P. 1
Introduction to Metal Casting

Introduction to Metal Casting

|Views: 2,412|Likes:
Published by Vineeth Shankar

More info:

Published by: Vineeth Shankar on Aug 24, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






  • Principle of Metal Casting
  • A Brief History of Metal Casting
  • Key Metals in the Foundry or Metal Casting
  • Key Nonmetals in Metal Casting
  • Key oxides (in the form of ceramics)
  • Classification of Foundries
  • Furnace Types
  • Crucible Furnaces
  • Reverberatory Furnaces
  • Induction Furnaces - Core/Channel or Coreless
  • Open Hearth Furnace
  • Cupola Furnaces
  • Coke Production
  • Blast Oxygen Furnace
  • Argon Oxygen Decarburization Process
  • Conventional Molding - Green Sand
  • Alternative Sands
  • Precision Molding and Casting
  • Investment Casting
  • Properties of Thermal Transfer within a Casting
  • Physical Dimensioning through the Phase Transition
  • Directional Solidification
  • Progressive Solidification
  • Three Stages of Contraction (Shrinkage)
  • In Consideration of Pure Metals
  • Control of the Solidification Rate
  • Solidification Modeling
  • Grain Structure and Growth
  • Porosity Defects
  • EQ#1 - Freeze Point Ratio (FPR)
  • EQ#2 - Volume Ratio (VR) (Y Axis)
  • EQ#4 - (FPR) Steel (from the lecture)
  • Shape #1 - Sphere
  • Shape #2 - Cylinder of Height 12"
  • Shape #3 - Cube of 12"
  • Shape #4 - Cylinder of Height 1"
  • Proper Riser Positioning and Dimensioning
  • On the Subject of Thermal Gradients
  • Exothermic and Insulating Applications
  • Gating / Runner Design
  • Laminar Flow
  • Basic Components of a Gating System
  • Sprue Placement and Parts
  • The Runner System
  • The Gating System
  • Choke : Runner : Gate Ratio(s)
  • Cleaning
  • Destructive & Non-Destructive Inspection
  • Whutz-Up with Sand?
  • Sand Type Verbiage
  • Silica
  • Key Info;
  • Olivine
  • Chromite FeCr2O4
  • Ziron
  • So why all the hype on Thermal Expansion???
  • AFS Grain Fineness Number (gfn) & Grain Distribution
  • Sand Handling
  • Sand Reclamation
  • Mechanical Reclamation Processes
  • Sizes and Shapes of Sands
  • Rounded Sands
  • Angular Sands
  • Sub-Angular Sands
  • Primary Tests
  • Moisture Content
  • Molding Sand Properties Vs Moisture Content
  • Hot Sand Considerations
  • Define: variability-
  • Define: Consistency
  • Define: Quality
  • Dilution Sand
  • Module # 6 - Protein based Binders
  • Temperature
  • ADV - Acid Demand Value
  • Moisture
  • Density
  • Expansion Characteristics
  • Cold-Box No-Bake Heat-Activated
  • Core Oil Binder Molding
  • Shell or Croning Process
  • Hot Box Core Process
  • Warm-Box Core Process
  • Phenolic Urethane/Amine (PUA)
  • Considerations
  • Sodium Silicate/Carbon Dioxide
  • Epoxy Acrylic/Sulfur Dioxide (FRC)
  • Temperature & Humidty
  • The Big-3
  • Furan/Acid System
  • Furan/Acid Binder Classification
  • Typical Material proportions
  • Silicate/Ester Chemical Binder Family
  • Silicate/Ester Resin Composition
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Phenolic Urethane Family

The considerations of temperature and humidity can be even more critical with some of the binder
systems that generate water as a byproduct of the polymerization process. The moisture has to be
evaporated from the core/mold to ensure that the binder is not under-cured and proportionally weaker
as a result.

Similarly any surplus moisture or un-catalyzed solvents may contribute to excessive gassing and
porosity defects in the casting.

As discussed in a previous module, the 10C/18F Rule is applicable... The basic premise is that every
rise in sand/resin temperature of approx 10C/18F cuts the current phase time in half. The ideal
temperature or mid-point from which to work is between 75F & 85F, with a lower limit of approx
50F and an upper limit of approx 110F.

The sand/resin mixture may become too viscous below 50F to flow properly, and the resin will not be
able to properly coat the grains if not pre-coated. Temperatures above 110F tend to evaporate the
solvents within the resin(s), resulting in gummy resin that also does not coat or flow properly.

In an effort to accommodate the temperature requirements of the binder system that a foundry is
using, Sand heaters and/or chiller may be needed to achieve consistent results. As a last resort the
core/mold may be baked in an oven to ensure all moisture and solvents have been evaporated,

curiously I think that this would open the door to litigation on the basis of "False Advertising" if sold
as a "No-Bake" binder system...

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->