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FRICTION RND LUBRIC~llON IN MKHRNICRL D€SIGN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books
Editor
L. L. Faulkner
Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute and Department of Mechanical Engineering The Ohio State University Colurnbus, Ohio
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 1 1. 12. 13.
14. 15. 1 6. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21
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22. 23.
Spring Designer's Handbook, Harold Carlson ComputerAided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills Solar Engineering for Domestic Buildings, William A. Himmelman Applied Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, G. Boothroyd and C. Poli Centrifugal Pump Clinic, lgor J . Karassik ComputerAided Kinetics for Machine Design, Daniel L. Ryan Plastics Products Design Handbook, Part A: Materials and Components; Part B: Processes and Design for Processes, edited by Edward Miller Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Earl Logan, Jr. Vibrations o f Shells and Plates, Werner Soedel Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook, Mario Di Giovanni Practical Stress Analysis in Enginee~ng Design, Alexander Blake An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints, John H . Bickford Optimal Engineeing Dmgn: pn'nc@lesand Applications, James N. Siddall Spring Manufacturing Handbook, Harold Carlson Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Lewis H. Bell Gears and Their Vibration: A Basic Approach to Understanding Gear Noise, J . Derek Smith Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling: Design and Applications Handbook, American Chain Association Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, edited by Philip A. Schweitzer Gear Drive Systems: Design and Application, Peter Lynwander Controlhg InPlant Airborne Contaminants: Systems Design and Calculations, John D. Constance CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation, Charles S. Knox Probabilistic Engineering Design: Princbles and Applications, Jarnes N. Siddall
24. Traction Drives: Selection and Application, Frederick W. Heilich 111 and Eugene E. Shube 25. Finite Element Methods: An Introduction, Ronald L. Huston and Chris E. Passerello 26. Mechanical Fastening of plastics: An Engineen'ng Handbook, Brayton Lincoln, Kenneth J. Gomes, and James F. Braden 27. Lubrication in Practice: Second Edition, edited by W. S. Robertson 28. Princ@lesof Automated Drafting, Daniel L. Ryan 29. Practical Seal Design, edited by Leonard J. Martini 30. Engineering Documentation for CAD/CAM Applications, Charles S. Knox 3 1. Design Dimensioning with Computer Graphics Applications, Jerome C. Lange 32. Mechanism Analysis: Simplified Graphical and Analytical Techniques, Lyndon 0 . Barton 33. CAD/CAM Systems: Justification, Implementation, Productivity Measurement, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark E. Coticchia 34. Steam Plant Calculations Manual, V . Ganapathy 35. Design Assurance for Engineers and Managers, John A. Burgess 36. Heat Transfer Fluids and Systems for Process and Energy Applications, Jasbir Singh 37. Potential Flows: Computer Graphic Solutions, Robert H. Kirchhoff 38. ComputerAided Graphics and Design: Second Edition, Daniel L. Ryan 39. Electronically Controlled Proportional Valves: Selection and Application, Michael J. Tonyan, edited by Tobi Goldoftas 40. Pressure Gauge Handbook, AMETEK, U.S. Gauge Division, edited by Philip W. Harland 41. Fabric Filtration for Combustion Sources: Fundamentals and Basic Technology, R. P. Donovan 42. Design of Mechanical Joints, Alexander Blake 43. CAD/CAM Dictionary, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark E. Coticchia 44. Machinery Adhesives for Locking, Retaining, and Sealing, Girard S. Haviland 45. Couplings and Joints: Design, Selection, and Application, Jon R. Mancuso 46. Shaft Alignment Handbook, John Piotrowski 47. BASIC Programs for Steam Plant Engineers: Boilers, Combustion, Fluid Flow, and Heat Transfer, V. Ganapathy 48. Solving Mechanical Design Problems with Computer Graphics, Jerome C . Lange 49. Plastics Gearing: Selection and Application, Clifford E. Adams 50. Clutches and Brakes: Design and Selection, William C. Orthwein 5 1. Transducers in Mechanical and Electronic Design, Harry L. Trietley 52. Metallurgical Applications of ShockWave and HighStrainRate Phenomena, edited by Lawrence E. Murr, Karl P. Staudhammer, and Marc A. Meyers 53. Magnesium Products Design, Robert S. Busk 54. How to Integrate CAD/CAM Systems: Management and Technology, William D. Engelke
55. Cam Design and Manufacture: Second Edition; with cam design software
for the IBM PC and compatibles, disk included, Preben W. Jensen bell
56. Solidstate A C Motor Controls: Selection and Application, Sylvester Camp57. Fundamentals of Robotics, David D. Ardayfio 50. Belt Selection and Application for Engineers, edited by Wallace D. Erick59. Developing ThreeDimensional CAD Software with the IBM PC, C. Stan 60. Organizing Data for CIM Applications, Charles S. Knox, with contributions by Thomas C. Boos, Ross S. Culverhouse, and Paul F. Muchnicki Wei son
61. ComputerAided Simulation in Railway Dynamics, by Rao V. Dukkipati
and Joseph R. Amyot Mallick
62. FiberReinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, P. K. 63. Photoelectric Sensors and Controls Selection and Application, Scott M.
Juds
64. Finite Element Analysis with Personal Computers, Edward R. Champion, 65. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications: Second Edition,
Revised and Expanded, Dale Ensminger Jr., and J. Michael Ensminger
66. Applied Finite Element Modeling: Practical Problem Solving for Engineers,
Jeffrey M. Steele 67. Measurement and Instrumentation in Engineering: Princ@les and Basic Laboratory Experiments, Francis S. Tse and lvan E. Morse 60. Centrifugal Pump Clinic: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, lgor J. Karassik 69. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Alexander Blake 70. An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, John H. Bickford 71. High Vacuum Technology: A Practical Guide, Marsbed H. Hablanian 72. Pressure Sensors: Selection and Application, Duane Tandeske 73. Zinc Handbook: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design, Frank Porter 74. Thermal Fatigue of Metals, Andrzej Weronski and Tadeusz Hejwowski 75. Classical and Modern Mechanisms for Engineers and Inventors, Preben W. Jensen 76. Handbook o f Electronic Package Design, edited by Michael Pecht 77. ShockWave and HighStrainRate Phenomena in Materials, edited by Marc A. Meyers, Lawrence E. Murr, and Karl P. Staudhammer 70. Industrial Refrigeration: Princ@les, Design and Applications, P. C. Koelet 79. Applied Combustion, Eugene L. Keating 80. Engine Oils and Automotive Lubrication, edited by Wilfried J. Bartz 0 1 . Mechanism Analysis: Simplified and Graphical Techniques, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lyndon 0 . Barton 02. Fundamental Fluid Mechanics for the Practicing Engineer, James W. Murdock 03. fiberReinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, P. K. Mallick
84. NumericalMethods for Engineen'ng Applications, Edward R. Champion, Jr. 85. Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Earl Logan, Jr. 86. Vibrations of Shells and Plates: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Werner Soedel 87. Steam Plant Calculations Manual: Second Edition, Revised and Ex panded, V. Ganapathy 88. Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lewis H. Bell and Douglas H. Bell 89. finite Elements: Their Design and Performance, Richard H. MacNeal 90. Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lawrence E. Nielsen and Robert F. Landel 91. Mechanical Wear Prediction and Prevention, Raymond G. Bayer 92. Mechanical Po wer Transmission Components, edited by David W. South and Jon R. Mancuso 93. Handbook of Turbomachinery, edited by Earl Logan, Jr. 94. Engineering Documentation Control Practices and Procedures, Ray E. Monahan 95. Refractory Linings Thermomechanical Design and Applications, Charles A. Schacht 96. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design, Manufactun'ng, and Inspection, James D. Meadows 97. An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, John H . Bickford 98. Shaft Alignment Handbook: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, John Piotrowski 99. ComputerAided Design o f PolymerMatrix Composite Structures, edited by Suong Van Hoa 100. Friction Science and Technology, Peter J . Blau 101. Introduction to Plastics and Composites: Mechanical Properties and Engineering Applications, Edward Miller 102. Practical Fracture Mechanics in Design, Alexander Blake 103. Pump Characteristics and Applications, Michael W. Volk 104. Optical Princr;Oles and Technology for Engineers, James E. Stewart 105. Optimizing the Shape of Mechanical Elements and Structures, A. A. Seireg and Jorge Rodriguez 106. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery, Vladimlr Stejskal and Michael Val4Sek 107. Shaft Seals for Dynamic Applications, Les Horve 108. ReliabilityBasedMechanical Design, edited by Thomas A. Cruse 109. Mechanical Fastening, Joining, and Assembly, James A. Speck 110. Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer, edited by Chunill Hah 111. High Vacuum Technology: A Practical Guide, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Marsbed H. Hablanian 112. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Workbook and Ans werbook, Jarnes D. Meadows 113. Handbook of Materials Selection for Engineering Applications, edited by G. T. Murray
1 14. Handbook of Thermoplastic Ptping System Design, Thomas Sixsmith and Reinhard Hanselka 1 15. Practical Guide to Finite Elements: A Solid Mechanics Approach, Steven M. Lepi 1 16. Applied ComputationalFluid Dynamics, edited by Vijay K. Garg 1 1 7 . Fluid Sealing Technology, Heinz K. Muller and Bernard S. Nau 1 18. Friction and Lubrication in Mechanical Design, A. A. Seireg
Additional Volumes in Preparation
Machining of Ceramics and Composites, edited by Said Jahanmir, M. Ramulu, and Philip Koshy Heat Exchange Design Handbook, T . Kuppan Couplings and Joints: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Jon R. Mancuso
Mechanical EngineeringSoftware
Spring Design with an IBM PC, AI Dietrich Mechanical Design Failure Analysis: With Failure Analysis System Software for the IBM PC, David G. Ullman Influence Functions and Matrices, Yuri A. Melnikov
FRICT'IONR" LUBRIC~ION IN M€CHANI(RL D€SIGN
University of WisconsinMadison Madison, Wisconsin and University of Florida Gainesviiie, Florida
a%
MARCEL DEKKER
MARCEL DEKKER, INC.
NEW YORK BASEL HONG KONG
ISBN: 0824799747 This book is printed on acidfree paper.
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Copyright 0 1998 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Preface
The awareness of friction and attempts to reduce or use it are as old as human history. Scientific study of the friction phenomenon dates back to the eighteenth century and has received special attention in modern times since it is one of the most critical factors in all machinery. The increasing emphasis on material and energy conservation in recent years has added new urgency to the development of practical predictive techniques and information that can be used, in the design stage, for controlling friction and wear. Advances in this field continue to contribute to improved energy efficiency, increased useful life of machines, and reduced maintenance costs. This book treats friction, lubrication, and wear as empirical phenomena and relies heavily on the experimental studies by the author and his coworkers to develop practical tools for design. Empirical dimensionless relationships are presented, whenever possible, that can be readily applied to a variety of situations confronting the design engineer without the need for extensive theoretical analysis or computation. The material in the book has been used for many years in an interdisciplinary course on this subject taught at the University of WisconsinMadison, and can be used as a text for senior, graduate, or professional development courses. It can also be used as a reference book for practical design engineers because the many empirical equations and design graphs can provide a fundamental parametric understanding to guide their design decisions. Chapter 1 gives a brief review of the history of this subject and sets the stage for the topics presented in the book. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 summarize
111
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iv
Preface
the relevant relationships necessary for the analysis of contact mechanics in smooth and rough surfaces, as well as the evaluation of the distribution of the frictional resistance over the contacting surfaces due to the application of tangential loads and twisting moments. Chapter 5 presents an overview of the mechanism of the transfer of frictional heat between rubbing surfaces and gives equations for estimating the heat partition and the maximum temperature in the contact zone. Chapter 6 deals with the broad aspects of fluid film lubrication with emphasis on the thermal aspects of the problem. It introduces the concept of thermal expansion across the film and provides a method for calculating the pressure that can be generated between parallel surfaces as a result of the thermal gradients in the film. Chapter 7 discusses the problem of friction and lubrication in rolling/sliding contacts and gives empirical equations for calculating the coefficient of friction from the condition of pure rolling to high slidetoroll ratios. The effect of surface layers is taken into consideration in the analysis. Chapter 8 gives an overview of the different wear mechanisms and includes equations to help the designer avoid unacceptable wear damage under different operating and environmental conditions. Chapter 9 presents selected case illustrations and corresponding empirical equations relating the factors influencing surface durability in important tribological systems such as gears, bearings, brakes, fluid jet cutting, soil cutting, onedimensional clutches, and animal joints. Chapter 10 discusses the frictional resistance in micromechanisms. Friction is considered a major factor in their implementation and successful operation. Chapter 11 illustrates the role of friction in the generation of noise in mechanical systems, and Chapter 12 gives an introduction to surface coating technology, an area of growing interest to tribologists. Finally, Chapter 13 discusses in some detail a number of experimental techniques developed by the author and his coworkers that can be useful in the study of friction, lubrication, wear, surface temperature, and thermally induced surface damage. I am indebted to my former students, whose thesis research constitutes the bulk of the material in this book. Dr. T. F. Conry for his contribution to Chapter 2; Dr. D. Choi to Chapter 3; Dr. M. Rashid to Chapter 5; Drs. H. Ezzat, S. Dandage, and N.Z. Wang to Chapter 6; Dr. Y. Lin to Chapter 7; Dr. T. F. Conry, Mr. T. Lin, Mr. A. Suzuki, Dr. A. Elbella, Dr. S. Yu, Dr. A. Kotb, Mr. M. Gerath, and Dr. C. T. Chang to Chapter 9; Dr. R. Ghodssi to Chapter 10; Drs. S . A. Aziz and M. Othman to Chapter 11; Dr. K. Stanfill, Mr. M. Unee, and Mr. T. Hartzell to Chapter 12; and Professor E. J. Weiter, Dr. N. Z. Wang, Dr. E. Hsue, and Mr. C. Wang to Chapter 13.
Joe Lacey. and to Mr. Mary Poupore. who efficiently took charge of typing the text.Preface V Grateful acknowledgment is also due to Ms. A . A . who took upon himself the enormous task of digitizing the numerous illustrations in this book. Seireg .
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xi 1 1 4 7 9 14 17 22 22 22 40 43 46 53 3 Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts Between Smooth Elastic Bodies 3..1 Introduction 56 56 vii .5 Frictional Resistance in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts References 2 The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 2.Contents Preface Unit Conversion Table 1 Introduction 1.2 Theories of Dry Friction 1.1 Historical Overview 1.5 The Design Procedure for Uniform Load Distribution References 111 .1 Introduction 2.4 Friction in Fluid Film Lubrication 1.4 A General Method of Solution by a SimplexType Algorithm 2.3 A Mathematical Programming Method for Analysis and Design of Elastic Bodies in Contact 2.3 Boundary Lubrication Friction 1.2 Design Relationships for Elastic Bodies in Contact 2..
5 Frictional Contacts Subjected to a Combination of Tangential Force and Twisting Moment References 3.2 Thermal Environment in Frictional Contact 5.2 57 62 76 90 97 100 100 100 105 4 The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 4.9 Effect of Sliding on the Contacting Surfaces References 111 113 113 114 115 116 118 121 121 121 123 127 5 Thermal Considerations in Tribology 5.3 Algorithmic Solution for Traction Distribution Over Contact Area With Arbitrary Geometry Subjected to Tangential Loading Below Gross Slip 3.6 Dimensionless Relationships for Transient Temperature and Heat Partition References 6 Design of Fluid Film Bearings 6. and Energy Dissipation in Hertzian Contacts 3.5 A Model for the Molecular Resistance 4.1 Introduction 5.3 An Introductory Treatment of Transient Heat Transfer 5.1 Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings 6.5 Heat Partition and Transient Temperature Distribution in Layered Lubricated Contacts 5.4 Frictional Contacts Subjected to a Twisting Moment 3.4 The Interaction Between Rough Surfaces During Relative Motion 4.2 Surface Roughness Generation 4.3 Thermodynamic Effects on Bearing Performance 6.4 Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis 135 142 158 161 161 187 209 Incorporating Thermal Expansion Across the Film References 230 246 .8 Relative Penetration Depth as a Criterion for the Contact Condition 4. Compliance.4 Temperature Rise Due to Heat Input 5.1 Surface Roughness 4.3 The Real Area of Contact Between Rough Surfaces 4.2 Design Systems 6.6 A Model for the Mechanical Resistance 4.viii Contents Traction Distribution.7 Friction and Shear 4.
5 9.1 Rolling Friction 7.7 The Empirical Formulas 7.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication and Friction 7.4 Wear Due to Surface Fatigue 8. and Wear in Brakes Water Jet Cutting as an Application of Erosion Wear Frictional Resistance in Soil Under Vibration Wear in Animal Joints Heat Generation and Surface Durability of RampBall Clutches References 339 349 360 368 376 377 387 404 41 1 412 411 339 10 Friction in Micromechanisms 10.6 9.2 9.5 Domains of Friction in EHD Rolling/Sliding Contacts 7.1 Introduction 10.9 Some Numerical Results References 8 Wear 8.2 Classification of Wear Mechanisms 8.1 9.3 Frictional Wear 8.4 9.3 Elastohydrodynamics in Rolling/Sliding Contacts 7.8 Abrasive Wear 8.5 Wear by Microcutting 8.Contents ix 7 Friction and Lubrication in Rolling/Sliding Contacts 7.6 Experimental Evaluation of the Frictional Coefficient 7.1 1 Cavitation Wear 8.8 Procedures for Calculation of the Coefficient of Friction 7.9 Corrosive Wear 8.1 Introduction 8.12 Erosive Wear References 9 Case 9.7 251 25 1 252 253 256 260 264 270 300 304 307 310 3 10 31 1 312 317 327 328 332 332 333 333 334 335 336 Illustrations of Surface Damage Surface Failure in Gears Rolling Element Bearings Surface Temperature.7 Delamination Wear 8.2 Static Friction .10 Fretting Corrosion 8.4 Friction in the Elastohydrodynamic Regime 7.6 Thermal Wear 8.3 9. Thermal Stress.
4 Diamond Surface Coatings 12.1 Introduction 12.1 Introduction 11. Wear.1 Frictional Interface Behavior Under Sinusoidal Force Excitation 13.6 The Effect of Repeated Thermal Shock on Bending Fatigue of Steel References Author Index Subject Index 488 488 497 506 515 519 527 533 537 545 .7 Simplified Method for Calculating the Maximum Temperature Rise in a Coated Solid Due to a Moving Heat Source 12.5 Effect of Lubricant Properties on Temperature and Wear in Sliding Concentrated Contacts 13.6 Procedure for Determination of the Frictional Properties Under Reciprocating Sliding Motion References 12 Surface Coating 12.6 Typical Applications of Surface Coatings 12.8 Thermal Stress Considerations References 13 Some Experimental Studies in Friction. and Thermal Shock 13.5 Failure Mechanisms of Surface Coatings 12. Lubrication.2 Frictional Noise Due to Rubbing 11.5 FrictionInduced Vibration and Noise 1 1.2 Friction Under Impulsive Loading 13.4 Frictional Noise in Gears 1 1.Contents 10.2 Coating Processes 12.4 Film Pressure in Reciprocating Slider Bearings 13.3 Types of Coatings 12.3 Effect of Lubrication on Noise Reduction 11.3 Rolling Friction References 414 42 1 423 423 423 430 432 437 44 1 45 1 453 453 453 458 466 470 47 1 473 482 48 5 11 FrictionInduced Sound and Vibration 11.3 Viscoelastic Behavior of Frictional Hertzian Contacts Under RampType Loads 13.
455 kg 1 lbft (moment) = 1.54cm = 0.946 liter + xi .785 liters = 0.356 Nm I lbft (work) = 1.3048m 1 mile = 1609 m = 1.609 km 1 lb = 4.Unit Conversion Table 1 inch = 25.003785m3 1 quart = 0.746kW 1 lb/in2 (psi) = 6895 pascal [Pal 1 Btu = 1055 joule [J] 1 centipoise = 0.48 newton [NI = 0.356 joule [J] 1 lbft/sec = 1/356 watt [W] 1 hp = 0.0254 meter [m] 1 foot = 0.001 pascalsecond [Pas] Degree F = degree C x ( 9 / 5 ) 32 1 gallon = 3.4mm = 2.
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FRICTION R" LUBRICRTION IN M€CHRNlCRL D€SIGN .
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showing a man pouring oil to facilitate the movement of a colossus. gripping. hard to imagine the world without friction. In a frictionless environment there will be no tractive forces to allow locomotion. The first category includes the use of vegetable oils and animal fats as lubricants.1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW The phenomenon of friction has been part of daily life since the beginning of human existence. wasting effort. I . It results in hindering movement. or the use of friction when it could be beneficial.C. as illustrated by the temple painting. and many other situations which are fundamental to human life. Evidence of the use of animal fat on the axles of chariots has also been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating back to the 15th century B.C. It is. In most situations. Figure 1. as well as the use of rolling motion to take advantage of the resulting low resistance to movement. friction is an undesirable phenomenon that should be minimized. and causing wear and damage to the contacting surfaces. generating unwanted heat.1.C. braking.A Introduction 1. however. weaving. This is what made the wheel the first major advance in the field of ground transportation. Themistius (390320 B. It is no surprise that some of the earliest human activities involved the reduction of friction when it was wasteful. The second category can be exemplified by the rubbing of twigs to start a fire and the control of motion by braking action. fastening.) observed that rolling friction is much smaller than sliding friction. The earliest recorded attempt to reduce friction can be traced back to the 20th century B.
Figure 1. Charles Augustin Coulomb ( 17361 806) is generally regarded as the founder of the frictional laws. He recognized the importance of roughness and suggested that friction was due to the work done in dragging one surface up the other. which provide a predictive rationak for evaluating frictional resistance." He recognized that such forces exist. The fact that the frictional force was proportional to the normal load was readiiy accepted by the academy. but the independence of friction on the area of contact was received with skepticism. that the frictional resistance between flat metallic bodies may increase as a result of polishing the contacting surfaces. An interesting observation was advanced by John Desaguliers (1683f 744) who pointed out in his book on experimental philosophy. he rejected the adhesion theory and reasoned that if adhesion exists. however. but he could not formulate means of accounting for them. was not completely clear. Guillaume Aniontons ( 1 6631 705) in a paper published in the proceedings of the French Royal Academy of Sciences [ 2 ] . showing the use of lubricating oil to reduce friction in moving a colossus. The senior academician De La Hire (164G1718) went on to check Amontons' second law and did confirm its validity.1 An ancient record dating back to 1900 B. His understanding of the causes of friction. I t was not until the middle ages that Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) formulated his basic laws of friction. published in 1734.C. One of the important contributions of Coulomb is his postulation that contact only occurs at the discrete points of asperity contacts. He stated that frictional forces are proportional to weight and are independent of the area of contact [I]. However. rediscovered the frictional laws originally proposed by Leonardo da Vinci. the frictional resistance has to be doubled if the area of contact . He attributed this to adhesive forces which he calIed "cohesion.
This is influenced by the geometry of the surfaces. elastohydrodynamic. On the other extreme. The analysis of this elastohydrodynamic phenomenon was first investigated by Grubin [8] and Dowson [9. In this case there is no metaltometal contact and friction is a result of the shear resistance as influenced by the viscosity of the lubricant and the thickness of the film. it took over a century of research to conclude that friction between solids arises from their interaction at the regions where they are in real contact. 71 showed that the load carrying ability of a bearing partially submerged in an oil bath is the result of the high pressures developed in the clearance space between the journal and the sleeve and that the clearance is an essential parameter in achieving full film lubrication and consequently reducing friction in the bearing. 101 and constitutes an important field of tribology. the adhesive forces at the real contacts and how energy is lost when the surfaces are deformed during sliding. In lubricated concentrated contacts. cams and automotive tires on roads covered with water. Osborne Reynolds (18421912) developed in 1886 the fundamental basis for the hydrodynamic lubrication theory and the frictional resistance [4]. In dry friction. rolling element bearings. the resistance to movement is determined by the dynamic behavior of the film. He also concluded that frictional losses in full film lubrication are the result of viscous shearing of the film. the pressure in the fluid is usually sufficiently high to deform the solid surfaces. Even a single molecular layer of grease from the atmosphere or from the fingers may change the coefficient of friction significantly. and not density as previously thought. Both hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic friction are highly dependent on speed and the viscosity of the fluid. Petrov reported in 1883 [5] that viscosity is the most important fluid property in film lubrication.Introduction 3 is doubled. surface cleanliness is one of the most important factors influencing the frictional resistance. Friction is generally divided into four regimes: dry. He consequently believed that frictional resistance is due to the work done in moving one surface up the roughness of the other [3]. boundary. For low speeds or low viscosity fluids when the lubricating fluid . Reynolds’ analysis was inspired by the experimental findings of Petrov (18361920) and Tower (18451904). when the surfaces are separated by a thick film of lubricant. and hydrodynamic. The experimental studies published by Tower in 1883 and 1885 [6. The influence of surface cleanness is much greater than that of surface roughness. John Leslie (17661832) criticized both the roughness and adhesion theories and believed that friction was due to the work done by deformation of the surface due to roughness. their elastic properties. This condition exists in many machine elements such as gears. Although these early investigations alluded to the possible mechanism of friction.
121. is influenced by the occurrence of friction in some form or another. vehicles and computer hardware. lubrication. and noise [ 1 1 . is now attaining a prominent place among the sciences [ 131.. Friction is a primary cause of energy dissipation. Not since the middle ages have tribologists been confronted with new frontiers of such proportions and without precedence in human experience. which is the name currently used to encompass the multitude of activities in this highly interdisciplinary subject. wear. The enormous energy loss in tribological sinks in the United States is estimated by experts to be $20 billion in 1998. and other boundary forces will be the dominant factors which control their design and performance characteristics. friction.g. 1. An early investigation of friction in this regime. the frictional resistance will be much higher than that with full film lubrication but appreciably lower than that for dry surfaces. and measure these forces. Tribology. Because of their very large surface area to volume ratios. Scientific study of the friction. surface tension. The operation of most modern engineering systems such as machines. instruments. and wear phenomena in all these regimes is now receiving considerable attention in modern engineering. which is called boundary lubrication. 161. adhesion. Understanding friction on the microscale will be the most critical element in the useful utilization of micromechanisms. was undertaken by Sir William Hardy in the early 1920s. New challenges are now presenting themselves on how to model. His study showed that frictional resistance in the boundary regime is proportional to the normal load. The emerging technology of micromechanisms is placing new emphasis on tribology on the microscale [15. viscous resistance. Moore [17] and Rabinowicz [IS]). The main advantage of boundary lubrication is to generate a thin fluid film on the surface which reduces the solidtosolid contacts and consequently reduces friction. etc.4 Chapter I film is not sufficiently thick to separate the asperities on the surface of the contacting solids. The classical friction laws can be summarized as follows: . predict. It continues to present challenges for those who are working in it in response to the ever increasing interest of the mechanical and electronic industries to learn more about the causes of the energy losses due to friction and wear [14].2 THEORIES O D Y FRICTION F R The classical theory of dry friction has been discussed by many workers (e. and considerable economic savings can be made by better understanding of its mechanism and its control.
A number of workers also found some exceptions to the first friction law. Law ( 5 ) does not apply for materials with appreciable viscoelastic properties. Seireg and Weiter [22] conducted experiments to investigate the loaddisplacement and displacementtime characteristics of friction contacts of a ball between two parallel flats under low rates of tangential load application. 241. Moore indicated and (6) are reasonably valid for dry friction under the that laws (3). (9. the materials in contact are assumed to have a definite yield point (such as metals). In any situation where the resultant of tangential forces is smaller than some force parameter specific to that particular situation. Rankin [20]. 3. 5. the frequency of the oscillatory tangential load. the normal load is assumed to be low compared to that causing the real area of contact to approach the apparent area. following conditions: For law (3). the magnitude of the normal force. or the ratio . and CourtneyPratt and Eisner [21] had shown that when the tangential force F i s first applied. The tests showed that the frictional joint exhibited “creep” behavior at room temperatures under loads below the gross slip values which could be described by a Boltzmann model of viscoelasticity. For law (4). 6. They also found that the static coefficient of friction in Hertzian contacts was independent of the area of contact. 2. (4). The friction force is proportional to the normal load.Introduction 5 1. Strictly speaking. They also investigated the frictional behaviors under dynamic excitation [23. the friction force will be equal and opposite to the resultant of the applied forces and no tangential motion will occur. It does not apply to elastic and viscoelastic materials. especially for elastomers where the viscoelastic behavior is very significant. The static coefficient is greater than the kinetic coefficient. none of these laws is entirely accurate. When tangential motion occurs. 4. Law (6) is not valid for most materials. The coefficient of friction is independent of the apparent contact area. Rabinowicz [ 181 reported that Stevens [ 191. the friction force always acts in a direction opposite to that of the relative velocity of the surfaces. The coefficient of friction is independent of sliding speed. a very small displacement occurs almost instantaneously in the direction of F with a magnitude in the order of 105 or 106 cm. They found that under sinusoidal tangential forces the “breakaway” coefficient of friction was the same as that determined under static conditions.
they are insoluble in each other.6 Chapter I of the static and oscillatory components of the tangential force. break. Molecular attraction. changing direction continuously and in a random fashion as sliding proceeded. and relaxation cycle of surface and subsurface molecules. This mechanism was presented in 1961 and explains the stickslip phenomena between rubbing metal surfaces by the initiation of a net flow of electrons. Efectrostaticforces. Ploughing by the asperities of the harder surface through the matrix . form solid solutions or intermetallic components. The functions thus formed are subsequently sheared by relative sliding of the surfaces.. after solidification. Welding. This was proposed by Tomlinson in 1929 and Hardy in 1936 and attributes frictional forces to energy dissipation when the atoms of one material are “plucked” out of the attraction range of their counterparts on the mating surface. Moore [17]). shearing and ploughing. This theory gives an explanation for the existence of a static coefficient of friction. The general mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the nature of dry friction are reviewed in numerous publications (e. however. the metals are said to be compatible and the friction and wear between them will be high. Rabinowicz [26] found that the second law of friction was not obeyed. It was found that the direction of the instantaneous frictional force might fluctuate by one to three degrees from the expected direction. Later work attributed adhesional friction to a molecularkinetic bond rupture process in which energy is dissipated by the stretch. This was proposed by Amontons and de la Hire in 1699 and states that metallic friction can be attributed to the mechanical interlocking of surface roughness elements. Rabinowicz [25] developed a chart based on a compatibility theory which states that if two metals form miscible liquids and. the friction and wear will be low. However. In the case of lubricated surfaces. This mechanism was proposed by Bowden in 1950. Accordingly two materials with low compatibility can be selected from the chart to produce low friction and wear. the coefficient of gross slip under impulsive loading was found to be approximately three times higher than that obtained under static or a vibratory load at a frequency of l00Hz using the same test fixture. The following is a summary of the concepts on which dry friction theories are based: Mechanical interlocking. It suggests that the pressure developed at the discrete contact spots causes local welding. If.g. and explains dynamic friction as the force required to lift the asperities of the upper surface over those of the lower surface.
Thus he concluded that rolling resistance arose primarily from elastichysteresis losses in the material of the rolling element and the surface. Tabor’s experiments showed that interfacial slip between a rolling element and an elastic surface was in reality almost negligible and in any case quite inadequate to account for the observed friction losses. Palmgren [28] and Tabor [29] later repeated Reynolds’ experiment in more detail and found that the physical mechanism responsible for rolling friction was very different in nature than that suggested by Reynolds. some of them are briefly reviewed in the following. Several studies are available in the literature which deal with the boundary lubrication condition. . The method of calculating such a temperature was published by Blok [31].g. Load affects the critical temperature quite strongly. He found that when a metal cylinder rolled over a rubber surface. Since then. Since then. it moved forward a distance less than its circumference in each revolution of the cylinder.Introduction 7 of the softer material contributes the deformation component of friction.3 BOUNDARY LUBRICATION FRICTION Hardy [30] first used the term “boundary lubrication” to describe the surface frictional behavior of certain organic compounds derived from petroleum products of natural origin such as paraffins. 1. Sharma [33] used the BowdenLeben apparatus to investigate the effects of load and surface roughness on the frictional behavior of various steels over a range of temperature and of additive concentration. some emphasis has been focused on boundary lubrication. it has been fairly well established that welding occurs at a critical temperature which is reached by frictional heating of the surfaces. boundary lubrication has been extended to cover other types of lubricants. surface films and solid mineral lubricants.. The following observations are reported: Sharp rise in friction can occur but is not necessarily followed by scuffing and surface damage. Dry rolling friction was first studied by Reynolds [27] in 1875. and his results were adapted to gears in 1952 [32]. e. He assumed that a certain amount of slip occurred between the roller and the rubber and concluded that the occurrence of this slip was responsible for the rolling resistance. In the analysis of scoring of gear tooth surfaces. which do not function hydrodynamically and are extensively used in lubrication. alcohols and fatty acids.
but there exists an optimum surface roughness. The effect became progressively more pronounced at higher viscosities. It is also shown that the magnitude of the surface deformation under the applied load is a major factor in breakdown. a fixed steel ball on a rotating steel cylinder. Hirst and Stafford [35] examined the factors which influence the failure of the lubricant film in boundary lubrication. and the roller radius had little influence on friction. The transition temperature is also much lower. Friction generally decreased with increasing viscosity because the more viscous oils gave less metaltometal contact. Furey [37] also investigated the surface roughness effects on metallic contact and friction in the transition zone between the hydrodynamic and boundary lubrications. They also discussed the effect of load and surface finish on the transition temperature. Friction was low for the highly polished surfaces and rose with increasing . Nemlekar and Cheng [34] investigated the traction in rough contacts by solving the partial elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) equations. However. When the deformation is elastic.13 at low viscosity.08 at high viscosity. dropping to 0. The oils having higher PVIs (pressureviscosity index a) gave somewhat more friction which cannot be solely attributed to differences in metallic contact. It is shown that substantial damage only occurs when a large fraction of the load becomes unsupported by hydrodynamic action. The system used was one of pure sliding and relatively high contact stress.8 Chapter I Neither the smoother surface nor the rougher surface gives the maximum absorption of heat. oxide) remains intact and even a poor liquid lubricant provides sufficient protection against the buildup of the damage. Furey and Appeldoorn [36] conducted an experiment to study the effect of lubricant viscosity on metallic contact and friction in the transition zone between hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. namely. The coefficient of friction was rather high: 0. no beneficial effects of viscoelastic properties were observed with these oils. The viscosity here was the viscosity at atmospheric pressure and at the test temperature. load had a great influence on friction. neither pressureviscosity nor temperatureviscosity properties appeared to be important factors. It was found that traction approached dry friction as the ratio of lubricant film thickness to surface roughness approached zero. On the other hand.. nonNewtonian fluids (polymerthickened oils) gave more contact than their mineral oil counterparts. It was found that increasing the viscosity of Newtonian fluids (mineral oils) over the range 21 100 centipoises caused a decrease in metallic contact. the solid surface film (e. He found that very smooth and very rough surfaces gave less metallic contact than surfaces with intermediate roughness.g. This suggested that shearviscosity was important.
1. the coefficient of friction tends to increase with surface roughness. there was no significant effect on friction. He also used four different types of antiwearlantifriction additives (including tricresyl phosphate) and found that they reduced metallic contact and friction but had little effect on reducing surface roughness. Friction and surface damage depends on the chemical composition of the lubricant and/or the products of reaction between the lubricant and the solid surface. Freeman [38] studied several experimental results and summarized them as follows: An unnecessarily thick layer of boundary lubricant may give rise to excessive frictional resistance because shearing and ploughing of the lubricant film may become factors of importance. Thus he concluded that the “chemical polishing” mechanism proposed for explaining the antiwear behavior of tricresyl phosphate appeared to be incorrect.02 to 0. The frictional behavior may be influenced by surface roughness.4 FRICTION IN FLUID FILM LUBRICATION Among the early investigations in fluid film lubrication. Lubricant layers only a few molecules thick can provide effective boundary lubrication. presence of moisture. Tower’s experiments in 18831884 were a breakthrough which led to the development of . The additives merely slowed down the wearin process of the base oil. oxygen or other surface contaminants. whereas further increases in surface roughness caused a reduction in metallic contact. The rise in friction continued up to a roughness of about 10 pin. the frictional behavior may be of a different and unpredictable nature.Introduction 9 surface roughness. provided the motion is insufficient to cause a rise in bulk temperature.1. The bulk viscosity of a fluid lubricant appears to have no significance in its boundary frictional behavior. temperature. The friction force is almost independent of the sliding velocity. In general the variables that influence dry friction also influence boundary friction. However. the same general level at which metallic contact stopped increasing. Coefficients of friction for effective boundary lubricants lie roughly in the range 0. Friction was found to be independent of roughness in the range of lopin center line average (CLA). If the motion is intermittent or stickslip. In general.
The pressure is constant across the thickness of the film. He concluded that friction in adequately lubricated bearings is due to the viscous shearing of the fluid between the two surfaces and that viscosity is the most important property of the fluid. The lubricant behaves as a Newtonian fluid. The assumptions on which the theory is based can be listed as follows. Osborne Reynolds published a paper on lubrication theory [4] which is derived from the equations of motion. it was realized that an understanding of the pressure generated during the bearing operation is the key to perceive the mechanism of lubrication. continuity equation. This assumption provided good correlation with pressure distribution . whereas with adequate lubrication the two surfaces are completely separated by an oil film. Tower reported the results of a series of experiments intended to determine the best methods to lubricate a railroad journal bearing. Realizing that the ratio of the film thickness to the bearing geometry is in the order of 103. researchers had concentrated their efforts on conducting friction drag tests on bearings. Petrov [5] also conducted experiments to measure the frictional losses in bearings. From Tower’s experiments. speed. Since then the hydrodynamic theory based on Reynolds’ work has attracted considerable attention because of its practical importance. and area. Reynolds established the wellknown theory using an orderofmagnitude analysis. The analysis of his work carried out by Stokes and Reynolds led to a theoretical explanation of Tower’s experimental results and to the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. Most initial investigations assumed isoviscous conditions in the film to simplify the analysis. Tower pointed out that without sufficient lubrication. Both bearing surfaces are rigid and elastic deformations are neglected. Prior to their work. Inertia and body forces are small compared with viscous and pressure terms in the equations of motion. the bearing operates in the boundary lubrication regime. In 1886. and Newton’s shear stressvelocity gradient relation. and not density as previously assumed. He also formulated the relationship for calculating the frictional resistance in the fluid film as the product of viscosity. divided by the thickness of the film. The radius of curvature of bearing surface is large compared with film thickness. Working with a partial journal bearing in an oil bath. There is no slip at the boundaries. 71.10 Chapter I lubrication theory [6. The observations of Tower and Petrov proved to be the turning point in the history of lubrication. he noticed and later measured the pressure generated in the oil film.
Cameron [42]. Barber and Davenport [40] investigated friction in several journal bearings. However. Fogg [41] found that parallel surface thrust bearings. on the generated pressure.” where the expansion of the fluid as it heats up produces a distortion of the velocity distribution curves similar to that produced by a converging surface. are capable of carrying a load. They found that a nonNewtonian oil shows a lower friction than a corresponding Newtonian fluid under the same operating conditions. Many experimental and theoretical studies have been undertaken to shed some light on the influence of the energy generated in the film. In 1929. In 1946. They observed that under conditions of high speed. the viscosity diminished to a point where the product of viscosity and rotating speed is a constant. Viscoelastic lubricants in journal bearing applications were studied by Tao and Phillipoff [43]. and the heat transfer within the film and to the surroundings. Dubois et al. [44] performed an experimental study of friction and eccentricity ratios in a journal bearing lubricated with a nonNewtonian oil. this phenomenon did not agree with their analytical work and could not be explained. suggested that a hydrodynamic pressure is created in the film between the disks due to the variation of viscosity across the thickness of the film. McKee and McKee [39] performed a series of experiments on a journal bearing. Fogg also indicated that this loadcarrying ability does not depend on a round inlet edge nor the thermal distortion of the bearing pad. Information on the loadcarrying capacity and film pressure was presented. A model which predicts bearing performance based on appropriate thermal boundaries on the stationary and moving surfaces and includes a pointwise variation of the film viscosity with temperature is generally referred to as the thermohydrodynamic (THD) model. The THD analyses in the past three decades have drawn considerable attention to the thermal aspects of lubrication. in his experiments with rotating disks. . His experiments demonstrated the ability of thrust bearings with parallel surfaces to carry loads of almost the same order of magnitude as can be sustained by tilting pad thrust bearings with the same bearing area. The nonNewtonian behavior of viscoelastic liquids causes a flattening in the pressure profile and a shift of the peak film pressure due to the presence of normal stresses in the lubricant.Introduction I1 under a given load but generally failed to predict the stiffness and damping behavior of the bearing. known as the Fogg effect. is explained by the concept of the “thermal wedge. contrary to predictions by hydrodynamic theory. The journal center position with respect to the bearing center was determined by a set of dial indicators. developing a loadcarrying capacity. This observation.
together with the minimum film thickness. lubricant flow rate. By far the easiest approach to the question of viscosity variation within a fluid film bearing is to adopt a representative or mean value viscosity. The consequence of the second assumption is that both the bearing and the shaft are isothermal components. In other cases. When the temperature rise of the lubricant across the bearing is small. constitutes a failure mechanism in fluid film bearings. therefore. load. As indicated in a review paper by Szeri [50]. the belief. the classical theory loses its usefulness for performance prediction. speed. In a study of heat effects in journal bearings. that the classical theory on one hand and Cope’s adiabatic model on the other. The test results showed that the cyclic variation in shaft surface temperature is small and the shaft can be treated as an isothermal component. operating under 6000 rpm. where the temperature rise across the bearing is significant. A thermohydrodynamic hypothesis was . Brown and Newman [45] reported that for lightly loaded bearings of diameter 60 in. failure due to overheating of the bearing material (babbitt) occurred at about 340°F. His model was based on the assumptions of negligible temperature variation across the film and negligible heat conduction within the lubrication film as well as into the neighboring solids. and temperature distribution within the stationary bushing and rotating shaft. The experiments also indicated that the axial temperature gradients within the bushing are negligible. [47] in 1966 conducted a major experimental investigation of temperature patterns and heat balance of steadily loaded journal bearings. They found that the heat flow patterns in the bushing are a combination of both radial flows and a significant amount of circumferential flow traveling from the hot region in the vicinity of the minimum film thickness to the cooler region near the oil inlet. it represents the central parameter in recent lubricant analyses. Booser et al. isoviscous theory. was widely accepted for a while. bearing performance calculations are customarily based on the classical. lubricant inlet and outlet temperatures. Viscosity is generally considered to be the single most important property of lubricants. Dowson et al. [46] observed a babbittlimiting maximum temperature in the range of 266 to 392°F for large steam turbine journal bearings. Studies have provided many suggestions for calculations of the effective viscosity in a bearing analysis [48]. bracket bearing performance in lubrication analysis. One of the early applications of the energy equation to hydrodynamic lubrication was made by Cope [49] in 1948. Their test apparatus was capable of measuring the pressure distribution. and thus all the generated heat is carried out by the lubricant.12 Chapter I Maximum bearing temperature is an important parameter which. They also formulated a onedimensional analysis for estimating the maximum temperature under both laminar and turbulent conditions.
and found that the maximum bearing temperature. frictional loss. and temperature rise. An empirical procedure for prediction of the thermohydrodynamic behavior of the fluid film was proposed in 1973 by Seireg and Ezzat. Under all conditions tested. Seireg and Dandage [55] proposed an empirical thermohydrodynamic procedure to calculate a modified Sommerfeld number which can be utilized in the standard formula (based on the isoviscous theory) to calculate eccentricity ratio. Barwell and Lingard [56] measured the temperature distribution of plain journal bearings. The temperature level as well as the circumferential temperature variation were found to rise with an increase of eccentricity ratio and bearing speed. Later. In 1980. No significant difference in the speedpressure characteristics for these two conditions was observed when the inlet temperature was the same. It was observed. however.6 to 0. oil flow.Introduction 13 later introduced by Seireg and Ezzat [51] to rationalize their experimental findings. that the normalized pressure distribution in both the circumferential and axial directions of the journal bearing are almost identical to those predicted by the isoviscous hydrodynamic theory.90. the magnitude of the peak pressure (or the average pressure) in the film is approximately proportional to the square root of the rotational speed of the journal. The empirical procedure applied to bearings submerged in an oil bath as well as to pumpfed bearings where the outer shell is exposed to the atmosphere. This report presented results on the loadcarrying capacity of the film from extensive tests. The transient bushing temperature distribution in journal bearing appears to be similar to the steadystate temperature distribution. Seireg and Doshi [54] studied nonsteady state behavior of the journal bearing performance. as well as stiffness and damping coefficients for full journal bearings. A comprehensive review of thermal effects in hydrodynamic bearings is given by Khonsari [53] and deals with both journal and slider bearings. They showed that the magnitudes of the loadcarrying capacity obtained experimentally may differ considerably from those predicted by the insoviscous hydrodynamic theory. These tests covered eccentricity ratios ranging from 0. which is encountered at the point of minimum film thickness. The same relationship between the peak pressure and speed was observed by Wang and Seireg [52] in a series of tests on a reciprocating slider bearing with fixed film geometry. The isoviscous theory can either underestimate or overestimate the results depending on the operating conditions. Tonnesen and Hansen [57] performed an experiment . is the appropriate value for an estimate of effective viscosity to be used in load capacity calculation. In 1975. It was also found that the maximum bushing surface temperature occurs in the vicinity of minimum film thickness. pressures of up to 750 psi and speeds of up to 1650 ftlmin.
load is transmitted through lubricated concentrated contacts where rolling and sliding can occur. Good agreement was found with measurements reported for pressure and temperature. However.14 Chapter 1 on a cylindrical fluid film bearing to study the thermal effects on the bearing performance. Both viscosity and oil inlet geometry were found to have a significant effect on the operating temperatures. Dyson [60] interpreted some of the friction results in terms of a model of viscoelastic liquid. the measured journal locus and calculated values differ. for different speeds and loads. [58] conducted an experiment on a finitelength journal bearing to study the performance of a plain bearing. 180" apart. In 1983. Ferron et al. [59] showed good agreement between their theoretical and experimental work on a journal bearing analysis. They concluded that the temperature gradient across and along the fluid film is the most important parameter when evaluating the bearing performance. the nonlinear . In 1986. The study of the behavior of the lubricant film with consideration of the change of film geometry due to the elasticity of the contacting bodies has attracted considerable attention from tribologists over the last half century. The pressure and the temperature distributions on the bearing wall were measured. Boncompain et al.5 FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC CONTACTS In many mechanical systems. He divided the experimental curves of frictional traction versus sliding speed into three regions: the linear region. Their test bearings were cylindrical and oil was supplied through either one or two holes or through twoaxial grooves. they concluded that even a simple geometry bearing exhibits over a broad range small but consistent discrepancies when correlated with existing theory. but a large discrepancy was noted between the predicted and measured values of eccentricity ratios. Some of the studies related to frictional resistance in this elastohydrodynamic (EHD) regime are briefly reviewed in the following with emphasis on effect of viscosity and temperature in the film. The shaft temperature was found to increase with increasing loads when a highviscosity lubricant was used. 1. For such conditions the pressure is expected to be sufficiently high to cause appreciable deformation of the contacting bodies and consequently the surface geometry in the loaded area is a function of the generated pressure. All measurements were performed under steadystate conditions when thermal equilibrium was reached. along with the eccentricity ratio and the flow rate. Experiments were conducted with three types of turbine oils. At the end of the paper.
it has been found that the temperature on the entry side remains small. In the transition region. many parameters such as temperature. Crook [61] studied the friction and the temperature in oil films theoretically. Cheng [63]. Thermal analysis in concentrated contacts by Crook [61. then there is little penalty to be paid by way of greater frictional heating.Introduction 15 (ascending) region. It has also been shown that at high sliding speeds the effective viscosity is largely independent of the viscosity of oil at entry conditions. the temperature rise occurs on the entry side ahead of that zone. and this can be attributed to some extent to the influence of temperature on viscosity. This fact carries the important implication that if an oil of higher viscosity is used to give the surfaces greater protection by virtue of a thicker oil film. and the thermal (descending) region. load. This implies that if the disks were used as a friction drive and the slip was allowed to exceed that at which the maximum traction occurs. and Dyson [60] have shown a strong mutual dependence between temperature and friction in EHD contacts. viscosity. thermal effects provide a totally inadequate explanation because the observed frictional traction may be several orders of magnitude lower than the calculated values even when temperature effects are considered. When sliding is introduced. in the case of a sliding contact. and found that the effective viscosity of the oil at the rolling point showed that the variation . He used a Newtonian liquid (shear stress proportional to the velocity gradient in the film) and an exponential relation between viscosity and temperature and pressure. At high sliding speeds the frictional force decreases as sliding speed increases. which would lead to even greater sliding. for instance. then a demand for a greater output torque. The temperature field is in turn governed directly by the heating function. which. but it does have a very marked influence upon the temperatures within the pressure zone. Frictional traction is directly governed by the characteristics of the lubricant film. In pure rolling of two disks it has been found that there is no temperature rise within the pressure zone. sliding speed. and surface roughness have great effects on frictional traction. the ratio of sliding speed to rolling speed. the introduction of 400 cm/sec sliding causes the effective viscosity to fall in relation to its value in pure rolling by a factor of 50. It has also been found that frictional tractions pass through a maximum as the sliding is increased. and the behavior is isothermal. and in fact at high sliding speeds the frictional traction may be lower with the thicker film. Because of the high variation of pressure and temperature. 621. depends strongly on the temperature in the contact. the slope of which defines a quasiNewtonian viscosity. At low sliding speeds a linear relation exists. Crook [62] conducted an experiment to prove his theory. would reduce the torque the drive can deliver.
At high loads and sliding speeds variations in rolling speed. shear rate. Below the ceiling the friction coefficient increased with pressure and decreased with increasing rolling speed and temperature. etc. Plint [66] proposed a formula for spherical contacts which relates the coefficient of friction with the temperature on the central plane of the contact zone and the radius of the contact zone. disk temperature and contact pressure did not appear to affect the friction coefficient. rolling speed and disk temperature. He found that the temperature had major influence on friction force. Such parameters include load. decreased as the rolling speed was increased. . the compressibility of the lubricant. A Newtonian liquid was used. and the heat from compression of the lubricant were considered in the analysis. In their experiments they found that at high sliding speeds the friction coefficient approached a common ceiling. A slight change in temperatureviscosity exponent could cause great changes in friction data. Cheng [63] studied the thermal EHD of rolling and sliding cylinders with a more rigorous analysis of temperature by using a twodimensional numerical method. and the temperature rise was roughly proportional to the square of the sliding velocity. Thus he concluded that the assumption of a Newtonian fluid in the vicinity of the pressure peak might cease to be valid. both for changes in pressure and in temperature. Dowson and Whitaker [65] developed a numerical procedure to solve the EHD problem of rolling and sliding contacts lubricated by a Newtonian fluid. The effect of the local pressuretemperaturedependent viscosity. Thermal effects restrained the coefficient of friction from reaching the high values which would occur in sliding contacts under isothermal conditions. The results of some of these investigations are utilized in Chapter 7 for developing generalized emperical relationships for predicting the coefficient of friction in this regime of lubrication. which was largely independent of contact pressure.16 Chapter I of viscosity. One of the most important experimental studies in EHD was carried out by Johnson and Cameron [64]. It was found that sliding caused an increase in the film temperatures within the zone. He also compared his theoretical results with Crook’s [62] experimental results and found a high theoretical value at low sliding speed. surface roughness. There are other parameters which were investigated for their influence on the frictional resistance in the EHD regime by many tribologists [67851. rolling speed.
.” Phil. 4956.” ASME J. “Wear Life Prediction in Mechanical Components.Introduction I7 REFERENCES 1.. 3. S. “The Elastic Range of Friction. Roy. Coulomb. 30. Petersburg. 632659. “The Reynolds Centennial: A Brief History of the Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication. History of Tribology. 1990. The Friction and Lubrication of Solids. 435464 (in Russian). Grubin. Seireg. A. Tower. 14. Nara.. Mech.. NY. Bowden. H. Ghodssi. Paris. Thermal Aspects of Fluid Film Tribology. Vol. NY. Paris. R. C. Vol. Inst. pp. 1991. A. Dowson. S.. and Fujita.. and Tabor. pp. 177(i). New York. 1950. O. Zh. Suzuki. M. Vol. St. pp. Vol. NY. D. New York. Vol. 1886.. Moore. “Second Report on Friction Experiments (Experiments on Oil Pressure in Bearings). New York NY. 8. 1965. Denton. G. Feb. 6... “Rolling Friction in Linear Microactuators. Editor. F. 1926. NY. Oxford University Press. New York. A. D. Aug. 19. Mech. “On the Theory of Lubrication and Its Application to Mr. 1949. Pinkus. Dowson. 15. pp... A238. 18.. Howland. D. Engrs. Vol. Inst. pp. Amontons.. Vol. London. Russia. 1785. O. D. Vol. Japan. Pinkus. 17. 1885. 16. 9.” Industrial Research Institute. Stevens. 1979. S.. A. S. Histoire de 1’AcadCmie Royale des Sciences avec Les Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique. 1883. Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique de 1’Academie Royale des Sciences.. B. J.. pp. B. England. Reynolds. Leonardo da Vinci Notebooks. Mag. E. and B.. of the IEEE Workshop on MicroElectro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). N. 529550. Principles and Applications of Tribology. F.” Phys. Book No.. Trans. S. Soc. 1975.. E.. Shibata. 2. F. “Friction and Wear Studies on Lubricants and Materials Applicable MEMS. 1966. Longman.. T. Pergamon. 4. Jonathan Cape. R. 12. pp. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication.. “First Report on Friction Experiments (Friction of Lubricated Bearings). 21. “Molecular Contact. 126131. 5870. “The Effect of a Tangential Force on the Contact of Metallic Bodies. Ling.. pp.” Proc. 1993. J. N. NY. pp. 2. 4. 5. New York. pp.*’Proc..” Inzh. Tower. Engrs. 157234. 11. 1699. 1883. 8068 16. and Eisner. P. pp. H.” Phil. Matsuura. Friction and Wear of Materials. Rabinowicz.. New York..J. 227279. 10... 71140. and Higginson... 220. Rankin. 377436. 8. Rev. 7th Ser. 1938. Uchizawa. O. 1985. pp. Tribol. 1. John Wiley & Sons. 1957. D. J..” JVSA... G. A. ASME Press. 1899. CourtneyPratt.. 13.. Petrov. 3..” Proc. 20. Pergamon Press. P. 109.” Proc. “Friction in Machines and the Effect of the Lubricant. English Translation DSIR. 1987. . Yura. MacCurdy. E. Beauchamp Tower’s Experiments Including an Experimental Determination of Olive Oil. 7.
Inst.. Eng. A. “Investigation of Journal Bearing Performance. 1933. T. 35.. 1081. J.. Paris. 3(4). Vol.” J Inst. 30.1. and Cameron. and Freeman. and Weiter.” Penn.. Vol.. and Cheng. J. Seireg.. W. Vol. Mech. 41. New York. Vol. 24. 37.. pp. 39. and Weiter. “Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Rotating Disk in Pure Sliding. “Designing for Zero Wear . Reynolds. 36. pp. Mech.” SAE Trans. 51. Engrs... Engrs. “Behavior of Frictional Hertzian Contacts Under Impulsive Loading. Mondial Petrole. n. 4150. McKee. R. 1967.. 208219. pp. Furey. 181. Palmgren. Inst. “Surface Temperature Under Extreme Pressure Lubrication Conditions. . 200206.” Prod. R. 25. Eng.” Congr. Vol. Sharma. “Frictional Interface Behavior Under Dynamic Excitation.” Proc. State Coll. 1945. 1066. and Stafford. E. J. Trans. 1966. “Friction of Journal Bearing as Influenced by Clearance and Length. 1962. 30. 258266. “A New Look at the Scoring Phenomena of Gears. Cameron. 1952. Nemlekar. M. 186(15/72).” ASLE Trans. 17.. A. pp.. NY.” ASME Trans. 179. Barber. Cambridge University Press. E. 28. E. and Appeldoorn. 1946. p. 38. M. “Ball and Roller Bearing Engineering. Mag. Vol.. Hardy.’’ Proc. Burbank. 1963. Blok. Vol. A. A. 8. 175... W. 27(42). “Fluid Film Lubrication of Parallel Thrust Surfaces. Engrs. Vol. 26. Tabor. O. 161171. and McKee.” Proc. J. J. “Surface Roughness and Load in Boundary Lubrication.. and Davenport.. Stat. Mech. Seireg. Vol. pp. 1962. “Variation of Friction and Wear of Solid Lubricant Films with Film Thickness. Lubrication and Friction. 45. S. 6 6 7 7 . 5.18 Chapter 1 22. and Weiter.H. 155. H.” S.” ASLE Trans. Petrol. V. Eng. 166. London. Vol. B... 37. Vol. “The Effect of Lubricant Viscosity on Metallic Contact and Friction in a Sliding System. E. 471436. 32.. The Winter Annual Meeting of ASME. 196667. pp.” Wear. Collected Scientific Papers.... 149159.. 27.. PA. Seireg.Or a Predictable Minimum. Rabinowicz. pp.. 1929.. pp. B. 34. Instn. P. 1936. J. pp. P. 61.. A. p.. Phil. 1965. pp. Kelley. Vol. 6. 471... “Viscoelastic Behavior of Frictional Hertzian Contacts Under RampType Loads.’’ Wear. Hirst.. A. 23. 2me Cogr.” ASLE Trans. p. Fogg. pp. Exp. Vol. Vol. W. Philadelphia. New Type of Oil Film Formation. Pt. “Transion Temperatures in Boundary Lubrication. 6. “The Mechanism of Rolling Friction. 40. August 15. H. C. p. A.. Pitman. A. S. “Surface Roughness on Metallic Contact and Friction. 10. 1972. E. 4967.” ASLE Trans. p. 1953. 1963. 31.. 4959. J. “Traction in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Contacts. Bull. Vol. 33. J.” Surface Roughness Effects in Hydrodynamic and Mixed Lubrication“. Vol. Furey. 29. B. 1980. D. 42. K. 1875. 1937. 16(4)..” Phil. 43. 1954. P.
Vol. 52. Khonsari. Boncompain. Wang. “Empirical Design Procedure for the Thermohydrodynamic Behavior of Journal Bearings. Mech. 103. 55. Engrs. “Temperature Distribution in the Bush of Journal Bearings During Natural Heating and Cooling.. Note. N. R. 105. W. 196667. M. Tokyo. Seireg. Experimental Investigation in the Performance of the Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication of Reciprocating Slider Bearing. 46. 108. and Wear. Longmans Green & Co. 101. 1925... and Frene. Technol. “Highspeed Highly Loaded Bearings and Their Development. J. and Seireg. 1975. 49.” Lubric. Engrs. Vol. 1960. pp. Inst. 58. Frene. Lubr. and Wehe. Vol. Technol.T. n.” Proc. D427.. and Dandage S. 219224. J... pp.. pp. 1970. Technol. 1986... 1967.” J. Eng. F.” Proc. Editors. 47. C.” NASA Tech. Z.. 1981...C. “Thermohydrodynamic Phenomena in Fluid Film Lubrication.” ASLE Trans. “Analysis of Thermal Effects in Hydrodynamic Bearings.” J. 1957..” Proc. 50. 1973.Introduction 19 43.. M.4. 59. Dowson. Part I: Slider and Thrust Bearings. Vol. .. and Doshi.. 201216.” ASLE Trans. pp. 1986. Vol. D. Z. Technol. p.... “The Hydrodynamic Theory of Film Lubrication. “Maximum Temperature for Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Steady Load. and Lingard. A. A. “Hydrodynamic Behavior of Viscoelastic Liquids in a Simulated Journal Bearing.. The Principles of Lubrication. A.. Seireg. Ocvrik. Inst. Dubois. 10(3). 2433. 187194. A197. Vol. England. Szeri. 13. pp. Lubr... 194201. Cameron. 1948... pp. Soc.“Some Experiments on the Steady State Characteristics of a Cylinderical FluidFilm Bearing Considering Thermal Effects.. G. S. R. Hunter. Vol. 3B. Lubr. ASLE paper No. J. Dowson. “A Review of Thermal Effects in Hydrodynamic Bearings. London.. pp. pp. T.” ASLE Trans. 87AM3A3. 26. “Performance of Large Steam Turbine Journal Bearings. 262268. A... R.. Hudson. “The Thermal Equilibrium of Plain Journal Bearings.” ASME J.” Proceedings of the 6th LeedsLyon Symposium on Tribology. 54. pp. Oct. 30. of Tribol. 48. J.. H. K. 51. Comparison Between Theory and Experiments. 307.” ASME J. on Lub.” ASME J. D. 53. 1987. A. Booser et al. Mech. and Newman. Vol.7. 1982. Vol.” Proceedings of the JSLEASLE International Lubrication Conference. Seireg. Tao. 1071 14. and Boncompain. Fillon. 1966. 57. pp. Tribol.. “A Study of the Thermohydrodynamic Performance of a Plain Journal Bearing. 45. 1987. Barwell. et al. B.. and March. M. 56.. 422428. 44. pp. “An Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Equilibrium of Steadily Loaded Journal Bearings. Lubr. “Study of Effect of a Newtonian Oil on Friction and Eccentricity Ratio of a Plain Journal Bearing. 226235. Brown.. July 1970.. P. Roy. pp. Ferron... 2136. 135148. Tonnesen.. A.. Also. Cope. W. and Ewat. F.. F.” J. 1983. and Phillipoff. 1980... Conf. R. J. n. A. “Some Extensions of the Lubrication Theory of Osborne Reynolds.. and Hansen.
p. A. Johnson. 76. pp. Engrs.. pp. Vol. 1979.. 382. 2 15236. Johnson.. Vol. JSME. F. Dyson.” Proc. P. 63. and Cameron.” ASLE Trans. K.. 9. A. G. 57.. 1. 62. R. Roy. Misharin. Roy. Roy. E. 196768. “Thermal and NonNewtonian Effects on Traction in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts. “The Lubrication of Rollers.” Phil. T. p. 71. “Frictional Traction and Lubricant Rheology in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. Sasaki. Lond. Engrs. Inst. 73. Sept. A. A. Johnson...” ASLE Trans.” Phil. and Moore. J. 5970. G. 104.” 6th Lubrication Symposium. Mech. 65.” Proc. 1958.. 14. W. Lond. 196546. and Tevaarwerk. G. Dowson. p. “The Lubrication of Rollers.. “A Numerical Procedure for the Solution of the Elastohydrodynamic Problem of Rolling and Sliding Contacts Lubricated by a Newtonian Fluid. 3B. Crook.. S. A.. Trans. No. pp. 4. A. pp. B. A356. Hirst.” Proc. Chapter I 61. Vol.” Proc. 17(4). Mech. L. K. Benedict. A255. 1. H. L.. 1982... 8.” Trans. “Instaneous Coefficients of Gear Tooth Friction. J . Lond. Vol. 180.. Pt. 19?. 69. M. T. Vol. W . Soc. Cheng. Engrs.. Trachman. p. Proceedings. and Cameron. 133. 66.. J. No. A. 1972 Symposium.” Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. L. ASME. “Traction in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts. Vol. Pt. and Whitaker.. K.. D. W. 196768. W.... 74. “Shear Behavior of Elastohydrodynamic Oil Films at High Rolling Contact Pressures.. “Regimes of Traction in Concentrated Contact Lubrication. 1963..” ASLE Trans. O. Vol. Soc. Okamura. “Fundamental Research on Gear Lubrication.” Bull. and Owen. Vol. 72. 1970. Trachman. K. 397410.” Proc.” Phil. p. J. 182. “A Refined Solution to the Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rolling and Sliding Cylinders. S. and Cheng. Vol. S.. Inst. and Isogal. Inst. Lyon. Trans.. 75. “Viscosity in the Thermal Regime of Elastohydrodynamic Traction. A337.. R.. 1966. 1961. 281.. and Kelley. O’Donoghue. 14. 142. H. pp. “Influence of the Friction Conditions on the Magnitude of the Friction Coefficient in the Case of Rolling with Sliding.. .. and Cheng. 1974. Roy. A254. “Traction in Elastohydrodynamic Line Contacts for Two Synthesized Hydrocarbon Fluids. Soc. Vol. Crook. A. Plint. Pt. p.” ASLE Trans. 1965. Vol.. 271279.20 60. L.. Soc.. Winer. Vol. pp. 68.. Roy. Mech.. 300. Vol. Vol. pp. 64. 67.. 1977. H. Soc. 186194. Conry. 70. H. Trans.. p. “NonNewtonian Behavior in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. 101121. V. 382.S. 237. Sept. 4(14).. “Friction and Temperature in Rolling Sliding Contacts. 266( 1 170). W. “Shear Behavior of Elastohydrodynamic Oil Films. 182.” International Conference on Gearing.. 1961. 1961.. E..
Vol.. “The Elastic Contact of Rough Spheres. 11.” Wear.” Proc. Vol.. Sasaki. 1983.” Bull. Appl. 1980. A.. 85. “Lubrication of Involute Gearing. and Nishizawa. NY.. 34.. Wilson. NASASP237. 1962. Lindberg. Apr. 187. and Lemaski. A. J. 561. 1970. 5( 19). 80... “Effect of Inlet Shear Heating Due to Sliding on EHD Film Thickness. Kelley. p. 182. 79.” Allyn and Bacon. 81. D. 1968.” J. New York.. Y.. “Wear Control Handbook”. S. Lubr. Technol. Y. K.. 84. and Sheu. J. 1980. 105. March 1967. “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. Y.Introduction 21 77. A. p. 173. T. 196768. “Friction and Scoring Under the Conditions of Simultaneous Rolling and Sliding of Bodies. Inst.. A. B. Drozdov. Okamura. and Gavrikov. Szeri. T. p. Konishi.. “Fundamental Research on Gear Lubrication. pp. H.” ASME J. “Processes and Materials of Manufacture. Pt. 83. Engrs. R. Lubrication and Wear. Hemisphere. D. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 153. Special Publication No. Tribology: Friction.C. Vol. 628637. Mech. p. D.. 82. Vol. A. Greenwood. and Tripp. . Dowson.. W. p. Washington. R. 291. p.. Mech. 78. Z. N. W. 3A. JSME. ASME. 1977.J.” Interdisciplinary Approach to the Lubrication of Concentrated Contacts.
The equations governing the pressure distribution due to normal loads are given without detailed derivations. Readers interested in detailed derivations can find them in some of the books and publications given in the references at the end of the chapter [l391. The latter will be discussed in Chapter 4 and used as the basis for evaluating the frictional resistance. The solution of the problem was given by Boussinesq [I] as: 22 . 2. normal force P acting on the boundary of a semiinfinite body as shown in Fig. 2.1. Nonetheless the idealized case of elastic bodies with smooth surfaces is considered in this chapter as the theoretical reference for the contact between rough surfaces. natural or manufactured.2 The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 2.1 INTRODUCTION It is well known that no surface.2 DESIGN RELATIONSHIPS F R ELASTIC BODIES IN O CONTACT Case 1: Concentrated Normal Load on the Boundary of a SemiInfinite Solid The fundamental problem in the field of surface mechanics is that of a concentrated. is perfectly smooth.
2 +z2)5/2 .3p 2n where v = Poisson’s ratio The resultant principal stress passes through the origin and has a magnitude: = 4 =2 4 9 3P +2 2 ) 3 P .5 / 2 ) .2nd2 The displacements produced in the semiinfinite solid can be calculated from: .v2 (E~ 3 ( . a = horizontal stress at any point .z2(.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 23 2 Figure 2.3p 23(.5 / 2 2n z az = vertical stress at any point I .” ~ ] . 2 ~ 2 ) .2~2)5/2 2n rrz = shear stress at any point _ .1 Concentrated load on a semiinfinite elastic solid.3r2Z(r2+ 2 2 ) .2 v ) [ $ 2n . = P((1..
however. Case 2: Uniform Pressure over a Circular Area on the Surface of a SemiInfinite Solid The solution for this case can be obtained from the solution for the concentrated load by superposition. can be obtained by replacing the concentrated load by a statically equivalent distributed load over a small hemispherical surface at the origin.u2)qa (  JrE ( w ) ~ = ”= deflection at the center of the loaded circle .4 1 . deflection at the boundary of the loaded circle = .24 U Chapter 2 = horizontal displacement and w = vertical displacement where E = elastic modulus At the surface where 2 = 0.0 P(l . 2.u2)qa  E (oZ)r=O vertical = stress at any point on the Zaxis (a2 ( 4 I+ + z*)3/2 z3 1 .2 ) = ____ nEr which increase without limit as Y approaches zero.2u)(l (&=0 + u)P = 2n Er (tt’)Z.2( 1 . Finite values.2) the stresses and deflections are found to be: (w)~=(. the equations for the displacements become: (1 . When a uniform pressure q is distributed over a circular area of radius a (as shown in Fig.
The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces
25
(I?
Figure 2.2
Uniform pressure on a circular area.
= horizontal stress at any point on the Zaxis
(t)r=O
1 = 5 (or  oz)r=o
= maximum shear stress at any point on the Zaxis
From the above equation it can be shown that the maximum combined shear stress occurs at a point given by:
and its value is:
26
Chapter 2
Case 3: Uniform Pressure over a Rectangular Area on the Surface of a SemiInfinite Solid
In this case (Fig. 2.3) the average deflection under the uniform pressure q is calculated from:
W,,e
= k(1
 u2)
; .JA
where
A = area of rectangle
k = factor dependent on the ratio b/a as shown in Table 2.1
It should be noted that the maximum deflection occurs at the center of the rectangle and the minimum deflection occurs at the corners. For the case of a square area (6 = a) the maximum and minimum deflections are given by:
Figure 2 3 .
Uniform pressure over a rectangular area.
The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces
Table 2.1
27
Values of Factor k
5 10 100
1 1.5 2 3
0.95 0.94 0.92 0.88 0.82 0.71 0.37
Case 4: A Rigid Circular Cylinder Pressed Against a SemiInfinite Solid
In this case, which is shown in Fig. 2.4, the displacement of the rigid cylinder is calculated from:
P(1  ”*) w=2aE
P
Figure 2.4
Rigid cylinder over a semiinfinite elastic solid.
28
Chapter 2
where
p = total load on the cylinder
a = radius of the cylinder
The pressure distribution under the cylinder is given by
which indicates that the maximum pressure occurs at the boundary (Y = a) where localized yielding is expected. The minimum pressure occurs at the center of the contact area ( r = 0) and has half the value of the average pressure.
Case 5: Two Spherical Bodies in Contact
In this case (Fig. 2.5) the area of contact is circular with radius a given by
a = 0.88
:/
R,
Figure 2.5
Spherical bodies in contact.
The Contact Betwven Smooth Surfaces
29
assuming a Poisson’s ratio area is:
U
= 0.3 and the pressure distribution over this
The radial tensile stress and maximum combined shear stress at the boundary of the contact area can be calculated as:
where P = total load
E, El E2 E , , E2 = modulus of elasticity for the two materials
1 + 1 _ 1
Case 6: Two Cylindrical Bodies in Contact
The area of contact in this case (Fig. 2.6) is a rectangle with width b and length equal to the length of the cylinders. The design relationships in this case are:
q = pressure on the area of contact
where
P’= load per unit length of the cylinders
1 _  1 R, RI
1 +R2
30
Chapter 2
Figure 2.6
Two cylindrical bodies in contact.
R I ,R2 = radii of cylinders (positive when convex and negative when concave) E, El El, E2 = modulus of elasticity for the two materials
=
1
1
+g
1
Case 7: General Case of Contact Between Elastic Bodies with Continuous and Smooth Surfaces at the Contact Zone
Analysis of this case by Hertz can be found in Refs 1 and 2. A diagrammatic representation of this problem is shown in Fig. 2.7 and the contact area is expected to assume an ellipitcal shape. Assuming that (RI, and (R2, R;) R;) are the principal radii of curvature at the point of contact for the two bodies respectively, and $ is the angle between the planes of principle curvature for the two surfaces containing the curvatures l/R1and l/R2, the curvature consants A and B can be calculated from:
These expressions can be used to calculate the contact parameter P from the relationship:
The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces
31
Figure 2.7
General case of contact.
BA cos0 = A+B
The semiaxes of the elliptical area are:
where
m, n = functions of the parameter 8 as given in Fig. 2.8 P = total load nEl nE2 u l , u2 = Poisson’s ratios for the two materials E l , E2 = corresponding modulii of elasticity
kl =
1U :
k2
1  u2 =
Case 8: Beams on Elastic Foundation
The general equation describing the elastic curve of the beam is:
32
Chapter 2
8 degrees
Figure 2.8
Elliptical contact coefficients.
where
k = foundation stiffness per unit length E = modulus of elasticity of beam material 1 = moment of inertia of the beam
With the notation:
the general sohtion for beam deflection can be represented by:
where A , B, C and D are integration constants which must be determined from boundary conditions. For relatively short beams with length smaller than (0.6/8), the beam can be considered rigid because the deflection from bending is negligible compared to the deflection of the foundation. In this case the deflection will be constant and is:
s= P
kL
and the maximum bending moment = P L / 4 .
The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces
33
For relatively long beams with length greater than ( 5 / / ? ) the deflection will have a wave form with gradually diminishing amplitudes. The general solution can be found in texts on advanced strength of materials. 4 Table 2.2 lists expressions for deflection y , slope 8, bending moment A and shearing force V for long beams loaded at the center.
Case 9: Pressure Distribution Between Rectangular Elastic Bars in Contact
The determination of the pressure distribution between two bars subjected to concentrated transverse loads on their free boundaries is a common problem in the design of mechanical assemblies. This section presents an approximate solution with an empirical linear model for the local surface contact deformation. The solution is based on an analytical and a photoelastic study [18]. A diagrammatic representation of this problem is shown
Table 2.2
Beam on Flexible Supports Governing equations"
Condition
34
Chapter 2
in Fig. 2.9a. The problem is approximately treated as two beams on an elastic foundation, as shown in Fig. 2.9b. The equations describing the system are:
where
qX = load intensity distribution at the interface (lb/in.)
ZI, Z2 = moments of inertia of beam crosssections E l , E2 = modulii of elasticity z l , z2 = local surface deformations y I , y 2= beam deflections k l , k2 = empirical linear contact stiffness for the two bars respectively calculated as: Et Et k2 =kl =0.544
0.544
P
Figure 2.9a
Two rectangular bars in contact.
The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces
35
YI
A
1
1 I I1 I I I 11'
I
kl
I
I
Y2
t
Figure 2.9b
Simplified model for two beams in contact.
The criterion for contact requires, in the absence of initial separations, the total elastic deflection to be equal to the rigid body approach at all points of contact, therefore:
where a is the rigid body approach defining the compliance of the entire joint between the points where the loads are applied:
The continuity of force at the interface yields:
Equations (2.1)(2.4) are a system of four equations in four unknowns. This system is now reduced to a single differential equation as follows. Adding Eqs (2.1) and (2.2) gives:
r4 = 4$a (2. the rigid body approach a.36 Chapter 2 Substituting Eq. and the effective halflength of contact C.10) may now be rewritten as: d" + 4$" d. The moment at the end of the pressure zone is zero.10) Eq. (2. The summation of the interface pressure equals the applied load.4) into Eq.3) and (2.1 I ) must satisfy.4) gives: Substituting Eq.1 I ) The following are the boundary conditions which the solution of (2. The slope is zero at the center. (2. The six unknowns to be determined by the above boundary conditions are the four arbitrary constants of the complementary solution. (2.6) yields the governing differential equation: where Kc. The shear force at the end of the pressure zone is zero. The pressure at the end of the pressure zone is zero.5) yields: The combination of Eqs. provided L 2 C. (2. (2. is an effective stiffness: With the following notation: (2.7) into Eq. where L is half the length of the pressure zone: The beam deflections are zero at the center location. (2. The four constants .
12) where A = ge q = the load intensity (lb/in. n / ( 2 p ) is greater than L. the slope of the curve is zero. The maximum permitted values of i is then n/2 and the effective halflength of contact is l t = n/(2/3). the values of z1 and z2 become negative.sinh B x cos Px + cosh Bx sin Bx PB (cosh 2A + cos 2E. This figure represents a generalized dimensionless pressure distribution for cases where t < L.2 1. < 4.COS 2A) sinh /!?x /!?.10 Dimensionless approach of the two beams versus the parameter ge.4 .8 1.1 1 for ge = n/2. U [ 1 (2. the effective length is then 2L. 2.1+ sin 2A) .CI 4 2. + 2) cosh .U sin (sinh 2. For values of R greater than n/2. If The expression for the load intensity at the interface is: q = k1z1 =  sinh 2A + sin 21 2 (cosh 2 i . which is not permitted.0 0 v) . 2.0 n 0 .6 d2 Figure 2..0 a % U s 3 3.10.1.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 37 and the rigid body approach are determined as a function of the parameter R = /3t.A plot of the rigid body approach versus A is shown in Fig.0 e a v) 0 v) c . cos @U ! ? . . At A = n/2.) x = restricted to be 0 5 x 5 e The normalized load intensity versus position is shown in Fig.
11. The assumption of a constant contact stiffness can be considered adequate as long as the theoretical contact length is far from the ends of the beams. it is expected that the actual pressure distribution would deviate from the theoretical distribution based on constant contact stiffness. An empirical method . the true halflength of contact is equal to t and the corre< sponding pressure is directly calculated from Eq. 2. A proposed model for treating such conditions is given in the following.12) or directly evaluated from the dimensionless plot of Fig. The approximate model gives a relatively simple general method for determining the contact pressure distributions between beams of different depths which is in general agreement with experimental pho t oelast ic investigations. the effect of the free boundary comes into play and the constant stiffness model can no longer be justified. In the model the contact halflength t is calculated from the geometry of the beam according to the formula: When t < L. (2. For cases where t approaches L. it is expected that the compliance as well as the stress distribution would be influenced by the free boundary. As a result. As t approaches L.1 1 Normalized load intensity over contact region.38 Chapter 2 Figure 2.
12. 3. Because of the increase in compliance at the boundaries of a finite beam as the stressed zone approaches it. The redistribution of the pressure outside the physical boundaries of the beam is assumed to follow a mirror image. 2.10).12. The pressure distribution for this hypothetical contact condition is then calculated. 2. The general procedure cam be summarized as follows: 1. Calculate /3 from geometry and the material of the contacting bars according to Eq.8 1. The method can be extended for the cases where C 2 L. (2. it would be expected that the pressure between e’ and L would have to be carried over the actual length L for equilibrium.8 (L f 4 1.0 Figure 2. The superposition of this reflected pressure on the pressure within the boundaries of the beam gives the total pressure distribution. a fictitious theoretical contact length l ’ ( e ’ > e) can be assumed to describe a hypothetical contact condition for equivalent beams with L‘ > e (according to the empirical relationship given > in Fig.4 .4 3 1. Using e and L. find f?’ from Fig. Notice that for e < L.6 2.2 1.o 0 . e’ = e. . as shown in Fig. 2. < 1. Calculate l from the equation t = n/(2/3). 2.2 1.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 39 to deal with the boundary effect for such cases is explained in the following.1 2 Empirical relationship for determining t! ’. Because the actual halflength of the beam is L.13.6 h $ 1.
5. i Boundary 4.40 Chapter 2 Figure 2. 2. In this section a general formulation is discussed for treating this class of problems using a modified linear programming approach. the distribution calculated by step 4 is modified by reflection (as a mirror image of the pressure outside the physical boundaries defined by the length t). the pressure distribution as calculated in step 4 is the < true contact pressure. Evaluate the pressure distribution over l ’ from the normalized graph. 6. 2 3 A MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING METHOD FOR . When t ’ is greater than L. the pressure distribution.1 1. Fig. A simplextype algorithm is utilized for the solution of both the analysis and design situations. . A detailed treatment of this problem can be found in Refs 18 and 19.13 The “mirror image” procedure. and rigid body approach when the system configuration. For l < L. Systems which are to be designed with appropriate surface geometry for the objective of obtaining the best possible distribution of pressure over the contact region. materials and applied loads are known. The general contact problem can be divided into two categories: ANALYSIS A N D DESIGN OF ELASTIC BODIES IN CONTACT Situations where the interest is the evaluation of the contact area.
The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 2. This condition is represented as: where &k \ l ’ k ( l ) .3. The two bodies obey the laws of linear elasticity. . The surfaces are smooth and have continuous first derivatives. kt’k(2) = initial separation at point k = elastic deformations of the two bodies respectively at point k a = rigid body approach Figure 2.1 41 The Formulation of the Contact Problem The contact problems which are analyzed here are restricted to normal surface loading conditions. Problem formulation and geometric approximations can therefore be made within the limits of elasticity theory.2 Condition of Geometric Compatibility At any point k in the proposed zone of contact (Fig. The following assumptions are made: 1. 2. 2. 2. Discrete forces are used to represent distributed pressures over finite areas.14 Zone of contact. the sum of the elastic deformations and any initial separations must be greater than or equal to the rigid body approach. 3.14). The deformations are small.3.
. . . N where ’ N is the number of candidate points for contact) must balance the applied load (P) normal to the surface.4 The Criterion for Contact At any point k . The equilibrium condition can therefore be written as: (2. the contact problem can be formulated as follows.42 Chapter 2 2. akj(2) influence coefticients = skj for the deflection of the two bodies respectively = N x N matrix of influence coefticients F = N x 1 vector of forces Y = N x 1 vector of slack variables (or final separation) e = N x 1 vector of 1’s E = N x 1 vector of initial separations (Y = rigid body approach. Defining a slack variable Yk representing a final separation.3. a scalar . the lefthand side of the inequality constraint in Eq.14) 2.Y ) which satisfies the following constraints: SF+cre+IY=e eTF = P (2. Find a solution ( F .13) may be strictly positive or identically zero.3 Condition of Equilibrium The sum of all the forces F acting at the discrete points (k = 1. . ( l ) k a k j ( 2 ) akj(l).3.15) Either where skj = a k j . a. (2.
15) is represented in a tableau form in Table 2. (2. Representation of Eq.15) can be solved using a modification of the simplex algorithm used in linear programming.. The changes required for the modification are minor and are similar to those given by Wolfe [S]. YN 1 = 62 +1 +I +.. j= I N+l such that SF + ae + IY + Iz = E eTF + ZN+I = P YI (2. the number of possible combinations of these column vectors taken ( N 1) at a time is: + Because of the very large number of combinations.Y ) subject to the conditions. an efficient method is required for finding the unique. For a problem with N discrete points. +1 =P . These column vectors are called a basis. (2. a... The following algorithm proved to be effective for the problem under investigation.15) Fl F2 .. The original problem as formulated in Eq.The Contact Between Smooth Suflaces 43 2.3. FN y 2 .15) can be rewritten as: Minimize X Z . (2. (2. When Eq. the condition for the solution can be stated as: Find the set of column vectors corresponding to ( F .4 A GENERAL METHOD O SOLUTION BY A SIMPLEXTYPE F ALGORITHM The problem as formulated in Eq. feasible solution.. such that the righthand side is a nonnegative linear combination of these column vectors. either F k = 0 or Y k = 0.16) Table 23 .
15) is calculated according to a Boussinesq model as discussed earlier in this chapter: . Suppose the entering variable is chosen as F. . + + EXAMPLE 1. . In this case the influence coefficient matrix S in Eq. . . The actual replacement of variables is accomplished by an operation called pivoting. the majrity of cases converge in N 1 cycles. . N 2 = an N x 1 vector of artificial variables with components Z . Only minor modifications of the wellknown simplex algorithm are required. The conditions of Eq. is not in the basis.15) require some restrictions on the entering variables. 2. Computational experience has shown the simplextype algorithm to converge to the unique feasible point in at most (3/2)(N+ 1 ) cycles. The simplex algorithm for linear programming can. The classical problem of two spheres in contact is considered as an example. is free to enter the basis. F. The simplextype algorithm for the solution of the contact problem requires less computer storage space when compared to available solution algorithms such as Rosen's gradient projection method [14] or the FrankWolfe algorithm [ 151. This pivot operation consists of N 1 elementary operations which replace a system by an equivalent system in which a specified variable has a coefficient of unity in one equation and zero elsewhere [ 131.. A flow diagram of the modified simplex algorithm is shown in Fig.15.44 Chapter 2 Subject to the conditions that Either where Z j = artificial variables which are required to be nonnegative (j= 1. however. Z N + 1) The above problem can be classified as a linear programming problem [ 131 if it were not for the condition that either Fk = 0 or Yk = 0. (2. . be utilized to solve by making a modification of the entry rules. . A check must be made to see if the Y. This algorithm is also readily adaptable to the design problem which is discussed later in this section. . (2. .
Define J=(jllIjIZN+I} * d. 2 O? Replace the r'* basic variable by x.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 45 S a t with tr standard equations I Chooserby I If s corresponds to Ff is V. replace 4.000283 in. No Choose s by P .000281 in.16 shows a comparison between the classical Hertzian pressure distribution and that obtained by the described technique. = distance from point k to pointj in the contact zone Figure 2. r= jI z j I t 1 A Yes N+l No c Would Fr replace 5. = mindj j d Test min 4) is d. . The spheres considered are steel with radii of 1 in. respectively and the applied load is 1001b. by pivoting on the term a. The algorithm solution gave a value of 0. in the Basis? If scorrespondsto Y. Remove sfo J rm Make canonical relative to the artificial variables and 2 ' I r .. and loin. for the rigid body approach which compares favorably with 0. for the classical Hertz solution. or V. Basic feasible solution Is 6) O? > I  J = (Jll I I2N + 1) j Define 4 STOP No feasible solution Figure 2. where U = Poisson's ratio dk.x.1 5 Flow diagram for the simplextype algorithm.
000 Classical Theory 0 .46 Chapter 2 .bX . c) for the optimal corrections corresponding to the distribution giving the minimum possible value for the maximum load intensity.15) is used with E being replaced by Eq. The objective of the design system is to evaluate the constants (a.0150 Radial Distance from the Applied Load (in) Figure 2.18) .aX2 .000  g 120. (2.0100 .000 & m v v) 12 U Computer Based Model Diameter 0 with 1 1 Points Across the c .0100 .17). Accordingly: SF + aye + IY . DISTRIBUTION The design system discussed in this section automatically produces initial separations which produce the best possible distribution of load based on a selected function for surface modification (initial separation). (2. b.0050 0 .0150 . A secondorder curve is selected for the initial separation since it can be readily generated.0050 .c = 0 (2. The equation for such curve is given by: y = ox2 + b x + c (2.1 6 Pressure distribution between two spheres.17) where y = initial separation profile and is required to be 2 0 .r( h 180. In the formulation of the design system the compatibility condition given in Eq. 2 5 THE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR UNIFORM LOAD . 3 2 60.Y = axial position along the face The correction profile can be attained by modifying one or both of the contacting surfaces.
19).19) e'F=P F . The first part finds a feasible solution for the load distribution .15). This constraint is written as follows: where D is a diagonal matrix whose kth element is l/Ak. (2. therefore: a y 2+ b y + c2 0 where a governs the sign of the second derivative.14) and (2.17) is divided into two parts.c 2 0 Subject to the condition that either Yk = 0 or Fk = 0 It should be noted that an upper bound must be given to c to keep the values of c and a finite in Eq. a. The algorithm for solving the design problem (Fig. 2. the average load intensity over that segment is Fk/Ak. Y . The design system is now stated in a concise form as: Minimize pmax such that (2.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 47 where 2 X = N x 1 vector whose kth element is x i X = N x 1 vector whose kth element is xk xk = position of the kth point The condition of equilibrium and the criterion for contact are the same as in Eqs (2. The value of pmax must be greater than the average load intensities at all the candidate points. If we define Ak as the length of the line segment at the kth point. The initial separations are required to be nonnegative.
0 in. the objective function is linear but the constraints are nonlinear [ 171. The same approach can be readily applied to the surface modification of bolted joints to produce uniform pressure in the joint and consequently minimize the tendency for leakage or fretting depending on the application. width. It is required in this case to calculate the necessary initial separations which produce. as closely as possible..9 in. computing the necessary initial separations and then fitting these data to a curve with the stated form of surface modification. b. although it does not provide an exactly uniform pressure distribution.19 and the pressure distribution without initial separation is shown in Fig. 1. and depth of beam = 8. t . and d = length. The case considered for illustration is shown in Fig. 2. In the process of curve fitting. respectively k = foundation modulus = 10’ lb/in. The initial separation as calculated from the analysis program for a uniform pressure distribution is also shown in Fig. The results from the solution algorithm with a quadratic modification are given in Figs 2.. It can be seen that the quadratic modification. 2. 2. EXAMPLE 3.20 where three cantilever beams are subjected to . Since all the constraints are linear except for the criterion for contact. In this example.48 Chapter 2 while the initial separations are constrained to be zero. the main objective is to approximate the computed initial separations without regard to the resulting load distribution.. a uniform pressure. the same approach is applied for determining the initial separation necessary to produce uniform pressure at the interface between multiplelayered beams. Given in this example are: L . EXAMPLE 2. An approximation for evaluation of the surface modification can be obtained by assuming a uniform load distribution.18 for comparison. The simplextype algorithm is used in both parts.19. and 4. The second part minimizes the maximum load intensity using the parameters (a. c ) as design variables. the basic simplex algorithm can again be used with the modified entry rules as discussed previously. The case of a steel beam on an elastic foundation is considered here as an illustration of the design system. represents the best practical initial separation for the stated objective./in. The minimization of the maximum load intensity is a nonlinear programming problem.0 in.18 and 2.
.J o I 3 No A ’ + Define J = the s t of all variabks e e x a p a 6. . . o i s Y in the basis? .The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 49 S m with rhc Standard Equations (5..Z2. variables Z .1 7 _ Flow diagram for the design algorithm. = j=1 z zj I f s cornponds t F. E . Choose s by d.18) 1 I Add the artificial 1 .min i”’ Ji Test min Z .. 2 O? Yes 1 I Is D s 2O? A/ 1 No Fusible Solution Remove s fivrnJ V STOP Is 2 > O ? .. . OT r. n p l m r. =J“‘ dJ Test min P Is d. replace F. is F. . . . or Ifs cormponds to Y .5 Would F. Choosesby min d.? YC. v v Replace the r* basic variable by xs by pivoting on the term ursxs Phase I \L STOP Best Basic Feasible Solution No Phase I1 * all v a h b l u except allvllriablcs I I Basic Feasible Solution Design Phasc stan Phase I1 I Use the pmPx row Figure 2..Z Add objective function z . in thc basis? Yes No r Make canonical relative to the artificial variables..
0 Optimum Quadratic Correction Pressure I 0 . 2. .d n C i i I 0 1 2 3 4 D s a c From Center of Beam (in.50 Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 9 Initial separation for uniform pressure distribution and optimal quadratic correction.1 8 Pressure distribution of beam on elastic foundation.) itne 5 Fiaure 2.LI c ) (d ' 3 .
12 Figure 2. and 5in. HZzO.62 Ib at each point) 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 no 0 0 0 0 " O O U 0Q t l Interface 2 (F= 70. respectively.) H l = 5 .1. The beams are made of steel with modulus of elasticity equal to 30 x 106psi.24psi.. 2 4 6 8 10 Distance From the Fixed End (in.62 Ib at each point) 0.21. The interface areas are divided into 24 segments and the force on each segment is found to be 70. Interface 1 (F = 70. 2in. H3=5 Initial separations. The applied load P is assumed to be 60001b. and the thicknesses are 5in.621b for both interfaces which is equivalent to 141.21 . 2. The calculated initial separations are given in Fig. the length of the beam is 12in. an end load..20 Multiple cantilever beams.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces P 51 Figure 2. and width is 1 in.
2... 103 K ...=5 in... The results are given in Fig... width I in. FN X Figure 2... The beam is supported by another steel cantilever beam with the same length and width and different thickness H2 as shown in Fig.23 and show that Smax will reach an asymptotic limit when H2 is either very large or very small.. The uniform load on each segment F.. .OM2 ... 2 102 t .. 103 102 H........ is subjected to an end load of 60001b.. The same algorithm is used with 24 segments at the interface to determine the maximum attainable uniform pressure at the interface and the corresponding initial separation Smaxat the free end for different values of the thickness H z .......ration....... ..008 .. In this case a steel cantilever beam with length 12in. 2.004  2 K 104 105 ....." W 01 .........52 Chapter 2 EXAMPLE 4. and thickness 3in..01 1 0 1 h . is shown to reach a limit value when H2 is very large... F I ..22...22 Discrete forces.....  .. F2.002 1 I I I11111 106 I I I111111 1 I 1 1 Ill11 I I I 1 11111 1 I I I L U0 L .
. 147158..” SIAM J. 34. Y . Vol.” Trans. 8. Kerr. “The Contact Stress Problem for an Elastic Sphere Indenting an Elastic Layer. Div.... pp. Math. pp.” Operat . pp. A list of some of the publications dealing with different aspects of the contact problem is given in Refs 2139. 143145. “An Algorithm for Quadratic Programming. Q. 9. Mangasarian. 1969. 14. M. Wolfe. 5. 86. “Nonlinear Programs with Positively Bounded Jacobians. Tsai. Dover. 1961. April 1966. Van Nostrand. 3. S. 11. 112. 1961. pp. W. Math. REFERENCES 1..The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 53 Numerous illustrative examples for simulated bolted joints. A. Vol. “A Numerical Solution for an Axially Symmetric Contact Problem.. 181217. Dorn. 14(1).. ASME. 15. 1967. 7. R. New York.. and Westmann. 514553. Contact Problems in the Theory of Elasticity. NY. Appl. Princeton University Press. Princeton. pp. Timoshenko. NJ. Moss. pp.” Proc. K. “Elastic and Viscoelastic Foundation Models... Res. 283.P. 8. L. 9. 12. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Timoshenko. E. Vol. McGraw Hill Book Company. 1951. “Comments on the Note by Kortanek and Jeroslow. Frank. McGraw Hill Book Company. D. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity.” Trans. Mech. P.. 1964. 4. ASME. 16.” Naval Research Logist... pp. 15(5). 17. pp. Strength of Materials. 964969. A. 964969.. Linear Programming and Extensions. G. 86. H. Math. Vol. 1960. Vol. MarchJune 1956. 13. P. D. pp. 0. W. 951 10. New York. Part 11. 93. 6. N. L. 491498.. J. W. A.” Operat. J. Translation by H . Vol. ASCE.. pp. P. S. New York. Tu. Theory of Elasticity. 1944. and Jeroslow. Nonlinear Programming.. R. 10... Appl. Love. Appl. Keer. “Beam on Tensionless Foundation. 15(5). pp. Rosen. Vol. Struct.” JSIAM Appl. pp. A. “A Note on Some Classical Methods in Constrained Optimization and Positively Bounded Jacobians. 1967. Res. 5154. Cottle.. 3(1 & 2). 1950.. R.. and Wolfe.. multiple layer beams and elastic solids with finite dimensions are given in Ref. 1966.” SIAM J .” Trans. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Vol. R. W. 328398. 27.” Econometrica. 9. Kortanek. New York. Dantzig.. 1959. 1963. S. 20. Vol. “The Gradient Projection Method for NonLinear Programming. “The Simplex Method for Quadratic Programming. 2. J. 1964. Vol. 1961. 1967. Vol. Galin. Cottle. B.. “SelfDual Quadratic Programs.. ASME.. Vol. L. North Carolina State College. M..
Fredriksson. 1976. 1968. M..” Philosphical Magazine. 1985. Vol..” Acta Mech. p. L.. New York. J. Naval Res. England. Netherlands. Mech. “AxiSymmetric Contact on Thin Compliant Coatings. 34.Normal and Sliding Contact. Mech. Alblas. and Johnson. 2. Vol. 6. 1959. Johnson. “Analysis of Pressure Distribution Between Elastic Bodies with Discrete Geometry. R.. F. 29. D. J. Logist.” Ph. L. 697. J.’ Int.. Vol. . 18. Contact Mechanics... Thesis. p. S. 353. K.” M.’. and Mura. and Persson. Vol. 38. Vol. Beale. M. 1993. “A Mathematical Programming Method for Design of Elastic Bodies in Contact. M. “Asymptotic Methods in Contact Problems. 1971.’’ PMM. 493. YenYih. NY. 33. 1980. 637.. 9.. p.” Applied Sciences Research.... J. G. p. Southampton. “Line and Point Loads on a NonHomogeneous Incompressible Elastic HalfSpace. “The Mechanics of Adhesion of Viscoelastic Solids. R. Matthewson. “On the TwoDimensional Problem of a Cylindrical Stamp Pressed into a Thin Elastic Layer.” Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics. C. 10. 74.. Eng. M. and Barquins... B. J.” Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 19. Conry.. Vol.. H. 43. B. 35.’ Trans. J.” New Developments in Boundary Element Methods.. A... and Seireg. p. M.. p... University Press. “The Use of Mathematical Programming in Design for Uniform Load Distribution in Nonlinear Elastic Systems.” Int. 1970. J. Kingsley. 25. A. 1983. “On Quadratic Programming. 30. 27. L. 1981. University of Florida. B. Properties of Elastic Bodies in Contact. Vol. 31. Thesis. 292. Ni. K.” Int. The University of Wisconsin. Aleksandrov. 24. Mechanics of Contact between Deformable Bodies. and Kuipers. Appl. T.. 20. 1968. “Fracture Mechanics and the Adherence of Viscoelastic Bodies. N. p. Vol. “An Elastic Strip in Plane Rolling Contact. “The Boundary Element Method Applied to 2Dimensional Contact Problems. Meijers. Conry. 22. Maugis. 27. T. Calladine. Barovich. 26. 1970. Vol. Sci. Vol. Vol. 1 1. 21. M. and Ku. Comniou. p. Sci. Delft. 253. J. Bentall.. “Stress Singularities at a Sharp Edge in Contact Problems with Friction.. CML Publishers. 357..” ZAMP. Keer. p. p.. 691. Ahmadi. L.. “NonHertzian Contact Stress Analysis . “The Contact Problems of a Rigid Cylinder on an Elastic Layer. V. Cambridge University Press. P. F. T. 1978.. “Stresses on a Thin Strip or Slab with Different Elastic Properties from that of the Substrate. L. Journal of Physics D (Applied Physics). and Johnson. 1964. Greenwood..and Greenwood. pp. A. 1978. A.. T. J. 29. Vol.’. D. E. 28. Gainesville. 387392. C. 507. Q. Dundurs. 1975. 3 1. Vol. 23. Solids Struct. ASME. 32.D. C... 1968. K... pp. 89. 19. 32. 1981. Andersson. T. M.54 Chapter 2 18.Sc..
Vol. “Pressure of a Die on an Elastic Layer of Finite Thickness. Mossakovski. Pao. N. 1971. V. 23. 38. “Boussinesq’s Problem for a Rigid Cone. 608. “Bounds on the Maximum Contact Stress of an Indented Layer... 1. Wu. Vol.” PMM. S. Y. ASME Series E. . 27. 38.. Y. 39. Vol. p. 37. Cambridge Philosphical Society. I. 1959.” Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. A. P. p. 418. 637.The Contact Between Smooth Surfaces 55 36. 1948..” Proc. I. 1963.” Trans. p. Journal of Applied Mechanics.T. I. I. “Compression of Elastic Bodies Under Conditions of Adhesion. p. Vol. Sneddon. Vorovich. . C . and Chiu. and Ustinov. 44.. 492.
are widely used for fastening structural elements. Various extensions of Hertz theory can be found in the literature [2151.3 Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts Between Smooth Elastic Bodies 3. This chapter presents design formulae and methods for predicting the distribution of frictional forces and microslip over continuous or discrete contact areas between elastic bodies subjected to any combination of applied tangential forces and moments.1 INTRODUCTION Frictional joints attained by bolting. and the previous chapter gives an overview of procedures for evaluating the area of contact and the pressure distribution between elastic bodies of arbitrary smooth surface geometry resulting from the application of loading. 56 . etc. press fitting. normal stress distribution and rigid body approach in the direction of the common normal can be found under the assumption that the dimensions of the contacting bodies are significantly larger than the contact areas. The evaluation of the stress distribution in the contact region and the localized microslip. The potential areas for fretting due to fluctuation of load without gross slip are discussed. are important Factors in determining the safe operation of many structural systems. The analysis of the contact between elastic bodies has long been of considerable interest in the design of mechanical systems. which exists before the applied tangential force exceeds the frictional resistance. In his theory. riveting. the contact area.. Hertz [l] established the theory for elastic bodies in contact under normal loads.
Several contributions are available in the literature which deal with the analytical aspects of this problem [16191. 3.2. Three types of interface loads are to be expected: tangential forces. = 0 over the entire surface . The contact areas considered in all these studies are.2 3. The prediction of the areas of microslip and the energy generated in the process are therefore of considerable interest to the designer of frictional joints. When the loads are lower than those necessary to cause gross slip. 3. twisting moments. the microslip corresponding to these loads may cause fretting and surface cracks.1 TRACTION DISTRIBUTION. they will come into contact over an area with radius a. however. 113 F.1. COMPLIANCE. This chapter also presents algorithmic solutions which can be utilized for the analysis of the general case of frictional contacts.Mindlin’s theory [ 161 for circular contacts defines the traction distribution over the contact area and can be summarized as follows: a* = a( I ). when two spherical bodies are loaded along the common normal by a force P.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 57 An important class of contact problems is that of two elastic bodies which are subjected to a combination of normal and tangential forces. A N D ENERGY DISSIPATION IN HERTZIAN CONTACTS Circular Contacts As shown in Fig.. and a brief summary of the results of both cases is given in the following section. limited to either a circle or an ellipse. The evaluations of the traction distribution and the localized microslip on the contact area due to tangential loads are important factors in determining the safe operation of many structural systems. and different combinations of them. When the system is then subjected to a tangential force T < fP.
2). .1 The contact of spherical bodies. where F.2 illustrates the traction distribution as defined by Eqs (3..1) and (3.58 Chapter 3 T 1 lp Figure 3. U* = 0 for T =fP and the entire contact area is in a state of microslip and impending gross slip.l$ = traction stress components at any radius p a = radius of a circular contact area a* = radius defining the boundary between the slip and noslip regions p = (x2 + y 2 ) ' I 2 = polar coordinate of any point within the contact area T = tangential force P = normal load f = coefficient of friction G = shear modulus of the material U = Poisson's ratio Figure 3. It can be seen that a* = a for T = 0 and no microslip occurs.
T =fP: (3.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 59 I fqo t 6 PQO  1 a* a I I i a* a b T P Figure 3 2 Traction distribution for circular contact (90 =maximum contact .4): . at the condition of impending gross slip.3 and 3. pressure = 3P/(2rra2)). The deflection S (rigid body tangential movement) due to the any load T >fP can be calculated from: Consequently.4) The traction distribution and compliance for a tangential load fluctuating between f T * (where T* c f P ) can be calculated as follows (see Figs 3.
)*]”’fq0@[l   (5)] 2 1 0 P < a* .(..[ I‘)!( I /z h* 5 p 5 a 1 (5)2]”2+2j4!3 1 . Traction distribution for decreasing tangential load T = T * . = JqO 1 . = jiqO[ 1  F. h* = inner radius of slip region U* = inner radius of slip region at the peak tangential load T* F.60 Chapter 3 P Figure 3 3 .  F. = +. [ (92]1f2:)[ +2jq0 ( [ 02] U* 5 p 5 b* 1 .
Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 61 Figure 3. Sj = 6&T) .8 ) f P [ 2 1. where yo = maximum contact pressure =  3P 2na2 The deflection can be calculated from: Sd = deflection for decreasing tangential load .4 Hysteresis loop. .T)2'3.3(2 .77) ' ] T* ' ' 23  16Ga [( ( ( 2fP for T decreasing from T* to T*.u)fP 2 I..I .T* + q" ( 16Ga 2fP T*)2'3. ._ 3(2 .lfp for T increasing from T* to T*.
2 Elliptical Contacts A similar theory was developed by Cattaneo [17] for the general case of Hertzian contacts where the pressure between the two elastic bodies occurs over an elliptical area.. b = major and minor axes of an elliptical contact area a*..62 Chapter 3 The frictional energy generated per cycle due to the load fluctuation can therefore be calculated from the area of the hysteresis loop as: M’ = work T’ done as a result of the microslip per cycle = I (Sd .Ifp 6fP ( [ (I . = 0 for the entire surface where a. ALGORITHMIC SOLUTION FOR TRACTION DISTRIBUTION OVER CONTACT AREA WITH ARBITRARY GEOMETRY SUBJECTEDTO TANGENTIAL LOADING BELOW GROSS SLIP This section presents a computerbased algorithm for the analysis of the traction distribution and microslip in the contact areas between elastic .T * ) 2 ’ 3 ] ] fP (3.&)dT .5) 3. Cattaneo’s results for the traction distribution in this case can be summarized as follows: on slip region F. b* = inner major and minor axes of the ellipse defining the boundary between the slip and noslip regions 33 .T’ T*)5’3ST* 1 .2.
It is applicable to arbitrary geometries. Discrete forces can be assumed to represent the distributed shear traction over the finite areas of the mesh.v = rectangular coordinates of displacement in the x. Since the two bodies in contact . 3. and different elastic properties for the contacting bodies..: = rectangular components of traction on a contact area E = Young’s modulus v = Poisson’s ratio G = modulus of rigidity P = applied normal force T = applied tangential force f = coefficient of friction N = number of discrete elements in the contact grid Fk = discretized traction force in the direction of the tangential force at any point k uk = discretized displacement force in the direction of the tangential force at any point k ylk = displacement slack variables in the direction of the tangential force at point k yuc = force slack variables in the direction of the tangential force at point k The contact area is first discretized into a finite number of rectangular grid elements..1 Problem Formulation The following nomenclature will be used: x. F. The algorithm utilizes a modified linear programming technique similar to that discussed in the previous chapter. y = rectangular coordinates of position U .Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 63 bodies subjected to normal and tangential loads. disconnected contact areas.3.and ydirections respectively F. The analysis assumes that the contact areas are smooth and the pressure distribution on them for the considered bodies due to the normal load is known beforehand or can be calculated using the procedures discussed in the previous chapter.
64 Chapter 3 obey the laws of linear elasticity.7) can be rewritten as follows: Uk Ylk and Y 2 k .10) where ’0 U. ?‘lk =0 ’0 in the noslip region in the slip region Fk 4.7) where Fk = the discretized traction force in the x direction at any point k P = the discretized normal force at any point k k f’ = the coefficient of friction The condition for equilibrium can therefore be expressed as: Introducing a set of nonnegative slack variables (3. therefore: .k = #? where )‘I.6) and (3. The constraints on the traction values can also be stated as: Fk <f’Pk Fk =fPk in the noslip region in the slip region (3.Y2k =f p k (3. the condition for compatibility of deformation can therefore be stated as follows: uk =p uk < p in the noslip region in the slip region where the difference between the rigid body movement /? and the elastic deformation uk at any element in the slip region is the amount of slip. Y2k in the noslip region in the slip region Since a point k must be either in the noslip region or in the slip region. Eqs (3.9) + Y. = 0 .
Y z .2 General Model for Elastic Deformation Since both bodies are assumed to obey the laws of elasticity. /?) which satisfies the following constraints:  where A = N x N matrix of influence coeficients I = N x N identity matrix F = discretized tangential force vector P = discretized normal force vector e = vector of 1’s  . Y2 = slack variable vectors  The problem can be restated in a form suitable for solution by a modified linear program as follows: 2N+1 Minimize i= I z.3. . the elastic deformation uk at a point k is a linear superposition of the influences of all the forces 4 acting on a contact area. Y 1 .Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 65 3.12) j= 1 where a y = the deformation in the xdirection at point k due to a unit force at point j The discrete contact problem can now be formulated in a form similar to that given in Chapter 2 as: Find ( F . Accordingly: (3. Yl .
. 1" 1 would Y . FiQure35 .3N + l]d. (b) Initial table. (a) Flow chart for the analysis algorithm. . No Of Yes START = s+l (a) t Replace the rth basic variable by the 8th variable with Jordan exchange by pivoting on a . stop No Choose entering column s according to Brand's rule s = min 1 I I r<T>. replaceY. < 0) Print the feasible solution and stop solution. \ No Would Y.. is Y in the .66 Chapter 3 dative to artificial variables and objective value IDuable 1) Yes (j E [JSTART. Is (D almost / Ifsconespondsto asis? or Ifs correspondsto Y.
2N+ 1 where 22N+1 2. The same logic can be applied when the chosen entering variable is YZs. If Yr.is free to enter the basis. =O =T IF++72+IZ2=fF + Z2N+I zi2 0 or Y2k=0 f o r k = I ..is in the basis and if the Y2.. N for i = 1.Traction Disfribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 67 where E : a cost coefficient vector of length N c.$ not in the is leaving row... Y 1 . If Y2.. = first N artificial variable vector Z 2 = next N artificial variable vector = artificial variable for the equilibrium equation The above problem can be solved as a linear programming problem [20] with a modification of the entry rule. r.. 2 0 .. is in the basis. N Y l k z O . for Y l . Y . r. CO =Car bl N 2 (b) : initial merit value t D =fPT subject to A F + I ~ .. . . /?rO f o r k = l ./ ? e + I Z I eTF Y l k= 0 Fk>O. 3..$ not in the basis.cannot enter the basis and a new entering variable must be chosen. . then is it must be in the leaving row.. The flow chart for the algorithm utilizing linear programming with modified entry rule is shown in Fig. . Suppose the entering variable is chosen as Y.. to enter the basis. Y1. A check must be made to see if the Ya corresponding Y1.5.
A comparison between Mindlin's theory.3 Illustrative Examples EXAMPLE 1: Circular Hertzian Contact with Similar Materials. therefore. The rigid body movement (0. then where 3.) with a deviation of 1.67 139 x 104 in. which is discussed in Section 3. the influence coefficients.68 Chupter 3 It is assumed for the circular and elliptical contacts that the surface of contact is very small compared to the radii of curvature of the bodies. the tangential load is 1441bf and the coefficient of friction is 0.1. akj.j u(l + U) = nrkj E nr.66196 x 104 in. The material constants used are as follows: . A grid with 80 elements is used in this case to approximate the circular contact. 3. EXAMPLE 2: Circular Hertzian Contact with Different Materials. the solution obtained for semiinfinite bodies subjected to point loads can be employed.) was also found to compare favorably with Mindlin's prediction (0. The first application of the developed algorithm is finding the traction distribution over the contact area of a steel sphere of 1 in. then Akj 1 1 . Accordingly.41O/O.j E + If k =j . The normal load is taken as 21601bf. The contact of steel sphere of I in. radius on a steel half space. 221: If k # j . can be expressed as follows [21.2 (solid line) and the numerical results (symbol s) obtained by the modified linear program is shown in Fig.u2 x. radius on a rubber half space is considered.3.6 and good agreement can be seen.
2 are used in this case. a tangential load of 361bf.8 1. 3. The rigid body movement of the rubber half space (0. A normal load of 2701bf.Tract ion Disi r ibut ion and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 69 x 103 35 30 25 5 0 0.7.4 0. and a coefficient of friction of 0.o Scaled Radius (r/a) Traction distribution on the circular contact between two bodies of the same material as compared with Mindlin's theory. the traction distribution (symbol s) shows good agreement with Mindlin's theory (solid line).6 0.13156 x 104in.39469 x 103in. Four cases were investigated in this example with different ratios between the major and minor axes .0 0.2 0.29% deviation when a grid with 80 elements was used. Figure 3 6 . As shown in Fig.) and both agree well with Mindlin's prediction with a 2. EXAMPLE 3: Elliptical Hertzian Contact.) was found to be 30 times that of the steel sphere (0.
3.0 a / b = 0. The results.0 a / b = 0.7 Traction distribution on the circular contact between two bodies of differrent materials as compared with Mindlin’s theory.1 1.1.125 .10 Fig.1 The Four Elliptical Hertzian Contact Cases Number of grids 112 I12 116 I16 Resulting figure Fig. show good agreement with Cattaneo’s theory [ 171. 3.5 a / b = 8.8 Fig. respectively.11 Contact area alb = 2. Table 3.8 to 3. If a square grid element had been used. as shown in Table 3.9 Fig. 3. better correlation would have been obtained.70 Chapter 3 Figure 3. The rectangular grid elements were used in order to save conveniently in computer storage. The tangential force is applied in the direction of the aaxis in all cases. which are plotted in Figs 3. 3. A Hertziantype pressure distribution was assumed in all cases. using different rectangular grid elements.
9 Traction distribution on the elliptical contact as compared with Cattaneo’s theory ( a / b = 0.5).4 0./m] 0.2 0. .0 0.o Figure 3.8 Traction distribution on the elliptical contact as compared with Cattaneo’s theory (a/b = 2).4 0. x 103 0.6 Normalized Distance [.6 Normalized Distance [i] 0.8 1.8 1.x 103 0.2 0.o Figure 3.0 0.
4 0.125).x 103 0.6 Normalized Distance [{Em] 0.0 0. x 10’ 0.2 0. 0 Traction distribution on the elliptical contact as compared with Cattaneo’s theory ( a / h = 8).8 0 Figure 3.2 0.8 1.6 Normalized Distance [/Em] 0.1 1 Traction distribution on the elliptical contact as compared with Cattaneo’s theory ( a / b = 0.o Figure 3 1 .0 0. .4 0.
3. is discretized with 100 square grid elements. The centroids of the two squares are placed 1. apart. x 0.12) and (3.15.12 Contour plot of traction distribution on a uniformly pressed square contact area with T = 8001bf. respectively. The development of the slip region with increasing tangential load and the rigid body movement is shown in Figs.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 73 EXAMPLE 4: Square Contact Area on SemiInfinite Bodies with Uniform Pressure Distribution.14 and 3.12.6in. A hypothetical square contact area between two steel bodies with uniform contact pressure of 10. Traction Contour i Distribution + 430 psi 525 800 675 750 825 i 975 1080 1125 1200 m o Figure 3.000psi and a coefficient of friction. T = 8001bf and 10001bf.Oin. . respectively.6in) on semiinfinite steel bodies are in contact with uniform pressures assumed on each contact region. f = 0. The equal traction contours are shown in Figs (3.13) for a tangential force. EXAMPLE 5: Discrete Contact Area on SemiInfinite Bodies. Two disconnected square areas of the same size (0.
12. Distribution + . P2 = 10.13 Contour plot of traction distribution on a uniformly pressed square contact area with T = 10001bf.OOOpsi and the tangential load is 1200 lbf applied at 45" inclination. Pi= 20.16 to 3.18.OOOpsi. The coefficient of friction on both regions 1 and 2 is assumed to be the same wherefi =f2 = 0. Case 2.OOOpsi and the tangential load is 800 lbf applied at 45" inclination. Three conditions of normal and tangential loading are used here: Case 1. the other two cases show different traction distributions in the two disconnected contact areas and the resultant trac .i 687 744 801 : i s s s : i i : i 91s 972 1029 143 8 8 Figure 3.OOOpsi and the tangential load is 800 lbf applied at 45" inclination.16). P2 = 10. respectively.OOOpsi.Chapter 3 . P I = 20. P2 = 10. It can be seen in Case 1 (Fig. 3. Case 3. that the traction contours and the slip patterns are identical and the resultant traction force passes through the centroid.OOOpsi. P I = lO. The results for the three cases are given in Figs 3. As would be expected. : i Trac on i Contour s30p.
3. 3.75 Figure 3. An illustration of . is given in Fig. tian force is consequently found t o be displaced from the centroid.OOOpsi respectively. for the case with region 1 and 2 subjected to norrnai pressures o f 2O.ire3 with incrensinf tangential load. and the location of the resultant force for each area. The effect of the tangential load on the change in distribution o f load between the two areas. as well as for the entire contact area from the whole area centroid.OOOpsi and 1O.19b.19a.14 Development of slip regions on a uniformly pressed square contact . is shown in Fig.
whereas gross slip occurred for the total contact at 1296lbf. A plot of the rigid body movement versus the applied tangential load can be seen in Fig. A preprocessor determines the direction of the traction at each grid point by satisfying the above .76 1. is that the direction of the displacement in the noslip region should be circumferential with respect to the center of rotation on the contact surface [23].0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Rigid Body Movement (x 105in. in this case. It can be seen that. 3.20.1 FRICTIONAL CONTACTS SUBJECTED TO A TWISTING MOMENT Preprocessor One of the boundary conditions.4 3. 3.) Figure 3. region 2 reached the condition of full slip at a load of 1000 Ibf. 3.6 0.2 1.o Chapter 3 b L 8 0.21 for the three considered cases. Some slip is also shown to occur in region 1 below l000lbf.4.15 Tangential load versus rigid body movement curve for a uniformly pressed square contact area. in this case. the sequence of slip for the above case is shown in Fig.
OOOpsi. This assumption implicitly implies that the directions of discretized traction forces will not deviate significantly with slip from those with no slip.4.OOOpsi (Case 1). P = lO.2 Problem Formulation For compatibility of deformation. boundary condition under the assumption of no slip on the entire contact area to linearize the problem [24].1 6 Traction distribution for contact on two discrete square areas under an 8001bf tangential load applied at a 45" inclination. Figure 3.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts r I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 77 I. 3. P = I 2 10. the circumferential deformation should be equal to the product of the angle of rigid rotation and the radial distance .
the sum of the moment produced by the discretized traction forces should be equal to the applied twisting moment. The traction force value should be less than the frictional resistance (the product of the coefficient of friction and the normal force) in the noslip region and equal to the frictional resistance in the slip region. . P2 = 10. the deformation at a grid point can be expressed as a linear superposition of the effect of all the discretized traction forces acting on a contact surface.78 Chapter 3 N Trrotion Contour Di8tribution 700 Wt+ 900 loo0 1100 1200 800 TractionContour Diutribution 700 Wit+ 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 f2= 0.12 p2= 20000 pui 2300 Figure 3. For the equilibrium condition.000psi (Case 2).1 7 Traction distribution for contact on two discrete square areas under an 8001bf tangential load applied at a 45" inclination.00Opsi. P I = 20. from the center of rotation in the noslip region and less than that in the slip region. Because the bodies in contact are assumed to obey the law of linear elasticity.
The problem is to find a set of the discretized traction forces which satisfies all the above conditions with the assumed center of rotation.000 psi. P2 = 10.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 79 1200 Ib tangential load applied at a 45" inclination. . P1 = 20.000psi (Case 3). the complementary condition (a grid point must be either in the noslip region or in the slip region) should be observed. Figure 3.1 8 Traction distribution for contact on two discrete square areas under Because the slip region is not known before hand. The modified linear programming technique offers a readily suitable formulation and is used to obtain the solution.
.....1 0.5 0.0 0...1 1.2 0.3 0.2: 0..6 0..19 (a) Tangential load sharing between the two contact zones at different applied loads....9 Chapter 3  I 0..4 1 0...0 1.4 0.8 0.2 0...32 0...6 : Region 2 = z 0..80 0....3: 0.7: o. .o.3 0..1 6 0.... 0. (b) Distance between the line of action of the resultant frictional resistance and centroid at different applied loads.5 i Region 1 AAA~AAA~~AAAAAA~ (b) Total Applied Force (x 10 Ibf) Figure 3...3 (4 Total Applied Force (x 103Ibf) 0.2 1.5 0...4 0.......9 1..7 0.
3. 0 Development of slip regions on a discrete contact area with increasing tangential load.3 Iterative Procedure The modified linear programming formulation is first implemented with an initial guess for the center of rotation in order to find the discretized traction forces whose directions are predetermined by the preprocessor. The real center of rotation.22). as depicted in the flow chart (Fig. and the angle of rigid body rotation are determined by this iterative procedure. 3.4. These residual forces must be equal to zero when the real center of rotation is found. since no tangential forces are applied.12 p2= 10000 psi / 650 1000 f2= 0. The residual forces are then used to modify the center of rotation and the process is repeated until the residual forces vanish. Now the residual forces (the rectangular components of the sum of the traction forces) can be calculated. the microslip region.12 p 2 = 20000 psi 500 600 700 800 900 1Ox) 1100 1150 1200 1250 1280 1296 Figure 3 2 . the traction force distribution.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 81 f2= 0. .
1.2 E 1.5 2.82 Chapter 3 0.) Figure 9.4‘ J L 5 0. (b) Joint compliance under different tangential loads before gross slip (Cases 2 and 3).0 RigM Body Movement(xlW in.o . .. .0 0..0 4.2* . & ‘ 3 t  .5 1..5 5.9 l 0..5 2...0 .21 (a) Joint compliance under same tangential loads before gross slip (Case 1).5 6.4 1.0 5.. ’ .0 0... 0.0 2.8 1  L 1 5 0.0 (b) Rigid Body hV8ltWnt (Xfwin.0. ’ .5 3. 0. ...3F 0.5 4.0 3.) 1.. 2.5 (a) 1 . “ ( . .5 3.0 1..
24 and very good agreement can be seen. and the coefficient of friction is 0. 3. The normal load is taken as 21601bf. The contact between two steel spheres of 1 in. A grid with 80 square elements is used to discretize the circular contact area of 0. The angle of rigid rotation (0. radius.30%.10641 x 10* rad) is also found to compare favorably with Lubkin's theory (0.36628 x 10' in.4 Assume the new center of rotation using a linear interpolation scheme Figure 3 2 . The center of rotation is at the centroid. lbf.4. . 3. radius (Fig.23) is first considered in order to compare the result from the developed procedure with the analytical solution by Lukin [23].1. Illustrative Examples EXAMPLE 1: Circular Hertzian Contact. the twisting moment is 2.1 11 19 x 10* rad) with a deviation of 4. A comparison between Lubkin's theory (solid line) and the numerical results (symbol s) is plotted in Fig. 2 Flow chart for the iterative procedure to solve frictional contact problem subjected to a twisting moment.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 83 b Find the traction distribution using the modified linear programming c Calculate the residual force forces negligible? Print the results 1 3.45in.
23 Contact of spherical bodies subjected to a twisting moment.24 Traction distribution on the circular contact as compared with Lubkin’s theory.84 Chapter 3 P Ip Figure 3. . x 10’ Figure 3.
8in. A grid with 80 rectangular elements of the side ratio of 2 is used to discretize the elliptical contact area. The coefficient of friction is taken to be equal to 0. The contours of the magnitude and the direction of the tractions are plotted in Figs. The centroid in this case is the center of rotation.26.25 and 3. The pressure distribution is assumed to be Hertzian in this case.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 85 EXAMPLE 2: Elliptical Hertzian Contact. 3. The border line between the noslip region and the slip region is also shown as a broken line. The elliptical Hertzian contact area with an aspect ratio of 2 is assumed to occur when a normal load of 21601bf is applied on two steel bodies.5 Contour plot for the magnitude of traction on the elliptical contact area.1 and a twisting moment of 3.lbf is applied on the interface. . Interpreted Magnitude of Stress Figure 3 2 .
28 for Case 1 with a twisting moment of 500 in.86 Direction of Predirected Stress (N=80) Chapter 3 Figure 5.27).6in.29 and 3. Two cases of normal loading are considered here. The centroids of the two squares are located 1 in.OOOpsi and P2 = 10.OOOpsi.6in. PI= 10. Each region is discretized with 36 square elements to have 72 elements for the entire contact area.27 and 3. x 0.30 for Case 2 with a twisting moment of 700 in.) on a semiinfinite steel body are assumed to be in contact with another semiinfinite steel body. Case 1.26 Contour plot for the direction of traction on the elliptical contact. P I = 20.OOOpsi. The contours of the magnitude and the direction of the tractions are plotted in Figs 3.lbf and in Figs 3. Case 2.OOOpsi and P2 = 10.lbf.12 for both regions. It . apart (Fig. EXAMPLE 3: Disconnected Contact Areas on SemiInfinite Bodies. 3. Uniform pressure is assumed on each contact region and the coefficient of friction is 0. Two disconnected square areas of the same size (0.
87 . = O O IOO psi Figure 3.28 Contour plot of the direction of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares with M = 500in.12 P.lbf and normal loading of Case I .27 I I I I I 170 f.lbf and normal loading of 4 Case 1 .500 i be nI f f. = 0. = 0.12 P.12 P. Figure 3. = 10000 p8i 600 inJM @ f. = 1000 psi 7 I I I I I Contour plot for the magnitude of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares with A = 500in. = 0.
= 20000 pai Figure 3.30 Contour plot for the direction of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares with M = 700in. = 0.12 P. t 0.i I I I I I All Slip I I 700 inlbfQ f. Figure 3.lbf and normal loading of Case 2.lbf and normal loading of Case 2. 20000 psi 1 I I I I I Contour plot for the magnitude of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares with M = 700in. = 0.29 I I I I I f. 88 .12 Pz= 10000 psi + 700 i bo nI f f.12 P.
1 0. 0. with a twisting moment of 700in.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 89 can be seen that the traction contours and the slip patterns for both regions 1 and 2 are identical and the center of rotation is the centroid for the symmetric normal loading. Some slip is also shown to occur in region 1 below 700 in.32 for Case 2. The development of the slip region with the increasing twisting moment is shown in Fig. and that gross slip occurs at 770 in.40 0. The center of rotation always occurred on the line connecting the centroids of two disconnected squares.lbf. . As would be expected. and circumferential tractions are assumed for region 2.3 0. Also notice that region 2 reaches the state of total slip for Case 2. 1 Locations of the center of rotation from the centroid versus applied twisting moments on the contact area of disconnected squares for Case 2.lbf.0 0.lbf. 3.2 0. 3.33b for Case 2.31.8 Twisting Moment (xl Oinlbf) Figure 3 3 .lbf. the case of asymmetric normal loading shows different traction distributions in the two disconnected contact areas and the center of rotation is consequently found to be displaced from the centroid. 3. 3.4 015 1) 0:s 07 1 0. The xdistance between the center of rotation and the centroid for Case 2 versus the applied twisting moment is plotted in Fig. It can be seen that region 2 reaches a state of total slip at a twisting moment of 700 in.33a for Case 1 and in Fig. The compliance curve relating the angle of rigid rotation and the twisting moment is plotted in Fig.
3.34. = 0.12 p2= 10000 psi f .5. The problem is piecewisely linearized using an iterative method and a modified linear programming technique is utilized at each iteration. 3.1 FRICTIONAL CONTACTS SUBJECTED T O A COMBINATION OF TANGENTIAL FORCE A N D TWISTING MOMENT Iterative Procedure The analysis of the frictional contact problem under a combination of tangential force and twisting moment is a highly nonlinear problem.12 p.32 Progression of slip with increasing twisting for contact area of disconnected squares. 35 . The procedure followed in the iterative method is shown in Fig.90 Chapter 3 f. = 20000 psi 300 400 500 600 700 750 770 Figure 3. .= 0.
....5 2..1’7 0.2 Illustrative Examples EXAMPLE 1: Circular Hertzian Contact..0 1.5 1.) nk 0. 3. .0 (a) A g d Twist (x10’ rat. l . (b) Case 2..l.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 0. l . ...15 x 102in.1.1.) n k Figure 3. .. . 3. . . The circular contact area of 5.5 3.1. ..0 3. ...I.. ...I.. . .5..5 4. The first example is an analysis of the contact between two steel spheres of 2in. .35).0 0.... radius results from a normal load of 30001bf and the coefficient of friction is taken as 0. .. A grid with 80 square elements is used to discretize the circular contact area.8  m .0 2.lbf are applied on the contact surface.1..8in. The tangential force of 1461bf and the twisting moment of 4. radius (Fig.83 Compliance curve for the contact area of disconnected squares: (a) Case 1.7 91 b. .1. c 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 I (b) A @d TM8t @10* nd.
initialize the discretized traction at each grid point as zero 4 [ i=l+l 1 Find the traction distribution due to the tangential force T' using the modified linear programming [3] fll is the appliedtangential force) Find the traction distribution due to the twisting moment M' using the preprocessorand the modified linear programming. . I No Calculate the residual force R and : the residual moment RL due to the F exceeding traction forces (:  cp~) < Are both R : and RL nealbiw? > NO T'=R: M 1 R.4 Flow chart for the iterative procedure.92 Chapter 3 Start For i * 1. = : Figure 3 3 . (M' is the applied lwisting moment) Combine the traction distribution due to T' and Mi with that of the previous iteration 1 1 1 Loop 100 for ail the grid points IS the combined traction force F bigger : than the limit value fP@ta grid point k? [Adjust F to the limit : valuer^.
5 3.o 0.5 ) 2.5 2.o 0. 3.0 2.s 1.T "P I' I T  6" 1 Figure 3 3 .5 3.o 1.O . 93 . 6 Contour plot for the magnitude of traction on the circular contact subjected to a combined load (using iterative procedure). 2.5 3.o 1.5 Figure 3 3 .5 1. 5 Contact of spherical bodies subjected to a combination of tangential force and twisting moment.
The rigid body movement and the angle of rigid rotation obtained by the iterative procedure (0. .) on a [241* Figure 3 3 .36 and 3.94 Chapter 3 The contours of the magnitude and the direction of the traction distribution using the iterative procedure are plotted in Figs 3.6in.10670 x 10d2rad) agree well with those obtained by using a nonlinear programming formulation The elapse CPU time on a Harris 800 to obtain the above results using the iterative procedure is 14 min. whereas that using the nonlinear programming technique is 31 min when the solution obtained by the iterative procedure is used as an initial guess. The center of rotation is found to be located at the centroid. and 0. x 0.6in.68224 x 104 in.37. Consider two disconnected square areas of the same size (0. The borderline between the noslip region and the slip region is also shown as a broken line. 7 Contour plot for the direction of traction on the circular contact subjected to a combined load (using iterative procedure). EXAMPLE 2: Disconnected Contact Area on SemiInfinite Bodies.
!OOO psi. The rigid body motions from the iterative procedure (0. The centroids of the two squares are located 1 in. In this case.  0. = loo00 f.32721 x 104rad for Case 2) compare favorably with those from the nonlinear f. . 3.16436 x 10F4in. P I = lO.39 and found to compare favorably with those obtained by applying the nonlinear programming technique [24].OOOpsi. = 0.OOOpsi.12 P.38 Contour plot for the magnitude of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares for Case 1 (using iterative procedure). apart (Fig. Uniform pressure is assumed on each contact region and the coefficient of friction is 0.12 for both regions.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 95 semiinfinite steel body. and 0. and 0.12 e. P I = 20.40 and 3. P2 = 20.000 psi.41.30509 x 104in. The corresponding results for Case 2 are shown in Figs 3. the contours of the magnitude and the direction of the traction distribution obtained by the iterative procedure are plotted in Figs 3.12323 x 104rad for Case 1 and 0.38 and 3.lbf. Each region is discretized with 36 square elements (72 elements for the entire contact area). region 1 is found to be in a state of total slip.lbf. T = 6001bf. M = 400in. M = 300 in. = 20000 p i Figure 3. For Case 1. T = 500 Ibf. Case 2.38). P2 = 10. Two cases of loading are considered here: Case 1.
.....12 P..39 Contour plot for the direction of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares for Case 1 (using iterative procedure).12 P. J 96 ...........12 P*rlOO00pd midM +M)OIbf f...... = 0.... f2= 0..40 Contour plot for the I: I Uniformstr~s12~psi : I : I I I I I : .... Figure 3... = 20000 pcri Figure 3.. = 20000 psi 400 in4M +6OOIM * magnitude of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares for Case 2 (using iterative procedure).f2=0...
. Zweier Halbraume. whereas those necessary to obtain the results from the nonlinear programming technique are 18 min for Case 1. and Schott.31257 x 104in.12263 x 104 rad for Case 1 and 0. 163183. “Elastische Beruhrung Ingenieurw. respectively.M 6OOIW f.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacts 97 f. .. 20121 1 . Vol..16502 x 104 in. and 0.41 Contour plot for the direction of traction on the contact area of disconnected squares for Case 2 (using iterative procedure). Macmillan.”Forsch. 1939.39% and 0. pp. Lundberg. G. pp. and 0. G. A. New York. E. “Miscellaneous Papers” translated by Jones. = 0. NY. = 20000 psi 4oo in.31% and 5. and 2. = 0.30892 x 104rad for Case 2). when the solutions obtained by the iterative procedure are used as initial guesses. H. The elapse CPU times on a Harris 800 to obtain the above results by the iterative procedure are 2 min for Case 1. 2.. with deviations of 2. and 8 min for Case 2.92% for Case 2.12 P. and 46 min for Case 2. Hertz. 146162. programming technique (0.12 P.. REFERENCES 1. D. 1896.49% for Case 1. 10. = 10000 psi Figure 3. respectively.
342348.” University of Rome. M. Vol. 16. 189198. pp. 504512. and Van Randen..” Appl. Vol. 1947. C. pp. June 1971... 321335. Erdogan.. Schwartz. pp.. 14. Vol... G. A.” Wear. 1977.. (Lond. 7. A. Mech. Vol. Nuri. Appl. K. “On the Relative Approach of Two Dimensional Elastic Bodies in Contact.. Math. Mech. 821823. A. E. Vol. Mech. L. 43(1). J. 1955. Theory Appl. Trans. ASME. Y.. Ser. 623624. Vol. Conry. Phys. .. Vol. Appl. 460465. “On the Hertz Problem for Linearly and NonLinearly Elastic Bodies of Finite Dimensions. “Oblique Contact of NonSpherical Elastic Bodies. pp. Vol.. and Ratwani. T. Math. Vol. ASME. Deresiewicz. Appl. Greenwood.” Int. Trans.. and Seireg. ASME. Cattaneo. Mech. 30(3). Solids Struct. Vol. pp. “The Pressure Distribution between Two Elastic Bodies in Contact. H. 13. pp. Dundurs. Ser. Dec. Mat. “Note on Numerical Computation of Elastic Contact Problems.” Appl. Meth. March 1967. “The Elastic Contact of Rough Spheres.. J. Feb. Sept. J.. 10.. 1974.. Mindlin. Vol.. pp. Optim. A. J. Math. H. 1977. S. Appl. “Plane and Axisymmetric Contact Problems for Rough Elastic Bodies.” J. I. Trans. Math. and Zienkiewicz.” J. 1974. 9 13924. L. 474478.” J. 6. K. pp.. Conway. R. J. C.” J.. 1975. pp. 1041 11. J.. Mech.. Appl. Trans. 39(3). 387392.” J. ASME.. “Multibody Elastic Contact Analysis by Quadratic Programming. F. Angew. Vol. 12.. 1972. 1956. 18. 41(3). pp.... 531548. Soc. 434436. Sept. Trans. C. Haug. 1938. “Compliance of Elastic Bodies in Contact. Contact with Application to NonHertzian Contact Problems. Kravchuk..98 Chapter 3 7.. 19. “Minimum Principle for Frictionless Elastic Kalker. 1979. April 1972. and Harper.. pp. Eng. pp. and Tripp. 9(4).” J. Johnson..” J. “Contact between an Elastic Layer with a Slightly Curved Bottom and a Substrate. Vol. K. Lincei. Y. D.” Proc. 673678. 21(2). F. 11. 230. Trans.. Roy. “Surface Interaction Between Elastically Loaded Bodies Under Tangential Forces.. 27. ASME. Mech. Numer. Vol. 153159. E. 7(12). 16. pp. Mech. Dec. A. 193206. J. 320328. 259268.. Goriacheva. Ser.. 6. A. pp.. 1971.. J. 6(2). pp.” Accad. pp. 24. Rend. Appl.” Int. and Keer.. Mech. “Contact Problem for an Elastic Layer Supported by Two Elastic Quarter Planes.. E. 16131626. C. 1949. 17. R. 1967..”J. 9. “A Mathematical Programming Method for Design of Elastic Bodies in Contact. ASME.. Tsai. K... D. “Teoria del contatto elasiico in seconda approssimazione. Cattaneo. 15. E. H. Appl. pp. and Pan.” 2. M. Vol.).. Chand. Eng. 0. “Normal Approach between Curved Surfaces in Contact. 8. Rendic. “Sul Contatto di due Corpi Elastici: Distribuzione Locale Degli Sforzi. 41(2). Francavilla.
4th ed. Theory of Elasticity. NJ. “The Torsion of Elastic Spheres in Contact. NY. Love. J... Princeton University Press. and Goodies. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. P. H. New York. pp.” J. 1970. Danzig..” Ph.. ASME. NY. W. Princeton. 23. L. 24.D. S. Timoshenko. J. 1951. “An Algorithmic Solution for Traction Distribution in Frictional Contacts. The University of WisconsinMadison. New York. Trans. Lubkin.. 1944. E. Appl. 73. 1986. A.. G. Choi. Dover Book Company. N. 183187. McGraw Hill Book Company.. 22. 3rd ed. D.Traction Distribution and Microslip in Frictional Contacfs 99 20. 21.. . Linear Programming and Extensions. 1963. Thesis.. Vol. Mech.
as illustrated in Fig. During the metal cutting operation.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 4. Asperities can be also considered as wavy surfaces on a microscale with their height being in the order of 25% of the wavelength. The smoothest surface in natural bodies is that of the mica cleavage. The mica cleavage has a roughness of approximately 0. Both of these are shallow curved surfaces with the latter having wavelengths orders of magnitude smaller than the former. Roughness represents the deviation from a nominal surface and is a composite of waviness and asperities. depending on the cutting process and surface treatment. 4. The roughness of manufactured surfaces vary from a few microinches to 1000 pin. natural or manufactured. The quality of the surface is a factor of great importance in the evaluation of machine tool productivity.1. The results from a large number of theoretical and experimental studies on surface roughness during turning are available in the 100 .2 SURFACE ROUGHNESS GENERATION Surface roughness plays an important role in machine design.08pin. are not perfectly smooth. Representative examples of some of these are given in Table 4. 4.1 SURFACE ROUGHNESS All surfaces.1. a machined surface is created as a result of the movement of the tool edge relative to the workpiece.
and tool nose radius have significant influence on the surface geometry for a given machine tool and workpiece setup. Although various factors affect the surface condition of a machined part. and the state of the machine tool. the depth of cut was found to have the . turning Die casting Cold rolling.1000 500. Sata [9] reported 22. At speeds above that specific value. drawing Extruding Reaming Milling Mold casting Drilling Chemical milling Elect. the builtupedge size decreases and the surface finish improves. which can give rise to poor surface finish. rate. cutting speed. feed.1 10 I Average Surface Roughness for Some Common Manufacturing Average surface roughness (pin. 91 that at speeds less than a certain value. There is also general agreement that surface roughness improves with increasing machine tool stiffness.86 m/min as the speed limit in his experiment. discharge machining Planing. it is generally accepted that the cutting parameters such as speed.) 28 216 416 432 463 816 832 16250 3263 32125 321 25 32125 32250 631 25 63250 63250 63250 63500 631000 125500 2501 000 500. It has also been reported [2. and decreasing feed rate [l31.1000 Processes ~~~~~~ Manufacturing process Super finishing Lapping Polishing Honing Grinding Electrolytic grinding Barrel finishing Boring.1000 500. This specific speed limit depends on many factors such as workpiece. Of the factors influencing the surface roughness. tool conditions. discontinuous or semidiscontinuous chips and builtupedge formation may occur. depth of cut.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces Table 4. and tool nose radius. shaping Sawing Forging Snagging Hot rolling Flame cutting Sand casting literature [ 118].
7. the principal cutting edge and hardness of the workpiece material itself are found to affect the surface roughness [ 5 . = f2 for f 5 2r sin Do (4. 201. Statistical techniques. Rmax. least effect. 191. the peaktovalley roughness. Other studies indicated that tool wear causes the surface finish to deteriorate rapidly and has a direct effect on the maximum roughness [4].1) . For a tool with a finite radius in an idealized cutting condition with a rigid machine tool.102 Chapter 4 Figure 4. (b) Asperity curvature without height modification.1 (a) Profile of surface roughness. Some studies presented stochastic models to characterize the indeterministic components of surface texture [ 16. which is known as kinematic roughness. 201. in the case of small values of feed can be shown to be [ 141: R. developed by Box and Wilson. have been applied to establish a predictive equation for the relationship between tool life or surface roughness and cutting conditions [6.. Also..
as well as any of the numerous empirical equations available in the literature [l81. depth of cut. radius of cutting edge. stiffness.2). [8] developed a statistical relationship of peaktovalley surface roughness.. which can be used to generate a particular surface quality. it is necessary to quanfity the influence of its dynamic parameters on surface roughness [21281. the stochastic component is assumed to be the results of the random excitation during the cutting process and the deterministic component depends on the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool. in terms of the cutting speed. depth of cut. In order to select or modify a machine tool. and tool nose . R. A generalized computerbased model is developed for predicting surface roughness for any given condition which takes into consideration all the important parameters influencing the deterministic vibratory behavior of the machine toolworkpiece system. One of the main reasons for the discrepancies is that the vibratory behavior is defined by the relative movement of the tool with respect to the workpiece in the machining process and has deterministic and stochastic components. = peaktovalley surface roughness f = feed rate r = tool radius De = end relief angle Based on an extensive experimental study using one lathe. and the mass. The statistical relationship is given approximately by the following: (4. and damping of the machine structure as well as the cutting tool assembly. . Hasegawa et al.. radius using a response surface method. the dimensions of the workpiece. The parameters considered in the simulation are: the feed rate.. A piecewise dynamic simulation of the interaction between the tool and the workpiece system in turning is reported by Jang and Seireg [29]. As reviewed above.2) where v = cutting speed d = depth of cut It can be seen that considerable variations in the calculated surface roughness may result from the use of Eqs (4. cutting speed.1) and (4. feed rate.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 103 where R.
) . ( W = 34 Hz.305 mm.794 mm). The parametric equation. A generalized equation of the following form is assumed: 2 Distance Along Workpiece (mm) Figure 4.127 mmlrev. which is developed from the simulation results. r = 0. (0) W = 28 Hz. The roughness values were obtained by displacing the tool edge an amount equal to the sum of the average relative vibration at each axial location and the kinematic roughness.2 gives a sample result from the simulation. Figure 4. The simulation was utilized to develop generalized equations for surface roughness based on the output from the vibratory model. d = 0. .2 Average surface roughness along the axis of workpiece ( V = 61 m/ min.104 Chapter 4 Extensive numerical results from the simulation suggest that the uncoupled natural frequency of the tool assembly is the fundamental parameter controlling the generated surface roughness. is found to be in good agreement with the data obtained from an extensive series of tests using mild steel specimens. f' = 0. The simulation results also show that the wellknown kinematic equation for predicting surface roughness based on the geometry of the cutting process gives essentially the same results as the simulation when the tool natural frequency is greater than 150 Hz. It shows the average generated surface roughness along the generatrix of the workpiece.
127 mm/rev < f < 0. and are only dependent on the uncoupled tool natural frequency.3b).k 3 . For the case of steel on steel flats.. . The values of the system parameters of Eq.79 mm < t < 2. greater than 10' N/m were found to be independent of K .38 mm 4.71 mm 0. the real area of contact is in the order of 0.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 105 The results as generated from the simulation for cutting conditions covering the practical range of applications are used in a regression analysis to obtain the best fit for the equation parameters C .0001 cm2 per kilogram load. = natural frequency of tool assembly (Hz) These equations are applicable for the following conditions when K.88 mm/rev 0. k . ) of 34kg and machine structures with stiffness K .3) for the case of a chuck mass ( M . 4.3 THE REAL AREA OF CONTACT BETWEEN ROUGH SURFACES Analytical studies and measurements show that the real area of contact between surfaces occurs at isolated points where the asperities came together. (4. and k4. The interactions between the two bodies at the real area are what determines the frictional resistance and wear when they undergo relative . 4. k Z .31 mm = d < 0. All the simulated results were curvefitted to give the following equations: where C. This constitutes a very small fraction of the apparent area for flat surfaces (Fig. (5. is greater than 10' N/m: 6lm/min < V < 305 m/min 0.3a) or the contour area for curved surfaces (Fig. This indicates that pressure on the microcontacts for any combination of materials is constant and is independent of load.
3 (a) Contact of flat surfaces.I06 Chapter 4 f Apparent Area (4 Real Area Contour Area Real Area (b) Figure 4. . (b) Contact of spherical surfaces.
Even in the case of a Hertzian contact. The forces on the asperities constitute the loading on the nominal smooth bodies whose deformation controls the extent of the asperity contacts. Due to surface roughness it occurs at discrete points. it can be seen from Fig. Assuming that the radius of the asperities is p.U. Assuming a height distribution probability function $(z). 4.4a. the radius of the contact on top of an asperity due to a penetration depth @canbe calculated as (Fig. 4. the pressure distribution is not continuous.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 107 sliding. 4. the probability that an asperity is in contact at any location with nominal separation U can be expressed as: prob(z =.U) = 00 $(z)dz . as illustrated in Fig. An interesting investigation of this problem was conducted by Greenwood and Tripp [30]. E2 = elastic moduli for the two materials u l . . They further assumed that the tops of the asperities are spherical with the same radius and that they deform elastically according to Hertz theory.2b that o = z . the load on the asperity can be calculated as: where E . They analyzed the contact between rough spheres by a physical model of a smooth sphere with the equivalent radius of both spheres pressed against a rough flat surface where the asperity heights follow a normal Gaussian distribution about a mean surface.4b): and the corresponding area of contact From the Hertz theory. u2 = Poisson's ratios for the materials If z is the height of the asperity and U is the distance between the nominal surfaces at that location. and the force between the bodies is the sum of the individual forces on contacting asperities which constitute the pressure distribution. The problem is solved iteratively until convergence occurs.
The expected force is: If the asperity density is assumed to be q. the expected number of asperities to be in contact over an element of the surface (&).108 Chapter 4 Figure 4.asperity contact. where the separation between the nominal surfaces is U can be expressed as: .4 (a) Nominal surfaces and superimposed asperities. (b) Contact between rough surfaces .
u ) ~ / ~ dz ( z ) ~ jU 00 Assuming the standard deviation of the asperity heights to be equal to cr.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 109 The expected area of contact: i3A = m $ & ( z . the following dimensionless relationships were used in developing a general formulation for the problem: Asperity penetration U* =0 0 Separation of nominal surface at any location h = fi 0 Minimum separation between the nominal surface d* = Radial distance in the contact region p = Pressure p* = Height of asperity S = d 0 rn E'.u ) ~ / ~ dz ( z ) . the equations for the contact conditions within an elementary area (da) can be written as: = <! q/?1/2a3/2)F3/2(h) = average pressure where F.(h) = dP (d4 r ( S . These were used in a dimensionless form as follows to evaluate the contact conditions: .B'/2(da) ( z .() ~ U 1 00 and the expected load within (da) is: dP = $ qE. 0 Jrn P Accordingly.h)"@*(s) ds The two main independent variables are the total load and the surface roughness.
The proportionality constant between the real area and load increases with increased root mean square (r. This is illustrated by the numerical results given in Fig. of the contact area = q. The constant value of the average pressure on the real area of asperity contact was assumed to be the yield stress at the asperity contacts. Consequently the mean real area of contact is approximately linearly dependent on the applied load. the average mean pressure is considerably lower than the Hertzian pressure for low loads and approaches it for high loads.. 3.110 Chapter 4 T = dimensionless total load = 2 P/oE . It is interesting to note that the first two conclusions are the same as those noted by Bowden and Tabor [31] and the electric contact resistance measurements reported by Holm [32]./ZX$ Accordingly: T= U* JDm Tc 2nPP*(P)dP = dimensionless parameter representing the spread of pressure over the contact region (Le. This is illustrated in Fig. However.5. The effective radius of the area over which the pressure is spread is considerably larger than the Hertzian contact radius for low loads and approaches the Hertzian contact condition for high loads. 4. 2. = dimensionless maximum value of the average contact pressure I /3 8a* qf. the analysis presented by Greenwood and Tripp discussed in this chapter provides a rational proce . Consequently.) roughness (a)decreased asperity density and decreased raidus of the asperities.6. 4.m. 4. m p = dimensionless roughness parameter = qa. Load has remarkably small effect on the mean real pressure on top of the asperities.s. affective radius). = dimensionless average contact pressure = Numerical results are presented in Greenwood and Tripp [30] based on the previous analysis from which the following conclusions can be stated: 1.
and thermal characteristics from the bulk material. This will be discussed later in the book. C: ~.4 x 104 mm. which have different chemical.7 1 s w 0. During the making and breaking of the contacts. A: q = 500/mm2.2mm. (From Ref. q = 500/mm2. physical.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 0. 0 = 5 x 1 0 .~ m m .8 0. B = 9.5 x dure based on elastic deformation of the asperities for calculating this constant stress value from the surface roughness data and the elastic constants of the surface layer. These surface layers which unite under pressure due to the influence of molecular forces.4 T E INTERACTION B T E N ROUGH S R A E DURING H EWE UFCS RELATIVE MOTION It has been shown in the last section that the contact between elastic bodies with rough surfaces occurs at discrete points on the top of the asperities.1 I I I 0=5 Effect of load on mean real pressure. 30. / = 0. are damaged when the contact is broken by relative movement.) I Figure 4. 1 0 .8 111 0. The interaction takes place at surfaces covered with thin layers of materials.2 I 0.B = 0. Later investigations showed that a combination of elastic and plastic asperity contacts can occur for typical surface finishing processes depending on the load and the thickness of the lubricating film.2mm. B: q = 940/mm2. 4.~ m fi = 0.2mm. the .8 0.
Chapter 4 \ \ \ I \ I \ /  Rough (Greenwood) I Dimensionless Radius Rough (Greenwood) Dimensionless Radius Figure 4.6 Comparison o f pressure distribution for rough and smooth surfaces: (a) low load. . (b) high load.
5 A MODEL FOR THE MOLECULAR RESISTANCE Molecular resistance or adhesion between surfaces is a function of the real area of contact and molecular forces which take place there. The relative contribution of these two components to the resistance to movement depends on the types of materials. A theoretical relationship describing the effect of the molecular forces can be given as: where h = Planck’s constant = 6. and volume density of electrons in the solid I = distance between the contacting surfaces Adhesive forces are generally not significant in metaltometal contacts where the surfaces generally have thin chemical or oxide layers. n .625 x 1027ergsec c = speed of light m. 4. and the environmental conditions in which the frictional pair operates.6 A MODEL FOR THE MECHANICAL RESISTANCE The role of roughness in the frictional phenomena has been a central issue since Leonardo da Vinci’s first attempt to rationalize the frictional resistance. however. in contacts between nonmetals or metals with thin wetted layers on the surface as well as in the contacts between micromachined surfaces. . charge. It can therefore be concluded that friction has a dual molecularmechanical nature. surface geometry. His postulation that frictional forces are the result of dragging one body up the surface roughness of another was later articulated by Coulomb. It can be significant.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces I13 underlying material deforms. e = mass. roughness. This rationale is based on the assumption that both bodies are rigid and that no deformation takes place in the process. The forces necessary to the making and breaking of the contacts. 4. physical and chemical properties of the surface layer. in deforming the underlying material constitute the frictional resistance to relative motion.
In the first case. 4. A modern interpretation of the mechanical role of roughness is based on the elastic deformation of the contacting surfaces due to asperity penetration.7.I I4 Ciiu p I cr 4 Figure 4. the energy dissipated in the process of deforming the surface is the source of the mechanical frictional resistance and the surface waves generated are the source of frictional noise. The process is analogous to that of the movement of a boat creating waves on the water surface. the traction resistance is on the surface or "external" to the .7 FRICTION AND SHEAR Both friction and shear represent resistance to tangential displacement. The size of the bulge depends on the relative depth of penetration w / p . According to this theory. where w is the penetration depth and B is the radius of the asperity. 4.7 Surface waves generated by asperity penetration. The penetrating asperity moving in a tangential direction deforms the underlying material and gives rise to a semicylindrical bulge in front of the identor which is lifted up and also spreads sideways as elastic waves. This is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig.
..2 Friction and Shear Traction force Friction Shear External Internal Contact Discrete Direction of material Characteristic of displacement displacement Sinusoidal waves Laminar Perpendicular to the movement Continuous Parallel to the movement body.. the former causes gradual destruction of the surface layer with severity depending on the number of passes that one surface makes on the other... if the surface layers are harder to deform than the underlying layers.8 Effect of shear strength gradient on surface damage.8...... destruction of surface layer. it is expected that shear would occur........ friction can be associated with a “positive gradient” of the mechanical properties with depth while shear can be associated with a “negative gradient” of the material properties with depth below the surface... the resistance is “internal” in the bulk material. In other words..2.8 RELATIVE PENETRATION DEPTH AS A CRITERION FOR THE CONTACT CONDITION An identor with spherical top is assumed in order to develop a qualitative criterion for the effect of the depth of penetration on the stress condition on . 4. In the case of shear. (a) dr/dh > 0.. A negative gradient of the strength of the surface layer would result in rapid destruction of the bulk material which occurs at the depth where the strength of the material is below what is necessary to sustain the tangential load.. On the other hand.... A comparison between the two phenomena can be summarized in Table 4. 4.. (b) d t / d h < 0. . It should also be noted that friction occurs when the strength of the surface layers is lower than the underlying layers..The Contact Between Rough Surfaces I15 Table 4. As illustrated in Fig...... destruction of bulk material... (a) (4 Figure 4..
or a macroscale where the indentor is a cutting tool with a spherical radius. 4356E4I3 h R2I3 . R G .4356Pl3E2I3 R2 The above equation shows that the relative depth of penetration can be used as a dimensionless parameter for evaluating the severity of the contact and its transition from elastic to plastic to cutting. .78(g)2 R .E2 = maximum contact pressure where a = radius of contact area R = radius of the identor P = applied load E = effective modulus of elasticity The relative penetration depth can therefore be expressed as: Substituting for Pi3from: P3 = I q. Figure 4. R4I3 0.0. Assuming homogeneous materials and applying the Hertz theory. the following relationships can be written: a2 h = penentration depth = R a = 0. 4.77444.9 gives an illustration of utilizing the penetration ratio for this purpose [32].66 / . The model can be applied on a microscale where the identor is an asperity..0. High thermal . R4I3 = 1.9 EFFECT OF SLIDING ON THE CONTACTING SURFACES The relative sliding between rough surfaces and the traction forces and frictional energy generated in the process result in a change in the temperature and properties of the surface and the layers beneath it.88 qo = 0.I16 Chapter 4 the surface.
01 ferrous metals. a marked degree of plasticity may occur. flux can be expected at the asperity contacts for high sliding speeds. Because of its importance. (b) Plastic contact: h / R < 0.3 lubricated contact. It should be noted that if the contact temperature exceeds the recovery temperature (i. h / R < 0. Its depth varies with the parameters contributing to the workhardening process. as a result of the nonuniform stress or strain at the surface. even in brittle materials..0.e. (c) Microcutting: h / R =. the recrystallization temperature of the alloy).1 dry contact.0001 nonferrous metals. the thermal aspects of frictional contacts will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter. h / R = 0. High microhardness may also occur immediately below the surface as a result of sliding.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces I17 Figure 4.3 lubricated contact.1 dry contact. Also.9 Effect of relative penetration of severity of contact. h / R > 0. by the increase in surface temperature and by the chemical reaction with the environment. the surface . The combination of compressive stress and frictional force and interaction with the environment can cause structural transformation in the surface material known as mechanochemistry. (a) Elastic contact: h / R = 0. The changes in the surface properties that occur include those caused by deformation and strain of the surface layer. Deformation at the surface may produce microcracks in the surface layer and consequently reduce its hardness. and the corresponding thermal gradients can produce high thermal stresses in the asperity and material layers near the surface.
M. as well as the transfer of frictional heat into the sliding pair. 235243. They are known to embed themselves into the soft seal and cause severe abrasive wear to the hard shaft. 4058.. 12(2). pp.. 1970. when two different metals are involved in sliding. Albrecht. pp. which are generally very hard. pp. pp. The chemical reaction can produce thin layers. “Investigations on the Nature of Surface Finish and Its Variations with Cutting Speed. 233245.I18 Chapter 4 layers become increasingly soft and ductile. 133136.. 1. 86. ASME. C. S. N. As a result. NY.. Proceedings of 3rd International MTDR Conference. and Taylor.or Fe2O3. 3. 2. The chemical interaction between the surface and the environment is an important result of the frictional phenomenon. K.” Trans. Ansell. H. Vol. conditions can cause Fe304 (red oxide) to be formed which is known to act as a solid lubricant at the interface. 1964.” Wear.” Trans. Olsen. 105. 331. Oxide films formed on the surface can have different compositions depending on the nature of the sliding contacts and the environmental conditions. The chemical layers formed on the surface can significantly influence the friction and wear characteristic.. “Tool Life Testing by Response Surface Methodology Parts I and 11. 7. and copper alloy surfaces can produce CuzO or CuO depending on the conditions [32.. Machin. L. On the other hand. V. Also. ASME. Pergamon Press. 4. For example. as well as a macroscale. on thick layers that are very brittle. 1968. J. V. 100. The transfer of metal may occur on a microscale.. “How to Secure Surface Finish in Turning Operations. 1958. Taraman. 5. 593606. Engr. hard Fe2) oxides (black oxide) can exist in the sliding contacts between rubber (or soft polymers) and a hard steel shaft in water pump seals.” Prod. K. “Surface Roughness in Turned Steel Components and the Relevant mathematical Analysis. A. Wu.” Int. 1956. 2. 1974. Vol. K. T. New York.. the surface becomes smoother upon deformation. Vol. pp. “MultiMachining OutputMulti Independent Variable Turning Research by Response Surface Methodology..” Am. pp.” Advances in Machine Tool Design and Research. 1962. B. one of them softens while the other remains hard. “Wear of Carbide Tools and Surface Finish Generated in Finish Turning of Steel. Res. J. Vol. “The Surface Finish Properties of a Carbide and Ceramic tool. 86.. It is well known that appreciably deformed materials are easily susceptible to oxidation and chemical reactions in general. . and Cook. Chandiramani. Steel surfaces may produce FeO. Prod. Solaja.. Fe304. 6. Vol. Transfer of metal occurs and one surface becomes smoother at the expense of the other. 134140. pp.
J. A. Vol. M. “The Influence of Metal Cutting Forces on the Formation of Surface Texture in Turning. T. A.. 447454. T.The Contact Between Rough Surfaces 8. 1965. Larcy. 197208. pp. Vol.. 190195. and Ari. 1970. Olgac. J. 1969. Vol. pp. 17. ASME.. 0. Mach. Vol. 97. London. F. 12.. 17.” J.. and Widota. T. J.. pp.. J. Eng. Nakayama. R. Mech.. “Dynamic and Static Characteristics of a Wide Speed Range Machine Tool Spindle. Pergamon Press... and Wu. 1991. K... 103.. S. Indust. ASME. A. K. T. Sankar. 29. 1970. pp. The Machining o Metals. “Suppression of Machine Tool Chatter Using a Viscoelastic Dynamic Damper. 1975.. 9.” Precis.” J. “Behavior of Self Excited Chatter due to Multiple Regenerative Effect. Sisson. Tool Des. and Kapoor. Hasegawa. Vol. M.. Machine Tool Structures. Vol. and Ha. 1983. Kim. S. Sata. Alen Band. Tool Manuf. “Surface Roughness Model for Turning. 119 11.. 91. Meas.. 281292. Ann. England. “A Relative Stability Study on the Dynamics of the Turning Mechanism. H. Eng. Indust. Wardle.. pp. 24.” J. and Zhao. On the Storage of Data on Metal Cutting Forces.. M. Rakhit. S . A... G. Cont. ASME. “An Explanation of Low Speed Chatter Effects. New York. Jemlielniak.. S . Indust. Englewood Cliffs. 109.. S. 5865. ASME.. and Osman. and Sankar.” ASME J. Vol. 13. 1965. and Brown. pp. Indust. Vol.. Res.. S. pp. Machining Science and Application. 951955. “Profile Characterization of Manufactured Surfaces Using Random Function Excursive Technique. 25.. London. 21. “Machine Tool Vibrations: Its Effect on Manufactured Surfaces. Indust. 23.. J.. M. 239247.. Y. and Lindberg. Vol. Sankar. H. 285289.” Tribol. L. 463464. 1973. K. and Poon. 137159. 14. .. 0. G. 1976. O. 109.. 113. Eng. Trans.. NY. Tobias. 1987. pp. 1318. S. A.. and Soto. ASME. E. and Kegg. pp. K. Trans.. Mach. 15. Parts I and 11.. N. Eng.. S. Eng. “Dynamic Generation of Machined Surfaces. Montreal.” MTDR. Nassipour. Kondo.. 16. pp. Int. J. “Surface Roughness in Metal Cutting. M. Pergamon Press. 4. A.” Proceedings 4th Canadian Congress Appl. 83.” Int. f Armarego. pp.” Ann. Kronenberg. “Numerical Simulation of NonLinear Chatter Vibration in Turning. P. Eng. 25. M..” J. 1987.. M. J. 175183. M. 0. 18. 1989.. M. F.. 190197. Trans. J. 19. M.” J. Vol. 1969. Tlusty. 1967. Vol.” Int. Seireg. “Statistical Evaluation of Surface Finish and Its Relationship to Cutting Parameters in Turning. 10. 16.. NJ. 1964. Y. Vol. 22.. Machine Tool Vibration. pp. Zhang. Osman. England. R.” CIRP. pp.. 1977. Dyn. pp. R. Blackie and Son. G.. T. K.. CIRP. Prentice Hall. A. 164170. Rakhit. 1976. Trans. Kawano. and Osman. r.. 20. M.
Y.” J. S. Rao. Mech...” Mach. 29. and Ismail. 1988. “Tool Natural Frequency as the Control Parameter for Surface Roughness. 1969. K. and Tabor. 33.. Butterworths. Greenwood. 153159. and Seireg. 32. Berlin. P. Chapter 4 Rao. and Tripp. D. 18Det18. 1965. J. Vol. Mech. C. pp. “Towards Improved Design of Boring Bars Part I and 11. 1958.I20 26. A.. pp. “Special Aspects of Chatter in Milling. A. J.. 58.. 1976. J. . 30... Friction and Wear. 31. F. Trans.” Int. 1. 375389. Springer. Vol. Tools Manuf. pp. J. 34Tlusty. Appl. D. Bowden. 28. F.. ASME. Friction and Lubrication of Solids.. Ekctric Contacts Handbook. J. Holm. 27. “Surface Produced by a Vibrating Tool. 1954. Vol. R. “The Elastic Contact of Rough Spheres.. 9.. and Rao. Mech. 147154. V.” ASME Paper No.. P. 1992. March. 1981. Skelton. R. Oxford University Press. R...” Int. U. Kragelski.. J. tools Manuf. I.. pp.. Jang. 28. Washington. N. Vibr.
1 INTRODUCTION This chapter gives a brief review of the fundamentals of transient heat transfer and of some of the extensive literature on the subject. On the other hand. both film temperature and contact pressure control the glass transition for lubricant and consequently the highslip traction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication [4]. The flash temperature [2]. which represents the maximum rise in surface temperature inside the contact zone. 121 . the thermal environment inside the contact zone may precipitate the creation of a beneficial chemical film which protects against asperity interactions for certain materiallubricant combinations and temperature levels [3]. bearings. Some representative results and equations are given to illustrate the effect of the different parameters on the transient temperatures generated between rubbing surfaces. brakes. The severe thermal environment which may occur in frictional contacts [ I ] due to the combination of high pressures and sliding speeds is one of the main factors in the malfunctioning of machine elements such as gears. 5 2 THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN FRICTIONAL CONTACT . Furthermore. and traction drives. The thermocracking or warping of the sliding components and the desorption of the protective boundary lubrication film are among several failure mechanisms associated with the high flash temperature. has long been used as a design limit against scoring in gears. cams.5 Thermal Considerations in Tribology 5.
151. A drop in the traction coefficient has also been reported to occur with the appearance of these chemical films in lubricated concentrated contacts [ 14. Because of the considerable interest in the subject and its practical importance. a comprehensive analysis of the temperature distribution and . Wang and Cheng [ 1 I] introduced the limiting shear stress concept in their solution for the temperature in spur gear teeth contacts. Other related studies can be found in Refs 1822. They carried out their solution for identical steel disks to compare the temperature distribution resulting from using different oil grades. the temperature distribution for a rheological fluid was studied by Conry [ 101. In both studies the solution is based on the “constant strength’’ moving heat source theory [6] which may not be valid at the starting and at the end of the engagement cycle in gears where the surface curvature changes rapidly with time. The possible modification in heat partition among the moving solids due to the fluid film existence was not considered. In cutting tool technology it is found that coating a tool with a layer of low thermal conductivity gives a significantly longer tool life [17]. it is generally accepted that friction and wear can be considerably influenced by controlling both physical and chemical properties of surface films and the art of antiwear additives is an integral part of lubrication technology. These chemical films act as thermal screens on the surfaces. The thermal solution for the lubricating film temperature was developed much later by Cheng and Sternlicht [7]. and Dowson and Whitaker [8]. It has been long recognized that perfectly clean sliding surfaces would not function as a tribological pair. which might add to the inlet viscous heating and the compressibility effect in reducing the film thickness. Another technique used to reduce friction and wear is the coating of one or both of the rubbing surfaces [12.I22 Chapter 5 Blok [5] and Jaeger [6]developed the theoretical foundation for the flash temperature prediction in lubricated dry rubbing solids. Both the convected heat by lubricant and the conducted heat in the direction of motion are assumed negligible. 131 with appropriate layers of different materials. A modification in the heat partition between two rubbing solids may also be related to the existence of oxide films on their surface [16]. The high temperature rise inside the contact zone and the difference in thermal expansion between the material of the layers and the material of the friction pair may cause cracking or complete destruction of the layer. There are several experimental observations which suggest that a reduction in lubricant film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication accompanies the chemical film formtion [14]. More recently. Accordingly. [9] investigated the temperature distribution in rolling/sliding contacts lubricated by a Newtonian oil using the finite difference method. Manton et al. Jaeger’s formula [6] for the fastmoving heat source along a semiinfinite plane was utilized in these studies as a boundary condition along the moving solid surfaces.
Thermal Considerations in Tribology I23 heat partition for layered rolling/sliding solids was undertaken by Rashid and Seireg [23]. 5. the latter can be utilized to evaluate heat partition and temperature rise in the contact under different coating parameters and operating conditions. 5. which can be easily used to predict heat partition and maximum temperatures in the contacting surfaces and in the lubricating film for different system parameters. rather than a rigorous treatment of the subject. can be calculated from: d=&G (5. A computerbased simulation is described in Part I of the paper which can be used to study temperature distribution in lubricated layered contacts. Dimensionless relationships are also developed for lubricated unlayered contacts and dry layered contacts. Because of the recent interest in tribological surface coating. 5.1) where k K = thermal diffusivity = PC k = thermal conductivity p = density c = specific heat Equation (5. .1) is plotted in Fig.3. 5. Some of the results of the study are presented later in this chapter.1 Heat Penetration Depth If the surface of a conductivity material is subjected to a temperature rise ATo.1. as shown in Fig.1 for steel. The simulation is utilized in the accompanying paper to generate dimensionless relationships. The objective is to give the designer of tribological systems a basic understanding of the phenomenon and how it is influenced by the different system parameters. It deals primarily with onedirectional conduction of heat and gives some design equations and illustrative examples of how these relationships are applied. at any time t after the initiation of the heat flow process. the depth of heat penetration d .3 AN INTRODUCTORY TREATMENT OF TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER This section presents some of the fundamental concepts and relationships on which transient heat transfer is based.
3.3 Temperature Distribution in the Thickness for t < tr The temperature distribution in the penetrated depth d can be calculated from: = AT ATQ (1 5) 2 (5. the thickness of the slab.3. (5. Eq.2 Time for Penetrating the Full Thickness of a Heated Slab For this condition.1 4 8 12 16 20 Time t (min)  24 28 32 Penetration distance for steel prior to full penetration ( r = t L ) .08L2min ( L in inches) where t L = full penetration time for steel 5.1) can be rewritten as: t L = 0.2) .124 24 Chapter 5 20 I 4 0 0 Figure 5. d = L. 5.
2 0. Figure 5. After full penetration the temperature at the other surface begins to rise. 5. The time scale is also plotted in the figure for steel slabs with thickness 1.4 0.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 125 The normalized temperature distribution in the penetrated layer is plotted in Fig. 10.0 0.0 0.8 1.2 for different ratios of the thickness of the layer to the thickness of the slab.o 0.8 0.3 in a dimensionless form.4 YlL 0.) at any time t > t L can be calculated from: This relationship is plotted in Fig.6 0. Assuming no convection of heat from that surface the temperature rise (AT. 5 . 5.2 Temperature distribution below the surface prior to full penetration .2 0.6 0. and 1.o 0 < tL). 2.
2 0.I26 Chapter 5 20 in. 5.3. ATo. It can be seen from Figures 5. applied at the top surface. respectively.4) This relationship is plotted in Fig.4 that the maximum temperature gradients in this case occur at the onset of the heat flow. 5.0 0 4 8 12 t I tL 16 20 Figure 5.3 that the temperature distribution in the entire slab becomes uniform with less than 5% of deviation of A To after 15 times the full penetration time.4 for different values of ATL/ATo. The graph also shows the penetration time f L in minutes for the above conditions.2 and 5.8 0.o 0. 5. It can also be seen from Fig.3 Temperature rise at the bottom surface of a steel slab due to a step temperature. 1.. .4 Temperature Distribution for f > t~ The temperature distribution across the thickness for t > t L can be calculated as: (5.
4 Temperature distribution through the thickness of a steel slab for t < tL.4 0.4 TEMPERATURE RISE DUE T O HEAT INPUT The frictional heat input at the interface can be calculated as: Q= J where p = coefficient BTU/sec of friction V = sliding velocity J = Joule equivalent of heat .o 127 0. 5.6 g t o 0.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 1.0 YIL Figure 5.8 0.2 0.
This simple relationship is used for qualitative illustration of the concept of heat partition. is applied to the surface of a semiinfinite solid.. If a sustained uniform heat flux.a)= 1/2. A procedure for rigorous treatment of the partition is discussed later in this chapter. .k2 = conductivity of the bulk material of both bodies respectively kl. the temperature rise on the surface can be calculated as follows: . > k l and k12> k 2 . a = (1 . and the heat flow is equally partitioned between the two bodies. . then: > > On the other hand.128 Chapter 5 If the area of contact between the two bodies is A . < k l and k12 < k2.. if kl. then the heat flux in each body can be calculated from: Q2 Q = (1 a) 2 where a = heat partition coefficient which is a measure of the effective thermal resistance of each body A simplified equation for the calculation of a can be written as: I 1 1 where k l . 4. Therefore. then: < < and in the case of steel bodies separated by an oil film or insulative surface layers of the same composition k. = k.k12 = conductivity of the two surface layers It can be seen that if kl.
5 Maximum surface temperature rise in a steel slab subjected to a constant heat flux q for a period to. This relationship is plotted in Fig.15 0. subjected to a constant heatflux q. applied for a finite period to.35 0.12qJI 129 AT= a For a slab of depth L.00 0. can therefore be calculated as the superposition between a positive q input at t = 0. .t.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 1.30 0. and a negative q at t = to.r.5. the corresponding full penetration time t L .6 0.8 1.2 0. The temperature rise due to a constant flux q.4 0. Accordingly: 0.o $4 Figure 5.05 0.25 0.20 0. the above equation can be rewritten in dimensionless form as: L is used as a reference dimension and time is normalized w. 5.0 0.10 0.
I30
Chapter 5
Figure 5.6 shows a plot of these relationships for t o l l L = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 respectively. The principle of superposition can be applied to determine the surface temperature rise for any given function of heat flux. It can be determined either as a summation or an integration of the effect of incremental step inputs that convolute the given function. An illustration of this is the study of the effect of applying the same total quantity of heat input with a triangular flux with the same maximum value but with different slopes, S1 and S2, during the increase and decrease phases respectively. Using the integration approach, therefore:
I
c = 0 + to,
A T ( t ) = 11.12S1 Jz: dr 0
JG
Figure b.6 Temperature rise as a function of time on the surface of a steel slab subjected to constatn flux 4 for different periods to.
Thermal Considerations in Tribology
131
Figures 5.75.11 show plots of the surface temperature history for S1/S2 9, 4,1, and respectively. = Figure 5.12 shows the maximum surface temperature as a function of S1/S2 the same total heat flow qmax. can be seen from Fig. 5.12 that the for It highest surface temperature rise occurs as the ratio SI/S2 decreases. If the heat flux function is determined from experimental data and is difficult to integrate, the temperature rise can be obtained by summing the effects of incremental steps that are constructed to convolute the function as illustrated in Fig. 5.13. Better accuracy can be obtained as the number of steps increases. The temperature rise at the surface for this case can be calculated as:
b,
4,
t=t2+
t3,
AT=
4 &E1 4 = T + ( 4 2  4 1 ) 4 = T
112
Time (sec)
Figure 5.1 Temperature rise on the surface of a steel slab due to a total heat input q applied at different rates ( t O / t l = 0.1).
0
2
4 Time (sec)
6
8
10
Figure 5.8 Temperature rise on the surface due to a total heat input q applied at different rates ( t O / t l = 0.2).
Figure 5.9 Temperature rise on the surface due to a total heat input 4 applied at different rates ( t o / t l = 0.5).
132
Figure 5.10 Temperature rise on the surface due to a total heat input q applied at different rates (lo/tl = 0.8).
1
1.5
3.0
1.0
j  2.0 c m P
U
9)
2
s 8 c g
0
C
Q)
m
1.0

0.5
6
E
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.0
Time (sec)
Figure 5.1 1 Temperature rise on the surface due to a total heat input q applied at different rates ( t o / t l = 0.9).
133
134
Chapter 5
* 0 * 3
0.0
0
}
I
I
I
I
2
4
6
8
I
S,'%
Figure 5.12 Dimensionless surface temperature rise as a function of the rate of the slope ratio for the triangular heat input.
Figure 5.1 3 Convolution integration for a general heat input function.
Thermal Considerations in Tribology
135
5.5
HEAT PARTITION A N D TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN LAYERED LUBRICATED CONTACTS
This section briefly describes a generalized and efficient computer based model developed by Rashid and Seireg [23], for the evaluation of heat partition and transient temperatures in dry and lubricated layered concentrated contacts. The program utilizes finite differences with the alternating direction implicit method. The program is capable of treating the transient heat transfer problem in lubricated layered contacts with any arbitrary distribution of layer properties and thicknesses. It takes into consideration the time variation in speeds, load, friction coefficient, fluid film thickness between surfaces, and the effective radius of curvature of contacting solids. It calculates the surface temperature distribution in the layered solids in lubricant film. Also, the role of the chemical layer on surface and film temperatures in lubricated concentrated contacts can be evaluated. Furthermore, the transient operating conditions, which are associated with the performance of such systems, are incorporated in temperature calculations. A general model for the contact zone in sliding/rolling conditions can be approximated by two moving semiinfinite solids separated by a lubricant film, as shown in Fig. 5.14. The heat generation distribution inside the lubricant film is controlled by the rheological behavior of the lubricant under different pressures, temperatures, and rolling and sliding speed. In many concentrated contact problems, the moving solids may have different thermal properties, speeds, bulk temperatures and different chemical layers on their surface. All these variables are introduced in the model, as well as any considered heat generation condition in the lubricant film. The boundary conditions for this problem are based on the fact that the temperature gradient diminishes away from the heat generation zone.
Figure 5.1 4
Model for heat transfer in layered lubricated contacts.
The temperature field around the contact zone is represented by a rectangular grid containing appropriately distributed nodal points in the two solids and the lubricant tilni normal to the flow and in the flow direction. The size of each division c m be changed in such ;i manner that the boundary conditions c m be satisfied for a particular problem without increasing the number o f nodes. A larger number o f divisions are used ;icross the lubricant film to xcommodate the rapid chringe in both temperature and velocity across the film. The niesh size is progressively expanded in each moving solid with the distances of the node from the heat generation zone. The developed program hiis the following special features:
1.
2.
The use of finite difference with the alternating direction implicit method provides considerable inodeling flexibility and computing efficiency. I t is capable of handling transient variations in geometry. loud, spccd, and material properties.
Thermal Considerations in Tribology
137
3.
4.
It can treat dry or lubricated multilayered contacts with relatively small layer thicknesses. Because the program is developed for modeling transient conditions, it can be used for predicting traction characteristics for layered or unlayered solids by incorporation of a proper rheological model for the lubricant. Starting from the ambient temperature conditions, the lubricant properties can be iteratively evaluated from the computed temperatures for any particular operating condition.
The program as developed would be useful in investigating the effect of the different parameters on the temperature distribution in line contacts. It can provide a valuable guide for performing experimental studies to generate empirical design equations for layered surfaces. It can also be utilized to develop empirical equations for lubricated layered contacts applicable to specific regimens of materials and operating conditions. The results for any application can be considerably enhanced by incorporating an appropriate rheological model for the lubricant. This would enable the prediction of traction, velocity, profile in the film, and the heat generation distribution in the contact zone.
5.5.1
Numerical Results
Numerical solutions are carried out to illustrate the capabilities of the program utilizing under the following assumptions:
1.
The heat source distributed inside the contact zone follows the dry contact pressure distribution (Hertzian pressure). Then the rate of heat generation distribution per unit volume can be calculated as:
where
Qmm
=
4fWO(UI  U,)
f = coefficient of friction
WO= load per unit length
e
W'
2. 3.
The solids are homogeneous with no cracks or inclusions. The chemical reaction heat sources are negligible compared to frictional heat sources.
138
Chapter 5
4. 5.
The heat of compression in the lubricant film and the moving solids has a negligible effect on the temperature rise inside the contact zone. Because the lubricant film thickness and the Hertzian contact with (xdirection) are small in comparison to the cylinder width (zdirection), the temperature gradient in the zdirection is expected to be small in comparison with those across and along the film. Therefore, the conduction in the zdirection is neglected.
The thermal properties of the surface layers in lubricated contacts cover a wide material spectrum. There are some cases where the surface layer has low thermal conductivity in comparison with the lubricant film (for example, paraffinic and the organic surface layers as compared with oil). At the same time, there are some types of coatings, like silicon carbide (Sic), which are much more conductive than any common lubricant. The thermal resistance at the interface between the surface layer and the bulk solid should also be taken into consideration if the thermal boundary layer penetrates the surface layer inside the solid. The developed program is utilized to study the variation in maximum film temperature versus oil film thickness for several surface layer thicknesses. The attached surface layer to each moving solid is assumed to be identical and the distribution of heat generation is assumed to be uniform across the film ( w = h). For the considered example:
where
K 3 , KF = thermal conductivities for the lubricant film and the surface layer respectively
The maximum film temperature is expected to be strongly dependent on the layer thickness because of its low thermal conductivity in comparison with the lubricant film. The results as plotted in Fig. 5.15 show a gradual reduction in the influence of the layer thickness on the lubricant film temperature as the film thickness increases for the same friction heat level, as demonstrated by the upper two curves in the figure. All the temperature curves for the layered contacts have the tendency to converge to a common level as the lubricant film thickness increases in magnitude. This is represented in more detail in Fig. 5.16, which shows the dependency of the maximum film temperature upon a wider range of surface layer
I800 1600
I /
I
I
I
1000

E I4Oo
5
f
Eg
E
1200
I000 800
: 
30 pin, 0.75 p m 6pin,O.lSpm 3 pn 0.075 pm i ,
800
600
i i
d

_.__._ ..*_._____.._.  ...... ._.____
400
200

/I
...... .......... ..... ,).I
...................
200
I
I
0
for layered
1800 a 0.00
:
Coating Thloknerw (IO* m) 0.25 o
o
o
E
!
1200

I F i b lhicknesm 10 pin, 0.25 pm 100 wln. 2.5 um
Figure 5.1 6 Maximum film temperature versus coating thickness (insulative layers, K 3 / K F= 6).
I40
Chapter 5
thickness (coating thickness) in thin film lubrication. However, thick film lubrication does not show such behavior. Any increase in surface layer thickness would initially reduce the temperature diffusion inside the solids until the heat flux leaves the contact zone. Beyond this condition, any increase in surface layer thickness does not add any thermal influence to the contact zone, which explains the difference in temperature dependency on surface layer thickness for thin and thick film lubrication. The same argument can explain the increase in lubricant film thickness. If the lubricant film is less conductive than the surface layer, then the lubricant film thickness has much less influence on the maximum film temperature, as shown in Fig. 5.17. Figure 5.18 shows the variation in surface layer temperature versus oil film thickness for different insulative layer thicknesses. It should be noted that as the fluid film decreases in thickness, the same friction level will result in a higher surface film temperature. Thus, chemical activity may increase to a significant level before bearing asperity surfaces actually achieve contact. This has been confirmed experimentally by Klaus [20]. such experimental
Film Thioknema (106 m) 1.25
I
1800
I
c
0.25
I /
2.50
I
I
1600 1400
   6 pin, 0.16 pm
..... 0
30 p&I, 0.76
3 pin, 0.076 y m
1 1000
E e 1200
3
 800
E
;800 L'
E .3 z
f
1000

 600
400
G e e! 3
E c E
.
5
600
400

200 01 0
/ I //
 200 =
10
I
I s
50 Film Thickness (10" in)
I
100
I
' 0
Figure 5.17 Maximum film temperature versus oil film thickness for layered lubricated contacts (conductive layers, K J / K F= 1/6).
... // 10 I 50 I 100 I 0 ........... which increases the temperature level even for a very thin layer. In the case of an insulative surface layer... because one of the surfaces has to be transparent....... the temperature level becomes even more sensitive to surface layer thickness..Thermal Considerations in Tribology 141 observation is difficult to perform using the infrared technique [2 11....... The following can be concluded from the investigated conditions: 1.. The small contact width between the asperities generates a shallow temperature penetration across the surface layer. as described in Figs 5...17). If the surface layer is less conductive than the lubricating oil.. This is attributed to the con 1800 * // I I I loo0 E 5 E fi 1400 1600 1200 g 1000 800 : 3 pin. In both cases..... 0.. the surface layer temperature decreases with the increase in lubricant film thickness......400 if . whereas this is not the case for the conductive surface layer (see Figs 5.19. 2... the maximum rise in film temperature is strongly dependent on the surface layer thickness.18 and 5.. In the case of boundary lubrication......... in which the asperity interaction with the solid surfaces plays a major role..075 pm E 600 ..4 400 200 0 0 G  . then the maximum surface layer temperature has a stronger dependency on the lubricant film thickness than in the case of conductive layers.15 and 5....
As can be seen in Fig. the surface temperatures.6 pin. 0. 0. beyond which the layer thickness will have no effect on the maximum temperature in the lubricant film.075 pm .. 5. It should be noted here that this result occurs for the considered smooth surfaces without any asperity interaction...19). This illustrates the importance of the surface layers on convection and consequently.142 .. Chapter 5 4 000 800 G e f E z E 800 f E a 6oo400  t Figure 5.? 2 : . 6 Film Thkknea8 (10* m) 1 . 30 ph.18 and 5.16. for each oil film thickness. 5.. Any dimensional analysis problem raises two main questions: . :  . E 8oo . there appears to be a surface layer thickness.75 pm 3 pin. K 3 / K F= 1 /6).: 0 /. 3e 1400 IS00 1200 1000 . 0.6 DIMENSIONLESS RELATIONSHIPS FOR TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE A N D HEAT PARTITION The use of dimensional analysis in defining interactions in a complex phenomenon is a wellrecognized art.1 9 Maximum surface temperature versus oil film thickness for layered lubricated contacts (conductive layers.. vection effects (see Figs 5.15 pm . 3.
Dimensionless relationships for concentrated contact can be of considerable practical importance to the experimentalist and the designer.TB = 1.20 Moving semiinfinite solid under a stationary heat source. there is no provision of insight into the interaction between variables. This section presents dimensionless relationships developed from the computer model described in the previous section which incorporate dimensionless groups representing the system parameters and operating conditions. The lack of generality is due to the fact that the presentation of the results is usually in the form of discrete examples. Most of the theoretical analyses are based on computer solutions and the presentation of the results are generally lacking in presenting generalized trends.128 5 Figure 5. The minimum number of the dimensionless groups needed to describe the theoretical analysis. Case 1: Heat Source Moving over a SemiInfinite Solid (Fig. 2. 5.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 143 1.20) This problem is used to check the validity of the modeling approach since an analytical solution by Blok [S] and Jaeger [6] is available for this case. The derived equation for the maximum rise in surface temperature is obtained by using a series approximation as: Ts . The physical interpretation of these groups and their most appropriate forms. .
.144 Chapter 5 where Ts= maximum surface temperature TB = bulk temperature A dimensional analysis is carried out by using the n theorem [24. (5. The equation of this line can be expressed as: (5. Case 2: Sliding/Rolling D y Contacts (see Fig. 5.Peclet number k The log/log plot of the computed data showed a straight line correlation between the two dimensionless number in Eq. as a function of Peclet number. Realizing the fact that the heat input to each material element inside the temperature field is balanced by both conductive and convective modes of heat transfer. can be derived as: where pc UL .21) r The maximum temperatures on the contacting surfaces can be developed from Eq. 251 to obtain adequate dimensionless groups for this example.7) which is in general agreement with the analytically derived relationship.6). The differences in the constant can be attributed to the numerical approximation in the computer model. (5.7) as: . it can be concluded that: The final form of the dimensionless equation.
Eq.22) In this case. therefore.Thermal Considerations in Tribology I45 Figure 5.03 determined from the developed program. Case 3: Heat Source with a Hertzian Distribution Moving over a Layered SemiInfinite Solid (Fig. (5. Tsl = Ts2 in this case.10) and accordingly: (5.21 Two cylinders under dry sliding condition.12) can be rewritten as: . The contact in Blok's equation is determined analytically as 1.1 1) Blok [2] derived an identical equation for the flash temperature.1 1 instead of 1. the heat partition coefficient a can be calculated for equal bulk temperatures as: a= 1 (5. the relationship for the maximum rise in the solid surface temperature can be obtained using the 7t theorem as: By using the value of the penetration depth D in the solid at the trailing edge [26]. 5.
Similarly.22 Layered semiinfinite solid moving under a stationary heat source. the maximum rise in the surface layer temperature is derived as: or by using the penetration depth concept: where D= = temperature penetration depth at the trailing edge 1 UhipocO k0 “=5= required entry distance for temperature penetration across the film .I46 Chapter 5 L U  Figur 5.
It represents two rollinglsliding cylinders having different radii. thermal properties. Experiments demonstrated that typical lubricants exhibit liquidsolid transitions in elastohydrodynamic contacts [4] and that this transition depends on both pressure and temperature. heavily loaded sliding/rollingcylinder. the magnitude of w is approxiamtely 0. the assumption that the lubricant behaves as Newtonian liquid is not valid. Because the lubricant is subjected to extremely high pressures and shear stresses. which are separated by lubricant film thickness h. In order to simplify the derivation of dimensionless equations for this case.23. This region ranges between 0. .1 and 0.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 147 Tso = maximum rise in the solid surface temperatue for unlayered semiinfinite solids for the same heat input Ts = maximum rise in the solid surface temperature for unlayered semiinfinite solids for the same heat input Case 4: Lubricated Rolling/Sliding Contacts The temperature distribution and heat partition in heavily loaded lubricated contacts is not yet fully understood due to the illdefined boundary conditions and the modeling complexities in the problem. The heat source depth w in the model represents the liquid region where the lubricant undergoes a high shear rate. and bulk temperatures. a number of dimensionless equations are derived for predicting both the maximum film temperature and the heat partition between the contacting solids. The model to be analyzed is shown in Fig. In this part of the work. which only act for a very short time. At moderate to high sliding speeds.23 Lubricated. lh. 5.4h. w is initially assumed to be equal to zero. Now Figure 5.
therefore: (5.. then the lower one receives (1 .13). let: where B. the heat generation zone in Fig.. In the practical range of different material combinations and bulk temperature difference.14) .12) and (5.013 2. 5. = 1.9).3). Since the maximum temperature rise inside the heat generation zone is the same for the two layered semiinfinite solids.e 1. let: and 71 ' 0 = To2. (5.003 (5. we can assume that: By assuming that the amount of heat flowing to the upper semiinfinite layered solid is aq.a)q. which represents two layered cylinders rubbing against each other. 5. (5.14. by referring to Fig.) e) 0.23 is assumed to be at the center of the film.14 Ulplclh ko (T) 0. Accordingly. then according to Eq.013 exp 900 x 106 Similarly: and from Eq.148 Chapter 5 the partition of heat in lubricated rollinglsliding contacts can be predicted by using Eqs (5.
19) and from Eqs (5.15) to get: Y1 = 44 . . (5.15) (5. Because the maximum rise in the solid surface temperature is controlled by the amount of heat flow. is derived without incorporating the influence of the heat source depth 12' and the percentage of heat flow into the semiinfinite layered solid. the actual amount of heat flowing to each solid surface is expected to be slightly modified by the lubricant film or surface layer existence.20) The maximum surface layer temperature in this model.16) But from Eq.14) gives the percentage of heat flowing to the upper layered semiinfinite solid. Eq.13). the percentage of heat flowing to the lower solid is y 2 (A2 = ( I a).Thermal Considerations in Tribology 149 Equation (5. (5.c2) A2 (5..18) where and The percentage of heat flowing to the upper solid can be predicted by substituting Eq.12): and (5. (5.16) and (5.18).3) we have: TSOl = T I = Y14.17) into Eq.c1) AI (5. (5. However. then from Eq. (5.AI B Ts02 = TR2 = Y29rA2 (5.
Film Thickness The numerical solution for the minimum film thickness in elastochydrodynamic lubrication for compressible. = effective modulus of elasticity at. can be derived by modifying Eq.21) where Tol = T3. where E.P P = pressure q = lubricant viscosity W O Dimensionless load parameter PO = E. = effective radius qo = viscosity at atmospheric pressure E. Dimensionless materials parameter Go = a .150 Chapter 5 Therefore. unlayered.A I + a4. .13) to the following form: Tot . smooth.5 (31  (5.B1exp[0. R. the maximum film temperature in elastohydrodynamic lubrication. isothermal. and fully flooded cylinders by a Newtonian lubricant was discussed by Hamrock and Jacobson [27]. The equation used for the minimum film thickness in a dimensionless form is written as: The dimensionless groups can be defined as follows: h Dimensionless film thickness Hmin= Re rlo U R Dimensionless speed parameter U. =  where U R = rolling velocity R.T .B1 = a4.= pressure viscosity coefficient of lubricant v = rloea. (5.
788 (5. thermal effects are expected to have a strong influence on the minimum film thickness.23) and let: (5. Case 5: Parabolic Heat Source Moving on a Metallic SemiInfinite Solid with LowConductivity Surface Layer The dimensional analysis approach is also used in developing the following dimensionless equations for maximum solid and surface layer temperatures.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 151 Since viscosity is strongly influenced by temperature. to a thinner lubricant film. The modification proposed by Wilson and Sheu [28] can be used for a correction factor for the minimum film thickness by considering the thermal build up at the entrance of the contact zone. 291.23) then: (5. The viscosity at atmospheric pressure.13).12) and (5. A higher average bulk temperature leads to a lower viscosity and consequently. Some work has been devoted to avoid this problem by using different cooling techniques [22. Under extreme conditions.24a) then: (5. Let: 0. qo.24b) All the variables in Eqs (5. However. each set of these equations is valid only for a certain range of thermal properties and surface film thickness. this may result in severe interaction between the rubbing solids. is based on the average bulk temperatures of the mating solid surfaces. and the above equations have identical definitions. .
01 5 l? 5 0. SemiInfinite Solid with a Metallic Surface layer By using the same previous procedure. .CB 4 1 (5.Ts = .152 Chapter 5 Case 6: Parabolic Heat Source Moving on a LowConductivity.627 (5.23b)(5. the following equations are derived for this case.26a) then: To .5 0. The speed range is 500 < U < 2000in.05 5 .25b) and let: (5.26b) Equations (5. The limits of the contact zone width are 0.5 20 k0 k Case 6: 0.25a) then: (5.26b) are valid for the following range of operating conditions and thermal properties: 1.2 k0 where ko = conductivity of commonly used metallic solids 2. 3. Let: 0. The conductivity ratio which can be applied for each case is: k Case 5: 5 5 .1 in./sec.
3 1) The subscripts for each variable refer to the thermal properties and surface layer thickness of the indicated layered solid in Fig. as identified in Table 5.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 153 4.1. 5.24. Table 5. The resulting equations are given as follows: a= A1 +ZI + A 2 + Z 2 (" qt TB1 + A2 + B 2 ) (5.1 Contacts Different Combinations of Thermal Properties for Layered Dry ~~~~~ Combination of thermal properties for the lower layered solid Case 5 Combination of thermal properties for the upper layered solid Case 5 Case 6 Case 6 . The film thickness limits are given by 50 x 106 5 h 5 200 x Io .30a) (5.27) (5. The range of pc covers all the commonly used materials.30b) (5. Case 7: Dry Layered Contacts The equations derived in Cases 5 and 6 are utilized to develop dimensionless equations for heat partition and maximum temperatures for four different combinations of thermal properties for contacting solids with surface layers. 5.~ in.28) (5.29) (5.
Figure 5. as compared to the faster solid if there is a film with low thermal conductivity.154 Chapter 5 Fiaure 5. However. Several cases are investigated from Table 5.. The slower surface has a higher Tma. Numerical ResuIts Sample conditions are considered to illustrate the results obtained from the dimensionless equations. On one hand. a thick lubricant film prevents the solids interaction. whereas the lubricated contacts show a considerable dependence on this ratio. almost remains constant for different slide/roll ratios. the faster and the slower solid surfaces have equal temperatures because there is no reason for a temperature jump across the interface. for different slide/roll ratios./q. It can be seen that the film existence would result in a closer heat partition between the two solid surfaces. the slower solid has a longer residence time [ / U under the heat source as compared to the faster solid. a higher maximum solid surface temprature. A direct proportionality can be seen with a con .24 Two rubbing layered cylinders under dry sliding conditions. In the case of dry contacts and constant rolling speed./q.26 shows a case illustration of the relationships between maximum temperature rise for both lubricant film and solid surfaces and the maximum Hertz pressure.1 to show various effects for some operating variables on temperature and heat partition. such as oil. therefore. Figure 5. it changes the heat partition in an unfavorable manner. T m a x / q . For dry unlayered contacts. On the other hand. Both denisty and specific heat for all the solid materials in the following examples are assumed to be identical to the corresponding steel properties. separating the two solids.25 shows the variation of Tm. which eliminates both mechanical and thermal loads between asperities and reduces the friction coefficient.
This phenomenon could be explained by the cooling mechanism in the contact zone by a shallow region near the surface....o siderable difference between the film and solid temperatures..Lubrlcated....both 80lid .27 also demonstrates the possibilities for equalizing the heat partition between the moving solids by controlling both thermal properties and thicknesses of surface layers. =h02 + ho1 2 The latter is kept constant to show the main influence of the difference in surface layer thicknesses. It can be seen from the figure that the heat partition is highly dependent on the ratio Hd/H.0075 ....faster 80lld ....Dry ..... 0  4 0  0.0055   0 0  * ..__.Oo60 ...  0.....27 represents the case of a metallic solid with an insulative surface layer in contact with another layered solid having an opposite combination of thermal properties.*. where H = h2 hol d and H....d 0 W r solid 8UrfaGW I I I I I I 5 & \ 1 p' I  0.. Figure 5.2 I I 1 I 0..0065 0 0 # 0 0 0 0 c 0 *0 i O.=.. 77. ____..0 0...0050 I 0...28 shows the variation in the maximum temperature rise in the contact zone and the solid surfaces with respect to H d / H a w ..Lubricated....... Figure 5.....4 I I I I 0..6 I I 0. I 1..Oo80 I 155 I I 0.. Figure 5...Thermal Considerations in Tribology O.8 I I ...... The contact . which mainly incorporates the layer thickness. Negligible sliding is assumed in this case.0070  q = ~in/in*s frictional power intensity = Tr'F 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 / 0 A 0 0 0 0 0  # 0 0 0 0.. The existence of surface layers strongly deviated the heat partition from the dry sliding condition.....
5 = 1. Figure 5. = K * = K I ~ H. ~ ..I . rolling velocity = 400 in. ~ ' 0.o 0. 14 16 18 20 (10 psi) ' Maximum temperature rise versus maximum pressure for 50% sliding (steeloilsteel. = ~ o in.27 Heat partition versus Hd/H. K ~ = K K ~~~ .. SlowerSurface Fader Surface 8 10 12 P .5 0...3 1 ..o 2000 in.. Figure 5. R I = R2 = 1 in.4 0... .Film I I I I I I I I 1 1 .26 0.). ./sec. . .02 in...0 H H a ./sec.). (rolling velocity 1=.
0080 IS 7 A E E d z 0. Although the problem of layered surfaces is appropriately modeled in the developed finite difference program. is applicable to all metallic solids.5 0.versus Hd/Hm(rolling speed K I = KO2..Kol = K2 = . therefore./sec. This can be attributed to the fact that convection is not important in this case. I K 1 . D 1 k l . zone temperature is almost identical to the solid surface temperature.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 0.o H*'H. The difference between the maximum film and surface temperatures is also controlled by the lubricant film thickness and its conductivity. It is interesting to note that the maximum temperature rise for each moving solid is directly proportional to the heat partition coefficient. Figure 5.). D 2 / k 2 .5 1. = 104 in. Ha.0033 0 .28 Tmax/q.o 0. an evaluation of the effect of the different system parameters on the temperature distribution would be extremely difficult. which has been derived for steadystate conditions. It was..and / the total heat flux. = 2000 in. It can be deduced from this equation that the deviation in heat partition from that calculated by Jaeger and Blok is highly influenced by the conductivity and thickness of the lubricant film.0057 > 0. y2. 1 = . which carries the conductive surface layer.02 in. the ratio of the trailing edge penetration depth to thermal conductivity. The generalized equation for heat partition in lubricated line contact problems. The existence of the lubricant film tends to equalize heat partition between the rolling/sliding solids independent of their thermal properties and surface speeds. M)l O 1 . / l . q . imperative to limit the parametric analysis .0 0. y l .
“Role of Chemistry in the Lubrication of Concentrated Contacts. H. 2. 1009. k o l . N.I58 Chapter 5 to single layered solids for two specific regimens of thermal properties. H. width of contact and operating speeds.” International Conference on the Fundamentals of Tribology. the slide/roll ratio has a significant influence on the maximum temperature. Suh. k2. It can also be seen that with the above combination of properties it is possible to attain equal heat partition by proper selection of the layer thicknesses (at Hd/Have = 0. there is a signficant deviation of the partition from the unlayered case.. Ku. 1978. .28). 103. Lubr. p. P. T. NASA SP237. with an insulative surface layer. Vol. Cambridge. MIT Press. increasing the thickness slightly decreases the maximum solid surface temperatures and increases the maximum surface layer temperatures. layer thicknesses. contacting an insulative solid.. 2. 153. 5. Blok. The maximum temperature for the conductive solid with insulative layer is significantly lower than the interface temperature. Technol. The following can be concluded from the dimensionless equations developed for the considered cases: 1. S. p. “Fundamentals of Elastohydrodynamic Contact Phenomena. “The Postulate About the Constancy of Scoring Temperature.325 in this case). the maximum contact temperature is approximately equal to the maximum temperature in the insulative solid with conductive layer for all thickness ratios (Fig. 1970. k02. MA. M. increasing the thickness decreases the maximum surface tempratures for both the solid and the surface layers. 5. with conductive layer.. 3. 4.” Interdisciplinary Approach to the Lubrication of Concentrated Contacts. Sakurai. Ed. N.. 3. For conductive surface layers with equal thicknesses. For conductive surface layers. REFERENCES 1. while for insulative surface layers.. the slide/roll ratio has little influence on the maximum solid surface temperatures.” ASME J . Cheng. as shown in Fig. k l . 473. 1981. For insulative surface layers with equal thicknesses. For the above case. and Saka. The surface temperature of the solid decreases with increasing conductivity of the layers and their thickness due to the convection influence under such conditions.. p.27. For a conductive solid. 5.. Eds. assuming that k l = k02 and k2 = k o l .
1978. 1981. Georges. 222. p. Tonck. B. 18.. Blair. Harline. O. 13. MA. Soc. p. R. Eds. C. Series D. 14. 293.” ASME J.” ASME J. p. 26(3). Blok.. Mech. F. W. p. G .. Shaw. Technol. N. Vol. N.. J. 103. and Film Thickness Between Two Infinitely Long. S. M. 643. “Chemical Films and Mixed Lubrication. O. 405. D.. 87... New York. M. Technol. Lubricated Rolling and Sliding Cylinders under Heavy Loads. Engrs. 41..” Int. Disc. p. 1984.Thermal Considerations in Tribology 159 4. F. A. A. S . and Cameron. H.” Int. Torti. “Moving Sources of Heat and the Temperature at Sliding contacts. Inst. 5. “The Division of Frictional Heat ... 9. 1942. Vol. Meille. Vol. and Saka. 177. MIT Press. N. Ser. Alsaad. L. Vol. p. “High Performance Ceramics for Heat Engine Applications. 56.W. 180.. and Arvidson.” ASME J.. Lubr.... Hannoosh. p. 100. 605. p. Suh. 1982. “Glass Transitions in Lubricants: Its Relation to EHD Lubrication. NY. Cambridge. Vol. “Theoretical Study of Temperature Rise at Surfaces of Actual Contact Under Oiliness Lubricating Conditions. and Whitaker. H. 6. 1. Lubrication. Wiley..” Proc.. S. M. “Wear Prevention.... Tribol. and Winer. Inst. Vol. Vol. and Surface Temperatures in Spur Gears. 2. 695. G. Conry. P. Pt. 16. Conf. p. c. Cambridge. Des. Vol. A.” Proc. 17. J. 19. 7.” International Conf.. and Saka. N. D.S. 12. M.. “Wear Mechanisms in Metal Processing. “A Numerical Solution for the Pressure. Sanborn. K. 103. M... Engrs. J. N. Pt.. p.. Jaeger. 3. . Eds. Mech. MA. on the Fundamentals of Tribology. 1978.” J. 1981. ASLE. Vol. Y. Gen. Conf. Berry. Basic Eng. S. Cheng. Suh. “A Numerical Solution to the Dynamic Load. MA.. Part 1 Analysis. G.. V. Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 203.. Poon. J... 10.. 404. Knotek. Sci. 619. Manton. 1965. “A Numerical Procedure for the Solution of the Elastohydrodynamic Problem of Rolling and Sliding Contacts Lubricated by a Newtonian Fluid. Surface Mechanics. 813.. Cambridge. Lubr.” ASME J.. and Cheng... S. 19671 968. p. 1969. Temperature. and Sternlicht. 1965. 106. 57.. A. D. Eds.. p. Ling. MIT Press. 84GT92. p. Roy. 1978.. “Thermomechanical Effects on Sliding Wear. 1937. on the Fundamentals of Tribology. and Belin. Eng. Pt.” Trans.. 11. H. I1(6). 1978. B.... L. 1983. A. 15. 533. J. 8. MIT Press.” Proc. Film Thickness. D... N. “Role of Surface Degradation Film on the Tractive Behavior in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contact.. and Barber. No.. J. and Saka. S. p. Vol. 927.” Proc. Dowson. M. N. M. 1984. “Temperatures at Lubricated Rolling/sliding Contacts. R. Wang.A guide to the Nature of Sliding Contact. O’Donoghue. T. Burton. F. 1973.. Mech. Mech..” ASME J.” AMSE Preprint No. Suh. “Thermal Effects on Traction in EHD Lubrication.. B. on the Fundamentals of Tribology.
” ASME J.. and Seireg... E. and Jacobson. Reading... B.” ASME J. 1966. Hamrock. 23. Conduction Heat Transfir. . “Thermal and Chemical Effects in Boundary Lubrication. p. “A Review of Temperature Measurements in EHD Contacts. Part I : Theoretical Model. Lubr. Experimental Modeling in Engineering.. S. 27. July 1987... Lubr. and Sheu. 28. p. 21. 1978. M. J. Technol. Arpaci. 125.. p.” 5th LeedsLyon Symposium. W. 98.. E. Townsend. Vol. David. D. 474.. A. 24. and Akin. 1983. Suzuki. Butterworths. A. B. E. Oxford University Press. Part 2: Dimensionless Relationships. Vol.” Lubrication Challenges in Metalworking and Processing... W. W. “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Line Contacts.160 Chapter S 20. 1981. S. ASME J.. Tribol. 1984. Taylor.. AddisonWesley. “Analytical and Experimental Spur Gear Tooth Temperature as Affected by Operating Variables. Inst..R. Klaus. 496... England.. P. and Seireg. 26. Vol. 1974.. Lubr. England.. “Effect on Inlet Shear Heating Due to Sliding on Elastohydrodynamic Film Thickness. F.” ASME J. London. 1978. 1974. S. 109. IIT Res. 22. L. 29. “Heat Partition and Transient Temperature Distribution in Layered Concentrated Contacts. “An Experimental Investigation of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Having Annular Rollers. H. Conf. 538. 275. S. Technol. A.. O. 25. p.” ASLE Trans. D. 1 st Int. 103. p. 187. Rashid. June. Technol. Vol. MA.. p. Wilson. and Nolle. Vol. 1976. p. V. Dimensional Analysis for Engineers. London. O. Winer. 105. 219. 27. Proc.
the equilibrium of the fluid element (Fig.2) in the x. 6. Assuming isothermal.1.1 Hydrodynamic Equations The basic equation governing the behavior of the fluid film in the hydrodynamic case is Reynolds’ equation [I]. In such bearings a pressurized fluid film is formed with adequate thickness to prevent rubbing of the mating surfaces. pressure is developed within the bearing as a result of the relative motion between shaft and bearing.1. There are two main types of fluid film bearings: hydrostatic and hydrodynamic. 6. as illustrated in Fig 6.6 Design of Fluid Film Bearings 6.and zdirections and the continuity equation. which is formed to sustain the load. incompressible flow this equation is derived by consideration of the Newtonian shear velocity gradient relationship.1 HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNALBEARINGS Fluid film bearings are a common means of supporting rotating shafts in rotating machinery. Accordingly: 161 . The first type relies on an external source of energy to supply the lubricant with the necessary pressure. In the second type. The pressure is influenced by the geometry of the fluid wedge.
Assume the bearing to be long compared to its diameter. The latter determines the loadcarrying capacity of the bearing.162 Chapter 6 W Figure 6. This is generally known as the Sommerfeld bearing. In this case the change in pressure in the axial direction can be neglected compared to the change in the circumferential (x) direction.1 Bearing geometry. A closedform solution of Reynolds’ equation can be obtained with either of the following assumptions: 1. Accordingly: . where p = film pressure h = film thickness p = oil viscosity (assumed constant throughout the film) U = tangential velocity in the journal The solution of this equation for any eccentricity. would result in expressions for the quantity of flow required. the frictional power loss and the pressure distribution in the oil film. e.
Design of Fluid F l Bearings im Y 163 2 dy dr s d x dy dz =dx ay de ax dy d t Figure 6. 6. and Eq.1) reduces to: Referring to Fig. (6.2 Equilibrium of fluid element in the xdirection.1 with the condition: p=pmax at h = hl .
respectively .5) can be rewritten in terms of a dimensionless number. P =journal rotational speed and average pressure.4) (6. called the Sommerfeld number: S= (2 + 12dE so that s = pUL where ()*= R nW c R 'p pN N . S.164 Chapter 6 and p=po at 8=0 and 8=2n Equation (6.E * ) 2 E2 6p U R E sin 8(2 + E cos 0) c* ((2 &2)(1 E C O S O ) hi = + (6.2) can be integrated to yield: 2C(1 .3) !)=PO+ + + (6.5) 12XE F PLU (s)R 4n(l 2 ~ ~ ) 2+&2Jiz2 + where W = bearing load F = tangential load h. = film thickness at peak pressure C = radial clearance R = radius of the bearing E = C = eccentricity ratio 8 = angle measured from negative direction of xaxis (rads) Equation (6.
Accordingly.1 1) can be rewritten in terms of the Sommerfeld number.E 2 y = m.E ~ ) +1 6 ~ ~ (6. The flow in the axial ( 2 ) direction is assumed to be considerably greater than that in the circumferential direction.13) where 4 = attitude angle between the load line and the line of enters D =journal diameter Equation (6.14) .9) yields: (1 + E COS q3 &dx2(1 * ) + 16c2 E 2n (2 $) (6./z2(1.11) pULR F = ( 7 )  (6. The analysis of this case is called the short bearing approximation. Reynolds' equation reduces to (6.as: '(i) 2 (1 .Design of Fluid Film Bearings 165 2. The bearing length is small compared to its diameter.10) (6. (6.9) with the boundary conditions: p=O at z= L 2 where L = bearing length The solution of Eq. S.12) (6.
1. The numerical results of Raimondi and Boyd [24] are among the most widely known. based on these charts.36. The equations are utilized in the automated design system described later in this chapter.01 0. I). . Their data are presented in the form of design charts with Sommerfeld number as the main parameter. .7. Accordingly.9 Minimum film thickness. is developed by approximate curve fitting. bearing behavior can be calculated for any given geometry and boundary conditions. The numerical solutions are based on the assumption of an isoviscous film independent of pressure and temperature variations. The bearing performance charts of Raimondi and Boyd are given in Figs 6. The film viscosity is calculated at the mean temperature in the bearing.01 .1 1 Sommerfeld Number.1.2 Numerical Solution The development of highspeed computers made it possible to obtain numerical solutions for Reynolds’ equation (6. I L I A 0. 6. S Figure 6. These equations are: 0. .166 Chapter 6 6.3 Equations for Predicting Bearing Performance A system of equations.
Q/(RNCL) . I 1 1 . . F= f x (Wc) b I 0L 0 . .Volume Flow Variable. Friction Coefficient.. .
6 Peak pressure. .1 1 Sommerfeld Number.7 Temperature variable.168 Chapter 6 Sommerfeld Number. S Figure 6.01 I I 0. S Figure 6. J = Joule'r equivalent of heat t 1 0.
. 2.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 169 1. 2.1.0.2.
4 Whirl and Stability Considerations The whirl of rotors supported on fluid films is of considerable practical importance and it is no surprise that it has been the subject of numerous investigations.) I.) e =journal eccentricity (in...) L = bearing length (in. ~ / s e c ) R =journal radius (in.) f = coefficient of friction ho = minimum film thickness (in. = P 6.. The safety during the transient startup phase has to be also .170 Chapter 6 The following notation is used in the analysis: C = radial clearance (in..1. = maximum oil film temperature ( O F ) At = oil temperature rise ( O F ) W = bearing load (Ib) p = lubricant average viscosity (reyn) 4 = attitude angle Dimensionless groups: f c =frictional variable R RNCL .) D =journal diameter (in. = maximum oil film pressure (lb/in.2) .= length to diameter ratio L D S = Sommerfeld no. The designer is generally interested in predicting beforehand not only the stability of the rotor operation but the expected peak amplitude of whirl orbit at a given operating speed resulting from a particular amount of unbalance.2) P. Q = quantity of oil fed to bearing ( i ~ ~ .oil flow variable Q .) N =journal rotational speed (rps) P = bearing average pressure (lb/in.
90: p(a) = 6 . clearance. condition for the onset of bearing instability according to the relationship plotted in the figure. A simplified stability criterion. 0 W v) z 0. where M = rotor mass per bearing C = radial clearance w =journal rotational speed (rad/sec) W = bearing load Mathematical expressions describing the limits of journal stability as a function p of CT can be derived from Fig. CJ 5 0. 6. and rotor startup. determines the ~. M C w 2 / W . Response spectra were obtained to illustrate the trend of the influence of the magnitude of unbalance. A study by Seireg and Dandage [13] utilized the phaseplane method to simulate the dynamics of an unbalanced rotor supported by an isoviscous film. ~ ' ' ~ ~ 3.8 MODIFIED SOMMERFELO N O . A modified Sommerfeld number. 0. average film viscosity. .5 The Effect of Rotor Unbalance on Whirl Amplitude and Stability It is well known that rotor unbalance can have significant effect on whirl and stability.90: p(a) = 7. 0 Stability criterion (a = X S ( L / D ) ~ ) .65 6. Some of the excellent contributions to the analysis of this problem and related bibliographies can be found in Refs 512.28 5 CJ 5 2.1. is also given in Fig. I I. acceleration on the whirl amplitudes. 6. ~ ~ ) 2. CJ > 2. CT = Y T S ( L / D )and a dimensionless rotor mass. speed.Design of Fluid Film Bearings I71 insured.o 1 0 100 I 0 Figure 6. load.8.8 as: 1.28: ~ ( c T= 3 / 0 ' . based on an analysis by Lund and Saibel [Ill. 8 8 0 .
are given in the following. CYy.sin(wt + 4) in the transient phase do dt F.0.5 5 LID 5 1..C.5979 K.9335s + 1 1. = rnrw2sin(wt + 4) during the constant speed operation = mrw2sin(ot where rn = rotor mas per bearing mr = amount of unbalance w = rotating speed 4 = phase angle between the unbalance force and the movement of the center of mass of the rotor in the xdirection Expressions for calculating the stiffness and damping coefficients k..C. and C.2198S(L’D’ .ry = 2.6940S2 .4816 + 1.16.37 I3+0. = mrw2cos(ot + 4) during the constant speed operation dw + 4 + rnr .7006 .501 (g) (g) . 14 as a function of S ..3368s + 2.172 Chapter 6 The equations of motion for the rotor under consideration from the steadystate position can be written as: which represents a system of coupled nonlinear secondorder equations in which: er= force due to the unbalance in the xdirection = rnrw’ cos(wt + 4) .r = 0.. They are derived k.1927(L/D) 0.cos(ot + 4) in the transient phase dt F.15: K..I.8863+0. which is evaluated at any instant from the instantaneous eccentricity ratio. by approximate curve fitting from Ref.vy. S 5 0. Stiffness Coefficients 0.mr .v.0181 ~0.. k.r= 0..1476(~/~) K.2 I27 s0..rx.. k.r.0.v.
2669s + 0.49540.15 5 S 5 1: (i) (g) 0.053S2 .290s + 1.4.8 179+0.v = 4.74 . = 1.x 1.0.4891 + 1.15 < S 5 1.4387+0.) 0.6257+0.0756S2+ 2.72S 0.7 I 52+O.4007(L/D) 0.2356 .5181 0.70S2 +43.2674 s0.1897($) = Ky.38.9165($) 0.2202(.47 I7(L/ D) K.x.9395S(L/D) K.vy = 1.53 + 13.12..3413s + 0.6746 K..u)53(LID) + 3.0498 S 5 0.9980s .1251 s0.12.31450.1.1.469I(L/D) s0.277I(L/D) s 2 1.2224s .0: K~vx 2.63s .3236 ~0.0: 0..4333 .26.8848s .Design of Fluid F l Bearings im I 73 Kyy = 2.272s Kyy = 2..v = 16. = 12. I794 ~0.1442 .6076 K.5584+ 1.6.50: s0.3258 .1515(:) Ky.0131(LID) .6357(L/D) K.2133S2 + 0.2120 = 1.3436s 9. = 8.10.
865 .21s .24 .50: + Kyy = 3. = 7.5053 $4. ~ 6 7 5 ( ~ ) ) 8. = 3. = 26. 4 7 3 ( ~.88 + 537.2702(:) 0.872 =z 0.mS(t/D) s > 1.0934S2 + Cy.) .402 .1903($) 0.3 2 .8 173(L/D) K.46S2 + 739.19.1647S6S+ 7078.995s(L/D’ S 2 0.* 2.964W2.945S2 + 17.4768s + 0.77s .5..62S + 2327.43 i .. = 27.( 8) .2M892S + 833.201 == + .865S2 c]v4.06S2+ 337.~ 9 .18.3860 9.0: K .0.0.~ . ~ 8 7 0 ( ~ ) . S 5 0.3994(L/D) Damping Coefficients 0.28S2 + 353..I 74 Chapter 6 KY.9.59 + 27.0.9723(L/D) 92659+0.72445 + 10.102s C.28.027 + ~ 0 .1 I + 30. = f . 7 1 0 .404S2+ ~9. = 1. = 8..1.5 5 LID 5 1.18130.02D Cyv == 22.7126 ~ .05 < 5’ 5 0.793S+ ) + . 0 8 3 ( ~. .25: C.22.34(.92 .201s et:.1 IS($) 1y?..) + 55.039S2 .317(.223S2 + .05: C.00s + 2329. = 1.4507 S0~2406+0.090 Cry =z 21. 1344S2 + 13.672.6125 .4171 ($) 0.705.1.8 199+0.y I .587 .5.
089S2 + Cy.1685S($) .348 .59s .28.) Cyx= 4.298 Cx. ’ 3 60.004S2 + 1. = 0.50.16.10: C.0677 Cyy= 10.044S2+ 43.21. = 45.14.58 .0.185s + Cy.357 .70 .084s s > 1.6.204s .414 + 1.1.71 1 4 5 7+ s s 63.060s 0.57.77 0.87.7..6 .0.534s Cyy= 1.93s C.0.852 + 2.867.6852s + 0.18S .250 .035 .894S2 + 63.25 5 L j D < 0.2.506s .109(.0.0: C.134s.0.791S2 + 61.25 < S 5 1.0.646 Cxy= 1..x 5..2.059 .2943+ 3..Design o Fluid Film Bearings f I75 0...0.785 Cy.027S2 .117 +472.013 .521S2+ 19.641 . S 5 0. = 6..10 < s 5 1.341s .6523 .220.25. = 4.8367S2 + 6. = 151.391s +0.0.0.2353.892s .424 .) Cxy= 9.353+ 1.272 .94S2 + 59.0.9817S(L/D) + 3.576S2 + 10.560 = + 5.OOO .339 Cxy= 8.11.376S+0.= 0.2.10.4619 Cyy= 7.4168S2.4641 .15.233 .14.735 .803s .0240($) + 10.31S2 .105S2 + 5.05(.7.17.5.839s .Or C.5145s + 0. = 26..3214S2 .231s .534 .802s .363S2 + 44.OL C. = 0.019 0.
7.0007 Ibsec2(0 to 0.I76 Chapter 6 s > 1.T.447 illustrative Examples The equations of motion are numerically integrated for sample conditions in order to illustrate the dynamic behavior of the rotor for different values of the bearing design parameters.14.4. = 33.5 in. Unless otherwise specified.35 cm) c = radial clearance = 0.35cm) Unbalance mr = 0 to 0. 6. (To = 0).0: C.9). Speeds = 0 to 7000 rpm.v 4.. and time history of the eccentricity ratio are shown in figs 6. The phaseplane is used for the integration I131.5 in.872 = + 5.4 kg) L = bearing length = 2. (6.657 .1 1 are for a perfectly balanced rotor and very high startup acceleration. (0.047 C.0 16 cm) W = Mg = rotor weight = 100 Ib (45.0063 in. The results given in Figs 6.76 x 106 rens). = 5.000318 kgsec2) The oil used is SAE 10 at 150°F (65.96.36.5"C)average temperature (corresponding to an average viscosity of 1.96. In order to analyze the motion from the start of the rotation until the final uniform speed is reached. (6.5977 .. The first set is a Newtonian frame for the dynamic analysis.657 C.145 . The necessary transformations between the two frames are continuously performed throughout the simulation. If . Examples of typical computerplotted whirl orbits... It can be seen that at very low speeds. the following parameters for the bearing rotor system are used in the calculations: D = bearing diameter = 2. the balanced rotor gradually reaches steadystate equilibrium at a fixed eccentricity (Fig.. The second set is attached to the shaft and is used to define the film geometry and corresponding dynamic film characteristics at any instant. the startup velocity pattern can be incorporated in the integration.630 C. Two sets of coordinates are used in the analysis.= 3.
(b) Eccentricitytime plot for balanced rotor at 1000rpm.Design of Fluid Film Bearings I77 (b) 0.76 0.9 (a) Whirl orbit for balanced rotor at 1000 rpm.72 0.70 0. . 6 0.74 Eccentricity Ratio.78 Figure 6.
.32 0. I 15   1 : '6 10 5 : 5  b p   ' 0 0.. (b) Eccentricitytime plot at 5000 rpm.I7 8 Chapter 6 0... ....00 0....10 (a) Condition of minimum eccentricity for balanced rotor at 5000 rpm...........10 do 20 .10 0.40 Figure 6..28 0...38 0. E 0..6 Eccentricity Ratio.05 0...34 0 3 ...05 0.30 0.10 0.
.6 0.8 1.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 1 . 20  4 : f 15 e .o Eccentricity Ratio. . .11 ...4 0.2 0. ..... . (b) Eccentricitytime plot for balanced rotor at 6000 rpm. 0 ~ . Figure 6. I 79 . .0 0. s (a) Nonsynchronous whirl for balanced rotor at 6000 rpm.. po> a 5   0....
Isoeccentricity ratio lines are plotted from the steadystate orbits to illustrate the effect of speed and unbalance on the type and magnitude of the rotor vibration. Any increase in the speed beyond this value would produce limit cycle orbits (Fig. for this case. at a speed of 5000rpm (Fig. as shown in Fig. 6.15a. Although this curve is obtained with simplifying assumptions. A summary plot for these different orbit conditions as affected by the magnitude of unbalance is given in Fig. (0. Changes in the whirl conditions can be seen in Fig. at a speed of 6200rpm.0001 lbsec2 (0. These eccentricities generally occur during the transient phase before steadystate orbits are attained. 6. also. 6. Finally.0063in. A similar plot is given in Fig.180 Chapter 6 disturbed from that position. Also of interest is the sleeve contact curve. the orbit continues to increase until contact with the sleeve occurs (Fig. The results show that increasing the rotor weight from 45. with increasing amplitudes.16 illustrates the effect of increasing the rotor weight on the whirl. Higher rotor speeds beyond the minimum condition begin to produce nonsynchronous whirl with increasing maximum eccentricities (Fig.01 in.12.17. It is also interesting to note that there appears to be practically a constant speed range of approximately 1200 rpm between the minimum peak eccentricity condition and the sleeve contact conditions. 6. I t also significantly reduces the whirl amplitude. for the unbalanced rotor as illustrated in Figs 6. 6. the orbit becomes large enough to consume all the bearing clearance.126. the whirl orbit will gradually decay to the equilibrium point. The maximum eccentricity of the orbit decreases with increasing speed until a minimum condition is reached at a speed of 4900 rpm corresponding to this unbalance. At low speeds. Three different whirl conditions were found to occur.15a.1 l). when the bearing clearance is changed from 0. to 0.0000455kgsec2) and To = 0. The following results illustrate the influence of some of the main parameters on the rotor whilr. at a speed of 6 100 rpm.14 for an unbalance mr = 0. Both conditions impose a reduction on the corresponding speed as the magnitude of unbalance increases.15b for the peak eccentricity occurring during the rotor operation. Of particular interest is the minimum peak eccentricity locus shown in broken lines in Fig.10). 6. 6. 6.5kg to 142 kg increases the speed for the instability threshold. The minimum condition is reached. it serves to illustrate the expected trend for the upper speed limit of rotor operation. 6.14). producing contact between the shaft and the sleeve (neglecting the effect of large amplitudes and nearwall operation on the dynamic characteristics of the film). the unbalance produces synchronous whirl with relatively high maximum eccentricity.13).016 to . Finally. Figure 6.
.03 181 . .02 0..59 0.I.03 7 . .I. . f 6  5  0 4E : E  : 0.. . E 5  u 3  z : 2 1  f : 0.60 Figure 6.12 (a) Synchronous whirl for balanced rotor at 1750 rpm.02 0.. .00 XI0 0... ..01 0.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 0. .. ..03 0.... .57 0. 0.....56 0. * . .. (b) Eccentricitytime plot for unbalanced rotor at 1750 rpm. . .. ..03 0. .01 0. .. ...58 Eccentricity Ratio. ..
Figure 6. E (a) Nonsynchronous whirl for balanced rotor at 5500 rpm.2 s 0 0.3 0.5 Ecoontrlcity Ratio.182 Chapter 6 0.13 . (b) Eccentricitytime plot for unbalanced rotor at 5500 rpm.0 < 1 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.
. . .01. .2 0.. (b) Eccentricitytime plot for unbalanced rotor at 6100 rpm. . 6 Figure 6.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 1.0 xlo 0.4 0. 183 * . .. 1 0.o 15 f IR '0 10 a L 5 0 0..o EccentricityRatio.6 0.0 0. . ... I .5 1. .5 1.14 (a) Whirl of unbalanced rotor at sleeve contact condition (6100 rpm).5 0.0 0.8 1.
(b) Spectrum of transient peak eccentricity for unbalanced rotor.7 " .002 I 0.Oo30 l 5ooo P Y 0 0 v) 8 (b) O.c) I .0015 0.007 I mr (Ibm8q O.003 .oo00 O.8 n .004 0.005 I 0.0025 O.008 I 0.I c) n 1 n I n Y A I n 3.Oo30 kg8* Figure 6.c n O.m 0m 0. 0.0025 O.OMx1 O.0020 0.001 I 0.Oo0 l 0. 0.006 ~ 0.184 Chapter 6 n c) n Y Y n A I Y n Y .Oa20 ~ 0.oo(# 0.Oo0 ~ 0 0.1 5 (a) Spectrum of steadystate peak eccentricity for unbalanced rotor.0010 ~ 0.0015 l kw O.ooo5 l 0. .0010 0.005 .007 l ' l l WhS) O.004 I  0.001 ~ 0.
1 .000227 kgsec2).000227 k g d SbadyS1.EfmntrMyfor8.w= W 0 1 0.16 .2 142 ko 46. 1 . 1 . Figure 6. (b) Effects of rotor weight on amplitude of whirl (mr= 0.1. 1 .4 . 1 .Design of Fluid Film Bearings 185 w 0.kncrdRotor .0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 (a) Effect of rotor weight on steadystate peak eccentricity for different unbalanced magnitudes.  0.6 kg nu = 0.
2 0.4 0.8 0.186 Chapter 6 1.6 w 0. .o 0.0 Speed ( v m ) Figure 6.1 7 (a) Effect of clearance on steadystate peak eccentricity for different unbalanced magnitudes. (b) Effect of clearance on amplitude of whirl (mv = 0.000227 kgsec2).
6. occurs as the speed is increased beyond that condition. 6. (0. that improved rotor performance can be attained by increasing the load and reducing the clearance.17a shows that increasing the clearance causes a reduction in the instability threshold. with increasing amplitudes and eventual instability or rotor sleeve contact.0 16cm). Nonsynchronous whirl. Although a relatively simple model is used in this study. increasing the average film temperature from 373°C to 94°C resulted in a considerable reduction in the threshold speed.15a gives a complete view of the nature of the rotor whirl as affected by the speed and the unbalance magnitude. W = 1000 lbf = 455 kg and C = 0. In the first example. 6.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 187 0. It should be noted here that results associated with large whirl amplitudes and those near bearing walls represent qualitative trends rather than accurate evaluation of the whirl in view of the assumptions made. the second example.5 kg).2 6. as well as an increase in the whirl amplitude (Fig. as expected. the technique can be readily adapted to the analysis of more complex rotor systems and film properties.000227 kgsec2 unbalance.016 cm. C = 0. Of particular interest is the existence of a rotational speed for any particular unbalance where the peak eccentricity is minimal.18a). Figure 6. The case of a rigid rotor on an isoviscous film considered in this illustration provided a relatively simple model to approximately investigate the effect of rotor unbalance and film properties on the rotor whirl. shows little effect on the actual whirl orbit amplitude due to the clearance change with 0. The developed response spectrum shown in Fig.1 DESIGN SYSTEMS Procedure Based on Design Graphs This is an illustration of graphaided design for journal bearings.17b on the other hand.0063 in.18b).18. with W = lOOlb (45. and mr = 0. Increasing the average film temperature showed that an increase or a reduction in the whirl amplitude may occur depending on the particular system parameters.005 lbsec2 (0. Two opposite effects of changing the average film temperature are shown in Fig. Figure 6.0254 cm). shows that considerable reductions in the whirl amplitude resulted from the same increase in the average film temperature (Fig. Investigation of the influence of system parameters on whirl for the considered cases showed. 6.2. 6. The graphs are constructed in such a manner as to enable the designers to .000227 kgsec2). On the other hand.
. Figure 6.188 1.8 0.18 Effect of average film temperature on rotor whirl: (a) W = 45.6 w 0.5 kg.4 0.o Chapter 6 0.0 (b) W = 455 kg.2 0.
. which meet their objective with a minimum of calculations. load W . the main parameters influencing the bearing behavior were divided into two groups. Ud = 0.Design of Fluid F l Bearings im 189 select the bearing parameters. C). calculating the Sommerfeld number and the corresponding A T .25 4E6 f a 3E6 3. Such plots are based on the numerical results of Raymondi and Boyd [ 2 4 ] and are shown in Figs 6.5 .196. 2E6 1E6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT ( O F ) Figure 6. lengthtodiameter ratio. K = ( R / C ) 2 N . t / D . Because many types of oil can be used in the same bearing.Ud 0. P=lOOpsi ___ 9E6 8E6 7E6 6E6 5E6 n Ud I1. They are constructed by assuming the average viscosity. versus average viscosity for a bearing with a known characteristic number.0 ... The first deals with the bearing geometry ( L . The second deals with the oil. and its temperatureviscosity characteristics.22 for average pressure values of 100.D . The bearing graphs represent a plot of temperature rise. . Af... and average pressure P.. R. In constructing the graphs.... the basic approach in the design graphs given here is to construct separate graphs for the different bearings and oils. and speed N .19 Bearing chart for P = 1oOpsi.
.2s 5E6 a 3E6 2E6 1E6 0 20 4 0 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT (OF) Figure 6.5 .20 Bearing chart for P = 500 psi.P = SO0 p 1 . .. Ud m 0... 9E6 8E6 7E6 6E6 5E6 2E6 1E6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT (OF) Figure 621 Bearing chart for P = 1OOOpsi. 9E6 8E6 7E6 6E6 Udml.O ud 10.
respectively. Figures 6. (6. As can be seen from Eq. load. a characteristic number.25 represent such plots for SAE 10.22 (OF) Bearing chart for P = 2000psi.25. can be readily calculated. That is: K =S(F) . this number represents the Sommerfeld number for a particular value of viscosity and average pressure. and 1. respectively. 4E6  3E6 2E6 1E 6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT Figure 6. and 30 oils. The lengthtodiameter ratios LID considered are 0.8). 1000. 20.50. These graphs give a convenient means of analysis.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 191 7E6 6E6 5E6 8E6 n 9E6 s? 3. 500. and speed. K = ( R / C ) 2 N . and 2000 psi. The graphs for the lubricants represent the change of average viscosity with temperature rise for any particular initial temperature. Analysis Procedure For a bearing with a given geometry. as explained in the following section.236. 0. as well as the design of bearings.0.
(OF) . 2E6 1E6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT Figure 6.23 9E6 8E6 7E6 6E6 5E6 (OF) SAE 10 oil chart. = 40 170 O F  5E6 4E6 n r) 5 3E6 Y e =L 2E6 1E6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT Figure 6. 4E6 n (D U t 3E6 3.9E6 8E6 7E6 6E6 SAE 10 t.24 SAE 20 oil chart.
25 (OF) SAE 30 oil chart. the oil graph (which represents average viscosity versus temperature rise for the oil).8 or calculated from the given bearing performance equations.36.25. for the particular value of K. Consequently.12. 2E6 1E6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 AT Figure 6. Given the type of oil and its inlet temperature. It is assumed that a shaft 2 in. be can readily plotted on a transparent sheet by interpolation from Figs 6. carrying a radial load of 2000 lb . which are based on the curve fitting of these figures. and P). p. At. LID. 6. The Sommerfeld number for the bearing is then calculated from S = K p / P .236. p.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 9E6 8E6 7E6 6E6 5E6 4E6 I93 3. in diameter. gives the temperature rise in the bearing and the corresponding average viscosity. illustrative Example The use of the bearing design graphs is illustrated by the following example. versus temperature rise. Intersection of the two curves as can be seen in the example illustrated in Fig. is also plotted on the same sheet from Figs 6.26. The bearing graph (which represents the relationship between viscosity. all the behavioral characteristics of the bearing can be read from Figs 6.96.
which minimizes U = At + k Q (6. 10 with an inlet temprature of 150°F.000rpm is symmetrically supported by two bearings. has to be specified to describe their relative importance for a particular bearing application. C. The design criterion can therefore be formulated as: Find C . each of length 1. and 7 are considered to illustrate the influence of the weighting factor on the final design. The average pressure and the lengthtodiameter ratio are first calculated as: . which minimizes both the oil f o and temperature rise.3/sec) Values of k = 2. 5. a weighting factor. The objective is to select a value for the radial clearance. The lubricating oil is SAE No.194 Chapter 6 9x1o8 8x1O8 7x1O8 6x10" 5x10" n * 4x10" B 3x106 2x1o8 1OS 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 A (OF) T Figure 6. at 10. Because these are conflicting objeclw tives.Oin. k.26 Bearing design chart: application for clearance selection.15) where At = temperature rise (OF) Q = oil flow (in.
0142 0.00375 38 15 8 2.53 x 106 reyn.= 0.5 as Q = 5.003 0. For example.006 0.5oOpsi and .5. are tried in this example). can be interpolated from Fig.006in. The oil characteristic curve for SAE 10 for the 150°F inlet temperature is also traced from Fig.62 26.0 12 in. k .2. (6.81 12.27. if C is selected equal to 0.53 x 106 1.00 43. C are assumed and the corresponding bearing parameter. 6.67 55.003 in.81 5.6 92 . The Sommerfeld number is then calculated: S = k p = (4.6 32 57. The process is repeated for different selections of the clearance (0.8 ir~. is readily found from Fig. Table 6.53x 106) 500 P The quantity of oil flow. the corresponding parameter is = (+= (&) * (=4.8 RNCL = 5.. 6. The results are listed in Table 6.05 44 68 k =7 1. 6. k .61 x 106 0. 6.23 as shown in Fig.15) for the given weighting factor.012 CL (reyn) C At (“F) (in. is calculated in each case.~/sec The merit value is calculated from Eq.26.5 D Arbitrary values for the design parameter.63 x 106)(1. The intersection of the two curves yields the following values for the temperature rise and average viscosity: A l = 15°F and p = 1.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 195 w p==LD 2000/2 1x2 L .63 ) 107000 7 106 x The bearing performance curve. 6.1 and plotted in Fig.22 x 106 1. and 0. Q .1 Numerical Results for Bearing Design C 0. corresponding to this value of k for P = 5OOpsi and LID = 0.3/sec) k = 2 Q U k =5 52.0454 0. 6.21 as plotted in Fig.
In spite of the wealth of literature on the analysis of these bearings.014 Clearance. C Figure 6.006 0.27 Selection of optimum clearance for the difference objectives.005in.002 0.196 Chapter 6 O.008 0.2. k = 7: C* = 0.OO0 0. k = 5: C* = 0.007in.2 Automated Design System This section presents an automated system for the selection of the main design parameters to optimize the performance of the hydrodynamic bearing. The optimum clearances can be deduced from the figure for the different values of the weighting factor k as: k = 2: C* = 0. the selection of design parameters in the past has relied heavily on empirical guides. 6.004 0.010 0. Empiricism was necessary because of complexity of the interaction between the different parameters which govern the behavior of such bearings.006in. The analytical relationships describing the bearing performance are .012 0.
A full journal bearing to operating at a constant speed and supporting a known constant load is considered. Eq.Design o Fluid Film Bearings f 197 generally based on Reynolds’ equation and are. The sixth constraint describes a condition for bearing stability. These limits are dictated by the quality of machining. The constraints on the design are: The first five of these inequality constraints represent the limit on the oil film thickness. the characteristics of the materiallubricant pair.3 and 6. frictional loss. maximum allowable pressure. (6. minimum oil film thickness. The design parameters are therefore LID. oil flow. These parameters. oil characteristics.3. allow the calculation of the temperature rise.1. minimum oil viscosity. These equations. as described in Fig. In formulating the problem.1.4. In this section. 6.1). in most cases. and so forth. W are given inputs for the bearing design. The Governing Equations The equations governing the behavior of the bearing in this study are developed by curve fitting from Raimondi and Boyd’s numerical solution to Reynolds’ equation. and load specifications. p. numerical solutions of the equation with certain assumptions and approximations. describe the bearL ing geometry. as grouped. the curvefitted numerical solutions. respectively.8. N ) . The procedure is extended to cover the selection of an optimum bearing for applications where the load and speed may vary from time to time within given bounds. and the available space. System Parameters The main independent parameters for the problem under consideration are (D. C ) .1. are utilized in a design system that rationally selects the significant parameters of a bearing to optimally satisfy the designer’s objective within the constraints imposed on the design. given in Sections 6. maximum oil film pressure. The . C . and ( W . p . and bearing length. which are given in Section 6. it will be assumed that D. temperature rise.N . .
and (4) the inclusion of a preset criterion for search effectiveness and convergence. Search Method In formulating the problem for automated design.001 in. In the problem of bearing design. If a feasible point can not be successfully located. which accurately describes the designer’s objective. the designer can readjust the entry point according to the experience gained from the performed computations. and simultaneously halving the viscosity and the clearance. and clearance changes. Design Criterion The selection of an optimum solution requires the development of a design criterion. many decision criterion can be envisioned. the following factors are considered in developing a search strategy: ( I ) the nature of the objective function. Some of these are: minimizing the maximum temperature rise of the bearing. (3) the sensitivity of the objective function to the individual changes in the decision parameters. have a significant effect on the efficiency and success of the search. In this phase. A block diagram describing the search is shown in Fig. per inch radius. a counter can be set to limit the number of iterations. minimizing the frictional loss. and weighing their relative importance requires skilled judgement by the individual designer. a feasible point may be located by dropping the lengthtodiameter ratio to its lower limit. (2) the design domain and behavior of the constraints. and so forth. given in Section 6.28). The first phase of the search deals with guidance of the entry point into the feasible region. the gradient search is initiated according to: . When a feasible point in the design domain is located. proved to be adequate. minimizing the quantity of oil flow required for adequate lubrication. (6.4. To avoid looping in this phase.I98 Chapter 6 curvefitted equations for the stability analysis by Lund and Saibel.1. on the order of 0. of the order of 10%. provide a simplified mathematical relationship for the onset of instability constraint. The topography of this criterion and its interaction with the boundaries of the design domain (constraint surfaces). When the stability constraint is violated. The objective may also be composed of a multitude of the previously mentioned factors. These values need not satisfy the functional constraints. incremental viscosity changes. Arbitrary values of the design parameters within their given constraints are the entry point to the system.
R. C. P . U d (within side consUaints) StaltGradiiSearch violated I 1 Wmin Feasible Region Point Locatrn satisfedory Figure 6. (b) Search method flow diagram 2.Design of Fluid Film Bearings I 199 1 I + Inputs W. (a) .28 (a) Search method flow diagram 1 .N.
maximum pressure. = nc7= nL = l :1 141 =I = order of 103 = order of 10s The control of the step size is exercised by including a provision for changing A. and nL = scale factors If p is taken as the reference parameter.+I = Pn  where n.. 6. One way to accomplish this is to require a specified percentage change in one of the parameters and to set upper limits on the incremental changes in the other parameters. If the new point is found to be of higher merit. Nonimproving merit along both directions indicates an optimum at the base point. The first check. the step size is halved several times and the process repeated. minimum film thickness and stability). the parameters are allowed to undergo incremental changes of 10% over a range of f90% for the viscosity and L I D ratio. In this phase.. and 5% over a range of 45% for the clearance. in the reverse direction of the gradient. nc. while failure to reach a feasible point with improved merit indicates an optimum at the last feasible location. . the univariate search is activated. these factors can be determined from: n. A higher merit produces a new base point. if necessary.29 for a two parameter problem where L I D is assumed constant. yet violating the functional constraints. in the computational logic. and search progression is given in Fig. If the new point fails to produce an improvement in merit. The success of returning to a feasible point is followed by comparing its merit value to that of the last base point. is on the functional constraints (maximum temperature. thus offering a safeguard against the overshooting of the gradient.200 Chapter 6 P. made after each iteration. An illustration of the design region.
33.333. respectively D = 2in. The constraints are: hmin= 5 x 10’in.500.29 Design region and search progression for the twoparameter problem ( L I D = constant). respectively N = 16.33. Designof Bearingsfor Constant Load and Speed Condition The inputs are taken as: W = 2000.33. = 300°F = maximum allowable temperature . Numerical Examples Two common bearing applications are considered to illustrate the design procedure.250.83.Design o Fluid Film Bearings f 20 I Clearance Figure 6.2501b. .33 rps. 16666. 1000. = 30.000 lb/in? = maximum allowable pressure tmin Pm.66.. .
005 0 a 5 .0.31 shows that relatively high lubricant viscosity is relied .37 show the corresponding operative characteristics.007 0 c .202 = Chapter 6 L Drnax 1.336.000 20.W m A 0 w 10 00 w = 2000 0 . Figure 6.000 I 1 I I SPEED R P M Figure 6.003 I J 5000 lop00 15.32. The optimum bearing parameters for the considered examples are illustrated in Figs 6.008 0 0 W = 250 W = 500 f 2 . These parameters are unique combinations and are obtained irrespective of the starting point.006 z a a a ..306. It can be seen from the results that the optimum clearances are higher for high loads and low speeds to satisfy the minimum film thickness requirement.0 L .30 Optimum clearance.004 a a . respectively. this may be stated as: Minimize U = Af + 5Q subject to the given constraints Results. Figures 6.25 Dmin pmin 1 x 10’ reyn = It is assumed that the design objective is to minimize both the oil supply to the bearing and the oil film temperature rise with a relative merit factor of 5 : 1. .
30 A  5000 10.45 0.40 W = 250 D W.51 Optimum values of average viscosity.35 W A c (3 z I ' 0.000 15.500 A w =10 00   ow=2ooo S 0.32 Optimum length/diameter ratio. F 2 5 z c3 0 I I 1 1 1 I 0.000 20mO SPEED RPM Figure 6. .Design of Fluid Film Bearings 203 SPEED R P M Figure 6.50 0.
000 20.204 Chapter 6 5000 10.34 Oil requirement for optimum bearings.33 Temperature rise in optimum bearings. I I I 1 I 1 5 20 W W = 250 W=500 A W = 1000 0 0  2 a w l5 w = 2000 a I W Q W 3 2 r k 1 0 5 I 1 I 1 I I Figure 6. .000 SPEED R P M Figure 6.000 15.
000 a r 3 H X a z 10.36 10. $ 0.35 1 .000 000 I I I I Maximum oil pressure in optimum bearings.000 SPEED R P M Frictional loss.OOO 20. 0 I5.000 \ e W U  W = 250 = 500 A W = 1000 0 w 0 3 v) v) w = 2000 E 20.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 205 N c .. .30.000 20.6 W = 250 W = 500 A W = 1000 0 5000 Figure 6.000 0 J I I 5000 SPEED R P M Figure 6.000 15.
37) increase with increased loads and speeds. A similar trend can be seen in Fig.000 20. respectively. 6. Fig. 6. . This trend continues as speed increases until the lower limit set on the viscosity is reached.2.37 Merit value for optimum designs. The results are given in Table 6. 5. The effect of the weighting factor. Figure 6. 6.36) and the value of the objective function (Fig.O. The maximum oil film pressure.44"F.206 1 1 I I 1 1 Chapter 6 60 50 p P r 20 > 30 W 1 0 5000 10. k on the final design is illustrated for the case where W = 10001b. As the speed increases and the journal eccentricity becomes smaller. 6.77. and 14. the changes in maximum film pressure with speed are influenced by the corresponding changes in radial clearance.35.33 shows an increase of temperature rise of the optimum bearing with increased speeds and loads. For any particular load. The frictional power loss (Fig.000 SPEED RPM Figure 6. and N = 166.34 for the quantity of oil to be fed to the bearing. 1 1 . the optimal viscosities drop in order to satisfy the stability criterion. Although longer bearings may have higher merit values (according to the design criterion under consideration).000 15. and 10.66 rps. respectively. generally increases with increasing load at any speed. upon at low speeds to maintain the required film thickness. It can be seen that by taking k = 1. the temperature rise for the optimum bearings are 3. the drop in the optimum L I D ratio with increasing speed is primarily induced by stability requirements.
The merit values are also calculated at all points. do not appreciably change with the change of grid size.3. in the lengthtodiameter ratio but the most significant change is in the required clearance. the point of lowest merit is found to be that when both load and speed are highest. A search procedure.'/ sec) 4. shows a higher merit for the load and speed for which it is selected.88.3/sec. regions 2 and 5 are each divided into a 3 x 4 grid.77 11. each representing a particular load and speed. It is interesting to note this change in objective produced no change in the required average viscosity since it is already at its lower limit. The input data.55 x 103 0.67 in. (psi) 7600 8500 6500 HP loss 0.15. The results. Optimum bearing parameters corresponding to several loadspeed regions are given in Table 6.5 x 103 0.325 1 x 107 1.39 shows a comparison of the results from the regional search and those obtained for an optimum bearing designed for the maximum load and speed in region 2.6rps) Weighing factor k 1 5 10 P C LID Af(OF) Q (in.44 The corresponding values of the oil flow are 4.185 1 10~ 3. In all the studied cases. In this case. In this case.2 Effect of Weighting Factor.. the region under consideration is divided into an array of points. and 1. Bearings OperatingWithin a Range of Specified Loads and Speeds The previous design system is extended so that the optimum parameters. To investigate the effect of grid size on the design.147 0.Design o Fluid F l Bearings f im 20 7 Table 6. the feasibility of the design at each step is checked for all points in the array. Figure 6.175 0.e. is adopted. A small change is necessary however. on the Optimum Design ( W = 100 lb.4 1 0 . 6. constraints. k . as shown in the table. for a bearing operating with equal frequency within a given range of loads and speeds.313 3.67 ha. . The regions considered are illustrated in Fig. may be automatically obtained.36 1 x 107 2. N = 166. but its operation is constrained at other parts of the considered region as indicated by the asterisk marker. The latter.~ 0.88 2. and design criterion are the same as in the previous examples.00 14. however.2. Some of the results shown in the table are obtained for the case where only the corners of the regions (i. a point array) are considered. and the lowest of these values is taken to represent the merit rating of the bearing.15 1. similar to that previously mentioned.38. as expected. Results.
000 2 x 2 1.0 12.00020. 71 27./sec) (hp) region 2 2 3 4 5 5 .000 2 x 2 1.55x .1 x 107 2 6 x 5002. 3 .0005.0005.000 10.860 5 1 x .000 3 x 4 3.00020.00010.592 5.80 .234 0.115 1 .633 5.2) (in.430 0.0002.275 1030.500 105 6.0x 107 4.607 5 0 x .00x lO’ 0. ho .6 2.750 5 1 x .14 x 107 2 9 x . V = 5Q ~ + At Region Load range no.484 053 .4 9.300 10’ 0. Ar in P. Max.4 1.237 0.00x 10.000 1.990 1030.450 0.5 12.6 105 1 5 9 0.000 lO’ 4.1 57 105 2..0 5001.OOO10.3 x 107 1 9 x 1.3 30 23.968 0. 5001.000 3 x 4 1 4x 107 3. in Min.) (in.70 4.5 5001.0002 x 2 6.100 105 2.2x 107 5. Max. (W 1 Speed range Grid (rpm) points (reyn) C (in.07x 28.20 39.0005.000 1.0002.990 10’ 0.208 Chapter 6 Table 6 3 . Max.280 1030.2 2.500 lO’ 4.4 24.998 10’ 0.275 8.) Max. 77 19. in loss in merit region region in region region region value in LID ( O F ) (lb/in.0 2.380 5 0 x .000 1.0002.000 2 x 2 3 0x 107 2.6 1.000 5.6 1. . ~~~ ~ ~ ~ Optimum Bearing Parameters and Corresponding Operative Characteristics.07x .9 02 41.0002 x 2 3.000 10.90x 1.180 105 4.80 57.187 5 0 x .00020. Qfriction Max.3 1.
10. 16. alone. does not account for the loadcarrying capacity and the temperature rise in the fluid film.55. Figure 6.000 SPEED RPM Figure 6. 18 17. however. I85 19. show that the isoviscous hydrodynamic theory. 16.8.6 9. a 3 I 5..Design of Fluid Film Bearings 209 2000 E U) a 0 3 1000 500 1000 5 0 0 0 10.39 Comparison of designs obtained by regional search and those obtained for the maximum condition of load and speed (Region 2).09 5.3 THEROMODYNAMIC EFFECTS ON BEARING PERFORMANCE In the classical hydrodynamic theory presented by ReynoIds [I]. 15.76.7.5.1.89.4. 0 1500 ui a  5. because accounting for the effects of temperature variations along the lubricant film and across its thickness would significantly complicate the analysis.8 9.000 20. 1. 81 21.4. 6. Many experimental observations.2 1. an isoviscous film is assumed. 6.7.45.38 Considered load and speed regions. McKee and McKee [15]. 21. Y 8. This assumption is widely used in bearing design.5 10. in a .
Cameron [2 11. Both the circumferential and axial patterns of pressure distribution normalized to the maximum pressure (Fig. in his experiments with rotating disks. and the decrease in pressure is more pronounced in the case of nonconducting boundaries than if the boundaries were kept at the lubricant inlet temperature.210 Chapter 6 series of experiments. Osterle et al. suggested that a hydrodynamic pressure is created in the film between the disks arising from the variation of viscosity across the thickness of the film. is explained by the concept of the “thermal wedge.40) are identical to those predicted by the isoviscous hydrodynamic theory (Refs 24 for example). His observation. and Ulukan [20] are among the investigators of thermal effects in fluid film lubrication.” where the expansion of the fluid as it heats up develops additional loadcarrying capacity. severe temperature gradients are set up. were hampered by the fact that such an average value would be clearly a function of the boundary temperature as well as the mean temperature of the oil leaving the bearing. [ 191. Thus pressures were lower than those obtained from a solution which takes into account the viscosity variation along the length of the film only. as well as a reasonable estimate of the shaft and bush temperatures. Their attempts to predict an effective mean viscosity. . It was observed during experimental investigations of the pressure distribution in the fluid film developed by rotating an externally supported journal in a sleeve at a predetermined eccentricity that [25281: 1. viscosity variations across the film in a journal bearing is by no means negligible. Boussages and Casacci [ 181. Hunter and Zienkeiwicz [23] presented a theoretical study of the heatenergy balance of bearings and compared their findings with Cole’s results. They concluded that the effect of temperature. 6. known as the Fogg effect. which would lead to a correct estimate of pressure. Fogg [ 161 found that a parallelsurface thrust bearing can carry higher loads than those predicted by the hydrodynamic theory. They presented temperature contours in the film. observed that under conditions of high speed.” Experiments by Cole [22] on temperature effects in journal bearings indicated that at high speeds. This variation is generally referred to as the “Cameron effect. both across the film because of heat removal by conduction and in the plane of relative motion because of convective heat transfer from oil flow. Dowson and March [24] carried out a twodimensional thermodynamic analysis of journal bearings to include variation of lubricant properties along and across the film. He accordingly suggested that constant viscosity theory under such conditions should be applied with caution. and consequently. the viscosity diminished to a point where the product p N remained constant. Shaw [ 171.
a v) v) w w .) 2.plone Normalized pressure distribution. 25. and inlet temperature. PkaX age pressure P) as that measured experimentally (Fig. avermagnitude of maximum pressure. oil.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 21 I +o Experimentol 0. 6. 4.41).25 3 1 a: 1 '! I 20 40 60 80 I00 I20 140 160 1 8 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 8 I L CIRCUMFERENTIAL LOCATION 8" AXIAL LOCATION in. For any particular eccentricity. 3.40 I mid. For any particular eccentricity.4 1). oil. 6. For a given film geometry (fixed eccentricity). oil. and speed. : . there exists a speed N* where the isoviscous theory predicts the same (and consequently. (From Ref. the magnitude of the peak pressure (or the average pressure) in thefilm is approximately proportional to the square root of the rotational speed of the journal rather than the approximately linear proportionality predicted by the isoviscous theory (Fig. Figure 6. and inlet temperature. the variation of the maximum pressure (and consequently the average pressure) with inlet temperature is different than that pre . 0.
speed.42): \ p.C =.*Figure 6.) Pressurespeed relationship for fixed geometry bearing.Hydrodynamic ( isoviscous 1 To Procedure for determination of the thermohydrodynamic o* point = constant).41 27. I * 128. . Only at the O* point can the isoviscous theory predict the film pressures.F / a/ '/ b / ' Expcrimenfol Hydrodynomic Liroviscous 1 / / / / 1 1 SPEED.zc . and oil.212 175 Chapter 6 150   I 1 I . dicted by the isoviscous theory. the O* condition (where the experimental and predicted isoviscous bearing performances are identical) can be determined according to the following empirical procedure (see Fig.015 .42 (E N=N* \.A 1 1 L * I " .D 2' . 5. R P M Figure 6.1  1 I >At t __ 3U n. For any particular eccentricity. 6. (From Ref.
P. to the average film temperature.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 213 Construct the curve relating the average pressure..). Therefore S. ($ and consequently. 33) to be a function of ( R / C )as plotted in Fig. for any speed N . and Tu (which for a given oil defines the average viscosity p. Tu. = constant = . the isoviscous Sommerfeld number Siso constant and can be readily determined by the is isoviscous theory. The O* condition is found empirically to be the point on that curve where the slope of the tangent is: dPa tan/?=.43 The empirical factor k. 6.43 K (%OF) Figure 6.based on the isoviscous theory. a curve can be plotted to relate P. Since E is fixed and LID is known.dTa V K where V = volume of the oil drawn into the clearance space in cubic inches per revolution K = constant which is found empirically (based on the experimental results from Refs 2532 as detailed in Ref. ..
40). based on experimental findings. 6. 6. Consequently. 6. the oil inlet temperature corresponding to this condition can be calculated from: Ti= T '  AT* 2 For a given eccentricity. . Ti.44 Pressurespeed relationship for a fixed geometry bearing.214 Chapter 6 (c) The temperature rise AT* at the O* condition can be readily determined based on the isoviscous theory. the pressurespeed relationship can be empirically expressed as: (6.1 Basic Empirical Relationships The objective of the following is to develop.3.16b) This relationship is illustrated in Fig.16a) Since the pressure distribution as predicted by the isoviscous theory remains the same (Fig. therefore: (6. oil. an effective average W K 3 v) v) w K Q W SPED N Figure 6.44 and compared to the corresponding pressurespeed relationship predicted by isoviscous considerations for the same conditions. a modified Sommerfeld number S* (and consequently. and inlet temperature.
and average viscosity. oil.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 215 viscosity) for any bearing. Based on isoviscous hydrodynamic considerations. using existing isoviscous analysis and data.. speed.19): . (6. from which: From Eq. P.18). Siso = S*. which is based on the empirical observation for a given film geometry.. and inlet temperature. S. is governed by the condition: (6.20) where QIRNCL is calculated based on isoviscous considerations from Sis. for a bearing with a given film geometry is independent of speed.. N. Consequently. which accounts for the thermohydrodynamic behavior of the film and can be directly used instead of S to evaluate the performance characteristics for any operating condition. and LID.17) Now defining S* at the O* condition as (6.18) For the same E . and inlet temperature. oil. the Sommerfeld number. p. From Eq. Ti: PO = average pressure in the film with inlet temperature Ti = V N (6. (6. the relationship between the pressure.
Consequently ( A T ) * can be evaluated by isoviscous considerations and the corresponding Tj can be calculated from: Table 6.50 x 9.87 x 108 10* 10’ 10* 108 10* 1 157.4 1509.45 x 106 106 106 106 105 105 1. 8.58 x 1.5 1271.15 x 4.05 x 1.95 x 3.18 x 3.36 x 1.0 Viscosity at any temperature T(”F) is given by p ( T ) = poeh’(T+N).35 x 5.Fo the film for at a speed N and average temperature To can be written as: from which: and by differentiation: (6.4) and T is the temperature of the oil.6 1360. .4 Oil Constants SAE 10 SAE 20 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 SAE 60 1.70 x 1. the isothermal Sommerfeld number (S)j. where 8 = 95°F and p o = lubricant relative viscosity.60 x 6.41 x 1.6 1564. and 6 are constants for the given oil (Table 6.216 Chapter 6 Assuming the following viscositytemperature relationship: p = where po.21) from which 7‘: can be evaluated by iteration.50 x 1.9 1474.21 x 1.18 x 1.40 x 1.42 x 105 10’ 10’ 10’ 105 10s 2.
according to Eq. length L. LID.Design of Fluid F l Bearings im 217 The thermohydrodynamic pressurespeed relationship for the particular film geometry is. It may be used in situations where the temperature rise is relatively small. Under such assumptions: This assumption. diameter D . the corresponding N* can be computed directly from Eq. C / R . two empirical procedures will be given for determining a modified Sommerfeld number S* which can be used instead of the classical Sommerfeld number to determine the bearing performance characteristics using available data and methods based on the isothermal hydrodynamic considerations. it will be assumed that the temperature rise based on isothermal considerations is approximately the same as the actual thermohydrodynamic temperature rise at the operating condition. and T.. (6. (6.16): If it can be assumed that T. 6. oil. although approximate.2 Prediction of Bearing Performance In a practical situation.22) which can be readily determined by isoviscous considerations for a given E .21) as: This equation can be reduced to give: (6. In this section. journal speed N .* is known or can be approximately estimated for a particular oil and film geometry. and oil and inlet temperature T j . In the first procedure. . radial clearance C .3. considerably simplifies the determination of the modified Sommerfeld number and consequently the evaluation of the performance characteristics of the bearing. as well as at the O* condition. the following bearing parameters are usually given: load W .
It is assumed that p. 4. = Note that Pu = W / ( L D )and (Pu)iso (Pu)Ti. and subsequently calculate the value of the parameter R C L / K .21): (6. For the oil and average temperature under consideration. calculate the dimensionless “oil factor” be/( T. W . Needless to say. compute Q/(RNCL). Design nomograms are also given to facilitate the evaluation of the modified Sommerfeld number S* . only the inlet temperature of the oil is considered and the modified Sommerfeld number is obtained by successive iterations.the dimensionless quantity of oil flow either from Raimondi and Boyd’s charts. Estimate the bearing characteristic constant K from Fig. % p:. Compute the isoviscous Sommerfeld number (S) for the given operating conditions (oil.43. Calculate the pressure at the O* condition from Eqs (6. so the modified Sommerfeld number can be found from the relation: . or by using the curvefitted equations given in Section 6. Sequence of calculations: 1. Ta. Corresponding to this S.23) 6. 6.N. mula: 2. t. 3.20) and (6. + 8)*. Empirical Procedure for Obtaining S* Based on the Assumption that T: % (Ta)jm % ( T ~ ) T . 5.1. C) by using the forD.3. this is the more accurate of the two methods.218 Chapter 6 In the second procedure.
Design of Fluid Film Bearings 219 therefore 7. First. The nomogram given in Fig. draw a horizontal line BC to meet the required R C L / K line (note that a given bearing is represented by a particular RCL/K = constant line).45 can be used to determine S* in this case. To illustrate the procedure for evaluating S* from S. From B. the example shown in the figure by dotted lines and arrows is followed. .45 Nomogram for evaluation of S* from S assuming that the average film temperature is known. Point E is the point directly below point A and Nomogramfor Obtaining S* + Figure 6. The vertical line CD then meets the appropriate bO/(T. 6. S* can then be used in place of S to determine the static and dynamic thermohydrodynamic performance of the bearing using available data and graphs based on isoviscous theory. enter the hydrodynamic Sommerfeld number at point A and draw a vertical line AB to the appropriate LID curve. e)2line at D.
220 Chapter 6 across from D. If this approximation to S* is sufficiently close to the previous approximation to S*. the average temperature and ' : : pressure at the O* condition.43 and evaluate the parameter R C L / K for the bearing. Calculate an approximation to S* by using the formula: s*=CLu*[N E 7. 5. 2.3. Point E then defines the curve: P*S = PS* = constant.1. Estimate the new approximation to P by using Eq. This curve is then followed to point F where the pressure is equal to the actual average pressure W/(LD). there will be no need for further iteration. Corresponding to the current values of S* and find the temperature rise AT* by applying the curvefitted equations. Find the bearing characteristic constant K from Fig. Make an initial guess at 7 and P . compute the average viscosity corresponding to the current value of T:: + 6.) Compute the dimensionless oil factor be/( T. Calculate the numerical value of the parameter ( N / l $ ) ( R / C ) 2 . 6.23): : 10. 3. (")*I c c 8. (Inlet temperature Ti and average pressure PO = W / ( L D )can be used as initial estimates.. (6. Corresponding to the current value of S*. Empirical Procedure for Obtaining S* Based on Equal Inlet Temperature Sequence of calculations: 1. 4. 9. .The projection of point F on the S* axis gives the modified Sommerfeld number (point G ) . calculate the quantity of oil flow Q / ( R N C L ) either from Raimondi and Boyd's charts or by using curvefitted equations in Section 6.* 8)2 corresponding to the current value of T.
47. Go to step 4.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 221 11. Three numerical examples are given in the following to illustrate the different procedures for evaluating a characteristic number for the bearing (Sommerfeld number or modified Sommerfeld number). frictional loss. The modified Sommerfeld number can then be utilized in the standard formulas to calculate eccentricity ratios. The classical Sommerfeld number S based on isoviscous hydrodynamic analysis can also be evaluated by graphical iteration from the nomogram given in Fig. . The procedure is illustrated in detail by numerical examples in the following section. and temperature rise. was found to provide better correlation with the performance of fluid film bearings tested under laboratory conditions. 6. Use the current value of S* for further analysis of the bearing. as well as stiffness and damping coefficients for full film bearings. 13. when used instead of the classical Sommerfeld number in a standard isoviscous analysis.46a and b are constructed to facilitate the evaluation of S* from S by graphical iteration. oil flow. The second example illustrates the empirical thermohydrodynamic procedure assuming that the average film temperature is known. Although no theoretical confirmation is developed for the proposed method. Nomogram for Obtaining S* The nomogram given in Figs 6. it provides the designer with an alternate method for selecting the main bearing parameters in critical applications. The third example illustrates the empirical thermohydrodynamic procedure based on the oil inlet temperature. A computer program can be readily developed for performing these calculations. The first example assumes isoviscous conditions. ': 12. 6. Judgement should be exercised in situations where significant differences exist between the proposed method and existing practices. Revise the estimate for 7 .3.3 Numerical Examples The procedure described in this section is a relatively simple method for the determination of a modified sommerfeld number which.
.223 Figure 6.46 Nornograms for evaluation of S' from S based a n inlet temperature of oil.
An iterative procedure is needed. The main concern in this example is the determination of the average film temperature from the inlet temperature.47 Nomogram for evaluation of S from oil inlet temperature. Calculate the Sommerfeld number and the other performance characteristics of a centrally loaded full journal bearing for the following conditions: W = 7200 lb N = 3600 rpm (60 rps) . The nomogram (Fig. 6.47) can be used to facilitate the iteration as shown in the following sample problem. EXAMPLE 1.Design of Fluid Film Bearings Y 223 Figure 6. lsoviscous Analysis Bearing performance characteristics are to be obtained using isoviscous theory when lubricant and the inlet temperature are specified.
a better initial guess at A T was made.40 With this new value for A T : 78 9 T. .5"F 2 The process can now be repeated with this new approximation to A T . If. = 100°F p. = 7 x I O . It can be noticed that five or six iterations would give sufficiently close approximation to the final results. Therefore: T.006in.224 Chapter 6 R = 3in. then only two or three iterations would be needed to reach the final value of A T .20opsi 6x6 Assume A T = 0 as an initial guess. instead of assuming A T equal to zero. The results of the first eight iterations are given in Table 6.08787( LID)( P/Juc) = 842989( 1)(0. = 110 + 2 149. we get: 9.3 and c = 0.9"F 9336 x 0.8554O+0.40 Btu/(lbOF) as representative values for a lubricating oil.03 Ib/in.5. L = 6in.03 x 0. Lubricant SAE 20 oil Average temperature Tj = 110°F Numerical Solution P p .7200 .94327 200 2 78. C = 0.525)0.~reyn Using the appropriate curvefitted equation for A T and assuming: U = 0.
5 c1.8 30.5 46.249 0.278 0.5 40.7 x 2.504 0.3 133. 2.47) 1. Starting with A T = 0 and Ti = 110°F (point AI). Lines A2B2. the performance characteristics of the bearing are obtained from Raimondi and Boyd’s plots or from the curvefitted equations. The curve for the SAE 20 oil (second quadrant is identified (curve YYN. L / D 1) curve at D 1 .2 Initial guess = 0 79.328 0.3 x 3.5 x 4. The vertical line B I C l meets the ( N / P ) ( R / C ) 2 7.7 x 3. A vertical line from D1 meets the line Ti = 110 line at A2.8 x 3.3 131.5 225 Results of the First Eight Iterations AT Iteration T* 1 10 149.6 x 106 106 106 106 10d6 106 106 106 0. After five iterations. In the fourth quadrant.5 x 104 line at C1. S New A T 78.6 43.6 52.185 0. 6. 6. The process is continued until two consecutive “rectangles” are sufficiently close.288 0. A straight line corresponding to Ti = 110 is drawn in the first quadrant (line XX).273 Nomogram Solution (see Fig.C2D2. a horizontal line AIBl is drawn to the oil curve.4 x 3.0 44. The Sommerfeld number from the last iteration R 0. Once the Sommerfeld number is evaluated. and D2A3 complete the second iteration.A horizontal line from = C1is then drawn to intersect the (p = 200.5 40. 3.9 30. the range for A T has been narrowed down to 4146°F.7 132.Design of Fluid Film Bearings Table 6. 4.4 45.5 46. The parameter ( N / P ) ( R / C ) 2is calculated: A straight line corresponding to this value is drawn in the third quadrant (line ZZ).6 43. + .6 x 3.4 45.0 6. 5.3 136.28.268 0.6 52.3 130.B2C2.5 125. the curve corresponding to p = 200psi and L / D = I is identified (curve UU).
6.5251 x 1.76 . Calculate the modified Sommerfeld number and the performance characteristics of a centrally loaded journal bearing for the following condition: W = lOOlb N = 6000 rpm (100 rps) R = 1.(150+ 9512 = 1. = 1. Lubricant SAE 10 Average temperature To = 150°F Numerical Solution: First find the numerical value of the bearing characteristic constant k from Fig. 1157.5 x 2.5 x 95 be (T.5 = o. the Sommerfeld number is: The quantity of oil flowing in the bearing can be estimated by the curvefitted equation: = 3.5in.5 at 8 = 95 (Table 6.. + 8)2 can be evaluated as: + e)* .395 k 0. because for SAE 10.25in. and the parameter RCL/k has the value: RCL .0063 x 2.43 that for R / C = 1.066= 3.05.226 Chapter 6 EmpiricaI Thermohydrody namic Analysis When Lubricant and Average FilmTemperatures are Specified EXAMPLE 2. k = 0.4).5) = 16psi.25/0063 = 198.0063 in.25 x 0.83 viscosity. Pa = W / ( L D )= 100/(2. L = 2. The average p. Therefore.05 The oil parameter be/( T.78 x 106 reyn. 6 = 1157. C = 0.1.
e on the corresponding scale (R77 psi). drawing a horizontal line from the PQvescale at 16psi to intersect it at F I . The quantity b9/(T 8)* can be evaluated by using the upper left portion of Fig. whereas the isoviscous theory predicts it to be 0.299. 6.83 + @)* The modified Sommerfeld number is obtained by the relation: s*= s p" = (*.46a to be 1.8. Calculate S* from KveS = P a v e s * as determined graphically by ZZ in the fourth quadrant with defining the curve P:.45): The numerical values of the parameters RCL/k and S are calculated to be 0. The nomogram is then utilized to evaluate S* from S as follows.395 x 95 = 77psi 1.439)(E) P = 2. Draw the horizontal line BICl to the curve RCL/k = 0. lines OX and OY are drawn in the second and the third quadrant of the nomogram (Fig. + + + When Lubricant and Inlet Temperature Are Specified EXAMPLE 3.439.395 and 0. The vertical line F I G l defines the modified Sommerfeld number S* FZ 2.1 1 The eccentricity ratio corresponding to this modified Sommerfeld number is 0. 6.eS = 77 x 0. Calculate the modified Sommerfeld number and the different performance characteristics of a centrally loaded full journal bearing for the following condition: W = 9471b .3.1.068. all the performance characteristics for the bearing can be readily calculated based on isoviscous considerations.83.395 and the vertical line CIDl to the curve b8/(T 8)* = 1.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 227 The average pressure at the thermohydrodynamic equilibrium condition can now be calculated: P= ()%' A() be (T . Draw AlB1 to the curve LID = 1. Plot point AI to represent S. Nomogram Solutions (see Fig. 6.83. Read P:. Corresponding to the numerical values of the parameters RCL/k and b9/(T 8)2.76 x 0.45) by interpolation if necessary. Using S* in place of S . respectively.439 = 33.
1. L = 1.15 in. Lubricant SAE 30 oil = Inlet temperature Ti 150°F Numerical Solution: Because R / C = 751. 6.88 0. = P . = 5OOpsi The first approximation for S*is now computed as: .0003.375  The average pressure P .0009. assume A T = 0.375 x 1.228 Chapter 6 N = 4000 rpm (66. therefore: AT* T: = Tj += 150°F 2 Consequently: p: = 3. 1 2 (T: +q2(150+95)* Also. the bearing characteristic constant k = 0. because: W Ppthe parameter 947 500psi LD .43. C = 0. can be used as an initial value for P:.000915 x 1.2 .6875 in.6 x 106 reyn  be 1360 x 95 . Consequently: p*.0003 As an initial guess.67 rps) R = 0. as can be found from Fig.375 = 2.6875 x 0.375in. Therefore: RCL  k  0.
098 0. With this new value of A T * .8 112.4 BTU/(lbOF).2 203. On the first nomogram (Fig.1 4. meets Table 6.9.274 0.46a).28 x 1.46a) (point Al). Nomogram Solution (see Figs 6.46b): Only the first.Ib/BTU. the horizontal line BIEl meets with the SAE 30 curve on the righthand side at El. and C = 0.32 x 1.4 107.0 4. (6.0 150 205 196.7 206.3.50 x 1.0 101.0 93. U = 0. draw a vertical line A I B l to intersect the line Ti = 150 at point BI. and the corresponding temperature rise can then be calculated as AT* % 110°F using J = 9336 in.4 4.158 3.1 495 847 722 848 779 767 110.1. Now starting with AT* = 0 in Fig.46b).16 can be taken to be a sufficiently close approximation to the modified Sommerfeld number for the considered example.8 112. the second.139 0.6 Results for the First Six Iterations AT* (OF) Iteration 1 T: (OF) (reyn) 3. and the sixth (last) iterations are shown.3 4.9 206.4 107.29 x 1. The horizontal line ClBlmeeting the SAE 30 curve at C1 gives the value of the parameter bQ/(T*+ 0)' = (point 2.15 DI). a second iteration can be made.4 113. draw the line for RCL/k = 2.4 113.03 Ib/in.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 229 The corresponding quantity of oil flow is calculated using the appropriate equation from Section 6. Therefore. A vertical line from E.3 as Q/(RNCL)= 3. The results for the first six such iterations are shown in Table 6.6.0 2 3 4 5 6 Initial guess = 0 110. draw the line XX corresponding to: N (">'= 150 p2 c and in the second nomogram (Fig.9 4. 6. 6. The new value of P* can now be calculated. Also.165 0.64 x 1.0 93.35 x 106 106 106 106 106 106 l4 ~ ~~~ P* AT* S* QIRNCL (psi) ("F) 0.5 .46a and 6. 0.191 0.88.
This value of S* is then entered as point I in the second nomogram (Fig.4 THERMOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION ANALYSIS INCORPORATING THERMAL EXPANSION A R S T E C OS H FILM Viscosity is generally considered to be the single most important property of lubricants. A horizontal line FIGl is then drawn to meet the line P* = 500 at G 1 . 6. Point L is vertically below point K and on the line M / ( T t9)* = 2.The point H I vertically above G1gives the first approximation for S* to be 0.88 line at K. that the classical theory on one hand.230 Chapter 6 line XX at F 1 .46a) is determined and the procedure is continued. the new entry point A2 in the first nomogram (Fig. Point M provides the new approximation for P* = 495 psi and point N gives AT* 2 110"F(for LID = 1). . His model was based on the assumptions of negligible temperature variation across the film and negligible heat conduction within the lubrication film as well as into the adjacent solids. therefore. The consequence of the second assumption is that both the bearing and the shaft are isothermal components. When the temperature rise of the lubricant across the bearing is small. S* = 0. Examples of studies which have provided many suggestions for calculations of the effective viscosity in a bearing analysis are presented By Cameron [34] and Szeri [35]. bearing performance calculations are customarily based on the classical. One of the early applications of the energy equation to hydrodynamic lubrication was made by Cope [36] in 1948.46b). isoviscous theory. Then the horizontal line JK meets RCL/k = 2. where the temperature rise across the bearing is significant.27. Draw a vertical line IJ to meet the curve LID = 1. and Cope's adiabatic model on the other hand. After six iterations. all the generated heat is carried out by the lubricant. In other cases. + eve 6. it represents the central parameter in all lubricant analysis. As indicated in a review paper by Szeri [37]: the belief.16 can be accepted as the solution for the considered example. was widely accepted for a while. the classical theory loses its usefulness for performance prediction. With A T = 1 lO"F. 6. bracket bearing performance in lubrication analysis. and thus. The horizontal line LMN is such that point N is vertically below point I and point M is on the axis.15. By far the easiest approach to the question of viscosity variation within a fluid film bearing is to adopt a representative or mean value viscosity.
the bearing surfaces are lifted such that asperity contact and friction are reduced. The experiments clearly show that as speed is increased. Most of analytical studies dealing with thermohydrodynamic lubrication utilize an explicit marching technique to solve the energy equation [47. [44]also experimentally investigated the cavitation effects on bearing performance in an eccentric journal bearing. He also suggested that the thermal density wedge. The effect of oil film thermal expansion across the fl im on the bearing loadcarrying capacity is not adequately treated in all the published work. The comparison of their theoretical results and those presented in a design document revealed that a consideration of more realistic flow conditions will not normally influence the value of predicted load capacity significantly. Also. [3941] investigated different aspects of the thermal effects in the lubricant film and the thennohydrodynamic phenomena in a variety of film situations and bearing configurations. 481. [25281 for the steadystate and transient performance of fluid film bearings strongly suggest the need for a reliable methodology for their analysis. Braun et al. The extensive experimental tests reported by Seireg et al. asperity collisions. he indicated that the successful operation of centrally pivoted thrust bearings cannot be explained by the hydrodynamic theory. He backs his assertion by reviewing several failed attempts to explain the pressure developed for bearings with constant film thickness. [42. Braun et al. and squeeze effects do not provide sufficient fluid pressure to be considered a primary source of beneficial lubrication in parallel sliders. This is also a major concern for many workers in the field (Pinkus [38] and Szeri [37]). Dowson et al. 461 summarized several welldocumented experiments of parallel sliding or parallel surfaces. Rohde and Oh [47] reported that the effect of elastic distortion of the bearing surface due to temperature and pressure variations on the bearing performance is small when compared with thermal effects on viscosity.Design o Fluid Film Bearings f 23 I In 1987. . the prediction of the side leakage flow rate will be greatly affected if film reformation is not included in the analysis. the effect of variation of viscosity across the fluid film on the bearing performance was acknowledged to be an important factor in bearing analysis [49531.43] adopted the cavitation algorithm proposed by Elord and Adams and studied the lubricant film rupture and reformation effects on grooved bearing performance for a wide range of operating parameters. Such explicit schemes may in some situations cause numerical instability. In the discussion of parallel surfaces and mixed lubrication. viscosity wedge. However. Lebeck [45. microasperity and cavitation lubrication. Pinkus [38] in his historical overview of the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication pointed out that one of the least understood and urgent areas of research is that of thermohydrodynamics.
This effect was found to be most pronounced at higher revolution rates.8 lists the viscosity coefficients and reference viscosity at 37. The nondimensional viscositytemperature relation used in the computer program is F( F ) = y K f ( T . Wang [57] developed a thermohydrodynamic computational procedure for evaluating the pressure. UW2 and UW3) investigated in this empirical evaluation are listed in Table 6. A flow chart of the program is given in Fig. and velocity distributions in fluid films with fixed geometry between the stationary and moving bearing surfaces. 6. More recently [60]. A transient thermodynamic computation model with a transformed rectangular computational domain is utilized. Szeri et al.48. I611 demonstrates the existence of thin shear layers betweer! two immiscible liquids that have unequal viscosit ies. The analysis can be readily applied to any given film geometry. The velocity variations and the heat generation are assumed to occur in a central zone with the same length and width as the bearing but with a significantly smaller thickness than the fluid film thickness. which gives the value for the maximum fiim pressure corresponding to the experimental data./h.l j . Batchelor [58] suggested that for two disks rotating at constant but different speeds.4.029% and 0. temperature.7.8 and 93. boundary layers would develop on each disk at high Reynolds numbers and the core of the fluid would rotate at a constant speed. Another experimental study by Joseph et al. 561) but were not totally successful in predicting the experimentally observed relationship between speed and pressure for fixed geometry films. where S is the temperature viscosity coefficient. the experimental investigation of the flow between rotating parallel disks separated by a fixed distance of 1. h.1 Empirical Evaluation of Shear Zone The computer program described by Wang [67] is used to compute the shear zone ratio. 551 and Ezzat and Rohde [48. Their measurements show the existence of a velocity field as suggeste by Batchelor. The thickness of the heat generation (shear) zone is developed empirically for the best fit with experimentally determined peak pressures for a journal bearing with a fixed film geometry operating in the laminar regime.3"C for .232 Chapter 6 Several theoretical studies have been undertaken to address this problem (Dowson and Hudson [54. The geometric parameters of the bearing (UW1. 6. [59] carried out a detailed experimental investigation of the flow between finite rotating disks using a laser doppler velocimeter.053% solutions of polyacrylamide showed the existence of an exceedingly thin shear layer where the velocity gradients iire exceedingly high.27 cm in a 0. Table 6. with high velocity gradients. has been reported by several investigators. The existence of a thin shear zone.
and energy eq.02489 . Do the pressure and temperature distributions reach steady state ? Yes Output the pressure and the temperature distributions.4 0.1 025. Solve the simplified generalized Reynolds Eq.0009 0. Solve the time dependent energy equation to obtain the temperature distribution in the shear zone.500 RIC uw1 uw2 118 67 uw3 038. Program flow chart of developed analysis (THD with across film thermal expansion). t obtain the temp. o distributions in the stationary and the moving fluid films.48 Table 6.Design o Fluid Film Bearings f 233 Set initial pressure and temperature distribution in the fluid film. f ~~ ~ ~ Solve the heat transfer eq. Figure 6.0 1524 0. and calculate the bearing performance.38 LID 0.634 0. Calculate the velocity profile in the shear zone.4 C(mm) 000.34 000.8 Journal bearing L(mm) 050.7 Geometric Parameters of Investigated Bearings D(mm) 080.1 050.8 025.wt thermal ih expansion to get the pressure distribution of the film.
and inlet temperatures from Table 6.9.00376 0.00036 per O F ) p = 1517 x 106N/m2(31. = thickness of the shear layer k = thermal conductivity of the lubricant T = fluid film temperature = dimensionless temperature = T.0075 BTU/(hrftOF)) c = 2010 J/(kgm"C) (0.6 to 0.3" [N/(secm2)] s 0.8 Lubricant ViscosityTemperature Table.025 SAE 5 SAE 10 SAE 30 SAE 50 0.2407 0.234 Chapter 6 various grades of oil.0 I55 0. In all the cases considered.03I8 0. The experiment covered eccentricity ratios from 0.0 142 0. lubricating oils from SAE 10 to 50.022 0.5 lb/ft3) a = 0.0 1975 .000648 per "C(0.68x 1O61bf/ft2) k = 470 J/(hrm"C) (0.0 I72 0. the properties of the lubricants were taken as follows: p = 873 kg/m3 (54..00168 0.1059 0..48 BTU/(lbOF) The following nomenclature is used in the analysis: a = lubricant thermal expansion coefficient = lubricant bulk modulus S = temperature viscosity coefficient F = eccentricity ratio p = lubricant density p = lubricant viscosity ji = dimensionless viscosity = eSTtN('I) h = thickness of the film h. speeds from 500 to 2400 rpm. = oil inlet temperature (3 The UW1 bearing was first selected for evaluating the shear zone due to the fact that extensive test data for various conditions are available for it.8"C[N/(secm2)] p at 93.0057 0. @( F ) = e'Tn(f') p Oil at 37.
9) were plotted versus the product of Sommerfeld and Peclet numbers as shown in Fig.7).414 0. it stands to reason that another dimensionless number .49. The fitted curve can be defined by the following equations to a high degree of accuracy: Table 6. which best fits the maximum values of the experimental pressure.008 0.87 0. 6.274 1./h 53.1 41.90 0.4../h based on all the considered experimental data (Table 6.3 71.483 0.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 235 25 to 72°C.9 Summarized Results for Empirical Evaluation of Shear Zone Ratio for Bearings (UW1) Speed Eccentricity (rpm) ratio. Oil (Pmax)exp Shear zone Oil T./h.90 0. When the transient heat transfer in the fluid wedge for thermohydrodynamic analysis is considered.60 0.the Peclet number ( P p )should also play an equally significant part.042 0.7 41. the calculated values for h. It can be seen that a highly correlated curve was obtained. Consequently. E 525 600 1050 1200 2100 2400 Case no.3 71.1 53.2 Empirical Formula for Predicting the Shear Zone Traditionally. The results were used to iteratively evaluate the shear zone ratio. 6.038 0.60 0.238 0.7 41.90 500 2000 1000 SAE 10 SAE 50 SAE 10 SAE 50 SAE 10 SAE 50 SAE 30 SAE 30 SAE 30 . The relationship was then applied in the computational program to check the experimental pressure data for the different test conditions of the journal bearing UW2.003 0.056 0. ("C) (106N/m2) ratio. as well as the slider bearing UW3 (see Table 6.3 71. h.1 53.025 0.87 0.010 0.064 0.020 0.87 0. h.994 1. the behavior of an isoviscous fluid film wedge can be characterized based on Newtonian fluid dynamics by a dimensionless number the Sommerfeld number ( S ) .7 0.336 0.60 0.700 0.644 0.931 0.
x 106) Figure 0.07. = Peclet number R =journal radius S = Sommerfeld number for journal bearing L = bearing length . 0. where the Sommerfeld and Peclet numbers are defined as follows: The following nomenclature is used in the analysis: C = bearing clearance c = specific heat of the lubricant D = bearing diameter N = rotational speed P . P.06 I Chapter 6 I 1 i i I i i i i I: 0   Bearing Characteristic No. calculated. = average film pressure .. curvefitted equation.236 0. . 0 .49 Fluid film shear zone ratio versus the product of Sommerfeld and Peclet numbers. (SxP.
the Peclet number for slider and journal bearings can be expressed as follows: P. The divergent portion of the journal bearing cannot be expected to contribute to the loadcarrying capacity and consequently the characteristic length of the journal bearing is considered equal to nR. = ( F ) B U where U = bearing sliding velocity . which is based on the isoviscous theory.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 237 The characteristic length of the journal bearing used in the Peclet number is nR. and the derived characteristic number of slider bearings based on the considered analogy can be written as follows: (journal bearing) (slider bearing) Based on the same analogy. = (F)~Ru (journal bearing) (slider bearing) P. 6. assuming the radius of curvature of the bearing is large compared with the film thickness. can be obtained.3 Geometric Analogy Between the Lubricating Film for Journal and Slider Bearings The film geometry of a journal bearing is considered analogus to that of a generalized slider bearing. The unwrapped journal bearing. S) for journal bearings. similar to that of a journal bearing.as this is the length of significance in the transient heat transfer problem.4. is basically a slider with a convergentdivergent shape. By using a transformation based on the following geometric analogy: B = nR = length of the bearing in the direction of sliding a characteristic number for a slider bearing. The generally adopted characteristic number (Sommerfeld number.
238 Chapter 6 The characteristic time constant for thermal expansion. can be calculated from the pressure field. frictional resistance. the pressure distribution is strongly influenced by the thermal effects in the fluid film which can not be accurately predicted by previous analytical methods.50 shows the relation between S and S2 for several L I B ratios. e. which is equal to ( l/m2)([pU/(FIB)]).4. isoviscous theory and commonly adopted thermohydrodynamic (THD) analysis [64. Figure 6. heat distribution. At..g. the In formula for S1. 1 6. i. for both bearings is defined as follows: At = 2 n ( 3 (journal bearing) (slider bearings) Af=2 n ( F ) and their nondimensional expressions are: (journal tearing) at= 2.m is the slope of the wedge and p is the average pressure of 1 the film..(%)(3 = 2n ha. 65. based on the isoviscous theory.e.4 Pressure Distribution Using the Conventional Assumption of Full Film Shear The pressure distribution in the fluid film is probably the most important behavioral characteristic in the analysis of bearing performance.. This relationship is obtained by performing an isoviscous calculation to determine the average pressure for slider bearings with different wedge geometries and consequently evaluating the corresponding characteristic number S . where L = length of bearing perpendicular to sliding To determine the minimum film thickness. 661. a transformation is needed between S2 for slider bearings (which is developed based on the journal bearing analogy) and the commonly used characteristic number Sl [62. However. 631. B (slider bearing) The equivalent journal bearing length for a fresh film during one rotation is considered to be equal to 2nR. . The other bearing characteristics.
The THD analysis mentioned above are based on the conventional assumption of full film shear and require the simultaneous solution of a coupled system of equations (the energy.10). The latter was obtained by slowly changing the speed of a variable speed motor and a continuous plot of the pressure versus speed is automatically recorded using an xy plotter. as reported by Seireg and Ezzat [25] (Table 6. Figure 6. the solutions predicted from the THD model deviate considerably from experimental results. however. while the moving part surface has the same temperature as the inlet oil. For most cases. All the tests on the UW1 bearing with different lubricants and eccentricity ratios exhibited a square root relationship between the pressure and speed. It can be seen that the results based on these theories do not appropriately predict the pressure distribution.Design of Fluid F l Bearings im 239 1 10 100 Slider Bearing Characteristic No. . The THD solutions in this figure are obtained by solving the Reynolds equation coupled with the energy equation for the full film without considering the thermal expansion.50 Conversion chart for bearing dimensionless characteristic numbers based on the isoviscous theory. The boundary of the stationary component is assumed to be thermally insulated.. The isoviscous theory is understandably inadequate in the performance evaluation.51 shows a comparison between the solutions obtained from these two theories and the experimental pressure [25]. due to the lack of consideration of the temperature and viscosity variations in the model. S1 1000 Figure 6. and continuity equations) in the full fluid film. momentum.
53 and 6.52b show typical normalized pressure distribution in the film for the UW1 bearing obtained from the proposed model (which considers thin central shear zone and thermal expansion) and the pressure obtained experimentally [25].4.51 Comparison between the solutions obtained fr m commonly adopted theories with experimental pressure.240 Chapter 6 200 SAE 50 1. The same correlation is found in the case of the UW2 bearing. no thermal expansion is considered. It can be seen from the figures that the calculated pressure distribution correlates well with the experimental pressure. The THD solution is obtained by solving the Reynolds equation coupled with energy equation for the full film.10) using the empirical relationship for the shear zone and the computational approach described by Wang and Seireg [67]. .7 3 2 g 50 n "0 500 2000 Bearing Speed.1 1 gives a summary of the calculated results for all three bearings (Table 6.54) for the test conditions given in Table 6. as well as the slider bearing UW3 (Figs 6.4 N .) 6. rpm 1000 1500 2500 0 Fig ire 6. 25. It is interesting to note that the calculated normalized pressure distributions in both the experimental data and to those predicted by the isoviscous theory. Figures 6. (From Ref. The experimental results for the maximum pressure are also given for comparison. v) Q t (0 E gj 150 3 3 x z ! v) a 2 100 . It can be seen that the calculated maximum pressures are in excellent correlation with experimental results for all cases.5 Pressure Distribution Using the Proposed Model Table 6.52a and 6.10.
93 1 0.322 0.414 0. The calculated maximum Table 6.0036 0.1 1 Numerical Results Based on the Empirical Formula ~~~~~~ Case no.10 with corresponding case numbers. The continuous curves shown in the figures are the bestfit square root relationship between the experimental pressure and speed starting from the origin.57 show examples of the pressurespeed characteristics of the bearings investigated under various test conditions.1 17 0.025 1 0.274 1.90 Oil Oil T.2 198 0.177 0.09 14.1867 0.994 1.238 0.0361 0.17 2.9 and 6.705 0.679 0.959 1. x (106) 3.031 1 0.8 I000 2000 SAE 30 SAE 30 Slope 0.557 3.44 8.2286 0.234 0.50 14.54 7.0251 0.00 3.0 1524 0.686 0.0084 0.455 0.2649 0.4572 Speed (rpm) Eccentricity ratio 0.063 1 0.0007 0..0245 0.253 1.336 0.0368 0.0020 0. x (106) SP.365 0.779 1.0202 0.0251 0.Design of Fluid Film Bearings Table 6.10 24 I Test Conditions for the Bearings UW2 and UW3 Journal bearing (UW2) Case no. .88 17.01 12 0.25 7. 10 11 Slider bearing (UW3) Case no.966 0. (“C) 37.3734 0.0933 0.0009 hmin(mm) 0. (‘C) 25 25 Figures 6.. 12 13 Speed (m/s) 0.470 0.2 198 0.2649 0.252 0.2 198 0.644 0.062 The test conditions for the bearings are given in Tables 6.036 1 0.1534 0.63 0.031 I 0.8 37.0009 0.343 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0.6137 0.700 0.72 4.483 0.853 5.556.357 0.72 1 0.0 1524 Oil SAE 5 SAE 5 Oil T.03 1 0.115 Shear zone (pmax) exp (pmax)cal ratio x 106(N/m2) x 106(N/m2) 0.196 0.245 0.0104 0.089 0. S P .036 1 0.42 0.0576 0.90 0.0430 0.0038 0.3069 0. The maximum pressure predicted by the isoviscous theory based on the inlet oil temperature is also plotted in each figure for comparison.
8 0. SAE 50. 242 . T.87.0 0 (a) 40 80 120 160 Circumferential Location.1 . . 0 .82 (a) Normalized calculated pressure distribution along the centerline of the bearing in the direction of sliding.. E = 0. l000rpm. deg. isoviscous theory. 200 (b) Normalized Axial Location Figure 6. (b) Normalized calculated pressure distribution at the maximum pressure plane perpendicular to the direction of sliding (UW1 .o x 2 0. THD calculation (with thermal expansion). = 689°C).
0.4 0. I ! 1 I I 1 1 .0009.01524mm.0 0.2 0. 0 . SAE 30.9. . 2000 rpm. isoviscous theory.CircumferentialLocation. THD calculation (with thermal expansion). .= 25"C. Figure 6.54 Normalized pressure distribution at the maximum pressure plane perpendicular to the direction of sliding (UW3.8 Normalized Location Along Axis 1.. 243 . Tin= 37.53 Normalized pressure distribution along the centerline of the bearing in the direction of sliding (UW2. . N I . hmin= 0. SAE 5). THD calculation (with thermal expansion).4572 m/s. deg. E = 0.6 0. 0. isoviscous theory. . Tj. slope = 0.8T). I 0.o Figure 6.
THD calculation (with thermal expansion). Tin= 37.O . THD calculation (with thermal expansion). rpm Figure 6.56 Pressurespeed characteristics of journal bearing (UW2.8"C). SAE 50. Bearing Speed.87. Tin= 71. SAE 30. 0. E = 0. experi mental. 244 .1. E = 0.9. +.1"C).00 C 500 10 00 1500 2000 2500 O Bearing Speed.55 Pressurespeed characteristics of journal bearing (U W. rpm Figure 6.
as well as the square root relation with bearing speed which was found to exist for all the tests on fixed geometry bearings reported by Seireg et al. . 2 .Design o Fluid Film Bearings f 245 Slider Velocity 1 I I I I 0 . THD calculation (with thermal expansion). [2528. pressures. A high correlation can be seen between the experimental and the calculated results.which is a function of the film geometry. SAE 5. A numerical solution was also carried out to investigate the pressurespeed characteristics for the case of UW3 with SAE 5 oil at Tin= 25°C. 0 . slope = 0..1 . = 25°C).57 Pressurespeed characteristics of slider bearing (UW3. show excellent correlation with the experimental data. based on the developed computational model.01524 x 103 m. and found to be equally applicable to the other journal and slider bearings. which is the case for bearings operating at high speeds of films with constant thickness. The empirically determined dimensionless effective shear layer thickness. is developed based on the experimental data from one bearing.0009.5 Figure 6. T.3 I I . The predicted ratio. experimental. UW1. speed and the thermal properties of the lubricant. 671. and reaches an asymptotic value of 1/(5n).. hmin= 0.y/h. + .4 mlsec. The empirical ratio is highly correlated to the product of Sommerfeld and peclet numbers. h. when used in conjunction with the dimensionless characteristic time ht in the computational procedure presented by Wang .
175193. especially the thermal conductivity. “On the Theory of Lubrication. “A Solution for the Finite Journal Bearing and its Application to Analysis and Design: 11. and Boyd. One reason for this caution is the change in the thermal and mechanical properties of the lubricant for high temperature variation may be significant enough to influence the accuracy of the results. Vol. “A Solution for the Finite Journal Bearing and Its Application to Analysis and Design: 111... Soc. 2( I)..). Roy. The developed. J. The calculated thickness has to be viewed with caution if the computed maximum temperature rise is much greater than 65°C. Trans. 5. p. 2. [69] with a highpressure visualization cell on an elastohydrodynamic film revealed a thin hot layer of the lubricant sandwiched between two cooler layers. 1(1). Vol.. Vol.” ASLE Trans. F. K. Raimondi. “Calculations and Experiments on the Unbalance Response of a Flexible Rotor.. 3. A. . O. Vol. empirical relationship for the dimensionless shear layer thickness is based on test data in the laminar regime with a maximum film temperature rise of 65°C.. pp. J. Raimondi. This section demonstrates that the pressure and temperature distributions in the film are strongly affected by the thermal properties of the lubricant. Trans. W.. “A Solution for the Finite Journal Bearing and Its Application to Analysis and Design: I. and Boyd. p. 785.” ASLE Trans. The greatest part of the relative velocity was found to be accommodated within a small fraction (approximately 5%) of the film thickness. A..”Journal of Engineering for Industry. 1958. 157. 159174.. REFERENCES 1. (Lond. Lund. pp.” Phil. Raimondi. 1958. J. ASME. A. Series B.” ASLE trans. Pt 1. 194209. and Boyd. 1886. Bearing designers would benefit from considering the influence of the thermal properties of the lubricants on the bearing performance. 89. A. This hot layer represents a region where the shear deformation is localized. pp.246 Chapter 6 and Seireg [67].. Theoretical justification of the existence of the central shear zone in thin film lubrication is left for future investigations by rheologists. J. 4.. 1967. and Orcutt. This observation adds further credence to the empirical hypothesis discussed in this section. A. Reynolds. 1958. was found to accurately evaluate the bearing performance characteristics including the square root relationship between the pressure and speed [68]. Nov. 1(1). It is interesting to note here that experimental tests by Bair et al.. A. 177.
A. 1957. of the Conference of Lubrication and Wear. Tech. Vol. W. pp.” VDIForschHeft 510. 9. 303. Lubr. “An Analysis of the ParallelSurface Thrust Bearing. May 1965.. Trans. Seireg. E. ASME.IV.. F. 11 17. A. Paper No. Inst. Effect of Temperature on the Viscosity.. Boussages. and McKee. 11.” Bull.“Friction of Journal Bearings as Influenced by Clearance and Length. Vol. T.. Vol. J.. 13. 1973.. Power. 1975.” Proc. Indust. Fogg. A. Rieger. Trans. H.. S.” Trans. 75. A. Apr. 63WA9. 9. 1971. 16.” NASA SP113. and Booker.. T. “An Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effects in Journal Bearings. Vol. Vol. J. 1971. November 1722. p.” Paper No. D. Eng.. Ulukan. 77101. “Film Lubrication of Parallel Thrust Surfaces. p. “Unbalance Response of an Elastic Rotor in Damped Flexible Bearings at Super Critical Speeds. p. . Technol. “Etude sur les pivots a graines paralleles. Eng. J. PA. “Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Rotating Discs in Pure Sliding. “Dynamic Stability of RotorBearing Systems. p.” Technical Report AFAPLTR6545.. N. 18. 1971.). Vol. ASME. APM5115. Mech. R. Pt 1.” J. “On the Solution of the Reynolds Equation for Slider Bearing Lubrication . paper 63. “Acceleration of an Unbalanced Rotor Through the Critical Speed. Eng. pp. Gunter. Oct. Trans. 14. 93. and Dandage. ASME. McKee. 279. Mechanical Technology Incorporated. J. 69. and Casacci. 19. Trans. pp. Cameron. Von Lutfullah... 15. ASME. 279.Design o Fluid Film Bearings f 247 6. “Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid Film Bearings. 22. Power. ASME.” J. R.. A. Eng.” ASME Trans. Discussion on Reference [3]. E. ASME. S. Inst. 51. pp... Part 111. C.. Lund. 1948. 21. Cole.. Gunter. E. “RigidBody Rotor Dynamics: Dynamic Unbalance and Lubrication Temperature Changes. “Thermische Schmierkeilbildung. 265.” J. 381387.” La Houille Blanche. 12.. Badgley. 93. 37. Winter Annual Meeting. and Saibel.. 4967.. 155. J. 1 1 1. Eng. New Type of Oil Film Formation. Apr. JulyAug. Charnes. 161171. Design Handbook for Fluid Film Bearings. Vol. J. 471. Osterle. 7. J. “Vibrational and Stability Behavior of an Unbalanced Shaft Running in Cylindrical Journal Bearings. 1963. Brussels. Vol. 1956. A. Apr. Actes Ninth International Congress of Applied Mechanics. 17. E. S. ASME. “A Phase Plane Simulation for Investigating the Effect of Unbalance Magnitude on the Whirl of Rotors Supported on Hydrodynamic Bearings..” Trans.. 73DET103. Part 111. pp. p.. P.. M. 5 (in German). p. 1957 (I.” Trans. Vol.. Istanbul. p. 10. “RotorBearing Dynamics Design Technology. F.. Shaw.” Proc. 20. 8. J. 93. 19. 1966. Petrol. 4. Someya. F. Vol. Power. Univ.” Trans. p. ASME. Macchia. Philadelphia. Mech.
editors. “Thermohydrodynamic Phenomena in Fluid Film Lubrication. C. Hunter. 31. 35.. Tribology .” Proceedings of the JSLEASLE International Lubrication Conference. L. W. H. Technol. The Principles of Lubrication.1. 1967. Vol. Mech.” Proc.. Mitchell.” ASME J. Vol. and Dandage. R. X. 1966. 1987.. “Thermohydrodynamic Performance of conical Journal Bearings.. 27. 32. A.. Vol. 1982. 1948. 28. B.. pp.. R. Lubr. 220. “Effect of Misalignment on the Performance of Journal Bearings. 1960. “A Thermodynamic Analysis of Journal Bearings. pp. 36. Tribol. Sci. Ezzat. 38..” ASME J. R. P.. pp. Inst. Lub. Vol.. 176. 0. and Ezzat.... 105. 135148. A. 9096. Inst. . Sharma. Effects of Unsymmetry and Moments of Inertia of Rotors. R. 37. . “Experimental Determination of a Bearing Oil Film Stiffness. Eng. A. Tokyo.. Holmes.” Proc.248 Chapter 6 23. Carl. 19651966. .” J. Lubr. 1975. “Temperature Distribution in the Bush of Journal Bearings During Natural Heating and Cooling. May. Tribol. “Experimental Investigation of Eccentricity Ratio.. Dubois. pp. T.. Seireg. D. 145. “Effect on Temperature Variations across the Lubricant Films in the Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication. Soc. pp. Engrs. p. 1980. 33. 26. 1001 19. Pt 3N. C.” Lubrication and Wear Convention.” Japanese Soc. p. Seireg. Friction. Sept.. O. “The Reynolds Centennial: A Brief History of the Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication. 201216. Mech. Pinkus. Dowson. paper 19. and Oil flow of Long and Short Journal Bearings with Load Number Charts.” Trans. J .. 1987...” Proc. Longmans Green and Co. p. C... 34. C. 19631964. 1973.. and March. 1972.. Someya. A. Pt 3K... Cameron. 1955.” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. pp. Seireg. A. Eng..Friction. Dec. and Seireg.” ASME J.. 25. Lubrication and Wear. E. 1975. R. S. Seireg. 95. Ltd. and Van Ballegooyen. Apr. N.” Proceedings of the JSLEASLE International Lubrication Conference. Inst.. Plymouth. W. Engrs... “The Hydrodynamic Theory of Film Lubrication. and Doshi.. C. 2. Tokyo. A. Eng. Kamdar. and Zienkiewicz. Mech. G.. 52. A. Technol. Mech. Proceedings of the World Conference on Industrial Tribology. Apr. W. Hemisphere Publishing Co. “Some Extensions of the Lubrication Theory of Osborne Reynolds. Roy.. Ocvirk.” Paper H 13. H. Technical Note 3491. J . “An Experimental Investigation of a Cylindrical Journal Bearing Under Constant and Sinusoidal Loading. Z . 29. 1972. 30. F. T. and Wehe. Szeri. 180. H.. 2136. A.. and Dandage. “An Investigation into the Stability of Rotors Supported on Journal Bearings. A197. B.. 24. Szeri.. Cope. S . “Empirical Design Procedure for the Thermohydrodynamic Behavior of Journal Bearings. B. Vol. ASME. Malhotra and J.
“An Adiabatic Solution for the Finite Slider Bearing (L/ B = l). M. Mech. M. J... A. ASLE. ASLE. Technol. pp. A. E. “An Analysis of Temperature Effect in a Finite Journal Bearing with Spatial Tilt and Viscous Dissipation. Dowson. 109. R. pp. J... R.. L.. Vol. and Rohde.. M. L. Hahn. Tribol. R..” Trans.. 1984. P. 41. Vol.. 1985. pp. 53. Dowson. A. 52. 1987. pp. “A Fully Coupled Variable Properties Thermohydraulic Model for Hydrostatic Journal Bearing. Lebeck. 42. M. and Frene. 109. “The Prediction of Liquid Film Journal Bearing Performance with a Consideration of Lubricant Film Reformation. 189195. pp.. Hunter. R. D. Part 1: Theoretical Results. and Hendricks. 40541 1. p. “Analysis of Thermal Effects in Hydrodynamic Bearings. 44. 1031 11. 298307..” ASME J. Rohde.. Mechn. E.. L. A. 47. Vol. 5258. D. “The Prediction of Liquid Film Journal Bearing Performance with a Consideration of Lubricant Film Reformation. 199(C2). 45.. W. 1987.. pp. 3444. E. 48. 1986.” ASME J. 1966. 199(C2). Part 2: Evaluation of the Mechanisms. Inst... Raimondi. Lubr. 1960. pp. 95102. 14. O.. “Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of the Infinite Slider Bearing: Part 1.. Hahn. 109. Engrs. “A Study of the Thermohydrodynamic Performance of Finite Slider Bearings.” Proc. Braun..” ASME J.. and Kettleborough. G. R. pp. 19681969.. Engrs. M. pp.” ASME J. and Miranda.” ASME J. A. M.” Proc.. 46... 1985. Technol. A. M. Braun. C. R. “A Thermoelastohydrodynamic Analysis of a Finite Slider Bearing. H. vol.” ASME J. S. and Miranda. J. 50. Mech. Wheeler. Engrs. “An Experimental Investigation of the Vaporous/Gaseous Cavity Characteristics in an Eccentric Journal Bearing. 47.” Proc. 1987. Vol. 2. 30. Tribol. “Thermal Effects in Slider Bearings.. and Zienkiewicz. C. A. 450460. 54. M. pp. J. Vol. 40. C. Lebeck. 27. Vol. 1973. C. 51.. 9.. Vol. J. Engrs. Fillon.” Proc. . J. “Parallel Sliding Load Support in the Mixed Friction Regime. Ezzat... 1984.” ASME J. R. O... 43. Eng.. pp. 1968. Lubr. O. Sci. 2 19224.. “Thermal Shaft Effects on the Load Carrying Capacity of a Fully Coupled Variable Properties Journal Bearing. 292. “Parallel Sliding Load Support in the Mixed Friction Regime. Part I: The Experimental Data. Inst. and Oh. pp. S. 631645. Inst. Vol. Lubr. A. M. pp. C.” J. and Hendricks. pp. Technol.” Trans. Wheeler.. K. Dowson. R.Design of Fluid Film Bearings 249 39. D. Boncompain. 233239. and Hudson. D. J.“The Effects of Thermal Expansion in an Infinite Wide Slider BearingFree Expansion. 108. ASLE.. Tribol.. 1963. “Effects of Temperature Variation Across the Film in the Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication. Inst. J. 1987. 283298. G. and Kettleborough.” Trans. C. Braun. 183. Mech. pp..” Trans. A. Tayler. E. Tribol. ASLE. Vol.. the Plane Inclined Slider Bearing. 1975. and Hendricks. 405417. Vol.. Vol. and Hendricks. Tayler. 49. part 2: Experimental Results. Mullen. Braun. 196205... Mech.
J. Maths. 116. Mech. 319345. Ezzat.” ASME J. Rajagopal.. 1993. 58. S. ASME.. 59. Thesis.. Mech. J. 1984. W.. 65. McGrawHill. 1993). Oct. M. 63. and Hudson. Vol.. A. Dowson.. and Szeri. Wang. G. pp. pp. Oct.” J. 1963a. pp.” ASME J. 1994. and Seireg.. Nguyen.” Proc. G. S. Z. 105. Joseph. Dowson. pp. 103131. and Cheng. “A Study of the Thermal Hydrodynamic Performance of a Plain Journal Bearing. K.. J. Engrs. 1994.. A. New York. “NonUniqueness and Stability of the Configuration of Flow of Immiscible Fluids with Different Viscosities.. Inst. 1988. Tribol. and Rohde. 4551. and Kaufmann.. and Beavors. Dowson... A. 243256. Szeri.. S. . 422428. Tribol. “Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis Incorporating Thermal Expansion Across the Film.250 Chapter 6 55. 1983. 1968.. 2941. “An Experimental Investigation of the Flow of NonNewtonian Fluids between Rotating Disks. “Note on a Class of Solutions of NavierStokes Equations Representing Steady RotationallySymmetric Flow.. A.. 1963a.” Wear Control Handbook. 141. Technol. Frene. K... and Hudson.” (presented at the STLE/ ASME Tribology Conference. Mech. 64. 57.” J. Vol. ASME.. and Hudson. Engrs. H. J. D. J. Vol.. and Boyd.. Qureshi. pp. Bair. Trans. pp. J. 705709. Fluid Mech. N.. 117. 186. Inst.D. 61. Lubr. Z. R. 3444. Vol. Vol. 1951. Schneider. Engrs... and Seireg. pp. Winer. J. Ferron. pp.. H. 1974. Z.. A. pp.. ASME.” Q. 444449. NY. 68.” J. “Flow Between Rotating Disks. J. D... pp. O’Connor. Part 1: Basic Flow... Appl.. Z. R.” Proc. D. O.’’ Trans. 81141. N. Z. D. Lubr. Batchelor. 67. Fluid Mech. The Plane Inclined Slider Bearing. pp. Vol. N. 1980. J. F. 60. N. 56. “Thermal Transients in Finite Slider Bearings. “Film Thickness Contact Stress and Surface Temperatures. Tribol. H. 2427. “Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of the Infinite Slider Bearing: Part 2: The Parallel Surface Bearing. 1995. K... “Thermohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis Incorporating Thermal Expansion Across the Film. 455 1. Inst. Sirivat. Wang.” Proc. the Parallel Surface Bearing. S.” Ph. D.” J. Technol. Fluid Mech. Vol. D.. f 62. M. “Adiabatic Shear Localization in a Liquid Lubricant under Pressure.. J. D. Comparison Between Theory and Experiments. A. and Boncompain. pp. J. Wang. J.. 66. “Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of the Infinite Slider Bearing: Part 1. Standard Handbook o Lubrication Engineering.. Mech. “Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of the Infinite Slider Bearing: Part 2. Labbe. S... University of WisconsinMadison. 315321. and Khonsari. D. 4. Oct.. 69. “Empirical Prediction of the Shear Layer Thickness in Lubricating Films.. 134. 1963. F.
3. and the overall coefficient of friction will depend on which components of the rolling friction force are the most important for the particular system under consideration. where plastic deformation occurs in the contact area. quite different character.2 to 2. the friction force generally varies as a low power of the load. Tabor suggested that rolling friction is a manifestation of the energy loss due to hysteresis in the stressed material at the contact zone during the rolling motion under normal load. ranging from 1. who concluded that slip is negligible and cannot be considered as the mechanism causing rolling friction. It is difficult to set down quantitative laws of dry rolling friction analogous to those of sliding friction because each of the mechanisms enumerated above has its own. 2. For lightly loaded systems.1 ROLLING FRICTION The frictional resistance to rolling in dry conditions was extensively investigated by Palmgren [I] and Tabor [2]. The friction force varies inversely with the radius of curvature of the rolling elements. 251 . the friction force varies as a higher power of the load.4. where the deformation at the contact is primarily elastic. The friction force varies as some power of the load. For heavily loaded systems. The friction force is lower for smoother surfaces than for rougher surfaces. Rabinowicz [3] generalized the laws of rolling friction as follows: 1.7 Friction and Lubrication in Rolling/Sliding Contacts 7.
the minimum film thickness can be obtained from the solution of Reynolds' equation (Eq.252 Chapter 7 4..2 HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION AND FRICTION Assuming rigid cylinders (Fig. and isoviscous fl subjected to a norim mal load P.1)) as: (7.1) Figure 7. 7. but the kinetic is slightly dependent on the rolling velocity and generally drops off somewhat as the rolling velocity is increased. 7.1). The static friction force is generally much greater than the kinetic.per unit length.1 Rolling/sliding contacts. (6. .
) = q = viscosity (reyn) U = .206 2) h0 where 7.RoNingl Sliding Contacts 253 where P. = effective radius = If the viscosity change with pressure is taken into consideration.rolling velocity (in.3b.O 1 %) R (7.: rl = tloe aP where qo = viscosity at atmospheric pressure a = viscosity pressure coeficient P = pressure The limit value of the minimum film thickness for P + c can be given by: m (z) = 2. i.e.1) and (7.1' + 2 2 ' ./sec) I R..3) A good approximation for the coefficient of friction can be given as [4]: f = 0.2) do not adequately explain the significantly higher film thickness experienced in practice in many mechanical elements such as rolling element bearings. load intensity (Iblin. gears .3 ELASTOHYDRODYNAMICS IN ROLLING/SLIDING CONTACTS Hydrodynamic considerations alone as expressed in Eqs (7.5 (1 + 1S462 + 0.
= I in. The formula given for calculating the minimum film thickness in the EHD regime is: (7. = 33 x 106psi R.cr2 = Poisson's ratio To illustrate the considerable difference in the results obtained by Eqs (7.4) where qo = viscosity of the lubricant a = pressureviscosity coeflicient R. the pressures are of such high magnitude to cause significant deformation in the material.254 Chapter 7 and cams.1) and (7. He assumed a Hertziantype flat area to occur in the contact region..9 x 106reyn U = 200in. = effective modulus of elasticity I ~ 1 U = rolling velocity = U + U2 P. postulated that this large discrepancy can be attributed to the assumption of rigid cylinders in situations where the applied loads and.4)' the following example is assumed for heavily loaded steel rollers. lubricated with mineral oil: E. ho (from equation (7. a = 10.1)) . consequently.4)) = 104 ho (from equation (7./sec Py = 15. Grubin. which would significantly change the geometry of the film used in the Reynolds equation.000 lb/in. = effective radius = 1 1 2 E. load per unit length = nl. in 1949 [5]. This led to very significant increase in the predicted film thickness and consequently initiated the important area of tribology called elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication.
/sec) .) U = rolling speed (in. Their formula for the minimum film thickness is given in a dimensionless form as: where  tlo U U = speed parameters =  Ee R e G = material parameter = aEe P Y W = load parameter = EeR Using the same dimensionless groups suggested by Dowson and Higginson [4]. Dowson and Higginson suggested the following simplified formula for practical use: where ho = minimum film thickness (in.Rolling/ Sliding Contacts 255 which suggests that the elasticity of the rollers causes the minimum film thickness to increase by approximately 100 times.) qo = inlet oil viscosity (poise) Re = effective radius (in. The important parameters influencing the generation of the fdm are the rolling speed. the effective radius of curvature and the oil viscosity. the Grubin solution can be given as: H = 1.95 7 (Gu)0.6) What is particularly significant in the EHD theory is the very low dependency of the minimum film thickness on load. Consequently. Dowson and coworkers [4. 61 approached the problem from first principles and simultaneously solved the elasticity and the Reynolds equations.73 (7.
8) where 0. Dyson [15] considered a Newtonian liquid and derived the expression for maximum coefficient of friction as: (7.4 FRICTION IN THE ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC REGIME The EHD lubrication theory developed over the last 50 years has been remarkably successful in explaining the many features of the behavior of heavily loaded lubricated contacts. He found that roller surface temperature has a considerable effect on the coefficient of friction in the highslip region (thermal regime). Plint investigated the traction in EHD contacts by using three tworoller machines and a hydrocarbonbased lubricant [14].0335log 21 300 (0. which was obtained from 28 distinct series of tests: f = 0. However. is the temperature on the central plane of the contact zone ("C)and h is the radius of the contact zone (inches).256 Chapter 7 7. > .44sb3 (7. As the roller temperature increases the coefficient of friction falls linearly until a knee is reached. and many empirical formulas have also been proposed based on the conducted experimental results. With further increase in temperature the coefficient of friction rises abruptly and erratically and scuffing of the roller surface occurs.9) where a = pressureviscosity coefficient K = heat conductivity P = pressure qo = dynamic viscosity ho = minimum oil film thickness y = temperatureviscosity coefficient If aP > I. the prediction of the coefficient of friction is still one of the most difficult problems in this field. He also gave the following equation to correlate all the experimental results. Much experimental work has been done [7211. + 40) .. the coefficient of friction increases rapidly with pressure.
viscosity.47 .22.1 I ) vg) = 0.0.037.Rolling/ Sliding Contacts 257 Sasaki et al. O'Donoghue and Cameron [ 181 studied the friction in rolling sliding contacts with an Amsler machine and found that the empirical relation relating friction coefficient with speed. [16] conducted an experimental study with a roller test apparatus. 8 ~ : '+ V.10) where rj = lubricant dynamic viscosity U = rolling velocity U = load per unit width ' k = function of the slide/roll ratio When slidelroll ratio = 0. and surface roughness could be expressed as: (7. + 13. = sum rolling velocity (sum of the two contact surface velocities. k = 0.000 experiments is found to be: f = 0 . The empirical formula of the friction coefficientf in the region of semifluid lubrication as derived from the tests is given as: (7.v(Pmax. load. k = 0. = maximum contact pressure (kg/cm2) .4 ~ uO) where dl'maxy 1 (7.3 1..026. Drozdov and Gavrikov [ 171 investigated friction and scoring under conditions of simultaneous rolling and sliding with a roller test machine. when slidelroll ratio = 1. m/sec) P.12) .4 x 1 0 .3 ~ g uo = kinematic viscosity of the lubricant (cst) at the mean surface temperature (To)and atmospheric pressure V .12 x 104Pmax 0. The formula for determination off at heavy contact loads from more than 10.
14) where V.) S = surface roughness (pin. = sum rolling velocity (in. rms) V.) qo = dynamic viscosity (cP) The limiting value of S is 30pin./sec) V. The results are combined in a formula. = sliding velocity (difference of the two contact surface velocities) (in. = sliding velocity (m/sec) Vr = sum rolling velocity (m/sec) uo = kinematic viscosity (cSt) . and oil viscosity when these quantities are varied individually./sec) q = dynamic viscosity (centipoises) R = effective radius (in. The coefficient of friction has been found to increase with increasing load and to decrease with increasing sum velocity. which closely represents the data as below: (7./sec) Vr = sum rolling velocity (in.13) where R = effective radius (in./sec) W = load per unit width (lb/in. The viscosity was determined at the temperature of the oil entering the contact zone. = sliding velocity (in. CLA) V. sliding velocity.258 Chapter 7 where S = total initial disk surface roughness (pin.) Benedict and Kelley [ 191 conducted experiments to investigate the friction in rolling/sliding contacts. Misharin [20] also studied the friction coefficient and derived the formula: (7.
5 W + (7.0041 + 0. using a straight mineral oil and three aviation gas turbine synthetic oils in combination with two carburized steels and a nitrided steel.0.6 + 1965 + 0. The quasisteady disk surface temperature and the mean conjectioninlet oil temperature are shown to be strongly influenced by the friction power loss at the contact. Ku et al. = sliding velocity (m/sec) W = load (kN) S = surface roughness (pm CLA) .0009 + 0.3 contact stress 2 2500 kg/cm2 0. [21] conducted slidingrolling disk scuffing tests over a wide range of sliding and sum velocities.16) where V.c6 1965 .8 cm slide/roll ratior 0.0666 I3O c5+ W V:.Rolling/ Sliding Contacts 259 The limiting values are: R: nonsignificant deviation from 1.15) For AMS 6475 steel: 0.0003S (7.0003S c.41. They are also influenced by the heat transfer from the disk. It is shown that the disk friction coefficient is dependent not only on the oilmetal combination. = sum rolling velocity (m/sec) V. For AISI 93 10 steel: f= 0. mainly by convection to the oil and conduction through the shafts. which are dependent on system design and oil flow rate. but not by the specific makeup of the frictional power loss.02 The accuracy of this empirical formula is reported to be within 15%.0666 130 +i.08 sf 2 0. but also on the disk surface treatment and topography as well as the operating conditions.
7. the lubricant behavior is similar to a Newtonian fluid. but generally none of these formulas correlates well with the others. The third region is the thermal region. as illustrated in Fig.260 Chapter 7 7 5 DOMAINS OF FRICTION IN EHD ROLLING/SLIDING . Slide / Roll Ratio 2 Figure 7. the first region is the isothermal region in which the shear rate is small and the amount of heat generated is so small as to be negligible. after which the coefficient of friction decreases with sliding speed. . The second region is called the nonlinear region where the lubricant is subjected to larger strain rates. Thermal effects do not provide an adequate explanation in this region because the observed frictional traction may be several orders of magnitude lower than the calculated values even when temperature effects are considered. Each formula shows good correlation with the test data from which it was derived.4. 7.3. As illustrated in Fig. Almost all the empirical formulas discussed in the previous section are for the thermal regime. This suggests that these formulas are limited in their range of application and that a unified empirical formula remains to be developed. The coefficient of friction curve starts to deviate significantly from the Newtonian curve and a maximum coefficient of friction is obtained. as shown in Fig. CONTACTS The coefficient of friction for different slidetoroll ratio z has three regions of interest as interpreted by Dyson [15].2  Friction in rolling/sliding contacts. 7.2. The coefficient of friction decreases with increasing sliding speed and significant increase occurs in the temperature of the lubricant and the surfaces at the exit of the contact. In this region.
07 26 I 0. .01 002 003 004 005 006 000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 8 C 1 Figure 7 3 (a) Comparison of Drozdov's formula with Drozdov's experiments.08 0.03 0.01 008 0M .00 0.01 .02 0. 0. (b) Comparison of .08 I 0. (c) Comparison of Kelley's formula with Kelley's experiments. c 005 004 003   nnn .05 t / I /I 0. (d) Comparison of Misharin's formula with Misharin's experiments. Cameron's formula with Cameron's experiments. * 0.RoNinglSliding Contacts 0.06  0.
05 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.4 (a) Comparison of Drozdov’s formula with Cameron’s experiments.01 0.262 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.04 0. (b) Comparison of Drozdov’s formula with Misharin’s experiments.04 0.04 I I 1 0.00 0.02 0.”/ 0.05 r t 0 : .02 0.05 0.07 0 w) (a) f @) f 0.08 Figure 7.05  0.OO 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.01 0. .04 0.07 0.00 .07 0.08 0 0 o o 00 / I L 0.06 0.08 0.03 0.03 0. ( c ) Comparison of Kelley’s formula with Cameron’s experiments.02 0.08 Chapter 7 0.03  0.00 0.08 0.08 0.03 0. (d) Comparison of Kelley’s formula with Misharin’s experiments.07  n n= ’ c 0.
02 0.)(e) Comparison of Misharin’s formula with Kelley’s experiments.08 (9) f (h) f Figure 7.04 0.01 0.07 0.08 0.R ollingl Sliding Contacts 0.00 0.01 0. (f) Comparison of Misharin’s formula with Drozdov‘s experiments.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.OO 1 0. .00 .04 / 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.08 I 263 0.04 0. (8)Comparison of Cameron’s formula with Misharin’s experiments.07 0.05 0.01 0.05 * 0.4 (Cont ’d.06 0. (h) Comparison of Misharin’s formula with Cameron’s experiments.02 0.
and machining processes on the coefficient of friction.345. The coating materials used for the disks were tin. which cover the different lubrication regimes. slide/roll ratios. The measured surface roughness is shown in Table 7.8 12 N/m. whereas the disks were changed to provide different coated surfaces.154.08. This was particularly important for the rolling friction tests. The shaft remained unchanged during the tests. rolling speeds varied the from 0. diameter 61 mm. The shaft was ground 4350 steel. A variable speed transmission was used to adjust the rolling speed to any desired value. and the disks were ground 1020 steel. The experimental setup used in this study is schematically shown in Fig. The formulas developed by Rashid and Seireg [23] are used to calculate the temperature rise in the film.0.76 m/s. and the contact width was 3. The load was applied to the disk assembly by an air bag.175mm for all the disks. the slide/roll ratios were 0.0.109.3 to 2.2mm. 7. diameter 203. The coating was accomplished by electroplating with a layer of approximately 0. and the sliding speeds were in the range 0 to 0. and explore and evaluate the effects of different parameters such as loads. ground steel shafts which could easily slide in four linear ball bearing pillow blocks.1 and the material properties are shown in Table 7. materials.6 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE FRICTIONAL COEFFICIENT An experimental study was undertaken by Li [22] to simulate typical engineering conditions.284.0.5. the loads were 94. The results were then used to derive general empirical formulas for the coefficient of friction. A toothed belt system guaranteed the accuracy of slidingrolling ratios.0. This limited the fluctuation of load caused by the vibration which may result from any unbalance in the disk. The frictional signal obtained from the torquemeter was relatively constant in the performed tests.95m/s. chromium.0127 mm for all the three coated disks. It is a modified version of that used by Hsue [24]. and 378. Uncoated steel disks were also used.703.264 Chapter 7 No formulas are available in the literature for determination of pure rolling friction in the EHD regime. 7.406.09Pas at 26°C. The lubricant used was 10W30 engine oil with a dynamic viscosity of 0. The disk coated with tin and the one coated with chromium were machined before plating. oil viscosities.222. and copper. A total of 240 series of tests were run.2. These formulas will also be compared with other published experimental data to further evaluate their general applicability. . speeds. 189. The disk assembly was mounted on two 1 in.
Surface Roughness Measurement Surface roughness (pm AA) 0.2 Material Properties Steel Copper Chromium Tin 10W30 43 40 1 94 67 0. Motor 13. Oil Container Figure 7.5 Experimental setup. Shaft 2. Amplifier 9. Chains 11. Air Meter 6.38 0.1 Disk coating material Tin Chromium Copper Steel Table 7. Disk Assembly 3. Torque Meter 10.145 7800 8930 7135 7280 888 473 386 450 222 1880 203. Variable Speed Transmission 12.20 Table 7.42 0.RollinglSliding Contacts 265 1. GasBag 5. Load Cell 4.17 0. Digital Oscilloscope 8. Couplings 7. Oil Valve 14.4 103 250 46  .
the material thermal properties do not appear to have significant influence. material physical properties. which produces a better lubrication condition. surface roughness. In the isothermal regime. the nonlinear regime.10 show the variation of coefficient of friction with slide/roll ratio. The following conclusions can be drawn from the test results. Rough surfaces give higher coefficient friction as in the isothermal and nonlinear regimes. It can be seen from these figures that the coefficient of friction for steel and copper coating reaches its maximum in the nonlinear regime. but at much slower rate than in the isothermal and the nonlinear regimes. slide/roll ratio. then decreases at a lower rate at higher rolling speeds. It decreases at a relatively rapid rate with rolling speed when the rolling speed is small (< 1. This is probably due to the difficulties of measuring the very small rolling friction force to be expected in pure rolling.1 Friction Regimes Although many investigators have conducted experimental investigations on the coefficient of friction. However. The magnitude and position of the maximum value of the coefficient of friction are influenced by the surface roughness. the . Coating layers of soft materials are found to give a higher coefficient of friction. and viscosity. and the properties of the coated layer.6 shows the experimentally determined variations of rolling friction with load and rolling speed. In the thermal regime the coefficient of friction is found to decrease slightly with the slide/roll ratio. It is found in the performed tests that rolling friction is very small and increases gradually with load in all cases. no experimental results have been reported in the literature for the rolling friction with EHD lubrication. and consequently. load. the isothermal regime.77. the modulus of elasticity of the coated and base materials. The thermal properties of the coated and the base materials are found to have significant effect on the coefficient of friction as would be expected. Figure 7. 7. The coefficient of friction is also found to increase with load and decrease with rolling speed.6. The variables in the tests include load. and the thermal regime. speed. the actual oil viscosity is higher. The surface with a high diffusivity K / ( p C ) usually produces a lower coefficient of friction because the surface contact temperature rise is lower. The surface roughness also increases friction. the coefficient of friction continues to increase. speed. it is expected that the surface roughness.266 Chapter 7 The experimental results cover rolling friction. On the other hand.5 m/s). and the thickness of the coated layers play an important role. For chromium and tin coatings. Figures 7. The effects of the coated material properties and surface roughness on rolling friction appear to be insignificant for all the performed tests.
RolIinglSliding Contacts
26 7
0.05
c
8
0.04 0.03
c
oq0.03
1
0.5
(8)
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
~
40
0.00 O.O1 0.5
w (WmXlO',
LL++1.0 1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4
3
@)
0.03
w (Nlm x1oq
 W 0
cW +W
 0
0.02
W = 376812 Nlm
= 94703 Nlm = 198408 Nln = 284109 Nln
I
c
0.01
0.00
0.0
'
1
I
I
1
I
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
1
0.00 I
0.0
0.5
I
1.0
I
1.5
I
2.0
I
2.5
I
3.0
I
(c)
U (mlr)
(d)
U (mw
Figure 7.6 Variation of coefficients of friction: (a) with load, chromium; (b) with load, copper; (c) with rolling speed, tin; (d) with rolling speed, steel.
268
0.08
W = 94703Nlm
U = 0.803 mh
Chapter 7
0.07 0.06
0.05
e
//
A
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.4
z
Figure 7.7 Variation of coefficient of friction with slide/roll ratio; W = 94,703 N/m, U = 0.303m/sec.
0.08
0.07
0.06 0.05
W=
94703 Nhn U=1.44mh
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
1 . .
0.00 0.0
l
.
.
.
.
I
.
,
.
.
0.1
0.2
! . I
*Tin + Chromium   Copper L steel
. .
0.3
0.4
z
Figure 7.8 Variation of coefficient of friction with slide/roll ratio; W = 94,703 Njm, U = 1.44m/sec.
RollinglSliding Contacts
269
0.07
0.06

W = 284109 N h
U=2.78mh
0.05 cc
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
Tin Chromium A Copper  7 Steel 1 4 4 
0.00' 0.0
'
'
'
"
0.1
'
'
'
"
0.2
'
'
a
"
'
'
'
'
0.3
0.4
z
Figure 7.9 Variation of coefficient of friction with slide/roll ratio; W = 284,109 N/m, U = 2.76m/sec.
4
Z
Figure 7.10 Variation of coefficient of friction with slide/roll ratio; W = 378,812 N/m, U = 0.303 m/sec.
270
Chapter 7
load appears to have no direct effect on the coefficient of friction in the thermal regime. Rolling speed is found to have a significant effect on the coefficient of friction in pure rolling conditions and in the isothermal, the nonlinear, and the thermal regimes. The coefficient of friction always decreases with increasing rolling speed. The rate of decrease is more significant for low rolling speeds, and is relatively lower for high rolling speeds. Both the physical and the thermal properties of the coated materials influence the coefficient of friction. The modulus of elasticity decreases the coefficient of friction in the isothermal and nonlinear regimes. The thermal properties of the surface influence the coefficient of friction in the thermal regime.
7.7
THE EMPIRICAL FORMULAS
There are many published empirical formulas for evaluating the coefficient of friction. They were developed by different investigators under different experimental conditions, and therefore, it it no surprise that they do not correlate with each other. All of these formulas are developed from test data in the thermal regime. The generalized empirical formulas presented in this section cover all the three regimes, as well as rolling friction. All the variables in these formulas are dimensionless. The formulas calculate the coefficient of friction at three sliding/rolling conditions which can then be used to construct the entire curve, as illustrated in Fig. 7.10. The first point is fr, which gives the magnitude of the rolling coefficient of friction. The second point isf,, which gives the coefficient of friction in the nonlinear region, and z*, its location. This point is assumed to approximately define the end of the isothermal region or the maximum value in the nonlinear regime. The third one is the thermal coefficient of friction,f,, and the corresponding slidelroll ratio location is chosen as 0.27, after which the coefficient of friction is assumed to be almost independent of the slide/roll ratio. The coefficient of friction curve is then presented by curve fitting the three points by an appropriate curve. 1. In the isothermal and the nonlinear regimes, four dimensionless parameters are used. They are:
Rolling speed
U2P a =E'
10'0
(7.17)
(7.18)
Viscosity q =  10" tlL x  E ' R ~ ~
RollinglSliding Contacts
271
W Load W = x 105 E’R
sec Surface roughness S =  x 106 R
(7.19) (7.20)
Sec is calculated according to Eq. (7.25), and p = 0.865 (which is an approximate value for most lubricating oils used in test conditions). All the other variables are defined in the following notation:
U = rolling speed = UI + U2
L
U , , U2 = rolling speeds of rollers 1, 2
RI R2 R = effective radius = RI +R2 R I ,R2 = radii of rollers 1, 2 E’ = effective modulus of elasticity =
1
2 ( El E l , E2 = elastic modulii of solids in contact u I , u2 = Poisson’s ratio for solids in contact q = dynamic viscosity of oil W = load per unit length
1 1 ~  U :
+T)
1 4 ;
2. The coefficient of rolling friction is the value at which the sliding speed is equal to 0. It is found to be best fitted for the experimental data by the following equation:
f,
= 0.05 + 1 0 . 4 3 3 
0*00138
~0.367
(7.21)
3. The transition coefficient of frictionf, can be calculated from:
(7.22)
where
a = 0.0191  1.15 x 104Jij 
B = 0.265 + 6.573 x 103 T,I
272
Chapter 7
and its location z* is calculated from:
where
a' = 0.219(1  e  1 f i 6 . 3 6 8 )
+ 0.0122
4.
In the thermal regime, where slide/roll > 0.27:
s=jb
where
 [ a ( ~ eh)] 
(7.24)
j b = coefficient of friction at ho = 0, from Fig. 7.11
U
= 0.0864  1.372 x 103(%)
6 '
h0 
b=
(7.25)
S'>(. Js: f =
s:
where
(%)
12
S , = effective surface roughness, from Fig. 7.12; for S < 0.05 pm take S , = 0.05 pm
= effective surface roughness ratio, from Fig. 7.13
R = effective radius ho = oil film thickness calculated by the wellknown DowsonHigginson formula:
e 4 0.7 . 5
ho = 2'65
q0
0.7
~0.43
~ ' 0 . 5~ 0 . 1 3 7
(7.26)
Rolling/ Sliding Contacts
273
f+
n
I I I I
I
1
I
I
z*
I 0.27
I I
b
z
Figure 7.1 1 Possibilities for construction of the empirical curves from the calculated three points.
274
0.13
b
Chapter 7
...
,....I
...... ......... . . ,
,
,
W
,
T
0.12
*O

z ' t
t L
@ .Y
5
.
0.11
rc 0.10 0

c
O*09;
0.08
t s
* "*""
0.07
. '
' ' * a ' 1 "
.........
.
..U
SeclR
Figure 7.12
Coefficient of friction at h o / R = 0 against nominal S,,./R.
The ratio h o / R represents the influence of the lubricant film. The ratio (Sec/R)e represents the influence of the surface condition resulting from a particular manufacturing process. The test data used in developing the proposed formula cover the following range: contact surfaces: steelsteel effective radius R = 0.0109  0.0274m lubricant viscosity q = 2.65  2000cP surface processing operation = grinding (0.1  1.6 pm AA) film/surface roughness h = 0.21  14.31 slide/roll ratio z = 0.268  0.455 sliding speed V , = 1.35  5 m/sec rolling speed U, = 3.2  15m/sec material = EN32 steel cast hardened to 750 VPN to a depth of 0.025 in. ~ 7 1 SAE 8622 carburized and hardened to Rockwell hardness 60 [18] Steel 38XMIOA [19]
RollinglSliding Contacts
275
(El.otroplat8d Machining)
0.1

(Soperfinldng)
0.1
1
10
I
I:
20
0.1
1
(b)
mm
10
i
100
1000x106
Figure 7.1 3 (a) Proposed effective surface roughness for various manufacturing processes. (b) Effective (Sec/R)eagainst nominal S J R .
Grade 12X2H4A steel carburized to a depth of 11.5mm and heattreated to a Rockwell hardness of 5860 [20] load W = 1.54 x 10’  20.3 x 10’ N/m , maximum contact stress a = 6724  16,825 kg/cm2
276
Chapter 7
7.7.1
Coating Effects on the Coefficients of Friction
Equation (7.24) is for steelsteel contact. In the case where the surface is coated with other materials, the experimental results show that the coefficient of friction can deviate considerably from the steelsteel contact conditions. This can be attributed to the effect of the coating material properties. Since the oil film thickness is a critical fctor in lubrication, and the viscosity of the lubricant affects the film thickness significantly, evaluation of the temperature rise in the contact zone is of critical importance in this case.
7.7.2
Temperature Rise Calculation
The temperature rise in the contact zone is calculated by the empirical formulas developed by Rashid and Seireg [23]:
where
9, = I&

U2IWf'
where all the variables are defined in the notation except the film thickness h:
h = Eh0
E
is a factor proposed by Wilson and Sheu [25]:
& =
I
+ 0.241[(1 + 14.8 z0.83)80.64]
1
(7.28)
RollinglSliding Contacts
277
where
z = sliding/rolling ratio
6 =  rloY u2 K qo = lubricant viscosity at the entry condition y = temperatureviscosity coefficient of the lubricant U = mean rolling velocity K = heat conductivity of the lubricant
7.7.3
Coating Thickness Effects on Temperature Rise
It should be noted here that Eq. (7.27) is derived for the case when the two P entire disks have homogeneous properties, i.e., K I, C I , I , El for disk 1 and k 2 , C2, p2, E2 for disk 2. In order to use the formula to calculate the temperature rise for coating surfaces, the temperature penetration depth, D, is calculated and the result is plotted in Figs 7.147.16.
1.5
. oswnn
.s$tedChromium
U = 0.303 mh
 st=OPper
1.o
VsQt00(sted
Y
E E n
n
0.5
m
P
c
. .
v
m
P
4r
0.0
~
~
'
~
~
'
"
1
'
~
'
'
"
'
~
'
'
~
'
~
~
"
'
'
'
"
278
Chapter 7

. SteelCopper . VSteelSteel
A
. 4 SteelChromium
+SteelTin
U=IM#d
Figure 7.15 Variation of temperature penetration depth on coated surface with load for U = 1.44m/s.
.
, A
. 0SteelTin . 4 SteelChromium
SteelCopper
’ISteelSteel
U 2.76 nrh

v
D
E’”/
0.5
0.5 1.o
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
W (N/m ~10‘) Figure 7.16 Variation of temperature penetration depth on coated surface with load for U = 2.76m/s.
RoNinglSliding Contacts
279
(7.29)
From Figs 7.147.16 it can be seen that the temperature penetration depth in all cases is much higher than the coating thickness (0.0127mm). This means that both the coating material properties and the base material properties must be considered during applying Eq. (7.27). Therefore, a coating is thickness factor /? used to modify the temperature rise calculated with the coating material properties:
(7.30)
where hc is the coating thickness, D is the temperature penetration depth for steel under the corresponding conditions, z is a constant with a value of 0.033. Figure 7.17 shows the variation of /Iwith the ratio of coating thickness to temperature penetration depth.
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
hclO
Figure 7.1 7
Variation of @ with h,/D.
280
Chapter 7
7.7.4
Effective Viscosity
Using the notation:
Th = absolute bulk disk temperature (e.g., Tb = 273.16 "C) A Ts = temperature rise for steelsteel contact ATc = temperature rise from Eq. (7.27) using the material properties of
A T = A Tc  A Ts = temperature rise difference between the steelcoating
+
the contacting surfaces for steelcoating contact
contact and the steelsteel contact AT, = effective temperature rise difference between the steelcoating contact and the steelsteel contact Then:
AT'>= A T P
(7.31)
where B is the coating thickness factor from the previous section. Then T', = Tb AT, is used to calculate the viscosity for that coating conditions, and the viscosity is then substituted into Eq. (7.24) to calculate the corresponding coefficient of friction. The viscosity of 10W30 oil is calculated by the ASTM equation [27]:
+
lOg(cS
+ 0.6) = a  b log T ,
(7.32a)
therefore
(7.32b) (7.32~)
where T, is the absolute temperature ( K or R), cS is the kinematic viscosity (centistokes). a = 7.827. b = 3.045 for 10W30 oil. For some commonly used oil, a and 6 values are given in Table 7.3.
7.7.5
Coating Thickness Effects on Modulus of Elasticity
For the reasons mentioned before, the effective modulus of elasticity, Et,, for coated surface is desirable. Using the wellknown Hertz equation, one calculates the Hertz contact width for two cylinder contact as [27]:
(7.33)
RollinglSliding Contacts
Table 7.3 Values of a and b for Some Commonly Used
281
Lubricant Oils
Oil
~~
a
~
b
SAE 10 SAE 20 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 SAE 60 SAE 70
11.768 11.583 11.355 I 1.398 10.431 10.303 10.293
4.6418 4.5495 4.4367 4.4385 4.0319 3.9705 3.9567
E' and U are the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio. Coating material properties are used for E2 and u2 because coating thickness is an order greater than the deformation depth (this can be seen later). Therefore, the deformation depth is calculated by (Fig. 7.18):
hd = RsinOtanO
8 is very small, therefore:
(7.34)
The variation of the deformation depth with load is shown in Fig. 7.19. Then the effective modulus of elasticity of the coated surface is proposed as:
(7.35a)
where
Eh = modulus of elasticity of base material E,. = modulus of elasticity of coating material E , = modulus of elasticity of coated surface h,. = coating film thickness hd = elastic deformation depth r = constant (it is found that r = 13 best fits the test data)
282
Chapter 7
Figure 7.18
The contact of the shaft and the coated disk.
0.006
,
0.005
0.004
A
'
+SteelTin 4  SteelChromium  A SteelCopper Steelsteel
Y
E 0.003
0.002
U
r
0.001
0.000
Figure 7.19
Variation of deformation depth on coated surface with load.
if
a
1.o
I
.
*
a
1.5
I
a
'
a
2.0
'
'
a
' '
2.5
'
' ' '
.3.0
I
'
a
' *
3.5
I
a
'
.
a
4.0
I
W (Nlm ~10')
RollinglSliding Contacts
E C
#*
*e00
283
________
8
I I
I I
I
I
I
I
0 8
f
I
I
#
#
f
#
I
0
4
0
0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Eb
II
0
10
I
20
I
I
30
40
I
50
I
60
I
Figure 7.20 shows the variation of effective modulus of elasticity of coated surface for different values of h,/hd. The effective combined modulus of elasticity is therefore calculated by
(7.35 b)
For most metals used in engineering, the variation of U is small, and consequently, the variation in 1  v2 is smaller. Therefore, no significant error is expected from using the Poisson’s ratio of the base material or the coating material. Figures 7.21 and 7.22 show the comparison of the calculated coefficient of friction in pure rolling conditions with the test results for chromium and steel. Figure 7.23 shows the calculated coefficient of friction in the thermal regime compared with test results for tin, steel, chromium, and copper. Figure 7.24 shows the calculated coefficient of friction in the thermal regime compared with the results from Drozdov’s [ 171, Cameron’s [ 181, Kelley’s [ 191, and Misharin’s [20] experiments. Figures 7.257.28 show sample comparisons of the experimental results with the curves, which are constructed by using the calculated f,,f,,andf,, and appropriate curves against slide/roll ratios. Figure 7.29 shows the comparison of Plint’s test data with prediction. It can be seen that the correlations are excellent.
284
0.08
Chapter 7
0
A
.
U=0.303ml8 u=1.44mls U=2.76m/s
0.06
y.
0.04
0.02
0
U
0 8
n
A
I
I
8
I
A
A
I
.
4.0
0.00 0.5
1.o
1
I
I
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
W (N/mx106)
0.06

A
.
0
U=0.303mlr U=l.44m/s U=2.76mls
cc
0.04
0.02
0.00
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
(b)
W (Nlm x l 06)
Figure 7.21 Comparison of experimental coefficient of rolling friction vs. load with prediction for (a) tin; (b) chromium; (c) copper; (d) steel.
Rolling}Sliding Contacts
0.08
0
285
0.06

A
U=0.303m/r U=1.44mlfs U=2.76mls
O * O 2 [ 7
,
1.5
 ,;
2.0
I
,;
3.0
0
I
0.00
0.5
1.o
2.5
3.5
4.0
(c)
W (NImxl0')
0.08.
0.06

rn
A
U=0.303m/s U=l.44m/s U = 2.76 m/s
cc
0.04
A
0.02
286
Chapter 7
0
A
v
W94703Wm W=l69408)(lm W=284109N/m W = 378812 N/m
0.00 I 0.0
I
0.5
1.o
I
I
I
I
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
(a)
W (Nlmxl0')
0.08
0.06
i
0.5
0
m
A
v
W = 94703 Nlm W=189406Nlm W=284109Wm W = 310092 N/m
I c
0.04
O*02!
0.0
1.o
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
(b)
w (N/m J C 04 ~
Figure 7.22 Comparison of experimental coefficient of rolling friction vs. rolling speed with prediction for (a) tin; (b) chromium; (c) copper; (d) steel.
RollinglSliding Contacts
0.08 I
0
' . 
287
m
A
W=94703N/m W=l89406Nlm
0.06
W=284409Nlm v W = 376812 Wm
cc
0.04
I
0.02
0.00 0.0
0.5
1.o
1
I
I
I
1.5
2.0
2.5

(c)
U (mw
0.08
.
0
0.06

A
v
W=94703N/m W = 189406N/m W = 284109 N/m W = 378812 N/m
cc 0.04
0.00
288
0.08
0 0
8
Chapter 7
0
8
0
8
0.06

I
I
A

r
0.04
0.02
'
0.00 I . ..
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
(a)
W (N/mx106)
0.06
I
I
A
I
I
A
I
A
cc
0.04
0.02
0
U=0.303mlr
U3:1.44ml8
A
U+2.76ds
I I
0.00 I 0.0
I
I
I
I
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
(b)
Figure 7 2 .3
W (Nlm XI 07
Comparison of experimental coefficient of thermal friction vs. load with prediction for (a) tin; (b) chromium; (c) copper; (d) steel.
06 Ic 0.RollinglSliding Contacts 0.5 2.44mls U=2.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 (c) W (Nlmxl06) U = 1.5 3.04 r 8 0.04 A I m A 8 A 0.303mls U=1.?6mls 0 cc 0.5 4.5 4.06 0 0 A U U=O.0 1.o I I I I I I 1.0 3.0 (d) W (Nlmxl OS) .02 0.0 2.5 1.5 1.08 L 289 0 0.001 I I I I I I 0.44 m/s 0.0 3.00 1 0.
00 0.02 0.07 0.290 Chapter 7 (a) f (predicted) 0. (b) Misharin. .03 I I I I I 0. c 0.03 0. (c) Kelley.06 0.04 am .06 A ‘t 9 0.08 (b) f (predicted) Figure 7. (d) Drozdov.01 0.08 0.05 0.05 E 0.04 0.24 Comparison of test data with prediction: (a) Cameron.07 0.
Rolling/ Sliding Contact s 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.06 29 I 8 Y Q) 0.02 0.08 f (predicted) (d) f (predicted) .03 0.04 n 0.02 0.07 0.O? (a 0.07 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00 O.
4 (b) z Figure 7.3 0.03 0 o Tin 0.02 0 8 Tin Chnnnium A V COpQer Steel 0.303 mjsec): (a) experimental.07 0. .1 0.08 Chapter 7 W = 94703Nhn A A 0.04 0.05 rc 0.04 0.03 0.25 Coefficient of friction vs.4 0.2 0.00 ' I ' ' * ' I ' ' ' ' I ' 0.01 Chromium ' a v ' A A Copper copper Steel ' 0. (b) calculated.703 N/m.0 0.292 0.0 0.2 0.06 .08 0.3 0.02 0.U == W 94703N h 0. U = 0.303 m h Y 0.1 0. slide/roll ratio ( W = 94.
.4 0. (b) calculated.RollinglSliding Confacts 293 0.4 (b) z Figure 7.06 0.2 0.303 m/sec): (a) experimental.0 0.26 Coefficient of friction vs.0 . U = 0.2 (a) Z 0.05 o A Tin  Chromium A 0.703 N/m.1 v 0.1 0. slide/roll ratio ( W = 94. " " " " l " ' " " " 0.3 0.3 Steel 0.
.07 c W=87M12Nhn U=2.8 12 N/m. . .02 0. l 0 A 9 .4 (b) Figure 7.7Omh o f l n = Ir chromium coPP@r steel 9 0. .7Omh I 0.27 Z Coefficient of friction vs.294 0.2 0. l .4 (a) Z  0. Tin Chromium COPPM steel .2 0. .76 mh Ur2. slide/roll ratio ( W = 378. l .3 0.1 0.3 0.76 mlsec): (a) experimental.00 0.08 I Chapter 7 0.0 0. 0.01 0.05  U = 2.06 0.04  c 0.0 l i . (b) calculated. . U = 2.03 0.1 0.
3 0.02 0.28 Z Coefficient of friction vs. .06 W =378812 Nhn U=l. Steel . .0 * . 1 .812 N/m. " t " 0.03 0. U = 1.3 (a) Z 0.05 cc 0.1 " t . . . * " " 0.2 " Steel 0. .4 0.0 0.Umh 0.00 0. (b) calculated. l . slidelroll ratio ( W = 378. .4 (b) Figure 7.0 . 1 .07 0.1 0. 1 . 1 . rn Tin Chromium 0.44m/sec): (a) experimental.08 0. * Copper v .2 0.01 0 0.04 0.
02 0.00 0.10 0. especially at the real areas of contact where high shear stress is expected. Eq. 7. All the contact surfaces were superfinished.05 0.03 0.27) can be used to account for this effect. .09 0.15 0. and 40 and 60 for Johnson's test.07 0.00 0.6 Surface Chemical layer Effects All the test data used so far are obtained from ground or rougher surface contacts. The A values are roughly between 80 and 100 for Cheng's test. and Sc = where S1 and S2 are surface roughness of contact surfaces.20 0. CLA.25 z Figure 7. and Johnson [9] conducted experimental investigations on very smooth surface contacts. (7.29 Comparison of Plint's test data with prediction. 50 and 60 for Hirst's test.10 0.05 0. Cheng [7]. On the other hand.) Because the surface chemical layers usually are very thin. Hirst [8]. In this case. The chemical layer on the contact surfaces resulting from the manufacturing process and during operation is ignored because it wears off relatively quickly on a rough surface./:fs:. . (A = ho/Sc.296 0.06 rc 0.7. The properties of the contact surfaces are affected by this chemical layer because it can remain on the surfaces more easily than on a rough surface.08 Chapter 7 I 0. the surface chemical layer can be expected to play an important role in smooth surface contacts.01 0.04 0. they are assumed to have little effect on the elastic properties of the surfaces.
CLA). The result is shown in Fig.27) to account for this effect."C) E = 3.o I I I I I I I I 2. which results in a thinner chemical layer. they affect the temperature rise in the contact zone significantly.15W/(m . In Figs 7. . It is found that the thickness decreases as the load increases as expected because the higher the load. the following thermalphysical properties are used as an approximation: p = 3792 kg/m3 c = 840 J/(kg .45 x 10" Pa K = 0.0~10~ 4. In order to use Eq.Rolling/ Sliding Contacts 297 However. the thermalphysical properties and thickness of the chemical layer are needed.30.0x105 1.33. (7. the test data are compared with prediction.317. It can be seen that the chemical layer makes a 65  t l A 0 Johnron*rTest Cheng'r Test Hirrt'rTert 4 3  2 1 I 0 0. values from the above tests are used to find the thickness of the corresponding chemical layers inversely.0~1 OS 8. 7.ox1o6 W (N/m) Figure 7.30 Inversely calculated surface chemical layer thickness vs. the higher the shear stress in the lubricant. load for superfinished surface contacts (roughness = 1 pin."C) TheS.Ox1O6 6. Because these values are not known.
8 8 0.df".kul.tedf.r C.thof. .l 0 md 0 p 1Mp.lo~t.  H h r s Data A C.withoutm#.ndi 0 c.05  0.df.rclbknof.0 I A 1 Sliding Speed (rnrs) Figure 7.03 0.298 Chapter 7 0.02 0.wittlGono#. A A 1.92 Comparison of Hirst's test data with prediction.5 I 8 2.r.04 0.df.~by.o I 8 1.  3 % E I= n E 108 d 5 6% 0 3 GPa .l A ll5pd i i i Figure 7.ku).0 0.t.01 0 2SOp.91 16 14 12 Comparison of Cheng's experimental data with prediction.5 .t.mlyrr e x CJoul.
. nonlinear.0 0 0 I 1. . the slide/roll ratio has little direct effect on the coefficient of friction in the thermal region (slidelroll > 0.43GP. and traction forces in the isothermal.00 : I B.3 Comparison of Johnson’s experimental data with prediction. It can be seen from the empirical formulas that: 1. surface roughness. Load can have a significant effect on the chemical layer thickness and Fig.01OP. and thermal regimes of elastohydrodynamic lubrication. B.76OPa I I 0 0.Rolling} Sliding Contacts 0. 7. I iIi IK 70 0 10 Sliding Speed. Because of the current interest in surface coating.30 can be used for evaluating the thickness as a function of normal load.U.38GP8 I A 1. 0. 5 8 # C . 7.01 0.04 0*03 B.27).06 ‘6 t Q) 0. the formulas were also applied for determining the coefficient of friction for cylinders with surface layers of any arbitrary thickness and physical and thermal properties.08 I 299 0. 0 0.7.07 I  e 0. speed. Q B. load.) (ink) 20 30 40 50 60 Figure 7 3 . and surface coating. It appears that in general.05 0.60 V I 0. The formulas were used for evaluating rolling friction. (U.7 General Observations on the Results The empirical formulas were checked for different regimes of lubrication. great difference in the coefficient of friction for conditions with large A ratios (>40) in the thermal regime.02 0.
U1. 5. as shown in Eq. 3./sec) Dynamic viscosity of lubricant oil at entry condition qo (Pasec.1 Unlayered SteelSteel Contact Surfaces 1. (lb/in. in. in.300 Chapter 7 2. This is represented by a factor B.0026) Modulus of steel E (Pa.) Surface velocities. in. 1/psi) Calculate: E Effective modulus of elasticity E’ = 13 1 Mean rolling velocity U = U ~ + U2 2 . This is represented by using an effective modulus of elasticity for the coated surface. 7 8 PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATION OF THE COEFFICIENT .) Poisson’s ratio for steel v (dimensionless) Pressureviscosity coefficient of lubricant a! ( 1/Pa. (7. For tin (whose modulus of elasticity differs from that of the base material most significantly among the three coating materials used). OF FRICTION 7. reyn) Load F (n. 12 (m. The surface roughness effect is treated in this study as a function of the surface generating process rather than the traditional surface roughness measurements.30). Given: contact surface radii r l . S2 (m CLA. Coating has a significant effect on the temperature rise in the contact zone. U . The oil film thickness is found to be better represented for friction calculation in a nondimensional form by normalizing it to the effective radius rather than the commonly used film thickness to roughness ratio A. psi) Contact width of surfaces y (m. 4. this correction produces a 50% increase in the effective modulus of elasticity.35). (7.8. in.3) x 0. (mlsec. Coating has an effect on the modulus of elasticity as shown in Eq. CLA) or manufacturing processes Density of lubricant p (kg/m3. 2. lbf) Surface roughness S1.
Find Sr. 7. take S. rl (m. For S < 0. 7. W .2. I.05 pm.) Poisson's ratio for steel U (dimensionless) Lubricant oil properties: Thermal conductivity KO (W/m'C). CLA) or manufacturing processes density of lubricant p (kg/m3.fi to construct the coefficient of friction curve versus sliding/rolling ratio. from Fig. and rolling speed = U . (BTU/(secin. =4 Calculate dimensionless U . (BTU/lbOF) x 3.) surface velocities U 1 U2 (m/sec.U . where G = @E'../R)(. 4. 7. (lb/in. = 0.21). psi) Poisson's ratio uhl (dimensionless) . in.fi from Eq.. Calculate coefficient of thermal friction fr from Eq.8.13a by using S1 and S2 (or by manufacturing processes).fn. load F (N.0026) modulus of steel E (Pa. l/psi) Temperatureviscosity coefficient /3 (1 /"C.3) x 0. where sliding speed = I U ] .17bt7.OF)) x 9338) Specific heat CO (J/(kg"C). is calculated from Eq. 7. Use.Rolling/Sliding Conlac ts 30 I rl r2 Effective radius R = YI +r2 F Load per unit width W = Y 3. (7.f. Find (S.05 pm. (7. Find. (7.24).437) Pressureviscosity coefficient a (I/Pa. psi) contact width of surface y (m. 1 Dynamic viscosity at entry condition qo (Pasec.20). Calculate coefficient of rolling friction .1 1. Given: contact surface radii r l . .fr. Calculate coefficient of friction in the nonlinear region and its location. 6. (7.13b.fo from Fig. 8. Then s. z* is calculated from Eq. Calculate minimum oil film thickness ho from Eq.22). in. and . S2 (m CLA. as in Fig.2 Layered Surfaces 1. (7. S from Eqs. 7. in. 5..z*. reyn) / O F ) Disk 1 base material properties: Modulus of elasticity Ehl(Pa. in..23).12.from Fig.604./sec) . (7.(.26). lbf) surface roughness S . q. 9. 7.
0026) Disk 1 surface material properties: Modulus of elasticity ECl (Pa.) Disk 2 base material properties: Modulus of elasticity Eb2 (Pa. (BTU/(secin. c1.OF) x 9338) Specific heat ccl (J/(kg"C).604. (BTU/(lbOF) x 3. byf.0026) Bulk temperature Tb (K.) Steel properties: Modulus of elasticity Es (Pa. (BTU/(lbOF) x 3.3) x 0. p2.0026) Disk 2 surface material properties: Modulus of elasticity Ec2 (Pa. in. E2 in Eqs.604.28). (lb/in.3) x 0. (lb/in. L is replaced by L = 3 2 J ' m . (BTU/(secin.3) x 0.302 Chapter 7 Thermal conductivity Kbl (W/(mOC). K1.3) x 0. (BTU/(lbOF) x 3.604.16) Use previous section to calculate fr for steelsteel contact surfaces. p1. and Es for A T .604. (7.437) Density pcl (kg/m3. psi) Poisson's ratio ub2 (dimensionless) Thermal conductivity Kb2 (W/(mOC). ps. cs.437) Density pbl (kg/m3.0026) Thickness hCl (m."F) x 9338) Specific heat cc2 (J/(kg"C). psi) Poisson's ratio ucl (dimensionless) Thermal conductivity Kcl (W/(m"C). Substitute ATs. (BTU/(secin.604.. 2.437) Density ps (kg/m3. (lb/in. K s . (BTU/secin. in. (BTU/(lbOF) x 3. psi) Poisson's ratio vs (dimensionless) Thermal conductivity Ks (W/(mOC). El and K2.27) and (7. (BTU/(secinOF) x 9338) Specific heat cbl (J/(kg"C). + 3.OF) x 9338) Specific heat cs (J/(kg"C). where f is replaced c2. (dimensionless) Thermal conductivity Kc2 (W/(mOC). (lb/in.437) Density pb2 (kg/m3. psi) Poisson's ratio uc.3) x 0. (BTU/(lbOF) x 3.0026) Thickness hc2 (m. U + U2 1 Mean rolling velocity U = 2 rl r2 Effective radius R = rl + r2 ."F) x 9338) Specific heat cb2 (J/kg"C). (Ib/in. R) (K = "C 273.437) Density pc2 (kg/m3.
12.20) except that E' is replaced by E. Half contact width 6 = 1.31) where /? = (PI P2)/2. Substitute Ebl . U are substituted c1 by K1. S from Eqs. (7. (7. (7. Calculate hd by using Eq.Then S ./ WR E' 7. 6. Use Eq.30) to calculate p1 where h. (7. E2.&. Calculate the effective modulus of elasticity of the layered surfaces by: Find Sel. (7. (7. c.4. z* is calculated from Eq. (7.. Calculate minimum oil film thickness ho from Eq. 15. (7. (7. q. 11. where K l . h. c. 9. 7. in Eq.29) where K. hc2 for E b . El are replaced by & I * cc19 Pcl9 & I * K2 c2 * P2 * E2 are replaced by Kc2 * cc2 * Pc2 . U are substituted by K 2 . p. Calculate coefficient of friction in the nonlinear region and its location fn is calculated from Eq.05 pm take Se = 0. say. Suppose that the viscosity is rnl at T1 and m2 at T2 (where T1 and T2 are absolute temperature.2 1). p1. Calculate dimensionless U. Calculate D2 by using Eq. Use Eq. 14.27. El. Ecl. For S < 0. Calculate AT. p l .22).05 pm.27).I.17)(7. Calculate A T.f =f!from step 2 for steelsteel contact surfaces. c2.6. 5. D = 01. 16. h.35) to calculate Ee2. Ec2 * L = 26.16 "C. / S x . Calculate D 1by using Eq. + + .. in Eq.26). (7.32) to calculate a and 6 for theparticular lubricant as follows. where G = aE.30) to calculate p2 where h.13a by using Sl and S2 (or by manuSe2 facturing processes). where z = 0. (7. ml and m2 are kinematic viscosity in centi9 8. (7. D = 02.28). K = 273. p.. (7. E. Calculate coefficient of rolling friction fr from Eq.34). Ec.35) to calculate E e l . c1. = hCl.29) where K. Calculate E by using Eq. by using Eq. W . Ec2. hcl for Eb. (7.Rolling/Sliding Contacts 303 F Load per unit width W =X Effective modulus of elasticity . Substitute Eb2. = hr2. (7. by Eq.ec = .23). (7. from Fig. 18. . 17. 13.p2. 10. Use Eq.
1 1. value in step 21 andf.r/R)'.). or SAE 70. ground surfaces.).26) to find ho where qo = q. T l and m2. . T2 into Eq.8 12 N/m (2 160 lbf/in. SAE 20. G = al&. . replace .2m/sec (126in. Figure 7. steelsteel contact. Figure 7.). R = 0. steelsteel contact ground surfaces. from Eq. T = 26°C (78.03 pm (12 pin./sec). 10W30 oil. ground surfaces.). S = 0.32) to calculate the viscosity q at temperatufe T. U1 = 3. T = 26°C (78.812N/m (21601bf/in. W = 378. (7.3.2 m/sec (126 in.U21.03 pm (12 pin. Findfo from Fig. SAE 50. SAE 40.8"F). 20. Use Eq.03 pm (12pin. 7.12. (If lubricant is SAE 10.fn. respectively. S = 0. stokes). SAE 60. 10W30 oil.2 m/sec (126 in.). T = 26°C (78. from Fig.36 shows calculated coefficient of friction versus slidinglrolling ratio for different effective radii. Use f. If the difference betweenf. value in step 14 does not satisfy your accuracy requirement./sec). Find (Sc.8"F). 21. S = 0. Figure 7.32).8"F).38 shows calculated coefficient of friction versus sliding/ rolling ratio for different materials.(q = pou where po is the lubricant density. R = 0. z*.9 SOME NUMERICAL RESULTS The following are some illustrative examples for the application of the developed empirical formulas in sample cases.304 Chapter 7 19.ft by fr value in step 21 and iterate until the accuracy requirement is satisfied. and J to construct the coefficient of friction curve versus sliding/rolling ratio as in Fig.0234 m (0. and solve these two linear equations simultaneously to get a and 6 ./sec). ground surfaces.). U is the kinematic viscosity).24). (7.). 10W30 oil. SAE 30.8"F). Figure 7.35 shows calculated coefficient of friction versus sliding/rolling ratio for different normal loads. S = 0.03 pm (12 pin. 7. steelsteel contact. T = 26°C (78.92 in. W = 378. (7. 7. U1 = 3. Calculate coefficient of thermal frictionf. 10W30 oil. use Table 7.13b. Figure 7.0234m (0.8 12 N/m (2 160 lbf/in.). (7.34 shows calculated coefficient of friction versus sliding/rolling ratio for different rolling speeds. W = 378.0234 m (0..92 in. 22.). ground surfaces. 7.92 in. U1 = 3.). R = 0. steelsteel contact.) Use Eq.37 shows calculated coefficient of friction versus sliding/ rolling ratio for different viscosity. and rolling speed = U . 23. where sliding speed = lU. go back to step 14. substitute ml.
ground surfaces./sec).05 0.10 0. steelsteel contact.).01 0.06 0.2m/sec (216 in.92 in.15 0.30 f Figure 7.20 0.04 cc 0.03 0.30 f Calculated coefficient of friction vs.).00 0.05 0. W = 378. R = 0.8"F).3 pm (12pin.02 0. ground surfaces. sliding/rolling ratio for different normal loads.00 0 .3 pm (12pin.0234m (0.oo 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.). S = 0.812N/m (2160 lbf/in. 10W30 oil.20 0.35 305 . Figure 7.10 0.02 0.25 0.8"F).03 0. IOW30 oil. T = 26°C (78.).0. steelsteel contact.04 cc 0.05 0. R = 0. U = 3. S = 0. slidingjrolling ratio for different rolling speeds. 0.).06 0.0234m (0.34 Calculated coefficient of friction vs.25 0.01 0.15 0.05 0. T = 26°C (78.92 in.
).00 I I I 1 I 0.15 0.). steelsteel contact. IOW30 oil.01 0.25 0.92 in. ground surfaces.8"F).07 0.).30 f Figure 7. 10W30 oil. S = 0. R = 0. S = 0.3 pm (12 pin.3 pm (12pin.37 Calculated coefficient of friction vs. T = 26°C (78. 0. ground surfaces.812N/m (2160 lbf/in.). W = 378.05 0.05 0.8 12 N/m (2160 lbf/in.10 0.36 Calculated coefficient of friction vs./sec).2m/s (126 in. 306 . U1 = 3./sec).).f Figure 7.08 0. slidinglrolling ratio for different viscosity. U1 = 3. sliding/rolling ratio for different effective radii.04 0.20 0.03 0.06 0. W = 378.00 0.2m/s (126 in. steelsteel contact.02 0.0234m (0.
/sec).” Phil. Dowson. Ball and Roller Bearing Engineering..92 in.SteelCeramic 0. Mag. 1965.). 10W30 oil. D. U1 = 3.. Vol. R = 0. “The Mechanism of Rolling Friction. New York. 6.RoNingISliding Contacts 0. Palmgren.. Tabor. D. Philadelphia.08 307 0.0234m (0.).38 Calculated coefficient of friction vs. Grubin. S = 0. H... A..Stainless Steel (S.“A Numerical Procedure for the Solution of the Elastohydrodynamic Problem of Rolling and Sliding Contacts Lubricated . 3.92 in.2 m/sec (126 in.30 f Figure 7. pp. 1977. A. and Whitaker.. Pergamon.. G.3 pm (12 pin. 43..).20 025 0. NY.. 45._ SteelSteel .. E.00 0. V.01 0. Rabinowicz.. R.05 0.2 m/s (126 in./sec)..). 2. W = 378. S = 0. p.).. R = 0.04 0. D. A.15 0.0234 m (0. Dowson. English Translation DSIR.03 0. N.... REFERENCES 1.812N/m (2160lbf/in. Oxford.10 0. 1954.S) SteelBronze SteelBronze . Book No. T = 26°C (78. 10W30 oil. 1055 and Vol.).02 0. sliding/rolling ratio for different materials. U1 = 3. W = 378.812 N/m (2160 lbf/in.03 pm (12pin. 1945. and Higginson.. Friction and Wear of Materials. 1952. 1081. 4. S. 1949. 30.05 0. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication.8”F). ground surfaces. Burbank.00 I I I I I 0.. .06  . John Wiley and Sons.07 0. 5.
.. Vol. A.. Univ..” Int. W. T. p.. 17(4). Ku. Hsue. Soc. 5970. 19671968.” Proc. “Friction and Temperature in Rolling Sliding Contacts.. 1966. L. “Friction and Scoring under the Conditions of Simultaneous Rolling and Sliding of Bodies. . 16. J. “Fundamental Research on Gear Lubrication. Engrs.” Proc. 1961. W.. pp. of Wisconsin.“ Proc. 9.” Ph.” ASME Trans. H. 1978. 1981.” J .’’ ASLE Trans. Proc.” Bull. A. University of WisconsinMadison. A.. Lubr. July 1982. and Moore.. Pt. Mech. and Gavrikov. Lond.. W. and Isogal. 254. 13. A. 3B. “Traction in EHD Line Contacts for Two Synthesized Hydrocarbon Fluids. 182. 337.” Proc. and Kelley. 57. Soc.. N. and Cameron. Benedict. H.. Trans. pp. Plint. 11. Inst. Vol.. Hirst. A. G. pp. Plint. Vol. Conry. Vol. 24. Trachman. Pt.” ASME Trans.308 Chapter 7 7.. Inst. 19651966. Misharin. 20. 8. 186194. 18. J.. A. M. “Temperature and Surface Damage under Lubricated Sliding1 Rolling Contacts. 1961. Tribol. 4(14).. and Carper. Rashid. 104. Mech. 100. Vol. 533538. and Cheng.” Proc. Pt. Thesis. Mech.. on Gearing. 1987. 1958. Y. Sept. K. M. 19. and Winer.” Ph. Roy. G .” Phil.” Phil.... and Seireg.D..” ASME Trans. Y. Conf. “Frictional Traction and Lubricant Rheology in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. H.. . 19671968. M. A. T. Lond. Lubr. A. Vol. “Thermal Effects on Traction in EHD Lubrication. W.. 1984. 109.. Crook. “Heat Partition and Transient Temperature Distribution in Layered Concentrated Contacts. S. O’Donoghue. 22. 14. Sasaki. Vol. Vol.pp. 19651966. July 1987. “The Lubrication of Rollers. “Influence of the Friction Conditions on the Magnitude of the Friction Coefficient in the Case of Rolling with Sliding.” ASLE Trans. 17.. Soc. Vol. “Instantaneous Coefficients of Gear Tooth Friction. 12. J. Mech. Vol. Roy. E. pp.. R. 1. A. 1974.. 21. Ser. 9. Roy. 15. 300306. K.. M. 1970. Technol. H.. Y .. pp. “Shear Behavior of EHD Oil Films at High Rolling Contact Pressures. 101121. 1961. Jan. 1968.” Wear. Okamura. No. 1 14. Vol. Inst.” ASLE Trans. .. Vol. P. 182... Thesis. 10. P. Oct. J. 27 1279. pp. Vol. “Regimes of Traction in Concentrated Contact Lubrication. 49604502. Trans. 180. E. JSME. 1 . pp. S. Technol. 237. Johnson. Part Ill.. No. 180.D. 23. Y . Engrs. Engrs. “Traction in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts.. Bair. Inst. and Cameron. 382386. F.. 266. 11. Part 3b. R. Staph. “Nonnewtonian Behavior in EHD Lubrication. 14. J... E. 1974. “Frictional and Thermal Behavior of the SlidingRolling Concentrated Contacts. “Some Recent Research on the Perbury VariableSpeed Gear. by a Newtonian Fluid. Dyson. A. p. Lond. O. K.. Vol. “An Investigation on the Effects of the Properties of Coating Materials on the Tribology Behavior of Sliding/Rolling Contacts.. B. Engrs. J. 4. Li.. 1170. A. Vol. Drozdov. No.
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plastic deformation. The occurrence of a particular type of wear depends on many factors. abrasive wear. fretting. the nature of surface roughness. surface cracking. economy between 6% and 7% of the gross national product. Understanding the wear process and its control is. its 310 . plastic wear. the rolling and sliding velocities. Even wear tests under seemingly controlled conditions. The highly complex nature of the wear process has made it difficult to develop generalized procedures for predicting its occurrence and intensity.S. which include the geometry of the surfaces. adhesive wear. and chemical conditions. scoring.8. delamination wear. thermal.1 INTRODUCTION Wear can be defined as the progressive loss of surface material due to normal load and relative motion. of major practical importance. chemical. therefore. surface fatigue. etc. are not always reproducible. frosting. It is not unusual that repeated tests may give wear rates which differ by orders of magnitude. Other important factors which influence wear are the environmental temperature. blistering. This generally leads to degradation of the surface. The wear of mechanical components has been estimated to cost the U. cavitation erosion. The microstructure of the surface layer. loss of component functionality. to catastrophic failure. the applied load. as well as the mechanical. Wear types include elastic wear. and in many situations. Surface damage or wear can manifest itself in many forms. etc. Among these are the commonly used terminology: pitting. and metalurgical properties of the surface layer and bulk material. moisture. corrosive wear.
the mutual overlap between the rubbing surfaces. We shall see that all these are being diminished since they are worn away. iron though it is. Failure due to work hardening and increasing brittleness caused by deformation. Although the mechanism of wear is not fully understood. But to perceive what particles drop off at any particular time is a power grudged to us by our ungenerous sense of sight. and chemical properties of the lubricant. dwindles imperceptibly in the furrow. and the existence of vacancies and impurities also play critical parts in the wear process. One such poignant observation was documented 2000 years ago by the Roman philosophical poet Titus Caras Lucretius [l]: He said. It is interesting to note that with all the modern tools of experimentation and computation. and presents guidelines for its prediction and control. . Dripping water hollows a stone. Flaking away of oxide films. The bronze statues by the city gates show their right hands worn thin by the touch of all travelers who have greeted them in passing. A ring is worn thin next to a finger with continual rubbing.Wear 31 I ductility. This chapter provides a conceptual evaluation of this extremely complex phenomenon. a curved plow share. We see the cobblestones of the highway worn by the feet of many wayfarers. Surface fatigue due to repeated mechanical interaction between asperities or the variation of pressure developed in the lubrication. and which are only accessories. wear is highly influenced by the physical. the microhardness distribution in it. We have therefore to rely on thoughtful interpretation of accumulated data and observations. and the potential for removal of the chemical layers and debris generated in the process. thermal. The success of their judgement depends on their depth of understanding of which factors are relevant to a particular situation. Furthermore.2 CLASSIFICATION OF WEAR MECHANISMS It has not yet been possible to devise a single classification of the different types of wear. 8. generalized wear design procedures that would produce practical results are still beyond our reach. Some of the mechanisms by which rubbing surfaces are damaged are [2]: Mechanical destruction of interlocking asperities. designers of machine components have to rely on judgement and empirical experiences to improve the functional life of their design. the regime of lubrication.
Erosion produced by impinging fluid or fluids moving with high rate of shear.312 Chapter 8 Mechanical damage due to atomic or molecular interactions. the asperity density. Corrosion. 41. The wear volume per unit sliding distance has been evaluated according to this concept by several investigations. and the root mean square of the asperity height. Mechanical destruction of the surface due to the high temperatures produced by frictional heating.proposed wear equations of the following form: . The proportionality constant is a function of the material properties. Archard [3. The broad categories to be considered are: Frictional wear Surface fatigue due to contact pressure Microcutting Thermal wear Delamination wear Abrasive wear Corrosion or chemical wear Erosion wear 8. It has been shown in Chapter 4 that the real area of contact is approximately proportional to the normal load under elastic contact condition. Abrasion due to the presence of loose particles. which can be readily associated with practical experience and to provide equations which can be used for design purposes based on these concepts. as well as Burwell and Strang [5]. Cutting or ploughing of a soft material by a harder rough surface.3 FRICTIONAL WEAR In the broad category of frictional (or adhesive) wear considered in this section. it is assumed that the material removal is the result of the mechanical interaction between the rubbing surfaces at the real area of contact. Their results are illustrated in the following. The treatment in this chapter attempts to formulate general concepts about the nature of wear. Adhesion or galling. the radius of the asperities.
5 x 10’ 1.5 6.7 x 10‘ 1.17 130 ...0 2.0 18.7 1 0 .5 x 106 7.3 1 0 .8m/sec are given in Table 8.5 x 106 6 x 105 3.5 x 10’ 1. Rabinowicz [6.9 0.1 Dry Wear Coefficients for Different Material Pairs Wear coefficient.~ 5. 71 gave a similar equation: Table 8. H.5 1.5 32 21 85 69 25 3.3 3..7 10~ Sliding against hardened tool steel unless otherwise stated Mild steel on mild steel 60/40 brass Teflon 70/30 brass Perspex Bakelite (moulded) type 5073 Silver steel Beryllium copper Hardened tool steel Stellite Ferritic stainless steel Laminated bakelite type 292/16 Moulded bakelite type 11085/1 Tungsten carbide on mild steel Moulded bakelite type 547/1 Polyet hylene Tungsten carbide on tungsten carbide Microhardness.~ 7 x 106 7.~ 1 x 106 0.Wear 313 where V = wear volume L = sliding distance P = applied load oy= yield stress of the softer material K = proportionality constant depending on the material combination and test conditions (wear coeficient) H.3 1 0 .1..6 2. ( 103 kg/cm2) 18.8 2. = microhardness of the softer material Results obtained by Archard from dry tests where the end of a cylinder 6mm diameter was rubbed against a ring of 24mm diameter under a 400g load at a speed of 1. K 7 x 10’ 6 x 104 2.5 107 4 x 106 3 10~ 1.6 9.
1 0.8 5.314 Chapter 8 where Y = wear volume (in.2 Wear Coefficients. Mg Ag vs.0 8. Cu A1 vs. Mg Fe vs. Ag Fe vs. for Metal Combinations k x 104 Metal combination Cu vs.7 4. AI Zn vs. A1 Cu vs. Pb A1 vs.6 29. Pb Ag vs.3) For conditions where the load and or the surface temperature are high enough to cause plastic deformation. Ag Ni vs. Cu Pb vs.5 59.7 0.3 6.4 2. Zn Ag vs. c u Ni vs. Pb Ni vs.6 2. Pb Ag vs. cu Fe vs.8 23. the wear rate as calculated from Eqs (8. Pb Mg vs.0 .2. Ni c u vs. Mg Zn vs.9 4. Zn Mg vs.5 81.2) P = applied load (lb) U.0 11.8 28. Mg Mg vs.) k = wear coefficient Values of k for different material combinations are given in Table 8. Mg A1 vs.5 38. Fe Cu vs.5 77.. Ag A1 vs.) A = surface area (in. Zn Metal combination Zn vs. Cu Ag vs.0 126. Pb Fe vs. Pb Ni vs.5 19.5 2. Fe Fe vs.4 3. Mg Fe vs. Ni Fe vs.6 3.7 0.5 36.5 32.6 15. Ni A1 vs. Ni k x 104 0.2) can be several orders of magnitude higher (in the order of Table 8.7 1. Pb Zn vs.4 8.2 0.1 29. Zn A1 vs. = yield strength of the softer material (psi) h = depth of wear of the softer material (in.1) and (8.0 286.4 11.1 19.3) L = sliding distance (in. k. Ag A1 vs.6 18.8 30. can be calculated from: $=(&) 2 (8. Zn Ni vs. The depth of wear of the harder material hh.
As shown in Fig. This is generally known as “plastic wear” and often leads to very rapid rate of material removal. 8.2. This clearly suggests that the relative wear resistance of a material does not only depend on its hardness but is also influenced by the 40. 8. (From Ref. the wear resistance for the steels in the annealed condition increased linearly with hardness. Krushchov and coworkers [8. This relationship is given in Fig.Wear 315 1000 times). I 1 I 0 100 200 300 H (kglmm‘) Figure 8.1 Relationship between relative wear resistance and hardness for some commercially pure metals.) . A particularly interesting result was obtained by them for heattreated alloy steels. increasing the hardness of a particular alloy by heat treating produced a smaller rate of increase of the relative wear resistance. However.1. 91 developed a similar linear relationship between wear resistance and hardness for commercially pure and annealed materials. 8.
8.3).316 Chapter 8 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 8 0 0 H (kg/mm2) Figure 8.) presence of microscopic and submicroscopic inhomogeneities in the lattice structure by distortions of the lattice. did not improve the relative wear resistance and.2 Relationship between relative wear resistance and hardness for heat treated steels. grain boundaries and metalurgical defects including pores. Cracks can form perpendicular to the surface at imperfections such as lattice vacancies. It was also found by them that increasing the hardness further. slag inclusions. Frictional surface damage can also occur as a result of the interpenetration of asperities. and marked disparity in grain size. (From Ref. 8. gas bubbles. . which produce tensile stress in the surface layer due to the bulge formed ahead of the indentor (refer to Fig. even reduced it. by work hardening. in some cases.
Wear 31 7 Figure 8 3 .4 8. For cylindrical contacts: qo = maximum contact stress = 0. The equations for calculating the maximum subsurface shear stress and its location can be written as follows. As one element rolls many times over the other element. Cracks at surface imperfections due to repeated asperity action.304q0 For spherical contacts: . It often exists in rolling element bearings and gears and is attributed to the propogation of fatigue cracks originating on or below the surface when the Hertzian pressure exceeds an allowable value. 8. This situation would be expected to promote fatigue damage when the maximum shearing stress is higher than the fatigue limit for the material in this region.4. a subsurface region undergoes cycles of shear ranging from zero to maximum.418 tmaxmaximum = {E:. Subsurface cracks may occur and these cracks will propogate to the surface under repeated loading and consequently forming a pit or a spall.1 WEAR DUE TO SURFACE FATIGUE Contact Fatigue The most common example of the type of surface damage is what is generally known as “pitting” or contact fatigue. subsurface shear stress = o.
) P = applied load (lb) L = length of cylinders R e = . Accordingly. 4 l zP E: where 2 = location of the maximum shear below the surface (in.R2 RI I . the life ratio depends on maximum shear stress: The value of n varies between 6 and 18 for most materials.effective radius . For cumulative fatigue under different stress cycles. N .E2 El These equations are widely used as the basis for predicting the surface durability of rolling element bearings and gears. the Miner theory is generally used. It can be expressed as: where Ni = number of cycles at any stress level Nir = number of cycles to failure at that stress level . generally follows the following fatigue equation: N"n~max C = where rmax= maximum shear stress C and n are constants for each material. The number of cycles to pitting failure.318 Chapter 8 rmax* 0 .I 1 +.effective modulus of elasticity Ee= +.
IBM used the concept of mutual overlap in defining the number of can passes. The criterion for zero wear is that the depth of the wear scar does not exceed one half of the peaktopeak value of the surface roughness. Surprisingly.54 for systems with low susceptibility for transfer G = 0. based on 2000 cycles as the reference number in their tests: s5( ) 7 where S.4) and Table 8. This may be a severe requirement for most mechanical equipment.2 The IBM Zero Wear Concept Because of the stringent requirements on the minimization of wear in electronic equipment. it was found to take one of the following two values depending on the material pair and the lubrication condition G = 1.0 for full film lubrication G = 0. IBM conducted extensive wear experiments in order to allow reliable prediction of their useful life [lO12].4 gives the values of G for different material combinations tested by IBM. The empirical equation developed by IBM is given as follows. G .4. The coefficient of mutual overlap (KmUl) be defined as: .Wear 319 8. takes one of only two possible values: G = 0.54 for quasihydrodynamic lubrication 2000 ''9GY For unlubricated or boundary lubrication conditions.20 for systems with high susceptibility for transfer Table 8.3 G = empirical factor determined from the tests. = the maximum shear stress produced by sliding in the vicinity of the contact region N = number of passes one element undergoes in the relative motion (or number of contact cycles) Y = yield point in shear (psi) which is a function of the microhardness of the surface as given in Fig. which can tolerate considerably larger amounts of wear without loss of functionality. 8.
.M.5 62.0 rnin 115 199 171 I66 60.5 Sintered bronze 1 ASTM B20258T Sintered bronze 2 ASTM B25561T Sintered iron I 7. Chapter 8 Values of Yield Point in Shear.5 25 31. 4o 4c Steels 1018 1045 1055 1060 I085 1117 4140 4140LL 41 50 4620 5 130LL 8214 8620 52 100 Carpenter 1 1 annealed Hampden steel annealed HYCC( HA) HYCC(PM) Ketos Nitralloy G Rexalloy AA Star Zenith annealed Nickel alloys Invar “36” annealed H.0 rnin Sintered iron copper I 7.2 .5 min Sintered brass 2 7.07.15% 5.1 copper infil. ~ Material H m (tg/ y mm (psi x 1 0 ~ ) Stainless steels 302 303EZ 32 1 347 410 41 6 EZ:H.20% Sintered steel 1 7.5 90.. H..9 31 35 27 8 15 15 18 14 8 115 96 I35 I50 180 17.9 40 33 150 110 220 I90 220 150 40 25 184 270 184 30 58 40 . Hm Material mm (yl y (psi x 1 0 ~ ) 58 63 40 50 58 58 40 63 33 106 58 90 80 27 32 82. .5 65 47 55 40 40 150 40 40 55 .320 Table 8 3 .0 rnin Stainless 3 161 Sintered steel 2 7.5 min Sintered iron 2 7.86. and Microhardness. Y.80 annealed Monel C 270 296 224 252 270 270 224 296 I99 468 270 397 359 160 I80 384 276 242 260 220 216 746 220 226 262 340 270 296 396 350 269 75 58 63 90 80 58 Copper alloys Brass BeCu CuNi PhosphorBronze Aluminum alloys 43 aluminum 112 aluminum 195 aluminum 220 aluminum 355 aluminum 356 aluminum Sintered materials Sintered brass 1 7..3 min Sintered iron 3 7. I 17.5 25 17.8 124.7 117 96.9 74 22.
0. for different combinations of materials is given in Table 8. and for the pin on disk condition. A: are the apparent areas subjected to sliding for each of the surfaces. For the two hollow cylinders condition.. H.6b: N for the plate = number of strokes length of stroke N for the ball = (number of strokes) For the shaft rotating in a bearing: N for the shaft = number of revolutions N for the journal % 2 (number of revolutions) . Knlu. 8. KntU. For the cam and follower shown in Fig.6a: N for the cam = number of strokes N for the follower = (F) W (number of revolutions) For the ball reciprocating on a plate shown in Fig.4 Microhardness.4. The coefficient of friction p used for calculating S. where A:. FZ Several illustrative examples for the method of determining N and calculating Ss used by IBM are given in the following. Y (psi) Figure 8. Two extreme examples are illustrated in Fig. 8..= 1.. 8.5.Wear 1000 32 I 1 0 100 1000 10000 100000 Yield Point in shear. as a function of the yield point in shear.
73 0.20 A 0.54 355 Aluminum Dry 0.54 0.67 0.20 0.20 A 0.20 0.20 A 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.12 1.15 1.54 B 0.54 A 0.54 0.16 1.13 0.20 0.20 0.54 52100 vs.13 0.17 0.20 A 0.57 0. stainless steel 0.67 0.17 0.20 Dry 0.25 0.54 Dry 0.13 0.16 0.54 B 0.20 0.20 195 Aluminum Dry 0.18 0.13 0.67 0.20 Bronze A A 0.73 0.54 A 0.07 0.13 0.20 Star Zenith steel annealed red wear 52100 vs.54 0.21 0.12 0.45 Dry 0.15 0.54 PhorphorusDry 0.20 B 0. aluminum alloy 112 Aluminum Dry 0.73 0.20 0.66 0.14 1.20 A 0.20 0.18 0.20 0.18 0.20 0.20 B 0.20 B 0. steel Carpenter free cot invar “36” annealed Monel C .78 0.54 52100 vs.63 0.28 0.54 52100 vs.20 0.08 0.19 0.12 0.54 B 0.54 B 0.19 0.17 0.54 0.00 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.20 0.322 Table 8.16 0. oil wear HYCC (HA) Dry 0.17 0.11 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.13 0.17 0.18 0.45 B 0.20 32 1 440 c 1.20 0.21 0.20 A 0.20 0.16 1.21 0.13 1.20 0.2 1 0.12 0.54 B 0.20 A 0.15 0.14 0.54 B 0.20 0. copper alloy CuNi Dry 0.20 0.23 0.54 0.21 0. annealed. sintered materials Sintered brass Dry 0.20 B 0.15 Ketos Dry 0.16 52100 vs.20 A 0.20 A 0.60 0. annealed Hampden steel.13 0.20 0.20 0. special steel.13 0.24 0. steel 1045 1060 4140 LL 52100 Carpenter 1 1.54 Dry 0.15 0.4 Chapter 8 GFactors and Friction Coefficient for Various Material Combinations Oila Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B G p Material 302 Material Ni trallo yG Oila Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B G P 52100 vs.63 0.64 HYCC (PM) Dry B 0.54 B 0.2 1 0.62 0.20 0.20 0.45 0.20 A 0.16  Rexalloy AA 0.
54 0.20 0.16 0.14 0.21 0.20 0.15 0.20 B 0.83 0.20 0.16 0.20 0.54 Dry 0.54 0.54 0.20 0.54 0.15 1.20 0. stainless steel 302 Dry 0.14 0.54 0.15 1045 Dry 0.14 0.84 0.54 0.17 0.14 1.78 Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B Dry A €3 0.22 0.Wear Table 8.20 0.20 0.20 0.54 0.24 0.16 321 440 c 0.20 0. nickel alloy Monel C Dry A B 302 vs.14 0.54 0.20 0.16 B 355 Aluminum B I060 Dry A B 4140 LL Dry A B 5130 LL Carpenter 1 1 special steel annealed Dry A B Dry A B 0.20 0.14 0.16 0. nickel alloy Carpenter free Dry cut Invar “36” A annealed B 302 vs.54 0.20 1.14 0.36 0.90 0.38 Sintered ironcopper Sintered steel 0.02 A 0.54 0.20 0.20 0.20 0 11 .23 Dry 0.54 0.16 0.20 0.84 0.20 0.54 0.4 323 Continued Oila G ~1 Material Sintered bronze Material HYCC(HA) Oila Dry A B Dry A B Dry A B G p Sintered iron Dry 0.54 0.54 0.26 A 0.47 0.20 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 A 0.54 0.15 0.54 0.20 0.17 0.54 0.26 0.13 0. aluminum alloy 112 Aluminum Dry A B 195 Aluminum Dry A 0.14 1.14 0. Dry 0.93 0.20 0.14 .54 0.20 A 0.54 B 0.54 0.15 A B Nitralloy G 302 vs.20 0.54 0.17 302 vs.54 0.20 0.54 0.20 B 0.14 0.20 0.54 0.18 0.20 0.54 B 0.14 0.15 B 0.71 A 0.99 0.20 0. plastic Delrin Nylatron G Polyethylene 0.47 A 0.20 0.89 0.17 0.54 0.20 1.54 0.20 Dry 0.57 0.19 Dry 0.33 0.23 B 0. steel Star Zenith steel annealed red wear 302 vs.20 0.15 0.34 A 0.88 0.54 0.19 0.54 0.16 0.54 0.54 0.15 302 vs.20 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.54 0.1 1 0.54 1.
20 0.72 0.13 0.1 1 0.20 0. 0 1 B Esso Standard Millcot K50 1 (Naphthenic type. (b) Kn..54 Dry A B 0.54 0.27 0.27 0.. = 1. ~ i I (a) Figure 8.20 0..54 0.54 0.09 0.54 0.324 Table 8.66 0.12 0.73 0.26 0.80 Brass vs.5 (b) Coefficient of mutual overlap.15 0.20 32 1 440 c Dry B 0.22 0.20 0.54 0. (a) K.20 0.20 0.60 A Zytel 101 Dry A B Dry A B A 0.20 0.. VI = 105). VI = 77).20 0.24 0..54 0.54 A B ~ B Dry 0.20 0.4 Chciptcr X Continued ~ Material Teflon Oila A G 0.22 0.20 0. 0.78 0...70 0. stainless steel 302 0.20 0. .54 "Oil A Socony Vacuum Gargole PE797 (Paraffin type.20 0.18 0.54 p Material Brass vs.20 0.23 0.19 0.20 0.20 0. b .. steel 1045 Oila Dry G p Dry B 0.16 4140 LL 52100 B Dry A 0.
(a) Cam and follower. The procedure used by IBM for calculating the surface shear stress is as follows: (a) For area contacts (b) For line contacts when sliding in the circumferential direction and . Figure 8.6 Illustration of evaluating number of passes based on the concept of mutual overlap. (c) shaft and journal bearing.7 shows three groups of different types of contact. (b) reciprocating ball and plate.Wear Motion of follower 325 Cam and follower Length o strokg f 4 q Reciprocatingball and plate (c) Shaft and journal bearing Figure 8.
cylinder within cylinder.7 Examples of types of contact. . cylinder on plate. crossed cylinders. sphere within sphere. cylinder on cylinder.326 Chapter 8 when sliding in the axial direction where qo = the maximum Hertzian contact pressure p = coefficient of friction from Table 8. (a) Sliding closeconforming surfaces: plane on plane.4 K = stress concentration factor at the edges or corners. which depends on sharpness (c) For spheres on spheres o r crossed cylinders (point contacts) where qo = maximum Hertzian contact pressure a. b = half major and minor axes for the elliptical area of contact (a = b for circular contact) U = Poisson’s ratio (a) SHdicrg close conhrming surfacer (b) Slkling line contact (0) Sliding point contact Cylinder within oylindor Figure 8. (b) sliding line contact: cylinder on cylinder. (c) sliding point contact: sphere on sphere.
 Therefore.cosa) 1 =d . . the condition for cutting can be expressed as: Figure 8.Wear 327 8. The equilibrium equations can be written as: p N = Qcosa .Psina N = Qsina+ P c o s a from which QCLP tana = PQ+P where P = normal resistance at the contact Q = shear resistance at the contact p = coefficient of friction The cutting condition occurs when sliding relative to the bulge is not possible. For this condition: p N > Qcosa .5 WEAR BY MICROCUTTING Another mechanism for wear is the penetration of hard asperities into a softer material under conditions. which produce microcutting. An illustrative model for this mechanism is shown in Fig.8.8 Model for microcutting. where an asperity with radius R is penetrated a depth h in the softer material and is sliding with respect to it. 8.Psina because h = R(l .
09 0.4 0. the value of h / R for the onset of microcutting can be calculated as: CL 0.2 0. ~ .0 h R An empirical expression for the relationship between h / R and p for the onset of cutting can be written as: .226 0.3 0.185 8.12 0.1 .081 0.1 0.0 h R 0. P and Q are functions of the strength of the surface layer o .5 0. by assuming C2 = C1. The former occurs in the unlubricated .168 0. Therefore.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0. which controls sliding or microcutting.3 0. depends on the coefficient of friction and the material properties of the surface layer.43 0.05 0.004 0.293 0. Accordingly. the condition for cutting: and the depth of penetration ratio.328 Chapter 8 In general.029 0.6 THERMAL WEAR Frictional heating and the associated heat partition and temperature rise in sliding contacts are known to be major factors which influence surface damage. 3 ~ ) ~ h R from which: LL 0. and C2 are constants.= (0. Wear in brakes and scoring in gears are well recognized to be thermally induced surface failures.314 0.6 0. Accordingly.56 .1 0. where C .
8.Wear 329 condition. Subsequent cycles cause cumulative change and eventually create microscopic cracks at voids in the material or at the grain boundaries. the common hypothesis is that scoring will be initiated when the temperature reaches a critical value beyond which the lubricant loses its adsorption characteristics (desorption) and consequently. usually under the influence of cyclic mechanical loading. the solid lubricant film or any coated layer which exists on the surface. fails to wet the surface. complete fracture of the tooth. they can produce wear or pitting. 141 and is given for the case of rolling and sliding cylinders as: . A network of cracks is frequently observed on surfaces subjected to repeated heating and cooling as a result of the thermal gradients between the surface layers and the bulk material (thermal fatigue). The objective of this section is to illustrate the importance of surface temperature not only on scoring. this temperature is generally considered to cause softening or melting of the surface layers of the material. In the case of unlubricated surfaces. the chemical layer. Microscopic thermal cracks or potential crack sites on or near the surface may occur as a result of the manufacturing or heat treating process. This temperature is widely known as the Blok flash temperature Tf (1 3. but also on different forms of wear and surface damage.1 Mechanism of Scoring Scoring of surfaces is universally recognized as the result of high temperatures at the contacts called the critical temperature. surface cracks are known to occur and propagate to form surface initiated pits or in certain cases. They can also produce fracture if they propagate deeper in the bulk material. In lubricated conditions with nonreactive lubricants. Cracks can also occur if the surface is subjected to one sudden temperature change (thermal shock). especially for hard materials. Similarly in the case of gears made of very hard materials. Each thermal cycle creates a microscopic internal change in the material structure.6. surface cracks are likely to appear. It is also well known that in the case of brakes made of hard materials. surface cracking. whereas the latter occurs in the presence of lubrication. and pitting. If these cracks are propagated in the surface layers.
Below the plastically compressed layer are layers under elastic compression. As soon as the asperity moves.330 Chapter 8 where K = constant for the material lubricant f = coefficient of friction W.. . the surface layer is thermally elongated more than the subsurface layers and will experience compressive stresses . = normal load per unit length b = width of the contact band Y . The maximum temperature occurs at the contact surface and decreases with increasing distance from the surface as discussed in Chapter 5. C2 = constants of materials which are the square root of the product of the thermal conductivity. and density A modification of Blok’s formula was proposed by Kelly [15] for similar materials with consideration of surface roughness. The formula is given as: where TT = total surface temperature TB = material bulk temperature S = rms surface roughness (pin.2 Mechanism for Surface Crack Initiation It is generally accepted that the penetration of asperities causes plastic deformation in the surface layers where the yield point is exceeded at the real area of contact.) K = constant for the material lubricant combination 8.6. tensile stresses will appear on the surface in such conditions. which penetrates the surface layers. Accordingly.. which will create in it a state of tension. V2 = surface velocities C . the elastically compressed layers will exert upon the plastic layer a force. The sliding motion also generates a temperature field. Consequently. specific heat.
high coefficient of friction. the physical. It should also be noted that the temperature at the real area of contact can be very high at high sliding speeds which results in reducing the yield strength significantly and thus. and thermal properties of the lubricant can have significant influence on the maximum surface temperature. and high sliding speeds. These properties control the amount of separation between rubbing surfaces and the thermal properties of the chemical layers generated on them. The influence of the thermal effect becomes more significant at high loads. increasing the stressed zone. The tensile thermal stress on the surface can be calculated from [ 161: where 4 heat flux caused by friction = pPOVap ’ c L = coefficient of friction a = coefficient of thermal expansion P = pressure on the real area of contact O V = sliding velocity ap = coefficient of heat partition = K = thermal conductivity P = density C = thermal capacity E = modulus of elasticity m + % P G G m B = thermal diffusivity = & 7 A combination of mechanically induced stresses and thermal stresses in the nominal contact region. which can propogate with repeated asperity action to generate delamination of the surface layer [17] or wear debris from shallow pits. . As illustrated by the parametric analysis in Chapter 5. chemical. generate surface or near surface cracks. If this compressive stress exceeds the yield stress. or in the real area of contact.Wear 331 imposed by the bulk material. then a tensile residual stress will be induced in the surface after cooling.
The sequence of events which leads to the delamination can be summarized as follows: Surface tractions applied repeatedly by asperity action produce subsurface deformation. where V = wear volume N = normal load L = sliding distance = surface strength k = wear coeficien t . 8.332 Chapter 8 8. Such particles include metallic oxides. A comprehensive analysis of delamination wear can be found in Ref. 17. After separation from the surface laminates may be rolled due to the sliding action to form wear debris. abrasive dust.7 DELAMINATION WEAR Delamination wear denotes the mechanism whereby material loss occurs as a result of the formation of thin sheets (delaminates) with thickness dependent on the normal load and the coefficient of friction.8 ABRASIVE WEAR Abrasive or cutting wear takes place when hard particles are present between the rubbing surfaces. The cracks propagate parallel to the surface at a depth governed by the material properties and the coefficient of friction. 191. It is one of the most common forms of wear and can be manifested in scratching marks or gouging of the surfaces [ 18. The load and the size of the abrasive particles relative to the thickness of the lubricating film are major factors which affect the weight loss by abrasive wear. Cracks are nucleated below the surface. and hard debris from the environment. Further loading causes the cracks to extend and propagate joining neighboring ones. These particles first penetrate the metal and then tear off relatively large particles from the surface. The equation for abrasive wear can be expressed as: V=k NL 30s .
Chlorides and oxychlorides are known to occur in industrial environments or in nearocean operations. the wear particles themselves. Oxides or hydroxides of the metals are continuously formed and removed. galling. .10 FRETTING CORROSION This type of surface damage generally occurs in mechanical assemblies such as press fits and bolted joints due to the combination of high normal pressure and very small cyclic relative motion.Wear 333 Representative values for k given by Rabinowicz are tabulated below: It should be noted the abrasive wear may result from. The use of an appropriate lubricant can inhibit the corrosion mechanism and provide the necessary protection in a corrosive environment. which react with the metals. which usually contains humidity and other industrial vapors. An example of intentionally inducing corrosive wear to prevent a more severe condition of surface damage is the use of extreme pressure (EP) additives in the lubricant. The EP additive reacts with the surface at the locations where high pressures and high speeds create high temperatures and consequently catastrophic galling or seizure are replaced by mild corrosive wear. This is a common practice when scoring. For welllubricated steel. Wear particles for unlubricated steel can be as large as 50pm in size. Clearance between welllubricated surfaces should be at least 4pm in order to allow the wear particles to leave the contact region. References 2026 contain more details and experimental data on the subject for the interested reader. 8. the lubricant itself may contain chemical elements. or scuffing is to be expected. Carbonates and oxycarbonates may also occur from the normal CO2 present in the air. they are in the order of 23 pm. 8.9 CORROSIVE WEAR Corrosive or chemical wear takes place when the environmental conditions produce a reaction product on one or both of the rubbing surfaces and this chemical product is subsequently removed by the rubbing action. or can be accelerated by. A common example is the corrosive wear of metals in air. It is characterized by discoloration of the mating surfaces and wearing away of the surfaces. The degree of effectiveness of the lubricant in reducing corrosive wear will depend on its chemical composition and the amount of dissolved water which may naturally exist in it. On the other hand.
The mechanism of cavitation wear is generally explained by the formation of bubbles where the absolute pressure drops below the vapor pressure of the surrounding liquid. 8. the smaller the pressures produced. kl = 1. humidity.51 x 10*.1 1 CAVITATION WEAR Cavitation is defined as the formulation of voids within or around a moving liquid when the particles of the liquid fail to adhere to the boundaries of the passage way. k . k2 and constants The constants for his data are: ko = 5. the smaller the velocity of collapse and consequently. It is known to occur in ship propellers operating at high speed [34361.number of cycles f = frequency (Hz) a = slip distance (in.05 x 106.+ kzaPN f’ where W = total weight loss (mg) P = pressure (psi) N . It can produce erosion pitting in the material when these voids collapse. The smaller the size of the bubble. It is reported to be influenced by the hardness of the materials. These bubbles collapse at extremely high velocities producing very high pressures over microscopically small areas. One of the early empirical formulas is that proposed by Uhlig [30] as: N w = (koP1’2.16 x 106 Measures.) ko. There appears to be a corre .k l P ) . which can be used to reduce fretting include the minimization of the relative movement. lubrication. use of an appropriate dry or liquid lubricant and increasing the surface resistance to abrasion. Cavitation was first anticipated by Leonard Euler in 1754 to occur in hydraulic turbines. k2 = 4.334 Chapter 8 Many examples can be cited in the literature of the existence of fretting corrosion in machine parts and mechanical structures [27331. reducing friction. and the chemical environment. the coefficient of friction. the surface temperature.
It has been observed in the wear of turbine blades and in the elbows of highspeed hydraulic piping systems. The capillary energy E of the bubble can also be expressed as: where ro = radius of the bubble before collapse This energy of collapse is generally considered to be the cause of cavitation erosion pitting and wear. The equilibrium of a vapor bubble can be expressed as: Pi = Pe . erosive wear is the mechanism utilized in water jet cutting systems. In its extreme condition. The effect of the high pressures on wear is partly enhanced by the shearing action of the liquid as it flows across the surface. 8.r 2s where Pi = internal pressure Pe = external pressure S = surface tension r = radius of the bubble and Pi equals the vapor pressure. 381. The pressure generated due to the change in velocity can be quantified as: P=(AV)& .12 EROSIVE WEAR Erosive wear occurs due to the change of momentum of a fluid moving at high speed. The change in the fluid particle velocity (A V) as it impinges on the metal surface can create a high impact pressure which is a function of the density of the fluid and the modulus of elasticity of the impacted material [37.Wear 335 lation between the rate of pitting and the vapor pressure and the surface tension of the liquid.
. R.. Des. 1956. 1955. Hays. 1958. Investigation of the Wear of Metals. T. C. 1965. J.. Vol. Mechanical Design and Power Transmission Special Report. Empirical equations for the use of water jets with and without abrasives in cutting and drilling are given later in the book.. “Predicting the Wear of Metal Parts. 1969. Soc. Nauk. Jan.. IS. K. 12. Wear Life Prediction in Mechanical Components. E. 7. “On the Law of Adhesive Wear. Kragelski. Rabinowicz. Eng. A 236. 1985.. and polishing of brittle materials such as rocks. 11.” Iav. Rabinowicz.. Science Publishing House. The latter process causes hydrogen to be liberated and to act as a cushion for the impact. Bayer. . The erosive action can be considerably enhanced by mixing abrasive particles in the fluid. drilling. W. 1960. “Designing for Zero Wear. 1969. REFERENCES 1.” J. Otd. 8.” J. Ling Ed. Krushchov. A. J. T. Washington. 4. Butterworths. . p. and Hirst. M.. D. E. K..“ Mach. NY. 7. Archard.. 2 . 9. Friction and Wear of Materials. Vol. A. and SorokoNavitskaya. V. G .. NY. “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces. SSSR.. Vol. Phys. Friction and Wear.. and Wyason.. M. Akad.. Barwell.336 Chapter 8 where P = impact pressure E = modulus of elasticity of the material p = density of the material Surface damage due to erosive wear can be reduced by elastomer coating [39] and cathodic protection [40]. 29. “The Wear of Metals Under Lubricated Conditions. Vol. Archard. 12.. 9. Roy. “Designing for Measureable Wear.” Prod.. and Babichev. 24. 1966. Phys. F. 5. Bayer. Industrial Research Institute. F.. 3. Aug.C. “Investigation of the Wear Resistance of Carbon Steels.5. John Wiley & Sons. Prod. 6. A. A.. and Wayson. Erosive wear is used to advantage in the cutting. Appl.. Krushchov.. F. R.. 23. D. Des. Shalkey. New York. and Strang. A. D. Nauk.” Proc. Mach. Tekh. I. M. USSR Acad. Appl.. R G... New York. 1952. F. 1965. Aug. 1953. 10.. R.. J. Eng.
March 1942. p. H. K. 23. 144. pp. H.. R. London. Vol. Am. 1956. G. C. Oding. A. 22. D. R. pp. Appl. American Society for Metals. . C. 31. The Delamination Theory of Wear. 223249. 15. Chapter 3. Vol.... Uhlig.. H. ASME. Soc.. 1952.” Appl. E. June 1952. “Thermoplastic Displacement and Stresses Due to a Heat Source Moving over the Surface of a Halfplane. 32. NACA Technical Note No. R. 26. Mechanical Wear.. Wiley. Appl. D.. U . “The Abrasion Resistance of Metals. N. 1984. “Mechanism of CavitationErosion. Fatigue of Metals Under Contact Friction. J. “A New Look at Scoring Phenomena of Gears. “Wear .. Res. and Ivanova. “The Current Status of Fretting Corrosion.” Mech. Wright. 21. Metals. Poulter. 1949. 5...Corrosion and Erosion. W. pp. Vol. pp. Mech. Campbell. 636640.. Avery. 61. V. R. S. 33. and Gough. H. 1954. Haworth. Scient. Mech. 408413. G .. Almen. Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology. Conf. Engrs. on Fatigue of Metals. Inst. NY.. H.” Proc. 14.” Inst. 556. J. Kelly. H. H. “The Dissipation of Frictional Heat. I . H. 1953. J. B. Vol.. 141.. 2039. 59. Vol.. June 1937. H. Barber. England. “Fretting Corrosion.” NASA. 28. A. J. Oct. Vol.” SAE Trans.” Proc. Conf. SP3 18. London. Mech. Avery. N. p. 401. Row. of Int.. 17. 18. Evans. Proc. 1955. Corrosion Protection and Passivity.. and Chapin.. J. pp.Wear 33 7 13. Mech.. 917930. 1977. 1955. pp. 1973.” Weld. Inst. J. p. Eng. Int. Inst. 1950. E. J.. “Les Temperatures de Surfaces dan les Conditions de Craissage sans Pression Extreme. 27. 24. NY. W.. 1948. 1946. Paris. G. Mech. 819. 16. H. Corrosion Handbook. Vol. T. 34. 11571 172. American Society for Metals. L. Surface Protection Against Wear and Corrosion. Larsen.. A. New York. Arnold. Kennedy. 41. 282289. “Lubricants and False Brinelling of Ball and Roller Bearings. 30.. “Mechanism of Fretting Corrosion. Elsevier. P. Blok. and coworkers. Engrs. Indust... H.” J. 1937. Waterhouse. on Fatigue of metals. Inst. 25.. No. 1950. Mech. Engrs. 21(4). N. 19. pp. 29. 169(59). and Perry.. L.” ASTM Technical Publication.” J. O.” Trans. 415422.” Trans. S. Suh. Temlinson.. 1952. l B . Vol.. 1954. Uhlig. Engrs. 31(10).” Proc. G. R. P. Engrs. 1956. 1956.. B... Sept. Godfrey. Sec. 20. “An Investigation of Fretting Corrosion of Closely Fitting Surfaces. “Fatigue of Curved Surfaces in Contact Under Repeated Load Cycles. New York. S. Chapter 5. “Hard Facing Alloys of the Chromium Carbide Type. Eng. 1939. Mech.” Second World Petroleum Congress. Blok. Thorpe.
New York. Chapter 2. p. “Cavitation Erosion. 38. E. and Lichtman. P.. Z.. H. Roy. 1968. 86. 82. May 2. Vol. . Nowotny. 39. Vol. Kallas. and by Shock. F. Bowden. H.” Trans. 1960. J. by Solid Impact. A282.. Vol.’ Vol. p. NY. 1961. Roy.” Proc... p. and Field... D. “On Cathodic Protection in Cavitation Damage. pp.** Basic Eng. 808.338 Chapter 8 35. WileyInterscience.I. Soc. J. F. “Destruction of Materials by Cavitation...” V. J. M.D. ASME.. 331. “The Deformation of Solids by Liquid Impact at Supersonic Speeds. 1942. Plesset. and Brunton.. 269283. 36. Soc. Vol.” Proc. J. S. 1964. Mousson. July 1937. 40. Bowden. 37. P. J... A263. 1 of Environmental Effects on Polymeric Materials.. M. H. “The Brittle Fracture of Solids by Liquid Impact. “Pitting Resistance of Metals Under Cavitation Conditions. 433.
Recent work in elastohydrodynamic lubrication [7191 makes it possible to predict the thickness of the lubricant layer and the pressure distribution within the layer. surface characteristics. It is widely accepted that pitting is a fatigue phenomenon causing cracks to develop at or below the surface. It is also known that lubrication is necessary for the formation of pits [l]. Experimental evidence shows that the lubricant failure for any particular lubricantmaterial combination occurs at a constant critical temperature [21. 339 . This tearing is caused by metaltometal contact at high speed when the lubricant film fails and cannot support the transmitted load.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 9. However. and in many cases their interrelationships are not completely defined. it can be easily concluded that the gear materials. Scoring is believed to be a burning or tearing of the surfaces. Wear has been explained as a destruction of the material resulting from repeated disturbances of the frictional bonds [5].1 SURFACE FAILURE IN GEARS The factors influencing gear surface failures are numerous. The dependence of pitting on the ratio of total surface roughness to the oil film thickness is suggested by Dawson E241. Reduction or prevention or wear may be accomplished by maintaining a lubricant film thickness above a certain critical thickness [6]. The failure of the lubricant film has been attributed to a “critical temperature” of the lubricant [20]. and the properties of the lubricant layer are to a great extent responsible for the durability of the surfaces. 221.
and the maximum localized temperature rise in the film. The most important of these groups are the Hertzian contact stress.340 Chapter 9 9. V . and surface temperature. rolling and sliding velocities.0036) . which suggests that the major role is played by the lubricant layer in the control of surface damage. According to the elastohydrodynamic theory [7191.5 x IO’)R’(B x 106)” . Pressure coefficient of viscosity of the lubricant a. most of these variables also govern the thickness of the lubricant film.W3/4Nj12 s) (.1 The Significant Parameters for Surface Damage Surface damage in gear systems is influenced by the following variables: load intensity. Oil inlet temperature To. geometry of the contacting bodies. Lubricant viscosity at To ( P O ) . properties of the lubricant. Effective modulus of elasticity of teeth E‘ = l/[(l/E. presence of abrasive or corrosive substances. Thermal properties of the tribological system. existence of surface layers and their chemical composition.) Effective radius of curvature at contact R’ = l/[(l/Rl) Rolling and sliding velocity of teeth in contact U . normal to the surface. There are certain groups of these parameters.<! (9. physical properties of the surfaces. + (l/E2)]. the lubricant film thickness.2) Minimum thickness of lubricant film: h = (2. The fundamental parameters for the problem under consideration will be taken as: Load intensity W . which are believed to collectively affect surface damage. surface finish. + (1/R2)]. Pressuretemperature coefficient of viscosity y.1. Surface finish S. The first step in structuring a design system is to identify the significant parameters affecting the design. which can be used for these groups are: Maximum Hertzian stress: Maximum temperature rise: A T 2 (0. Simplified expressions.
1). and the effect of the variation of the coefficient of friction on the maximum temperature rise.3) and c = 1.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 34 I where (9.64 for B 5 I O . The pressure distribution in the oil film between lubricated rollers is also believed to conform closely to the Hertzian stress distribution. = radius of curvature for pinion tooth pG = radius of curvature for gear tooth mG = gear ratio . (9. = tangential load per unit length of contact =  cos 4 Np = pinion (rpm) S = surface finish (rms. 9. the errors and the elastic deflection of the teeth. whose value should be kept within certain bounds if damage to the surface is to be avoided.~ for B 2 106 Although there is no uniformity of opinion on the nature of the role played by the Hertziantype stress field in surface damage.1. can be found in many texts. there is general agreement between investigators that the maximum Hertzian stress is a significant parameter.. Among the important factors neglected in these equation are the load distribution across the contact. (9. The explanation for Eqs. Eq.3) is given in the following. The derivation of the equation for calculating the maximum Hertzian stress.2 Maximum Oil Film Temperature The temperature rise in the oil film is calculated according to AGMA guide for Aerospace Spur and Helical Gears [23].1 = 0.) 4 = pressure angle p. It should be noted that the above expressions are intentionally simplified to facilitate the illustration of the design procedure.2) and (9. pin. This gives: where W W .
a conservative design curve can be selected (shown in Fig. the maximum temperature rise in the oil film can be calculated from Eq. 16.) where po = oil viscosity at the oil temperature (poises) Some design graphs are given in this section to illustrate the influence of the design and operating parameters on the performance of conventional gears with involute tooth profiles. 1114.1 versus the dimensionless parameter: R' E'R' Because the oil inlet temperature is conveniently considered as the gear blank temperature and because of the many unknowns in applying a general equation to calculate the minimum film thickness between gear teeth.0036.342 Chapter 9 Analysis of many examples of typical gears showed that the factor: is approximately equal to 0. the following alternative equation suggested by Dowson and Higginson [lO] may be used: h = 5 x 106(poR'U)'/2 (in. Therefore. 9.2). for convenience. especially for relatively thin films. 9.1. as well as in gaining qualitative understanding of the effect of the operating variables on the surface durability and the dynamic behavior of cylindrical gears in mesh. These graphs can be useful in the initial selection of the main design variables.1 by the lines k) which represents a safe lower limit. 9. (9. Since the equation is too conservative. as well as the experimental results on film thickness reported by many investigators [7. .3 Minimum Oil Film Thickness The analytical. 181 are plotted in Fig.
13Thermal X ExperimentalRef. 9. The nomogram can also guide the selection of an appropriate oil cooling system when necessary. 7 Thermal v Ref. Notice the absence of load in the nomogram.1. The graph is based on a simplified elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis where the speed of the gear (the shower element). the shaft center distance. 12 Isothermal 0 U 1OS . .2 can be useful in understanding the interaction between the surface roughness and the lubricating oil for wear avoidance in a particular gear pair. the higher the wear rate and the more influence the transmitted load has on it. . as it has little influence on the wear when an adequate lubrication film is achieved. 11 lrothermal Ref. and the type of oil determine the maximum allowable sink temperature necessary for preventing metaltometal contact. I 10' 10" 1o= Figure 9.4 Maximum Allowable Oil Sink Temperature for Wear Avoidance The nomogram given in Fig. 9. the tooth surface roughness. 1 . . 1 9 _ . 7 lrothermal Ref. The higher the temperature above the allowable sink temperature.Ref. .1 Selection of design curve for minimum film thickness.Case Illustrations o Surface Damage f 104 343 k \ 10" r abc Oerign Curve Ref.. 1 8 .
9. surface roughness.344 Chapter 9 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SINK TEMPERATURE 200 4oo f W 1200 1400 1600 a w v) 1800 5 20002200 2400 (3  2600  2800  3000 Figure 9. and .5 Lubrication Factor for Surface Durability Most gear rating and design practices for surface durability are based on the concept of contact fatigue resulting from the Hertzian stress field.2 Design chart for gear lubrication. This type of approach clearly ignores the effect of lubrication.1.
Figure 9. S [24].1 1 10 h=ho/S Figure 9 3 .01 1E3 0. 9... ho.1.01 0.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 345 the relative sliding between the teeth. This is plotted as a function of the ratio of the elastohydrodynamic film thickness. N. mc [25]. Life ratio for minimum wear with equal load. where: 1 0. to the surface roughness.1 0. .3 gives dimensionless relationships that can be used to quantify the reduction in useful life due to wear and pitting which can occur due to inadequate lubrication.6 Dimensionless Maximum Instantaneous Temperature Rise on the Tooth Surface Figure 9. in the pinion and the gear ratio. The life is normalized with respect to the ideal case of full film lubrication without asperity contacts. The graphs are for standard teeth with 20" pressure angle.4 gives a dimensionless plot for the temperature rise at the starting point of contact as a function of the number of teeth.
.. = tangential load per unit length of contact and .. AV AT* 14 Figure 9....346 Chapter 9 ... k .. ATP = maximum temperature on pinion dedendum at first point of contact 6TG = maximum temperature on gear tip at first point of contact A q = Blok flash temperature which is based in equality of ATp and ATG Cd = shaft center distance op= angular velocity of the pinion f = coefficient of friction E.... = effective modulus of elasticity of gear materials p..... c = density........... ____.... and specific heat for the gear materials w ....4 10 22 26 30 34 30 N P Temperature rise at the starting point of contact (@ = 20"). conductivity.......
The figures also show that using the stub teeth or tip relief can considerably reduce the influence of thermal shock.59. GR = 5 Pressure angle = 20" Coefficient of friction = 0. C D = loin.1. .D. The following parameters are considered in the illustrative example: Center distance. a set of figures illustrate the conditions where thermal shock due to the transient temperature rise on the surface and subsequent cooling in mixed lubrication becomes significant when compared to the Hertz contact stress [26]. Gear ratio.5 1 000 2000 3000 Load (IbWin) Nominal thermal and contact stress for standard gear teeth.7 Qualitative Comparison Between the Nominal Hertz Contact Stress and the Nominal Instantaneous Stress due to Thermal Shock Here.8 show that surface stress resulting from thermal shock should be given serious consideration for small number of teeth and high pitch line velocity. and 60in. = 10 in.Figures 9.=16 = 300000 cn 5 200000 I v) W P cn Q) 7 0 Nominal contact stress 100000 0 0 Figure 9.05 Pinion speed = 1800rpm 500000 C.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 347 9. Standard tooth 400000 N.
D. Figures 9. Standard tooth 400000  0 0 Nominalthermal stress Nominal contact stress .6 Nominal thermal and contact stress for standard gear teeth.348 Chapter 9 C.v) v) v) n 300000  Y P a 3 200000  100000  0 0 1000 2000 3000 Load (I bflin) Figure 9.1.8 Depth of Stressed Zone Below the Tooth Surface It is well known that the depth of pits increases with the increase in load and size of the gear and decreases with speed.9 and 9.10 give a comparative parametric representation of the depth of the zone below the surface where significant stresses occur due to the Hertzian contact and the transient heat generation respectively.1. 9. = 60 in. This .9 Dedendum Wear of Gears Pitting and wear of gears usually occur in the dedendum region where “negative sliding” takes place. 9. This cannot be explained by Hertzian stresses alone and may be attributed to the influence of the transient thermal stresses generated at the mesh. The latter term characterizes the fact that the dedendum is always the slowest element of the sliding surfaces.
7 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Load (Ibf/in) Nominal thermal and contact stress for stub gear teeth. the microhardness.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 349  C. 9. The tooth surface in the dedendum region is inherently subjected to cyclic tensile stress due to bending. condition results in higher temperature rise in the dedendum region and consequently higher thermal stresses or thermal shock. Stub tooth 0 Nominal thermal stress 0 Figure 9. these bearings are continuously subjected to extensive .2 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS Rolling element bearings represents some of the most critical components in rotating machinery. the metalurgical structure. These two factors to one degree or another can play an important role in initiating and propagating the surface cracks to form wear debris or pits depending on the state of the stress.D. and the existence of defects of inclusions in the surface region. Because of the everincreasing demands on higher reliability and longer life. = 10 in.
As in the case of gears. = 60 in. materials.8 Nominal thermal and contact stress for stub gear teeth.350 500000 C. manufacturing.D.resistance to plastic indentation Resistance to sliding or rubbing wear Structural stability at operating temperatures A low level of nonmetallic inclusions and alloy or carbide segregation which serve as internal stress concentrating factors Relative insensitivity to internal and external stress concentration Resistance to environmental chemical corrosion . The desired requisites for steel used for rolling element bearings are: High fatigue strength High elastic strength . and lubrication. studies with a view towards improving their design. . surface damage is the most important factor controlling their useful life. Stub tooth 400000 Np=13 Chapter 9 z cn W 300000 P U) 0) cn 3 t 200000 o 100000 0 L 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Load (Ibflin) Figure 9.
and rectangular contacts respectively. They represent circular.2. The stress distribution in the contact zone can be calculated accord . Rolling element bearing performance is strongly dependent upon the degree of separation of the rolling elements and raceways by means of a lubricant film. elliptical. The ratio of the minimum film thickness under operating conditions should be greater than 1.1 Contact Stress Calculations The three types of contacts in rolling element bearings are illustrated in Fig. otherwise any skidding which may occur inside the bearing will cause rapid deterioration of its useful life. 9.1 1. 9.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 351 Figure 9.9 Nominal size of the stressed zones below the surface.4.
as given in Chapter 2.2 7Tl / I V = 100 ft/min C.05 OO Figure 9. = 60' 0 di (thermal zone) G.15 .10 1000 2000 3000 Normal load (Iblin. The values of a and b are determined by the radii of curvature of the contacting bodies. 0 c 0 U) < w s c.25 Chapter 9 0. 8 0 6 0. = 5 o b (Hertzian) I ) = 20" 5 0. . ing to the Hertz theory discussed in Chapter 2.D.352 0.R.1 Nominal size of the stressed zones below the surface. The maximum compressive stresses for the three conditions are given by: 40 3p0 =2na2 where PO is the total transmitted load.1 0.
9.2 Bearing Surface Fatigue Life Rolling fatigue is a case of fatigue under combined stress where the material in the contact zone is subjected to reversed subsurface shear stress under high triaxial compressive stress 127301. it is not surprising that hardened steel can sustain much higher reversed shear stresses in rolling contact than in other loading conditions. The statistical nature of life can be attributed to the fact that most fatigue spalls has been clearly associated with nonmetalltic inclusions.1 1 Schematic representation of different types of rolling contacts. The statistical nature of bearing contact fatigue is evident in the scatter of the life obtained for identical bearings tested under ideal conditions [31351. Residual stresses can also influence the scatter in bearing life. The probability of failure in most bearing tests generally follows a Weibull distribution. The general equation used for estimating bearing life is: . the life for any desired probability of failure can be estimated with a confidence level based on 50% failure tests. Consequently.2.Case Illustrations o Surface Damage f 353 A B C Figure 9. It is not unusual for the longest life in a group of 100 identical bearings to be 50 times the life of the first bearing to fail. Accordingly.
3 Failure of Lightly Loaded Bearings It is not uncommon for early failures to occur in bearings which are loaded far below their rated load. because they are selected based on size rather than load. 2 q l . Another approach is to use properly designed hollow rolling elements as illustrated by the experimental study discussed in the following section. L2 = life at load levels 1. . 9. and longer life.4 An Experimental Investigation of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Having Annual Rollers Hollow roller bearings have long been used for heavy duty applications such as the work rollers of a rolling mill. an additional benefit occurs when considering the theoretical fatigue life of high speed. Prevention of skidding under such conditions can be achieved by the appropriate choice of clearance for the purpose of creating an induced load to force a rolling action. They may also improve load distribution between rollers and better thermal characteristics. As outlined by Jones [39].2. the main purpose of using hollow rollers is to install as many rollers as possible within a limited circumferential space in order to increase the bearing capacity [38]. It is interesting to note that this type of failure does not occur when the retainers are made of bronze.2. 371. which propagate into fracture and consequently cause catastrophic failure of the bearing. Annual roller bearings are expected to minimize skidding under low loads and would be useful in marginally lubricated applications where wear can be a problem. 36. q2 = the corresponding maximum compressive stress on the surface (PO)!. The expected result would be lower temperature rise. Besides the benefits of reduced skidding between the cage and roller set. The rolling elements under such conditions usually undergo sliding or skidding action against the race or the retainer. Excessive wear. reduced bearing wear. = applied loads on the bearing Important factors which influence the life of bearings are the operating temperature and the choice of clearance and lubricant [34. One such failure is the development of surface thermal cracks in retainers made of steel or aluminum. 9. the centrifugal . spalling.354 Chapter 9 where L . or scoring can result which significantly reduce the useful life or lead to premature failure. radial roller bearings. In such cases.
The shaft is supported by two selflubricated ball bearings (d) on both sides. Test Bearings The two bearings used in the study have the same dimensions and configurations with the exception that one bearing has annular rollers and the other bearing has solid rollers. A variable speed drive is used to rotate the shaft through a Vbelt (e) and and a pulley (f) at one end of the shaft. which is especially designed to provide identical loads on both bearings. however.12. fatigue life.3.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 355 force effects of solid rollers cause an additional loading at the outer race contact (and a secondorder. and the skidding of rollers. The load is applied radially on the outer rings (g) inside which the bearing is placed by changing the weight (j) suspended at one end of a bar (k). and roller wear. the two test bearings (a) and (b) (one with hollow rollers and another with solid rollers) were placed symmetrically near the middle plane of a shaft (c). not significant unloading at the inner race contact). They suggested that attention should be paid. Separate . The ratio of the inside to the outside diameter of the hollow roller is taken as 0. The details of the bearings are given in Table 9.1. Bearing temperature rise and roller wear are investigated in order to demonstrate the advantages of using annual rollers in applications where skidding can be a problem. Harris and Aaronson [40] made analytical studies of bearings with annual rollers to investigate the load distribution. Special efforts were undertaken in machining the rollers and rings to approach the dimensional accuracy and surface finish of conventional hardened bearing steels. Test Fixture The experimental arrangement is diagrammatically represented in Fig. to the bending stress of the rollers and to the bearing clearance. Brass is selected as the roller material in order to rapidly demonstrate the effect of annular rollers on temperature rise.9. Three sets of inner rings with different outside diameters are used for each bearing in order to produce the different clearances. Their work shows that hollow rollers increase the fatigue life of the bearing and decrease the skidding between the cage and roller set. This section describes an experimental study undertaken by Suzuki and Seireg [41] to compare the performance of bearings with uncrowned solid and annular rollers under identical laboratory conditions. A strain gage ringtype load transducer (i) monitors the load applied on the test bearings to confirm the equality of the load on them at all times. The latter loads a fulcrumed beamtype load divider.
2. 12 0. 0.51 1798 cm) (6.5620 in. 0.1 2 Diagrammatic representation of experimental setup for dynamic test.1 Test Bearing Specifications Chapter 9 Bearing outside diameter Bearing inside diameter Bearing width Outer race inside diameter Inner race outside diameter Roller diameter Roller length Number of rollers Roller inside diameter Diameter ratio Bearing radial clearance Roller material Outer and inner race material Surface finish for rollers and races 4.356 Table Q.50478 cm) (1. 1.rms (10.3 0.99947 cm) (4.1719 in. 1. 3.6924 cm) (9. Brass Mild steel 810 pin.436626 cm) (0.06 in.517132 cm) (6.5658 in.464564 cm) (1.719 in. 2. .5766 in.009653 cm) Load Figure 9.4462 cm) (6.659 in.67386 cm) (0. 0. 0.0038 in.3305 in.999228 cm) (2. 2.9682 in.0021 in.005334 cm) (0.5637 in.
Wear Measurement The radioactive tracing technique used in the test is similar to that used by L.13a shows the time history of the outer race temperature rise for the bearing with annular rollers. 9.13b shows the bearing temperature rise as well as oil temperature rise at steady state conditions for a shaft speed of 1000 rpm.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 357 oil pans (1) are placed below each of the test bearings. Steadystate temperature conditions are reached after approximately two hours. The disassembling process is not only time consuming. and a cold box (r). (0. The thermocouples are connected to a recorder (s) through a rotary selection switch (q). Polyakovsky at the Bauman Institute. Oil is filled to the level of the centerline of the lowest roller. Figure 9. is also reduced with wear of the bombarded surface. the temperature with solid rollers is higher than that with annular rollers. The diameter of rollers is periodically measured using an electric height gage to check the accuracy of the radioactive tracing technique. and the material of the specimen. The radioactivity. the exposure time. The test specimens (hollow or solid rollers) are bombarded by a highenergy electron beam emitting gamma rays. The main advantage of this method is the ability to detect roller wear without disassembling the bearing.25mm) below the surface of the outer rings where rolling takes place.01 in. . Copper+onstantan thermocouples are used to measure the bearing temperatures as well as the oil sump temperature. Moscow for wear measurement in the piston rings of internal combustion engines. The amount of wear can therefore be detected by monitoring the radioactivity of the specimen and using a calibration chart prepared in advance of the test. Results Figure 9. which naturally decays with time. The strength of the bombardment is governed by the energy of the electron beam. The temperature rise for both solid rollers and annular rollers are essentially the same at this speed.12) and a counter is used to monitor the change in radioactivity of the bombarded rollers. on the other hand. The temperature rise differences are most pronounced at 2000 rpm. but it may also alter the wear pattern of the test specimens. The bearing thermocouples are embedded 30" apart at 0. At speeds of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. A scintillation detector (w) is placed on the outer surface of the outer ring of the bearing (Fig. In this study. one roller in each bearing is bombarded and assembled with the rest of the rollers. The rate of reduction of the radioactivity is approximately proportional to the depth of wear.
 Bearing Oil E: 50e w 40 2 . The shaft speed for the wear test is selected as 3000 rpm and kept unchanged.60 ... The bearing outer race temperature and oil temperature are monitored throughout the test. Figure 9. As can be seen from the figure..Q 2000 I Y K loo0 1000 0 0.x"x 1 .0 2.13 (a) Temperature risetime history for the bearing with annular rollers.5 1.5 Time (hrs) ....o I 1.. SAE IOW oil is used as the lubricant for the test bearings to accelerate the roller wear. SAE50Oil 60 BearingTemperature I I 3000 rpm e 5040 8 a I  3 E 10 ! i 20: 30 ' Y _ _ _ _ _ _ x... the wear of the annular rollers is .Q . 3 30a 20 $ L 100 I  I I 1 I I Figure 9..14a shows a comparison of the wear of the roIIers during the test.5 I 2.0 0..358 70  Chapter 9 .. (b) Temperature rise at steadystate conditions.0.
 . (b) Temperature difference between bearings and considerably lower than that of the solid rollers.4 x 106 mm/h) for the solid roller. the oil was changed and a considerably lower rate of wear resulted. (a) Roller wear. It was observed throughout the test that the wear detected using radioactive tracing technique is slightly higher than that measured directly using the electric height gage.14 oil.oO06 1 1 359 40  A  .7 x 107 in.Sdid Roller Bearing Annular Roiler Bearing Flgure 9./h (14. which includes the . The reason may lie in the fact that the wear detected by the radioactive tracing technique is an average wear./h (20.5 x 106 mm/h) for the hollow roller as compared to 8 x 107 in. The wear rate during this phase of the test is shown as 5. It should be noted that after an initial running period of 30 hours.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage o.
This may also be due to the cooling effect at the ends of the rollers. The temperature of the outer race of the solid roller bearing is shown to be consistently higher than that of the annular roller bearing at all times.3 SURFACE TEMPERATURE. It is interesting to note that the annular roller exhibited a small number of local pits scattered on the rolling surface. Due to the wide use of frictional brakes. In the solid roller. On the other hand. can produce surface damage and catastrophic rotor failure due to excessive surface temperatures and thermal fatigue. which are generally induced in friction brakes. with a drum rotor and a . Gammaray emission is stronger with steel and consequently the influence of the radioactivity existing in the natural sp: : on e the results is reduced. The efforts to improve the automobile braking system performance and meet the ever increasing speed and power requirements had resulted in the introduction of the disk braking system which is considered to be better than the commonly used drum system. 9. A N D WEAR IN BRAKES The high thermal loads. Consequently. The crown system [56] which can be viewed as a cross brake.360 Chapter 9 indentations due to local pittings or flakings. 9. and loading history. The temperature gradients and the corresponding stresses are functions of many parameters such as rotor geometry. Some research has been aimed towards studying the effects of rotor geometry on the temperature and stress distribution using classical analytical [4245] or numerical [46521 methods. if the interest is to investigate the surface damage. if the interest is to study the effect of wear on the change of bearing clearance. an extensive amount of work has been undertaken to improve the performance and extend the life of their rotors. The temperature rise in the bearings and oil during the wear est is shown in Fig. THERMAL STRESS.14b. A newer system which is claimed to be superior to both of its predecessors is now being introduced. the radioactive tracing technique would be a good tool for this purpose. however. Better accuracy can be expected with this technique when steel rollers are used. a large number of pits were observed in the rolling direction only at the central region of the rolling surface. Other studies have concentrated on investigating the effects of rotor materials on the performance of the brake [53551. it would be more appropriate to use the height gage for measuring the dimensional change. rotor material.
3.3. 91. under similar testing conditions. Moreoever. It also has the larger friction surface areas and heat exchange areas of the drum which result in better thermal performance and lower temperatures. The analysis consideres the transient radial temperature variations and neglects both axial and circumferential variations. It has the loading symmetry of the disk caliper which results in less mechanical deformation. Furthermore. which is subjected to a uniform heat rate. Qr at its external. The rotor. 9. Sophisticated analysis can then be implemented to check the obtained solution and insure that the analytical simplifications are acceptable.Case Il[ustrations of Surface Damage 361 disk caliper. internal or both cylindrical surfaces dissipates heat through its exposed surfaces by convention only. a simplified onedimensional procedure is used. Although there are many procedures in the literature for the analysis of temperature and stress in brake rotors based on the finite element method [ l . For the thermoelastic analysis in this section. The procedure first treats the thermal problem to predict the temperature distribution which is then used to compute the stress distributions. This can be stated as: where Qin and Qourare the rate of energy entering and leaving the volume. combines the advantages of both drum and disk systems. indicated that more weight and cost reduction are attainable by using the crown system. is by heat conduction and convection respectively and Qslorcd the rate of . these procedures would require considerable computing effort. The rotor is modeled as a series of concentric circular rings of variable axial thickness. 8. the crown rotor showed 1020% lower operating tempratures than its counterpart. A study by Monza [56]. The film coefficient depends only on the geometrical parameters.in which the disk and crown are compared. Efficient design algorithms can be developed by placing primary emphasis on the interaction between the design parameters with sufficient or reasonable accuracy. This section is aimed at investigating the thermal and thermoelastice performance of rotors subjected to different types of thermal loading.1 Temperature Rise Due to Frictional Heating This algorithm used to calculate the temperature rise is a simplified onedimensional finite difference analysis. it is assumed that the rotor is made of a homogeneous isotropic material and that the axial temperature and stress variations are negligible. The proposed analysis is based on the conservation of energy principles for a control volume.
. Figure 9.362 Chapter 9 energy stored in the volume.4) with appropriate substitution becomes: and &+.n 7 T rIl1 ‘ n C. For the shaded element of Fig. and Qv. at the interface M.1 5 1 I Diagram used for the temperature algorithm. n are geometry dependent convection heat quantities entering and leaving the body depending on the surrounding temperature. Eq. for the same location [57]: where B = . With a current temperature rise above room temperature. at time t + 1..n and Q d . 9. T.L. are heat quantities entering and leaving the volume by where Qc. one can solve for the future temperature rise. T.is the thermal diffusivity PC k v.15.. . (9.n conduction.
16.. and I . and are the ring side areas. 9. is the area generated by the thickness difference between two adjacent rings (refer to Fig. 591: where ( o f . respectively. both equilibrium and compatibility conditions are satisfied at the rings interfaces.. 9. For this analysis. A. Considering the inner and outer sides of the interface rn+l of Fig.+I.)’ tangential stresses at the outer and inner side of interface = r. the above algorithm can easily be modified to allow for any variations in heat input.n+. and lower halves.7) by m. As can be seen. i. In the above equations Ao. Au. Ad. convective film. upper. respectively 0 . (9. n 0 . and interface surfaces.( o ~ .15).3. The temperature rise in the next time step at the outer radius is: (9. and A. inner.l ) + (of.2 The Stress Analysis Algorithm The geometrical model of this algorithm is identical to that of the temperature algorithm..Case Illustrations o Surface Damage f 363 Similar expressions can be obtained for the temperature at the inner and outer surfaces. are the cylindrical areas of the outer.7) and the temperature rise in the next time step at the inner surface is obtained by replacing all the 2. and surrounding temperatures with location and time. respectively. the continuity condition (or strain equality) can be expressed as a function of the corresponding stresses as follows [58. ~ = ~ ) ’ + thermal stresses at the corresponding locations .O and U subscripts in Eq. 9.
at the radius I. can be derived as: is The tangential component o .16 Representation of the disk geometry and the notations used in the stress algorithm. ~ + ~calculated by averaging the stress on both sides of the interface as: (9.1 I ) ..+~. L . which is the average of the presThe radial stress sures on both sides of the interface.364 Chapter 9 !I 1 c I* n' I I Figure 9. . m i Tl r L .
1 1) for each node produces a set of simulta2 neous equations to be solved for the known boundary pressures P and P.. The following geometrical.3 Numerical Examples The coupled temperaturestress algorithm is used. Substitution in Eq. This set of simultaneous equations is solved by assuming two arbitrary values for P and using linear interpola3 tion or extrapolation to satisfy the pressure P.0in. at The temperature and stress algorithms are then coupled such that the temperature distribution is automatically used in the stress algorithm.0in. loading and material parameters are used in the considered cases: Geometry: Disk outer radius.is a geometry function given by 0.+.. Disk thickness.. Similar algorithms for disk brakes are given in Refs 6062. the inner boundary [52]. as a module.= (r.10) are used to determine the radial and tangential stress distributions. 591. to give the radial distribution in the disk. 9. fmax = 12. Equations (9. This approach makes it possible to incorporate material properties and heat convectivity that are geometry and temperature dependent [SS./r. ro = 12.9) and (9. Several examples are considered to illustrate the capabilities of the developed algorithm..Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 365 where where 0. to predict the temperature and thermal stresses generated by a given conductive heat flux applied at a given surface or surfaces of a disk of any given material and geometry.)*.. Disk inner radius.3. (9. ri = 6. .0 in.
29.4 show that when the thermal load is shared between the internal and external cylindrical surfaces. The results also show that.3 x 106 in.9 0. The temperatures and tangential stresses for the three loading cases are shown in Tables 9. E = 30 x 106psi Coefficient of thermal expansion.2 787. a = 7.75 1 . k = 26. h = 5. It also indicates that the maximum tensile tangential stress is shifted from the inner or outer surface towards the middle where the probability of failure is reduced. p = 0./(in.OF) Thermal conductivity.25 (2) = 0.8 543.286 lb/in. c = 0.3 338.3 Young's modulus. as well as the case where the thermal load sharing between the surfaces is optimized [59].366 Chapter 9 Material: Density.8 302. Uniform thickness and internal loading 3.8 724. Tables 9. t = 180sec Average convective heat transfer coefficient at exposed surfaces.9 1345.2 The Maximum Temperatures ( O F ) for the Investigated Cases Load condition )( : = 0.2 295. a considerable reduction can be expected in the temperature and stress magnitudes. QT (constant) = 500. Uniform thickness and external loading 2.50 ):( = 0.0 BTU/(hrft2"F) The case of a disk with uniform thickness is considered to investigate the effect of the loading location on the thermal and thermoelastic behavior of the disk by applying the total heating load at the disk outer surface and the inner surfaces respectively. The results obtained from the report study illustrate the significant effects of the loading location and load sharing ratio on the thermal and thermoelastic performance of brakes. Uniform thickness and optimal load sharing 448. The case where the load is shared equally between the two surfaces is also considered.8 .1 1 BTU/(lbOF) Loading conditions: Total conductive heat flow rate.000 BTU/hr Heating time.4. Uniform thickness and equal load sharing 4.0 BTU/(hrftOF) Specific heat. internal loading produces the highest temperature and stress Table 9.9 465. for the given case.9 395.75 469.29.
039.4 19.4 272.283.954.25 = 0.283.50 (2) = 0.506.9 50. Uniform thickness and 3. Uniform thickness and sharing external loading internal loading equal load optimal load 73.506. Uniform thickness and sharing 4.75 I . and Poisson’s ratio to its ultimate strength and resistance to thermal shock.4 Wear Equations for Brakes Wear resistance in brakes is known to increase with increasing thermal conductivity of the material.739. Optimization of the load sharing further improves the design. Uniform thickness and 3.4 The Maximum Compressive Tangential Stresses (psi) for the Investigated Cases Load condition (2) = 0.4 19.1 67.164.9 50.4 272.6 50.283. It is also known to increase with decreasing thermal expansion and elastic modulus of the material. Uniform thickness and sharing external loading internal loading equal load optimal load 73.9 137.3 54. specific heat.25 ):( = 0.456.7 70.3.739. 9.1 . Table 9.616. shorter penetration time. This is due to the fact that the inner surface has a smaller area and consequently for a given heating input the flux is higher. lower temperature gradients.1 67.7 70.9 137.I 33.75 1.846.1 33.8 16.6 50.164.5 13 1.954.Case Illustrations of Suflace Damage Table 9.3 54.283. Uniform thickness and sharing 4. The following equations can be used for material selection to provide longer wear life.393.5 13 1.378.378.3 36 7 The Maximum Tensile Tangential Stresses (psi) for the Investigated Cases Load condition (2) (2) = 0.50 (2) = 0.8 16.1 magnitudes.456.846. its density.393. The case of equally shared loading between the inner and outer surfaces allows for a larger area for the heat input.039. and consequently lower thermal stresses. Uniform thickness and 2.616. Uniform thickness and 2.
P ) f i &E (9.1 Nomenclature kt0 c = instrinsic speed for rock cutting = V.p)(cpk3)”4 . The following nomenclature is used in all the equations given in this section. ( &E (9.4.12b) Resistance to thermal shock: ko0 Resistance to surface crack formation cx &E (9. This section presents a review of the literature on the subject and provides dimensionless equations for modeling the erosion process resulting from the momentum change of a highvelocity fluid.368 Chapter 9 Brakes without surface coating: Wear resistance cx a 1 . 9.13) where E = modulus of elasticity p = Poisson’s ratio E = coefficient of thermal expansion k = thermal conductivity c‘ = thermal capacity (specific heat) p = density 0 = ultimate strength . a = resistance to crack formation (ductility) .JlPrgo ..4 WATER JET CUTTING AS AN APPLICATION O EROSION F WEAR One of the beneficial applications of erosion wear is the use of high speed water jets for cutting and polishing.12a) Brakes with thin coated surface layer: Wear resistance a au(1 . 9.
4 = nozzle diameter E = Young’s modulus of rock g = 9.= 998 kg/m3..v = depth of cut by plain water jet KO= 2100MPa. = 3620 kg/m3 for garnet. kinematic viscosity of the water at 20°C p = density of rock po = liquid density pa = density of the abrasives (p.81 m/s2. = experiment constants a I = average grain size of the rock n = porosity of the rock (%) p = jet pressure po =jet stagnation pressure pc. = abrasive mass flow rate Q. = 2540 kg/m3 for silica sand) p. = viscosity of the water U.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 369 c f . = water mass flow rate based on the measurement R = drilling rate r = radius of rotating jet s = jet standoff distance d 0 T = . density of water 0 = compressive strength of material .. oy = yield strength of target material q = damping coefficient q. the bulk modulus of the water K 1 .004 x 106 m2/s.f = friction coefficient of rock d = kerf width = 2. = j e t traverse velocity . gravitational constant go = grain diameter h.. z = depth of cut Ah = increment depth of cut by adding abrasive h. the time of exposure V = feed rate vl.. = jet velocity at nozzle exit vj U /? = jet inclination angle PO= experimentally determined constant = 0.$.025 k = permeability of the rock p = dynamic viscosity of the water pr = coefficient of internal friction of rock pH’= coefficient of friction for water v = 1. p.pth = rock threshold pressure Q.5d0 d .
641 investigated the case of a rock feeding at a rate v under a continuous water jet with diameter do and pressure po cutting a kerf of depth h. Hashish and duPlessis [65. Crow [63. Based on a control volume analysis to determine the hydrodynamic forces acting on the solid boundaries in the slot and the Binghamplastic model. which describes the timedependent force displacement characteristics of the solid material to be cut.15) The maximum depth of cut zo achieved can be expressed as: (9. Crow developed the following predictive equation or the kerf depth h: (9. The results show that the proposed model gives a reasonable fit for only one rock type. friction along the sides of the kerf causes the jet velocity to decrease and thus the erosive power of the jet decreases. over the range 0.14) The model was tested by conducting experiments on four different types of rock. The jet will fracture the rock because the pressure difference on the exposed grains produce shear stress equal to the shear strength of the rock. Several investigators developed water jet cutting analytical models and several of these studies generated empirical equations based on specific test results.16) . Some of these are briefly reviewed in the following. 661 developed a continuous water jet cutting equation as follows: (9.3 70 to= force required to shear w = jet rotating speed Chapter 9 off one grain per typical grain area The problem of evaluating the performance of water jet cutting systems has received considerable attention in recent years and some of the many excellent studies are reported in Refs 6370.1 < v/c < 50. Wilkeson sandstone. During the process.
or until the jet moves on to the next portion of the rock surface. [67] proposed a physical model of water jet rock cutting based on experimental observations. Rehbinder explained that the tensile force exerted in the rock grains by viscous drag of the water flow through the rock around the grains produced this damage. the authors had to determine q for a particular material using an experimentally measured cutting depth z with known values of a. The factorial method yields an empirical model for a certain material that identifies and quantifies the relative importance of the variables.. Rehbinder [69. He assumed that the stagnation pressure po at the bottom of a slot drops exponentially (i. and Stokes’ law to compute . K2. 4. This process continues until the friction along the wall of the kerf dissipates the jet energy to a value which is insufficient to break off the next ledge. experimentally.e.16) is used to determine the coefficient of friction. Because the damping coefficient q in Eq. the ledge is fractured and a new ledge forms against which the jet acts.18) While performing tests in which a plane rock surface was exposed to a vertical stationary jet. vl. In this model when the main force of the jet acts on a ledge of rock within the kerf.15) is an unknown material property. . . and Stokes’ law to calculate the velocity of the water flow through the rock. c . and used Darcy’s law to calculate the velocity of the water flow through the rock. cf. The authors also pointed out that greater accuracy for a particular material can be achieved by choosing the optimum rheological model for the material. p o = pehh/’).Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 371 Equation (9. The equations are in the form: where C . Considering the fact that a large number of variables influence the erosion process. The general form of his proposed equation is: (9. K . 701 observed that the rock immediately beneath the core of the impinging jet was not damaged but that an annular region of rock around this core was fractured. they used the factorial method of experimental design to determine the jet pressure (p) needed to cut a kerf to a specified depth (h) in a given rock type with specified nozzle diameters ( d ) and traverse velocities (U). Labus [68] developed an empirical water jet cutting equation based on data available in the literature. and U. (9. Hood et al. and K3 are experimental constants.
18) are plotted for three materials in Figs 9. a rotary head with a dual nozzle is generally required.2 Development of the Generalized Cutting Equations Some of the significant published experimental data and “test specific” empirical relationships have been studied in the reported investigation with a view towards developing a generalized dimensionless equation for the water jet cutting process.4 where .20). Berea sandstone. 9. ) ~ ~ respectively.17a9. As can be seen. 4 1 (9. (9.y c o s(~ O 3 y ) .20 versus the experimentally based ( h / ~ $ from ~Eq.17c. U.222 x l o .). o The calculated (hid. (9.372 Chapter 9 the force F acting on the grain.19) 9.3 . = U.= 1. Because of the jet inclination angle @ and the combination of tangential and traverse velocities. (9.21) is the resultant traverse velocity which is calculated from r. Eq.20) is modified and a generalized equation for water jet cutting using a rotary dual jet in deep slotting operations is developed as: ($).4.20) In deep kerfing by water jets. from Eq. namely Barre granite. A water jet cutting equation for the three materials considered. an almost perfect correlation is achieved in all cases by using Eq. He developed the following predictive equation for the kerf depth: and (9.222 x 10 (9. U. has consequently been developed and is expressed as: (i). and white marble. = 1.
(c) white marble cutting.20) for (a) barre granite cutting. (9.3 The Generalized Equation for Drilling Equation (9. Figure 9. Because in the vertical drilling process. Eq. the consumed water and the material fractured have to be squeezed out the hole and the jets have to penetrate the cut material before they can reach the target. (9.4.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 3 73 b’*J.1 7 9. (c) The correlation between empirical model.20) is extended for water jet drilling by taking into account the effect of the submerged cutting on the jet performance. (b) berea sandstone cutting. A considerable amount of energy . IS). and Eq.
Eq.0 1.5 4.22) for deep slot cutting and hole drilling were extended for predicting the performance of abrasive jets. Figure 9.3 74 Chaprer 9 will consequently be needed.22) The correlation between the developed equation.20) and (9. (9.0 0. The developed dimensionless equation for this case is found to be: (9.5 1. .4.4 Equations for Slotting and Drilling by Abrasive Jets Equations (9.0 2. 9.18. 3.5 2.18 Comparison between the model and the experimental data for dril ling.5 30 .22). A dimensionless modifying factor has been developed to account for the effect of the added 0. 9.0 R (dmin) . and the experimental data [71] is shown in Fig.
namely. with the abrasive factor: 8 6 4 f N 1 s 6 U 2 0 r Ah 1 hw1Figure 9. as shown in Fig. (9.23) as: (9.763 (E) 1.19. silica sand and garnet. which gives excellent correlation with the published experimental data [72] for two types of abrasives.23) The deep slot cutting equation by abrasive jets can be readily generated by combining Eqs (9.24) Similarly. This factor is expressed as: (z)r=(3°.22).1 9 The correlation between dimensionless analysis and the empirical model.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 3 75 abrasives to the plain water jets. 9.278 (9.21) and (9. . the dimensionless drilling rate equation by abrasive water jets can be readily obtained by multiplying the plain water drilling equation. Eq.
The use of vibration to reduce the ground penetration resistance to foundation piles was first reported in 1935 in the U. the jets are utilized to erode the crushed rock debris formed by the mechanical tools during the cutting process. 9. The stresses generally are much greater than the stagnation pressure of a continuous jet and consequently the rosion process is enhanced.5 FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE IN SOIL UNDER VIBRATION Vibration is widely used to reduce the frictional resistance in many industrial applications. The ridges between the kerfs are then removed by mechanical tools.222 x Chapter 9 ($) loy cos 125 E> 3'4' (9.3 76 1. 9. A comprehensive review of this approach is given by Hood et al. in 1965 and proved to be a relatively fast and quiet method. Resonant pile driving was successfully developed in the U. 73. conveyors. One of these methods involves introducing cavitation bubbles into the jet stream.S. One of these methods employs an array of jets to erode a series of parallel kerfs.5 JetAssisted Rock Cutting Various methods have been developed to improve the erosion process using water jets. In the second method.25) Details of the determination of these equations are given in Ref. Another method is to break up the continuous jet stream into packets of water that impact the surface. pile drivers. such as vibrating screens. . The rate of erosion is greatly enhanced when the bubbles collapse on the rock surface. and processors of bulk solids and fluids.K.4. [74]. agricultural machines.S. Two other methods use highpressure water jets in combination with mechanical tools.R. feeders.
They determined the coefficient of viscous damping of soil by drawing a sub soiler into the soil several times at a depth of loin. without vibration and at varying forward speed V .6 mm. and oscillatory plows and tillages. Some of the published studies on the effect of vibrations on the frictional resistance in soils are briefly reviewed in the following. All reported studies show that soil frictional resistance is greatly reduced under the influence of vibration. Research has been carried out in many countries on different soil cutting applications. there has been increasing interest in the application of vibration to soil cutting and tillage machinery. Both methods have been shown to be uneconomical. The electric potential was large and the power for air compression was too high. + 9. [78] experimented with an air lubrication method. Choa and Chancellor [79] introduced combined Coulomb friction and viscous damping to represent the soil resistance to blade penetration. there is a considerable reduction in the cutting resistance in the range 5&60°/0.20. Mogami and Kubo [75] investigated the effect of vibration on soil resistance. It can influence almost all different types of degenerative arthritis or “osteoarthrosis”. Shkurenko [77] studied the effect of oscillation on the cutting resistance of soil.17 V 2250 where 71. This is illustrated in the dimensionless plots given in Fig.6 WEAR IN ANIMAL JOINTS Degradation of the cartilage in human and animal joints by mechanical means may be one of the significant causes of joint disease. They related the reduction of strength in the presence of vibration to what they called “liquefication”. Mink et al. but very little reduction at amplitudes greater than 0. The soil resistance R was found as R = 7 1. and age factors are important . His tests on clay soils indicated similar reduction in shear strength by increasing the frequency and amplitude.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 377 Since the early 195Os.17 Ibsec/ft is the equivalent viscous coefficient and 22501b is the Coulomb friction. enzymatic. which are derived from the published experimental data [80]. Savchenko [76] reported that the coefficient of internal friction of sand decreases with the increase in the amplitude and/or frequency of vibration. Although biochemical. 9. hereditary. His result showed that at fairly high oscillation velocities. Mackson [78] attempted to reduce the soil to metal friction by utilizing electroosmosis lubrication. Successful implementations include vibratory cable plows for the direct burial of telephone and power cables in residential areas.
many investigations give strong indications that primary joint degeneration is not simply a process of aging [85871. Also cartilage destruction resembling the changes seen clinically can be created in the knees of adult rabbits by subjecting them to daily intervals of physiologically reasonable impulsive loading [88].20 Effect of vibration of soil resistance. However. the joint is primarily a mechanical loadbearing element where the magnitude and the nature of the applied stress is expected to be a major contributor to any damage to the joint.0 0 2 4 6 0 10 12 14 Acceleration Ratio (alg) Figure 9. The joint degeneration by mechanical means may result from two types of forces: 1. . There is no exclusive evidence in the literature that joint degradation is simply a wearandtear phenomenon related to lubrication failure [8 184].3 78 Chapter 9 0. A suddenly applied normal force with large magnitude and short duration that produces immediate destruction of the tissues as in severe crushing injuries or initiate damage in the form of microfractures. in controlling the structure and the characteristics of the cartilage and synovial fluid.
The leg is cantilevered to the mounting jig through a specially designed attachment. The patella joint of the laboratory rat was tested in a specially modified version of the apparatus developed by Seireg and Kempke [93] for studying the behavior of in vivo bone under cyclic loading. 9.6.21 Diagrammatic representation of test apparatus.21. and mineral content in the cartilage and bone. which provides a firm fixation of the leg at the distal end of the tibia with minimum ill effects. The load is applied to one joint while the other remains at rest. The Experimental Apparatus and Procedure The apparatus used in this investigation is shown diagrammatically in Fig. The blood supply to the joint would f Fixture for mounting o rat f Figure 9. The amplitude of motion is controlled by adjusting the crank length on an eccentric wheel mounted on the shaft of a variable speed motor. cellular structure. It has a slider crank mechanism to produce a small reciprocating sliding motion at the rat joint. surface damage. A soft fabric strap transmits the cyclic motion to the leg. The tight clamp may restrict the blood circulation to the foot but not the leg. . Radin et al. The factors investigated include changes in surface temperature at the joint.Case Illustralions o Surface Damage f 3 79 2. A continually degrading force that leads to gradual destruction of the joint. 9. [91] have extensively investigated the effects of suddenly applied normal loads. [88901 and Simon et al.1 . The experiment reported in this section [92] investigates the effects of continuous highspeed rubbing of the joint in vivo when subjected to a static compressive load which is maintained constant during the rubbing.
23. 9. 9.ConstantCompressive Force (static) Clamp Figure 9. 9. The configuration of the joint is shown on Fig. A special fixture is designed for applying constant compressive loads to the joint Fig. .22A. It has a springactuated clamp which can be adjusted to apply static (crest 09 +/ .380 Chapter 9 remain near normal.22B to show the animal’s leg in place with the static load and cyclic rubbing motion identified. A schematic diagram is given in Fig.22 Schematic representation of applied load and rubbing motion.
The spring is calibrated for continuous monitoring of the normal load which is applied to the rat joint through a soft rubber pad. and 1. The duration of the testing was 23 hr every day for a period of 14 days. Their weight varies from 300 to 350g. loads between 450g and 3. Test Plan The right tibia of each rat was subjected to an alternating pull force between 0. The room temperature was kept between 80 and 84°F. Test Specimens The test specimens were all male white albino rats. 0.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 381 Figure 9 2 . respectively. All the tests were conducted at this value of the cyclic load with the compressive normal load fixed at 0.3 Constraining rig showing the fixture for application of compressive load. Nine rats were tested in this study with each three specimens subjected to identical load levels. The rats were maintained on mouse breeder blox and water. After that period the rats were sacrificed and the .0 and 90 g at a rate of 1500 cycles/min.8 kg.9.45.6kg.
3 Measurement of Changes in Mineral Content The mineral content of the bone and the cartilage can be determined through the absorption by bone of monochromatic lowenergy photon 901 0 2 I 4 I 6 I 8 I I I I I I 10 12 14 16 18 20 Hours of Loading Figure 9.8 kg in this case. The latter showed no detectable change throughout the test. The compressive load on the test joint is 1. . Progressively lower temperature rise resulted in the tests with the smaller compressive forces. 9.1O F . The combination used is iron and constantan and the temperature can be continuously recorded with an accuracy of fO.6. These results are in general agreement with those obtained by Smith and Kreith [94] using thermocouples on patients with acute gouty arthritis.2 Temperature Measurements The temperature over the skin of the rat at the patella joint is measured by thermocouples. Only the temperature data were obtained while the rats were tested.24.24 Sample of skin temperature data near the joints. The temperature on the test joint increased considerably during the first loading period. as well as normal subjects during exercise and bed rest. rheumatoid patients. A typical variation of temperature on both the loaded and unloaded joints is shown in Fig.6. The temperature rise tended to stabilize after the first week of test to an approximately 2S°F above that of the joint at rest. 9.382 Chapter 9 different tests were performed on the joint. 9.
In this case. steps in a direction transverse to the bone by a milling head attachment. [88] that increased calcification and stiffening of the rabbit joints occurred as a result of repeated high impact load.15 0.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 383 beam which originates in a radioactive source (iodine 125 at 27.075in. This result is interesting in view of the finding of Radin et al. The source and the detector system are rigidly coupled by mechanical means and are driven simultaneously in 0. Progressively smaller increases in the mineral content ratio resulted from the lower compressive loads. Measurements of the transmitted photon beam through the bone are made for a 1Osec interval after each stop and are automatically used to calculate the mineral content. It can be seen from the figure that the tested joint showed a significantly higher mineral content ratio at 0. A typical summary result is shown in Fig.5 = c s 1.05 0. The technique has been developed by Cameron and Sorenson [95].8 kg compressive load for approximately three hours daily for a period of 14 days. below the surface. 0.025in.0 1 I I 0. below the surface which gradually reaches 1 at a distance of approx.10 0. . It shows that increased calcification can occur as well due to rubbing of the joint under static compression. 2.3 keV).025in.25 Change in mineral content ratio below the surface.25 where the change in bone mineral ratio between the test joint and the one at rest are plotted as measured at different locations below the surface.0 K Y Q) z 0 1. 9. the rat joint was subjected to a 1.0 0.20 Distance From Tibia Joint (in) Figure 9.
Thc joint is thcn dissectcd and put in fixative so that the cclIs rctain thcir shapc.16 for . histological slides for thc ccllular structiirc. . magnification 01.b e x i ng ii tciis. At tlic end o f c x i i test.:) ~ l i i t r a . rat is sacrificed.6.4 Investigation of Surface Characteristics and Cellular Structure The surfiicc textiirt' and condition o f the loaded and thc intact joints fiv each rat a r e in\..8 kg. considerable ~ e . 25 40 x .a l d c .cstigated by riie. t r01' tlic s m o o t h siirtiict's c m bc observed in thc loaded joint .icnui iindcr ii biologiciil microscopc t o a de.ins of' the biologicd microscope f o r gcncral ubscrvaticm.When \. thc.is sticnm in F i g 0. ~ i ~ .9. I '!.i static comptcssive load o f 1. Thc tixatii'c iisccf is 0. and tho scanning clect 1011 111 icrosco pc for close in\w t iga tivn of' t tic load.
9. The relatively open mesh underneath the surfiice is replaced by . This is done t o ensure that no moisture exists which may cause cracking when coated with gold and palladium alloys.8 kg and the following differences are observed: 1.27 Section of’ rat . Fig. joints can be sunimrized in the following: 1. the zoning which predominates in the normiil cartilage disappears. The differences observed among the loadcd. 9. The specimens from the cartilage are fixed in 0.The slides of the histology studies are prepared at four different sections of the joint in both the tested and imniobilized joints. . This observation is supported by the results of the photon absorption technique.28.I duration of 0. and 100% f o r . The surfiice structure is compressed at some locations causing an increase in the mineral content. The surface is significantly rougher in the loaded joint a s compared t o the one at rest. and the radial pattern predominates throughout. and the intact. Fig.ireas.5 hr each.27 for a conipressive load of 1. 70.1( X I glutraaldehyde i n Ringers solution. The fixation takes approximately 4 hr. 9. The procedure used for the electron microscope study of the structure of the cartilage is explained in detail by Redhler and Zimniy [96]. The upper surface is eroded. 90. They are then passed through graded acetone.I closely piicked Figure 9. The magnification used is 1000 3OOOx and the areas seen :ire primarily load bearing .8 kg comprcssive load: ( b ) at rest. The concentration o f the acetone is changed from 50. In the loaded specimens.joint tcsted ( a ) under . The cellular structure is compared as shown in Fig. 2.i 1.29.
rcsults showing ( a ) surface roughness for joint nc~rnialload: ( h ) surl'xc pits for joint subjected to I .29.0 kg prcxsi\y loiid: Electron microscope. The typc o f the s u r f i m of the intact cartilage. 2. 9. 2 k . . Deud culls can be seen under some of the loudbearing areas.ri. 9. 9 . The surtiicc is very smooth without serious asperities.ittions have been reported by McCall [97].IS illustrated in Figs 9.28. This in turn causes further deterioration of the joint. The surface r c ) i i g h n ~ so f the louded cartilage is drastically ~ increiist'd.8 kg COTII(L*I surfiicc tear ror joint suh. This is known t o he comnion in old. Fig. Fig. network o f thick c o m e fibers. The tibers in the intact citrtilage are oriented in a11 directions. suggests ii trapped pool incchanisin o f lubrication. Similar obsc. 9.is shown in Fig. 5.28 s u t j r c t c d t o 0. arthritic joints [97].2Ka.iectod t o 0.28b and c. Fig. all radial in direction .9 kg compressive 10x1. 6. 4.Figure 9. 3. Pits a n d tears appear in the loaded citrtilaze . whcreas in the loaded cartilage they reorient theinseiiw in a radial form.
The depth o f fretting wear due to repeated highfreqtrenq operation is t. results for the Joint at rest for thc rats o f 9. Thc surfiice tcnipcrature rise undcr fluctuating load conditions is prudictcd by using a simplified onedimensional t ransitlnt heat transfer model that is found t o be in good agreement w i t h finite clement analysis. ( h ) Electron microscope Figs. 9 . which arc gencrdly used for onedirectional load transmission and ciin be iitilizcd In duvcloping mechanical function generators.7 9.1 HEAT GENERATION A N D SURFACE DURABILITY OF RAMPBALL CLUTCHES Introduction This section deals with the ttierm~ilreIat~d probleins and surface duriibility of rampball clutches.3s7 Figure 9.valu:ited from the vicwpoint of frictional energy density. .7. A simplified niodel for fretting \year due to fluctuation of Ioxi without gross slip in the wedging condition is proposed by qualitatively guiding the design of the clutch. 2 h and c .29 (a).
resulting in high surface temperature at the contact [98. consequently may cause frettingtype damage. Wedging mode. The balls. consequently the center of the contact area does not move appreciably. In order to simplify the analysis. 2. chemical. acceleration of oxidation. such as in fretting corrosion [lOOl04]. and material degradation. If the high heat flux is periodic. 930). 2. will always contact both races and consequently produce a sliding frictional force. This investigation focuses on the tribological behavior in the wedging mode only because of its importance to the function generator application. under the influence of the energizing spring. the sharp thermal gradient might cause severe damage such as thermal cracking and thermal fatigue.7. The contact area is a Hertzian circle area. 991. Usually the outer race rotates at a high speed with respect to the inner race during the overrunning mode. This condition is similar to the case of lightly loaded ball bearing. the combination of high oscillating pressure and microslip at the contact due to load fluctuation generates frictional heat on the surfaces of the balls and both races and. 3. the following assumptions are made: 1.2 Analysis of the Wedging Condition Many studies have been conducted on the temperature rise on the asperities during sliding and in fretting contacts [ 1001041. However. The center of the contact area remains unchanged. the windup angle is very small. 9. the heat generated during its operation can be classified into two categories: 1. Frictional heat is equally partitioned between the contacting surfaces due to the existence of thin. In a rampball clutch (refer to Fig. the frictional energy is transformed to thermal energy. . because of the high stiffness of the clutch system. surface layers with low conductivity. The rampball clutch utilized in mechanical function generators [105] can be ideally designed to operate on the principle of wedge.388 Chapter 9 It is well known that during sliding contact. poor absorption of oil. the magnitude and the extent of the microslip area is a function of time. High temperature may also occur at the asperity contacts due to cyclic microslip. Due to the nature of the contact and variation of Hertzian contact stress. During the wedging mode. Overrunning mode. High temperature can also cause change of the material properties of the surface layer.
Figure 9. The boundary between the slip and stick regime is a circle with radius: (9.26) . (b) Schematic of fretting contact with wedging condition and corresponding hysteresis. 4. All surfaces not in contact are adiabatic.30 ( U ) Schematic o f B rampball clutch. According t o Mindlin's stickslip model [ 1061. the contact area of sphere on a flat subjected to a tangential force is a mixed stickslip circle.
At that instant. the sphere will never slip.31) Substituting Eq.31) into Eq. gross slip starts to occur. Within the contact area.30) where v = Poisson's ratio G= 2(1 + v ) is the shear modulus For the wedging contact of a ramproller clutch. .V ) P N 16Ga (9. the relation between the normal load and tangential force at the upper interface can be expressed as: (9. the shear stress distribution is given by: (9. no matter how large the tangential force is. The stick circle shrinks with increasing tangential force.26) yields: L(* p(1 tans +cosa) r3 (9.27) The amount of microslip in the slip annulus is found [107] as follows: 6(r) = 3(2 16Ga  [[ . 1 sin' (31[ 1 2 ( y ] + $ $I@ (9. If the ramp angle is properly chosen. until the force reaches a critical value. (9. Fcr = N g . (9.32) shows that the ratio of the radius of the stick circle to that of the contact area is constant.390 Chapter 9 where F is the oscillatory tangential force and g is the coefficient of friction.32) Equation (9.29) The maximum microslip (when gross slip is impending) is obtained by setting c = 0: S(r) = 3(2 .
32) gives: tan a p(1 +cosa) = ' (9. For the impending gross slip conditon.36) Equations (9.35) (9.7. respectively.34) (9. Accordingly. According to the GreenwoodWilliamson elastic microcontact model [log]. 9. Eq. the contact occurs only at discrete asperities and the real contact area is so small that it leads to extremely high local stress and high temperature rise under sliding condition. The change of the c value with increasing ramp angle can be readily seen in Fig.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 391 Because no surface is perfectly smooth. the resulting stress and heat flux can be very high.32.36) and (9. c = 0. for steel with Poisson's ratio U = 0. a ( f )= 0.3 (9. The real contact area is approximately proportional to the normal load under elastic contact condition.32. the average real contact pressure can be an order of magnitude higher than the nominal contact pressure.3 Frictional Energy and Average Heat Flux The frictional energy generated per unit time during fretting contact is the product of the interface shear stress (surface traction) and the amount of microslip per unit time on each point within the slip annulus: where D = roller diameter = 2R.38) .31 and 9.37) in the wedging condition are plotted in normalized form as shown in Figs 9. if the normal load is concentrated on the real contact area. (9. 9.881 E.
5 ~ ~ 0.2 0.6 I 1 IO.32 Normalized microslip distribution within the slip annulus as a function of the ramp angle.4149 0. .4 z 0.6 G U Z w 0.1 E $0.9 ~~ 1 r 1 r I I r I I I 1 Ramp an~lero.41 49 AACC 2 G 8 0.8 0.4 0.8 3 0.3 0.4 8 0.1 0.2 '0 0. 8 Y s 8 8 ' h 0.7 0.6 0.2 Normalized Distance (da) Figure 9.
39) Therefore.42) where y1 is the number of balls. b is the ratio of the radii ( R i / R r ) .R . (9.Case Illustrations o Surface Damage f 393 In this case.42) yields: (9. Eq. pZV(t). the double integral is the total tangential force.33) can be rewritten as: In Eq.41) For the clutch. respectively. t ) = 3(2 . (9.u ) ~ N 16Gamax (9. Substituting Eq. the energy rate can be expressed as: (9.41): (9. are the radii of an inner race and the balls. Therefore. (9. (9. + ( ) z (9. the frictional energy generated per unit time in the contact under wedging conditions can be obtained by substituting Eq. and R. microslip occurs over the entire contact area and the corresponding deflection can be expressed as: 6(r. (9. (9.38) into Eq.45) . applied on the ball.43) If the applied torque can be expressed as the product of its magnitude and a normalized continuous function of time as follows: then. the normal force can be represented as a function of the applied torque: N ( t ) = n(b T(l) 1 +cosa l)R.44) into Eq.40).
6N/m (2001bfin. Accordingly. (9.) peak torque. (9.48) where the radius of the maximum contact area is: aman 1. (9.1 I = (2+ 2)) 113 (9. (9. (9. T: The average heat flux is found from: ' E Q=7 4 M X (9.48): (9.49) into Eq. listed in Table 9. for a steel clutch subjected to a 22.50) All the equations derived above are based on the assumption of fretting contact. (9.394 Chapter 9 or in normalized form: We can also obtain the friction energy generated per cycle by integrating Eq. the frictional energy generated per unit time is: k = N(t)@ol&Ol .51) into Eq. . without gross slip.48): (9.5.49) The average heat flux can be found by substituting Eq.52) An illustrative example is considered by using the design parameters. that is. the average heat flux for gross slip condition can be obtained by substituting Eq. For the case of gross slip.51) where Ro is the radius of an outer race and & t ) is the angular velocity of the outer race relative to the inner race.45) over one period.45) and (9.
cos 2x9)(Nm) the corresponding average heat flux during the microslip condition is plotted in Fig.) Young's modulus (E) Poisson's ratio (U) Coefficient of friction ( p ) Radius of the outer race (Ro) Thermal conductivity (k) Density ( p ) Specific density (c) 4340 steel 352 BHN 0. 9.1 BTU/(lbOF)) ( b+ w.) 2 x 10" N/m2 (30 x 106psi) 0.33.53) where Q = steady heat flux k = thermal conductivity p = density c = specific heat .5 Parameters Used in the Illustrations Material Hardness Ramp angle (a) Radius ratio (6) Radius of the roller (R.4 Estimation of the Temperature Rise OneDimensional Model The temperature rise of a semiinfinite solid subjected to stationary uniform heat supply over a circular area was first investigated by Blok [109].Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 395 Table 9.23 45 W/(mOC) (26 BTU/(hrftOF)) 7850 kg/m3 (490 lb/ft3) 0.8 mm (0.15 in. 9.4149 rad 4 3. Jaeger [110] also gives: AT(t) = 1.128Qfi dz (9. Blok also shows that if the same amount of heat flux has a parabolic distribution the maximum temperature rise is 4/3 times as high as the uniform distribution. In the same report.42 kJ/(kg"C) (0.3 0.6( 1 . Assuming that the system is subjected to a periodic versed sine load: To=22.7.
This cooling effect causes the temperature rise to approach an asymptotic limit. 9.2 03 .35.34.34 and 9.2 ! E Is I" 2 2.8 0.3 9 0.I 1 5 c 0. .53) after substituting Eq.25 E c 3 g3 .4 0. (9. (9.05 0 0 0 0. 9. 9.3 (v 4'T 0.6'( cos(!?pi'f"t))M I Nm 1 2W'(l~s(2'pi~f't))/2 lbin 5 I I I I I Frea=lSOHz 0.54) where constant B can be obtained by curvefitting the envelope of the results given in Fig.1 0. 9.35 represents the range of temperature fluctuation due to cooling.35 show the extrapolated results. 0.9 1 The average heat flux generated during the microslip condition due to versed sine load.) Figure 9. extrapolation is undertaken by curve fitting of the results from a limited number of cycles. (Time normalized to the period T of the torque cycle.33 The temperature rise of a rampball clutch subjected to a versed sine load can therefore be calculated by integrating Eq. 9. The curves in Fig.34. From Fig. we can observe the effect of cooling due to heat convection to the surrounding lubricant as the contact area is reduced by microslip.396 Chapter 9 Torqi~ed2.50) as shown in Fig. Due to the extensive computation necessary over long periods.15 0. The thickness of the lines in Fig.6 NormalizedTime 0.1 0.7 0.5 0. The temperature rise within a limited time can be approximately predicted by the following form: A T ( t )= / & I (9.
Convective cooling is taken into consideration outside the contact region in the finite element analysis in order to simulate the effect of the lubricant. as shown in Fig. (Time normalized to the period of torque cycle. r _< c or r l a (9. The maximum contact area is divided into four rings.) Finite Element Analysis The finite element method. multiple heat flux is used in the analysis for better results.34 Temperature rise of a rampball clutch using onedimensional method under fretting contact condition (two cycles). and each has a key point. 9. a sphere can be modeled by using a 90" segment. is used to verify the accuracy of the result from the onedimensional theory. Being axisymmetric. Instead of the average heat flux derived in the previous section.36.55a) Q(r. based on ANSYS code. The heat flux history at each key point represents the local average heat flux on corresponding annulus. t ) = 0. with 10point thermal element (SOLID87).Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 397 Time Figure 9. The heat flux history of each key point can be found in differentia1 form: (9.55b) .
.
and t and 6 are described by Eqs (9. the difference is found to be relatively small in the first two cycles. (Time normalized to a period of the torque cycle. The insulated surface and symmetric surfaces are. However.37 shows a typical heat flux history at every key point for one cycle for the microslip condition.6*(1cos(2'pi'Pt))/2 Nm =200'( 1cos(2'pi'f9))/2 Ibin f=100 HZ Figure 9. a4 (referring to Fig. Figure 9. a3. respectively. I I r I I I I I I 70.38 and 9. By comparing the results with those from the onedimensional theory. by definition.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 399 where r = a l . respectively.39 show the solutions at a1 (the central region of the contact) for load frequency of 50 and 100 Hz. a stronger cooling effect results for longer load duration in the finite element method due to convection to the lubricant. therefore no other boundary conditions are necessary.4  Torque=22.36). adiabatic. The input load is a versed sine load as considered before. 9. Transient analysis is used throughout the finite element calculations.) .36) and (9.37). a2. Figures 9.37 The heat flux at four key points under the fretting contact condition (versed time pulse).
'C E 0. 100 Hz) .001 Oh 0. the results are inconsistent because of different materials. However.5  11 h I I I I I I I I I I g .3  Figure 9. a precise prediction of the amount of wear is by no means an easy task.2 t E . Kayaba and Iwabuchi [ 1 121 report that fretting wear decreases with increasing temperature up to 300°C (570"F).f J 8 g0.. because no single equation is available. experimental conditions. Most of the investigations dealing with fretting wear are casestudytype experiments under specific conditions.39 Temperature rise of a rampball clutch using finite element method (versed sine pulse. The situation for fretting wear is even more ambiguous.0 . 9.4 ..01 Figure 9.400 r Chapter 9 Li L 0.009 0. and the trapped debris is Fe304. 8 . 50Hz).1 f 0.4E 0. Fretting wear at high temperatures has been receiving particular attention [ 1 131 161.0.007 0.s0. The great majority of published wear equations apply to fixed sliding conditions.003 0.5 Wear Depth Prediction Due to the complex nature of the wear behavior in this case.2 E 0.8 Time (sec) 3 k0.7. usually without any measurement of temperature or energy produced [ 1 1 11.002 0.004 0.6 .006 Time (sec) 0. which has a lubricating effect. The influence of hardness and slip amplitude on the fretting wear are investi ? u a 1 g ! $ 8 .005 0.008 0. and estimates of wear.38 Temperature rise of a rampball clutch using finite element method (versed sine pulse.8? "0 0.
56) and (9.Therefore. is trapped and acts as a buffer or lubricant. then the wear rate may slow down considerably when the temperature builds up to 200°C (400°F) [112].56) and = (9. the frictional energy can be accumulated within a limited area with minimum convection to the surroundings. The yield strength. S . Rabinowicz [ 1191 concludes that the ratio of frictional energy to material hardness is an important factor in wear and may have some effect on debris size. Seireg and Hsue [121] indicate that the wear depth is dependent on the temperature rise and the heat input at the contacting surfaces. HI. Q = F p L / A denotes the frictional energy density. mostly oxide. It is also reported [ 1 181 that the wear rate and the form of fretting damage depend on the chemical nature of the environment and on whether the debris.57). can escape. Although the hypothesis of hemispherical debris is questionable. The concept of frictional energy has been used to deal with adhesive and abrasive wear in some models.. including the Archard’s equation. is about 1/3 of its Vickers hardness. oxide or chemical compound. from the energy standpoint. Archard’s and Rabinowicz’s equations can be rewritten as follows. Due to the nature of fretting contact. in which the debris is assumed to be hemispherical in shape.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 40 I gated by Kayaba and Iwabuchi [117]. Therefore. the energy accumulation can be used as a potential tool to predict the fretting wear depth. Suzuki and Seireg [I221 also provide evidence for the correlation between wear and energy input. If the ddbris.57) In Eqs (9. both abrasive and adhesive wear depth share a common expression as follows: (9.58) In the case of a clutch switching between engagement and disengagement. the concept of energy needed to generate debris makes the Archard’s model [120] a viable approach for predicting wear depth. (9. the debris is not completely trapped as in the conventional fretting case of . respectively: v= (?)(E) (E)($) h a Q Ht.
At small amplitudes. Sat0 obtains good agreement with other researchers and suggests that the coefficient of friction increases steadily up to 0. Accordingly. the amount of wear is found to be negative.5 Figure 9.59) 7.2 lbf) normal load. the debris is not easily trapped. because the debris is unable to escape from the stick area and accumulates and wedges up within the contact area.402 Chapter 9 fastened or pressfitted assemblies.0 2. the frictional energy density can be calculated by the following equation: Q = 35. 124. For the clutch case.) at 9. carried out on a glass plate in contact with a steel ball of 5 mm (0.) . Based on Sato’s experimental data.40 Wear depth after 5000 fretting cycles (steel on glass). (From Ref.5 0 t 03 a E 0.000 cycles plotted against the oscillation amplitude [124].) diameter. only the data corresponding to the slip region are considered. the coefficient of friction remains unchanged and is considered to be the sliding coefficient of friction.0 ? 3 c % Ic U 2.5 A E E L 5. Figure 9.58).5 as the microslip annulus grows. therefore. the work by Sat0 [123. (9. amplitude = 3 pm (120 pin. After gross slip.4Npal (9. In his series of experiments. this fretting process can be assumed to be of the same type expressed in Eq. In order to quantify the relation between accumulated energy and fretting wear depth.8 N (2.40 shows the wear depth after 50.2 in. 1241 has been adapted.
41 Fretting wear prediction using Eq.147 H. = Vickers hardness (9. (9.9 1 Figure 9.5 0.1 0.7 0.6‘(1cos(2*pi’ft))/2 Nm =200’(1 ws(P*pi’ft))l2 Ibin 0 0 0.8 0.3 0.6 Time (sec) 0.. .60).60) I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 Torque=22.Case Illustrations of Surface Damage 403 where N Q = frictional energy density = normal load p = coefficient of friction a = amplitude (centertopeak) 1 = total number of cycles The relation between wear depth and the energy input can then be obtained by curve fitting. A linear fuction relating frictional energy density and Vickers hardness is found as: Q h = 0.2 0.4 0. where h = fretting wear depth H .
Orcutt. 10. D. “Distribution of Hydrodynamic Pressure on Counterformal Line Contacts. vol. “Contact Fatigue in Hard Steel Specimens with Point and Line Contacts. 5.. Dawson. 6( I). F. 51. Vol.. Archard. Roy. 13. Dowson. Vol. Cheng. C. “Effect of Metallic Contact on the Pitting of Lubricated Rolling Surfaces.. S(3). 23(3). “Pitting Due to Rolling Contact. “The Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rollers. 1967. “The Isothermal Lubrication of Cylinders. P... and Higginson. and Sternlicht. Eng. Sibley. Eng. D. F.. 3. 695.” Trans. G. R. Mech. pp. Niemann. 1962. Feng. “Critical Thickness of Surface Film in Boundary Lubrication.. Dawson. 8. 15. Vol. Eng. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. “The Pitting of Lubricated Gear Teeth and Rollers..” J. G. S.. Ser. 5. Gair. Temperature and Film Thickness Between Two Infinitely Long. Cheng. ASLE...” ASME Trans.. I . Dowson. September 1965. and Gartner.. D. V. Oxford. 16. A. p. Vol. Kragelskii. (9.. Sci. 9(1). H. S. Mech. R. H. December 1934.” Proc. 4.60). P.. Vol. C. 8(3).” Trans.. 2(3). July 1965. Sci. Dawson. Appl.. (Lond. “A Refined Solution to the ThermalElastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rolling and Sliding Cylinders..404 Chapter 9 Equation (9. 9. F. A. P. ASLE. 16&171. Way... p. 6. K.. 4(1). Dowson. and Whitaker. Vol. Soc. M. 1966. W. V.. Friction and Wear. 1965.. 2. D. ASLE. Sci. and Higginson. 188. Vol. D. H. Vol. and Chang. ASLE. Vol. Vol. AprilMay 1961. “A Numerical Solution for the Pressure. Lubricated Rolling and Sliding Cylinders Under Heavy Loads. 1 1 . 1. October 1965. K... L. 14.” Trans. “Experimental Study of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication.. Pergamon Press. B.. 8(4).” Trans.. Basic Eng. G. 12.60) can be used for approximate prediction of the wear depth of a nonedirectional clutch. . “A Numerical Solution to the Elastohydrodynamic Problem... Butterworths.) 1961. p. 9. October 1965. an illustrative example of the qualitative prediction of clutch wear for different engagement frequencies is shown in Fig. “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of RollingContact Surfaces. “The Effect of Material Properties on the Lubrication of Elastic Rollers.. 7. 262. G. and Hirst. 8(4).” J. 6. Sci. Mech. R. IMing.. Mech. Considering the thermal loading conditions given in Fig.. and Higginson. 1965.” ASME J. B.41. September 1956. ASLE.” J. F. and Orcott.33 and using Eq. S. H.. 9.” ASME J. H.” J. Eng. Dowson. G.” Power Transmiss. 1962. Mech.” Trans. p.
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Other techniques include beaminduced etching and deposition as well as the LIGA process which can be used for metal. New types of micromechanisms can now be built to measure very small movements and produce extremely low forces. and electronic sciences with precision manufacturing. the conventional semiconductor processing based on lithography and etching still is the predominant method. and control techniques to create products as diverse as microminiaturized robots. and ceramic parts. Such devices can even differentiate between hard and soft objects [l31. polymer. and devices for the mechanical. medical. packaging. sensors. The Wobble motor manufactured of silicon at the University of Utah is driven by electrostatic forces generated by applying a voltage to the motor walls. material. Although many of the advanced and still experimental processes which are currently being investigated for the microelectronic devices can be applied to the manufacturing of micromechanical components. The micromotor developed at the University of California at Berkeley is only 60 pm in diameter. and biotechnology industries.1 INTRODUCTION The emerging technology of micromechanisms and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is integrating mechanical. Although some silicons have proven to be almost as strong as steels. researchers in microfabrication technology are experi41I .10 Friction in Micrornechanisrns 10. The method of fabrication known as the sacrificial layer technique can be employed to manufacture complex structures such as micromotors by successive deposition and etching of thin films [471.
friction. drag.O for coarsegrained polysiliconpolysilicon interfaces and 2.04 mN in the bearing of the .5 for silicon nitridepolysilicon surfaces. Scaling laws dictate that the ratio of surface area to volume ratio increases inversely with size. 10. [lO] measured both friction and wear using a polysilicon variablecapacitance rotary harmonic sidedrive micromotor. Lim et al. surface tension. chemical. adhesion. In recent experiments. Examples of this are gears made of nickel and gold which are approximately 50 pm thick and can be made even smaller. Templates for batches of tiny machines can be positioned using highpowered microscopes. and other boundary forces dominate the behavior of these systems as they continue to decrease in size. this chapter presents illustrative examples of frictional forces from measurements on sliding as well as rolling contacts between materials of interest to this field. environmental temperature and humidity is also expected to be considerably greater in MEMS. Mehregany et al. besides surface geometry and contamination. They report a frictional force of 0. Tai and Muller [8] studied the dynamic coefficient of friction in a variable capacitance IC processed micromotor.2 STATIC FRICTION A number of researchers have examined the frictional forces in microelectromechanical systems. viscous resistance. The surface frictional forces in MEMS may be so large as to prevent relative motion. Friction coefficients in the range 0. Although the frictional resistance and wear phenomena in MEMS are far from being fully understood.412 Chapter 10 menting with the mass production of metallic components. the frictional properties of different materials were examined by sliding components made of different materials under the same loading conditions.9 f 1 .15 mN at the bushings and 0. Microscopic parts and precise structural components are now being created on silicon chips by depositing ultrathin layers of materials in some areas and etching material away from others. are other surface forces such as electrostatic. Because of their very large surfaceareatovolume ratios. and physical forces which are expected to be significant for microcomponents.38 for silicon nitridepolysilicon surfaces were reported. Understanding frictional resistance on a microscale is essential to the proper design and operation of such systems.2 10. [9] used a polysilicon microstructure to characterize static friction. The influence of capillary action and adsorbed gas films. Some important factors which influence frictional resistance.5 f0. They reported friction coefficients of 4.
Two types of tribological pairs were used. The effect of humidity was determined by testing the specimens before and after baking them. A comprehensive investigation of the static friction between silicon and silicon compounds has been reported by Deng and KO [13]. The slope of the line obtained by linear regression of the data represents the coefficient of friction. The materials studied include silicon. silicon dioxide. Several significant conclusions were drawn from the study. [9]. In the first group of experiments.04 mm2. The value obtained (0. Both the bushings and bearing surfaces were made of heavily phosphorusdoped polysilicon. 8.Friction in Micromechanisms 413 micromotor. The normal force was applied electrostatically and was in the range of 103N.2 for the different test groups. which are stated as: Humidity in air was found to increase the coefficient of friction from 55% to 157%. Larger values of the dynamic coefficient of friction ( 0 . The objectives of their study are to examine different static friction measurement techniques and to explore the effects of environmental factors such as humidity. The tests were performed in a vacuum chamber where the different gases can be introduced. and argon exposure at various pressures on the frictional resistance. Their results are summarized in Tables 10.030. In the second group of experiments.1 and 10. . Excellent correlation was obtained between the normal force and the tangential force necessary to initiate slip. the measured values for the dynamic coefficient of friction are close to those reported in Ref. oxygen. Suzuki et al.32) for the static friction coefficient of silicon nitride and silicon surfaces in contact is smaller by a factor of 8 that the one reported by Lim et al. nitrogen. a 3 mm radius aluminum bulletshaped pin with spherical end coated with the test material is forced to slide on a flat silicon substrate. The tangential force was applied by a polyvinylide difluoride bimorph cantilever. and silicon nitride. Noguchi et al. [ 1 11 examined the coefficient of maximum static friction for various materials by sliding millimetersized movers electrostatically. However. 7 4 9 ) were obtained for silicon nitride and polysilicon surfaces than the ones reported by Tai and Muller. The apparent area of contact in the second group was measured by a scanning electron microscope and estimated to be in the order of 0. which was calibrated to generate a repeatable tangential force from 0 to 8 x 104N. [12] compared the friction and wear of different solid lubricant films by applying them to riders and disks of macroscopic scale and sliding them under the same loading conditions. flat components of size 2 mm were considered.
A thin layer (700 A ) of thermal oxide was grown at 925°C.3 ROLLING FRICTION Rolling element bearings are known to exhibit considerably lower frictional resistance than other types of bearings. This section presents a review of the fabrication processes for such bearings.620. Exposure to nitrogen resulted in either no change or a decrease in the coefficient of friction.03 105 Torr (after baking) 0.03 aMeasured at different locations with maximum deviation f0. A test method is presented for utilizing the same basic concept for test rolling friction in very small microbearings [ 151.620. A macromodel is also described based on the concept of using the width of the hysteresis loop in a full motion cycle of springloaded bearings to evaluate the rolling friction and the effect of sliding on it.03 0. 13.03 0.530.a SiOz on SiOz SiOz on Si 0. Results are also given from tests on the frictional resistance at the onset of motion in bearings utilizing stainless steel microballs in contact with silicon micromachined vgrooves with and without coated layers [ 141. Microroller bearings can therefore play an important role in improving the performance and reducing the actuation power of micromechanisms. The wafers were cleaned using a standard RCA procedure. 0.1 Fabrication Processes The silicon micromachined vgrooves are made using 3 in.1 Rcm (100) ptype silicon wafers 508 pm thick.31 f0.71 0. Exposure to oxygen increased the frictional resistance.48 f 0.21 f0. on SiN. They are therefore expected to be extensively used in MEMS because of their lower frictional properties.54 f 0.3.414 Table 10.03. improved life.36 f 0. Source: Ref. 10.02 0.33 f 0.84 0.: PECVD Silicon ~~ Air (before baking) Air (after braking) SIN. and higher stability in carrying loads.1 Chapter 10 Nitride) Measurement Results from Experiment A (SiN. 10..02 0.84 0. Exposure to argon produced no change in friction. A 3000 A LPCVD silicon nitride was deposited on the thermal oxide. The .
45f0.05 0.3 5.0.9 1.58 to 0.35 f 0.43f0.2 Measurement Results from Experiment B (SiN.20f0.7 aMeasured at different locations with maximum deviation f0.6 1.55a 0.6  ROzc R(02/N2)d  .55f0. 13.35b 0.05. on SIN.1.05 0.8 3. bMeasured at the same location with maximum deviation fO.05. on Si Si02 on Si02 Si02 on S i 0. dR(Oz/Nz) is the ratio of the coefficients of friction measured in oxygen to those measured in nitrogen.05 0.55f0.404.550. respectively.85 0.75f0.44t 0.04 0.0.05 Increase to 0.0 2. SiN.5 .15f0.39 * 0.0 2 are ratios of the coefficients of friction measured in nitrogen and oxygen to those measured in UHV.68b o 0.05 0.02 0.35 f0.400.20f0.5 x 1' 0l Torr) Ar (c 106 Torr) N2 (< 106 Torr) ~~ O2 (< 1 .7@ Decrease from Increase from 0.35 f0.05 Decrease to Increase to 0.20 f0.' 0( Torr) RN2' SiN.8 . 'RN2 and R .: PECVD Silicon Nitride) Air (before baking) UHV (.4 1.70a 0. .02 0.02 0.Friction in Micromechanisms 41s Table 10.05 0. Source: Ref.04 .0  1.0.3  1.404.02 Decrease to Increase to 0.
3. 10.000pm edge to edge) with and without the deposited thin films. Prior to micromachining. 10.1 Schematic representation of the crosssectional view of the test specimen. The average values 1 (loo) surface Figure 10. A plasma etch (CF4/O2) was used to etch the silicon nitride and thermal oxide to form the anisotropic etch mask. [ 141 utilized a tilting table with 0. (From Ref. Dashed lines show the width of the etched vgroove (w) and the angle 13between the (100) surface and (1 1 I ) plane. The micromachined samples were then immersed in a reflux system containing concentrated phosphoric acid at 140°C for 2hr in order to remove the silicon nitride and then in a bufferedoxide etch (BOE 1:20) bath for 1Omin to remove the thermal oxide. The photoresist was removed using a chemical resist remover. 163 pm deep. 14. The samples were rinsed with deionized H 2 0 and blowdried with nitrogen gas [14]. The patterned samples were immersed in a quartz reflux system containing an anisotropic etchant solution of KOH:H20 (40% by weight) at 60°C constant temperature for 12hr.0 1 ' incremental movement to study the tangential forces necessary to initiate rolling motion of stainless steel microballs (285pm in diameter) in micromachined vgrooves (3 10 pm wide.) .2 Rolling Friction at the Onset of Motion A recent investigation by Ghodssi et al. the samples were put in a dilute H F bath for 1Osec to remove the native oxide. The samples were then cleaned in a solution of NH40H:H202:H201:1:6 in an ultrasonic bath for 5 min.1.000 pm long and 14. A schematic representation of the bearing is given in Fig. 10.416 Chapter I 0 samples were patterned photolithographically.
059 0. where FT = frictional force (mg) at the onset of rolling FN = normal force (mg) 10. It represents a scaledup model utilizing vgrooves (4 in.3 in.046 T + 0. In the study reported in [IS]. thick) in steel blocks and stainless steel balls (0. 10. 0. a macro (scaledup) model is used to investigate the feasibility of measuring rolling friction on a microscale. wide. A soft spring is attached to the top vblock or slider.5 pm sputteredchromium thin film was deposited on the surface of the grooves. F = 0.036 + 0.0076FN T when a 0.0076FN + for the silicon grooves.3.Friction in Micromechanisms 41 7 of the frictional resistance at the onset of rolling friction obtained from 20 measurements in both directions of motion were found to be as follows for the three test materials used for the grooves: F = 0. in diameter). long.2 for the feasibility study.4 The Macroscale Test A setup was designed as shown in Fig. Such investigations can provide useful information on important factors which have to be taken into consideration in the design of an experiment for reliable measurements on a microscale because the forces required to sustain the rolling motion after the start are expected to be extremely small. A string is attached to the opposite end to apply the tangential force and is .0083FN when a 0. The previous investigation [14] dealt only with the resistance at the onset of motion but not during the rolling motion.5 in. at one end.3 Rolling Friction During Motion The frictional resistance in rolling element bearings in micromechanical systems has not yet been thoroughly investigated.375 in.3. FT = 0. 10. and 1.3 pm silicon nitride thin film was deposited on the surface of the grooves.
00866 4.3. supported by a pulley with low friction. Additional amounts of sand are added t o yield an increased applied force up to about 70gm. I t can be deduced from the figure that the rolling friction in this case is equal to: /l = = 0. respectively.3 shows the measured applied force versus displacement for the spring case and the spring with the slider case. Then sand is removed to reduce the applied force and complete the hysteresis loop a s shown in Fig. 10. the set of large model metal vgrooves and stainless ball bearings are used. In the second part of the experiment. The hysteresis in the setup is measured with and without the slider in place. The other vgroove is put on top of the ball bearings and used a s a slider. This concept can be irnpleinented for ineasuring rolling friction on a Figure t 0. The arrows in the figure show the difference between the hysteresis loops which represent the rolling friction between the balls and grooves. Figure 10.33 400 . The normal load as well a s the tangential loads are applied by placing weights of known magnitude on the top vblock and pouring sand in the container attached to the string respectively.2 microscale.An experimental setup for characterizing the rolling friction on a macroscale. Two ball bearings arc positioned on the front and rear of a vgroove. The same procedure is performed as before with increasing and decreasing applied normal loads. First the string is attached directly to the spring and is poured into the container and the displacement is measured. The normal load in this case is equal to 500gm. In this case the hysteresis is larger.
The force can also be applied by using polyvinylide difluoride bimorph cantilevers [ 131. The macroscale test serves a very useful function in quantifying the effect of normal load on the relative sliding which takes place between the balls and groove during the rolling action. 10.3 The measured force versus displacement for the system with and without the bearing.4. 10. This is monitored during the tests by tracing the ball movement on the upper and lower vgrooves. It is based on the same concept as the macroscale test described in the previous section. A schematic representation of the setup is shown in Fig.Friction in Micromechanisms 41 9 8 Figure 10. The slidetoroll ratio is found to be significant and can be as high as 30% in the performed test. Three U springs made of thin TiNi wire are attached to each end of the top vblock.3. . The motive force can be gradually applied by activating the springs on one end of the block by passing an electric current in the wire. The difference in hysteresis is due to the rolling friction in the bearing.5 The Microscale Test A microscale test setup is described in this section which can be utilized for testing micromachined bearings.
The observation of the behavior of the scaledup model includ . The movement of the block can be monitored by optical encoders and interferometers or by using a calibrated cathode follower [ 161.4 (a) Mechanical setup. (b) Force application and displacement mon itoring systems. The friction in the bearing is measured from the differential change of the width of the loop with normal load. The springs can be designed to generate tangential forces in the microgram range for any desired range of micromovements. The effective use of microroller bearing in micromechanisms is highly dependent on the accurate prediction of their frictional resistance. The system is selfcontrained and can be conveniently calibrated using a traveling microscope. The macormodel used in the reported study shows that the frictional resistance during movement can be evaluated from the hysteresis loop obtained from the spring supported upper block of the bearing. The hysteresis can be displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube.420 Chapter 10 Insulated Frame / Displacement Monitor Force /Id Figure 10.
. 8288. G. Y. Schultz.. 1. 1 14. “Micromechanisms: Future Expectations and Design Methodologies. W.153. J. p. T. “Micromotor Fabrication. A21A23.” J. 4. Peterson.. June 13. Vol. 11. B. and Muller. Seireg.’’ Proc. “Rolling Friction in a Linear Microactuator. S. P. 1992. “Silicon Micromachining for Microsensors and Microactuators. 12. Fujita. pp.” Proc. A.” JVST A. T. pp. 70. E.. S.. R.” Microelect. 16.. H. 73. and Lang.W. 221. 1982. Noguchi. Lim. H. Senturia. pp.. “Friction and Wear Studies on Lubricants and Materials Applicable to MEMS. H. 1989. of the IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). T..Friction in Micromechanisms 42 I ing the observed slip was very helpful in the planning of the proposed microscale test setup. 148. of IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS).147. Denton. IEEE. S. Int. “Silicon as a Mechanical Material. C. Howe. “A Study of Static Friction between Silicon and Silicon Compounds. 2. Senturia. 8.. C. February 1991. 14. p. Suzuki. 10. M. 1420. 9. Nara. M.” J. Tai. “Polysilicon Microstructures to Characterize Static Friction.. “Micromechanics: A Silicon Microfabrication Technology. and Yoshimura. 1990. H. 803807. G.. H. Mechatron. ... June 1990. R. pp. Yura.. 2. p. Japan. D. September 1992. P. Lang. and Nagarkar. Shibata. N. L..” IEEE Trans. Napa Valley.. South Carolina.. 38(9).. 3. 1990. D. Matsuura. 1 I .” Hilton Head Island. M. No. Csepregi. Benecke. Vol..” SPIE. and Howland. A.. Japan. D. K. “Frictional Study of ICProcessed Micromotors. Nara. R. Vol. pp. Electron Dev. Mehregany.... No. R.” Microelect.. M. 7. S. Vol. Ghodssi. “Microelectromechanical Devices. D.. 420. Hayashi. an Overview.. pp.. 6.... “Micro Mechanisms. 13.” Proc. A. M. 1993. 143. and White. p. of the IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). 180183. February 1991. Vol. J... H. J.. Micromechanism Symposium. 3. Feburary 1990. Uchizawa.” Proc. Precision Engineering and Optomechanics. August 1993.. CA. and Fujita. 5.. Japan. Eng. K. p.“ Sens. D. A. Hazelrigg. Seireg. M. pp. REFERENCES I . K..” 1st IFTOMM.. 4. Deng. and KO. 11.. in “Technical Digest of IEEE Solid State Sensors and Actuators Workshop. Actuat. No. Micromech. Microeng. 3( 1). The frictional resistance measured in all the performed tests were found to be considerably lower (by orders of magnitude) than those reported in the literature for microsliding bearings. 17.... Chang. Mehregany. S.. Vol. Suzuki. 1985. Robot. “The Measurements of Friction on Micromechatoronics Elements. Eng.
Ghodssi. 16. First IFTOMM Int. Japan.. D. Scranton. PA.422 Chapter 10 15.. 1969.. Seireg.” Proc. 144149.. pp. 1993. Micromechanism Symp. June 13. A... A.. International Textbook Co. . R. Mechanical System Analysis. “An Experimental Technique for Measuring Rolling Friction in MicroBall Bearings. and Denton. Seireg.
This chapter gives a brief introduction to the mechanism of sound generation. Frictioninduced sound phenomena have been used to advantage in developing musical instruments where rubbing strings causes them to vibrate at their natural frequency and generate sound with predictable tones. The first is the rubbing noise due to asperity interaction and the resulting surface waves.2 FRICTIONAL NOISE DUE TO RUBBING One of the major sources of noise in machines and moving bodies is friction.11 FrictionInduced Sound and Vibration 11. Two aspects of the phenomena will be considered. Examples of the numerous studies of the noise generated by relative displacements between moving parts of machines and equipment are reported in 423 . which is selfexcited with its intensity controlled and sustained by the rubbing action. 11.1 INTRODUCTION The phenomenon of sound and vibration generation by rubbing action has been known since ancient times. Modern advances in sound monitoring instrumentation are now making it possible for the formation of cracks due to material fatigue to be readily detected at an early stage by the acoustic emission caused by rubbing at the crack site. The second is the sound generated due to the vibration of a mechanical element or structure. Its undesirable manifestation as in the case of the squeal of chariot wheels has been remedied by the use of wax or fatty lubricants.
This frequency. called the dominating frequency. The disk and spring rotate inside a chamber (10). In 1986. The relation between the sound pressure level (SPL) and surface roughness under various contact loads was established. 11. 11.1 Experimental Setup The device shown in Fig. based upon experimental studies. For each tested material. it has been found that the filtered noise signal within a certain spectrum bandwidth contains a specified frequency at which the amplitude is maximum.1 was constructed to study the relation between frictional noise properties and surface roughness of the material. and squeal noise which occurs when those forces are high. The main features of the transducer shown schematically in Fig.2. that frictional noise could be classified into two categories: rubbing noise which is generated when the frictional forces between sliding surfaces are relatively small. was found to be a material constant independent of surface roughness and contact load. has been carried out by Othman et al. The load may also be decreased by lowering the jack. An experimental investigation into the nature of the noise generated. The rotating disk is dynamically balanced by a small mass ( 5 ) to minimize disk rotational vibration.1 are a springloaded stylus (1) (numbers refer to the components) attached to a rotating disk (2) which is driven by a DC servomotor (3). The load can be increased incrementally by raising the moving plate (7) with the hydraulic jack (8) in order to compress the spring. The noise intensity depends on surface material. An acoustic device was designed and constructed to be used as a reliable tool for measuring roughness. using several engineering materials. The results indicated the presence of acoustic signals in some sliding contact cases and not in others. As the tip slides over the specimen surface (6). The chamber is internally covered by a foamy substance (1 1) which acts as a soundinsulating material that eliminates the surrounding . sliding velocity. when a stylus travels over a frictional surface. Symmons and McNulty [8] investigated the acoustic signals due to stickslip friction by comparing the vibration and noise emission from perspexsteel junction with those of cast ironsteel and steelsteel junctions. An important consideration in frictional noise is how sound due to sliding is influenced by surface roughness and material properties. It was also found that the dominating frequency for a given material is proportional to the sonic speed in that material. roughness. The end of the spring has a tungsten carbide tip (4) which constitutes the sliding element. In 1979 Yokoi and Nakai [7] concluded.a frictional noise is generated. Only a few studies have been carried out to investigate the distinctive properties of such noise.424 Chapter I ! Refs 16. The movement is monitored by the dial gage (9). 11. and spring load. [9].
.I Espcriinental setup.Figure 1I.
8 26. In all tests.1 lists the properties of these materials. For each material tested. which was found to produce repeatable noise spectra. B & K type 2209 (14). 11. is controlled by the axial movement of the motor assembly relative to the chamber by means of the threaded nut (13). which were obtained when using the transducer with conventional direct measureTable 11. A realtime spectrum analyzer (17) is used as well. The motor speed was checked regularly by means of a stroboscope. The sound pressure signal is recorded by spectral analysis by the storage oscilloscope (15) and is displayed on the strip chart (16). Table 1 1.5 Sonic speed (m/s) 5196 3415 5156 Surface wave speed (m/s) 3080 1950 297 1 83. annealed yellow a! brass (65 Cu35 Zn). This results in a linear circumferential speed of 1. In order to compare the results.2. exerted by the spring on the surface. The contact load.2 Experimental Results and Discussion The stiffness of the stylus spring used in the device was 5 10 N/m. were turned to obtain a range of roughness from 1 to 20pm. The faces of test specimens. and commercial pure aluminurn 1100 (99. The experiments were carried out in a 2 x 3 x 2 m soundinsulated room where the background noise did not exceed 6dB. the spring stylus axis of rotation was offset 20mm from the specimen center. The chamber. is lined with an additional sound insulating material (12) at the interface between the motor and the chamber. The motor was selected to produce as low a noise level as possible during operation. which houses the DC motor. approximately 80mm in diameter. This was to ensure that the stylus tip traveled across the lay most of the time.9 + % Al). the sound pressure level (SPL) was recorded for the tip circumferential speed of 1. The frictional sound generated by the stylus rotation is monitored by the microphone and the sound level meter.l Material Properties Material Steel Brass Aluminurn Elastic modulus Specific weight (GW (kN/m3) 207 106 71 76. Three different specimen materials were used: steel SAE 1040. A bandpass filter (18) is used to select the frequency range of interest.6 .05m/s. The spring tip was set to rotate by means of a 12V DC motor at a constant speed of 1000 rpm over a circular path of 10mm radius.05m/s.426 Chapter I I noise.
11. all cases).50. 40  300. as indicated in the figure. 0.2 SPL spectrum in frequency domain for different materials (contact load = OSON. . The contact loads at the stylus tip were 0.) was used. 0. and 1. Taylor and Robson Ltd.75.6 N Frequency (kHz) Figure 11.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 42 7 ments of surface roughness. a commercial roughness meter (Talysurf 10.OO N.25.2. 1 2010 Jj 0 02 I Contact Load = 0. The relationship between the generated sound pres 30 2010 Contact Load 0.26 N  Contact Load 0. The SPL signals and the average roughness readings that were obtained from both instruments are shown in Fig.5 N 0 .
The sound signals are converted to onethird octave spectra by FFT computing spectrum analyzer. 11. 11.3. respectively. and thus could be expressed as follows: (11. 12. and 7. The SPL spectra in the frequency domain are observed at different contact loads for steel specimens. aluminum. U . The results in this case are shown in Fig. as well as the speed of wave propagation over the surface v R (Rayleigh waves). which indicates that the SPL is very sensitive to loads. The sound signals are filtered for those frequency bands and analyzed separately. It is clear that the SPL has a peak value at a given frequency depending upon the material under investigation.3) where E = modulus of elasticity G = shear modulus o = specific weight g = gravitational acceleration . This indicates that SPL can be used as a reliable alternative means of quantifying the average surface roughness at a given location on the surface. and brass.428 Chapter I I sure levels and average roughness was found to be a straight line on the loglog scale.4 in which the surface speed uR was calculated from the following expression [ 101: ( 1 1. The SPL is analyzed after being filtered in the range from 400Hz to 20 kHz to capture the relevant frequencies.2.2 when the normal load is 0. The variations in surface roughness and contact load will alter only the magnitude of the maximum SPL. is as indicated in the figure.1) where F is the contact force and B. and n are experimental parameters. 1 1.8 kHz for steel. A sample of spectra obtained is shown in Fig. C . despite the fact that the general trend of the spectra stays almost the same. The dominating frequency for each of the three materials tested was found to vary linearly with the sonic speed. but not the frequency at which this maximum occurs. The results are presented in Fig.2) ( 1 1.1. This frequency is referred to as the dominating frequency and was found to be 12.5 N and the average surface roughness R.
R.FriclionInduced Sound and Vibrations 429 40 Alumlnum. = 6pm 30 20  It is interesting to note that the SPL increases with increasing the contact load when the sound signal is filtered at the dominating frequency. . The results also show that the filtered SPL increases linearly with roughness.
11.3 EFFECT OF LUBRICATION ON NOISE REDUCTION It is generally accepted that frictional noise reduction can be achieved through lubrication.430 Chapter If I Figure 11. The hypothesis considered in this section is that frictional rubbing noise is the result of asperity penetration into the surface. The intensity of the sound can be assumed to be dependent on the depth of penetration which can in turn be assumed to be proportional to the real area .4 Correlation between speed of surface wave and dominating fre quency. The movement of the asperity therefore disturbs the surface layer and generates surface waves. This section provides a rational framework for quantifying the role played by the lubricating fl between the rubbing surfaces in im reducing the intensity of sound generated by relative motion.
The model used for the illustration (Fig.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 431 of contact. As discussed in Chapter 4. The considered surface roughness conditions are given in Table 11.5) is represented by two rollers with radii R. change in an approximately linear function with the normal load. as well as the frictional resistance. The lubricant viscosity and speed are changed to produce different ratios of film thickness to surface roughness ranging from 0 to 3. subjected to a load of 2000 lb/in. The roughness profile data given by McCool [ 1 I] for five different surface finishing processes are used to determine the input parameters for the GreenwoodWilliamson microcontact model [ 121. = R2 = loin.s Contact model. The model is then used to compute the ratio of the real area of contact to the nominal area for the given normal load and the thickness of the lubricant film separating the surfaces.2. the real area. . 11. Figure 11.0. It can therefore be assumed that the real area of contact between the lubricated solids can be used as a quantitative indicator of the intensity of the sound generated during sliding.
2 Chapter 11 Roughness Conditions rms roughness 0 (clin.6 .8 I I I I I a I 2. This ratio can be used to represent the change in the relative sound intensity (dB) with lubrication for the different surface finishing processes under the given load./& and nominal area of contact A.432 Table 11.0 2. 11. assuming smooth surfaces.5 30 . for different roughness and lubricant film conditions.6.05254 0..01 157 0. and it is no surprise that gear noise has been the subject of extensive invesRatio of Total Contact Area to Nominal Area 0.74 21. 11.92 45.) 2.5 3. major source of noise in machinery and equipment.9 Surface finishing process 1 2 3 Slope of the roughness profile 0.70 This ratio of the real area of contact to the nominal area.09017 0.4 FRICTIONAL NOISE IN GEARS Gears are a wellknown. Figure 11. 1 Ratio between the real area A.07925 4 5 Fine grinding Rough grinding Lapping Polishing Shot peening 1.01471 0. is given in Fig.
11. 0. 200. and lubricant viscosity on noise. Numerical results are given in the following example to illustrate the effect of gear ratio. viscosity 0.OOOpsi) on the relative NPL with an average surface roughness of 0.000.8. 0. A procedure for determining the effect of the different design and operating parameters on frictional noise in the gear mesh is presented by Aziz and Seirig [ 151. 689. The Greenwood asperitybased model [ 121 with Gaussian distribution of heights is utilized to evaluate the penetration of asperities in the contacting surface of the teeth. and surface roughness 0. As can be seen in this figure.0015. 100. This could be attributed to the change in the film thickness and consequently the amount of penetration.000.075 Pasec) and surface roughness 0. the relative NPL increases as would be expected with the increase of surface roughness for every gear ratio since the number of asperities subject to deformation is high for higher roughness and consequently the associated NPL becomes higher. 11. speed.9.000 psi).003. (127 mm) center distance was calculated in both dry and lubricated regimes for different design and operating parameters. and pinion speeds of 1800 and 500 rpm. The rate of the relative NPL decreases as gear ratio increases.5MPa ( 10.075 Nsec/m' (0. The effect of change of lubricant viscosity on the relative NPL at different gear ratios is presented in Fig. A parametric relationship is developed for relating the interpenetration of the asperities to the relative noise pressure level (NPL) in the lubricated and dry regimes. gear oil viscosity of 0. and 1722. The effect of change of surface roughness at different gear ratios on the relative NPL is shown in Fig.005 mm. respectively. pinion speed 1800 rpm. The relation between the relative NPL and different gear ratios was determined.000. respectively. and 0.000 psi). Figures 1 1. as shown in Fig.005 mm (CLA).075 Pasec).9 for surface contact stress 689 MPa (100. load. viscosity 0. The results show that the relative NPL increases with the increase of load for all gear ratios. 11.10 for contact stress 689 MPa (100.075 Nsec/m2 (0. When reducing the pinion speed from 1800 to 500 rpm the same trend occurs but with higher noise levels. This effect is clearly shown in Fig. roughness.7 and 1 1. 1 1. The frictional noise generated from a pair of helical involute steel gears of 5 in. The nature of gear noise is quite complex because of the multitude of factors that contribute to it.8 present the effect of change of load for surface contact stresses 68.1 1 for surface contact stress 689 .FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 433 tigations.075 Nsec/m2 (0.005mm. and 250. The teeth are standard with a normal pressure angle equal to 25" and a helical angle equal to 31". The survey conducted by Welbourn [ 131 and the comparative study presented by Attia [14] on gear noise revealed that the published literature on the subject did not show how friction during the mesh of the rough contacting teeth influences noise generation.075 Pasec).002. 1378.
5 MPa F 1.0 3..8 Effect of load change on NPL.o l ' 1.5 l Gear Ratio Figure 11.5 2.10 I Contact Stress m68.15 0.0 l ' 3.o I I I I 1.1722.5 l ' 3.5 .9 MPa 0689 MPa A.0 l ' 2.5 l ' 2.0 2.7 Effect of load change on NPL.1378 MPa . . I I 3.434 Chapter I I U = 0.5 Gear Ratio Figure 11.005 m m 0. ' 1.
5 3.40 0.20 0.5 Gear Ratio Figure 11. .30 1.300.00 ! 1.0 3.05 0.40  0.25 a 0 ? K 5 0.45 1  0.5 2.5 Gear Ratio Figure 11.500.15 0.9 Effect of speed change on NPL.5 2.35 5 3 0.0 3.35 2 0.10 Effect of roughness change on NPL.0 2.45 0.0.o I 1 I 1 I I 1 I 1.0 2.10 0.o I u  u  1  1  1 1.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 435 g .50  0.5 3. 0.
15.15. While in the presence of the lubricant. as the gear ratio increases. Accordingly. This is attributed to the increase in the film thickness. and 0.075. the relative NPL also increases. the film thickness is reduced due to the increase in gear ratio.0 2. to some extent.40  0. which causes a decrease in the penetration of asperities and the relative NPL. leading to an increase of penetration of the asperities. This results in an increase in the ratio of penetration in lubricated regime to that in dry regime.11 Effect of viscosity change on NPL. It could be reduced by improving the surface finish of gear teeth through limiting their surface roughness to very low values.436 . MPa ( 100. and 0. Chapter I I 0.5 Gear Ratio Figure 11. surface roughness 0.5 3. It can be seen that the relative NPL decreases with the increase of viscosity.000 psi).005 mm and viscosities 0.075.0 3. 0. the transmitted load is decreased for the same contact stress. 0.10 1 1. It can therefore be seen that the surface roughness effect as a contributing factor in the complex frictional gear noise spectrum could.25 Pasec) respectively. . which gives rise to the increase of relative NPL. The results from all the considered examples show that. the separation in the dry regime between the mating teeth increases and the penetration decreases. pinion speed 1800 rpm. and by using lubricating oils of high viscosities.o I I I I I I I 1.5 2. be controlled. The reason is that with the increase of the gear ratio.25 Nsec/m2 (0.
will therefore always be in the direction of Vo. the unidirectional frictional force acting on the mass will therefore be equal to p N . the equation of motion can be written as: mi + c i + k x = pN = (po+ a i ) N ( 1 1. due to some slight disturbance. They are described as such because the vibration of the system itself causes the frictional resistance to provide the necessary energy for sustaining the motion. Such cases are generally known as selfexcited vibrations. We shall now consider as an illustration the wellknown case of a singlemass system vibrating in a selfexcited manner under the influence of kinetic friction. 1 1. the frictional force p N will not remain constant but will be larger when the mass moves in the direction of the tangential velocity Vo of the wheel than when it moves opposite to it.X). Some of the common examples of selfexcited (or selfsustained) vibrations are the chatter vibration in machine tools and brakes. the mass starts to vibrate. Over a complete cycle of vibration. the frictional force will therefore produce net positive work on the mass and the amplitude of its vibration will build up. the frictional force p N . and N is the normal force between the mass m and the frictional wheel. which is a function of the relative velocity ( Vo . Assuming that the velocity of the oscillation i is much smaller than the tangential velocity of the frictional wheel.12.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 437 Gear ratios of values greater than unity can have a significant effect on increasing the NPL even with lower values of roughness. The developed procedure can be used to guide the designer in selecting the appropriate parameters for minimizing the frictional noise for any particular application. 1 1. If. the vibration of the violin strings due to the motion of the bow and numerous other examples of mechanical systems subjected to kinetic friction. 11. Assuming that p is the coefficient of kinetic friction. The frequency of the vibration is therefore equal to (or close to) the natural frequency of the system. Fig.4) . It is well known that the coefficient of kinetic friction is not a constant value but diminishes slightly as the velocity of relative sliding increases (see Fig. In order to study this vibration.5 FRICTIONINDUCED VIBRATION AND NOISE There are numerous cases in physical systems where sound due to vibrations is developed and sustained by friction.13).
Sliding Velocity Figure 11.13 Coefficient of kinetic friction.438 Chapter I I m I Figure 11.12 Frictional drive for selfexcited vibration. .
f + (C .5. the phaseplane4 method of analysis is particularly well suited for studies of selfexcited vibration [ 101. The equation of motion is now: mjl +f(i) = puN kx + (1 1.which represents a net damping coefficient.8) . If aN < c.aN). + 6) = 0 ( 1 1.a N ) i + kx = N ( 1 1. if aN > c. On the other hand.6) This equation can be written in the S form as: ( I 1. It is quite clear from the previous example that a quantitative knowledge of the frictional force and damping functions is essential for any analysis of this type of selfexcited vibration. a negative damping term will exist and the vibration will build up as shown in Fig. 11.7) i + U:(. will determine whether the vibration will be stopped or built up in a selfexcited manner.14a. The system in this case is unstable. This equation can be rearranged as: m. 11. the resultant damping term will be positive and the vibration will decay signifying the stability of the system. Assume that in the previous equation the resultant function (c .FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 439 where c = coefficient of viscous damping po = coefficient of kinetic friction at Vo relative velocity a = slope of the friction curve at Vo and can be considered constant = for a small U .aN) was not a linear function of the velocity but rather a complicated function f(x) obtained experimentally.1 The PhasePlane4 Method Because frictional forces are usually complex functions which require experimentally obtained information. Any variation in either function due to increase in amplitude or velocity of the vibration can have considerable effect on the vibration.5) The term ( c .
f ( i ) 1 = .440 Chapter / I IX aN*C Damped Vibration X aN=C Limit Cycle Vibration aN*C Setf excited Vibration  X X k .pu.14 Dynamic response. Wn Figure 11.i = .N = constant k k . where s = si. + so 1 6.
This type of experiment is generally associated with excessive vibrations due to the rotation of the motor and disk. This type of vibration develops as a result of the negative slope of the frictionvelocity function.12 are shown in Fig. By successively plotting small segments of the locus and changing the datum according to the new position. Data representing different forms of selfexcited vibration of the system shown in Fig. 11. This is generally the case. and lubrication condition. which in this hypothetical case.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 44 I and the problem accordingly will transform to a free vibration with a continuously changing datum. giving a positive slope and consequently avoiding the selfexcitation. . and lubrication condition. 11. It should be noted that the frequency of the motion is the same as the natural frequency of the system and is independent of the motor speed. with varied degrees in dry friction. The motion of the block is indicated by means of a dial gage.14b. surface roughness. This relationship has to be determined experimentally because it is a function of the materials in contact. The use of grease lubrication causes the frictional resistance to increase with sliding speed. The driving motor is then run at different speeds and the resulting vibration of the system is recorded. 11.6 PROCEDURE F R DETERMINATION OF THE FRICTIONAL O PROPERTIES UNDER RECIPROCATING SLIDING MOTION It has been shown in the previous section that frictioninduced selfexcited vibrations and noise are controlled by the functional dependency of kinetic friction on the relative velocity between the rubbing surfaces. the motion can be graphically represented in the phase plane. The irregularities of the disk surface during rotation can also produce variations of the measured coefficient of friction. is a function of the velocity i be obtained at any instant of the can motion in the phase plane from the 6curve. The measurement of the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity has been the subject of many studies to determine the influence of such controlling factors as materials. The motion at the limit cycle will be similar to a free undamped vibration. The datum variation 6. surface roughness. which also shows that the motion is stable when the vibration decays or a limit cycle is reached. This is shown in Fig. Most of the reported experiments utilized the pinondisk tribometer apparatus [16191 and different types of transducers were used to measure the frictional force directly or indirectly. temperature. The bearing block of the frictional wheel is moved on the supporting wedge a predetermined amount to produce a particular value of static friction. 11.15.
.442 Figure 11.15 Examples o f selfexcited vibration.
Anand and Soom [24] analytically investigated the dynamic effects on frictional contacts during acceleration from rest to a steady state velocity. and quasiharmonic oscillation. the problems associated with nonuniformity of the disk surface and the reliability of the measurement continue to present challenges to this approach. and restoring forces at each increment of the frictioninduced cycle. and damping coefficient of the vibrating system by summing the inertia. 221. 21. vibration induced by random surface irregularities.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 443 This was observed by Godfrey [20] who emphasized the importance of avoiding external vibrations during friction measurements. However. Most analytical and experimental studies which are reported in the literature on frictioninduced vibration and friction force measurements are based on a constant relative sliding speed. damping. sliding speed. Aronov [ 181 investigated the interaction between friction. and vibration and their dependence on normal load and system stiffness using a pinondisk apparatus. The study by Othman and Seireg [25] presents a procedure for evaluating the change of frictional force with relative velocity during reciprocating . They reported that their technique proved useful in reducing the effect of changes of the surface and external vibration. KO and Brockley [ 161 developed a technique for determining the frictionvelocity characteristic by measuring the friction force versus displacement in one cycle of a quasiharmonic frictioninduced vibration using a pinondisk apparatus. stiffness. which has been studied by several investigators [1618. The force was calculated from the knowledge of the mass. At relatively low values of the normal load. quasiharmonic oscillations with nearly sinusoidal waveforms are produced. Bell and Burdekin [ 171 utilized acceleration and displacement measurements during one cycle of the frictioninduced vibration of slideways to evaluate the frictional force as a function of the instantaneous velocity. In 1970. Tolstoi [23] was one of the early investigators of the stickslip phenomenon where the vibration in the normal direction to the contact surface is usually of a sawtooth type caused by changes in the coefficient of friction with the relative sliding velocity. which depend on the normal load. wear. The frictioninduced vibration. In 1984. KO and Brockley [16] attempted to minimize the effect of external vibration by using a onecycle sequence triggering circuit and other electronic devices which permitted the measurement of the kinetic friction force in the presence of frictioninduced vibration. and the nature of the surfaces in contact. The vibration usually occurs when the sliding speed is sufficiently low. normal vibration is produced due to the surface irregularities and waviness. may be classified into three types: stockslip. When the normal load and the sliding speed are sufficiently high. These three types of vibration have been observed under certain conditions.
The use of sinusoidal sliding motion at the resonant frequencies of the vibrating rod is found to considerably minimize the effect of external vibrations on the experimental results. and in the case of a quasiharmonic oscillation.16a. disturbance in the y direction resulting from surface waviness. the motion is govenred by the velocity dependent friction force only. It utilizes the frictioninduced lateral vibration of a rod to evaluate the parameters of the frictional function using a gradient search which minimizes the error between the analytical response and the frictioninduced experimental vibrations.b) when subjected to a reciprocating frictional force can be modeled by three degrees of freedom representing the translation x and y at the midspan and the torsional angle 8 about the axis of the rod. the variations in surface roughness are minimized within the frictional area and a steadystate surface roughness can be rapidly achieved after few reciprocating cycles. The effect of external vibrations on the measurements is also minimized by operating the reciprocating rod at resonant frequencies of the system. Because the contact area is small. by means of a load N . 1 1. the friction force is time dependent during stick and velocity dependent during slip..12) . By appropriate selection of the rod dimensions each of these movements can be represented by an elastically supported single mass yzz because the oscillations can be uncoupled for all practical purposes. For small displacements. wn2. The experimental model used for this purpose (Fig. It has been shown [I61 that in the case of stickslip oscillation.and wn3. It is assumed in this study that the frictionvelocity relationship is approximated by an exponential function of the following form: (11. The equations are essentially uncoupled due to the selection of widely separated natural frequencies on. 11. which is pressed on a flexible rod (B).444 Chapter I 1 sliding motion. The dynamic motion of the rod B (shown in Fig.16) consists of a cylindrical steel rod (A). the governing equations for the motion of the oscillatory rod B can be represented as: where Y is the coefficient of friction and y i is a function describing the .
FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 445 Rider Rod @I Figure 111 6 Dynamic model. where: U = sliding velocity uo = exponential constant pmax and pmin maximum and minimum bound values of the coefficient = of friction Both the x and y accelerations were monitored during the tests and the latter was found to be consistently negligible in all the performed tests. Because .
11.12). the reciprocating frequencies for the test are selected to be equal to 1/3.49kg.6.O Hz.6. 1. This is accomplished by means of a multivariate gradient search to determine the values of <. The output signals are amplified by a conditioning amplifier then fed to a storage oscilloscope and a realtime spectrum analyzer (type HP 3582A).10) is used for evaluating the parameters of the Eq.18ad are the experimental acceleration responses corresponding to the . The natural frequency obtained from the peaks of the response is found to be 21 . which is calculated using the logarithmic decrement method. which includes the mass of the transducer attached to the rod. which produce the best fit with the experimental results. 11. and which minimize the square of deviation between the calculated and experimental peaks of the acceleration response measured at the center of the beam. pmin. A chart recorder is also used to record the acceleration signals.1 Experimental Arrangement The main features of the experimental arrangement are shown in Fig. The supporting structure and the rider have natural frequencies far above those of the vibrating rod B. It is supported at both ends such that rotation about its axis is constrained. is found equal to 0. 11.23. (1 1. This value is also verified by the realtime spectrum analyzer. The system total equivalent vibrating mass is 0.446 Chapter I I the Y motion is designed to be the most dominant mode of oscillation. A function generator is used to control the reciprocating motion of rod A . which does not affect the natural frequency of rod B.17 where the two cylindrical steel rods ( A and B) (UNS GlOlOO CD) with mutually perpendicular axes are used as a sliding pair. which are fixed at its midspan. The x and y oscillations of rod A are measured by piezoelectric accelerometers. 2/3. The equivalent rod stiffness in the x direction is 7260 N/m. only Eq. The dotted curves in Figs of 1 1.0009m in diameter. Rod A is connected to an electromagnetic exciter (type B&K 481 1 with a force rating of 310 N) and acts as the reciprocating rider. and 4/ 3 of the natural frequency on2 the rod B. The damping ratio. In order to minimize the effect of the external vibration. pmax.2 Experimental Results and Computer Search Procedure The natural frequency wnz and the damping ratio of rod B are determined experimentally by impacting the rod in the x direction when the load is 20 N.65m long and 0. Rod B is 0. (1 1. The normal load between the rods is controlled by a loading device. A standard vibration calibrator (type B & K 4291) is used to check the measuring instrument. uo.
44 7 Figure I1. .17 Experimental setup.
in 8 P I f _ .I A Acceleration Amplitude (m/sec2) A I ~ Acceleration Amplitude (m/sec2) 0 P 0 Q 0 ! 0 0 P 0 9 0 8 U.
0 2 z 3 6.0 U Q 6 .0 Time (sec.Experimental Theoretical Time (sec.) (c) 12.0 a 12.FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 449 .m ! I OO 6.) (a .
Although good results were obtained by using an exponential function for the frictionvelocity characteristics and by using the peaks of the response curve for computing the error function.20 illustrates the excellent correlation between the experimental response spectra and the corresponding analytical results obtained with the optimum parameters. the same approach can be used by assuming other functions and minimizing the mean square error 1. The evaluated frictionvelocity curve is shown in Fig.10) is solved numerically with assumed values of p.in = 0.. .8 Relative Sliding Velocity (m/sec) 0.023. {. The optimum parameters for the considered cases are found to be as follows: pmax 0. and vo = 0.18ad. p.06. The vibrations were also monitored in the normal y direction and were found to be orders of magnitude lower than those in the x direction.8. A gradient search technique is utilized with the objective of minimizing the square error of the deviation between the peaks of the theoretical and experimental acceleration curves as the objective function.6.6 Figure 11..1 1. pmin. Figure 11.00 0. It should be noted that the same parameters for the frictional function were obtained for the different frequencies of the reciprocating motion considered in the test.19 0. and uo.. The corresponding theo= retical acceleration waveforms for the different reciprocating frequencies are shown by solid lines in Figs 1 1.19. 11.8 1. { = 0.6 Evaluated frictional coefficient versus sliding velocity. 11.450 Chapter I I selected four frequencies.3 Evaluation of the Frictional Parameters Equation (1 1.
and Umezawa. 1985. 16651671. It should be noted that the value of { obtained from the optimization procedure is identical to that obtained from the decay of the experimental free vibration data.” Noise Control Eng.” Noise Control Eng. Vol. 52(481). Vol. M. Control Wldwide. JSME. Matsuhisa.. R. Yokoi. Houjoh. “Noise Reduction and Machine Diagnostic and Educational Challenge. 5663. 1982.Dec. M. 24632471.Oct. pp. pp. J. “A Fundamental Study on Frictional Noise. 6. “Acoustic Intensity Measurements for Small Engines... 16(8)..FrictionInduced Sound and Vibrations 45 I P Q t c ‘ 0 0 E Frequency (Ht) Comparison between the experimental (. pp. Inst.” Proc.. J..” Bull./an2 1/3).” Noise Control Eng. “The Sound Radiated from Gears. pp. = Figure 11. J. and Skorecki. Vol. J.” Trans. “Noise from Circular StoneSawing Blades and Theoretical Analysis of their Flexural Vibration. “On Damping of Railway Break Squeal. 221224.. and Sato. Sound Emitted from the Valve Mechanism.Oct.. H. Sept. 181. “Identification of Mechanical Source of Noise in a Diesel Engine. 5. J. S. Thompson. 22(173). K. pp.. pp. Nov.20 for the entire response curve. 7. Sept. Sept. pp. 1986. 3. 96102. H. 2. J. B. 4651. 1986. Mech.) and theoretical () response spectrum for ac= 7 Hz (a. JSME.. . 196667. and Nakai. Jakobsen. 4. 1986.. Vol. NOV. 434446. Sept.” Noise Vibr...1979. Part I (I). Lyon.. Engrs. Fielding. REFERENCES 1..
328331. pp. “Interactions Among Friction.... April 1987. Noise and Vibration of Engine Transmissions. 1970. Eng.. Vol. A. Trans. Vol.” Proc. Indust. Dec. Vol. P. “A Procedure for Evaluating the Frictional Properties of Hertzian Contacts under Reciprocating Sliding Motion. Jan. Soc. Kalpakjian.” ASME J. Technol.. J. A. D. 1966. F. M.” Wear. I. 8186. M.. 24... J. and Burdekin. L... 773. Vol.452 Chapter I I 8. 112. Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 10. Apr.” Exper. Series A. Othman.. Oct. 176... 18. Welbourn. Chicago. pp. “Noise of Gears: a Comparative Study. p. Aronov.“ 1979 Conf. and Shareef.. Vol... 21 Earles. pp. 7982. B. ASME. “Experimental Investigation of Frictional Noise and SurfaceRoughness Characteristics. “QuasiHarmonic FrictionInduced Vibration.” Proc. 1967. pp. McCool. Greenwood. 543549. pp. Tribol. 12...” 1989. Part 1. M. Mech. Proc. W. M. International Textbook Co. A. Seireg. C. Aronov.. Vol. B. and Brockley..” ASME J. 1 83. “Vibration Reduces Metal to Metal Contact and Causes an Apparent Reduction in Friction. pp. “Fundamental knowledge of gear noise: a survey. ASLE.” Wear. pp. A. V.” Wear. 109. Tolstoi. Feb. pp. pp..” Trans. and Seireg. A. 550556. 181. Godfrey. ASME. S. Brockley. 295.. Vol.” Trans. lO(2). 106..” ASME J. 1 I . . “Interactions Among Friction Wear and Systems Stiffness Part 1: Effect of Normal Load and System Stiffness.. pp. ASME. pp. M. Kalpakjian. Tribol. 1986. L. 1990. J. 14. Aziz. 13. “A Parametric Study of Frictional Noise in Gears. V. 1970. 4953.. “Significance of the Normal Degree of Freedom and Natural Vibrations in Contact Friction. 361364..192. D.. Tribol.. Attia. 23. O. Vol. 1967. 106. A. D. p. F.Part 2: Vibrations Induced by Dry Friction. pp. pp. S. Y. D’Souza. J.. Power Transmission and Gearing Conf. Lubr. J. Vol. Technol. 2. A. A. S. pp. 300319. Lond. 8. Cranfield Institute of Technology.” J. H. 19661967. and Williamson.. and Seireg. 17. 1990. Symmons. Tribol. and Seireg. Wear. 264270. Mechanical Systems Analysis.. 22. Lubr.. 19.. Jan.. 1976. 1969. I. K.. Int. Anand. C. Trans. 169184. and Soom.... 16. 10. pp. A. 1994. Oct.. and Shareef. A. Vol. Elkholy. Lubr. 2528.. “Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces. 1 13( I). I.. D’Souza. Roy. and Lee. KO. Mech. 25. C. Othman. 5964. A.” ASME J. 412. Bell. S. A. O.. “The Measurement of Friction and Friction Induced Vibration. Dec. Trans. 1984. P.. Inst. Vol. 20. and KO. Vol.. and McNulty. G.. “Dynamic Behavior of Plain Slideways. P. 15. “Acoustic Output from StickSlip Friction. 193213. “RoughnessInduced Transient Loading at a Sliding Contact During Startup. 5458. and System Stiffness . E. No. A. “Relating Profile Instrument Measurements to the Functional Performance of Rough Surfaces. “Instabilities Arising from the Frictional Interaction of a PinDisk System Resulting in Noise Generation.” ASME J.” Trans. 1984. 1984. 9. R.. 106. Jan. Tribol. Engrs. A. G. A.
and wear or abrasion resistance depend on the coating process. carburizing. wear. Today. coatings were used exclusively as a corrosion inhibitor. Until recently. Hot processes or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Cold processes or physical vapor deposition (PVD) Coating properties such as microstructure. The coated layer can be an adsorbed film of the lubricant or a chemical layer formed by the reaction of the materials to the environment. the load transfer. 453 . relative movement. It can also be induced by surface treatment processes which have been known for centuries such as cold working. 12.12 Surface Coating 12.1 INTRODUCTION In tribological systems.2 COATING P O E S S R CSE The methods by which surfaces are coated with thin films are often divided into two groups: 1. 2. substrate adhesion. change the friction coefficient. and fatigue damage initiation occur at the surface. act as a thermal barrier or conductor. The other basic type of surface modification is surface coating. and resist corrosion. corrosion. Advances in surface coating technology can therefore have considerable impact on improving the performance of such systems and extending their useful life. and induction hardening. engineered coatings can resist abrasive wear.
some additional requirements must be fulfilled. to which the work pieces are heated. Chemical reactions that take place are given below: 2TiC14 + 4H2 + N2 + 2TiN + 8HC1 Or in the case of TIC coating: TiCI. which causes the reactive gases to dissociate and the desired coating compound to form on the work piece surfaces. and aluminum oxide. The driving force of the process is the high temperature. composition. generally dictated by the operational requirements for the coated surfaces. the gas mixture would consist of AIC13 (aluminum chloride). For example. parts with tolerance of 0. typically in the range 1750195OoF. and structure of the coatings are: Temperature Composition of the gas atmosphere Flow rate of the gas in the coating chamber Coating time Due to high coating temperatures. In general.) would supply the nitrogen to form a TIN coating. With respect to equipment for production processes. hafnium carbide and nitride. titanium tetahcloride (TiC14) would be the reactive gas introduced to provide the titanium and pure nitrogen gas (N2) or ammonia (NH. make excellent candidates for CVD coatings.4. a minimum rejection rate as a result of the high degree of reproducibility .001 in. H2 and CO2: 2AlC13 + 3CO2 + 3H2 + A1203 + 3CO + 6HC1 Important parameters influencing the deposition rate.54 Chapter 12 12. steel parts must be heat treated after coating. The CVD process is most commonly used for the coating of very large quantities of cemented carbide tools. such as large number of components coated in one run with a uniform coating thickness. Hydrogen chloride gas (HC1) is also formed in this reaction and must be neutralized for safe removal. All of the coatings are applied to a thickness in the range 59 pm.2. It is important that only components which have sufficient dimensional tolerances be coated. + CH4 + T i c + 4HCl Similarly if A1203 is deposited.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition Commercially available CVD hard coatings for tooling include titanium carbide.
The inside surface of the SIP unit as well as all of the exposed surfaces are lined with a sheet of titanium. are inserted into the chamber in close proximity to the part. The following are the major PVD coating processes: 1. CVD is primarily used to coat machine tools with TIN. Coating material crystallizes on the substrate surface. small anodes. This process takes several hours and is very sensitive to process parameters. biased slightly higher in potential than the work load. These units have microprocessorbased automated control systems. In a few hours. a coating which consists of a sequence of 10 layers can be produced fully automatically in one cycle. migrate to the part and are deposited on the exposed surfaces. Gaseous chemicals are introduced into the chamber at atmospheric pressure. forming a thin uniform coating. To form a fine impurityfree coating. Production chambers can handle a working diameter of 360mm and a working height of up to 900mm. For example. At the present. These highly energized titanium atoms.Surface Coating 455 from the process. Chemical reactions of gaseous material produce the coating material and gaseous byproducts. forming TIN. through a series of random collisions. Parts to be coated are loaded into a standard fixture. However. and low production and maintenance costs. Sputter ion plating Electron gun beam evaporation (ion plating) Arc evaporation (ion bond) Sputter Ion Plating Sputter ion plating (SIP) takes place in a vacuum chamber containing argon at a certain known pressure. resulting in a glow discharge (plasma) generated between the workload and the titanium. Temperatures are typically in the range 500900°F for the deposition of tool coatings. The ionized argon bombards the titanium.2 Physical Vapor Deposition This process relies on ion bombardment as the driving force. The process starts by placing parts in a chamber and heating to 1000°C. This lower temperature is generally given as the major distinction between CVD and PVD processes. The parts are held at a positive voltage (+ 900 V) with respect to titanium. a high degree of equipment reliability. The titanium acts as a source material. 12. sputtering titanium atoms. thick coatings can be applied by this method. 3. The effect is to produce further lowenergy . 2. Nitrogen gas is then bled into the chamber which reacts with the deposited titanium.2. This enables composition and a sequence of layers. the parts reach a uniform temperature.
The process is inherently slow. The pure argon sweeps away any volatile contaminants which may be in the system or which remains on the parts. Ion cleaning is essential for good coating adhesion and subsequent surface performance. Cleaning of tools consists of series of mechanical/chemical treatments followed by utrasonic degreasing. dust. which produces a microcrystalline structure. The argon is purified before entering the chamber by passing over a heated titanium. This establishes a glow discharge in the chamber from which ions are attracted to the part sputtering the surface. After the ion cleaning is completed. and the operation of the system at less than 500°C (927"F). using watercooled jigging. ion cleaning of the parts takes place. and uniformity is difficult to achieve. the small mean free path of sputtered titanium. and burrs. which is evaporated at low pressure by an electron beam gun to produce titanium vapor. all of which can affect adherence. which is attracted by an electric bias to the workpiece. Cleaned tools are loaded onto similarly cleaned fixtures. rust preventatives. Because of the large titanium source. It is important to clean tools as carefully as possible to reduce the risk of damaging the cutting edges. The sputtering action provides a surface which is free of oxides or any barrier to the coating in the chamber. but can be speeded up by ionization enhancement techniques. the bias is reversed. SIP is a process having excellent throwing power. and clearly provide greater process flexibility. The main drawback is the constraint that the workload must be suspended above the melting crucible. This is due to the deposited coating itself being bombarded by highenergy argon atoms. Ion cleaning is accomplished by applying a negative voltage (500 V) to the parts. blocks of solid titanium are arranged around the chamber walls and an arc is struck and maintained . The fixture is then placed into the coating chamber. The tools to be coated and titanium source material are heated using external radiant heaters to 300°C. The first step in the tool coating process is to ensure that the surfaces of the components to be coated are free of oxides. and argon gas is then flowed into the chamber. Electron Beam Gun Evaporation This ion plating process uses a crucible of molten titanium. as described above. grease. These characteristics of SIP set it off from other PVD processes. large and small tools of different geometries may be coated in the same cycle. Once the chamber and the work load is at temperature.456 Chapter I2 sputtering. Arc Evaporation With the arc evaporation (ion bond) method ARE. and coating is initiated.
but this is an extra step. Arc sources therefore may be placed at any angle around the workpiece. If the application requires it. Additionally. high temperatures tend to ensure a tightly adhering coating. This may be advantageous in some cases. Thus uniformity is achieved without complex jigging. Even deep cavities and inside diameters will become coated in a CVD reactor. and PVD temperatures are often pushed to the HSS tempering range to enhance coating adhesion. Because the CVD reactions take place within the gaseous cloud. Parameters such as coating thickness. PVD reactors are therefore less densely packed. thick). coating composition and substrate temperature are easily controlled. However. The kinetic energy of deposition is great enough to give rich plasma of ionized titanium. this generally causes no problems. the parts must be restored to the proper condition by vacuum heat treatment following the coating process. Titanium is evaporated by extreme local heat from the arc into the nitrogen atmosphere and attracted to the workpiece. therefore. postcoating heat treatment does produce unacceptable distortion.3 Comparison between the CVD and PVD Processes The principal difference between CVD and PVD processes is temperature. This is of major significance in the coating of highspeed steels as the 17501950°F of CVD exceeds the tempering temperature of HSS steel. in some cases involving extremely fine tolerances. The high temperature of the CVD process makes it somewhat less demanding than PVD in terms of cleanliness of the workpiece going into the reactor: some types of dirt simply burn off. this can be polished to a high luster. Another characteristic of the CVD coating is that they yield a matte surface somewhat rougher than the substrate to which they are applied. which is simply placed on a turntable in the base of the chamber. With properly executed heat treatment. Except for SIP. everything within that cloud will be coated.2.0001 in. PVD coating on the other hand faithfully reflect the underlying surface. resulting in good adhesion at a high coating rate and low substrate temperature.Surface Coating 45 7 between the titainum and the chamber. . This permits workpieces to be closely packed within a CVD reactor with complete coating of all surfaces except those points on which the parts rest. CVD coatings tend to be somewhat thicker (typically 0.0003in. The main advantage is that evaporation occurs from the solid rather than the liquid phase. 12.) than those deposited by different PVD processes (often less than 0. disadvantageous in others. all PVD processes have limited throwing power. and the jigging and fixtures are more complicated.
Layered Lattice Coatings Most layered lattice coatings are hexagonal compounds with slip planes that are oriented parallel with the surface. graphite fluorides. frictionreducing properties. These compounds are like plates stacked up on top of each other. The process is fast and relatively inexpensive because vaporized coating material is carried directly to the substrate where particles condense to form a film. 12. polymers. CaF. Several process parameters can be controlled directly and the process is insensitive to slight variation of process parameters. ceramics like carbides and nitrides.. These coatings are typically applied to protect parts during a running in period.3 TYPES OF COATINGS Surface coatings can be divided into two subgroups. and a wide range of operating temperatures.458 Chapter I2 A cost comparison between CVD and PVD is complex. Hard coatings are recommended for heavy load or highspeed applications. The PVD process cycle time can be one tenth that of CVD.1 Soft Coatings Soft coatings can be grouped into four main categories: layered lattice compounds such as graphite. and MoS. they resist movement normal to the surface. Soft metals have received much attention because of their lowload. . However. The plates slip easily when subjected to a shear force. hard and soft coatings.. Many soft coatings are actually solid lubricants (like graphite) that require a resin binder to adhere to the surface. and CaF2BaF2 eutectics. Mixed components can be coated in one CVD cycle. The initial investment in the equipment is as much as three to four times as great for PVD as for CVD. low wear. BaF2. and nonferrous alloys. The main advantage of the PVD process is that most metallic and ceramic coatings can be deposited on almost any substrate. Soft coatings are recommended for lowload. 12. lowspeed applications. nonlayered lattice compounds such as PbOSi02. whereas PVD is much more constrained. Burnishing is an important step that aligns the plates parallel with the surface. Hard coatings include iron alloys. Beneficial characteristics are low wear and long operating periods without deterioration of performance. and soft metallic coatings [ 11. Advantages of soft coatings are low friction.3. The process is very flexible.
These coatings are very difficult to apply to substrates. wear life decreases proportionally with temperature rise. Polymers are used by industry for bearings. can operate in a vast range of normal pressures from vacuum to high pressure. The main characteristic is a phase change caused by frictional heating. effective at low temperatures and at elevated temperatures (silver and gold are effective near their melting points). The coating is solid at the bulk temperature but becomes a high viscosity melt at the friction interface. It is believed that graphites interact with metal oxides that form on the mating surface to reduce friction. Bhushan [ 11 compiles results of several studies performed . Soft Metal Coatings Soft metals are compatible with liquid lubricants. Current understanding is that adsorbed moisture helps the plates slip. the friction coefficient drops. pumps. Soft metals can be applied by several different processes. The compound decomposes around 350°C. then returns to its origial shape. Traditionally. and perform well at high speeds. and seals. Some fluoride salts remain effective at temperatures approaching 900°C. However. high material costs limit widespread use of soft metals. Above 430°C. Nonlayered Lattice Coatings These coatings are based on inorganic salts. Wide use by industry has helped build a large base of empirical knowledge. They can resist erosive. Polymer Coatings Polymer coatings are applied to metal and nonmetal surfaces by several different techniques. Higher temperatures drive off moisture and explain a rapid increase in the friction coefficient. Graphite fluorides generally perform better than pure graphite but have a life about ten times longer at room temperature. Advantages are chemical inertness and effectiveness at high temperatures. unlike graphite. graphite fluorides.Surface Coating 459 The most common layered lattice compounds are graphite. The coatings are inexpensive and easy to apply. Graphite and graphite fluoride compounds tend to perform better at room temperature in humid environments. The coating deforms to absorb particle impact. Disadvantages are high friction at low temperatures and manufacturing difficulties. However. They are not sensitive to humidity and operate well in a vacuum. abrasive wear caused by impacting particles because the coating is elastic. and MoS2. polymers are used to repel water and resist corrosion. Friction is typically very low. especially when polymers are applied to hard substrates. automotive components.
The irons resist abrasion better. indium and lead suggest that velocity has little effect on the coefficient of friction. the friction coefficient reaches that of the substrate material. sliding velocity has a large effect on wear life. In the ultrathin region. IronBased Alloys Iron based alloys are usually applied by weld deposition or thermal spraying. Thus in the limit. and austenitic steels are recommended for heavy wear and conditions where mechanical or thermal shock are expected. nonferrous alloys. On the other hand. Titaniumbased ceramic coatings are revolutionizing the machine tool industry. The disk was coated. leading to an increase in friction with increasing coating thickness and reaches an asymptote for thickness above 10 pm.3. Steel alloy coatings are more ductile and better able to resist mechanical shock. A common characteristic is dependence of friction coefficient on coating thickness where friction reaches a minimum at a critical coating thickness. but are not recommended for applications involving mechanical and thermal shock. surface asperities of the mating surface break through the coating and interact with the substrate. can be used for long periods without deterioration in performance. .460 Chaper 12 with ionplated soft metal coatings. More recent studies reported by Bhushan indicate that soft metal coatings alloyed with copper or platinum tend to improve wear life and reduce friction [l]. and ceramics. Alloying with cobalt improves oxidation resistance and hardness at elevated temperatures. Nonferrous alloys are primarily used for corrosion resistance at high temperatures. the real and apparent areas of contact are equal. chemically inert. not as tough as steel coatings.2 Hard Coatings Hard coatings are recommended for heavyload. Table 12.1 lists common hard coatings and general properties. highspeed applications. and against corrosion. 12. Iron alloys are generally hard and brittle. The main types of hard coatings are ferrous alloys. the pin was not. In the thin region. Ceramic coatings are hard. Martensitic. Tests were performed with a pinanddisk apparatus. These coatings exhibit low wear. and protect against wear and corrosion in extreme conditions. brittle. pearlitic. High chrome and martensitic irons are hard. A slight decrease in friction at higher speeds may occur due to thermal softening of the coated material. Studies on the effect of sliding velocity on the friction coefficient and wear life of silver. Sherbiney [2] reported that wear life is inversely proportional to speed.
can be applied to some plastics.1 46 I Hard Coating Reference Chart Properties Maximum abrasion resistance. high compressive strength Oxidation resistance. manganese steels Chromiumbased alloys Nickel ChromeBased Coatings Chrome alloys are usually applied by electrochemical deposition and PVD. . corrosion resistance. several options for coating deposition. fair abrasion and impact resistance Work hardening. low friction coefficient. corrosion resistant. several options for coating processes. Th electrochemical process is very slow. thus more costly. low wear. composition control. hot strength and creep resistance. resists abrasive wear. maximum toughness with fair abrasion resistance. good galling resistance Corrosion resistance. brittle. worn surfaces become rough Excellent erosion resistance. compositional control. good compressive strength Inexpensive. relatively inexpensive. Electrochemically deposited chrome has a hardness around 1000 HV that is stable up to 400°C. good corrosion resistance High hardness. low friction coefficient. poor galling resistance Good combinations of abrasion and impact resistance.Surface Coating Table 12. oxidation resistance Excellent abrasion resistance. weakly ferromagnetic Alloy coating Tungsten carbides Highchromium irons Martensitic irons Cobaltbased alloys Nickelbased alloys Martensitic steels Pearlitic steels Austenitic steels. may have oxidation and creep resistance. stainless steels. CVD less commonly used. good abrasion resistance. good metaltometal wear resistance under impact Good thermal conductivity. corrosion resistance.
and extremely long wear life. Titanium carbide (Tic). It gained acceptance in the machine tool industry because of its high hardness. and A1203 over TIC is also been made. With the addition of phosphorus or boron. At present. Aluminum oxide (A1203) and Hafnium nitride (HfN) are also in use. chromium carbide. ceramics. NickelBased Alloy Coatings Nickelbased alloys were developed as a substitute for cobaltbased alloys. Nickel Coatings Nickel applied by electrochemical deposition is one of the oldest known coating methods. exploiting the characteristics of all three . Uses include hightemperature wear.2). and cermets. began receiving much attention in the last ten years. Heat treatment after the deposition process promotes the formation of nickel borides or nickel phosphides. titanium nitride (TIN) is the most studied and the most used ceramic coating. Ceramic Coatings Common techniques for depositing ceramic coatings are thermal spray. The use of multiple layer coatings such as TiN over Tic. and coblat carbide. Ceramic coatings can be applied to metals. carbides. Triple coatings of TiC/A1203/ TIN have been proved beneficial. CobaltBased Alloy Coatings Cobaltbased alloys are hard and ductile. Electrolysisdeposited nickel coatings are better for wear and abrasion resistance. the coating can be used to temperatures of 800°C. hardness can reach 700 HV. With the addition of ceramic carbides such as tungsten carbide. Common deposition techniques are welding and plasma spray. chemical inertness in the presence of acids. PVD. Hardness of pure chromium coatings can reach 600 HV. mild abrasion resistance. Nickel is much cheaper than cobalt coatings. Adding particles of solid lubricant helps reduce the coefficient of friction. and corrosion resistance. which increases hardness. Doping with carbon or nitrogen produces hardness of 2400 HV and 3000 HV respectively. This coating is primarily used for corrosion protection and decorative artifacts. and CVD. hard carbon coatings (graphite based and diamond based). low friction.462 Chapter 12 The preferred method of applying chrome coatings is PVD. The most common ceramic coatings are oxides. The tradeoff is slightly less corrosion resistance. and nitrides (Table 12. Another form of ceramics. yet has similar characteristics.
very low friction. brittle. low friction coefficient Soft coating used for corrosion resistance Deposited on other alumina coatings listed to improve corrosion resistance Excellent wear resistance at ambient and elevated temperatures. thick coatings tend to spall. thin coatings show good substrate adhesion. excellent wear resistance. hard. low friction coefficient at high temperatures HSS tools. sputtering CVD . brittle. couple with TiN and Sic to improve friction and wear Maintains hardness at elevated temperatures. radio frequency sputtering Depostion process Properties Good wear resistance at low and high temperatures.Surface Coating Table 12. extremely hard Low deposition temperature.2 463 Common Ceramic Coatings Type Alumina Plasma spray PVD CVD Chromia Plasma spray. excellent adhesion with substrate. hardness and adhesion is a function of substrate temperature during deposition Hard. sensitive to thermal and heavy load cycling Class Oxides Carbides Titanium ARE. ion plating CVD Tungsten Thermal spray. sputtering. very low friction and wear in dry and lubricated conditions.
ion plating Nitrides Titanium CVD PECVD. high friction Low friction and wear. hightemperature deposition process removes temper from highstrength tool steels Smae as CVD but can be deposited at much lower temperatures Low friction and wear with lubrication. friction and wear not affected by humidity. PVD Properties Pure chromium has high friction. good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. hardness approaches 500 HV Limited studies performed High hardness (up to 6000HV). requires diffusion barrier between coating and substrate if used on steels. Nichrome coatings moderate ductility. chemically inert in contact with acids. thermal stability increases with carbon content. good adhesion with substrate. chemically inert. sputtering. high friction and wear when dry. excellent adhesion with substrate. sputting PVD .464 Table 12. chemically inert.2 ~~~ Chapter I2 Continued ~ ~ Class Type Chromium Depostion process Plasma spray. high dependency of friction on sliding speed. excellent adhesion to substrate Silicon CVD CVD.
hardness decreases with temperature. corrosion resistant. PECVD Borides .Surface Coating 465 Hafnium CVD High hardness of nitrides at temperatures above 8OO0C. high melting point. carbides. abrasion resistant Silicon Sputtering. low thermal expansion. poor adhesion with substrate at elevated temperatures Not studied as extensively oxides. low thermal conductivity (thermal barrier coating for HSS tools) Good oxidation resistance. CVD. and nitrides. good erosion resistance. High hardness.
between the decomposition temperature of graphite and diamond. but difficult to go the next step from layered hexagonal bonds to the tetrahedral bonds found in diamonds. extremely high thermal conductivity. and silicon nitride are being explored and more effective coating processes are being developed. Desirable properties are low friction.and dimaondlike bonds. But the search for even more productive. Researchers are investigating solutions to these problems. Depositing ceramic coatings on substrates is difficult because several variables affect quality and some of them have shown that ceramics are extremely sensitive to the deposition process and substrate temperature. New coatings. This holds true for other physical properties such as thermal conductivity. and friction coefficient. One disadvantage of ceramic coatings is the deposition process. threebond structures from hydrocarbons. these coatings applied to cutting tools can extend useful tool life of cutting tools and wear parts by as much as 300% or more. Most of its important properties can be labeled as extreme.466 Chapter 12 coatings. sacrificing deposition rate. These techniques produced diamondlike films from hydrocarbon gases.4 DIAMOND S R A E COATINGS UFC Diamond is the ultimate substance for wear resistance. The resulting physical properties are between those of graphite and diamond films. Thus. costefficient tooling continues. and the finished coated surface can be extremely rough. In the early 1970s. One disadvantage is that diamond coatings do not adhere well to substrates. It has the highest hardness. Recently. a 400°C process was discovered. researchers discovered deposition techniques that produced diamondlike coatings at relatively low pressure and temperature (around SOOOC). For example. silicon carbide. It is easy to form graphitelike. Current research is focusing on coating techniques and substrate preparations that can improve the process of diamond and diamondlike coatings. Meanwhile.4. high wear resistance. such as titanium diboride. 12. coating manufacturers rely on trial and error to find process variables that work. the highest thermal conduc . diamondlike coatings decompose around l OOO'C.1 Properties of Diamond Diamond is an exceptional material. electrical conductance. and high abrasion resistance. Generally. the final structure of the coating is a hybrid of graphite. Technical problems associated with producing these coatings stem from the extreme temperatures and pressures necessary to produce tetrahedral carbon bonds. low electrical conductance. 12.
It also possesses the lowest compressibility and bulk modulus of any known material. highest molar density and highest sound velocity of any material known. Diamond is also extremely inert chemically. The surface treatment shows great promise for promoting dimaond film growth on steel and other metallic surfaces.0 104 > 1. affected only by certain acids and chemicals that act as oxidizing agents at high temperatures. 12. The thermal expansion coefficient is also very low and ranks among the lowest of known materials.853 . 35.52 1.2 > 110 0.4.2 Precoating Surface Treatment The laserbaked surface treatment under development at the University of Florida represents one of the recent advances in precoating surface treatment [6]. The dramatic thermal expansion mismatch between materials such as steel and diamond makes this endeavour extremely difficult.3 summarizes some important properties of diamond. 23 Properties of Diamond Value 1. Units kg/mm2 GPa GPa Dimensionless mls glcm3 GPa Dimensionless K‘ W/(cmK) w/m J/(gmK) 20 3.Surface Coating 46 7 tivity. compressive Coefficient of friction (dynamic) Sound velocity Density Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Thermal expansion coefficient Thermal conductivity Thermal shock parameter Specific heat Sources: Refs.1 x 106 Property Hardness Strength. effectively reducing the chances of premature debonding. The increase in contact surface area improves the adhesion of the diamond layer and allows the interface to grade the surface stresses. Table 12. tensile Strength.2 1.03 1.0 x 108 0. Silicon has been used successfully as a substrate for this process and results from this work are guiding efforts on other metallic Table 1 .8 104 3. This surface modification produces a uniform roughness which provides nucleation sites for the diamond coating growth and serves to increase the surface area of contact between coating and substrate. The process involves using a laser to modify a metallic substrate surface.22 0.
seeding and filiu grciwth.substrates. metals with low thermal expansion coefficients such its molybdenum .1 shows conceptually how the surface modification appears in cross section. The seeds act as nucleation sites for the formation of the diamond film. Figure 12. ~ Figure 12. As an intermediate step.are being tested with the process.1 Crosssectional view of substrate surface following laser modifcation. This feature allows film growth t o occur at a lower surface temperature than would otherwise be possible. Note how the diamond “seeds” place themselves inside the roughness “valleys”. .
100 Microwave power (W) 100700 Substrate temperature (“C) 700. The commercialization of synthetic highpressure.4 Deposition Parameter Space Used in the Growth of Diamond Films by MicrowavePlasmaAssisted CVD Gas mixture CH4 (0. One of the early drawbacks to CVD methods was the formation of graphite during diamond nucleation. Typical parameters for deposition using microwaveplasmaassisted CVD. cutting. The CVD process. This method helps decompose the methane gas into carbon (methane has a high activation energy that causes slow growth rates).only at much poorer quality.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond Diamond synthesis techniques have been available since the late 1950s [7]. In this respect. HPHT methods are basically only capable of producing grit.1000 . hightemperature (HPHT) diamond grit occurred in 1959.Surface Coating 469 12.4.4.0 O/o )/H 2 Total pressure (Torr) 5. This method actually predates the HPHT process by several years. using carbon monoxide gas as a source of carbon. HPHT diamond is limited in application to planar surfaces. a lowpressure synthesis method. in 1952. Introducing hydrogen to the environment has been effective in “scrubbing” the diamond structures clean from graphite. and grinding applications. The HPHT synthesis method essentially emulates nature’s way of producing diamond . however. The process avoids contamination of the film during growth and produes a higher plasma density over RF (radio frequency) methods.52. This results in higher concentrations of atomic hydrogen and hydrocarbon radicals necessary for film growth. CVD diamond growth methods use simpler apparatus less subject to mechanical wear. Experimental studies found that heating the substrate surface using a plasma source increased the diamond growth rate. This grit has been widely used in industrial polishing. are shown in Table 12. Many variations have been tried in cleaning the graphite structures during diamond growth. but presented more challenges for commercialization. and promise the production of physical forms of diamond other than powder (HPHT) [8]. HPHT diamond is no better than the natural diamond grit that it replaces. Moustakas reports [8] that microwaveassisted CVD methods are the most prevalent for diamond film growth. CVD diamond. was first used to precipitate diamond on diamond seed crystals. as reported by Moustakas. ushers diamond applications to a new Table 12.
soft coating in plastic deformation. and process parameters. Thermal cycling of thick. 12. oil oxides. Debris consists of either small particles of coating material or large flakes when delamination occurs. Holmberg [9] lists many possible failure modes for surface coatings. For thick. gases adsorbed during the coating process. soft coatings and thick. He groups coatings into four main areas: hard coating on soft substrate. It offers the potential to deposit largearea. the particles will embed in the coating during deformation. soft coatings is delamination. For the first time. Thin. or delamination of the coating. diamond can be used as an engineered material. and thin or thick coating. creating larger particles of soft coating debris. hard particles are present that are smaller than the coating thickness. substrate defects. synthesized to meet specific topological and performance characteristics. changing surface preparation techniques or changing coating process parameters may improve adhesion. Microscratches produced by mating surface asperities may initiate flaking. conformable coatings with properties akin to those of natural diamond ([7]. coating process. wear is primarily mechanical wear caused by overloading. However. Some of these are thermal coefficient mismatch. hard coatings can cause microcracks. Failure is initiated by surface and subsurface stress cracks. or be expelled. The addition of thermal fatigue causes flaking and peeling. 592). may occur where thermal fatigue is not important.470 Chapter I2 level. and residual stresses. If small. Eventually. when thermal fatigue becomes more important than mechanical wear. the principal failure mode of thin. Soft coatings are ductile and can resist thermal shock. substrate material. but none can predict with certainty which surface preparation or what set of coating parameters will produce good adhesion. Many working theories are developed based on research and experience. coating. these cracks grow to form flakes that contribute to abrasive wear. dirt. Adhesive and fatigue wear. Scratching by mating surfaces asperities and hard particles magnifies the effect. solvents. Sensitivity to these factors depends on coating material. This failure can be caused by a mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient of coating and substrate materials or decomposition of the coating material at elevated temperatures. hard coatings share these properties.5 FAILURE MECHANISMS OF SURFACE COATINGS Several factors may cause poor film adhesion. A worse condition occurs when the crack propagate to the coating . soft coating on hard substrate. Soft coating debris may break loose and adhere to the mating surface. p. Thus. thus accelerating wear.
Thus. There is still a lack of understanding of the mechanisms involved in determining the tribological behavior of coated surfaces. chemical inertness. This occurs when the height of asperities is larger than the coating thickness.Surface Coating 471 substrate interface. and reduce wear. Matthews [ 101 listed some difficulties associated with selecting a coating: There is no systematic analysis and selection procedure which design engineers can use. At the present. The quality and capabilities of existing coating processes are continuously improving (i. Asperity scratching is to be expected when the mating surface penetrates a thin soft coating and interacts with the substrate. indicating that the knowledge required to make a selection is even greater than previously thought.. particle scratching occurs. For thin. If not. substrate scratching occurs. 12. For many of the newly developed coatings. only experts with extensive experience with a particular coating can make recommendations with respect to that coating. Depending upon the ductility of the substrate and adhesion strength of the coating. and low friction. the crack either propagates into the substrate or causes delamination of the coating. Most hard coatings are brittle and cannot withstand internal bending stresses associated with substrate deformation. if soft particles are present. however. the technology is transient). they wedge between the mating surfaces. the substrate deformation can cause coating fracture when the coating material has low ductility. hightemperature environment. The mating surface pushes particles through the coating. scratching the substrate. However. If the substrate is softer than the mating material. Coatings with better toughness may withstand substrate deformation. the coating fractures. this is combined with a lack of coating design data in a suitable form for the component designer. hard. If hard particles larger than the coating thickness are present. previous performance data may no longer be applicable. the optimal application areas have not yet been identified. fatigue life may be significantly reduced. Wear particles contribute to abrasive wear.e. help support some of the load.6 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE COATINGS Most applications of surface coating require the designer to balance several objectives such as abrasion resistance. high rates of mechanical wear usually result. Accordingly. The primary wear mechanisms of tough. thin coatings are surface scratching by the mating surface and abrasive particles. hard coatings on a softer substrate. .
tapepath components of computer tape drives Bearings and seals operative in extreme environments. valves. pumps. The design engineer needs to know physical properties like Young’s modulus. transmission gears. cylinder liners. no data exist.472 Chapter 12 There is a shortage of coatings experts having a sufficiently broad knowledge of all available techiques to provide a balanced viewpoint. metalworking tools. slitting saws. tapepath components of computer tape drives Camshafts. composition. slurry pump seals. dies. cannon and gun tubes. because no one can fully model yet how the coating and substrate interact. shear blades. Table 12. and aircraft engines. metalworking tools. camshafts. impellers Bearings. thermal conductivity. Additionally. rockers and rocker shafts. Poisson’s ratio. electrical contacts Bearings and seals. pressure. gun steels. extrusion punches. and cylinder heads Ball bearings.S Examples of Coatings and Surface Treatments Applications Bearings and seals. and wear rate. drills.5 lists some of the current uses of coating and surface treatment in mechanical applications. These quantities are difficult to measure. bearings operating in vacuum and/or high temperatures (aerospace). sprockets and gears. acid pump seals. adhesion. In most cases. Table 12. valves Bearings and seals at high temperatures Bearings and seals. piston rings. and bearing surfaces Cans. bushes. diecasting dies. crank shafts. injection molds Coa ting/treatment Soft coatings: Layered solid coatings Nonlayered coatings Polymers Soft metals Hard coatings: Metallic Ceramic Surface treatments: Surface hardening Diffusion Ion implanation . piston rings. cutting tools. gas turbine blades. press tools. Another problem is one of matching objectives. and coefficient of thermal expansion. hardness. Coating engineers concern themselves with process parameters like deposition rate. the knowledge base is not large enough to determine quantitatively which parameters are important in a particular application. taps. milling cutters. and temperature. and crosshead pins in internal combustion engines and compressors. coating thickness. Matching coatings with applications is a process of trial and error. magnetic heads. bearings. knife sharpeners. cylinders liners. pump parts.
Surface Coating 473 12.375 mm coating thickness ho = 0 to 16pm . = the required entry distance for temperature penetration across the film Tso= the maximum rise in the solid surface temperature for a layered semiinfinite solid T. 12. This heat distribution is equivalent to the heat generated in a contact problem such as a semiinfinite cylinder rolling and sliding over a semiinfinite planar surface. = the maximum rise in the solid surface temperature for the unlayered semiinfinite solid with the same heat input To = the maximum rise in the layer surface temperature K . respectively: where D = the temperature penetration depth at the trailing edge I. Rashid and Seireg [l llobtained the following relationships for the maximum temperature in the substrate and in the coating. C = conductivity.700 mm/sec contact length I = 1. p. It represents a singlelayered substrate with a moving heat source of Hertzian distribution. Parameters for these cases are: heat flux qr = 100W/mm sliding speed U = 13.7. As discussed in Chapter 5.2. and specific heat Two examples are considered to demonstrate the effects of a conductive layer and an insulative layer on a stainless steel substrate.1 The model considered in this case is shown in Fig.7 SIMPLIFIED METHOD F R CALCULATING T E O H MAXIMUM T M E A U E RISE IN A COATED SOLID E PR T R DUE TO A MOVING HEAT S U C O R E Single Coated layer 12. density.
3. The temperature rise in the stainless steel is denoted by Ty.2 Layered semiinfinite solid moving under a stationary heat source with a Hertzian distribution. The temperature rise in the stainless steel decreases approximately 50°C for a 16 pm diamond layer thickness.y and Tv are plotted versus silicon nitride layer thickness in Fig. . The temperature rise in the silicon nitride is denoted by T f .4. The temperature rise in the stainless steel decreases approximately 200°C for a 16 pm silicon nitride layer thickness.y. 12. 7'y. lnsulative Layer on Stainless Steel The insulative layer applied to the AISI 304 substrate is silicon nitride (Si3N4). The temperature rise in the silicon nitride shows a dramatic increase as the layer thickness increases. The stainless steel is AISI 304. 12. The temperature rise in the diamond shows a slight increase as the layer thickness increases. Conductive Layer on Stainless Steel The conductive layer applied to the AISI 304 substrate is diamond.474 Chapter I2 Figure 12.y Td are plotted and versus diamond layer thickness in Fig. Ty. The temperature rise in the diamond is denoted by Td.
25 mm.25 mm.3 Maximum temperature rise ("C) in AISI 304 substrate (TT. (U = 12. I = 0.4 Maximum temperature rise ("C) in AISI 304 substrate (TT. (U = 12.7 m/sec.E x 5 r" 50 0 0 5 10 15 Figure 12.) 800 L o^ aa E s 600 400 3 E t f .7 m/sec.) 475 .J and diamond surface layer ( T d ) moving under a stationary heat source with a Hertzian distribution..250 o^ 5 150 Q) ob .$) and nitride surface layer ( T g ) moving under a stationary heat source with a Hertzian distribution.X 200 r" 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Figure 12. 1 = 0.a 200 aa n t E E 100 .
. where a buffer layer would be necessary to prevent the formation of graphite at the diamond/steel interface. Figure 12. relative to the maximum unlayered surface temperature rise T. where = T. e.4 76 Chapter 12 12. = the dimensionless maximum temperature rise in the surface layer T.2 Extension to Multilayered SemiInfinite Solid The singlelayer approach is not adequate for modeling diamond coating on substrates such as steel.7. relative to the maximum unlayered surface temperature rise T. . An approximate method is presented here to extend the single layer to two layers without repeating the extensive finite difference modeling and is intended for use as a design approximation. For a given velocity. for the case of a .. = the maximum unlayered surface temperature rise Ts OS.5 illustrates the model for the twolayer coating case. The following dimensionless relations were developed for computational convenience: (12. = the dimensionless maximum temperature rise in the solid surface 0.= es (Z)  e ss0 (1 2. 6. I . U. Oo4 and tITojf.2) e. dimensionaless maximum temperature rise in the solid surface Ts. The procedure involves the following steps: 1. calculate the dimensionless temperature rise..1) e.. = the dimensionless maximum temperature rise in the surface layer Kd = thermal conductivity of diamond = the Procedure to Predict Multilayer Temperature Rise A numerical example illustrates the simplified procedure used to predict maximum temperature rise in a multilayered solid. and length of contact.
Ood and Ososs.. 2. calculate the dimensionless temperature rise.1) and (2. OS. in the steel substrate.2).016mm was used in this study).5 Twolayered semiinfinite solid moving under a stationary heat source with a Hertzian distribution. Od can . although the temperature values will be adjusted up or down based on the uncoated steel temperature. 3. should vary from 0 to a specified upper limit (0. for the case of a buffer layer on the steel substrate using Eqs (12.2). 12. diamond layer on the buffer layer substrate using Eqs (1 2. The maximum dimensionless temperature rise in the buffer layer.Surface Coating 9t 477 i U  T Figure 12.1) and (12. 4. The ratio will remain constant. The values for the surface layer thickness.6). Og. For simplicity. The ratio between the surface layer and buffer layer maximum temperature rise is now determined. h d . the same values for h f are used for hd in step 1 above (see Fig. For the same U and I . and in the diamond layer.
. now be determined. Equation (12. (12. Figure 12.6 Dimensionless temperature rise (prior to data manipulation) in substrate surface and coating layer surface for diamond on AISI 304 stainless steel with a silicon nitride interface layer. 12.7 m/sec.8 shows a typical result for qr = 1000 W/ mm 2 . A scaling factor. . I = 0.) 5. First.5) shows how A is used to calculate the dimensionless temperature rise for the diamond and buffer layers (6. Td)can now be calculated T by Eq.y. This factor insures that the temperature rise predictions all start at the uncoated steel substrate temperature at hd = hf = 0.y) (see Fig. (12. and then decrease or increase as the coating thicknesses increase. is then determined in Eq. the steel substrate temperature rise is scaled by the ratio of the buffer layer temperatures (see Eq.f . The actual temperature rise (Ty. This factor scales the diamond layer. Osss. x 10' Figure 12..47 8 Chapter 12 14 1 n U  I I I I I I 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 6 h.3)). ( U = 12.24). A. and O f ) and the steel substrate (6.6). (1.25 mm.7).T. buffer layer and steel substrate temperatures to the uncoated steel substrate temperature.
S S % ( 1 2.4) For i = 1 to n: ( I 2.5 479 f I E 2.3) eL A=.25mm. I = 0.5) 1 T = 8 4 Kd ( 1 2. x 30' Dimensionless temperature rise (following data manipulation) in substrate surface and coating layer surface for diamond on AISI 304 stainless steel with a silicon nitride interface layer.0 Q) 2 aa r F 1.) Figure 1 2.5 0.5 2.Surface Coating 3.5 0.7m/sec.0 (D 5i ' 1.7 For i = 1 to n: (1 2. (U = 12.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 h .6) .
except for U. interface layer. The parameters. AT o l / m . it is expected that the temperature rise for the multic layered case will follow suit. Because the temperature rise in an uncoated substrate is inversely proportional to the square root of the sliding velocity. and diamond layer for diamond on AISI 304 stainless steel with a silicon nitride interface layer. I. Because I follows the same inverse relationships as U for the unlayered substrate. U. the width of contact. The effect of increasing I . are the same as in Fig. I = 0. Figure 12. The parameters. 12.7 m/sec. As would be expected. As would be expected. the magnitude of the temperature rise for the substrate and layers dropped with the increase in sliding velocity.8.8. are the same as in Fig. 12.) Effects of Varying Parameters The effects of varying the sliding velocity of the solid. (U = 12. Figure 12. . x 10' Figure 12. are examined in this section. except for I. AT a 1/&.25 mm. and the width of contact.10 illustrates this case.8 Temperature rise ("C) in substrate.480 250 Chapter 12 200 L G 8 150 a 5 E 0) 100 P k 5 0 E 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 h. is now considered. the magnitude of the temperature rise for the substrate and layers dropped with the increase in contact width.9 illustrates this case. it is expected that the magnitude of the temperature rise will decrease.
8 m/sec... and diamond layer for diamond on AISI 304 stainless steel with a silicon nitride interface layer (velocity constant with length of contact increase).7 m/sec. 103 x Figure 12. x 10' Figure 12.9 Temperature rsie ("C) in substrate.120 110 100 90 O  o^ cn 0) 80 70 60 a 50 O t 10 1 1 2 I 1 20 0 4 I I I I I I 1 6 8 10 12 14 16 ho.) 100 90 n 1 I I I I I I I 1 80 E E 3 0) cn Q) 70 60 1 P 8! E 50 40 30 __ 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 h. 1 = 0. interface layer. interface layer.125 mm. I = 1. (U = 12. and diamond layer for diamond on AISI 304 stainless steel with a silicon nitride interface layer (velocity increase with length of contact constant).) 48 I .375 mm. (U = 50.10 Temperature rise ("C) in substrate.
2 Normal Stresses The “normal” thermal stress in an axial beam built in at both ends is proportional to the increase in temperature and can be expected as: t~ = EcYAT (1 2.1 1. 12.8. 12. The thermal stress in the substrate will be combined with the contact stress to determine a maximum stress value for calculating a life debit due to thermal fatigue.8.7) Figure 12. This figure defines the variables used in predicting normal and shear thermal stresses for the case of a multilayer semiinfinite substrate moving under a stationary heat source with a Hertzian distribution. .1 1 Model used in calculating thermal stress in multilayer coatings. 12.482 Chapter I2 12.1 Thermal Stress Relationships Nominal stress relationships for design purposes developed in the following sections refer to the diagram in Fig.8 THERMAL STRESS CONSIDERATIONS In this section. simplified equations are developed for predicting the magnitude of the thermal stresses in a multilayered coating.
o l ) A .8..y= /m. and the interface layer and the substrate: tyis = (ass ag) rJ  h. then we have the following equation to describe the normal stress in the diamond.10) and can write the following simplified equations for the shear stress between the diamond and interface layers. and substrate: (1 2. = / I . we have: t = ( 2 . 12. 12.1 1. .9) Now. referring to Fig. coating layers . by the shear area.8.12 and 12. F.y Shear stress can be determined by dividing the shear force.8) where T d . .1 1) Figures 12. Note that Eq. (12. and A. TK.0 )a 1 h I ( 12.The shear force can be approximated by the difference in normal stresses between two layers times the crosssectional area of Fy = (02. 12..8) is a nominal relationship for design approximation only. and are the temperature differentials between each of the layers and its substrate. I (12.3 Shear Stresses ry. A.4 Life Improvement Due to Surface Coating The effect of thermal stress on the life of a stainless steel substrate is considered with and without protective coating.Surface Coating 483 If this equation is used for a simplified model. interface coating. . if we substitute A. In this example.y.The shear stress can now be written as ( 12.13 show the calculated nominal thermal stresses and interface shear stresses for the examples considered in the previous sections using equal thickness layers of silicon nitride and diamond on stainless steel.
25mm.s.25mm.) Figure 12. 1 = 0. 8 10 12 14 16 h x103 Normal stress (Pa) for various thicknesses (mm) of diamond and interface layer. Substrate is AISI 304 stainless steel and interface layer is silicon ( nitride. .s. = h.a 10' . . ( 1 = 0.u n  n.7x10 ' 6x10 ' 5x10' 4x10' 3x10' 2x10' 1x l 0' 0 5 v) 3 8 3 E 0 0 2 4 6 0. Shear stress (Pa) for various thicknesses (mm) of diamond and interface layer.U = 12. Substrate is AISI 304 stainless steel and interface layer is silicon nitride. a2= aq and a3 = a. 1 6 8 10 12 14 16 ho x103 . Note: hI/ ' = hd = h .and r2 = rif:ss. oI= ad.l = h . U = 12. Note: h.1 2 5x10 ' 1 1 1 A Y a a t L: 0) $ 1~10' cn .1 a 0'  0 I 2 4 .7m/sec.7m/sec. tl = rclf.) Figure 12.13 484 . .
pp. 1991. and Halling. McGrawHill. 1977. 1 = 0.. 10’ 1OS 10’ 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 h0” x10’ Figure 12. “Friction and Wear of IonPlated Soft Metallic Films.. A. New York..7m/sec. NY. Sherbiney.14 as an illustration. M. 12. K. Handbook of Tribology. . 21 1220.. The results for different coating thicknesses are given in Fig. ( U = 12. The Hertzian contact stress is combined with the thermal stress using the Von Mises distortion energy theory for predicting the relative surface damage.25mm. B. J. and Gupta. 45.14 Life improvement in cycles versus thickness of diamond film in mm. It can be seen from the figure that considerable improvement in life can be expected as a result of the coating. B. and contact stress level is 1000 MPa. 2.Surface Coating 485 of diamond and silicon nitride of equal thickness are used as in the previous case.” Wear. Vol. The improvement tends towards an asymptotic value for relatively thick layers.) REFERENCES 1. Note: hjf = hd = h. Bhushan. Substrate is AISI 304 stainless steel and interface layer is silicon nitride.
. Advanced Surface Coatings: A Handbook of Surface Engineering. J. 8. Coating: Development. 478485. Dowson. Elsevier Science Publishers B. NY. 5. Gao. 115121. Bai. 7. and Application.. “A Comparative Assessment of CVD Diamond Manufacturing Technology and Economics. Elsevier Science Publishers B. 130.V.” Mater. D. et al. et al. Vol.. Part I1 . of FloridaGainesviIle. pp... J. (Ed. (Eds). Elsevier Science Publishers B. and Dismukes.” ASME J. “Diamond Properties and Applications. 1992. New York. P. 1993. M. pp. and Petersohn... Amsterdam. June 1990. and Matthews. Davis. Yoder. pp. 581624. The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond.. 145192.. J. M. and Matthews. The Netherlands. 429439... R. pp. pp.Dimensionless Relationships and Numerical Results. T. Private communications. J.. Amsterdam. 10. Field. NY. K. Dowson.. 11(3).” Diamond Films and 4. pp. A.V. and Franklin. Dept. Dowson. NJ. Amsterdam. 102107. 1993. Dotta. Academic Press/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.. (eds). 1992. 399407. Rickerby. John Wiley & Sons. 1994. K. Holmberg. A.. Rashid. New York.. (Eds). New York. NY. 483493. (Eds).).” Thin Films in Tribology..” Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology.V. John Wiley & Sons. 663.” Surface Engineering Volume 11: Engineering Applications. Mater....). 1986.. Xu. 7(8). A. Des. J. England. “A Methodology for Coating Selection. and Dismukes. England. and Seireg. Busch. Spear. 9.” Met... “Growth of Diamond by CVD Methods and Effects of Process Parameters. R. J. Matthews. Mort. D. Tribol. (Eds). August 1991. 1991. Noyes Publications. Sander. of Material Science. R. “Diamond and Diamondlike Coatings.. . “Friction and Wear Behavior of PVDcoated Tribosystems.. K. Park Ridge. Vol. H. et al. S. Blackie and Son. D. NY. 11. and He. (Eds). The Netherlands. London. 1993.” Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. C.486 Chapter I2 3. pp. 1994.. pp..” Thin Films in Tribology.. K. Spear. S. Ronkainen. 1993. and Dismukes. FURTHER READING Coating Bell. The Netherlands. “Heat Partition and Transient Temperature Distribution in Layered Concentrated Contacts. Spear. and Dismukes.. p. Univ. A. D. 1994. New York. Moustakas. T. Properties. et al.” Thin Films in Tribology. K. H. (Ed. “Wear Mechanisms of Coated Sliding Surfaces.. John Wiley & Sons. 6.. Singh. “Towards Designer Surfaces. Cambridge. (eds). pp. D. Holmberg. Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. “Bonding Strength of Films Under Cyclic Loading. J. J. K.. K. Royal Society of Chemistry.
” Society of Manufacturing Engineers. P. 6264. pp. Dec. Vol... Heat.” Manu. 4550.. “Modern Trends in Cutting Tools. Vol. “Cutting Tools as Good as gold. Tool Blue Bk. Jan. Cambridge.” Surface Engineering Volume 11: Engineering Applications. 81(1).. 1992. C. Vol. Kanz. pp. Vol. Hatschek.” Indust. Jan. Eng. Prod. “How Effective Are the Carbide Coatings?” Aust. 1820. Wallgram. “Coatings for Cutting Tools. March 1986. Kane.. “Recoating Enhance Resharpening. and Bell. pp.. N. Prod. K. D. E. “Characterization and Quality Assurance of Advanced Coatings. G. and Heminover.” Cutting Tool Eng.” J. Vol.... 1986. Vol. 129144.. May 1987. Vol. C. “Recoatingr A Viable Option of TIN Coating for Special Tooling Applications.. G. W. 53(9). Podop. L. 129144. Walsh. et al. 1986. D. and Wilkes. Jan. Bollier. and Gigl. 2527. M... 1718. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. pp. 1982. Vol... July 1983. “Coatings: Revolution in HSS Tools. 36(12). lOO(13). T. D. pp. B. “TiN Coating Benefits Apply to Solid Carbide Tools Too.. and Woerner. “Modern Trends in Cutting Tools. Vol. March 1983. Heat. Wick. “Coated Carbide Tools Enhance Performance. G. Vol. Vol. 58(10). Shop.” Am.” Wear. E.. P. W.” Carbide Tool J...” Mach. Jackson. Vol. pp. R. 1986.” Society of Manufacturing Engineering. C. 1531 59. pp. 2022. P. J. “Coatings: Key Factor in Cutting Tool Performance. pp.. Mach. C. “Cutting Tools Materials Coated by Chemical Vapor Deposition. Dotta. 1986. K. T. Wick. (Eds). 1986.” Manuf. R. Subramanian. Bhat. 98(5).Surface Coating 48 7 Stafford. Kane. pp. “Sputter Ion Plating of Titanium Nitride Coatings for Tooling Applications. and Graham. 7681. 8287.” Cutting Tool Eng.Feb..” Indust. 1820. Feb. Mach. Eng. “HSS Cutting Tools Gain a Productivity Edge. pp. pp.. R. Hewitt. D. “Tool Coatings: Trends and Perspectives. 38(1). 1982. 127(3). Vol.. D.. D. 98(3).Feb. Schintlmeister.. pp... Garside. pp. L.” Mod. Coated Cutting Tools Anon. 6869. March 1987. pp. Feb. K.. 18(1). 38(2). April 1984. Machin. “Improvements in Tools and Product Performance Through PVD Titanium Nitride Process. W.” Metalwork.. . Zichichi.. 127(7).. C. 1719... 5455. 1984. F. 53( l). pp.... 3942. 37(4). Eng. Hale. P. Metals. England. Vol.
and Thermal Shock This chapter describes a number of experimental investigations covering different aspects of tribology. The setup which is utilized in this investigation for evaluating the “break away” coefficient of friction under sinusoidal tangential forces is also useful in determining the ball response and the energy dissipated per cycle under excitations of different amplitudes and frequen488 . In this set. 13. and ramptype loads respectively. Lubrication. The last two sections describe experimental techniques which can be used to study the effect of the lubricant properties on surface temperature and wear in sliding contacts and the effect of repeated thermal shock on the fatigue life of highcarbon steels. Another experimental procedure is discussed which can be used to investigate the oil film pressure generated by a slider with different geometries undergoing a reciprocating motion at a predetermined distance from a flat surface. Wear. impulsive loads.13 Some Experimental Studies in Friction. The first set of experiments deals with the behavior of Hertzian frictional contacts under different types of tangential loading.1 FRICTIONAL INTERFACE BEHAVIOR UNDER SlNUSOlDAL FORCE EXCITATION This section describes an experimental technique developed by Seireg and Weiter [l] for studying the vibratory behavior of a ball supported between two frictional joints. unlubricated spheres pressed against flat surfaces are subjected to oscillatory loads.
The agreement with the theory was good for large displacements. At any point on the contact surface where slip has just taken place. Johnson [4] utilized a torsional pendulum to apply the tangential force on three unlubricated hard steel balls on hard steel flats under a range of normal loads. whereas the theory predicts a cube law. [3] found from experiments on polished crown glass lenses that the area of the loop at low loads varied as the square of the displacement. The oscillating force in their test was obtained by utilizing a hollow cylinder of barium titanate for the driving transducer. square by 1/4 in. The result is a hysteresis loop and the energy dissipation for the cycle due to friction can readily be calculated. Expressions for calculating the relative tangential displacement of distant points on opposite sides of the contact due to a tangential force smaller or equal to that necessary for gross slip are given in Chapter 3.Some Experimental Studies 489 cies. the tangential component of traction has the same sense as that of the slip. and its magnitude is equal to the product of a constant coefficient of friction and the normal component of the pressure at that point. The force was measured by a disk of barium titanate cemented between the driving transducer and the sphere. thick stainless steel plates. The effect of an oscillating tangential force on the contact surfaces of elastic bodies has been subject to considerable interest in recent years. Johnson measured the displacements due to static and oscillating tangential forces within the nogrossslip region. His findings were in general agreement with the previous work. This slip would occur only on annular ring surfaces. Mindlin et al. The dynamic hysteresis . diameter stainless steel sphere pressed between two 1/2 in. The main difference between the proposed technique and previous methods is that the tangential force (rather than the displacement) is sinusoidal and remains as such up to the “break away” value. 3 to study the damping effects at the contacts of a 1/2 in. Goodman and Bowie [5] used an apparatus similar to that of Ref. He predicted that slip would occur at the edges of the contact area and progress inwards as the tangential force increases. The theory was further extended to calculate the displacement due to an oscillating tangential force within the region of no gross slip. Wear and lubrication studies can be readily performed on different contact conditions under sinusoidal tangential forces with frequencies ranging from zero to 2000 Hz and amplitudes from zero to the value necessary to cause gross slip. Several valuable contributions are available in the literature. The tractions on and the displacements of the portion of the contact surface where no slip occurs are obtained from the solution of the boundary value problem. Mindlin [2] extended the classical Hertz theory of contact to include the effect of an increasing tangential force with the normal force unchanged. which is essentially a displacement generator producing sinusoidal tangential displacement.
1 Experimental Setup The apparatus is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. The main test : fixture consists of a 1 in.490 Chapter 13 loops determined in their tests have been shown to conform to the shape predicted by Mindlin’s theory. the oscillating tangential force was provided by applying sinusoidal relative tangential displacements to the bodies in contact. The hydraulic cylinder and consequently the horizontal test cylinder. the pins extend 1/16 in. and to study its effects on a sphere pressed between two flat surfaces by a constant normal force. therefore. from the . radius is attached to the piston of a hydraulic cylinder and is forced by the oil pressure against a vertical test cylinder attached to the table of a shaker producing smooth sinusoidal movements. it would be possible to study the motion of the ball as a mass supported by a nonconservative hysteretic spring and subjected to sinusoidal excitations (refer to Fig. 13.2. The tangential compliance and the energy dissipation per cycle were studied for different combinations of materials. The force wave forms appear sinusoidal at displacements well below gross slip and then progressively change toward waves with flat tops as the peak displacement is increased. Their results of a dimensionless energy dissipation versus the ratio of peaktopeak displacement at gross slip were in fair agreement with the theory. planned to provide a sinusoidally changing tangential force with amplitudes up to the gross slip force.1).1.572 in. When the ball is in place. in diameter. 13. With such a system. A horizontal test cylinder of 1/8 in. ball (a) supported between the flat surfaces of two cylindrical pins 0. A barium titanate force gage was used between the test specimen and the shake table. One of the pins (b) can be fixed rigidly to the aluminum frame (c) while the other pin (d) acts as a piston in a brass air cylinder (e) attached to the frame to provide the normal force. Klint [6] studied the effects of oscillating tangential forces within the region of no gross slip on cylindrical specimens in contact. A region within the nogrossslip region was found where the displacements are primarily elastic and was defined by the “limit of elastic behavior’. In all the previous experimental procedures. although spring mounted on the shake table. The investigation described in this section was. The air cylinder pressure is controlled by a pressure regulator (f) connected to a 150 psi air supply. 13. The coefficient of friction was calculated from the friction force represented by the flat portion of the forcetime relation. Wear and surface damage conditions were also investigated in the test. are essentially fixed in space due to the vibratory characteristic of their support.
The transducer excitation and amplification is carrier AmplHior B 0 H Figure 13. Diagrammatic representation of (a) forces on the ball. The test fixture is rigidly fastened to the table (8) of a 50 lbf. A differential transformer type displacement transducer (h) is rigidly mounted on the frame with the movable core in contact with the ball and exerting a 12 gf preload. 02000 Hz electromagnetic shaker.2 Diagrammatic representation of the experimental setup. (b) the vibra frame in order to insure maximum rigidity. .Some Experimental Studies 491 Figure 13.1 tory system.
13. In addition. a hysteresis loop is obtained. A multichannel highfrequency recorder and an oscilloscope were used for highfrequency measurements. by utilizing both the x and y inputs.2 Test Procedure Preparation of Test Specimens The material combinations studied in this test are: Steel ball on steel pins Steel ball on brass pins Brass ball on steel pins Brass ball on brass pins The material specifications and surface finish data are given in Table 13. A power amplifier is utilized to provide the input for a directwriting oscillograph for lowfrequency test recording. Viscosity is SUS 900 to 1000 at Table 13. the output from the calibrated velocity transducer on the shaker can be used to check the accelerometer calibration. The oscilloscope can be used to monitor either signal. extreme pressure oil with additives. The displacement transducer has a sensitivity of 1 pm and a range of f0. variable speed motor drive and pulleys (k) are connected A to the control console to provide a predetermined rate of increase for the shake table amplitude.) 2 4 2 I .5 . As such. The second is a mild. An accelerometer (i) is fastened to the shake table to provide a measure of the acceleration and the resulting dynamic tangential force on the ball. The first is methyl alcohol. A power supply and amplifiers provide the input to either recorder or oscilloscope. the oscillograph record provides a simultaneous recording of relative ball displacement and tangential force on the ball. Or.492 Chapter 13 provided by a 2400 Hz carrier preamplifier.050in. The shaker frequency and amplitude are controlled by the shaker control console (j). Two lubricants were used in this test.1 Test Materials Hardness (Rockwell C) 66 28 65 14 Test specimen Steel ball Brass ball Steel pin Brass pin Surface roughness rms (pin.1.1.
The oil is applied to the surface by wiping with a clean.Some Experimental Studies 493 100°F. The fixture is designed such as when the ball is in location. The balls are first cleaned with methyl alcohol and paper towels. predipped cloth. the contacts are along the central axis of the pins.1.1. The pin (b) is then fixed in place by setscrews and the air pressure is applied on pin (d). . The pressure is then allowed to leak out slowly. Throughout this process. the ball is handled using a plastic holder for each contaminating liquid. the specimens are placed in position and the pressure adjusted for a certain normal force.4 Static Tests Static tests were performed to calibrate the normal force and to evaluate a static coefficient of friction. the only acting tangential forces are the ball weight and the spring force from the transducer. The load is increased successively until gross slip is observed by watching the indicator on the transducer bridge unit. The ball is left in position for 3 min before running each test. The manometer reading is taken when gross slip is indicated on the meter of the bridge unit. The positioning fixture is then withdrawn. The pins are prepared for each test by finishing their test surfaces with 4/9 sandpaper. The stem of the differential transformer will also be touching the ball at the highest point and will be at its null position.3 Placement of the Specimens The pins are first placed in the test frame and the ball is then positioned between them by means of a special fixture. a relatively high pressure is applied after the specimens are in position. The preparation of the test surfaces is done as follows. In this case. The test is repeated four times for each condition. The alcohol is applied by simply dipping the ball (after cleaning) into the alcohol and allowing it to dry in the atmosphere. In this test. The normal force versus air pressure calibration was done by means of a scale against the movable pin. 13. The cleaning and surface lubrication is done in the same manner as for the balls. A mercury manometer is also used for the determination of the minimum air pressure required to hold the ball in place when no external tangential forces are applied. The tangential force is applied at the lowest point of the ball in line with the displacement transducer. 13. For the static friction tests.
13. Hysteresis loops . For all the tests performed in this investigation. This can be easily seen in Fig.000 psi for brass on brass. The dynamic tests were repeated 10 times for each condition and a calibration for the accelerometer is run on the same chart.5 Dynamic Tests The frame is fastened rigidly to the shaker table and the test specimens are placed in the frame. 13. the motor is switched off and then reversed to stop the shaker.1. The maximum Hertzian contact stress at 40 psi pressure is 105. and 69. and the coefficients of friction are given in Table 13. 13. representing a magnified ball displacement trace. An oscillograph trace is shown in Fig. There was also little difference observed in the coefficient of friction between the same specimens when tested with either of the used contaminating liquids.5). Gross slip occurred when the tangential force reached the value required to overcome the static friction. 13. 13. The normal load and consequently the contact stresses and contact area had no obvious effect on the coefficient of friction. 13. there was no evidence of any difference between the statically determined coefficient of friction and that determined by dynamic tests. Ball vibration relative to the pins could be easily measured and recorded. The lines representing the relation between the amplitude T+ of the tangential force versus the air pressure and normal force N were found to fit both the dynamic data and the static data.500 psi for steel on brass. A series of tests was run for steel balls on steel pins (with oil contamination) for frequencies between 10 and 500Hz.2.3b.3. No frequency effects were observed for this range (refer to Fig. 82. A typical plot of the test results is shown in Fig. This always happened when the ball was at the lowest position of its motion or when the total tangential force was at its maximum value. When the ball displacement trace on the recorder (or the displacement signal on the meter of the bridge unit) indicates gross slip.1.3.6 Discussion of the Results Typical oscillograph records of the ball acceleration and displacement are shown in Fig.4. The dynamic setup was checked to ensure that no structural resonance or frequency response existed in the frequency range considered in the test and that the movable pin had no relative motion with respect to the frame.000 psi for steel on steel. The frequency is adjusted to the required value and the switch on both the recorder and the driving motor (m) is turned on.494 Chapter 13 13.
and weldments (especially for clean surfxes at high frequencies) were observed. a relatively higher coefficient of fric . ( b ) high speed. representing the sinusoidal tangential force versus ball displacement (relative to the pins) were also obtained on the scope screen.495 Figure 13. Wear patterns. I t was also observed that when twisting of the ball occurred during the withdrawal of the positioning fixture.3 Recorder traces for reiative ball displacement and shake table acceleration: ( a ) slow speed. scars. In cases when welding occurred very high tangential forces were required to break the frictional joint.
4 Brass ball on steel pins: (a) alcohol lubrication. (b) oil lubrication. This is in accordance with the observations reported by Mason [7] and Anderson [8]. Gross slip occurred at the expected value with no obvious effects due to the load history. . The shaker frequency was fixed and the amplitude of its vibration was increased in steps.496 Chapter I3 Figure 13. Several tests were run to study the effect of the number of cycles at force amplitudes lower than required for gross slip. tion existed. The vibration was allowed to continue for 5 min at each step.
Steel on steel with oil lubrication.120 0.1 10 0.2 FRICTION UNDER IMPULSIVE LOADING There is considerable practical interest in determining the frictional resistance under impulsive loading.121 13.5 Sample of results of test on frequency effect.104 0.105 Brass Steel Brass 0. f (Hz) Figure 13. . In 0.2 497 Coefficients of Friction Materials Ball Steel Steel Brass Brass Pin Stee1 Lubricant Oil Alcohol Oil Alcohol Oil Alcohol Oil Alcohol Coefficient of friction (I) 0.0 I 0 I 40 loo I I I I II 500 200 300 400 Shake Table Frequency.09 0.Some Experimental Studies Table 13. Gaylord and Shu [9] reported that some materials (steel on steel and titanium on steel) exhibited higher static coefficients of friction under statically applied loads than under shock loads.105 0.09 0.
13.2. The load is applied by dropping a weight on to cushioned stops which are attached to the loading rod. One of the pins (b). The study described in this section [lO] utilizes the same fixture used in the previous section [I] to investigate the frictional behavior of circular contacts under the influence of pulsetype loading.6. is rigidly attached to the frame (c). Figure I3 6 . acts as a n air piston in a precision bore in the fixture to provide the normal force. 13. The 1 in. ball (a).1 Experimental Arrangement The appratus used in this investigation is represented schematically in Fig. Diagramilia tic representation of the test apparatus. The magnitude of the normal force is a function of the regulated air pressure from a 1000 psi source ( e ) .their test. while the other pin (d). The test fixture is rigidly fastened to a steel base (0. . the specimen rested on an inclined plane. is suspended between two cylindrical steel pins with : parallel flat ends. The test arrangement consists of a hall suspended between two flat surfiices (Hertzian contacts) with the impulse load provided by a spherical ball suspended as a ballistic pendulum.
The displacement of the ball is measured by means of a differential transformer type displacement transducer (i).3 in. The initial and final position (after rebound) of the pendulum can be read on a graduated arc (h). The record is calibrated to give the final ball displacement a 1 pin. The displacement of the ball for each drop (impact) is detected by the transducer and recorded. 1/2 in. 13. The result. although both static and elastic in nature. pendulum. in diameter is cemented to a fine thread and suspended as shown in Fig. The ball is released by rapidly withdrawing the bar forward and away in such a manner as to not interfere with the free fall of the ball. 13. 13. giving accurate indication on the velocity of the impact ball before and after impact. rigidly mounted on the frame with the movable core in contact with the ball (a). with a 12gf preload. The velocity ranged between 1 in. sensitivity.6 to form an 87./sec. The transducer excitation (2400 Hz) and signal amplification is provided by a carriertype preamplifier coupled to a power amplifier which provides the input to a direct writing oscillograph. 121.2. The pins are placed in the frame and the test ball is positioned between the pins by means of the special fixture used in the previous section to insure proper axial location.2 Test Procedure The surface preparation consisted of washing all contacting surfaces of the balls and pins with methyl alcohol. has been widely applied to impact situations where permanent deformations were produced./sec and 120in.3 Theory The pulse characteristics in this investigation are calculated by means of the Hertz theory of impact [I 1. The application of Hertz theory beyond the limits of its validity has been justified on the basis that it appears to predict accurately most of the impact parameters that can be experimentally verified. Accurate alignment is provided so that the impact between the two spheres is on the same axis as the displacement transducer. In the . The striking ball is held at the required position on the graduated arc by means of a clean steel bar. The air pressure is then applied to provide the desired normal force.2. The theory treats the impact of two spheres as a statical problem and takes no consideration to the dissipation of energy during the impact.Some Experimental Studies 499 A steel ball (g). This suspension insures the fall and rebound of the ball to be in the same plane. The rebound of the ball is then measured on the graduated arc by observing the maximum position of the ball after impact.
~ t= 98 x 106 u1/5 sec where v = velocity of approach (in.2) The ratio v./sec) The conservation of momentum and restitution equations for the system under consideration can be written as: and from which and (13. yf. . w f ./v of the striking ball under consideration for the different conditions of impact was determined experimentally by reading the angles of drop and rebound of the pendulum. as: Vf = v(1 + e ) 1 +ml ( 1 3.83 throughout the test.500 Chapter 13 case of central impact of two stainless steel spheres with 1/2 in./v=O. diameter. after impact can also be expressed in terms of the impact velocity. the Hertz theory gives the following expressions for the maximum force and duration of impact: Fmax 1 .1) The velocity of the struck ball. It was found to be w. 6 6 5 ~ 'Ibf = . and 1 in. respectively.
Equation (13.2) therefore gives: VJ = (0.4) This energy represents the area under the frictional forcedisplacement curve up to the peak displacement.5)’ is found from Fig. 13.1171)2~2 5. The graph shows F/Fo versus 6/J0 as represented by ( 1 3.1) gives e = 0.6) k .228 Area oabo ( 1 3.3) The kinetic energy of the struck ball due to the impact is: fm2$ = i(7.Some Experimental Studies 501 Substitution in Eq.7) and C . (13.6 ~ 2 = ( 1 3. (13. Mindlin’s theory is again utilized to calculate this value. = 2.8) Because there is no way to detect gross slip in this investigation except by means of the permanent displacement of the ball.075 x 1 0 .27 x 105(N)’/2 ( 1 3. which is a dimensionless factor defined by Eq. The minimum impact energy necessary for gross slip is given by where is the area under the friction force displacement curve up to gross slip and C = factor compensating for the nonlinearity of the forcedisplacement relationship. This permanent displacement within the region of no gross slip is given by: .7 according to Mindlin’s theory. 13.4 x 104(0. A dimensionless friction forcedisplacement curve is plotted in Fig. is also calculated for the case under consideration: k.1 1 7 1 ) ~ ( 1 3.949.7 as c =Area onabo = 1.
26 d 0 60 (13.  2 N ( d . 0 7 5 ~ ~0.= 0.26aO) (13. (13.502 Chapter 13 616. Figure 13.12) .9) For gross slip F/Fo = 1 and substitution in Eq.9) gives: .1392(N)'j36.7 Dimensionless displacement of ball within the region of no gross slip (Mindlin's theory). ( 1 3.10) In this case: which can be written as: pk = 5 .O.
2.8 Evaluation of conditions at gross slip.Some Experimenta1 Studies 503 or in the form: d= 5 .4 Discussion of Results Figure 13.11). The peak displacement a0 for and gross slip can therefore be obtained from the equation: 0 5 10 15 20 25 Velocity &Approach.) versus the striker velocity v(in.11) representing the conditions for gross slip is also plotted on the graph. . and (13. V (id8) Figure 13.52pkN60 2pkN + (13./sec) for low values of impact under various normal forces.8 shows a plot of the permanent ball displacement d(pin.1392(N)''36% 0.13) Equations (13. The intersection of these lines for each normal force with the corresponding experimental curve gives permanent displacement (4) the striker velocity (vo) at gross slip.12). (13. 13. Equation (13.13) are utilized for evaluation of the frictional characteristics of the joint from the experimental data as explained in the following. 0 7 5 ~ ~0.
N = 61.437 N2/3 ( 1 3. the value of 60 at gross slip is substituted in the equation.. * do 0.8 in Eq. 0.14) the coefficient of friction for gross slip is readily calculated.51b.27 '2N 2N 105~113 60 d 0 = 0. They are plotted versus the striker velocity in Fig. 0 . The average value for this coefficient is found to be p. V(in/s) Figure 13. For any particular normal force.= 2. Values of v in the region beyond gross slip and the corresponding 0. = 0. Equation (13.9 Values of static and kinetic coefficients of friction.01b. x.51b. +.0 1 10 100 500 Velocity of Approach.25 lb. N . N = 91. . 13.26 and the tangential force for gross slip is therefore: from which the coefficient of friction for gross slip is: F~ p.504 Chapter 13 So = in.9.N = 30.751b. 13.12) is now used to calculate the kinetic coefficient of friction pk (the average value of the coefficient of friction during slip).305.. = 45.14) By substituting the value of do from Fig. (13. A.3 1 0. N = 15.
This kinetic coefficient of friction is also plotted against the striker velocity U in Fig.22 and is independent of the normal force. (From Ref. The peak force and the time duration of the impact corresponding to gross slip are listed in Table 13.13) is then used to obtain a theoretical plot of d versus U beyond gross slip.3 as a function of the normal force. Its value is found to be & = 0. This is shown by the solid lines in Fig. Equation (13. It can be ‘oooo m 1 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80100 150200 Velocity of Approach.) . V (ink) Figure 13. The correlation between the calculated curves and the experimental data is evident.9. 13. 10.10. 13.Some Experimental Studies 505 values of d are then used to calculate &.10 Ball displacement for impacts causing gross slip.
75 11. that considerable slip of a “creep” nature may occur under sustained loads with . The frictional resistance in the gross slip region is substantially constant and corresponds to & = 0.5 vo (in. however. is the equivalent natural period of the ball suspended on the frictional support.0 91.22.5 45.0 U ’ : Knax ~~ (W t (L CW 74. This is more than three times higher than the corresponding value under static or vibrating loads.511 1.305 for the materials used and is independent of the normal load for the range investigated.321 1.6 34. It should be noted here.3 VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF FRICTIONAL HERTZIAN CONTACTS UNDER RAMPTYPE LOADS It has been observed during the tests described in the previous section.3 Pulse Characteristics N (Ib) 15.35 7. the shape of the pulse is not of significant value and the transient response of the system is the same as the static response to the pulse within the range of this test [13].57 19. It is interesting to note that the gross slip coefficient of friction under impulsive loading is equal to 0.818 9.47 29.7 5.1 64.6 easily seen that the coefficient of static friction based on the peak of the Hertzian pulse checks very closely with the value obtained from energy consideration.9 1.600 1.36r.95 13.8 53. and 0.506 Chapter 13 Table 13. Figure 13.1 1 represents a dimensionless frictional force versus displacement plot which was found to be descriptive of the behavior of frictional contacts under impulsive loading.5 22.25 30.7 17.75 61.6 55.10 37.2 58.35r./sec) 4. that the pulse duration in this investigation varies between 0. as calculated from: At this ratio of pulse duration to natural frequency.8 61.686 1.4 18. The experimental results also show that at gross slip. where r.. the frictional joint undergoes a sudden drop in frictional resistance. 13.75 10. All the energy applied during gross slip is dissipated.
A lf in. Similar observations were also reported by Bristow [15]. The air pressure is controlled .1 Experimental Arrangement The apparatus used in this investigation is schematically represented in Fig. whereas (c) is fastened to a solid steel block (e) which can slide tightly with minimum friction in the frame under the influence of air pressure acting on a flexible diaphragm (f).3.1 1 Representation of frictional behavior of Hertzian contacts under impulsive loading.Some Experimental Studies 507 Figure 13. The investigation described in this section. 13. (c). values below those necessary to produce ball accelerations which characterize gross slip under such conditions.Insert (b) is fastened to a rigid steel frame (d). diameter steel ball (a) is suspended between the two parallel flat surfaces of two identical hear steel inserts (b). A phenomenon of “creep” in the frictional contact between a hemisphere of lead and glass flats was detected by Parker and Hatch [14] during their studies on the nature of static friction.12. The utilized specimens and surface conditions are the same as those tested previously under vibratory and impulsive loads [ 161. 13. was therefore undertaken to study this “creep” phenomenon in the region below gross slip in static friction tests when the tangential loads are applied at relatively low rates and allowed to dwell for relatively short periods.
The tangential force can be either applied to the ball or to the frame at the inserts by removing or inserting a pin (p) which disengages a special fork (h) to apply the load to the ball or to the frame. The position of the weight from the center of the lever is indicative of the tangential force on the ball. by a regulator and measured by means of a mercury manometer (g). outer diameter. The calibration was done by utilizing the ringtype strain gage force meter. A variable resistance (r) connected to the drum was used in conjunction with a 6 V DC battery to produce a volage which is calibrated to indicate the tangential force on the ball.508 Chapter 13 Figure 13. Calibration of the normal force applied on the ball versus manometer reading is checked periodically by replacing the ball by a ringtype strain gage force meter of 14 in.12251b/sec to more than ten times this value. This can be easily detected by the rotation of the drum. respectively. The rotation of the drum is controlled by pulleys driven by a variablespeed motor. The tangential load on the ball is applied by a special loading device capable of different rates of load application ranging from 0. The device is composed of a lever (1) carrying a known weight (w) which can be moved on the lever by means of a string on a rotating drum. This arrangement makes it convenient to evaluate the apparatus deformations and hysteresis under any particular test condition before applying the tangential .12 Diagrammatic representation of the test arrangement.
The ball displacement is measured by a differential transformertype displacement transducer (t) rigidly fastened to the frame with the movable core in contact with the ball under a 12 g preload. As shown in Fig. the 2 min dwell tests were also performed at different load levels. Two xy plotters were used simultaneously to record the loaddisplacement and the displacementtime behavior of the ball under different load regimes. and reloading up to gross slip were performed at the same rate. The pin (p) was withdrawn from the loading fork (h) and the particular load regime is then applied to the ball.13a. This cycle was found to give a reproducible hysteresis loop for the apparatus itself. after which the load was released and reapplied until gross slip occurred. the ball was subjected to a 2 min dwell at a load level of approximately 0. 13. In each of the these tests. The transducer excitation and signal amplification is provided by a carriertype preamplifier (s) coupled to a power amplifier which provides the input to the xy plotters Accurate alignment is provided. 13. The whole apparatus is enclosed in a plastic box (n) which is thermostatically controlled to within (41 42). The loading. In the seventh loop the load was again sustained for 2 min at 0. ensuring that the load on the sphere is on the same axis as the displacement transducer. The load was then released and reapplied until gross slip occurred. The figure shows strainhardening effects in the successive loops with no significant change in the “creep” displacement during the 2 min dwell.87 the gross slip value. The ball was repositioned and subjected to six successive hysteresis loops after a reproducible apparatus loop was obtained. after which the ball was loaded to gross slip. The decay rate was found to be more pronounced in the early cycles.Some Experimental Studies 509 load. Figure 13. The following are samples of the tests performed in this investigation.14 shows typical timedisplacement tests in which the load was applied at the particular rate and allowed to dwell at different points . was applied to the apparatus and recorded. The load was released at the same rate. Figure 13. the apparatus was subjected to two consecutive hysteresis loops corresponding to the highest level of tangential load in all tests (approximately 121b).87 the gross slip value. 7 f1”F.13b.13~ shows typical results from tests where the ball was subjected to several successive 2 rnin dwell cycles. The data show an exponential increase in the creep displacement as the dwell load approaches the gross slip value. A third load cycle. As a general procedure. In the test illustrated in Fig. similar to the expected frictional cycle. unloading. the load was sustained after two successive load cycles. It can be seen that the “creep” displacement diminished with successive cycles.
Ball displacement: pin. B: frictional hysteresis loops (zero dwell). (Force scale: 1 unit = 1.) 510 .681bf. A: reproducible apparatus loop. (c) Successive dwell loops at the same load level with 50 lb normal force. (b) Frictional loops at different load levels with 301b normal force. D: final frictional tests carried to gross slip.t Figure 13.5 lbf normal force. C: frictional hysteresis loops (2 min dwell).1 3 (a) Loaddisplacement curves with 18.
12261bf/s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 1 1 2 1 8 1 4 1 6 1 SeCOndr 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (a) 4 Time (8) 3 0 Loading Rate 0.42 lb/sec loading rate.1225 lb/sec loading rate. (a) 0. .1 4 Displacementtime curves for 30 lb normal load.42 Ibfh I 1 1 1 1 1 second8 2 a 4 s I I I I I I I Figure 13.Some Experiment a1 Studies 7 51 I DbpIacamentScab (in) Loading Rata 0. (b) 0.
therefore.15 shows the plot of this relationship from the experimental data for normal loads of 30 and 501b. These values are essentially the same as those in the previous tests with vibratory loads. 13. The experimental results. when produced without previous cycling history.16. and 0. 13. 31.8. indicate that the creep behavior of the frictional contacts (as in most lowtemperature instances of creep) can be approximated by a Boltzmann model as shown in Figs. This can be done for any normal load. Figure 13. It should be noted here that the values of the coefficient of friction at gross lip varied between 0.15 shows an example of such plots at 80°F with normal loads of 30 and 501b. .095 in most of the tests.17. Gross slip curves. as illustrated by Figs 13. The points represent data from load application rates of 0.09 and 0.. Johnson [4] and O’Connor and Johnson [19] observed the phenomenon and attributed it to an increase in the local coefficient of friction in the annulus of slip by the fretting action. Figure 13. The creep displacement can. Figure 13.421b/sec.1225. The factor C has been evaluated empirically by plotting the slope (xc)i of the displacementtime curve at the onset of creep versus the total creep displacement X. The area of the hysteresis loop diminished progressively with the number of cycles and the rate of decay of the loop area also decreased with the number of cycles. and 13. The tests also showed no significant dependence of the 2 min creep displacements on the number of nodwell cycles which preceded them with the same maximum load. These effects were observed by successive 2 min dwell cycles. Repeated cycling caused strain hardening and brought the load4isplacement curves closer to Mindlin’s prediction. The dependency of the creep displacement on the rate of ball displacement at the onset of dwell can be readily seen. and rate of load application.17 shows the deviation of the experimental displacementtime curves from Mindlin’s theory at the lower loads and the accuracy of the linear viscoelastic model in describing the creep behavior. be represented by [ 17. test temperature. respectively. 0. exhibited considerably higher displacements in the region close to gross slip than expected by Mindlin’s theory [2. The repeated “nodwell” cycling tests at load levels below gross slip showed clearly that the largest plastic displacements occurred during the first cycle. 181 where C is a characteristic constant when a linear model is assumed.13a and b.512 Chapter I3 within the region of gross slip.2667. respectively.
Initial o.15 Maximum creep versus initial creep rate. b a I Figure 13.0002 n I I 513 c Y C f 5 0 I I a P 0.Some Experimental Studies 0.00000 XI I f i .0001 0 1 a! a l o.1 6 Boltzmann model.00003 C m p Dlsplrcement(In) Figure 13.OOOO2 0.oooo1 O.Ooo0 0. .
5 14 .00015 C I g 0. Figure 13.00010 U f  $ 0 Q P 0.18 Diagrammatic reprcsentation o f the experimental setup.00000 Time ( 8 ) Figure 13.1 7 Comparison between experimental and calculated displacenient time curves.0.00005 0.
The temperature of the bath is monitored by a thermometer throughout the test. however. The magnitude of the pressures. It also serves as a cantilever spring to force down the brass surface of the slider block against the sliding surface.18. A steel bar is used for transmitting the reciprocating motion from the carrier to the slider. the speed and stroke are adjustable. The peak pressure during the forward stroke follows a square root relationship with the instantaneous sliding velocity. 13. The slider block is submerged in an oil bath. 13.4. . can be higher or lower than the isoviscous values depending on the operating conditions. The main components of the setup and a brief explanation of their functions are listed below: A shaper carrier is used for providing the reciprocating motion. A twochannel oscilloscope is used for monitoring the signals from the pressure transducers. which can be attributed to the thermohydrodynamic phenomenon discussed in Chapter 6.1 Experimental Setup The experimental setup is diagrammatically represented in Fig.19. The pressure is monitored at three different locations along the central line of the slider by means of miniature pressure transducers. A multichannel chart recorder is used for recording the signals. A special test fixture is constructed where the slider is inserted in such a way as to insure that a specific film geometry is achieved and maintained throughout the test. The pressure distribution during the forward stroke follows the same pattern as that predicted by isoviscous theory. The results indicate the development of negative pressure and cavitation during the return stroke.4 FILM PRESSURE IN RECIPROCATING SLIDER BEARINGS An experimental procedure for evaluating the oil film pressure in reciprocating slider bearings with arbitrary geometry is presented in this section [20]. The slider surface is a wellground steel plate.Some Experimental Studies 515 13. 13. The geometry is illustrated in Fig. The setup is capable of producing oscillatory sliding motions with different strokes and speeds and can be used to simulate a variety of film geometries and operating conditions. A potentiometer is used to record the position of the slider. A slider block is used for holding the slider in order to maintain the film geometry constant relative to the sliding surface.
A sample of the pressure data from the three transducers is given in Table 13.5"C./sec when the slider is moving forward with an 11 in. an oscillatory pressure drop occurs before the peak pressure is reached./in. respectively. Three temperaturecompensated strain gauge transducers with a range from 0 to 100 psi are used for pressure sensing. diameter. It can be seen that for the first stroke. The maximum speed corresponding to 37 spm is 18. and speed as a function of time. at the second and third oil holes.20. The figure shows the pressureposition data for the test slider bearing when the SAE 5 oil is used at a speed of 18 spm. The potentiometer is utilized to provide the information on change of position.1 . 13. allow the transducers to pick up the pressure.0009in. the minimum film thickness is 0. 13.2 Experimental Results A sample of the recorded data is shown in Fig. For all the given data.4. which are located on the slider surface.17 in. stroke./sec with the same stroke. Three oil holes of 0. The oil bath temperature was maintained at 25 f 0.1 9 Geometry of the tapered slider bearing.0315 in. The minimum film thickness and slope of the slider is easily adjusted by changing the metal shims between the slider and the slider block. 18 and 37 strokes per minute (spm).006 in.516 Chapter 13 Figure 13. the same film geometry is used with two speeds.07 in. The 18 spm produces a maximum speed of 9. and the slope is 0. In this case.
. (c). This can be attributed to the formation of air bubbles which are generated during the backstroke and accumulate inside the tube leading to the pressure transducer. the pressure generated in the first stroke is found to be reproducible. at four different instances in time.0009in. 18 spm. SAE 5 oil. and (d) in Fig. (b). Figures 13. 25°C. The corresponding instantaneous velocities of the slider are also tabulated..20.20 Sample experimental data: h2 = 0. and the peak pressure of that stroke can be used to represent the pressure corresponding to the maximum speed of the slider.21 and 13. m = 0. For the same test conditions.Some Experimental Studies 51 7 Fsec 3. . It was noticed during the tests that the peak pressure for each stroke dropped gradually as the test continued. Before each test.0006in./in. the transducer is filled with oil to ensure that there are no bubbles in it.10 in 10 psi f Figure 13. 13. as indicated by (a).22 show sample results of the pressure distributions along the central line of the slider bearing in the direction of motion.
21) or overestimate the preak pressure (refer to Fig. . This has been found to depend on the values of minimum film thickness.. viscosity.25 0. p = 31.23 and 13. the calculated and measured pressures retain the same normalized shape for any given film geometry.0006in. 13.. which takes into consideration the temperature rise in the bearing for the given film geometry. Figures (1 3.50 0.oo 1.50 Location (In) Figure 13. However. 13.22).25 1.75 1. It is worth noting that the isothermal theory can either underestimate (refer to Fig.. The experimental results are compared to those predicted by isothermal theory. oil.0009in.5 18 Chapter 13 I 1 I 30 . It is noticed that the magnitudes of the pressures measured may differ considerably from those predicted by the isothermal hydrodynamic theory. and speed in a similar maner as discussed in Chapter 6.24) show the pressurespeed characteristic of test slider bearings. It can be seen that the pressure is proportional to the square root of the speed as was the case for journal bearings.17in. V = 9. I I I I I 25 = r) v 20 P 2 a b e Y) l5 10 5 0 0. and sliding speed.21 Pressure distribution along the central line in the direction of motion: h2 = 0. and inlet temperature./sec. oil. rn = 0./in.00 0.03 x 106 reyn.
.25 1S O Location (in) Figure 13. g! 20 0 0.oo 1./min)... I .Some Experimental Studies 80 519 I . V = 18.3.5 EFFECT OF LUBRICANT P O E TE ON TEMPERATURE R PRIS AND WEAR IN SLIDING CONCENTRATED CONTACTS The experimental study discussed in this section deals with investigating the effect of some of the physical properties of lubricants on the contact temperature and wear in heavily loaded Hertzian contacts under sliding conditions [21].50 0./sec. 13. m = 0.00 0. Temperature and wear .3 m/sec (9433 142 in. The carbide tip and the shaft are used as part of a dynamic thermocouple system to monitor the contact temperature.22 Pressure distribution along the central line in the direction of motion: h2 = 0.4 to 1. p = 1. Tests are conducted for Hertzian pressures ranging from 1250 to 2140 MPa (1./in.0011 in. 60 = Y B a g! 40 p.986 x 105 reyn. I . I I .0010in.01 in.81 x 10’ . The surface temperature and wear in a rotating mild steel shaft are measured under different loads applied by a tungsten carbide slider.25 0.75 1.10 x 10’ psi) and sliding speeds from 0.
m = 0. The supporting structure consists of a steel plate (I). pillowblock (2). The rotating shaft (4) is supported on bearings and the desired load is applied on it by the loading screws which are mounted on the steel plate and apply the load to the pillowblocks./in. 13.520 80 Chapter 13 60 = U 8 e! 3 Q 40 t Y) 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 8p. for the considered tests. 13.23 Pressurespeed characteristic of slider bearing: h2 = 0..d (ids) Figure 13. SAE 5 oil.006 in. The .. a highviscosity residual compound. 25°C. a vegetable oil. and watermiscible cutting fluid (0. The results show that.5. viscosity does not appear to be the significant property of the lubricant temperature rise and wear rate as indicated by the scar depth under similar test conditions.009in. and loading screws (3). data are given from tests with a heavy duty oil (SAE 80W90).25.0476% emulsifiable oil by volume).1 Experimental Setup The experimental setup used in this study is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig.
. A dynamic thermocouple circuit is used to monitor the contact temperature as shown in Fig. A belt drive ( 6 ) with a speed ratio 2. . 13. 8%Co). m = 0. 25°C. Junction X is kept at constant temperature by running cooling water through it..4 is used between the test shaft and motor. the system may have an error of approximately 1%. SAE 20 oil. which has the least effect on the calibration.25b.001 1 in. 13./in. whereas the other Y . making the range of the test from 300 to 2000rpm.0010 in.24 Pressurespeed characteristic of slider bearing: h2 = 0. It has a speed range from 715 to 5000rpm. steel plate and the loading screws are electrically insolated from the steel shaft to reduce possible noise. is kept at room temperature (2Oo24"C).Some Experimental Studies 80 I I 1 52 I 60 f 0 0 v E 40 3 3 0 I 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 SpHd (in/s) Figure 13. A strain gage type load cell (7) supports the tungsten carbide tip and provides a continuous record of the load. The main junction is the low carbon steel shaft (4) (AISI 1020) and the tungsten carbide tip (8) (80% WC. Due to the influence of the variable temeprature of junction Y . A 5 hp variable speed motor ( 5 ) supplies the power necessary to rotate the shaft at the desired rotating speed.25a and illustrated in detail in Fig.
The flow rate of the lubricant is calibrated for the different fluid levels which are maintained within a certain range throughout each test to keep the flow rate approximately constant.25 %. (b) Thermocouple circuit.wcron(slip ring contact point) E Dynamic Thermocouple Junction Copper (b) Figure 1 5..522 Chapter 13 Copper Y. (WCCopper water tube) (a) Diagrammatic representation of the experimental setup. The latter is calibrated in a bath of the lubricant using a mercury thermometer. The rotational speed of the shaft is measured by strobe light. . A lubricant reservoir (1 1) is mounted at a prescribed height above the test setup. The slip ring (9) is used to transmit the thermoelectric signal from the rotating shaft. . A twochannel recorder (1) is used to simultaneously record the load and the contact temperature.
65 cSt for water.) span. wear scar geometry was measured after the tests using a Talysuf model 3 (TaylorHobson) surface texture measuring machine. and the others are nonconventional fluids which are not generally used in common lubrication practices.35 ml/sec to 2. and 4 were applied at the contact location at different flow rates varying from 0. and 40cSt for the vegetable oil.1 ml/sec. The chart recorder is calibrated by using a calibration plate with certain scar depth. 13. The flexibility of the shaft also helps in controlling the applied load and minimizing the load fluctuation during the rotation of the shaft or as a result of wear.5mm (0.Some Experimental Studies 523 13. The wear scar is measured at 90" intervals around the circumference of the shaft by moving the stylus along the shaft surface in the axial direction.5. The selected lubricants are as follows: 1.5. 4.3 Test lubricants Four different types of lubricants were used in the performed experiments.0476% emulsifiable oil by volume) Vegetable oil Lubricants 1.) radius and a modulus of elasticity of 55 1.) diameter supported at a 250mm (loin. The residual compound was applied directly on the shaft by a brush because it is too thick to flow. 583 cSt for the residual compound 0.5.6 MPa (80 x 106psi).4 Wear Scar Measurement In all the previous tests. 3. The shaft is supported on the table by a set of Vblocks in the machine. SAE 80W90 oil A veryhighviscosity residual compound Watermiscible cutting fluid (0. The length of the shaft allows for several successive tests to be conveniently run on the same shaft. 13.37511. 3. Viscosity data at 38°C (100°F) for the different lubricants used are as follows: 200cSt for SAW 80W90 oil. 2. .2 Test Specimens The test specimen is selected as a steel shaft 25mm (1 in. Two of them represent heavyduty lubricants. The rider is tungsten carbide with a cylindrical surface 9.
Figure 13. (c) watermiscible cutting fluid. 20. and 40 lbf) in succession without changing the point of load application. .5 Results Typical data on temperature and wear for different conditions of load and speed are illustrated in the following.26a shows reuslts from experiments run with SAW 80W90 oil lubrication at a particular shaft speed under 45.27. 133. respectively. and 178 N (10. The depth of the wear scar appears to reflect the magnitude of the temperature rise in all the performed tests.26 Experimental results of temperature versus load at different speeds: (a) SAE 80W90 oil. (b) residual compound. These scars are the result of six repeated applications of each of the four levels for 15 sec and turning the motor off until the temperature cools back to the ambient temperature.5. The test speeds in this case are 300. The point of load application is changed after each constant speed test to a new location on the shaft.524 Chapter 13 13. 13. 500. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Load (Ibf) 60 80 100 120 140 160 Figure 13. Summary temperature data from the test with residual compound and watermiscible cutting fluid lubrication are shown in Figs 13.4. 1 " . 30. 400 70  150 1 . 1 . Some of the wear scars from the previous tests at 300 and 1000 rpm are shown in Fig. 1 . The maximum scar depth data are given in Table 13.26b and c. The total test duration corresponds to each scar is approximately 360sec. 750. 89. and 1000 rpm.
O Y 9080 c 10 I 70 15 I 20 I 25 I 30 35 I 1 40 I 45 I 50 I L0.d (Ibt) 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 Load (NI 525 .250 n 2200 P f t 0 150 100 10 20 I I 30 Lord (Ibf) I 40 I 50 50 (b) 100 Load (N) 150 200 300  130 1200: .
Figure 13. lower for the SAW SOW90 oil.27 The measured temperature rise and wear under the same load and speed for all test conditions are the highest for the residual compound. specific heat. lower yet for the vegetable oil and lowest for the waterbased solution.Wear scar measured with successive load at 300 and 100 rpm with (a) SAE SOW90 oil. (b) residual compound: (c) watermiscible cutting fluid. it appears that thermal conductivity. As can be seen in Table 13. This strongly suggests that viscosity is not the primary lubricant property in the performed tests. . and kpc parameter of the lubricant are significant physical characteristics whose effect on temperature rise and wear in the boundary warrants further careful investigation.5.
178 45.2 921.6 11. The study reported in this section [22] investigates the effect of repeated thermal shock on the bending fatigue of two types of highcarbon steels with the same chemical composition but with slightly different carbon content.998 614.26a 13.3 913.8 14 38. The specimens are subjected to Table 13.65  0.2 16.8 47.4 16. Two levels of hardness for each type are used. Density. 178 SAE 80W90 Watermiscible cutting fluid Vegetable oil SAE 80W90 Residual compound Watermiscible cutting fluid 13.44  . 133.27~ Lubricant Load N 178 178 178 45.26b 13.5 134. p heat C (100°F)) k (W/(mOC)) (kg/m3) (cal/(g"C)) kpc ~~ Lubricant Residual compound SAE 80W90 Vegetable oil Watermiscible cutting fluid 583 200 40 0.133 0.27b 13.26~ 13. This can result in transient localized temperature rise on the surface followed by sudden cooling by the lubricating oil.4 52 7 Summary Data on Wear Scar Depth Speed (rpm) 750 750 750 300 1000 300 1000 300 1000 Maximum Total test scar depth duration (pm) 97 126 96 360 360 360 360 360 360 19.77 0.168 0.40. 178 45. no. 13. 89.33 0.35 0. 133.27a 13. 89.616 1109. 133.5 Lubricant Properties Viscosity (cSt Thermal Specific at 38°C conductivity.Some Experimental Studies Table 13.6 THE EFFECT OF REPEATED THERMAL SHOCK ON BENDING FATIGUE OF STEEL Many tribological pairs are subjected to high thermal flux rates at the asperity contacts. 89.6 8. especially when highcarbon steel is used. The thermal stress cycles produced by this repeated action can significantly affect the surface fatigue life.2 1000 53.4 28 Fig.44 0.
. the specimen with induced thermal shock cycles is subjected to a set level of unidirectional bending stress in a standard bending fatigue tester until fracture occurs and the g Figure 13.28 Setup for inducing thermal cycles. Aftewards. Calibration specimens equipped with four thermocouples placed at different locations through the thickness are shown in Fig. Standard bending fatigue test specimens (a) with 0. The extrapolated temperature at the surface can be readily determined. Liquid nitrogen is allowed to flow continuously from a container (b) with a controlled rate into a channel (e) and directed to the point where rapid induction heating is applied in an intermittent fashion.29. They are used for monitoring the transient temperature through the thickness in the process of adjusting the arc voltage and the rate of flow of the liquid nitrogen to achieve repeatable thermal cycles of the desired range.28. A sample recording of such cycles is shown in Fig. 13. The specimen is grounded by means of the clamp (8).125 in. The setup for inducing the thermal cycles is schematically represented in Fig. The calibration specimen is then replaced by the test specimens and 40 cycles of thermal shock are applied. Identical tests are performed on specimens made of 1020 steel for comparison. thickness are used throughout the test.30.528 Chapter 13 40 repeated cycles of thermal shock and then subjected to different levels of unidirectional bending stress in order to establish stresslife curves. This is accomplished by positioning the electrode (c) at an appropriate distance above the test point. 13. 13.
The heat treatment is performed in such a way that the material hardness of the specimens is not changed for the temperature range considered in the tests. The specimens are checked for the location of crack initiation which invariably occurs at the point where the thermal cycles are applied. number of cycles are recorded for the set level of bending stress. Time (8) Figure 13. The highcarbon steel materials tested are 4350 and 4340 steels which are heat treated to produce two levels of hardness in each case (refer to Table 13.30 Time history of thermal cycles induced at the selected point on the surface. Identical control specimens in each case were also tested without being subjected to thermal shock in order to determine the effect of the thermal cycles on the fatigue life.6).29 Details of the thermocouples used for calibration.Some Experimental Studies 529 Figure 13. .
7.32 shows similar results for the lowhardness 4350 steel specimens where the same thermal cycles caused a 42% reduction in the endurance limit. as would be expected from the published data on the material.026 0.49 0. It can be seen in Fig.59 1.23 .009 0.31 that the highhardness 4350 steel had an endurance limit of approximately 108ksi. 13.23 0.78 0.61 0.27 0. Figure 13.25 0.77 1.66 0.38 0.77 0.025 0. It is interesting to note from the fatigue data for the 1020 steel specimens that the endurance limit was reduced by only 12% to a value of 55 ksi. This value is the mean value of the endurance limits under the same condiTable 1 . The chemical composition of the 4340 and 4350 steel used in the test is given in Table 13.33 and 13.35. The 40 thermal cycles in this case caused a reduction of approximately 45% in the value of the endurance limit. Sample results of the unidirectional bending fatigue test data for the different materials with and without the 40 thermal cycles are given in Figs 13. Similar results for the 4340 steel are given in Figs 13.014 0. 37 Chemical Properties of 4340 and 4350 Steel Si (%) Cr (%) Ni (Yo) MO (%) Steel C (TO) Mn (70) P (TO) S (%) 4340 4350 0. 36 Chapter 13 Hardness Data for the Test Specimens Hardness (BHN) 170180 2853 I 1 363375 321331 375388 Material 1020 (untreated) 1020 (treated) 4340 low hardness (untreated) 4340 low hardness (treated) 4340 high hardness (untreated) 4340 high hardness (treated) 4350 low hardness (untreated) 4350 low hardness (treated) 4350 high hardness (untreated) 4350 high hardness (treated) Similar tests were also performed on 1020 steep specimens for comparison.34 where the reduction in the endurance limit is found to be approximately 20%.530 Table 1 .3113.
   90 c (y1 y.cycles. I I L . 531 . WIthTh~lCycla. W = with thermal cycles.31 Fatigue data for 4350 steel (high hardness): 0 = without thermal = with thermal cycles. Qb Qb 80 2 7060 50  I 1 1 40 . Figure 13. 120 Figure 13.32 Fatigue data for 4350 steel (low hardness): 0 = without thermal cycles. . a . 110 100 0 without Thermal Cycle.
130 120 110 1 = with thermal cycles. 4 Fatigue data for 4340 steel (low hardness): 0 = without thermal 33 cycles. 1 = with thermal cycles. Fatigue data for 4340 steel (high hardness): 0 = without thermal L \.140 130 120 = 00 5 3 ? ! 110 si 100 90 80 10' 10' 1o8 Fatigue Life (cycles) Figure 1 . * 0 %o 00 cn 100 t 80 70 80 501 10' t I L 10' 1o8 Fatigue Life (cycles) Figure 1 . 532 .nn. 0 WithoutTh.lCyok0 WithThenndCvcler . 3 33 cycles.
A. pp.Some Experiment a1 Studies 90 80 70  * cn Y 60 3 f mo 533 I 0 Without T h O m d C y C k W i t h f h O ~ d ~ k 8 0  I G50  40 I  3 0 tions for the 4350 steel with high and low hardness. 6 . Microstructure investigations using the scanning electron microscope showed that microscopic thermal cracks as well as intergranular cracks occurred in the steel with higher carbon content. REFERENCES 1. E. J. 1963.. The results demonstrate the considerable deterioration of the endurance limit of high carbon steel due to thermal cycles. Seireg.” Wear. It can be seen that the steel with higher carbon content exhibited considerably more reduction in the bending fatigue strength. and Weiter.. “Frictional Interference Behavior Under Dynamic Excitation. Microhardness tests of the specimens showed no appreciable change in the hardness distribution due to the thermal or mechanical stress cycles. which may explain the reduction in the bending fatigue life. . Vol. 6677.
E. 1961. J. pp.” ASLE Trans. Bristow.” Wear. “Adhesion Between Metals and Its Effects on Fixed and Sliding Contacts. Soc. “The Role of Surface Asperities in Transmitting Tangential Forces Between Metals. W. “Transient Creep of Materials. P. 1961. p. Mindlin. 9. 1963. 2. 1961. “Behavior of Frictional Hertzian Contacts Under Impulsive Loading. Goldsmith. T. Vol. and Hatch. L. 87AM3A3. R. D.. 149.. Proc. 63 (B). H. O’Connor.. Seireg. 4854. Jacobsen. 12. Soc. Crussard. 4th Edn. Mechanics. 200206.. and Weiter. pp.” ASLE Trans.’. Vol. J. pp. Vol. J. K. W.. “Compliance of Elastic Bodies in Contact.. J.. 18.534 Chapter 13 2.. Goodman. Z.. Roy. 1949. and Ayre. 203208. 8. R. Stress Anal. L. L. D. Ft. Engrs. 230. 14. S.. Vol. 181. pp. Johnson. A. Mech. 4. 196667. England. “Oscillating Tangential Forces on Cylindrical Specimens in 7. 1942. Vol.” Wear. London. Mech. Engineering Vibrations. S. 0. pp.. England. Natl. 1965.. 4. Vol. Paper No. “Effects of an Oscillating Tangential Force on the Contact Surfaces of Elastic Spheres. C. . E. Inst. Soc. W. Appl.’ Proc. Wiley. “Mechanism of Kinetic Friction. P. ASLE. (Lond. 16. 1960. pp. p. A. Mason.. Ser.. E. Mech. and Deresiewiez. 255264. Vol. 3 9 4 9 . J. Vol. 1951. p... and Felgar. L. Impact. 3. and Johnson. R.. Lubahn. “Surface Interaction Between Two Elastically Loaded Bodies Under Tangential Forces.. and Shu. 1955.’ Proc. “Coefficient of Static Friction Under Statically and Dynamically Applied Loads.. Gaylord.. Contact at Displacements Within the Region of No Gross Slip.. 13. R. on Creep. pp. pp. “The Static Coefficient of Friction and the Area of Contact.. D. London. 253273.” Paper 75. 62Lub14. G. 20. 1962. 401. Parker. Mason. 198200. and Weiter. Wang. “The Role of Surface Shear Strains in the Adhesion of Metals... Osmer. J.” Proc.). 6. Paper No.. N. 185.. Anderson.. R. A. 16. 123. London. New York.. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 1st U. Vol. Klint. Lond. W.**Proc..” Wear. K.. Cambridge University Press. Engrs. 18. 19. R.. 1960. pp. NY. Engrs. England. of Appl. 8. 15. 2.. p. V. Seireg. I I. Edward Arnold. p.S. Plasticity and Creep of Metals. pp. Phys.. Vol.. 1959. “Experiments on Damping at Contacts of a Sphere with Flat Plates. B. A. 10. Mech. 3. 208219. Exptl. 53 1548. 169. J. Mindlin. London..” Nature.” Am. 1929. 1987. and Bowie.’.. Soc.. Vol.. E. D. C.. McGrawHill Book Co. L. 1950. Inst. K. Vol. NY and London.. 1958. “Viscoelastic Behavior of Frictional Hertzian Contacts under RampType Loads.. Conf. 259268. Pt 30. H. 1960.’. Int. 17. Love.. 173. Congr. 5. New York. 3. “Thermohydrodynamic Performance of Reciprocating Slider Bearings. A. R. and Seireg.
. “An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Lubricant Properties on Temperature and Wear in Sliding Concentrated Contacts. Seireg. 103. University of WisconsinMadison. 22. and Wang. and Hsue. Technol. E. 261265.. Seireg. A.. April 1981. A.. Report. Lubr.. E.Some Experimental Studies 535 21.” ASME Trans.. J. C. F. 1980. . pp. “The Effect of Repeated Thermal Shock on Bending Fatigue of High Carbon Steels. Vol.” M.
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119 Armarego.. S... 337 Alsaad.. S. 54 Albrecht.. T. M.. R. 406 Attia. S. M. A. A. 19. 159 Amontons.. D. H.. 54 Ali. E... 118 Aleksanddrov. 487 Bell... M. B.. 118 Appeldoorn. Y. E. H. 405 AllistonGreiner. G . 250 Beale.. 336 Badgley.. 336.... 408 Allen. T.. S. G . 54 Berry.. N.. 452 Avery. 406 Barwell. G. 250. A. J. J. A.. 410.. 337 Ayre. O. C. H. L. 248 Barber.. 452 Arpaci. C.. J. A. R. S. J. 18 Barber.. 160 Alblas. K. R. 409 Ahmadi. M. F. G. S. M. S. H.. 486 Belin.. 404 Archard. T.. V... H.. 405.. 534 Aziz. W. 159 Benecke. C. 0. S. 487 Ansell. F.. 250 Bell. T. R. J. 421 Ari. B... 452 Bell. L. L.. 159 537 . H. 409.Author Index Aaronson. 247 Bair. B. M. 159 Ashford. 308 Ballegooyen. E. 409 Almen.. K. 405 Beavors.. K... R. A. 54 Barwell. 54 Anon.. J. 452 Babichev.. 54 Akin. 54 Bear. 409 Ashworth.... 20 Bentall. T. 17 Anand. 336 Batchelor. F. S. V.. V. 406 AbdelAal. D. 160 Arvidson. H.. F. J. R. 534 Andersson. D. G. M... S.. 421 Benedict. 452 Anderson. 159. 336 Barovich. C. J.. M. 18 Archard. M. G .. D. A. 119 Aronov. A. J. H.
A. 421 Dandage. S. 119 Brown.. T... 53 Coulomb.. 160 Day. 17. 159.P. H. P.. S. M. 19. 21. C. R. 17 CourtneyPratt. M. A... 98... 404 David. 406 Casacci. W. 248. C.. 20 Campbell. W. G. 20. 17. A... R.. R.. H. 18 Dawson. 250 Booker. 247 Comniou.. G.. 409 Cameron. D. R. 534 Boyd. S. J.... 54 Cameron.404 Drozdov. 98 Chandiramani. 249. D. R. 308. 409 Chang. 250. 20.. 308. E. 19 Boussages. H. E. 409 D’ Souza... 249 Bristow. 247. W.. 19. 534 Desaguliers. J. 159. R. 407 Bollier. 99 Cole. 19. G. 53. 337 Carl. 337 Charnes. C. T.. 486 Dooner. B... 18. H.405 Crow. D. 487 Boncompain... 159 Busch. 405 Byer. P. A. 421 Denton.. N.. J. J. J. W.. W. 485 Bill... 248 Dantzig. 406 de la Hire 6 Deng. 19.. S. 53 Doshi. J. J. E. F... 20.. 422 Deresiewicz. 55 Choa.. J.. W. J. M.. 486 Butler. F. S. 19. P. 158. T. 159. L. D. J. 247 Cattaneo. R.. 120. 17. A.. D. J.. 22 Bowden. 99 Davenport. 452 Burton. 452 Brown. R. R. K. D.. 159. D.. 248 Cottle. 248 Dundurs. G.. 406 Chiu. R. K. A. H. H... T. 247 . B. 406 Cheng.. A. S. 118 Chang.. 405.. 20. J. S... L.. 408 Choi. C. R.. 308 Cameron. 405 Dorn..404 Cheung. 2 Dike. W. S. 21.. 409 Bohn. J. 308 Carter. F. 534 Csepregi.. 407 Crussard. 337. H. 405 Cook. C. 17. 250 Braun. M.. 248.. 248 Dowson. J. E. C. 118 Cope. 98. C. 407 Dismukes. 98 du Plessis. H. 98 Conry. H. C... H. J. 20... 247 Boussinesq.. S. J. 19. V. 17 Crook. 410 Block. 487 Bhushan.. Y. Y. C. 452 Dubois. T.. 421 Chapin. L. 158... 98 Chanceller. 19. R.. N.. 337 Burdekin. 407 Calladine. 308 D’ Silva. F. 54. 404 Chang... J. 54 Conway. P. 247.. 247 Booser. 421. J. 307. 17... M.. D. 336. 534 Brockley. C. C. W. C. A.. 405. M. N.. 308. 409 Bowie.538 Author Index Bhat. F. R. 407 Chichinadze. B. K.. 249... 250. R. 19 Brunton. A... 248 Carper. G. J. A. 408 Chand.
409 Fensel. 17. B. 99 Goodman.. 407 Elkholy. 54. 404 Hohl. 249 Hertz. J. 249. 409 Georges. J. 17.. 337. 451 Fillon. J. 18... 485 Ha. W. 337 Graham. D. 487 Higginson. 20.. K.. N. F. D. E. H. R. J. 18 Gair. E.. 20. W. 250 Fessler.. E. D.. 451 Howland. 336 Hazelrigg.. D. Y. 53 Gao... 534 Feng. C. 421 He... 247 Francavilla. Y. H. F.. 120. B.. 487 Godfrey. 487 Haug. J. A... 486 Fredriksson. M.. G. 408 Heminover. H. J. 98 Evans. T. M.. 452 Grubin. W.. G. 406 Hardy. M... 249. 17 Hsue..Author Index 539 Dyson. A. L.. 160 Hannoosh. W.. I. J. J. 53 Franklin. R.. 308.. 19 Harding. D.. M.... 487 Greenwood.. 452 Eisner.. W...... S.. A. 248. P. 404. L.E. 487 Gartner. 19. 247 Gupta. 18 Harline.. 487 Hendricks. 21 Gaylord. 98 Frank. M. A. 485 Hamrock. 486 Helfet. 18. L. L.. S. 18 Erdogan. 120. D. K. 337 Hayashi. M. H. A. B. A.. 248 Holmberg. T. 17. 534 Goodier. 19.. 250 Fujita. R.. 18 Frene. A. M. K.. 534 Goriacheva.R.. 337. T.. J. N. J. Y. R. J. P. 17 Elbella. E. 119 Hach. 250 Fazekas. 119 Hashish. J. 159 Ghodssi. J. J.. 405 Field. A. J.. P. 307. A.. A. M. I.. H. G.. P. 407 Hirst. R. 159 Harris. 407 Houjoh. P... 486 Garside. 486 Hood. B.. 54 Freeman. 406 Eng. D. 19. 487 Halling... R.. 486 Fielding. D. F. M. 406 Hasegawa. A. 421. B. A. E. 421 Hays. 98 Gough.. 452 Goldsmith. 19... E. 307 Gunter. 97 Hewitt. 336. 406 Ferron. R. W. 452 ElSherbiny.. G.. E. 534 Gecim. G.... 308 Earles.. B. 249 Hale. J. A. R. 98.. 404 Hill.. S..... 406 Felgar. B. 422 Gigl... 534 Hahn. 535 . K. M.. 98 Haworth. J. 408 Holm. 249.. B. 406 Ezzat. 250 Fogg.409. R.. G. A. H... M. B. C. 404 Galin.. 404 Gavrikov.. H. R. 21. 159 Hansen.. J.. 421 Furey. M. 407 Hatschek..
336.540 Author Index Hudson.. K.. J. I. C.. 308 Lichtman. 406 Lindberg. J. 119 Kelley. 404 Kravchuk. B.. A. L. K. 408 Kronenberg. 338 Lieblein. T. A. 337 Kettleborough. J. C.. 338 Kamdar. N.. Y. V.. 54 Klaus. P. S. 407 Lack. M. 408 Kuipers. R. 248. O. J. D. K. 20.. F. R.. F. L. A... 21. H.. V. M. E. 406 Jones. G.. M. S.. 407 Knotek.. M. K. C. H. O. 409.. 407. Z. 421 Kondo. R. F. 534 Lubahn. C. M. 250 Hunter.. 452 KO. 54 Labbe.. 534 Jacobson. L. 421 Leach. V. 336. H. L. T. M. S. E. 53 Kotb. E. W. R. 120. 452 Lemanski.... 98. K. O. 21. M. F. 410 Joseph... M. 406 Jones. 487 Jacobsen. 1 19 Krushchov.. 53 Johnson. 410 Jackson. 249 Hurricks... 534 Lubkin. E. 405 Lee. 19 Love. E.. D. O. R. 249 Lechner. B... 409. L. 20. 487 Kannel. 98 Kegg. D.. 534 Johnson. M. G. R. 405 Kapoor... 119 Jeroslow. 120 Jemlielniak. L. 160 Klint. M. 3 Li.. 119 Kingsley.. 405 Lebeck. B. 98 Kreith. 308. 408 Kennedy. B.. 19. 54. R. C.. 54 Kubo. 19. S. 159 Lingard. B. H. 408 Kragelski. W.. K. H.. 410 Iihoshi. F. 248 Kane. 408 Lang. K. J... 336 Ku.. V. 421 Limpert. S. 120 Isogal. W. 99. J. 250 Kim. 308 Ku.. A. 99 Luck. C. T. J. J. C. 119 Konishi. Y. E. 405 Lim.. H. 451 Jang. 159. B.. A. F. 119 Ling. 534 Knight. 249 Khonsari. G... 308. J. J.... J. 98 Kallas.. D. 21 Kortanek. 409 . 408 Ludema... 405 Johnson... H. H. M... 410 Keer.. 53. D.. 119 Kayaba.. 308 Ivanova... 407 Ishii. 409 Jakobsen. J.. D. L.. 19 Hunter. 250 Juvinall.. 409 Kennedy. 407 Ismail. F.. 20. 119 Kaufmann. L... R.... P. 409.. J.. A.. 158. C. 337 Iwabuchi. J. 249. C. N. G. J. 21 Leslie. W. 250 Labus. 54. J. 17. 18. 405 Kempke. P.. 160 Jaeger. T.. W. S. Y..... A... 250 Kawano. G.. D. G. S. 159 KO. 53.. T.. E. M. A. 409. G. 309 Kalker. J...
J. M. C. 54 McCool.. E.. 534 Paul.. 404 Osman. C. M. 246. M. C.. 407 Moore. Y. 337 O’Donoghue. 534 Osterle. 338 Plint. N.. I. D.. R. P. F. 486 Matthewson. 308 Podop.. T. A.. R. 19 Pinkus... 408 Monza. E. H. K. T. P.. 421 Nolle. 421 Petrov. 55 Pan. M.. 486 Mossakovski. 17 Macks. 405 Olsen. 98 Parker. K. N. J. 249 Muller.. J. F. 407 Noguchi. K. K. N. M. 119 Nemlekar.. R. 54 Meille. J. R.. 119 Nassipour. 17.. 17.. H. R. 54 Mousson.. G.... 308 Oh. S.. K. 405 Nishizawa.. S.. 53 Manton.. F. 247 McNulty. 337 Nuri. 337 Persson. 250 Niemann. F.. L. K. S.. 160 Nordlund. 159 . M..... G. G. A.. G. P. 534 Matsuhisa. 452 Mehregany.. 20. 159 March. J.... W. 308 Olgac. A.. P. P. I. M. J. O. A. 20. 337 Moustakas. W.. 20. 19.. 405 Mangasarian. 159 Meng. 451 Nakao. 452 Owen.. 451 Macchia.. T. G.. 452 McKee.. 19. T. 248 Mogami. 159. R.. 408 Perry. H. D. A.. 486 Peterson. D.. S. I. 17... R. 248 Plesset. A... 97 Lyon.. J.. H. T. B. 18 Newcomb. M. I19 Poon... 404. A.. 248 Mason.. S. J. 19 Nguyen. J. 308 Mitchell. 21 Noda. R. 421 Matthews.Author Index 54 I Lund.. P. A.. C. A. 406 Palazzi. 249 Okamura.. N. Y.. 54 Petersohn.. 421 Meijers. A. M.. 18.. 98 O’Conner. 487 Poon. 534 Ocvrik. E. A. K. 421 Nakai. 246. D.. 421 Mura. 0.. G.. M. 20 Ozisik. L.. 407 Nakayama. 534 Miranda. J. E.. W. K.. J. 247 McKee.. 248 Oding.. L. A. 249 Misharin. 247 Othman.. 407 Nowotny. P.. 308 Mort. J. 98.. V.. K. V. O. S. 451 Matsuura.. M... 0. 250.. I. 486 Mullen.. 54 Nagarkar. Y. 119 Osmer. F. 247 Lundberg. A. 247 MacCurdy. N.. T. 409 Mindlin. 409... 118 Orcutt.. 119 Ollerton. J. 307 Pao. K. T. M.. 54 Maugis. S. L. 20. K. R. W. P.. C. 408 Palmgren.. S. 406 Newman.. 17 Phillipoff.
G.. 53 Rosenberg. H. J.. T. 404 Stevens. H. R. 250 Ronkainen.. 55 Sokoloff. 17. A... 452... 452 Sharma. A. 159. E.... 410 Sato.. 337 Rowland.. 408 Solaja. B... 18. 246 Rhee... A. 487 Schneider. L.. 337 Suzuki. 20. 534... 486 Rosen. U. P. N. 486 Sirivat. R. S.. 158 Sanborn. R. W.. A. F.. 485 Sheu. S.. B. 410 Radin. T. E. A.. E.... 408. P. 308 Sata. 336 Soto. J. 250 Rabinowicz. 487 Sternlicht. 406 Stafford. 119 Rao. E.. 409 Rehbinder. T. 119 Skelton. L. 486 Sankar.. 159.. 247 Saka. C. B. T.. 119 Sasaki. 421 Shkurenko.. 120 Skorecki. 406 Saibel.. S. 486. 308. K. 18. N. 18 Stafford.. 98 Redhler. M. 533. S. T. K.. S. 250. V. V. 18.. J. 405 Raimondi.. 159 Sakurai.... L. D. 160. C. 119 Spear. 120 Rao. 421 . 534 Sibley. K. 54. 421 Shalkey. H. 160. 409 Seireg. 406. W.. M. S. I.. J. K. 408 Schintlmeister. D. 250 Rakhit. 451 Savchenko.... N. A. R. A. A. M. 159 Sander.. N.. K. A. M. J. M. A. 406 Rajagopal.. 405 Rusnak. A. I. I. P. 408 Radzimovsky. L. N. M. S.. J. 18 Shaw. 451 Sliter. M. 250 Sisson. F.. 120 Rashid.. T. 487 Suh. J. 119. 118 Someya. 309 Shibata. 405. J. D. S. 308. K. 307. 408 Singh.. 248. 404 Simon. D. H. 452 Sorenson. 248 Soom... D. H. 249. R... A.. 405 Reynolds.. C. S. J. C. 535 Senturia. 486 Ratwani.542 Author Index Poulter. 421 Schwartz. 408 Shu. 407 Sneddon. 486 Spurgeon. 410. E. C.410 Suzuki. S. J. 158.. 17. T.. 250 Schultz. T. H.. 98 Scott. 247. 421.. I. D.. J. 408 Row. S.. M. 407 Rettig. 336. 249 Rainbolt. 406 Rieger. M. I 160. 337 Qureshi. 119 Sato.. H.. 17 Strang. C. 336 Styri. 247 Rohde.. H... 19. J. 21... M... S.. M.. 405 Subramanian.. 407 Reigel.. N. 120 Rao. 336 Shareef.. R. 422. 21.. N. 98. 159. I.. K. 410 Seif. A. 158 Saka.. 247 Sherbiney.. 409 SorokoNavitskaya. 247. O. S. S. 17. 406.... 246. N.
160 Trachman. S.. 406 Timtner. 337 Tian. 408 Weiter... 308 Trias. 487 Zienkiewicz. 21. K. H. R... K. 307. H.. 337 Wu. P. S... 533. 99. 248 Weiss. 421 Yu. M. Z. J. V. 409 Tai. P.. 452 Wilson. X. H... C.. A.. 119 Zichichi...... 406 Yoder. C. 451 Thorpe. K.. M. 404 White. H.. I. 120 Tsai. 98 Veenhuizen. K.. N. K.. 20. 118 Taylor. 120. 534 Wardle..... A.. 249 Taylor. L. R. 98. 20.. F. 452 Welch. 421 Wick. 249 Zimmy. E. M. 55 Van Randen. 405 Temlinson. L. G. P. N. R... W. B. 17 Townsend. 159. L... 337 Tevaarwerk. 250 Tabor. Y. 309 Winer. L. D. K. B. P. G. 308. 20 Themistius 1 Thimons. R. S... 159 Wang.. 55 Wallgram. L. 250.. 421 Tao. K. Y. C. E. 159. 406 Westmann.. 160. R. C. 337 Way..... M. G. 337. 307. 53 Wright. 404 Wayason.. J. B. W... O.. T. 249 Whitaker. L. 486 Yeung.. 0. 409 Timoshenko. 119 Waterhouse.. S. S. 17. M. J. R. 452 Szeri. 407 Verma... P. 452 Tomlinson 6 Torii. 487 Widota. A. 119. 118 Taylor.. D. 119 Wilkes. I.. 53 Uchizawa. 487 Walsh. P.. C. 451 Ustinov. B.. 405 Zhang. 21. D. W. 487 Williamson. S. N. 407 Thompson. 17. E. 487 Wang. 451 Yoshimura. J. R. J. 408 Tripp. 19... A. F. 160 Taylor. Z.. 486 Yokoi...248.. C. D. C. 160. 247 Umezawa. 98 Tsai. 119 Zhao... H. 119 Tolstoi. M. C. 421 Uhlig. 119 Xu. 408 Vorovich.. 17 Symmons.. L. 534 Welbourn. C. 535 Wang. A. L. 407 Tlusty. S.... P... G. F. D. B. D. 159 Tower.. 53 Wheeler. J. P. 407 Yura. 336 Wehe. T.. M.. V... R. 250. A. E. S. I. 19 Taraman. A. 118.. E.. S. M. 407 Torti. 18. 421 Zelen. 120 Tobias. A. K. 409.. R. J. 409 Wolfe... 53. M.. 18. 19.Author Index 543 Suzuki. 53 Tu. 409 Ulukan. 98.. G. 409 . Y. N.. S.
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106 contour area. 332 Adhesion. 162 stability. 100 Contact fatigue. 469 Clutches. 3 17 Corrosive wear. 170 Blistering. 334 Chatter vibration. 153 multiple beams. 141 Bearings: automated design. 377 Arc evaporation. 453 Contact : analysis of. 296 Chemical vapor deposition. 349 short. 161 geometry. 165 Sommerfeld. 387 Coating processes. 16I hydrostatic. 162 hydrodynamic. 187 fixed geometry. 361 thermal load sharing. 360 temperature rise. 42 cylindrical bodies. 170 stiffness coefficients. 113 Adhesive wear. 4. 209 whirl. 30 layered. 455. 367 Cavitation wear. 454 of diamond. 34 rough surfaces. 174 design criterion. 2. 106 criterion of. 437 Chemical layer effects. 196 damping coefficients. I6 1 performance.Subject Index Abrasive jets. I72 thermohydrodynamic effects. 166 rolling elements. 105. 3 12 Animal joints. 40 apparent area. 361 wear equations. I I0 rectangular bars. 374 Abrasive wear. 366 thermoelastic analysis. 194 design graphs. 3 10 Brakes. 212 fluid film. 29 general case. 48 real area. 456 Asperity interaction. 333 545 . 135.
135. 333 Friction: in boundary lubrication. 41 1 Microhardness. 320. 4 1 1 static friction. 41 1 Lubrication: boundary. 4 14 Microslip. 33 1 Diffusivity. 376 Frosting. 272 transition coefficient. 270 experimental evaluation. rigid cylinders 252 Hysteresis. 7. 41 1 Microroller bearings. 1 17 Microcutting. 319. 504 Layered contacts. 31 Elastohydrodynamic film thickness. 260 in elastohydrodynamic lubrication. 533 Isoviscous analysis. 343 contact stress. 347 wear avoidance. 497 Intergranular cracks. 14. 344 oil film temperature. 135 LIGA process. 6 in micromechanisms. 256259 empirical formulas. 276. 423 in gears. 432 Frictional resistance in soil. 150 Electron beam gun evaporation. 456 Erosive wear. 417 Micromotors. 1 laws. 14 fluid film. 4. 312 Gears: allowable oil sink temperature. 266 rolling. 341 oil film thickness. 30 1 Frictional noise. 441 . 326 Microfabrication.546 Subject Index Creep. 348 Delamination wear. 343 Heat partition. 41 1 Microcracks. 304 procedure for calculation. 124 Hydrodynamic equations. 9 thermohydrodynamic. 142. 300 regimes. 347 dedendum wear. 345 [Gears] lubrication factor. 348 instantaneous temperature rise. 4 numerical results. 123. 9 elastohydrodynamic. 30 1 mechanisms of. 9 historical overview. 223 Kinetic coefficient of friction. 418 Impulsive loading. 12. 414. 342 stressed zone. 61. 324 Negative slope. 412 rolling friction. 153 Layered solids. 271 unlayered surfaces. 13 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). 264 in fluid film lubrication. 135. 335 Flaking. 31 1 Fretting corrosion. 1 17. 280 domains of. 7 coating effects. 161 Hydrodynamic lubrication. 5 layered surfaces. 507. 62 Mutual overlap. 271 in thermal regime. 3 10 Galling. 321 Micromechanisms. 33 1 Elastic foundation. 8. 56. 4. 512 Dedendum wear. 412. 158 Heat penetration. 348 surface failure. beams on. 339 thermal shock.
473. 351 Rolling friction. 400 Reciprocating slider bearings. 325 Surface strength gradients. 485 soft coatings. 90 square area. 165 modified. 3 12 Thermohydrodynamic: analysis with thermal expansion. 76 Vegetable oil. 5 15 Reciprocating sliding motion. 441 Residual compound. 527 Thermal wear. 351 fatigue life. 235 Sinusoidal force excitation. 121 Thermal properties. 339 Plastic wear. 57 different materials. 520 Viscoelastic behavior. 251 Rolling/sliding. 329. 391 temperature rise. 181 Temperature. 129 dimensionless equations. 252. 229 . 232 empirical formula. 236 Penetration depth. 455 Stick slip. 470 hard coatings. 80 circular contact. 209 empirical analysis. 395 wear. 330 Surface damage.Subject Index 547 Nonsynchronous whirl. 315 Positive slope. 8688. 226 Traction distribution: arbitrary geometry. 458 temperature rise. 1 14 Synchronous whirl. 1 15 Surface temperature. 477 thermal stress. 25 1 coating thickness factor. 453 diamond coating. 255 Scoring. 62 force and moment. 68 direction of. 230 effects. 101 Surface shear stress. 387 frictional energy. 317. 118 Peclet number. 354 lightly loaded. 443 Surface coating. 354 minimum film thickness. 357 Rampball clutches. 265 Thermal shock. 339 Surface roughness: effective. 349 contact stress. 182 Oxide films. 279 elastohydrodynamic. 142 Surface waves. 506 Viscosity temperature relationship. 272. 253 hydrodynamic. 353 hollow rollers. 2 16 Viscositytemperature table. 62 center of. 455 Pinondisk tribometer. 237 Sputter ion plating. 25 1 laws of. 441 Radioactive tracing. 9497 elliptical contact. 441 Pitting. 252 film thickness. 339 Selfexcited vibrations. 214 slider bearing. 437 Shear zone. 533 Thermal environment. 100 table of. 520 Rock cutting. 376 Rolling element bearings. distribution 124 Thermal cracks. 466 failure mechanisms. 115 Physical vapor deposition. 73 twisting moment. 254. 482 Surface crack initiation. 460 life improvement. 488 Sommerfeld number. 164. 310. 275 generation of.
3 12 IBM zero wear. 520 Water jet cutting. 333 cost to economy. 317 erosive. 176 Yield in shear. 3 14 [Wear] corrosive. 321 . 372 generalized equations for drilling. 377 of the harder material. 320. 314 Whirl orbits. 333 frictional. 332 cavitation.548 Subject Index Watermiscible cutting fluid. 334 classification of. 33 1 due to surface fatigue. 3 1 1 coefficients of. 3 13. 319 in animal joints. 368 generalized cutting equations. 373 Wear: abrasive. 310 delamination.
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