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Spanish Expeditions and Conquest

Spanish Expeditions and Conquest

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Spanish expeditions and conquest Although well they were not the first of

Mactan Island with 60 armed men and 1,000 Cebuano warriors, but had great difficulty landing his men on the rocky shore. Lapu-Lapu had an army of 1,500 on land. Magellan waded ashore with his soldiers and attacked the Mactan defenders, ordering Humabon and his warriors to remain aboard the ships and men, watch. and Magellan grossly seriously underestimated the Lapu-Lapu and his outnumbered, Magellan and 14 of his soldiers were killed. The rest managed to reboard the ships. (See Battle of Mactan) The battle left the Spanish too few to man three ships so they abandoned the "Concepción". The remaining ships - "Trinidad" and "Victoria" - sailed to the Spice Islands in present-day Indonesia. From there, the expedition split into two groups. The Trinidad, commanded by Gonzalo Gómez de Espinoza tried to sail eastward across the Pacific Ocean to the Isthmus of Panama. of the Disease crew where and shipwreck of disrupted Espinoza's voyage and most died. the Survivors to the the Trinidad returned Islands, imprisoned The Victoria continued westward, return commanded de Spice them. sailing by Juan Barrameda,

Europeans in the Philippines, the first documented arrival western Europeans in the archipelago was the Spanish expedition led by Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan, which first sighted the mountains of Samar at dawn on 16 March 1521 (Spanish calendar), making landfall the following day at the small, uninhabited island of Homonhon at the mouth of the Leyte Gulf.[1] Magellan had abandoned his Portuguese citizenship and became a Spanish subject prior to his contract with Spain. On Easter Sunday, calendar), 31 at March 1521 (Spanish (now Masao, Butuan,

in Agusan Del Norte), he solemnly planted a cross on the summit of a hill overlooking the sea and claimed possession of the islands he had seen forSpain, naming them Archipelago of Saint Lazarus.[2] Magellan sought friendship among the natives Humabon, converting beginning the chieftain to with Rajah of Sugbu

(now Cebu), and took special pride in them Catholicism. Magellan got involved with political rivalries among the Cebuano natives and took part in a battle against LapuLapu, chieftain of Mactan island and a mortal enemy of Humabon. At dawn on 27 April 1521, Magellan invaded


Sebastián de El Cano, and managed to to Sanlúcar Spain in 1522. In 1529, Charles I of

Shortly after his return to Spain. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until 1559 because of European politics and wars in northern Europe. abdicated the Spanish throne. it resulted the of in The expedition was the most successful as the discovery by Andres the tornaviaje or return trip to Mexico across trade centuries. 1556.[7] On April 27. Ruy Samar Las López de Islas Pacific the Urdaneta. Legazpi became the country's first governorgeneral. treaty did not stop the colonization of the Philippine archipelago from New Spain. who had succeeded Humabon as king of Cebu. a Spanish Islands to Portugal in Zaragoza. expedition renamed Luzon Nueva Castilla.[3] After Magellan's voyage. Villalobos [4] expedition of a mere 500 men led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi landed in Bohol and made a blood compact with Raja Katuna Sikatuna and Raja in Spanish in records. when his father. In Philippines and simplified its spelling to Manila. subsequent expeditions were dispatched to the islands. With time. Charles I of Spain.Spain relinquished the Spice treaty of all claims However. Juan de Salcedo.[8] Tupas was defeated and requested to sign an agreement which placed his people and the entire island of Cebu under Spain. In and 1543. the first permanent Spanish settlement of San Miguel was founded in Cebu. Saavedra (1527).Where they were attacked by the defiant Tupas. Gala Sigala Spanish records He and his men then proceeded to the nearby island of Cebu. Four expeditions were sent: that of Loaisa (1525). The colony was administered of New Spain (now Mexico) until 1821 when .[5] This discovery started the famous Manila Galleons which lasted two and a half Villalobos named the islands of Leyte Filipinas after Philip II of Spain. Cabot (1526). The archipelago was Spain's outpost in the orient and Manila became the capital through of the the entire Spanish Viceroyalty East Indies.[6] Philip II became King of Spain on January 16. in the service of Legazpi. In 1570. conquered the Kingdom of Maynila (now Manila). made Maynila His the Legazpi capital of then the also (1542). stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands to the west". to the the reality its task was to conquer the Philippines for Spain. Cebu's importance fell as power shifted north to Luzon. 1565. Philip ordered an expedition mounted to the Spice Islands. On that same day. Legazpi of de and Legazpi (1564).

porcelain. natives remained the majority. lacquerware and textile products were then sent to Acapulco and from there to other parts of New Spain. the Moluccas and even India were sent to Manila to be sold for silver 8-Real coins which came aboard the galleons from Acapulco. Some export Japanese Japanese gold. agriculture was finally opened to the European population.Mexico achieved independence from Spain. the colonists had to fight off the Chinese pirates (who lay siege to Manila. Japan. spices. Moros from western Christian Visayas Mindanao areas and of and Luzon the and Sulu the Archipelago also raided the coastal occasionally captured was reserved only for the between Manila and Acapulco. Brunei. and indigenous revolts. the most famous of which was Limahong in 1574). demanded unsuccessfully on that the to Philippines Japan's suzerainty. visited and the Philippines in the 1570s in order to import Philippine increasing imports of silver from New World sources resulted in Japanese exports to the Philippines shifting from silver to consumer goods. Mexico. the Philippine the Galleon inaugurated Trade between economy in Spain and depended on was 1565 the Trade which agricultural exports. but were 1590. and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain (Veracruz to Cádiz). Peru and Europe. The European population grew in the men and women to be sold as slaves. which before natives. ships silver Later. During most of the colonial period. During Spain’s 333 year rule in the Philippines. All sorts of products from China. Toyotomi several occasions submit [10] Hideyoshi. the Spanish traders were troubled to some extent peaceful and [9] archipelago steadily although by Japanese trading pirates. gave the colony its first significant source of income tobacco production . After 1821. They depended on the Galleon Trade for a living. Manila became the most important center of trade in Asia between the 17th and 18th centuries. Portuguese forces . In this later period. Dutch forces. the colony was governed directly from Spain. introduced internal Governor-General economic reforms from and Basco that the other relations by established between the Philippines Japan Japan's kampaku (regent). In the 1580s. These goods. including silk. Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to Mexico (Manila to Acapulco). In the later years of the 18th century.

was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants.On February 8. near the end of his 42-year reign. British and Chinese. the church always had control over the state affairs of the colony. and where church. nobles were friars granted and native in estates. King Philip died on 13 September. the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King. by which time a referendum by which the natives would acknowledge Spanish rule was underway. in particular. for the complete defense of the colony from invaders such as the Dutch. the first task of colonization was the reduction. The encomienda system was abused by encomenderos and by 1700 was largely replaced by administrative governor)[12] The provinces. resembled the political system known as Feudalism in Medieval Europe. The first task was the reduction. each headed by an alcalde mayor (provincial most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza. the person granted the encomienda. The conquistadores. or relocation of native inhabitants into settlements. known as an encomendero. just forty days after the publication of the decree. In times of war. or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza. Residential areas lay around the plaza. . The decree was published in Manila on August 5. During the conquista. Spain could be said to have established legitimate sovereignty over the Philippines. In return. but his death was not known in the Philippines until middle of 1599. Political System The Spanish quickly organized their new colony according to their model. 1597. 1598. As in Europe. a central area for town activities such as the fiesta. then Governor-General of the Philippines to fulfill the laws of tributes and to provide for restitution of ill-gotten taxes taken from the natives. issued a Royal Cedula instructing Francisco de Tello de Guzmán. area were and the other referendum of 1599. and was The friars controlled than the the sentiments of the native population more powerful governor-general himself. system The earliest political during was which used infrastructures located. King Philip II. justice and governance. Among the issues that resulted to the Philippine revolution of 1898 that ended Spanish the conquistaperiod the encomienda system. exchange for their services to the King. government a market buildings. of the With the completion Philippine and was given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants.

Novales Revolt and mutiny of the Cavite fort under La Madrid. The alcalde usually in the century. In the the Peninsulares began the Insulares which execution born 19th to with him. Municipal Government Main articles: Municipalities of the usually a Peninsular (Spaniard born in Spain) to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown. His annual salary ranged from P300 to P2000 before 1847 and P1500 to P1600 after it. National Government On the national level. The unpacified military zones (corregidor). was the provincial governor (alcalde mayor). Governor-General resulted political unrests of 1872. governed through his sole representative the of in the Philippines: the seat Governor-General in Intramuros. through his Council of the Indies (Consejo de Indias). notably the of GOMBURZA. With power Manila. Alcalde (ayuntamientos). displace in the (Gobernador y Capitán General). was Commander-in-chief of the army and navy. was Mindoro. recruitment and distribution of men for draft labor.rule was the abuse of power by the religious orders. Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list (padron). collector. the Governor-General given several duties: he headed the Supreme Court (Real Audiencia). he had the right to supervise mission salary reasons. chief of capitanof encomiendas. an alcalde multiple inspector police. and was the economic planner of the country. general of the province and even viceregal patron. heading the pacified provinces (alcaldia). Provincial Government Main article: Provinces of the Philippines and Cities of the Philippines The pueblo or town is headed by Philippines On the provincial level. His yearly P40. were City headed by thecorregidores. was the work and For oversee obvious was ecclesiastical appointments. such as Mariveles and the gobernadorcillo or little governor. of All known local executive power the government stemmed from him and as vice-regal patron. But this can be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business mayor was an Insulares (Spaniard Philippines). were also headed by mayors and corregidores exercised prerogatives tribute as judge. communal public work and military conscription . the King of Spain. governments mayor.000.

He was reorganized governments in the Philippines with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous. 1893. 25 years old. In addition. Early officials of the pueblo colonial survived as were society. Named after its author. revised. institutions Philippines. postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor. is Emilio Mestizo Among who those a was prominent Chinese Aguinaldo. notice. finance and the municipal police. general. the Antonio of law Maura. Pangilinan. His annual salary. Colonies at the the town Spanish Minister contemporary Philippine society such Tupas. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. was only P24 but he was exempted from taxation. Panganiban and Agbayani to name a few. The Residencia and The Visita To check the abuse of power of royal officials.(quinto). justice. by taken Their names families from are in the Maharlika class or nobles of preprominent Gatmaitan. and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish. literate in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be agobernadorcillo. Barrio Government Barrio government (village or district) rested (cabeza on de the barrio administrator barangay). Visitas may The legal foundation for municipal governments in the country was laid with the promulgation of the Maura Law on May 19. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted. Don time. this is . Economy Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade responsible for peace and order and recruited men for communal public works. however. Liwanag. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands. first came from. "Mi Barrio". back to two were the ancient brought 5th castilian to the and from by within be a visitadorthe official’s previous specific or dating The Residencia. century the Visita differed clandestinely occur term. Any native or Chinese mestizo. Maura Law anytime without the residencia in that it was conducted general sent from Spain and might any and the gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). where the sentiment heard as.

potato. The society led to the creation of Plan General Economico of Basco which implemented the monopolies on the areca nut. 1820–1822 and 1875-1822 and ceased to exist in the middle of the 1890s. the society was tasked to explore and exploit the island's natural bounties. tomato. the Philippines earned its income through the trade and to of the Manilamany specially Acapulco Galleon. Royal Company of the Philippines On March 10. tobacco. Composed of leading men in business. In addition. formally established the Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais. industry and profession. Royal Society of Friends of the Country José de Basco y Vargas. It offered local and foreign scholarships and training grants in agriculture academy of and established It was an also design. The trade lasted for over two hundred years. following a royal order to form a society of intellectuals who can produce new. The trade was very prosperous merchants attracted Manila. cotton and tobacco among others.[13] These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. the building and operation of galleons put too much burden on the colonists' annual polo y servicio. The Galleon trade brought silver from New China. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. spices which from was the used to purchase Asian goods such as silk from Moluccas. it resulted in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines such as corn. Charles III created the Royal Philippine Company with a 25 year charter. However. and ceased in 1815 just before the credited to the carabao ban of 1782. spirited liquors and explosives. initially it neglected the development of the colony's local industries which affected the Indios since agriculture was their main source of income. that gave the colony its first real income. Chinese. Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years.The Manila-Acapulco Galleon secession of American colonies from Spain. 1785. vanished temporarily on 1787-1819. useful ideas. Thus. Spain.[14] It monopoly of was granted to exclusive bringing . However. the formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the construction of the first papermill in the Philippines in 1825. It was introduced on 1780. lacquerware from Japan and Philippine cotton textiles.

the tribute frompolo by the falla (corruption Spanish Falta. an annual enforced sale and requisitioning of goods such as rice. and three reales for church support. labor was reduced to 15 days. blankets. several forms of taxes and monopolies were imposed.[16] Also collected was the bandalâ (from the Tagalog word mandalâ. introduced into the South American colonies by the Conquistadores and Catholic priests who accompanied them. Chinese and Indian goods and shipping them directly to Spain via the Cape of Good Hope. community follows: was replaced by the Cedula personal. It was stiffly objected by the Dutch and English who saw it as a direct attack on their trade of Asian goods. a daily fine of one and a half real. Culture . Forced Labor (Polo y servicios) The system of forced labor otherwise known within as polo the y servicios evolved of the framework encomienda system. however..Manila. In 1884. a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed). ten apportioned reales buwis. and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt. The polo system was patterned after the Mexicanrepartimento.chickens. selection for forced labor. The buwis (tribute). wherein colonists were required to pay for personal identification. one real to the town real sanctorum tax. Everyone over the age of 18 was obliged to pay.[15] Taxation To support the colony. cotton. depending on the region of the country). By 1884. Custom duties and income tax were also collected. [17] The localgobernadorcillos had been responsible for collection of the tribute. taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for payment of the tax. Polo y servicios is the forced labor for 40 days of men ranging from 16 to 60 years of age who were One obligated to be of to give personal projects. to 15 reales. services could community exempted paying the real diezmos one prediales (tithes). was initially was fixed at 8 reales (one real being 8 centavos) and later increased as one chest. Philippines. which could be paid in cash or kind (tobacco. etc. This gradually resulted into the death of both institutions: The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815. produce. rice. Under the cedula system. meaning "absence"). gold. It was also vehemently opposed by the traders of the Galleon trade who saw it as competition.

literature. During governor [ seeking new markets and found them in the colonies. the Latin script and used theocentric art. Early resistance Main article: Philippine revolts against Spain Resistance of nobles the against Spain did not sultanates. The opening of the Philippines to world trade The 19th century was a period of global change. stone houses. It was during this period that Governor- the British rule in the his 1760s. had most a notably more than Mindanao coastal the their were areas soldiers with and them missionaries aspects of European life. religious festivals. i. The colonies prospered with the production of raw materials for the mother countries. also adapted to oriental culture learning to eat rice as their staple and use soy sauce. "islanders"). Today. Filipino culture is a blend of many different cultures.See also: Filipino culture By the 19th century. coconut oil and ginger. the Spanish menu. manner of clothing and fashion. the Philippines had become an important possession. brought [20] assassination by fellow natives. his wife Gabriela continued to lead the Ilocanos. The highlanders were more able to resist the Spanish invaders than the lowlanders. music. the European settlers and their descendants. The Moros. did not spread to the mountainous center of northern Luzon. In Europe. Likewise. known as Insulares (lit. The world had entered its first phase of globalization under the British the Industrial its Pax the Victorian industrialization Empire. Diego Silang was appointed after of Ilocos and .e. based on ethnolinguistic groups. Resistance against Spanish rule was regional in character. Hispanization of sorts. spread as rapid were Revolution had Britannica known Age. native The After Tupas of Cebu. of The Europe immediately cease upon the conquest Austronesian random Spanish rule. The colonists used the Gregorian calendar. cities. nor to the inland communities of Mindanao. The early small number of European settlers. political Spanish limited advanced system cities to in the counterparts in the Visayas and Luzon. resisted from Great Britain which had entered longest recorded native rebellion was that ofFrancisco Dagohoy which lasted a century. coconut vinegar. of Zamboanga andCagayan de Oro.

Padre José Burgos whose influenced fought for the national of execution Taverawho government immigrated to the Philippines to join the wealth wagon. usually not ethnic Filipinos. class in the Philippines. Among the early proponents of Filipino nationalism were the Insulares Padre Pedro Peláez. TheInsulares had become themselves Los hijos del país (lit. In the early 19th century. the Suez Canal was opened which made the Philippines easier to reach from Spain. government the Peninsulares.archbishop fought the for the of Manila. the friars called the Indios (possibly referring well) response. and Joaquín Pardo de retention by positions natives. Some Philippine churches and expulsion of friars. Rise of Filipino nationalism The opening of the Philippines to world trade rapidly developed the Philippine economy. patriarch of today's Zobel de Ayala family and prominent figure in the rise of Filipino nationalism. overnight. regardless of race. European immigration increased with the opening of the Suez Canal which cut the travel time between Europe and the Philippines by half. "sons of the country"). The small increase the Iberian the thePhilippine as Insulares (lit. displaced positions whom from by the as and called of Peninsulares from Peninsula threatened secularization known locally were of churches. In indolent and unfit for government and . The new economy gave rise to a new middle hero José Rizal. notably Freemasonry and the French and American Revolutions and of Spanish liberalism. "islanders"). The economy of the Philippines rose rapidly and its local industries developed to satisfy the rising industrialization of Europe. In retaliation to the rise of Filipino nationalism. New ideas. the Criollos. Their scions studied in the best universities of Europe where they learned the ideals of liberty from the French and American Revolutions. to Insulares and mestizos as church positions. among them Jacobo Zobel. which their the way friars found into and the colonial found of Philippines ideals authorities dangerous. In state affairs. who of secularization benefited from the new economy with the rapid increase in demand for labor and availability of business Europeans opportunities. Many Filipinos prospered also Everyday Filipinos native Insulares regarded increasingly Filipino foreigners.General Basco opened the Philippines to world trade.

Rizal. with the help of Julio Llorente. The first Filipino Masonic lodge the Marianas and Europe who would continue the fight for liberty through the Propaganda Movement. He was one of the most loved governors-general in the Philippines having implemented reforms in the colony. It was established by Graciano Lopez Jaena in Barcelona and was recognized in April 1889. Del Pilar sent Laktaw to the Philippines to establish a Masonic lodge. de la Torre was recalled and replaced by Governor-General Izquierdo who vowed to rule with an iron fist. El priests. A short time later. the Solidaridad in Madrid. would activities and Jacinto whose the next of the Zamora (see Gomburza) influence generation of Filipino nationalists. Marcelo H. elder brother of José Rizal. against The out with Indios who serenaded were Padre Burgos and Joaquín Pardo de Tavera. the Solidaridad grew. In 1891. José executions subversive Burgos. agraviados. Its first worshipful master was Llorente. in particular Paciano Rizal. a manifesto defending the discriminatory tension between the Insulares andPeninsulares erupted into the failed revolts of Novales and the Cavite resulted prominent Mutiny of to the Filipino 1872 which of to deportation nationalists Freemasonry Freemasonry had gained a generous following in Europe and the Americas during the 19th century and found its way to the Philippines. In December 1889. Some its members included José Serrano Roxas. Carlos María de la Torre was sent to the Philippines to serve as governor-general (1869– 1871). who then dedicated his novel. The Western World was quickly changing and sought less political control from the Roman Catholic Church. It did not last long after he resigned from being its worshipful master on November 29.the Insulares came Filipino remarks. Among those . 1889. Laktaw established on January Revolution of 1869. At one time. [edit]Rise of Spanish liberalism See also: Liberalism and radicalism in Spain The Liberals won the Spanish filibusterismo to the these was Revoluccion. The Cavite Mutiny implicated the priests Mariano Gómez. When the Reactionaries regained power in Spain. his supporters serenaded him in front of the Malacañang Palace. Baldomero and Galicano Apacible. Pedro Laktaw. del Pilar established.

the Nilad. 1892. and The Josefa first Filipina freemason was Rosario themselves notably a with certain Spanish Spanish formed liberals. Freemasonry was important during the time of the Philippine Revolution. and Deodato Katipunan the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalang na Revolution Bayan (KKK). members which of the La Liga included Arellano. It may be said that joining masonry was one activity that both the reformists and the Katipuneros shared. ng mga called Bonifacio founded Anak ng the Katipunan was derived from the Masonic society. He was arrested just a few days after founding the league. They allied objective of having the Philippines seceding from the Spanish Empire. . Romualda Lanuza. and many others join the masonic lodge. In fact. Majority of the expatriates supported the leadership of Marcelo Del Pilar. In the Philippines.6. Purificacion Leyva. Among the manuscripts novels were of the reformers. Marina in Trinidad Manila. From theInsular uprisings of the early 19th century of Fathers Peláez and Burgos. It is estimated that there were 35 masonic lodges in the Philippines in 1893 of which nine were Villaruel. simply the Katipunan. the Filipino discontent eventually escalated to a full-blown armed revolution in August 1896. who wrote his two famous novels while in Europe. the first Masonic lodge in the Philippines. A rivalry developed between himself and Marcelo del Pilar for the leadership of La solidaridad and the reform movement in Europe. Among the reformers was José Rizal. which had the bold The mass deportation of nationalists to the Marianas and Europe in 1872 led to a Filipino expatriate community of reformers in Europe. The community grew with the next generation of Ilustrados taking graduate studies in European universities. many of those who pushed for a revolution were member of freemasonry like Andrés Bonifacio. Radical Filipina. Rizal then returned to the Philippines to organize La Liga Filipina and bring the reform movement to Philippine soil. senator the La namedMorayta and Solidaridad. Rizal. In 1892. the his most considered Dizon. It pushed the reform movement and carried out the propaganda work. the organization in used by Bonifacio establishing influential causing further unrest in the islands particularly the founding of the Katipunan.

Bataan. whom the rebels took inspiration from and had consulted beforehand. but in his swan song poem Mi último adiós he wrote that dying in battle for the sake of one's country was just as patriotic as his own impending death. Bonifacio was invited to Cavite to mediate between Aguinaldo's rebels. Rizal himself. Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared provinces under martial a state and of war in placed law. and Nueva Ecija. Emilio . Laguna. the revolt had spread to eight provinces. That same Katipunan was colonial authorities. Spanish counterattacks drove him back and he retreated to the mountains of Balara and Morong and from there engaged in guerrilla warfare. In late August Katipuneros gathered in Caloocan and declared the start of the revolution. On that date. The event is now known as the Cry of Balintawak or Cry of Pugad Lawin. due to conflicting historical traditions and official government positions. They would later be represented in the eight rays of the sun in the Filipino flag.[31] Andrés Bonifacio called for a general offensive on Manila[32] and was defeated in battle at the town of San Juan del Monte. and He was for arrested.Aguinaldo The Philippine Revolution By 1896 year. While the revolution provinces. both chapters of the Katipunan. the the Katipunan existence discovered had of by a the the and the Katipuneros of Cavite were the most successful of the rebels and they controlled most of their province by September–October. Pampan ga. Before his arrest he had issued a statement disavowing the revolution. Cavite.[33] By August 30. Batangas. Bulacan. There he became embroiled in discussions whether to were Manila. these them These Luna and Apolinario Mabini did not initially favor an armed revolution. 1896. which he had already converted into an insurgent government with him as president in August. sedition and conspiracy on December 30. the Magdalo. as Antonio Many educated ilustrado class membership by the thousands. spread throughout the Aguinaldo's Katipuneros declared the existence of an insurgent government in October regardless of Bonifacio's Katipunan. He regrouped his forces and was able to briefly capture the towns of Marikina. disapproved of a premature tried revolution. San Mateo and Montalban. They defended their territories by Edilberto of the such with trenches designed Evangelista. executed treason. and their rivals the Magdiwang.

replace the Katipunan with an declared independence in 1898 and established and prepared the First to invade Philippine the city. However. and later the Americans turning against the Filipino patriots in the end after all. The United States had promised to recognize Philippine independence and the Americans requested Aguinaldo to wait for American reinforcements so that they could enter the city together. this aid was unnecessary as the Spanish reinforcements wouldn't have made it anyway as their Cazadores were tied down in Cuba both quelling a similar revolt and fighting the SpanishAmerican War there. Aguinaldo then sailed to Hong Kong for self exile. out. Republic. In 1898. The conditions of the armistice included the self-exile of Aguinaldo and his officers in exchange for $800. agreed Manila the to to the the Americans. The Americans had asked Aguinaldo to turn over vital entries to the capital city over to the Americans. By 1898. the revolution had resulted to a stalemate between the colonial government and rebels. In a sudden twist of fate. Pedro Paterno mediated between the two sides for the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. which he did so in good faith to their alliance. the Tejeros Convention was convened.000 to be paid by the colonial government. the Spanish Americans rule in the for Philippines formally ended. blockading of Manila Bay from Spanish reinforcements. reluctantly Spanish sell insurgent government of the Cavite rebels' design. the Americans secretly entered into a pact with the Spanish governor-general in which the latter agreed to fight a mock battle before surrendering In Paris. With Manila taken. where Aguinaldo was elected president of the new insurgent government. By December 1897. to the Spanish-American Emilio the that Aguinaldo Philippines is the War broke returned Philippines to the United States for $20 million and turn over Guam and Puerto Rico (see Treaty of Paris (1898)). and then laid siege to Manila Aguinaldo however failed to conclude the revolution by invading Manila. They . waited reinforcements until hostilities opened up between them and the declared Philippine Republic. Bonifacio refused to recognize this and he was executed for treason in May 1897. with American aid. To this end. With this action. the patriots have liberated much of the country from colonial rule.

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