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2009
NRL PLASMA FORMULARY
J.D. Huba
Beam Physics Branch
Plasma Physics Division
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, DC 20375
Supported by
The Oﬃce of Naval Research
1
CONTENTS
Numerical and Algebraic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Diﬀerential Operators in Curvilinear Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Dimensions and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
International System (SI) Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Metric Preﬁxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Physical Constants (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Physical Constants (cgs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Formula Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Electricity and Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Electromagnetic Frequency/Wavelength Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Fundamental Plasma Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Plasma Dispersion Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Collisions and Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Approximate Magnitudes in Some Typical Plasmas . . . . . . . . . . 40
Ionospheric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Solar Physics Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Thermonuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Relativistic Electron Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Beam Instabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Atomic Physics and Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Atomic Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Complex (Dusty) Plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Afterword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2
NUMERICAL AND ALGEBRAIC
Gain in decibels of P
2
relative to P
1
G = 10 log
10
(P
2
/P
1
).
To within two percent
(2π)
1/2
≈ 2.5; π
2
≈ 10; e
3
≈ 20; 2
10
≈ 10
3
.
EulerMascheroni constant
1
γ = 0.57722
Gamma Function Γ(x + 1) = xΓ(x):
Γ(1/6) = 5.5663 Γ(3/5) = 1.4892
Γ(1/5) = 4.5908 Γ(2/3) = 1.3541
Γ(1/4) = 3.6256 Γ(3/4) = 1.2254
Γ(1/3) = 2.6789 Γ(4/5) = 1.1642
Γ(2/5) = 2.2182 Γ(5/6) = 1.1288
Γ(1/2) = 1.7725 =
√
π Γ(1) = 1.0
Binomial Theorem (good for  x < 1 or α = positive integer):
(1 +x)
α
=
∞
k=0
_
α
k
_
x
k
≡ 1 +αx +
α(α −1)
2!
x
2
+
α(α −1)(α −2)
3!
x
3
+ . . . .
RotheHagen identity
2
(good for all complex x, y, z except when singular):
n
k=0
x
x + kz
_
x +kz
k
_
y
y + (n −k)z
_
y + (n −k)z
n −k
_
=
x +y
x +y +nz
_
x +y +nz
n
_
.
Newberger’s summation formula
3
[good for µ nonintegral, Re (α +β) > −1]:
∞
n=−∞
(−1)
n
J
α−γn
(z)J
β+γn
(z)
n +µ
=
π
sin µπ
J
α+γµ
(z)J
β−γµ
(z).
3
VECTOR IDENTITIES
4
Notation: f, g, are scalars; A, B, etc., are vectors; T is a tensor; I is the unit
dyad.
(1) A· B×C = A×B· C = B· C×A = B×C· A = C· A×B = C×A· B
(2) A×(B×C) = (C×B) ×A = (A· C)B−(A· B)C
(3) A×(B×C) +B×(C×A) +C×(A×B) = 0
(4) (A×B) · (C×D) = (A· C)(B· D) −(A· D)(B· C)
(5) (A×B) ×(C×D) = (A×B· D)C−(A×B· C)D
(6) ∇(fg) = ∇(gf) = f∇g +g∇f
(7) ∇· (fA) = f∇· A+ A· ∇f
(8) ∇×(fA) = f∇×A+∇f ×A
(9) ∇· (A×B) = B· ∇×A−A· ∇×B
(10) ∇×(A×B) = A(∇· B) −B(∇· A) + (B· ∇)A−(A· ∇)B
(11) A×(∇×B) = (∇B) · A−(A· ∇)B
(12) ∇(A· B) = A×(∇×B) +B×(∇×A) + (A· ∇)B+ (B· ∇)A
(13) ∇
2
f = ∇· ∇f
(14) ∇
2
A = ∇(∇· A) −∇×∇×A
(15) ∇×∇f = 0
(16) ∇· ∇×A = 0
If e
1
, e
2
, e
3
are orthonormal unit vectors, a secondorder tensor T can be
written in the dyadic form
(17) T =
i,j
T
ij
e
i
e
j
In cartesian coordinates the divergence of a tensor is a vector with components
(18) (∇·T)
i
=
j
(∂T
ji
/∂x
j
)
[This deﬁnition is required for consistency with Eq. (29)]. In general
(19) ∇· (AB) = (∇· A)B+ (A· ∇)B
(20) ∇· (fT) = ∇f·T+f∇·T
4
grad
Let r = ix + jy + kz be the radius vector of magnitude r, from the origin to
the point x, y, z. Then
(21) ∇· r = 3
(22) ∇×r = 0
(23) ∇r = r/r
(24) ∇(1/r) = −r/r
3
(25) ∇· (r/r
3
) = 4πδ(r)
(26) ∇r = I
If V is a volume enclosed by a surface S and dS = ndS, where n is the unit
normal outward from V,
(27)
_
V
dV ∇f =
_
S
dSf
(28)
_
V
dV ∇· A =
_
S
dS · A
(29)
_
V
dV ∇·T =
_
S
dS·T
(30)
_
V
dV ∇×A =
_
S
dS ×A
(31)
_
V
dV (f∇
2
g −g∇
2
f) =
_
S
dS · (f∇g −g∇f)
(32)
_
V
dV (A· ∇×∇×B−B· ∇×∇×A)
=
_
S
dS · (B×∇×A−A×∇×B)
If S is an open surface bounded by the contour C, of which the line element is
dl,
(33)
_
S
dS ×∇f =
_
C
dlf
5
(34)
_
S
dS · ∇×A =
_
C
dl · A
(35)
_
S
(dS ×∇) ×A =
_
C
dl ×A
(36)
_
S
dS · (∇f ×∇g) =
_
C
fdg = −
_
C
gdf
DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN
CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
5
Cylindrical Coordinates
Divergence
∇· A =
1
r
∂
∂r
(rA
r
) +
1
r
∂A
φ
∂φ
+
∂A
z
∂z
Gradient
(∇f)
r
=
∂f
∂r
; (∇f)
φ
=
1
r
∂f
∂φ
; (∇f)
z
=
∂f
∂z
Curl
(∇×A)
r
=
1
r
∂A
z
∂φ
−
∂A
φ
∂z
(∇×A)
φ
=
∂A
r
∂z
−
∂A
z
∂r
(∇×A)
z
=
1
r
∂
∂r
(rA
φ
) −
1
r
∂A
r
∂φ
Laplacian
∇
2
f =
1
r
∂
∂r
_
r
∂f
∂r
_
+
1
r
2
∂
2
f
∂φ
2
+
∂
2
f
∂z
2
6
Laplacian of a vector
(∇
2
A)
r
= ∇
2
A
r
−
2
r
2
∂A
φ
∂φ
−
A
r
r
2
(∇
2
A)
φ
= ∇
2
A
φ
+
2
r
2
∂A
r
∂φ
−
A
φ
r
2
(∇
2
A)
z
= ∇
2
A
z
Components of (A· ∇)B
(A· ∇B)
r
= A
r
∂B
r
∂r
+
A
φ
r
∂B
r
∂φ
+ A
z
∂B
r
∂z
−
A
φ
B
φ
r
(A· ∇B)
φ
= A
r
∂B
φ
∂r
+
A
φ
r
∂B
φ
∂φ
+A
z
∂B
φ
∂z
+
A
φ
B
r
r
(A· ∇B)
z
= A
r
∂B
z
∂r
+
A
φ
r
∂B
z
∂φ
+A
z
∂B
z
∂z
Divergence of a tensor
(∇· T)
r
=
1
r
∂
∂r
(rT
rr
) +
1
r
∂T
φr
∂φ
+
∂T
zr
∂z
−
T
φφ
r
(∇· T)
φ
=
1
r
∂
∂r
(rT
rφ
) +
1
r
∂T
φφ
∂φ
+
∂T
zφ
∂z
+
T
φr
r
(∇· T)
z
=
1
r
∂
∂r
(rT
rz
) +
1
r
∂T
φz
∂φ
+
∂T
zz
∂z
7
Spherical Coordinates
Divergence
∇· A =
1
r
2
∂
∂r
(r
2
A
r
) +
1
r sin θ
∂
∂θ
(sin θA
θ
) +
1
r sin θ
∂A
φ
∂φ
Gradient
(∇f)
r
=
∂f
∂r
; (∇f)
θ
=
1
r
∂f
∂θ
; (∇f)
φ
=
1
r sin θ
∂f
∂φ
Curl
(∇×A)
r
=
1
r sin θ
∂
∂θ
(sin θA
φ
) −
1
r sin θ
∂A
θ
∂φ
(∇×A)
θ
=
1
r sin θ
∂A
r
∂φ
−
1
r
∂
∂r
(rA
φ
)
(∇×A)
φ
=
1
r
∂
∂r
(rA
θ
) −
1
r
∂A
r
∂θ
Laplacian
∇
2
f =
1
r
2
∂
∂r
_
r
2
∂f
∂r
_
+
1
r
2
sin θ
∂
∂θ
_
sin θ
∂f
∂θ
_
+
1
r
2
sin
2
θ
∂
2
f
∂φ
2
Laplacian of a vector
(∇
2
A)
r
= ∇
2
A
r
−
2A
r
r
2
−
2
r
2
∂A
θ
∂θ
−
2 cot θA
θ
r
2
−
2
r
2
sin θ
∂A
φ
∂φ
(∇
2
A)
θ
= ∇
2
A
θ
+
2
r
2
∂A
r
∂θ
−
A
θ
r
2
sin
2
θ
−
2 cos θ
r
2
sin
2
θ
∂A
φ
∂φ
(∇
2
A)
φ
= ∇
2
A
φ
−
A
φ
r
2
sin
2
θ
+
2
r
2
sin θ
∂A
r
∂φ
+
2 cos θ
r
2
sin
2
θ
∂A
θ
∂φ
8
Components of (A· ∇)B
(A· ∇B)
r
= A
r
∂B
r
∂r
+
A
θ
r
∂B
r
∂θ
+
A
φ
r sin θ
∂B
r
∂φ
−
A
θ
B
θ
+ A
φ
B
φ
r
(A· ∇B)
θ
= A
r
∂B
θ
∂r
+
A
θ
r
∂B
θ
∂θ
+
A
φ
r sin θ
∂B
θ
∂φ
+
A
θ
B
r
r
−
cot θA
φ
B
φ
r
(A· ∇B)
φ
= A
r
∂B
φ
∂r
+
A
θ
r
∂B
φ
∂θ
+
A
φ
r sin θ
∂B
φ
∂φ
+
A
φ
B
r
r
+
cot θA
φ
B
θ
r
Divergence of a tensor
(∇· T)
r
=
1
r
2
∂
∂r
(r
2
T
rr
) +
1
r sin θ
∂
∂θ
(sin θT
θr
)
+
1
r sin θ
∂T
φr
∂φ
−
T
θθ
+T
φφ
r
(∇· T)
θ
=
1
r
2
∂
∂r
(r
2
T
rθ
) +
1
r sin θ
∂
∂θ
(sin θT
θθ
)
+
1
r sin θ
∂T
φθ
∂φ
+
T
θr
r
−
cot θT
φφ
r
(∇· T)
φ
=
1
r
2
∂
∂r
(r
2
T
rφ
) +
1
r sin θ
∂
∂θ
(sin θT
θφ
)
+
1
r sin θ
∂T
φφ
∂φ
+
T
φr
r
+
cot θT
φθ
r
9
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
To get the value of a quantity in Gaussian units, multiply the value ex
pressed in SI units by the conversion factor. Multiples of 3 in the conversion
factors result from approximating the speed of light c = 2.9979 ×10
10
cm/sec
≈ 3 ×10
10
cm/sec.
Dimensions
Physical Sym SI Conversion Gaussian
Quantity bol SI Gaussian Units Factor Units
Capacitance C
t
2
q
2
ml
2
l farad 9 ×10
11
cm
Charge q q
m
1/2
l
3/2
t
coulomb 3 ×10
9
statcoulomb
Charge ρ
q
l
3
m
1/2
l
3/2
t
coulomb 3 ×10
3
statcoulomb
density /m
3
/cm
3
Conductance
tq
2
ml
2
l
t
siemens 9 ×10
11
cm/sec
Conductivity σ
tq
2
ml
3
1
t
siemens 9 ×10
9
sec
−1
/m
Current I, i
q
t
m
1/2
l
3/2
t
2
ampere 3 ×10
9
statampere
Current J, j
q
l
2
t
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
2
ampere 3 ×10
5
statampere
density /m
2
/cm
2
Density ρ
m
l
3
m
l
3
kg/m
3
10
−3
g/cm
3
Displacement D
q
l
2
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
coulomb 12π ×10
5
statcoulomb
/m
2
/cm
2
Electric ﬁeld E
ml
t
2
q
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
volt/m
1
3
×10
−4
statvolt/cm
Electro E,
ml
2
t
2
q
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
volt
1
3
×10
−2
statvolt
motance Emf
Energy U, W
ml
2
t
2
ml
2
t
2
joule 10
7
erg
Energy w, ǫ
m
lt
2
m
lt
2
joule/m
3
10 erg/cm
3
density
10
Dimensions
Physical Sym SI Conversion Gaussian
Quantity bol SI Gaussian Units Factor Units
Force F
ml
t
2
ml
t
2
newton 10
5
dyne
Frequency f, ν
1
t
1
t
hertz 1 hertz
Impedance Z
ml
2
tq
2
t
l
ohm
1
9
×10
−11
sec/cm
Inductance L
ml
2
q
2
t
2
l
henry
1
9
×10
−11
sec
2
/cm
Length l l l meter (m) 10
2
centimeter
(cm)
Magnetic H
q
lt
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
ampere– 4π ×10
−3
oersted
intensity turn/m
Magnetic ﬂux Φ
ml
2
tq
m
1/2
l
3/2
t
weber 10
8
maxwell
Magnetic B
m
tq
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
tesla 10
4
gauss
induction
Magnetic m, µ
l
2
q
t
m
1/2
l
5/2
t
ampere–m
2
10
3
oersted–
moment cm
3
Magnetization M
q
lt
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
ampere– 4π ×10
−3
oersted
turn/m
Magneto M,
q
t
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
2
ampere–
4π
10
gilbert
motance Mmf turn
Mass m, M m m kilogram 10
3
gram (g)
(kg)
Momentum p, P
ml
t
ml
t
kg–m/s 10
5
g–cm/sec
Momentum
m
l
2
t
m
l
2
t
kg/m
2
–s 10
−1
g/cm
2
–sec
density
Permeability µ
ml
q
2
1 henry/m
1
4π
×10
7
—
11
Dimensions
Physical Sym SI Conversion Gaussian
Quantity bol SI Gaussian Units Factor Units
Permittivity ǫ
t
2
q
2
ml
3
1 farad/m 36π ×10
9
—
Polarization P
q
l
2
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
coulomb/m
2
3 ×10
5
statcoulomb
/cm
2
Potential V, φ
ml
2
t
2
q
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
volt
1
3
×10
−2
statvolt
Power P
ml
2
t
3
ml
2
t
3
watt 10
7
erg/sec
Power
m
lt
3
m
lt
3
watt/m
3
10 erg/cm
3
–sec
density
Pressure p, P
m
lt
2
m
lt
2
pascal 10 dyne/cm
2
Reluctance R
q
2
ml
2
1
l
ampere–turn 4π ×10
−9
cm
−1
/weber
Resistance R
ml
2
tq
2
t
l
ohm
1
9
×10
−11
sec/cm
Resistivity η, ρ
ml
3
tq
2
t ohm–m
1
9
×10
−9
sec
Thermal con κ, k
ml
t
3
ml
t
3
watt/m– 10
5
erg/cm–sec–
ductivity deg (K) deg (K)
Time t t t second (s) 1 second (sec)
Vector A
ml
tq
m
1/2
l
1/2
t
weber/m 10
6
gauss–cm
potential
Velocity v
l
t
l
t
m/s 10
2
cm/sec
Viscosity η, µ
m
lt
m
lt
kg/m–s 10 poise
Vorticity ζ
1
t
1
t
s
−1
1 sec
−1
Work W
ml
2
t
2
ml
2
t
2
joule 10
7
erg
12
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM (SI) NOMENCLATURE
6
Physical Name Symbol Physical Name Symbol
Quantity of Unit for Unit Quantity of Unit for Unit
*length meter m electric volt V
potential
*mass kilogram kg
electric ohm Ω
*time second s resistance
*current ampere A electric siemens S
conductance
*temperature kelvin K
electric farad F
*amount of mole mol capacitance
substance
magnetic ﬂux weber Wb
*luminous candela cd
intensity magnetic henry H
inductance
†plane angle radian rad
magnetic tesla T
†solid angle steradian sr intensity
frequency hertz Hz luminous ﬂux lumen lm
energy joule J illuminance lux lx
force newton N activity (of a becquerel Bq
radioactive
pressure pascal Pa source)
power watt W absorbed dose gray Gy
(of ionizing
electric charge coulomb C radiation)
*SI base unit †Supplementary unit
METRIC PREFIXES
Multiple Preﬁx Symbol Multiple Preﬁx Symbol
10
−1
deci d 10 deca da
10
−2
centi c 10
2
hecto h
10
−3
milli m 10
3
kilo k
10
−6
micro µ 10
6
mega M
10
−9
nano n 10
9
giga G
10
−12
pico p 10
12
tera T
10
−15
femto f 10
15
peta P
10
−18
atto a 10
18
exa E
13
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (SI)
7
Physical Quantity Symbol Value Units
Boltzmann constant k 1.3807 ×10
−23
J K
−1
Elementary charge e 1.6022 ×10
−19
C
Electron mass m
e
9.1094 ×10
−31
kg
Proton mass m
p
1.6726 ×10
−27
kg
Gravitational constant G 6.6726 ×10
−11
m
3
s
−2
kg
−1
Planck constant h 6.6261 ×10
−34
J s
¯ h = h/2π 1.0546 ×10
−34
J s
Speed of light in vacuum c 2.9979 ×10
8
ms
−1
Permittivity of ǫ
0
8.8542 ×10
−12
Fm
−1
free space
Permeability of µ
0
4π ×10
−7
Hm
−1
free space
Proton/electron mass m
p
/m
e
1.8362 ×10
3
ratio
Electron charge/mass e/m
e
1.7588 ×10
11
Ckg
−1
ratio
Rydberg constant R
∞
=
me
4
8ǫ
0
2
ch
3
1.0974 ×10
7
m
−1
Bohr radius a
0
= ǫ
0
h
2
/πme
2
5.2918 ×10
−11
m
Atomic cross section πa
0
2
8.7974 ×10
−21
m
2
Classical electron radius r
e
= e
2
/4πǫ
0
mc
2
2.8179 ×10
−15
m
Thomson cross section (8π/3)r
e
2
6.6525 ×10
−29
m
2
Compton wavelength of h/m
e
c 2.4263 ×10
−12
m
electron ¯ h/m
e
c 3.8616 ×10
−13
m
Finestructure constant α = e
2
/2ǫ
0
hc 7.2974 ×10
−3
α
−1
137.04
First radiation constant c
1
= 2πhc
2
3.7418 ×10
−16
Wm
2
Second radiation c
2
= hc/k 1.4388 ×10
−2
mK
constant
StefanBoltzmann σ 5.6705 ×10
−8
Wm
−2
K
−4
constant
14
Physical Quantity Symbol Value Units
Wavelength associated λ
0
= hc/e 1.2398 ×10
−6
m
with 1 eV
Frequency associated ν
0
= e/h 2.4180 ×10
14
Hz
with 1 eV
Wave number associated k
0
= e/hc 8.0655 ×10
5
m
−1
with 1 eV
Energy associated with hν
0
1.6022 ×10
−19
J
1 eV
Energy associated with hc 1.9864 ×10
−25
J
1 m
−1
Energy associated with me
3
/8ǫ
0
2
h
2
13.606 eV
1 Rydberg
Energy associated with k/e 8.6174 ×10
−5
eV
1 Kelvin
Temperature associated e/k 1.1604 ×10
4
K
with 1 eV
Avogadro number N
A
6.0221 ×10
23
mol
−1
Faraday constant F = N
A
e 9.6485 ×10
4
Cmol
−1
Gas constant R = N
A
k 8.3145 J K
−1
mol
−1
Loschmidt’s number n
0
2.6868 ×10
25
m
−3
(no. density at STP)
Atomic mass unit m
u
1.6605 ×10
−27
kg
Standard temperature T
0
273.15 K
Atmospheric pressure p
0
= n
0
kT
0
1.0133 ×10
5
Pa
Pressure of 1 mm Hg 1.3332 ×10
2
Pa
(1 torr)
Molar volume at STP V
0
= RT
0
/p
0
2.2414 ×10
−2
m
3
Molar weight of air M
air
2.8971 ×10
−2
kg
calorie (cal) 4.1868 J
Gravitational g 9.8067 ms
−2
acceleration
15
PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (cgs)
7
Physical Quantity Symbol Value Units
Boltzmann constant k 1.3807 ×10
−16
erg/deg (K)
Elementary charge e 4.8032 ×10
−10
statcoulomb
(statcoul)
Electron mass m
e
9.1094 ×10
−28
g
Proton mass m
p
1.6726 ×10
−24
g
Gravitational constant G 6.6726 ×10
−8
dynecm
2
/g
2
Planck constant h 6.6261 ×10
−27
ergsec
¯ h = h/2π 1.0546 ×10
−27
ergsec
Speed of light in vacuum c 2.9979 ×10
10
cm/sec
Proton/electron mass m
p
/m
e
1.8362 ×10
3
ratio
Electron charge/mass e/m
e
5.2728 ×10
17
statcoul/g
ratio
Rydberg constant R
∞
=
2π
2
me
4
ch
3
1.0974 ×10
5
cm
−1
Bohr radius a
0
= ¯ h
2
/me
2
5.2918 ×10
−9
cm
Atomic cross section πa
0
2
8.7974 ×10
−17
cm
2
Classical electron radius r
e
= e
2
/mc
2
2.8179 ×10
−13
cm
Thomson cross section (8π/3)r
e
2
6.6525 ×10
−25
cm
2
Compton wavelength of h/m
e
c 2.4263 ×10
−10
cm
electron ¯ h/m
e
c 3.8616 ×10
−11
cm
Finestructure constant α = e
2
/¯ hc 7.2974 ×10
−3
α
−1
137.04
First radiation constant c
1
= 2πhc
2
3.7418 ×10
−5
ergcm
2
/sec
Second radiation c
2
= hc/k 1.4388 cmdeg (K)
constant
StefanBoltzmann σ 5.6705 ×10
−5
erg/cm
2

constant secdeg
4
Wavelength associated λ
0
1.2398 ×10
−4
cm
with 1 eV
16
Physical Quantity Symbol Value Units
Frequency associated ν
0
2.4180 ×10
14
Hz
with 1 eV
Wave number associated k
0
8.0655 ×10
3
cm
−1
with 1 eV
Energy associated with 1.6022 ×10
−12
erg
1 eV
Energy associated with 1.9864 ×10
−16
erg
1 cm
−1
Energy associated with 13.606 eV
1 Rydberg
Energy associated with 8.6174 ×10
−5
eV
1 deg Kelvin
Temperature associated 1.1604 ×10
4
deg (K)
with 1 eV
Avogadro number N
A
6.0221 ×10
23
mol
−1
Faraday constant F = N
A
e 2.8925 ×10
14
statcoul/mol
Gas constant R = N
A
k 8.3145 ×10
7
erg/degmol
Loschmidt’s number n
0
2.6868 ×10
19
cm
−3
(no. density at STP)
Atomic mass unit m
u
1.6605 ×10
−24
g
Standard temperature T
0
273.15 deg (K)
Atmospheric pressure p
0
= n
0
kT
0
1.0133 ×10
6
dyne/cm
2
Pressure of 1 mm Hg 1.3332 ×10
3
dyne/cm
2
(1 torr)
Molar volume at STP V
0
= RT
0
/p
0
2.2414 ×10
4
cm
3
Molar weight of air M
air
28.971 g
calorie (cal) 4.1868 ×10
7
erg
Gravitational g 980.67 cm/sec
2
acceleration
17
FORMULA CONVERSION
8
Here α = 10
2
cmm
−1
, β = 10
7
erg J
−1
, ǫ
0
= 8.8542 × 10
−12
Fm
−1
,
µ
0
= 4π×10
−7
Hm
−1
, c = (ǫ
0
µ
0
)
−1/2
= 2.9979×10
8
ms
−1
, and ¯ h = 1.0546×
10
−34
J s. To derive a dimensionally correct SI formula from one expressed in
Gaussian units, substitute for each quantity according to
¯
Q =
¯
kQ, where
¯
k is
the coeﬃcient in the second column of the table corresponding to Q (overbars
denote variables expressed in Gaussian units). Thus, the formula ¯ a
0
=
¯
¯ h
2
/ ¯ m¯ e
2
for the Bohr radius becomes αa
0
= (¯ hβ)
2
/[(mβ/α
2
)(e
2
αβ/4πǫ
0
)], or a
0
=
ǫ
0
h
2
/πme
2
. To go from SI to natural units in which ¯ h = c = 1 (distinguished
by a circumﬂex), use Q =
ˆ
k
−1
ˆ
Q, where
ˆ
k is the coeﬃcient corresponding to
Q in the third column. Thus ˆ a
0
= 4πǫ
0
¯ h
2
/[( ˆ m¯ h/c)(ˆ e
2
ǫ
0
¯ hc)] = 4π/ ˆ mˆ e
2
. (In
transforming from SI units, do not substitute for ǫ
0
, µ
0
, or c.)
Physical Quantity Gaussian Units to SI Natural Units to SI
Capacitance α/4πǫ
0
ǫ
0
−1
Charge (αβ/4πǫ
0
)
1/2
(ǫ
0
¯ hc)
−1/2
Charge density (β/4πα
5
ǫ
0
)
1/2
(ǫ
0
¯ hc)
−1/2
Current (αβ/4πǫ
0
)
1/2
(µ
0
/¯ hc)
1/2
Current density (β/4πα
3
ǫ
0
)
1/2
(µ
0
/¯ hc)
1/2
Electric ﬁeld (4πβǫ
0
/α
3
)
1/2
(ǫ
0
/¯ hc)
1/2
Electric potential (4πβǫ
0
/α)
1/2
(ǫ
0
/¯ hc)
1/2
Electric conductivity (4πǫ
0
)
−1
ǫ
0
−1
Energy β (¯ hc)
−1
Energy density β/α
3
(¯ hc)
−1
Force β/α (¯ hc)
−1
Frequency 1 c
−1
Inductance 4πǫ
0
/α µ
0
−1
Length α 1
Magnetic induction (4πβ/α
3
µ
0
)
1/2
(µ
0
¯ hc)
−1/2
Magnetic intensity (4πµ
0
β/α
3
)
1/2
(µ
0
/¯ hc)
1/2
Mass β/α
2
c/¯ h
Momentum β/α ¯ h
−1
Power β (¯ hc
2
)
−1
Pressure β/α
3
(¯ hc)
−1
Resistance 4πǫ
0
/α (ǫ
0
/µ
0
)
1/2
Time 1 c
Velocity α c
−1
18
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
Name or Description SI Gaussian
Faraday’s law ∇×E = −
∂B
∂t
∇×E = −
1
c
∂B
∂t
Ampere’s law ∇×H =
∂D
∂t
+J ∇×H =
1
c
∂D
∂t
+
4π
c
J
Poisson equation ∇· D = ρ ∇· D = 4πρ
[Absence of magnetic ∇· B = 0 ∇· B = 0
monopoles]
Lorentz force on q (E +v ×B) q
_
E +
1
c
v ×B
_
charge q
Constitutive D = ǫE D = ǫE
relations B = µH B = µH
In a plasma, µ ≈ µ
0
= 4π × 10
−7
Hm
−1
(Gaussian units: µ ≈ 1). The
permittivity satisﬁes ǫ ≈ ǫ
0
= 8.8542 × 10
−12
Fm
−1
(Gaussian: ǫ ≈ 1)
provided that all charge is regarded as free. Using the drift approximation
v
⊥
= E×B/B
2
to calculate polarization charge density gives rise to a dielec
tric constant K ≡ ǫ/ǫ
0
= 1+36π×10
9
ρ/B
2
(SI) = 1+4πρc
2
/B
2
(Gaussian),
where ρ is the mass density.
The electromagnetic energy in volume V is given by
W =
1
2
_
V
dV (H· B+E · D) (SI)
=
1
8π
_
V
dV (H· B+ E · D) (Gaussian).
Poynting’s theorem is
∂W
∂t
+
_
S
N· dS = −
_
V
dV J · E,
where S is the closed surface bounding V and the Poynting vector (energy ﬂux
across S) is given by N = E ×H (SI) or N = cE ×H/4π (Gaussian).
19
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
In the following, ǫ = dielectric permittivity, µ = permeability of conduc
tor, µ
′
= permeability of surrounding medium, σ = conductivity, f = ω/2π =
radiation frequency, κ
m
= µ/µ
0
and κ
e
= ǫ/ǫ
0
. Where subscripts are used,
‘1’ denotes a conducting medium and ‘2’ a propagating (lossless dielectric)
medium. All units are SI unless otherwise speciﬁed.
Permittivity of free space ǫ
0
= 8.8542 ×10
−12
Fm
−1
Permeability of free space µ
0
= 4π ×10
−7
Hm
−1
= 1.2566 ×10
−6
Hm
−1
Resistance of free space R
0
= (µ
0
/ǫ
0
)
1/2
= 376.73 Ω
Capacity of parallel plates of area C = ǫA/d
A, separated by distance d
Capacity of concentric cylinders C = 2πǫl/ ln(b/a)
of length l, radii a, b
Capacity of concentric spheres of C = 4πǫab/(b −a)
radii a, b
Selfinductance of wire of length L = µl/8π
l, carrying uniform current
Mutual inductance of parallel wires L = (µ
′
l/4π) [1 + 4 ln(d/a)]
of length l, radius a, separated
by distance d
Inductance of circular loop of radius L = b
_
µ
′
[ln(8b/a) −2] +µ/4
_
b, made of wire of radius a,
carrying uniform current
Relaxation time in a lossy medium τ = ǫ/σ
Skin depth in a lossy medium δ = (2/ωµσ)
1/2
= (πfµσ)
−1/2
Wave impedance in a lossy medium Z = [µ/(ǫ + iσ/ω)]
1/2
Transmission coeﬃcient at T = 4.22 ×10
−4
(fκ
m1
κ
e2
/σ)
1/2
conducting surface
9
(good only for T ≪1)
Field at distance r from straight wire B
θ
= µI/2πr tesla
carrying current I (amperes) = 0.2I/r gauss (r in cm)
Field at distance z along axis from B
z
= µa
2
I/[2(a
2
+z
2
)
3/2
]
circular loop of radius a
carrying current I
20
ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY/
WAVELENGTH BANDS
10
Frequency Range Wavelength Range
Designation
Lower Upper Lower Upper
ULF* 30 Hz 10 Mm
VF* 30 Hz 300 Hz 1 Mm 10 Mm
ELF 300 Hz 3 kHz 100 km 1 Mm
VLF 3 kHz 30 kHz 10 km 100 km
LF 30 kHz 300 kHz 1 km 10 km
MF 300 kHz 3 MHz 100 m 1 km
HF 3 MHz 30 MHz 10 m 100 m
VHF 30 MHz 300 MHz 1 m 10 m
UHF 300 MHz 3 GHz 10 cm 1 m
SHF† 3 GHz 30 GHz 1 cm 10 cm
S 2.6 3.95 7.6 11.5
G 3.95 5.85 5.1 7.6
J 5.3 8.2 3.7 5.7
H 7.05 10.0 3.0 4.25
X 8.2 12.4 2.4 3.7
M 10.0 15.0 2.0 3.0
P 12.4 18.0 1.67 2.4
K 18.0 26.5 1.1 1.67
R 26.5 40.0 0.75 1.1
EHF 30 GHz 300 GHz 1 mm 1 cm
Submillimeter 300 GHz 3 THz 100 µm 1 mm
Infrared 3 THz 430 THz 700 nm 100 µm
Visible 430 THz 750 THz 400 nm 700 nm
Ultraviolet 750 THz 30 PHz 10 nm 400 nm
X Ray 30 PHz 3 EHz 100 pm 10 nm
Gamma Ray 3 EHz 100 pm
In spectroscopy the angstrom is sometimes used (1
˚
A = 10
−8
cm = 0.1 nm).
*The boundary between ULF and VF (voice frequencies) is variously deﬁned.
†The SHF (microwave) band is further subdivided approximately as shown.
11
21
AC CIRCUITS
For a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C in series with
a voltage source V = V
0
exp(iωt) (here i =
√
−1), the current is given
by I = dq/dt, where q satisﬁes
L
d
2
q
dt
2
+R
dq
dt
+
q
C
= V.
Solutions are q(t) = q
s
+ q
t
, I(t) = I
s
+ I
t
, where the steady state is
I
s
= iωq
s
= V/Z in terms of the impedance Z = R+i(ωL−1/ωC) and
I
t
= dq
t
/dt. For initial conditions q(0) ≡ q
0
= ¯ q
0
+ q
s
, I(0) ≡ I
0
, the
transients can be of three types, depending on ∆ = R
2
−4L/C:
(a) Overdamped, ∆ > 0
q
t
=
I
0
+γ
+
¯ q
0
γ
+
−γ
−
exp(−γ
−
t) −
I
0
+γ
−
¯ q
0
γ
+
−γ
−
exp(−γ
+
t),
I
t
=
γ
+
(I
0
+γ
−
¯ q
0
)
γ
+
−γ
−
exp(−γ
+
t) −
γ
−
(I
0
+γ
+
¯ q
0
)
γ
+
−γ
−
exp(−γ
−
t),
where γ
±
= (R ±∆
1/2
)/2L;
(b) Critically damped, ∆ = 0
q
t
= [¯ q
0
+ (I
0
+γ
R
¯ q
0
)t] exp(−γ
R
t),
I
t
= [I
0
−(I
0
+γ
R
¯ q
0
)γ
R
t] exp(−γ
R
t),
where γ
R
= R/2L;
(c) Underdamped, ∆ < 0
q
t
=
_
γ
R
¯ q
0
+I
0
ω
1
sin ω
1
t + ¯ q
0
cos ω
1
t
_
exp(−γ
R
t),
I
t
=
_
I
0
cos ω
1
t −
(ω
1
2
+γ
R
2
)¯ q
0
+γ
R
I
0
ω
1
sin(ω
1
t)
_
exp(−γ
R
t),
Here ω
1
= ω
0
(1 − R
2
C/4L)
1/2
, where ω
0
= (LC)
−1/2
is the resonant
frequency. At ω = ω
0
, Z = R. The quality of the circuit is Q = ω
0
L/R.
Instability results when L, R, C are not all of the same sign.
22
DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS OF FLUID MECHANICS
12
Name(s) Symbol Deﬁnition Signiﬁcance
Alfv´en, Al, Ka V
A
/V *(Magnetic force/
K´ arm´ an inertial force)
1/2
Bond Bd (ρ
′
−ρ)L
2
g/Σ Gravitational force/
surface tension
Boussinesq B V/(2gR)
1/2
(Inertial force/
gravitational force)
1/2
Brinkman Br µV
2
/k∆T Viscous heat/conducted heat
Capillary Cp µV/Σ Viscous force/surface tension
Carnot Ca (T
2
−T
1
)/T
2
Theoretical Carnot cycle
eﬃciency
Cauchy, Cy, Hk ρV
2
/Γ = M
2
Inertial force/
Hooke compressibility force
Chandra Ch B
2
L
2
/ρνη Magnetic force/dissipative
sekhar forces
Clausius Cl LV
3
ρ/k∆T Kinetic energy ﬂow rate/heat
conduction rate
Cowling C (V
A
/V )
2
= Al
2
Magnetic force/inertial force
Crispation Cr µκ/ΣL Eﬀect of diﬀusion/eﬀect of
surface tension
Dean D D
3/2
V/ν(2r)
1/2
Transverse ﬂow due to
curvature/longitudinal ﬂow
[Drag C
D
(ρ
′
−ρ)Lg/ Drag force/inertial force
coeﬃcient] ρ
′
V
2
Eckert E V
2
/c
p
∆T Kinetic energy/change in
thermal energy
Ekman Ek (ν/2ΩL
2
)
1/2
= (Viscous force/Coriolis force)
1/2
(Ro/Re)
1/2
Euler Eu ∆p/ρV
2
Pressure drop due to friction/
dynamic pressure
Froude Fr V/(gL)
1/2
†(Inertial force/gravitational or
V/NL buoyancy force)
1/2
Gay–Lussac Ga 1/β∆T Inverse of relative change in
volume during heating
Grashof Gr gL
3
β∆T/ν
2
Buoyancy force/viscous force
[Hall C
H
λ/r
L
Gyrofrequency/
coeﬃcient] collision frequency
*(†) Also deﬁned as the inverse (square) of the quantity shown.
23
Name(s) Symbol Deﬁnition Signiﬁcance
Hartmann H BL/(µη)
1/2
= (Magnetic force/
(RmRe C)
1/2
dissipative force)
1/2
Knudsen Kn λ/L Hydrodynamic time/
collision time
Lewis Le κ/D *Thermal conduction/molecular
diﬀusion
Lorentz Lo V/c Magnitude of relativistic eﬀects
Lundquist Lu µ
0
LV
A
/η = J ×B force/resistive magnetic
Al Rm diﬀusion force
Mach M V/C
S
Magnitude of compressibility
eﬀects
Magnetic Mm V/V
A
= Al
−1
(Inertial force/magnetic force)
1/2
Mach
Magnetic Rm µ
0
LV/η Flow velocity/magnetic diﬀusion
Reynolds velocity
Newton Nt F/ρL
2
V
2
Imposed force/inertial force
Nusselt N αL/k Total heat transfer/thermal
conduction
P´eclet Pe LV/κ Heat convection/heat conduction
Poisseuille Po D
2
∆p/µLV Pressure force/viscous force
Prandtl Pr ν/κ Momentum diﬀusion/
heat diﬀusion
Rayleigh Ra gH
3
β∆T/νκ Buoyancy force/diﬀusion force
Reynolds Re LV/ν Inertial force/viscous force
Richardson Ri (NH/∆V )
2
Buoyancy eﬀects/
vertical shear eﬀects
Rossby Ro V/2ΩLsin Λ Inertial force/Coriolis force
Schmidt Sc ν/D Momentum diﬀusion/
molecular diﬀusion
Stanton St α/ρc
p
V Thermal conduction loss/
heat capacity
Stefan Sf σLT
3
/k Radiated heat/conducted heat
Stokes S ν/L
2
f Viscous damping rate/
vibration frequency
Strouhal Sr fL/V Vibration speed/ﬂow velocity
Taylor Ta (2ΩL
2
/ν)
2
Centrifugal force/viscous force
R
1/2
(∆R)
3/2
(Centrifugal force/
·(Ω/ν) viscous force)
1/2
Thring, Th, Bo ρc
p
V/ǫσT
3
Convective heat transport/
Boltzmann radiative heat transport
Weber W ρLV
2
/Σ Inertial force/surface tension
24
Nomenclature:
B Magnetic induction
C
s
, c Speeds of sound, light
c
p
Speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (units m
2
s
−2
K
−1
)
D = 2R Pipe diameter
F Imposed force
f Vibration frequency
g Gravitational acceleration
H, L Vertical, horizontal length scales
k = ρc
p
κ Thermal conductivity (units kg m
−1
s
−2
)
N = (g/H)
1/2
Brunt–V¨ ais¨ al¨ a frequency
R Radius of pipe or channel
r Radius of curvature of pipe or channel
r
L
Larmor radius
T Temperature
V Characteristic ﬂow velocity
V
A
= B/(µ
0
ρ)
1/2
Alfv´en speed
α Newton’slaw heat coeﬃcient, k
∂T
∂x
= α∆T
β Volumetric expansion coeﬃcient, dV/V = βdT
Γ Bulk modulus (units kg m
−1
s
−2
)
∆R, ∆V, ∆p, ∆T Imposed diﬀerences in two radii, velocities,
pressures, or temperatures
ǫ Surface emissivity
η Electrical resistivity
κ, D Thermal, molecular diﬀusivities (units m
2
s
−1
)
Λ Latitude of point on earth’s surface
λ Collisional mean free path
µ = ρν Viscosity
µ
0
Permeability of free space
ν Kinematic viscosity (units m
2
s
−1
)
ρ Mass density of ﬂuid medium
ρ
′
Mass density of bubble, droplet, or moving object
Σ Surface tension (units kg s
−2
)
σ Stefan–Boltzmann constant
Ω Solidbody rotational angular velocity
25
SHOCKS
At a shock front propagating in a magnetized ﬂuid at an angle θ with
respect to the magnetic induction B, the jump conditions are
13,14
(1) ρU = ¯ ρ
¯
U ≡ q;
(2) ρU
2
+p +B
2
⊥
/2µ = ¯ ρ
¯
U
2
+ ¯ p +
¯
B
2
⊥
/2µ;
(3) ρUV −B
B
⊥
/µ = ¯ ρ
¯
U
¯
V −
¯
B
¯
B
⊥
/µ;
(4) B
=
¯
B
;
(5) UB
⊥
−V B
=
¯
U
¯
B
⊥
−
¯
V
¯
B
;
(6)
1
2
(U
2
+V
2
) +w + (UB
2
⊥
−V B
B
⊥
)/µρU
=
1
2
(
¯
U
2
+
¯
V
2
) + ¯ w + (
¯
U
¯
B
2
⊥
−
¯
V
¯
B
¯
B
⊥
)/µ¯ ρ
¯
U.
Here U and V are components of the ﬂuid velocity normal and tangential to
the front in the shock frame; ρ = 1/υ is the mass density; p is the pressure;
B
⊥
= Bsin θ, B
= Bcos θ; µ is the magnetic permeability (µ = 4π in cgs
units); and the speciﬁc enthalpy is w = e + pυ, where the speciﬁc internal
energy e satisﬁes de = Tds − pdυ in terms of the temperature T and the
speciﬁc entropy s. Quantities in the region behind (downstream from) the
front are distinguished by a bar. If B = 0, then
15
(7) U −
¯
U = [(¯ p −p)(υ − ¯ υ)]
1/2
;
(8) (¯ p −p)(υ − ¯ υ)
−1
= q
2
;
(9) ¯ w −w =
1
2
(¯ p −p)(υ + ¯ υ);
(10) ¯ e −e =
1
2
(¯ p +p)(υ − ¯ υ).
In what follows we assume that the ﬂuid is a perfect gas with adiabatic index
γ = 1 +2/n, where n is the number of degrees of freedom. Then p = ρRT/m,
where R is the universal gas constant and m is the molar weight; the sound
speed is given by C
s
2
= (∂p/∂ρ)
s
= γpυ; and w = γe = γpυ/(γ − 1). For a
general oblique shock in a perfect gas the quantity X = r
−1
(U/V
A
)
2
satisﬁes
14
(11) (X−β/α)(X−cos
2
θ)
2
= X sin
2
θ
_
[1 + (r −1)/2α] X −cos
2
θ
_
, where
r = ¯ ρ/ρ, α =
1
2
[γ + 1 −(γ −1)r], and β = C
s
2
/V
A
2
= 4πγp/B
2
.
The density ratio is bounded by
(12) 1 < r < (γ + 1)/(γ −1).
If the shock is normal to B (i.e., if θ = π/2), then
(13) U
2
= (r/α)
_
C
s
2
+V
A
2
[1 + (1 −γ/2)(r −1)]
_
;
(14) U/
¯
U =
¯
B/B = r;
26
(15)
¯
V = V ;
(16) ¯ p = p + (1 −r
−1
)ρU
2
+ (1 −r
2
)B
2
/2µ.
If θ = 0, there are two possibilities: switchon shocks, which require β < 1 and
for which
(17) U
2
= rV
A
2
;
(18)
¯
U = V
A
2
/U;
(19)
¯
B
2
⊥
= 2B
2
(r −1)(α −β);
(20)
¯
V =
¯
U
¯
B
⊥
/B
;
(21) ¯ p = p +ρU
2
(1 −α +β)(1 −r
−1
),
and acoustic (hydrodynamic) shocks, for which
(22) U
2
= (r/α)C
s
2
;
(23)
¯
U = U/r;
(24)
¯
V =
¯
B
⊥
= 0;
(25) ¯ p = p +ρU
2
(1 −r
−1
).
For acoustic shocks the speciﬁc volume and pressure are related by
(26) ¯ υ/υ = [(γ + 1)p + (γ −1)¯ p] / [(γ −1)p + (γ + 1)¯ p].
In terms of the upstream Mach number M = U/C
s
,
(27) ¯ ρ/ρ = υ/¯ υ = U/
¯
U = (γ + 1)M
2
/[(γ −1)M
2
+ 2];
(28) ¯ p/p = (2γM
2
−γ + 1)/(γ + 1);
(29)
¯
T/T = [(γ −1)M
2
+ 2](2γM
2
−γ + 1)/(γ + 1)
2
M
2
;
(30)
¯
M
2
= [(γ −1)M
2
+ 2]/[2γM
2
−γ + 1].
The entropy change across the shock is
(31) ∆s ≡ ¯ s −s = c
υ
ln[(¯ p/p)(ρ/¯ ρ)
γ
],
where c
υ
= R/(γ −1)m is the speciﬁc heat at constant volume; here R is the
gas constant. In the weakshock limit (M →1),
(32) ∆s →c
υ
2γ(γ −1)
3(γ + 1)
(M
2
−1)
3
≈
16γR
3(γ + 1)m
(M −1)
3
.
The radius at time t of a strong spherical blast wave resulting from the explo
sive release of energy E in a medium with uniform density ρ is
(33) R
S
= C
0
(Et
2
/ρ)
1/5
,
where C
0
is a constant depending on γ. For γ = 7/5, C
0
= 1.033.
27
FUNDAMENTAL PLASMA PARAMETERS
All quantities are in Gaussian cgs units except temperature (T, T
e
, T
i
)
expressed in eV and ion mass (m
i
) expressed in units of the proton mass,
µ = m
i
/m
p
; Z is charge state; k is Boltzmann’s constant; K is wavenumber;
γ is the adiabatic index; ln Λ is the Coulomb logarithm.
Frequencies
electron gyrofrequency f
ce
= ω
ce
/2π = 2.80 ×10
6
BHz
ω
ce
= eB/m
e
c = 1.76 ×10
7
Brad/sec
ion gyrofrequency f
ci
= ω
ci
/2π = 1.52 ×10
3
Zµ
−1
BHz
ω
ci
= ZeB/m
i
c = 9.58 ×10
3
Zµ
−1
Brad/sec
electron plasma frequency f
pe
= ω
pe
/2π = 8.98 ×10
3
n
e
1/2
Hz
ω
pe
= (4πn
e
e
2
/m
e
)
1/2
= 5.64 ×10
4
n
e
1/2
rad/sec
ion plasma frequency f
pi
= ω
pi
/2π
= 2.10 ×10
2
Zµ
−1/2
n
i
1/2
Hz
ω
pi
= (4πn
i
Z
2
e
2
/m
i
)
1/2
= 1.32 ×10
3
Zµ
−1/2
n
i
1/2
rad/sec
electron trapping rate ν
Te
= (eKE/m
e
)
1/2
= 7.26 ×10
8
K
1/2
E
1/2
sec
−1
ion trapping rate ν
Ti
= (ZeKE/m
i
)
1/2
= 1.69 ×10
7
Z
1/2
K
1/2
E
1/2
µ
−1/2
sec
−1
electron collision rate ν
e
= 2.91 ×10
−6
n
e
ln ΛT
e
−3/2
sec
−1
ion collision rate ν
i
= 4.80 ×10
−8
Z
4
µ
−1/2
n
i
ln ΛT
i
−3/2
sec
−1
Lengths
electron deBroglie length ¯ λ = ¯ h/(m
e
kT
e
)
1/2
= 2.76 ×10
−8
T
e
−1/2
cm
classical distance of e
2
/kT = 1.44 ×10
−7
T
−1
cm
minimum approach
electron gyroradius r
e
= v
Te
/ω
ce
= 2.38T
e
1/2
B
−1
cm
ion gyroradius r
i
= v
Ti
/ω
ci
= 1.02 ×10
2
µ
1/2
Z
−1
T
i
1/2
B
−1
cm
electron inertial length c/ω
pe
= 5.31 ×10
5
n
e
−1/2
cm
ion inertial length c/ω
pi
= 2.28 ×10
7
Z
−1
(µ/n
i
)
1/2
cm
Debye length λ
D
= (kT/4πne
2
)
1/2
= 7.43 ×10
2
T
1/2
n
−1/2
cm
28
Velocities
electron thermal velocity v
Te
= (kT
e
/m
e
)
1/2
= 4.19 ×10
7
T
e
1/2
cm/sec
ion thermal velocity v
Ti
= (kT
i
/m
i
)
1/2
= 9.79 ×10
5
µ
−1/2
T
i
1/2
cm/sec
ion sound velocity C
s
= (γZkT
e
/m
i
)
1/2
= 9.79 ×10
5
(γZT
e
/µ)
1/2
cm/sec
Alfv´en velocity v
A
= B/(4πn
i
m
i
)
1/2
= 2.18 ×10
11
µ
−1/2
n
i
−1/2
Bcm/sec
Dimensionless
(electron/proton mass ratio)
1/2
(m
e
/m
p
)
1/2
= 2.33 ×10
−2
= 1/42.9
number of particles in (4π/3)nλ
D
3
= 1.72 ×10
9
T
3/2
n
−1/2
Debye sphere
Alfv´en velocity/speed of light v
A
/c = 7.28µ
−1/2
n
i
−1/2
B
electron plasma/gyrofrequency ω
pe
/ω
ce
= 3.21 ×10
−3
n
e
1/2
B
−1
ratio
ion plasma/gyrofrequency ratio ω
pi
/ω
ci
= 0.137µ
1/2
n
i
1/2
B
−1
thermal/magnetic energy ratio β = 8πnkT/B
2
= 4.03 ×10
−11
nTB
−2
magnetic/ion rest energy ratio B
2
/8πn
i
m
i
c
2
= 26.5µ
−1
n
i
−1
B
2
Miscellaneous
Bohm diﬀusion coeﬃcient D
B
= (ckT/16eB)
= 6.25 ×10
6
TB
−1
cm
2
/sec
transverse Spitzer resistivity η
⊥
= 1.15 ×10
−14
Z ln ΛT
−3/2
sec
= 1.03 ×10
−2
Z ln ΛT
−3/2
Ωcm
The anomalous collision rate due to lowfrequency ionsound turbulence is
ν* ≈ ω
pe
¯ W/kT = 5.64 ×10
4
n
e
1/2
¯ W/kT sec
−1
,
where ¯ W is the total energy of waves with ω/K < v
Ti
.
Magnetic pressure is given by
P
mag
= B
2
/8π = 3.98 ×10
6
(B/B
0
)
2
dynes/cm
2
= 3.93(B/B
0
)
2
atm,
where B
0
= 10 kG = 1 T.
Detonation energy of 1 kiloton of high explosive is
W
kT
= 10
12
cal = 4.2 ×10
19
erg.
29
PLASMA DISPERSION FUNCTION
Deﬁnition
16
(ﬁrst form valid only for Imζ > 0):
Z(ζ) = π
−1/2
_
+∞
−∞
dt exp
_
−t
2
_
t −ζ
= 2i exp
_
−ζ
2
_
_
iζ
−∞
dt exp
_
−t
2
_
.
Physically, ζ = x +iy is the ratio of wave phase velocity to thermal velocity.
Diﬀerential equation:
dZ
dζ
= −2 (1 +ζZ) , Z(0) = iπ
1/2
;
d
2
Z
dζ
2
+ 2ζ
dZ
dζ
+ 2Z = 0.
Real argument (y = 0):
Z(x) = exp
_
−x
2
_
_
iπ
1/2
−2
_
x
0
dt exp
_
t
2
_
_
.
Imaginary argument (x = 0):
Z(iy) = iπ
1/2
exp
_
y
2
_
[1 −erf(y)] .
Power series (small argument):
Z(ζ) = iπ
1/2
exp
_
−ζ
2
_
−2ζ
_
1 −2ζ
2
/3 + 4ζ
4
/15 −8ζ
6
/105 +· · ·
_
.
Asymptotic series, ζ ≫1 (Ref. 17):
Z(ζ) = iπ
1/2
σ exp
_
−ζ
2
_
−ζ
−1
_
1 + 1/2ζ
2
+ 3/4ζ
4
+ 15/8ζ
6
+· · ·
_
,
where
σ =
_
0 y > x
−1
1 y < x
−1
2 y < −x
−1
Symmetry properties (the asterisk denotes complex conjugation):
Z(ζ*) = −[Z(−ζ)]*;
Z(ζ*) = [Z(ζ)] * + 2iπ
1/2
exp[−(ζ*)
2
] (y > 0).
Twopole approximations
18
(good for ζ in upper half plane except when y <
π
1/2
x
2
exp(−x
2
), x ≫1):
Z(ζ) ≈
0.50 + 0.81i
a −ζ
−
0.50 −0.81i
a* +ζ
, a = 0.51 −0.81i;
Z
′
(ζ) ≈
0.50 + 0.96i
(b −ζ)
2
+
0.50 −0.96i
(b* + ζ)
2
, b = 0.48 −0.91i.
30
COLLISIONS AND TRANSPORT
Temperatures are in eV; the corresponding value of Boltzmann’s constant
is k = 1.60 × 10
−12
erg/eV; masses µ, µ
′
are in units of the proton mass;
e
α
= Z
α
e is the charge of species α. All other units are cgs except where
noted.
Relaxation Rates
Rates are associated with four relaxation processes arising from the in
teraction of test particles (labeled α) streaming with velocity v
α
through a
background of ﬁeld particles (labeled β):
slowing down
dv
α
dt
= −ν
α\β
s
v
α
transverse diﬀusion
d
dt
(v
α
− ¯ v
α
)
2
⊥
= ν
α\β
⊥
v
α
2
parallel diﬀusion
d
dt
(v
α
− ¯ v
α
)
2
= ν
α\β
v
α
2
energy loss
d
dt
v
α
2
= −ν
α\β
ǫ
v
α
2
,
where v
α
= v
α
 and the averages are performed over an ensemble of test
particles and a Maxwellian ﬁeld particle distribution. The exact formulas may
be written
19
ν
α\β
s
= (1 +m
α
/m
β
)ψ(x
α\β
)ν
α\β
0
;
ν
α\β
⊥
= 2
_
(1 −1/2x
α\β
)ψ(x
α\β
) +ψ
′
(x
α\β
)
¸
ν
α\β
0
;
ν
α\β
=
_
ψ(x
α\β
)/x
α\β
¸
ν
α\β
0
;
ν
α\β
ǫ
= 2
_
(m
α
/m
β
)ψ(x
α\β
) −ψ
′
(x
α\β
)
¸
ν
α\β
0
,
where
ν
α\β
0
= 4πe
α
2
e
β
2
λ
αβ
n
β
/m
α
2
v
α
3
; x
α\β
= m
β
v
α
2
/2kT
β
;
ψ(x) =
2
√
π
_
x
0
dt t
1/2
e
−t
; ψ
′
(x) =
dψ
dx
,
and λ
αβ
= ln Λ
αβ
is the Coulomb logarithm (see below). Limiting forms of
ν
s
, ν
⊥
and ν
are given in the following table. All the expressions shown
31
have units cm
3
sec
−1
. Test particle energy ǫ and ﬁeld particle temperature T
are both in eV; µ = m
i
/m
p
where m
p
is the proton mass; Z is ion charge
state; in electron–electron and ion–ion encounters, ﬁeld particle quantities are
distinguished by a prime. The two expressions given below for each rate hold
for very slow (x
α\β
≪1) and very fast (x
α\β
≫1) test particles, respectively.
Slow Fast
Electron–electron
ν
ee
s
/n
e
λ
ee
≈ 5.8 ×10
−6
T
−3/2
−→7.7 ×10
−6
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ee
⊥
/n
e
λ
ee
≈ 5.8 ×10
−6
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→7.7 ×10
−6
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ee
/n
e
λ
ee
≈ 2.9 ×10
−6
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→3.9 ×10
−6
Tǫ
−5/2
Electron–ion
ν
ei
s
/n
i
Z
2
λ
ei
≈ 0.23µ
3/2
T
−3/2
−→3.9 ×10
−6
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ei
⊥
/n
i
Z
2
λ
ei
≈ 2.5 ×10
−4
µ
1/2
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→7.7 ×10
−6
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ei
/n
i
Z
2
λ
ei
≈ 1.2 ×10
−4
µ
1/2
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→2.1 ×10
−9
µ
−1
Tǫ
−5/2
Ion–electron
ν
ie
s
/n
e
Z
2
λ
ie
≈ 1.6 ×10
−9
µ
−1
T
−3/2
−→1.7 ×10
−4
µ
1/2
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ie
⊥
/n
e
Z
2
λ
ie
≈ 3.2 ×10
−9
µ
−1
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→1.8 ×10
−7
µ
−1/2
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ie
/n
e
Z
2
λ
ie
≈ 1.6 ×10
−9
µ
−1
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→1.7 ×10
−4
µ
1/2
Tǫ
−5/2
Ion–ion
ν
ii
′
s
n
i
′ Z
2
Z
′2
λ
ii
′
≈ 6.8 ×10
−8
µ
′1/2
µ
_
1 +
µ
′
µ
_
−1/2
T
−3/2
−→9.0 ×10
−8
_
1
µ
+
1
µ
′
_
µ
1/2
ǫ
3/2
ν
ii
′
⊥
n
i
′ Z
2
Z
′2
λ
ii
′
≈ 1.4 ×10
−7
µ
′1/2
µ
−1
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→1.8 ×10
−7
µ
−1/2
ǫ
−3/2
ν
ii
′
n
i
′ Z
2
Z
′2
λ
ii
′
≈ 6.8 ×10
−8
µ
′1/2
µ
−1
T
−1/2
ǫ
−1
−→9.0 ×10
−8
µ
1/2
µ
′−1
Tǫ
−5/2
In the same limits, the energy transfer rate follows from the identity
ν
ǫ
= 2ν
s
−ν
⊥
−ν
,
except for the case of fast electrons or fast ions scattered by ions, where the
leading terms cancel. Then the appropriate forms are
ν
ei
ǫ
−→4.2 ×10
−9
n
i
Z
2
λ
ei
_
ǫ
−3/2
µ
−1
−8.9 ×10
4
(µ/T)
1/2
ǫ
−1
exp(−1836µǫ/T)
¸
sec
−1
32
and
ν
ii
′
ǫ
−→1.8 ×10
−7
n
i
′ Z
2
Z
′2
λ
ii
′
_
ǫ
−3/2
µ
1/2
/µ
′
−1.1[(µ +µ
′
)/µµ
′
](µ
′
/T
′
)
1/2
ǫ
−1
exp(−µ
′
ǫ/µT
′
)
¸
sec
−1
.
In general, the energy transfer rate ν
α\β
ǫ
is positive for ǫ > ǫ
α
* and nega
tive for ǫ < ǫ
α
*, where x* = (m
β
/m
α
)ǫ
α
*/T
β
is the solution of ψ
′
(x*) =
(m
α
m
β
)ψ(x*). The ratio ǫ
α
*/T
β
is given for a number of speciﬁc α, β in the
following table:
α\β ie ee, ii ep eD eT, eHe
3
eHe
4
ǫ
α
*
T
β
1.5 0.98 4.8 ×10
−3
2.6 ×10
−3
1.8 ×10
−3
1.4 ×10
−3
When both species are near Maxwellian, with T
i
<
∼
T
e
, there are just
two characteristic collision rates. For Z = 1,
ν
e
= 2.9 ×10
−6
nλT
e
−3/2
sec
−1
;
ν
i
= 4.8 ×10
−8
nλT
i
−3/2
µ
−1/2
sec
−1
.
Temperature Isotropization
Isotropization is described by
dT
⊥
dt
= −
1
2
dT
dt
= −ν
α
T
(T
⊥
−T
),
where, if A ≡ T
⊥
/T
−1 > 0,
ν
α
T
=
2
√
πe
α
2
e
β
2
n
α
λ
αβ
m
α
1/2
(kT
)
3/2
A
−2
_
−3 + (A+ 3)
tan
−1
(A
1/2
)
A
1/2
_
.
If A < 0, tan
−1
(A
1/2
)/A
1/2
is replaced by tanh
−1
(−A)
1/2
/(−A)
1/2
. For
T
⊥
≈ T
≡ T,
ν
e
T
= 8.2 ×10
−7
nλT
−3/2
sec
−1
;
ν
i
T
= 1.9 ×10
−8
nλZ
2
µ
−1/2
T
−3/2
sec
−1
.
33
Thermal Equilibration
If the components of a plasma have diﬀerent temperatures, but no rela
tive drift, equilibration is described by
dT
α
dt
=
β
¯ ν
α\β
ǫ
(T
β
−T
α
),
where
¯ ν
α\β
ǫ
= 1.8 ×10
−19
(m
α
m
β
)
1/2
Z
α
2
Z
β
2
n
β
λ
αβ
(m
α
T
β
+m
β
T
α
)
3/2
sec
−1
.
For electrons and ions with T
e
≈ T
i
≡ T, this implies
¯ ν
ei
ǫ
/n
i
= ¯ ν
ie
ǫ
/n
e
= 3.2 ×10
−9
Z
2
λ/µT
3/2
cm
3
sec
−1
.
Coulomb Logarithm
For test particles of mass m
α
and charge e
α
= Z
α
e scattering oﬀ ﬁeld
particles of mass m
β
and charge e
β
= Z
β
e, the Coulomb logarithm is deﬁned
as λ = ln Λ ≡ ln(r
max
/r
min
). Here r
min
is the larger of e
α
e
β
/m
αβ
¯ u
2
and
¯ h/2m
αβ
¯ u, averaged over both particle velocity distributions, where m
αβ
=
m
α
m
β
/(m
α
+m
β
) and u = v
α
−v
β
; r
max
= (4π
n
γ
e
γ
2
/kT
γ
)
−1/2
, where
the summation extends over all species γ for which ¯ u
2
< v
Tγ
2
= kT
γ
/m
γ
. If
this inequality cannot be satisﬁed, or if either ¯ uω
cα
−1
< r
max
or ¯ uω
cβ
−1
<
r
max
, the theory breaks down. Typically λ ≈ 10–20. Corrections to the trans
port coeﬃcients are O(λ
−1
); hence the theory is good only to ∼ 10% and fails
when λ ∼ 1.
The following cases are of particular interest:
(a) Thermal electron–electron collisions
λ
ee
= 23.5 −ln(n
e
1/2
T
e
−5/4
) −[10
−5
+ (ln T
e
−2)
2
/16]
1/2
(b) Electron–ion collisions
λ
ei
= λ
ie
= 23 −ln
_
n
e
1/2
ZT
−3/2
e
_
, T
i
m
e
/m
i
< T
e
< 10Z
2
eV;
= 24 −ln
_
n
e
1/2
T
−1
e
_
, T
i
m
e
/m
i
< 10Z
2
eV < T
e
= 30 −ln
_
n
i
1/2
T
i
−3/2
Z
2
µ
−1
_
, T
e
< T
i
Zm
e
/m
i
.
(c) Mixed ion–ion collisions
λ
ii
′ = λ
i
′
i
= 23 −ln
_
ZZ
′
(µ +µ
′
)
µT
i
′ +µ
′
T
i
_
n
i
Z
2
T
i
+
n
i
′ Z
′2
T
i
′
_
1/2
_
.
34
(d) Counterstreaming ions (relative velocity v
D
= β
D
c) in the presence of
warm electrons, kT
i
/m
i
, kT
i
′ /m
i
′ < v
D
2
< kT
e
/m
e
λ
ii
′ = λ
i
′
i
= 35 −ln
_
ZZ
′
(µ + µ
′
)
µµ
′
β
D
2
_
n
e
T
e
_
1/2
_
.
FokkerPlanck Equation
Df
α
Dt
≡
∂f
α
∂t
+v · ∇f
α
+F · ∇
v
f
α
=
_
∂f
α
∂t
_
coll
,
where F is an external force ﬁeld. The general form of the collision integral is
(∂f
α
/∂t)
coll
= −
β
∇
v
· J
α\β
, with
J
α\β
= 2πλ
αβ
e
α
2
e
β
2
m
α
_
d
3
v
′
(u
2
I −uu)u
−3
·
_
1
m
β
f
α
(v)∇
v
′ f
β
(v
′
) −
1
m
α
f
β
(v
′
)∇
v
f
α
(v)
_
(Landau form) where u = v
′
−v and I is the unit dyad, or alternatively,
J
α\β
= 4πλ
αβ
e
α
2
e
β
2
m
α
2
_
f
α
(v)∇
v
H(v) −
1
2
∇
v
·
_
f
α
(v)∇
v
∇
v
G(v)
¸
_
,
where the Rosenbluth potentials are
G(v) =
_
f
β
(v
′
)ud
3
v
′
H(v) =
_
1 +
m
α
m
β
_
_
f
β
(v
′
)u
−1
d
3
v
′
.
If species α is a weak beam (number and energy density small compared with
background) streaming through a Maxwellian plasma, then
J
α\β
=−
m
α
m
α
+m
β
ν
α\β
s
vf
α
−
1
2
ν
α\β
vv · ∇
v
f
α
−
1
4
ν
α\β
⊥
_
v
2
I −vv
_
· ∇
v
f
α
.
35
BGK Collision Operator
For distribution functions with no large gradients in velocity space, the
FokkerPlanck collision terms can be approximated according to
Df
e
Dt
= ν
ee
(F
e
−f
e
) +ν
ei
(
¯
F
e
−f
e
);
Df
i
Dt
= ν
ie
(
¯
F
i
−f
i
) +ν
ii
(F
i
−f
i
).
The respective slowingdown rates ν
α\β
s
given in the Relaxation Rate section
above can be used for ν
αβ
, assuming slow ions and fast electrons, with ǫ re
placed by T
α
. (For ν
ee
and ν
ii
, one can equally well use ν
⊥
, and the result
is insensitive to whether the slow or fasttestparticle limit is employed.) The
Maxwellians F
α
and
¯
F
α
are given by
F
α
= n
α
_
m
α
2πkT
α
_
3/2
exp
_
−
_
m
α
(v −v
α
)
2
2kT
α
__
;
¯
F
α
= n
α
_
m
α
2πk
¯
T
α
_
3/2
exp
_
−
_
m
α
(v − ¯ v
α
)
2
2k
¯
T
α
__
,
where n
α
, v
α
and T
α
are the number density, mean drift velocity, and eﬀective
temperature obtained by taking moments of f
α
. Some latitude in the deﬁnition
of
¯
T
α
and ¯ v
α
is possible;
20
one choice is
¯
T
e
= T
i
,
¯
T
i
= T
e
, ¯ v
e
= v
i
, ¯ v
i
= v
e
.
Transport Coeﬃcients
Transport equations for a multispecies plasma:
d
α
n
α
dt
+ n
α
∇· v
α
= 0;
m
α
n
α
d
α
v
α
dt
= −∇p
α
−∇· P
α
+Z
α
en
α
_
E +
1
c
v
α
×B
_
+R
α
;
3
2
n
α
d
α
kT
α
dt
+p
α
∇· v
α
= −∇· q
α
−P
α
: ∇v
α
+Q
α
.
Here d
α
/dt ≡ ∂/∂t + v
α
· ∇; p
α
= n
α
kT
α
, where k is Boltzmann’s constant;
R
α
=
β
R
αβ
and Q
α
=
β
Q
αβ
, where R
αβ
and Q
αβ
are respectively
the momentum and energy gained by the αth species through collisions with
the βth; P
α
is the stress tensor; and q
α
is the heat ﬂow.
36
The transport coeﬃcients in a simple twocomponent plasma (electrons
and singly charged ions) are tabulated below. Here and ⊥ refer to the di
rection of the magnetic ﬁeld B = bB; u = v
e
− v
i
is the relative streaming
velocity; n
e
= n
i
≡ n; j = −neu is the current; ω
ce
= 1.76 ×10
7
Bsec
−1
and
ω
ci
= (m
e
/m
i
)ω
ce
are the electron and ion gyrofrequencies, respectively; and
the basic collisional times are taken to be
τ
e
=
3
√
m
e
(kT
e
)
3/2
4
√
2π nλe
4
= 3.44 ×10
5
T
e
3/2
nλ
sec,
where λ is the Coulomb logarithm, and
τ
i
=
3
√
m
i
(kT
i
)
3/2
4
√
πnλe
4
= 2.09 ×10
7
T
i
3/2
nλ
µ
1/2
sec.
In the limit of large ﬁelds (ω
cα
τ
α
≫ 1, α = i, e) the transport processes may
be summarized as follows:
21
momentum transfer R
ei
= −R
ie
≡ R = R
u
+R
T
;
frictional force R
u
= ne(j
/σ
+j
⊥
/σ
⊥
);
electrical σ
= 1.96σ
⊥
; σ
⊥
= ne
2
τ
e
/m
e
;
conductivities
thermal force R
T
= −0.71n∇
(kT
e
) −
3n
2ω
ce
τ
e
b ×∇
⊥
(kT
e
);
ion heating Q
i
=
3m
e
m
i
nk
τ
e
(T
e
−T
i
);
electron heating Q
e
= −Q
i
−R· u;
ion heat ﬂux q
i
= −κ
i
∇
(kT
i
) −κ
i
⊥
∇
⊥
(kT
i
) +κ
i
∧
b ×∇
⊥
(kT
i
);
ion thermal κ
i
= 3.9
nkT
i
τ
i
m
i
; κ
i
⊥
=
2nkT
i
m
i
ω
2
ci
τ
i
; κ
i
∧
=
5nkT
i
2m
i
ω
ci
;
conductivities
electron heat ﬂux q
e
= q
e
u
+q
e
T
;
frictional heat ﬂux q
e
u
= 0.71nkT
e
u
+
3nkT
e
2ω
ce
τ
e
b ×u
⊥
;
thermal gradient q
e
T
= −κ
e
∇
(kT
e
) −κ
e
⊥
∇
⊥
(kT
e
) −κ
e
∧
b ×∇
⊥
(kT
e
);
heat ﬂux
electron thermal κ
e
= 3.2
nkT
e
τ
e
m
e
; κ
e
⊥
= 4.7
nkT
e
m
e
ω
2
ce
τ
e
; κ
e
∧
=
5nkT
e
2m
e
ω
ce
;
conductivities
37
stress tensor (either P
xx
= −
η
0
2
(W
xx
+W
yy
) −
η
1
2
(W
xx
−W
yy
) −η
3
W
xy
;
species)
P
yy
= −
η
0
2
(W
xx
+W
yy
) +
η
1
2
(W
xx
−W
yy
) + η
3
W
xy
;
P
xy
= P
yx
= −η
1
W
xy
+
η
3
2
(W
xx
−W
yy
);
P
xz
= P
zx
= −η
2
W
xz
−η
4
W
yz
;
P
yz
= P
zy
= −η
2
W
yz
+η
4
W
xz
;
P
zz
= −η
0
W
zz
(here the z axis is deﬁned parallel to B);
ion viscosity η
i
0
= 0.96nkT
i
τ
i
; η
i
1
=
3nkT
i
10ω
2
ci
τ
i
; η
i
2
=
6nkT
i
5ω
2
ci
τ
i
;
η
i
3
=
nkT
i
2ω
ci
; η
i
4
=
nkT
i
ω
ci
;
electron viscosity η
e
0
= 0.73nkT
e
τ
e
; η
e
1
= 0.51
nkT
e
ω
2
ce
τ
e
; η
e
2
= 2.0
nkT
e
ω
2
ce
τ
e
;
η
e
3
= −
nkT
e
2ω
ce
; η
e
4
= −
nkT
e
ω
ce
.
For both species the rateofstrain tensor is deﬁned as
W
jk
=
∂v
j
∂x
k
+
∂v
k
∂x
j
−
2
3
δ
jk
∇· v.
When B = 0 the following simpliﬁcations occur:
R
u
= nej/σ
; R
T
= −0.71n∇(kT
e
); q
i
= −κ
i
∇(kT
i
);
q
e
u
= 0.71nkT
e
u; q
e
T
= −κ
e
∇(kT
e
); P
jk
= −η
0
W
jk
.
For ω
ce
τ
e
≫ 1 ≫ ω
ci
τ
i
, the electrons obey the highﬁeld expressions and the
ions obey the zeroﬁeld expressions.
Collisional transport theory is applicable when (1) macroscopic time rates
of change satisfy d/dt ≪1/τ, where τ is the longest collisional time scale, and
(in the absence of a magnetic ﬁeld) (2) macroscopic length scales L satisfy L ≫
l, where l = ¯ vτ is the mean free path. In a strong ﬁeld, ω
ce
τ ≫ 1, condition
(2) is replaced by L
≫ l and L
⊥
≫
√
lr
e
(L
⊥
≫ r
e
in a uniform ﬁeld),
where L
is a macroscopic scale parallel to the ﬁeld B and L
⊥
is the smaller
of B/∇
⊥
B and the transverse plasma dimension. In addition, the standard
transport coeﬃcients are valid only when (3) the Coulomb logarithm satisﬁes
λ ≫1; (4) the electron gyroradius satisﬁes r
e
≫λ
D
, or 8πn
e
m
e
c
2
≫B
2
; (5)
relative drifts u = v
α
− v
β
between two species are small compared with the
38
thermal velocities, i.e., u
2
≪kT
α
/m
α
, kT
β
/m
β
; and (6) anomalous transport
processes owing to microinstabilities are negligible.
Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Collision frequency for scattering of charged particles of species α by
neutrals is
ν
α
= n
0
σ
α0
s
(kT
α
/m
α
)
1/2
,
where n
0
is the neutral density, σ
α\0
s
is the cross section, typically ∼ 5×10
−15
cm
2
and weakly dependent on temperature, and (T
0
/m
0
)
1/2
< (T
α
/m
α
)
1/2
where T
0
and m
0
are the temperature and mass of the neutrals.
When the system is small compared with a Debye length, L ≪ λ
D
, the
charged particle diﬀusion coeﬃcients are
D
α
= kT
α
/m
α
ν
α
,
In the opposite limit, both species diﬀuse at the ambipolar rate
D
A
=
µ
i
D
e
−µ
e
D
i
µ
i
−µ
e
=
(T
i
+ T
e
)D
i
D
e
T
i
D
e
+T
e
D
i
,
where µ
α
= e
α
/m
α
ν
α
is the mobility. The conductivity σ
α
satisﬁes σ
α
=
n
α
e
α
µ
α
.
In the presence of a magnetic ﬁeld B the scalars µ and σ become tensors,
J
α
= σσ
α
· E = σ
α
E
+σ
α
⊥
E
⊥
+σ
α
∧
E ×b,
where b = B/B and
σ
α
= n
α
e
α
2
/m
α
ν
α
;
σ
α
⊥
= σ
α
ν
α
2
/(ν
α
2
+ω
2
cα
);
σ
α
∧
= σ
α
ν
α
ω
cα
/(ν
α
2
+ω
2
cα
).
Here σ
⊥
and σ
∧
are the Pedersen and Hall conductivities, respectively.
39
APPROXIMATE MAGNITUDES
IN SOME TYPICAL PLASMAS
Plasma Type n cm
−3
T eV ω
pe
sec
−1
λ
D
cm nλ
D
3
ν
ei
sec
−1
Interstellar gas 1 1 6 ×10
4
7 ×10
2
4 ×10
8
7 ×10
−5
Gaseous nebula 10
3
1 2 ×10
6
20 8 ×10
6
6 ×10
−2
Solar Corona 10
9
10
2
2 ×10
9
2 ×10
−1
8 ×10
6
60
Diﬀuse hot plasma 10
12
10
2
6 ×10
10
7 ×10
−3
4 ×10
5
40
Solar atmosphere, 10
14
1 6 ×10
11
7 ×10
−5
40 2 ×10
9
gas discharge
Warm plasma 10
14
10 6 ×10
11
2 ×10
−4
8 ×10
2
10
7
Hot plasma 10
14
10
2
6 ×10
11
7 ×10
−4
4 ×10
4
4 ×10
6
Thermonuclear 10
15
10
4
2 ×10
12
2 ×10
−3
8 ×10
6
5 ×10
4
plasma
Theta pinch 10
16
10
2
6 ×10
12
7 ×10
−5
4 ×10
3
3 ×10
8
Dense hot plasma 10
18
10
2
6 ×10
13
7 ×10
−6
4 ×10
2
2 ×10
10
Laser Plasma 10
20
10
2
6 ×10
14
7 ×10
−7
40 2 ×10
12
The diagram (facing) gives comparable information in graphical form.
22
40
41
IONOSPHERIC PARAMETERS
23
The following tables give average nighttime values. Where two numbers
are entered, the ﬁrst refers to the lower and the second to the upper portion
of the layer.
Quantity E Region F Region
Altitude (km) 90–160 160–500
Number density (m
−3
) 1.5 ×10
10
–3.0 ×10
10
5 ×10
10
–2 ×10
11
Heightintegrated number 9 ×10
14
4.5 ×10
15
density (m
−2
)
Ionneutral collision 2 ×10
3
–10
2
0.5–0.05
frequency (sec
−1
)
Ion gyro/collision 0.09–2.0 4.6 ×10
2
–5.0 ×10
3
frequency ratio κ
i
Ion Pederson factor 0.09–0.5 2.2 ×10
−3
–2 ×10
−4
κ
i
/(1 +κ
i
2
)
Ion Hall factor 8 ×10
−4
–0.8 1.0
κ
i
2
/(1 +κ
i
2
)
Electronneutral collision 1.5 ×10
4
–9.0 ×10
2
80–10
frequency
Electron gyro/collision 4.1 ×10
2
–6.9 ×10
3
7.8 ×10
4
–6.2 ×10
5
frequency ratio κ
e
Electron Pedersen factor 2.7 ×10
−3
–1.5 ×10
−4
10
−5
–1.5 ×10
−6
κ
e
/(1 + κ
e
2
)
Electron Hall factor 1.0 1.0
κ
e
2
/(1 + κ
e
2
)
Mean molecular weight 28–26 22–16
Ion gyrofrequency (sec
−1
) 180–190 230–300
Neutral diﬀusion 30–5 ×10
3
10
5
coeﬃcient (m
2
sec
−1
)
The terrestrial magnetic ﬁeld in the lower ionosphere at equatorial latti
tudes is approximately B
0
= 0.35×10
−4
tesla. The earth’s radius is R
E
= 6371
km.
42
SOLAR PHYSICS PARAMETERS
24
Parameter Symbol Value Units
Total mass M
⊙
1.99 ×10
33
g
Radius R
⊙
6.96 ×10
10
cm
Surface gravity g
⊙
2.74 ×10
4
cms
−2
Escape speed v
∞
6.18 ×10
7
cms
−1
Upward mass ﬂux in spicules — 1.6 ×10
−9
g cm
−2
s
−1
Vertically integrated atmospheric density — 4.28 g cm
−2
Sunspot magnetic ﬁeld strength B
max
2500–3500 G
Surface eﬀective temperature T
0
5770 K
Radiant power L
⊙
3.83 ×10
33
erg s
−1
Radiant ﬂux density F 6.28 ×10
10
erg cm
−2
s
−1
Optical depth at 500 nm, measured τ
5
0.99 —
from photosphere
Astronomical unit (radius of earth’s orbit) AU 1.50 ×10
13
cm
Solar constant (intensity at 1 AU) f 1.36 ×10
6
erg cm
−2
s
−1
Chromosphere and Corona
25
Quiet Coronal Active
Parameter (Units)
Sun Hole Region
Chromospheric radiation losses
(erg cm
−2
s
−1
)
Low chromosphere 2 ×10
6
2 ×10
6
>
∼
10
7
Middle chromosphere 2 ×10
6
2 ×10
6
10
7
Upper chromosphere 3 ×10
5
3 ×10
5
2 ×10
6
Total 4 ×10
6
4 ×10
6
>
∼
2 ×10
7
Transition layer pressure (dyne cm
−2
) 0.2 0.07 2
Coronal temperature (K) at 1.1 R
⊙
1.1–1.6 ×10
6
10
6
2.5 ×10
6
Coronal energy losses (erg cm
−2
s
−1
)
Conduction 2 ×10
5
6 ×10
4
10
5
–10
7
Radiation 10
5
10
4
5 ×10
6
Solar Wind
<
∼
5 ×10
4
7 ×10
5
< 10
5
Total 3 ×10
5
8 ×10
5
10
7
Solar wind mass loss (g cm
−2
s
−1
)
<
∼
2 ×10
−11
2 ×10
−10
< 4 ×10
−11
43
THERMONUCLEAR FUSION
26
Natural abundance of isotopes:
hydrogen n
D
/n
H
= 1.5 ×10
−4
helium n
He
3
/n
He
4
= 1.3 ×10
−6
lithium n
Li
6
/n
Li
7
= 0.08
Mass ratios: m
e
/m
D
= 2.72 ×10
−4
= 1/3670
(m
e
/m
D
)
1/2
= 1.65 ×10
−2
= 1/60.6
m
e
/m
T
= 1.82 ×10
−4
= 1/5496
(m
e
/m
T
)
1/2
= 1.35 ×10
−2
= 1/74.1
Absorbed radiation dose is measured in rads: 1 rad = 10
2
erg g
−1
. The curie
(abbreviated Ci) is a measure of radioactivity: 1 curie = 3.7×10
10
counts sec
−1
.
Fusion reactions (branching ratios are correct for energies near the cross section
peaks; a negative yield means the reaction is endothermic):
27
(1a) D + D −−−−→
50%
T(1.01 MeV) + p(3.02 MeV)
(1b) −−−−→
50%
He
3
(0.82 MeV) + n(2.45 MeV)
(2) D + T −−−−→He
4
(3.5 MeV) + n(14.1 MeV)
(3) D + He
3
−−−−→He
4
(3.6 MeV) + p(14.7 MeV)
(4) T + T −−−−→He
4
+ 2n + 11.3 MeV
(5a) He
3
+ T−−−−→
51%
He
4
+ p + n + 12.1 MeV
(5b) −−−−→
43%
He
4
(4.8 MeV) + D(9.5 MeV)
(5c) −−−−→
6%
He
5
(2.4 MeV) + p(11.9 MeV)
(6) p + Li
6
−−−−→He
4
(1.7 MeV) + He
3
(2.3 MeV)
(7a) p + Li
7
−−−−→
20%
2 He
4
+ 17.3 MeV
(7b) −−−−→
80%
Be
7
+ n − 1.6 MeV
(8) D + Li
6
−−−−→2He
4
+ 22.4 MeV
(9) p + B
11
−−−−→3 He
4
+ 8.7 MeV
(10) n + Li
6
−−−−→He
4
(2.1 MeV) + T(2.7 MeV)
The total cross section in barns (1 barn = 10
−24
cm
2
) as a function of E, the
energy in keV of the incident particle [the ﬁrst ion on the left side of Eqs.
(1)–(5)], assuming the target ion at rest, can be ﬁtted by
28a
σ
T
(E) =
A
5
+
_
(A
4
−A
3
E)
2
+ 1
¸
−1
A
2
E
_
exp(A
1
E
−1/2
) −1
¸
44
where the Duane coeﬃcients A
j
for the principal fusion reactions are as follows:
D–D D–D D–T D–He
3
T–T T–He
3
(1a) (1b) (2) (3) (4) (5a–c)
A
1
46.097 47.88 45.95 89.27 38.39 123.1
A
2
372 482 50200 25900 448 11250
A
3
4.36 ×10
−4
3.08 ×10
−4
1.368 ×10
−2
3.98 ×10
−3
1.02 ×10
−3
0
A
4
1.220 1.177 1.076 1.297 2.09 0
A
5
0 0 409 647 0 0
Reaction rates σv (in cm
3
sec
−1
), averaged over Maxwellian distributions:
Temperature D–D D–T D–He
3
T–T T–He
3
(keV) (1a + 1b) (2) (3) (4) (5a–c)
1.0 1.5 ×10
−22
5.5 ×10
−21
10
−26
3.3 ×10
−22
10
−28
2.0 5.4 ×10
−21
2.6 ×10
−19
1.4 ×10
−23
7.1 ×10
−21
10
−25
5.0 1.8 ×10
−19
1.3 ×10
−17
6.7 ×10
−21
1.4 ×10
−19
2.1 ×10
−22
10.0 1.2 ×10
−18
1.1 ×10
−16
2.3 ×10
−19
7.2 ×10
−19
1.2 ×10
−20
20.0 5.2 ×10
−18
4.2 ×10
−16
3.8 ×10
−18
2.5 ×10
−18
2.6 ×10
−19
50.0 2.1 ×10
−17
8.7 ×10
−16
5.4 ×10
−17
8.7 ×10
−18
5.3 ×10
−18
100.0 4.5 ×10
−17
8.5 ×10
−16
1.6 ×10
−16
1.9 ×10
−17
2.7 ×10
−17
200.0 8.8 ×10
−17
6.3 ×10
−16
2.4 ×10
−16
4.2 ×10
−17
9.2 ×10
−17
500.0 1.8 ×10
−16
3.7 ×10
−16
2.3 ×10
−16
8.4 ×10
−17
2.9 ×10
−16
1000.0 2.2 ×10
−16
2.7 ×10
−16
1.8 ×10
−16
8.0 ×10
−17
5.2 ×10
−16
For low energies (T
<
∼
25 keV) the data may be represented by
(σv)
DD
= 2.33 ×10
−14
T
−2/3
exp(−18.76T
−1/3
) cm
3
sec
−1
;
(σv)
DT
= 3.68 ×10
−12
T
−2/3
exp(−19.94T
−1/3
) cm
3
sec
−1
,
where T is measured in keV.
A threeparameter model has also been developed for fusion crosssections of
light nuclei.
28b
The power density released in the form of charged particles is
P
DD
= 3.3 ×10
−13
n
D
2
(σv)
DD
watt cm
−3
(including the subsequent
D–T reaction);
P
DT
= 5.6 ×10
−13
n
D
n
T
(σv)
DT
watt cm
−3
;
P
DHe
3
= 2.9 ×10
−12
n
D
n
He
3
(σv)
DHe
3
watt cm
−3
.
45
RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS
Here γ = (1 − β
2
)
−1/2
is the relativistic scaling factor; quantities in
analytic formulas are expressed in SI or cgs units, as indicated; in numerical
formulas, I is in amperes (A), B is in gauss (G), electron linear density N is
in cm
−1
, and temperature, voltage and energy are in MeV; β
z
= v
z
/c; k is
Boltzmann’s constant.
Relativistic electron gyroradius:
r
e
=
mc
2
eB
(γ
2
−1)
1/2
(cgs) = 1.70 ×10
3
(γ
2
−1)
1/2
B
−1
cm.
Relativistic electron energy:
W = mc
2
γ = 0.511γ MeV.
Bennett pinch condition:
I
2
= 2Nk(T
e
+T
i
)c
2
(cgs) = 3.20 ×10
−4
N(T
e
+T
i
) A
2
.
Alfv´enLawson limit:
I
A
= (mc
3
/e)β
z
γ (cgs) = (4πmc/µ
0
e)β
z
γ (SI) = 1.70 ×10
4
β
z
γ A.
The ratio of net current to I
A
is
I
I
A
=
ν
γ
.
Here ν = Nr
e
is the Budker number, where r
e
= e
2
/mc
2
= 2.82 × 10
−13
cm
is the classical electron radius. Beam electron number density is
n
b
= 2.08 ×10
8
Jβ
−1
cm
−3
,
where J is the current density in Acm
−2
. For a uniform beam of radius a (in
cm),
n
b
= 6.63 ×10
7
Ia
−2
β
−1
cm
−3
,
and
2r
e
a
=
ν
γ
.
46
Child’s law: (nonrelativistic) spacechargelimited current density between
parallel plates with voltage drop V (in MV) and separation d (in cm) is
J = 2.34 ×10
3
V
3/2
d
−2
Acm
−2
.
The saturated parapotential current (magnetically selflimited ﬂow along equi
potentials in pinched diodes and transmission lines) is
29
I
p
= 8.5 ×10
3
Gγ ln
_
γ + (γ
2
−1)
1/2
¸
A,
where G is a geometrical factor depending on the diode structure:
G =
w
2πd
for parallel plane cathode and anode
of width w, separation d;
G =
_
ln
R
2
R
1
_
−1
for cylinders of radii R
1
(inner) and R
2
(outer);
G =
R
c
d
0
for conical cathode of radius R
c
, maximum
separation d
0
(at r = R
c
) from plane anode.
For β →0 (γ →1), both I
A
and I
p
vanish.
The condition for a longitudinal magnetic ﬁeld B
z
to suppress ﬁlamentation
in a beam of current density J (in Acm
−2
) is
B
z
> 47β
z
(γJ)
1/2
G.
Voltage registered by Rogowski coil of minor crosssectional area A, n turns,
major radius a, inductance L, external resistance R and capacitance C (all in
SI):
externally integrated V = (1/RC)(nAµ
0
I/2πa);
selfintegrating V = (R/L)(nAµ
0
I/2πa) = RI/n.
Xray production, target with average atomic number Z (V
<
∼
5 MeV):
η ≡ xray power/beam power = 7 ×10
−4
ZV.
Xray dose at 1 meter generated by an ebeam depositing total charge Q
coulombs while V ≥ 0.84V
max
in material with charge state Z:
D = 150V
2.8
max
QZ
1/2
rads.
47
BEAM INSTABILITIES
30
Name Conditions Saturation Mechanism
Electron V
d
>
¯
V
ej
, j = 1, 2 Electron trapping until
electron
¯
V
ej
∼ V
d
Buneman V
d
> (M/m)
1/3
¯
V
i
, Electron trapping until
V
d
>
¯
V
e
¯
V
e
∼ V
d
Beamplasma V
b
> (n
p
/n
b
)
1/3
¯
V
b
Trapping of beam electrons
Weak beam V
b
< (n
p
/n
b
)
1/3
¯
V
b
Quasilinear or nonlinear
plasma (mode coupling)
Beamplasma
¯
V
e
> V
b
>
¯
V
b
Quasilinear or nonlinear
(hotelectron)
Ion acoustic T
e
≫T
i
, V
d
≫C
s
Quasilinear, ion tail form
ation, nonlinear scattering,
or resonance broadening.
Anisotropic T
e⊥
> 2T
e
Isotropization
temperature
(hydro)
Ion cyclotron V
d
> 20
¯
V
i
(for Ion heating
T
e
≈ T
i
)
Beamcyclotron V
d
> C
s
Resonance broadening
(hydro)
Modiﬁed two V
d
< (1 +β)
1/2
V
A
, Trapping
stream (hydro) V
d
> C
s
Ionion (equal U < 2(1 +β)
1/2
V
A
Ion trapping
beams)
Ionion (equal U < 2C
s
Ion trapping
beams)
For nomenclature, see p. 50.
48
Parameters of Most Unstable Mode
Name
Wave Group
Growth Rate Frequency Number Velocity
Electron
1
2
ω
e
0 0.9
ω
e
V
d
0
electron
Buneman 0.7
_
m
M
_
1/3
ω
e
0.4
_
m
M
_
1/3
ω
e
ω
e
V
d
2
3
V
d
Beamplasma 0.7
_
n
b
n
p
_
1/3
ω
e
ω
e
−
ω
e
V
b
2
3
V
b
0.4
_
n
b
n
p
_
1/3
ω
e
Weak beam
n
b
2n
p
_
V
b
¯
V
b
_
2
ω
e
ω
e
ω
e
V
b
3
¯
V
2
e
V
b
plasma
Beamplasma
_
n
b
n
p
_
1/2
¯
V
e
V
b
ω
e
V
b
¯
V
e
ω
e
λ
−1
D
V
b
(hotelectron)
Ion acoustic
_
m
M
_
1/2
ω
i
ω
i
λ
−1
D
C
s
Anisotropic Ω
e
ω
e
cos θ ∼ Ω
e
r
−1
e
¯
V
e⊥
temperature
(hydro)
Ion cyclotron 0.1Ω
i
1.2Ω
i
r
−1
i
1
3
¯
V
i
Beamcyclotron 0.7Ω
e
nΩ
e
0.7λ
−1
D
>
∼
V
d
;
(hydro)
<
∼
C
s
Modiﬁed two
1
2
Ω
H
0.9Ω
H
1.7
Ω
H
V
d
1
2
V
d
stream
(hydro)
Ionion (equal 0.4Ω
H
0 1.2
Ω
H
U
0
beams)
Ionion (equal 0.4ω
i
0 1.2
ω
i
U
0
beams)
For nomenclature, see p. 50.
49
In the preceding tables, subscripts e, i, d, b, p stand for “electron,” “ion,”
“drift,” “beam,” and “plasma,” respectively. Thermal velocities are denoted
by a bar. In addition, the following are used:
m electron mass r
e
, r
i
gyroradius
M ion mass β plasma/magnetic energy
V velocity density ratio
T temperature V
A
Alfv´en speed
n
e
, n
i
number density Ω
e
, Ω
i
gyrofrequency
n harmonic number Ω
H
hybrid gyrofrequency,
C
s
= (T
e
/M)
1/2
ion sound speed Ω
H
2
= Ω
e
Ω
i
ω
e
, ω
i
plasma frequency U relative drift velocity of
λ
D
Debye length two ion species
50
LASERS
System Parameters
Eﬃciencies and power levels are approximate.
31
Power levels available (W)
Type
Wavelength
(µm)
Eﬃciency
Pulsed CW
CO
2
10.6 0.01–0.02 > 2 ×10
13
> 10
5
(pulsed)
CO 5 0.4 > 10
9
> 100
Holmium 2.06 0.03†–0.1‡ > 10
7
80
Iodine 1.315 0.003 3 ×10
12
–
Ndglass 1.06 – 1.25 ×10
15
–
Nd:YAG 1.064 – 10
9
> 10
4
Nd:YLF 1.045, – 4 ×10
8
80
1.54,1.313
Nd:YVO4 1.064 – – > 20
Er:YAG 2.94 – 1.5 ×10
5
–
*Color center 1–4 10
−3
5 ×10
8
1
*Ti:Sapphire 0.7–1.5 0.4 ×η
p
10
14
150
Ruby 0.6943 < 10
−3
10
10
1
HeNe 0.6328 10
−4
– 1–50×10
−3
*Argon ion 0.45–0.60 10
−3
5 ×10
4
150
*OPO 0.3–10 > 0.1 ×η
p
10
10
5
N
2
0.3371 0.001–0.05 10
6
–
*Dye 0.3–1.1 10
−3
5 ×10
7
> 100
KrF 0.26 0.08 10
12
500
Xenon 0.175 0.02 > 10
8
–
Ytterbium ﬁber 1.05–1.1 0.55 5 ×10
7
10
4
Erbium ﬁber 1.534 – 7 ×10
6
100
Semiconductor 0.375–1.9 > 0.5 3 ×10
9
> 10
3
*Tunable sources †lampdriven ‡diodedriven
Nd stands for Neodymium; Er stands for Erbium; Ti stands for Titanium;
YAG stands for Yttrium–Aluminum Garnet; YLF stands for Yttrium Lithium
Fluoride; YVO5 stands for Yttrium Vanadate; OPO for Optical Parametric
Oscillator; η
p
is pump laser eﬃciency.
51
Formulas
An em wave with k B has an index of refraction given by
n
±
= [1 −ω
2
pe
/ω(ω ∓ω
ce
)]
1/2
,
where ± refers to the helicity. The rate of change of polarization angle θ as a
function of displacement s (Faraday rotation) is given by
dθ/ds = (k/2)(n
−
−n
+
) = 2.36 ×10
4
NBf
−2
cm
−1
,
where N is the electron number density, B is the ﬁeld strength, and f is the
wave frequency, all in cgs.
The quiver velocity of an electron in an em ﬁeld of angular frequency ω
is
v
0
= eE
max
/mω = 25.6I
1/2
λ
0
cmsec
−1
in terms of the laser ﬂux I = cE
2
max
/8π, with I in watt/cm
2
, laser wavelength
λ
0
in µm. The ratio of quiver energy to thermal energy is
W
qu
/W
th
= m
e
v
0
2
/2kT = 1.81 ×10
−13
λ
0
2
I/T,
where T is given in eV. For example, if I = 10
15
Wcm
−2
, λ
0
= 1 µm, T =
2 keV, then W
qu
/W
th
≈ 0.1.
Pondermotive force:
FF = N∇E
2
/8πN
c
,
where
N
c
= 1.1 ×10
21
λ
0
−2
cm
−3
.
For uniform illumination of a lens with fnumber F, the diameter d at
focus (85% of the energy) and the depth of focus l (distance to ﬁrst zero in
intensity) are given by
d ≈ 2.44Fλθ/θ
DL
and l ≈ ±2F
2
λθ/θ
DL
.
Here θ is the beam divergence containing 85% of energy and θ
DL
is the
diﬀractionlimited divergence:
θ
DL
= 2.44λ/b,
where b is the aperture. These formulas are modiﬁed for nonuniform (such as
Gaussian) illumination of the lens or for pathological laser proﬁles.
52
ATOMIC PHYSICS AND RADIATION
Energies and temperatures are in eV; all other units are cgs except where
noted. Z is the charge state (Z = 0 refers to a neutral atom); the subscript e
labels electrons. N refers to number density, n to principal quantum number.
Asterisk superscripts on level population densities denote local thermodynamic
equilibrium (LTE) values. Thus N
n
* is the LTE number density of atoms (or
ions) in level n.
Characteristic atomic collision cross section:
(1) πa
0
2
= 8.80 ×10
−17
cm
2
.
Binding energy of outer electron in level labelled by quantum numbers n, l:
(2) E
Z
∞
(n, l) = −
Z
2
E
H
∞
(n −∆
l
)
2
,
where E
H
∞
= 13.6 eV is the hydrogen ionization energy and ∆
l
= 0.75l
−5
,
l
>
∼
5, is the quantum defect.
Excitation and Decay
Cross section (Bethe approximation) for electron excitation by dipole
allowed transition m →n (Refs. 32, 33):
(3) σ
mn
= 2.36 ×10
−13
f
mn
g(n, m)
ǫ∆E
nm
cm
2
,
where f
mn
is the oscillator strength, g(n, m) is the Gaunt factor, ǫ is the
incident electron energy, and ∆E
nm
= E
n
−E
m
.
Electron excitation rate averaged over Maxwellian velocity distribution, X
mn
= N
e
σ
mn
v (Refs. 34, 35):
(4) X
mn
= 1.6 ×10
−5
f
mn
g(n, m)N
e
∆E
nm
T
1/2
e
exp
_
−
∆E
nm
T
e
_
sec
−1
,
where g(n, m) denotes the thermal averaged Gaunt factor (generally ∼ 1 for
atoms, ∼ 0.2 for ions).
53
Rate for electron collisional deexcitation:
(5) Y
nm
= (N
m
*/N
n
*)X
mn
.
Here N
m
*/N
n
* = (g
m
/g
n
) exp(∆E
nm
/T
e
) is the Boltzmann relation for level
population densities, where g
n
is the statistical weight of level n.
Rate for spontaneous decay n →m (Einstein A coeﬃcient)
34
(6) A
nm
= 4.3 ×10
7
(g
m
/g
n
)f
mn
(∆E
nm
)
2
sec
−1
.
Intensity emitted per unit volume from the transition n → m in an optically
thin plasma:
(7) I
nm
= 1.6 ×10
−19
A
nm
N
n
∆E
nm
watt/cm
3
.
Condition for steady state in a corona model:
(8) N
0
N
e
σ
0n
v = N
n
A
n0
,
where the ground state is labelled by a zero subscript.
Hence for a transition n →m in ions, where g(n, 0) ≈ 0.2,
(9) I
nm
= 5.1 ×10
−25
f
nm
g
m
N
e
N
0
g
0
T
1/2
e
_
∆E
nm
∆E
n0
_
3
exp
_
−
∆E
n0
T
e
_
watt
cm
3
.
Ionization and Recombination
In a general timedependent situation the number density of the charge
state Z satisﬁes
(10)
dN(Z)
dt
= N
e
_
−S(Z)N(Z) −α(Z)N(Z)
+S(Z −1)N(Z −1) + α(Z + 1)N(Z + 1)
_
.
Here S(oZ) is the ionization rate. The recombination rate α(Z) has the form
α(Z) = α
r
(Z) +N
e
α
3
(Z), where α
r
and α
3
are the radiative and threebody
recombination rates, respectively.
54
Classical ionization crosssection
36
for any atomic shell j
(11) σ
i
= 6 ×10
−14
b
j
g
j
(x)/U
j
2
cm
2
.
Here b
j
is the number of shell electrons; U
j
is the binding energy of the ejected
electron; x = ǫ/U
j
, where ǫ is the incident electron energy; and g is a universal
function with a minimum value g
min
≈ 0.2 at x ≈ 4.
Ionization from ion ground state, averaged over Maxwellian electron distribu
tion, for 0.02
<
∼
T
e
/E
Z
∞
<
∼
100 (Ref. 35):
(12) S(Z) = 10
−5
(T
e
/E
Z
∞
)
1/2
(E
Z
∞
)
3/2
(6.0 +T
e
/E
Z
∞
)
exp
_
−
E
Z
∞
T
e
_
cm
3
/sec,
where E
Z
∞
is the ionization energy.
Electronion radiative recombination rate (e + N(Z) →N(Z −1) + hν)
for T
e
/Z
2
<
∼
400 eV (Ref. 37):
(13) α
r
(Z) = 5.2 ×10
−14
Z
_
E
Z
∞
T
e
_
1/2
_
0.43 +
1
2
ln(E
Z
∞
/T
e
)
+0.469(E
Z
∞
/T
e
)
−1/3
_
cm
3
/sec.
For 1 eV < T
e
/Z
2
< 15 eV, this becomes approximately
35
(14) α
r
(Z) = 2.7 ×10
−13
Z
2
T
e
−1/2
cm
3
/sec.
Collisional (threebody) recombination rate for singly ionized plasma:
38
(15) α
3
= 8.75 ×10
−27
T
e
−4.5
cm
6
/sec.
Photoionization cross section for ions in level n, l (shortwavelength limit):
(16) σ
ph
(n, l) = 1.64 ×10
−16
Z
5
/n
3
K
7+2l
cm
2
,
where K is the wavenumber in Rydbergs (1 Rydberg = 1.0974 ×10
5
cm
−1
).
55
Ionization Equilibrium Models
Saha equilibrium:
39
(17)
N
e
N
1
*(Z)
N
n
*(Z −1)
= 6.0 ×10
21
g
Z
1
T
e
3/2
g
Z−1
n
exp
_
−
E
Z
∞
(n, l)
T
e
_
cm
−3
,
where g
Z
n
is the statistical weight for level n of charge state Z and E
Z
∞
(n, l)
is the ionization energy of the neutral atom initially in level (n, l), given by
Eq. (2).
In a steady state at high electron density,
(18)
N
e
N*(Z)
N*(Z −1)
=
S(Z −1)
α
3
,
a function only of T.
Conditions for LTE:
39
(a) Collisional and radiative excitation rates for a level n must satisfy
(19) Y
nm
>
∼
10A
nm
.
(b) Electron density must satisfy
(20) N
e
>
∼
7 ×10
18
Z
7
n
−17/2
(T/E
Z
∞
)
1/2
cm
−3
.
Steady state condition in corona model:
(21)
N(Z −1)
N(Z)
=
α
r
S(Z −1)
.
Corona model is applicable if
40
(22) 10
12
t
I
−1
< N
e
< 10
16
T
e
7/2
cm
−3
,
where t
I
is the ionization time.
56
Radiation
N. B. Energies and temperatures are in eV; all other quantities are in
cgs units except where noted. Z is the charge state (Z = 0 refers to a neutral
atom); the subscript e labels electrons. N is number density.
Average radiative decay rate of a state with principal quantum number n is
(23) A
n
=
m<n
A
nm
= 1.6 ×10
10
Z
4
n
−9/2
sec.
Natural linewidth (∆E in eV):
(24) ∆E ∆t = h = 4.14 ×10
−15
eVsec,
where ∆t is the lifetime of the line.
Doppler width:
(25) ∆λ/λ = 7.7 ×10
−5
(T/µ)
1/2
,
where µ is the mass of the emitting atom or ion scaled by the proton mass.
Optical depth for a Dopplerbroadened line:
39
(26) τ = 3.52×10
−13
f
nm
λ(Mc
2
/kT)
1/2
NL = 5.4×10
−9
f
mn
λ(µ/T)
1/2
NL,
where f
nm
is the absorption oscillator strength, λ is the wavelength, and L is
the physical depth of the plasma; M, N, and T are the mass, number density,
and temperature of the absorber; µ is M divided by the proton mass. Optically
thin means τ < 1.
Resonance absorption cross section at center of line:
(27) σ
λ=λ
c
= 5.6 ×10
−13
λ
2
/∆λcm
2
.
Wien displacement law (wavelength of maximum blackbody emission):
(28) λ
max
= 2.50 ×10
−5
T
−1
cm.
Radiation from the surface of a black body at temperature T:
(29) W = 1.03 ×10
5
T
4
watt/cm
2
.
57
Bremsstrahlung from hydrogenlike plasma:
26
(30) P
Br
= 1.69 ×10
−32
N
e
T
e
1/2
_
Z
2
N(Z)
¸
watt/cm
3
,
where the sum is over all ionization states Z.
Bremsstrahlung optical depth:
41
(31) τ = 5.0 ×10
−38
N
e
N
i
Z
2
gLT
−7/2
,
where g ≈ 1.2 is an average Gaunt factor and L is the physical path length.
Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coeﬃcient
42
for radiation of angular fre
quency ω:
(32) κ = 3.1 ×10
−7
Zn
e
2
ln ΛT
−3/2
ω
−2
(1 −ω
2
p
/ω
2
)
−1/2
cm
−1
;
here Λ is the electron thermal velocity divided by V , where V is the larger of
ω and ω
p
multiplied by the larger of Ze
2
/kT and ¯ h/(mkT)
1/2
.
Recombination (freebound) radiation:
(33) P
r
= 1.69 ×10
−32
N
e
T
e
1/2
_
Z
2
N(Z)
_
E
Z−1
∞
T
e
__
watt/cm
3
.
Cyclotron radiation
26
in magnetic ﬁeld B:
(34) P
c
= 6.21 ×10
−28
B
2
N
e
T
e
watt/cm
3
.
For N
e
kT
e
= N
i
kT
i
= B
2
/16π (β = 1, isothermal plasma),
26
(35) P
c
= 5.00 ×10
−38
N
2
e
T
2
e
watt/cm
3
.
Cyclotron radiation energy loss efolding time for a single electron:
41
(36) t
c
≈
9.0 ×10
8
B
−2
2.5 + γ
sec,
where γ is the kinetic plus rest energy divided by the rest energy mc
2
.
Number of cyclotron harmonics
41
trapped in a medium of ﬁnite depth L:
(37) m
tr
= (57βBL)
1/6
,
where β = 8πNkT/B
2
.
Line radiation is given by summing Eq. (9) over all species in the plasma.
58
ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY
Spectroscopic notation combines observational and theoretical elements.
Observationally, spectral lines are grouped in series with line spacings which
decrease toward the series limit. Every line can be related theoretically to a
transition between two atomic states, each identiﬁed by its quantum numbers.
Ionization levels are indicated by roman numerals. Thus CI is unionized
carbon, CII is singly ionized, etc. The state of a oneelectron atom (hydrogen)
or ion (He II, Li III, etc.) is speciﬁed by identifying the principal quantum
number n = 1, 2, . . . , the orbital angular momentum l = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1, and
the spin angular momentum s = ±
1
2
. The total angular momentum j is the
magnitude of the vector sum of l and s, j = l ±
1
2
(j ≥
1
2
). The letters s,
p, d, f, g, h, i, k, l, . . . , respectively, are associated with angular momenta
l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, . . . . The atomic states of hydrogen and hydrogenic
ions are degenerate: neglecting ﬁne structure, their energies depend only on n
according to
E
n
= −
R
∞
hcZ
2
n
−2
1 +m/M
= −
RyZ
2
n
2
,
where h is Planck’s constant, c is the velocity of light, m is the electron mass,
M and Z are the mass and charge state of the nucleus, and
R
∞
= 109, 737 cm
−1
is the Rydberg constant. If E
n
is divided by hc, the result is in wavenumber
units. The energy associated with a transition m →n is given by
∆E
mn
= Ry(1/m
2
−1/n
2
),
with m < n (m > n) for absorption (emission) lines.
For hydrogen and hydrogenic ions the series of lines belonging to the
transitions m →n have conventional names:
Transition 1 →n 2 →n 3 →n 4 →n 5 →n 6 →n
Name Lyman Balmer Paschen Brackett Pfund Humphreys
Successive lines in any series are denoted α, β, γ, etc. Thus the transition 1 →
3 gives rise to the Lymanβ line. Relativistic eﬀects, quantum electrodynamic
eﬀects (e.g., the Lamb shift), and interactions between the nuclear magnetic
59
moment and the magnetic ﬁeld due to the electron produce small shifts and
splittings,
<
∼
10
−2
cm
−1
; these last are called “hyperﬁne structure.”
In manyelectron atoms the electrons are grouped in closed and open
shells, with spectroscopic properties determined mainly by the outer shell.
Shell energies depend primarily on n; the shells corresponding to n = 1, 2,
3, . . . are called K, L, M, etc. A shell is made up of subshells of diﬀerent
angular momenta, each labeled according to the values of n, l, and the number
of electrons it contains out of the maximum possible number, 2(2l + 1). For
example, 2p
5
indicates that there are 5 electrons in the subshell corresponding
to l = 1 (denoted by p) and n = 2.
In the lighter elements the electrons ﬁll up subshells within each shell
in the order s, p, d, etc., and no shell acquires electrons until the lower shells
are full. In the heavier elements this rule does not always hold. But if a
particular subshell is ﬁlled in a noble gas, then the same subshell is ﬁlled in
the atoms of all elements that come later in the periodic table. The ground
state conﬁgurations of the noble gases are as follows:
He 1s
2
Ne 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Ar 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
Kr 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
4s
2
4p
6
Xe 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
4s
2
4p
6
4d
10
5s
2
5p
6
Rn 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
4s
2
4p
6
4d
10
4f
14
5s
2
5p
6
5d
10
6s
2
6p
6
Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, etc.) resemble hydrogen; their transitions are de
scribed by giving n and l in the initial and ﬁnal states for the single outer
(valence) electron.
For general transitions in most atoms the atomic states are speciﬁed in
terms of the parity (−1)
Σl
i
and the magnitudes of the orbital angular momen
tum L = Σl
i
, the spin S = Σs
i
, and the total angular momentum J = L + S,
where all sums are carried out over the unﬁlled subshells (the ﬁlled ones sum
to zero). If a magnetic ﬁeld is present the projections M
L
, M
S
, and M of
L, S, and J along the ﬁeld are also needed. The quantum numbers satisfy
M
L
 ≤ L ≤ νl, M
S
 ≤ S ≤ ν/2, and M ≤ J ≤ L + S, where ν is the
number of electrons in the unﬁlled subshell. Uppercase letters S, P, D, etc.,
stand for L = 0, 1, 2, etc., in analogy with the notation for a single electron.
For example, the ground state of Cl is described by 3p
5 2
P
o
3/2
. The ﬁrst part
indicates that there are 5 electrons in the subshell corresponding to n = 3 and
l = 1. (The closed inner subshells 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
, identical with the conﬁgura
tion of Mg, are usually omitted.) The symbol ‘P’ indicates that the angular
momenta of the outer electrons combine to give L = 1. The preﬁx ‘2’ repre
sents the value of the multiplicity 2S +1 (the number of states with nearly the
same energy), which is equivalent to specifying S =
1
2
. The subscript 3/2 is
60
the value of J. The superscript ‘o’ indicates that the state has odd parity; it
would be omitted if the state were even.
The notation for excited states is similar. For example, helium has a state
1s2s
3
S
1
which lies 19.72 eV (159, 856 cm
−1
) above the ground state 1s
2 1
S
0
.
But the two “terms” do not “combine” (transitions between them do not occur)
because this would violate, e.g., the quantummechanical selection rule that
the parity must change from odd to even or from even to odd. For electric
dipole transitions (the only ones possible in the longwavelength limit), other
selection rules are that the value of l of only one electron can change, and only
by ∆l = ±1; ∆S = 0; ∆L = ±1 or 0; and ∆J = ±1 or 0 (but L = 0 does not
combine with L = 0 and J = 0 does not combine with J = 0). Transitions
are possible between the helium ground state (which has S = 0, L = 0, J = 0,
and even parity) and, e.g., the state 1s2p
1
P
o
1
(with S = 0, L = 1, J = 1,
odd parity, excitation energy 21.22 eV). These rules hold accurately only for
light atoms in the absence of strong electric or magnetic ﬁelds. Transitions
that obey the selection rules are called “allowed”; those that do not are called
“forbidden.”
The amount of information needed to adequately characterize a state in
creases with the number of electrons; this is reﬂected in the notation. Thus
43
OII has an allowed transition between the states 2p
2
3p
′
2
F
o
7/2
and 2p
2
(
1
D)3d
′ 2
F
7/2
(and between the states obtained by changing
J from 7/2 to 5/2 in either or both terms). Here both states have two elec
trons with n = 2 and l = 1; the closed subshells 1s
2
2s
2
are not shown. The
outer (n = 3) electron has l = 1 in the ﬁrst state and l = 2 in the second.
The prime indicates that if the outermost electron were removed by ionization,
the resulting ion would not be in its lowest energy state. The expression (
1
D)
give the multiplicity and total angular momentum of the “parent” term, i.e.,
the subshell immediately below the valence subshell; this is understood to be
the same in both states. (Grandparents, etc., sometimes have to be speciﬁed
in heavier atoms and ions.) Another example
43
is the allowed transition from
2p
2
(
3
P)3p
2
P
o
1/2
(or
2
P
o
3/2
) to 2p
2
(
1
D)3d
′ 2
S
1/2
, in which there is a “spin
ﬂip” (from antiparallel to parallel) in the n = 2, l = 1 subshell, as well as
changes from one state to the other in the value of l for the valence electron
and in L.
The description of ﬁne structure, Stark and Zeeman eﬀects, spectra of
highly ionized or heavy atoms, etc., is more complicated. The most important
diﬀerence between optical and Xray spectra is that the latter involve energy
changes of the inner electrons rather than the outer ones; often several electrons
participate.
61
COMPLEX (DUSTY) PLASMAS
Complex (dusty) plasmas (CDPs) may be regarded as a new and unusual
state of matter. CDPs contain charged microparticles (dust grains) in addition
to electrons, ions, and neutral gas. Electrostatic coupling between the grains
can vary over a wide range, so that the states of CDPs can change from weakly
coupled (gaseous) to crystalline. CDPs can be investigated at the kinetic level
(individual particles are easily visualized and relevant time scales are accessi
ble). CDPs are of interest as a nonHamiltonian system of interacting particles
and as a means to study generic fundamental physics of selforganization, pat
tern formation, phase transitions, and scaling. Their discovery has therefore
opened new ways of precision investigations in manyparticle physics.
Typical experimental dust properties
grain size (radius) a ≃ 0.3−30 µm, mass m
d
∼ 3×10
−7
−3×10
−13
g, number
density (in terms of the interparticle distance) n
d
∼ ∆
−3
∼ 10
3
− 10
7
cm
−3
,
temperature T
d
∼ 3 ×10
−2
−10
2
eV.
Typical discharge (bulk) plasmas
gas pressure p ∼ 10
−2
−1 Torr, T
i
≃ T
n
≃ 3 × 10
−2
eV, v
T
i
≃ 7 × 10
4
cm/s
(Ar), T
e
∼ 0.3 − 3 eV, n
i
≃ n
e
∼ 10
8
− 10
10
cm
−3
, screening length λ
D
≃
λ
Di
∼ 20 −200 µm, ω
pi
≃ 2 ×10
6
−2 ×10
7
s
−1
(Ar). B ﬁelds up to B ∼ 3 T.
Dimensionless
Havnes parameter P = Zn
d
/n
e
normalized charge z = Ze
2
/kT
e
a
dustdust scattering parameter β
d
= Z
2
e
2
/kT
d
λ
D
dustplasma scattering parameter β
e,i
= Ze
2
/kT
e,i
λ
D
coupling parameter Γ = (Z
2
e
2
/kT
d
∆) exp(−∆/λ
D
)
lattice parameter κ = ∆/λ
D
particle parameter α = a/∆
lattice magnetization parameter µ = ∆/r
d
Typical experimental values: P ∼ 10
−4
−10
2
,z ≃ 2−4 (Z ∼ 10
3
−10
5
electron
charges), Γ < 10
3
, κ ∼ 0.3 −10, α ∼ 10
−4
−3 ×10
−2
, µ < 1
Frequencies
dust plasma frequency ω
pd
= (4πZ
2
e
2
n
d
/m
d
)
1/2
≃ (Z
P
1+P
m
i
/m
d
)
1/2
ω
pi
charge ﬂuctuation frequency ω
ch
≃
1+z
√
2π
(a/λ
D
)ω
pi
62
dustgas friction rate ν
nd
∼ 10a
2
p/m
d
v
T
n
dust gyrofrequency ω
cd
= ZeB/m
d
c
Velocities
dust thermal velocity v
T
d
= (kT
d
/m
d
)
1/2
≡ [
T
d
T
i
m
i
m
d
]
1/2
v
T
i
dust acoustic wave velocity C
DA
= ω
pd
λ
D
≃ (Z
P
1+P
m
i
/m
d
)
1/2
v
T
i
dust Alfv´en wave velocity v
Ad
= B/(4πn
d
m
d
)
1/2
dustacoustic Mach number V/C
DA
dust magnetic Mach number V/v
Ad
dust lattice (acoustic) wave velocity C
l,t
DL
= ω
pd
λ
D
F
l,t
(κ)
The range of the dustlattice wavenumbers is K∆ < π The functions F
l,t
(κ)
for longitudinal and transverse waves can be approximated
44,45
with accuracy
< 1% in the range κ ≤ 5:
F
l
≃ 2.70κ
1/2
(1 −0.096κ −0.004κ
2
), F
t
≃ 0.51κ(1 −0.039κ
2
),
Lengths
frictional dissipation length L
ν
= v
T
d
/ν
nd
dust Coulomb radius R
Ce,i
= Ze
2
/kT
e,i
dust gyroradius r
d
= v
T
d
/ω
cd
Grain Charging
The charge evolution equation is dZ/dt = I
i
− I
e
. From orbital motion
limited (OML) theory
46
in the collisionless limit l
en(in)
≫λ
D
≫a:
I
e
=
√
8πa
2
n
e
v
T
e
exp(−z), I
i
=
√
8πa
2
n
i
v
T
i
_
1 +
T
e
T
i
z
_
.
Grains are charged negatively. The grain charge can vary in response to spatial
and temporal variations of the plasma. Charge ﬂuctuations are always present,
with frequency ω
ch
. Other charging mechanisms are photoemission, secondary
emission, thermionic emission, ﬁeld emission, etc. Charged dust grains change
the plasma composition, keeping quasineutrality. A measure of this is the
Havnes parameter P = Zn
d
/n
e
. The balance of I
e
and I
i
yields
exp(−z) =
_
m
i
m
e
T
i
T
e
_
1/2
_
1 +
T
e
T
i
z
_
[1 +P(z)]
63
When the relative charge density of dust is large, P ≫ 1, the grain charge Z
monotonically decreases.
Forces and momentum transfer
In addition to the usual electromagnetic forces, grains in complex plasmas are
also subject to: gravity force F
g
= m
d
g; thermophoretic force
F
th
= −
4
√
2π
15
(a
2
/v
T
n
)κ
n
∇T
n
(where κ
n
is the coeﬃcient of gas thermal conductivity); forces associated
with the momentum transfer from other species, F
α
= −m
d
ν
αd
V
αd
, i.e.,
neutral, ion, and electron drag. For collisions between charged particles, two
limiting cases are distinguished by the magnitude of the scattering parameter
β
α
. When β
α
≪1 the result is independent of the sign of the potential. When
β
α
≫ 1, the results for repulsive and attractive interaction potentials are
diﬀerent. For typical complex plasmas the hierarchy of scattering parameters
is β
e
(∼ 0.01 − 0.3) ≪ β
i
(∼ 1 − 30) ≪ β
d
(∼ 10
3
− 3 × 10
4
). The generic
expressions for diﬀerent types of collisions are
47
ν
αd
= (4
√
2π/3)(m
α
/m
d
)a
2
n
α
v
T
α
Φ
αd
Electrondust collisions
Φ
ed
≃
1
2
z
2
Λ
ed
β
e
≪1
Iondust collisions
Φ
id
=
_
1
2
z
2
(T
e
/T
i
)
2
Λ
id
β
i
< 5
2(λ
D
/a)
2
(ln
2
β
i
+ 2 ln β
i
+ 2), β
i
> 13
Dustdust collisons
Φ
dd
=
_
z
2
d
Λ
dd
β
d
≪1
(λ
D
/a)
2
[ln 4β
d
−ln ln 4β
d
], β
d
≫1
where z
d
≡ Z
2
e
2
/akT
d
.
For ν
dd
∼ ν
nd
the complex plasma is in a twophase state, and for ν
nd
≫ν
dd
we have merely tracer particles (dustneutral gas interaction dominates). The
momentum transfer cross section is proportional to the Coulomb logarithm
Λ
αd
when the Coulomb scattering theory is applicable. It is determined by
integration over the impact parameters, from ρ
min
to ρ
max
. ρ
min
is due to ﬁnite
grain size and is given by OML theory. ρ
max
= λ
D
for repulsive interaction
(applicable for β
α
≪1), and ρ
max
= λ
D
(1+2β
α
)
1/2
for attractive interaction
(applicable up to β
α
< 5).
64
For repulsive interaction (electrondust and dustdust)
Λ
αd
= z
α
_
∞
0
e
−z
α
x
ln[1 + 4(λ
D
/a
α
)
2
x
2
]dx −2z
α
_
∞
1
e
−z
α
x
ln(2x −1)dx,
where z
e
= z, a
e
= a, and a
d
= 2a.
For iondust (attraction)
Λ
id
≃ z
_
∞
0
e
−zx
ln
_
1 + 2(T
i
/T
e
)(λ
D
/a)x
1 + 2(T
i
/T
e
)x
_
dx.
For ν
dd
≫ν
nd
the complex plasma behaves like a one phase system (dustdust
interaction dominates).
Phase Diagram of Complex Plasmas
The ﬁgure below represents diﬀerent “phase states” of CDPs as functions of
the electrostatic coupling parameter Γ and κ or α, respectively. The verti
cal dashed line at κ = 1 conditionally divides the system into Coulomb and
Yukawa parts. With respect to the usual plasma phase, in the diagram be
low the complex plasmas are “located” mostly in the strong coupling regime
(equivalent to the top left corner).
Regions I (V) represent Coulomb (Yukawa) crystals, the crystallization condi
tion is
48
Γ > 106(1 +κ +κ
2
/2)
−1
. Regions II (VI) are for Coulomb (Yukawa)
nonideal plasmas – the characteristic range of dustdust interaction (in terms
of the momentum transfer) is larger than the intergrain distance (in terms of
the WignerSeitz radius), (σ/π)
1/2
> (4π/3)
−1/3
∆, which implies that the
interaction is essentially multiparticle.
Regions III (VII and VIII) correspond to
Coulomb (Yukawa) ideal gases. The range
of dustdust interaction is smaller than the
intergrain distance and only pair collisions
are important. In addition, in the region
VIII the pair Yukawa interaction asymp
totically reduces to the hard sphere limit,
forming a “Yukawa granular medium”. In
region IV the electrostatic interaction is
unimportant and the system is like a uaual
granular medium.
0.1 1 10
10
4
10
2
10
0
10
2
10
4
10
1
10
2
10
3
α
1
=∆/a
VIII VII
VI
V
IV
III
II
I
Γ
κ=∆/λ
65
REFERENCES
When any of the formulas and data in this collection are referenced
in research publications, it is suggested that the original source be cited rather
than the Formulary. Most of this material is well known and, for all practical
purposes, is in the “public domain.” Numerous colleagues and readers, too
numerous to list by name, have helped in collecting and shaping the Formulary
into its present form; they are sincerely thanked for their eﬀorts.
Several booklength compilations of data relevant to plasma physics
are available. The following are particularly useful:
C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, 3rd edition (Athlone Press, Lon
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A. Anders, A Formulary for Plasma Physics (AkademieVerlag, Berlin,
1990).
H. L. Anderson (Ed.), A Physicist’s Desk Reference, 2nd edition (Amer
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K. R. Lang, Astrophysical Formulae, 2nd edition (Springer, New York,
1980).
The books and articles cited below are intended primarily not for the purpose
of giving credit to the original workers, but (1) to guide the reader to sources
containing related material and (2) to indicate where to ﬁnd derivations, ex
planations, examples, etc., which have been omitted from this compilation.
Additional material can also be found in D. L. Book, NRL Memorandum Re
port No. 3332 (1977).
1. See M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical
Functions (Dover, New York, 1968), pp. 1–3, for a tabulation of some
mathematical constants not available on pocket calculators.
2. H. W. Gould, “Note on Some Binomial Coeﬃcient Identities of Rosen
baum,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 49 (1969); H. W. Gould and J. Kaucky, “Eval
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1, 233 (1966).
3. B. S. Newberger, “New Sum Rule for Products of Bessel Functions with
Application to Plasma Physics,” J. Math. Phys. 23, 1278 (1982); 24,
2250 (1983).
4. P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics (McGraw
Hill Book Co., New York, 1953), Vol. I, pp. 47–52 and pp. 656–666.
66
5. W. D. Hayes, “A Collection of Vector Formulas,” Princeton University,
Princeton, NJ, 1956 (unpublished), and personal communication (1977).
6. See Quantities, Units and Symbols, report of the Symbols Committee
of the Royal Society, 2nd edition (Royal Society, London, 1975) for a
discussion of nomenclature in SI units.
7. E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor, “The 1986 Adjustment of the Fundamental
Physical Constants,” CODATA Bulletin No. 63 (Pergamon Press, New
York, 1986); J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 92, 85 (1987); J. Phys. Chem. Ref.
Data 17, 1795 (1988).
8. E. S. Weibel, “Dimensionally Correct Transformations between Diﬀerent
Systems of Units,” Amer. J. Phys. 36, 1130 (1968).
9. J. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGrawHill Book Co., New York,
1941), p. 508.
10. Reference Data for Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Com
munication, 7th edition, E. C. Jordan, Ed. (Sams and Co., Indianapolis,
IN, 1985), Chapt. 1. These deﬁnitions are International Telecommunica
tions Union (ITU) Standards.
11. H. E. Thomas, Handbook of Microwave Techniques and Equipment
(PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliﬀs, NJ, 1972), p. 9. Further subdivisions
are deﬁned in Ref. 10, p. I–3.
12. J. P. Catchpole and G. Fulford, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 58, 47 (1966);
reprinted in recent editions of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
(Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, OH) on pp. F306–323.
13. W. D. Hayes, “The Basic Theory of Gasdynamic Discontinuities,” in Fun
damentals of Gas Dynamics, Vol. III, High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet
Propulsion, H. W. Emmons, Ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton,
NJ, 1958).
14. W. B. Thompson, An Introduction to Plasma Physics (AddisonWesley
Publishing Co., Reading, MA, 1962), pp. 86–95.
15. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd edition (Addison
Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA, 1987), pp. 320–336.
16. The Z function is tabulated in B. D. Fried and S. D. Conte, The Plasma
Dispersion Function (Academic Press, New York, 1961).
17. R. W. Landau and S. Cuperman, “Stability of Anisotropic Plasmas to
AlmostPerpendicular Magnetosonic Waves,” J. Plasma Phys. 6, 495
(1971).
67
18. B. D. Fried, C. L. Hedrick, J. McCune, “TwoPole Approximation for the
Plasma Dispersion Function,” Phys. Fluids 11, 249 (1968).
19. B. A. Trubnikov, “Particle Interactions in a Fully Ionized Plasma,” Re
views of Plasma Physics, Vol. 1 (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965),
p. 105.
20. J. M. Greene, “Improved Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook Model of ElectronIon
Collisions,” Phys. Fluids 16, 2022 (1973).
21. S. I. Braginskii, “Transport Processes in a Plasma,” Reviews of Plasma
Physics, Vol. 1 (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), p. 205.
22. J. Sheﬃeld, Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic
Press, New York, 1975), p. 6 (after J. W. Paul).
23. K. H. Lloyd and G. H¨ arendel, “Numerical Modeling of the Drift and De
formation of Ionospheric Plasma Clouds and of their Interaction with
Other Layers of the Ionosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7389 (1973).
24. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, 3rd edition (Athlone Press, Lon
don, 1976), Chapt. 9.
25. G. L. Withbroe and R. W. Noyes, “Mass and Energy Flow in the Solar
Chromosphere and Corona,” Ann. Rev. Astrophys. 15, 363 (1977).
26. S. Glasstone and R. H. Lovberg, Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions
(Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), Chapt. 2.
27. References to experimental measurements of branching ratios and cross
sections are listed in F. K. McGowan, et al., Nucl. Data Tables A6,
353 (1969); A8, 199 (1970). The yields listed in the table are calculated
directly from the mass defect.
28. (a) G. H. Miley, H. Towner and N. Ivich, Fusion Cross Section and
Reactivities, Rept. COO221817 (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL,
1974); B. H. Duane, Fusion Cross Section Theory, Rept. BNWL1685
(Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1972); (b) X.Z. Li, Q.M. Wei, and
B. Liu, “A new simple formula for fusion crosssections of light nuclei,”
Nucl. Fusion 48, 125003 (2008).
29. J. M. Creedon, “Relativistic Brillouin Flow in the High ν/γ Limit,”
J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2946 (1975).
30. See, for example, A. B. Mikhailovskii, Theory of Plasma Instabilities
Vol. I (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1974). The table on pp. 48–49
was compiled by K. Papadopoulos.
68
31. Table prepared from data compiled by J. M. McMahon (personal com
munication, D. Book, 1990) and A. Ting (personal communication, J.D.
Huba, 2004).
32. M. J. Seaton, “The Theory of Excitation and Ionization by Electron Im
pact,” in Atomic and Molecular Processes, D. R. Bates, Ed. (New York,
Academic Press, 1962), Chapt. 11.
33. H. Van Regemorter, “Rate of Collisional Excitation in Stellar Atmo
spheres,” Astrophys. J. 136, 906 (1962).
34. A. C. Kolb and R. W. P. McWhirter, “Ionization Rates and Power Loss
from θPinches by Impurity Radiation,” Phys. Fluids 7, 519 (1964).
35. R. W. P. McWhirter, “Spectral Intensities,” in Plasma Diagnostic Tech
niques, R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Eds. (Academic Press, New
York, 1965).
36. M. Gryzinski, “Classical Theory of Atomic Collisions I. Theory of Inelastic
Collision,” Phys. Rev. 138A, 336 (1965).
37. M. J. Seaton, “Radiative Recombination of Hydrogen Ions,” Mon. Not.
Roy. Astron. Soc. 119, 81 (1959).
38. Ya. B. Zel’dovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High
Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic Press, New York,
1966), Vol. I, p. 407.
39. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York, 1966).
40. T. F. Stratton, “XRay Spectroscopy,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques,
R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Eds. (Academic Press, New York,
1965).
41. G. Bekeﬁ, Radiation Processes in Plasmas (Wiley, New York, 1966).
42. T. W. Johnston and J. M. Dawson, “Correct Values for HighFrequency
Power Absorption by Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Plasmas,” Phys. Fluids
16, 722 (1973).
43. W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Glennon, Atomic Transition Prob
abilities, NSRDSNBS 4, Vol. 1 (U.S. Govt. Printing Oﬃce, Washington,
1966).
44. F. M. Peeters and X. Wu, “Wigner crystal of a screenedCoulomb
interaction colloidal system in two dimensions”, Phys. Rev. A 35, 3109
(1987)
69
45. S. Zhdanov, R. A. Quinn, D. Samsonov, and G. E. Morﬁll, “Largescale
steadystate structure of a 2D plasma crystal”, New J. Phys. 5, 74 (2003).
46. J. E. Allen, “Probe theory – the orbital motion approach”, Phys. Scripta
45, 497 (1992).
47. S. A. Khrapak, A. V. Ivlev, and G. E. Morﬁll, “Momentum transfer in
complex plasmas”, Phys. Rev. E (2004).
48. V. E. Fortov et al., “Dusty plasmas”, Phys. Usp. 47, 447 (2004).
70
AFTERWORD
The NRL Plasma Formulary originated over twenty ﬁve years ago
and has been revised several times during this period. The guiding spirit and
person primarily responsible for its existence is Dr. David Book. I am indebted
to Dave for providing me with the T
E
X ﬁles for the Formulary and his con
tinued suggestions for improvement. The Formulary has been set in T
E
X by
Dave Book, Todd Brun, and Robert Scott. I thank readers for communicating
typographical errors to me as well as suggestions for improvements.
Finally, I thank Dr. Sidney Ossakow for his support of the NRL Plasma
Formulary during his tenure as Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division.
He was a steadfast advocate of this important project at the Naval Research
Laboratory.
71
CONTENTS Numerical and Algebraic Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diﬀerential Operators in Curvilinear Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 International System (SI) Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Metric Preﬁxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Physical Constants (SI) Physical Constants (cgs) Formula Conversion Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Electricity and Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Electromagnetic Frequency/Wavelength Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 AC Circuits Shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Fundamental Plasma Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Plasma Dispersion Function Collisions and Transport Ionospheric Parameters Solar Physics Parameters Thermonuclear Fusion Beam Instabilities Lasers Relativistic Electron Beams
Approximate Magnitudes in Some Typical Plasmas
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Atomic Physics and Radiation Atomic Spectroscopy Complex (Dusty) Plasmas Afterword
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2
NUMERICAL AND ALGEBRAIC Gain in decibels of P2 relative to P1 G = 10 log 10 (P2 /P1 ). To within two percent (2π)
1/2
≈ 2.5; π ≈ 10; e ≈ 20; 2
2
3
10
≈ 10 .
3
EulerMascheroni constant1 γ = 0.57722 Gamma Function Γ(x + 1) = xΓ(x): Γ(1/6) Γ(1/5) Γ(1/4) Γ(1/3) Γ(2/5) Γ(1/2) = = = = = = 5.5663 4.5908 3.6256 2.6789 2.2182 √ 1.7725 = π Γ(3/5) Γ(2/3) Γ(3/4) Γ(4/5) Γ(5/6) Γ(1) = = = = = = 1.4892 1.3541 1.2254 1.1642 1.1288 1.0
Binomial Theorem (good for  x < 1 or α = positive integer): (1 + x)α =
∞
α k α(α − 1) 2 α(α − 1)(α − 2) 3 x ≡ 1 + αx + x + x + .... k 2! 3!
k=0
RotheHagen identity2 (good for all complex x, y, z except when singular):
n
k=0
x + kz y + (n − k)z y x x + kz y + (n − k)z k n−k = x+y x + y + nz . x + y + nz n
Newberger’s summation formula3 [good for µ nonintegral, Re (α + β) > −1]:
∞
(−1)n Jα−γn (z)Jβ+γn (z) π = Jα+γµ (z)Jβ−γµ (z). n+µ sin µπ
n=−∞
3
are scalars. are vectors.. e2 .j Tij ei ej In cartesian coordinates the divergence of a tensor is a vector with components (18) (∇·T )i = j (∂Tji /∂xj ) [This deﬁnition is required for consistency with Eq. In general (19) ∇ · (AB) = (∇ · A)B + (A · ∇)B (20) ∇ · (f T ) = ∇f ·T +f ∇·T 4 .VECTOR IDENTITIES4 Notation: f. B. etc. g. (1) A · B × C = A × B · C = B · C × A = B × C · A = C · A × B = C × A · B (2) A × (B × C) = (C × B) × A = (A · C)B − (A · B)C (3) A × (B × C) + B × (C × A) + C × (A × B) = 0 (4) (A × B) · (C × D) = (A · C)(B · D) − (A · D)(B · C) (5) (A × B) × (C × D) = (A × B · D)C − (A × B · C)D (6) ∇(f g) = ∇(gf ) = f ∇g + g∇f (7) ∇ · (f A) = f ∇ · A + A · ∇f (8) ∇ × (f A) = f ∇ × A + ∇f × A (9) ∇ · (A × B) = B · ∇ × A − A · ∇ × B (10) ∇ × (A × B) = A(∇ · B) − B(∇ · A) + (B · ∇)A − (A · ∇)B (11) A × (∇ × B) = (∇B) · A − (A ·grad ∇)B (12) ∇(A · B) = A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) + (A · ∇)B + (B · ∇)A (13) ∇2 f = ∇ · ∇f (14) ∇2 A = ∇(∇ · A) − ∇ × ∇ × A (15) ∇ × ∇f = 0 (16) ∇ · ∇ × A = 0 If e1 . A. e3 are orthonormal unit vectors. T is a tensor. I is the unit dyad. (29)]. a secondorder tensor T can be written in the dyadic form (17) T = i.
y. Then (21) ∇ · r = 3 (22) ∇ × r = 0 (23) ∇r = r/r (24) ∇(1/r) = −r/r3 (25) ∇ · (r/r3 ) = 4πδ(r) (26) ∇r = I If V is a volume enclosed by a surface S and dS = ndS.Let r = ix + jy + kz be the radius vector of magnitude r. of which the line element is dl. from the origin to the point x. z. where n is the unit normal outward from V. (27) V dV ∇f = dSf S (28) V dV ∇ · A = S dS · A (29) V dV ∇·T = S dS ·T (30) V dV ∇ × A = S dS × A (31) V dV (f ∇2 g − g∇2 f ) = S dS · (f ∇g − g∇f ) (32) V dV (A · ∇ × ∇ × B − B · ∇ × ∇ × A) = S dS · (B × ∇ × A − A × ∇ × B) If S is an open surface bounded by the contour C. (33) S dS × ∇f = dlf C 5 .
r ∂φ (∇f )z = ∂f ∂z 1 ∂Aφ ∂Az 1 ∂ (rAr ) + + r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z (∇ × A)φ = (∇ × A)z = Laplacian ∇2 f = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂f ∂r + ∂2f 1 ∂2f + r2 ∂φ2 ∂z 2 6 . ∂r (∇f )φ = 1 ∂f .(34) S dS · ∇ × A = C dl · A dl × A f dg = − gdf C (35) S (dS × ∇) × A = dS · (∇f × ∇g) = C (36) S C DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN CURVILINEAR COORDINATES5 Cylindrical Coordinates Divergence ∇·A= Gradient (∇f )r = Curl (∇ × A)r = ∂Aφ 1 ∂Az − r ∂φ ∂z ∂Ar ∂Az − ∂z ∂r 1 ∂ 1 ∂Ar (rAφ ) − r ∂r r ∂φ ∂f .
Laplacian of a vector (∇ A)r = ∇ Ar − 2 2 Ar 2 ∂Aφ − 2 r2 ∂φ r (∇2 A)φ = ∇2 Aφ + Aφ 2 ∂Ar − 2 r2 ∂φ r (∇ A)z = ∇ Az Components of (A · ∇)B (A · ∇B)r = Ar Aφ ∂Br Aφ Bφ ∂Br ∂Br + + Az − ∂r r ∂φ ∂z r 2 2 (A · ∇B)φ = Ar ∂Bφ ∂Bφ Aφ ∂Bφ Aφ Br + + Az + ∂r r ∂φ ∂z r (A · ∇B)z = Ar Divergence of a tensor (∇ · T )r = Aφ ∂Bz ∂Bz ∂Bz + + Az ∂r r ∂φ ∂z Tφφ 1 ∂ 1 ∂Tφr ∂Tzr (rTrr ) + + − r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z r (∇ · T )φ = ∂Tzφ Tφr 1 ∂ 1 ∂Tφφ (rTrφ ) + + + r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z r (∇ · T )z = 1 ∂Tφz ∂Tzz 1 ∂ (rTrz ) + + r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z 7 .
∂r (∇f )θ = 1 ∂f .Spherical Coordinates Divergence ∇·A= Gradient (∇f )r = Curl (∇ × A)r = ∂ ∂Aθ 1 1 (sin θAφ ) − r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∂f . r ∂θ (∇f )φ = ∂f 1 r sin θ ∂φ ∂Aφ 1 ∂ ∂ 1 1 2 (r Ar ) + (sin θAθ ) + 2 ∂r r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (∇ × A)θ = ∂Ar 1 ∂ 1 − (rAφ ) r sin θ ∂φ r ∂r (∇ × A)φ = Laplacian 1 ∂ ∇ f = 2 r ∂r 2 1 ∂ 1 ∂Ar (rAθ ) − r ∂r r ∂θ ∂f r ∂r 2 ∂ 1 + 2 r sin θ ∂θ ∂f sin θ ∂θ ∂2f 1 + 2 r sin2 θ ∂φ2 Laplacian of a vector (∇2 A)r = ∇2 Ar − ∂Aφ 2Ar 2 ∂Aθ 2 cot θAθ 2 − 2 − − 2 r2 r ∂θ r2 r sin θ ∂φ (∇ A)θ = ∇ Aθ + 2 2 Aθ 2 cos θ ∂Aφ 2 ∂Ar − 2 − 2 2θ 2 ∂θ r r sin r sin2 θ ∂φ (∇2 A)φ = ∇2 Aφ − r2 Aφ ∂Ar 2 2 cos θ ∂Aθ + 2 + 2 2θ sin r sin θ ∂φ r sin2 θ ∂φ 8 .
Components of (A · ∇)B (A · ∇B)r = Ar Aφ ∂Br Aθ Bθ + Aφ Bφ Aθ ∂Br ∂Br + + − ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r (A · ∇B)θ = Ar ∂Bθ Aθ ∂Bθ Aφ ∂Bθ Aθ Br cot θAφ Bφ + + + − ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r r (A · ∇B)φ = Ar Divergence of a tensor (∇ · T )r = ∂Bφ Aφ ∂Bφ Aφ Br cot θAφ Bθ Aθ ∂Bφ + + + + ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r r ∂ 1 1 ∂ (r2 Trr ) + (sin θTθr ) r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ + ∂Tφr Tθθ + Tφφ 1 − r sin θ ∂φ r (∇ · T )θ = ∂ 1 1 ∂ (r2 Trθ ) + (sin θTθθ ) r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ + ∂Tφθ cot θTφφ Tθr 1 + − r sin θ ∂φ r r (∇ · T )φ = 1 ∂ ∂ 1 (r2 Trφ ) + (sin θTθφ ) r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ + ∂Tφφ Tφr cot θTφθ 1 + + r sin θ ∂φ r r 9 .
j ρ D E E. Dimensions Physical Quantity Capacitance Charge Charge density Conductance Conductivity Current Current density Density Displacement Electric ﬁeld Electromotance Energy Energy density σ I. i J. Multiples of 3 in the conversion factors result from approximating the speed of light c = 2.9979 × 1010 cm/sec ≈ 3 × 1010 cm/sec. multiply the value expressed in SI units by the conversion factor.DIMENSIONS AND UNITS To get the value of a quantity in Gaussian units. W w. ǫ Symbol C q ρ SI t2 q 2 ml2 q q l3 tq 2 ml2 tq 2 ml3 q t q l2 t m l3 q l2 ml t2 q ml2 t2 q ml2 t2 m lt2 Gaussian l m1/2 l3/2 t m1/2 l3/2 t l t 1 t m1/2 l3/2 t2 m1/2 l1/2 t2 m l3 m1/2 l1/2 t m1/2 l1/2 t m1/2 l1/2 t ml2 t2 m lt2 SI Units farad coulomb coulomb /m3 siemens siemens /m ampere ampere /m2 kg/m3 coulomb /m2 volt/m volt joule Conversion Factor 9 × 1011 3 × 109 3 × 103 9 × 1011 9 × 109 3 × 109 3 × 105 10−3 12π × 105 1 −4 × 10 3 1 −2 × 10 3 107 Gaussian Units cm statcoulomb statcoulomb /cm3 cm/sec sec−1 statampere statampere /cm2 g/cm3 statcoulomb /cm2 statvolt/cm statvolt erg erg/cm3 joule/m3 10 10 . Emf U.
Mmf m1/2 l1/2 ampere– t2 turn m ml t m l2 t 1 kilogram (kg) kg–m/s kg/m2 –s henry/m m. P ml t m l2 t ml q2 11 . ν Z L l H Φ B m. M m p.Dimensions Physical Quantity Force Frequency Impedance Inductance Length Magnetic intensity Magnetic ﬂux Magnetic induction Magnetic moment Symbol F f. µ SI ml t2 1 t ml2 tq 2 ml2 q2 l q lt ml2 tq m tq l2 q t q lt q t Gaussian ml t2 1 t t l t2 l l m1/2 l1/2 t SI Units newton hertz ohm henry meter (m) ampere– turn/m Conversion Factor 105 1 1 × 10−11 9 1 × 10−11 9 102 4π × 10−3 108 104 Gaussian Units dyne hertz sec/cm sec2 /cm centimeter (cm) oersted maxwell gauss oersted– cm3 oersted gilbert gram (g) g–cm/sec g/cm2 –sec — m1/2 l3/2 weber t m1/2 tesla l1/2 t m1/2 l5/2 ampere–m2 103 t m1/2 l1/2 t ampere– turn/m 4π × 10−3 4π 10 103 105 10−1 1 7 × 10 4π Magnetization M Magnetomotance Mass Momentum Momentum density Permeability µ M.
P R R η. k ductivity Time Vector potential Velocity Viscosity Vorticity Work t A v η. ρ ampere–turn 4π × 10−9 cm−1 /weber 1 −11 ohm × 10 sec/cm 9 ohm–m watt/m– deg (K) 1 −9 × 10 9 105 1 106 102 10 1 107 sec erg/cm–sec– deg (K) second (sec) gauss–cm cm/sec poise sec−1 erg Thermal con. µ ζ W t second (s) 1/2 1/2 m l weber/m t l t m lt 1 t ml2 t2 m/s kg/m–s s−1 joule 12 . φ P t2 q 2 1 ml3 q m1/2 l2 l1/2 t ml2 t2 q ml2 t3 m lt3 m lt2 q2 ml2 ml2 tq 2 ml3 tq 2 ml t3 t ml tq l t m lt 1 t ml2 t2 SI Units farad/m Conversion Factor 36π × 109 Gaussian Units — statcoulomb /cm2 statvolt erg/sec erg/cm3 –sec dyne/cm2 coulomb/m2 3 × 105 1 × 10−2 3 107 10 10 m1/2 l1/2 volt t ml2 t3 m lt3 m lt2 1 l t l t ml t3 watt watt/m3 pascal p.Physical Quantity Permittivity Polarization Potential Power Power density Pressure Reluctance Resistance Resistivity Dimensions Symbol SI Gaussian ǫ P V.κ.
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM (SI) NOMENCLATURE6 Physical Quantity *length *mass *time *current *temperature *amount of substance *luminous intensity †plane angle †solid angle frequency energy force pressure power Name of Unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela radian steradian hertz joule newton pascal watt Symbol for Unit m kg s A K mol cd rad sr Hz J N Pa W Physical Quantity electric potential electric resistance electric conductance electric capacitance magnetic ﬂux magnetic inductance magnetic intensity luminous ﬂux illuminance activity (of a radioactive source) absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) Name of Unit volt ohm siemens farad weber henry tesla lumen lux becquerel Symbol for Unit V Ω S F Wb H T lm lx Bq gray Gy electric charge coulomb C *SI base unit †Supplementary unit METRIC PREFIXES Multiple 10−1 10−2 10−3 10−6 10−9 10−12 10−15 10−18 Preﬁx deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Symbol d c m µ n p f a Multiple 10 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018 Preﬁx deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa Symbol da h k M G T P E 13 .
04 1.6525 × 10−29 m2 3.1094 × 10−31 kg 1.2918 × 10−11 m re = e2 /4πǫ0 mc2 2.4388 × 10−2 5.6705 × 10−8 8.0974 × 107 C kg−1 m−1 H m−1 5.8179 × 10−15 m 2.8362 × 103 1.7974 × 10−21 m2 6.2974 × 10−3 137.6726 × 10−11 m3 s−2 kg−1 6.PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (SI)7 Physical Quantity Boltzmann constant Elementary charge Electron mass Proton mass Gravitational constant Planck constant k e me mp G Symbol Value 1.0546 × 10−34 J s 2.8616 × 10−13 m 7.6022 × 10−19 C Units 1.6261 × 10−34 J s 1.8542 × 10−12 F m−1 4π × 10−7 1.7418 × 10−16 W m2 mK W m−2 K−4 14 .9979 × 108 h h = h/2π ¯ ǫ0 µ0 mp /me e/me me4 R∞ = 8ǫ0 2 ch3 a0 = ǫ0 h2 /πme2 πa0 2 (8π/3)re 2 h/me c h/me c ¯ α = e2 /2ǫ0 hc α−1 c1 = 2πhc2 c2 = hc/k σ Speed of light in vacuum c Permittivity of free space Permeability of free space Proton/electron mass ratio Electron charge/mass ratio Rydberg constant Bohr radius Atomic cross section Classical electron radius Thomson cross section Compton wavelength of electron Finestructure constant First radiation constant Second radiation constant StefanBoltzmann constant m s−1 8.3807 × 10−23 J K−1 9.7588 × 1011 1.4263 × 10−12 m 3.6726 × 10−27 kg 6.
1868 9.2414 × 10−2 2.0221 × 1023 9.8067 15 .4180 × 1014 8.9864 × 10−25 13.15 1. density at STP) Atomic mass unit Standard temperature Atmospheric pressure Pressure of 1 mm Hg (1 torr) Molar volume at STP Molar weight of air calorie (cal) Gravitational acceleration g Symbol λ0 = hc/e ν0 = e/h k0 = e/hc hν0 hc me3 /8ǫ0 2 h2 k/e e/k NA F = NA e R = NA k n0 mu T0 p0 = n0 kT0 Value 1.0133 × 10 5 1.1604 × 104 6.Physical Quantity Wavelength associated with 1 eV Frequency associated with 1 eV Wave number associated with 1 eV Energy associated with 1 eV Energy associated with 1 m−1 Energy associated with 1 Rydberg Energy associated with 1 Kelvin Temperature associated with 1 eV Avogadro number Faraday constant Gas constant Loschmidt’s number (no.6485 × 104 8.606 8.6174 × 10−5 1.8971 × 10−2 4.3145 m Hz Units m−1 J J eV eV K mol−1 C mol−1 J K−1 mol−1 m−3 kg K Pa Pa m3 kg J m s−2 2.6868 × 1025 1.3332 × 102 V0 = RT0 /p0 Mair 2.0655 × 105 1.2398 × 10−6 2.6022 × 10−19 1.6605 × 10−27 273.
3807 × 10−16 erg/deg (K) 4.7974 × 10 −17 statcoul/g cm−1 cm cm2 re = e2 /mc2 (8π/3)re 2 h/me c h/me c ¯ α = e2 /¯ c h α−1 c1 = 2πhc2 c2 = hc/k σ λ0 2.9979 × 1010 1.8362 × 10 3 cm/sec 5.7418 × 10−5 6.1094 × 10−28 g 1.2974 × 10−3 137.8179 × 10−13 cm 2.8032 × 10−10 statcoulomb (statcoul) 9.2918 × 10−9 8.4388 3.PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (cgs)7 Physical Quantity Boltzmann constant Elementary charge Electron mass Proton mass Gravitational constant Planck constant k e me mp G Symbol Value Units 1.6726 × 10−8 dynecm2 /g2 h h = h/2π ¯ mp /me e/me 2π 2 me4 R∞ = ch3 a0 = h2 /me2 ¯ πa0 2 Speed of light in vacuum c Proton/electron mass ratio Electron charge/mass ratio Rydberg constant Bohr radius Atomic cross section Classical electron radius Thomson cross section Compton wavelength of electron Finestructure constant First radiation constant Second radiation constant StefanBoltzmann constant Wavelength associated with 1 eV 6.04 1.6261 × 10−27 ergsec 1.6726 × 10−24 g 6.2398 × 10−4 16 .0974 × 105 5.6525 × 10−25 cm2 ergcm2 /sec cmdeg (K) erg/cm2 secdeg4 cm 5.4263 × 10−10 cm 3.8616 × 10−11 cm 7.0546 × 10−27 ergsec 2.6705 × 10−5 1.2728 × 1017 1.
0221 × 1023 2.Physical Quantity Frequency associated with 1 eV Wave number associated with 1 eV Energy associated with 1 eV Energy associated with 1 cm−1 Energy associated with 1 Rydberg Energy associated with 1 deg Kelvin Temperature associated with 1 eV Avogadro number Faraday constant Gas constant Loschmidt’s number (no.6605 × 10−24 273.971 980.6868 × 10 19 1.6174 × 10−5 1.8925 × 1014 8.0133 × 106 1.1868 × 10 7 17 .15 1. density at STP) Atomic mass unit Standard temperature Atmospheric pressure Pressure of 1 mm Hg (1 torr) Molar volume at STP Molar weight of air calorie (cal) Gravitational acceleration g ν0 k0 Symbol Value 2.3145 × 107 2.67 4.6022 × 10−12 1.606 8.9864 × 10−16 13.0655 × 103 1.4180 × 1014 8.2414 × 104 28.1604 × 104 Hz Units cm−1 erg erg eV eV deg (K) mol−1 statcoul/mol erg/degmol cm−3 g deg (K) dyne/cm2 dyne/cm2 cm3 g erg cm/sec2 NA F = NA e R = NA k n0 mu T0 p0 = n0 kT0 6.3332 × 103 V0 = RT0 /p0 Mair 2.
9979×108 m s−1 . β = 107 erg J−1 .) Physical Quantity Capacitance Charge Charge density Current Current density Electric ﬁeld Electric potential Electric conductivity Energy Energy density Force Frequency Inductance Length Magnetic induction Magnetic intensity Mass Momentum Power Pressure Resistance Time Velocity Gaussian Units to SI α/4πǫ0 (αβ/4πǫ0 )1/2 (β/4πα5 ǫ0 )1/2 (αβ/4πǫ0 )1/2 (β/4πα3 ǫ0 )1/2 (4πβǫ0 /α3 )1/2 (4πβǫ0 /α)1/2 (4πǫ0 )−1 β β/α3 β/α 1 4πǫ0 /α α (4πβ/α3 µ0 )1/2 (4πµ0 β/α3 )1/2 β/α2 β/α β β/α3 4πǫ0 /α 1 α Natural Units to SI ǫ0 −1 (ǫ0 hc)−1/2 ¯ (ǫ0 hc)−1/2 ¯ (µ0 /¯ c)1/2 h (µ0 /¯ c)1/2 h (ǫ0 /¯ c)1/2 h (ǫ0 /¯ c)1/2 h −1 ǫ0 (¯ c)−1 h (¯ c)−1 h (¯ c)−1 h c−1 µ0 −1 1 (µ0 hc)−1/2 ¯ (µ0 /¯ c)1/2 h c/¯ h −1 h ¯ (¯ c2 )−1 h (¯ c)−1 h (ǫ0 /µ0 )1/2 c c−1 18 . or a0 = h ǫ0 h2 /πme2 . (In ˆ ¯ ˆh e ¯ ˆˆ transforming from SI units. use Q = k Q. To derive a dimensionally correct SI formula from one expressed in ¯ ¯ ¯ Gaussian units. where k is the coeﬃcient in the second column of the table corresponding to Q (overbars ¯ denote variables expressed in Gaussian units). do not substitute for ǫ0 . where k is the coeﬃcient corresponding to Q in the third column. To go from SI to natural units in which h = c = 1 (distinguished ¯ −1 ˆ ˆ ˆ by a circumﬂex). or c. µ0 = 4π×10−7 H m−1 . Thus a0 = 4πǫ0 h2 /[(m¯ /c)(ˆ2 ǫ0 hc)] = 4π/m e2 . c = (ǫ0 µ0 )−1/2 = 2. substitute for each quantity according to Q = kQ. and h = 1.8542 × 10−12 F m−1 .0546× ¯ −34 10 J s.FORMULA CONVERSION8 Here α = 102 cm m−1 . ǫ0 = 8. µ0 . the formula a0 = h2 /m e2 ¯ ¯ ¯¯ 2 2 2 for the Bohr radius becomes αa0 = (¯ β) /[(mβ/α )(e αβ/4πǫ0 )]. Thus.
8542 × 10−12 F m−1 (Gaussian: ǫ ≈ 1) provided that all charge is regarded as free. 19 . V Poynting’s theorem is ∂W + ∂t S N · dS = − V dV J · E. Using the drift approximation v⊥ = E × B/B 2 to calculate polarization charge density gives rise to a dielectric constant K ≡ ǫ/ǫ0 = 1 + 36π × 109 ρ/B 2 (SI) = 1 + 4πρc2 /B 2 (Gaussian).MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS Name or Description Faraday’s law Ampere’s law Poisson equation [Absence of magnetic monopoles] Lorentz force on charge q Constitutive relations SI ∂B ∂t ∂D ∇×H= +J ∂t ∇×E=− ∇·D=ρ ∇·B=0 Gaussian 1 ∂B c ∂t 1 ∂D 4π ∇×H= + J c ∂t c ∇×E=− ∇·B=0 q E+ ∇ · D = 4πρ 1 v×B c q (E + v × B) D = ǫE B = µH D = ǫE B = µH In a plasma. where S is the closed surface bounding V and the Poynting vector (energy ﬂux across S) is given by N = E × H (SI) or N = cE × H/4π (Gaussian). µ ≈ µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m−1 (Gaussian units: µ ≈ 1). The electromagnetic energy in volume V is given by 1 2 1 8π W = V dV (H · B + E · D) dV (H · B + E · D) (SI) = (Gaussian). The permittivity satisﬁes ǫ ≈ ǫ0 = 8. where ρ is the mass density.
κm = µ/µ0 and κe = ǫ/ǫ0 . b Capacity of concentric spheres of radii a. made of wire of radius a. radii a. σ = conductivity. radius a. µ′ = permeability of surrounding medium. separated by distance d Capacity of concentric cylinders of length l. Permittivity of free space Permeability of free space Resistance of free space Capacity of parallel plates of area A. All units are SI unless otherwise speciﬁed. µ = permeability of conductor.2I/r gauss (r in cm) Bz = µa2 I/[2(a2 + z 2 )3/2 ] Field at distance r from straight wire carrying current I (amperes) Field at distance z along axis from circular loop of radius a carrying current I 20 . ‘1’ denotes a conducting medium and ‘2’ a propagating (lossless dielectric) medium. ǫ = dielectric permittivity.22 × 10−4 (f κm1 κe2 /σ)1/2 Bθ = µI/2πr tesla = 0. carrying uniform current Mutual inductance of parallel wires of length l.73 Ω L = (µ′ l/4π) [1 + 4 ln(d/a)] L =b µ′ [ln(8b/a) − 2] + µ/4 τ δ = ǫ/σ = (2/ωµσ)1/2 = (πf µσ)−1/2 Z = [µ/(ǫ + iσ/ω)]1/2 T = 4.8542 × 10−12 F m−1 µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m−1 = 1. separated by distance d Inductance of circular loop of radius b.ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM In the following. Where subscripts are used.2566 × 10−6 H m−1 C = ǫA/d C = 2πǫl/ ln(b/a) C = 4πǫab/(b − a) L = µl/8π R0 = (µ0 /ǫ0 )1/2 = 376. f = ω/2π = radiation frequency. carrying uniform current Relaxation time in a lossy medium Skin depth in a lossy medium Wave impedance in a lossy medium Transmission coeﬃcient at conducting surface9 (good only for T ≪ 1) ǫ0 = 8. b Selfinductance of wire of length l.
7 3.3 7.4 1.0 2.85 8.95 5.4 15.7 3.0 2.0 26.0 12.67 1.1 0.95 5.6 5.05 8.5 40. 21 .1 nm).67 1.0 26.6 5.2 10. 11 †The SHF (microwave) band is further subdivided approximately as shown.0 1.0 300 GHz 3 THz 430 THz 750 THz 30 PHz 3 EHz Wavelength Range Lower 10 Mm 1 Mm 100 km 10 km 1 km 100 m 10 m 1m 10 cm 1 cm 7.0 18.75 1 mm 100 µm 700 nm 400 nm 10 nm 100 pm 10 Mm 1 Mm 100 km 10 km 1 km 100 m 10 m 1m 10 cm 11.5 30 GHz 300 GHz 3 THz 430 THz 750 THz 30 PHz 3 EHz Lower Upper 30 Hz 300 Hz 3 kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 3.7 4.4 18.1 3.5 7.0 12.6 3.4 2.ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY/ WAVELENGTH BANDS10 Frequency Range Designation ULF* VF* ELF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF† S G J H X M P K R EHF Submillimeter Infrared Visible Ultraviolet X Ray Gamma Ray 30 Hz 300 Hz 3 kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 2.2 10. A *The boundary between ULF and VF (voice frequencies) is variously deﬁned.1 1 cm 1 mm 100 µm 700 nm 400 nm 10 nm 100 pm Upper In spectroscopy the angstrom is sometimes used (1˚ = 10−8 cm = 0.25 3.
γ+ − γ− γ+ − γ− γ− (I0 + γ+ q0 ) ¯ γ+ (I0 + γ− q0 ) ¯ exp(−γ+ t) − exp(−γ− t). I(t) = Is + It . where the steady state is Is = iωqs = V /Z in terms of the impedance Z = R + i(ωL − 1/ωC) and It = dqt /dt. The quality of the circuit is Q = ω0 L/R. Instability results when L. R. γ+ − γ− γ+ − γ− where γ± = (R ± ∆1/2 )/2L. ¯ ω1 (ω1 2 + γR 2 )¯0 + γR I0 q sin(ω1 t) exp(−γR t).AC CIRCUITS For a resistance R. and capacitance C in series with √ a voltage source V = V0 exp(iωt) (here i = −1). ¯ where γR = R/2L. where q satisﬁes dq q d2q + = V. ω1 It = I0 cos ω1 t − Here ω1 = ω0 (1 − R2 C/4L)1/2 . (c) Underdamped. C are not all of the same sign. 22 . (b) Critically damped. Z = R. At ω = ω0 . ∆ > 0 qt = It = I0 + γ+ q0 ¯ I0 + γ− q0 ¯ exp(−γ− t) − exp(−γ+ t). the ¯ transients can be of three types. depending on ∆ = R2 − 4L/C: (a) Overdamped. For initial conditions q(0) ≡ q0 = q0 + qs . where ω0 = (LC)−1/2 is the resonant frequency. inductance L. ∆ < 0 qt = γR q0 + I0 ¯ sin ω1 t + q0 cos ω1 t exp(−γR t). q ¯ It = [I0 − (I0 + γR q0 )γR t] exp(−γR t). L 2 +R dt dt C Solutions are q(t) = qs + qt . the current is given by I = dq/dt. ∆ = 0 qt = [¯0 + (I0 + γR q0 )t] exp(−γR t). I(0) ≡ I0 .
23 . Hk Ch Cl C Cr D CD E Ek Eu Fr Ga Gr Deﬁnition VA /V (ρ′ − ρ)L2 g/Σ V /(2gR)1/2 µV 2 /k∆T µV /Σ (T2 − T1 )/T2 ρV 2 /Γ = M2 B 2 L2 /ρνη LV 3 ρ/k∆T (VA /V )2 = Al2 µκ/ΣL D 3/2 V /ν(2r)1/2 (ρ′ − ρ)Lg/ ρ′ V 2 V 2 /cp ∆T (ν/2ΩL2 )1/2 = (Ro/Re)1/2 ∆p/ρV 2 V /(gL)1/2 V /N L 1/β∆T gL3 β∆T /ν 2 Signiﬁcance *(Magnetic force/ inertial force)1/2 Gravitational force/ surface tension (Inertial force/ gravitational force)1/2 Viscous heat/conducted heat Viscous force/surface tension Theoretical Carnot cycle eﬃciency Inertial force/ compressibility force Magnetic force/dissipative forces Kinetic energy ﬂow rate/heat conduction rate Magnetic force/inertial force Eﬀect of diﬀusion/eﬀect of surface tension Transverse ﬂow due to curvature/longitudinal ﬂow Drag force/inertial force Kinetic energy/change in thermal energy (Viscous force/Coriolis force)1/2 Pressure drop due to friction/ dynamic pressure †(Inertial force/gravitational or buoyancy force)1/2 Inverse of relative change in volume during heating Buoyancy force/viscous force [Hall CH λ/rL Gyrofrequency/ coeﬃcient] collision frequency *(†) Also deﬁned as the inverse (square) of the quantity shown. Ka Bd B Br Cp Ca Cy. e K´rm´n a a Bond Boussinesq Brinkman Capillary Carnot Cauchy. Hooke Chandrasekhar Clausius Cowling Crispation Dean [Drag coeﬃcient] Eckert Ekman Euler Froude Gay–Lussac Grashof Symbol Al.DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS OF FLUID MECHANICS12 Name(s) Alfv´n.
Bo W 24 .Name(s) Hartmann Knudsen Lewis Lorentz Lundquist Mach Magnetic Mach Magnetic Reynolds Newton Nusselt P´clet e Poisseuille Prandtl Rayleigh Reynolds Richardson Rossby Schmidt Stanton Stefan Stokes Strouhal Taylor Symbol H Kn Le Lo Lu M Mm Rm Nt N Pe Po Pr Ra Re Ri Ro Sc St Sf S Sr Ta Deﬁnition Signiﬁcance BL/(µη)1/2 = (Magnetic force/ (Rm Re C)1/2 dissipative force)1/2 λ/L κ/D V /c µ0 LVA /η = Al Rm V /CS V /VA = Al−1 µ0 LV /η F/ρL2 V 2 αL/k LV /κ D 2 ∆p/µLV ν/κ gH 3 β∆T /νκ LV /ν (N H/∆V ) 2 Hydrodynamic time/ collision time *Thermal conduction/molecular diﬀusion Magnitude of relativistic eﬀects J × B force/resistive magnetic diﬀusion force Magnitude of compressibility eﬀects (Inertial force/magnetic force)1/2 Flow velocity/magnetic diﬀusion velocity Imposed force/inertial force Total heat transfer/thermal conduction Heat convection/heat conduction Pressure force/viscous force Momentum diﬀusion/ heat diﬀusion Buoyancy force/diﬀusion force Inertial force/viscous force Buoyancy eﬀects/ vertical shear eﬀects Inertial force/Coriolis force Momentum diﬀusion/ molecular diﬀusion Thermal conduction loss/ heat capacity Radiated heat/conducted heat Viscous damping rate/ vibration frequency Vibration speed/ﬂow velocity Centrifugal force/viscous force (Centrifugal force/ viscous force)1/2 Convective heat transport/ radiative heat transport Inertial force/surface tension V /2ΩL sin Λ ν/D α/ρcp V σLT 3 /k ν/L2 f f L/V (2ΩL2 /ν)2 R1/2 (∆R)3/2 ·(Ω/ν) ρcp V /ǫσT 3 ρLV 2 /Σ Thring. Boltzmann Weber Th.
D Λ λ µ = ρν µ0 ν ρ ρ′ Σ σ Ω Magnetic induction Speeds of sound. c cp D = 2R F f g H. ∆T ǫ η κ. droplet.Nomenclature: B Cs . or temperatures Surface emissivity Electrical resistivity Thermal. ∆p. k ∂T = α∆T ∂x Volumetric expansion coeﬃcient. or moving object Surface tension (units kg s−2 ) Stefan–Boltzmann constant Solidbody rotational angular velocity 25 . molecular diﬀusivities (units m2 s−1 ) Latitude of point on earth’s surface Collisional mean free path Viscosity Permeability of free space Kinematic viscosity (units m2 s−1 ) Mass density of ﬂuid medium Mass density of bubble. velocities. ∆V. horizontal length scales Thermal conductivity (units kg m−1 s−2 ) Brunt–V¨is¨l¨ frequency a aa Radius of pipe or channel Radius of curvature of pipe or channel Larmor radius Temperature Characteristic ﬂow velocity Alfv´n speed e Newton’slaw heat coeﬃcient. L k = ρcp κ N = (g/H)1/2 R r rL T V VA = B/(µ0 ρ)1/2 α β Γ ∆R. pressures. dV /V = βdT Bulk modulus (units kg m−1 s−2 ) Imposed diﬀerences in two radii. light Speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (units m2 s−2 K−1 ) Pipe diameter Imposed force Vibration frequency Gravitational acceleration Vertical.
SHOCKS At a shock front propagating in a magnetized ﬂuid at an angle θ with respect to the magnetic induction B. ¯ ¯ (8) (p − p)(υ − υ )−1 = q 2 . then (13) U 2 = (r/α) Cs 2 + VA 2 [1 + (1 − γ/2)(r − 1)] . the sound speed is given by Cs 2 = (∂p/∂ρ)s = γpυ. If B = 0. where The density ratio is bounded by (12) 1 < r < (γ + 1)/(γ − 1). ρ = 1/υ is the mass density. where the speciﬁc internal energy e satisﬁes de = T ds − pdυ in terms of the temperature T and the speciﬁc entropy s. then15 ¯ (7) U − U = [(p − p)(υ − υ )]1/2 . µ is the magnetic permeability (µ = 4π in cgs units). ¯¯ ¯ 2 ¯ 2 (2) ρU 2 + p + B⊥ /2µ = ρU 2 + p + B⊥ /2µ. Quantities in the region behind (downstream from) the front are distinguished by a bar. ¯ ¯ (9) w − w = ¯ (10) e − e = ¯ 1 ¯ 2 (p − 1 ¯ 2 (p + p)(υ + υ ). ¯ ¯ (14) U/U = B/B = r. B⊥ = B sin θ. ¯¯ ¯ ¯ (5) U B⊥ − V B = U B⊥ − V B .14 (1) ρU = ρU ≡ q. and the speciﬁc enthalpy is w = e + pυ. Then p = ρRT /m. 26 . [1 + (r − 1)/2α] X − cos2 θ . where R is the universal gas constant and m is the molar weight. α = ¯ 1 2 [γ + 1 − (γ − 1)r]. the jump conditions are 13. ¯¯ ¯ ¯ (3) ρU V − B B⊥ /µ = ρU V − B B⊥ /µ. p is the pressure. If the shock is normal to B (i. (6) 2 1 2 (U 2 + V 2 ) + w + (U B⊥ − V B B⊥ )/µρU = 1 ¯2 2 (U ¯ ¯¯ 2 ¯ ¯ ¯ + V 2 ) + w + (U B⊥ − V B B⊥ )/µρU .. For a general oblique shock in a perfect gas the quantity X = r−1 (U/VA )2 satisﬁes14 (11) (X−β/α)(X−cos2 θ)2 = X sin2 θ r = ρ/ρ. ¯ p)(υ − υ ). ¯¯ ¯ ¯ (4) B = B . if θ = π/2).e. and w = γe = γpυ/(γ − 1). B = B cos θ. ¯ ¯¯ Here U and V are components of the ﬂuid velocity normal and tangential to the front in the shock frame. ¯ In what follows we assume that the ﬂuid is a perfect gas with adiabatic index γ = 1 + 2/n. and β = Cs 2 /VA 2 = 4πγp/B 2 . where n is the number of degrees of freedom.
C0 = 1. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (29) T /T = [(γ − 1)M 2 + 2](2γM 2 − γ + 1)/(γ + 1)2 M 2 . where C0 is a constant depending on γ. ¯ ¯ ¯ In terms of the upstream Mach number M = U/Cs . (16) p = p + (1 − r−1 )ρU 2 + (1 − r2 )B 2 /2µ. for which (22) U 2 = (r/α)Cs 2 . ¯ The entropy change across the shock is ¯ (30) M 2 = [(γ − 1)M 2 + 2]/[2γM 2 − γ + 1]. ¯ (18) U = VA 2 /U . (28) p/p = (2γM 2 − γ + 1)/(γ + 1).¯ (15) V = V . ¯ ¯ (27) ρ/ρ = υ/¯ = U/U = (γ + 1)M 2 /[(γ − 1)M 2 + 2]. (21) p = p + ρU 2 (1 − α + β)(1 − r−1 ). where cυ = R/(γ − 1)m is the speciﬁc heat at constant volume. ¯ ¯¯ (20) V = U B⊥ /B . (31) ∆s ≡ s − s = cυ ln[(p/p)(ρ/ρ)γ ]. there are two possibilities: switchon shocks. which require β < 1 and for which (17) U 2 = rVA 2 . ¯ ¯ (24) V = B⊥ = 0. ¯ If θ = 0. ¯ 2 (19) B⊥ = 2B 2 (r − 1)(α − β). ¯ υ (25) p = p + ρU 2 (1 − r−1 ).033. ¯ and acoustic (hydrodynamic) shocks. here R is the gas constant. 3(γ + 1) 3(γ + 1)m The radius at time t of a strong spherical blast wave resulting from the explosive release of energy E in a medium with uniform density ρ is (33) RS = C0 (Et2 /ρ)1/5 . 27 . In the weakshock limit (M → 1). For acoustic shocks the speciﬁc volume and pressure are related by (26) υ /υ = [(γ + 1)p + (γ − 1)p] / [(γ − 1)p + (γ + 1)p]. ¯ (23) U = U/r. For γ = 7/5. (32) ∆s → cυ 2γ(γ − 1) 16γR (M 2 − 1)3 ≈ (M − 1)3 .
26 × 108 K 1/2 E 1/2 sec−1 νT i = (ZeKE/mi )1/2 νe = 2. γ is the adiabatic index.64 × 104 ne 1/2 rad/sec ωci = ZeB/mi c = 9.FUNDAMENTAL PLASMA PARAMETERS All quantities are in Gaussian cgs units except temperature (T .31 × 105 ne −1/2 cm = 1.28 × 107 Z −1 (µ/ni )1/2 cm λD = (kT /4πne2 )1/2 = 7.98 × 103 ne 1/2 Hz = 5. K is wavenumber.76 × 107 B rad/sec fci = ωci /2π = 1.02 × 102 µ1/2 Z −1 Ti 1/2 B −1 cm c/ωpi = 2.38Te 1/2 B −1 cm ri = vT i /ωci c/ωpe = 5. Ti ) expressed in eV and ion mass (mi ) expressed in units of the proton mass.80 × 106 B Hz ωpi = (4πni Z 2 e2 /mi )1/2 electron trapping rate ion trapping rate electron collision rate ion collision rate Lengths electron deBroglie length classical distance of minimum approach electron gyroradius ion gyroradius electron inertial length ion inertial length Debye length νT e = (eKE/me )1/2 = 2.44 × 10−7 T −1 cm re = vT e /ωce = 2. Frequencies electron gyrofrequency ion gyrofrequency electron plasma frequency ωce = eB/me c = 1.32 × 103 Zµ−1/2 ni 1/2 rad/sec = 7.52 × 103 Zµ−1 B Hz fpe = ωpe /2π = 8.76 × 10−8 Te −1/2 cm ¯ ¯ e2 /kT = 1. k is Boltzmann’s constant.43 × 102 T 1/2 n−1/2 cm 28 .69 × 107 Z 1/2 K 1/2 E 1/2 µ−1/2 sec−1 νi = 4. µ = mi /mp .58 × 103 Zµ−1 B rad/sec ωpe = (4πne e2 /me )1/2 ion plasma frequency fpi = ωpi /2π fce = ωce /2π = 2. Te . ln Λ is the Coulomb logarithm.80 × 10−8 Z 4 µ−1/2 ni ln ΛTi −3/2 sec−1 λ = h/(me kTe )1/2 = 2. Z is charge state.91 × 10−6 ne ln ΛTe −3/2 sec−1 = 1.10 × 102 Zµ−1/2 ni 1/2 Hz = 1.
15 × 10−14 Z ln ΛT −3/2 sec = 6.64 × 10 ne W /kT sec −1 . Magnetic pressure is given by Pmag = B 2 /8π = 3.03 × 10−2 Z ln ΛT −3/2 Ω cm 4 1/2 The anomalous collision rate due to lowfrequency ionsound turbulence is ν* ≈ ωpe W /kT = 5. Detonation energy of 1 kiloton of high explosive is WkT = 10 12 cal = 4.19 × 107 Te 1/2 cm/sec Cs = (γZkTe /mi )1/2 vA = B/(4πni mi )1/2 = 9.9 β = 8πnkT /B 2 = 4. 29 .72 × 109 T 3/2 n−1/2 vA /c = 7.25 × 106 T B −1 cm2 /sec = 1.93(B/B0 )2 atm. where B0 = 10 kG = 1 T.18 × 1011 µ−1/2 ni −1/2 B cm/sec (4π/3)nλD 3 = 1. where W is the total energy of waves with ω/K < vT i .5µ−1 ni −1 B 2 DB = (ckT /16eB) η⊥ = 1.98 × 106 (B/B0 )2 dynes/cm2 = 3.03 × 10−11 nT B −2 B 2 /8πni mi c2 = 26.33 × 10−2 = 1/42.79 × 105 (γZTe /µ)1/2 cm/sec = 2.28µ−1/2 ni −1/2 B ωpe /ωce = 3.79 × 105 µ−1/2 Ti 1/2 cm/sec = 9.Velocities electron thermal velocity ion thermal velocity ion sound velocity Alfv´n velocity e Dimensionless (electron/proton mass ratio)1/2 number of particles in Debye sphere Alfv´n velocity/speed of light e electron plasma/gyrofrequency ratio ion plasma/gyrofrequency ratio thermal/magnetic energy ratio magnetic/ion rest energy ratio Miscellaneous Bohm diﬀusion coeﬃcient transverse Spitzer resistivity vT e = (kTe /me )1/2 vT i = (kTi /mi )1/2 = 4.21 × 10−3 ne 1/2 B −1 ωpi /ωci = 0.2 × 10 19 erg.137µ1/2 ni 1/2 B −1 (me /mp )1/2 = 2.
b = 0.50 + 0. a−ζ a* + ζ 0.81i 0.81i − .50 − 0. Physically. Power series (small argument): Z(ζ) = iπ 1/2 exp −ζ 2 − 2ζ 1 − 2ζ 2 /3 + 4ζ 4 /15 − 8ζ 6 /105 + · · · . Z(iy) = iπ 1/2 exp y 2 [1 − erf(y)] . a = 0.48 − 0.96i ′ Z (ζ) ≈ + .81i. Twopole approximations18 (good for ζ in upper half plane except when y < π 1/2 x2 exp(−x2 ).50 − 0. 17): Z(ζ) = iπ 1/2 σ exp −ζ 2 − ζ −1 1 + 1/2ζ 2 + 3/4ζ 4 + 15/8ζ 6 + · · · .PLASMA DISPERSION FUNCTION Deﬁnition16 (ﬁrst form valid only for Im ζ > 0): +∞ Z(ζ) = π −1/2 −∞ dt exp −t2 t−ζ iζ = 2i exp −ζ 2 −∞ dt exp −t 2 . (b − ζ)2 (b* + ζ)2 Z(ζ) ≈ 30 .96i 0. x ≫ 1): 0.51 − 0. Asymptotic series.50 + 0. dζ Real argument (y = 0): x d2 Z dZ + 2ζ + 2Z = 0. Z(ζ*) = [Z(ζ)] * + 2iπ 1/2 exp[−(ζ*)2 ] (y > 0). where σ= 0 y > x−1 1 y < x−1 2 y < −x−1 Symmetry properties (the asterisk denotes complex conjugation): Z(ζ*) = − [Z(−ζ)]*. 2 dζ dζ Z(x) = exp −x Imaginary argument (x = 0): 2 iπ 1/2 −2 dt exp t2 0 . Z(0) = iπ 1/2 . ζ ≫ 1 (Ref. ζ = x + iy is the ratio of wave phase velocity to thermal velocity. Diﬀerential equation: dZ = −2 (1 + ζZ) .91i.
All other units are cgs except where noted. ′ α\β ν⊥ ν α\β = 2 (1 − 1/2x α\β )ψ(x α\β ) + ψ (x ) ν0 α\β . α\β α\β = ψ(xα\β )/xα\β ν0 = 2 (mα /mβ )ψ(x α\β .60 × 10−12 erg/eV. dt where vα = vα  and the averages are performed over an ensemble of test particles and a Maxwellian ﬁeld particle distribution. masses µ. dψ . The exact formulas may be written19 α\β νs = (1 + mα /mβ )ψ(xα\β )ν0 α\β . dx dt t1/2 e−t . Relaxation Rates Rates are associated with four relaxation processes arising from the interaction of test particles (labeled α) streaming with velocity vα through a background of ﬁeld particles (labeled β): slowing down transverse diﬀusion parallel diﬀusion energy loss dvα α\β = −νs vα dt d α\β 2 2 (vα − vα )⊥ = ν⊥ vα ¯ dt d α\β 2 2 (vα − vα ) = ν ¯ vα dt d 2 α\β 2 vα = −νǫ vα . Limiting forms of νs . 0 ψ ′ (x) = and λαβ = ln Λαβ is the Coulomb logarithm (see below).COLLISIONS AND TRANSPORT Temperatures are in eV. ′ α\β νǫ where ν0 α\β α\β ) − ψ (x ) ν0 α\β . ν⊥ and ν are given in the following table. = 4πeα 2 eβ 2 λαβ nβ /mα 2 vα 3 . µ′ are in units of the proton mass. eα = Zα e is the charge of species α. the corresponding value of Boltzmann’s constant is k = 1. All the expressions shown 31 . 2 ψ(x) = √ π x xα\β = mβ vα 2 /2kTβ .
Test particle energy ǫ and ﬁeld particle temperature T are both in eV. respectively. The two expressions given below for each rate hold for very slow (xα\β ≪ 1) and very fast (xα\β ≫ 1) test particles.0 × 10 → νǫ = 2νs − ν⊥ − ν . where the leading terms cancel.7 × 10−6 ǫ−3/2 → ν⊥ /ni Z λei ≈ 2.8 × 10 ni′ Z 2 Z ′2 λii′ µ µ′ 1+ µ −1/2 T −3/2 −8 − 9.4 × 10−7 µ′1/2 µ−1 T −1/2 ǫ−1 − 1.9 × 10−6 T ǫ−5/2 → Electron–ion ei − 3.8 × 10 −8 µ ′1/2 µ −1 T −1/2 −1 − 9.9 × 10−6 ǫ−3/2 → νs /ni Z 2 λei ≈ 0.7 × 10−6 ǫ−3/2 → − 3. ﬁeld particle quantities are distinguished by a prime.7 × 10−4 µ1/2 ǫ−3/2 → ie 2 −9 −1 −1/2 −1 −7 −1/2 −3/2 ǫ − 1. in electron–electron and ion–ion encounters. −8 µ 1/2 µ ′−1 Tǫ −5/2 In the same limits.6 × 10−9 µ−1 T −3/2 − 1.2 × 10−4 µ1/2 T −1/2 ǫ−1 − 2.0 × 10 → ni′ Z 2 Z ′2 λii′ ν ii′ ν⊥ ii′ 1 1 + ′ µ µ µ1/2 ǫ3/2 ≈ 1.7 × 10−4 µ1/2 T ǫ−5/2 → ′ Ion–ion ′1/2 ii νs −8 µ ≈ 6. Slow Electron–electron ee νs /ne λee ≈ 5. the energy transfer rate follows from the identity except for the case of fast electrons or fast ions scattered by ions.23µ3/2 T −3/2 ei 2 −4 1/2 −1/2 −1 T ǫ − 7.5 × 10 µ ν ei /ni Z 2 λei ≈ 1. µ = mi /mp where mp is the proton mass. Then the appropriate forms are ei νǫ − 4.8 × 10 µ → ǫ ν⊥ /ne Z λie ≈ 3.2 × 10 µ T ν ie /ne Z 2 λie ≈ 1.9 × 10−6 T −1/2 ǫ−1 − 7.2 × 10−9 ni Z 2 λei → ǫ−3/2 µ−1 − 8.7 × 10−6 ǫ−3/2 → − 7.have units cm3 sec−1 .8 × 10−7 µ−1/2 ǫ−3/2 → ǫ ni′ Z 2 Z ′2 λii′ ≈ 6. Z is ion charge state.9 × 104 (µ/T )1/2 ǫ−1 exp(−1836µǫ/T ) sec−1 32 .8 × 10−6 T −1/2 ǫ−1 ν⊥ /ne λee ν ee Fast /ne λee ≈ 2.8 × 10−6 T −3/2 ee ≈ 5.6 × 10−9 µ−1 T −1/2 ǫ−1 − 1.1 × 10−9 µ−1 T ǫ−5/2 → Ion–electron ie νs /ne Z 2 λie ≈ 1.
For Z = 1. where x* = (mβ /mα )ǫα */Tβ is the solution of ψ ′ (x*) = (mα mβ )ψ(x*). dt 2 dt where. νe = 2. νT = 1. α\β is positive for ǫ > ǫα * and negaIn general. the energy transfer rate νǫ tive for ǫ < ǫα *.1[(µ + µ )/µµ ](µ /T ) ′ ′ ′ ′ 1/2 −1 ǫ exp(−µ ǫ/µT ) sec ′ ′ −1 . ii 0.2 × 10−7 nλT −3/2 sec−1 .and ′ ii νǫ − 1.8 × 10−3 eHe4 1. with Ti < Te . 33 .8 × 10−3 eD 2.9 × 10−6 nλTe −3/2 sec−1 . e νT = 8. νi = 4.8 × 10−7 ni′ Z 2 Z ′2 λii′ → ′ ǫ −3/2 µ 1/2 /µ − 1.98 ep 4. If A < 0.9 × 10 i −8 nλZ µ 2 −1/2 T −3/2 sec −1 . eHe3 1. α νT = √ 2 πeα 2 eβ 2 nα λαβ mα 1/2 (kT )3/2 A −2 −3 + (A + 3) tan−1 (A1/2 ) A1/2 .4 × 10−3 When both species are near Maxwellian. For T⊥ ≈ T ≡ T . tan−1 (A1/2 )/A1/2 is replaced by tanh−1 (−A)1/2 /(−A)1/2 .5 ee. Temperature Isotropization Isotropization is described by 1 dT dT⊥ α =− = −νT (T⊥ − T ).8 × 10 −8 nλTi −3/2 µ −1/2 sec −1 . The ratio ǫα */Tβ is given for a number of speciﬁc α. if A ≡ T⊥ /T − 1 > 0. β in the following table: α\β ǫα * Tβ ie 1.6 × 10−3 eT. there are just ∼ two characteristic collision rates.
Typically λ ≈ 10–20. averaged over both particle velocity distributions. The following cases are of particular interest: (a) Thermal electron–electron collisions λee = 23. Corrections to the transport coeﬃcients are O(λ−1 ). the Coulomb logarithm is deﬁned as λ = ln Λ ≡ ln(rmax /rmin ). equilibration is described by dTα = dt β νǫ (Tβ − Tα ). Ti me /mi < 10Z 2 eV < Te 2 −1 . If ¯ this inequality cannot be satisﬁed. but no relative drift.5 − ln(ne 1/2 Te −5/4 ) − [10−5 + (ln Te − 2)2 /16]1/2 (b) Electron–ion collisions λei = λie = 23 − ln ne 1/2 ZTe −3/2 . rmax = (4π nγ eγ 2 /kTγ )−1/2 .8 × 10−19 (mα mβ )1/2 Zα 2 Zβ 2 nβ λαβ (mα Tβ + mβ Tα )3/2 sec−1 . where the summation extends over all species γ for which u2 < vT γ 2 = kTγ /mγ . (c) Mixed ion–ion collisions ZZ ′ (µ + µ′ ) µTi′ + µ′ Ti ni Z 2 n ′ Z′2 + i Ti Ti′ 1/2 λii′ = λi′ i = 23 − ln . Coulomb Logarithm For test particles of mass mα and charge eα = Zα e scattering oﬀ ﬁeld particles of mass mβ and charge eβ = Zβ e. = 24 − ln ne 1/2 Te = 30 − ln ni 1/2 Ti −3/2 Z µ 2 −1 . where mαβ = ¯ ¯ mα mβ /(mα + mβ ) and u = vα − vβ . this implies νǫ /ni = νǫ /ne = 3. ¯α\β where νǫ ¯α\β = 1.Thermal Equilibration If the components of a plasma have diﬀerent temperatures.2 × 10 ¯ ¯ ei ie −9 Z λ/µT 2 3/2 cm sec 3 −1 . hence the theory is good only to ∼ 10% and fails when λ ∼ 1. Te < Ti Zme /mi . For electrons and ions with Te ≈ Ti ≡ T . the theory breaks down. 34 . Here rmin is the larger of eα eβ /mαβ u2 and ¯ h/2mαβ u. Ti me /mi < Te < 10Z eV. or if either uωcα −1 < rmax or uωcβ −1 < ¯ ¯ rmax .
(d) Counterstreaming ions (relative velocity vD = βD c) in the presence of warm electrons. If species α is a weak beam (number and energy density small compared with background) streaming through a Maxwellian plasma. The general form of the collision integral is (∂f α /∂t)coll = − ∇v · Jα\β . where F is an external force ﬁeld. J α\β eα 2 eβ 2 = 4πλαβ mα 2 f (v)∇v H(v) − α 1 α ∇v · f (v)∇v ∇v G(v) 2 . then Jα\β = − − 1 α\β mα α\β vv · ∇v f α νs vf α − ν mα + mβ 2 1 α\β 2 α v I − vv · ∇v f . ν⊥ 4 35 . kTi /mi . where the Rosenbluth potentials are f β (v′ )ud3v ′ G(v) = H(v) = 1+ mα mβ f (v )u β ′ −1 3 ′ dv . or alternatively. coll ZZ ′ (µ + µ′ ) µµ′ βD 2 ne Te 1/2 . kTi′ /mi′ < vD 2 < kTe /me λii′ = λi′ i = 35 − ln FokkerPlanck Equation Df α ∂f α ≡ + v · ∇f α + F · ∇v f α = Dt ∂t ∂f α ∂t . with β J α\β eα 2 eβ 2 = 2πλαβ mα d v (u I − uu)u · 3 ′ 2 −3 1 α 1 β ′ f (v )∇v f α (v) f (v)∇v′ f β (v′ ) − mβ mα (Landau form) where u = v′ − v and I is the unit dyad.
(For νee and νii . with ǫ replaced by Tα . Dt Dfi ¯ = νie (Fi − fi ) + νii (Fi − fi ).or fasttestparticle limit is employed. where Rαβ and Qαβ are respectively β β the momentum and energy gained by the αth species through collisions with the βth. one can equally well use ν⊥ . ¯ ¯ ¯ Transport Coeﬃcients Transport equations for a multispecies plasma: d α nα + nα ∇ · vα = 0. the FokkerPlanck collision terms can be approximated according to Dfe ¯ = νee (Fe − fe ) + νei (Fe − fe ). dt m α nα dα v α 1 = −∇pα − ∇ · Pα + Zα enα E + vα × B + Rα . Pα is the stress tensor. Rα = Rαβ and Qα = Qαβ . assuming slow ions and fast electrons. and the result is insensitive to whether the slow. 36 .20 one choice is Te = Ti .BGK Collision Operator For distribution functions with no large gradients in velocity space. ve = vi . 3/2 ¯ F α = nα exp − .) The ¯ Maxwellians Fα and Fα are given by 3/2 F α = nα mα 2πkTα mα ¯ 2πkTα exp − mα (v − vα )2 2kTα mα (v − vα )2 ¯ ¯ 2kTα . Dt α\β given in the Relaxation Rate section The respective slowingdown rates νs above can be used for ναβ . dt c 3 dα kTα nα + pα ∇ · vα = −∇ · qα − Pα : ∇vα + Qα . vi = ve . and qα is the heat ﬂow. Ti = Te . and eﬀective temperature obtained by taking moments of fα . where nα . Some latitude in the deﬁnition ¯ ¯ ¯ of Tα and vα is possible. pα = nα kTα . 2 dt Here dα /dt ≡ ∂/∂t + vα · ∇. mean drift velocity. where k is Boltzmann’s constant. vα and Tα are the number density.
σ 2 = 1.9 κ⊥ = 2nkTi . e) the transport processes may be summarized as follows:21 momentum transfer frictional force electrical conductivities thermal force ion heating electron heating ion heat ﬂux ion thermal conductivities electron heat ﬂux frictional heat ﬂux thermal gradient heat ﬂux electron thermal conductivities Rei = −Rie ≡ R = Ru + RT . Here and ⊥ refer to the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld B = bB.2 nkTe τe . j = −neu is the current.71nkTe u + u 3nkTe b × u⊥ . 2me ωce 37 . 2ωce τe qe = −κe ∇ (kTe ) − κe ∇⊥ (kTe ) − κe b × ∇⊥ (kTe ). and the basic collisional times are taken to be √ 3/2 3 me (kTe )3/2 5 Te τe = = 3. 2 mi ωci τi κ∧ = i 5nkTi .76 × 107 B sec−1 and ωci = (me /mi )ωce are the electron and ion gyrofrequencies. u = ve − vi is the relative streaming velocity. σ⊥ = ne τe /me .44 × 10 sec. Ru = ne(j /σ + j⊥ /σ⊥ ). and √ 3/2 3 mi (kTi )3/2 7 Ti 1/2 = 2.7 e nkTe . respectively. 3n b × ∇⊥ (kTe ). ne = ni ≡ n.09 × 10 µ sec. ωce = 1. 2 me ωce τe κ∧ = e 5nkTe . m i τe = −Qi − R · u. mi i qi = −κi ∇ (kTi ) − κi ∇⊥ (kTi ) + κi b × ∇⊥ (kTi ). T ⊥ ∧ κ e = 3. me κ⊥ = 4. nkTi τi . ⊥ ∧ κ i = 3. √ nλ 4 2π nλe4 where λ is the Coulomb logarithm.96σ⊥ . α = i.The transport coeﬃcients in a simple twocomponent plasma (electrons and singly charged ions) are tabulated below. τi = √ 4 nλ 4 πn λe In the limit of large ﬁelds (ωcα τα ≫ 1. 2ωce τe RT = −0.71n∇ (kTe ) − Qi = Qe 3me nk (Te − Ti ). 2mi ωci e qe = qu + qe . T qe = 0.
RT = −0. or 8πne me c2 ≫ B 2 . ion viscosity η0 = 0. (here the z axis is deﬁned parallel to B).51 nkTe . (4) the electron gyroradius satisﬁes re ≫ λD . 2 5ωci τi electron viscosity e η0 = 0. Collisional transport theory is applicable when (1) macroscopic time rates of change satisfy d/dt ≪ 1/τ . Pxx = − Pzz = −η0 Wzz Pyz = Pzy = −η2 Wyz + η4 Wxz . 2ωci i η4 = nkTi .71n∇(kTe ). 2 ωce τe e η2 = 2. ωci 3nkTi . where L is a macroscopic scale parallel to the ﬁeld B and L⊥ is the smaller of B/∇⊥ B and the transverse plasma dimension. where τ is the longest collisional time scale. ωce nkTe . 2 2 η3 (Wxx − Wyy ). e η3 = − e η1 = 0. 2 10ωci τi η2 = i 6nkTi .73nkTe τe . u For ωce τe ≫ 1 ≫ ωci τi . 2ωce e η4 = − nkTe .stress tensor (either species) η0 η1 (Wxx + Wyy ) − (Wxx − Wyy ) − η3 Wxy . Pxy = Pyx = −η1 Wxy + 2 Pxz = Pzx = −η2 Wxz − η4 Wyz . i η3 = i η1 = i nkTi . qe = 0. the standard transport coeﬃcients are valid only when (3) the Coulomb logarithm satisﬁes λ ≫ 1. ωce τ ≫ 1. In a strong ﬁeld.0 nkTe . + ∂xk ∂xj 3 When B = 0 the following simpliﬁcations occur: Ru = nej/σ . qe = −κe ∇(kTe ). where l = v τ is the mean free path. the electrons obey the highﬁeld expressions and the ions obey the zeroﬁeld expressions. 2 ωce τe For both species the rateofstrain tensor is deﬁned as Wjk = 2 ∂vk ∂vj − δjk ∇ · v. condition ¯ √ (2) is replaced by L ≫ l and L⊥ ≫ lre (L⊥ ≫ re in a uniform ﬁeld). (5) relative drifts u = vα − vβ between two species are small compared with the 38 . T qi = −κi ∇(kTi ). and (in the absence of a magnetic ﬁeld) (2) macroscopic length scales L satisfy L ≫ l. In addition. 2 2 η0 η1 Pyy = − (Wxx + Wyy ) + (Wxx − Wyy ) + η3 Wxy . Pjk = −η0 Wjk .96nkTi τi .71nkTe u.
µi − µe Ti De + Te Di DA = where µα = eα /mα να is the mobility. In the opposite limit. α α 2 2 39 . L ≪ λD . 2 α 2 σ⊥ = σ α να 2 /(να 2 + ωcα ). i. In the presence of a magnetic ﬁeld B the scalars µ and σ become tensors. Here σ⊥ and σ∧ are the Pedersen and Hall conductivities. σs cm2 and weakly dependent on temperature. and (6) anomalous transport processes owing to microinstabilities are negligible.e. respectively. Weakly Ionized Plasmas Collision frequency for scattering of charged particles of species α by neutrals is α0 να = n0 σs (kTα /mα )1/2 . both species diﬀuse at the ambipolar rate µi De − µe Di (Ti + Te )Di De = . kTβ /mβ . J α =σ α · E = σ E + σ⊥ E⊥ + σ∧ E × b. the charged particle diﬀusion coeﬃcients are Dα = kTα /mα να . α α α where b = B/B and σ α = nα eα /mα να . typically ∼ 5 × 10−15 where n0 is the neutral density. and (T0 /m0 )1/2 < (Tα /mα )1/2 where T0 and m0 are the temperature and mass of the neutrals. When the system is small compared with a Debye length.thermal velocities.. The conductivity σα satisﬁes σα = nα eα µα . u2 ≪ kTα /mα . σ∧ = σ να ωcα /(να + ωcα ). α\0 is the cross section.
APPROXIMATE MAGNITUDES IN SOME TYPICAL PLASMAS Plasma Type Interstellar gas Gaseous nebula Solar Corona Diﬀuse hot plasma Solar atmosphere.22 40 . gas discharge Warm plasma Hot plasma Thermonuclear plasma Theta pinch Dense hot plasma Laser Plasma n cm−3 T eV ωpe sec−1 1 103 109 1012 1014 1014 1014 1015 1016 1018 1020 1 1 102 102 1 10 102 104 102 102 102 6 × 104 2 × 109 λD cm 7 × 102 20 nλD 3 νei sec−1 2 × 106 6 × 1010 4 × 108 7 × 10−5 8 × 106 6 × 10−2 60 40 2 × 109 107 2 × 10−1 8 × 106 7 × 10−3 4 × 105 7 × 10−5 40 6 × 1011 6 × 1011 6 × 1011 2 × 1012 6 × 1012 6 × 1013 6 × 1014 2 × 10−4 8 × 102 7 × 10−4 4 × 104 4 × 106 2 × 10−3 8 × 106 5 × 104 7 × 10−5 4 × 103 3 × 108 7 × 10−7 40 7 × 10−6 4 × 102 2 × 1010 2 × 1012 The diagram (facing) gives comparable information in graphical form.
41 .
2 × 10−3 –2 × 10−4 1.5 × 10−4 1.0 × 1010 9 × 1014 F Region 160–500 5 × 1010 –2 × 1011 4.1 × 102 –6. Quantity Altitude (km) Number density (m−3 ) Heightintegrated number density (m−2 ) Ionneutral collision frequency (sec−1 ) Ion gyro/collision frequency ratio κi Ion Pederson factor κi /(1 + κi 2 ) Ion Hall factor κi 2 /(1 + κi 2 ) Electronneutral collision frequency Electron gyro/collision frequency ratio κe Electron Pedersen factor κe /(1 + κe 2 ) Electron Hall factor κe 2 /(1 + κe 2 ) Mean molecular weight Ion gyrofrequency (sec −1 E Region 90–160 1.0 80–10 7. The earth’s radius is RE = 6371 km.IONOSPHERIC PARAMETERS23 The following tables give average nighttime values.09–2.5 × 1015 0.5 × 1010 –3.5 × 104 –9.0 × 102 4.5 × 10−6 1.8 × 104 –6.8 1.7 × 10−3 –1.5–0.35×10−4 tesla.6 × 102 –5.05 4.0 28–26 ) 180–190 30–5 × 10 3 Neutral diﬀusion coeﬃcient (m2 sec−1 ) 105 The terrestrial magnetic ﬁeld in the lower ionosphere at equatorial lattitudes is approximately B0 = 0.0 0. 42 .9 × 103 2.2 × 105 10−5 –1. the ﬁrst refers to the lower and the second to the upper portion of the layer.0 22–16 230–300 2 × 103 –102 0.5 8 × 10−4 –0.09–0. Where two numbers are entered.0 × 103 2.
96 × 10 cm 4 2.74 × 10 cm s−2 6.6 × 10−9 g cm−2 s−1 4.83 × 10 erg s−1 6.5 × 106 2 × 105 6 × 104 105 –107 105 104 5 × 106 < 5 × 104 7 × 105 < 105 ∼ 3 × 105 8 × 105 107 < 2 × 10−11 2 × 10−10 < 4 × 10−11 ∼ 43 .18 × 107 cm s−1 1. measured τ5 from photosphere Astronomical unit (radius of earth’s orbit) AU Solar constant (intensity at 1 AU) f Chromosphere and Corona25 Parameter (Units) Chromospheric radiation losses (erg cm−2 s−1 ) Low chromosphere Middle chromosphere Upper chromosphere Total Transition layer pressure (dyne cm−2 ) Coronal temperature (K) at 1.07 106 > 107 ∼ 107 2 × 106 > 2 × 107 ∼ 2 2.1–1.28 × 1010 erg cm−2 s−1 0.36 × 10 erg cm−2 s−1 Coronal Hole Active Region 2 × 106 2 × 106 3 × 105 4 × 106 0.99 — 1.2 1.6 × 106 2 × 106 2 × 106 3 × 105 4 × 106 0.50 × 1013 cm 6 1.28 g cm−2 2500–3500 G 5770 K 33 3.SOLAR PHYSICS PARAMETERS24 Parameter Symbol Value Units Total mass M⊙ Radius R⊙ Surface gravity g⊙ Escape speed v∞ Upward mass ﬂux in spicules — Vertically integrated atmospheric density — Sunspot magnetic ﬁeld strength Bmax Surface eﬀective temperature T0 Radiant power L⊙ Radiant ﬂux density F Optical depth at 500 nm.1 R⊙ Coronal energy losses (erg cm−2 s−1 ) Conduction Radiation Solar Wind Total Solar wind mass loss (g cm−2 s−1 ) Quiet Sun 1.99 × 1033 g 10 6.
65 × 10−2 1.THERMONUCLEAR FUSION26 Natural abundance of isotopes: hydrogen helium lithium Mass ratios: nD /nH = 1.9 MeV) −− 6% 6 p + Li − − →He4 (1.08 2.3 MeV −− He3 + T− − →He4 + p + n + 12.4 MeV −− p + B11 − − →3 He4 + 8.6 1/5496 1/74.1 MeV −− 51% − − →He4 (4.5 MeV) + n(14.82 × 10−4 1. (1)–(5)].5 × 10−4 nHe3 /nHe4 = 1.01 MeV) + p(3.3 MeV −− 20% − − →Be7 + n − 1.1 = me /mD 1/2 (me /mD ) = me /mT = 1/2 = (me /mT ) Absorbed radiation dose is measured in rads: 1 rad = 102 erg g−1 .35 × 10−2 = = = = 1/3670 1/60.3 MeV) −− p + Li7 − − →2 He4 + 17. assuming the target ion at rest. the energy in keV of the incident particle [the ﬁrst ion on the left side of Eqs.82 MeV) + n(2.4 MeV) + p(11.3 × 10−6 nLi6 /nLi7 = 0.7 MeV −− n + Li6 − − →He4 (2.7 MeV) + He3 (2.6 MeV) + p(14. a negative yield means the reaction is endothermic):27 (1a) D + D − − →T(1.02 MeV) −− 50% (1b) − − →He3 (0. The curie (abbreviated Ci) is a measure of radioactivity: 1 curie = 3.1 MeV) + T(2. Fusion reactions (branching ratios are correct for energies near the cross section peaks.7 MeV) −− T+T − − →He4 + 2n + 11. can be ﬁtted by28a σT (E) = A5 + (A4 − A3 E)2 + 1 −1 A2 E exp(A1 E −1/2 ) − 1 44 .5 MeV) −− 43% − − →He5 (2.8 MeV) + D(9.72 × 10−4 1.6 MeV −− 80% D + Li6 − − →2He4 + 22.45 MeV) −− 50% (2) D + T − − →He4 (3.7×1010 counts sec−1 .7 MeV) −− The total cross section in barns (1 barn = 10−24 cm2 ) as a function of E.1 MeV) −− (3) (4) (5a) (5b) (5c) (6) (7a) (7b) (8) (9) (10) D + He3 − − →He4 (3.
T −2/3 exp(−19.5 × 10−21 2.7 × 10−16 2.36 × 10 3.177 1.0 50.27 38.8 × 10−16 T–T (4) 3.3 × 10−17 1. averaged over Maxwellian distributions: Temperature (keV) 1.1 × 10−22 1.6 × 10−19 5.4 × 10−19 7.8 × 10−17 1.0 5.7 × 10−18 1.3 × 10−16 1.4 × 10−21 1.94T −1/3 ) cm sec 3 −1 .5 × 10−18 8. A threeparameter model has also been developed for fusion crosssections of light nuclei.8 × 10−19 1. −12 (σv)DD = 2.0 200.2 × 10−18 5.9 × 10−16 5.0 10.28b The power density released in the form of charged particles is PDD = 3.6 × 10−16 2.9 × 10−17 4.7 × 10−16 D–He3 (3) 10−26 1.0 500.2 × 10−16 For low energies (T < 25 keV) the data may be represented by ∼ (σv)DT = 3.3 × 10−16 3.2 × 10−17 2.076 1.95 89.88 45.68 × 10 where T is measured in keV.4 × 10−17 8.76T −1/3 ) cm3 sec−1 .0 20.0 100.1 A2 372 482 50200 25900 448 11250 −4 −4 −2 −3 −3 A3 4.4 × 10−17 1.39 123.368 × 10 3.7 × 10−21 2.5 × 10−17 8.6 × 10 nD nT (σv)DT watt cm .1 × 10−17 4.0 1000.08 × 10 1.0 2.8 × 10−18 5.2 × 10−20 2.3 × 10−13 nD 2 (σv)DD watt cm−3 (including the subsequent D–T reaction).98 × 10 1.2 × 10−17 8.2 × 10−19 2.5 × 10−22 5.3 × 10−19 3.where the Duane coeﬃcients Aj for the principal fusion reactions are as follows: D–D (1a) D–D (1b) D–T (2) D–He3 (3) T–T (4) T–He3 (5a–c) A1 46.8 × 10−16 2.0 D–D (1a + 1b) 1. 45 .7 × 10−16 8.6 × 10−19 1.1 × 10−16 4.297 2. −13 −3 PDT = 5.4 × 10−23 6.5 × 10−16 6.097 47.02 × 10 0 A4 1.3 × 10−18 2.2 × 10−18 2.9 × 10−12 nD nHe3 (σv)DHe3 watt cm−3 . PDHe3 = 2.09 0 A5 0 0 409 647 0 0 Reaction rates σv (in cm3 sec−1 ).1 × 10−21 1.2 × 10−16 8.220 1.33 × 10−14 T −2/3 exp(−18.4 × 10−16 2.2 × 10−16 D–T (2) 5.7 × 10−17 9.3 × 10−22 7.0 × 10−17 T–He3 (5a–c) 10−28 10−25 2.
B is in gauss (G). a γ 46 . I is in amperes (A).08 × 10 Jβ 8 −1 3 4 cm −3 . electron linear density N is in cm−1 .RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS Here γ = (1 − β 2 )−1/2 is the relativistic scaling factor. where J is the current density in A cm−2 .511γ MeV. Beam electron number density is nb = 2. IA γ Here ν = N re is the Budker number. in numerical formulas. where re = e2 /mc2 = 2. Bennett pinch condition: I 2 = 2N k(Te + Ti )c2 (cgs) = 3. The ratio of net current to IA is ν I = . as indicated. eB re = Relativistic electron energy: W = mc2 γ = 0. 7 −2 −1 −3 nb = 6.20 × 10−4 N (Te + Ti ) A2 . k is Boltzmann’s constant. and temperature.82 × 10−13 cm is the classical electron radius. For a uniform beam of radius a (in cm). Relativistic electron gyroradius: mc2 2 1/2 3 2 1/2 −1 (γ − 1) (cgs) = 1. and ν 2re = .70 × 10 (γ − 1) B cm. quantities in analytic formulas are expressed in SI or cgs units.63 × 10 Ia β cm .70 × 10 βz γ A. voltage and energy are in MeV. Alfv´nLawson limit: e IA = (mc /e)βz γ (cgs) = (4πmc/µ0 e)βz γ (SI) = 1. βz = vz /c.
both IA and Ip vanish. d0 For β → 0 (γ → 1). 47 .84Vmax in material with charge state Z: D = 150Vmax QZ 2. maximum separation d0 (at r = Rc ) from plane anode. major radius a. The condition for a longitudinal magnetic ﬁeld Bz to suppress ﬁlamentation in a beam of current density J (in A cm−2 ) is Bz > 47βz (γJ)1/2 G. target with average atomic number Z (V < 5 MeV): ∼ η ≡ xray power/beam power = 7 × 10−4 ZV.34 × 103 V 3/2 d−2 A cm−2 . −1 for cylinders of radii R1 (inner) and R2 (outer). Rc for conical cathode of radius Rc . inductance L. V = (R/L)(nAµ0 I/2πa) = RI/n.5 × 10 Gγ ln γ + (γ − 1) 3 2 1/2 A. Voltage registered by Rogowski coil of minor crosssectional area A.Child’s law: (nonrelativistic) spacechargelimited current density between parallel plates with voltage drop V (in MV) and separation d (in cm) is J = 2. where G is a geometrical factor depending on the diode structure: G= G= G= w 2πd ln R2 R1 for parallel plane cathode and anode of width w. The saturated parapotential current (magnetically selflimited ﬂow along equipotentials in pinched diodes and transmission lines) is29 Ip = 8. n turns. external resistance R and capacitance C (all in SI): externally integrated selfintegrating V = (1/RC)(nAµ0 I/2πa). separation d. Xray production. Xray dose at 1 meter generated by an ebeam depositing total charge Q coulombs while V ≥ 0.8 1/2 rads.
ion tail formation. Vd > Cs U < 2(1 + β)1/2 VA U < 2Cs Ion heating Resonance broadening Trapping Ion trapping Ion trapping For nomenclature. 2 ¯ Vd > (M/m)1/3 Vi . ¯ Vd > Ve ¯ Vb > (np /nb )1/3 Vb ¯ Vb < (np /nb )1/3 Vb ¯ ¯ Ve > Vb > Vb Te ≫ Ti . see p. nonlinear scattering. Isotropization Anisotropic temperature (hydro) Ion cyclotron Beamcyclotron (hydro) Modiﬁed twostream (hydro) Ionion (equal beams) Ionion (equal beams) Te⊥ > 2Te ¯ Vd > 20Vi (for Te ≈ Ti ) Vd > Cs Vd < (1 + β)1/2 VA . Vd ≫ Cs Saturation Mechanism Electron trapping until ¯ Vej ∼ Vd Electron trapping until ¯ Ve ∼ Vd Trapping of beam electrons Quasilinear or nonlinear (mode coupling) Quasilinear or nonlinear Quasilinear. or resonance broadening. 50.BEAM INSTABILITIES30 Name Electronelectron Buneman Beamplasma Weak beamplasma Beamplasma (hotelectron) Ion acoustic Conditions ¯ Vd > Vej . j = 1. 48 .
Parameters of Most Unstable Mode Name Growth Rate Electronelectron Buneman Beamplasma 0.7 0.7 1 ωe 2 m M nb np
1/3
Frequency 0
Wave Number 0.9 ωe Vd
Group Velocity 0 2 Vd 3 2 Vb 3
ωe
1/3
0.4 ωe − 0.4
m M
1/3
ωe
ωe Vd ωe Vb
ωe
nb np ωe
1/3
ωe ωe Vb λ−1 D λ−1 D
−1 re
Weak beamplasma Beamplasma (hotelectron) Ion acoustic Anisotropic temperature (hydro) Ion cyclotron Beamcyclotron (hydro) Modiﬁed twostream (hydro) Ionion (equal beams) Ionion (equal beams)
nb 2np nb np m M
Vb ¯ Vb
1/2
2
ωe ¯ Ve ωe Vb ωi
¯2 3Ve Vb Vb
Vb ω ¯ e Ve ωi ωe cos θ ∼ Ωe
1/2
Cs ¯ Ve⊥
Ωe
0.1Ωi 0.7Ωe 1 ΩH 2
1.2Ωi nΩe 0.9ΩH
−1 ri
0.7λ−1 D 1.7 ΩH Vd
1¯ Vi 3 > Vd ; ∼ < Cs ∼ 1 Vd 2
0.4ΩH 0.4ωi
0 0
1.2
ΩH U ωi 1.2 U
0 0
For nomenclature, see p. 50.
49
In the preceding tables, subscripts e, i, d, b, p stand for “electron,” “ion,” “drift,” “beam,” and “plasma,” respectively. Thermal velocities are denoted by a bar. In addition, the following are used: m M V T ne , ni n Cs = (Te /M )1/2 ωe , ωi λD electron mass ion mass velocity temperature number density harmonic number ion sound speed plasma frequency Debye length re , ri β VA Ω e , Ωi ΩH U gyroradius plasma/magnetic energy density ratio Alfv´n speed e gyrofrequency hybrid gyrofrequency, ΩH 2 = Ωe Ωi relative drift velocity of two ion species
50
LASERS System Parameters Eﬃciencies and power levels are approximate.31 Type CO2 CO Holmium Iodine Ndglass Nd:YAG Nd:YLF Nd:YVO4 Er:YAG *Color center *Ti:Sapphire Ruby HeNe *Argon ion *OPO N2 *Dye KrF Xenon Ytterbium ﬁber Erbium ﬁber Semiconductor *Tunable sources Wavelength (µm) 10.6 5 2.06 1.315 1.06 1.064 1.045, 1.54,1.313 1.064 2.94 1–4 0.7–1.5 0.6943 0.6328 0.45–0.60 0.3–10 0.3371 0.3–1.1 0.26 0.175 1.05–1.1 1.534 0.375–1.9 †lampdriven Eﬃciency 0.01–0.02 (pulsed) 0.4 0.03†–0.1‡ 0.003 – – – – – 10−3 0.4 × ηp < 10−3 10−4 10−3 > 0.1 × ηp 0.001–0.05 10−3 0.08 0.02 0.55 – > 0.5 ‡diodedriven Power levels available (W) Pulsed > 2 × 1013 > 109 > 107 3 × 1012 1.25 × 1015 109 4 × 108 – 1.5 × 105 5 × 108 1014 1010 – 5 × 104 1010 106 5 × 107 1012 > 108 5 × 107 7 × 106 3 × 109 CW > 105 > 100 80 – – > 104 80 > 20 – 1 150 1 1–50×10−3 150 5 – > 100 500 – 104 100 > 103
Nd stands for Neodymium; Er stands for Erbium; Ti stands for Titanium; YAG stands for Yttrium–Aluminum Garnet; YLF stands for Yttrium Lithium Fluoride; YVO5 stands for Yttrium Vanadate; OPO for Optical Parametric Oscillator; ηp is pump laser eﬃciency.
51
44F λθ/θDL and l ≈ ±2F λθ/θDL . The rate of change of polarization angle θ as a function of displacement s (Faraday rotation) is given by dθ/ds = (k/2)(n− − n+ ) = 2. where ± refers to the helicity. The ratio of quiver energy to thermal energy is Wqu /Wth = me v0 2 /2kT = 1. These formulas are modiﬁed for nonuniform (such as Gaussian) illumination of the lens or for pathological laser proﬁles. if I = 1015 W cm−2 . where N is the electron number density. with I in watt/cm2 . Pondermotive force: F = N∇ E where 2 /8πNc . B is the ﬁeld strength. where b is the aperture. For uniform illumination of a lens with f number F .81 × 10−13 λ0 2 I/T. Nc = 1.6I 1/2 λ0 cm sec−1 2 in terms of the laser ﬂux I = cEmax /8π. laser wavelength λ0 in µm. 52 . T = 2 keV. The quiver velocity of an electron in an em ﬁeld of angular frequency ω is v0 = eEmax /mω = 25. λ0 = 1 µm. where T is given in eV.1. the diameter d at focus (85% of the energy) and the depth of focus l (distance to ﬁrst zero in intensity) are given by d ≈ 2. and f is the wave frequency.Formulas An em wave with k B has an index of refraction given by 2 1/2 n± = [1 − ωpe /ω(ω ∓ ωce )] . all in cgs.44λ/b. 2 Here θ is the beam divergence containing 85% of energy and θDL is the diﬀractionlimited divergence: θDL = 2.36 × 10 N Bf 4 −2 cm −1 . For example. then Wqu /Wth ≈ 0.1 × 1021 λ0 −2 cm−3 .
2 for ions). m) is the Gaunt factor. N refers to number density. ∼ 0. l) = − H where E∞ = 13. 34. Thus Nn * is the LTE number density of atoms (or ions) in level n.6 × 10 fmn g(n. is the quantum defect.75l−5 . the subscript e labels electrons.6 eV is the hydrogen ionization energy and ∆l = 0. Z is the charge state (Z = 0 refers to a neutral atom). Asterisk superscripts on level population densities denote local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) values. all other units are cgs except where noted. Electron excitation rate averaged over Maxwellian velocity distribution. m) denotes the thermal averaged Gaunt factor (generally ∼ 1 for atoms. 35): −5 (4) Xmn = 1. n to principal quantum number. Binding energy of outer electron in level labelled by quantum numbers n. Characteristic atomic collision cross section: (1) πa0 2 = 8. 53 . Xmn = Ne σmn v (Refs. 32.80 × 10−17 cm2 . where g(n. 33): (3) σmn = 2.36 × 10−13 fmn g(n. m) Ne 1/2 ∆Enm Te exp − ∆Enm Te sec −1 . (n − ∆l )2 (2) E∞ (n. ǫ∆Enm where fmn is the oscillator strength. l: Z H Z 2 E∞ . ǫ is the incident electron energy.ATOMIC PHYSICS AND RADIATION Energies and temperatures are in eV. ∼ Excitation and Decay Cross section (Bethe approximation) for electron excitation by dipole allowed transition m → n (Refs. m) cm2 . and ∆Enm = En − Em . g(n. l > 5.
where g(n. The recombination rate α(Z) has the form α(Z) = αr (Z) + Ne α3 (Z). where gn is the statistical weight of level n.2. 0) ≈ 0. Rate for spontaneous decay n → m (Einstein A coeﬃcient)34 (6) Anm = 4. Hence for a transition n → m in ions. cm3 Ionization and Recombination In a general timedependent situation the number density of the charge state Z satisﬁes (10) dN (Z) = Ne dt − S(Z)N (Z) − α(Z)N (Z) +S(Z − 1)N (Z − 1) + α(Z + 1)N (Z + 1) .3 × 10 (gm /gn )fmn (∆Enm ) sec 7 2 −1 .Rate for electron collisional deexcitation: (5) Ynm = (Nm */Nn *)Xmn . Intensity emitted per unit volume from the transition n → m in an optically thin plasma: (7) Inm = 1. (9) Inm = 5.1 × 10 −25 fnm gm Ne N0 g0 T e 1/2 ∆Enm ∆En0 3 exp − ∆En0 Te watt . Here Nm */Nn * = (gm /gn ) exp(∆Enm /Te ) is the Boltzmann relation for level population densities. 54 . where αr and α3 are the radiative and threebody recombination rates.6 × 10−19 Anm Nn ∆Enm watt/cm3 . where the ground state is labelled by a zero subscript. respectively. Condition for steady state in a corona model: (8) N0 Ne σ0n v = Nn An0 . Here S(oZ) is the ionization rate.
l (shortwavelength limit): (16) σph (n.64 × 10 −16 Z /n K 5 3 7+2l cm . Uj is the binding energy of the ejected electron. x = ǫ/Uj .75 × 10 −27 Te −4. 6 Photoionization cross section for ions in level n. and g is a universal function with a minimum value gmin ≈ 0.2 at x ≈ 4. for 0. Electronion radiative recombination rate (e + N (Z) → N (Z − 1) + hν) for Te /Z 2 < 400 eV (Ref. l) = 1. 2 where K is the wavenumber in Rydbergs (1 Rydberg = 1. where ǫ is the incident electron energy. 35): ∼ ∼ (12) S(Z) = 10−5 Z (E∞ )3/2 (6.5 cm /sec. Ionization from ion ground state. 55 .Classical ionization crosssection36 for any atomic shell j (11) σi = 6 × 10−14 bj gj (x)/Uj 2 cm2 .43 + 1 Z ln(E∞ /Te ) 2 Z +0. this becomes approximately35 (14) αr (Z) = 2.2 × 10 −14 Z Z E∞ Te 1/2 0.0974 × 105 cm−1 ). 37): ∼ (13) αr (Z) = 5. Z where E∞ is the ionization energy.7 × 10 −13 Z Te 2 −1/2 cm /sec. Here bj is the number of shell electrons.469(E∞ /Te )−1/3 cm3 /sec. 3 Collisional (threebody) recombination rate for singly ionized plasma:38 (15) α3 = 8.0 Z (Te /E∞ )1/2 Z Te /E∞ ) + exp − Z E∞ Te cm3 /sec.02 < Te /E∞ < 100 (Ref. averaged over Maxwellian electron distribuZ tion. For 1 eV < Te /Z 2 < 15 eV.
56 . given by Eq. In a steady state at high electron density. l). l) is the ionization energy of the neutral atom initially in level (n. Ne N *(Z) S(Z − 1) . l) Te −3 (17) − cm . Z Z where gn is the statistical weight for level n of charge state Z and E∞ (n. where tI is the ionization time.Ionization Equilibrium Models Saha equilibrium:39 Z 3/2 Ne N1 *(Z) 21 g1 Te exp = 6. (2).0 × 10 Z−1 Nn *(Z − 1) gn Z E∞ (n. N (Z) S(Z − 1) (21) Corona model is applicable if40 (22) 1012 tI −1 < Ne < 1016 Te 7/2 cm−3 . ∼ Steady state condition in corona model: N (Z − 1) αr = . Conditions for LTE:39 (a) Collisional and radiative excitation rates for a level n must satisfy (19) Ynm > 10Anm . = N *(Z − 1) α3 (18) a function only of T . ∼ (b) Electron density must satisfy (20) Z Ne > 7 × 1018 Z 7 n−17/2 (T /E∞ )1/2 cm−3 .
where fnm is the absorption oscillator strength.6 × 1010 Z 4 n−9/2 sec. Energies and temperatures are in eV.52×10 −13 fnm λ(M c /kT ) 2 1/2 N L = 5.Radiation N. Optically thin means τ < 1.6 × 10−13 λ2 /∆λ cm2 . λ is the wavelength. Wien displacement law (wavelength of maximum blackbody emission): (28) λmax = 2. and T are the mass. Natural linewidth (∆E in eV): (24) ∆E ∆t = h = 4.7 × 10−5 (T /µ)1/2 . where µ is the mass of the emitting atom or ion scaled by the proton mass. Optical depth for a Dopplerbroadened line:39 (26) τ = 3. Doppler width: (25) ∆λ/λ = 7. Z is the charge state (Z = 0 refers to a neutral atom). N .4×10 −9 fmn λ(µ/T ) 1/2 N L. number density. and L is the physical depth of the plasma. M . N is number density. all other quantities are in cgs units except where noted. Radiation from the surface of a black body at temperature T : (29) W = 1.03 × 105 T 4 watt/cm2 .14 × 10 −15 eV sec. Average radiative decay rate of a state with principal quantum number n is (23) An = m<n Anm = 1. the subscript e labels electrons. Resonance absorption cross section at center of line: (27) σλ=λc = 5.50 × 10−5 T −1 cm. where ∆t is the lifetime of the line. and temperature of the absorber. B. 57 . µ is M divided by the proton mass.
0 × 108 B −2 tc ≈ sec.00 × 10 −38 Ne Te watt/cm . 2 2 3 Cyclotron radiation energy loss efolding time for a single electron:41 (36) 9.26 (35) Pc = 5. where V is the larger of ω and ωp multiplied by the larger of Ze2 /kT and h/(mkT )1/2 . Bremsstrahlung optical depth:41 (31) τ = 5. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coeﬃcient42 for radiation of angular frequency ω: (32) 2 κ = 3. (9) over all species in the plasma. where g ≈ 1.Bremsstrahlung from hydrogenlike plasma:26 (30) PBr = 1. 3 Cyclotron radiation26 in magnetic ﬁeld B: (34) Pc = 6. 2.69 × 10 −32 Ne T e 1/2 Z N (Z) watt/cm . ¯ Recombination (freebound) radiation: (33) Pr = 1. isothermal plasma). 2 3 For Ne kTe = Ni kTi = B 2 /16π (β = 1. Number of cyclotron harmonics41 trapped in a medium of ﬁnite depth L: (37) where β = 8πN kT /B 2 . 58 . mtr = (57βBL) 1/6 . here Λ is the electron thermal velocity divided by V .21 × 10 −28 B Ne Te watt/cm .2 is an average Gaunt factor and L is the physical path length. 2 3 where the sum is over all ionization states Z.0 × 10 −38 Ne Ni Z gLT 2 −7/2 .1 × 10−7 Zne 2 ln Λ T −3/2 ω −2 (1 − ωp /ω 2 )−1/2 cm−1 .69 × 10 −32 Ne T e 1/2 Z N (Z) 2 Z−1 E∞ Te watt/cm .5 + γ where γ is the kinetic plus rest energy divided by the rest energy mc2 . Line radiation is given by summing Eq.
Thus the transition 1 → 3 gives rise to the Lymanβ line. etc. . 1 + m/M n2 where h is Planck’s constant. Thus C I is unionized carbon. 4. f. respectively. etc. . h. For hydrogen and hydrogenic ions the series of lines belonging to the transitions m → n have conventional names: Transition Name 1→n 2→n 3→n 4→n 5→n 6→n Lyman Balmer Paschen Brackett Pfund Humphreys Successive lines in any series are denoted α. g.. . Relativistic eﬀects. m is the electron mass. β. . . . i. Ionization levels are indicated by roman numerals. Every line can be related theoretically to a transition between two atomic states. 737 cm −1 is the Rydberg constant. Li III. c is the velocity of light.) is speciﬁed by identifying the principal quantum number n = 1. If En is divided by hc. 6.g. The state of a oneelectron atom (hydrogen) or ion (He II. γ. The total angular momentum j is the 2 1 magnitude of the vector sum of l and s. . . their energies depend only on n according to R∞ hcZ 2 n−2 RyZ 2 En = − =− . and the spin angular momentum s = ± 1 . C II is singly ionized. . l. 2. quantum electrodynamic eﬀects (e. d. and interactions between the nuclear magnetic 59 . 2 p. with m < n (m > n) for absorption (emission) lines. 8. are associated with angular momenta l = 0. M and Z are the mass and charge state of the nucleus. each identiﬁed by its quantum numbers. . . spectral lines are grouped in series with line spacings which decrease toward the series limit. 7. The energy associated with a transition m → n is given by ∆Emn = Ry(1/m2 − 1/n2 ). etc. The atomic states of hydrogen and hydrogenic ions are degenerate: neglecting ﬁne structure. . . k. . j = l ± 2 (j ≥ 1 ). the orbital angular momentum l = 0. Observationally. 3. the result is in wavenumber units.ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY Spectroscopic notation combines observational and theoretical elements. 5. 1. . n − 1. and R∞ = 109. . The letters s. 1. 2. the Lamb shift).
The quantum numbers satisfy ML  ≤ L ≤ νl. d. and no shell acquires electrons until the lower shells are full. 2p5 indicates that there are 5 electrons in the subshell corresponding to l = 1 (denoted by p) and n = 2. which is equivalent to specifying S = 2 . P. ... In the lighter elements the electrons ﬁll up subshells within each shell in the order s. Shell energies depend primarily on n. where ν is the number of electrons in the unﬁlled subshell. If a magnetic ﬁeld is present the projections ML . these last are called “hyperﬁne structure. For example.moment and the magnetic ﬁeld due to the electron produce small shifts and splittings. and the total angular momentum J = L + S. the spin S = Σsi . etc. and M  ≤ J ≤ L + S. their transitions are described by giving n and l in the initial and ﬁnal states for the single outer (valence) electron. A shell is made up of subshells of diﬀerent angular momenta. MS  ≤ S ≤ ν/2. L. The ﬁrst part 3/2 indicates that there are 5 electrons in the subshell corresponding to n = 3 and l = 1. . For example. each labeled according to the values of n. 2(2l + 1). .” ∼ In manyelectron atoms the electrons are grouped in closed and open shells. MS . D. 1. 2. and J along the ﬁeld are also needed. The preﬁx ‘2’ represents the value of the multiplicity 2S + 1 (the number of states with nearly the 1 same energy). etc. identical with the conﬁguration of Mg. then the same subshell is ﬁlled in the atoms of all elements that come later in the periodic table. p. The ground state conﬁgurations of the noble gases are as follows: He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 1s2 1s2 2s2 2p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f 14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p6 Alkali metals (Li. M . etc. where all sums are carried out over the unﬁlled subshells (the ﬁlled ones sum to zero).) resemble hydrogen. etc. are called K.) The symbol ‘P’ indicates that the angular momenta of the outer electrons combine to give L = 1. For general transitions in most atoms the atomic states are speciﬁed in terms of the parity (−1)Σli and the magnitudes of the orbital angular momentum L = Σli . Na. Uppercase letters S. are usually omitted. and the number of electrons it contains out of the maximum possible number. in analogy with the notation for a single electron. the shells corresponding to n = 1. 2. The subscript 3/2 is 60 . S. the ground state of Cl is described by 3p5 2 Po . etc. In the heavier elements this rule does not always hold. l. with spectroscopic properties determined mainly by the outer shell. K. 3. < 10−2 cm−1 .. (The closed inner subshells 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 . stand for L = 0. But if a particular subshell is ﬁlled in a noble gas. and M of L.
this is reﬂected in the notation. The expression (1 D) give the multiplicity and total angular momentum of the “parent” term. The most important diﬀerence between optical and Xray spectra is that the latter involve energy changes of the inner electrons rather than the outer ones. These rules hold accurately only for light atoms in the absence of strong electric or magnetic ﬁelds. the state 1s2p 1 Po (with S = 0. often several electrons participate. The outer (n = 3) electron has l = 1 in the ﬁrst state and l = 2 in the second. But the two “terms” do not “combine” (transitions between them do not occur) because this would violate.. Thus43 O II has an allowed transition between the states 2p2 3p′ 2 1 ′ 2 2 o F7/2 and 2p ( D)3d F7/2 (and between the states obtained by changing J from 7/2 to 5/2 in either or both terms). e. and only by ∆l = ±1. Here both states have two electrons with n = 2 and l = 1. e. The superscript ‘o’ indicates that the state has odd parity.. 61 .72 eV (159. the resulting ion would not be in its lowest energy state. J = 1. ∆L = ±1 or 0. spectra of highly ionized or heavy atoms. i. Transitions are possible between the helium ground state (which has S = 0. is more complicated. helium has a state 1s2s S1 which lies 19. Stark and Zeeman eﬀects. J = 0.” 3 The amount of information needed to adequately characterize a state increases with the number of electrons.e. 856 cm−1 ) above the ground state 1s2 1 S0 . and even parity) and... other selection rules are that the value of l of only one electron can change.g. the subshell immediately below the valence subshell. L = 0.. l = 1 subshell.the value of J. excitation energy 21. in which there is a “spin 3/2 ﬂip” (from antiparallel to parallel) in the n = 2. The notation for excited states is similar. 1 odd parity. For electric dipole transitions (the only ones possible in the longwavelength limit). ∆S = 0. The prime indicates that if the outermost electron were removed by ionization. L = 1. The description of ﬁne structure.g. and ∆J = ±1 or 0 (but L = 0 does not combine with L = 0 and J = 0 does not combine with J = 0). the closed subshells 1s2 2s2 are not shown. this is understood to be the same in both states. the quantummechanical selection rule that the parity must change from odd to even or from even to odd.22 eV). sometimes have to be speciﬁed in heavier atoms and ions. Transitions that obey the selection rules are called “allowed”. etc. etc. (Grandparents. it would be omitted if the state were even.) Another example43 is the allowed transition from o 2p2 (3 P)3p 2 P1/2 (or 2 Po ) to 2p2 (1 D)3d′ 2 S1/2 . those that do not are called “forbidden. as well as changes from one state to the other in the value of l for the valence electron and in L. For example.
and neutral gas. κ ∼ 0.i = Ze2 /kTe.3 − 10.3 − 30 µm. and scaling. CDPs contain charged microparticles (dust grains) in addition to electrons. Their discovery has therefore opened new ways of precision investigations in manyparticle physics. Ti ≃ Tn ≃ 3 × 10−2 eV.i λD Typical experimental values: P ∼ 10−4 − 102 . ωpi ≃ 2 × 106 − 2 × 107 s−1 (Ar). α ∼ 10−4 − 3 × 10−2 . CDPs are of interest as a nonHamiltonian system of interacting particles and as a means to study generic fundamental physics of selforganization. µ < 1 Frequencies dust plasma frequency ωpd = (4πZ 2 e2 nd /md )1/2 1+z ωch ≃ √ (a/λD )ωpi 2π P ≃ (Z 1+P mi /md )1/2 ωpi charge ﬂuctuation frequency 62 . B ﬁelds up to B ∼ 3 T. Dimensionless Havnes parameter normalized charge dustdust scattering parameter dustplasma scattering parameter coupling parameter lattice parameter particle parameter lattice magnetization parameter P = Znd /ne z = Ze2 /kTe a βd = Z 2 e2 /kTd λD Γ = (Z 2 e2 /kTd ∆) exp(−∆/λD ) κ = ∆/λD α = a/∆ µ = ∆/rd βe. Typical discharge (bulk) plasmas gas pressure p ∼ 10−2 − 1 Torr. ni ≃ ne ∼ 108 − 1010 cm−3 . Typical experimental dust properties grain size (radius) a ≃ 0. ions. Te ∼ 0.z ≃ 2− 4 (Z ∼ 103 − 105 electron charges). screening length λD ≃ λDi ∼ 20 − 200 µm. number density (in terms of the interparticle distance) nd ∼ ∆−3 ∼ 103 − 107 cm−3 .COMPLEX (DUSTY) PLASMAS Complex (dusty) plasmas (CDPs) may be regarded as a new and unusual state of matter.3 − 3 eV. phase transitions. temperature Td ∼ 3 × 10−2 − 102 eV. Electrostatic coupling between the grains can vary over a wide range. Γ < 103 . vTi ≃ 7 × 104 cm/s (Ar). pattern formation. so that the states of CDPs can change from weakly coupled (gaseous) to crystalline. mass md ∼ 3 × 10−7 − 3 × 10−13 g. CDPs can be investigated at the kinetic level (individual particles are easily visualized and relevant time scales are accessible).
Charge ﬂuctuations are always present. From orbital motion limited (OML) theory46 in the collisionless limit len(in) ≫ λD ≫ a: Ie = √ 8πa2 ne vTe exp(−z). with frequency ωch . Lν = vTd /νnd RCe.004κ2 ).096κ − 0.i = Ze2 /kTe.70κ1/2 (1 − 0.039κ2 ). secondary emission. The balance of Ie and Ii yields exp(−z) = mi Ti me Te 1/2 1+ Te z Ti [1 + P (z)] 63 . Lengths frictional dissipation length dust Coulomb radius dust gyroradius Grain Charging The charge evolution equation is dZ/dt = Ii − Ie . The grain charge can vary in response to spatial and temporal variations of the plasma. Charged dust grains change the plasma composition.t (κ) The range of the dustlattice wavenumbers is K∆ < π The functions Fl.45 with accuracy < 1% in the range κ ≤ 5: Fl ≃ 2. keeping quasineutrality.t CDL = ωpd λD Fl.i rd = vTd /ωcd Ft ≃ 0.t (κ) for longitudinal and transverse waves can be approximated44. thermionic emission. Ii = √ 8πa2 ni vTi 1+ Te z Ti .51κ(1 − 0. A measure of this is the Havnes parameter P = Znd /ne . ﬁeld emission. Grains are charged negatively. Other charging mechanisms are photoemission. etc.dustgas friction rate dust gyrofrequency Velocities dust thermal velocity dust acoustic wave velocity ωcd = ZeB/md c νnd ∼ 10a2 p/md vTn vTd = (kTd /md )1/2 ≡ [ Td CDA = ωpd λD T mi 1/2 ] vTi i md P ≃ (Z 1+P mi /md )1/2 vTi dust Alfv´n wave velocity e dustacoustic Mach number dust magnetic Mach number dust lattice (acoustic) wave velocity vAd = B/(4πnd md )1/2 V /CDA V /vAd l.
2 zd Λdd (λD /a)2 [ln 4βd − ln ln 4βd ]. Fα = −md ναd Vαd . i. and electron drag. When βα ≫ 1. P ≫ 1. the grain charge Z monotonically decreases. The momentum transfer cross section is proportional to the Coulomb logarithm Λαd when the Coulomb scattering theory is applicable. For νdd ∼ νnd the complex plasma is in a twophase state. neutral. and ρmax = λD (1 + 2βα )1/2 for attractive interaction (applicable up to βα < 5). 2 1 2 2 z (Te /Ti ) Λid 2(λD /a)2 (ln2 βi 1 2 z Λed 2 βe ≪ 1 + 2 ln βi + 2). For typical complex plasmas the hierarchy of scattering parameters is βe (∼ 0. ρmin is due to ﬁnite grain size and is given by OML theory.e. Forces and momentum transfer In addition to the usual electromagnetic forces. βi < 5 βi > 13 βd ≪ 1 βd ≫ 1 64 .When the relative charge density of dust is large.. ion. The generic expressions for diﬀerent types of collisions are47 √ 2 ναd = (4 2π/3)(mα /md )a nα vTα Φαd Electrondust collisions Φed ≃ Iondust collisions Φid = Dustdust collisons Φdd = where zd ≡ Z 2 e2 /akTd .3) ≪ βi (∼ 1 − 30) ≪ βd (∼ 103 − 3 × 104 ). the results for repulsive and attractive interaction potentials are diﬀerent. grains in complex plasmas are also subject to: gravity force Fg = md g. forces associated with the momentum transfer from other species. ρmax = λD for repulsive interaction (applicable for βα ≪ 1). For collisions between charged particles. thermophoretic force √ 4 2π 2 Fth = − (a /vTn )κn ∇Tn 15 (where κn is the coeﬃcient of gas thermal conductivity). from ρmin to ρmax . When βα ≪ 1 the result is independent of the sign of the potential.01 − 0. and for νnd ≫ νdd we have merely tracer particles (dustneutral gas interaction dominates). two limiting cases are distinguished by the magnitude of the scattering parameter βα . It is determined by integration over the impact parameters.
The range of dustdust interaction is smaller than the intergrain distance and only pair collisions are important. With respect to the usual plasma phase. Phase Diagram of Complex Plasmas The ﬁgure below represents diﬀerent “phase states” of CDPs as functions of the electrostatic coupling parameter Γ and κ or α. For νdd ≫ νnd the complex plasma behaves like a one phase system (dustdust interaction dominates). forming a “Yukawa granular medium”. the crystallization condition is48 Γ > 106(1 + κ + κ2 /2)−1 .For repulsive interaction (electrondust and dustdust) ∞ Λαd = zα 0 e −zα x ln[1 + 4(λD /aα ) x ]dx − 2zα 2 2 ∞ 1 e−zα x ln(2x − 1)dx. where ze = z.1 κ=∆/λ 65 . Regions II (VI) are for Coulomb (Yukawa) nonideal plasmas – the characteristic range of dustdust interaction (in terms of the momentum transfer) is larger than the intergrain distance (in terms of the WignerSeitz radius). in the diagram below the complex plasmas are “located” mostly in the strong coupling regime (equivalent to the top left corner). respectively. ae = a. (σ/π)1/2 > (4π/3)−1/3 ∆. The vertical dashed line at κ = 1 conditionally divides the system into Coulomb and Yukawa parts. In region IV the electrostatic interaction is unimportant and the system is like a uaual granular medium. Regions I (V) represent Coulomb (Yukawa) crystals. 0. In addition. For iondust (attraction) ∞ Λid ≃ z e−zx ln 0 1 + 2(Ti /Te )(λD /a)x 1 + 2(Ti /Te )x dx. and ad = 2a. α =∆/a 10 4 1 10 1 10 I 2 10 V 3 10 2 Γ 10 0 II VI III 10 2 IV 10 4 VII 1 VIII 10 Regions III (VII and VIII) correspond to Coulomb (Yukawa) ideal gases. in the region VIII the pair Yukawa interaction asymptotically reduces to the hard sphere limit. which implies that the interaction is essentially multiparticle.
. Anderson (Ed. it is suggested that the original source be cited rather than the Formulary. L. The books and articles cited below are intended primarily not for the purpose of giving credit to the original workers. Morse and H.. 656–666. A. A. H. 4. Additional material can also be found in D. 2. The following are particularly useful: C. Eds. etc. Stegun. Allen. 1990). H. 1968). Feshbach. B. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover. 49 (1969). M. “Note on Some Binomial Coeﬃcient Identities of Rosenbaum. 1–3. W. 3332 (1977). 10. 23. 1980).” J. Gould and J. Phys. 3. R. 1278 (1982). but (1) to guide the reader to sources containing related material and (2) to indicate where to ﬁnd derivations. for a tabulation of some mathematical constants not available on pocket calculators. Methods of Theoretical Physics (McGrawHill Book Co. Math. 66 . is in the “public domain. they are sincerely thanked for their eﬀorts. H. I. Most of this material is well known and. Astrophysical Quantities. Book. L. Berlin. 2nd edition (American Institute of Physics. London. Comb. 3rd edition (Athlone Press. New York. 1976). “New Sum Rule for Products of Bessel Functions with Application to Plasma Physics. Several booklength compilations of data relevant to plasma physics are available. pp. See M. New York. Lang. 2250 (1983).” Numerous colleagues and readers. A Formulary for Plasma Physics (AkademieVerlag. Kaucky. 233 (1966). Abramowitz and I. New York.” J. W. 47–52 and pp.” J. Theory 1. New York. which have been omitted from this compilation. W. 1989). Phys. NRL Memorandum Report No. S. examples.. 2nd edition (Springer.REFERENCES When any of the formulas and data in this collection are referenced in research publications. Newberger. 1953). too numerous to list by name. P. 24. explanations. Math. for all practical purposes. “Evaluation of a Class of Binomial Coeﬃcient Summations. K. A Physicist’s Desk Reference. have helped in collecting and shaping the Formulary into its present form. Astrophysical Formulae. Vol. 1. pp. Anders. Gould.).
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I thank Dr. The guiding spirit and person primarily responsible for its existence is Dr. Todd Brun. He was a steadfast advocate of this important project at the Naval Research Laboratory. Finally. I am indebted to Dave for providing me with the TEX ﬁles for the Formulary and his continued suggestions for improvement. 71 .AFTERWORD The NRL Plasma Formulary originated over twenty ﬁve years ago and has been revised several times during this period. Sidney Ossakow for his support of the NRL Plasma Formulary during his tenure as Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. The Formulary has been set in TEX by Dave Book. David Book. and Robert Scott. I thank readers for communicating typographical errors to me as well as suggestions for improvements.