoc dc siu cao bng dc ngang mt ng. (3) Tm nhn vt xe khng yu cu i vi ng cao tc, ng c di phn cch gia, ng mt chiu. (4) dc dc ln nht cc a h nh kh khn (vng ni) cho php tng ln 2% so vi quy nh ghi trong bng i vi ng gom, ng ni b v 1% i vi ng trc. (5) Bn knh ng cong nm v ng cong ng quy nh 2 gi tr: bn knh gii hn l bn knh nh nht v c dng nhng a hnh kh khn c bit; bn knh thng thng l bn knh ti thiu, khuyn co s dng trong tr ng hp a hnh khng qu phc tp. Trong mi trng hp s dng bn knh cng ln cng tt.

2) Mt ct dc ng phi ph hp vi quy hoch thit k san nn theo yu cu thot nc ca ng v kin trc chung khu vc xy dng hai bn ng th. 3) dc dc ln nht ca ng c quy nh ti bng 4.2. i vi ng vng ni, ng ph ci to, nu c cn c k thut th cho php tng dc ln nht ghi trong bng 4.2 thm 10 i vi ng trc chnh th v 20 i vi ng trc khu th v ng ni b khu th. dc dc ng trong hm (tr chiu di hm ngn hn 50m) v ng ln cu vt khng c ln hn 40. i vi ng c trc dc cho mi hng xe chy th dc ln nht ca on xung dc cho php tng 20 so vi dc dc ln nht cho trong bng 4.2.

43

4) cc on ng cong bn knh t 15 n 45m th dc ln nht cho trong bng 4.2 phi gim bt dc dc theo tr s cho trong bng 4.3. Bng 4.3. Gim dc trn ng cong
Bn knh ng cong (m) Gim dc dc ( ) 30-45 10 30 15 25 20 20 25 15 30

5) Trn nhng tuyn ng c nhiu xe ti v xe p, dc ln nht ca ng cho php l 40, tr trng hp c bit. 6) dc dc ti thiu ca ng c thit k l 5, c bit 3. Trong trng hp khng m bo c yu cu trn th mt ct dc xy dng theo dng rng ca vi dc rnh l 3 v phi b tr ging thu nc ma ni nc rnh tp trung. 7) ng cong ng nhng n i i dc trn mt ct dc khi hiu i s hai dc k nhau phi bng hoc ln hn quy nh sau y: i vi tc thit k VTK 60km/h l 1% v i vi VTK < 60km/h l 2% . Dng ng cong theo parabol bc 2 hoc ng cong trn. 8) Bn knh ti thiu ca ng cong ng ly theo bng 4.2; trng hp c bit khi c cc cn c kinh t - k thut, cho php gim bn knh ti thiu xung mt cp . 4.3.3. Mt ct ngang ng th 1) ng cao tc Tiu chun cc yu t mt ct ngang ng cao tc (s ln xe, chiu rng ln xe, chiu rng an ton, chiu rng ng) c quy nh ti bng 4.4. 2) ng trc th c ngha to n thnh ph v lin khu vc S ln xe, chiu rng ln xe, chiu rng ng c quy nh trong bng 4.4 . Phi tch phn ng dng cho trc giao thng chy sut v phn ng dng cho giao thng ni b khu vc. Nu phn ng dnh cho giao thng ng trc c s ln xe 4 th b tr di phn cch gia tch hai dng xe ngc chiu, chiu rng di phn cch ti thiu l 2m. 3) ng khu vc S ln xe, chiu rng ln xe, chiu rng ng c qui nh bng 4.4. Trn ng gom khu vc phi tch ring phn ng dnh cho xe c gii v phn ng dnh cho xe p, xe th s bng vch sn lin hoc di phn cch hoc r o chn. 4) ng ni b S ln xe, chiu rng ln xe, chiu rng ng c qui nh ti bng 4.4. 5) i vi cc ng ph ci to, chiu rng ca cc cp ng cho php gim xung cho ph hp vi iu kin hin trng c th, nh ng chiu rng l gii ng khng c nh hn 4,0m. 6) Nhng quy nh v cc b phn ca mt ct ngang ng th - Cc quy nh hnh hc cho trong bng 4.4 c p dng ch yu cho cc th loi ln (loi c bit v loi I, II). i vi cc th l oi va v nh (III, IV, V) cc tr s cho trong bng ny c iu chnh cho ph hp vi quy m dn s v c im ca th. 44

- S ln xe thc t ca tuyn ng c xc nh ph thuc vo lu lng xe tnh ton N (xeq/h) ca gi cao im tnh ton t ng lai, kh nng thng hnh tnh ton cho 1 ln xe N TX v h s s dng kh nng thng xe Z (s ln xe n = N/ZN TX). Lu lng xe tnh ton gi cao im c xc nh theo ti liu m xe thc t, nu khng c s liu thc t th tnh gn ng bng 0,10-0,15 lu lng xe ngy m. Bng 4.4. Quy nh kch thc ti thiu mt ct ngang ng th
Cp ng Tc thit k (Km/h) 100 80 80-100 80-100 60-80 50-60 40-50 30-40 20-30 S ln xe 2 chiu 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 Chiu rng 1 ln xe (m) 3,75 3,75 3,75 3,75 3,75 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,0 1,5 0,75 Chiu rng di an ton (m) 0,75 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 Chiu rng ng min-max (m) 27-110 27-90 30-80 30-70 30-50 22-35 16-25 13-20 7-15 3 1,5

Cp ng

1. ng cao tc th Cp 2. ng trc chnh th th 3. ng trc th 4. ng lin khu vc Cp 5. ng chnh khu vc khu 6. ng khu vc vc 7. ng phn khu vc 8. ng nhm nh , Cp vo nh ni b 9. ng xe p ng i b

Bng 4.5. dc ngang phn xe chy


Loi mt ng B tng nha, btng ximng B tng lp ghp Cc loi mt ng nha khc dm, cp phi Cp thp dc ngang phn xe chy nh nht v ln nht ( ) ng ph Qung trng, bn xe 15-20 15 - 20 20-25 15-20 15-20 15-20 20-30 25-40 -

- Chiu rng ca ng cho trong bng 4.4 c php tng ln theo tnh ton c th, khi trn ng c b tr ng st th, ng xe in, ng t but tc hnh, ng t qu cnh. dc ngang phn xe chy c qui nh ti bng 4.5. Chiu rng h ph ly theo bng 4.6 ph thuc v o loi ng, cp ng thit k.

- Trn cc on ng cong bn knh nh hn 250m phn xe chy phi c m rng. m rng v cch b tr phn m rng trn ng cong trn v ng cong ni tip phi tun theo cc quy nh thit k ng t hin hnh.

45

4.4.

Qung trng

1) Qung trng trc cc cng trnh cng cng c nhiu ngi qua li phi tch ng i b v ng giao thng ni b ra khi ng giao thng chnh chy qua khu vc qung trng. Phn dnh cho giao thng ni b phi b tr bi xe v bn xe cng cng. 2) Qung trng giao thng v qung trng trc cu cn phi thit k theo s t chc giao thng. 3) Qung trng u mi giao thng cn quy hoch m bo h nh khch c th chuyn t phng tin ny sang phng tin khc c thun tin, nhanh chng v an ton. 4.5. H ph, ng i b v ng xe p 4.5.1. H ph 1) Trn h ph khng c b tr mng thot nc ma dng h. 2) Chiu rng 1 ln ngi i b trn h ph c quy nh ti thiu l 0,75m. Chiu rng ti thiu ca h ph c quy nh ti bng 4.6. Bng 4.6. Chiu rng ti thiu ca h ph i b dc theo ng ph (m)
Loi ng ph - ng cp th, ng ph tip xc vi li vo trung tm thng mi, ch, trung tm vn ho... - ng cp khu vc - ng phn khu vc - ng nhm nh Chiu rng va h mi bn ng 6,0 (4,0)

4,5 (3,0) 3,0 (2,0) Khng quy nh

Ch thch: Tr s ghi trong du ngoc p dng i vi tr ng hp c bit kh khn v iu kin xy dng.

3) Kh nng thng hnh ca 1 ln i b cho bng 4.7. 4) Dc ngang ca h ph dc ngang h ph ti thiu l 1% v ti a l 4% v c hng ra mt ng. Bng 4.7. Kh nng thng h nh ca 1 ln i b (ng/h)
iu kin i b Dc h ph c ca hng, nh ca H tch xa nh v ca hng H trong di cy xanh ng do chi Di i b qua ng Kh nng thng hnh (ng/h) 700 800 1000 600 1200

46

5) B va h nh b va h ph v o giao thng phi cao hn mp phn xe chy t nht l 12,5cm, cc di phn cch l 30cm. Ti cc li r vo khu nh chiu cao b va l 5-8cm v dng b va dng vt. Trn nhng on bng, rnh phi lm theo kiu rng ca thot nc th cao nh b va cao hn y rnh 15-30cm. 4.5.2. ng i b 1) ng i b phi cch ly giao thng c gii bng di phn cch cng, r o chn hoc di cy xanh. 2) dc ngang mt ng ti thiu l 1% v ti a l 4%. 3) dc dc ca ng i b v h ph trong trng hp vt qu 40% th phi lm ng dng bc thang, mi bc thang cao ti a l 15cm, chiu rng ti thiu l 30cm. Trn cc ng bc thang cn phi thit k ng xe ln ginh cho ngi khuyt tt v tr em. 4) ng b hnh qua ng c quy nh tt c ng cp th v cp khu vc. Hnh thc giao ct cng mc thng thng, giao ct cng mc c tn hiu n, giao ct khc mc dng cu vt hay hm chui c chn theo lu lng giao thng c gii, lu lng b hnh. 5) ng b hnh qua ng xe chy loi cng mc phi m bo c chiu rng ln hn 6m i vi ng chnh v ln hn 4m i vi ng khu vc. Khong cch gia 2 ng b qua ng ln hn 300m i vi ng chnh v ln hn 200m i vi ng khu vc. 6) Cu vt, hm chui cho ngi i b c b tr ti cc nt giao thng c l u lng xe ln hn 2.000 xeq/h v lu lng b hnh ln hn 100 ngi/h (tnh gi cao im), b tr ti cc nt giao thng khc mc, nt giao thng gia ng th vi ng st, cc ga tu in ngm, g n sn vn ng. Khong cch gia cc hm v cu b hnh 500m. B rng ca hm v cu vt qua ng c xc nh theo lu lng b hnh gi cao im tnh ton, nh ng phi ln hn 3m. 4.5.3. ng xe p 1) Dc theo ng ph t cp ng chnh khu vc tr ln, phi b tr ng dnh ring cho xe p. 2) ng xe p c b tr ln xe ngoi cng hai bn ng ph. i vi ng trc chnh th phi c di phn cch hoc h ng ro phn cch gia phn ng dnh cho xe c gii v phn ng dnh cho xe th s (xe p, xch l, ); i vi ng trc lin khu th trong trng hp kh khn cho php thay di phn cch, ro phn cch bng vch sn lin. i vi cc loi ng khc cho php b tr l n xe p i chung vi ng t. 3) Chiu rng ng xe p ti thiu l 3m m bo 2 ln xe. 4.6. Bi xe, bn dng xe but, bn xe li n tnh 4.6.1. Bi xe 1) Trong khu dn dng, khu nh cn dnh t b tr ni xe, gara; trong khu cng nghip, kho tng cn b tr gara t c xng sa cha. Bi xe vn chuyn hng

47

ho c b tr gn ch, ga hng ho, cc trung tm thng nghi p v cc trung tm khc c yu cu vn chuyn hng ho ln. 2) Din tch ti thiu mt ch ca ph ng tin giao thng (cha k din tch t dnh cho ng ra, vo bn , cy xanh): t but t xe ti t con M t thuyn M t, xe my Xe p 40m2 30m2 25m2 8m2 3m2 0,9m2

3) i vi th ci to, bi xe t con cho php b tr nhng ng ph c chiu rng phn xe chy ln h n yu cu cn thit. 4.6.2. Bn dng xe but 1) Chiu rng bn dng xe t nht l 3m. 2) V tr bn dng xe but trn ng cn m bo cc quy nh sau: - Bn dng xe but (xe in bnh h i, tu in) phi c b tr nhng v tr thun li cho hnh khch, gn trng hc, c quan x nghip, ch, nh ga, bn, cng. - Khng b tr bn dng xe but trn cc on ng cong bn knh nh, tr n cc on khng m bo tm nh n. - Ch dng xe but ca hng giao thng i din phi b tr lch vi ch dng xe but ca hng giao thng ngc li t nht l 10m. - Trm dng xe but cho php b tr trc v sau nt giao thng. i vi nt giao thng c vch cho b hnh qua ng, ch xe but phi cch vch ti thiu l 10m. Trn cc ng ph chnh c n tn hiu iu khin phi b tr cch ch giao nhau ti thiu l 20m. - Trn ng cao tc, trm dng xe but cao tc phi c b tr ngoi phm vi phn xe chy ca ng cao tc v gn cc ng r ra vo ng cao tc. - Trm dng xe but phi c mi che, gh ngi cho h nh khch v s cc tuyn xe but i vi tng s xe. - Bn xe but cui cng ca cc tuyn xe but phi c vn ph ng lm vic ca ban qun l xe, nh phc v cho cng nhn v ch i cho hnh khch v cc cng trnh dch v khc. 4.6.3. Bn t hnh khch v hng ho lin t nh 1) cc th ln, bn t h nh khch phi b tr thun tin ni vi mng li ng quc gia v chia thnh cc bn khu vc theo hng vn ti: bn xe pha Nam, Bc, ng v Ty gim lng xe giao thng trong th. 2) cc th nh v va, bn t hnh khch c b tr nhng ni lin h thun li vi trung tm, nh ga, bn cng, ch v nhng ni tp trung dn. 3) nhng th c cng ng thu ni , t chc bn xe lin vn thu - b to iu kin thun li cho ng i s dng.

48

4) Bn t hng ho b tr cnh cc khu cng nghip, kho t ng. 5) Bn t hnh khch lin tnh phi c b tr cch ly ng giao thng chnh mt c ly m bo xe ra, vo bn khng cn tr giao thng tr n ng ph chnh, m bo c th t chc ng ra v vo bn ring bit (ng mt chiu), phi c din tch cho xe ly khch v tr khch, ni lm vic ca ban qun l bn, n i ch ca hnh khch, ni bo dng xe v cc cng trnh dch v khc. 6) Bn t hnh khch v bn t hng ho phi tun th cc quy nh php lut v phng chy cha chy v c gii php thot nn, cu nn khi ho hon xy ra. 4.7. Trm thu ph 4.7.1. V tr trm thu ph 1) Trm thu ph c t ti cc v tr thun li cho vic thu ph, khng cn tr qu trnh lu thng ca cc phng tin giao thng: trn ng trc khi vo hm hoc cu ln; ti cc nt giao thng khc mc lin thng trn cc ng cao tc v ng cp cao; ti bin gii ca hai khu vc c thu ph. 2) V tr trm thu ph phi ph hp vi cc quy nh qun l hin hnh v trm thu ph giao thng. 4.7.2. Quy hoch cc ln xe trm thu ph 1) S ln xe trm thu ph ph thuc v o lu lng xe gi cao im ca nm t ng lai th 10 v c d tr p ng lu lng xe gi cao im ca nm t ng lai th 20. S ln xe trm thu ph cn m bo l ng xe xp hng song song trn chiu di khng qu 300m c xt n thnh phn, kh xe v thi gian trung bnh cho vic thu ph. 2) Ti cc trm thu ph c nhiu ph ng thc thu ph v thanh ton th phn chia cc ln xe ring theo loi tr tin mt, loi c th tr ti n trc hay tr theo ti khon. 3) Ti cc trm thu ph c tr n 3 ln thu ph th b tr cc ln ring cho xe con, xe ti v xe my. 4) Ti cc trm thu ph gn li v o trung tm th th b tr mt ln xe gia cho php o chiu, sng cho chiu xe i v o v chiu cho xe i ra. 4.7.3. Chiu rng ln xe thu ph 1) Cc ln xe c gii c chiu rng ti thiu l 3,50m v c thit b m xe, h thng TV, camera. 2) o phn cch cc ln thu ph c chiu rng o ti thiu l rng 2m v di 30m. Trn o c ch lm vic ca ngi thu ph, ch t b phn iu khin barie chn xe, lp t cc thit b thu ph, t ng m xe, phn loi xe, cc ch dn. 3) Xe my c ln ring, chiu rng nh nht l 2,5m. 4.7.4. Cc quy nh khc 1) Tnh khng ng ca trm t t i thiu l 5m. 2) Khng t trm thu ph cui dc khi dc trn 3%. 3) Cc trm thu ph c b tr cc khu vc thng thong hn ch tp trung kh thi.

49

4) Trm thu ph phi c mi che, c thit b chiu sng, c h thn g lin lc (radio, in thoi, h thng loa, camera ), h thng thng gi v chng n. 5) Di nn nh trm thu ph b tr cng k thut t h thng cp in, ng dy thng tin, ng dn nc. 4.8. Trm sa cha t 1) nh mc quy hoch din tch ti thiu cc trm sa cha t cho bng 4.8. Bng 4.8. Din tch t ca mt trm sa cha ( ha)
S ch sa cha trong trm 10 15 25 50 Din tch (ha) 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5

2) Khong cch t gara, trm sa cha t, b i xe, bi ra xe n nh v cng trnh cng cng khng c nh hn khong cch quy nh ti bng 4.9. Bng 4.9. Khong cch ti thiu b tr b i xe v trm sa cha t ti cc chn cng trnh xy dng khc (m)
Khong cch (m) Cng trnh >100 Nh Cng trnh cng cng Trng hc, nh tr C quan iu tr 50 20 Gara, bi xe vi s xe 51-100 25 20 21-50 15 15 50 50 20 15 15 25 25 Trm sa cha vi s xe > 30 50 20 11-30 25 20 -

10
15 15 50 50

Ch thch: i vi trng hp c bit, th ci to cho php gim cc tr s quy nh trong bng 4.10, nhng phi c s chp thun ca cp c thm quyn.

4.9.

Nn ng

1) Nn ng th phi c thit k cho ton b chiu rng ca ng ph, bao gm phn xe chy, di phn cch, h ph, di cy xanh. 2) Cao thit k ng ph phi m bo cao khng ch ca quy hoch xy dng th, m bo thot n c ng ph v giao thng thun tin t ng ph vo khu dn c hai bn ng. 3) Nn ng phi m bo n nh, c cng chu c cc tc ng ca xe c v cc yu t t nhin, m bo yu cu cnh quan, sinh thi v mi trng ca khu vc vng theo cc quy nh k thut i vi nn ng. 4.10. o ng 1) Phn xe chy, cc ln chuyn tc, di an ton, di dng xe khn cp, qung tr ng, cc bi dch v giao thng trn ng u phi c kt cu o ng.

50

2) Kt cu o ng phi ph hp vi lu lng giao thng, thnh phn dng xe, cp hng ng, c tnh s dng ca cng tr nh v yu cu v sinh th. - i vi ng th, p dng cc loi mt ng c s dng cc cht li n kt hu c (bitum) v lin kt v c (ximng) di cc dng khc nhau (b tng nha, thm nhp nha, lng mt, btng xi mng). - Kt cu o ng phi cng , khng bi, m bo bng phng, nhm, d thot nc theo cc quy nh k thut i vi thit k o ng. - i vi cc ng ph chnh (ng trc th) cc on ng dc trn 3%, cc ng cong bn knh nh, im xe cng cng, cc nhnh ra v vo cu vt, cc ni khng m bo tm nhn, kt cu mt ng phi c nhm cao (b tng xi mng hoc b tng nha bng ct liu c nhm cao ) m bo an ton xe chy. 4.11. Mng li giao thng vn ti h nh khch cng cng Mng li giao thng vn ti hnh khch cng cng phi c quy hoch v tun th cc quy nh ca QCXDVN 01:2008 /BXD Quy hoch xy dng. 4.12. ng t chuyn dng dc ca ng t chuyn dng trong th phc v vic vn chuyn cho khu cng nghip, nh my, kho tng, bn cng..., thnh phn xe chy trn ng ch yu l cc xe ti nng, xe ti ko mc, xe contain , c quy nh nh sau: dc dc ln nht ca ng thit k l 4%. dc siu cao ln nht l 6%.

Bn knh ti thiu ng cong nm tnh ton cho trng hp trn ng c nhiu xe r-mooc phi ph hp vi loi xe c kch th c ln nht. 4.13. ng st th 4.13.1. ng st ni ng st th bao gm ng tu in ngm, ng tu in trn cao, ng xe in bnh st v ng st ni . Qui hoch v thit k ng st ni th phi tun theo Lut ng st, quy nh ca QCXDVN 01:2008/BXD Quy hoch xy dng v cc cc qui nh v thit k ng st hin hnh. 4.13.2. ng xe in 1) Chiu rng nn ng xe in trn on thng c quy nh ti bng 4.10. 2) Chiu di trm xe in bng chiu di on xe cng thm 5m. Chiu rng trm xe ph thuc vo lu lng hnh khch nhng khng c nh hn 3m. Bng 4.10. Chiu rng ti thiu ca nn ng xe in (m)
c im tuyn Tuyn trn nn chung khng c ct gia Tuyn trn nn ring Chiu rng (m) ng i 6,6 8,8 ng n 3,6 3,8

4.13.3.ng tu in ngm v ng st trn cao 1) i vi th loi c bit v i vi th c dn s tr n 1 triu dn, trong quy hoch xy dng th phi xem xt ph ng n xy dng ng tu in ngm v 51

ng st trn cao khi phn tch kinh t k thut la chn loi hnh giao thng vn ti cng cng. 2) Quy hoch, thit k ng tu in ngm v ng st trn cao tun th Lut ng st v QCVN 08:2009/BXD Cng trnh ngm th, Phn 1- Tu in ngm. 3) Kh ng st i vi ng tu in ngm v ng st trn cao l 1.435mm. 4) Cc yu cu v tc thit k v cc tiu chun hnh hc gii hn i vi ng tu in ngm quy nh nh sau y: Tc thit k (km/h) Bn knh ti thiu (m) Chiu di ng cong nm ti thiu Siu cao ti a trn on cong trn (mm) Bin i siu cao trn on cong chuyn tip on thng gia 2 ng cong (min) dc dc ti a dc dc ti thiu i vi on ng c rnh dc Chiu di on dc ti thiu (on i dc) B rng t tim n vai ng (m) Khong cch gia 2 tim ng (m) Giao ct vi mi ng khc 200 2.000 1 on tu 150 1 1 on tu 25 3 1 on tu 4 - 4,5 4,3 - 5,0 Khc mc 350 5.000

5) Cc yu cu v tc thit k v cc tiu chun hnh hc gii hn i vi ng st trn cao quy nh nh sau y: Tc thit k (km/h) Bn knh ti thiu (m) Chiu di ng cong nm ti thiu (m) Siu cao ti a trn on cong trn (mm) Bin i siu cao trn on cong chuyn tip on thng ti thiu gia 2 ng cong (m) dc dc ti a Chiu di on dc ti thiu (m) Giao nhau vi mi ng khc 100 300 25 120mm 1 25 30 50 Khc mc

6) ng st th nu l dng phi hp c i ngm, i tr n cao v i mt t th on i trn mt t phi c hng ro bo v 2 bn ng v giao ct lp th vi mi ng khc.

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7) Cc ga tu in ngm v ng st trn cao c b tr gn cc khu tp trung dn c, gn cc u mi giao thng. 8) Cc ga ca ng tu in ngm c b tr h thng thang my, cu than g t ng, c khu v sinh phc v hnh chnh, c h thng bn v v kim tra v t ng. 9) Cc ga ca ng st trn cao c h thng ln xung dng bc thang, mi bc cao khng qu 15cm v c ng xe ln ginh cho ngi khuyt tt v tr em hoc cu thang t ng. 10) Quy hoch, thit k hm phi m bo cc y u cu v k thut, khai thc s dng v sinh cng nghip, phng chng chy n, an ton, tin li giao thng, h thng thng gi, cp thot nc, chiu sng, hm thot him, cp in, thng tin, tn hiu v h thng kim sot khai thc vn h nh ng tu in ngm. 4.14. ng thu ni a Quy hoch xy dng h tng k thut giao thng ng thy ni a trong th phi ph hp vi qui hoch xy dng th, phi tun theo cc iu qui nh trong Lut giao thng ng thy v QCXDVN 01:2008/BXD Quy hoch xy dng. 4.15. ng hng khng Quy hoch giao thng vn ti hng khng phi ph hp vi quy hoch xy dng th, quy hoch pht trin giao thng vn ti hng khng v QCXDVN 01:2008/BXD Quy hoch xy dng. 4.16. Nt giao thng trong th 4.16.1. T chc nt giao nhau 1) Nguyn tc t chc nt giao nhau ng th cho bng 4.11. Bng 4.11. Nguyn tc t chc giao nhau cng mc, khc mc ti cc th c bit v loi I
Cc loi ng th ng cao tc th ng trc th ng trc khu th (ng gom) ng ni b khu th ng cao tc th Khc mc ng trc th Khc mc Khc mc hoc cng mc c n tn hiu ng trc khu th (ng gom) Khc mc Cng mc c n tn hiu hoc khc mc ng ni b khu th Khc mc

Khc mc

Khc mc

Khc mc

Cng mc c n tn Cng mc c n tn hiu hoc khc mc hiu Khc mc Cng mc

Cng mc

Khc mc

Cng mc

Ch thch: - Giao nhau khc mc c th c hoc khng c cc nhnh ni li n thng tu theo cch t chc giao thng; - Vi th loi 2, 3 v khu th ci to, tu theo iu kin giao thng v iu kin xy dng chn loi hnh giao nhau ph hp.

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2) Loi hnh nt giao thng cn c vo nguyn tc t chc giao thng cho trong bng 4.11, ng thi c xt ti iu kin s dng t , kh nng u t v kh nng ci to nng cp sau ny. 4.16.2. Cc yu cu nt giao thng cng mc 1) Tm nhn - Phi m bo cho ngi li xe i trn tt c cc nhnh ng dn vo nt nhn bit r s hin din ca nt v cc tn hiu n, bin bo c lin quan ti nt t c ly quy nh ca thit k nt giao thng hin h nh. - Ti cc nt giao thng khng c n iu khin hoc khng c bin bo dng xe khi vo nt th phi m bo tm nhn ti thiu dng xe v trong phm vi tam gic nhn phi m bo thng thong, khng c cc ch ng ngi vt cn tr tm nh n xe cc nhnh i vo nt. Tm nhn dng xe quy nh ph thuc v o tc thit k ca cc ng dn vo nt, ly theo bng 4.2. - Trong trng hp khng th m bo tm nhn tnh ton phi c bin bo hn ch tc . 2) Gc giao Gc giao gia cc ng dn vo nt phi gn vung gc. Khi gc giao nh h n 600 th phi tm gii php ci thin gc giao. 3) Nt giao - Nt giao phi t cc on ng thng, trng hp c bit phi t trn ng cong th bn knh ng cong phi ln hn bn knh ti thiu khng siu cao. - Nt giao phi t cc on ng c dc thoi. Trong mi tr ng hp khng cho php t nt giao cc on ng c dc ln hn 4%. - Khng t nt giao ngay sau nh ng cong ng li do b hn ch tm nh n khi vo nt. - Nt giao phi c quy hoch thot nc v phi m bo nc ma khng chy vo trung tm nt giao. 4) Tc thit k nt giao c ng mc Vi lung xe i thng, tc thit k bng tc thit k ca on ngoi nt s i qua nt. Vi lung xe r phi, r tri tc thit k ph thuc v o iu kin khng gian xy dng nt, iu kin giao thng, nh ng trong mi trng hp l: - Vi lung xe r phi, tc thit k khng v t qu 0,6 tc thit k ca on ng ngoi nt. - Vi lung xe r tri, tc thit k khng v t qu 0,4 tc thit k ca on ng ngoi nt. - Trong mi trng hp tc thit k ti thiu khng nh h n 15km/h cho cc lung r (tri v phi). - i vi ng ni b, ng khu vc trong iu kin c bit cho php s dng bn knh tnh theo b va ti thiu l 5-8m 5) o giao thng

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- Cc loi o giao thng: o phn cch l cc o c b tr trn ng phn cch cc dng xe chy ngc chiu nhau v lm ch tr chn cho b hnh cc nt giao thng rng, hng dn r tri trn ng chnh; o dn hng c b tr trn ng ph dn hng lung xe chy; o tam gic (o gc) h ng dn xe r phi; o git nc c tc dng phn cch cc d ng xe v hng dn xe r tri t ng ph ra ng chnh v r tri t ng chnh ra ng ph. Hnh dng cc o tam gic, o git n c phi theo dng qu o xe chy khi r. - o giao thng phi b tr thun li cho cc h ng xe u tin, hng dn r rng cc lung xe chy, khng gy tm l lng l i vi li xe. 6) Ln chuyn tc. Ln chuyn tc c b tr cc ch xe r phi hoc r tri. L n chuyn tc c gi l ln tng tc nu xe t ng c tc thp vo ng c tc cao v ln gim tc c b tr nu xe t ng c tc cao vo ng c tc thp. 4.16.3. Nt giao thng khc mc Nt giao nhau khc mc c la chn qua phn tch kinh t - k thut. Loi hnh nt giao c thc hin theo cc ch dn trong bng 4.11. Tiu chun k thut thit k cc nhnh r trong nt gia o khc mc nh tc thit k cc nhnh ni (nhnh r), bn knh ti thiu, dc si u cao, chiu di on chuyn tip, kch thc mt ct ngang, dc ti a ca cc ng nhnh r phi tun th theo cc gii hn qui nh bng 4.2. 4.17. Cu trong th 4.17.1.Cc loi cu trong th Cu cho giao thng th : cu ng t, ng st ni , cu b hnh. Cu cho cc loi ng ng h tng k thut th.

4.17.2. Cc quy nh i vi cu trong th 1) V tr cu phi ph hp quy hoch th. 2) Yu cu an ton giao thng trn v di cu - Chiu rng cu khng c nh hn chiu rng ca on ng u cu, bao gm c l ng hoc b va, rnh nc v ng ngi i b. - Mt ng trn cu phi c nhm, dc thot n c, mui luyn, siu cao...ph hp nhng quy nh ca quy chun v cc cng trnh giao thng. - M tr phi c bo v chng va qut do xe c, tu thuyn i li xui ng c di gm cu. - Kh gii hn theo chiu ng t mc n c cao nht (mc nc lch s vi tn sut thit k) ti im thp nht y kt cu n hp ti thiu phi l 0,5m (nu c cy tri th ti thiu l 1,0m); ti mt tm k gi cu l 0,25m; ng thi phi m bo thng thuyn (nu c) vi kh gii hn tu theo cp sng quy nh tnh t mc n c thng thuyn thit k theo Lut G iao thng ng thy. - Hai bn l cu phi c lan can, ro chn m bo an ton xe chy v xe c, ngi i b trn cu.

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- cao phn ng b hnh trn cu phi 300mm tnh t cao ca mt ng xe chy. Chiu cao tay vn lan can tr n cu ti thiu l 1.000mm. 3) m bo tnh nng khai thc s dng cng trnh - Bo m yu cu cho giao thng: i vi cu th cho xe c gii, dc dc mt cu phn xe chy khng c ln hn 4%; tnh khng ti thiu dnh cho xe c gii i li di cu l 4,75m. - H thng thot nc trn mt cu phi bo m quy t nc vo ng thot nhanh chng nht. dc ngang trn mt cu l 2%. Din tch mt ct ngang ti thiu ca ng thot nc phi l 1cm2/1m2 mt cu. ng knh trong ca ng thot khng c nh hn 150mm. Ming h ga thu nc phi thp hn mt ng trn cu ti thiu 10mm v phi c np y c li chng rc. u di ca ng thot nc phi nh ra khi cu kin thp nht ca kt cu nhp l 100mm. Ti nhng ni c ng chui di cu cn b tr mng thu v ng thot nc ra bn ngoi phm vi ca ng chui. 4) m bo m quan cng trnh Hnh dng ca cu phi hi ho vi cnh quan mi trng, ph hp vi thit k th. 5) m bo tnh bn vng Cng trnh phi chu c cc loi ti trng v cc tc ng trong mi t hp bt li nht theo quy nh ca quy chun cc cng trnh giao thng. Thi gian s dng tnh ton cu l 100 nm. 4.18. Hm giao thng trong th Hm giao thng bao gm hm cho ng t, m t, hm cho ng st, hm b hnh. Xy dng cc hm giao thng trong th phi tun th cc qui nh ca quy chun cc cng trnh giao thng v cc qui nh di y. 1) Hm giao thng trong th phi kt hp vi cc cng trnh trn mt t to thnh mt h thng khng gian thng nht, thun li cho mi hot ng v sinh hot ca c dn th v an ton giao thng. 2) Cc cng trnh hm giao thng phi c u tin xy dng ti cc trung tm th, nhng ni khan him t ai dnh cho giao thng tnh cng nh ng, hoc ti cc nt giao thng cn gii quyt nn n tc. 3) Quy hoch cc cng trnh hm giao thng th phi cn c v o c im ca a hnh, a mo; v tr ca nhng cng tr nh kin trc hin hu bn trn, cng nh mng li cc cng trnh ngm h tng k thut sn c b n di; iu kin a cht cng trnh v a cht thu vn; mng li giao thng v cc cng trnh th cn ci to bo m an ton v thun li cho sinh hot, i li ca ngi dn. - Quy hoch mt ng, su t cc hm giao thng trong th phi cn c v o mng li cc h thng cng trnh ngm c nh hin c cng nh quy hoch trong tng lai (ng ng cp thot nc, cp ti in, cp thng tin lin lc, nn mng v phn ngm ca nh v cng trnh hin hu). - Hm giao thng qua ng phi lm nng gim bt chiu di hoc dc ca on ng ln xung hm, nht l i vi nhng hm cho ng i i b.

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4) Cc loi hm giao thng di qung trng dnh ring cho ngi i b cn quy hoch cc nhnh r c th ra v o theo nhiu li khc nhau, ph hp vi quy hoch giao thng tng th trong qung trng. 5) Qui nh cc gii hn hnh hc i vi hm giao thng - dc dc i ca tuyn ng trong on hm kn khng c vt qu 4% xt ti hiu ng pittng v gim lng kh thi khi xe ln dc. Trng hp ng hm ngn, imax cho php tng ln ti 6%. Trn cc on l thin, dc i ca ng dn l thin ra vo on hm kn cho php ly tr s ln nht l 6% gim bt chiu di v khi lng thi cng ton tuyn. Nu mt xe ti loi nng nhiu , dc dc ln nht cho php l 4% bt lng kh thi c hi do ng c t ti nng gy ra khi ln dc. - dc dc ti thiu trn ng hm khng c nh hn 0,5%, c bit trong trng hp kh khn l 0,3%. - dc ngang ca mui luyn tr n ng t trong hm ly nh nht l 1,5% v ln nht l 2%. dc siu cao ti cc on hm cong: nh nht l 2% v ln nht l 4%. - Bn knh ca ng cong ng ph thuc vn tc thit k v cn m bo tm nhn (ng cong li) hoc mc m thun (ng cong lm) cho xe c gii. Bn knh ti thiu ca ng cong li v lm ly theo bng 4.2. - Mt bng hm giao thng l ng thng. Trng hp bt kh khng th bn knh cong trn mt bng ca ng hm th cng khng c nh hn tr s gii hn quy nh trong bng 4.2. - i vi hm c cong bn knh nh th phi m rng phn xe chy cho mi ln xe chy ti thiu nh qui nh di y: i vi ng hm c 2 ln xe: Khi bn knh cong R = 550-750m, Khi bn knh cong R = 400 -550m, Khi bn knh cong R = 300 - 400m, m rng bng 0,20m. m rng bng 0,25m. m rng bng 0,30.

i vi ng hm c 3 ln xe tr ln th khng cn m rng. - Chiu rng mt ln xe ti thiu l 3,75m cho dng xe hn hp v 2,75m cho hm thit k ring cho xe con. - Chiu rng phn xe chy phi c tnh ton theo lu lng xe gi cao im ca nm tnh ton tng lai qui nh i vi cp ng thit k. - Nu ng hm c b tr ng b hnh i chung th b rng b sung cho phn hnh lang i b mi bn, rng t nht l 1m, cao hn mt ng ti thiu l 0,4m v c ro chn loi cng ngn cch ph n xe chy. Trng hp khng cho php i b trong ng hm xe c gii cng phi b tr hnh lang rng ti thiu 0,75m bn cnh ln ng xe chy nhn vin phc v i li v phng s c xy ra cho hnh khch v li xe lnh nn. Trng hp c bit, hnh lang phc v ny cng phi rng t nht l 0,4m. 6) Tun th cc quy nh v phng chy cha chy. Phi c gii php thot nn an ton cho ngi, phi c h thng chiu sng s c v thng gi, thot khi. 57

4.19.

Tuy-nen v ho k thut

1) i vi cc th xy dng mi hoc ci to, cc cng trnh ngm nh ng ng cp nc, cp in, cp thng tin, trn cc ng cao tc, ng cp th v ng cp khu vc phi c b tr chung trong tuy -nen hoc ho k thut. Khi tin hnh ci to, cc ng dy, ng ng k thut c phi c d b trc khi thay th bng ng dy, ng ng k thut mi. 2) Cc tuy-nen k thut v ho k thut c b tr trong phm vi nn ng, di h ng, di phn cch, di cy xanh thun tin khi xy dng, sa cha, bo tr thng xuyn. 3) Cc gii php k thut v cu to cc tuy -nen hoc ho k thut tun th cc quy nh thit k tuy-nen v ho k thut hin hnh. 4.20. An ton giao thng v cc thi t b iu khin, hng dn giao thng 4.20.1. ng ra, vo ni vi ng trc th v ng trc khu th S lng v v tr cc nt giao thng ni cc ng trc khu th vi ng trc th, ng ni b khu th vi ng trc th phi c quy hoch hp l. Khng cho php ni trc tip ng ni b khu th vi ng trc th. 4.20.2. An ton hai bn ng 1) m bo tm nhn hai bn ng v cc ni ng giao nhau. 2) S dng cc hng ro chn, ba-rie phng h nhng on ng nguy him i vi giao thng. 3) Trang b y cc thit b, phng tin iu khin v hng dn giao thng: n tn hiu iu khin giao thng, bi n bo, vch sn phn lung. 4) Hn ch cc tn hiu phi giao thng hai b n ng gy mt tp trung i vi li xe: cc bin qung co, cc bin thng tin khc khng c t gn cc bin bo, thit b iu khin giao thng nu chng gy cn tr hoc nhm ln vi cc bin giao thng . Khng t cc bin qung co c s dng n c cng sut ln, n nhp nhy nhng ni c thit b iu khin giao thng. 4.20.3. Phn lung giao thng Quy hoch ng mt chiu, phn lung giao thng bng vch sn, o phn cch, o dn hng, ln xe tng tc, gim tc cc ng r ti cc nt giao thng. 4.20.4. Cc thit b iu khin, hng dn giao thng 1) Bin bo hiu Thc hin theo cc quy nh trong iu l bin bo hiu ng b. - Vch sn trn mt ng tun theo cc quy nh trong iu l bin bo hiu ng b. Vt liu sn k c s dng l vt liu sn v vt liu cht do chu nhit . Cho php s dng loi vt liu b tng mu (trng, vng), gch chuyn dng, kim loi vch sn k mt ng. 2) Cc tiu - Khi ta-luy m (ta-luy ng p) cao t 2m tr ln ti cc ng cong bn knh nh v ng dn ln cu th phi b tr cc tiu hoc lan can phng h. i vi ng c h ng cao 0,20m th khng phi t cc tiu hoc lan can phng h. 58

- Cc tiu c tit din ngang hnh trn, vung, tam gic, c kch thc khng nh hn 15cm; chiu cao cc tiu l 0,60m tnh t mt t, chiu su chn cht trong t khng di 35cm. - Cc tiu c sn mu theo quy nh ca iu l bo hiu ng b v dng loi sn phn quang. - Khong cch ti a gia cc cc ti u, trn ng thng l 10m; trn ng vng tu theo bn knh R, vi R = 10 -30m l 2- 3m; nu 30R100m l 4-6m; nu R > 100m l 8-10m. Ti cc on ng cong chuyn tip cho php b tr di hn 2m so vi quy nh trong phm vi ng cong trn. Trn cc on ng dc, nu i3% th khong cch ti a gia 2 cc ti u l 5m v nu nh hn 3% l 10m. Mi hng cc tiu t nht phi c 6 cc. 3) Ba-rie giao thng (lan can phng h ) - Ba-rie phng h c b tr gim mc tai nn giao thng bng cch chn gi, dn li, lm gim tc xe chy m khng nguy him cho xe. - Ba-rie di phn cch c t song song bn l di phn cch ngn chn khng cho cc phng tin giao thng v ngi b hnh i u ct qua di phn cch m vo phng tin giao thng ngc chiu. - Ba-rie phi ko di ra ngoi phm vi cn bo v mt on ti thiu l 10m. 4) Ro chn - Ro chn ngn nga khng cho ng vt, ng i, phng tin giao thng tu tin t hai bn ng i vo ng giao thng chnh, c bit i vi ng cao tc hoc dc theo di phn cch ngn khng cho ng i i b ct ngang ng qua di phn cch. - Ro chn c t dc theo mp ng ngay bn cnh ng ranh gii phn xe chy. 4.20.5. Quy nh i vi cc cng trnh xy dng dc hai bn ng 1) Cc cng trnh tp trung ng ngi v xe c (nh ch, rp ht, sn vn ng, ca hng, kho tng) phi c khong cch li lm bi xe v sn bi tp kt ngi khng nh hng ti giao thng trn ng. 2) m bo khng cn tr tiu nc ca h thng thot nc ca ng v khu t xy dng. 3) Khng c xy dng cc cng trnh nh cng cho, tng qung co, khu hiu, tng i lm nh hng n an ton giao thng.

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Chng 5 H THNG CC CNG TR NH CP IN TH 5.1. Quy nh chung

1) H thng cung cp in th phi p ng y nhu cu nng l ng in ca th cho thi gian hin ti v tng lai sau 10 nm, bao gm: in dn dng cho cc h gia nh; in cho cc cng trnh cng cng; in cho cc c s sn xut; in cho cc c s dch v, thng mi;

- in chiu sng giao thng cng cng, qung tr ng, cng vin, cc ni vui chi gii tr cng cng; Cc nhu cu khc. 2) H thng cung cp in th phi m bo tin cy cung cp in ph hp vi ba loi h dng in: h loi 1, loi 2 v loi 3. Loi h dng in s c qui nh trong iu 5.2. 3) H thng cung cp in th c ni vi h thng in quc gia v chu s iu phi ca Trung tm iu quc gia. 5.2. tin cy cung cp in 1) H loi 1 - Cc h dng in nu mt in s gy ra s c cht ngi, h hng nng thit b my mc, c nh hng ln n chnh tr, kinh t v an ninh quc gia, gm cc cng trnh quan trng nh tr s Quc hi, Chnh ph, Ch tch nc, phng cp cu, phng m, pht thanh, truyn hnh, thng tin lin lc... - Phi m bo lin tc cung cp in v c cung cp t hai ngun in c lp tr ln. 2) H loi 2 - Cc h dng in nu mt in s gy h hng thit b my mc, ngng sn xut, gy ra tn tht ln v kinh t hoc nh hng n sinh hot bnh thng ca nhiu ngi (cc cng trnh cng cng ca th, khu nh trn 5 tng, nh my nc, cng trnh lm sch cht thi v cc h tiu th in cng nghip tiu th in tp trung c cng sut t 4.000kW tr ln). - m bo lin tc cung cp in (mc u tin thp hn h loi 1). c cung cp t hai ngun in c lp tr l n. 3) H loi 3 - Cc h dng in cn li ngoi hai loi h dng in nu trn, cho php ngng cung cp in bo dng, sa cha, khc phc s c trong khong thi gian khng qu 12 gi. c cung cp t mt ngun in, khng yu cu c ngun in d phng. 60

5.3.

H thng in th

1) Trm bin p - Trm bin p trung gian: i vi th c bit v loi loi I, II cc trm bin p trung gian 220-110kV/22kV (hoc 6kV, 10kV, 15kV v 35kV) phi b tr su trong th m bo cht lng in v gim tn tht in nng. Trm bin p trung gian c xy dng mi th u tin s dng in p 22kV pha h p. Trm bin p phn phi phi t gn ph ti. 2) Mng h p Mng h p l mng cung cp in cho cc ph ti in sinh hot, ph ti in ca cng trnh cng cng, ph ti in sn xut (nu c), ph ti in khu cy xanh cng vin, ph ti in chiu sng cng cng. Mng h p chiu sng th dng cp in p h p 380/220V. 3) Xy dng h thng in th phi m bo yu cu kinh t-k thut v iu kin tiu chun ho trong xy dng v qun l, vn hnh li in. 5.4. Cp in p ca h thng in th 1) Cc cp in p Cp in p ca h thng in th phi ph hp vi cp in p tiu chun do nh nc quy nh. H thng in th c ba cp in p sau y: Cao p : 110kV, 220kV. Trung p : 6kV, 10kV, 15kV, 22kV v 35kV. H p : 380/220V.

2) S dng cp in p - H thng cung cp in cho th c bit v loi I gm 3 cp in p: cao p, trung p v h p; quy hoch li in t 110kV tr ln cho ton th, quy hoch mng li in t 22kV tr ln cho tng qun/huyn. - H thng cung cp in ca th loi II tr xung phi d ng trung p v h p, quy hoch li in chung ca th t 22kV tr ln cho ton th. 5.5. Ph ti in 1) Ph ti in th c tnh ton ng vi giai on hin ti v giai on pht trin trong tng lai (sau 10 nm). 2) Ph ti in sinh hot cho dn c c xc nh theo cc s liu trong bng 5.1; ph ti in cho cc cng trnh cng cng c xc nh theo bng 5.2. 3) Ch tiu in cng nghip (sn xut cng nghip, kho t ng): i vi cc khu/cm cng nghip c, nhu cu cp in c d bo theo yu cu thc t ang s dng hoc d kin m rng. i vi c c khu/cm cng nghip d kin xy dng mi, ch a bit quy m, cng sut ca tng nh my x nghip, ch bit quy m t xy dng, cc ch tiu quy nh ti bng 5.3.

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Bng 5.1. Ch tiu cung cp in sinh hot


Giai on hin ti Ch tiu cp in th c bit 1400 2800 500 th loi I 1100 2500 450 Giai on pht trin (sau 10 nm) th loi IV, V

th loi th th th th loi c loi loi I II, IV, V bit II, III III 750 2500 300 450 2000 200 2400 3000 800 2100 3000 700 1500 3000 500

in nng, kWh/ngi.nm S gi s dng cng sut ln nht, h/nm Ph ti in, kW/1000 ngi

1000 3000 330

Bng 5.2. Ch tiu cp in cng trnh cng cng


Loi th in cng trnh cng cng dch v, thng mi, chiu sng cng cng (tnh bng % ph ti in sinh hot) th loi c bit 50 th loi I 40 th loi II-III 35 th loi IV-V 30

Bng 5.3. Ch tiu cp in cho sn xut cng nghip, kho t ng


TT 1 Loi cng nghip Cng nghip nng (luyn gang, luyn thp, sn xut t, sn xut my ci, cng nghip ho du, ho cht, phn bn), sn xut xi mng Cng nghip vt liu xy dng khc, c kh Cng nghip ch bin lng thc, thc phm, in t, vi tnh, dt Cng nghip giy da, may mc Cm cng nghip nh, tiu cng nghip Cc c s sn xut th cng nghip Kho tng Ch tiu (kW/Ha) 350

2 3 4 5 6 7

250 200 160 140 120 50

5.6.

Nh my nhit in ring ca th

1) Nh my nhit in ring ca th phi c b tr theo qui hoch xy dng th, gn cc ph ti ln, gn ng st, thu, b v phi cui hng gi ch o trnh gy nhim khng kh th. 2) Hot ng ca nh my nhit in ring ca th phi t yu cu mi trng v kh thi.

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3) Nh my nhit in ring ca th phi c kh nng ni vi h thng in quc gia khi h thng in quc gia i qua th trong t ng lai. 4) Nh my in d phng cng phi c kh nng ni vi h thng in quc gia. 5.7. Ngun in ca cc h thng cung cp in th 1) Ngun in cung cp cho h loi 1 bao gm ngun in c cung cp t h thng in quc gia v ngun in c lp d phng khc. Cc ngun in sau y c coi l ngun in c lp: Ngun in ly t cc trm bin p khu vc khc; Ngun in ly t trm bin p khu vc v nh my in d phng; Ngun in ly t mng in th v trm in diezel dng ring cho h loi 1;

- Ngun in ly t mng in th v trm in ly t c quy t ring cho h loi 1. 2) Ngun in cung cp cho h loi 2 bao gm ngun in c cung cp ch yu t h thng in quc gia hoc t nh my in a phng khi khng c h thng in quc gia i qua v cc ngun in d phng c lp khc. Cc ngun in sau y c coi l ngun in c lp: - Hai ngun in ly t hai phn on thanh ci pha h p ca trm bin p khu vc; - Hai ngun in ly t hai pha ca mch v ng cung cp in th trong trng hp mch vng ny bnh thng vn hnh ch mch h. 3) Ngun in cung cp cho h loi 3 bao gm ngun in c cung cp t h thng in quc gia hoc t nh my in a phng khi khng c h thng in quc gia i qua. 5.8. Trm bin p v trm phn phi ca h thng cung cp in th 1) Trm bin p - Trm bin p khu vc lm nhim v bin i in cao p 110 -220 kV thnh in p trung p 22kV (hoc 6kV, 10kV, 15kV v 35kV). Trm bin p khu vc l trm bin p ngoi tri. - Cc trm khu vc 220kV phi t khu vc ngoi th. Tr ng hp bt buc phi a su vo ni th, khng t ti cc trung tm th v phi c din tch t trm, c cc hnh lang a cc tuyn in cao v trung p ni vi trm. Nu t trm gn cc trung tm th ca cc th nh ph ln loi I hoc loi c bi t, phi dng trm kn. - Cc trm khu vc 110kV t trong khu vc ni th cc th t loi II n loi c bit phi dng trm kn. - Trm bin p phn phi lm nhim v bin i in p trung p 6kV, 10kV, 15kV, 22kV v 35kV thnh in p 380/220V. Trm bin p phn phi gm trm bin p ngoi tri v trm bin p trong nh. Xy dng trm bin p phn phi phi thc hin nhng qui nh sau: + My bin p phn phi c cp in p pha cao p ph hp vi in p ca my bin p trung gian gn nht, u tin cp in p 22kV. 63

+ +

Phi ngm ho ng dy cao p v h p. t thit b b cng sut phn khng.

2) Trm phn phi (trm ct) d ng nhn v phn phi in nng cng mt cp in p v c t ni c mt ph ti ln. 5.9. Ph kin ng dy 1) Dy dn - Dy dn in ng dy thuc mng cao p c la chn ph hp vi yu cu ca li in khu vc v quc gia. - Dy dn in ng dy thuc mng trung p phi c la chn theo cc iu kin sau y: + Trung tm th phi s dng cp ngm, ng thi m bo iu ki n tiu chun trong xy dng v qun l vn hnh li in. + Ven v ngoi thnh, cho php s dng ng dy trn khng sau khi xem xt iu kin pht trin th 10 nm sau. - Dy dn in ng dy thuc mng h p c la chn bng cp ngm hoc ng dy trn khng bng dy dn c bc cch in. - Ti cc v tr giao nhau gia ng dy dn in cao p tr n khng, ng cp in ngm vi ng st, ng b, ng thu ni a, phi t v qun l bin bo vt qua i vi cc phng tin vn ti theo quy nh. - Cc cp in ngm i trong t, nm trong cng tr nh khc hoc i chung vi ng dy thng tin, phi m bo khong cch an to n theo quy nh ti quy phm trang thit b in v cc quy nh khc ca php lut li n quan. 2) Ct, mng ct, no ct, x, s, hp cng t, hp phn phi ca ng dy trn khng - Kch thc ct in v mng ca chng phi m bo y u cu k thut, ph hp vi iu kin a cht v iu kin t nhin ca khu vc ; phi m bo khong cch ct v nht l cc ct gc, ct r nhnh; - No ct, x, s, hp cng t, hp phn phi phi m bo ng cc ti u chun k thut, m thut. 3) Rnh cp, u ni ca ng cp ngm - Rnh cp phi m bo ng cc tiu chun k thut. c bit ch ng cp ct nhau, ng cp qua ng giao thng v ng cp gn cc cng trnh ngm khc. u ni cp phi m bo ng cc ti u chun k thut. - on ng dy cao p vt qua nh , cng trnh c ngi thng xuyn sinh sng, lm vic phi s dng ct dy in l ct thp hoc ct b tng, dy in khng c mi ni trong khong ct, tr dy c tit din t 240mm 2 tr ln th cho php khng qu mt im ni cho mt pha. 5.10. o m in nng 1) Trong cc trm bin p, trn cc cc ng dy cung cp in cho cc h d ng in phi t thit b o m in nng tc dng v phn khng. 64

2) Thit b o m in phi ph hp vi tiu chun k thut v c c quan qun l nh nc v o lng kim chun v nim phong. 3) Cng t phi c lp t trong khu vc qun l ca b n mua in, tr trng hp tho thun khc. 5.11. Bo v v t ng ho trong h thng in th 1) Cc thit b bo v v t ng ho trong h thng in th phi pht hin v loi tr nhanh chng phn t b s c ra khi h thng v m bo ton b h thng in lm vic an ton. 2) Thit b bo v phi tho mn cc yu cu sau y: Tin cy: tnh nng m bo cho thit b bo v l m vic ng, chc chn. - Chn lc: kh nng bo v c th pht hin v loi tr ng phn t b s c ra khi h thng. - Tc ng nhanh: thit b bo v phi pht hin v cch ly phn t b s c cng nhanh cng tt. Bo v chnh cho php thi gian khng qu 1,5 giy; bo v d ph ng khng qu 2 giy. nhy: bo v chnh phi c h s nhy n 2, bo v d ph ng n 1,2. 3) Cho php dng cu ch hoc ptmat bo v li in h p v thit b in. Cu ch v my ct cao p c dng bo v ngn mch, qu ti cho ng dy hoc my bin p cng sut khng ln vi mng in c in p n 110kV. Phi t thit b rle bo v cc phn t quan trng nh my bin p cng sut ln, cc h thng thanh gp, mng in cao p, mng in trung p cng sut ln cng nh cc mng cp in cho ph ti h loi 1 v h loi 2. 4) Nng cao tin cy cung cp in ca h thng in th cn phi: t s mch vng hoc c ngun d phng; - t thit b t ng ng lp li khi ngun in l m vic b mt in thong qua v thit bi t ng ng ngun d ph ng khi mt ngun in lm vic. 5.12. Ni t v ni khng trong h thng in th 1) Ni t trong mi cng trnh in th phi m bo 3 chc nng sau: Ni t cng tc; Ni t bo v; Ni t chng st.

2) Cc thit b in ni vo mng trung p c trung tnh ni t trc tip phi c ni t bo v. in tr ni t phi t tr s theo quy nh v an to n in. 3) Trung tnh pha h p cc my bin p phn phi trong h thng in th phi ni t trc tip. in tr ni t phi t tr s theo quy nh v an to n in. Ni t lp li cho dy trung tnh l bt buc, khng qu 250m phi b tr mt b ni t lp li cho dy trung tnh. 4) V cc thit b in ni v o mng h p phi c ni t hoc ni khng" (tc l ni vo ng dy trung tnh ca mng) an to n, ph hp vi la chn thit b bo v : Ni t tng ng vi thit b bo v chng d ng in r; 65

- Ni khng tng ng vi thit b bo v t-nhit. Trng hp ng dy cung cp ko di cn phi hp thm thit b bo v chng dng in r. 5.13. Bo v chng st 1) Trm bin p trung gian v thit b phn phi ngoi tri ca mng 220110kV/22kV (hoc 6kV, 10kV, 15kV v 35kV) phi c bo v chng st. 2) Cc thit b v h thng chng st, ni t ca l i in truyn ti v phn phi phi c lp t theo ng quy phm, ti u chun an ton k thut in. 3) Tt c cc kt cu kim loi v v dn in cc thit b trong cng tr nh phi c ni vi mt b phn ni t chng st hay ni vi b phn ni t bo v thit b in. 4) chng cm ng in t, phi ni tip in (vi in tr tip xc khng ln h n 0,03) tt c cc ng ng kim loi, cc kt cu kim loi d i, ai v v kim loi ca cp ti nhng ch chng i gn nhau. 5) ng dy dn in vo cng trnh c in p di 1.000V nht thit phi d ng cp bc cch in, ng thi p dng th m cc bin php sau: Ti hp u cp trm bin p phi t chng st h p; - ai v v kim loi ca cp u vo cng trnh xy dng phi c ni vi b phn ni t ca cc b chng st h p. 5.14. Khong cch an ton t trm bin p n cng tr nh xy dng khc Khong cch t trm bin p khu vc 110 -220kV ca h thng in th ti cc cng trnh xy dng khc phi m bo: - Cng in trng nh hn 5kV/m ti im bt k ngoi nh cch mt t mt mt v nh hn 1kV/m ti im bt k bn trong nh cch mt t mt mt. - Khong cch an ton ti thiu v cch in trm bin p ti cc cng tr nh xy dng khc c quy nh ti bng 5.4. Bng 5.4. Hnh lang an ton ca trm bin p
in p, kV Khong cch, m n 35 3,0 66 n 110 4,0 220 6,0

5.15. Hnh lang an ton bo v li in cao p 1) Hnh lang an ton li in cao p l khong khng gian gii hn dc theo ng dy ti in hoc bao quanh trm in, phi bo m theo quy nh ca Lut in lc cho tng cp in p. 2) Li in cao p 110kV v 220kV i trong ni th ca cc th t loi II n loi c bit phi i ngm. Phi ngm ha h thng li 22kV khi thit k mi h thng cung cp in cho cc khu th mi. 5.16. An ton h thng in th 1) Bo m an ton trong lp t v u ni

66

- Phi t li bo v, vch ngn v treo bin bo an ton, phi m bo khong cch an ton t li bo v, vch ngn khng nh hn khong cch quy nh tu theo c tnh k thut v yu cu bo v ca tng loi thit b. - Ti cc khu vc c cht d chy n, h thng in phi c thit k, lp t theo quy nh v an ton phng chng chy n, ch c s dng cc thit b phng chng chy n chuyn dng. 2) Bo m an ton trong s dng in - Trm in, trang thit b in cao p v ng dy cao p ni b phi c lp t v qun l vn hnh theo quy phm, tiu chun k thut an ton in. - Cc thit b, h thng thit b s dng in, h thng chng st, ni t phi c kim tra nghim thu, kim tra nh k v kim tra bt thng theo quy phm, tiu chun an ton in. S ca cc h thng ny phi ng vi thc t v phi c lu gi cng vi cc bin bn kim tra trong sut qu trnh hot ng. Li in h p ch c xy dng sau khi thit k c duyt. - Cc nhnh ng dy dn in vo nh , cng trnh phi m bo cc iu kin v an ton in, khng cn tr hot ng ca cc ph ng tin giao thng, cu thng, cha chy. 5.17. An ton phng chy cha chy - B tr, xy dng cc trm bin p, cc tuyn dy v cp in phi tun th cc quy nh php lut v PCCC; khng chy lan sang cc cng tr nh xung quanh, ng thi khng c gy nguy him hay cn tr cc hot ng cha chy, cu nn khi ho hon xy ra. - H thng in phi c phng n ngt in khn cp ti ch v t xa cho tng khu vc hay h tiu th in khi cn thit m bo an to n cho hot ng cha chy, cu nn, nhng vn phi m bo cp in lin tc cho h thng chiu sng an ninh ngoi nh, cho cc thit b cha chy, thot nn v cu nn bn trong nh khi xy ra ho hon.

67

Chng 6 H THNG CC CNG TR NH CP XNG DU V KH T TH 6.1. Quy nh chung H thng cc cng trnh cp xng du v kh t th phi c xy dng ph hp vi qui hoch xy dng th, phi m bo an ton phng chy, cha chy, chng st v v sinh mi trng. 6.2. H thng cc trm xng du th 6.2.1. Phn cp cc trm xng du 1) Cn c vo dung tch cha xng du, trm xng du c phn cp theo qui nh ti bng 6.1: Bng 6.1. Phn cp trm xng du Cp trm xng du 1 2 3 Tng dung tch, m 3 > 61 - 150 16 - 61 <16

2) Xy dng cc trm xng du trong th c dung tch ln hn 150m 3 phi c tha thun ca c quan c thm quyn. 6.2.2. V tr xy dng trm xng du 1) Khong cch an ton t tng ro trm xng du n chn cc cng trnh cng cng t hp ng ngi (trng hc, cng trnh th thao, nh ht, ch v cc cng trnh cng cng tng t), di tch lch s - vn ha ti thiu l 100m, n chn cc cng trnh cng cng khc ti thiu l 50m; 2) Khong cch gia cc trm xng du lin k nhau ti thiu l 300m. 3) Trm xng du c km theo cc dch v khc nh cng tin, ra xe, v sinh cng cng th cc cng trnh dch v ny phi cch khu vc b cha v ct bm xng du t nht l 10 m. 4) Din tch t ti thiu ca cc trm xng du c quy nh ti bng 6.2. Bng 6.2. Din tch t ti thiu ca mt trm xng du
Cp ca trm xng du 1 2 3 Din tch t, (m2) 3.000 (1.000) 2.000 (500) 1.000 (300)

Ch thch: Tr s ghi trong du ngoc ( ) d ng cho ni . Din tch chim t nu trong bng trn khng k n din tch t xy dng khu sinh hot cho cng nhn vn hnh ca trm v ng cho xe ra vo trm.

68

5) i vi cc cng trnh nh v cc cng trnh xy dng khc tng t xung quanh trm xng du (khng k ni sn xut c pht la hoc tia la v cng trnh cng cng) c bc chu la bc I, II, nu mt tng v pha trm xng du l tng ngn chy (chiu cao ca tng ngn chy ti thiu l 2,2 m) th khong cch an ton t cng trnh n tng ro trm xng du khng qui nh. 6) Chiu rng ng trong trm xng du phi m bo thun tin cho hot ng xut nhp hng. 6.2.3. Nh ca trm xng du 1) Kt cu xy dng nh ca trm xng du phi c bc chu la ti thiu l bc II; 2) Nu trm xng du c gian bn kh ha lng th khong cch phng chy cha chy ca trm phi p ng c quy nh ph ng chy cha chy i vi trm kh t. 6.2.4. B cha xng du 1) B cha xng du khng c t trong hoc di cc gian nh bn hng ca trm; 2) B cha xng du t ngm phi c bin php chng y ni, khi b ngp lt; 3) B cha xng du t ngm di mt ng xe chy phi p dng cc bin php bo v kt cu b. 4) B cha xng du t ngm phi c bc chng g, b t ni phi c sn bo v. 5) B cha xng du t ni trn mt t phi c ngn chy ph hp vi cc yu cu sau: phi c xy dng bng vt liu khng chy; cao ti thiu l 0,5m;

- Khong cch t mp b hnh tr nm ngang n chn pha trong khng c nh hn 0,5 ln ng knh b, nhng khng nh hn 1,2m; - Dung tch c ch ca khng c nh hn dung tch b cha ln nht. Mc xng trn ra trong khi c s c phi thp hn mt 0,1m; - Khi mt b cha cp xng du cho nhiu ct b m th mi ct bm phi c ng ng ht ring bit. B cha xng du phi c lp van th v thit b ngn la. 6.2.5. ng ng cng ngh 1) ng ng dn sn phm xng du trong trm xng du phi c ch to t vt liu chu xng du v khng chy. 2) Lin kt gia cc ng dn t ni trn mt t bng phng php hn, bng ren hoc bng mt bch. Lin kt gia cc ng t ngm ch bng phng php hn. 3) Trng hp ng ng cng ngh trong trm xng du t ngm trong t hoc t trong mng, ho th xung quanh ng phi chn cht bng ct. Chiu dy lp chn ti thiu bng 15cm. 4) ng ng cng ngh i song song vi nhau phi t cch nhau t nht bng 1 ln ng knh ng. i vi ng ng lin kt bng mt bch t song song, khong cch gia cc ng t nht bng ng knh mt bch cng thm 3cm. 69

5) ng ng cng ngh phi c bo v chng n mn . 6) ng ng cng ngh ti cc khu vc t qua li, phi c t trong ng lng t ngm hoc trong mng, ho chn ct c np. Hai u ng lng phi c chn kn bng vt liu khng chy. su chn ng phi m bo khng nh hng ti bn ca ton b h thng ng ng. ng ng cng ngh qua phi c t trong ng lng v chn bng vt liu khng chy. 6.2.6. H thng cp thot nc v v sinh mi trng 1) Trm xng du phi c cung cp nc sinh hot v nc cha chy. 2) Nc thi ca trm xng du trc khi x vo h thng thot nc chung ca th hoc khu dn c phi c lm sch ph hp vi yu cu ca ni tip nhn. 3) Ch c php ni h thng thot n c sinh hot v nc ma vo sau cng trnh lm sch nc thi nhim bn xng du. 4) H thng rnh thot nc ma trong khu b cha xng du ni c php lm kiu h. Vt liu ca h thng thot n c l vt liu khng chy. 6.3. H thng cp kh t th 6.3.1. Nhu cu cp kh t th 1) H thng cp kh t th phi m bo cp kh t lin tc vi lu lng v p sut cn thit p ng nhu cu dng kh ca cc h s dng trong iu kin hot ng bnh thng v vo gi cao im, c tnh n cc giai on pht trin sau n y. 2) i vi h thng cp kh t cho khu dn c , nhu cu dng kh t c xc nh theo nh mc 23.800 kcal/ngi-thng. 3) i vi cc h s dng khc nhu cu d ng kh t c xc nh da trn cng sut nhit danh nh ca thit b dng kh t. 6.3.2. Quy nh phn cp p sut h thng cung cp kh t 1) Thit k h thng cp kh t th theo cc cp p sut sau y: - p sut thp 0,075 bar; - p sut trung bnh t 0,075 bar n 2 bar; - p sut trn trung bnh t 2 bar n 7 bar. 2) Trng dng cp p sut trn 7 bar phi p dng cc bin php m bo an ton theo quy nh k thut c lin quan . 6.3.3. Trm kh t th Trm kh t th c chia lm hai loi: Trm kh t du m ha lng (trm LPG); Trm kh t thin nhin.

6.3.3.1. Trm cp LPG tch cha bng b nh cha 1) Ni t bnh cha - Ni t bnh cha kh t phi m bo thng thong, khng c t ti ni thp hn mt bng xung quanh, trong hm hay trong tng hm.

70

- Mi hm h, knh rnh xung quanh phi nm cch ni t bnh cha kh t ti thiu l 2m, nu khng th hm h, knh rnh phi c y kn. 2) Sc cha ca trm Sc cha ti a cho php ca trm kh t th tch cha bng bnh l 1000 kg. - Sc cha ca trm kh t th tch cha bng b nh nh hn 400 kg c t trong nh dn dng, cng nghip, ni t bnh cha phi ngn cch bng tng ngn chy vi phn khc ca nh. 3) Khong cch an ton Khong cch an ton ti thiu i vi trm kh t th tch cha bng b nh cha c quy nh trong bng 6.3. Bng 6.3. Khong cch an ton ti thiu t trm kh t th tch cha bng bnh cha n chn cc cng trnh xy dng khc
Sc cha ca kho Di 400 kg T 400 n 1000 kg Ch thch: (1) Khong cch ti thiu t chn cc cng tr nh xy dng khc hoc t ngun pht la c nh n bnh cha gn nht ( p dng trong tr ng hp khng c tng ngn la) (2) Khong cch ti thiu t chn cc cng tr nh xy dng khc hoc t ngun pht la c nh n tng ngn la (1) 1m 3m (2) 1m

6.3.3.2. Trm cp LPG tch cha bng bn 1) Mi bn cha phi c trang b cc loi van an ton v thit b ng ngt khn cp. Nu trong trm c b tr ct np kh cho xe c gii th khong cch nh nht t ct np kh n bn cha l 0,5 m, n ngun pht la c nh hoc ng i b l 4 m v n khu/cm nh hoc ni tp trung ng ngi khng nh hn 9 m. 2) Bn cha t ni - Bn cha t ni phi c t ngoi tri. Cc bn cha khng c t chng ln nhau. Mng v b phi m bo kh nng chu ti khi bn cha y. Cc bn hnh tr nm ngang khng c t ni ui nhau v khng c t thng hng theo mt trc dc. - Khng c t bn cha di ng dy ti in trn khng. Khong cch ngang ti thiu t mp bn cha phi cch 1,5m n mp h nh chiu bng ca ng dy in trn khng khi in p trn dy di 1 kV v tng ln 7,5 m, nu cp ti in c in p ln hn 1 kV. - Khi s dng gii php gim khong cch an to n bng tng ngn chy th tng ngn chy phi cch mp bn ti thiu 1,5 m. T ng ngn chy thng t cnh bn hoc nhm bn. Khng s dng tng ngn la qu hai cnh khu t bn cha hoc ti ni lm suy yu kh nng thng gi khu vc t bn. - Khong cch an ton ti thiu t mp bn cha n cc cng tr nh xung quanh v khong cch gia cc bn cha c quy nh ti bng 6.4.

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Bng 6.4. Khong cch an ton t bn cha LPG t ni n cc cng trnh xy dng xung quanh v khong cch gia cc bn cha
Dung tch ca mt bn cha ( m3 ) Khong cch an ton ti thiu n cc cng trnh xung quanh (m) khi b n t ni Khng c tng C tng ngn la ngn la 2,5 0,3 3 1,5 7,5 4 15 7,5 22,5 11 30 3 Khong cch gia cc bn cha (m)

< 0,5 T 0,5 n 2,5 T 2,5 n 9 T 9 n 135 T 135 n 337,5 T 337,5 tr ln

1 1 1 1,5 tng ng knh ca hai bn lin k tng ng knh ca hai bn lin k

3) Bn cha t ngm Mi bn cha t ngm phi c lp t trong khoang cha ri ng, khong trng phi c ln cht bng ct sch (khng s dng ct bin). Khong trng gia bn cha v tng ca khoang cha phi m bo ti thiu l 0,15 m. Khong trng di y bn tnh t im thp nht ca bn ti y khoang cha khng nh h n 0,2m. Bn phi c c nh cht vo khoang cha chng y ni. Bn cha phi c bo v chng n mn. Khong cch an ton ti thiu t mp bn cha n cc cng tr nh xung quanh hoc ngun pht la v khong cch gia cc bn cha c quy nh ti bng 6.5. Bng 6.5: Khong cch an ton t bn cha LPG t ngm n cc cng trnh xung quanh v khong cch gia cc bn cha ngm
Dung tch ca mt bn cha ( m3 ) < 0,5 T 0,5 n 2,5 T 2,5 n 9 T 9 n 114 T 114 n 675 Khong cch an ton ti thiu n cc cng trnh xung quanh (m) 1 1 3 3 3 Khong cch gia cc bn cha (m) 1 1 1 1,5 ng knh ca hai bn lin k

6.3.3.3. Trm gim p ca trm kh t thin nhin 1) p sut thit k ca h thng pha trc trm gim p phi ln hn hoc bng p sut vn hnh ti a ca h thng t tr c trm v p sut thit k ca h thng pha sau trm gim p phi ln hn hoc bng p sut vn hnh ti a ca h thng t sau trm; 2) Nh xng v thit b phi c b tr m bo cch ly an ton, kim tra, bo dng v th. H thng phi c trang b van cch ly v van lm sch v v tr x kh c th gim p h thng v kim tra khi cn; 3) B tr h thng an ton bo v cc thit b pha h ngun trm gim p trong trng hp thit b gim p khng hot ng;

72

4) m bo h thng t yu cu v tin cy v tnh nng vn hnh c tnh n cc yu cu v an ton vn hnh, cung cp lin tc, kh nng hng hc v d phng ca thit b. 5) Phi gim thiu kh nng x kh thng qua h thng kim sot vn h nh ra mi trng bn ngoi. 6) Trm gim p c p sut t 2,4 n 7 bar phi m bo khong cch ti cc nh xung quanh ti thiu l 3 m. 6.3.3.4. Trm kh t thin nhin dng nn (CNG) 1) My nn, bnh cha kh, ct np kh CNG cho phng tin giao thng c gii phi c t trong trm c tng che chn lm bng vt liu chng chy.Trm phi c t nht mt ca c th m cng bc. Mi phi c h thng thng gi khu ch tn lng kh r r ra bn ngoi. 2) My nn, bnh cha kh, ct np kh CNG cho ph ng tin giao thng c gii c t ni trn mt t, khng c php t cnh ng cp in hoc thit b in khng c kh nng phng n. Khong cch nh nht ti cc nh dn dng xung quanh, im u ni ca cp in hoc ngun pht la bt k khng c nh hn 3 m. 3) Khong cch nh nht t my nn, b nh cha kh, ct np kh CNG cho ph ng tin giao thng c gii n cc cng trnh cng cng hoc ng i b khng c nh hn 3m, ti ng ray xe la khng c nh hn 15 m. 6.3.3.5. Trm kh t thin nhin ha lng (trm LNG) 1) Bn cha LNG v cc thit b lin quan khng c t ti v tr gy nguy him nh ng dy in hot ng tr n 600 V. 2) Trm LNG phi c trang b h thng cnh bo r kh, thit b dng khn cp v h thng bo v qu p 3) Khong cch an ton ti thiu t mp bn cha n cng tr nh xung quanh hoc ngun pht la v khong cch gia cc bn cha c qui nh ti bng 6.6. Bng 6.6. Khong cch an ton t bn cha LNG n cc cng trnh xung quanh v khong cch gia cc bn cha
Dung tch ca mt bn cha ( m3 ) < 0,5 T 0,5 n 1,9 T 1,9 n 7,6 T 7,6 n 56,8 T 56,8 n 113,6 T 113,6 n 265 Khong cch an ton ti thiu n cc cng trnh xung quanh (m) khi bn t ngm hoc p t Khng quy nh 3 4,5 7,6 15 22 Khong cch gia cc bn cha (m)

0 1 1,5 1,5 1,5 ng knh ca hai bn lin k

6.3.4. Quy nh v an ton i vi h thng ng ng 1) Cc qui nh v an ton chung i vi h thng ng ng - ng, vt liu lt ng v vt liu bc hay ph kin, ph tng ca h thng ng ng u phi ph hp vi cp p sut vn hnh ti a . H thng ng ng phi m bo khong trng bo dng, sa cha. 73

- ng ng dn kh t phi c t ngm (trong t); ng ng t ni (l thin) ch thc hin trong trng hp c bit khi qua sng, h, khe, sui, hoc cc cng trnh nhn to khc. i vi ng thp i ngm phi c bin php bo v chng n mn. on ng dn kh t i ngm qua ng c xe c gii chy qua phi c t trong ng lng bo v. - Dc theo ng ng dn kh t i ngm phi t cc ct mc v du hiu nhn bit; 2) ng ng vn chuyn - Khong cch an ton t truyn ng vn chuyn n cc cc cng trnh xung quanh c quy nh trong bng 6.7. Bng 6.7. Khong cch an ton t tuyn ng vn chuyn n cng trnh xy dng xung quanh
Khong cch an ton ng vi p sut (m) t 19 n >60 bar 60bar 2,5 3 5 1,5 1,5 3

Cc i tng tip gip vi ng ng

2 3 4

6 7

Khu dn dng: 1. Nh , cng trnh ph c lp (bao gm c vn cy, ao c) khng thuc loi nh quy nh ti mc 2 ca bng n y. 2. Nh t tng 4 tr ln v/hoc c hn 10 h c tr thng xuyn 3. Trng hc, bnh vin, nh tr, nh ht, rp chiu phim, trung tm thng mi, siu th hoc khu ch tp trung Khu cng nghip, khu ch xut: Chn tng ro hoc ranh gii tip gip ca khu cng nghip Nh my, x nghip, cng trnh sn xut cng nghip/nnglm ng nghip c lp ng b chy song song vi ng ng (tnh t chn ta-luy ng b): 1. ng cao tc, ng b cp I, II 2. ng cp III 3. ng cp IV, V 4. ng di cp V 5. Hm ng b ng st chy song song vi ng ng: 1. ng st (tnh t mp chn nn ng p, mp nh mi ng o, mp ray ngoi cng ca ng khng o, khng p) 2. Hm ng st Bn ph, bn tu, bn , can (tnh t tim bn v hai pha Thng lu, H lu): p h cha nc 1. p cp I (tnh t chn p) 2. p cp II (tnh t chn p) 3. p cp III (tnh t chn p) 4. p cp IV (tnh t chn p) 5. p cp V (tnh t chn p) knh mng ti tiu 1. Knh c lu lng t 2m3/giy 10m3/giy (t nh t chn mi ngoi ca knh) 2. Knh c lu lng ln hn 10m3/giy (tnh t chn mi ngoi ca knh)

2,5 2,5

1,5 1,5

2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 5 5 5 5

1,.5 1,5 1,5 1,5 3 3 3 3

100 50 40 20 5 2,5 2,5

100 50 40 20 5 1,5 1,5

74

Cc i tng tip gip vi ng ng

Khong cch an ton ng vi p sut (m) t 19 n >60 bar 60bar

sng, bin 1. Cp c bit, cp I, cp II v cp III - Ti nhng v tr i qua khu dn c, khu th v khu du lch (tnh t chn ) - Ti nhng v tr khc (tnh t chn ) 2. Cp IV v cp V (tnh t chn )

5 5 5 2,5 2,5 10

5 5 5 1,5 1,5 5

10 11 12

13 14

Khu tri chn nui gia sc, gia cm, thy sn, trng cy cng nghip/ nng nghip/lm nghip tp trung; kho cha l ng thc. Rng Khu di sn vn ha cp quc gia, khu bo tn thi n nhin, vn quc gia, khu di tch lch s-vn ha, di sn t nhin, danh lam thng cnh c xp hng, khu du lch, cc cng tr nh phc li cng cng khc. ng dy cp in cao th hoc li in quc gia (tnh t ranh gii hnh lang an ton ca li in) ct in. Ct in ( tnh t mp ngoi ca mng ct ti ng ng chn ngm

2,5 1

1,5 1

3) ng ng chnh Khong cch an ton t ng ng chnh n cc cng tr nh xung quanh c quy nh nh sau: - ng ng chnh i ngm di ng i b th khong cch nh nht t mt ngoi pha trn ca ng dn n mt ng khng c nh hn 0,6 m. - ng ng chnh i ngm di ng ph hoc bng ngm ngang qua ng c xe c gii chy qua th khong cch nh nht t mt ngo i pha trn ca ng n mt ng khng c nh hn 0,8 m. - ng ng chnh i ngm trong khu th th khong cch n cc mp ta nh dn dng gn nht khng nh h n 2m v n cc cng trnh cng cng khng c nh hn 0,6 m - ng ng chnh v cp in i ngm chung trong ho k thut th khong cch t mp ng n mp cp in gn nht khng c nh hn 0,6 m. - Nu ng kh t i ngm trong ng bo v hoc trong tuy nen k thut th khong cch nh nht t mt ngoi pha trn ca ng n mt ng gim i 30%. 4) ng ng nhnh Khong cch an ton t ng ng nhnh n cc cng trnh xung quanh c quy nh nh sau: - Tt c cc ng ng nhnh trc khi kt ni vi ng ng trong ta nh phi c b tr van chn t cch mt ngoi ca nh khng nh hn 1m. - ng nhnh i ngm di ng i b th khong cch nh nht t mt ngo i pha trn ca ng n mt ng i b khng c nh hn 0,6 m.

75

- ng nhnh i ngm di ng ph hoc i ngm qua ng c xe c gii chy qua th khong cch nh nht t mt ngo i pha trn ca ng n mt ng khng c nh hn 0,8 m. - ng ng nhnh i ngm trong khu th c khong cc h n cc nh khng c nh hn 1 m v n cc cng trnh cng cng khng nh hn 0,3 m. - ng ng nhnh v i trong tuy nen k thut th khong cch t mp ng n mp cp in gn nht khng nh h n 0,3m. - Nu ng ng nhnh i ngm trong ng bo v th khong cch t mp trn ca ng n mt ng gim i 30%. 6.4. H thng cp in v chng st cho trm xng du v trm kh t th 6.4.1. H thng cp in 1) Thit k v lp t h thng dy, cp in v trang thit b in cho trm xng du v trm kh t phi ph hp vi quy nh hin hnh v thit b in phc v cho cc cng trnh xng du. 2) c php s dng my pht in c nh lm ngun in d phng. ng khi ca my pht in phi c b phn dp tn la v bc cch nhit. 3) Cp in lp t trong trm xng du v trm kh t phi bo m an ton phng chng chy n. 6.4.2. Chng st 1) Cm b cha t ni phi c thit k bo v chng st nh thng, khi cc van th t cao m khng nm trong vng bo v chng st ca cc cng tr nh xung quanh th phi chng st nh thng cho van th bng ct thu st c ni ng th. u kim thu st phi cch van th t nht l 5m. 2) Cc hng mc xy dng khc ca trm xng du v trm kh t u phi c h thng chng st nh thng. 3) H thng ni t chng st nh thng c in tr ni t khng v t qu 10. 4) Ti v tr np xng du vo b cha ca trm xng du phi ni t chng tnh in vi cc phng tin np xng du. 5) H thng ni t ca trm xng du v trm kh t phi c in tr ni t khng vt qu 4. Tt c phn kim loi khng mang in ca cc thit b in v ct bm u phi ni vi h thng ni t an to n.

76

Chng 7 H THNG CHIU SNG TH 7.1. Quy nh chung

1) H thng chiu sng th bao gm h thng chiu sng cc ng giao thng, ph bun bn, ng hm t, cc nt giao thng th, ng v ng hm dnh cho ngi i b, cc trung tm th v cc khu vc vui chi cng cng, cc qung trng, cng vin v vn hoa, cc cng trnh th dc th thao ngoi tri, cng nh chiu sng cc cng trnh c bit v trang tr, qung co. 2) Cc qui nh trong chng ny khng p dng trong thit k chiu sng cc vn c bit (vn th, vn bch tho), ga tu ho v bn i, cng hng khng, ng t ngoi th v cc khu cng nghip. 3) H thng chiu sng th phi bo m: - Cc ch s nh lng v nh tnh ca cc thit b chi u sng tng ng vi i tng c chiu sng; lm vic tin cy ca cc thit b chiu sng; - S an ton cho ngi vn hnh v dn c, an ninh v trt t an ton x hi trong th; Thun tin iu khin cc thit b chiu sng; S dng nng lng tit kim v hiu qu; C hiu qu v kinh t, bao gm kinh ph lp t, vn h nh, bo dng v thay th.

4) Cc thit b v vt liu s dng trong cc thit b chiu sng phi t ng ng vi cc yu cu trong cc tiu chun k thut, ng thi phi tng ng vi cc iu kin k thut, mng li in p v cc iu kin mi trng xung quanh. 5) Chiu sng cc vt th kin trc thnh ph vo ban m cn phi thc hin theo quy hoch v tp trung vo cc loi cng trnh: - Cc t hp nh v cng trnh, vn cy v b phun nc, qung trng v ng ph, b sng, cng vin v nhng ni ngh ngi cng cng. - Cc cng trnh v tng i th v quc gia, cc im kin trc - ngh thut v lch s - vn ho ca th. 6) Thit k chiu sng kin trc bn ngoi cc cng trnh v chiu sng qung co phi c s chp thun ca c quan qun l th c thm quyn. 7) Phn loi cc h thng chiu sng th. - Chiu sng ng, ph bun bn, cu, ng hm v cc nt giao thng cho xe c ng c; Chiu sng cc ng, cu v ng hm cho ngi i b v i xe p; Chiu sng cc trung tm th, qung tr ng v cc khu vc vui chi cng cng; Chiu sng cc cng vin v vn hoa;

77

- Chiu sng cng trnh c bit (nh c gi tr lch s, vn ho, ngh thut, t ng i, v cc cng trnh tng t); Chiu sng trang tr, qung co; Chiu sng cc im giao thng cng cng ngo i tri; Chiu sng cc cng trnh th dc th thao ngoi tri. Chiu sng ng, ph cho xe c ng c

7.2.

7.2.1. Yu cu chiu sng 1) Chiu sng ng, ph cho xe c ng c phi t c yu cu sau: Bo m cho ngi iu khin xe t, xe my, xe p l u hnh an ton, - Bo m cho ngi i b nhn bit s nguy him, t nh h ng, nhn ra nhng ngi i b khc v chn cho mnh hng i an ton, - To cnh quan mi trng th d chu v hp dn v ban m, c bit ti khu trung tm th v cc khu thng mi ln. 2) Thit k thit b chiu sng ng, ph phi ph hp vi thit k th. 7.2.2. Chiu sng ng, ph bun bn 1) Chiu sng ng, ph bun bn phi bo m lm l r tt c cc c im ca ng v ca dng giao thng, gip ngi iu khin xe tip nhn y thng tin t cc quang cnh lun thay i pha tr c c th li xe an ton vi tc hp l cho php. 2) H thng chiu sng ng, ph bun bn phi t c cc yu cu sau y: - Phi to c chi cn thit mt nhn bit c cc chi tit nh, t ng phn thp vi tc cao, t ng ng vi tnh hung giao thng. - chi phi ng u trn mt ng theo c phng dc v phng ngang, hn ch s xut hin cc khong ti, n i c th che du cc mi nguy him. Khng gy lo mt ngi li xe. 3) H thng chiu sng ng cho xe c ng c phi bo m cc gi tr quy nh theo cc i lng sau y : chi mt ng trung bnh, k hiu Ltb, (Cd/m2); H s ng u chung ca chi mt ng, k hiu U o; H s ng u dc ca chi theo chiu dc ng, k hiu U 1; ri trung bnh trn mt ng, k hiu E (lux).

4) Cc gi tr ti thiu (hoc ti a) cho trong bng 7.1. 7.2.3. Chiu sng cc nt giao thng 1) Chiu sng cc nt giao thng phi to iu kin ng i li xe pht hin c c s nt giao thng v hot ng giao thng. T chc chiu sng cc nt giao thng, nht l cc nt phc tp (ch T, ch Y, so le, h nh da, nt c o tam gic) phi bo m cho ngi li xe c th nhn thy v tr cc mp va h v cc mc ng, cc chiu ca ng, s c mt ca ngi i b hoc cc chng ngi, s chuyn ng ca tt c cc loi xe gn nt giao thng. 78

Bng 7.1. Yu cu chiu sng cc loi ng cho xe c ng c


chi ti thiu chi Ltb u 2 chung, (cd/m ) Uo 2 0,4 chi u theo chiu dc, U1 0,7 ri Mc ngang(1) tng trung ngng, bnh ti %, thiu, khng ln hn Etb (lux) 10 -

STT

Cp ng

c im

ng cao tc Tc cao, th mt cao, khng c phng tin th s ng trc C di phn chnh, ng cch trc khu th Khng di phn cch ng bun bn ph C di phn cch Khng c di phn cch

1,5 2 1 1,5 0,75 0,5

0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4

0,7 0,7 0,5 0,5 -

10 10 10 10 20 20

7,5 10 7,5 10 5 7,5

ng gom Hai bn th, ng ni ng sng b khu th Hai bn ng ti

Ch thch: (1) Ch quy nh khi c cc loi xe th s v ngi i b trn ng.

2) Ti cc nt giao thng phi: t tiu chun chiu sng cao hn tiu chun chiu sng ng 10% - 20%. - chi mt ng yu cu trn ton nt giao thng khng c nh hn chi trn mt cc ng chnh dn ti nt. H n chiu sng khng c gy lo cho ngi iu khin xe. C kh nng ch dn cho ngi li xe. C th nhn thy t khong cch 200 - 300m, ngay c trong iu kin thi tit xu. Xt ti iu kin an ton khi bo dng. 3) V tr ct n bo nt giao thng cn phi:

7.2.4. Chiu sng cho cc cu v ng trn cao 1) Chiu sng trn cc cu c quy m va v nh phi tng ng vi chiu sng ca phn ng ni tip vi cu. 2) Nu mt cu v ng trn cao nh hn mt ng tip gip th phi m bo ri mt ng ti thiu l 15lx ti lan can cu v di phn cch; ti li ln v xung phi b tr n. 3) Phi dng nhng loi n trnh gy la. 79

7.2.5. Chiu sng cc ng hm cho xe c ng c 1) Trn cc ng hm di v phc tp, h thng chiu sng phi c vn hnh sut 24 gi/ngy. 2) Vo ban ngy khng gian ng hm li vo v li ra phi sng hn khng gian bn trong, ngc li vo ban m, khi i t trong ng hm ra ngoi, nh sng phn ng pha ngoi li ra phi c tng thm. 3) Trn cc ng hm di v phc tp, chiu sng khn cp phi ko d i t nht trong 2 gi. 7.2.6. Chiu sng cc ng gn sn bay, ng xe la, bn cng 1) Ti cc khu vc gn sn bay, h thng chiu sng ng khng c gy nhm ln vi h thng n tn hiu ct, h cnh ca sn bay. 2) Chiu sng ng ti nt giao vi ng st phi tun theo cc quy nh sau: - Phi m bo cho li xe khi dng li tm nh n phn bit r xe c, li i, chng ngi vt v ngi b hnh. - Phi m bo ri trn mt ng phn bit r cc bng thng tin tn hiu. M u ca n chiu sng khng ln ln vi m u ca n tn hiu ng st. - Trong phm vi 30 m v hai pha ca nt giao, mt ng phi c chi v h s ng u chi cao hn phn mt ng k cn 10%. 7.2.7. S dng nng lng c hiu qu trong chiu sng ng, ph 1) Khng c s dng cc n c hiu sut pht sng di 60 lm/w. 2) Tr nhng ng trong khu dn c v ng ph c bit, cc ng giao thng cn li cn s dng chn lu t ng gim cng sut bng n sau na m gim bt cng sut tiu th cho h thng chiu sng. 3) Thi gian bt tt n phi hp l v thch hp cho cc ma. 7.3. Chiu sng hm, cu cho ngi i b v xe p 7.3.1. Chiu sng ng i b v xe p 1) H thng chiu sng phi bo m cho ng i i b v i xe p thy r hnh dng v cu to ca b mt ng. 2) ri trn mt ngang c quy nh theo ri mt ngang trung bnh (En,tb, lx) v ri mt ngang ti thiu (E n,min, lx) trn b mt ca ng. Cc gi tr tiu chun ca ri mt ngang quy nh theo ba loi ng i b, phi t cc tr s ti thiu cho trong bng 7.2. 7.3.2. Chiu sng hm, cu cho ngi i b, cu thang b, ng dc 1) Chiu sng ng hm - ng hm cho ngi i b phi c chiu sng cao hn khu vc quanh. ri mt ngang ti thiu bn trong ng hm khng c nh hn 30lx; ri mt ngang ti thiu ban ngy trong phm vi 20 m hai u hm khng c nh hn 100lx. ri ti thiu ca ng hm i b v i xe p c quy nh ti bng 7.2.

80

Bng 7.2. Tr s ri mt ngang ti thiu ca ng hm i b v i xe p


TT 1 Loi ng ng i b, xe p ti cc trung tm th ng i b, xe p cc khu vc khc vi lu lng ngi qua li: - Cao - Trung bnh - Thp ri mt ngang (lx) Trung bnh, E n,tb 10,0 Ti thiu, E n,min 5,0

7,5 5,0 3,0

3,0 1,5 1,0

- Cc mt ng trong ng hm phi c chiu sng v phn bit c mu sc. ri mt ng trung bnh trong ng hm phi t ti thiu 15lx . 2) Chiu sng cu cho ngi i b, cu thang b, ng dc - i vi cu dnh cho ngi i b v cu thang b, cc l ng phi c chiu sng khc vi cc mt bc thang, nhm lm ni bt mt bc. - Cu i b bc qua phn ng c chiu sng th khng phi chiu sng. Nu bc thang ln cu c ri nh hn 2lx th phi c chiu sng b sung. Nu cu i b bc qua phn ng khng c chiu sng th phi thit k chiu sng. - ri mt ngang ca cu ti thiu l 5lx, ri bc thang phi c nng cao cho thch hp. Phi trnh la cho ng i i trn mt ng pha di cu. Dy in v cc chi tit khng c h ra ngoi. 7.4. Chiu sng cc trung tm th, qung tr ng v khu vui chi cng cng 7.4.1. Chiu sng cc trung tm th v qung trng H thng chiu sng phi xy dng trn c s gii php tng th, p ng cc yu cu u tin v mc quan trng ca chng. Cc yu cu xp theo th t u tin l: - Chiu sng bo m an ton cho ngi i b, trnh tai nn giao thng v ngn chn t nn x hi; Chiu sng tng ng vi cng giao thng, k c ng i i xe p; - Thit k chiu sng v la chn thit b chiu sng ph hp vi cnh quan kin trc v th; - Phi hp hai ngun chiu sng cng cng v ring r, nh im i xe but, bung in thoi; Bo v cc khu nh xung quanh khi b nhim nh sng. 7.4.2. Chiu sng khu bun bn v thng mi H thng chiu sng cng cng trong cc trung tm th phi l m ni bt cc khu bun bn v thng mi, to c s hp dn cho cc hot ng n y. 7.4.3. Cc khu vc dch v Chiu sng phi p ng nhu cu lun lun th ay i ca cc khu vc dch v. 81

Phi c chiu sng b tr ti cc li ra , vo pha cng sau ca cc to nh bo m an ton v an ninh. Tn dng lp t h thng chiu sng b n trn nhng to nh cao tng trnh dng ct n. 7.4.4. Chiu sng cc khu bo tn lch s -vn ha Phi p ng nhu cu giao thng xe c v ngi i b, ph hp vi gi tr thm m, cnh quan ca khu vc bo tn lch s-vn ha v nhu cu gii tr ca ngi dn. Cht lng nh sng, hiu qu quan st, m u ca nh sng v kh nng truyn mu ca ngun sng phi c xem xt trong thit k chiu sng. 7.4.5. Chiu sng cng vin, vn hoa v cnh quan Chiu sng cc khu cng vin, v n hoa v cnh quan phi lm tng gi tr cnh quan th v m bo an ninh, an ton. ri mt ngang khi chiu sng cng vi n, vn hoa cho bng 7.3. ng i b v i xe p trong cng vin, vn hoa phi c chiu sng ch hng ng i, theo tiu chun ri mt ngang (lx) quy nh trong bng 7.3. ng thi phi quan tm nhng n i cn chiu sng hai bn ng, nhm m rng tm nh n v to cm gic an ton cho ngi s dng. Bng 7.3. ri mt ngang ca chiu sng cn g vin, vn hoa
TT 1 Cng - Cng vo chnh - Cng vo ph 2 ng i b v xe p trong cng vin: - ng trc chnh - ng nhnh, ng do c nhiu cy xanh 3 Sn t chc cc hot ng ngoi tri 5 2 5 3 1 5 7 5 i tng chiu sng ri mt ngang En (lx) Cng vin Vn hoa

7.4.6. Chiu sng trang tr v ni l hi H thng chiu sng phi b o m an ton v in v an ton cng trnh, c bit khi ng dy vt qua ng v cc khu vc m. S dng in p thp nhng ni c th. 7.4.7. Chiu sng an ninh v an ton 1) Chiu sng phi bo m khng mt gc n o b ti. Phi lp d bng n khi mt bng n b tt cng khng lm cho khu vc b ti hon ton. 2) Phi lp t thit b cung cp ri ngang v ri ng ( cao 1,5m) nhm bo m ri trn mt ngi mc thch hp.

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7.5.

Chiu sng cng trnh c bit (cng trnh kin trc c bit, tng i)

7.5.1. Chiu sng cc cng trnh kin trc c bit 1) H thng chiu sng cc cng tr nh kin trc c bit phi bo m cc yu cu: Ph hp vi c im kin trc, m u sc ca cng trnh. Khng gy lo cho ngi tham gia giao thng v ngi s dng cng trnh. S dng nng lng tit kim v hiu qu.

2) Khi la chn h thng chiu sng phi xem xt c im phn b nh sng ca cc loi n, mu ca nh sng (theo nhit m u v ch s truyn mu ca bng n) v v tr t n. 7.5.2. Chiu sng cc tng i 1) Cc tng i, i k nim c gi tr kin trc, thm m v lch s trong th v c lp vi cc qun th kin trc xung quanh cn c chiu sng t nhiu h ng, nhng phi c mt hng chnh r rt. 2) Yu cu chiu sng cc tng i, i k nim phi tun theo cc quy nh trong mc 7.5.1 ca quy chun ny. 3) Chiu sng cc tng i, i k nim phi c thit k v c s thm nh chuyn mn v thm m, kin trc v chiu sng. 7.5.3. Chiu sng i phun nc 1) H thng chiu sng phi c hiu qu hp dn th gic cao. 2) Cc thit b v vt liu t di nc phi c cht lng cao v m bo vn hnh an ton. S dng in p thp 12V -24V cho cc thit b ny. 7.6. Chiu sng sn ga, bn cng, bn xe, b i xe 7.6.1. Chiu sng sn ga, bn cng, bn xe 1) Chiu sng cc sn ga, bn cng, bn xe phi t c tr s ri trn mt ngang v trn mt ng bo m an to n v an ninh cho hnh khch. 2) Khi s dng n pha chiu sng cn trnh gy lo. 7.6.2. Chiu sng bi xe 1) Bi xe phi c chiu sng bo m an ninh v an ton. 2) i vi cc bi xe c mi che, phi trnh tng phn nh sng ti cc li vo, ra.

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Chng 8 H THNG CC CNG TR NH THNG TIN TH 8.1. Quy nh chung

1) Khi xy dng h thng thng tin th phi xt n s gy nhiu ln nhau gia cc thit b thng tin, cc i trm v tuyn in trong qu tr nh hot ng v c bin php phng chng nhiu thch hp. 2) Cc tuyn thng tin, cc i, trm v tuyn in xy dng sau phi khng gy nh hng n nhng tuyn c trc. 3) Xy dng, vn hnh cc tuyn thng tin, cc i, trm lm vic trong di sng v tuyn in u phi chp hnh theo cc quy nh hin hnh. Cc thit b thng tin ca mi n v phi c s chp thun ca c quan qun l tn s v tuyn in quc gia. 4) Cp thng tin th phi c ngm ha v t trong cc tuy-nen hoc ho k thut. 8.2. Nhiu cng nghip v nhiu v tuyn i vi h thng thng tin th 1) Chng nhiu do ng dy in lc Khi ng dy thng tin v ng dy in lc u l cp ngm i gn nhau th khong cch ti thiu gia cc cp phi ln h n 0,25m i vi cp in lc c in p nh hn 10kV. Khi cp in lc ln hn 10kV cng bo m khong cch 0,25m nhng mt trong hai cp phi i trong ng kim loi. V bc kim loi cp thng tin phi c ni t. 2) Chng nhiu v tuyn Trong khu vc c kh nng b nh hng nhiu v tuyn mnh (khu vc gn cc i pht v tuyn cng sut ln) phi d ng loi cp chn ngm hoc s dng cc tuyn cp khc i ngoi khu vc ny. 3) Chng nhiu cho cc tuyn viba - Phi m bo khong cch gia cc trm lp thch hp duy tr t s tn hiu trn nhiu mc chp nhn c. - gim nhiu gia cc knh ln cn, cn chn tn s lm vic cho cc tuyn viba theo quy nh phn b tn s ca c quan qun l tn s v tuyn in. - Phi chn la thit b c tn s trung gian (IF) thch hp gim nhiu gia cc knh ln cn v knh nh. 8.3. Cng trnh cp quang 1) Cp quang trong ni thnh phi l tuyn cp ngm. 2) Cc cng trnh cp quang ph i bo m an ton, thun li cho qun l tuyn cp. 3) Khong cch ti thiu gia cp quang chn ngm v cc cng trnh ngm khc cng nh cp quang treo i vi cc kin trc khc v h thng ng dy in lc phi c thc hin theo quy nh hin h nh v khong cch an ton trong Quy phm Trang b in ca B Cng Thng.

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8.4.

Chng st bo v cc cng tr nh vin thng

1) Cp chng st - Cp thng thng: bao gm cc cng tr nh vin thng xy dng cc v ng c s ngy dng nh hn 100 ngy/nm v in tr t 100m. - Cp c bit: bao gm cc cng tr nh vin thng xy dng cc v ng cn li v cc cng trnh vin thng xy dng ni hay b st nh hoc b st nh. - Cp chng st cho cc cng tr nh vin thng c php gim mt cp khi cng trnh nm trong phm vi gc bo v ca thit b chng st ca cng tr nh khc, hoc i trong thnh ph, th x c nhiu vt kin trc nh cao h n. - Trng hp mt cng trnh vin thng bao gm nhiu cng tr nh, b phn xy dng ti cng a im phi ly cp chng st ca cng tr nh b phn cao nht lm cp chng st thng nht cho to n cng trnh. 2) H thng chng st - i tng chng st: ng dy trn; ng dy cp (cp si kim loi, cp si quang c thnh phn kim loi, ng cp treo, ng cp chn); thit b vin thng t trong trm u cui, trm lp; thit b u cui; ct thp vin thng; i, trm v thit b t trong i/trm v tuyn, vi ba, trm mt t. - i vi cng trnh vin thng c cp chng st c bit ho c ni b st nh, cn chng st vi nhiu gii php tng hp v ton din, cc bin php chng st nhiu tng, nhiu lp, nhm gim dn qu in p st gy ra theo chiu t ngo i tri vo trong i, trm hoc trc u vo ca thit b u cui. - Khi in p kh quyn ngoi ng dy qu ln, cho php p dng cc bin php gim nh qu in p ngay ng dy trc khi a vo b bo v cui ng: i vi dy trn, cp treo: + Lm lin tip 5 ct thu st trc khi n ct u cui v o trm my; + Lm m phng in phn cp; + Lm dy t trn khng. i vi cp chn ngm: lm dy chng st chn ngm bo v cp chn. - Cp i ngm trong ho cp th khi khng u ni vi on dy trn n o th khng cn t b chng st, nhng v kim loi ca cp phi ni t. - i vi cng trnh v tuyn vin thng bao gm nhiu cng tr nh ph thuc nh: trm bin p, ng dy cp ngun in, ng dy tn hiu (dy trn hoc dy cp), mng in h p chiu sng, nh , nh kho xng du, ng dn du, kh nc hi bng kim loi... th khi thit k chng st phi theo quy phm ca cc ng nh c lin quan, sau iu chnh mt cch tng th v ton din v mt chng st. - in tr tip t chng st ti cc i, trm thu, pht khng c ln hn 10. Cc h thng tip t u chung vo tm kim loi c tr khng t bin thp. 8.5. Ni t cho cc cng trnh vin thng 1) Ni t trong mi cng trnh vin thng phi m bo 3 chc nng: ni t cng tc; ni t bo v; ni t chng st.

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2) Yu cu k thut ni t trong cc cng tr nh vin thng - Cc trm bin p h p cung cp cho cc cng tr nh vin thng phi l cc trm ring, c lp v phi c ni t trung tnh theo ng quy phm ca an to n in lc. - m bo an ton trong cng trnh vin thng, ngun cp in phi l h thng cung cp xoay chiu ba pha nm dy (TN -S). 8.6. An ton cc cng trnh thng tin th 1) V tr lp t cc anten, chiu cao anten phi ph hp quy nh ca php lut v quy hoch v kin trc th; ph hp cc quy nh ca php lut v bo m an to n hng khng. 2) H thng cc thit b pht sng phi m bo s dng ti u ph tn v tuyn in, tng thch in t vi mi trng xung quanh; 3) Gim mc pht x khng mong mun tr s thp nht theo quy phm an to n thng tin th i vi con ngi; 4) Hn ch pht sng nhng hng khng cn thit; 5) S dng mc cng sut nh nht m bo cht l ng thng tin. 8.7. m bo an ton thng tin phng chy, ch a chy - H thng thng tin th cn m bo y u cu phc v thng tin bo chy kp thi v chnh xc thng qua mng li thng tin cng cng v ring bit. - H thng phi c gii php k thut gip cho vic pht hin v ngn chn cc thng tin bo chy gi.

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Chng 9 H THNG THU GOM, PHN LOI, VN CHUYN, X L CHT THI RN V NH V SINH CNG CNG 9.1. Quy nh chung 1) H thng thu gom, vn chuyn v x l cht thi rn phi tun theo cc quy nh hin hnh v qun l cht thi rn, ph hp vi quy hoch qun l cht thi rn ca a phng c cp c thm quyn ph duyt. 2) Nh v sinh cng cng trong th phi tun theo quy hoch xy dng th c cp c thm quyn ph duyt. 9.2. Thu gom, phn loi v lu cha cht thi rn sinh hot th 1) Lng cht thi rn sinh hot th pht sinh ph thuc vo qui m dn s ca th v c xc nh c quy nh ti bng 9.1. Bng 9.1. Lng cht thi rn sinh hot th pht sinh v t l thu gom
Loi th c bit, I II III, IV V Lng cht thi rn pht sinh (kg/ngi-ngy) 1,3 1,0 0,9 0,8 T l thu gom cht thi rn (%) 100 95 90 85

2) Tt c cc loi cht thi rn pht sinh trong th phi c thu gom theo t l c quy nh trong bng 9.1 v c phn loi ti ngun. Cht thi rn sinh hot th t tt c cc ngun thi khc nhau phi c phn loi: cc cht thi c th thu hi ti s dng, ti ch; cc cht thi phi x l, chn lp hoc tiu hu theo quy nh ca php lut, ti thiu l phn loi thnh 2 loi: cht thi rn hu c d phn hu v cc loi cht thi rn khc. 3) Cht thi rn thng thng phi c thu gom theo cc phng thc ph hp vi qui hoch chung ca th: - Thu gom chung p dng cho cc th loi III, IV v V: cht thi rn c chuyn ch tp kt n mt a im chung sau c bc ln xe v vn chuyn n trm x l hoc n c s x l cht thi rn ca th. - Thu gom theo khu vc p dng cho cc th loi c bit, loi I, loi II: xe thu gom chy theo lch nh; dng ti ng ba, ng t, cc h gia nh cc khu vc xung quanh mang nhng ti rc n vo xe, hoc cc h mang rc ra mt a im tp kt (im tp kt rc c nh) sau xe c gii n thu gom v vn chuyn i. - Thu gom bn l ng: cc h t sn cc ti rc trc ca nh v xe thu gom s vn chuyn n ni quy nh. Hnh thc thu gom ny thch hp i vi cc khu vc c ng s rng cho xe c gii vo c. Cc ng nh, ng hp, c th s dng xe y tay loi nh i thu gom, sau tp kt ti mt a im chung (c nh hoc di ng) xe c gii n chuyn ch n c s x l.

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4) Cc phng tin lu cha ti ch phi c la chn theo kch c ph hp vi thi gian lu cha. - Dung tch cc thng ng rc bn trong nh phi c chun theo kch c ti thiu l 5lt v ph hp vi thi gian lu cha. - Dung tch cc thng ng rc t ng ph phi c chun theo cc c ti thiu l 100 lt v khng ln hn 700 lt m bo tnh m quan ca th. - Cc thng lu cha ti khu vc cng cng c kch c ti thiu 100 lt v khng ln hn 1m3 m bo tnh m quan ca th. 5) V tr t cc phng tin lu cha Trn cc trc ph chnh, cc khu thng mi, cng vin ln, cc bn xe v cc ni cng cng khc phi b tr cc ph ng tin lu cha cht thi rn. Khong cch gia cc thng lu cha cht thi rn khng c ln hn 100m. 6) Thi gian lu cha cht thi rn sinh hot khng qu hai ngy (48 gi). 7) Kch thc v vt liu ca cc phng tin lu cha c quy nh ti bng 9.2. Bng 9.2. Kch thc, vt liu ca cc phng tin lu cha cht thi rn sinh hot th
Th tch ( lt) TT Phng tin Ti thiu 1 Ti nilon Thng rc ti h gia nh 5 Ti a 10 Vt liu, kt cu Nilon, nha HDPE Nha, kim loi, gm, compozit Nha, kim loi, gm, compozit

Phm vi p dng

Ch yu ti ngun pht sinh l cc h gia nh. Ch yu ti ngun pht sinh l cc h gia nh. Ch yu ti cc khu vc cng cng: ng ph, qung trng, cng vin, trng hc, c quan

50

Thng rc cng cng

50

660

Xe gom

250

660

Trung chuyn cht thi t Kim loi hoc ngun ra xe vn chuyn compozit trong trng hp ng, ph nh hp Kim loi im thu cha tp trung i vi nh my, cng trng xy dng Ti cc nh my, c s cng nghip, khu/cm cng nghip

Container

1.000 Tu theo khi lng cht thi rn ca cc c s, nh my

15.000

Kho cha

Xy gch, nh khung thp

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9.3. Thu gom, phn loi v lu cha cht thi rn nguy hi 1) Thu gom v phn loi cht thi rn nguy hi - Vic thu gom v phn loi cht thi rn nguy hi t hot ng y t phi tun th theo quy nh ca Quy ch qun l cht thi y t do B Y t ban hnh. - Vic thu gom v phn loi cht thi rn nguy hi t hot ng cng nghip phi c tun th theo quy nh hin hnh v qun l cht thi rn. 2) Lu cha cht thi rn nguy hi - Ni lu cha cht thi y t nguy hi cc c s y t phi m bo cc iu kin theo quy nh ca Quy ch qun l cht thi y t do B Y t ban h nh. - Ni lu cha cht thi cng nghip nguy hi ti cc c s pht sinh phi c b tr cc khu vc ring bit, c kt cu bao che v cc phng tin an ton phng chng chy, n. 3) Thi gian lu cha cht thi rn nguy hi - Thi gian lu cha cht thi rn y t nguy hi b n trong cc c s y t khng c qu 48 gi. - Thi gian lu cha cht thi cng nghip nguy hi khng c qu ba thng i vi cc c s pht sinh ngun thi nh (l ng cht thi pht sinh n 1 tn/thng) v khng c qu mt thng i vi cc c s pht sinh ngun thi ln (l ng cht thi pht sinh ln hn 1 tn/thng). 4) Mu sc v du hiu cnh bo ca cc phng tin lu cha - Mu sc ca cc phng tin lu cha cht thi y t nguy hi phi tun th theo h thng m ha mu sc chun mc c qui nh: mu vng cha ng cht thi lm sng, mu en cha ng cht thi ha hc, phng x, thuc gy c t b o v mu xanh cha ng cc cht thi khc. B n ngoi phng tin lu gi ny phi c biu tng v nguy hi sinh hc theo ng qui nh. - Mu sc ca cc phng tin lu cha cht thi cng nghip nguy hi phi tun th theo h thng cnh bo ng qui nh. - Trn cc phng tin lu cha cht thi cng nghip nguy hi phi c nh n mc vi cc thng tin cn thit v ngun gc, chng loi v c tnh cht thi nguy hi. 9.4. Vn chuyn cht thi rn 1) Cc phng tin vn chuyn cht thi rn sinh hot th phi l nhng phng tin chuyn dng, m bo cc yu cu v an ton mi trng. 2) Cc loi cht thi nguy hi phi c vn chuyn bng cc ph ng tin chuyn dng dnh ring i vi cht thi nguy hi v phi c cc bin bo v tnh c hi ca loi cht thi v c cp php hot ng. 3) Phng tin vn chuyn v ngi iu khin phng tin chuyn ch cht thi nguy hi phi ng k vi c quan qun l nh nc v bo v mi trng v phi c cp php chuyn ch cht thi nguy hi. 4) Mi phng tin vn chuyn cht thi nguy hi phi c trang b: Cc phng tin phng chy cha chy.

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- Cc thit b an ton cn thit nh trang b bo h c nhn, vt liu hp th phng trng hp b r r v trn cht thi lng, v cc trang b/dng c s cu. 5) Cc phng tin chuyn ch cht thi ly nhim khng c s dng vo mc ch khc v phi c lm v sinh, ty u sau mi ln chuy n ch. 6) p dng cc phng thc vn chuyn cht thi rn d i y cho cc khu dn c th v khu cng nghip: Vn chuyn t cc khu dn c th: + T cc h gia nh ti trm trung chuyn c nh hoc va: bng xe y th cng hoc xe my c gn thng (xe lam), c lp y ring bit thu nc r rc. + T cc thng rc cng cng: bng xe y th cng, xe my c gn th ng, xe ti hoc xe ti chuyn dng. + T trm trung chuyn ti c s x l cht thi rn th bng xe ti c va hoc xe ti chuyn dng. - Vn chuyn t cc khu cng nghip n c s x l cht thi rn ca th bng xe ti c va hoc xe chuyn dng. - Vn chuyn t cc trm trung chuyn c ln n c s x l cht thi rn sinh hot ca th bng xe ti c ln hoc xe chuyn dng. Cc phng tin vn chuyn chuyn ch cht thi rn c quy nh ti bng 9.3. Bng 9.3. Quy nh v phng tin vn chuyn cht thi rn
TT 1 Phng tin vn chuyn Ti trng Phm vi p dng C th p dng cho tt c cc th t, bt buc c thng kn Ti trng nh (c hoc khng c h thng nht: 2,0 tn nn p), xe container Ti trng ln nht: 30 tn Tu ha Theo tiu chun ng st

- Cc th c c s h tng ng st ph hp - C ly vn chyn > 50 Km; - Khi lng cht thi > 2.000 tn/ngy

X lan, thuyn, tu bin

Theo tiu chun th ven bin, khu vc th ngp ng thy nc vo ma l lt.

9.5. Trung chuyn cht thi rn 1) Hot ng trung chuyn cht thi rn phi c tin hnh theo qui hoch qun l cht thi rn c cc c quan c thm quyn ph duyt. 2) Cc trm trung chuyn cht thi rn phi c qui hoch ti cc v tr thun tin giao thng v phi bo m hot ng chuy n ch khng gy nh hng ti cht lng mi trng v m quan th. Trm trung chuyn cht thi rn phi c kh nng tip nhn v vn chuyn ht khi lng cht thi rn trong phm vi bn knh thu gom n khu x l tp trung vi thi gian khng qu 2 ngy m.

90

3) Tt c cc khu th c quy hoch mi u phi b tr cc khu t xy dng cc trm trung chuyn cht thi rn. Bn knh phc v ca cc trm trung chuyn cht thi rn c quy nh ti bng 9.4. 4) Khong cch an ton mi trng nh nht gia hng ro ca trm trung chuyn c nh n chn xy dng cng tr nh khc phi 20m. 5) Tt c cc bnh vin v nhng ni c ngun pht sinh cht thi rn y t nguy hi u phi b tr cc trm thu gom ti ch. Cht thi rn y t phi c trung chuyn bng cc phng tin chuyn dng, bo m an ton mi trng hoc phi c x l v thiu t ti ch ngay trong trm thu gom, sau tro ca cht thi c php vn chuyn ra bi chn lp cht thi chung ca th. Bng 9.4. Qui nh v trm trung chuyn cht thi rn th
Loi v qui m Cng sut Bn knh phc v ti a (km) trm trung chuyn (tn/ng) Trm trung chuyn khng chnh thc (khng c h tng k thut) C nh <5 0,5 C va 5 - 10 1,0 C ln > 10 7,0 Trm trung chuyn c nh chnh thc (c h tng k thut) C nh < 100 10 C va 100 - 500 15 C ln > 500 30 Din tch ti thiu (m2) 20 50 50 500 3.000 5.000

6) Yu cu ti thiu i vi xy dng mt trm trung chuyn c nh (chnh thc) c nh phi bao gm: mi, kt cu bao che chn, t ng chn, sn nn, ng cho xe th cng v c gii ra vo v c ngun cp nc sch. 7) i vi trm thu gom trung chuyn c nh (chnh thc) c va, ngoi cc yu cu nu trn, phi c thm h t cc container, thit b nng h container v h thng thu gom v x l nc r rc. 8) i vi trm thu gom trung chuyn c nh (chnh thc) c ln, ngoi cc yu cu nu cc im trn yu cu phi c thm my p rc, cng trnh x l nc r rc, h thng ra xe, bi tp kt cc xe chuyn dng, khu vc phn loi, ti ch cht thi rn, nh iu hnh, phng hnh chnh v cc cng trnh ph tr khc. 9) Ti cc trm trung chuyn cht thi nguy hi phi b tr cc ph ng tin cha chy ph hp vi tnh cht nguy him chy ca tng loi cht thi v phi c ni qui phng chy, cha chy, hiu lnh v bin bo CM LA. 9.6. X l cht thi rn 9.6.1. Cng ngh x l cht thi rn 1) Cc cng ngh ch yu c p dng trong x l cht thi rn bao gm: c hn lp an ton, hp v sinh; ch bin cht thi rn hu c thnh phn vi sinh; ch bin cht thi rn thnh nhin liu v thiu t thu hi nng lng. 2) Cc cng ngh ti ch cht thi phi m bo khng gy nhim mi tr ng trong qu trnh hot ng. 91

9.6.2. t cht thi rn 1) Khi p dng cng ngh t trong x l cht thi nguy hi, bt buc l t phi c km theo cc thit b x l khi thi v x l nc thi pht sinh t cc qu tr nh cng ngh. Khuyn khch p dng cng ngh t cht thi c thu hi nng l ng. 2) Ch c s dng cc loi l t cht thi nguy hi c cc cp c thm quyn thm duyt, cp php v phi tun th cc yu cu v bo v mi trng. 3) Khong cch an ton mi trng nh nht gia trm t cht thi n chn cc cng trnh xy dng khc l 500m. V tr l t phi thun tin cho vic chuyn ch cht thi v gn vi khu vc chn lp tro x. 4) Tro t cht thi nguy hi phi c chn lp cc chn lp c bit hoc chn lp chung vi bi chn lp cht thi nguy hi. 9.6.3. X l, ch bin cht thi rn sinh hot th nh phn vi sinh hoc ch bin thnh nhin liu t 1) V tr cc trm x l ch bin cht thi rn hu c thnh phn vi sinh hoc ch bin thnh nhin liu t phi c khong cch an ton mi trng nh nht gia trm x l cht thi rn n chn cng tr nh dn dng khc 500m. 2) T l cht thi rn sinh hot c x l bng cc cng ngh n y (ti ch, ti s dng, ch bin phn hu c, ch bin thnh nhin liu t, v.v) phi t 85%. T l cht thi rn cn li phi chn lp khng c vt qu 15%. 3) Cc sn phm phn vi sinh khi d ng trong nng nghip phi c c quan c thm quyn thm nh v cp php lu hnh trn th trng. 4) Cc sn phm nhin liu t c ch bin t cht thi rn phi bo m tiu chun mi trng khi t. 9.6.4. Chn lp cht thi rn thng th ng 1) V tr bi chn lp cht thi rn c la chn cn c vo s liu v a hnh, kh hu, thy vn, a cht, h sinh thi v cc iu kin kinh t - x hi ti khu vc d kin xy dng bi chn lp. 2) Khong cch an ton v sinh nh nht gia hng ro bi chn lp cht thi rn n chn cng trnh dn dng khc 1.000m. Khong cch an ton v sinh nh nht t bi chn lp cht thi rn v c n chn cc cng trnh dn dng khc 100m 3) Xy dng bi chn lp cht thi rn thng th ng hn hp v c v hu c phi t yu cu k thut theo tiu chun k thut hin hnh. 4) Quy m bi chn lp c phn loi theo bng 9.5. Bng 9.5. Quy m bi chn lp cht thi rn th
Loi th, khu cng nghip th loi IV, V; cm cng nghip nh th loi III, IV; khu, cm cng nghip th loi I, II, III; khu, khu ch xut th c bit, loi I, II; khu kinh t Din tch (Ha) di 10 t 10 n di 30 t 30 n di 50 bng v trn 50 Thi gian s dng (nm) Di 5 T 5 - 10 T 10 -15 T 15 - 30 Quy m bi Nh Va Ln Rt ln

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5) Qui trnh k thut chn lp v cng tc quan trc mi trng phi tun theo yu cu ca tiu chun v cc quy nh hin hnh v qun l cht thi rn. 9.6.5. Chn lp v tiu hu cht thi nguy hi 1) Cht thi nguy hi phi c chn lp ti cc khu vc c quy hoch hoc c thiu hy trong cc l t t tiu chun mi trng. Khng c chn lp cht thi nguy hi ln vi cht thi thng th ng. 2) Bi chn lp an ton cht thi rn nguy hi phi c xy dng theo quy chun k thut mi trng quc gia. Tiu hy cht thi nguy hi bng ph ng php t phi tun theo quy nh ti mc 9.6.2 ca quy chun ny. 3) Vic lu gi v chn ct cc cht thi phng x phi tun th theo Php lnh An ton v kim sot bc x v cc quy nh hin hnh. 9.7. Khu lin hp x l cht thi rn 1) V tr khu lin hp x l cht thi rn phi ph hp vi quy hoch xy dng. Khong cch an ton mi trng nh nht gia hng ro khu lin hp x l cht thi rn n chn cng trnh xy dng khc l 1.000m. 2) Qui m khu lin hp v cc cng trnh x l i km phi c xc nh trn c s khi lng ca cht thi rn cn c x l, cng ngh p dng v tnh lin vng, lin th. 3) Trong cc khu lin hp x l cht thi phi b tr cc ph ng tin cha chy, c ni qui phng chy, cha chy, c hiu lnh v bin bo CM LA ti cc khu vc sau: Khu vc tip nhn v lu gi v x l cht thi nguy hi; Khu vc kho nhin liu, gara cc phng tin vn chuyn c gii; Khu vc trm cp kh nn v gian iu khin ca cng trnh x l cht thi; Khu vc phng th nghim, phn tch cht thi

9.8. Nh v sinh cng cng v qun l bn cn 1) Trn cc trc ph chnh, cc khu thng mi, cng vin ln, cc bn xe v cc ni cng cng khc phi b tr cc nh v sinh cng cng. 2) Cc a im th phi xy dng cc nh v sinh cng cng c quy nh theo bng 9.6. Ti cc khu vc c gi tr c bit v cnh quan th hoc qu t hn ch phi xy dng nh v sinh cng cng ngm. 3) Khong cch gia cc nh v sinh cng cng trn ng ph chnh ca th phi 500m v trn cc tuyn ng vnh ai th phi 800m. Bng 9.6. Cc a im th phi c nh v sinh cng cng
TT 1 2 3 4 5 Danh mc cc a im trong th Qung trng Cng vin, vn hoa, vn th Ga tu ha, tu in Bn xe khch - Bn xe but u v cui, cc trm xng du nm ngo i th Ga hng khng

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6 7 8 9 10

Bi xe Trung tm thng mi - ch Cc ca hng kinh doanh dch v n ung, gii kht Cc tuyn ng vnh ai ca th Cc trc ng ph chnh ca th

4) Cc loi bn thi t h thng x l nc thi, phn bn t cc cng trnh v sinh ti ch c qun l theo cc qui nh v qun l cht thi rn. 5) Khi lng phn, bn pht sinh t cc cng trnh v sinh ph thuc vo mc hon thin ca cc cng trnh v sinh ti ch v c c tnh theo bng 9.7. Bng 9.7. Khi lng phn bn tnh ton theo u ngi
Thnh phn v n v tnh - g/ngi.ngy (theo trng lng t) - g/ngi.ngy (theo trng lng kh) - Nu gm c 0,35lt nc ra sau khi i v sinh, g/ngi.ngy (t) - m3/ngi.nm (da vo thi gian lu gi v phn hu trong h hoc hm 1 nm ni kh hu nng) - T l nc [%] Phn bn 250 50 Nc tiu 1.200 60 Tng 1.450 110 1.800 0,04 0,07 50 - 95

Ch thch: - Trng lng t l khi lng c xc nh trc tip t mu phn tch; - Trng lng kh l khi lng phn tch xc nh sau khi sy kh nhit 102 oC - 105oC.

6) Tnh ton, thit k cc cng trnh x l phn bn phi da vo thnh phn cht bi tit ca mt ngi v c c tnh theo bng 9.8. 7) Bn phn cn s dng trong nng nghip khng c cha cc cht c hi gy bnh, trng giun sn v vi sinh vt qu mc gii hn cho php. Bng 9.8. Thnh phn cc cht trong sn phm b i tit ca ngi (g/ngi-ngy)
Cc cht hu c BOD5 Nit Pht pho Kali Cacbon hu c Nc tiu 11,0 1,0 2,5 6,6 Phn bn 1,5 0,5 1,0 21,4 Phn + Nc tiu 45 12,5 1,5 3,5 30

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Chng 10 NH TANG L V NGHA TRANG TH 10.1. Quy nh chung Quy hoch v xy dng nh tang l, ngha trang th phi ph hp vi quy hoch xy dng th v cc quy chun k thut hin hnh; ph hp vi phong tc, tp qun, tn gio v vn minh hin i; s dng t c hiu qu, m bo cc yu cu v cnh quan v v sinh mi trng. 10.2. Phn cp ngha trang th Ngha trang th c phn cp theo bng 10.1. Bng 10.1. Phn cp ngha trang theo quy m t ai v loi th Cp ngha trang Cp I Cp II Cp III Cp IV 10.3. Nh tang l Cc th c dn s t 250.000 dn tr xung phi c ti thiu 1 nh tang l. Cc th c dn s ln hn 250.000 dn th mi nh tang l phc v ti a 250.000 dn. 10.4. Khong cch an ton v sinh mi trng i vi nh tang l v ngha trang 1) Khong cch an ton v sinh mi trng (ATVSMT) nh nht t nh tang l xy dng mi n ch, trng hc l 200m; n nh v cc cng trnh dn dng khc l 100m. 2) Khong cch an ton v sinh mi trng nh nht t ngha trang n ng bao khu dn c, trng hc, bnh vin, cng s c quy nh nh sau: - Vng ng bng: i vi ngha trang hung tng l 1.500m khi cha c h thng thu gom v x l nc thi t m hung tng v 500m khi c h thng thu gom v x l nc thi t m hung tng; i vi ngha trang ct tng l 100m. - Vng trung du, min ni: i vi ngha trang hung tng l 2.000m khi cha c h thng thu gom v x l nc thi t m hung tng v 500m khi c h thng thu gom v x l nc thi t m hung tng; i vi ngha trang ct tng l 100m. i vi ngha trang chn ct mt ln, ti thiu l 500m. 3) Khong cch ATVSMT nh nht n cng trnh khai thc nc sinh hot tp trung t ngha trang hung tng l 5.000m, t ngha trang ct tng l 3.000 m. 4) Khong cch ATVSMT nh nht t ngha trang n mp nc gn nht ca mp nc ca cc thu vc ln l: 95 Quy m din tch t (ha) > 60 t 30 n 60 t 10 n 30 < 10 Phc v cho loi th Loi c bit, loi I Loi II Loi III Loi IV, loi V

i vi ngha trang hung tng: 5 00m; i vi ngha trang ct tng: 100m.

5) Khong cch ATVSMT nh nht t ngha trang hung tng ti ng giao thng vnh ai th, ng st l 300m v phi c cy xanh bao quanh ngha trang. 6) Trong vng ATVSMT ca ngha trang c thc hin cc hot ng canh tc nng nghip, c xy dng cc cng trnh h tng k thut nh giao thng, thu li, tuyn v trm in, truyn ti xng du, h thng thot nc. 10.5. Cc khu chc nng ch yu trong nh tang l, ngha trang 1) Nh tang l Khu vn phng: phng lm vic, kho hng ha phc v, phng khch, khu WC. - Khu l tang: hnh lang, phng ch, ni t chc tang l, phng lnh, ch t quan ti, phng khm lim. - H thng h tng k thut: ng i, sn, bi xe, cp nc, thot nc, chiu sng, cy xanh, thu gom rc. 2) Ngha trang Khu mai tng/ha tng: ni chn ct/ha thiu thi hi hoc hi ct. Khu t chc l tang: ni t chc l tang trc khi chn ct hoc ha tng.

- Khu iu hnh: ni lm vic ca lnh o v nhn vin qun l ngha trang, bao gm vn phng, nh kho, nh khch, nh ch , nh thng trc, kit bn hng, khu WC. - Khu k thut: ra hi ct, phng lnh bo qun thi hi, x l cc xc v tha nhn, ni lm vic ca cng an - t php, nhn vin y t khi c vn cht bt thng hoc cp cu thn nhn a ving ngi khut. - Nh tiu ct, tro: ni cc tiu ct sau ci tng v l tro sau khi ha tng thi hi (ch c cc ngha trang s dng h nh thc ha tng). Nh ch dnh cho thn nhn ngi cht khi n ngha trang thm ving. Khu dnh cho cc hot ng tng nim, th cng chung .

- H thng h tng k thut: sn ng, bi xe, thot nc, cp nc sch cho ngha trang, thu gom v x l cht thi rn, thu gom v x l nc thm t cc m hung tng, chiu sng, cy xanh, mt n c, tiu cnh. 10.6. Din tch v s dng t trong nh tang l, ngha trang 1) Nh tang l Din tch ti thiu mt bng khun vin ca nh tang l l 10.000m 2. - T l s dng t cho nh tang l: khu vn phng 10%; khu l tang 30%; bi xe 30%; cn li l li i, sn, cy xanh. 2) Ngha trang - Din tch ngha trang bao gm din tch cc loi h nh tng (mai tng c ci tng, chn ct 1 ln, ct tng, ha tng) v din tch t giao thng, cy xanh v cng trnh ph tr. 96

T l s dng t trong ngha trang th: + Ngha trang hung tng, chn ct mt ln: din tch chn ct ti a 70%, giao thng ti thiu 10%, cy xanh ti thiu 15%, cng trnh ph tr ti thiu 5%. + Ngha trang ct tng: din tch chn ct ti a 60%, giao thng ti thiu 10%, cy xanh ti thiu 25%, cng trnh ph tr ti thiu 5%.

Din tch t s dng cho mi m (khng tnh din tch ng i xung quanh m): + M hung tng hoc chn ct mt ln: ngi ln: 5 - 8 m2/m, tr em: 3 3,5 m2/m. + M ct tng: ngi ln: 4 5 m2/m, tr em: 3 4 m2/m.

Th tch l tro ha tng ti a l 0,125m3/.

10.7. Kin trc, cnh quan mi tr ng nh tang l, ngha trang 1) Nh tang l - Kin trc nh tang l phi ph hp vi iu kin t nhin v phong tc tp qun ca a phng; mt bng hp l, thun ti n vi quy trnh t chc l tang; m bo thng thong t nhin. - Ngoi khong cy xanh cch ly gia nh tang l vi khu dn c, hng ro cn xy dng ph hp vi cnh quan xung quanh . Giao thng trong nh tang l: + C t nht ng ra v ng vo nh tang l ring bit, mt ct ngang ng ti thiu l 10m, m bo kh nng thot him khi xy ra s c chy n v thin tai. + Nh tang l phi c li i ring, c cc cng trnh v sinh ring v phi m bo cho ngi khuyt tt tip cn nh tang l. + Bn knh quay xe ti thiu trong bi xe l 13m, dc dc ti a l 2%. + Bi xe phi b tr li ra, li v o tch bit nhau nhm trnh n tc v phng ha hon, b rng ti thiu l 6m. + Bi xe nm trong khun vin nh tang l hoc nm trong khu vc cch ly cy xanh gia nh tang l vi khu dn c. 2) Ngha trang - Kin trc m bao gm phn m, ni thp hng, bia m. Hnh thc kin trc m, bia m phi ph hp vi vn ha v iu kin ca a phng. - Ngha trang c chia thnh cc khu/l m. Cc khu/l m c gii hn bi cc ng i b. Trong mi khu/l m c chia ra thnh cc nhm m. Trong mi nhm m hoc l m c cc hng m. Kch thc m v huyt m ti a: Kch thc m (di x rng x cao): 2,4m x 1,4m x 0,8m. Kch thc huyt m (di x rng x su): 2,2m x 0,9m x 1,5m. M ct tng: M mai tng hoc chn ct 1 ln:

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Kch thc m (di x rng x cao): 1,5m x 1m x 0,8m. Kch thc huyt m (di x rng x su): 1,2 x 0,9m x 0,8m. Kch thc l tro ha tng ti a (di x rng x cao): 0,5m x 0,5m x 0,5m. Chiu rng li i trong ngha trang: + Trc giao thng chnh (ng phn khu) ti thiu l 7 m. + ng gia cc l m (ng phn l) ti thiu l 3,5 m. + Li i bn trong cc l m (ng phn nhm) ti thiu l 1,2 m. + Khong cch li i gia hai h ng m lin tip ti thiu l 0,8 m. + Khong cch gia 2 m lin tip cng hng ti thiu l 0,6 m. - Xung quanh ngha trang phi xy dng h thng thot n c, khng ngha trang b ng ngp cng nh trnh r r nc ca ngha trang ra khu vc xung quanh. 10.8. Thu gom v x l cht thi ca ngha trang Cht thi rn ngha trang phi c thu gom v chuyn n ni x l m bo v sinh mi trng; Nu cu to a cht khng bo m chng thm n c (h s thm ln hn 10 -7 cm/s v chiu dy lp t chng thm nh hn 5m) th phi c h thng thu gom n c thm t cc m hung tng x l tp trung hp v sinh, trc khi thi x ra mi trng. V tr khu x l nc thi ca khu m hung tng phi t h l u ngun tip nhn nc thi, ni c a hnh thp nht ca ngha trang 10.9. Nh ha tng 1) Nh ha tng c xy dng thnh mt khu ring hay trong khun vin ngh a trang ty theo iu kin ca a phng. Khong cch ly nh nht t nh ha tng hin i n khu dn c gn nht l 1.500m. 2) Cc hng mc chnh ca nh ha tng gm vn phng lm vic, phng tip khch, phng t chc l tang, phng lnh bo qun thi hi, bi xe, khu l ha tng, nh lu hi ct, sn vn. Nh ha tng phi m bo cc quy chun v v sinh mi trng. 3) Kh thi ca l ha tng trc khi thi ra mi trng phi t tiu chun mi trng Vit Nam. 4) Nh lu hi ct c b tr theo tng tng vi th tch v kch thc ca cc ngn lu ct c quy nh ti quy chun ny.

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