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8.2 A Local Ecosystem 1.

The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors Definitions Environment all the factors that affect living things Community a naturally occurring group of organisms that interact with each other Population a group of organisms of the same species living in a certain area Ecosystem any environment containing living organisms interacting with non living parts of environment Habitat the place where the organism lives Compare the abiotic characteristics of aquatic and terrestrial environments

Abiotic features the non living factors or features of an environment (physical, chemical properties i.e. temperature, pH level, rainfall) Biotic features the living components or biological features (members of the same species and members of other species Abiotic Factors Viscosity Buoyancy Aquatic Environments High viscosity in water The buoyancy of water offers support to both animals and plants, helps to maintain shape and to function is oceans depths Water heats up more slowly than air Water pressure increases with water depth Gas availability in water depends on the temperature Organisms in water are surrounded by dissolved ions Decreases with depth Terrestrial Environments Air is less viscous than water Buoyancy does not affect terrestrial flora and fauna. They need to be able to support themselves Surface temperature varies far more on land than water Air pressure decreases with height Concentration of gases in higher Water availability varies Light intensity is high

Temperature Pressure Availability of Gases Availability of Water and Ions Light Penetration

Identify the factors determining the distribution and abundance of a species in each environment

Abundance the abundance of a species means how many individuals there are at a specific time and area Distribution is where a species is found Abiotic Factors Light Wind and rainfall Temperature Effect of topography Tide, currents and waves Salinity, pH and water availability Measuring Abundance Direct counting Using sample area as a guide Estimate of percentage cover Quadrat Biotic Factors Abundance of food Number of competitors Number of mates Number of Predators Diseases

Measuring Distribution Profile sketch Transect Surface map Observations Radar, cameras or tagging Quadrats Number in the quadrat Area of the quadrat Capture marking recapture Estimated Population = number of animals tagged x number of animals recaptured Average number of tagged animals recaptured Describe the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystems Number in total area Total area

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants cells capture energy from sunlight and use it to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugars and oxygen. Photosynthesis provides nutrients and energy to organisms herbivores, carnivores and so energy and materials are passed from organism to organism. CO2 + H2O Carbon dioxide + water C6H12O6 + O2 Glucose + Oxygen

Respiration is the process where the cells obtain energy, and break down sugars to produce carbon dioxide and water and energy is then released Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of cells. Respiration is a process carried out in all living cells to release energy for living, respiration changes glucose into chemical energy. C6H12O6 + O2 Glucose + Oxygen H2O + CO2 + energy/ATP Water + Carbon dioxide + energy/ATP

Identify the general equation for aerobic cellular respiration and outline this as a summary of a chain of biochemical reactions

Aerobic Respiration process whereby glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water using oxygen and releasing energy. ADP Adenosine Diphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate

When ATP is broken down it becomes ADP which releases a large amount of energy. ADP + Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP (energy)

Respiration occurs in 2 stages: First stage, in the cytoplasm of the cells, 2 molecules of ATP is produced, this occurs with anaerobic respiration. Second stage, in the mitochondria of the cells 36 molecules of ATP is produced, occurring with aerobic respiration.

Respiration involves a series of chemical reactions. It occurs as a sequence of 50 different reactions, each catalysed by a different enzyme. The bonds in the organic molecules, such as sugar are broken releasing small amounts of chemical energy; this energy is transferred to the energy carrier molecule ATP. The energy released is used to convert ADP to ATP so that the energy can be used all around the body. 40% of the energy in glucose is converted into ATP the rest is lost as heat.

Identify uses of energy by organisms

Respiration is a process carried out in all living cells, this energy is used For growth and repair For movement To keep organs working For chemical reactions For movement of substances in the organism To synthesise compounds 2. Each local aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem is unique Examine trends in population estimates for some plant and animal species within an ecosystem

Population of organisms do not remain at a constant level in an ecosystem, but sometimes the population increases dramatically this is called a population explosion. Population may also decline due to, diseases, predation, competition from other species and human impact on the ecosystem and sometimes the organisms become extinct because of these factors. Outline factors that affect numbers in predator and prey populations in the area studied

Predator An organism that obtains food by killing other organisms Prey An organism that is killed for food Size of ecosystem Availability of food Reproduction Competition Diseases Migration Human activity

Identify examples of allelopathy, parasitism, mutualism and commensalism in an ecosystem and the role of organisms in each type of relationship Definition Species that live together in communities, and interact with each other One species benefits and the other is harmed because of its presence Where two species interact with each other and benefit from both species The chemical inhibition of one species by another One species gains and the other has no effect Example

Interactions Symbiosis Parasitism Mutualism

Allelopathy Commensalism

Leech and Human, leech sucks human blood while the human body is harmed Tick bird and Zebra, tick bird removes parasites from the zebra and is also in access to food Casuarina, it produces metabolites that prevent growth of plants in the same area The remora and shark, the remora is in access to food while the shark makes no attempt to

feed on it

Describe the role of decomposers in ecosystems

Decomposers are organisms that absorb nutrients from dead tissue or waste products and returns organic material to the soil. They also make materials produced by decomposition available to plants, which is then recycled into the food chains. Bacteria and fungi are usually the main decomposers in an ecosystem. Explain trophic interactions between organisms in an ecosystem using food chains, food webs and pyramids of biomass and energy

Trophic Interaction Feeding relationship between organisms Trophic Level Feeding level of an organism In a natural environment, energy from sunlight enters through the process of photosynthesis then flows onto other organisms via food chains and webs. Photosynthesis can change the suns energy into chemical energy for other organisms. Food Chains A food chain illustrates what organisms eat what; the arrows indicate is eaten by and usually the food chain starts off with a producer. Food Webs A food web is many food chains joined together; it shows the trophic interactions, energy flow of all living things in an ecosystem. Producer an organism that makes its own food, autotrophs Consumer an organism that feeds on another living thing, heterotrophs Herbivore a consumer that only feeds on plant material Carnivore a consumer that only feeds on animals Biomass Pyramid Biomass The measure of the mass of all organisms at a particular trophic level In each transfer of energy about 90% is lost as heat and 10% is transferred to the consumer.

Carnivores Herbivores Producers


Energy Pyramid - Represents each trophic level - The amount of energy lost with each level

3rd Order consumer 2nd Order consumer 1st Order consumer Producers
Define the term adaptation and discuss the problems associated with inferring characteristics of organisms as adaptations for living in a particular habitat

Adaptation The area where an organism lives is because they survive in that habitat. Organisms have features that help them adapt to the environment which helps them survive. There are 3 types of adaptations:

1. 2. 3.

Structural Adaptations This refers to the physical structure of the organism Physiological Adaptations This refers to the way the organism functions Behavioural Adaptations This refers to the behaviour, how organisms respond to its environment The word adaptation should be used carefully, human observations of characteristics of organisms come from human perspectives it not to say that a characteristic is an adaptation and an animal or plant in a specific location does not mean it has special adaptations to the habitat.

Identify some adaptations of plants and an animal from the local ecosystem Mangroves Anchored by complex root systems in the ground Gaseous exchange occurs through the aerial roots tips Mangroves control their salt level through: Cells maintain higher concentrations of cell solutes Secrete salt from leaves Its leaves have thick cuticle and are hard and leathery, prevents water loss and wilting in hot weather It is abundant to light for photosynthesis The seeds germinate before they are dropped from their parent plant to insure a root system for rapid growth Kangaroos Well muscled hind legs are made for travelling at high speeds Use lungs for respiration Sufficient leaves will help them survive

Support and Movement Gaseous Exchange Water balance

Internal temperature

They seek shade of trees and bushes to maintain their body temperature They are nocturnal animals but are active in the early morning and early evening Marsupial process of reproduction

Obtaining light Reproduction

Describe and explain the short term and long term consequences on the ecosystem of species competing for resources Availability of resources decreases The growth of the population may decrease If the population decreases the availability of food may increase Degradation of the environment Diversity of organism will be reduced Extinction of species Evolution

Short term

Long term

Identify the impact of humans in the ecosystem studied Land clearance and habitat destruction Erosion and loss of soil Salination and desertification Pollution of air, water and soil Fertilisers and pesticides

Loss of biological diversity Exploitation and depletion of natural non renewable resources Production of poisonous materials Introduction of new species of fauna and flora