This list of eponyms is updated from the 39th edition, which was kindly edited by Harold Ellis.

Achilles tendon: the calcaneal tendon. Achilles in Greek Mythology was slain by a wound in his vulnerable heel inflicted by Paris in the Trojan War. Adam’s apple: a protrusion in the front of the throat that is part of the larynx. Adam: first man! Adamkiewicz, artery of: the largest anterior medullary feeder artery to the anterior spinal artery. It varies in level, arising from the lower (T9-11) posterior intercostal, the subcostal, or less frequently the upper, lumbar (L1-2) arteries. Most often occurs on the left side. Albert Adamkiewicz (1850–1921), Professor of Pathology, University of Cracow, Poland. Alcock’s canal: canalis pudendalis. Benjamin Alcock (1801–?): British anatomist who published an article in 1836 on iliac arteries. Allen's test: test of sufficiency of the blood supply to the hand by compression and release of the ulnar and radial arteries and observation of the colour change of the hand. E V Allen (1901–1961), Professor of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Alport’s syndrome: rare hereditary condition characterized by progressive renal failure. Arthur Cecil Alport (1880–1959), South African physician. Alzheimer’s disease: the most common form of dementia, characterized at postmortem by neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Alois Alzheimer (1864–1915), Breslau neurologist. Ammon's horn: the hippocampus. Friedrich August Von Ammon (1799–1861), Professor of Pathology and Materia Medica, Dresden, Germany. Andresen lines: structural lines within dentine, representing incremental lines that run more or less perpendicular to the direction of the tubules. They represent an incremental period of about 1 week and are best visualized when longitudinal ground sections are viewed between crossed polars. Viggo Andresen (1870–1950), orthodontist, Norway.

Apert’s syndrome: A complex of craniofacial abnormalities caused by premature craniosynostosis, usually of the coronal suture, leading to turribrachycephaly, associated with syndactyly and polydactyly. Eugène Charles Apert (1868–1940), French paediatrician. Arantius, nodule of: small nodules in the free border of the aortic valves. Julio Caesar Aranzio (Arantius) (1530–1589), pupil of Vesalius. Professor of Medicine and Surgery, Bologna, Italy. Argyll Robertson pupil: pupil reacts to accommodation but not light. Occurs in neurosyphilis. Douglas Argyll Robertson (1837–1909), ophthalmic surgeon, Edinburgh, UK. Arnold-Chiari malformation: congenital brain stem and cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum. Julius Arnold (1835–1915), Professor of Pathology, Heidelberg, Germany. Hans Chiari (1851–1916), gynaecologist, Austria. Professor of Obstetrics first in Prague, then in Vienna. Auerbach's plexus: autonomic nervous plexus between circular and longitudinal layers of muscle of the intestine. Leopold Auerbach (1828–1897), Professor of Neuropathology, Breslau, Poland. Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by bilateral abnormalities of the anterior segment of the eye in association with extraocular anomalies. Karl Theodor Paul Polykarpus Axenfeld (1867–1930), German ophthalmologist. Herwigh Rieger (1898–1986), Austrian ophthalmologist. Babinski's reflex, response, sign: upgoing plantar response in pyramidal tract disturbances. Joseph Babinski (1857–1922), pupil of Charcot, neurologist, Pitié Hôpital, Paris, France. Baillarger, bands/lines/striae of: inner and outer white striations on the cerebral cortex. Jules Gabriel Baillarger (1815–1890), French neurologist and psychiatrist. Barr body: inactive x chromatin mass in the nucleus of female cells. Murray Llewellyn Barr (1908–1995), Professor of Anatomy, University of Western Ontario, Canada. Barrett's oesophagus: abnormal columnar mucosa (Barrett’s mucosa) covers a variable length of the distal oesophagus. Norman Rupert Barrett (1903–1979), consultant thoracic surgeon. Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK. Bartholin's: ducts and gland – the sublingual salivary gland and its ducts; glands – the greater vestibular glands on either side of the vaginal orifice. Casper Bartholin (1655–1738), Professor of Medicine, Anatomy and Physics, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Batson's vertebral venous plexus: the valveless vertebral venous veins that communicate with the prostatic venous plexus and explain the readiness with which carcinoma of the prostate spreads to the pelvic bones and vertebrae. Oscar Batson (1894–1979), Professor of Anatomy, University of Philadelphia, USA. Battle's sign: bruising over the mastoid process developing two or three days after fracture of the posterior cranial fossa. William Battle (1855–1936), surgeon, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK. Becker muscular dystrophy: Muscular dystrophy of the pelvis-girdle type. Relatively better prognosis than Duchenne type. Peter Emil Becker (1908–2000), German human geneticist Bell's: nerve – long thoracic nerve; palsy – paresis or paralysis, usually unilateral, of the facial muscles, caused by dysfunction of the facial nerve. Sir Charles Bell (1774–1842), surgeon, Middlesex Hospital, London, UK. Bennett shift: Bennett movement is the lateral shift of the working mandibular condyle during a laterotrusive movement. Norman Bennett (1870–1947), British dentist. Bergmann cells, glia: glial cells of the cerebellum. Gottlieb Heinrich Bergmann (1781–1861), german neurologist and anatomist, Medical Director of the Hildersheim Asylum, Germany. Bernoulli effect: fluid flowing through a tube of varying diameter travels fastest and exerts the largest lateral pressure at its narrowest point. Jakob Bernouilli (1654–1705), mathematician, Switzerland. Shares with Isaac Newton the invention of calculus. Betz cells: large pyramidal cells of cerebral cortex. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Betz (1834–1894), Professor of Anatomy, Kiev, Russia. Bezold's abscess: subperiosteal temporal bone abscess. Friedrich Bezold (1842–1908), otologist, Munich, Germany. Bichat, buccal fat pad of: each cheek contains the buccinators muscle, and a variable, but usually considerable, amount of adipose tissue which is often encapsulated to form a biconcave mass, the buccan fat pad (of Bichat), particularly evident in infants. Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771–1802), Professor of Anatomy and physician, Hôtel Dieu Paris, France. Pioneer in study of tissues. Bielschowsky stain: silver stain for nerve fibres. Max Bielschowsky (1869–1940), German neuropathologist Birbeck granules: small cross-striated granules first reported in the Langerhans cells of the epidermis.

USA. London. Bowman's: anterior limiting lamina. Louis Braille (1809–1852). surgeon. dermatologist. French teacher of the blind. London. USA. Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Bruch (1819–1884). Sir William Bowman (1816–1892). Baltimore. Professor of Clinical Surgery. Germany. area 18: primary visual cortex. H. cancer researcher. medical artist.Michael S Birbeck (1925–2005). which can be interpreted by touch as letters of the alphabet. Braille text: system of writing consisting of raised dots and points. Prague. glands of: duodenal glands lying deep to the muscularis mucosae. Pierre Paul Broca (1824–1880). membrane: basal membrane of the choroid. Germany. Budd (1808–1882). New York. London. Gordon Buck (1807–1877). diagonal band – a fibre tract in the basal forebrain. Bochdalek’s hernia: congenital diaphragmatic hernia due to failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal hiatus. Chiari (1851–1916). bloodless line of: the line of division between the areas of kidney supplied by the anterior and posterior branches of the renal artery. Johann Konrad Brunner (1653–1727). and then Giessen. glands – glands in the olfactory mucosa. UK. Tubingen. Institute of Cancer Research. layer – anterior elastic membrane of the cornea. France. Berlin. Brödel. Professor of Medicine. Max Brödel (1870–1941). capsule – sheath surrounding the renal glomerulus. Korbinian Brodmann (1868–1918). . Buck's fascia: the penile fascial sheath. Professor of Pathology. Brodmann's area 17. Professor of Anatomy at Basle. King’s College Hospital. Budd–Chiari syndrome: spontaneous thrombosis (complete or partial) of the hepatic veins with or without additional inferior vena caval thrombosis. G. Professor of Anatomy successively at Heidelberg and Strasbourg. Alfred Blaschko (1858–1892). first at Leipzig then Director of Institute of Art as Applied to Medicine. Bruch's choroidal basal lamina. Paris. Professor of Anatomy. UK. King's College Hospital. Czech anatomist. Broca’s: area – speech area of cerebral cortex. Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801–1883). surgeon at Birmingham General Hospital then Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. Blaschko’s lines: pattern adopted by many skin lesions. Brunner. Switzerland.

neurologist and physician. French neurologist. where he specialised in the treatment of surgical tuberculosis in children. but genetically distinct from. Greek radiologist in Vienna. Vienna. Salpetrière. Caldwell–Luc procedure: operation of opening into the maxillary sinus by way of an incision into the supradental fossa opposite the premolar teeth. Clara cells: bronchiolar cells secreting surfactant.S. and Howard Henry Tooth (1856-1925). U. Charles Marie Edouard Chassaignac (1805–1879). 1883). Madrid. Edler Carabelli (1787–1842). Professor of Anatomy. Professor of Dental Surgery. usually done to remove tooth roots or abnormal tissue. Germany.Cajal. France. Paris. Jean François Calot (1861–1914). Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852–1934). Carnegie Institution for Science. Rothschild Hospital. . then Barcelona. Austria. Pierre Marie (1853-1940). Spain. Carabelli's cusp or tubercle: an occasional fifth tubercle lingual to the antero-medial cusp of the first upper molar tooth. Demetrius Chilaiditi (b. Carnegie stage: a standardized system of 23 stages used to provide a unified developmental chronology of the vertebrate embryo. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: an inherited disorder of nerves that is characterized by loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation. British neurologist. physician. organization established to support scientific research. interstitial cells of: cells in the muscularis externa of the gut wall active as pacemakers in gut motility. Carpenter's syndrome: mental retardation. Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893). French laryngologist. then Professor of Histology and Morbid Anatomy. Caldwell (1834–1925). Valencia. France. Alpert's syndrome. Calot's triangle: triangle bound by the liver. France. Chassaignac's carotid tubercle: the prominent anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra against which the carotid artery can be compressed. acrocephaly and syndactyly related to. assistant to Charcot. George W. surgeon. Austria. common hepatic duct and cystic duct. Chilaiditi syndrome: the presence of a long mesentery related to the distal ascending and proximal transverse colon resulting in the presence of either or both interposed between the right lobe of the liver and the diaphragm with or without abdominal symptoms. George Carpenter (1859–1910). Paris. Henri Luc (1855–1925). Jean Martin Charcot (1825–1893). surgeon. Leipzig. Charcot's artery of cerebral haemorrhage: lenticulostriate branch of middle cerebral artery. predominantly in the feet and legs. physician. UK. French neurologist. Max Clara (1899–1966) Professor of Anatomy.

Salpêtrière.Clarke's column: basal nucleus in posterior horn of spinal grey matter. which resembles Cupid’s bow. Jacob Augustus Lockhart Clarke (1817–1880). fracture – fracture of the lower end of the radius with dorsal displacement. organ of. USA. Crouzon's syndrome: craniofacial dysostosis. . Cloquet's node (gland): lymph node in the femoral canal. neurosurgeon. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. Jules Germain Cloquet (1790–1883). John Cleland (1835–1925). Paris. Johns Hopkins Hospital. pictured as a winged boy with a bow. Friedrich Matthias Claudius (1822–1869). Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland. Octave Crouzon (1874–1938). Professor of Anatomy successively in Kiel and Marburg. supporting cells of: supporting cells on the floor of the cochlear canal of the inner ear. Cupid’s bow: expression to describe the upper curl of the lip. Alfonso Corti (1822–1888). Cullen's sign: bluish discolouration at the umbilicus from extravasated blood in ruptured ectopic pregnancy and pancreatitis – an uncommon physical sign. neurologist. Boston. Guy's Hospital. Professor of Gynaecology. zoologist and palaeontologist. rods of: auditory hair cells of the cochlea. Paris. Baron Georges Cuvier (1760–1832). Hospital for Epilepsy and Paralysis. Germany. London. Corti. histologist. Harvey Cushing (1869–1939). Glasgow. the Roman god of love. UK. Held no academic post but worked in Vienna. Cleland's ligament (transverse retrovascular ligament): thin fibres passing from the lateral surfaces of the interphalangeal joints to the skin of the fingers. neurologist. Cushingoid syndrome: the syndrome produced by glucocorticosteroid excess. Harvard. Claudius. duct of: termination of the cardinal vein in the fetus. Cuvier. Cupid. France. Baltimore. Professor of Anatomy. Thomas Cullen (1869–1953). maxillary hypoplasia and ocular and aural anomalies. Berlin. Dublin. Paris. suspensory ligaments – suspensory ligaments of the breast. Professor of Surgery. Abraham Colles (1773–1843). USA. Colles': fascia – continuation of Scarpa's layer of abdominal fascia. UK. Sir Astley Pastor Cooper (1768–1841). Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. London. Cooper's: pectineal ligament – thickened periosteum on the penten. UK. France. Peter Bent Brigham Hospital. Utrecht and Turin. Premature closures of cranial vault sutures. surgeon. Ireland.

France. Liverij Osipovich Darkschewitsch (1858–1925). Professor of Anatomy and Histology. producing mental retardation and characteristic facies with variable additional abnormalities. Jean Descemet (1732–1810). Darwin’s tubercle: slight projection which may be present on the posterior superior aspect of the helix of the pinna (auricle) of the external ear. Douglas. Hamilton Drummond (1882–1925). UK. anatomist. Denonvillier's fascia: fascia separating the prostate from the rectum. London. nucleus of: posterior commissural nucleus. James Douglas (1675–1742). Otto Friedrich Karl Deiters (1834–1863). 19th century Italian anatomist Down syndrome: Trisomy 21. Cornish physician. Germany Dorello’s canal: an opening sometimes found in the temporal bone through which the abducens nerve and inferior petrosal sinus together enter the cavernous sinus. Switzerland. surgeon.Darkschewitsch. Paris. pouch of: rectouterine peritoneal pouch. Germany. Fritz de Quervain (1868–1940). layer. author of ‘On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection’. membrane: posterior membrane of the cornea. perisinusoidal space of: space between the venous sinusoid and the hepatic cells. DiGeorge’s syndrome: congenital disorder in which defective development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches results in hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands. left colic and sigmoid arteries (the arch of Roilan is the part of this arch between the middle and left colic artery). Professor of Surgery. Drummond. marginal artery (or arch) of: the anastomoses between the ileo-colic. right colic. Primo Dorello. Disse. Berne. neuroanatomist. Josef Disse (1852–1912). John Langdon Haydon Down (1828–1896). Paris. Deiters': phalangeal supporting cells – outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. anatomist and obstetrician. Newcastle Upon Tyne. . Professor of Anatomy. Bonn. English naturalist. middle colic. De Quervain's tenovaginitis: stenosing tenovaginitis of the tendon sheath of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis. Charles Pierre Denonvilliers (1808–1872). Angelo Mario DiGeorge (b. nucleus – lateral vestibular nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve. UK. University of Moscow. Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882). 1921). Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. Descemet's posterior limiting lamina. American paediatrician.

Professor of Anatomy. Italy. Germany. Eustachian: tube – the pharyngotympanic tube. Epley’s manoeuvre: canalith repositioning for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. valve – inferior vena caval valve in right atrium. Edinger–Westphal nucleus: midbrain nucleus containing preganglionic neurons destined to synapse in the ciliary ganglion. Professor of Neurology. John Epley. Erb’s point: The point on the side of the neck 2 to 3 cm above the clavicle and in front of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Germany.Duchenne muscular dystrophy: chronic progressive muscular atrophy due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. surgeon. Wilhelm Erb (1840–1921). Professor. German physician. Victor Eisenmenger (1864–1932). French neurologist. France. Heidelberg. Paris. Ludwig Edinger (1855–1918). Berlin. Professor of Neurology. Professor of Psychiatry. neurologist. G B A Duchenne (1806–1875). Erb–Duchenne paralysis: the result of injury to the C5 and C6 roots of the brachial plexus. Bartolomeo Eustachi (1513–1574). American otolaryngologist. . Elschnig’s layer: astroglial membrane at the optic nerve head continuous with the internal limiting membrane of the retina. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a group of rare genetic disorders affecting humans and domestic animals caused by a defect in collagen synthesis. tube – the uterine tube. Edward Ehlers of Denmark (1863 – 1937) and Henri-Alexandre Danlos of France (1844 – 1912). Dupuytren's disease (contracture): contraction and fibrosis of the palmar (and occasionally the plantar) fascia. Rome. Hôtel Dieu. Frankfurt-am-Main. Eisenmenger complex: the combination of ventricular septal defect with pulmonary hypertension and consequent right-to-left shunt through the defect. Professor of Anatomy. Karl Westphal (1833–1890). France. Germany. Pressure over this point elicits the DuchenneErb paralysis. Heidelberg. University of Prague Eye Clinic. Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (1777–1835). Anton Elschnig (1863–1939). Wilhelm Erb (1840–1921). Paris. Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806–1921). and physician to the Pope. with or without an associated overriding aorta. identified the syndrome at the turn of the 20th century. Germany. and electrical stimulation over this area causes various arm muscles to contract. Fallopian: aqueduct or canal – canal for facial nerve in the temporal bone. it lies close to the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve.

overlying skin red. Author of numerous texts on anatomy. Italy. anatomist. Padua. Corinth and Alexandria. ventricular septal defect and over-riding of the aorta. anatomist and neurologist. Forel. Froehse. France. George Henry Fox (1846–1937). surgery and medicine. and limitation of movement in an adolescent. dermatologist. American surgeon. USA. Frey's syndrome: sweating in distribution of auriculotemporal nerve triggered by eating ('auriculo-gustatory sweating') after injury to the facial nerve. Occurs most often in girls aged 10 to 18 years. Claudius Galen (130–200 AD). studied there and in Smyrna. Freiberg’s infraction: Osteochondrosis of a metatarsal head. John Addison Fordyce (1858–1925). born Pergamum. Zurich. eg. mesonephric duct remnant. right ventricular hypertrophy. Hermann Treschow Gärtner (1785–1827). Lucja Frey (1889–1944). Switzerland. Fordyce's spots: small mucosal cysts of cheeks. Poland. lips and tongue. Fallot's tetralogy: congenital heart disease comprising pulmonary stenosis. New York. it transmits the posterior interosseous nerve. surgeon in Norwegian and then Danish army. Warsaw. Fox–Fordyce disease: chronic. in the axilla. Fritz Froehse. Etienne-Louis Fallot (1850–1911). Characterized by localized pain and swelling over the metatarsal head. Professor of Medicine. neurologist. Gennari.) metatarsal bone of the foot. Alfred Fröhlich (1871–1953). Germany. August Forel (1848–1931). Gartner's duct. Professor of Anatomy. J Fordyce (1858–1925). Fröhlich syndrome: adiposogenital dystrophy. Marseilles. Albert Henry Freiberg (1868 – 1940). presenting the picture of subchondral cancellous bone necrosis. cyst: paravaginal duct. Austrian pharmacologist in the USA Galen's: nerve (ansa galeni) – branch of the superior laryngeal nerve to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. American dermatologist. papular disease involving apocrine sweat duct obstruction. X-rays show the head to be crushed and fragmented. stria (white line) of: white band or stripe in the occipital cortex. vein (deep galenic venous system) – the great cerebral vein. Physician to Marcus Aurelius and taught Anatomy and Medicine in Rome. Asia Minor. arcade of: arcade between the two layers of supinator.rd or 4th. a pupil of Vesalius. American dermatologist. . H field of: ventral tegmental decussation between the red nuclei. usually the second (more rarely 3.Gabrielle Fallopio (1523–1562).

Professor of Histology and Anatomy successively in Padua and then Sienna. ossicle of: the incus (an auditory ossicle). flap. Italy. Ernest William Goodpasture (1886–1960).Francesco Gennari (1750–1797). Holland. anatomist and physician. Goethe. German chemist and bacteriologist. Stained elements appear pink to purple to blue. auricular appendices. Parma. asymmetrical malformations of the face. British plastic surgeon. Giacomini. primarily affecting renal and lung function. Professor of Anatomy. Goldenhaar syndrome: hemifacial microsomia. sheath: the fibrous capsule of the liver. Cambridge. corpuscles – tactile end organs in skin and muscle. surgeon and pathologist. Maurice Goldenhaar. cells or neurones – GABA-ergic cerebellar interneurones. Camillo Golgi (1844–1926). Dumitru Gerota (1867–1939). Professor of Surgery. Glisson's capsule. anatomist. Tennessee. Gerota's fascia: the renal fascia. Bucharest. Italy. and vertebral abnormalities. Francis Glisson (1597–1677). operation: an instrument is inserted deep to the deep lamina of temporalis fascia through a scalp incision and used to elevate depressed zygomatic complex fractures. staining technique – silver staining method for neurones. Regnier de Graaf (1641–1673). . Italy. Described rickets in 1671. encapsulates the perinephric fat. philosopher and scientist. Gillies approach. Carlo Giacomini (1840–1898). glycerin and methanol. Goodpasture’s syndrome: Autoimmune condition in which autoantibodies damage the basal lamina. tendon organs – A proprioceptive sensory nerve ending embedded among the fibres of a tendon. Germany. Giemsa staining: solution containing azure-II. Golgi: complexes or apparatus or bodies – membranous cellular organelles or vesicles. American physician. Graafian follicle: the mature ovarian follicle. Gerdy's tubercle: the attachment of the ilio-tibial tract to the proximal tibia. Paris. Delft. poet. American pathologist. Sir Harold Delf Gillies (1882–1960). (1924–2001). A syndrome of dermoid cysts. Romania. Gustav Giemsa (1867–1948). band of: band on surface of the uncus. France. Pierre Nicolas Gerdy (1797–1856). Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749–1832). Turin. Regius Professor of Medicine.

Alphonse Guerin (1816–1895). Haller's: cells – infraorbital ethmoid cells (synonym: orbitoethmoidal cells) which may be specified as either anterior or posterior ethmoid. France. and exophthalmos. goiter. Henri Hartmann (1860–1952). UK. and posteriorly by the flexor retinaculum. UK. Guyon's canal: canal for the ulnar nerve and vessels. Henry Harris (1886–1951). Hartmann's pouch: dilatation above the neck of the gallbladder – a pathological entity produced by a contained gallstone. France. They may lie lateral to the infundibulum and then open in to the middle meatus. characterized by at least two of the following: hyperthyroidism. French neurologist. Harris's growth lines: transverse juxta-epiphyseal lines of long bones seen on X-ray and representing temporary growth arrest. Victor Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777). Physiology. France. Paris. layer – layer of large blood vessels in the choroid derived from the short posterior ciliary arteries. J Grayson. Hassall’s corpuscles: spherical or ovoid bodies found in the medulla of the thymus. Jean Alexander Barré (1880–1967). Irish physician. Grayson's ligament: fascial fibres which pass from the lateral sides of the phalanges volar to the neurovascular bundle. Royal Postgraduate Medical School. Jean Casimir Guyon (1831–1920). surgeon. UK. Manchester. Grey Turner's sign: bluish discoloration in the left loin caused by extravasated blood in acute pancreatitis – an uncommon physical sign. Arthur Hill Hassall (1817–1894). Paris. They grow into the bony orbital floor and may obstruct the ostia of either the ethmoid infundibulum or the maxillary sinus during endonasal procedures. Professor of Surgery. Professor of Anatomy. Hammersmith. defined medially by the pisiform. Robert James Graves (1796–1853). Newcastle Upon Tyne and the Professor of Surgery. Guillain–Barré syndrome: acute idiopathic polyneuritis. London. Surgeon at Royal Victoria Infirmary. Surgery and Botany. surgeon. Professor of Anatomy.Graves’ disease: disorder of the thyroid. English chemist and physician . usually of autoimmune etiology. George Grey Turner (1877–1951). Paris. Cambridge. University of Göttingen. Guerin's fracture: a LeFort I level fracture of the maxilla. Georges Guillain (1876–1951). French neurologist. composed of concentric arrays of epithelial cells which contain keratohyalin and bundles of cytoplasmic filaments. Professor of Anatomy. Germany. Faculty of Medicine.

loop – the looped portion of the renal tubule. Breslau physiologist. linking the intralobular bile canaliculi with bile ducts in the portal canals. Henry. Johann Otto Leonhard Heubner (1843–1926). Hering–Breuer reflex: lung stretch reflex mediated by the vagus. and then of Clinical Medicine. Clopton Havers (1817–1894). Germany. Carl Ewald Hering (1834–1918). Germany. Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. USA. Viktor Hensen (1834–1924). Hilton's law: nerves crossing a joint supply the joint. Josef Breuer (1842–1925). Heuser's membrane: the parietal hypoblast layer. Professor of Physiology. Carl Ewald Hering (1834–1918). Hering. the muscles acting on the joint and the skin overlying the joint. stripe – in the organ of Corti (see above) to the outer side of the cells of Deiters (see above). Heschl's transverse temporal gyri: gyri on temporal lobe of brain. Rudolf Peter Heinrich Heidenhain (1834–1897). physiologist. Ireland. Richard Heschl (1824–1881). cells. knot of: the crossing of the tendon of flexor hallucis longus deep to the tendon of flexor digitorum longus in the sole of the foot. German paediatrician. Professor of Anatomy. Kiel. Austria. Arnold Kirkpatrick Henry (1886–1962). . Henle's: fibres: the ‘axons’ of foveal retinal cones running parallel to the retinal surface. physiologist. Vienna. Heidenhain’s trichrome stain: a stain for connective tissue. canals of: fine terminal ductules lined by cuboidal epithelium. physician practising first in London. Hensen’s: node – thickening at the site of the first formation of the primitive streak. Vienna and then Leipzig. Graz. Academy of Military Medicine. Professor of Anatomy successively in Zurich. Heubner’s artery: Cerebral artery.Haversian: canals – central vascular channels in Haversian systems. where he collaborated with Hering. systems – cylindrical units of tissue (osteons) in compact bone. Chester Heuser (1885–1965). embryologist. Friedrich Gustav Henle (1808–1885). then in Isle of Wight. Heidelberg and Göttingen. Dublin. supplies the anteromedial part of the head of the caudate and anteroinferior internal capsule. Vienna and Leipzig. Cracow. Professor of Pathology. UK. layer – outer layer of cells in the root sheath of a hair. psychiatrist and physiologist.

Holden. John Howship (1781–1841). The Netherlands. Hirschsprung's disease: megacolon resulting from congenital absence of autonomic ganglion cells in distal contracted segment. Guy's Hospital. ligament of: meniscofemoral ligament – Humphrey described this ligament as running from the lateral meniscus to the posterior cruciate ligament. Hunter's canal: the subsartorial canal. London. J Isfred Hofbauer (1878–1961). Huntington’s disease (chorea): Autosomal dominant disease characterized by chronic progressive chorea and mental deterioration. Johann Horner (1831–1886). His: bundle of – the atrioventricular bundle of the heart. Harald Hirschsprung (1830–1916). Son of Wilhelm His Senior. Queen Louise Children's Hospital. Professor of Anatomy and then of Surgery. UK. . Zurich. Hurler’s syndrome: genetic disorder resulting in a deficiency in breakdown of mucopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix. valves of: constrictions of the contours of the umbilical arteries along their course through the umbilical cord. Luther Holden (1815–1905). surgeon. respectively. furcula of – an inverted U which appears in the central wall of the developing pharynx. Hoboken. London. Basle. Göttingen and Berlin. Professor of Ophthalmology. Nicolas van Hoboken (1632–1678). St George's and Charing Cross Hospitals. UK. St George's Hospital. Denmark. UK. Professor of Anatomy. George Sumner Huntington (1850–1916). American physician. Founder of Journal of Anatomy. Horner's syndrome: ptosis and pupillary constriction following interruption of the sympathetic supply to the eyelid and pupil. physician. Described ligation of the femoral artery in the subsartorial canal for popliteal aneurysm. John Hunter (1728–1793). London. German paediatrician. surgeon. surgeon. Harderwyk. Suffered himself from osteomyelitis of the tibia and made special study of bone pathology. line of: transverse skin crease at the groin caused by flexion of the hip. London. Gertrud Hurler (1889–1965). American gynaecologist. Hofbauer cells: placental macrophages in the chorionic villi. then Professor of Medicine and Mathematics in Steinfurt. Cambridge. Professor of Anatomy successively at Leipzig. Switzerland. UK. Copenhagen. Wilhelm His (Junior) (1863–1934). surgeon. George Murray Humphrey (1820–1896).John Hilton (1805–1878). Howship's lacunae: absorption spaces in bone. St Bartholomew's Hospital. Humphrey. UK.

Asymptomatic or pain on medial side of foot. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895). Tenderness on palpation and swelling over area of navicular bone. André Feil (1884–?). Austria. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. Berlin and Freiburg. which usually closes by the fifth year. Jeune’s syndrome: asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.Huschke. Germany. possibly due to repetitive compressive forces which cause a loss of blood supply and fragmentation in a bone that is not fully ossified. Slight. lecturer in Natural History. Royal School of Mines. neurologist at Salpetrière. Joseph Dejerine. Emil Huschke (1797–1858). less frequently. triangle of: triangular area in the wall of the right atrium which marks the site of the atrioventricular node. usually unilateral. Klumpke's paralysis: injury to lowest root of brachial plexus (T1). UK. More common in males. Köhler’s disease: An avascular necrosis of the tarsal navicular bone and. French paediatrician. Germany. Gustav Killian (1860–1921). Germany. Kiesselbach's plexus: site of haemorrhage on nasal septum. Erlangen. Paris. Jena. physician. Koch. Hyrtl's anastomosis: occasional anastomosis between umbilical arteries in the placenta. Mathis Jeune (b. Professor of Laryngorhinology successively in Freiburg and Berlin. Maurice Klippel (1858–1942). France. Paris. neurologist. Killian's dehiscence: gap between the attachments of the inferior constrictor of the pharynx to the cricoid and thyroid cartilages – site of origin of a pharyngeal pouch. anatomist. ear nose and throat surgeon. Jackson's membrane: peritoneal fold between caecum or ascending colon and lateral abdominal wall. Kartagener's syndrome: genetic disorder (immotile cilia syndrome) affecting axonemal dynein function. Switzerland. Married to another neurologist. France. . Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke (1859–1927). Huxley's layer: the inner layer of cells of the root sheath of a hair. Jabez North Jackson (1868–1935). Manes Kartagener (1897–1975). 1910). onset at 3 to 8 years of age. but may persist throughout life. foramen of: deficiency in the floor of the bony part of the external auditory meatus. An early supporter of Darwinism. Wilhelm Kiesselbach (1839–1902). Professor of Anatomy. neurologist. Kansas City. Walter Koch (1880–?). Klippel–Feil syndrome: congenital fusion or reduction in number of cervical vertebrae. physician and pathologist. Joseph Hyrtl (1811–1894). France. USA. the patella. limp.

interalveolar pores of: pores that link adjacent alveolar air spaces of the lung. Labbé. . Hermann Kuhnt (1850–1925). Nicholas Kulchitsky (1856–1925). Professor of Anatomy. USA Krause. glands of: accessory lacrimal glands in the subconjunctival tissue of the upper fornix. Russian neuropsychiatrist. surgeon. Professor of Anatomy. The Netherlands. William Edward Ladd (1880–1967). German radiologist. Kölliker-Fuse nucleus: substantia intermedia centralis in spinal cord. intermediary layer of – a collar of astrocytes that separates the optic nerve head from the retina. Laimer’s diverticulum: a pulsion diverticulum located below cricopharyngeus. Leon Labbé (1832–1916). Switzerland. Johan Landsmeer (1919–1999). Kulchitsky cells: neuroendocrine cells in lung and gut. Kraissl's lines: lines of greatest tension in the skin. Korsakoff psychosis/syndrome: syndrome of anterograde and retrograde amnesia with confabulation associated with alcoholic or non-alcoholic polyneuritis described as ‘cerebropathia psychica toxaemia’ by Korsacoff. Professor of Anatomy successively at Kiel.Alban Köhler (1874 – 1947). Hannover. Germany. Ladd's bands: congenital bands across the duodenum in volvulus neonatorum. Kharkov. German anatomist. plastic surgeon. Kohn. New Jersey. surgeon. 1999). Boston Children's Hospital. Germany. Berlin. Karl Friedrich Theodor Krause (1797–1868). Krebs’ cycle: the citric acid cycle: oxidative energy production pathway in mitochondria. Cornelius Kraissl (d. USA. France. inferior anastomotic vein of: connects superficial middle cerebral vein to the transverse sinus. Professor of Histology. pathologist. After the Russian revolution he came to London to continue his work in neuropathology at University College. currently used synonymously with ‘amnestic syndrome’. Eduard Laimer. German-born British biochemist. Sergei Sergeievich Korsakoff (1854–1900). Kuhnt: central tissue meniscus of – a thickening of the astroglial membrane (of Elschnig) covering the optic nerve head at the centre of the disc. Kupffer cells: resident liver macrophages. Russia. Rudolf Albert Von Kölliker (1817–1905). anatomist. German ophthalmologist. Karl Wilhelm Von Kupffer (1829–1902). Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900–1981). Leiden. Köningsberg and Munich. Landsmeer's ligaments: transverse and oblique retinacular ligaments of the fingers. Hans Kohn (1866–1935).

successively Professor of Surgery at Glasgow. USA. Joseph (Lord) Lister (1827–1912). France. pathologist. diffuse inflammation of the submandibular and sublingual spaces. Professor of Histology successively at Würzburg. Johann Nathaniel Lieberkuhn (1711–1756). Professor of Anatomy. Martin Lisfranc (1790–1847). in epidermis and other epithelia. Professor of Surgery. Lister's tubercle: a prominence on the posterior surface of the distal radius. Louis. Antoine Louis (1723–1792). neurologist. Karl Ritter von Edenberg Langer (1819–1887). at the age of 22. University of Vermont. Germany. and then Vienna. he is also linked to the design of the famous Guillotine. Professor of Pathology. Breslau. rapidly expanding. Lieberkühn. fasciculus of. II or III fractures: system of classification of facial fractures. .and other hormone-secreting cells of the pancreas. France. Franz Von Leydig (1821–1908). Interestingly. Berlin. Langhans cells: cells of the villous cytotrophoblast. Germany. islets of – clumps of insulin. Little's area: site of haemorrhage on the nasal septum. Lissauer. France. Tübingen and Bonn. London. Lille. surgeon. angle of: sternal angle: the angle formed on the anterior surface of the sternum at the junction of its body and manubrium. Le Fort I. René Le Fort (1869–1951). Maître de chirurgie and later appointed Professor of Physiology at the Royal College of Surgeons. Paris. Ludwig’s angina: a potentially life-threatening. Professor of Surgery. Lisfranc's ligament: interosseous ligament between the second metatarsal and first cuneiform bone of the foot. These glands were described by Malphighi (see below) in 1688. Germany.Langer's lines: cleavage or crease lines in the skin produced by the arrangement of the subcutaneous fibrous tissues. Heinrich Lissauer (1861–1891). UK. Leydig cells: the interstitial testosterone-secreting cells of the testis. tract of: ascending tract in the spinal cord. Austria Langerhans: cells – dendritic cell of haemopoietic origin. Described the islet cells in his doctorate thesis in 1869. physician and anatomist. Hungary. Edinburgh and King's College. Switzerland. James Laurence Little (1836–1885). Paul Langerhans (1847–1888). occurring most often in young adults with dental infections. ulnar to the groove for the tendon of extensor pollicis longus. Paris. Jaques de St. Freiburg. Theodor Langhans (1839–1915). Berne. crypts of: tubular glands of the small intestine.

Tübingen. French surgeon and physiologist. François Magendie (1783–1855). Antoine Bernard-Jean Marfan (1858–1942). Professor of Gynaecology. Luschka: bursa of. (lateral Luschka aperture) – accessory pharyngeal recess in front of the anterior arch of the atlas. orange G and aniline blue stain for connective tissue. Sir William Macewen (1848–1924). France. French-born Canadian pathologist. diverticulum – the remains of the vitello-intestinal duct. Louis Charles Malassez (1842–1909). Claude Laurent Pierre Masson (1880–1959). Masson’s trichrome stain: a stain for connective tissue. uncovertebral joints of – small synovial joints on either side of the intervertebral cartilaginous joint in cervical vertebrae C3-7 (between the uncinate process of the inferior vertebral body and the bevelled lateral border of the superior body at each level). Berlin. Magendie. aperture of: the median aperture in the roof of the fourth ventricle. Scottish surgeon. Professor of Anatomy. Martinotti’s cell/neurone: a fusiform neurone in the deepest layer of the cerebral cortex Giovanni Martinotti (1857–1928). Johann Meckel (1781–1833). University of Paris. Boston pathologist. Alwin Mackenrodt (1859–1925). rests of: Epithelial remnants of the enamel organ found in the periodontal ligament. Mallory’s triple stain: Mallory’s acid fuchsin. Paediatric clinic. His grandfather was Professor of Anatomy in Berlin and described the pterygopalatine ganglion and the dural sac which contains the ganglion of the trigeminal nerve. foramen of. Macewen’s triangle: Macewen’s triangle is the surface marking of the mastoid antrum. Meckel's: cartilage – the cartilage of the first branchial arch. . Professor of Infantile Hygiene. His work established the treatment of intracranial complications of middle ear suppuration. Frank Burr Mallory (1862–1941). Germany. Germany. as well as subluxated ocular lenses. Malassez. His father was also Professor of Anatomy in Halle. often associated with cardiovascular abnormalities such as dissecting aortic aneurysms and valve defects. German surgeon and obstetrician. Hubert Luschka (1820–1875). Halle. physician to the Hôtel Dieu. Professor of Anatomy. Marfan’s syndrome: autosomal genetic disorder of the connective tissue characterized by a long body and extended limbs and fingers.Wilhelm Friedrich von Ludwig (1790–1865). foramina of – lateral aperture in the roof of the fourth cerebral ventricle. Mackenrodt's ligament: the transverse cervical (or cardinal) ligament of the uterus. Paris. Bolognia pathologist.

The chair was also held by his father and his son – all named Alexander. tubercles of: sebaceous glands situated in the areola of the breast. laws – the laws of inheritance of single-gene traits that form the basis of the science of genetics. Professor of Neurology. then Göttingen. UK. Edinburgh. and Physiology at Göttingen. USA. French otorhinolaryngologist. Adolf Meyer (1866–1950). Moll. lies close to the surface of glabrous skin and sensitive to sustained pressure. ophthalmologist. Germany. Heinrich Meibom (1638–1700). Mirizzi syndrome: partial obstruction to the flow of bile and the appearance of mild jaundice as a result of biliary stones. Jacob Antonius Moll (1832–1914). see below). Vienna. amygdala and thalamus. Austria. corpuscles – sensory nerve endings in the skin. Meissner's: corpuscles – tactile nerve endings in skin. Morgagni: columns of – the columns of the anal canal. Germany. Montgomery. William Montgomery (1797–1859). Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. of Zoology and Physiology at Freiburg. The Netherlands. basal nucleus of: part of the 'substantia innominata' of the basal forebrain: contains large cholinergic neurones that project to the cerebral cortex. Professor of Anatomy successively at Rostock. The Hague. (Previously described by Morgagni. Meynert. plexus – submucosal autonomic plexus of the intestine. Argentinean physician. neurologist. Helmstadt. History and Poetry. Friedrich Sigmund Merkel (1845–1919). first described by Gregor Mendel in 1865. Prosper Ménière (1799–1862). glands of: modified sweat glands associated with the eyelashes. Czech Republic Ménière’s disease: aural or auditory vertigo. Professor of Anatomy. disc – slowly adapting type I receptor. Gregor Johann Mendel (1822–1884). Dublin.Meibomian glands: the tarsal glands of the eyelid. Ireland. . Basle. Professor of Midwifery. Professor of Medicine. Germany. Pablo Mirizzi(1893 – 1964). George Meissner (1829–1905). Merkel: cells. If blocked they become distended into meibomian cysts. Meyer's loop: portion of the geniculocalcarine radiation. Abbot and pioneer of genetics from Brno. Theodore Herman Meynert (1833–1892). foramen of: the foramen between the lateral and third ventricles of the brain. glands of. Monro. Alexander Monro (1733–1817).

orbital muscle of – collection of smooth muscle fibres spanning the infraorbital fissure. American surgeon. English mathematician and physicist. Germany.hernia – congenital diaphragmatic hernia between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. Heinrich Müller (1820–1864). Professor of Anatomy. Founder of modern morbid anatomy. Ernst Moro (1874–1951). accompanying the round ligament in the female. neurologist successively of Frankfurt. Germany. Professor of Surgery. James Rutherford Morison (1853–1939). Leipzig. Germany. for 59 years. which when applied in a vacuum to a body having a mass of one kilogram. Nitabuch's layer or stria: layer of fibrinoid matrix between basal plate of placenta and endometrium. hepatorenal pouch of: the right subhepatic space. usually completely obliterated in the female. Nuel. Padua. German physician. Heidelberg and Munich. arthritic changes. spaces of: space between outer rods of Corti and hair cells. Its functions are uncertain. Germany. accelerates it at the rate of one meter per second squared. Nissl: bodies. Berlin. UK. Nabothian cyst. or the testis in its descent into the scrotum in the male. Germany. Compression of the plantar nerve by a tumor. second law of motion – applied force = mass x acceleration Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727). Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771). Professor of Medicine. Raissa Nitabuch (19th Century). granules – basophil granules in cytoplasm of neuronal somata. Müller: cells – neuroglial cells in the retina. Morton’s neuroma: A disease of the foot characterized by a sudden cramplike pain in the metatarsal area radiating to the 4th and 5th toe and sometimes to the calf of the leg. Newtonian: equations – using the SI unit of force (N). follicle: retention cyst of uterine cervix. Dutch anatomist. Moro reflex: startle reflex. Morison. Durham. Professor of Anatomy. physician. Anton Nuck (1650–1692). or bursitis is the common cause. Würzburg. staining technique – specific stain for these granules. Thomas George Morton (1835 – 1903). Italy. canal of: a diverticulum of the peritoneal membrane extending into the inguinal canal. Nuck. Franz Nissl (1860–1919). Martin Naboth (1675–1721). Professor of Anatomy. Johannes Müller (1801–1858). .

USA. physician and anatomist. Filippo Pacini (1812–1883). this condition is an autosomal dominant disorder most commonly associated with deletion of GAG in the coding region of the DYT1 gene encoding torsinA. surgeon. Oppenheim’s dystonia: Oppenheim described dystonia musculorum deformans (DMD) a movement disorder characterized by twisting or turning movements and abnormal postures. Rome. Ondine’s curse: primary alveolar hypoventilation. Professor of Otology. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology successively at Pisa and then Florence. Professor of Surgery. Switzerland. Louvain and later Liege. Hermann Oppenheim (1858–1919). Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery. sphincter of: the sphincter at the termination of the common bile duct. Harvard University. Rome. University of Pennsylvania. Oddi. Ondine.Jean Pierre Nuel (1847–1920). Boston. Italy. American dermatologist and electron microscopist. It has recently been suggested that the condition should be referred to as ‘Oppenheim’s dystonia’. Italy. contour lines of: accentuated incremental lines in the dentin thought to be due to disturbances in the mineralization process. Carl Schlatter (1864–1934). A Onodi. Italy. . a sea nymph in German mythology who cursed an unfaithful human lover by abolishing the automaticity of his bodily functions. Owen. German neurologist. containing hydrophobic phospholipid. Philadelphia. Now called early-onset primary torsion dystonia. Robert Bayley Osgood (1873–1956). Pancoast tumour: apical carcinoma of the lung involving C8 and T1 nerves. Osgood–Schlatter disease: osteochondrosis of tibial tuberosity. Onodi cell: sphenoethmoid cell formed by lateral and posterior pneumatisation of the most posterior ethmoid cells over the sphenoid sinus. Odland bodies: small lamellated structures (keratinosomes) in granular layer of epidermis. Defined by parallel deviations of neighbouring dentinal tubules. Zurich. George Fisher Odland (1922–1997). Antoine Pacchion (1665–1726). Professor of Radiology. Pacinian corpuscles: corpuscular lamellosum. 20th century Hungarian laryngologist. Ruggero Oddi (1845–1906). English anatomist and paleontologist Pacchionian bodies: arachnoid granulations. Belgium. Henry Pancoast (1875–1939). USA. The sphincter had already been described by Glisson (see above) in the 17th century. the cervical sympathetic chain and upper ribs. Massachusetts. Sir Richard Owen (1804–1892).

producing a fibrous chordee. Peyer's patches: lymphoid aggregates in the ileum. Poirier. Pfeiffer’s syndrome: a congenital syndrome characterized by craniostenosis. Pringle manoeuvre: the application of digital or mechanical pressure across the entire free edge of the lesser omentum resuting in complete. Austria. There is a discrete interval between the inferior margin of this ligament and the palmar horn of the lunate which is known as the space of Poirier. Professor of Logic. Paul Poirier (1853–1907). mammillary body. rigidity. Rhetoric and Medicine in Schaffhausen. space of: a few of the fibres of the radioscaphocapitate ligament (a carpal ligament) attach to the body of the capitate. Potter’s syndrome: a rare condition combining a characteristic facial appearance with renal agenesis or hypoplasia and other defects. 1931). temporary occlusion of the hepatic portal vein. facial anomalies. neurologist. Professor of Physiology first in Breslau. German human geneticist. Rudolf Arthur Pfeiffer (b. French surgeon. then Vienna. Joseph Paneth (1857–1890). François de la Peyronie (1678–1747). or bar. ridge (bar) – projecting ridge. James Parkinson 1755–1824 English physician Passavant's: muscle – upper fibres of palatopharyngeus. usually occurring in late life. . glossoptosis. involving the hippocampal formation. USA. Frankfurt. Pringle the Elder(1863 – 1941). Peyronie’s disease: induration of the corpora cavernosa of the penis. surgeon. French dentist. Edith Louise Potter. French surgeon. Papez circuit: a neuroanatomical circuit mediating emotion. Johann Conrad Peyer (1653–1712). famous Australian surgeon. Switzerland. hepatic artery and common bile duct. U-shaped cleft palate. expressionless face etc. anterior nuclei of the thalamus and cingulate gyrus. and broad thumbs and great toes. Parkinson’s syndrome/disease: resting tremor. Phillip Gustav Passavant (1815–1893).Paneth cells: bacteriocidal lysozyme-secreting cells. syndactyly of hands and feet. James Wenceslas Papez (1883–1958). abnormal skull shape. J. Prussak’s: fibres – elastic and connective tissue fibre bounding the pars flaccida membranae tympani. on posterior wall of pharynx which appears during swallowing. generally caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra. Pierre Robin sequence: micrognathia. Germany. early 20th century American paediatric surgeon. Pierre Robin (1867–1950). Saarbrücken.

Königsberg. responsible for transmitting pain sensation from the pulp of the tooth. Raynaud’s disease: idiopathic paroxysmal bilateral cyanosis of the digits due to arterial and arteriolar contraction. axons lose their myeline sheath (but not their Schwann cells) as they penetrate the cell-rich and cell-free zones to make synaptic contact with the odontoblast cell body in the pulp or odontoblastic process within the dentinal tubule. decrease in lacrimation and salivation and otalgia. fibres – subendocardial muscle fibres.space – superior recess of the tympanic membrane. Louis Antoine Ranvier (1835–1922). Purkinje: cells. caused by cold or emotion. Raschkow’s plexus: a plexus of myelinated nerve fibers located between the core of the pulp of the tooth and the cell-rich zone. German anatomist. Maurice Raynaud (1834–1881). Cavendish Professor of Physics. progressive. from which develops the stapes. Johannes Purkinje (1787–1869). Poland. USA. Columbia University. Reichert’s cartilage: A cartilage in the mesenchyme of the second branchial arch in the embryo. nodes of: gaps between adjacent segments of myelin sheath. 3rd Baron Rayleigh OM (1842–1919). Reinke's: crystals – rod-shaped crystals in the interstitial cells of the testis and hilus cells of the ovary. Martin Heinrich Rathke (1793–1860). where axonal plasma membrane is exposed. Karl Bogislaus Reichert (1811–1883). inflammatory CNS disorder. Professor of Physiology. Breslau and then Prague. Alexander Prussak (1839–1897). Utah. Russian otologist. Ranvier. Germany. hyperacusis. New York. American neurologist. Parisian pathologist. the stylohyoid ligaments and the lesser cornua of the hyoid bone. French physician. James Ramsay Hunt (1874–1937). Theodore Brown Rasmussen (1910–2002). neurons – large neurones forming a single eponymous layer in cerebellar cortex. unilateral loss of taste. Rasmussen’s encephalitis: rare. Ramsay Hunt syndrome: herpes zoster involvement of the geniculate ganglion associated with facial paresis. John William Strutt. the styloid processes. University of Cambridge. Professor of Zoology and Anatomy. Professor of Neurology. . Rathke's pouch: diverticulum of roof of stomodaeum which forms the anterior pituitary gland. Rayleigh scatter: scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light.

Rosenmüller. ptosis and/or widely spaced eyes. Professor of Anatomy and Botany. Italy. Birdsy Renshaw (1911–1948). Germany. Retzius' lines (or striae): brown lines in the dental enamel. fossa of: the pharyngeal recess. Professor of Histology. (Son of Andreas Adolf Retzius 1796–1860. Johann Christian Rosenmüller (1779–1820). Norwegian psychiatrist. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. brachydactyly and syndactyly may be present. Romberg’s sign: swaying of the body or falling when standing with the feet close together and the eyes closed. USA. anatomist. Professor of Anatomy. Jean Riolan (secondus) 1577–1657. Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795–1873). neuroanatomist. who described the cave of Retzius – the retropubic space – also Professor of Anatomy. Ernst Reissner (1824–1878). German psychiatrist. Rosenthal's canal: spiral canal in the modiolus of the cochlea. Gustav Magnus Retzius (1842–1919). Saethre–Chotzen syndrome: acrocephalosyndactyly type III. . neurologist. Santorini: duct of – the accessory pancreatic duct. Germany. A great teacher. space – a potential space between the vocal ligament and the overlying mucosa.oedema – chronic laryngitis with swelling of the membranous part of the vocal cords. Ruffini endings (bodies. Bror Rexed (1914–?). but rejected the doctrines of William Harvey. originally described in skin of fingers. Sweden. 1932). Greifswald. A very rare disorder characterized by the following traits: fusion of cranial structures which sometimes produces an asymmetric head and face. France. ‘beaked’ nose and possible deviated septum. Rotter's node: lymph node between pectoralis major and minor. surgeon. Isidor Rosenthal (1836–1915). physiologist. Bologna. Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862–1919). Riolan. F. Germany. loop: inhibitory interneurones modulating the response of anterior horn cells. France. Renshaw's cells. arc of: the anastomosis between the middle and left colic arteries. Angelo Ruffini (1887–1929). Son of Jean Riolan (primus) of Paris. Paris. corpuscles): sensory nerve endings. Professor of Anatomy in Dorpat and then Breslau. German physician. Stockholm. Reissner's membrane: the vestibular membrane of the cochlea. Chotzen (b. low-set hairline. 1931). Karolinska Institute. Sweden. Josef Rotter (1857–1924).) Rexed's lamina: subdivisions of cells of spinal cord grey matter. Haakon Saethre (b. Leipzig. Karolinska.

Schmidt–Lanterman incisure or cleft: helical inclusion of glial cytoplasm within the myelin sheath of central and peripheral nerves Henry Schmidt (1823–1888).fissures of – two fissures in the anterior cartilaginous wall of the external acoustic meatus. Venice. Holger Werfel Scheuermann (1834–1915). Seessel’s pouch: an outpouching of the embryonic pharynx rostrad of the pharyngeal membrane and caudal to Rathke's pouch. Scheuermann’s osteochondritis/disease/kyphosis: osteochondrosis of the vertebrae. reagent: stain for aldehydes. . Belgium. anatomist. Max Schaffer (1852–1923). Professor of Ophthalmology. Antonio Scarpa (1747–1832). Professor of Anatomy first in Louvain and then Liege. Schiff’s stain. Leipzig. One of the instigators of the cell theory. Schaffer collaterals: the projections from pyramidal cells of fields CA3 and CA2 to CA1 in the hippocampus. Schütz. Schlemm. Sertoli: cells – supporting cells of the testicular tubules. Professor of Medicine and Anatomy. Albert Seessel (1850–1910). Semon’s law: an obsolete law stating that injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve results in paralysis of the abductor muscles of the vocal cords before paralysis of the adductor muscles. plexus of – retropubic venous plexus giving rise to pudendal vein. Sattler’s layer: layer of medium-sized blood vessels in the choroid derived from the short posterior ciliary arteries. Italy. Italy. German laryngologist in Britain. ganglion – the vestibular ganglion. Strasbourg. American embryologist. Berlin. Hugo Shutz. German neurologist. A J Lanterman (19th Century). German biochemist. Theodor Schwann (1810–1882). Hubert Sattler (1844–1928). German biochemist. New Orleans. Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681–1737). Germany Schwann cells: the major glial cell of the peripheral nervous system. pathologist. Leipzig University Eye Hospital. Professor of Anatomy. Germany. canal of: canal at junction of the cornea and sclera. Sir Felix Semon (1849–1921). Professor of Anatomy. USA. fasciculus of: the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus. neurologist. Charity Hospital. Freidrich Schlemm (1795–1858). used with periodic acid (PAS) to detect carbohydrates. Padua. France. Scarpa's: fascia – the fibrous layer of the superficial fascia of the lower abdomen. Hugo Schiff (1834–1915).

Professor of Pathology. Stahl's deformity: congenital deformity of the ear – broad helix. Chief Surgeon. Igor Tamm (1922–1995). Tord Skoog (1915–1977). Tamm–Horsfall protein: The most abundant protein in normal urine. Germany. Specialized in ophthalmology. fibres of: transverse fibres of the palmar aponeurosis of the hand. Foundation Professor of Plastic Surgery. Sweden. UK. Tay–Sachs disease: lysosomal storage disorder affecting neurons. Tenon's capsule: fascial sheath of the eyeball. Italy. William Sharpey (1802–1880). fossa of the antihelix and upper scaphoid fossa are both absent. Sharpey's fibres: connective tissue joining periosteum to bone. Professor of Experimental Physiology. Academy of Sciences. New York neurologist. The Netherlands. Sprengel’s deformity: congenital elevation of the scapula with rotation of its lower angle towards the spine. Taussig–Bing anomaly/syndrome/disease: complete transposition of the aorta. which arises from the left right ventricle. 1909). Professor of Medicine. Spence’s tail: the projection of mammary glandular tissue extending into the axillary region. Bernard Sachs (1858–1944). Jaques René Tenon (1724–1816). 19th century Scottish surgeon. Skene’s glands: paraurethral ducts of the female urethra. Friedrich Stahl (1811–1879). Paris. Salpetrière. France. Paris. Alexander Johnston Chalmers Skene (1838–1900). James Spence. Richard Bing (b. Physician. Helen B. German surgeon. Frank Lappin Horsfall (1906–1971). sometimes forming a visible mass which may enlarge premenstrually or during lactation. American paediatrician. François de la Boe Sylvius (1614–1672).Enrico Sertoli (1842–1910). London ophthalmologist. London. Milan. Sylvian: aqueduct – midbrain channel connecting the third and fourth cerebral ventricles. fissure – the lateral cerebral fissure. Leyden. American clinician and virologist. American physician. New York virologist. New York gynaecologist. Skoog. University of Uppsala. . Warren Tay (1843–1927). Professor of Anatomy successively in Edinburgh and University College. Otto Gerhard Karl Sprengel (1852–1915). Taussig (1898–1986).

Leo Testut (1849–1925). It forms the superior border of the triangle of Koch. Italy. in congenital dislocation of the hip or paralysis of gluteus medius and minimus. the anterior branches of the middle meningeal vessels are contained for a short distance within a bony canal. Stanford Medical School. Treacher Collins syndrome: mandibulofacial dysostosis. bloodless fold of: peritoneal fold adjacent to mesoappendix. e. ligament of: radio-scaphoid-lunate connection. Treitz. which they leave to enter a groove on the internal surface of the parietal squama. The Netherlands. Trendelenburg's sign. UK. and cardiac defects. Francesco Todaro (1839–1918). marked by short stature. gait: dipping gait due to hip abductor dysfunction. Chromosome abnormalities may be responsible. veins – venae cordis minimae of heart. Professor of Surgery successively at Rostock. Turner’s syndrome: a disorder of gonadal differentiation. London Hospital. Professor of Pathology successively at Cracow and Prague. Professor of Anatomy. removes the inbuilt tension across the proximal row. Adam Christian Thebesius (1686–1732). Trolard – canal of: as they course under the most lateral aspect of the lesser sphenoid wing. Lyons. France. Germany. Thebesian: valve – valve at orifice of coronary sinus.Terry Thomas sign: scapholunate dissociation: intercalated segment instability. British Comedian Testut. Todaro. ligament of: 'suspensory' ligament of peritoneum passing from the right crus of the diaphragm to the fourth part of the duodenum. USA. anatomist and pathologist. . Wenzel Treitz (1819–1872). Treves. Friedrich Trendelenburg (1844–1924). surgeon. Edward Treacher Collins (1862–1932). undifferentiated (streak) gonads and variable abnormalities that may include webbing of the neck. Edward Towne (1883–1957). Bonn and Leipzig. Paulin Trolard (1842–1910). Leyden. Sir Frederick Treves (1853–1923). Towne's projection: positioning of the head in the radiological examination of the foramen magnum and posterior cranial fossa. English surgeon.g. French anatomist. Czechoslovakia. Professor of Anatomy at Messina and then Rome. low posterior hair line. the sphenoparietal canal (of Trolard). Drained the appendix abscess of King Edward VII in 1902. Terry Thomas (1911 – 1990). tendon of: a variable tendinous strand attached to the valvular fold at the termination of the inferior vena cava. neurosurgeon. This causes the gap (so called Terry Thomas sign) between the scaphoid and lunate.

Würzburg and then Berlin. In 1543 published De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Germany. von Brunn's nests: ectopic (subepithelial) urothelial masses in the urinary tract. van Gieson technique (elastic van Gieson technique): solution of trinitrophenol and acid fuchsin for connective tissue elastin. France. Virchow–Robin space: perivascular space in the central nervous system. Vater. Professor of Anatomy. Professor of Anatomy. Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564). foramen of: small foramen for emissary vein immediately anterior and medial to the foramen ovale in the sphenoid bone. Italy. Professor of Pathological Anatomy. Professor of Anatomy. von Ebner's: fissure – in the development of the back. ampulla of: ampulla at junction of common hepatic and pancreatic ducts. Bologna. Austria. Valsalva: aortic sinuses of – the aortic sinuses. Germany. An intrasegmental boundary (fissure or cleft. American endocrinologist. Professor of Histology. Paris. sometimes termed von Ebner’s fissure) that is initially filled with extracellular matrix and a few cells. sclerotomal populations form from the ventral half of the epithelial somite. Charles Filippe Robin (1821–1885). New York neuropathologist. Pathology and Therapeutics. Albert Von Brunn (1849–1872). Pisa. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology first at Dorpat and later Halle. Professor of Anatomy. Italy. Botany.Henry Hubert Turner (1892–1970). anulus of: ansa subclavia of sympathetic nerves. Professor of Medicine. France. Wittenburg. Italy. the most famous text of anatomy. physician and anatomist. . manoeuvre – any forced expiratory effort (‘strain’) against a closed airway. resulting in a claw-like deformity of the hand and fingers. Voigt’s (or Futcher’s) lines: the hair tracts Christian August Voigt (1809–1890). Vidian nerve: nerve of the pterygoid canal. Volkmann's: canals – osseous canals carrying blood vessels from the periosteum and between osteons. Vesalius. Vienna. Padua. Professor of Anatomy. Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666–1723). Rudolf Ludwig Virchow (1821–1902). Abraham Vater (1684–1751). Göttingen. Germany. Raymond de Vieussens (1641–1715). whether at the nose and mouth or at the glottis. Guido Guidi Vidius (1500–1561). Ira Thompson van Gieson (1866–1913). ischaemic contracture – a permanent flexion contracture of the hand at the wrist. Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800–1877). Vieussens. Montpellier.

and other behavioural symptoms. Korsakoff psychosis. Frankfurt histologist. physician. Mental disturbances include listlessness. gives reaction for mucin and contains thin collagenous fibres which increase in number with the age of the fetus. Victor Ritter von Rosenstein Ebner (1842–1925). Karl Weigert (1845–1904). disorientation. Wartenberg’s disease/sign/symptom: radial sensory nerve entrapment. Psychiatrist at Breslau and then Halle. Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer (1836–1921). American neurologist. Germany. Petrus Johannes Waardenburg (1886–1979). Robert Wartenberg (1866–1956). Finnish haematologist. A group of heterogeneous entities distinguished from Waardenburg type I syndrome by the absence of dystopia canthorum.appears within the sclerotome and divides it into loosely packed cranial and densely packed caudal halves. . Erik Adolf von Willebrand (1870–1949). lines – incremental lines of dentine. von Willebrand factor: factor released from endothelial cells and platelets. Waardenburg type II syndrome: deafness syndrome associated with pigmentary disturbances. Wallenberg's syndrome: lesion of the lateral medullary region of the brain stem. Waldeyer's: sheath – adventitia of distal segments of the ureter. Wallerian degeneration: degeneration of the distal segment of a nerve fibre and its myelin sheath following injury. confusion. Karl Wernicke (1848–1904). Adolf Wallenberg (1862–1949). Germany. British neurophysiologist. Austria. staining technique of: stain for nerve fibres. Innsbruck. Augustus Volney Waller (1816–1870). Professor of Pathology at Breslau and then Berlin. Wharton's: duct – duct of the submandibular salivary gland. glands – serous glands in relation to the circumvallate papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. promoting platelet adhesion and blood clotting. Wernicke's: speech area – motor speech area in superior temporal lobe of cerebral cortex. pharyngeal. jelly – homogenous intercellular substance of the umbilical cord. hallucinations. and ataxia. Deficient or defective factor production (usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait) causes von Willebrand disease. Professor of Histology and Embryology. Weigert. tubal and lingual tonsils. ring – a ring of lymphoid tissue which includes the palatine. Germany. Dutch ophthalmologist and geneticist. described the eponymous hereditary clotting disorder in 1926. syndrome – An encephalopathy syndrome characterized by mental and ocular disorders.

one of the pioneers of embryology. Berlin orthopaedic surgeon. physician to King James II. Wolff’s law: changes in the stresses on bones are reflected in their internal structure. New York. Wiebel–Palade bodies: rod-shaped storage granules in endothelial cells. foramen of: the epiploic foramen leading to the lesser sac. Jacob B Winslow (1669–1760). Wirsung. USA. Caspar Wolff (1733–1794). John Parkinson (1885 – 1976). Canada. Professor of Anatomy. Robert Anderson Aldrich (1917–1998). born in Romania. Paris. UK. Alfred Wiskott (1898–1978). Euald Wiebel (contemporary). Prosector in Anatomy. Nobel Prize for Medicine. Samuel Ernest Whitnall (1876–1950). New York. Padua. born in Berlin. London. Professor of Anatomy successively at McGill University. Montreal. Switzerland. Howard Williams. physician. 1974. English cardiologist. and Bristol. Winslow. circle of: the arterial anastomosis at the base of the brain. Whitnall's tubercle: tubercle on the orbital surface of the zygomatic bone. UK. Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome: bundle-branch block with short P-R interval in healthy young people prone to paroxysmal tachycardia. Louis Wolff (1898 – 1972). Julius Wolff (1836–1902). Wolfring.2008 ). Paul Dudley White (1886 – 1973). France. Wolffian: body – the mesonephros. St Petersburg. UK. St Thomas' Hospital. Rockefeller Institute. physician and anatomist. Polish ophthalmologist. Thomas Willis (1621–1675). duct of: main pancreatic duct. Remained on duty there during the Great Plague of 1665. practised first in Oxford. Emilij Franzevic von Wolfring (1832–1906). . 20th century Australian physician. George Emil Palade (1912 . American cardiologist. Peter E Campbell. duct – the mesonephric duct. J G Wirsung (1642–?). glands of: small tubuloalveolar glands in the subconjunctival tissue above the upper border of the tarsal plate. then London. American paediatrician. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. Willis. 20th century Australian physician. American cardiologist. Russia.Thomas Wharton (1614 –1673). German paediatrician. cytologist. Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome: primary immunodeficiency resulting from X-linked recessive mutation.

used for demonstrating blood corpuscles and malarial parasites. glands of: modified rudimentary sebaceous glands attached directly to the follicles of the eyelashes. Germany. Professor of Medicine and Director of Botanical Gardens. Göttingen. Professor of Anatomy. ligament of: band attached to posterior cruciate ligament of the knee. circle (or zonula) of: an (often incomplete) vascular circle within the sclera formed by branches of the short posterior ciliary arteries. tuberculum of – the first modern and accurate descriptions of the paranasal sinuses can be traced to the works of the late 19th century Austrian anatomist. Surgery and Botany. German ophthalmologist. Harvard pathologist. Swiss-American paediatrician. Austria. Professor of Anatomy. Professor of Medicine. Whitworth JA 2001 Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. whose centripetal branches supply the laminar region of the optic nerve head. Germany. Physiology. Wrisberg. University of Göttingen. London: Parthenon. University of Copenhagen. Edward Zeis (1807–1868). Victor Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777). Wright’s stain: a mixture of eosin and methylene blue. Zellweger syndrome: inherited defect in peroxisome biogenesis and functioning. Heinrich August Wrisberg (1739–1808). Zinn/Haller. Emil Zuckerkandl (1849–1910). Professor of Anatomy at Graz and then Vienna. Ole Worm (1588–1654). Danish physician. Many of the eponyms listed above are described in more detail in Firkin BG. . James Homer Wright (1869–1928). Zeis. Zuckerkandl: fascia of – the retrorenal fascia. Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727–1759).Wormian bones: small bones which occasionally occur along the labdoid suture of the human skull (also called sutural bones). Göttingen. Hans Ulrich Zellweger (1909–1990). Germany.

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