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born in 1944 BSN - Georgetown University MS in psychiatric-mental health nursing - Ohio State University PhD in nursing - New York University and an MBA from Case Western Reserve University. Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing 1981 Presently, Elizabeth Brooks Ford Professor of Nursing, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.
INTRODUCTION y y Life Perspective Rhythm Model is a nursing model developed by Joyce J Fitzpatrick. She conceptualized her model from Martha Rogers' Theory of Unitary Human beings.
MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS y y y y "The process of human development is characterized by rhythms that occur within the context of continuous person-environment interaction." Nursing activity focuses on enhancing the developmental process toward health. A central concern of nursing science and the nursing profession is the meaning attributed to life as the basic understanding of human existence. The identification and labeling of concepts allows for recognition and communication with others, and the rules for combining those concepts permits thoughts to be shared through language.
CORE CONCEPTS Rhythm Model includes four content concepts and they are: y y y Person Health wellness-illness and
METAPARADIGM. y PERSON
Person includes both self and others. Person is seen as an open system , a unified whole characterized by a basic human rhythm. The model recognizes individuals as having unique biological, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and spiritual attitudes.
goal directed behavior. y NURSING "A developing discipline whose central concern is the meaning attached to life (health) Primary purpose of nursing is the promotion and maintenance of an optimal level of wellness. . y WELLNESS-LLNESS Professional nursing is rooted in the promotion of wellness practices.y HEALTH Health is a dynamic state of being that results from the interaction of person and the environment. CONCLUSION Life Perspective Rhythm Model is a complex nursing model which contribute to nursing knowledge by providing taxonomy for identifying and labeling nursing concepts to allow for their universal recognition and communication with others. a heightened awareness of the meaningfullness of life. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gathered from rewarding relationships with others. and expert personal care. 'a human dimension under continuous development.
y The encounter person as less than whole is not to encounter person. y She has a daughter. The general intension of nursing is to know persons as caring and to support and sustain them as they live caring. y Caring is an e expression of nursing and a the intentional and authentic presence of the nurse with another who is recognized as a living in caring and growing in caring y Sensitivity and creating unique and effective ways of communicating caring are developed through intention to care. y Boykin s scholarly work is centered on caring as grounding for nursing.and grand daughter. PERSON y Is recognized as an individual living caring and growing in caring. or brokenness. Emma y She spent 3 years in Amazon region of Brazil. MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS FOCUS AND INTENTION OF NUSING y Disciplines of knowledge are described as communities of scholars who develop particular perspective on the world and what it means to be in the world.ANNE BOYKIN & SAVINA SCHOENHOFER NURSING AS CARING: A Model for Transforming Practice ANNE BOYKIN y Grew up in Kaukauna. Carrie. persons are complete and whole i9n the moment: There is no deficit. . SAVINA O. SCHOENHOFER y She was born the second child and eldest daughter in a family of nine children. working as a volunteer in community development. Each disciplinary community holds in a common a value system that is expressed in its unique focus on knowledge and practice. y The eldest of six children y She began her career in nursing in 1966. the focus of nursing is nurturing person living and growing in caring. y Her initial nursing study was at Wichita University. insufficiency. Lynn College of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. y From the perspective of Nursing as Caring. y Through the lens of Nursing as Caring.graduating from Alverno College in Milwaukee. Wisconsin. y She introduced the caring as a substantive field of nursing study. y Also a director on the said College which is housed in College of Nursing. Wiscon y She was a dean and professor of the Christine E. deficiency.
. and actions of two or more persons choosing to live a nursing relationship. What matters most to you in this moment. CALL FOR NURSING y A call for nursing is a call for acknowledgement and affirmation of the person living caring in specific ways in the immediate situation y Calls for nursing is a call for nurturance to which the nurse responds uniquely with a . the caring that takes place between the nurse and the one nursed. y Story is a method for knowing nursing through which the content of nursing knowledge. The idea of the nursing situation is conceptualized as the shared. y Nursing situation is a construct in the mind of the nurse and is present whenever the intent of the nurse is to nurse . y Is a process of living caring and growing in caring and implies being authentic. y This implies that the fullness of being human is expressed in living caring uniquely day to day and enhanced through participation in caring relationship. poetry. and thus the practical knowledge of nursing. DIRECT INVITATION y Opens the relationship to truly caring between. y Nursing situation ia5re best communicated through aesthetic media such as storytelling. and dance to preserve the lived meaning of the situation and the openness of the situation through text. intentions. at this time? And How might I nurse you in ways that are meaningful to you? are communicated in the personal language of the nurse and call forth responses for mutual valuing in the beauty of the caring between. The nurse risk entering the other s world and directly invites the one nursed to share what matters most in the moment. y Is the universal human call. y The practice of nursing. y The nursing situation involves the expression of values. y Nursing situation as a unit of knowledge and practiced is recreated in narrative or story. is situated in the relational locus of person-with-person caring in the nursing situation. PERSONHOOD y Personhood is understood to mean living grounded in caring. lived experience in which caring between nurse and nursed enhances personhood and is the locus of all that is known and done in n nursing. and living out the meaning of one s life.is generated. any single nursing situation has the potential to illuminate the depth and complexity of the experience as lived.. y Nursing stories embody the lived experience of a nursing situation involving the nurse and nursed. STORY AS METHOD FOR KNOWING NURSING y As the repository of all nursing knowledge. graphic arts. making the knowledge of nursing available for further study. conserved and known through the lived experience of nursing situation and the medium for all forms of nursing inquiry.NURSING SITUATION y Nursing takes place in the nursing situation. demonstrating congruence between beliefs and behaviours. that is. y Story as method re-creates and represents the essence of experience.
the encountering of the nurse and the one nursed gives rise to the phenomenon of caring between. CARING RESPONSE y Ass an expression of nursing. 5. Persons are Caring by Virtue of Their Humanness Persons are Whole and Complete in the Moment Persons Live Caring. transforming the knowledge brought by the nurse to the situation in general.deliberately developed knowledge of what it means to be human. This knowing of person clarifies the call for nursing and shapes the nbursing response. CARING BETWEEN y When the nurse enters the world of other person with the intention of knowing the other as a caring person. 2. 4. Moment to Moment Personhood is Living Life Grounded in Caring Personhood is enhanced through Participating in Nurturing Relationships With Caring others. SIX MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS THAT REFLECT A SET OF VALUES 1. Nursing is both a Discipline and Profession . Caring is teh intentional and authentic presence of the nurse with another who is recognized as living caring and growing in caring y In responding the nursing call call. within which personhood is nurtured. 6. the nurse enters the nursing situation with the intention of knowing the other person as caring.to the particular and unique. 3.
movement. along with the research as praxis method.MARGARET NEWMAN HEALTH AS EXPANDING CONSCIOUSNESS y y y y She was born on October 10. MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITION HEALTH y Health encompasses disease and nondisease. has been used extensively in nursing practice with variety of client and family situations. in Memphis. 1933. and Newman sees it as giving unity in diversity. based on the premise that life is an ongoing process of expanding consciousness. . y Health is viewed as the pattern of the whole of a person and is further described as including disease as a meaningfully manifestation of teh patter of teh whole. y It is conceptualized as a fundamental attribute of all there is. like in the old paradigm. y Pattern is what identifies an individual as a particular person. y Consciousness includes not only cognitive and affective awareness. y Health is viewed as a process of developing awareness of self and environment together with an increasing ability to perceive alternatives and respond in variety of ways. She earned her first bachelor s degree in home economics and English from Baylor University. She found it restrictive and not consistent with the paradigm from which the theory was drawn The theory of health as a expanding consciousness. y Therefore. are no longer considered major concepts of the theory as they were in earlier works. PATTERN y Pattern is seen as information that depicts the whole. and understanding of the meaning of all of the relationships at once. not in isolation as separate concepts of the theory. and time. CONSCIOUSNESS y Is defined as both the informational capacity of the system and the ability of the system to interact with its environment. but also the interconnectedness of the entire living system which includes physicochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as the immune system MOVEMENT-SPACE-TIME y Newman states that it is important to examine movement-space-time as dimensions in emerging patterns of consciousness. space. y Health can be regarded as the evolving pattern of the person and the environment. Tennessee. y Newman asserted that an understanding of her definition of consciousness is essential to understanding the theory.
dictable state PERSON y Throughout Newman s work. and human being are used interchangeably. y Facilitates pattern recognition in clients by forming relationships with them at critical points in their lives and connecting with them in an authentic way. Persons as individuals are identified by their individual patterns of consciousness. the terms client. a new concept. person. y Disease and nondisease are each reflections of the larger whole:therefore.METAPARADIGM NURING y Is to help clients get in touch with the meaning of their lives by identification of their patterns of relating. HEALTH y Is the major concept of Newman s theory of expanding consciousness y A fusion of disease and nondisease creates a synthesis that is regarded as health. individual. y The nurse-client relationship is characterized by a rhythmic coming together and moving apart as clients encounter disruption of their organized. y The pattern of consciousness that is the person interacts within the pattern of consciousness that is the family and within the pattern of community interactions. pattern of the whole . Persons further defined canters of consciousness within an overall pattern of expanding consciousness ENVIRONMENT y Environment is not explicity defined but is described as being the larger whole. which is beyond the consciousness of the individual. is formed. patient. .
JOSEPHINE PATERSON .
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