MASTERING ESSAY QUESTION IN PAPER 3

Experiment 1 (Chapter 2)
Aim: To investigate the effect of the presence of impurity to the melting point of naphthalene (becomes lower) Problem statement: How does Variables: Manipulated: Responding: Fixed (controlled): Hypothesis: Materials: Apparatus: Procedure:

Experiment 2 (Chapter 4)

SPM 2008

Experiment 3 (Chapter 4)
Aim: To investigate the reactions of alkali metals with oxygen / chlorine Problem statement: How do alkali metal react with oxygen / chlorine? Variables: Manipulated: types of alkali metals Responding: reactivity of alkali metals Fixed (controlled): oxygen gas Hypothesis: When going down Group 1, alkali metals becomes more recative in their reaction with oxygen Materials: 3 gas jar filled with oxygen, red litmus paper, paper, filter paper, small lithium,sodium and potassium Apparatus: gas jar spoon, gas jar cover, small knife, Bunsen burner, pair of forceps Procedure:
1) A piece of lithium removed from the bottle with a pair of forceps. 2) A small piece of lithium is cut using a knife. 3) The paraffin oil on the surface of lithium is removed by using a piece of filter paper. 4) The piece of lithium is placed in a gas jar spoon. 5) The lithium is start to burn when heated. 6) The burning lithium quickly lowered into a gas jar filled with oxygen. 7) When recations stops, 20cm3 of distilled water is poured into gas jar and shaken well. 8) A piece of red litmus paper is put into solution formed. 9) All changes that occured are recorded. 10) Steps 1 to 9 is repeated using potassium and sodium respectively to remove lithium.

Aim: To investigate the reaction of alkali metals in water Problem statement: How does reactivity of Group 1 elements change when they react with water? Variables: Manipulated: types of alkali metal Responding: reactivity of alkali metal Fixed (controlled): size of alkali metal Hypothesis: When going down Group 1, alkali metal becomes more reactive in water. Materials: red litmus paper, distilled water, paper, filter paper, small lithium,sodium and potassium Apparatus: water through, knife, forceps Procedure:
1) A piece of lithium removed from the bottle with apair of forceps. 2) A small piece of lithium is cut using a knife. 3) The paraffin oil on the surface of lithium is removed by using a piece of filter paper. 4) The piece of lithium is placed into a water through half-filled with cold distilled water using pair of forceps. 5) When the reaction stops, a piece of red litmus paper is put into the solution formed. 6) All changes occured are recorded. 7) Steps 1 to 6 is repeated using potassium and sodium respectively to remove lithium.

Tabulation of data:

Tabulation of data: Metal Lithium Sodium Potassium

Observation

Tabulation of data: Metal Lithium Sodium Potassium

Observation

1

Experiment 4 (Chapter 4)
Aim: To investigate the reaction of halogens with iron

Experiment 5 (Chapter 6)
Aim:
To investigate the effect of concentration of ions on the selective discharge of ions at the electrodes of aqueous hydrochloric acid

Experiment 6 (Chapter 6)
Aim: To investigate the effect of the type of electrodes on the products of electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulphate solution. Problem statement: How does the type of electrodes affect the type of products formed during the electrolysis Variables: Manipulated: types of electrodes Responding: types of product at anode Fixed (controlled): type of electrolyte Hypothesis: When copper electrodes are used instead of carbon electrodes, the types of products formed at the anode are different Materials: 0.1 moldm-3 Copper (II) sulphate solution

Problem statement: How does reactivity of halogens change when they react with iron Variables: Manipulated: types of halogens Responding: reactivity of halogens Fixed (controlled): iron Hypothesis: The reactivity of halogens decreases down the group from chlorine to bromine when they react with iron. Materials: potassium manganate (VII) crystal, concentrated HCL, liquid bromine, iodine crystals, soda lime and iron wool Apparatus: test tubes, test tube holders, rubbber stoppers, conical flask, combustion tube, delivery tube, Bunsen burner, retort stand with clamp, thistle funnle. Procedure: 1) A little iron wool is placed in the middle of combustion tube and heated strongly. 2) Concentrated HCL/liquid bromine/iodine crystal is heated gently in test tube. 3) Chlorine gas/bromine gas/iodine vapour liberated is passed through the heated iron wool in the combustion tube until no further changes occur. 4) The excess chlorine gas/bromine gas/iodine vapour is absorbed by soda lime. 5) All changes are observed and recorded.

Problem statement: How does the concentration of ions in hydrochloric acid affect the discharge of ions at the anode? Variables: Manipulated: concentration of chloride ions Responding: ion discharged at the anode Fixed (controlled): type of electrode Hypothesis: When the concentration of chloride ion is higher, then the chloride ion will be preferentially discharged. Materials: 1.0 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, 0.001 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid Apparatus: batteries, carbon electrodes, connecting wires, ammeter, electrolytic cell, tet tube, blue litmus paper, wooden splinter and matches Procedure:
1) An electrolytic cell filled with 1.0 moldm -3 hydrochloric acid until it is half full. 2) The circuit is completed by connecting the electrodes to the switch, ammeter, and batteries. 3) The switch is turned on. 4) Any observation is recorded. 5) The gas produced at anode and cathode are collectedand tested with a moist blue litmus paper and a lighted wooden splinter, 6) Step 1 to 4 is repeated using 0.001 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid to replace 1.0 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid. 7) The gas produced at the anode and cathode are collected and tested with glowing wooden splinter and lighted wooden splinter.

Apparatus: batteries, carbon, copper electrodes, connecting wires, ammeter, electrolytic cells, sandpaper, wooden splinter and matches Procedure: 1) Two carbon electrodes are cleaned with sandpaper. 2) The Copper (II) sulphate solution is poured into an electrolytic cell with carbon electrodes until it is half full. 3) The circuit is completed by connecting the electrodes to the switch, ammeter, and batteries. 4) The switch is turned on foor 15 min. 5) All observation at the anode, cathode and electrolyte are recorded. 6) Gas produced at anode is collected and tested with glowing wooden splinter. 7) Step 1 to 5 is repeated using copper electrodes Tabulation of data: Electrode Anode Carbon Copper

Tabulation of data: Halogens Chlorine Bromine Iodine

Observation

Tabulation of data: Electrolyte 1.0 HCL 0.001 HCL

Observation Anode Cathode

Observation Cathode Electrolyte

2

Experiment 7 (Chapter 6)

SPM 2007

Experiment 8 (Chapter 6)
Aim: To construct the electrochemical series using the principle of displacement of metals Problem statement: How can the electrochemical series of metals be constructed based on the displacement metals? Variables: Manipulated: metal strips/salt solution used Responding: deposition of metals Fixed (controlled): concentration of salt solution Hypothesis: The greater the number of metals that can be displaced by a metal from their solutions, the higher is its position in the electrochemical series. Materials: 1.0 mol dm-3 of magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate, lead nitrate, copper nitrate, magnesium, zinc, lead and copper strips, sandpaper Apparatus: test tubes, test tube rack Procedure: 1) The strips are clened with sandpaper. 2) 5cm3 og magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate, lead nitrate, copper nitrate solution are poured into 4 separate tubes. 3) A strip of magnesium is placed into each of the solutions. 4) Observation on the deposition of metals are recorded. 5) Steps 1 to 4 are repeated using zinc, lead and copper to replace magnesium strip. Tabulation of data:

Experiment 9 (Chapter 7)
Aim: To investigate the role of water in showing their properties of acids Problem statement: Is water neede for an acid to show its acidic properties? Variables: Manipulated: types of solvent Responding: change in colour of blue litmus paper Fixed (controlled): type of acid Hypothesis: an acid will show its acidic properties when dissolves in water. Materials: glacial ethanoic acid, distilled water, dry propanone, blue litmus paper Apparatus: test tube, droppers, tets tube rack Procedure: 1) Three test tubes are labelled as A, B, and C. They are placed in test tube racks. 2) 1cm3 of glacial ethanoic acid is placed into each test tubes usind a dropper. 3) 2cm3 of distilled water is added to test tube B. 4) 2cm3 of dry propanone added to test tube C. 5) A piece of dry blue litmus paper is placed into each test tube. 6) Any changes that occur are observed and recorded. Tabulation of data: Test tube A B C

Aim: To construct the electrochemical series based on potential differences between metals Problem statement: Can an electrochemical series of metals be constructed based on the potential difference between two metals? Variables: Manipulated: pairs of metals Responding: potential difference produced Fixed (controlled): type and concentration of electrolye Hypothesis: The further apart the two metals in the electrochemical series, the greater the potential difference produced/voltage produced. Materials: 0.1 moldm-3 sulphuric acid, copper strip, lead, iron, zinc, aluminium, magnesium strip, sand paper Apparatus: 250 cm3 beaker, crocodile clips, voltmeter, and connecting wires. Procedure:
1) The metal strips are celaned with sanpaper. 2) A beaker filled with dilute sulphuric acid until twothirds full. 3) Magnesium strip as electrode A and copper strip as electrode B are dipped into dilute sulphuric acid. 4) The circuit is completed by connecting the metals to a voltmeter. 5) The reading of voltmeter produced is recorded. 6) The metal strip that acts as the negative terminal is determined and recorded. 7) Step 1 to 6 are repeated using aluminium, zinc, lead, iron, and copper to replace magnesium as electrode A.

Tabulation of data:
Pair of metal + terminal
-terminal

Voltage

Zn/Cu Mg/Cu Al/Cu Ag/Cu Fe/Cu

Metal strip Magnesium Zinc Lead Copper

Mg(NO3 )

Zn(NO3)2

Pb(NO3)2

Cu(NO3 )2

Observation

3

Experiment 10 (Chapter 2)
Aim: To investigate the role of water in showing their properties of alkalis Problem statement: Is water needed for an alkali to show its alkali properties? Variables: Manipulated: types of solvents Responding: chnage in colour of red litmus paper Fixed (controlled): type of alkali and litmus paper Hypothesis: an alkali will only show its alkaline properties when dissolve in water Materials: dry ammonia gas stoppered in atest tube, ammonia gas dissolved in propanone, aqueous ammonia solution and red litmus paper. Apparatus: test tubes and droppers Procedure: 1) A piece of dry litmus paper is put into a stoppered test tube of dry ammonia gas and the test tube is then stoppered back immediately. 2) The effect of the dry ammonia gas on the red litmus paper is recorded. 3) Another piece of dry red litmus aper is put in 5cm3 of aqueous ammonia solution in aseparate test tube. 4) Step 3 of the experiment is repeated using ammonia dissolved in propanone to replace aqueous ammonia solution.

Experiment 11 (Chapter 7)

SPM 2009

Experiment 12 (Chapter 8)
Aim: To construct the ionic equation for the concentration for the formation of lead(II) chromate(VI) Problem statement: How to construct an ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) chromate(VI)? Variables: Manipulated: volumes of lead(II) nitrate solution Responding: height of yellow precipitate Fixed (controlled): volumes of potassium chromate(VI) soution Hypothesis: as the volume of potassium chromate(VI) solution increases, the height of the yellow precipitate increases untill all the lead (II) nitrate has reacted. Materials: 0.5 mol dm-3 lead (II) nitrate solution and o.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate (VI) solution Apparatus: test tubes of the same size, test tube rack, 50cm3 burette, retort stand with clamp and ruler Procedure:
1. 7 test tubes of same size are labelled from 1 to 7. They are placed on test tube rack. 2. A burette is filled with 0.5 moldm -3 potassium chromate (VI) solution. 5.0 moldm-3 of the potassium chromate (VI) solution is placed into each test tube. 3. Another burette is filled with 0.5 moldm -3 lead (II) nitrate solution. 4. lead (II) nitrate solution from the burette is added into each of the 7 test tubes. 5. The mixture in each test tube is stirred using glass rod. A yellow precipitate is formed in each test tube. 6. The test tubes are left aside for about an hour. 7. The height of precipitate in each test tube is measured using metre rule. The colour above the precipitate in each test tube is observed and recorded.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Aim: To investigate the relationship between pH values with molarity of acid Problem statement: What is the relation between pH values with molarity of an acid? Variables: Manipulated: molarity of acid Responding: pH values Fixed (controlled): type of acid Hypothesis: When the molarity of acid increases, its pH values increases Materials: hydrocloric acids of 1.0 mol dm-3, 0.1 mol dm-3 , 0.01 mol dm-3, 0.001 mol dm-3 Apparatus: pH meter, 100cm3 beakers, and 100cm measuring cylinder Procedure: 1) 30cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is put in dry beaker. 2) The probe of a pH meter that has been washed with distilled water is immersed in 30 cm3 of the 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. 3) The pH values shown on the pH meter is recorded. 4) The pH values of hydric acid solutions with different molarities are measured one by one in dry beakers as in steps 1 to 3.

Tabulation of data: Condition of ammonia

Observation

Inference

Tabulation of data: Molarities (mol dm-3) 1.0 0.1 0.01 0.001

Tabulation of data:

pH values

Test tube Volume of 0.5 moldm-3 potassium chromate (VI) solution Volume of 0.5 moldm-3 lead (II) nitrate solution. Height of precipitate Colour of solution above precipitate

4

Experiment 13 (Chapter 9) SPM 2003/05
Aim: To compare the hardness of pure metal and its alloy Problem statement: Are alloys harder than pure metal? ( is bronze harder than copper ) Variables: Manipulated: types of materials to make the metal block Responding: diameter of the dent made by a steel ball bearing Fixed (controlled): size of steel ball bearing Hypothesis: Bronze is harder than copper Materials: copper block, bronze block, ball beraing, cellophane tape and thread Apparatus: metre rule, retort stand with clamp, 1 kg weight Procedure:
1) A metre rule is clamped to a retort stand, and a piece of copper block is placed on the based of the retort stand. 2) A steel ball bearing is placed on the copper block and a piece of cellophane tape is used to hold the ball bearing in place. 3) A 1 kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the copper block. 4) The weight is dropped onto the ball bearing placed on the copper block. 5) The diameter of the dent made by the ball bearing is measured to the nearest 0.5mm. 6) Step 1 to 5 is repeated using bronze block to replace copper block.

Experiment 14 (Chapter 9)

SPM 2003

Experiment 15 (Chapter 10)
Aim: To investigate the effect of total surface area of the reactant on the rate of reaction Problem statement: How does the total exposed surface area of a solid reactant affect the rate of reaction? Variables: Manipulated: size of marble chips Responding: rate of reaction Fixed (controlled): temperature Hypothesis: When the total surface area of marble chips increases, the rate of reaction increases Materials: 80cm3 0.1moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, 2g large marble chip, 2g small marble chip, water Apparatus: 50cm3 measuring cylinder, 150cm3 conical flask, stopper with delivery tube, basin, burette, electronic balance, stopwatch Procedure:
1) Fill a burette with water and invert it over water in a basin. 2) Clamp the burette vertically using a retort stand. Records its initial reading. 3) Measure 40cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, HCL using a measuring cylinder. Transfer the acid into a conical flask. 4) Weigh 2g of large marble chips. Put them into the conical flask. Close the conical flask immediately with astopper which is joined to the delivery tube and start the stopwatch. 5) Record the burette reading at intervals of 30 seconds until the reaction stops. 6) Repeate the steps 1 to 6 using 2g of small marble chips to replace 2g of large marble chips.

Aim: To compare the rate of rusting between iron, steel and stainless steel Problem statement: How does the rate of rusting between iron, steel and stainless steel differ? Variables: Manipulated: types of nails(iron, steel, stainless steel) Responding: rate of rusting Fixed (controlled): size of nails Hypothesis: pure iron rusts faster than steel while stainless steel does not rust easily Materials: iron nail, steel nail, stainless steel nail, 5% jelly
solution and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution and sandpaper

Apparatus: test tubes Procedure: 1) Three test tubes are half filled with jelly solution and are labelled as A, B and C. 2) 1 cm3 of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution is added to every test tube. 3) An iron nail, a steel nail and a stainless steel are polished with sandpaper to remove any rust formed. The nails are then placed in the three test tubes labelled A, B and C respectively. 4) All test tubes are allowed to stand for 2 days before they are examiined. 5) Changes occurred on the nail are observed and recorded. Tabulation of data: Test tube Type of nail A Iron nail B Steel nail C Stainless steel nail

Tabulation of data: Metal Block I Copper Bronze

Tabulation of data:

Diameter of dent (mm) II II average

Observation

Times Burette reading Volume gas

5

Experiment 16 (Chapter 10)
Aim: To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction Problem statement: How does the concentration of reactant affect the rate of reaction? Variables:
Manipulated: concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution Responding: time taken for the cross µX¶ to disappear Fixed (controlled): concentration dilute sulphuric acid

Experiment 17 (Chapter 10)
Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Problem statement: How does the temperature affect the rate of reaction? Variables:
Manipulated: temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution Responding: time taken for the cross µX¶ to diasappear Fixed (controlled): concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution

Experiment 18 (Chapter 10)

SPM 2010

Aim: To investigate the effect of catalyst on the rate of recation Problem statement: How does catalyst affect the rate of reaction? Variables:
Manipulated: amount of catalyst used Responding: the volume of oxygen given off at half-minute intervals Fixed (controlled): volume of hydrogen peroxide Hypothesis: The rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide increases when the amount of catalyst used is increased

Hypothesis: When the concentration of sodium thiosulphate is higher, the higher the rate of reaction Materials: 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution, 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid and distilled water Apparatus: 10cm3 and 100cm3 measuring cylinders, 100cm3 conical flask, white paper marked with cross µX¶ and stopwatch Procedure:
Using ameasuring cylinder, measure and pour 45cm 3 of 0.2 moldm-3 sodium thiosulphate, Na 2S2O3 solution into a conical flask. 2) Place the conical flask on top of a piece of white paper with mark µX¶. 3) Using another measuring cylinder, measure 5cm 3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. 4) Pour the sulphuric acid quickly and carefully into the conical flask and start the stop watch immediately. 5) Swirl the mixture in the conical flask and start the stopwatch immediately. 6) Swirl the mixture in the conical flask a few times and place in back on the white paper. 7) Obeserve the mark µX¶ vertically from the top through the solution. 8) Record the time t required for the mark µX¶ to disappear from sight. 9) Repeat the experiment four more times using different volumes of 0.2 mol dm -3 sodium thiosulphate of different concentration. 1)

Hypothesis: The higher the temperature of the reactant, the higher the rate of reaction Materials: 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution and 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid Apparatus: conical flask, 10cm3 measuring cylinder, thermometer, stopwatch, white paper marked with cross µX¶, wire gauze, tripod stand, and Bunsen burner. Procedure: 1)

Materials: 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide nad manganese(VI) oxide Apparatus: measuring cylinder, conical flask, delivery tube, rubber stopper, retort stand, clamp and burette. Procedure: 1) Using a measuring cylinder, 25 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide is measured into a conical flask and 0.5 g of manganese(VI) oxide is added to the hydrogen peroxide. 2) The conical flask is immediately closed with a stopper fitted with delivery tube and the stopwatch is started simultaneously. The conical flask is swirled gently. 3) The total volume of oxygen gas given off is determined from the burette reading at intervals of minute for 4 minutes. 4) The experiment is repeated using 0.20 g of manganese(VI) oxide instead of 0.50 g of manganese(VI) oxide.

Tabulation of data:

Tabulation of data:

Tabulation of data:

6

Experiment 19 (Chapter 11) SPM 2006
Aim: To compare the elasticity of vulcanized rubber and unvulcanized rubber Problem statement: Is vulcanized rubber more elastic than unvulcanized rubber? Variables: Manipulated: type of rubber Responding: lenght of rubber strip Fixed (controlled): size of rubber strip, mass of weight Hypothesis: vulcanized rubber is more elastic than unvulcanized rubber

Experiment 20 (Chapter 12)
Aim: To investigate the effect of other metals on rusting Problem statement: How do different types of metals in contact with iron affect rusting? Variables: Manipulated: different metal in contact with iron Responding: presence of blue colouration//rusting Fixed (controlled): clean iron nails Hypothesis: when a more electropositive metals is in contact with iron, the metal inhibits rusting. When a less electropositive is in contact with iron, the metal speeds up rusting
Materials: 5 iron nails, 3cm magnesium ribbon, 3 cm copper strip, 3cm zinc strip, 3cm tin strip, 50cm 3 hot jelly solution with a little potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution and phenolphthalein, sandpaper

Experiment 21 (Chapter 13)
Aim: To determine the heat of combustion of various liquid alcohol Problem statement: Does alcohol with more carbon atoms per molecule have a higher heat of combustion? Variables: Manipulated: different types of alcohol Responding: heat oof combustion Fixed (controlled): volume of water, copper can Hypothesis: the higher the number of carbon atoms in the molecules, the higher the heat of combustion Materials: 50cm3 of Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol and 800cm3 water
Apparatus: copper can, tripod stand, thermometer, 100cm3 measuring cylinder, spirit lamp, weighing balance, wooden block, wind shield.

Materials: vulcanized rubber strip and unvulcanized rubber strip Apparatus: retort stand and clamp, bulldog clip, metre rule, weights Procedure: 1) Hang both rubber strips using bulldog clips. 2) Measure the initial lenght of both rubber strips. 3) Hang 10g weight to the end of each rubber strip. 4) Remove the weight and measure the lenght of both rubber strips. 5) Repeat steps 2 to 4 using 20g, 30g, 40g and 50g weights to replace the 10g weights. 6) Record the data.

Apparatus: 5 test tubes, test tube rack Procedure: 1) Clean all the five iron nails, magnesium ribbon, strips of copper, zinc and tin with sandpaper. 2) Coil four nails tightly with magnesium ribbon, strips of cooper, zinc and tin each. 3) Place all the iron nails in separate test tubes. 4) Pour the same volume of hot jelly containing potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution and phenolphthalein indicator int the test tubes in a test tube rack and leave them aside for a day. 5) Record the observation.

Procedure:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Using a measuring cylinder, measure 200cm 3 of water and pour it into a copper can. Place the copper can on atripod stand. Measure the initial temperature of the water and record the reading. Pour 50cm3 of methanol into a spirit lamp and then weight the lamp and its content. Record the mass. Put the lamp and light up the wick of the lamp immediately. Stir the water continuously until the temperature of water increase about 30°C. Put off the flame and record the highest temperature reached by the water. Weight the lamp and its content immediately and record its reading. Repeat steps 1 to 8 using other alcohol like Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol.

9)
Tabulation of data: Tabulation of data:

Tabulation of data:

7

Tabulation of data for experiment 21 Alcohol Initial temperature (°C) Highest temperature (°C) Rise in temperature of water (°C) Mass of spirit lamp before burning (g) Mass of spirit lamp after burning (g) Mass of alcohol burnt (g) Methanol Ethanol Propan-1-ol Butan-1-ol

Tabulation of data for experiment 20 Test tube A B C D E Pair of metals Fe Fe + Zn Fe + Cu Fe + Mg Fe + Sn Intensity of the blue colour in the solution Intensity of pink colour in the solution inference

Tabulation of data for experiment 19 Type of rubber Initial length (cm) Stretched length (cm) Increase in length (cm) Length after removal of weight (cm) Difference in length (cm) Unvulcanised rubber Vulcanised rubber

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Tabulation of data for experiment 18 Time (s) Burette reading (cm3) Volume of hydrogen gas (cm3)

Tabulation of data for experiment 17 Set I. II. III. IV. V. Temperature (°C) Time, t(s) 1/time (s-1)

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