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How many milliosmoles per liter are represented by this concentration? (MW of dextrose is 180 g). Question could be read: What is the osmolarity of D5W? 5 g of dextrose are found in 100 ml of water a. 255.50 mOsmol/L. x g of dextrose are found in 1000 ml (L) of water. Weight ( g / L ) xSpeciesx1000 b. 278.00 mOsmol/L.* Osmolarity = MolecularWeight ( g ) c. 287.00 mOsmol/L. 50 x1 x1000 d. 301.30 mOsmol/L. = 277.8 mOsmol/L = 180 e. 310.00 mOsmol/L. 88. A solution contains 156 mg of K+ ions per 100 ml. How many milliosmoles are represented in a liter of the solution? (MW of K+ = 39 g) 156 mg of K+ are found in 100 ml of water a. 30 mOsmol/L. x g of K+ are found in 1000 ml (L) of water, x = 1560 mg = 1.56 g b. 35 mOsmol/L. Weight ( g / L ) xSpeciesx1000 c. 40 mOsmol/L.* Osmolarity = MolecularWeight ( g ) d. 45 mOsmol/L. 1.56 x1 x1000 = 40 mOsmol/L = 39 e. 50 mOsmol/L. 89. A solution contains 10 mg% of Ca++ ions. How many milliosmoles are represented in 1 liter of the solution? (MW of Ca++ = 40 g). 10 mg of Ca++ are found in 100 ml of water a. 0.5 mOsmol/L. x g of Ca++ are found in 1000 ml (L) of water, x = 100 mg = 0.1 g b. 1.0 mOsmol/L. Weight ( g / L ) xSpeciesx1000 Osmolarity = c. 1.5 mOsmol/L. MolecularWeight ( g ) d. 2.0 mOsmol/L. 0.1 x1 x1000 = 2.5 mOsmol/L = 40 e. 2.5 mOsmol/L.* 90. How many milliosmoles are represented in a liter of an 0.9% sodium chloride solution? (MW of Nacl = 58.5, species = 2). 0.9 mg of Nacl is found in 100 ml of water a. 308 mOsmol/L.* x g of Nacl are found in 1000 ml (L) of water, x = 9 g b. 358 mOsmol/L. Weight ( g / L ) xSpeciesx1000 Osmolarity = MolecularWeight ( g ) c. 399 mOsmol/L. d. 413 mOsmol/L. 9 x 2 x1000 = 307.7 mOsmol/L = 58.5 e. 429 mOsmol/L. 91. A ready-to-use enteral nutritional solution has an osmolarity of 470 mOsm/L. How many ml of purified water are needed to adjust 8 fluid ounces of the enteral solution to an osmolarity (280 mOsm/L)? a. 120 ml. b. 160 ml.* c. 240 ml. d. 300 ml. e. 400 ml. One of the most convenient methods of solving this problem is using the equation: (Q1) (C1) = (Q2) (C2)

Page 24 of 24

d.

3000 days.*

77. 78. Approximately 50% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine. If the normal dosage scheduled for Dicloxacillin is 125mg every 6 hours. A patient with renal function 20% of the normal should receive? a. 25mg q6h. b. 31.25mg q6h. c. 75mg q6h.* d. 62.5mg q6h. 79. 80. What is the minimum quantity that can be weighed on a balance with a sensitivity requirement of 6 mg if an error of 5% is permissible? a. 100 mg. b. 120 mg.* c. 140 mg. d. 160 mg. Sensitivity Requirement (SR) = Minimum Qty to be weighed x Permissible error % SR = (x) mg x 5% 6 mg = (x) mg x 5/100 (x) mg = 100 x 6/5 = 120 mg 81. 82. If the pka of Aspirin is 6.4, what fraction of the drug would be ionized at pH 7.4? a. 60% Charge: 10-1=0.1 100 b. 75% ch arg e ( PH − pKa ) % of ionized drug = Acid = -1 10-2=0.01 1+10 c. 80% 10-3-0.001 Base = 1 100 100 100 100 100 = 1+ ( 0.1) = 1.1 = = = d. 90%* −1 −1(1) −1( 7.4 −6.4 ) = 10-4=0.0001 1+10 1+10 1+10 e. 100% 83. If half life elimination of a drug is 2 hours, what fraction of the original dose of the drug will remain in the body after 4 hours? a. 80% b. 50% c. 25%* d. 12.5% e. 7.5% 84. A graph (log Cp versus time) of Cp = CO e-kt will give: (Cp = concentration of drug, Dose = e-kt) a. A straight line with a positive slope. b. A straight line with a negative slope.* c. Does not exist. d. A circle. e. Negative slope. 85. A pharmacist adds one gram of calcium chloride (CaCl2. 2H2O) to a 500 ml bottle of water. How many mEq. Of chloride are present in each ml of solution? (Ca = 40; MW CaCl2 = 111; H2O = 18). a. 0.014 b. 0.027 c. 0.036 d. 0.041 e. 13.60* 86. Suppose 12 suppositories, each containing 300 mg aspirin, are required. Given the density factor of aspirin is 1.1, what is the amount of Cocoa butter required for the preparation? a. 20.40 g. Total amount of aspirin = 12 x 300 = 3,600 mg = 3.6 g. b. 20.04 g. TotalAmountOfAspirin 3.6 Amount of aspirin replacing Cocoa butter = DensityFactorofAspirin = 1.1 = 3.27 c. 20.54 g d. 20.73 g.* Total amount of Cocoa Butter = 12 x 2 = 24 g. Amount of Cocoa Butter Needed = 24 – 3.27 = 20.73 g e. 18.22 g.

Page 23 of 24

* c. If the elimination rate constant of this drug is 0. 120 ml/min. In adequately powered. 40%*. 460 mg.e.0. in.* c. Divide (15%/25%)x100= 60 then take 60 off 100.05. The amount of the drug will provide an adequate therapeutic level. 300 mg.000 unit of penicillin G is equal to: (1 unit = 0.5% of the study sample. only 0. A drug degrades at the rate of 1mg in 60 day from 100mg. b. In the patients who receive a placebo. then divide 100/0. b. 15. 150. 15%. the desired clinical outcome (i. b.66.e.5%-0. 10%.* d. By applying the method of Cockroft and Gault ClCR = (140 − age.15 hr-1. 69. only 15% obtain the same clinical benefit. d. 100-60=40% 74.in.6 mcg) a. 2000*. 200. d. 80 ml/min.45% experience the same side effect. 560 mg. Subtract (0. the total amount of drug in each tablet is: a. 67. 25%. years)(body. Page 22 of 24 . In an adequately powered. 71. randomized controlled trial conducted over 3 years. 500. 70. what is the t1/2 of the drug? a. 75. 660 mg.kg ) 72(Ccr. randomized controlled trial conducted over 2 years. e. prevention of a serious cardiovascular event) with a new drug is achieved in 25% of the study sample. b. e. c. 100 ml/min. 76. 6000 days. a specific serious side effect (i. b. b. 200 mg.weight. 4000 days. 600 mg. In patients who receive a newly discovered drug.in. d. What is the Creatinine clearance (ClCR) of a 20 year old man weighing 72 kg and has a Serum Creatinine Concentration (CCR)=1.mg / dl ) (140 − 20)(72) ClCR = = 120 ml/min 72(1) 68. 5000 days. 20. 73. 360 mg. reduction in leukocytes) with conventional therapy is seen in 0. c. 50%. the minimum number of patients that would have to receive the new drug for 3 years to statistically demonstrate the prevention of one episode of this side effect in at least one patient is: a. c. The relative risk reduction achieved with the new drug over the study period is: a.5=2000. Based on these results. c. The press coating of a tablet contains 200 mg of a drug for immediate release. 400 mg. 140 ml/min. d.0 mg/dl? a. The drug in the slow release core must sustain therapeutic level for 12 hours. 72.45%)x100=0.

6 ppm.000 62. e. b. d. 64. The intercept on the middle line. Age and weight.000. 0. c. The concentration of sodium fluoride (NaF) in a community’s drinking water is 0. Express this concentration as a percentage. d. Sensitivity Requirement (SR) = (Minimum weighable amount) x (acceptable error) Minimum weighable amount = (6)/2% = 300 mg. Therefore. 1000 mg/dL. 65. 10 mg/dL.000ml 100ml then x = o. The upper therapeutic drug concentration for valproic acid is considered to be 100 µg / ml . 300 mg. D40W contains 40 g of dextrose per 100 ml. b.1 mg/dL. b.06% e. 125 ml. a line is drawn between the two outside parallel lines. d.6 x = 1.1 mg/ml = 10 mg/dL 63. The o. a. allows the estimation of the patient’s BSA. 120 mg. Weight and sex. the grams present in 100 ml will be: 0.000 ml of solution. d. Using data based on the patient’s measurements.006%. e. c. 300 ml. 150 x100 40 g 150 Then x = = 375ml = 40 100ml x Page 21 of 24 . How many ml of D40W should be used if the D30W is not available? a. c. Height and Creatinine clearance.000. c. 1 mg/dL. 0. Express this value in terms of mg/dL. 500 ml of D30W will contain 150 g of dextrose. 667 ml. 0. Height and weight.61. d. which is calibrated in square meters of body surface area.6 x100 = 0. b. 100 mg/dL. 375 ml. The nomogram in the USP consists of three parallel vertical lines. whereas the right line lists weights in kilograms and pounds. 0.6 ppm concentration indicates 0.00006 g 1. The left line is calibrated with height measurements in both centimeters and inches.6 g of sodium fluoride present in 1. e. 0. c. A total parentral nutrition (TPN) order requires 500 ml of D30W.0006%.00006%. 0. 400 ml. 200 mg. Because 1000 µg = 1 mg and 100 ml = 1 dL. The USP contains nomograms for estimating body surface area (BSA) for both children and adults. 6 mg. b.6% Sodium fluoride is a solid chemical. Age and height.000. What is the minimum amount of a potent drug that may be weighted on a prescription balance with a sensitivity requirement of 6 mg if at least 98% accuracy is required? a. 180 mg. e. 100 µg = 0. Which of the following measurements must be known in order to use this nomogram? a. a.

15 mg of digoxin contained in 3 ml of the elixir would be equivalent to 150 µg of drug. Lanoxin pediatric elixir contains 0. b. Milligram. b. How many ml of adrenaline chloride solution (0. 0. Page 20 of 24 . Centigrams. 59.6)/1 = 78.5 mg 58. 1 ml.5 µg . Use the equation of: (Q1) (C1) = (Q2) (C2) (4 ml) (1/2000) = (x ml) (1/1000) then x = 2 ml. c. 0.002 ml. 0. c. Therefore. d. 60. Five thousand (5000) nanogram equals 5: a. 0. How many micrograms are there in 3 ml of the elixir? a.0015 µg . 1. e. Grams. d.015 µg . e. Microgram.5860 mg = (x) (74. 0. c. Kilogram. 5 ml. 2 ml. O. a. e.05 mg of digoxin per ml. b.15 µg . d. 1 mg = 1000 µg .1%) may be used to prepare the solution. None of the above.04 ml.

6) a. The body weight will be = 16/2. A patient’s serum cholesterol value is reported as 4 mM/L.154 mg/dL. How many mg of drug are needed for one daily bottle if the body weight is 16 lb. because the 300 mg weight is based on a chemical formula containing 7 waters of hydration. d.5 mEq.9 x 300)/278 = 60. 0.004 = 1. when comparing salts of a drug. d.27 kg Dose in mg = 0. How much elemental iron is present in every 300 mg of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 u 7H2O)? (Atomic weights: iron = 55. d. . The question asks for iron (Fe) only.08 x 24 x 7. c.27 = 13.86 g of potassium chloride (KCl). .6 mg 1mEq x = 74. 14 mg. S = 32.Ditto. e.32 g .9+32+(4x16)+(7x2)+(7x16) = 278. The infusion rate of theophylline established for a neonate is 0. 55. Weight qualities expressed in molar amounts allow a more realistic evaluation of the actual number of drug molecules present. The formula weight of ferrous sulfate is (55. This is incorrect. b. 78. 596 mg/dL. KCL = 74. c. 30 mg.6 g 1 milliequivalent (mEq) = 74. H = 1. The valence of iron has no significance in this type of problem because only one atom of iron is present in each molecule of ferrous sulfate.wt. 150 mg. a.54 mg/dL. 1 equivalent weight of KCL = 74. A 250 ml infusion bottle contains 5.96 mg 56. An increasing number of laboratory test values and drug doses are being reported in terms of millimoles (mM). for example. 20 mEq. In this problem. c.54 g in 1 L or 1450 mf/L and 154 mg/dL 57. Iron has valences of +2 and +3).5mEq 74. e. 154 mg/dL. 60 mg.004mole = 386 g x then x= 386 x0. e.08 mg/kg/hr.54. This concentration expressed in terms of mg/dL will be: a. 120 mg. 1. .2 = 7.6mg 5860mg then x = 5860 x1 = 78. 164 mg. c. How many milliequevalents (mEq) of KCL are present? (Mol. b.This result assumes that the ferrous sulfate is anhydrous with a molecular weight of 152.This is the amount of anhydrous ferrous sulfate present in each 300 mg. 30 mg. the mM/L concentration is converted by realizing that 1 mole of cholesterol weighs 386 g and 4 mmoles equals 0.58 mg. 1540 mg/dL. O = 16.9. 0. b.This result would be obtained if the correct answer was either doubled or halved to reflect the +2 valence of iron. a. None of the above. 150 mEq.54 g 1 x = 1. e. Wt.7 mEq. 8 mg.004 moles. b.9 x = (55.6 or the problem may be solved by using the equation: mg of chemical = (mEq) (mol. 1mole 0. d.)/(valence) Page 19 of 24 . 110 mg. 12. The amount of iron present in 300 mg of the chemical will be: 300 mg → 278 x → 55.

53. 83. d. A pharmacist repackages 10 lb of an ointment into jars to be labeled 2 oz (avoir. 80. Two ounces (avoir. The normal maintenance dose would be = 120 lb x 2 mg/lb = 240 mg. 73.). Thus. Ten pounds contain 454 g x 10 = 4540 g. What maintenance dose should be administrated if the normal maintenance dose is 2 mg/dl of body weight? a. b.52.4 g/oz. e.8 = 80 jars. 160 mg. or 56. or 100 mg. d.8 g. 4540 g divided by 56. 60 mg. 100. How many jars can be filled? a. e. b. 88.) consist of 28. 100 Page 18 of 24 . The estimated Creatinine clearance rate for a 120 lb patient is 40 ml/min. Because the normal Creatinine clearance rate is 100 to 120 ml/min 40ml / min 100ml / min = x 240mg then x = 40 x 240 = 96 . 100 mg. 240 mg. 120 mg. c. c.

5 ml. 0.90 g. 24 ml.31) Rx qs 0.7/1. A standard deviation is calculated mathematically for experimental data.4 ml. e. Step 3: Determine amount of NaCl needed as if no other chemical was present: 100 ml x 0.5 ml. 90%. c. d.0 ml.48.25 indicates that 1 ml of the liquid weighs 1. Density = w/v. 0. How much sodium chloride is needed to adjust the following prescription to Isotonicity? (E value for sodium thiosulfate is 0. 454 g x 5% w/w = 22. If the solution is intended for administration at 12:00 pm at a dose of 20 mCi. 1 ml of the solution now assaying at 20 mCi/ml is needed. e. 1. how many ml of the original solution are needed? The half-life of the radioisotope is 6 h. 70%.31 = 372 mg (equivalent amount of NaCl). 0.0 ml. b. 50% d. How many ml of glycerin would be needed to prepare 1 lb of an ointment containing 5% w/w glycerin? (The density of glycerin is 1.53 g.37 g. Therefore. 51. then v = w/d = 22.25 g/ml) a. 1. a. A density or SG of 1. e.2 ml. It shows the dispersion of numbers around the mean (average value).7 g of glycerin.2% = 1. c. 2. Step 1: 50. Step 2: Multiply the amount of chemical by its “E” value: 1200 mg x 0. Determine amount of sodium thiosulfate in the prescription: 100 ml x 1.2 ml.9% = 900 mg. 49. d.2 ml Page 17 of 24 . 1. 5.0 ml.31 g. 0. approximately one-half of the original strength has decayed. On SD will include approximately 67% to 70% of all values. Because the time interval between preparation and administration is 6 h. c. or 1200 mg. and the half-life of the radiopharmaceutical is 6 h. 20%.45 g.7 ml. b. 22. 18. a. Blood pressure measurements were made 1 week on five patients with the following averages: Patient BP 1 140/70 2 160/84 3 180/88 4 190/90 5 150/70 Sodium thiosulfate Sodium chloride Purified water 1.2 g.25 = 18. d. all of the patients listed had a systolic blood pressure reduction of 10 mm with a Standard Deviation (SD) of 5 mm. A radiopharmacist prepares a solution of 99mTC (40 mCi/ml) at 6:00 am. e. b.2% Qs 100 ml What percentage of patients had a reduction between 5 and 15 mm? a. 40%. Step 4: Subtract contribution by chemical (step 2) from the amount of NaCl (step 3): 900 mg – 372 mg = 528 mg (amount of NaCl needed to render the solution isotonic). After one month of therapy. Because 1 lb of the ointment contains 5% w/w glycerin.25 g. whereas 2 SDs will include approximately 97% to 98%. c. b. 0. 28.

980 mg.1 mg 2. e.55kg Then total daily dose = 79.0 mCi. d.2 Second. First. d. c.5 mCi. The patient weighs 175 lb.2lb = x 180lb then x = 1x180 = 81. 770 mg.8 x 2 mg x 6 doses = 981. a. c. 12 mg.55 x 2 = 159. d. b. Because 1 kg = 2. e.8kg 2. 650 mg. The adult intravenous (IV) dose of zidovudine is 2 mg/kg q4h six times daily.45. 140 mg. convert the weight in pounds to kilograms: (1 kg = 2.2 lb) 1kg 2. 7. 15 mCi.5 mCi/ml Page 16 of 24 .8 mg 46. 78 mg. the halflife of 6 h allows a quick comparison of the amount of radioactivity remaining. determine the total daily dose = 81. Original Activity 40 mCi/ml After 6 h 20 mCi/ml After 12 h 10 mCi/ml After 18 h 5 mCi/ml After 24 h 2.2lb = x 175lb then x = 1x175 = 79.2 lb 1kg 2. 2.5 mCi. b. The loss in first-order kinetics is a constant fraction of the immediate past concentration. 350 mg.2 47. b. c. 10 mCi. e. How many mg will a 180 lb patient receive daily? a. In this example. Calculate the dose of a drug to be administered to a patient if the dosing regimen is listed as 2 mg/kg/day. 160 mg. 5. 164 mg. What concentration of the original 99mTC solution described below will remain 24 h after its original preparation? Solution of 99mTC (40 mCi/ml) a. 2160 mg.

Convert 32oF to Centigrade? = 5F – 160 = (5 x 32) – 160 =0 ∴C = 0oC ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41. 43. The wine gallon is the common unit of volume measure. 1/2 gallon of 200 proof (100%) alcohol is a proof gallon. Any quantity of alcohol containing the equivalent of 1 gallon of 50% alcohol is a proof gallon.5 50 50 44. Therefore. Two gallons of 25% alcohol is 50% proof."TEMPERATURE CONVERSION" All problems of conversion of Fahrenheit (F) to Centigrade (C) temperature may be solved by the following formula: 9Co = 5F . 25 gallons of 70% alcohol contain how many proof gallons? Pr oofGallons = 25 x70 = 35 50 Page 15 of 24 . Convert 212oF to Co? 9C = 5F – 160 = (5 x 212) – 160 = 900 ∴ C = 100oC ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42.160 40. 55 gallons of 45% alcohol contains how many proof gallons? 9C Pr oofGallon = GallonxStrength 55 x 45 = = 49. Convert 100oC to Fo? 9C = 5F – 160 5F = (9 x 100) + 160 = 900 + 160 F = 1060/5 ∴F = 212oF "PROOF SPIRITS" Proof Gallon = Wine gallon x Proof Strength One proof gallon is defined as the gallon of 100 proof (50%) ethyl alcohol.

contains (x) ∴ 350ml 100ml ∴x = 100 x35 = 10% 350 NB: Occasionally. mixture of solids possessing different % strengths. 000ml absolute alcohol. 000ml absolute alcohol. 200mg of 10% + 50gm of 20% + 100gm of 5%? 200 50 100 350 X X X 10% 20% 5% = = = 20 10 5 35 00 00 00 00 contains 35 00 absolute alcohol. What is the % v/v of alcohol in the following mixture. 1 Liter 60%. Alligation medically used to calculate the % strength of a mix made by mixing two or more components of a given % strength."ALLIGATION" It is an arithmetic method of solving problems that involve the mixing of solutions. 3000ml of 40%. ointments. 000 contains 250. In these cases. 38. consider the volume of the diluent as having 0% concentration of the drug. Page 14 of 24 .000 absolute alcohol. What is the final % of Zinc Oxide ointment made by mixing ZnO ointment of the following strengths. you will run into a problem where the addition of a diluent or solvent is contained. 1000 ml of 70%? 1000 3000 1000 5000 X X X 60% 40% 70% = = = 60 120 70 250 000ml absolute alcohol. contains (x) ∴ 5000 ml 100ml ∴x = 100 x 250 = 50% 5.000 39.

5 ∴x = = 1250ml 0.25% x 10 = 2% x (x) ∴x = 10 x0.25% Ephedrine SO4 Rose Water ad 10ml How many ml of 1:50 stock solution of ephedrine SO4 are necessary for dispensing? 1:50 = 2% ∴ 0. How many ml of 1:5000 Potassium Permanganate solution can be made from 50ml of 0.5% = (x) x 0.25ml 2 Page 13 of 24 .02% 50 x0.5%? 1 = 0.25 = 1.02% 5000 ∴ 50 x 0.0002 = 0.02 37. You receive the following prescription: 0.36.

If 20ml of a 1:200 w/v solution are diluted to 500ml. let x = weight of 100% HC powder (x g) (100%) + (60 g) (0. 0.90 g.5 Parts of 100% 2% 0.30 g.3 = 1.5% hydrocortisone cream if one wishes to prepare a 2.5% 98 Parts of 0. b. Because the amount of 0.92 g 35.5 ml.1 ml. the problem may be solved by allegation alternate method or by simple algebra.5 x60 = 0.20 g. 5 ml.000 = 0. The number of ml of heparin injection 10.5 ∴x = = 0.5 ml. what is the final concentration? ∴ 20 x 0.53 g. by algebra. 100u x = 1ml 50ml 10.5% hydrocortisone cream is exactly 60 g.5 parts then 1. what will be its concentration? ∴ 65% x 100 = (x) x 85 65 x100 ∴x = = 76. If a 65% w/v sugar solution is evaporated to 85% of its original volume.92 g.32. Therefore. 1.5 ml 33. How many grams of pure hydrocortisone powder must be mixed with 60 g of 0. 100% 1:200 = 5% 1. 2. 0.000 = 1ml x then x = 100 x 50 = 5000 u then x = 5. d.000/10.5%) = (60 g + x g) (2%) x + 0.47% 85 Suppose the volume is 100ml Page 12 of 24 . 0. c.5% 60 g x = 98 parts 1.2 + 0. A floor nurse requests a 50 ml minibottle to contain heparin injection 100 u/ml. b.5% = (x) x 500 20 x0. 0.02% 500 34.92 g 98 or. 1. e.02 x x = 0. 1 ml.0% w/w preparation? a. the final weight of the cream will be greater when hydrocortisone powder is added. d. 0. e.000u 5. c.000 u/ml needed for this order will be: a.

When ratio strengths are given in the problem. convert to percentage % strength before beginning your calculations.” How many ml of SWFI must a pharmacist add if a 1000 u/ml concentration is needed by the nurse? a.000u = 1ml x 1000u 10. 17 ml. the resulting volume will be 10 ml. If 500ml of a 15% v/v solution is diluted to 1500ml. 7 ml. the total volume of solution that must be prepared will be: then x = 10 ml. When some drug powders. c. Page 11 of 24 .Whenever the problem deals with proportional parts.000 units: to reconstitute. 8.000 15% = 500 x% 500 x15 ∴x = = 5% 1500 or Strength x Volume = Strength x Volume 15(%) x 500 = (x) x 1500 ( x) = 15 x500 = 5% 15000 31.000u = 1ml x then x = 20 ml. 20 ml. A vial of lyophilized drug is labeled “10. When the powder has dissolved. reduce them to the lowest possible common denominator (. are reconstituted. d. In this example. the volume occupied by the bulk powder once it has dissolved must be considered. add 17 ml of Sterile Water for Injection to obtain 500 units per ml. 2.)اﻟﻤﻘﺎم 30. what is the resulting % strength of the final solution? 15. Therefore. 10 ml.5 ml. When a concentration of 1000 u/ml is desired. especially bulky antibiotics. e. the pharmacist must add 7 ml of SWFI to the vial. The previously listed volume means that the volume occupied by the bulk powder must have been 20 – 17 ml = 3 ml. b. the final volume of solution is: 500u 10."DILUTION & CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTIONS" There are two (2) important rules to follow: 1.

d. 10 mg. d.5. c.)/(valence) = (1. c. Wt. and that is equal to 50mg.5 mEq of calcium per 100 ml.24 5. 10000 Page 10 of 24 .5 mEq = 30 mg. b. 30 mg. Express the solution’s strength of cacium in terms of mg/L (The atomic weight of calcium is 40) a.05 gm . 600 mg/L Because the valence of calcium is +2. e. 500 mg.mg. b. 20 mg.5 x 40)/(2) = 30 mg/dL or 300 mg/L 29. e.25 g 1 = 1046ml x Then x = 1046 x1 = 199. Therefore.25 28. 150 mg/L. 30 mg/L. 1 mEq equals 40 mg divided by 2 = 2. 300 mg/L. How much of Gentian Violet is used to make 500ml of 1:10000 solution? a. 1. 60 mg/L. A solution contains 1. 50 mg. If using the equation: Mg of chemical = (mEq) (mol. 1 x = 10000 500 ∴x = 1x500 = 0.

1/200.25 0. e.025% 4000 24.05 1 = = 500 100 2000 (=0.25 of sodium hypochlorite. c.2gm x 15. 1/180.2 gm x= 2500 Then change grams into grains according to 1gm=15.05%) 26.002 25.25% w/v sodium hypochlorite.02% as ratio strength? 0. a. 1/100. A pharmacist dilutes 100 ml of Clorox with 1 quart of water.43grain = 0.25gm ∴ ∴ The ratio is 1:2000 0.02 1( part ) = 100 x( parts ) 2 1 = 10000 5000 = 1:5000 23. A prescription calls for a solution of drug equal to 2 mg/ml. What is the ratio strength of the solution made by dissolving 125mg 2 tablets of mercury bichloride in 500ml of a solution? (Solution) Total mgs = 125 x 2 = 250mg. Commercial Clorox contains 5. d. 1/9. Express concentration of this solution as a ratio strength? Multiply by 1000: 2mg/ml = 2000mg/1000ml then change mg's into grams = 2gm/1000ml then… = 1gm/500ml or 0. The final dilution will be 100 + 946 ml of water for a total of 1046 ml. b. Express the concentration of sodium hypochlorite in the final solution as w/v ratio. 1/10. For solids in solids Grams/1000grams of mixture or Grains/1000grains of mixture 22. For liquids in liquids Ml/1000ml of mixture. One hundred ml of Clorox contains 5.43 = 3."RATIO SOLUTIONS" For solids in liquid Gram/1000ml of mixture.002 gm 1ml = 1gm xml then x= 1 = 500 0. is equal to 0. How many grains of Potassium permanganate could be used to make 500ml of 1:2500 solution? 1 gm in (x) gm in 2500ml 500ml 1gm` ( x) gm = 2500ml 500ml 1x500 = 0. The ratio strength will be: Page 9 of 24 . Which. Express 1:4000 as a % concentration? 1 x = 4000 100 100 x1 Therefore x= = 0. Express 0.086 grains 27.

24 0. b.94 And since pH before addition of NaOH was 4.76 = 0. What is the slope if.76 4. 7. For the curve equation where y is function of x.76 + + Log 0.76. 3.16 0. d. c.= = 4. y = 9? a. Page 8 of 24 .176 = 4. then the change in pH is going to be: pH = 4.94 – 4. 6. x = 1.18 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. y = 12x – 3x2. 9.

1 7.5 g. How many grams of 5% hydrocortisone ointment would be diluted with white petrolatum to prepare this order? a.04 mole of NaOH to a liter of a buffer solution of 0.16 b.76 + Log Page 7 of 24 . calculate H+ concentration of the solution? PH Log H = = = -Log H .76 4.2gm 5% 18.2218 19. c. 3221.2218) = + 3. Pka value of acetic acid is 4.19 PH = Pka + Log salt acid 0. A hospital clinic requests 2lb of 2% hydrocortisone ointment.2 + 0. d.04 = 4. 363. 32. pH = -Log 6 x 10-4 = .7782 + (-4.2218 6 x 10-4 = 0.18 d.2 g.76 The addition of 0. 545 g.2 − 0.76 + + Log Log 1 = 4.17. 322.04M of NaOH converts 0.4 g.04M of acetic acid to 0.8 d. 3. 0. 0. 0. consequently the concentration of acetic acid is decreased and the concentration of sodium acetate is increased by equal amount according to the following equation: PH = Pka + Log Salt + base Salt − base 0.0)) = .2M concentration of sodium acetate.94 x 10-12 20. 27.218 b. PH of a certain solution is 11.(Log 6 + Log 10-4) = . e. We have first to convert 2lb into grams = 2 x 454 = 908gm 908gm Xgm = X 2% = Xgm X 5% 908x 2% = 363. 45. Find the pH of a solution which has H+ concentration of 6 x 10-4 a.18 c.11.0006.76 at 25oC? a.2 g.17 c. b.2 = = 4. 0.04 0.(0.(-3. 18.2M concentration of sodium acetate and acetic acid. Calculate the change in pH upon adding 0.1.2 0.

5ml of solution ?? -------------------. The directions intended for the patient on a prescription read “1 tbsp ac & hs for 10 days” what is the minimum volume the pharmacist should dispense? a. 250mg (One capsule) -------------------. d.20 ml → x mg 200mg x = 120ml 20ml then x = 20 x 200 = 33. One tablespoonful (tbsp) delivers 15 ml of liquid. 15 ml x 4 x 10 days = 600 ml total.100ml of solution Number of capsules = 100mlx1cap = 20 Capsules. How many capsules of 250mg of a drug should be used to prepare 100ml solution which has a concentration of 250mg/5ml? a. e. 600 ml. 800 ml. c. b. Therefore. In this prescription. c. d. 200 ml. 10 capsules. 5 capsules. b. 400 ml. 20 capsules.3 120 15. 160 ml. the patient is receiving four doses per day for 10 days. 16. 15 capsules. 5ml Page 6 of 24 .

120 ml → 200 mg codeine phosphate Page 5 of 24 . b. 5.0 h. 5. 6. p.i. The symbol’s original meaning as a drachm (weight) or fluidrachm (volume) quantities is archaic and should not be used.8 h. 50 mmole.25 mg. a. How many capsules are needed? a.67capx30ml = 5 Capsules. The mean half-life is: a.25 mg. The amount of calcium in each ml is: a. 8. d. Ampicillin is mixed in a 5% dextrose bag. e. 120 ml Sig: 3 I t. Mean half-life= (3+9+6+5+4)/5 = 5. c. 100ml 14. 6.67 Capsules 150mg → → 100ml 30ml 16. 6. The degradation rate of ampicillin is 12mh/hr. 4. 10. 33 mg. b. b. b. What is T90 of the ampoule? 13. Prepare 30ml solution of 2. 100 mmole. 3 Capsules.67 Capsules Y Y = 16. 5. e.5g in 100ml is equal to 2500mg in 100ml 150 mg 2500 mg X = → → 1 Capsule X 2500mgx1capsule = 16. d.d. what is the percentage w/v in mg? a.s. the patient in this prescription is receiving four daily doses for a total of 20 ml. Five subjects given a single IV dose of a drug have the following elimination half lives: 3. A 10ml vial of concentrated stock solution for electrolyte replacement therapy contains 55g of calcium chloride. Because a standard teaspoon is considered to be 5 ml.4 h. 5. 5 Capsules. 19 mg. Solution of a substance is 1:10000. 500 mmole. c. 25 mg. 2. 10mg% c.c. 9.9. 25 mmole.4 11. 7 Capsules. c. 100mg% 12. How many mg of codeine phosphate are being consumed daily by a patient taking the following prescription as described? Rx Codeine phosphate 200 mg Dimetapp Elixir q.0 h.s. & h. the symbol “i” is used to represent a 1 teaspoon dose. 5mg% b. d. In today’s health practice. c. 10 Capsules. d. 15mg% d.0 h. and 4 hours.5% Clindamycin using 150mg Clindamycin capsules.

2 + 0.5 x60 = 0. 600 ml. 200 ml. c. e.53 g. the final weight of the cream will be greater when hydrocortisone powder is added. 0.5 parts then 1.0% w/w preparation? a.7. 7% 3 Parts of 7% 5% 2% 2 Parts of 2% Thus. b. 300 ml. 0. 1. Because the amount of 0. This problem can be solved by the allegation alternate or simple parts method.5% 60 g x = 98 parts 1.5%) = (60 g + x g) (2%) x + 0. 1. d. 100% 1. 400 ml. let x = weight of 100% HC powder (x g) (100%) + (60 g) (0. the final solution will contain 2 parts of 2% iodine for every 3 parts of 7% iodine. b.3 = 1. 500 ml. by algebra. 5 8.5% 98 Parts of 0. e. d. 2 parts 5 parts = x 1000ml 2 x1000 x= = 400ml of 2% iodine solution.02 x x = 0. c.92 g.5% hydrocortisone cream is exactly 60 g.92 g Page 4 of 24 .92 g 98 or. 0.20 g. How many grams of pure hydrocortisone powder must be mixed with 60 g of 0.5 Parts of 100% 2% 0. Therefore.30 g.90 g. How many ml of 2% iodine solution must be mixed with a 7% iodine solution to obtain 1 L of 5% strength? a. the problem may be solved by allegation alternate method or by simple algebra.5% hydrocortisone cream if one wishes to prepare a 2.

and 5% in stock. or more different strengths required to prepare another requested strength.NB. 5. 15%. and 3%? 20% 15% 10% 5% 3% 5 Parts of 5% 10 Parts of 3% 7 Parts of 20% 5 Parts of 15% Proportions are 7 parts of 20% + 5 parts of 15% + 5 parts of 5% + 10 parts of 3% Page 3 of 24 . 20%. In what proportion must the following strengths be mixed to obtain a 10% mixture. A pharmacist wishes to prepare a 10% ointment of drug. How should he mix to make the 10% product? 50% 5 Parts of 50% 10% 5% 40 Parts of 5% 20% 5 Parts of 20% 10% 5% 10 Parts of 5% The total = 5 parts of 50% + 5 parts of 20% + 50 part of 5% 6. four. 20%. He has some 50%. 5%. This system can be used to determine the relative concentration of three.

68 High alcohol 4. 68 473x 22 = 153ml.78% 22 Parts 32% 10% 46 Parts Low alcohol = 473x 46 = 320ml. = In what proportion should 15% Boric acid solution be mixed with white petrolatum to produce 2% boric acid ointment? 15% 2 Parts of Boric acid 2% 0% 13 Part of petrolatum The final proportion is 2:13 Page 2 of 24 .

2 Tween 80 = = 2. how much low alcohol elixir (10%) and high alcohol elixir (78%) must be mixed to prepare 1 pint (473ml) of the requested elixir? Page 1 of 24 . how many grams of each emulsifying agent should be used in preparing the emulsion? (HLB of span 80 is = 4.5. Part of low concentration ingredient needed.5 = 2.5 Tween 80 Span 80 = 15 6.14 g. 1.3 and Tween 80 is 15) Span 80 4. If the required HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) is 10. 10.5 5x6. A formula for a cosmetic cream requires 5g of an emulsifying blend consisting of Span 80 and Tween 80. 25 Part The final proportions are 20:25 or (4:5 95%:50%) A physician requested that an elixir containing 32% alcohol be prepared.5 parts of span 80 10.95 g 10. you must use the X to make a mixture of a required strength. High Concentration ingredient Part of high concentration ingredient needed.5 2. Which proportion of 95% alcohol and 50% alcohol should be used to make a solution of 70% alcohol? 95% 20 Part 70% 50% 3."PHARMACEUTICAL CALCULATIONS" "ALLIGATION ALTERNATE" To find out the relative amounts of solute or other substances of different strengths.3 4.2 parts of tween 80 5x 4. Desired concentration Low concentration ingredient.

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